WorldWideScience

Sample records for hardangervidda norway electronic

  1. Estimation of lichen biomass with emphasis on reindeer winter pastures at Hardangervidda, S Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Arvid Odland; Sylvi M. Sandvik; Dag K. Bjerketvedt; Linn L. Myrvold

    2014-01-01

    Quantification of lichen abundance is important for management of reindeer populations. We measured dry lichen biomass in 876 micro plots (16.5 cm × 16.5 cm) systematically sampled within 219 vegetation plots (2 m × 2 m) from 7 different areas in S Norway. Lichen biomass was quantified as: (a) dry weight in g m-2, (b) lichen height in cm, (c) lichen cover, and (d) lichen volume (lichen height × lichen cover). Lichen biomass decreased with increasing precipitation and increasing altitude. On l...

  2. Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underdal, B.

    1975-01-01

    A short report is given of the activities of Norway in the field of food irradiation. Experiments were performed with a 60 Co γ-source of 30,000 Ci. The chemical changes induced by irradiation were studied in fish and spices. Radiation microbiology studies were dealing with the effect of γ-radiation on Salmonella Senftenberg in solutions and herring meal. (MG) [de

  3. Studying sulfur functional groups in Norway spruce year rings using S L-edge total electron yield spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struis, Rudolf P.W.J.; Ludwig, Christian; Barrelet, Timothee; Kraehenbuehl, Urs; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    Profiles of the major sulfur functional groups in mature Norway spruce wood tissue have been established for the first time. The big challenge was the development of a method suitable for sulfur speciation in samples with very low sulfur content (< 100 ppm). This became possible by synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the sulfur L-edge in total electron yield (TEY) detection mode with thin gold-coated wood slices. Functional groups were identified using sulfur compound spectra as fingerprints. Latewood of single year rings revealed metabolic plausible sulfur forms, particularly inorganic sulfide, organic disulfide, methylthiol, and highly oxidized sulfur. Form-specific profiles with Norway spruces from three different Swiss forest sites revealed high, but hitherto little-noticed, sulfur intensities attributable to natural heartwood formation and a common, but physiologically unexpected maximum around year ring 1986 with trees from the industrialized Swiss Plateau. It is hypothesized whether it may have resulted from the huge reduction in sulfur emissions after 1980 due to Swiss policy. Comparison with total S content profiles from optical emission spectroscopy underlined the more accurate and temporally better resolved TEY data with single wood year rings and it opened novel insights into the wood cell chemistry

  4. Effects of copper and arsenic stress on the development of Norway spruce somatic embryos and their visualization with the environmental scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đorđević, Biljana; Neděla, Vilém; Tihlaříková, Eva; Trojan, Václav; Havel, Ladislav

    2018-05-18

    Somatic embryogenesis is an important biotechnological technique which can be used in studies associated with environmental stress. Four embryogenic cell lines of Norway spruce were grown on media enriched with copper and arsenic in concentration ranges 50-500 μM and 10-50 μM, respectively. The effects were observed during subsequent stages of somatic embryogenesis, the characteristics evaluated being proliferation potential, average number of somatic embryos obtained per g/fresh weight, morphology of developed somatic embryos, metal uptake, and microanalysis of macro- and micronutrients uptake. Copper and arsenic at higher concentrations significantly reduced the growth of early somatic embryos. In almost all treatments, the cell line V-1-3 showed the best performance compared with the other lines tested. Environmental scanning electron microscopy was used to visualize and identify morphological abnormalities in the development of somatic embryos. Abnormalities observed were classified into several categories: meristemless somatic embryos, somatic embryos with disrupted meristem, reduced number of cotyledons, single cotyledon and fused cotyledons. With the application of a low temperature method for the environmental scanning electron microscope, samples were stabilized and whole meristems could be investigated in their native state. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of the effect of copper and arsenic during the process of somatic embryogenesis and the first to evaluate the content of macro and micronutrients uptake in Norway spruce. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The reindeer companies of southern Norway: Natural resources, husbandry, prerogatives and challenges (Article in Norwegian and in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaute Elvesæter Helland

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available From the middle of the 18th century there have been domesticated reindeer herds in the mountains of South-Norway. The people living in these areas, mostly farmers and hunters, bought reindeer from the Sami further east and north. Or Sami families came with their reindeer and started a new living. These events took place in many regions such as Setesdal, Hardangervidda, Hardanger, Voss, Hallingdal, Valdres, northern Gudbrandsdalen, Norefjell and Rendalen. In 1962 there were 20 000 tame reindeer held by 14 reindeer companies in southern Norway. Today five of these companies still exist. The reindeer owners have organized themselves as joint companies and to be a shareholder one must be living in the local municipality. The four companies in Valdres and northern Gudbrandsdalen keep in all about 11 000 reindeer in the winter herd which produces about 190 tons of reindeer meat each year. The legal basis of this reindeer management is regulated through agreements between the owners of the rough grazing properties and the company. In large areas the Norwegian State is the landowner, and in these cases the so-called Mountain law of 1975 regulates the agreement. The ways of managing the companies will be a matter of adjusting the management to all the other events in society. The structure of the herd, the extent of tameness and degree of domestication are key requisites. It is also of major importance that society supports this kind of management and regards the traditions and the long history of local interests in reindeer management. A future challenge will be to get these ways of living secured and warranted by law.

  6. Immigrant entrepreneurship in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Vinogradov, Evgueni

    2008-01-01

    Doctoral thesis (Ph.D.) – Bodø Graduate School of Business, 2008 The purpose of this doctoral thesis is to add to the knowledge about immigrant entrepreneurship in Norway and to test the existing theories relating to immigrant entrepreneurship. In this work, an immigrant entrepreneur is defined as a business owner born outside Norway with both parents born abroad who is involved into the activities characterised by economic innovation, organisation creation, and profit-seeking in the marke...

  7. Norway; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2005-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes inflation in Norway with a view to shedding light on this surprising development and the possible near-term course of inflation, using statistical and econometric analyses. The paper reviews recent developments of monetary policy and inflation in Norway, applies statistical and econometric tools to identify factors influencing inflation, and describes the implications of the analysis for policymaking. Using data for six advanced small open economies explici...

  8. Energy policy in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauen, Edvard; Bjoerndalen, Joergen

    2003-01-01

    The authors argue that the current energy policy in Norway will inevitably lead to higher and more varying electricity prices in the Nordic countries than in the rest of Europe. The Energy Act works well, but politicians have not realized that Norway is now an integral part of the power market in Europe. The EU Commission considers that the Nordic model with regional prices in order to utilize the capacity of international (market splitting) is the best

  9. Wild reindeer in Norway – population ecology, management and harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eigil Reimers

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Wild reindeer in Norway, presently (winter 2005-06 numbering some 25 000 animals, are found in 23 more or less separated areas in the mountainous southern part of the country (see map in appendix. All herds are hunted and management is organized in close cooperation between owner organizations and state agencies. I will provide a historical review of the wild reindeer management and research in Norway and conclude with the present situation. We identify 3 types of wild reindeer on basis of their origin: (1 the original wild reindeer with minor influence from previous domestic reindeer herding activities (Snøhetta, Rondane and Sølenkletten, (2 wild reindeer with some influx of animals from past domestic reindeer herding in the area (Nordfjella, Hardangervidda, Setesdal-Ryfylke and (3 feral reindeer with a domesticated origin (reindeer released or escaped from past reindeer husbandry units; Forolhogna, Ottadalen North and Ottadalen South, Norefjell-Reinsjøfjell and several smaller areas. In Norway, genetic origin (wild or domesticated, body size and reproductive performance of reindeer differ among areas. Feral reindeer have higher body weights and enjoy higher reproductive rates than their originally wild counterparts. These differences may partially be explained by differences in food quality and availability among the populations. However, there is a growing suspicion that other explanatory factors are also involved. Wild reindeer are more vigilant and show longer fright and flight distances than feral reindeer. Number of animals harvested was 4817, or ca. 20% of the total population in 2005, but varies between 40% in feral reindeer areas to below 20% in some of the "wild" reindeer areas. Causal factors behind this variation include differences in age at maturation, postnatal calf mortality and herd structure. The Norwegian Institute for nature research (NINA in cooperation with the Directorate for nature management (DN allocate considerable

  10. Sports Diplomacy of Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobierecki Michał Marcin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Norway is perceived as a country with a clear international identity. The aim of the article is to investigate the sports diplomacy of Norway and to examine its influence on the international brand of this country. The author will define the term “sports diplomacy” and attempt to outline the strategy of Norway’s public diplomacy; an analysis of the methods used in Norwegian sports diplomacy will follow. The main hypothesis of this paper is that sports diplomacy only plays a subsidiary role in Norwegian nation branding.

  11. National report from Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugset, K.

    1995-01-01

    Review of activities and objectives in the area of creating operator support systems in nuclear power plants in Norway is presented. Development of a computerised alarm system for HAMMLAB (CASH) is described. A measure of situation awareness for use in the evaluation of nuclear power plant control room systems providing information about the current process state is discussed

  12. Educational Assessment in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveit, Sverre

    2014-01-01

    Norway has seen major changes in the field of educational assessment over the past decade, following the 2001 '"PISA shock" that stimulated reform of the entire primary and secondary education systems: new outcome-based curricula with cross-disciplinary basic skills were accompanied by major revision of assessment regulations,…

  13. LNG imports from Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is organized as follows: The first section outlines Norway's petroleum reserves and relates reserves of natural gas to potential markets. Then the paper focuses on specific fields or areas that could be devoted partly or mainly to service the US natural gas market. Finally, some indications are given of costs involved in field development, liquefaction and transportation and some very preliminary conclusions are arrived upon

  14. Nursing education in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrkjebø, Jane Mikkelsen; Mekki, Tone Elin; Hanestad, Berit Rokne

    2002-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe nursing education in Norway and some essential questions and challenges regarding the undergraduate and newly graduated nurses' competencies and functionally preparedness. The first formal training of nurses in Norway started in Oslo in 1886. Since then the education has changed considerably. As long as society is changing, and nurses are going to meet and adapt to societies needs, the education of nurses will also have to change continuously. The present general plan of nursing education has gone through a long process. The discussions have concerned the content of medical and natural science subjects, the practical part of the training and the relation between theory and practice. There are challenges in nursing education in Norway today. We have seen that recruitment has decreased, and that nurses seek jobs where they are better paid. To increase the accessibility distance and part-time education has been established. The theory-practice gap will always exist. Therefore we should aim to prepare the students to minimize this gap in a way that they can combine training of nursing with training in improvement. The demand of a masters degree to be a nursing teacher has reduced the teachers' ability to keep up their practical skills. The government pays nursing teachers who want to practice as nurses for several months to maintain their salary level during that period. There are many possibilities to improve nursing education in Norway. We are on our way with highly qualified teachers and students, and we still have enough good applicants. The new general plan and new law for universities and university colleges offer great opportunities. However, the shortage of nurses is a great challenge for further quality improvement both in clinical practice and in education.

  15. Wind power in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report analyses business costs and socio-economic costs in the development of wind power in Norway and policy instruments to encourage such a development. It is founded on an analysis of the development of wind power in other countries, notably U.S.A, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands and Britain. The report describes the institutional background in each country, the policy instruments that have been used and still are and the results achieved. The various cost components in Norwegian wind power development and the expected market price of wind power are also discussed. The discussion of instruments distinguishes between investment oriented and production oriented instruments. 8 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Energy taxation in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandberg, E.

    1991-01-01

    A rough survey is given of the most important areas of Norwegian taxation and tariff policy within the energy sector. Planning is still in progress for regulations on taxing and duties on electric power and fossil fuels. This comprises part of the work on improving the economy and resource consumption, partly through giving higher priority to environmental issues. It is suggested that it could take some time before national goals for the development of an energy taxation system can be reached. There must be a balance between short and long-time issues. Norway will look to experiences gained in other countries. (AB)

  17. Arctic security and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamnes, Rolf

    2013-03-01

    Global warming is one of the most serious threats facing mankind. Many regions and countries will be affected, and there will be many losers. The earliest and most intense climatic changes are being experienced in the Arctic region. Arctic average temperature has risen at twice the rate of the global average in the past half century. These changes provide an early indication for the world of the environmental and societal significance of global warming. For that reason, the Arctic presents itself as an important scientific laboratory for improving our understanding of the causes and patterns of climate changes. The rapidly rising temperature threatens the Arctic ecosystem, but the human consequences seem to be far less dramatic there than in many other places in the world. According to the U.S. National Intelligence Council, Russia has the potential to gain the most from increasingly temperate weather, because its petroleum reserves become more accessible and because the opening of an Arctic waterway could provide economic and commercial advantages. Norway might also be fortunate. Some years ago, the Financial Times asked: #Left Double Quotation Mark#What should Norway do about the fact that global warming will make their climate more hospitable and enhance their financial situation, even as it inflicts damage on other parts of the world?#Right Double Quotation Mark#(Author)

  18. National report from Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugset, K.

    1993-01-01

    The only activity in Norway that is directly relevant for the present CRP is performed by Institutt for energiteknikk, the Norwegian Energy Research Institute. This institute is responsible for conducting the OECD Halden Reactor Project. This research project has as one of its main items a programme on ''Man-Machine Systems Research (MMSR)''. The main objective with this programme is to improve operational safety and efficiency of nuclear plants through introduction of new technology in the control room. This activity is divided into four main chapters; Development of computerised operator support systems; development of advanced control rooms; human factors activities related to introduction of new technology in the control room; software verification and validation. All these activities are relevant to the present CRP. A short description of each item is therefore given. 1 fig

  19. Bio energy in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamnaberg, Haavard; Sidelnikova, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The main conclusion in this report is that it is possible to make available about 14 TWh bio energy in Norway than what is used today to a charge that is located less than ca. 30 oere / kWh. Almost all this potential come from the forest and requires an increase in output up to the net sustained yield. Further 5 TWh may be available in the form of biogas at a cost that is both higher and have greater uncertainty than the fixed bio energy. It is set up a cost curve based on this work, which is quoted here. This reflects only the technical costs, and does not regard wages, commissions, taxes or fees. The value of alternative uses of biomass are not considered. The cost curve must therefore not be mixed with a supply curve. (eb)

  20. Sustainable Development Discourse in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruud, Audun

    2009-01-01

    Norway represents the case of an early-mover transforming into a recalcitrant average player. There is currently no active public SD debate, and if any, the environmental dimension remains the most prevalent. Climate change is the core issue. In spite of this political focus and new, ambitious objectives (i.e. that Norway is to be carbon neutral by 2030), and despite the fact that Norway has huge potentials for renewable energy production and export to Europe, there are few indications of any more substantial policy changes at a sectoral level

  1. Phanerozoic burial and exhumation history of southernmost Norway estimated from apatite fission-track analysis data and geological observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japsen, Peter; Green, Paul F.; Bonow, Johan M.; Chalmers, James A.; Rasmussen, Erik S.

    2016-04-01

    We present new apatite fission-track analysis (AFTA) data from 27 basement samples from Norway south of ~60°N. The data define three events of cooling and exhumation that overlap in time with events defined from AFTA in southern Sweden (Japsen et al. 2015). The samples cooled below palaeotemperatures of >100°C in a major episode of Triassic cooling as also reported by previous studies (Rohrman et al. 1995). Our study area is just south of the Hardangervidda where Cambrian sediments and Caledonian nappes are present. We thus infer that these palaeotemperatures reflect heating below a cover that accumulated during the Palaeozoic and Triassic. By Late Triassic, this cover had been removed from the Utsira High, off SW Norway, resulting in deep weathering of a granitic landscape (Fredin et al. 2014). Our samples were therefore at or close to the surface at this time. Palaeotemperatures reached ~80°C prior to a second phase of cooling and exhumation in the Jurassic, following a phase of Late Triassic - Jurassic burial. Upper Jurassic sandstones rest on basement near Bergen, NW of our study area (Fossen et al. 1997), and we infer that the Jurassic event led to complete removal of any remaining Phanerozoic cover in the region adjacent to the evolving rift system prior to Late Jurassic subsidence and burial. The data reveal a third phase of cooling in the early Miocene when samples that are now near sea level cooled below palaeotemperatures of ~60°C. For likely values of the palaeogeothermal gradient, such palaeotemperatures correspond to burial below rock columns that reach well above the present-day landscape where elevations rarely exceed 1 km above sea level. This implies that the present-day landscape was shaped by Neogene erosion. This is in agreement with the suggestion of Lidmar-Bergström et al. (2013) that the near-horizontal Palaeic surfaces of southern Norway are the result of Cenozoic erosion to sea level followed by uplift to their present elevations in a

  2. Monogenic diabetes mellitus in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Oddmund Søvika; Henrik Underthun Irgens; Janne Molnes; Jørn V. Sagena; Lise Bjørkhaug; Helge Ræder; Anders Molveng; Pål R. Njølstad

    2013-01-01

    Here, we review data on monogenic diabetes mellitus in Norway based on the Norwegian MODY Registry at Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen. This registry comprises established or suspected cases of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) referred to our laboratory for genetic testing. We also present data on neonatal diabetes, another group of monogenic diabetes. To date, we have genetically diagnosed nearly 500 MODY cases in Norway. Mutations in the HNF1A gene (MODY3) were detected in a...

  3. NORWAY: a nuclear demonstration project?

    CERN Multimedia

    Clery, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    "Egil Lillestøl is a man with a rather unusual mission: he wants his homeland of Norway to take the lead in developement of of a new form of nuclear power. Norway is Europe's largest petroleum exporter, from its North Sea oil and gas fields, and Lillestøl, a physicist at the University of Bergen, believes the country needs to do something about its carbon emissions.

  4. Passive houses in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halse, Andreas

    2008-12-15

    The paper analyzes the introduction of passive houses in the Norwegian house market. Passive houses are houses with extremely low levels of energy consumption for heating, and have not yet been built in Norway, but have started to enter the market in Germany and some other countries. The construction sector is analyzed as a sectoral innovation system. The different elements of the innovation system are studied. This includes government agencies, producers, consumers, finance and education. The analysis shows that passive and low-energy houses are on the verge of market breakthrough. This can partly be explained by economic calculations, and partly by processes of learning and change in the institutional set-up of the sector. The construction sector is a sector characterized by low innovative intensity and little interaction between different agents. Those working to promote passive houses have to some extent managed to cope with these challenges. This has happened by breaking away from the traditional focus of Norwegian energy efficiency policies on technology and the economically rational agents, by instead focusing on knowledge and institutional change at the level of the producers. (Author)

  5. The evolution of the passive continental margin of Norway and its adjacent mainland - using the sub-Cambrian peneplain as a reference surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielsen, R. H.; Faleide, J. I.; Jarsve, E. M.

    2012-04-01

    -ESE-trending profile across south Norway. Simultaneously a detailed mapping to establish a full map of the sub-Cambrian peneplain for southern Norway has been initiated, using automatic correlation techniques based on digital topographic data. A WNW-ESE-oriented profile across southern Norway displays a pronounced asymmetry with an eastern flank dipping moderately to the ESE, a strikingly flat to slightly undulating central part with a minor ESE-erly dip and a steepened westerly crest, and a faulted, steep WNW-flank. The fault throw along the western flank of the Hardangervidda Plateau is in the excess of one kilometer. This fault system is associated with the collapse of the Caledonides, but bear the signs of multiple stages of rejuvenation. Even farther to the west, the sub-Cambrian peneplain is broken by the Mesozoic external fault systems of the Jurassic-Cretaceous offshore graben systems, which also offsets the peneplain (down-to-east extension) by several kilometres. Also this system bears indications of reactivation. The sub-Cambrian peneplain itself displays a variety of configurations, including an undisturbed basal conglomerate, a weathered and mineralized, undulating surface with small pockets of alun shale or siltstone, a tectonically disturbed primary contact with parauthochtonous black shale or black sandstone and a more strongly tectonized contact with mylonite and rejuvenated basement lenses. The present analysis utilized the sub-Cambrian peneplain as a reference surface, because its present topography resulted from several elements of deformation accumulated throughout the Caledonian to the Present. Hence, it can be used as a reference surface for younger erosional surfaces onland Norway, whether this are of regional or local origin. In section of southern Norway including the (present) inner shelf and the hinterland, several morphological elements can be identified, from west to east: 1) The eastern, stable platform of the Mesozoic Viking Graben, 2) the external

  6. Corporatism in Denmark and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Mikkel Mailand

    2009-01-01

    The literature of corporatism tends to bypass most Scandinavian countries and ignore state-social partner relations not related to wage bargaining and income policy. This contribution attempts to overcome both these shortcomings. It concludes that corporatism is alive in Denmark and Norway......, in Norway ‘peak-level' corporatism on wage setting remains stronger than in Denmark, whereas ‘meso-level' corporatism (corporatism in specific policy area) is stronger in Denmark than in Norway........ The social partners have, as general rule, been involved in formulating and implementing changes in welfare state policies, and corporatist arrangements are also seen in relation to some industrial relations issues. The two countries share a number of contextual features important for corporatism. However...

  7. Norway between tradition and opening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mer, J.

    1996-01-01

    This book is a general presentation of Norway: natural and human framework, history, institutions and political life, economy, economic policy and means, foreign relations, and social life. In the chapter devoted to Norway's economy, the energy sources and policies of the country are described: hydro-power, coal, hydrocarbons (petroleum, natural gas and condensates, proven, discovered and undiscovered resources). The production, imports, exports, retail prices and national consumption are given for each energy sources and each economic sector. The chapter focusses on the deterministic role of energy in the Swedish economy: investments, contract management, balance of trade, public finances, employment etc.. (N.K.)

  8. Nuclear emergency planning in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baarli, J.

    1986-01-01

    The nuclear emergency planning in Norway is forming a part of the Search and Rescue Service of the country. Due to the fact that Norway do not have any nucleat power reactor, the nuclear emergency planning has not been given high priority. The problems however are a part of the activity of the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene, and the emergency preparedness is at the present time to a large extent based on the availability of professional health physicists and their knowledge, rather than established practices

  9. The chiropractic profession in Norway 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvammen, O. C.; Leboeuf-Yde, C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The chiropractic profession in Norway has increased five-fold in the last two decades. As there is no academic graduate program in Norway, all chiropractors have been trained outside of Norway, in either Europe, America or Australia. This might have given Norwegian chiropractors heter...

  10. Monogenic diabetes mellitus in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oddmund Søvika

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Here, we review data on monogenic diabetes mellitus in Norway based on the Norwegian MODY Registry at Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen. This registry comprises established or suspected cases of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY referred to our laboratory for genetic testing. We also present data on neonatal diabetes, another group of monogenic diabetes. To date, we have genetically diagnosed nearly 500 MODY cases in Norway. Mutations in the HNF1A gene (MODY3 were detected in about 50% of families with clinical MODY. GCK-MODY (MODY2 was the second most prevalent type, but may be underreported. We have also found mutations in the monogenic genes ABCC8, CEL, HNF1B, HNF4A, INS, KCNJ11 and NEUROD1. Based on genetic screening in the Norwegian MODY Registry and HUNT2, we estimate the number of MODY cases in Norway to be at least 2500-5000. Founder effects may determine the geographical distribution of MODY mutations in Norway. The molecular genetic testing of MODY and neonatal diabetes is mandatory for correct diagnosis and prognosis as well as choice of therapy

  11. Sleipner mishap jolts booming Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Norway's buoyant offshore industry that was stunned when the concrete substructure for Sleipner natural gas field's main production platform sank in the Grandsfjord off Stavanger late last month. The accident, a blow to Norway's gas sales program in Europe, came with offshore activity in the Norwegian North Sea moving into a new boom period. Currently, 10 oil and gas fields are under development, and several projects are on the drawing board. Aker Oil and Gas, a leading offshore firm, says the country's construction industry will be working at capacity for the next 4 years. Norwegian oil production has been hovering just below 2 million b/d since the beginning of this year, making Norway the North Sea's largest producer, a position formerly held by the U.K. Gas production averages about 3 bcfd. With European gas demand sharply increasing, Norway is under pressure to increase output from new fields in the mid to late 1990s. The Sleipner setback forces state owned Den norske stats oljeselskap AS (Statoil) to cast around for supplies. Sleipner was to have begun deliveries to a consortium of continental gas companies in October 1993. Statoil believes it can fill the gap from existing fields in Norwegian waters

  12. Wind power policy in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Norwegian government's ambition of developing 3 TWh wind power by 2010 seems hard to fulfill. Recently Norway's first wind park was officially opened on the island of Smoela, just off Kristiansund. The 20 large windmills are Danish-made and described in some detail in this article. Fulfillment of the government's ambition requires that 20 similar power stations are put into operation the coming eight years, and so far it has not been decided to build the next one. Statkraft have great ambitions for wind power. However, environmental considerations present difficulties. For instance, for Smoela, Statkraft spent an extra 4 million NOK on ground cables the last 1.5 km to land in order to minimize the disturbance of bird populations. Considerations for the white-tailed eagle may be a decisive factor in the development of wind power plants in Norway

  13. Philosophy of education in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Aakre, Bjørn Magne

    2009-01-01

    In Japan as well as Norway we experience growing interests and discussions about education. The main reason seems to be the fact that education has become more important than ever before. At the same time, most educational systems seem to face problems adapting to the rapid changes caused by globalization of values and cultures. Therefore, discussions about education not only involve new technology or alternative teaching methods, but also fundamental issues related to philosophy of education...

  14. Measurement of radioactivity in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, T.C.

    1989-10-01

    A nation-wide network of 11 monotoring stations for continuous registration of radioactivity in the air has been established in Norway. Via the telecommunication network, collected data are dayly automatically transmitted to the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU). High radiation levels trigger an alarn for immediate transmission. The monotoring system and experiences in connection with its operation are described, and results from measurements in 1988 are presented. 14 figs

  15. Measurement of radioactivity in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, T.C.

    1988-05-01

    A nation-wide network of seven monitoring stations for continuous registration of radioactivity in the air has been established in Norway. Via the telecommunication network, collected data are dayly automatically transmitted to the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU). High radiation levels will trigger an alarm for immediate transmission. The monitoring system and field experiences in connection with its operation are described. NILU's directions in the event of radiation alarm are specified and radiation measurements for 1987 are presented

  16. Measurement of radioactivity in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, T.C.

    1990-08-01

    A nation-wide network of 11 monitoring stations for continous registration of radioactivity in the air has been established in Norway. Via the telecommunication network, collected data are dayly automatically transmitted to the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU). High radiation levels trigger an alarm for immediate transmission. The monitoring system and experiences in connection with its operation are described. Results from measurements in 1989 are presented. 18 figs

  17. Tourists' perceptions and intention to revisit Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Lazar, Ana Florina; Komolikova-Blindheim, Galyna

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The overall purpose of this study is to explore tourists' perceptions and their intention to revisit Norway. The aim is to find out what are the factors that drive the overall satisfaction, the willingness to recommend and the revisit intention of international tourists that spend their holiday in Norway. Design-Method-Approach - the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen 1991), is used as a framework to investigate tourists' intention and behavior towards Norway as destination. The o...

  18. Mammography activity in Norway 1983 to 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Braaten, Tonje; Njor, Sisse H

    2011-01-01

    In Norway, an organized screening mammography program, the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) started in four counties in 1996 and became nationwide in 2004. We collected data on pre-program screening activity, and in view of this activity we evaluated the potential impact...... of the program on breast cancer mortality in Norway....

  19. Severe human Babesia divergens infection in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mørch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Human babesiosis is a rare but potentially life-threatening parasitic disease transmitted by ixodid ticks, and has not previously been reported in Norway. We report a case of severe babesiosis that occurred in Norway in 2007. The patient had previously undergone a splenectomy. He was frequently exposed to tick bites in an area endemic for bovine babesiosis in the west of Norway. The patient presented with severe haemolysis and multiorgan failure. Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed 30% parasitaemia with Babesia spp. He was treated with quinine in combination with clindamycin, apheresis, and supportive treatment with ventilatory support and haemofiltration, and made a complete recovery. This is the first case reported in Norway; however Babesia divergens seroprevalence in cattle in Norway is high, as is the risk of Ixodes ricinus tick bite in the general population. Babesiosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained febrile haemolytic disease.

  20. Severe human Babesia divergens infection in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørch, K; Holmaas, G; Frolander, P S; Kristoffersen, E K

    2015-04-01

    Human babesiosis is a rare but potentially life-threatening parasitic disease transmitted by ixodid ticks, and has not previously been reported in Norway. We report a case of severe babesiosis that occurred in Norway in 2007. The patient had previously undergone a splenectomy. He was frequently exposed to tick bites in an area endemic for bovine babesiosis in the west of Norway. The patient presented with severe haemolysis and multiorgan failure. Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed 30% parasitaemia with Babesia spp. He was treated with quinine in combination with clindamycin, apheresis, and supportive treatment with ventilatory support and haemofiltration, and made a complete recovery. This is the first case reported in Norway; however Babesia divergens seroprevalence in cattle in Norway is high, as is the risk of Ixodes ricinus tick bite in the general population. Babesiosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained febrile haemolytic disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Statistical Yearbook of Norway 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Statistical Yearbook of Norway 2012 contains statistics on Norway and main figures for the Nordic countries and other countries selected from international statistics. The international over-views are integrated with the other tables and figures. The selection of tables in this edition is mostly the same as in the 2011 edition. The yearbook's 480 tables and figures present the main trends in official statistics in most areas of society. The list of tables and figures and an index at the back of the book provide easy access to relevant information. In addition, source information and Internet addresses below the tables make the yearbook a good starting point for those who are looking for more detailed statistics. The statistics are based on data gathered in statistical surveys and from administrative data, which, in cooperation with other public institutions, have been made available for statistical purposes. Some tables have been prepared in their entirety by other public institutions. The statistics follow approved principles, standards and classifications that are in line with international recommendations and guidelines. Content: 00. General subjects; 01. Environment; 02. Population; 03. Health and social conditions; 04. Education; 05. Personal economy and housing conditions; 06. Labour market; 07. Recreational, cultural and sporting activities; 08. Prices and indices; 09. National Economy and external trade; 10. Industrial activities; 11. Financial markets; 12. Public finances; Geographical survey.(eb)

  2. Prehospital maternity care in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egenberg, Signe; Puntervoll, Stein Atle; Øian, Pål

    2011-11-29

    Out-of-hospital maternity care in Norway is randomly organised and not properly formalized. We wished to examine the extent, organisation and quality of this service. We obtained information from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry on all unplanned out-of-hospital births in 2008. A questionnaire was sent to all maternity institutions, municipalities and emergency dispatch centres, with questions regarding the practical and formal organisation of the service using figures from 2008. 430 children, all above 22 weeks gestation, were born unplanned outside of hospitals in Norway in 2008. Of these, 194 were born unplanned at home, 189 while being transported and 47 in other locations (doctor's offices, infirmaries, unknown). Five out of 53 maternity institutions (9 %) confirmed they had a formal midwife service agreement for out-of-hospital births. 247 municipalities (79 %) claimed to have no such assistance. Of these, 33 are located at least 90 minutes away from the nearest maternity ward. Half of the emergency dispatch centres had no registration identifying formal agreements on assistance by midwives for out-of-hospital births. There is an urgent need to put in place formal agreements between the regional health authorities and the municipalities on out-of-hospital midwife services. A distance of 90 minutes' journey time to a maternity ward to fulfil the right to qualified assistance is not well-founded.

  3. Statistical Yearbook of Norway 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Statistical Yearbook of Norway 2012 contains statistics on Norway and main figures for the Nordic countries and other countries selected from international statistics. The international over-views are integrated with the other tables and figures. The selection of tables in this edition is mostly the same as in the 2011 edition. The yearbook's 480 tables and figures present the main trends in official statistics in most areas of society. The list of tables and figures and an index at the back of the book provide easy access to relevant information. In addition, source information and Internet addresses below the tables make the yearbook a good starting point for those who are looking for more detailed statistics. The statistics are based on data gathered in statistical surveys and from administrative data, which, in cooperation with other public institutions, have been made available for statistical purposes. Some tables have been prepared in their entirety by other public institutions. The statistics follow approved principles, standards and classifications that are in line with international recommendations and guidelines. Content: 00. General subjects; 01. Environment; 02. Population; 03. Health and social conditions; 04. Education; 05. Personal economy and housing conditions; 06. Labour market; 07. Recreational, cultural and sporting activities; 08. Prices and indices; 09. National Economy and external trade; 10. Industrial activities; 11. Financial markets; 12. Public finances; Geographical survey.(eb)

  4. Nutrient imbalance in Norway spruce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2000-11-01

    The studies presented in my thesis indicate that growing Norway spruce in monoculture does not constitute sustainable forest management in a high N and S deposition environment, such as in southern Sweden. The combination of N-induced high growth rates and leaching due to soil acidification causes soil reserves of nutrients to decrease. This will increase the risk of nutrient imbalance within the trees when nutrient demands are not met. The development of nutrient imbalance in Scania, southern Sweden, was shown as negative trends in needle and soil nutrient status from the mid-80s to the present in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. This imbalance appears to be connected to high levels of N and S deposition. Clear negative effects on tree vitality were found when using a new branch development method. Today, growth and vitality seems to be limited by K, rather than N, in spruce stands older than 40 years. However, younger stands appear to be able to absorb the deposited N without negative effects on growth and vitality. When investigating effects of nutrient stress on tree vitality, indicators such as branch length and shoot multiplication rate, which include effects accumulated over several years, are suitable. Countermeasures are needed in order to maintain the forest production at a high level. Positive effects on tree nutrient status after vitality fertilization (N-free fertilization) was shown in two micronutrient deficient stands in south-central Sweden. In addition, tree vitality was positively affected after the application of a site-adapted fertilizer to the canopy. Site-adaption of fertilizers will most likely improve the possibilities of a positive response on tree growth and vitality in declining stands. In a survey of Norway spruce in mixtures with beech, birch, or oak compared to monocultures it was shown that spruce nutrient status was higher in mixtures with deciduous species than in monocultures. By using mixed-species stands the need for

  5. Nutrient imbalance in Norway spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2000-11-01

    The studies presented in my thesis indicate that growing Norway spruce in monoculture does not constitute sustainable forest management in a high N and S deposition environment, such as in southern Sweden. The combination of N-induced high growth rates and leaching due to soil acidification causes soil reserves of nutrients to decrease. This will increase the risk of nutrient imbalance within the trees when nutrient demands are not met. The development of nutrient imbalance in Scania, southern Sweden, was shown as negative trends in needle and soil nutrient status from the mid-80s to the present in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. This imbalance appears to be connected to high levels of N and S deposition. Clear negative effects on tree vitality were found when using a new branch development method. Today, growth and vitality seems to be limited by K, rather than N, in spruce stands older than 40 years. However, younger stands appear to be able to absorb the deposited N without negative effects on growth and vitality. When investigating effects of nutrient stress on tree vitality, indicators such as branch length and shoot multiplication rate, which include effects accumulated over several years, are suitable. Countermeasures are needed in order to maintain the forest production at a high level. Positive effects on tree nutrient status after vitality fertilization (N-free fertilization) was shown in two micronutrient deficient stands in south-central Sweden. In addition, tree vitality was positively affected after the application of a site-adapted fertilizer to the canopy. Site-adaption of fertilizers will most likely improve the possibilities of a positive response on tree growth and vitality in declining stands. In a survey of Norway spruce in mixtures with beech, birch, or oak compared to monocultures it was shown that spruce nutrient status was higher in mixtures with deciduous species than in monocultures. By using mixed-species stands the need for

  6. Evaluation of Research in Engineering Science in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Brussel, Hendrik Van Brussel; Lindberg, Bengt; Cederwall, Klas

    This report presents the conclusions of Panel 1: Construction engineering, Production and Operation. The Research Council of Norway (NFR) appointed three expert panels to evaluate Research in Engineering Science in Norway .......This report presents the conclusions of Panel 1: Construction engineering, Production and Operation. The Research Council of Norway (NFR) appointed three expert panels to evaluate Research in Engineering Science in Norway ....

  7. Radiochemical analysis of fallout in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, H; Finstad, G; Lund, L; Michelsen, O; Ottar, B

    1957-01-01

    Data are tabulated on the concentration of radioactive iodine and strontium in samples of milk, and radioactive strontium and cesium in samples of drinking water collected in Norway, January to May 1957.

  8. Radiochemical analysis of fallout in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, H; Finstad, G; Lund, L; Michelsen, O; Ottar, B

    1957-01-01

    Data are tabulated on the concentration of radioactive iodine, strontium, and cesium in samples of milk and radioactive strontium and cesium in samples of drinking water collected in Norway during June 1957.

  9. Radiochemical analysis of fallout in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, H; Finstad, G; Lund, L; Michelsen, O; Ottar, B

    1957-01-01

    Data are tabulated on the concentration of radioactive iodine, strontium, and cesium in samples of milk collected in Norway in September 1957. Data are included from experiments on the purification of water contaminated with radioactive strontium and cesium.

  10. Radiochemical analysis of fallout in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, H; Finstad, G; Lund, L; Michelsen, O; Ottar, B

    1957-01-01

    Data are tabulated on the concentration of radioactive iodine and strontium in samples of milk, radioactive strontium and cesium in samples of drinking water, and radioactive strontium in tea and coffee preparations collected in Norway during May 1957.

  11. Use of a generic protocol in documentation of prescription errors in Estonia, Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haavik S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacists have an important role in detecting, preventing, and solving prescription problems, which if left unresolved, may pose a risk of harming the patient.Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of a generic study instrument for documentation of prescription problems requiring contact with prescriber before dispensing. The study was organized: 1 by countries: Estonia, Norway and Sweden; 2 by type of prescriptions: handwritten prescriptions, printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies; and 3 by recording method - self-completion by pharmacists and independent observers.Methods: Observational study with independent observers at community pharmacies in Estonia (n=4 and Sweden (n=7 and self-completed protocols in Norway (n=9.Results: Pharmacists’ in Estonia contacted the prescriber for 1.47% of the prescriptions, about 3 times as often as in Norway (0.45% and Sweden (0.38%. Handwritten prescriptions dominated among the problem prescriptions in Estonia (73.2%, printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record (89.1% in Norway and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies (55.9% in Sweden.More administrative errors were identified on handwritten prescriptions and printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record in Estonia and in Norway compared with electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies in Sweden (p<0.05 for prescription types and p<0.01 for countries. However, clinically important errors and delivery problems appeared equally often on the different types of prescriptions. In all three countries, only few cases of drug interactions and adverse drug reactions were identified.Conclusion: Despite the different patterns of prescription problems in three countries, the instrument was feasible and can be regarded appropriate to document and classify prescription problems necessitating contact

  12. Energy use in Norway: An international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unander, F.F.; Alm, L.K.; Schipper, L.

    1997-06-01

    The report examines the evolution of the structure and intensity of energy use in the main sectors of the Norwegian economy such as manufacturing, residential sector, services, and transport. The development in Norway is contrasted and compared to that in nine other countries such as Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, U.K., France, Italy, United States, and Japan. The results show that Norway per capita energy use (excluding energy use in petroleum production) in 1992, after USA and Finland, was the highest of the 10 OECD countries being studied. Together with Finland, Norway showed the strongest growth in energy use per capita from 1973 to 1992. Some of the increased energy use in Norway can be attributed to more energy intensive structure and higher activity levels in the Norwegian economy. If the effect from changes in these two factors is excluded by holding the activity and structure in each sector constant at its 1973-level and only vary sub-sectorial energy intensities, Norway is still the country with the least reduction in energy intensities over the period from 1973 to 1992. Important underlying reasons in the same period are caused by increased indoor comfort level and the availability of both low-cost hydro power and biomass resources partly sheltering Norway from the impact of higher oil prices. 12 refs., 47 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Observation of the pulsating aurora by S-520-12 rocket at Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruda, K.; Hayakawa, H.; Machida, S.; Mukai, T.; Morioka, A.; Nagano, I.; Miyaoka, H.

    1991-01-01

    Particle, field an wave observations in a pulsating aurora have been carried out using the sounding rocket S-520-12, at northern polar region, Norway, on February 26, 1990. The initial analysis has disclosed two new findings, (i) precipitating low energy electrons associated with the auroral patch region, which suggests the secondary local acceleration of the auroral particles, (ii) pulsating LF wave component that is generated by periodically precipitating energetic electrons above the auroral ionosphere. (author)

  14. Norway: the traps of the petroleum wealth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastien, D.

    2006-01-01

    Thanks to petroleum, the Norwegian population is the richness in the world. The petroleum profits have been always carefully managed and stored in a special fund. However, this richness has now a disastrous impact on the Norwegian society which is progressively falling asleep in its comfort while the economy shows signs of overheating. Oil production has started its decline and will accelerate by 2010. The strategy of Norway is now to massively invest in gas exportation and to saturate the gas pipelines towards Europe. In the future Norway has planned to export LNG to the US and Spain. (J.S.)

  15. American Studies in Norway: Past and Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole O. Moen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Norwegian “studies” of America started really more than a thousand years ago, when Leif Ericsson landed in Vinland, his name for that part of New Foundland where his party made quarters around the year A.D. 1000. However, it was not until 1825 that modern mass emigration from Norway to America started in earnest, when a small sailing vessel, the sloop Restaurationen, left the little village of Tysvær on the west coast of Norway, near Stavanger, for New York, carrying a load of 52 Quaker emigr...

  16. Language Policy and Corporate Law in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    to the Norwegian language version, 36.2 % of the companies presented their financial statements in Norwegian only, while 18.9 % of the companies had been granted dispensation from the Norwegian Directorate of Taxes to deviate from the language requirement of the Accounting Act and presented their financial...... of Norway (2005) the paper investigates how the 500 largest companies in Norway comply with the language requirement of the Norwegian Accounting Act for the financial year of 2015. The results show that 44.9 % of the companies presented their financial statements in one or more foreign language in addition...

  17. 77 FR 10772 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... countervailing duty order and antidumping duty order on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway would not... and Chilled Atlantic Salmon from Norway: Investigation Nos. 701-TA-302 and 731-TA-454 (Third Review...

  18. The Gardnos Impact Structure, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dons, J. A.; Naterstad, J.

    1992-07-01

    The Gardnos area is situated 9 km north of the village Nesbyen in the county of Buskerud, south-central Norway. The peculiar "Gardnos breccia" was first described in 1945 and ascribed to explosive volcanic activity in Permian time. This conclusion has lately been questioned, and preliminary field and microscopic investigations by the authors in 1990-91 substantiated a theory of impact origin for the breccia and the structure. The Gardnos Impact Structure is the first of its kind to be described from Norway. Its geographical position is lat. 60 degrees 39'N, long. 9 degrees 00'E. The topography surrounding the structure ranges from 200 m.a.s.l. in the main Hallingdalen valley to more than 1000 m.a.s.l. in the high mountains nearby. At heights of 900-1000 m erosion has cut through the important, more or less horizontal boundary between a complex Precambrian crystalline basement and a deformed Caledonian cover sequence of Cambro-Ordovician sediments and overthrust nappes. Rocks of the latter sequence are however, still preserved in outliers no more than 3 km from the Gardnos structure. Erosional remnants of the Gardnos structure rocks are found within a semicircular area of 4-5 km diameter. Topographically the eroded structure now appears as a bowl-shaped, hanging side valley to Hallingdal. Wooded, late-Quaternary moraines and fluvioglacial deposits cover to a great extent the solid rocks, but the beds of many branching creeks provide good exposures. Thus a great variety of rocks formed within the Gardnos structure can be studied from approximately 350 m.a.s.l. up to more than 800 m.a.s.l. A variety of rocks from the Precambrian basement complex have been affected by the impact. This gives a unique opportunity to study shock-metamorphic effects on varying lithologies. Among the impact-produced structures and rock types that can easily be identified is an outer zone of breccia veining in the varied Precambrian lithologies, a lowermost lens of autochthonous breccia, the

  19. Inclusive Women's Organisations in Denmark and Norway?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene; Thun, Cecilie

    2010-01-01

    The article demonstrates how majority women’s organizations in Denmark and Norway react differently to the challenge of collaborating with new groups of women in society. The question of collaboration with minority women’s organizations prompts existing majority organizations to navigate between ...

  20. Disturbed security in Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Lieder

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The content of the article is an attempt to determine the course and consequences of terrorist attacks that took place in 2010 in Sweden and 2011 in Norway. A Comparative Study includes responses of societies and political elites of both countries.

  1. INOPS Survey data report for Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Holt, Steffen

    This data report provides statistics on the organization, management and performance of different ways of providing maintenance services within the municipal park and road sector(s) in Norway. The statistics relies on data collected in the period from April 2015 to October 2015 through an online...

  2. Geographical distribution of Phytophthora ramorum in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    María- Luz Herrero; Brita Toppe; Trond Rafoss

    2008-01-01

    In November 2002, Phytophthora ramorum was detected for the first time in Norway. It was isolated from Rhododendron catawbiense imported earlier the same year. After the first detection, the Norwegian Food Safety Authority has carried out surveys from 2003 to 2006. The surveys were first directed to nurseries and garden centres....

  3. The cost of multiple sclerosis in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, B; Myhr, K-M; Nyland, H; Aarseth, J H

    2012-02-01

    Health economic aspects have been increasingly important during introduction of new treatments for multiple sclerosis. As a partial response for Norway, a cost-of-illness study was carried out to estimate the yearly cost of the illness to society and relate costs and patients' quality of life to illness severity. Estimated cost to society was Euro 439 million in 2002 exclusive of the cost of reduced quality of life. The cost per patient was close to Euro 65,000. Account taken of methodological differences, the results compare to results for Sweden, Norway's closest neighboring country. The illness reduced patients' quality of life with 0.26. More patients were early retired because of their MS in Norway than in any of nine other European countries comprised by a recent European study, illustrating a liberal practice in Norway. The Norwegian cost of unpaid assistance was almost identical to the Swedish cost that was the lowest found across the countries in the European study. When related to illness severity, the cost per patient increased, and the patients' experienced quality of life decreased with increasing EDSS levels in line with what has been found for other countries. Cost-of-MS studies have been carried out for a number of countries. Together they contribute to our understanding of the economic consequences of multiple sclerosis and, if their results are related to illness severity, also provide valuable information for further economic analyses of treatment and medication. Our study adds to this.

  4. Radiochemical analysis of fallout in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, H; Finstad, G; Lund, L; Michelsen, O; Ottar, B

    1957-01-01

    Data are tabulated on the concentration of radioactive iodine, strontium, and cesium in samples of milk, radioactive strontium and cesium in samples of rain water, and radiocesium in preparations of tea and coffee collected in Norway during July and August 1957.

  5. Mid-Norway power study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-06-15

    This report documents the results of a four months study by Shell in relation to the request from the Petroleum and Energy Minister to evaluate the viability of developing a gas fired power plant in the Nyhamna area. The power plant sizes studied are 50, 200, 430 and 860 MW nominal output, both with and without a Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) facilities and with an earliest start up of 2014. The power supply and demand balance is evaluated to investigate the case for building a power plant depending on demand development in the mid-Norway region. The report concludes that there is a deficit in the region which will probably be addressed through a combination of planned measures, including the planned 400 MW capacity transmission line (Oerskog to Fardal) and temporary power plants at Tjebegodden and Nyhamna together with an assumed new 2 TWh/yr capacity small hydro and wind power projects. However, a commercial sized power plant (400 MW or larger) could provide a more robust means of supply as well as provide the potential for further demand growth. The study has evaluated technical and commercial concepts for the different sized power plants with considerable experience drawn from Shell's earlier involvement in the Halten CO{sub 2} project. Order of magnitude cost estimates have been developed based on the current market outlook, for the power plant cases and the associated carbon capture facilities, including CO{sub 2} transportation pipeline and disposal wells. The carbon capture design has been based on state of the art amine technology. An economic model was developed specifically for this study for a power plant using a range of assumptions for gas, electricity and carbon credit prices. The model includes optimisation of income based on positive 'sparkspread'. The conclusion from the evaluations shows that there is a substantial gap between the likely economics and the economics that would be required for a commercial company to make an

  6. Energy consumption: energy consumption in mainland Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnussen, Inger Helene; Killingland, Magnus; Spilde, Dag

    2012-07-25

    The purpose of this report is to describe trends in energy consumption in mainland Norway, with an emphasis on key trends within the largest consumer groups. We also explain common terms and concepts in the field of energy consumption. Finally, we look at forecasts for future energy consumption, produced by bodies outside NVE. Total final energy consumption in mainland Norway in 2009 was 207 TWh. The most important end-user groups are households, service industries, manufacturing industry and transport. In addition, the energy sector in mainland Norway consumed 15 TWh. Energy consumed in the energy sector is not considered as final consumption, as the energy is used to produce new energy products. The long-term trend in energy consumption in mainland Norway is that fuel in the transport sector and electricity for the energy sector increases, while energy consumption in other sectors flattens out. The main reason for an increased use of fuel in the transport sector is the rise in the number of motorised machinery and vehicles in mainland Norway. This has caused a rise in gasoline and diesel consumption of 75 per cent since 1976. The petroleum sector is the largest consumer of energy within the energy sector in mainland Norway, and electricity from onshore to platforms in the North Sea and to new shore side installations has led to a rise in electricity consumption from 1 TWh in 1995 to 5 TWh in 2009. The energy consumption in households showed flat trend from 1996 to 2009, after many years of growth. The main reasons are a warmer climate, higher energy prices, the use of heats pumps and more energy-efficient buildings. In the service industries, the growth in energy consumptions has slightly decreased since the late 1990s, for much the same reasons as for households. In manufacturing industries the energy consumption have flatten out mainly due to the closure of energy-intensive businesses and the establishment of new more energy-efficient businesses. Electricity is

  7. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  8. Ataxia with Vitamin E Deficiency in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areej Elkamil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED is a rare autosomal recessive neurological disorder which usually starts in childhood. The clinical presentation is very similar to Friedreich ataxia, most patients have progressive truncal and extremity ataxia, areflexia, positive Babinski sign, dysarthria and sensory neuropathy. Methods We made an inquiry to our colleagues in Norway, we included information from a prevalence study published southern Norway and added data from our own known case. Results A newly published prevalence study of hereditary ataxias (total of 171 subjects found only one subject with AVED in Southeast Norway. We describe two more patients, one from the Central part and one from the Northern part of Norway. All 3 cases had age of onset in early childhood (age of 4–5 years and all experienced gait ataxia and dysarthria. The genetic testing confirmed that they had pathogenic mutations in the α-tocopherol transfer protein gene (TTPA. All were carriers of the non-sense c.400C > T mutation, one was homozygous for that mutation and the others were compound heterozygous, either with c.358G > A or c.513_514insTT. The homozygous carrier was by far the most severely affected case. Conclusions We estimate the occurrence of AVED in Norway to be at least 0.6 per million inhabitants. We emphasize that all patients who develop ataxia in childhood should be routinely tested for AVED to make an early diagnosis for initiating treatment with high dose vitamin E to avoid severe neurological deficits.

  9. Sickness presenteeism in Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegard Johansen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sickness presenteeism (SP refers to the practice of going to work despite illness. This article describes the distribution of SP in Norway and Sweden. It also discusses relations between SP and various work characteristics and personal factors in the two countries. Methods: More than 2500 Norwegian and Swedish workers between 20 and 60 years of age answered a postal questionnaire. The Norwegian and Swedish samples are weighed and representative with regard to both variables of regional background and demography, but the response rate was low. The distribution of SP is measured by frequency (episodes in the previous year and by length (total days of SP in the previous year. This study employed binary and multinomial logistic regression to detect which factors influence the frequency of SP. Results: Fifty-five per cent of the respondents in Norway and Sweden practised SP in the previous year. The frequency of SP episodes is similar in the two countries. Further, respondents with low/medium income, physical work, and managerial responsibilities report SP more often in both countries. Non-western immigrants, the less educated, and those employed by others are overrepresented with SP in Norway. Neither gender nor age had any particular influence. Discussion: In accordance with previous studies, this study among Norwegian and Swedish workers suggests that some SP during a working year may be more common than no SP. Our analyses of determinants of SP present some previously undocumented differences. Divisions between sedentary versus physical work and management versus non-management were important for SP in Norway and Sweden. Moreover, non-western immigrants are overrepresented with SP in Norway, but this pattern does not prevail in Sweden. Some possible causes for non-western immigrants to report more SP are suggested in the article, but we need more research to follow up on the missing correlation between ethnic background and SP in

  10. Auroral research in Norway up to the space age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egeland, A.; Brekke, A.

    1986-01-01

    Since Norway is located in and close to the belt of maximum auroral occurrence, this may explain why Norwegian scientists have made such a significant contribution in auroral research. This, however, does not explain why Norwegians have been more active in this field than scientists in our neighboring countries. The same is even true in meteorology. Thus, it seems that Norwegians have concentrated on ''outdoor'' natural sciences. K.O. Birkeland, F.M. Stoermer and L. Vegard were the first to apply precise methods to study aurora and associated phenomena. They were also the first to propose a realistic theory and to calculate the motion of fast electrons from the Sun to the Earth's polar atmosphere. Through their research, these pioneers discovered many new effects and laid the foundation of our present-day exploration of aurora from space

  11. Partial county development plans as a means for preserving wild reindeer habitats in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Olav Bråtå

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Norwegian wild reindeer habitats are threatened by human intervention. Wild reindeer habitats are joint region wide common pool resources (CPR. Municipalities may be free-riders to that resource if they prefer investments boosting municipal economy despite negative consequences for wild reindeer as a regional resource. Partial county development plans, following the rules of the Planning and Building Act (PBA, are a means that may combine preservation of habitats and development. In order to analyze such plans, theory on CPR management is applied to spatial development planning in the Rondane and Hardangervidda wild reindeer areas. It is shown that the nested system is in accordance with most of Ostrom’s principles. Still, a joint Planning Board ought to be established at Hardangervidda and a partial county plan for the whole wild reindeer area there ought to be established. It is recommended that regular monitoring of interventions and planning is established. Finally, a system or mechanism for low cost conflict resolution is needed; but is not easily included into a system based on official actors at different levels, the planning and building act and public anticipation on equal management. The last point is important for mutual acceptance of restrictions on own activity. Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag:Kunnskap om forvaltning av fellesressurer øker forståelsen av regionale planer for villreinområderNorske villreinområder er truet av menneskelige inngrep. Villreinområdene er en regional fellesressurs, men kommunene kan bli gratispassasjerer i forhold til utnytting av denne ressursen ettersom de kan bli fristet til å vektlegge utbygging som gir lokaløkonomiske effekter, på tross av negative konsekvenser for villreinen som en regional ressurs. Fylkesdelplaner, som er basert på plan- og bygningsloven, er et virkemiddel som kan kombinere bevaring og utvikling. For å forstå slike planers muligheter og begrensninger analyses her

  12. Energy Efficiency in Norway 1990-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2003-06-01

    This is the national report for Norway in the EU/SAVE project ''Indicators for Energy Efficiency Monitoring and Target setting (ODYSSEE)''. The report deals with energy use and energy efficiency in Norway 1990-2000 (2001 for overall energy use). Final energy use per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was reduced by approximately 1.9% pr year in the period 1990 to 2001. The energy efficiency improvement has been calculated to 0.6% pr year, while the role of structural changes has been 1.3% pr year. A detailed sector analysis has been done, applying Laspeyres indices to attribute changes in energy use to activity, structure or intensity (efficiency). Aggregating sectors, we have found a total efficiency improvement of approximately 11 TWh from 1990 to 2000. (author)

  13. The best energy recovery project in Norway?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melaasen, Erik

    2001-01-01

    Norway is one of the world's leading producers of ferro-alloys and silicon metals. The high temperature required in the production process is obtained by using electric energy. The temperature of the waste gases varies between 200 and 900 o C. To recover the energy of hot dust-holding gases from ferro-alloy plants the waste gases are cooled by means of steam production. The ferro-alloy plant Globe Norge AS Hafslund Metall and the energy supply company Birka Energi have signed an agreement to build Norway's largest energy recovery plant. The plant will recover 260 GWh per year. The oil consumption will be reduced by 26000 tonne per year and the annual emission of carbon dioxide by 80000 tonne. Steam from the plant will be supplied to the two companies Borregaard and Glomma Papp. The article describes the plant in some detail

  14. The electric power industry in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleo, J.N.; Anthoine, K.; Vallon, D.; Baleo, V.

    2003-03-01

    As more than 99% of the electric power in Norway come from the hydro energy, the climatic conditions influence the energy prices. Since 1996 and because of an increasing consumption, the country needs to import electric power from Sweden, Denmark, Finland and for a little part Russia. This report evaluates the today situation, the distribution and production sources, the regulations, the Government policy and the research programs concerning the ''classical energy sources'' and the renewable energies. (A.L.B.)

  15. Doing Business in Norway: An International Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Warner-Søderholm, Gillian; Bertsch, Andy; Abdullah, ABM; Saeed, M.

    2014-01-01

    This is an open access journal available from the publisher Asian Research Consortium http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=publisher&type=167 With the recent economic crisis, in having a petroleum-based economy, Norway has withstood the fluctuation in the international business sector. Indeed, the Norwegian economy is prosperous despite the global recession. There is a positive outlook in the Norwegian market and there are no major deterrents for emerging business leaders. Nevert...

  16. Effects of climate changes in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sygna, Linda; O'Brien, Karen

    2001-02-01

    This report presents the conclusions of a seminar on ''Effects of climate changes'' held in Norway in Oct. 2000. Too little is known about how climatic changes affect nature and society. This type of research is not well supported economically and there has been a lack of coordinated and long-term funds. This may change, however, as the development of strategies to meet climatic changes in the future requires a unified understanding of their impacts

  17. Postpartum Depression Among Somali Women in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvlie, Astrid Louise; Madar, Ahmed Ali

    2017-06-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) has been described as the most common complication experienced postpartum, affecting about 10-15 % of all new mothers. Factors like a history of mental illness, and experienced recent adverse life events has been associated with an increased risk for developing PPD. Immigrant women in Western countries have been found to have a marked higher prevalence of PPD compared to the general population. In Norway the prevalence of PPD in the general population has been found to be around 8-10 %, and among Pakistani immigrants a rate of 7.6 % was found. Somali people in Norway are the second largest immigrant group in Norway with a non-Western background. No study on PPD and associated factors among Somali women has been found in the literature. The aim of the study was to assess PPD and associated factors among Somali women in greater Oslo region, Norway. A cross-sectional survey was conducted; recruiting new mothers through all maternity wards in the Oslo region. Data was collected with interview-administrated questionnaires. PPD was assessed using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), defining those scoring ≥10 to have a possible PPD. Of the 80 eligible women identified, 39 (49 %) consented to participate, and completed the study. Of the 39 respondents 3 (7.7 %) were assessed to have a possible PPD. Most important associated factors found were history of mental illness, having experienced technical assistance during delivery, self-rated health and experienced economical problems last 12 months. A low prevalence of PPD was found, and both the prevalence and its associated factors should be interpreted with caution. The associated factors do not have enough power to give any strength to the associations. However, some of the results can be used in develop new hypotheses with regard to PPD among Somali women as immigrants in a Western society.

  18. Power production and energy consumption in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    The main electrical resource of Norway comes from its rivers: 99% of the electric power is produced by hydroelectric power plants. Other sources, like wind and natural gas, are envisaged for the enhancement of Norway's energy production capacity. In this document, the part devoted to power production presents the different electricity production sources and their impact on the Norwegian economy. The energy consumption is detailed in the third part with an historical review of its evolution and a description of the main sectors involved in this consumption. The forth part describes the main actors of the energy sector with their industrial structure, the research institutes and universities performing R and D in this domain, and the energy trades with surrounding countries. The fifth part stresses on the research projects, on the government promoting actions through the Norwegian Research Council, and gives some examples of todays research projects. The sixth part deals with international cooperation in the R and D domain with a particular attention given to the relations between Norway, France and Europe. (J.S.)

  19. Spinal cord injuries among paragliders in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekand, T; Schaanning, E E; Varga, V; Schattel, U; Gronning, M

    2008-06-01

    A national retrospective descriptive study. To study the clinical effects of spinal cord injuries (SCIs) caused by paragliding accidents in Norway. Spinal cord units at Haukeland University Hospital, Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital and St Olav Hospital in Norway. We studied the medical files for nine patients with SCI caused by paragliding accidents to evaluate the circumstances of the accidents, and clinical effects of injury. We obtained the data from hospital patient files at all three spinal units in Norway and crosschecked them through the Norwegian Paragliding Association's voluntary registry for injuries. All patients were hospitalized from 1997 to 2006, eight men and one woman, with mean age 30.7 years. The causes of the accidents were landing problems combined with unexpected wind whirls, technical problems and limited experience with unexpected events. All patients contracted fractures in the thoracolumbal junction of the spine, most commonly at the L1 level. At clinical follow-up, all patients presented clinically incomplete SCI (American Spinal Injury Association impairment scores B-D). Their main health problems differed widely, ranging from urinary and sexual disturbances to neuropathic pain and loss of motor functioning. Only three patients returned to full-time employment after rehabilitation. Paragliding accidents cause spinal fractures predominantly in the thoracolumbal junction with subsequent SCIs and increased morbidity. All patients experienced permanent health problems that influenced daily activities and required long-time clinical follow-up and medical intervention. Better education in landing techniques and understanding of aerodynamics may reduce the risk of paragliding accidents.

  20. Norway in a liberalized European energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, Finn Roar; Golombek, Rolf; Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Kittelsen, Sverre A.C.

    2000-01-01

    The authors study the short-term effects of a comprehensive liberalization of the gas and power markets in Europe. The analysis is based on a statically applied general equilibrium model which gives an overall and consistent treatment of the energy markets in Europe. The model preserves the structural features in the production, transport and consumption of gas and electricity in Europe, as well as the new competitive situation arising from the liberalization. It is found that the liberalization leads to a strong fall in the price of electricity. The fall in price reflects increased competition and that idle capacity in the power sector is used to increase the production of electricity. In comparison with the real observations in 1996 (the basis year of the model) the price to the end-user is cut in half. The liberalization also leads to a fall in the price of gas. The price fall reflects in part increased competition, in part the fact that falling prise of electricity reduces the demand for gas. However, the price reduction (in per cent) is not as great as for electricity. The model is also used to study the effects in Norway of increased gas production when the gas is either used in increased gas power production in Norway, or is exported. The main conclusion is that (1) the total emission of carbon dioxide goes down in Western Europe, (2) the reduction is greatest if the gas is burned as gas power in Norway

  1. Readout electronic for multichannel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kulibaba, V I; Naumov, S V

    2001-01-01

    Readout electronics based on the 128-channel chip 'Viking' (IDE AS inc., Norway) is considered. The chip 'Viking' integrates 128 low noise charge-sensitive preamplifiers with tunable CR-(RC) sup 2 shapers,analog memory and multiplexed readout to one output. All modules of readout electronics were designed and produced in KIPT taking into account the published recommendations of IDE AS inc.

  2. Readout electronic for multichannel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulibaba, V.I.; Maslov, N.I.; Naumov, S.V.

    2001-01-01

    Readout electronics based on the 128-channel chip 'Viking' (IDE AS inc., Norway) is considered. The chip 'Viking' integrates 128 low noise charge-sensitive preamplifiers with tunable CR-(RC) 2 shapers,analog memory and multiplexed readout to one output. All modules of readout electronics were designed and produced in KIPT taking into account the published recommendations of IDE AS inc

  3. Norway’s Challenges In the High North

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    North an important area. Norway has jurisdiction over about one million square miles at sea, seven times larger than the mainland territory; therefore...creates an enormous expanse of territorial waters and a vast economic zone. Norway has jurisdiction over about one million square miles at sea, seven...islands, like the Russian mining community situated in Barentsburg. In turn, Norway exercises authority in the Fishery Protection Zone around Svalbard

  4. Thinner eggshells of dipper (Cinclus cinclus) eggs from an acidified area compared to a non-acidified area in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyboe, S.; Staurnes, M.; Jerstad, K. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Dragvoll (Norway). Dept. of Zoology

    1997-01-01

    Eggs of dippers Cinclus cinclus from a chronically acidified area in Southern Norway were compared with eggs from a non-acidified area in Central Norway. There were no differences in egg size, as measured by volume, weight, length and calculated surface area, between the two areas. Eggshells were 7.0% lighter and 6.1% thinner, as measured by the Ratcliffe index and 7.0% as measured by the eggshell index (shell weight/surface area) in Southern Norway than in Central Norway. The Ratcliffe and eggshell indices were highly correlated. Scanning electron micrography showed that the palisade layer of eggshells of eggs from the acidified area was 10.7% thinner than that of eggshells of eggs from the non-acidified area. Eggshell vapour permeability was not significantly influenced by area. Since the moderately lower thickness in Southern Norway was not accompanied by higher vapour permeability, this indicates that the reduced eggshell thickness did not cause desiccation of dipper eggs in the acidified area. The possibility of underestimating the environmental effects of acidification on dippers is discussed. 42 refs.,2 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Future spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste infrastructure in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerlie, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    In Norway a Governmental Committee was appointed in 1991 to make an evaluation of the future steps that need to be taken in Norway to find a final solution for the spent nuclear fuel and for some other radioactive waste for which a disposal option does not exist today. The report from the Committee is now undergoing a formal hearing process. Based on the Committees recommendation and comments during the hearing the responsible Ministry will take a decision on future infrastructure in Norway for the spent nuclear fuel. This will be decisive for the future management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste in Norway. (author)

  6. Natural gas in Norway - Possibilities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerstad, H.; Eldegard, T.; Reve, T.; Sunnevaag, K.; Aarrestad, J.

    1995-06-01

    Norway is rich in gas resources. In recent years, gas sales from the Norwegian continental shelf have been in the order of 25 to 30 billion Sm 3 /yr and are expected to increase strongly the next 10 to 15 years. However, a scattered population, a difficult topography, long distances between large potential consumers and where the gas is brought ashore, make it difficult to utilize the gas commercially in this country. Moreover, the gas will have to compete with a highly developed hydro-electric network. This report evaluates possibilities and hindrances in the establishment of a home market for natural gas in Norway. The low population density implies that using gas for preheating of water, heating of rooms etc will not become important except, perhaps, locally, where gas may be available for other reasons. As a source of energy and raw material in many industrial processes, natural gas can become important in some coastal areas and in central parts of eastern Norway. Discussions are in progress on gas power stations for electricity production. This has aroused some controversy because of environmental problems, and for political acceptance gas power will have to replace coal power. As a fuel, gas may be of interest for domestic ferries and for busses. A lack of capital under financial risk and gas prices limit the market development. Although tax policy is presently favourable to gas power, the risk taken by private investors in converting to natural gas is increased by their not knowing for how long the gas will be exempt from environmental tax. 74 refs., 8 figs., 27 tabs

  7. China renewable energy in Africa and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This study assesses the potential for Norwegian engagement in Sino-African renewable energy development. The study analyzes Norwegian competitiveness and complementarities towards Chinese energy actors in the African market, and identifies respective strengths and weaknesses against the backdrop of the African market. The report identifies barriers and opportunities for Norwegian commercial and developmental engagement towards upscaling renewable energy in Africa that may also apply to other OECD countries. Finally, the report points to possibilities for Norway to support sustainable Sino-African renewable energy development.(auth)

  8. Wind power in Norway; Vindkraft i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This report analyses business costs and socio-economic costs in the development of wind power in Norway and policy instruments to encourage such a development. It is founded on an analysis of the development of wind power in other countries, notably U.S.A, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands and Britain. The report describes the institutional background in each country, the policy instruments that have been used and still are and the results achieved. The various cost components in Norwegian wind power development and the expected market price of wind power are also discussed. The discussion of instruments distinguishes between investment oriented and production oriented instruments. 8 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. New Moho map of southern Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stratford, Wanda Rose; Thybo, Hans; Faleide, J.-I.

    2009-01-01

    A recent seismic refraction study across southern Norway has revealed that the up to 2469 m high Southern Scandes Mountains are not isostatically compensated by a thick crust. Rather, the Moho depths are close to average for continental crust with elevations of ~1 km. Evidence from new seismic data......, low densities in the upper-mantle or mantle dynamics, is likely. The relationship between topography and Moho depth breaks down for the Oslo Graben and the Fennoscandian Shield to the east and north. High density lower crustal rocks below Oslo Graben and increasing crust and lithospheric thicknesses...

  10. Norway's ICT Accessibility Legislation, Methods and Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygg, Malin; Rømen, Dagfinn; Sterri, Brynhild Runa

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Norwegian legislation on Universal Design of information and communication technology (ICT) and how the Norwegian Authority for Universal Design of ICT works to enforce and achieve the goals behind the legislation. The Authority uses indicators to check websites for compliance with the regulations. This paper describes the rationale and intended use for the indicators and how they are used for both supervision and benchmarks as well as a way of gathering data to give an overview of the current state of Universal Design of websites in Norway.

  11. Development of energy law in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakken, Stein Arne

    2000-01-01

    In Norway, energy law is still in its infancy, nine years after the deregulation of the energy market. But on the year 2000 budget 1,5 million NOK have been made available for research and teaching of energy law at Nordic Institute for Maritime Law, University of Oslo. This institute has for many years been working on judicial matters in connection with the offshore petroleum activities and has extended their research into problems faced by the electric power sector after the deregulation of the market

  12. Oil and gas taxation in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oien, A.

    1992-01-01

    The Norwegian petroleum tax system builds on the general business tax system. A reform of the petroleum tax system was therefore prompted by the reform of the ordinary company tax system in Norway. The reform of the general company taxation system made a reform of the petroleum taxation system necessary. As the petroleum tax system had to be changed, it was natural to review the incentive structure of the system to see if it could be improved. These two elements formed the foundation of the work on petroleum tax reform. (Author)

  13. Daylight and absenteeism--evidence from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markussen, Simen; Røed, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Based on administrative register data from Norway, we examine the impact of hours of daylight on sick-leave absences among workers. Our preferred estimates imply that an additional hour of daylight increases the daily entry rate to absenteeism by 0.5 percent and the corresponding recovery rate by 0.8 percent, ceteris paribus. The overall relationship between absenteeism and daylight hours is negative. Absenteeism is also sensitive to weather conditions. Heavy snowfall raises the incidence of absence during the winter, while warm weather reduces the probability of returning to work during the summer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Vitamin K requirement in Danish anticoagulant-resistant Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette D.; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Nielsen, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, Denmark, anticoagulant rodenticide resistance, vitamin K requirement......Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, Denmark, anticoagulant rodenticide resistance, vitamin K requirement...

  15. Young Christians in Norway, national socialism, and the German ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The German occupation of Norway during the Second World War caused unprecedented problems for the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Norway and other Christian denominations. The subordination of the church to the de facto Nazi state eventually led its bishops and most of its pastors to sever their ties to the ...

  16. King Harald V and Queen Sonja of Norway visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Norway's King Harald V and Queen Sonja take a tour of the ATLAS detector with CERN's Director-General Robert Aymar in April 2006. During their visit the royal party met with members of CERN's Norwegian community. A group of about 40 students greeted the royal motorcade with a belting rendition of 'The King's Song', Norway's royal anthem.

  17. Marine Spatial Planning: Norway´s management plans

    OpenAIRE

    Hoel, Alf Håkon; Olsen, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Since the adoption of a government white paper on ocean governance in 2001, Norway has worked on the development and implementation of marine spatial planning in the format of regional management plans. Management plans for the Barents Sea and the oceans off northern Norway and the Norwegian Sea were adopted in 2006 and 2009, respect...

  18. A Report on the HEAD-Ache in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjeldvoll, Arild; Welle-Strand, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The article examines different understandings of school leadership in Norway by reporting the findings of a HEAD Project (2004-8). The article discusses how school leadership training in Norway has responded to the government's educational policy aims and strategies in the context of globalization. using the concept of "education value…

  19. The presence of hydrocarbons in southeast Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanken, Niels Martin; Hansen, Malene Dolberg; Kresten Nielsen, Jesper

    Hydrocarbons, mostly found as solid pyrobitumen, are known from more than 30 localities in southeast Norway. They occur as inclusions in a wide range of "reservoir rocks" spanning from Permo-Carboniferous breccias to veins (vein quartz and calcite veins) in Precambrian granites, gneisses and amph......Hydrocarbons, mostly found as solid pyrobitumen, are known from more than 30 localities in southeast Norway. They occur as inclusions in a wide range of "reservoir rocks" spanning from Permo-Carboniferous breccias to veins (vein quartz and calcite veins) in Precambrian granites, gneisses......, indicating that Alum Shale was the most important source rock. Petrographic investigations combined with stable isotope analyses (d13C and d18O) of the cement containing pyrobitumen indicate two phases of hydrocarbon migration. The first phase probably took place in Upper Silurian to Lower Devonian time......, when the Alum Shale entered the oil window. These hydrocarbons are mostly found as pyrobitumen in primary voids and calcite cemented veins in Cambro-Silurian sedimentary deposits. The second phase is probably of Late Carboniferous/Permian age and was due to the increased heat flow during the formation...

  20. Results of workplace drug testing in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Marie Erøy Lund

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Workplace drug testing is less common in Norway than in many other countries. During the period from 2000-2006, 13469 urine or blood samples from employees in the offshore industry, shipping companies and aviation industry were submitted to the Norwegian Institute of Public Health for drug testing. The samples were analysed for benzodiazepines, illicit drugs, muscle relaxants with sedating properties, opioids and z-hypnotics. In total, 2.9% of the samples were positive for one or more substances. During the study period the prevalence decreased for morphine (from 1.9% to 1.1% and increased for amphetamine (from 0.04% to 0.6%, clonazepam (from 0% to 0.1%, methamphetamine (from 0.04% to 0.6%, nitrazepam (from 0% to 0.4% and oxazepam (from 0.5% to 1.3% (p<0.05. There was no significant change in prevalence for the other substances included in the analytical programme. Illicit drugs were significantly associated with lower age (OR: 0.93, p<0.05. This study found low prevalence of drugs among employees in companies with workplace drug testing programmes in Norway.

  1. Avoiding the resource curse the case Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, Steinar

    2013-01-01

    In many countries, natural resources have been detrimental to the economic development. The literature on “the resource curse” shows a bleak relationship: countries with large natural resources generally experience lower economic growth than other countries. Norway does not fit into this picture. Economic growth has much higher than in most other industrialized countries. This paper describes the key features of the Norwegian management of the petroleum resources. The main focus is on the management of the revenues from the petroleum sector, but the effects of the petroleum sector on the Norwegian economy more generally are also discussed. - Highlights: • In Norway, the sizeable petroleum resources have led to higher economic growth and a higher GDP per capita, measured in purchasing power parities. • This paper describes the key features of the Norwegian management of the petroleum resources. • The main focus is on the management of the revenues from the petroleum sector • Effects of the petroleum sector on the Norwegian economy more generally are also discussed

  2. Playing with LISEM: Experiences from Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greipsland, Inga; Krzeminska, Dominika

    2017-04-01

    Reducing soil loss from agricultural land is an important environmental challenge that is of relevance for both the European Soil Thematic Strategy (EC 2002) and the Water Framework Directive (EC 2000). Agricultural land in Norway is scarce, covering only around 3% of the total land area (The World Bank, 2015), which puts stress on preserving soil quality for food production. Additionally, reducing sediment loss is a national priority because of associated transport of pollutants such as phosphorous, which can cause eutrophication in nearby waterbodies. It is necessary to find tools that can estimate the effect of different scenarios on erosion processes on agricultural areas. We would like to present the challenges experienced and the results obtained by using LISEM (Limburg Soil Erosion Model) on the plot- subcatchment- and catchment scale in southeastern Norway. The agricultural catchment has been the subject of long-term monitoring of water quality. Challenges included spatial upscaling of local calibration, calibration on areas with very low soil loss rates and equifinality. In this poster, we want to facilitate a discussion about the possibilities of and limitations to the model for predicting hydrological and soil erosion processes at different scales.

  3. Coordinating health care: lessons from Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Tjerbo

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: What influences the coordination of care between general practitioners and hospitals? In this paper, general practitioner satisfaction with hospital—GP interaction is revealed, and related to several background variables. Method: A questionnaire was sent to all general practitioners in Norway (3388, asking their opinion on the interaction and coordination of health care in their district. A second questionnaire was sent to all the somatic hospitals in Norway (59 regarding formal routines and structures. The results were analysed using ordinary least squares regression. Results: General practitioners tend to be less satisfied with the coordination of care when their primary hospital is large and cost-effective with a high share of elderly patients. Together with the degree to which the general practitioner is involved in arenas where hospital physicians and general practitioners interact, these factors turned out to be good predictors of general practitioner satisfaction. Implication: To improve coordination between general practitioners and specialists, one should focus upon the structural traits within the hospitals in different regions as well as creating common arenas where the physicians can interact.

  4. [Medical publishing in Norway 1905-2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylenna, Magne; Larsen, Øivind

    2005-06-02

    The nation-building process in Norway took mainly place before the Norwegian-Swedish union came to a close in 1905. This was not a dramatic change, though the end of the union did bring a lift to Norwegian national consciousness. In 1905 there were three general medical journals in Norway and approximately 1200 doctors. German was the most important language of international science, but most scientific publishing was done in Norwegian. After the Second World War, English became the dominating language of scientific communication. Twentieth-century medicine and medical publishing was an era of specialisation and internationalisation. Norwegian medicine has to a large extent been internationalised through Nordic cooperation, with the Nordic specialist journals being of particular importance. With increasing professionalism in research, international English-language journals have become the major channels of communication, though several Norwegian-language journals (on paper or on the internet) have been established and are of crucial importance to a national identity within medical specialties. In 2005 there is only one general medical journal in Norwegian, in a country with approximately 20,000 doctors. A national identity related to medical publishing is not given much attention, though national medicine is still closely tied in with national culture. Good clinical practice should be based on a firm knowledge of local society and local tradition. This is a challenge in contemporary medical publishing.

  5. Cesarean section among immigrants in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangen, S; Stoltenberg, C; Skrondal, A; Magnus, P; Stray-Pedersen, B

    2000-07-01

    We studied prevalences and risk factors for cesarean section among different groups of immigrants from countries outside Western Europe and North America in comparison to ethnic Norwegians. The study is population based using data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. A total of 553,491 live births during the period 1986-1995 were studied, including 17,891 births to immigrant mothers. The prevalences of cesarean section ranged from 10.1% among women from Vietnam to 25.8% in the group of Filipino origin. The use of abdominal delivery was also high in the groups from Sri Lanka/India (21.3%), Somalia/Eritrea/Ethiopia (20.5%) and Chile/Brazil (24.3%), while the frequency among women from Turkey/Morocco (12.6%) and Pakistan (13.2%) was approximately the same as among ethnic Norwegians (12.4%). Feto-pelvic disproportion, fetal distress and prolonged labor were the most important diagnoses associated with the high prevalences, but the significance of these diagnoses differed among the groups. Other unknown factors come into play, particularly among women from Somalia/Eritrea/Ethiopia and Chile/Brazil. There was substantial variation in the use of cesarean section among ethnic groups in Norway. The diagnoses feto-pelvic disproportion, fetal distress and prolonged labor may be confounded by a number of factors including maternal request for cesarean section and difficulties in handling the delivery. Further research is needed to explain the observed differences.

  6. The European Gas and Oil Market: The Role of Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbo, F.

    2008-01-01

    The research question of this paper is related to the role of Norway in the European gas and oil market. This study aims to give a presentation of the energy policy in Norway and Norwegian participation at the European level. The first chapter will introduce Norwegian relations with Europe. For the purpose of my research, I will focus mainly on Norwegian energy policy in the second chapter, presenting Norway's oil industry in chapter 2.1.; Norwegian gas production in chapter 2.2.; and the Norwegian electrical power system in chapter 2.3. The sub-chapter 2.4. will analyse in detail the activity of the largest Norwegian oil and gas company, StatoilHydro. The third chapter will be dedicated to Norway's green energy policy (wind, sun and water), etc. The fourth chapter looks at the European perspective and will examine the European strategic gas and oil market in a globalized world. The fifth chapter will present Norway's participation in the European gas and oil market. Such strategic research must also include a look at the European Union's (EU) energy market development between Russia and Norway, which will be presented in chapter six. And finally, Norway's contribution to the development of an EU energy policy in fighting climate change will be emphasised in chapter seven. This research will analyse the following central issues: - Norwegian oil industry, - Norwegian gas production, - Norwegian electrical power system, - Norwegian challenges in the European gas and oil market. (author)

  7. Serious ski jumping injuries in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, K

    1985-01-01

    Injuries caused by ski jumping have been poorly investigated. Among approximately 2,200 licensed jumpers in Norway, there occurred at least 12 injuries with a permanent medical disability of greater than or equal to 10%. The risk of being seriously injured is approximately 5% in a 5 year period (1977 to 1981); it is higher in the age group 15 to 17 years. Seven injuries were very serious [four central nervous system (CNS) lesions, two leg amputations, and one blindness of one eye], and five were less serious (sequelae to fractures of the lower extremities). The first jump of the day is particularly dangerous, and so is the beginning and end of the season. It seems dangerous to use more than one standard heel block. Poor preparation of the jump may have contributed to the accidents. Based on the findings, several prophylactic measures are suggested.

  8. THE STATUS OF SYNTAXONOMY IN NORWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. FREMSTAD

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available

    In Norway syntaxonomical work started approximately at the same time in Central Europe. Nordhagen was the pioneer, making the basis for the classification of especially alpine communities, followed by Dahl and Gjaerevoll, also focusing on alpine vegetation. During the 1970-80’s a large number of syntaxonomical studies were made on a diversity of topics; most of these studies were never published. The rather species-poor flora and the difficulties of applying the concept of character species have caused Norwegian botanists to develop a classification system of their own, as a summary of present knowledge. The next step should be to rework a large number of relevès with numerical methods to form the basis of a national vegetation survey.

  9. THE STATUS OF SYNTAXONOMY IN NORWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. FREMSTAD

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available In Norway syntaxonomical work started approximately at the same time in Central Europe. Nordhagen was the pioneer, making the basis for the classification of especially alpine communities, followed by Dahl and Gjaerevoll, also focusing on alpine vegetation. During the 1970-80’s a large number of syntaxonomical studies were made on a diversity of topics; most of these studies were never published. The rather species-poor flora and the difficulties of applying the concept of character species have caused Norwegian botanists to develop a classification system of their own, as a summary of present knowledge. The next step should be to rework a large number of relevès with numerical methods to form the basis of a national vegetation survey.

  10. Pregnancy outcome in Norway after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irgens, L.M.; Lie, R.T.; Ulstein, M.; Skeie Jensen, T.; Skjaerven, R.; Sivertsen, F.; Reitan, J.B.; Strand, F.; Strand, T.; Egil Skjeldestad, F.

    1991-01-01

    Pregnancy outcome has been studied in terms of legal abortions, early spontaneous abortions and total number of pregnancies (in an ad hoc study covering 6 counties) as well as various perinatal health problems (on the basis of routinely recorded data for epidemiological surveillance from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway). Apparently, no effects were observed in terms of an increased occurrence of legal abortions, while spontaneous abortions increased from 2.4% of all pregnancies during the last 12 months before the accident to 3% after the accident. At the same time, the total number of pregnancies somewhat decreased. Based on monthly measurements in each municipality of external and internal (food-based) doses, dose-response associations were assessed for a number of perinatal health problems. No associations were observed

  11. An evaluation of radiation protection in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berteig, L.; Flatby, J.

    1979-01-01

    A survey of radiation protection in Norway is presented. Statens Institutt for Straalehygiene is the organization which performs the radiation protection functions on a national basis, and the laws upon which its activities are based are cited. The relevant parts of the ILO Convention nr.115 are also cited. The tasks of the institute are divided in the following programmes:- (i)radiation protection regulations and inspection, (ii) training and information (iii) emergency planning and provisions (iv) development of methods and, (v) administration. These programmes are defined and briefly described. The organisational structure and tasks are described. Analysis in tabular form of the status of the tasks leads to the conclusion that, while the institute's laboratories and equipment are satisfactory shortage of personnel restricts the adequate performance of its tasks. (JIW)

  12. Sunnite-Shiite Polemics in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Linge

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the so-called Islamic State’s expansion in Syria and Iraq, Sunnite-Shiite polarization appears as an increasingly relevant topic, including among Muslims in Europe. Taking into consideration that this is a relatively new manifestation of intolerance in the West, such intra-Islamic tensions remain an under-researched subject and are superficially described as a reproduction of Middle Eastern so-called sectarianism. While this article recognizes the regional origin of exclusivist Islamic narratives and their dissemination by transnational Islamic networks, it also highlights the fact that Sunnite-Shiite polemics are rearticulated in new local contexts. In light of the IS’s anti-Shiism in particular, the public debate in Norway about “Islamic radicalism” is currently being rationalized by many Norwegian Muslims in terms of the “moderate self” versus the “extreme other”, notably across the Sunnite-Shiite divide. 

  13. Energy carriers in Norway; Energibaerere i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-01-15

    Within the Norwegian energy consumption, electricity is by far the most dominant energy carrier. In the last thirty years electricity has had an increased significance, while oil has been reduce. A trend that is likely to continue. Energy politics has among others these objectives: environment, reliability of supply and effective energy supply. These objectives are somewhat contradictory. In agreement with the environmental politic phasing out oil leads to a reduction in greenhouse gases. However this politic will have a local impact only effecting Norway, in a larger European connection it might lead to a larger net emission of CO{sub 2}. A political intervention in the energy market might also lead to a reduction in the energy markets effectiveness and flexibility. This report addresses this problem: If a total phase out of the stationary oil consumption is conducted, what energy carriers will this consumption convert to?

  14. Challenges for Norway as an energy nation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Norwegian energy sector is a dominating factor in the economy of Norway. Both in the power sector and the petroleum sector industrial environments have been developed that possess resources, skill and technology which form a good foundation for further industrial commitments. Deregulation of the energy markets, new corporate strategies and phasing-up of national frontiers represent new challenges to the energy sector. Failing international focus among many energy companies in addition to less domestic activity may lead the energy sector into a negative development, We have formulated two active strategies for meeting the challenges of the future. If the recommended strategy, industrial reorientation, is followed, the consolidation of the Norwegian power sector will be continued and the state's owner interests on the Norwegian continental shelf coordinated. At the same time the public ownership will be wound up through partial privatization. Establishing powerful Norwegian energy companies creates the best foundation for meeting the competition in a much more demanding energy market

  15. Bio energy in Norway; Bioenergi i Noreg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamnaberg, Haavard; Sidelnikova, Maria

    2011-07-01

    The main conclusion in this report is that it is possible to make available about 14 TWh bio energy in Norway than what is used today to a charge that is located less than ca. 30 oere / kWh. Almost all this potential come from the forest and requires an increase in output up to the net sustained yield. Further 5 TWh may be available in the form of biogas at a cost that is both higher and have greater uncertainty than the fixed bio energy. It is set up a cost curve based on this work, which is quoted here. This reflects only the technical costs, and does not regard wages, commissions, taxes or fees. The value of alternative uses of biomass are not considered. The cost curve must therefore not be mixed with a supply curve. (eb)

  16. Diabetes: cost of illness in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenssen Trond

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus places a considerable burden on patients in terms of morbidity and mortality and on society in terms of costs. Costs related to diabetes are expected to increase due to increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to estimate the health care costs attributable to type 1 and type 2 diabetes in Norway in 2005. Methods Data on inpatient hospital services, outpatient clinic visits, physician services, drugs, medical equipment, nutrition guidance, physiotherapy, acupuncture, foot therapy and indirect costs were collected from national registers and responses to a survey of 584 patients with diabetes. The study was performed with a prevalence approach. Uncertainty was explored by means of bootstrapping. Results When hospital stays with diabetes as a secondary diagnosis were excluded, the total costs were €293 million, which represents about 1.4% of the total health care expenditure. Pharmaceuticals accounted for €95 million (32%, disability pensions €48 million (16%, medical devices €40 million (14% and hospital admissions €21 million (7%. Patient expenditures for acupuncture, physiotherapy and foot therapy were many times higher than expenditure for nutritional guidance. Indirect costs (lost production from job absenteeism accounted for €70.1 million (24% of the €293 million and included sick leave (€16.7 million, disability support and disability pensions (€48.2 million and other indirect costs (€5.3 million. If all diabetes related hospital stays are included (primary- and secondary diagnosis total costs amounts to €535 million, about 2.6% of the total health care expenditure in Norway. Conclusions Diabetes represents a considerable burden to society in terms of health care costs and productivity losses.

  17. Gambling and gambling policy in Norway--an exceptional case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Ingeborg; Bang Hansen, Marianne

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the development and current status of gambling and gambling policy in Norway. An overview of the research literature and official documents and websites. Gambling on electronic gaming machines (EGMs) increased dramatically in the 1990s in response to technological development and liberalization of gambling policy. Restrictions on availability of EGM gambling occurred from 2006 to 2009 and included a ban on note acceptors, a temporary ban on EGMs and re-introduction of fewer and less aggressive machines under a state monopoly. The restrictions led to significant decreases in total gambling turnover, and several studies suggest that they led to fewer gambling and gambling problems. Various factors may explain why the restrictions were politically feasible. These include media coverage of gambling concerns and economic compensation for revenue losses under the monopoly. In an international context of deregulation of gambling markets, the Norwegian policy restrictions on gambling availability have represented an exceptional case and provide a rare opportunity to explore the outcomes of such regulations. Overall, studies suggest that the policy restrictions have led to reductions in gambling expenditures and problem gambling. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Cesium fallout in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backe, S.; Bjerke, H.; Rudjord, A.L.; Ugletveit, F.

    1986-01-01

    Results of country-wide measurements of 137 Cs and 134 Cs in soil samples in Norway after the Chernobyl accident are reported. The results clearly demonstrates that municipalities in the central part of southern Norway, Troendelag and the southern part of Nordland, have been rather heavily contaminated. The total fallout of 137 Cs and 134 Cs from the Chernobyl accident in Norway is estimated to 2300 TBq and 1200 TBq, respectively. This is approximately 6% of the cesium activity released from the reactor

  19. Municipalities in Western Norway concentrate on natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Only one percent of the natural gas from the Norwegian gas fields is currently used in Norway and it is a national goal that 10 percent of the gas produced shall be used for domestic purposes. Western Norway should pioneer this development, as this is where the gas is brought on land. ''Vestlandsroeret AS'' is a project in which sixteen municipalities - including the city Bergen - and eleven companies plan to develop infrastructure which will provide for transport of the gas to customers and markets in Western Norway. The article also discusses environmental considerations, public opinion, the utilization of waste heat and extensive development of cod culture

  20. Organophosphorous flame retardants in biota from Svalbard, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallanger, I.G.; Sagerup, K.; Evenset, A.; Kovacs, K.M.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Fuglei, E.; Routti, H.; Aars, J.; Strom, H.; Lydersen, C.; Gabrielsen, G. W.

    2015-01-01

    Eight arctic species, including fish, birds and mammals, from diverse habitats (marine and terrestrial) within the Svalbard Archipelago, Norway, were screened for 14 organophosphorus flame retardant (PFR) compounds. Ten PFRs were detected: tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP),

  1. Norway's role in international collaboration towards rehabilitation of Andreeva Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdall, M; Sneve, M; Standring, W J F; Amundsen, I

    2009-12-01

    Andreeva Bay is one of the largest and most hazardous nuclear legacy sites in northwest Russia. The site is the location of large amounts of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) and radioactive wastes and the risks associated with the site have precipitated an extensive international collaborative effort towards securing and rehabilitating the site. Given the location and proximity of the site, Norway has and continues to contribute in a number of ways towards this effort. Norway's activities in relation to rehabilitative efforts at Andreeva Bay are focused on both infrastructural and remediative initiatives as well as regulatory collaboration with Russia towards ensuring effective and safe operations during handling and removal of SNF and radioactive materials. This article describes Norway's role within international efforts in the context of the rehabilitation of Andreeva Bay and outlines previous activities and Norway's future direction with respect to the site.

  2. Plans for wind power in Norway - Enova's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stensaas, Dag Rune

    2006-01-01

    A brief presentation of Enova's view on wind power development in Norway. Enova supports a continued development of wind power combined with the development of district heating, as well as other measures to reduce energy consumption (ml)

  3. Direct maternal deaths in Norway 1976-1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersgaard, Alice Beate; Langhoff-Roos, J.; Oian, P.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To report direct maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Norway between 1976 and 1995 including a description of the underlying complications in pregnancy, the causes of death and assessment of standard of care. METHODS: The maternal deaths were identified through the Cause of Death Registry......, Statistics Norway, and Medical Birth Registry of Norway. We requested copies of the hospital case records and the maternal death autopsies. The direct maternal deaths were classified on the basis underlying causes and assessed for substandard care according to the guidelines at the time of death...... and preventability provided optimal conditions and up to date guidelines. RESULTS: In the period 1976-1995 we identified 61 direct maternal deaths in Norway. The direct MMR was 5.5/100,000 births. Sufficient information was available for analysis in 51 of these cases. Six deaths occurred in early pregnancy. Among...

  4. Active Ageing in the Labour Market. Country Report – Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Helgøy, Ingrid

    2004-01-01

    The paper analyse active aging policy in the labour market in Norway. First, a statistical analysis of the changes in labour market is presented. Even though European countries are more challenged than Norway, demographic ageing puts some pressure on the labour force and the ability of the welfare state to meet the needs of increased retirees in the future. The statistical analysis deals with labour market participation, unemployment, part-time employment, education, early exit and w...

  5. Norway; Staff Report for the 2001 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2002-01-01

    This 2001 Article IV Consultation highlights that the real mainland (non-oil) GDP of Norway is estimated to have grown well below potential in 2001, at 1¼ percent. Although high oil prices supported household confidence and domestic activity through most of the year, the global slowdown has recently begun to affect Norway. Labor market conditions remain tight in service sectors, but weakened in technology and traditional export industries. Despite high domestic cost increases, consumer price ...

  6. Future Manufacturing Systems in Norway – Strategy, Architecture and Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Kolla, Sri Sudha Vijay Keshav

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the suitability of Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) in Norwegian manufacturing industries and its implementation. This study explores the research and innovation needs in Norway which will be given as inputs to Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) 2030 of European Commission to share future manufacturing strategies in Norway. The objectives of the research are to identifying the opportunities and challenges of CPS, developing a feasible reference architecture of CPS which benef...

  7. Adaptive Evolution and Demographic History of Norway Spruce (Picea Abies)

    OpenAIRE

    Källman, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    One of the major challenges in evolutionary biology is to determine the genetic basis of adaptive variation. In Norway spruce (Picea abies) the timing of bud set shows a very strong latitudinal cline despite a very low genetic differentiation between populations. The timing of bud set in Norway spruce is under strong genetic control and triggered by changes in photoperiod, but no genes controlling this response have so far been described. In this thesis we used a combination of functional stu...

  8. The future of personal wealth and inheritance taxation in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Pekala, Maciek

    2013-01-01

    Many countries have recently abandoned or experienced significant reduction in tax rates and revenues from personal wealth and inheritance taxation. Today, Norway remains one of the few countries that still tax annual wealth and intergenerational wealth transfers. Both taxes however face a substantial opposition and their future remains uncertain. In this paper, a dynamic microsimulation model MOSART developed by Statistics Norway is used to project and discuss future revenues and distributio...

  9. International Student Migration to Norway. Who stays and who leaves?

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Lea Nga Thanh

    2014-01-01

    International student migration to Norway has markedly increased during the past 20 years. This inflow has caused the Norwegian authorities to shed light on the topic. Until 2001, it was expected from the Norwegian authorities that international students return home after graduation. After the 21th century several policy changes occurred to attract more international students to Norway, and making it easier for international students to obtain a work permit after their studies. This thesis an...

  10. The Mesolithic of Western Norway : prevailing problems and possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Bang-Andersen, Sveinung

    1995-01-01

    The landscape and settlement development in West Norway until c. 5200 y. b.p. is broadly outlined. An evaluation of the source material reveals lacunaes which delimit detailed information on topics such as daily life, mortuary practices and artistic skills. However, the Mesolithic of West Norway holds a rich potential for insight into cultural-historical problems of a superior order, in particular the process of colonization.

  11. Family and gender policies in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlung, Liera

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The NorSpaR project aims to analyse the main public policy initiatives by which Norway and Spain cope with the new social and economic challenges derived from the so-called New Social Risks (NSR. Although both countries present significant differences in their institutional settings (such as Spanish EU membership, or its belonging to diverse welfare regimes types (Norway is generally included in the Nordic regime, while Spain is part of the Mediterranean one, both countries share a common interest in addressing the aforementioned challenges while maintaining social cohesion. In the last decade, governments in both countries have tried to respond to those challenges by reforming their labour markets, adapting their unemployment schemes, as well as their gender, family and long-term care policies. The analysis covered in this project includes three areas of public policy addressing NSR. First, dependency is one of the most daunting challenges for post-industrial societies experiencing population ageing and with an increasing number of frail people in need of care. This situation is forcing governments to rethink their long-term care policies. Second, family and gender public programs need to respond to the growing difficulties of families in reconciling professional and family life. Third, in the transition to a post-industrial order, and in a context of mass unemployment, social protection systems have a renewed prominence. Along with the so-called passive policies offering financial support to the unemployed, active labour market policies are geared to put people back into work. In our analysis we try to find answers to the following questions: What are the challenges that each of these policies have been trying to address in recent years? How have these policies evolved? What kinds of reforms have been implemented, and which ones have been neglected? Have the policy goals and targets of welfare programs been modified in any significant way

  12. Unemployment and activation policies in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth, Erling

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The NorSpaR project aims to analyse the main public policy initiatives by which Norway and Spain cope with the new social and economic challenges derived from the so-called New Social Risks (NSR. Although both countries present significant differences in their institutional settings (such as Spanish EU membership, or its belonging to diverse welfare regimes types (Norway is generally included in the Nordic regime, while Spain is part of the Mediterranean one, both countries share a common interest in addressing the aforementioned challenges while maintaining social cohesion. In the last decade, governments in both countries have tried to respond to those challenges by reforming their labour markets, adapting their unemployment schemes, as well as their gender, family and long-term care policies. The analysis covered in this project includes three areas of public policy addressing NSR. First, dependency is one of the most daunting challenges for post-industrial societies experiencing population ageing and with an increasing number of frail people in need of care. This situation is forcing governments to rethink their long-term care policies. Second, family and gender public programs need to respond to the growing difficulties of families in reconciling professional and family life. Third, in the transition to a post-industrial order, and in a context of mass unemployment, social protection systems have a renewed prominence. Along with the so-called passive policies offering financial support to the unemployed, active labour market policies are geared to put people back into work. In our analysis we try to find answers to the following questions: What are the challenges that each of these policies have been trying to address in recent years? How have these policies evolved? What kinds of reforms have been implemented, and which ones have been neglected? Have the policy goals and targets of welfare programs been modified in any significant way

  13. Water footprint of hydro power in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeland, Kolbjørn; Tallaksen, Lena; Haakon Bakken, Tor; Killingtveit, Ånund

    2015-04-01

    The IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy (IPCC, 2012) assesses the potential for renewable energy sources to replace fossil-based fuels and benchmarks the technologies with respect to a set of criteria, including their water footprint measured as m3/MWh. While most of the renewable technologies show a typical range of 1-5 m3/MWh, the very sparse data on hydropower range from a minimum of 0.04 to a maximum of 209 m3/MWh. More recent studies on water footprint from hydropower indicate that the water consumption rates could go even far beyond the numbers published by IPCC (2012). The methodological approach behind these numbers are, however, criticized as it appears over-simplistic and several issues need to be defined and clarified in order to present the 'true picture' of the water footprint of hydropower. Despite this, the rather high numbers for hydropower may imply a reputational risk for the sector and also be a direct investment risk in new projects if hydropower is considered a "large-scale water consumer". Estimation of water footprint has two important components (i) definition of water footprint (including system boundaries), and (ii) estimation of evaporation, which is assumed to constitute the main water loss from hydropower. Here we will mainly address the second topic and have chosen to use a water footprint definition based on net evapotranspiration from reservoirs. Thus, we need estimates of evapotranspiration from the land surface prior to inundation and the evaporation from the reservoir after it has been filled up. The primary objective of the study is to estimate water footprint of hydropower in Norway and in particular to answer the following questions: (i) How does different environmental variables influence water footprint estimation in Norway?, and in particular (ii) What is the total/specific water footprint from Norwegian hydropower production? To answer these questions we tested how environmental variables like climate and vegetation

  14. Energy efficiency policies and measures in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2012-07-01

    This report represents the national case study of Norway for the IEE-project {sup M}onitoring of EU and national energy efficiency targets (ODYSSEE-MURE 2010)'. The Norwegian part of the project is co-funded by Enova. The report presents the recent energy efficiency trends in Norway on the basis of indicators extracted from the ODYSSEE database. The database contains information on energy use in a detailed level of the industry, transport, household and service sectors and other energy use. lt also contains information on energy drivers like heated square meters in the households and services sectors, transported passenger-km and ton-km of gods, value added, production index, production volumes etc. Final energy consumption has increased from 195 TWh in 1990 lo 229 TWh in 2010 The last ten years the energy consumption has varied between 212I Wh (2009) and 229 TWh (2010) with an annual average of 221TfUh. The sector using most energy is the industry, but the share has decreased from 40 % in 1990 to 31 % in 2010. From 1990 to 2010 the growth rate has been highest in the transport sector. Half of the energy end-use was electricity in 20,10, 42 % was fossil fuels and 6 % was biomass. The electricity use has an annual increase of 0.8 % since 1990, but the last decade the annual increase is reduced to 0.14 %. The consumption of oil products has decreased in stationary end-use (heating) and increased in the transport sector. In ODYSSEE, an aggregate bottom-up energy efficiency index, ODEX, is calculated. This energy efficiency index aggregates the trends in the detailed bottom-up indicators in one single indicator. This ODEX has improved by 26 o/o from 1990 to 2010 or by 1.3 o/o per year. This means that energy efficiency policies and measures implemented since 1990 have contributed to a decrease in the energy use of 2010 of approximately 59 TWh. (Author)

  15. Revamp urged for Norway's offshore regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Norwegian government has come under renewed pressure from offshore operators to fine tune its licensing procedures and tax regime. The need for change was emphasized at the Advanced Petroleum Conference in Stavanger attended by senior personnel from companies active in the Norwegian and British sectors of the North Sea. Companies have had some success in the tax front, winning changes in proposals from Norway's Ministry of Finance for offshore tax reform. The changes were required to offset a general reduction in the corporate tax to 28% from 50.8%. Norsk Shell has told the government that in view of uncertainty about taxes it will not take part in the normal industry-government discussions about what acreage should be included in the 14th licensing round to be announced next year. This action does not bar Shell from participating in the licensing round when it gets under way. Shell has the if the tax package is not changed sharply in its passage through Storting it is unlikely to bid for new licenses

  16. Establishing 'design basis threat' in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerli, M.B.; Naadland, E.; Reistad, O.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: INFCIRC 225 (Rev. 4) assumes that a state's physical protection system should be based on the state's evaluation of the threat, and that this should be reflected in the relevant legislation. Other factors should also be considered, including the state's emergency response capabilities and the existing and relevant measures of the state's system of accounting for and control of nuclear material. A design basis threat developed from an evaluation by the state of the threat of unauthorized removal of nuclear material and of sabotage of nuclear material and nuclear facilities is an essential element of a state's system of physical protection. The state should continuously review the threat, and evaluate the implications of any changes in that threat for the required levels and the methods of physical protection. As part of a national design basis threat assessment, this paper evaluates the risk of nuclear or radiological terrorism and sabotage in Norway. Possible scenarios are presented and plausible consequences are discussed with a view to characterize the risks. The need for more stringent regulatory requirements will be discussed, together with the (positive) impact of improved systems and procedures of physical protection on nuclear emergency planning. Special emphasis is placed on discussing the design basis threat for different scenarios in order to systemize regulatory efforts to update the current legislation, requirement for operators' contingency planning, response efforts and the need for emergency exercises. (author)

  17. NORADAPT. Community Adaptation and Vulnerability in Norway; NORADAPT. Community Adaptation and Vulnerability in Norway. Sluttrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oort, Bob van; Hovelsrud, Grete K.; Dannevig, Halvor; Bybraaten, Stine

    2012-10-15

    In NORADAPT, researchers from CICERO Center for Climate Research, Western Norway Research Institute, Eastern Norway Research Institute and the Norwegian Meteorological Institute worked in close cooperation with 8 selected municipalities, with the aim to help municipalities assess their vulnerability to climate change and develop adaptation strategies in collaboration with the research group. This report presents climate scenarios for all project municipalities and interprets the expected changes from the figures produced for each municipality. The report refers to socioeconomic scenarios which were developed as part of the project, describes progress throughout the project period and summarizes the main findings of the project through a summary of the final conference at Losby Gods 24-25 October 2011. The project has shown that municipalities are able to put climate change on the agenda, utilize scientific knowledge and implement adaptation measures, but that this depends on several factors, such as capacity, knowledge and involvement in local government, access to relevant knowledge and policy measures, and clear guidance and supervision from regional and national authorities. (Author)

  18. Carbon sequestration by young Norway spruce monoculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, R.; Rajsnerova, P.; Kubásek, J.

    2012-04-01

    Many studies have been focused on allometry, wood-mass inventory, carbon (C) sequestration, and biomass expansion factors as the first step for the evaluation of C sinks of different plant ecosystems. To identify and quantify these terrestrial C sinks, and evaluate CO2 human-induced emissions on the other hand, information for C balance accounting (for impletion of commitment to Kyoto protocol) are currently highly needed. Temperate forest ecosystems have recently been identified as important C sink. Carbon sink might be associated with environmental changes (elevated [CO2], air temperature, N deposition etc.) and large areas of managed fast-growing young forests. Norway spruce (Pice abies L. Karst) is the dominant tree species (35%) in Central European forests. It covers 55 % of the total forested area in the Czech Republic, mostly at high altitudes. In this contribution we present C sequestration by young (30-35 year-old) Norway spruce monocultures in highland (650-700 m a.s.l., AT- mean annual temperature: 6.9 ° C; P- annual amount of precipitation: 700 mm; GL- growing season duration: 150 days) and mountain (850-900 m a.s.l.; AT of 5.5 ° C; P of 1300 mm; and GL of 120 days) areas and an effect of a different type of thinning. However, the similar stem diameter at the breast height and biomass proportions among above-ground tree organs were obtained in the both localities; the trees highly differ in their height, above-ground organ's biomass values and total above ground biomass, particularly in stem. On the total mean tree biomass needle, branch and stem biomass participated by 22 %, 24 % and 54 % in highland, and by 19 %, 23 % and 58 % in mountain area, respectively. Silvicultural management affects mainly structure, density, and tree species composition of the stand. Therefore, dendrometric parameters of a tree resulted from genotype, growth conditions and from management history as well. Low type of thinning (LT; common in highland) stimulates rather tree

  19. Challenges for developing national climate services – Poland and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew W. Kundzewicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution discusses the challenges for developing national climate services in two countries with high fossil fuel production – Poland (coal and Norway (oil and gas. Both countries, Poland and Norway, have highly developed weather services, but largely differ on climate services. Since empirical and dynamical downscaling of climate models started in Norway over 20 years ago and meteorological and hydrological institutions in Oslo and Bergen have been collaborating on tailoring and disseminating downscaled climate projections to the Norwegian society, climate services are now well developed in Norway. The Norwegian Centre for Climate Services (NCCS was established in 2011. In contrast, climate services in Poland, in the international understanding, do not exist. Actually, Poland is not an exception, as compared to other Central and Eastern European countries, many of which neither have their national climate services, nor are really interested in European climate services disseminated via common EU initiatives. It is worth posing a question – can Poland learn from Norway as regards climate services? This contribution is based on results of the CHASE-PL (Climate change impact assessment for selected sectors in Poland project, carried out in the framework of the Polish – Norwegian Research Programme. The information generated within the Polish-Norwegian CHASE-PL project that is being broadly disseminated in Poland can be considered as a substitute for information delivered in other countries by climate services.

  20. High rates of solar radiation - an important natural stress factor of the photosynthetic activity of mountainous norway spruce stands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprtova, M.; Marek, M.V.

    1996-01-01

    Photosynthetic activity can be regarded as the basis of biomass productivity and vitality of forest trees, respectively. Moreover, this activity is under the strong influence of environment. Excess of photosynthetically active radiation (PhAR) can be a harmful factor of environment which is the reason of photoinhibition. Photoinhibition is demonstrated by a decrease of photosynthetic rate. An analysis of the influence of PhAR excess on function of the assimilatory apparatus of Norway spruce during summer days was done. The strong influence of PhAR excess on values of parameters of photosynthesis reflecting changes in the level of quanta capture and electron transport chain was observed. The comprehensive description of the method of chlorophyll a is given. Excess of PhAR caused rapid changes of assimilatory apparatus function and thus this PhAR excess can be regarded as a significant stress of productional activity of Norway spruce stands under field conditions

  1. Symbols or results?. Norway`s contribution to global climate policy; Symboler eller resultater. Norges bidrag til global klimapolitikk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugland, Torleif; Lunde, Leiv; Vraalstad, Knut; Roland, Kjell

    1997-12-31

    The report is part of an evaluation of political climate challenges faced by Norway. The aim to stabilize CO{sub 2} emissions before the year 2000 is unrealistic. This is because (1) almost all electricity produced in Norway is hydropower, (2) more than half of the expected CO{sub 2} emissions up to 2020 comes from increased activities on the large and profitable petroleum deposits in the North Sea; these activities are hard to slow down, (3) substantial emission reductions in the process industry are expensive or impossible because of a lack of raw material without carbon, (4) reductions in the transport sector are impossible because of dispersed settlement, (5) strong economic growth and low unemployment imply increased energy consumption. All together this means that stabilizing the emissions in Norway costs more than in most of the OECD countries. The supposed gain in climate quality from measures in one country may ``leak`` out in the sense that the activities whose reduction caused the gain are moved a country that does not have an active climate policy and thus the global consequences may even be negative. Four examples are given: (1) Unlike most countries, Norway uses high-quality hydropower for heating. If Norway had instead used efficient petroleum fuels for heating and exported this electric energy to countries that generate electricity from inefficient carbon, then these countries would reduce the emission of CO{sub 2} by more than Norway would increase it. (2) Much of the emissions from the activities in the North Sea comes from electricity production in low-efficiency gas turbines. This emission could be eliminated by electricity supplied from land. But with today`s power balance in Norway, such electricity would be Danish carbon-generated. (3) CO{sub 2} tax on the energy intensive but efficient Norwegian process industry could move production to a country with more polluting production. (4) Reducing Norwegian gas export to Europe would decrease

  2. The climate regime: Results, causes and the role of Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, Steinar

    2001-01-01

    About a decade after the Climate Convention, little has been achieved to solve this problem. It is stressed, however, that our knowledge of the problem has increased and today few serious actors would deny the existence of the problem. National and international institutions to deal with it are being established. The main reason why the problem remains unsolved is that it is so much more difficult than most other environmental problems. The political will and ability to handle it has been limited. In the countries that do have reduced emissions, this is mostly not due to climate considerations. Norway is quite representative for many OECD countries. Although they were high in the beginning, ambitions have been reduced over time and are characterized by economical pragmatism rather than high environmental ideals. Norway has implemented more measures than many comparable nations, but this does not substantially reduce the emission of climate gases from the oil- and gas-producing nation Norway

  3. Norway [and the closer relations with the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Opinion in Norway seems to have settled on the idea that having a closer relation to the EC is inevitable, although opinion is divided as to whether this will be a good thing. The plain fact is that with Denmark already involved and the Swedes thinking about it, some Norwegian politicians are nervous about being left out in the cold. However, this feeling of inevitability does not mean that the EC can treat Norway's curious economy like an oyster, to be cracked open and eaten at a time of its own choosing. The Norweigians are, after all, sitting on Western Europe's largest and most secure hydrocarbon reserves for export, and they also have hydropower. The situation in which these resources place Norway are examined with respect to EC membership. (author)

  4. NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database - a TSP NORWAY IPY legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliussen, H.; Christiansen, H. H.; Strand, G. S.; Iversen, S.; Midttømme, K.; Rønning, J. S.

    2010-10-01

    NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database, was developed at the Geological Survey of Norway during the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2009 as the main data legacy of the IPY research project Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard (TSP NORWAY). Its structural and technical design is described in this paper along with the ground temperature data infrastructure in Norway and Svalbard, focussing on the TSP NORWAY permafrost observatory installations in the North Scandinavian Permafrost Observatory and Nordenskiöld Land Permafrost Observatory, being the primary data providers of NORPERM. Further developments of the database, possibly towards a regional database for the Nordic area, are also discussed. The purpose of NORPERM is to store ground temperature data safely and in a standard format for use in future research. The IPY data policy of open, free, full and timely release of IPY data is followed, and the borehole metadata description follows the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) standard. NORPERM is purely a temperature database, and the data is stored in a relation database management system and made publically available online through a map-based graphical user interface. The datasets include temperature time series from various depths in boreholes and from the air, snow cover, ground-surface or upper ground layer recorded by miniature temperature data-loggers, and temperature profiles with depth in boreholes obtained by occasional manual logging. All the temperature data from the TSP NORWAY research project is included in the database, totalling 32 temperature time series from boreholes, 98 time series of micrometeorological temperature conditions, and 6 temperature depth profiles obtained by manual logging in boreholes. The database content will gradually increase as data from previous and future projects are added. Links to near real-time permafrost temperatures, obtained

  5. The power situation in Mid-Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The strained power situation in Mid-Norway is in broad terms an energy problem, and the situation is especially precarious in the county of Moere og Romsdal. There is a risk that even in normal years, there will be insufficient energy supply unless new measures are implemented. There is a 50 percent chance that the situation will become more strained than in normal years. In the long term there is a possibility to increase the capacity of the system by increasing the import capacity as well as the production, but this is not realistic before 2011. A gas work at Tjeldbergodden can at the earliest be operative in 2011. The gas work at Skogn can at the earliest be operative in 2009, and needs to be accompanied by fortifications in the distribution net in order to help the situation in Moere og Romsdal. In short term the import capacity to the region will be reduced, and there are limits to how much new production capacity that can be taken in. Therefore, measures have to be made in order to reduce the consumption and increase the import. To make sure the measures will have satisfactory effect, they need to be implemented soon, so they can have effect over a longer period. It is limited how big reduction one can expect from the normal supply consumption. It is estimated that the consumption can be reduced by 10 percent at the maximum, by the use of high prices in the area, but this requires that the consumers expect a prolonged level of high energy prices at 0,80 Nok/kWh, and in addition short-term price fluctuations. Energy-intensive industry may find it profitable to reduce the consumption at prices below 0,80 Nok/kWh, but the potential for this is probably small in Moere og Romsdal. In a dry year it will hardly be possible to meet the energy demand without resorting to measures and in worst case rationing. The costs of rationing are substantially higher than the cost of backup power plants

  6. Radioactive fallout in Norway from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.

    1994-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident had considerable consequences for Norway. Except for the areas in the former USSR, around Chernobyl some areas in Norway received fallout which gave the highest contamination levels. The natural and semi natural ecosystems will produce food products with high activity levels of radiocesium for several decennium. Cost-effective countermeasures were implemented, and they reduced the doses considerable, especially for critical groups. Doses received over the next 50 years will probably cause cancer in 500 persons. 63 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  7. The Medical Birth Registry of Norway – An international perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen J. Wilcox

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most practical questions of perinatal medicine are regarding couples who have had pregnancy problems in the past, and their risk of having such problems in future pregnancies. For example, if a couple has a child with a birth defect, what are their chances that their next child will have a defect? The key to answering such questions is the availability of linked data such as those provided by the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Such linked data provide a unique resource for addressing a broad range of questions in perinatal epidemiology. The Medical Birth Registry of Norway has been a pioneer in answering such questions.

  8. The Medical Birth Registry of Norway – An international perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen J. Wilcox

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most practical questions of perinatal medicine are regarding couples who have had pregnancy problems in the past, and their risk of having such problems in future pregnancies. For example, if a couple has a child with a birth defect, what are their chances that their next child will have a defect? The key to answering such questions is the availability of linked data such as those provided by the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Such linked data provide a unique resource for addressing a broad range of questions in perinatal epidemiology. The Medical Birth Registry of Norway has been a pioneer in answering such questions

  9. The Gothenburg Protocol: NOx emissions problematic for Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Oddvar

    2000-01-01

    The Gothenburg Protocol concerns long-range air pollution and is a continuation of earlier protocols and agreements. Its recommendations are based on calculations of where the greatest possible health- and environmental impact is obtained per dollar invested. European countries have done much to reduce the emission of sulphur dioxide. Norway and most other countries, however, have difficulties reducing their emissions of nitrogen oxides. In Norway, the emission of sulphur dioxide must also be substantially reduced, as the tolerance limit for SO2 in nature is low. It is socio-economically profitable for Norway to conform to the Gothenburg Protocol. One of the largest environmental problems in Norway is acid rain and death of fish. Although it is difficult to calculate the exact values of fishing-lakes and of reduced health injuries when the emissions of harmful waste gases are reduced, the profit is very high. 90% of the SO2 pollution in Norway is long-range transported from abroad. Yet Norway must reduce the domestic emissions from 30 000 to 22 000 tonnes the next 10 years. Most of the present emission of SO2 in Norway comes from the production of metals. The reduction goal can be achieved by a combination of improving industrial processes, SO2 cleaning, and reducing the sulphur content of oil. In many European countries, the greatest problem is the increasing emission of NOx and formation of ozone at the ground, which is largely due to the rapidly increasing motor traffic. In Norway, most of the NOx emission comes from the coastal traffic and the fishing fleet, followed by the motor traffic, the petroleum industry and the processing industry. The most cost-effective NOx reductions can be obtained in the North Sea by installing low-NOx gas turbines. In ships, catalytic cleaning of NOx and engine improvements will contribute. On land, the goods traffic can be made more efficient. Most of the emission of ammonia comes from agriculture, where special measures are

  10. Working in the Hotel, Restaurant and Tourism Industry in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Haavisto, Veera

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this bachelor’s thesis is to study what are the factors that make Norway an appealing work place, why Finnish people have left there for work and how they have adapted to the Norwegian working culture. Thus, the aim of the thesis is to present Norway as an optional work place for Finnish hotel, restaurant and tourism employees. The intention of the theoretical framework is to provide the reader an overview of the Norwegian labour market, economic situation and working cult...

  11. Surveying perceptions of landslide risk management in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jessica Ka Yi; Eidsvig, Unni

    2016-04-01

    Enhanced precipitation due to climate change leads to increase in both frequency and intensity of landslides in Norway. A proactive approach to risk management is therefore required to significantly reduce the losses associated with landslides. Opinions and perceptions from practitioners on the performance of landslide risk management can provide insights on areas for improvement in the landslide risk management strategies in Norway. The Risk Management Index (RMI), proposed by Cardona et al. (2004), is a well-established method to measure perceptions of disaster management of selected actors holistically. The RMI is measured based on opinion questionnaires to technical staff, decision-makers, and stakeholders involved in all stages of risk reduction strategies. It is a composite index that considers a wide variety of strategies to manage risks, including structural and non-structural measures, acceptance strategies, disaster management, and risk transfer. The RMI method was modified to be implemented in landslide hazards and to fit with Norwegian conditions. An opinion survey was conducted in autumn 2015 to measure perceptions of landslide risk management in Norway. Perceptions were surveyed for two time periods: 2015 and 2050, and are based on national, county, and municipality levels. Based on the survey results, performance of landslide risk management at any administrative levels in Norway is perceived to improve from `significant' in 2015 to `significant' to `outstanding' in 2050. Knowledge and technology, climate, risk perceptions, and anthropogenic activities are mostly considered by respondents for their 2050 perceptions. Several aspects of landslide risk management in Norway can be improved. For example, landslide hazard evaluation and mapping should be prioritised in Norway. Upgrading, retrofitting, and reconstruction of assets may also be included in the landslide risk reduction strategies. In addition, there should be more focus on inter

  12. Polar Bears, Hot Coffee, Wireless Schools, and Much More: Teaching American Studies in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience and her observations as a Roving Scholar of American Studies in Norway through the Norway Fulbright Foundation grant. The author visited upper secondary schools all over Norway, teaching lessons to both students and teachers on topics related to U.S. history, government, culture, and geography. She…

  13. The importance of Norway in the oil and natural gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noreng, Oeystein

    2006-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of the global energy markets with emphasis on the Northern areas and the importance of Norway. The energy supplies and prices, the OPEC role, the role of Norway and Russia in the natural gas markets and energy policies are discussed. Various risk aspects particularly for Norway are mentioned. (tk)

  14. Immigrants’ use of emergency primary health care in Norway: a registry-based observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandvik Hogne

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emigrants are often a selected sample and in good health, but migration can have deleterious effects on health. Many immigrant groups report poor health and increased use of health services, and it is often claimed that they tend to use emergency primary health care (EPHC services for non-urgent purposes. The aim of the present study was to analyse immigrants’ use of EPHC, and to analyse variations according to country of origin, reason for immigration, and length of stay in Norway. Methods We conducted a registry based study of all immigrants to Norway, and a subsample of immigrants from Poland, Germany, Iraq and Somalia, and compared them with native Norwegians. The material comprised all electronic compensation claims for EPHC in Norway during 2008. We calculated total contact rates, contact rates for selected diagnostic groups and for services given during consultations. Adjustments for a series of socio-demographic and socio-economic variables were done by multiple logistic regression analyses. Results Immigrants as a whole had a lower contact rate than native Norwegians (23.7% versus 27.4%. Total contact rates for Polish and German immigrants (mostly work immigrants were 11.9% and 7.0%, but for Somalis and Iraqis (mostly asylum seekers 31.8% and 33.6%. Half of all contacts for Somalis and Iraqis were for non-specific pain, and they had relatively more of their contacts during night than other groups. Immigrants’ rates of psychiatric diagnoses were low, but increased with length of stay in Norway. Work immigrants suffered less from respiratory and gastrointestinal infections, but had more injuries and higher need for sickness certification. All immigrant groups, except Germans, were more often given a sickness certificate than native Norwegians. Use of interpreter was reduced with increasing length of stay. All immigrant groups had an increased need for long consultations, while laboratory tests were most often used

  15. Immigrants’ use of emergency primary health care in Norway: a registry-based observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Emigrants are often a selected sample and in good health, but migration can have deleterious effects on health. Many immigrant groups report poor health and increased use of health services, and it is often claimed that they tend to use emergency primary health care (EPHC) services for non-urgent purposes. The aim of the present study was to analyse immigrants’ use of EPHC, and to analyse variations according to country of origin, reason for immigration, and length of stay in Norway. Methods We conducted a registry based study of all immigrants to Norway, and a subsample of immigrants from Poland, Germany, Iraq and Somalia, and compared them with native Norwegians. The material comprised all electronic compensation claims for EPHC in Norway during 2008. We calculated total contact rates, contact rates for selected diagnostic groups and for services given during consultations. Adjustments for a series of socio-demographic and socio-economic variables were done by multiple logistic regression analyses. Results Immigrants as a whole had a lower contact rate than native Norwegians (23.7% versus 27.4%). Total contact rates for Polish and German immigrants (mostly work immigrants) were 11.9% and 7.0%, but for Somalis and Iraqis (mostly asylum seekers) 31.8% and 33.6%. Half of all contacts for Somalis and Iraqis were for non-specific pain, and they had relatively more of their contacts during night than other groups. Immigrants’ rates of psychiatric diagnoses were low, but increased with length of stay in Norway. Work immigrants suffered less from respiratory and gastrointestinal infections, but had more injuries and higher need for sickness certification. All immigrant groups, except Germans, were more often given a sickness certificate than native Norwegians. Use of interpreter was reduced with increasing length of stay. All immigrant groups had an increased need for long consultations, while laboratory tests were most often used for Somalis and Iraqis

  16. Radioactive fall-out in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjerve, Eystein [Dept. of Food Hygiene, Norwegian College of Veterinary Medicine (Norway)

    1986-07-01

    During the fall-out from the atmosphere during the fifties and sixties, a system of local control of radioactive contamination of food was built up. (LORACON - LOcal RAdioactivity COntrol). The different Meat and Food Inspection Services were equipped with Geiger Mueller instruments. The system was in operation until late seventies. From 1977 there was no testing and calibration of the instruments. The development towards a reduction of the state of readiness was accelerated when the Norwegian Parliament decided that Norway should not establish any nuclear power plants (1979). Only the universities and special institutions as the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene and the Institute for Energy Technique were still able to analyse on radioactive isotopes. The confusion about how much radioactive fall-out from the Chernobyl reactor accident Norway received lasted for some weeks in Norway. Partially, this was due to the lack of instruments, but also many experts rejected the idea that an accident so far away might cause these amounts of fall-out consisted of Iodine and Cesium. The fall-out followed a very irregular pattern both nationally and locally with the mountain areas in Middle Norway most affected.

  17. Smoking Habits among Teachers in Primary Schools in Norway 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seip, Anne Karen

    1982-01-01

    A representative sample (N=1988) of members of the two main teachers' organizations in Norway were mailed questionnaires in the spring of 1977 regarding their past and present smoking habits, and 92 percent responded. The percentage of daily smokers among the teachers was approximately half of that found in the general population. (BRR)

  18. Relating Cenozoic North Sea sediments to topography in southern Norway:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anell, Ingrid Anna Margareta; Thybo, Hans; Stratford, Wanda Rose

    2010-01-01

    the Shetland platform continued throughout the Cenozoic while supply from southern Norway increased markedly around the Eocene–Oligocene, coeval with the greenhouse–icehouse transition. Mass balance calculations of sediment and eroded rock volumes suggest that while some topography along the western margin...... that Plio-Pleistocene erosion over-deepened a pre-existing topography....

  19. Aligning Participation with Authorship: Independent Transmedia Documentary Production in Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlsen, Joakim

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe main contribution of this article is to describe how the concept of non-fiction transmedia has challenged the independent documentary film community in Norway. How the new possibilities afforded by web- and mobile media, with the potential of reconfiguring the current relation

  20. The PRT Concept -- US Experiences and Their Relevance for Norway

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaagland, Per O

    2008-01-01

    ...) in Afghanistan, and Norway's concept of operations of PRTs in that country. One of the goals of this study is to examine the challenges connected with the establishment of such a concept, which is interagency and civilian-military in nature...

  1. Life satisfaction and competence of Bosnian refugees in Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanSelm, K; Sam, DL; Van Oudenhoven, JP

    In this study the relative influence of age, gender, locus of control, preferred acculturation strategy, perceived majority members' attitude, and social support on life satisfaction and competence of Bosnian refugees was examined. Hundred and six Bosnians living temporarily in Norway completed a

  2. Carbon sources in vertical profile of Norway spruce stand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Marian; Janouš, Dalibor; Urban, Otmar; Acosta, Manuel; Pokorný, Radek; Havránková, Kateřina; Formanek, P.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 30 (2003), s. 199-206 ISSN 1336-5266 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A141; GA ČR(CZ) GA526/03/1021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Carbon stock * respiration * Norway spruce Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  3. The Bookshelf: Digitisation and Access to Copyright Items in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstein, Vigdis Moe

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the challenges faced in digitising copyright-protected books and other materials within the National Library of Norway. Design/methodology/approach: Following a description of Bokhylla, or The Bookshelf, the paper outlines the strategies adopted within the National Library of Norway…

  4. The Public-Private Partnership in ECEC Provision in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Peder

    2014-01-01

    This article seeks to answer three central questions pertaining to public-private partnership in early childhood education and care (ECEC provision) in Norway: How has public-private partnership developed during the last four decades? How is public-private partnership understood in Norwegian ECEC policy? What seem to be the future challenges in…

  5. Russia’s Security Relations with Finland, Norway, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. RUSSIA’S SECURITY... RELATIONS WITH FINLAND, NORWAY, AND SWEDEN by Rory J. Hayden September 2017 Thesis Advisor: Mikhail Tsypkin Co-Advisor: David S. Yost...THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK i REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of

  6. Soil surface CO2 fluxes in a Norway spruce stand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Acosta, Manuel; Janouš, Dalibor; Marek, Michal V.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 50 (2004), s. 573-578 ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB3087301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Norway spruce * Soil CO2 efflux * Q10 Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  7. Mountain Norway spruce forests: Needle supply and its nutrient content

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářová, Marcela; Vacek, S.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 49, - (2003), s. 327-332 ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA ČR GA206/99/1416 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Šumava Mts. * Mountain Norway spruce forest * needle mass Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  8. Occupational radon daughter exposure in underground workplaces in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Kolstad, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    Occupational doses from radon daughter exposure in different underground environments in Norway have been estimated. Monitoring programs have been undertaken in mines, hydroelectric power stations, defence installations and tunnels. Based on these measurements the average effective dose equivalent and the corresponding collective effective dose equivalent have been estimated. Hydroelectric power stations is the largest group. In 1984 and 1985 measurements were performed in about 130 of the appr. 150 facilities in Norway. The average radon concentration was about 270 Bq/m 3 , and the corresponding average annual effective dose equivalent between 2 and 2.5 mSv. In 1984 there were about 19 mines in operations in Norway. Based on the measurements, the average radon concentration in mines is 260 Bq/m 3 , and the corresponding average annual effective dose equivalent 3.4 mSv. However, at the time being there are only 10 mines in operation and the number of miners has been reduced from about 1400 in 1984 to about 900 in 1990. The measurements show that the average level of radon in defence installations and tunnels is less than in mines and hydroelectric power stations. The total collective effective dose equivalent for workers underground in Norway is estimated in this paper to be between 5 and 7 manSv. 9 refs., 3 tabs

  9. Applicability of the PROSPECT model for Norway spruce needles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malenovsky, Z.; Albrechtova, J.; Lhotakova, Z.; Zurita Milla, R.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Schaepman, M.E.; Cudlin, P.

    2006-01-01

    The potential applicability of the leaf radiative transfer model PROSPECT (version 3.01) was tested for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) needles collected from stress resistant and resilient trees. Direct comparison of the measured and simulated leaf optical properties between 450¿1000 nm

  10. Secular Life Philosophy as a Subject in Schools in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Kristian

    1981-01-01

    In Norway changes in legislation in recent years have loosened the firm hold of Christian philosophy in the schools and given room for alternative secular philosophy. This article presents background information and an outline of the basic plan for life philosophy as a school subject. (Author/SJL)

  11. Reproduction of the shorthorn sculpin Myoxocephalus scorpius in northern Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luksenburg, JA; Pedersen, T; Falk-Petersen, IB

    The reproduction and life history events of the shorthorn sculpin Myoxocephalus scorpius were studied in an unexploited high latitude population in Tromso, northern Norway. Shorthorn sculpins were sampled from November 1998 to March 1999 to determine sex ratio, spawning period, oogenesis, fecundity,

  12. Radioactive fall-out in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjerve, Eystein

    1986-01-01

    During the fall-out from the atmosphere during the fifties and sixties, a system of local control of radioactive contamination of food was built up. (LORACON - LOcal RAdioactivity COntrol). The different Meat and Food Inspection Services were equipped with Geiger Mueller instruments. The system was in operation until late seventies. From 1977 there was no testing and calibration of the instruments. The development towards a reduction of the state of readiness was accelerated when the Norwegian Parliament decided that Norway should not establish any nuclear power plants (1979). Only the universities and special institutions as the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene and the Institute for Energy Technique were still able to analyse on radioactive isotopes. The confusion about how much radioactive fall-out from the Chernobyl reactor accident Norway received lasted for some weeks in Norway. Partially, this was due to the lack of instruments, but also many experts rejected the idea that an accident so far away might cause these amounts of fall-out consisted of Iodine and Cesium. The fall-out followed a very irregular pattern both nationally and locally with the mountain areas in Middle Norway most affected

  13. Salmonellae in avian wildlife in Norway from 1969 to 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsum, T.; Handeland, K.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2002-01-01

    Postmortem records of wild-living birds in Norway with laboratory-confirmed findings of salmonella infection were summarized for the period from 1969 to 2000. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 470 birds belonging to 26 species. The salmonella-positive birds included 441 small passerines, 15 gull...

  14. Handling of quarry waste from schist production at Oppdal, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willy Danielsen, Svein; Alnæs, Lisbeth; Azrague, Kamal; Suleng, Jon

    2017-04-01

    Handling of quarry waste from schist production at Oppdal, Norway Svein Willy Danielsen1), Lisbeth Alnæs2), Kamal Azrague2), Jon Suleng3) 1) Geomaterials Consultant, Trondheim Norway, 2) SINTEF, Trondheim, Norway, 3) AF Gruppen AS, Oppdal, Norway A significant amount of aggregate research in Norway has been focused on the recovery and use of surplus sizes from hard rock aggregate quarries. The use of sand sized quarry waste (QW) from crushing/processing has been motivated by the rapid depletion of traditional sand/gravel resources, increasing land-use conflicts, and the need to minimise QW deposits which for some quarries are becoming a critical factor for economy as well as for environmental reasons. With an annual aggregate production of 77 million tons, out of which approximately 83 % comes from hard rock, the annual volume of size market, the economic - and also environmental - potential will be considerable. Understanding the geological conditions and petrographic properties of the rock is vital. This is a quartz-feldspar rich metamorphic rock - a meta-arkose - containing rhythmically distributed planar lamina (less than 2 mm thick) or scattered occurrence of mica, separated by layers composed predominately of quartz and feldspar. The rock can be split along the lamina to slabs varying from 0.5 cm to more than 10 cm in thickness, and the microstructure can be characterized as being granoblastic to gneissic. . This makes it possible by well designed crushing process and careful selection of the in-going rock particles, to obtain well shaped aggregates up to at least 20 mm. The on-going project will also study the total cost situation depending on the QW utilisation, discuss the environmental and sustainability issues with a societal perspective, and also consider the market opportunities.

  15. Forecast of useful energy for the TIMES-Norway model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2012-01-01

    A regional forecast of useful energy demand in seven Norwegian regions is calculated based on an earlier work with a national forecast. This forecast will be input to the energy system model TIMES-Norway and analyses will result in forecasts of energy use of different energy carriers with varying external conditions (not included in this report). The forecast presented here describes the methodology used and the resulting forecast of useful energy. lt is based on information of the long-term development of the economy by the Ministry of Finance, projections of population growths from Statistics Norway and several other studies. The definition of a forecast of useful energy demand is not absolute, but depends on the purpose. One has to be careful not to include parts that are a part of the energy system model, such as energy efficiency measures. In the forecast presented here the influence of new building regulations and the prohibition of production of incandescent light bulbs in EU etc. are included. Other energy efficiency measures such as energy management, heat pumps, tightening of leaks etc. are modelled as technologies to invest in and are included in the TIMES-Norway model. The elasticity between different energy carriers are handled by the TIMES-Norway model and some elasticity is also included as the possibility to invest in energy efficiency measures. The forecast results in an increase of the total useful energy from 2006 to 2050 by 18 o/o. The growth is expected to be highest in the regions South and East. The industry remains at a constant level in the base case and increased or reduced energy demand is analysed as different scenarios with the TIMES-Norway model. The most important driver is the population growth. Together with the assumptions made it results in increased useful energy demand in the household and service sectors of 25 o/o and 57 % respectively.(au)

  16. Forecast of useful energy for the TIMES-Norway model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2012-07-25

    A regional forecast of useful energy demand in seven Norwegian regions is calculated based on an earlier work with a national forecast. This forecast will be input to the energy system model TIMES-Norway and analyses will result in forecasts of energy use of different energy carriers with varying external conditions (not included in this report). The forecast presented here describes the methodology used and the resulting forecast of useful energy. lt is based on information of the long-term development of the economy by the Ministry of Finance, projections of population growths from Statistics Norway and several other studies. The definition of a forecast of useful energy demand is not absolute, but depends on the purpose. One has to be careful not to include parts that are a part of the energy system model, such as energy efficiency measures. In the forecast presented here the influence of new building regulations and the prohibition of production of incandescent light bulbs in EU etc. are included. Other energy efficiency measures such as energy management, heat pumps, tightening of leaks etc. are modelled as technologies to invest in and are included in the TIMES-Norway model. The elasticity between different energy carriers are handled by the TIMES-Norway model and some elasticity is also included as the possibility to invest in energy efficiency measures. The forecast results in an increase of the total useful energy from 2006 to 2050 by 18 o/o. The growth is expected to be highest in the regions South and East. The industry remains at a constant level in the base case and increased or reduced energy demand is analysed as different scenarios with the TIMES-Norway model. The most important driver is the population growth. Together with the assumptions made it results in increased useful energy demand in the household and service sectors of 25 o/o and 57 % respectively.(au)

  17. The radiation accident at the Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway, September 2, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flatby, J.; Henriksten, T.; Hoest, H.

    1983-01-01

    On 2 September 1982 a radiation accident with overexposure of one person happened at the gamma irradiation plant at Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway. This person died from the radiation injury 13 days later. When the personal film dosimeter was developed, blackening beyond measuring range was found. The main part of the report describes dosimetric methods based on electron spin resonance and thermoluminescence that were applied on things worn by the deceased during the accident. The dosimetric results are presented in the report along with a short description of the irradiation plant, the accident and the following medical treatment. The estimated whole-body dose was supposed to be 22.5 +- 2 Gy. (RF)

  18. Ice thickness measurements and volume estimates for glaciers in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Liss M.; Huss, Matthias; Melvold, Kjetil; Elvehøy, Hallgeir; Winsvold, Solveig H.

    2014-05-01

    Whereas glacier areas in many mountain regions around the world now are well surveyed using optical satellite sensors and available in digital inventories, measurements of ice thickness are sparse in comparison and a global dataset does not exist. Since the 1980s ice thickness measurements have been carried out by ground penetrating radar on many glaciers in Norway, often as part of contract work for hydropower companies with the aim to calculate hydrological divides of ice caps. Measurements have been conducted on numerous glaciers, covering the largest ice caps as well as a few smaller mountain glaciers. However, so far no ice volume estimate for Norway has been derived from these measurements. Here, we give an overview of ice thickness measurements in Norway, and use a distributed model to interpolate and extrapolate the data to provide an ice volume estimate of all glaciers in Norway. We also compare the results to various volume-area/thickness-scaling approaches using values from the literature as well as scaling constants we obtained from ice thickness measurements in Norway. Glacier outlines from a Landsat-derived inventory from 1999-2006 together with a national digital elevation model were used as input data for the ice volume calculations. The inventory covers all glaciers in mainland Norway and consists of 2534 glaciers (3143 glacier units) covering an area of 2692 km2 ± 81 km2. To calculate the ice thickness distribution of glaciers in Norway we used a distributed model which estimates surface mass balance distribution, calculates the volumetric balance flux and converts it into thickness using the flow law for ice. We calibrated this model with ice thickness data for Norway, mainly by adjusting the mass balance gradient. Model results generally agree well with the measured values, however, larger deviations were found for some glaciers. The total ice volume of Norway was estimated to be 275 km3 ± 30 km3. From the ice thickness data set we selected

  19. Thorium as an energy source. Opportunities for Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-01-15

    Final Recommendations of the Thorium Report Committee: 1) No technology should be idolized or demonized. All carbon-dioxide (Co2) emission-free energy production technologies should be considered. The potential contribution of nuclear energy to a sustainable energy future should be recognized. 2) An investigation into the resources in the Fen Complex and other sites in Norway should be performed. It is essential to assess whether thorium in Norwegian rocks can be defined as an economical asset for the benefit of future generations. Furthermore, the application of new technologies for the extraction of thorium from the available mineral sources should be studied. 3) Testing of thorium fuel in the Halden Reactor should be encouraged, taking benefit of the well recognized nuclear fuel competence in Halden. 4) Norway should strengthen its participation in international collaborations by joining the EURATOM fission program and the GIF program on Generation IV reactors suitable for the use of thorium. 5) The development of an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) using thorium is not within the capability of Norway working alone. Joining the European effort in this field should be considered. Norwegian research groups should be encouraged to participate in relevant international projects, although these are currently focused on waste management. 6) Norway should bring its competence in waste management up to an international standard and collaboration with Sweden and Finland could be beneficial. 7) Norway should bring its competence with respect to dose assessment related to the thorium cycle up to an international standard. 8) Since the proliferation resistance of uranium-233 depends on the reactor and reprocessing technologies, this aspect will be of key concern should any thorium reactor be built in Norway. 9) Any new nuclear activities in Norway, e.g. thorium fuel cycles, would need strong international pooling of human resources, and in the case of thorium, a strong long

  20. Thorium as an energy source. Opportunities for Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Final Recommendations of the Thorium Report Committee: 1) No technology should be idolized or demonized. All carbon-dioxide (Co2) emission-free energy production technologies should be considered. The potential contribution of nuclear energy to a sustainable energy future should be recognized. 2) An investigation into the resources in the Fen Complex and other sites in Norway should be performed. It is essential to assess whether thorium in Norwegian rocks can be defined as an economical asset for the benefit of future generations. Furthermore, the application of new technologies for the extraction of thorium from the available mineral sources should be studied. 3) Testing of thorium fuel in the Halden Reactor should be encouraged, taking benefit of the well recognized nuclear fuel competence in Halden. 4) Norway should strengthen its participation in international collaborations by joining the EURATOM fission program and the GIF program on Generation IV reactors suitable for the use of thorium. 5) The development of an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) using thorium is not within the capability of Norway working alone. Joining the European effort in this field should be considered. Norwegian research groups should be encouraged to participate in relevant international projects, although these are currently focused on waste management. 6) Norway should bring its competence in waste management up to an international standard and collaboration with Sweden and Finland could be beneficial. 7) Norway should bring its competence with respect to dose assessment related to the thorium cycle up to an international standard. 8) Since the proliferation resistance of uranium-233 depends on the reactor and reprocessing technologies, this aspect will be of key concern should any thorium reactor be built in Norway. 9) Any new nuclear activities in Norway, e.g. thorium fuel cycles, would need strong international pooling of human resources, and in the case of thorium, a strong long

  1. Polar 5, a Norwegian US electron accelerator sounding rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, T.A.; Maehlum, B.N.; Troeim, J.

    1976-01-01

    A technical description of a mother daughter experiment including an electron gun is given. The payload was launched by a Nike/Tomahawk rocket from Andenes, North-Norway near 2030 local time on February 1, 1976. A few preliminary observations obtained by the HF-wave propagation experiment, the retarding potential analyzer and the energetic electron counters are be presented

  2. Security analysis of electronic voting and online banking systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tjøstheim, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The main focus of this dissertation is on security analysis of electronic voting and online banking systems. Six papers form the basis of the thesis and include the following topics: a model for analysis of voting systems, a case study where we apply the proposed model, a new scheme for remote electronic voting, and three case studies of commercial online banking solutions in Norway.

  3. Carcinoma of the tongue in Norway and Wisconsin. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermund, H.

    1982-01-01

    The records of 503 patients with carcinoma of the tongue diagnosed between 1958 and 1972 were reviewed. The preponderance of tongue carcinoma among men was confirmed both in The Norwegian Radium Hospital (NRH) and the University of Wisconsin Hospitals (UW), but it was relatively more frequent among women in NRH and in UW than in southern Europe. More women had on presentation less advanced tumors at NRH than at UW. The incidence of tongue carcinoma in Norway increased steadily with age for both sexes. The sex ratio did not change in Norway such as in England, Canada and the United States. Tumor of the posterior one-third of the tongue was relatively infrequent in women both in NRH and UW, in agreement with reports from other countries. The length of survival was analysed and no significant sex difference was demonstrated. The younger patients had less advanced tumors and a better prognosis. (Auth.)

  4. Gas power in Norway claimed to aggravate the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langseth, Bjarne

    2001-01-01

    In this article it is asserted that gas power production in Norway will displace the rehabilitation of hydroelectric power stations and energy economization. Hence, gas power will aggravate the environment. The introduction of gas power should be postponed until the market price covers the environmental cost. A principle argument for rapid development of gas power in Norway is the statement that this will reduce the total emission of carbon dioxide. The article challenges this view. Although the electricity market has well supplied with cheap energy, almost all the debate about energy policy the last years has concentrated on the ''problem'' of failing national energy coverage in a so-called normal year. Both market prices and pure logic based on cost-effectiveness indicate that energy import is not the problem, but rather the solution. Indeed, the problem is not kWh, but kW

  5. Survey of nematodes associated with terrestrial slugs in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J L; Ivanova, E S; Hatteland, B A; Brurberg, M B; Haukeland, S

    2016-09-01

    A survey of nematodes associated with terrestrial slugs was conducted for the first time in Norway. A total of 611 terrestrial slugs were collected from 32 sample sites. Slugs were identified by means of morphological examination, dissection of genitalia and molecular analysis using mitochondrial DNA. Twelve slug species were identified, representing four different slug families. Internal nematodes were identified by means of morphological analysis and the sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene. Of the sample sites studied, 62.5% were found to be positive for nematode parasites, with 18.7% of all slugs discovered being infected. Five nematode species were identified in this study: Alloionema appendiculatum, Agfa flexilis, Angiostoma limacis, Angiostoma sp. and Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita. Of these species, only one nematode was previously undescribed (Angiostoma sp.). This is the first record of the presence of A. appendiculatum, A. flexilis and A. limacis in Norway.

  6. Benthic monitoring of salmon farms in Norway using foraminiferal metabarcoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Jan; Esling, Philippe; Lejzerowicz, Franck

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth of the salmon industry necessitates the development of fast and accurate tools to assess its environmental impact. Macrobenthic monitoring is commonly used to measure the impact of organic enrichment associated with salmon farm activities. However, classical benthic monitoring can...... of macrofauna-based benthic monitoring. Here, we tested the application of foraminiferal metabarcoding to benthic monitoring of salmon farms in Norway. We analysed 140 samples of eDNA and environmental RNA (eRNA) extracted from surface sediment samples collected at 4 salmon farming sites in Norway. We sequenced...... of Foraminifera as bioindicators of organic enrichment associated with salmon farming. The foraminiferal diversity increased with the distance to fish cages, and metabarcoding provides an assessment of the ecological quality comparable to the morphological analyses. The foraminiferal metabarcoding approach...

  7. Transnational spaces of care: migrant nurses in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksen, Lise Widding

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that international nurse recruitment from Latvia to Norway is not a win–win situation. The gains and losses of nurse migration are unevenly distributed between sender and receiver countries. On the basis of empirical research and interviews with Latvian nurses and families they left behind, this article argues that nurse migration transforms families and communities and that national health services now become global workplaces. Some decades ago feminist research pointed to the fact that the welfare state was based on a male breadwinner family and women’s unpaid production of care work at home. Today this production of unpaid care is “outsourced” from richer to poorer countries and is related to an emergence of transnational spaces of care. International nurse recruitment and global nurse care chains in Norway increasingly provide the labor that prevents the new adult worker model and gender equality politics from being disrupted in times where families are overloaded with elder care loads.

  8. Cancer of the thyroid and 131I fallout in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oftedal, P.; Lund, E.

    1983-01-01

    From 1953 to 1962 Norway received relatively high levels of radioactive fallout. On the basis of extensive measurements in air, precipitation, food and humans, the dose to the thyroid due to 131 I has been calculated. Cancer registration in Norway is practically completely efficient because of obligatory notification of the Cancer Registry by physicians, pathology laboratories, and the Central Bureau of Statistics of all cases or death certificates concerning cancer. Analysis of the Cancer Registry data from 1953 to 1980 concerning birth cohorts 1936 to 1961 indicates an overall increasing trend in thyroid cancer morbidity, most pronounced in female cohorts born 1930-50. The highest, most abrupt irregularities reveal a coincidence of high numbers with high 131 I content in milk consumed during the years of prepuberty and puberty. Possible interpretations are discussed. (author)

  9. National independence, women's political participation, and life expectancy in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Jenna; Brown, Ryan; Catalano, Ralph

    2010-05-01

    This study investigates the role of national independence and women's political participation on population health using historical lifespan data from Norway. We use time-series methods to analyze data measuring the actual length of time lived by Norwegian birth cohorts spanning a 61 year period surrounding the political emancipation of Norway from Sweden in 1905 and the establishment of a Norwegian monarchy in 1906. The use of a discrete, historical event improves our ability to interpret the population health effects of national independence and women's political participation as causal. We find a large and significant positive effect on the lifespan of Norwegian females born in the 1906 cohort. Interestingly, the effect does not extend to all living females during the Norwegian drive toward sovereignty. We conclude that the beneficial effects were likely conferred through intrauterine biological transfers and/or neonatal investments specific to the first year of life. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Impacts of extreme weather events on transport infrastructure in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauenfelder, Regula; Solheim, Anders; Isaksen, Ketil; Romstad, Bård; Dyrrdal, Anita V.; Ekseth, Kristine H. H.; Gangstø Skaland, Reidun; Harbitz, Alf; Harbitz, Carl B.; Haugen, Jan E.; Hygen, Hans O.; Haakenstad, Hilde; Jaedicke, Christian; Jónsson, Árni; Klæboe, Ronny; Ludvigsen, Johanna; Meyer, Nele K.; Rauken, Trude; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Kjetil

    2016-04-01

    With the latest results on expected future increase in air temperature and precipitation changes reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the climate robustness of important infrastructure is of raising concern in Norway, as well as in the rest of Europe. Economic consequences of natural disasters have increased considerably since 1950. In addition to the effect of demographic changes such as population growth, urbanization and more and more concentration of valuable assets, this increase is also related to an augmenting frequency of extreme events, such as storms, flooding, drought, and landslides. This change is also observable in Norway, where the increased frequency of strong precipitation has led to frequent flooding and landslide events during the last 20 years. A number of studies show that climate change causes an increase in both frequency and intensity of several types of extreme weather, especially when it comes to precipitation. Such extreme weather events greatly affect the transport infrastructure, with numerous and long closures of roads and railroads, in addition to damage and repair costs. Frequent closures of railroad and roads lead to delay or failure in delivery of goods, which again may lead to a loss of customers and/or - eventually - markets. Much of the Norwegian transport infrastructure is more than 50 years old and therefore not adequately dimensioned, even for present climatic conditions. In order to assess these problems and challenges posed to the Norwegian transport infrastructure from present-day and future extreme weather events, the project "Impacts of extreme weather events on infrastructure in Norway (InfraRisk)" was performed under the research Council of Norway program 'NORKLIMA', between 2009 and 2013. The main results of the project are: - Moderate to strong precipitation events have become more frequent and more intense in Norway over the last 50 years, and this trend continues throughout the 21st

  11. Urban and regional labour market mobility in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Stambøl, Lasse Sigbjørn

    2005-01-01

    Across Europe the competitiveness of urban and regional labour markets becomes an increasingly important task for regional and sector policies. Efficient matching of local demand and supply of labour at different qualification levels is considered to be an important prerequisite both for economic growth and social cohesion in every region. This study contains the main results of a research project analysing the urban and regional labour market mobility in Norway. The main purpose of the study...

  12. Norway: Some lessons from a international project on CCS communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torvatn, Hans; Tvedt, Sturle D.; Naess, Robert

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) has been part of the Norwegian debate on energy and possible solutions to the climate problems for more than a decade. One prime ministers fell from power on this issue, another first promised a 'Norwegian moon landing', then postponed the whole thing for several years. The debate has been heated several times, but little is known about what the public knows and thinks. The present paper presents some findings from six national surveys on knowledge and attitudes on CCS as part of the FENCO-ERA project 'Scrutinizing the impact of CCS communication on the general and local public (Impact of communication)'. Representative national surveys (N=61000) were conducted in six European countries: Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Norway, Romania and the UK. Main topics covered: Sociodemographics, Attitudes towards energy issues, Media preferences, Trust, Knowledge on global warming and energy issues including CCS, initial attitudes towards CCS. The surveys also included an information experiment, testing the effect of positive and negative information on general acceptance of CCS. The paper will focus on the results from Norway using the other countries as illuminating contrasts. In Norway we will discuss four major findings: i) The majority of the Norwegian population are aware of CCS ii) There is a positive support for CCS demonstration plant, however, the support is unevenly distributed in the population iii) Information on CCS effects attitudes, however, source is less important than content iv) The project asked respondents to evaluate both risks and benefits. In Norway the effect of the benefit evaluation was stronger than the risk evaluation. Implications for CCS communication with the public as well as future research are discussed. (Author)

  13. Trans* and gender variant citizenship and the state in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Monro, Surya; Van der Ros, Janneke

    2017-01-01

    The last decade has seen the expansion of trans identities that are gender queer, non-binary, androgynous, or multiply-sexed and gendered in Western Europe. These developments mark a shift from a uniformly gender-binaried system to one that encompasses some degree of gender pluralism, as reflected to an extent in policy changes in some European countries. However, gender binarism is still prevalent. This article uses the case of Norway to demonstrate a contrast between the citizenship statuse...

  14. ["Look to Norway"--but for how long?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Jon Birger; Raastad, Ragnhild; Berild, Dag

    2010-08-12

    Internationally, Norway receives positive attention mainly in the context of Winter Olympics or peace initiatives. However, an Associated Press article recently suggested that the Norwegian health care system had "found the Solution to Killer Superbug". Furthermore, Norway was proclaimed "The Most Infection Free Country in the World". What my be the reality behind such headlines, and how shall we as a nation maintain a favourable situation? Physicians in Scandinavian countries and the Netherlands have a long tradition for modest prescription of antibiotics, and are trained to use agents with a narrow antimicrobial spectre whenever possible. This is probably the main reason why these countries have had less antibiotic resistance than others. The number of antibiotics marketed in a country correlates positively with total drug consumption. Until 1992, Norwegian authorities could reject marketing of new compounds if national experts found no medical need for them. The foresight of senior colleagues has led to the number of marketed antibiotics in Norway, even today, being 10-fold lower than in some other European countries. The national surveillance programme, NORM, reports antimicrobial resistance in human pathogens on an annual basis. For example, national levels of MRSA and ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae are still very low whereas ampicillin and ciprofloxacin resistance in E coli and high- level gentamicin resistance in enterococci cause some concern. Norway has well-established epidemiological surveillance systems in the fields of microbiology and infectious diseases. Nevertheless, more knowledge is needed on how antibiotics are used in hospitals. Two national strategic plans (since 2003) have emphasized the explicit importance of antibiotic surveillance to counteract future antibiotic resistance problems. To fulfil national ambitions, there is an urgent need for economic grants to this field; the human resources are there and as eager to start as Olympic

  15. Norway; Staff Report for the 2002 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    This 2002 Article IV Consultation for Norway highlights that the mainland GDP growth edged up to an estimated 1.4 percent in 2002, from 12 percent in 2001, driven by strong consumption growth. Mainland investment and traditional exports slackened, as a result of weak external demand, high real interest rates, and an appreciation of the nominal effective exchange rate by 11.5 percent during 2002. Unemployment remained fairly stable through 2002 as the expansion of the sheltered sector offset e...

  16. Macroeconomic effects of proposed pension reforms in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksen, Dennis; Heide, Kim Massey; Holmøy, Erling; Solli, Ingeborg Foldøy

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Ageing combined with generous welfare state schemes makes the present fiscal policy in Norway unsustainable, despite large government petroleum revenues. We estimate to what extent two suggested reforms of the public pension system improve fiscal sustainability and stimulate employment, two main objectives of the reforms. To this end we apply two large models iteratively: 1) a detailed dynamic micro simulation model to estimate government pension expenditures; 2) a la...

  17. Experience from the nuclear accident in Chernobyl. [Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    On 27 May 1986, the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present first part of the committee's report describes how the discharges spread from the reactor to Scandinavia and the situation as regards contamination in different parts of Norway. The report also deals with the emergency response, the basis for decisions and countermeasures, and countermeasures and action levels used.

  18. Radiation hygiene analysis of medical activities in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxeboel, G.; Olerud, H.M.; Lundgren, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    Based on statistics from 1983, calculations of collective doses for 15 ordinary examinations have been performed. About 2.6 million examination are carried out in Norway yearly. A total of 2500 manSv from X-ray diagnostics seems to be a good estimate. Examinations of the urogenital system and the gastrointestinal system are of greatest importance. Calculations of patient doses are based on 3000 measurements of area exposure (Rcm 2 ) in 40 Norwegian hospitals

  19. Norway and the arctic: between multilateral governance and geopolitics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flikke, Geir

    2013-03-01

    The article analyzes Norwegian politics in the high north in light of multilateral institutions and new security challenges. The author maintains that Norway's politics is based on functional multilateral organizations and continuity and predictability in the UN framework. This can become more of a challenge if the competition for resource access hardens and the Arctic is defined as a strategically valuable area for one or more states.(Author)

  20. Beaver management in Norway : a model for continental Europe?

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Howard; Rosell, Frank

    2003-01-01

    While Norway has been managing beaver (Castor fiber) for more than 150 years, most central European countries have little experience and none are presently harvesting beaver, despite rapidly growing populations and conflicts. Here we present the Norwegian beaver management model as an example. The main goals are to enhance biodiversity, produce a harvestable surplus, and reduce beaver-human conflicts. Beaver management should maximize recreational opportunities and allow landowners to profit ...

  1. Research on bioremediation of oil polluted shorelines in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sveum, P.

    1995-01-01

    Marine bioremediation research in Norway has been directed towards the use of fertilizers on arctic shorelines and ice infested waters. In addition from the focus on fertilizers, the research has paid considerable attention to nutrient dynamics, and the influence of microfauna such as bacterial and fungal grazers on the dynamics of macronutrients. The interactions between microbial and physical processes on the shorelines, between photochemical processes and nutrient dynamics, have also been addressed. 29 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Labour market mobility among senior workers in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Tobro, Anne Marte Lunde

    2015-01-01

    As many developed countries, Norway has a growing elderly population and need to administer some policy change to cover the cost of the increasing number of pension recipients. One of the solutions to this problem is to give workers incentive to stay in the workforce longer. This thesis analyse the senior workers labour market mobility by studying the probability of leaving the workforce and the probability for senior workers to conduct a job change. Understanding job-to-nonemployment and job...

  3. Biomass market and trade in Norway: Status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troemborg, Erik; Bolkesjoe, Torjus Folsland; Solberg, Birger

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of bioenergy use, prices, markets and markets prospects in Norway. The current energy production based on biomass in Norway is about 50 pJ or 10% of the stationary energy consumption. About one-half is produced and used in forest industries. The main share of bioenergy used by households consists of firewood in stoves. The use of refined, solid biofuels in heat production is hampered by low coverage of water-borne heating systems and historically low end-user prices of electricity. Harvest levels in Norwegian forests are much below annual growth, implying that forest biomass resources steadily accumulate. Decreasing wood prices combined with rising prices of oil and electricity in recent year have improved competitiveness of solid biofuels in the heat market. Projections of future bioenergy use in Norway using a partial equilibrium forest sector model suggest that bioenergy use will increase in some market segments with the current price levels of electricity and oil. However, quite minor improvements of bioenergy competitiveness or increased energy prices may release substantially higher bioenergy use. A net increase in bioenergy use of 5 TWh (18 PJ) by 2010 is realistic, but requires public awareness of the opportunities in bioenergy technologies, as well as significant economic incentives. Wood stoves and replacement of oil-boilers in central heating systems show highest competitiveness, whereas district heating systems need higher energy prices or more subsidies to be competitive. Biomass for combined heat and power projects or domestically produced liquid biofuels seems to have limited competitiveness in the short term. On the raw material side, wood residues, and roundwood from pine and non-coniferous species represent the main potential, whereas spruce continues to be consumed by the forest industries. According to the model projections, imported biomass will take a significant share of the possible increase of wood consumption

  4. Adoption of routine telemedicine in Norway: the current picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanaboni, Paolo; Knarvik, Undine; Wootton, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background Telemedicine appears to be ready for wider adoption. Although existing research evidence is useful, the adoption of routine telemedicine in healthcare systems has been slow. Objective We conducted a study to explore the current use of routine telemedicine in Norway, at national, regional, and local levels, to provide objective and up-to-date information and to estimate the potential for wider adoption of telemedicine. Design A top-down approach was used to collect official data on the national use of telemedicine from the Norwegian Patient Register. A bottom-up approach was used to collect complementary information on the routine use of telemedicine through a survey conducted at the five largest publicly funded hospitals. Results Results show that routine telemedicine has been adopted in all health regions in Norway and in 68% of hospitals. Despite being widely adopted, the current level of use of telemedicine is low compared to the number of face-to-face visits. Examples of routine telemedicine can be found in several clinical specialties. Most services connect different hospitals in secondary care, and they are mostly delivered as teleconsultations via videoconference. Conclusions Routine telemedicine in Norway has been widely adopted, probably for geographical reasons, as in other settings. However, the level of use of telemedicine in Norway is rather low, and it has significant potential for further development as an alternative to face-to-face outpatient visits. This study is a first attempt to map routine telemedicine at regional, institutional, and clinical levels, and it provides useful information to understand the adoption of telemedicine in routine healthcare and to measure change in future updates. PMID:24433942

  5. Mitochondrial DNA variation in the Viking age population of Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Krzewińska, Maja; Bjørnstad, Gro; Skoglund, Pontus; Olason, Pall Isolfur; Bill, Jan; Götherström, Anders; Hagelberg, Erika

    2015-01-01

    The medieval Norsemen or Vikings had an important biological and cultural impact on many parts of Europe through raids, colonization and trade, from about AD 793 to 1066. To help understand the genetic affinities of the ancient Norsemen, and their genetic contribution to the gene pool of other Europeans, we analysed DNA markers in Late Iron Age skeletal remains from Norway. DNA was extracted from 80 individuals, and mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms were detected by next-generation sequencing. ...

  6. Radiation hygiene analysis of medical activities in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olerud, H.M.

    1987-01-01

    A computer program for the evaluation of radiation protection parameters connected to diagnostic X-ray examination has been developed. For a selected X-ray examination the program picks out key values from a data base containg patient observations and calculates integral doses, collective doses and i njury cases . When the volume of the data base is sufficient large, a total concequence analysis of diagnostric X-ray activities in Norway will be carried out

  7. 'Online Shopping’ Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Sankaran, Pervaiz Ali and Sudha

    2010-01-01

    The primary goal of this research is to analyze the customer satisfaction and loyalty of the online customers in Norway. The theoretical framework discusses in brief about the effects of customer loyalty and retention on customer satisfaction. The study on customer satisfaction and loyalty has been done from the perspective of a firm performing online business. To understand the customer satisfaction and loyalty level of online Norwegian shoppers, we pursued with the collection of quantitativ...

  8. Fertility patterns according to occupational grouping in Norway, 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, K; Wergeland, E; Bjerkedal, T

    1996-03-01

    In the early 1990s, most pregnant women in Norway were in gainful employment. This led to increased interest in the possible consequences for reproductive health, and a growing concern for the need to accommodate the pregnancy. We have therefore investigated how accurately general fertility rates predict the number of pregnancies in the workforce. Fertility rates (FR) among employed women and standardized fertility ratios (SFR) in occupational groups were estimated on the basis of information from the Labour Market Statistics and the national survey "Pregnancy and Work", Norway, 1989. The fertility rate among employed women was 17% higher than the general fertility rate. Two occupational groups had significantly different SFRs: technical/professional workers (SFR 118) and transport/communication workers (SFR 82). In addition, differences were found for parity-specific SFRs in administrative/executive work (SFR nullipara 80, SFR para 125) and service work (SFR nullipara 114, SFR para 80). We suggest that work status and occupation should be included among the variables registered in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, in order to facilitate routine presentations of fertility rates and pregnancy outcomes for women in paid work. The results further indicate that work-specific conditions influence first-birth fertility. This should be explored in demographic studies of the relation between women's fertility and participation in paid work.

  9. Radon and lung cancer: an epidemiological study in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.; Strand, T.; Magnus, K.; James, A.C.; Green, B.M.R.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives and strategy of an epidemiological study on the effects of exposure to radon in Norwegian dwellings is presented. The study is a cooperation between the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene and the Norwegian Cancer Registry in Norway and the National Radiological Protection Board of the United Kingdom, with funding by the Norwegian Cancer Society. Measurements of radon are being made in 10,000 dwellings representing all Norwegian municipalities. The potential for detecting an effect of radon exposure by such a study in Norway is unique because: (1) Radon concentrations are high and there are large regional variations. (2) Data from the Norwegian Cancer Registry is of high quality: all cancers have been subject to compulsory reporting since 1955. These data can be broken down according to municipality, sex and age. (3) In 1964/1965 a large scale survey of smoking habits was carried out in Norway. These data can also be broken down according to municipality, sex and age, and by types of smoking and smoking rate. It is intended to examine the correlation between lung cancer incidence and geographical variation in radon levels after making allowance for smoking habits. Radon measurements were started in early 1987 and the results of the study are expected to be published in 1989. (author)

  10. CRYOLINK: Monitoring of permafrost and seasonal frost in southern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbrot, Herman; Hipp, Tobias; Etzelmüller, Bernd; Humlum, Ole; Isaksen, Ketil; Strand Ødegârd, Rune

    2010-05-01

    The modern southern boundary for Scandinavian permafrost is located in the mountains of Southern Norway. Permafrost and seasonal frost are considered key components of the cryosphere, and the climate-permafrost relation has acquired added importance with the increasing awareness and concern of rising air temperatures. The three-year research project CRYOLINK ("Permafrost and seasonal frost in southern Norway") aims at improving knowledge on past and present ground temperatures, seasonal frost, and distribution of mountain permafrost in Southern Norway by addressing the fundamental problem of heat transfer between the atmosphere and the ground surface. Hence, several shallow boreholes have been drilled in August 2008 in three areas (Juvvass, Jetta and Tron) situated along a west-east transect. On most borehole sites air and ground temperatures are measured. Further, vertical arrays of Miniature Temperature Dataloggers (MTDs; Thermochron iBottons®) at fixed heights above the ground surface have been installed to roughly determine the snow depths at the sites, which is also indicated by digital cameras providing daily pictures of snow and weather conditions. In addition individual MTDs have been placed out to measure ground surface temperature at different aspects and snow settings. This presentation will focus on the field set up and give examples of data obtained from the sites.

  11. An antibiotic's journey from marketing authorization to use, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Årdal, Christine; Blix, Hege Salvesen; Plahte, Jens; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2017-03-01

    Here we describe in detail marketing authorization and reimbursement procedures for medicinal products in Norway, with particular reference to nine novel antibiotics that received marketing authorization between 2005 and 2015. The description illustrates that, in places like Norway, with effective antibiotic stewardship policies and an associated low prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection, there is little need for newer, more expensive antibiotics whose therapeutic superiority to existing compounds has not been demonstrated. Since resistance begins to emerge as soon as an antibiotic is used, Norway's practice of leaving newer antibiotics on the shelf is consistent with the goal of prolonging the effectiveness of newer antibiotics. An unintended consequence is that the country has signalled to the private sector that there is little commercial value in novel antibiotics, which may nevertheless still be needed to treat rare or emerging infections. Every country aims to improve infection control and to promote responsible antibiotic use. However, as progress is made, antibiotic-resistant bacteria should become less common and, consequently, the need for, and the commercial value of, novel antibiotics will probably be reduced. Nevertheless, antibiotic innovation continues to be essential. This dilemma will have to be resolved through the introduction of alternative reward systems for antibiotic innovation. The DRIVE-AB (Driving re-investment in research and development and responsible antibiotic use) research consortium in Europe has been tasked with identifying ways of meeting this challenge.

  12. River ice implications related to water power production in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asvall, R.P. [Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate, Oslo (Norway). Hydrology Dept.

    2009-07-01

    Nearly 99 per cent of the electricity produced in Norway is based on water power. While the period of large power development is over, the current focus lies in developing small hydroelectric power plants. A new market based energy law was implemented in Norway in 1991 to achieve more efficient use of electricity production by means of market forces. Since water regulation influences ice conditions in lakes and rivers, this paper focused on the implications of changes in ice conditions. In Norway, the expected changes in ice conditions are taken into account when issuing permits for water regulations and schemes for water discharge because some waterways are used as winter roads. Follow-up includes both close and long term observations and measurements. The impact of variable price on power was also discussed, with particular reference to ice conditions in cases where water discharge occurs on rivers. This paper summarized selected ice problems and how they have been handled. The paper also included a summary of anticipated climatic changes relevant to ice conditions.

  13. River ice implications related to water power production in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asvall, R.P.

    2009-01-01

    Nearly 99 per cent of the electricity produced in Norway is based on water power. While the period of large power development is over, the current focus lies in developing small hydroelectric power plants. A new market based energy law was implemented in Norway in 1991 to achieve more efficient use of electricity production by means of market forces. Since water regulation influences ice conditions in lakes and rivers, this paper focused on the implications of changes in ice conditions. In Norway, the expected changes in ice conditions are taken into account when issuing permits for water regulations and schemes for water discharge because some waterways are used as winter roads. Follow-up includes both close and long term observations and measurements. The impact of variable price on power was also discussed, with particular reference to ice conditions in cases where water discharge occurs on rivers. This paper summarized selected ice problems and how they have been handled. The paper also included a summary of anticipated climatic changes relevant to ice conditions.

  14. Growth strategy of Norway spruce under air elevated [CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, R.; Urban, O.; Holisova, P.; Sprtova, M.; Sigut, L.; Slipkova, R.

    2012-04-01

    Plants will respond to globally increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) by acclimation or adaptation at physiological and morphological levels. Considering the temporal onset, physiological responses may be categorized as short-term and morphological ones as long-term responses. The degree of plant growth responses, including cell division and cell expansion, is highly variable. It depends mainly on the specie's genetic predisposition, environment, mineral nutrition status, duration of CO2 enrichment, and/or synergetic effects of other stresses. Elevated [CO2] causes changes in tissue anatomy, quantity, size, shape and spatial orientation and can result in altered sink strength. Since, there are many experimental facilities for the investigation of elevated [CO2] effects on trees: i) closed systems or open top chambers (OTCs), ii) semi-open systems (for example glass domes with adjustable lamella windows - DAWs), and iii) free-air [CO2] enrichments (FACE); the results are still unsatisfactory due to: i) relatively short-term duration of experiments, ii) cultivation of young plants with different growth strategy comparing to old ones, iii) plant cultivation under artificial soil and weather conditions, and iv) in non-representative stand structure. In this contribution we are discussing the physiological and morphological responses of Norway spruce trees cultivated in DAWs during eight consecutive growing seasons in the context with other results from Norway spruce cultivation under air-elevated [CO2] conditions. On the level of physiological responses, we discuss the changes in the rate of CO2 assimilation, assimilation capacity, photorespiration, dark respiration, stomatal conductance, water potential and transpiration, and the sensitivity of these physiological processes to temperature. On the level of morphological responses, we discuss the changes in bud and growth phenology, needle and shoot morphology, architecture of crown and root system, wood

  15. Energy efficiency policies and measures in Norway 2006. Monitoring of energy efficiency in EU15 and Norway (Odyssee-Mure)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, Eva; Espegren, Kari Aamodt

    2006-12-01

    This report represents the national case study of Norway for the EIE-project 'Monitoring of energy efficiency in EU-15 and Norway - ODYSSEE-MURE'. It presents the recent energy efficiency trends in Norway on the basis of indicators extracted from the ODYSSEE database. Total energy consumption (not including energy as feedstock) has increased from 192 TWh in 1990 to a present maximum of 219 TWh in 1999. From then it has been a slight decrease and in 2005 the final energy consumption was 215 TWh. Energy consumption in manufacturing industry has increased by 11 percent from 1990 to 2004, and in the period 1998-2004 it seems to be steadying at approximately 78 TWh. Final energy use in households has increased from 41 TWh in 1990 to a maximum of 46.6 TWh in 1996 and 2002. In 2005 44.1 TWh was used, which is almost the same as the consumption in 1994. It seems to be an interrupt in the increase of energy use in households, despite the growth of all common used drivers in this sector. Energy efficiency policies and measures implemented since 1990 have contributed to improve the efficiency by 10 percent, or 0.7 percent per year; this means that if these policies and measures would not have been implemented, the final energy consumption would have been 10 percent higher in 2004 (or approximately 19 TWh) (author) (ml)

  16. Bicultural Childhood. A Case Study with Greek and Greek-Norwegian Families in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Liland, Irene Midtskog

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore Greek and Greek–Norwegian children’s experiences of migration and bicultural childhood. The period of fieldwork took place in different cities in Norway during the autumn of 2014. The methods employed are questionnaires, worksheets, mind-mapping activities and semi-structured interviews. The participants in the study were children born in Norway with one Greek-born and one Norwegian-born parent, immigrant children from Greece who had been living in Norway between on...

  17. Utilization of Higher Education : A Review of Employment Challenges and Job Practice among Refugees in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Boayue, Kou Glaymehn

    2011-01-01

    Master i flerkulturell og internasjonal utdanning Purpose of the study: If refugees from Africa and Asia are able to use their foreign higher education in the labor market of Norway is the main topic of this study. Thus, the study explores the impact of Norwegian language training, foreign higher education recognition, NAV job seeker courses, service/job provision by employers, further higher education in Norway, etc., on the labor market outcomes of 18 refugees who fled to Norway with ter...

  18. Youths´ voices about the future in northern part of Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnvald Storvoll

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Youths´ choice of education and residence will affect development our part of the country. The article offers insight into how some young people from Troms are looking at the future in the north. On one hand, a statistical description of North Norway's future perspectives from SSB, the media and even researchers, can be perceived as a negative threat – also for the youth. The demographic prediction for the region described is gloomy. This may result in a negative prediction, almost a self-fulfilling prophecy. On the other hand, young people grow up in a part of the country with positive future opportunities;Tourism is increasing, northern Norway is experiencing faster economic growth than the rest of the country, and many new jobs are making the scene.There are many features in community development that make places important, and make new perspectives and theories of place evolve. Increased mobility in the world, more attention to the flow of people, products and ideas, and more intense globalization processes, also affect societal phenomena in new ways in the north. Many young people in Troms move for education. Hence, they may live in several places and experience belonging to more than one place. The concepts of multi-site affiliation and site polygamy open up for other ways of understanding interaction between different places with which to be associated. It is an interesting finding that a large proportion of young people from Troms want to study abroad. Glocal citizens with multiple and parallel identities allow for new ways to understand and recreate places.«The region of opportunity» is used by many to depict the northern part of the country. At this intersection, youth is challenged, both through electronic survey, workshop and interviews. 

  19. Recent developments in spent fuel management in Norway - 59260

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Peter J.; Oberlaender, Barbara C.

    2012-01-01

    Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) in Norway has arisen from irradiation of fuel in the NORA, Jeep I and Jeep II reactors at Kjeller, and in the Heavy Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR) in Halden. In total there is some 16 tonnes of SNF, with 12 tons of aluminium-clad fuel, of which 10 tonnes is metallic uranium fuel and the remainder oxide (UO 2 ). The portion of this fuel that is similar to commercial fuel (UO 2 clad in Zircaloy) may be suitable for direct disposal on the Swedish model or in other repository designs. However, metallic uranium and/or fuels clad in aluminium are chemically reactive and there would be risks associated with direct disposal. Two committees were established by the Government of Norway in January 2009 to make recommendations for the interim storage and final disposal of spent fuel in Norway. The Technical Committee on Storage and Disposal of Metallic Uranium Fuel and Al-clad Fuels was formed with the mandate to recommend treatment (i.e. conditioning) options for metallic uranium fuel and aluminium-clad fuel to render them stable for long term storage and disposal. This committee, whose members were drawn from the nuclear industry, reported in January 2010, and recommended commercial reprocessing as the best option for these fuels. The Phase-2 committee, which in part based its work on the work of previous committees and on the report of the Technical Committee, had the mandate to find the most suitable technical solution and localisation for intermediate storage for spent nuclear fuel and long-lived waste. The membership of this committee was chosen to represent a broad cross section of stakeholders. The committee evaluated different solutions and their associated costs, and recommended one of the options. The committee's report published in early 2011. This paper summarises the conclusions of the two committees, and thereby illustrates the steps taken by one country to formulate a strategy for the long-term management of its SNF. (authors)

  20. China and renewable energy in Africa: Opportunities for Norway?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-12-15

    This study assesses the potential for Norwegian engagement in Sino-African renewable energy development. The study analyzes Norwegian competitiveness and complementarities towards Chinese energy actors in the African market, and identifies respective strengths and weaknesses against the backdrop of the African market. The report identifies barriers and opportunities for Norwegian commercial and developmental engagement towards upscaling renewable energy in Africa that may also apply to other OECD countries. Finally, the report points to possibilities for Norway to support sustainable Sino-African renewable energy development. (au)

  1. Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel in Norway: Status and Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Peter; Larsen, Erlend

    2014-01-01

    Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) in Norway has arisen from irradiation of fuel in the JEEP I and JEEP II reactors at Kjeller, and in the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR) in Halden. In total there are some 16 tonnes of SNF, all of which is currently stored on-site, in either wet or dry storage facilities. The greater part of the SNF, 12 tonnes, consists of aluminium-clad fuel, of which 10 tonnes is metallic uranium fuel and the remainder oxide (UO 2 ). Such fuel presents significant challenges with respect to long-term storage and disposal. Current policy is that existing spent fuel will, as far as possible considering its suitability for later direct disposal, be stored until final disposal is possible. Several committees have advised the Government of Norway on, among others, policy issues, storage methods and localisation of a storage facility. Both experts and stakeholders have participated in these committees. This paper presents an overview of the spent fuel in Norway and a description of current storage arrangements. The prospects for long-term storage are then described, including a summary of recommendations made to government, the reactions of various stakeholders to these recommendations, the current status, and the proposed next steps. A recommended policy is to construct a new storage facility for the fuel to be stored for a period of at least 50 years. In the meantime a national final disposal facility should be constructed and taken into operation. It has been recommended that the aluminium-clad fuel be reprocessed in an overseas commercial facility to produce a stable waste form for storage and disposal. This recommendation is controversial, and a decision has not yet been taken on whether to pursue this option. An analysis of available storage concepts for the more modern fuel types resulted in the recommendation to use dual-purpose casks. In addition, it was recommended to construct a future storage facility in a rock hall instead of a free

  2. Three individuals, three stories, three burials from medieval Trondheim, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppersberger Hamre, Stian; Ersland, Geir Atle; Daux, Valérie; Parson, Walther; Wilkinson, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the life stories of three individuals who lived in Trondheim, Norway, during the 13th century. Based on skeletal examinations, facial reconstructions, genetic analyses, and stable oxygen isotope analyses, the birthplace, mobility, ancestry, pathology, and physical appearance of these people are presented. The stories are discussed within the relevant historical context. These three people would have been ordinary citizens, without any privileges out of the ordinary, which makes them quite rare in the academic literature. Through the study of individuals one gets a unique look into the Norwegian medieval society.

  3. Feasibility study. Solar energy in Norway; Mulighetsstudie. Solenergi i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Una; Bernhard, Peter; Salvesen, Fritjof; Bugge, Lars; Andresen, Inger; Simonsen, Ingeborg

    2011-07-01

    On behalf of Enova KanEnergi and SINTEF summarized the results of the project 'Feasibility study. Solar energy' in a report. The purpose of this report is to outline an overview of the potential for solar energy in Norway to be realized until 2020. This is a survey of the status of technology and associated costs related to energy production, as well as a description of the market conditions. This report is a contribution to Enova's ongoing strategy and development. (eb)

  4. China and renewable energy in Africa: Opportunities for Norway?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    This study assesses the potential for Norwegian engagement in Sino-African renewable energy development. The study analyzes Norwegian competitiveness and complementarities towards Chinese energy actors in the African market, and identifies respective strengths and weaknesses against the backdrop of the African market. The report identifies barriers and opportunities for Norwegian commercial and developmental engagement towards upscaling renewable energy in Africa that may also apply to other OECD countries. Finally, the report points to possibilities for Norway to support sustainable Sino-African renewable energy development. (au)

  5. Work-Family Interference: Nurses in Norway and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsen, Bente; Holte, Kari Anne; Laine, Marjukka

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study is to investigate the level of work–family inter-ference (WFI) for part-time nurses in Norway and Finland. Part-time work is usually cited as a desirable way in which to facilitate work and family harmony. However, the opportunity to work part-time in professions may be associated with greater difficulties and challenges than commonly presumed. Part-time professionals are often stigmatized as being less committed to work and report fewer job rewards than colleagu...

  6. Geographies of superstition, myths, freedom: Ibsen and Northern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenche Torrissen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ibsen visited Northern Norway only once in his lifetime and this was in the summer of 1891. Despite this fact, Ibsen was preoccupied with the North both as symbolic and geographical locations throughout his whole literary career. Why? This article will explore how the North is represented in Ibsen’s prose plays. It will assess whether Ibsen contributed to confirm already existing images of the North or whether he contributed to the construction of new images. The article will also explore how Ibsen used images of the North to construct meaning for contemporary audiences.

  7. Nursing during World War II: Finnmark County, Northern Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Immonen, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. This study is part the project “Nursing in Borderland – Finnmark 1939–1950” within nursing history that sheds light on nursing and health care during World War II in Finnmark County, Northern Norway. The study focuses on challenges in nursing care that arose during the war because of war activities in the Barents area. This article focuses on challenges caused by shortage of supplies. The aim of the project is to widen the understanding of development within health care and livi...

  8. Mechanical properties of timber from wind damaged Norway spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2003-01-01

    A storm may subject a tree to such bending stresses that extensive compression damage develops in the lee side. The tree may survive the wind load or it may be thrown. However, the damage is inherent and it may be of a magnitude to influence the mechanical properties of boards sawn from the stem....... The paper reports on a investigation of the relation between degree of damage and mechanical proper-ties of sawn timber from wind damaged Norway spruce. The project included about 250 bolts from wind damaged trees. The majority of bolts were cut to deliver a full-diameter plank containing the pith...

  9. Food advertising towards children and Young People in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Bugge, Annechen Bahr

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that no studies have been carried out to map the amount of unhealthy food advertising aimed at Norwegian children and adolescents, it is still widely held belief that this type of advertising is disproportionately common. As a consequence, one of the issues high on the agenda in Norway in the 2000s was the possibility of imposing restrictions on advertising for unhealthy foods to children. The purpose of this study is to contribute with a research-based foundation for impleme...

  10. Hydroelectric rent and precipitation variability: the case of Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amundsen, E.S.; Tjoetta, Sigve

    1993-01-01

    Norway is about to reorganize its electricity production sector from a predominantly administered one to one which is based on market prices and principles of efficiency. The objective of this paper is to model the energy sector and to measure the size of hydro rent before and after the reorganization. We construct a regionally diversified and integrated equilibrium model of production, transmission and distribution of hydroelectricity. Particular attention is paid to the role of precipitation variability for the size and regional variation of hydro rent. We consider alternative routes for assessing the size of hydro rent in a long-run perspective. (author)

  11. Nursing Home Physicians' Assessments of Barriers and Strategies for End-of-Life Care in Norway and The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosse, Anette; Zuidema, Sytse; Boersma, Froukje; Malterud, Kirsti; Schaufel, Margrethe Aase; Ruths, Sabine

    2017-08-01

    Working conditions in nursing homes (NHs) may hamper teamwork in providing quality end-of-life (EOL) care, especially the participation of NH physicians. Dutch NH physicians are specialists or trainees in elderly care medicine with NHs as the main workplace, whereas in Norway, family physicians usually work part time in NHs. Thus, we aimed at assessing and comparing NH physicians' perspectives on barriers and strategies for providing EOL care in NHs in Norway and in The Netherlands. A cross-sectional study using an electronic questionnaire was conducted in 2015. All NH physicians in Norway (approximately 1200-1300) were invited to participate; 435 participated (response rate approximately 35%). Of the total 1664 members of the Dutch association of elderly care physicians approached, 244 participated (response rate 15%). We explored NH physicians' perceptions of organizational, educational, financial, legal, and personal prerequisites for quality EOL care. Differences between the countries were compared using χ 2 test and t-test. Most respondents in both countries reported inadequate staffing, lack of skills among nursing personnel, and heavy time commitment for physicians as important barriers; this was more pronounced among Dutch respondents. Approximately 30% of the respondents in both countries reported their own lack of interest in EOL care as an important barrier. Suggested improvement strategies were routines for involvement of patients' family, pain- and symptom assessment protocols, EOL care guidelines, routines for advance care planning, and education in EOL care for physicians and nursing staff. Inadequate staffing levels, as well as lack of competence, time, and interest emerge as important barriers to quality EOL care according to Dutch and Norwegian NH physicians. Their perspectives were mostly similar, despite large educational and organizational differences. Key strategies for improving EOL care in their facilities comprise education and

  12. Isolation and Physiological Characterization of Psychrophilic Denitrifying Bacteria from Permanently Cold Arctic Fjord Sediments (Svalbard, Norway)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canion, Andy; Prakash, Om; Green, Stefan J.; Jahnke, Linda; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Kostka, Joel E.

    2013-01-01

    A large proportion of reactive nitrogen loss from polar sediments is mediated by denitrification, but microorganisms mediating denitrification in polar environments remain poorly characterized. A combined approach of most-probable-number (MPN) enumeration, cultivation and physiological characterization was used to describe psychrophilic denitrifying bacterial communities in sediments of three Arctic fjords in Svalbard (Norway). A MPN assay showed the presence of 10(sup 3)-10(sup 6) cells of psychrophilic nitrate-respiring bacteria g(sup -1) of sediment. Fifteen strains within the Proteobacteria were isolated using a systematic enrichment approach with organic acids as electron donors and nitrate as an electron acceptor. Isolates belonged to five genera, including Shewanella, Pseudomonas, Psychromonas (Gammaproteobacteria), Arcobacter (Epsilonproteobacteria) and Herminiimonas (Betaproteobacteria). All isolates were denitrifiers, except Shewanella, which exhibited the capacity for dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA). Growth from 0 to 40 degC demonstrated that all genera except Shewanella were psychrophiles with optimal growth below 15 degC, and adaptation to low temperature was demonstrated as a shift from primarily C16:0 saturated fatty acids to C16:1 monounsaturated fatty acids at lower temperatures. This study provides the first targeted enrichment and characterization of psychrophilic denitrifying bacteria from polar sediments, and two genera, Arcobacter and Herminiimonas, are isolated for the first time from permanently cold marine sediments.

  13. Report of the Norway-FAO Expert Consultation on the Management of Shared Fish Stocks: Bergen, Norway, 7-10 October 2002

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    The Norway-FAO Expert Consultation was held in recongnition of the fact that the management of shared fishery resources remains one of the great challenges on the way towards achieving long-term sustainable fisheries...

  14. JPRS Report, West Europe, Reference Aid, Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations of Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-04

    for alt forsvar current knowledge of all defense matters AKP (m-1) Arbeidernes Kommunisparti (M-L) akt. aktuell The Workers Communist Party...School Cadre shipbuilder skier rounds per minute Naval Command, North Norway Naval Command, South Norway Naval War College firing position Sj

  15. Acculturation and adaptation among Lithuanian workers in Norway (a case study)

    OpenAIRE

    Kmite, Liuda Jr

    2011-01-01

    Migration and intercultural relations In a new culture, migrants experience acculturation. Through acculturation migrants may choose which acculturation strategy to use. In 2010, emigration from Lithuania increased four times. Lithuanians account for several per cent of all migrants in Norway. The study aims to assess the acculturation strategies which Lithuanian workers in Rogaland area (Norway) adopt.

  16. The political feasibility of Norway as the ‘green battery’ of Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullberg, Anne Therese

    2013-01-01

    Norway has great potential for producing pumped-storage hydropower, and the European Union (EU) hope Norway can contribute to Europe's transition to a renewable energy system by serving as a ‘green battery’. This is certainly technically feasible. However, this paper asks whether the green battery idea is politically feasible. The paper analyses four scenarios, three of which Norway serves as a green battery and one domestic. It focuses on decision-makers' and interest groups' positions on new interconnectors from Norway to continental Europe and the United Kingdom (UK), pumped-storage hydropower, and new renewable energy production in Norway. The paper argues that the present policy is characterised by incremental change—decisions about new interconnectors are made on an individual basis. Moreover the paper argues there is little reason to believe that this status quo policy will change based on any of the green battery scenarios in the near term. Still, decision-makers and interest groups are positive, in principle, towards new interconnectors and pumped-storage hydropower. Hence, Norway might become a green battery in the longer term. In the short term, however, a politically feasible contribution from Norway is balancing power through already existing hydropower capacity. - Highlights: ► Norwegian status quo policy is characterised by incremental change. ► Status quo is no likely to be replaced by a green battery scenario in the short term. ► Norway might become the green battery of Europe in the longer term

  17. State-Based Curriculum-Making: Approaches to Local Curriculum Work in Norway and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mølstad, Christina Elde

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates how state authorities in Norway and Finland design national curriculum to provide different policy conditions for local curriculum work in municipalities and schools. The topic is explored by comparing how national authorities in Norway and Finland create a scope for local curriculum. The data consist of interviews with…

  18. Treatment and storage of radioactive wastes at Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway and a short survey of non-radioactive hazardous wastes in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundby, J.E.

    1988-08-01

    The treatment and storage of low-level and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in Norway is described. A survey of non-radioactive hazardous wastes and planned processing methods for their treatment in Norway is given. It seems that processing methods developed for radioactive wastes to a greater extent could be adopted to hazardous wastes, and that an increased interdisciplinary waste cooperation could be a positive contribution to the solution of the hazardous waste problems

  19. Wind power and capacity of transmission in northern Norway; Vindkraft og overfoeringskapasitet i Nord Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Northern Norway, and especially the county of Finnmark, has the largest potential for cheap wind power, but at the same time it has the largest transmission costs. Ambitious goals for renewable energy can be reached in a cheaper way if small-scale hydro electrical power plants are developed, wind power in southern Norway, and wind power in northern Norway within the capacity of the network (about 1.000 MW). Central challenges include creating a well-functioning distribution of new wind power within northern Norway's current network, and efficient bottle-neck handling. Price regions are important in order to take advantage of the flexibility in hydroelectric power and prevent excessive investments. Concession refusal may be necessary. Increased ambitions for wind power can later strengthen the northern Norway network and make it profitable. Ideally, the power developers will pay for this strengthening. Practical difficulties may still give priority to the traditional financing provided by Statnett.

  20. Imaging of Norway spruce early somatic embryos with the ESEM, Cryo-SEM and laser scanning microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neděla, Vilém; Hřib, Jiří; Havel, Ladislav; Hudec, Jiří; Runštuk, Jiří

    2016-05-01

    This article describes the surface structure of Norway spruce early somatic embryos (ESEs) as a typical culture with asynchronous development. The microstructure of extracellular matrix covering ESEs were observed using the environmental scanning electron microscope as a primary tool and using the scanning electron microscope with cryo attachment and laser electron microscope as a complementary tool allowing our results to be proven independently. The fresh samples were observed in conditions of the air environment of the environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) with the pressure from 550Pa to 690Pa and the low temperature of the sample from -18°C to -22°C. The samples were studied using two different types of detector to allow studying either the thin surface structure or material composition. The scanning electron microscope with cryo attachment was used for imaging frozen extracellular matrix microstructure with higher resolution. The combination of both electron microscopy methods was suitable for observation of "native" plant samples, allowing correct evaluation of our results, free of error and artifacts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mitochondrial DNA variation in the Viking age population of Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzewińska, Maja; Bjørnstad, Gro; Skoglund, Pontus; Olason, Pall Isolfur; Bill, Jan; Götherström, Anders; Hagelberg, Erika

    2015-01-19

    The medieval Norsemen or Vikings had an important biological and cultural impact on many parts of Europe through raids, colonization and trade, from about AD 793 to 1066. To help understand the genetic affinities of the ancient Norsemen, and their genetic contribution to the gene pool of other Europeans, we analysed DNA markers in Late Iron Age skeletal remains from Norway. DNA was extracted from 80 individuals, and mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms were detected by next-generation sequencing. The sequences of 45 ancient Norwegians were verified as genuine through the identification of damage patterns characteristic of ancient DNA. The ancient Norwegians were genetically similar to previously analysed ancient Icelanders, and to present-day Shetland and Orkney Islanders, Norwegians, Swedes, Scots, English, German and French. The Viking Age population had higher frequencies of K*, U*, V* and I* haplogroups than their modern counterparts, but a lower proportion of T* and H* haplogroups. Three individuals carried haplotypes that are rare in Norway today (U5b1b1, Hg A* and an uncommon variant of H*). Our combined analyses indicate that Norse women were important agents in the overseas expansion and settlement of the Vikings, and that women from the Orkneys and Western Isles contributed to the colonization of Iceland. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Methods library of embedded R functions at Statistics Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Langsrud

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Statistics Norway is modernising the production processes. An important element in this work is a library of functions for statistical computations. In principle, the functions in such a methods library can be programmed in several languages. A modernised production environment demand that these functions can be reused for different statistics products, and that they are embedded within a common IT system. The embedding should be done in such a way that the users of the methods do not need to know the underlying programming language. As a proof of concept, Statistics Norway soon has established a methods library offering a limited number of methods for macro-editing, imputation and confidentiality. This is done within an area of municipal statistics with R as the only programming language. This paper presents the details and experiences from this work. The problem of fitting real word applications to simple and strict standards is discussed and exemplified by the development of solutions to regression imputation and table suppression.

  3. Questioning Complacency: Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability, and Adaptation in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, Karen; Eriksen, Siri; Sygna, Linda; Naess, Lars Otto

    2006-01-01

    Most European assessments of climate change impacts have been carried out on sectors and ecosystems, providing a narrow understanding of what climate change really means for society. Furthermore, the main focus has been on technological adaptations, with less attention paid to the process of climate change adaptation. In this article, we present and analyze findings from recent studies on climate change impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation in Norway, with the aim of identifying the wider social impacts of climate change. Three main lessons can be drawn. First, the potential thresholds and indirect effects may be more important than the direct, sectoral effects. Second, highly sensitive sectors, regions, and communities combine with differential social vulnerability to create both winners and losers. Third, high national levels of adaptive capacity mask the barriers and constraints to adaptation, particularly among those who are most vulnerable to climate change. Based on these results, we question complacency in Norway and other European countries regarding climate change impacts and adaptation. We argue that greater attention needs to be placed on the social context of climate change impacts and on the processes shaping vulnerability and adaptation

  4. Airborne Electromagnetic Mapping of Peatlands: a Case Study in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, S.; Viezzoli, A.; Pfaffhuber, A. A.; Vettore, A.

    2017-12-01

    Peatlands are extraordinary reservoirs of organic carbon that can be found over a wide range of latitudes, in tropical, to temperate, to (sub)polar climates. According to some estimates, the carbon stored in peatlands almost match the atmospheric carbon pool. Peatlands degradation due to natural and anthropogenic factors releases every year large amount of CO2 and other green house gasses into the atmosphere. The conservation of peatlands is therefore a key measure to reduce emissions and to mitigate climate change. An effective plan to prevent peatlands degradation must move from a precise estimate of the volume of peat stored across vast territories around the world. One example are the several bogs that characterize large surfaces in Norway. Our research combines the use of high spatial resolution satellite optical data with Airborne Electromagnetic (AEM) and field measurements in order to map the extension and thickness of peat in Brøttum, Ringsaker province, Norway. The methodology allows us to quantify the volume of peat as well as the organic carbon stock. The variable thickness typical of Norwegian bogs allows us to test the limits of the AEM methodology in resolving near surface peat layers. This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 747809. Start date: 1 June 2017. Duration: 24 months

  5. Genetic characterization of trh positive Vibrio spp. isolated from Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette eBauer Ellingsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH and/or TDH-related hemolysin (TRH genes are carried by most virulent Vibrio parahaemolyticus serovars. In Norway, trh+ V. parahaemolyticus constitute 4.4% and 4.5 % of the total number of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from blue mussel (Mytilus edulis and water, respectively. The trh gene is located in a region close to the gene cluster for urease production (ure. This region was characterized in V. parahaemolyticus strain TH3996 and it was found that a nickel transport operon (nik was located between the first gene (ureR and the rest of the ure cluster genes. The organization of the trh-ureR-nik-ure gene cluster in the Norwegian trh+ isolates was unknown. In this study, we explore the gene organization within the trh-ureR-nik-ure cluster for these isolates. PCR analyses revealed that the genes within the trh-ureR-nik-ure gene cluster of Norwegian trh+ isolates were organized in a similar fashion as reported previously for TH33996. Additionally, the phylogenetic relationship among these trh+ isolates was investigated using Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST. Analysis by MLST or ureR-trh sequences generated two different phylogenetic trees for the same strains analyzed, suggesting that ureR-trh genes have been acquired at different times in Norwegian V. parahaemolyticus isolates. MLST results revealed that some pathogenic and non-pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus isolates in Norway appear to be highly genetically related.

  6. The development of electric power/energy trading in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engebretsen, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    One of the main aims of the Norwegian government is to make the electric power market more effective. A new energy law has been passed and other initiatives have been taken which have altered the framework of the conditions for electricity production and sales in Norway. The proposition for trading electric power and the development of new policies for calculating transmission tariffs has been dealt with in addition to plans for the extent of the development of hydroelectric power. Norway is the world's sixth largest producer of hydroelectricity. The domestic supply of electricity is described as well as the nature of the reorganization of the transmission of electricity and Norwegian foreign trade proposals within this area. The government is interested in taxing with regard to production instead of on the power itself in order to stimulate better energy economy. It is important that this will have a neutral effect between export and domestic consumption when contract sales to abroad are initiated. A more efficient electric power market will profit Norwegian society. Statistical data are included. (AB)

  7. Competition policy for health care provision in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, Kurt R; Straume, Odd Rune

    2017-02-01

    Competition policy has played a very limited role for health care provision in Norway. The main reason is that Norway has a National Health Service (NHS) with extensive public provision and a wide set of sector-specific regulations that limit the scope for competition. However, the last two decades, several reforms have deregulated health care provision and opened up for provider competition along some dimensions. For specialised care, the government has introduced patient choice and (partly) activity (DRG) based funding, but also corporatised public hospitals and allowed for more private provision. For primary care, a reform changed the payment scheme to capitation and (a higher share of) fee-for-service, inducing almost all GPs on fixed salary contracts to become self-employed. While these reforms have the potential for generating competition in the Norwegian NHS, the empirical evidence is quite limited and the findings are mixed. We identify a set of possible caveats that may weaken the incentives for provider competition - such as the partial implementation of DRG pricing, the dual purchaser-provider role of regional health authorities, and the extensive consolidation of public hospitals - and argue that there is great scope for competition policy measures that could stimulate provider competition within the Norwegian NHS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Long-term trends in alcohol policy attitudes in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Ingeborg; Storvoll, Elisabet E

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe trends in attitudes to alcohol control policies in Norway over a period of 50 years and to discuss how these trends relate to developments in alcohol policy. Survey data from 17 national population surveys, national statistics and previous publications were applied to describe trends in attitudes to alcohol control polices (access to alcohol and price) and changes in these policies over the period 1962 to 2012. From 1962 to 1999, an increasing proportion of the population reported that regulations on availability of alcohol were too strict and that alcohol prices were too high, whereas in the 2000s this trend was reversed and support for existing control policies increased. Although the pillars of Norwegian alcohol policy--high prices, restricted access and a state monopoly on retail sales-remained, control policies were gradually relaxed throughout the entire period. Relaxation of strict alcohol control policies in Norway in the first four decades were probably, in part, the result of increasingly liberal public opinion. The subsequent reversed trend in opinions with increasing support for control policies may be due to several factors, for example, consumer-oriented changes in the monopoly system, increased availability and affordability, increased awareness of alcohol-related harm and the effectiveness of control policies. Thus, the dynamics of policies and attitudes may well change over time. © 2013 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  9. Emissions of greenhouse gases in Norway 1990 to 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    According to this article, the emissions of NOX from Norway in 1990 to 2000 were at a higher level than expected. Calculations show, however, that from 1999 to 2000 the emissions were reduced by seven percent. This is mainly due to reduced emission from shipping and road traffic. The SO 2 (sulphur dioxide) emissions have been halved since 1990 because of cleaner industrial emissions, replacement of fossil fuel with electricity, use of light oil and less sulphur in oil products and reducing agents. The emissions of NMVOCs (Non-methane volatile organic components) must be almost halved from 2000 to 2010 if Norway is to meet the requirements of the Gothenburg Protocol. The emissions of climate gases were reduced by one percent in 2000, despite the fact that the CO 2 emissions from the offshore petroleum activities increased by twelve percent. The emissions of methane and dioxins are going down. There is considerable uncertainty in the figures for dioxins. Calculations show that on the local community level the greatest emissions come from industry, road traffic, agriculture and land fills

  10. The Effect of Cyberpower on Institutional Development in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J. Knox

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Through analysis of empirical interview data this research undertakes to investigate the ways in which the growing phenomenon of cyberpower – defined as using cyberspace for advantage and influence – is impacting on institutional development in Norway. Exploring this governance challenge through the conceptual framework of complexity, difference and emergence opens space – political or otherwise – for discussion regarding why rapid developments arising from digitalization are transforming the way individuals, organizations, institutions and states behave, relate and make decisions. Cyberpower is creating an uncertain institutional landscape as a dependency vs. vulnerability paradox shapes values, rules and norms. Findings from this thematic analysis of qualitative data reflect this paradox, and suggest that organizations in Norway are in a survival-mode that is blocking collaboration. This occurs as national governance systems, human capacity and cyberpower effects lack synergy making for an uneasy arena where complexity, contestation and emerging challenges frame institutional development. To improve long-term prospects of governing cyberpower effects requires a cross-sectorial conflation of time and human resources. This means consciously taking steps to merge organizational and institutional boundaries through expressive innovative collaborations that foster a shared and holistic agenda. The emerging challenges cyberpower is presenting across multiple domains means further research is recommended to build a richer understanding of the term cyberpower from different perspectives. The investigation recommends investment in building the skills and capacities necessary for the co-creation of new models and strategies for managing the effects of cyberpower.

  11. Social trust among recipients of voluntary welfare in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Saltkjel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The significance of social capital, including social trust, has in recent decades been acknowledged by many scholars across different disciplines as a key resource. This has led to many studies and scientific articles investigating this topic. Few studies, however, have focused upon social trust within marginalised groups. This study is based upon data gathered from one of the larger research projects investigating the vulnerable recipients of voluntary welfare assistance in Norway. The aim of the study is to investigate the level of social trust in a sample of 80 recipients of welfare assistance within two large voluntary welfare organisations in the capital city of Oslo, Norway. In particular, the study will explore whether and to what degree the level of social trust can be explained by conditions experienced while growing up and as an adult. Results indicate that adult life experiences, such as drug abuse and life satisfaction are the most important explanatory variables. However problems experienced while growing-up seems to be indirectly related to social trust. The results of the study highlight the significance of acknowledging processes of marginalisation in socially vulnerable groups, such as drug users and children experiencing problems growing up.

  12. Indoor radon exposure in Norway and lung cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanner, T.; Dybing, E.

    1990-01-01

    The risk for lung cancer due to indoor radon in Norway was estimated. The risk factor recommended by the World Health Organization was used. Corrections were made for time not spent at home and type of activity. On the basis of measurements by the Norwegian National Institute for Radiation Hygiene in 7,500 homes, Strand et al estimated that the average concentration of radon daughters in the bedroom of Norwegian dwellings was 26.5 Bq/m 3 (EER). The level of exposure during time spent outside the home was assumed to be 10% of that at home. It was calculated that indoor radon exposure may cause 75-225 lung cancer deaths per year. This corresponds to about 5-15% of all lung cancer deaths in Norway. The risk for lung cancer death per 1,000 deaths at an indoor radon decay product level of 100 Bq/m 3 was calculated on the basis of various reports in the paper. The results show that the present risk estimate is lower than most of the other estimates

  13. Work–Family Interference: Nurses in Norway and Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Abrahamsen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the study is to investigate the level of work–family inter-ference (WFI for part-time nurses in Norway and Finland. Part-time work is usually cited as a desirable way in which to facilitate work and family harmony. However, the opportunity to work part-time in professions may be associated with greater difficulties and challenges than commonly presumed. Part-time professionals are often stigmatized as being less committed to work and report fewer job rewards than colleagues in full-time positions. This study challenges the notion of the desir-able consequences of work hour flexibility concerning the integration of work and family. Part-time nurses in Norway and Finland report an equal level or even higher levels of interference than nurses in full-time positions. A disproportional distri-bution of inconvenient work schedules appears to be a central explanation for the results reported by Norwegian nurses, but to a lesser degree by Finnish nurses.

  14. Agent-based modelling of heating system adoption in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopha, Bertha Maya; Kloeckner, Christian A.; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2010-07-01

    Full text: This paper introduces agent-based modelling as a methodological approach to understand the effect of decision making mechanism on the adoption of heating systems in Norway. The model is used as an experimental/learning tool to design possible interventions, not for prediction. The intended users of the model are therefore policy designers. Primary heating system adoptions of electric heating, heat pump and wood pellet heating were selected. Random topology was chosen to represent social network among households. Agents were households with certain location, number of peers, current adopted heating system, employed decision strategy, and degree of social influence in decision making. The overall framework of decision-making integrated theories from different disciplines; customer behavior theory, behavioral economics, theory of planned behavior, and diffusion of innovation, in order to capture possible decision making processes in households. A mail survey of 270 Norwegian households conducted in 2008 was designed specifically for acquiring data for the simulation. The model represents real geographic area of households and simulates the overall fraction of adopted heating system under study. The model was calibrated with historical data from Statistics Norway (SSB). Interventions with respects to total cost, norms, indoor air quality, reliability, supply security, required work, could be explored using the model. For instance, the model demonstrates that a considerable total cost (investment and operating cost) increase of electric heating and heat pump, rather than a reduction of wood pellet heating's total cost, are required to initiate and speed up wood pellet adoption. (Author)

  15. Population doses from naturally occurring radiation in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.

    The main purpose of this work was to study the radiological consequences of the introduction of building materials with high concentrations of radioactivity and to analyse the impact of a reduction of the ventilation rates in houses on the population dose from inhalation of natural airborne radioactivity. The general problems of radioactivity in building materials are discussed. Measurements of radioactivity in building materials from different parts of the country are reported, together with theoretical calculations of the gamma doses in houses. These calculations are compared with experimental results and earlier measurements of the indoor gamma radiation in Norway. Measurements of the outdoor gamma radiation in different parts of Norway are presented. These results are used together with earlier measurements of the gamma radiation inside houses to calculate the average, and variations of population dose from this radiation. An experimental study on the radon concentrations inside different types of dwellings, and a discussion of the respiratory dose received by the inhalation of radon daughters is presented. Some factors that may have influence upon the radon concentrations are also discussed. A method for measurement of radon and thoron daughters in air is discussed. The possible radiological effects of an increased radon concentration in houses are discussed. (Auth.)

  16. Sweden goes in for railways - an example to Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killingland, Tore

    2004-01-01

    It is a sad fact that in their 150th anniversary, with very few exceptions, the Norwegian railways still use the first generation network, which dates back to the late 1800s. Off course, this puts the train at a serious disadvantage in the competition with cars and buses, which run on a third or four generation network of roads. The Norwegian Parliament has cut down on the fuel tax for the road traffic. They might have used this tax to provide much more environmentally friendly transport facilities. Green taxes are a proper means of adapting society to a sustainable way of using energy. The article contrasts the Norwegian policy with the Swedish one. The Swedes are preparing to invest twice as much in railways as in roads for the period of 2004 - 2015, while in Norway three times as much money will be spent on roads as on railways. Politicians in Norway essentially agree to concentrate on the railway, but they do not do it. Conservationists expect a clear change of course in the communications policy, with Sweden as a model

  17. An Estimate of the Burden of Fungal Disease in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvild Nordøy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the burden of fungal disease in Norway, contributing to a worldwide effort to improve awareness of the needs for better diagnosis and treatment of such infections. We used national registers and actual data from the Departments of Microbiology from 2015 and estimated the incidence and/or prevalence of superficial, allergic and invasive fungal disease using published reports on specific populations at risk. One in 6 Norwegians suffered from fungal disease: Superficial skin infections (14.3%: 745,600 and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in fertile women (6%: 43,123 were estimated to be the most frequent infections. Allergic fungal lung disease was estimated in 17,755 patients (341/100,000. Pneumocystis jirovecii was diagnosed in 262 patients (5/100,000, invasive candidiasis in 400 patients (7.7/100,000, invasive aspergillosis in 278 patients (5.3/100,000 and mucormycosis in 7 patients (0.1/100,000. Particular fungal infections from certain geographic areas were not observed. Overall, 1.79% of the population was estimated to be affected by serious fungal infections in Norway in 2015. Even though estimates for invasive infections are small, the gravity of such infections combined with expected demographic changes in the future emphasizes the need for better epidemiological data.

  18. The Effect of Cyberpower on Institutional Development in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Benjamin J

    2018-01-01

    Through analysis of empirical interview data this research undertakes to investigate the ways in which the growing phenomenon of cyberpower - defined as using cyberspace for advantage and influence - is impacting on institutional development in Norway. Exploring this governance challenge through the conceptual framework of complexity, difference and emergence opens space - political or otherwise - for discussion regarding why rapid developments arising from digitalization are transforming the way individuals, organizations, institutions and states behave, relate and make decisions. Cyberpower is creating an uncertain institutional landscape as a dependency vs. vulnerability paradox shapes values, rules and norms. Findings from this thematic analysis of qualitative data reflect this paradox, and suggest that organizations in Norway are in a survival-mode that is blocking collaboration. This occurs as national governance systems, human capacity and cyberpower effects lack synergy making for an uneasy arena where complexity, contestation and emerging challenges frame institutional development. To improve long-term prospects of governing cyberpower effects requires a cross-sectorial conflation of time and human resources. This means consciously taking steps to merge organizational and institutional boundaries through expressive innovative collaborations that foster a shared and holistic agenda. The emerging challenges cyberpower is presenting across multiple domains means further research is recommended to build a richer understanding of the term cyberpower from different perspectives. The investigation recommends investment in building the skills and capacities necessary for the co-creation of new models and strategies for managing the effects of cyberpower.

  19. Impact of acid precipitation on freshwater ecosystems in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, R F; Dale, T; Gjessing, E T; Hendrey, G R; Henriksen, A; J Hannesen, M; Muniz, I P

    1975-01-01

    Precipitation in southern Norway contains large amounts of H/sup +/, SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, and NO/sub 3//sup -/ ions, along with heavy metals such as Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb. These pollutants are transported over long distances to Scandinavia and are deposited in precipitation and dry-fallout. Large areas of southern Norway have been adversely affected by acid precipitation. The pH of many lakes is below 5.0 and sulfate, rather than bicarbonate, is the major anion. Lakes in these areas are particularly vulnerable to acid precipitation because their watersheds are underlain by highly resistant bedrock with low calcium and magnesium contents. The effects of the increasing acidity of freshwater ecosystems involve interference at every trophic level. Biological surveys indicate that low pH-values inhibit the decomposition of allochthonous organic matter, decrease the species number of phyto- and zooplankton and benthic invertebrates, and promote the growth of benthic mosses. Fish populations have been severely affected - the salmon have been eliminated from many rivers, and hundreds of lakes have lost their sport fisheries.

  20. Occurrence of parasites on fruits and vegetables in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, L J; Gjerde, B

    2001-11-01

    Between August 1999 and January 2001, samples of various fruits and vegetables obtained within Norway were analyzed by published methods for parasite contamination. Neither Cyclospora oocysts nor Ascaris (or other helminth) eggs were detected on any of the samples examined for these parasites. However, of the 475 samples examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts, 29 (6%) were found to be positive. No samples were positive for both parasites. Of the 19 Cryptosporidium-positive samples. 5 (26%) were in lettuce, and 14 (74%) in mung bean sprouts. Of the 10 Giardia-positive samples, 2 (20%) were in dill, 2 (20%) in lettuce, 3 (30%) in mung bean sprouts, 1 (10%) in radish sprouts, and 2 (20%) in strawberries. Mung bean sprouts were significantly more likely to be contaminated with Cryptosporidium oocysts or Giardia cysts than the other fruits and vegetables. Concentrations of Cryptosporidium and Giardia detected were generally low (mean of approximately 3 [oo]cysts per 100 g produce). Although some of the contaminated produce was imported (the majority, if sprouted seeds are excluded), there was no association between imported produce and detection of parasites. Crvptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were also detected in water samples concerned with field irrigation and production of bean sprouts within Norway. This is the first time that parasites have been detected on vegetables and fruit obtained in a highly developed. wealthy country, without there being an outbreak situation. These findings may have important implications for global food safety.

  1. Radiation hygiene analysis of medical activities in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, L.; Olerud, H.; Saxeboel, G.

    1987-01-01

    A status report from the project ''Radiation hygiene analysis of medical activities in Norway'' is presented. A principal project description as well as the main purpose of the project are presented. The report gives information on methods and strategy in connection with patient dose measurements and instrument calibration. The main task of the report is to present and explain the development of an analytical tool based on computer programs. At present, five different programs are produced, linked together in a menusystem. The programs deal with registration of observed variables, compute aritmetic mean/median values, make statistics,and plot and calculate integrated doses from X-ray examinations of interest. So far approximately 2200 X-ray examinations have been observed, each limited to 24 observation variables. The potential power of the analytical tool is demonstrated for the barium meal examination. The analysis indicates a mean integrated energy of 229 mJ per examination, while the annual collective dose from these examinations is 200 manSv in Norway. Discussion of facts relevant to optimization clearly shows that the use of 100 mm technique should be encouraged

  2. Fallout and radiation doses in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, T.

    1987-08-01

    Due to southeasterly wind and rainfall during the critical days after the Chernobyl accident, Norway got a substantial part of the cesium isotopes released. The radioactive fallout followed closely the rainfall and was mainly concentrated to some thin populated areas in the central parts of the country. The total fallout of the cesium isotopes was approximately 2300 TBq (Cs-137) and 1200 TBq (Cs-134). The average for the country was 11 kBq/m 2 with a variation from 1.5 to 40 kBq/m 2 for the 19 different counties of the country. The fallout resulted in contamination of food products from some areas, mainly meat from reindeer and sheep, as well as freshwater fish. A small fraction of the food produced in 1986 was not sold due to the regulations enforced. The average radiation dose to the Norwegian population during the first year after the accident was approximately 0.3 mSv (0.1 mSv from external radiation and about 0.2 mSv from foodstuff). This first year extra dose is approximately 5% of the average normal background dose in Norway

  3. Control of bovine ringworm by vaccination in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Arve; Bratberg, Anna Marie; Næss, Bjørn; Gudding, Roar

    2014-03-15

    Bovine ringworm caused by Trichophyton verrucosum is a notifiable disease in Norway. New infected herds are reported to the Norwegian Food Safety Authority. To limit spread of the disease, restrictions are imposed on holdings including access to common pastures and sale of live animals. Bovine ringworm has been endemic in the Norwegian dairy population for decades. Since 1980 a vaccine (Bovilis Ringvac LTF-130, Merck Animal Health) has been available. The vaccine contains an attenuated strain of T. verrucosum and stimulates humoral and cellular immune responses conferring protection. Efficacy and safety of the vaccine have been evaluated in experimental and field studies. Vaccination campaigns in densely populated counties have contributed to a substantial decrease in number of ringworm outbreaks. The annual incidence of new infected herds decreased from 1.7% in 1980 to 0.043% in 2004. Few herds remained with restrictions and a "mopping up" project was established to offer assistance specifically to these holdings. A milestone was achieved in 2009; no new herds with cases of clinical ringworm caused by T. verrucosum were reported to the authorities. By end of 2012, there are only two herds with restrictions. Vaccination during the last 30 years has been a key control measure in the effort to prevent disease outbreaks and eradicate bovine ringworm in Norway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fallout 137Cs in reindeer herders in Arctic Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuterud, Lavrans; Thørring, Håvard

    2015-03-03

    Reindeer herders in the Arctic were among the most heavily exposed populations to the global fallout from nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 1960s, due to high transfer of radionuclides in the lichens-reindeer-human food chain. Annual studies of (137)Cs in reindeer herders in Kautokeino, Norway, were initiated in 1965 to monitor radiation doses and follow environmental (137)Cs behavior. The (137)Cs concentrations declined from the peak in 1965 with effective half-times of 6-8 years, only interrupted by a temporary doubling in levels from 1986 to 1987 due to the Chernobyl fallout. During the period of 1950-2010 an average herder received an integrated effective dose from incorporated (137)Cs of about 18 mSv. This dose represents an insignificant increase in the risk for developing cancer. Health studies even show a significantly lower cancer incidence among Sámis and reindeer herders in northern Norway compared to other populations in the same area.

  5. Lessons learned: Experiences with Integrated Safeguards in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekse, T.; Hornkjol, S.

    2010-01-01

    Integrated safeguards (IS) was implemented in Norway in 2002 as one of the first countries in the world. The implementation of IS has provided both advantages and disadvantages for Norway. Lessons learned will be discussed. The concept of unannounced inspections under the integrated safeguards regime compared to traditional safeguards is one of the major issues. Small users with depleted uranium as shielding containers and the effort used to safeguard them is an aspect of this issue. Recently there has been an interest from the IAEA to investigate the historical boundaries between a research reactor site and a neighboring defense research site. The paper will address this issue as a part of the implementation of IS. Lately, we have seen that several commercial parties have started research on nuclear fuel cycle related projects. This raises some questions concerning what to declare under Article 2 of the Additional Protocol (AP). Today anyone with a computer connected to the internet could carry out research amenable to declaration under the AP. This paper will discuss this issue. (author)

  6. The Effect of Cyberpower on Institutional Development in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Benjamin J.

    2018-01-01

    Through analysis of empirical interview data this research undertakes to investigate the ways in which the growing phenomenon of cyberpower – defined as using cyberspace for advantage and influence – is impacting on institutional development in Norway. Exploring this governance challenge through the conceptual framework of complexity, difference and emergence opens space – political or otherwise – for discussion regarding why rapid developments arising from digitalization are transforming the way individuals, organizations, institutions and states behave, relate and make decisions. Cyberpower is creating an uncertain institutional landscape as a dependency vs. vulnerability paradox shapes values, rules and norms. Findings from this thematic analysis of qualitative data reflect this paradox, and suggest that organizations in Norway are in a survival-mode that is blocking collaboration. This occurs as national governance systems, human capacity and cyberpower effects lack synergy making for an uneasy arena where complexity, contestation and emerging challenges frame institutional development. To improve long-term prospects of governing cyberpower effects requires a cross-sectorial conflation of time and human resources. This means consciously taking steps to merge organizational and institutional boundaries through expressive innovative collaborations that foster a shared and holistic agenda. The emerging challenges cyberpower is presenting across multiple domains means further research is recommended to build a richer understanding of the term cyberpower from different perspectives. The investigation recommends investment in building the skills and capacities necessary for the co-creation of new models and strategies for managing the effects of cyberpower. PMID:29867680

  7. Energy efficiency policies and measures in Norway: monitoring of energy efficiency in EU27, Norway and Croatia (ODYSSEE-MURE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2009-09-15

    This report represents the national case study of Norway for the EIE-project 'Monitoring of Energy Demand Trends and Energy Efficiency in the EU - ODYSSEE-MURE'. It presents the recent energy efficiency trends in Norway on the basis of indicators extracted from the ODYSSEE database. Total energy consumption (not including energy as feedstock) has increased from 16.6 M toe (195 TWh) in 1990 to 19.2 M toe (226 TWh) in 2007 and has been relatively constant the last ten years. Energy consumption in manufacturing industry has increased by 10 % from 1990 to 2007, but is lower in 2007 than in 1998. Final energy use in households has increased from 3515 k toe (41 TWh) in 1990 to 3826 (45 TWh) in 2007. The climate corrected energy use has been at approximately 4000 k toe since the mid 1990s. It seems to be an interrupt in the increase of energy use in households, despite the growth of all common used drivers in this sector. Energy efficiency policies and measures implemented since 1990 have contributed to improve the efficiency by 13 %, or 0.7 % per year; this means that if these policies and measures would not have been implemented, the final energy consumption would have been 13 % higher in 2007 (or approximately 1.9 M toe or 22 TWh). (Author)

  8. Factors affecting the utilisation of electronic medical records system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malawi Medical Journal 29 (3): September 2017. Electronic medical ... care, as they enable storage of large amounts of data and ... EMRs. This study assessed factors that affect the use of EMRs in Malawi, particularly at Queen Elizabeth and Kamuzu Central ..... paperless hospitals in Norway : A socio-technical perspective.

  9. Integrated database for rapid mass movements in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jaedicke

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid gravitational slope mass movements include all kinds of short term relocation of geological material, snow or ice. Traditionally, information about such events is collected separately in different databases covering selected geographical regions and types of movement. In Norway the terrain is susceptible to all types of rapid gravitational slope mass movements ranging from single rocks hitting roads and houses to large snow avalanches and rock slides where entire mountainsides collapse into fjords creating flood waves and endangering large areas. In addition, quick clay slides occur in desalinated marine sediments in South Eastern and Mid Norway. For the authorities and inhabitants of endangered areas, the type of threat is of minor importance and mitigation measures have to consider several types of rapid mass movements simultaneously.

    An integrated national database for all types of rapid mass movements built around individual events has been established. Only three data entries are mandatory: time, location and type of movement. The remaining optional parameters enable recording of detailed information about the terrain, materials involved and damages caused. Pictures, movies and other documentation can be uploaded into the database. A web-based graphical user interface has been developed allowing new events to be entered, as well as editing and querying for all events. An integration of the database into a GIS system is currently under development.

    Datasets from various national sources like the road authorities and the Geological Survey of Norway were imported into the database. Today, the database contains 33 000 rapid mass movement events from the last five hundred years covering the entire country. A first analysis of the data shows that the most frequent type of recorded rapid mass movement is rock slides and snow avalanches followed by debris slides in third place. Most events are recorded in the steep fjord

  10. Recovery of acidified mountain lakes in Norway as predicted by the MAGIC model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard J. COSBY

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available As part of the EU project EMERGE the biogeochemical model MAGIC was used to reconstruct acidification history and predict future recovery for mountain lakes in two regions of Norway. Central Norway (19 lakes receives low levels of acid deposition, most of the lakes have undergone only minor amounts of acidification, and all are predicted to recover in the future. Central Norway thus represents a reference area for more polluted regions in southern Norway and elsewhere in Europe. Southern Norway (23 lakes, on the other hand, receives higher levels of acid deposition, nearly all the studied lakes were acidified and had lost fish populations, and although some recovery has occurred during the period 1980-2000 and additional recovery is predicted for the next decades, the model simulations indicated that the majority of the lakes will not achieve water quality sufficient to support trout populations. Uncertainties in these predictions include possible future N saturation and the exacerbating effects of climate change. The mountain lakes of southern Norway are among the most sensitive in Europe. For southern Norway additional measures such as stricter controls of emissions of air pollutants will be required to obtain satisfactory water quality in the future.

  11. More inclusive workplaces: fact or fiction? The case of Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, T; Svendal, A; Amundsen, I

    2005-10-01

    Over the past years focus on different workfare programmes in Norway has increased in order to meet a number of identified problems in the labour market. The Tripartite Agreement on a More Inclusive Workplace of October 2001 is one of the measures introduced to create a more inclusive workplace, reduce the utilization of disability benefits and sick leave, and retain senior employees longer. Recommended methodology is improved employee-employer dialogue and increased focus on what the employee can do (workability). This paper is a critical review of why the Agreement has, so far, not lived up to the expectations. We also question whether the logic of the Tripartite Agreement is the solution to the problem.

  12. Strategy for the reduction of radon exposure in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    Elevated indoor radon concentrations are a more extensive problem in Norway than in many other countries. It has been estimated that indoor radon causes approximately 300 deaths from lung cancer each year in Norway. On average, avoiding lung cancer increases life expectancy by 14 to 18 years. Radon is a radioactive noble gas formed continually is a decay product from uranium. Uranium is a natural constituent existing in varying concentrations in bedrock, minerals and soils. For this reason, both the soil air and groundwater contain radon. Radon in buildings normally originates from the soil air in the underlying ground. Indoor air pressure is often low, so that radon-containing air from the surrounding ground gets sucked in through cracks in the building foundations. Elevated indoor radon concentrations can be due to household water drawn from groundwater wells, and radon gas can also be emitted from building materials such as certain types of stone or concrete containing high levels of natural radioactivity. Norway, Sweden and Finland are among the the countries in the world with the highest average indoor radon concentrations. Geological conditions and the cool climate pose a big challenge, but the radon problem can be solved in a cost-effective way. Radon is the most common cause of lung cancer after active smoking. At a radon concentration of 100 Bq/m3, which is not far from the estimated average for Norwegian housing, the risks of dying of radon-induced lung cancer before the age of 75 are 0.1 % for non-smokers and 2 % for smokers, respectively. Many buildings in Norway have radon levels that exceed this. The most important health impact of radon exposure is the increased risk of lung cancer. This increase in risk is assumed to be linear in relation to radon concentration (i.e., the risk is 10 times higher at 1000 Bq/m3 compared to 100 Bq/m3). The risk also increases linearly with exposure time, i.e. there is a tenfold greater risk of contracting lung cancer

  13. Recurrent mesoproterozoic continental magmatism in South-Central Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Svend; Andersen, Tom; Konnerup-Madsen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    rocks and metasediments from the Byglandsfjorden supracrustal cover sequence, and metaigneous rocks which intruded the whole succession. The main crustal evolution took place from 1,550-1,020 Ma, beginning with the emplacement of juvenile tonalitic melts; the contribution of older crustal material......We report U-Pb dates and Lu-Hf isotope data, obtained by LAM-ICPMS, for zircons from metamorphic rocks of the Setesdalen valley, situated in the Telemark block south of the classic Telemark region of southern Norway. The samples include infracrustal rocks from the metamorphic basement, metaigneous...... is represented by supracrustal rocks, principally metarhyolites with minor mafic material and immature sediments of the Byglandsfjorden Group. The crust generation processes ended with the intrusion of diorites and granodiorites at 1,030 Ma, late in the Sveconorwegian orogeny. Regional processes of metamorphism...

  14. Generic substitution: micro evidence from register data in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalen, Dag Morten; Furu, Kari; Locatelli, Marilena; Strøm, Steinar

    2011-02-01

    The importance of prices, doctor and patient characteristics, and market institutions for the likelihood of choosing generic drugs instead of the more expensive original brand-name version are examined. Using an extensive dataset extracted from The Norwegian Prescription Database containing all prescriptions dispensed to individuals in February 2004 and 2006 on 23 different drugs (chemical substances) in Norway, we find strong evidence for the importance of both doctor and patient characteristics for the choice probabilities. The price difference between brand and generic versions and insurance coverage both affect generic substitution. Moreover, controlling for the retail chain affiliation of the dispensing pharmacy, we find that pharmacies play an important role in promoting generic substitution. In markets with more recent entry of generic drugs, brand-name loyalty proves to be much stronger, giving less explanatory power to our demand model.

  15. Mycoplasma canis and urogenital disease in dogs in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    L'Abee-Lund, T.M.; Heiene, R.; Friis, N.F.

    2003-01-01

    Mycoplasmas identified as Mycoplasma canis were isolated from nine dogs with clinical signs of urogenital disease in Norway over a period of 20 months. Some of the dogs had been treated unsuccessfully with antibiotics, and three were euthanased as a result of severe persistent disease. Seven...... of the dogs had a urinary tract infection, one had chronic purulent epididymitis and one had chronic prostatitis. Overt haematuria was frequently observed among the dogs with cystitis. M canis was isolated in pure culture from seven of the dogs and in mixed culture from the other two. In three cases...... the mycoplasma was cultivated only from urinary sediment, and it was typically obtained in smaller numbers than would be considered indicative of a urinary tract infection. In contrast with most mycoplasmas, the M canis isolated from all the dogs grew on ordinary blood agar plates used for routine...

  16. The EU prohibits the use of packing gas in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The EU Commission does not accept the use of carbon dioxide as packing gas for meat in Norway, which has been common practice for 18 years without any adverse health effects being reported. The effect of the change is that there will appear fresh meat with reduced durability and uneven colour. The EU Commission justifies its refusal by saying that the regulations for additives in food are now in total harmony, which means that the EU and and the EEA (European Economic Are) may only use the additives listed in the regulations. One argument against the use of CO 2 has been that it could stabilize the colour well enough to mislead the consumers into bying meat for which the date of use has expired. The meat industry hopes that the EU Commission may change its attitude

  17. Steps towards the institutionalisation of feminism in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra COLUMBAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article discusses important issues related to the institutionalisation of feminism in Norway, by providing a case study on the country’s first feminist magazine, Sirene. The first part of the article focuses on the political and historical context which favoured the emergence of the magazine, and insists on a series of legal measures taken in the twentieth century – suffrage rights, equal payment, political representation, etc. – which provided the institutional framework for the women’s movement. The more comprehensive second part of the article focuses on Sirene itself: it analyses the magazine’s structure and key concepts, its political agenda, its aims, but also thebranch of feminism to which Sirene adheres. The article concludes that the magazine represented an influential alternative to the mainstream press of the time, and contributed greatly to achieving the goals of women’s liberation movement.

  18. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Norway. Nationwide survey 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinnes, Eiliv; Berg, Torunn; Uggerud, Hilde Thelle; Pfaffhuber, Katrine Aspmo

    2011-01-01

    The geographical distribution of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Norway was mapped in 2010 by analysis of moss samples from 464 sites all over the country. This report provides a presentation of the results and a comparison with data from a series of corresponding moss surveys starting 1977. The survey is part of an international program comprising large parts of Europe. The survey primarily concerns the ten metals of priority in the European program: vanadium, chromium, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead. In addition data are reported for another 42 elements in the moss. The discussion of the obtained data mainly refers to contributions from air pollution. In addition influence from natural processes to the elemental composition of the moss and how it may influence the interpretation of the data is discussed. (Author)

  19. Fertility and Public Policies - Evidence from Norway and Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The relatively high and rising fertility rates of Nordic countries in the late 1980s and early 1990s sparked a renewed research interest in the possible pronatalistic effects of generous family policy programs. Several studies have addressed this issue, but few have tried to model policy effects explicitly. The existing evidence so far is mainly from Sweden, where policy indicators have been incorporated in economic fertility models that also control for female wages. This paper complements previous Swedish analyses with evidence from Norway and Finland. The results corroborate earlier findings of a negative effect of female wages. There are also indications of a positive policy impact, as maternity leave extensions are estimated to raise birth rates, although mainly higher parity births and mainly in Finland.

  20. Health care help seeking behaviour among prisoners in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesset Merete

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prisoners are associated with high health care needs compared with the general population. This study aims to investigate prisoners' use of health service. Methods A cross-sectional study of 29 prisons in central and southern parts of Norway. A questionnaire was distributed to 1, 454 prisoners (90% response rate. Multilevel analyses were employed to analyse help seeking behaviour among the prisoners. Results Help seeking was substantially associated with sleep problems and drug problems. There was also a tendency for closed prisons as well as high staffing levels of healthcare professionals to be associated with elevated health care use. Conclusions This study suggests that sleep problems and drug use are most frequently associated with health service use. The differences in health care use between prisons suggest that the implementation of prison health care standards should be addressed.

  1. CAS course on advanced accelerator physics in Trondheim, Norway

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) recently organised a course on advanced accelerator physics. The course was held in Trondheim, Norway, from 18 to 29 August 2013. Accommodation and lectures were at the Hotel Britannia and practical courses were held at the university.   The course's format included lectures in the mornings and practical courses in the afternoons. The lecture programme consisted of 32 lectures supplemented by discussion sessions, private study and tutorials. The practical courses provided "hands-on" experience in three topics: RF measurement techniques, beam instrumentation and diagnostics, and optics design and corrections. Participants selected one of the three courses and followed the chosen topic throughout the course. The programme concluded with seminars and a poster session.  70 students representing 21 nationalities were selected from over 90 applicants, with most participa...

  2. Strategy for the reduction of radon exposure in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-05-01

    Elevated indoor radon concentrations are a more extensive problem in Norway than in many other countries. It has been estimated that indoor radon causes approximately 300 deaths from lung cancer each year in Norway. On average, avoiding lung cancer increases life expectancy by 14 to 18 years. Radon is a radioactive noble gas formed continually is a decay product from uranium. Uranium is a natural constituent existing in varying concentrations in bedrock, minerals and soils. For this reason, both the soil air and groundwater contain radon. Radon in buildings normally originates from the soil air in the underlying ground. Indoor air pressure is often low, so that radon-containing air from the surrounding ground gets sucked in through cracks in the building foundations. Elevated indoor radon concentrations can be due to household water drawn from groundwater wells, and radon gas can also be emitted from building materials such as certain types of stone or concrete containing high levels of natural radioactivity. Norway, Sweden and Finland are among the the countries in the world with the highest average indoor radon concentrations. Geological conditions and the cool climate pose a big challenge, but the radon problem can be solved in a cost-effective way. Radon is the most common cause of lung cancer after active smoking. At a radon concentration of 100 Bq/m3, which is not far from the estimated average for Norwegian housing, the risks of dying of radon-induced lung cancer before the age of 75 are 0.1 % for non-smokers and 2 % for smokers, respectively. Many buildings in Norway have radon levels that exceed this. The most important health impact of radon exposure is the increased risk of lung cancer. This increase in risk is assumed to be linear in relation to radon concentration (i.e., the risk is 10 times higher at 1000 Bq/m3 compared to 100 Bq/m3). The risk also increases linearly with exposure time, i.e. there is a tenfold greater risk of contracting lung cancer

  3. Norway and the EU may trade emission quotas from 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjernshaugen, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    The EU commission wants to implement quota trade with climate gases from 2005. The proposal, which came in October 2001, describes a quota system limited to the emission of CO 2 in certain industrial sectors. Sources like road traffic and heating of buildings are not comprised by the proposal. It is intended that the agreement will later include more climate gases and more types of activities. This expansion of the implementation becomes most important from 2008-2012, for then the Kyoto Protocol sets the limits for six types of climate gases and lays down rules for international trade with emission quotas. Norway is likely to go in for a limited quota system for 2005 to 2007 and apply for an agreement with the quota market of the EU. It is not certain, however, that the Norwegian authorities will limit the national quota system the same way

  4. RUSSIAN LANGUAGE IN NORTHERN NORWAY: HISTORICAL, ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL TIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Маргарита Ольнова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the topic “Commodification of the Russian language”. The author examines the process of commodification in the Norwegian city of Kirkenes and connects this phenomenon with the rise of the new economy and the current cooperation between Russia and Norway. The paper pre-sents an analysis of the linguistic landscape of Kirkenes, newspaper publications devoted to the “Russian Kirkenes” and interviews with Russian tourists and residents of the city. According to the author, the situation in Kirkenes illustrates the transition of the old economy into a new one: the former mining city turned into a tourist Mecca of the North, a center of cooperation of the Nordic countries. In such conditions, know-ledge of the Russian language becomes beneficial for the city's residents.

  5. Radiocesium in reindeer breeders in Northern Norway since 1965

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selnaes, T.D.; Strand, P.

    1995-01-01

    Reindeer breeders in Kautokeino, Northern Norway, have been monitored for whole body content of 137 Cs every years since 1965. The group was chosen because of it's large intake of reindeer meat (65 kg/year). The same group has been monitored throughout the years. Some supplements have been made, to maintain the average age within the group. Whole body countings have been performed with a scintillation detector and i single- or multichannel analyzer. The highest values were monitored in 1966, when the average body content of 137 Cs was 39,500 Bq for men, and 18,600 Bq for women. Whole body contents are today around 2,000 Bq, giving a calculated whole body dose of 0.1 mSv/year. 5 refs., 4 figs

  6. Relatedness decreases and reciprocity increases cooperation in Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweinfurth, Manon K; Taborsky, Michael

    2018-03-14

    Kin selection and reciprocity are two mechanisms underlying the evolution of cooperation, but the relative importance of kinship and reciprocity for decisions to cooperate are yet unclear for most cases of cooperation. Here, we experimentally tested the relative importance of relatedness and received cooperation for decisions to help a conspecific in wild-type Norway rats ( Rattus norvegicus ). Test rats provided more food to non-kin than to siblings, and they generally donated more food to previously helpful social partners than to those that had refused help. The rats thus applied reciprocal cooperation rules irrespective of relatedness, highlighting the importance of reciprocal help for cooperative interactions among both related and unrelated conspecifics. © 2018 The Author(s).

  7. Depicted welfare-recipient stereotypes in Norway and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker-Larsen, Sofie; Lundberg, Kjetil G.

    2016-01-01

    Welfare recipients are continuously subjected to media debates and governmental campaigns drawing on images and symbols encouraging improved work ethic and individual responsibility. Only few studies, however, have analysed how welfare recipients as ‘othered’ citizens react to these often...... stereotypical symbols and images targeting them. In this study we have investigated how welfare recipients in Norway and Denmark, and caseworkers in Denmark, understand and account for images which, through the use of stereotypes, directly or indirectly may question welfare recipients’ work ethic...... and deservedness. Analysing photo-elicitation interview data, we have uncovered a variety of reactions characterized by ‘problematization’. The interviewees problematize the image and depicted stereotypes, which they link both with motif and symbols and with surrounding public debates on the work ethic...

  8. Depicted welfare recipient stereotypes in Norway and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker-Larsen, Sofie; Lundberg, Kjetil G.

    2016-01-01

    Welfare recipients are continuously subjected to media debates and governmental campaigns drawing on images and symbols encouraging improved work ethic and individual responsibility. Only few studies, however, have analysed how welfare recipients as ‘othered’ citizens react to these often...... stereotypical symbols and images targeting them. In this study we have investigated how welfare recipients in Norway and Denmark, and caseworkers in Denmark, understand and account for images which, through the use of stereotypes, directly or indirectly may question welfare recipients’ work ethic...... and deservedness. Analysing photo-elicitation interview data, we have uncovered a variety of reactions characterized by ‘problematization’. The interviewees problematize the image and depicted stereotypes, which they link both with motif and symbols and with surrounding public debates on the work ethic...

  9. Transient thermal modeling of permafrost conditions in Southern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Westermann

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermal modeling is a powerful tool to infer the temperature regime of the ground in permafrost areas. We present a transient permafrost model, CryoGrid 2, that calculates ground temperatures according to conductive heat transfer in the soil and in the snowpack. CryoGrid 2 is forced by operational air temperature and snow-depth products for potential permafrost areas in Southern Norway for the period 1958 to 2009 at 1 km2 spatial resolution. In total, an area of about 80 000 km2 is covered. The model results are validated against borehole temperatures, permafrost probability maps from "bottom temperature of snow" measurements and inventories of landforms indicative of permafrost occurrence. The validation demonstrates that CryoGrid 2 can reproduce the observed lower permafrost limit to within 100 m at all validation sites, while the agreement between simulated and measured borehole temperatures is within 1 K for most sites. The number of grid cells with simulated permafrost does not change significantly between the 1960s and 1990s. In the 2000s, a significant reduction of about 40% of the area with average 2 m ground temperatures below 0 °C is found, which mostly corresponds to degrading permafrost with still negative temperatures in deeper ground layers. The thermal conductivity of the snow is the largest source of uncertainty in CryoGrid 2, strongly affecting the simulated permafrost area. Finally, the prospects of employing CryoGrid 2 as an operational soil-temperature product for Norway are discussed.

  10. Getting Norway to eat healthier: what are the opportunities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostindjer, Marije; Amdam, Gro V; Egelandsdal, Bjørg

    2015-02-01

    Increased food consumption and the related problem of obesity have spurred initiatives to motivate consumers to eat healthier. Some strategies have shown positive but only short-term effects, as consumers or other stakeholders do not accept them sufficiently in the long term. The aim of this study was to investigate opportunities for healthier eating in Norway according to both consumers and other stakeholders. Five focus-group sessions were conducted with individuals working in the food industry, retail, public health, research and various non-governmental organisations related to food consumption. Topics that were discussed in the focus groups were transformed into a consumer survey, which was conducted with 1178 respondents. The focus groups often indicated a specific responsibility for the food industry to get people to eat healthier. Survey respondents indicated that all actors in the food chain had responsibility for healthier eating in the population, but agreed that the food industry, as well as the health authority, have major responsibilities. Food education was regarded as a favourable strategy in the focus groups and by survey respondents to help people to eat healthier, as were less advertising of unhealthy food and developing new healthy food products. Such strategies should be focused on parents, families, schools and children according to both focus group and survey participants. Implementation challenges include consumers wanting freedom to choose what they eat and consumers wanting food information that is easier to understand. this study showed that consumers and other stakeholders see opportunities for healthier eating in Norway by providing more food education and clearer food information, targeted towards children, families and parents. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  11. The building network energy statistics 2004[Norway]; Bygningsnettverkets energistatistikk 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The energy statistics for 2004 is the 8th in a row from the building network. The report presents analysis and statistics for various building energy use and technical installations. There are 1907 building objects included in the statistics situated in 254 of the counties in the country. In all this includes 9.3 mill. square meters heated area. Out of this 2.5 % residences is mainly constituted of department buildings. The rest is non-residential buildings in total 7.6 % of the entire building mass in Norway. The total energy consumption in the selection in 2004 is approx. 2.4 TWh. The climate in Norway in 2004 was the 6th warmest since the measurements started for 138 years ago. The report includes energy gradient figures and energy use from various climatic zones. The report shows the energy consumption distributed on various building types, variations in the energy consumption depending on the type of heating system, cooling, building sizes, ages and other factors. Figures for the energy consumption related to building function are included. Approx. 60 % of the buildings is new since the last yearly report. Those that were included in the 2003 report show a reduction in the temperature corrected specific energy consumption of 4.7 % from 2003 to 2004. The oil consumption has been reduced the most. Several building types have reduced the oil consumption with 50% and the total reduction is about 11 mill. litres of oil. The reasons are partly a switch to electric heating systems and partly a general reduction of the energy consumption. The report also includes statistics regarding technical conditions in the buildings such as heating system types, energy carriers, cooling, ventilation, energy flexibility, utilization and other factors. (tk)

  12. Hydrometeorological threshold conditions for debris flow initiation in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Meyer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows, triggered by extreme precipitation events and rapid snow melt, cause considerable damage to the Norwegian infrastructure every year. To define intensity-duration (ID thresholds for debris flow initiation critical water supply conditions arising from intensive rainfall or snow melt were assessed on the basis of daily hydro-meteorological information for 502 documented debris flow events. Two threshold types were computed: one based on absolute ID relationships and one using ID relationships normalized by the local precipitation day normal (PDN. For each threshold type, minimum, medium and maximum threshold values were defined by fitting power law curves along the 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles of the data population. Depending on the duration of the event, the absolute threshold intensities needed for debris flow initiation vary between 15 and 107 mm day−1. Since the PDN changes locally, the normalized thresholds show spatial variations. Depending on location, duration and threshold level, the normalized threshold intensities vary between 6 and 250 mm day−1. The thresholds obtained were used for a frequency analysis of over-threshold events giving an estimation of the exceedance probability and thus potential for debris flow events in different parts of Norway. The absolute thresholds are most often exceeded along the west coast, while the normalized thresholds are most frequently exceeded on the west-facing slopes of the Norwegian mountain ranges. The minimum thresholds derived in this study are in the range of other thresholds obtained for regions with a climate comparable to Norway. Statistics reveal that the normalized threshold is more reliable than the absolute threshold as the former shows no spatial clustering of debris flows related to water supply events captured by the threshold.

  13. Season and preterm birth in Norway: A cautionary tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Clarice R; Shi, Min; DeRoo, Lisa A; Basso, Olga; Skjærven, Rolv

    2015-06-01

    Preterm birth is a common, costly and dangerous pregnancy complication. Seasonality of risk would suggest modifiable causes. We examine seasonal effects on preterm birth, using data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (2,321,652 births), and show that results based on births are misleading and a fetuses-at-risk approach is essential. In our harmonic-regression Cox proportional hazards model we consider fetal risk of birth between 22 and 37 completed weeks of gestation. We examine effects of both day of year of conception (for early effects) and day of ongoing gestation (for seasonal effects on labour onset) as modifiers of gestational-age-based risk. Naïve analysis of preterm rates across days of birth shows compelling evidence for seasonality (P distribution of the fetal population at risk. When we instead properly treat fetuses as the individuals at risk, restrict analysis to pregnancies with relatively accurate ultrasound-based assessment of gestational age (available since 1998) and adjust for socio-demographic factors and maternal smoking, we find modest effects of both time of year of conception and time of year at risk, with peaks for early preterm near early January and early July. Analyses of seasonal effects on preterm birth are demonstrably vulnerable to confounding by seasonality of conception, measurement error in conception dating, and socio-demographic factors. The seasonal variation based on fetuses reveals two peaks for early preterm, coinciding with New Year's Day and the early July beginning of Norway's summer break, and may simply reflect a holiday-related pattern of unintended conception. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association 2015. This work is written by a US Government employee and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Fault distribution in the Precambrian basement of South Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielsen, Roy H.; Nystuen, Johan Petter; Olesen, Odleiv

    2018-03-01

    Mapping of the structural pattern by remote sensing methods (Landsat, SPOT, aerial photography, potential field data) and field study of selected structural elements shows that the cratonic basement of South Norway is strongly affected by a regular lineament pattern that encompasses fault swarms of different orientation, age, style, attitude and frequency. Albeit counting numerous fault and fracture populations, the faults are not evenly distributed and N-S to NNE-SSW/NNW-SSE and NE-SE/ENE-WSW-systems are spatially dominant. N-S to NNW-SSE structures can be traced underneath the Caledonian nappes to the Western Gneiss Region in western and central South Norway, emphasizing their ancient roots. Dyke swarms of different ages are found within most of these zones. Also, the Østfold, Oslo-Trondheim and the Mandal-Molde lineament zones coincide with trends of Sveconorwegian post-collision granites. We conclude that the N-S-trend includes the most ancient structural elements, and that the trend can be traced back to the Proterozoic (Svecofennian and Sveconorwegian) orogenic events. Some of the faults may have been active in Neoproterozoic times as marginal faults of rift basins at the western margin of Baltica. Remnants of such fault activity have survived in the cores of many of the faults belonging to this system. The ancient systems of lineaments were passively overridden by the Caledonian fold-and-thrust system and remained mostly, but note entirely inactive throughout the Sub-Cambrian peneplanation and the Caledonian orogenic collapse in the Silurian-Devonian. The system was reactivated in extension from Carboniferous times, particularly in the Permian with the formation of the Oslo Rift and parts of it remain active to the Present, albeit by decreasing extension and fault activity.

  15. Cumulative Risk of Bovine Mastitis Treatments in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Valde, JP; Lawson, LG; Lindberg, A; Agger, JF; Saloniemi, H; Østerås, O

    2004-01-01

    Data from the national dairy cow recording systems during 1997 were used to calculate lactation-specific cumulative risk of mastitis treatments and cumulative risk of removal from the herds in Denmark, Finland Norway and Sweden. Sweden had the lowest risk of recorded mastitis treatments during 305 days of lactation and Norway had the highest risk. The incidence risk of recorded mastitis treatments during 305 days of lactation in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden was 0.177, 0.139, 0.215 and...

  16. The presence and leachability of antimony in different wastes and waste handling facilities in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okkenhaug, G; Almås, Å R; Morin, N; Hale, S E; Arp, H P H

    2015-11-01

    The environmental behaviour of antimony (Sb) is gathering attention due to its increasingly extensive use in various products, particularly in plastics. Because of this it may be expected that plastic waste is an emission source for Sb in the environment. This study presents a comprehensive field investigation of Sb concentrations in diverse types of waste from waste handling facilities in Norway. The wastes included waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), glass, vehicle fluff, combustibles, bottom ash, fly ash and digested sludge. The highest solid Sb concentrations were found in WEEE and vehicle plastic (from 1238 to 1715 mg kg(-1)) and vehicle fluff (from 34 to 4565 mg kg(-1)). The type of acid used to digest the diverse solid waste materials was also tested. It was found that HNO3:HCl extraction gave substantially lower, non-quantitative yields compared to HNO3:HF. The highest water-leachable concentration for wastes when mixed with water at a 1 : 10 ratio were observed for plastic (from 0.6 to 2.0 mg kg(-1)) and bottom ash (from 0.4 to 0.8 mg kg(-1)). For all of the considered waste fractions, Sb(v) was the dominant species in the leachates, even though Sb(iii) as Sb2O3 is mainly used in plastics and other products, indicating rapid oxidation in water. This study also presents for the first time a comparison of Sb concentrations in leachate at waste handling facilities using both active grab samples and DGT passive samples. Grab samples target the total suspended Sb, whereas DGT targets the sum of free- and other chemically labile species. The grab sample concentrations (from 0.5 to 50 μg L(-1)) were lower than the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) of 113 μg L(-1). The DGT concentrations were substantially lower (from 0.05 to 9.93 μg L(-1)) than the grab samples, indicating much of the Sb is present in a non-available colloidal form. In addition, air samples were taken from the chimney and areas within combustible waste incinerators, as

  17. The Development of Computer Policies in Government, Political Parties, and Trade Unions in Norway 1961-1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgsaas, Knut; Hegna, Håvard

    A “Council for Government Electronic Data Processing” was established in 1961. This was the start of development of a common policy for computers and data within the public administration. In 1969-70, computers got on the agenda of political parties and the trade unions. In the course of the seventies and the beginning of the eighties the government, the political parties, and the trade unions established a more comprehensive view of data political questions that we will designate by the term data policy. This paper puts some light on the causes and forces that drove the evolvement of a data policy within these central sectors in Norway. We will also show how various actors of research, trade and industry, and political life influenced the development of data policy and present links between the actors that indicate that they mutually influenced each other.

  18. Nursing Home Physicians' Assessments of Barriers and Strategies for End-of-Life Care in Norway and The Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Anette; Zuidema, Sytse; Boersma, Froukje

    2017-01-01

    of patients’ family, pain- and symptom assessment protocols, EOL care guidelines, routines for advance care planning, and education in EOL care for physicians and nursing staff. Conclusions: Inadequate staffing levels, as well as lack of competence, time, and interest emerge as important barriers to quality...... physicians usually work part time in NHs. Thus, we aimed at assessing and comparing NH physicians’ perspectives on barriers and strategies for providing EOL care in NHs in Norway and in The Netherlands. Design: A cross-sectional study using an electronic questionnaire was conducted in 2015. Setting...... physicians’ perceptions of organizational, educational, financial, legal, and personal prerequisites for quality EOL care. Differences between the countries were compared using χ2 test and t-test. Results: Most respondents in both countries reported inadequate staffing, lack of skills among nursing personnel...

  19. The effect of processing treatments on the radiation-induced ESR signal in the cuticle of irradiated Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, E.M.; Stevenson, M.H.; Gray, R.; McMurray, C.H.

    1993-01-01

    Cooked, frozen or chilled whole tails of Norway lobster were either not irradiated or given doses of 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 kGy using cobalt 60 source. The cuticle was removed, freeze-dried and ground before determination of the free radical concentration using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The ESR signal strength increased linearly with increasing irradiation dose. In comparison to the chilled samples, cooking before irradiation significantly increased (69%) signal intensity whereas cooking after irradiation decreased (27%) signal strength. Irradiating the samples in the frozen state did not significantly alter the free radical concentration in the cuticle. (author)

  20. Development and test of selective sorting grids used in the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Holst, René; Frandsen, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    Due to generally high discard rates in Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) fisheries, a discard ban coming up and to the cod recovery plan in several areas, selective sorting grids have been tested in many areas and are specified by legislation for use in the Kattegat and Skagerrak area bordering...... Norway, Denmark and Sweden. Grids are very selective, but they can lead to loss of landable Norway lobster and valuable fish species. To improve retention of these species, we developed three new grids using made by polyurethane to make them flexible: One grid had horizontal bars, one had vertical bars....... More flatfish passed the grid with horizontal bars compared to that with vertical bars, but the retention rate was still low. Use of the guiding funnel increased the contact with the grid considerably for both target and unwanted species. In all three grid designs, there were losses of Norway lobster...

  1. Composition and physical state of phospholipids in calanoid copepods from India and Norway

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Farkas, T.; Storebakken, T.; Bhosle, N.B.

    The fatty acid composition and physical state of isolated phospholipids obtained from marine copepods collected on the Southwest coast of India (Calanus spp.) and the west coast of Norway (Calanus finmarchicus) were investigated to compare...

  2. France and Norway. The unfulfilled Troll agreement; Frankrike og Norge. Den uoppfylte Trollavtalen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenier, Samuel

    1997-12-31

    The present reports starts by presenting Norway as an oil and gas producer and an exporting country and France as an importing country. It describes the relations between France and Norway during the Troll gas negotiations and then goes on to describe the compensation policy adopted by the French authorities during these negotiations. The main aim of the report is to discover whether France`s requests of 1986 have actually been realised. In order to do this, it first analyses the position occupied by French petroleum companies in Norwegian offshore sectors and secondly seeks to account for the evolution of trade exchanges between France and Norway. It will be seen that new investments in the production fields and in transportation systems have been realised most of the time by Norwegian firms as from 1986 and that France`s trade deficit towards Norway has not levelled off as from the time of the Troll deal. 18 figs., 40 tabs., 24 refs

  3. Strategic Decisions and Implications of the German Assault on Norway in 1940

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amundsen, Steinar

    2005-01-01

    .... Dismissing one-dimensional theories on the decisions for and strategic implications of the German attack on Norway, this paper discusses underlying factors in the German decision-making process...

  4. Strategic Decisions and Implications of the German Assault on Norway in 1940

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amundsen, Steinar

    2005-01-01

    ... several objectives along the long Norwegian seaboard and in the deep Norwegian fjords. Ultimately setting the preconditions for a long-term occupation of Norway, Weseruebung was an operational success and secured strategic advantages for Germany...

  5. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  6. Forum for fire protection and safety in power plants[Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The conference contains 16 presentations on topics in the fields of fire protection and safety in plants in Western Norway, reorganization and reconstruction of power systems and plants in Norway, various aspects of risk and vulnerability analysis, technological aspects of plant management and construction and problems and risks with particularly transformers. Some views on challenges of the fire departments and the new Norwegian regulations for electrical power supply systems are included. One presentation deals with challenges for Icelandic power production plants.

  7. A critical readjustment : Analyzing the regional employment composition in Norway during times of change

    OpenAIRE

    Gramstad, Emma Hartland; Wærness, Katrine Willumsen

    2016-01-01

    The dramatic fall in the oil price, which started in June 2014, introduced a national debate concerning the future of the petroleum sector in Norway. This thesis examines the sectoral employment composition in Norway, and expands the country-level analysis by looking at regional differences. The main focus is on Rogaland, which is clearly dependent on the petroleum sector. Rogaland’s development is compared to three counties that are presumed to be less petroleum dependent, nam...

  8. The labor market regimes of Denmark and Norway – one Nordic\\ud model?

    OpenAIRE

    Gooderham, Paul; Navrbjerg, Steen E.; Olsen, Karen Modesta; Steen, Christina Roe

    2015-01-01

    The literature on the Danish and Norwegian labor market systems emphasizes the commonalities of the two systems. We challenge this perception by investigating how employers in multinational companies in Denmark and Norway communicate with employees on staffing changes. We argue that the development of ‘flexicurity’ in Denmark grants Danish employers considerably greater latitude in engaging in staffing changes than its Nordic counterpart, Norway. Institutional theory leads us to suppose that ...

  9. The Role of Environmental Civil Liability in Regulation of Marine Oil Pollution in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Denissova, Ekaterina

    2008-01-01

    Awareness of domestic and international environmental issues has long been high in Norway. As far as marine oil pollution is concerned, Norway is exposed to coastal water pollution arising from such strategically important sectors as the petroleum industry and oil transportation. This paper is an attempt to make a positive economic analysis of environmental civil liability for marine oil pollution in these two sectors. In the theoretical part of this paper (section 2) the standard model o...

  10. Job creation, heterogeneous workers and technical change : matched worker/plant data : evidence from Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Salvanes, Kjell G.; Førre, Svein Erik

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Using matched worker/plant level data for Norway, theories explaining the change in skill composition are assessed using direct evidence on the job creation and destruction for high, medium and low skilled workers. Skill based job creation is analysed in detail for plants in a high-skill service sector and in low- and high-tech manufacturing sectors. Given a compressed wage structure in Norway and increased supply of high skilled workers, the supply of skills may also explain the...

  11. CO2 point sources and subsurface storage capacities for CO2 in aquifers in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boee, Reidulv; Magnus, Christian; Osmundsen, Per Terje; Rindstad, Bjoern Ivar

    2002-01-01

    The GESTCO project comprises a study of the distribution and coincidence of thermal CO 2 emission sources and location/quality of geological storage capacity in Europe. Four of the most promising types of geological storage are being studied. 1. Onshore/offshore saline aquifers with or without lateral seal. 2. Low entalpy geothermal reservoirs. 3. Deep methane-bearing coal beds and abandoned coal and salt mines. 4. Exhausted or near exhausted hydrocarbon structures. In this report we present an inventory of CO 2 point sources in Norway (1999) and the results of the work within Study Area C: Deep saline aquifers offshore/near shore Northern and Central Norway. Also offshore/near shore Southern Norway has been included while the Barents Sea is not described in any detail. The most detailed studies are on the Tilje and Aare Formations on the Troendelag Platform off Mid-Norway and on the Sognefjord, Fensfjord and Krossfjord Formations, southeast of the Troll Field off Western Norway. The Tilje Formation has been chosen as one of the cases to be studied in greater detail (numerical modelling) in the project. This report shows that offshore Norway, there are concentrations of large CO 2 point sources in the Haltenbanken, the Viking Graben/Tampen Spur area, the Southern Viking Graben and the central Trough, while onshore Norway there are concentrations of point sources in the Oslofjord/Porsgrund area, along the coast of western Norway and in the Troendelag. A number of aquifers with large theoretical CO 2 storage potential are pointed out in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and in the Southern Barents Sea. The storage capacity in the depth interval 0.8 - 4 km below sea level is estimated to be ca. 13 Gt (13000000000 tonnes) CO 2 in geological traps (outside hydrocarbon fields), while the storage capacity in aquifers not confined to traps is estimated to be at least 280 Gt CO 2 . (Author)

  12. Effect of mountain biking on red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Kaupanger, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Scholten, Janneke

    2016-01-01

    Human outdoor activities, like mountain biking, often affect animal behaviour. Ungulates might avoid roads and trails, and increase their avoidance with increasing human activity. Recently, biking on forest trails has increased considerably in Norway, but we still have limited knowledge about how forest biking may affect wildlife. In this study, I used pellet group counts and camera traps to study the effect of biking trails on red deer occurrence in Kaupanger, Norway. Based on pellet group c...

  13. Pathogenicity of Neonectria fuckeliana on Norway Spruce Clones in Sweden and Potential Management Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Pettersson; Venche Talgø; John Frampton; Bo Karlsson; Jonas Rönnberg

    2018-01-01

    The fungus Neonectria fuckeliana has become an increasing problem on Norway spruce (Picea abies) in the Nordic countries during recent years. Canker wounds caused by the pathogen reduce timber quality and top-dieback is a problem for the Christmas tree industry. In this study, four inoculation trials were conducted to examine the ability of N. fuckeliana to cause disease on young Norway spruce plants and determine how different wound types would affect the occurrence and severity of the disea...

  14. An endogenous relationship between wages, job opportunity, and skilled labor shortage in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yin Jien

    2010-01-01

    Norway's economy has gone through unprecedented growth in the past decade. The strong growth in GDP, employment, labor productivity, real wage, and labor immigration combines with increasing outflows from the labor force, such as early retirement scheme, sickness and disability, and old age retirement implies that Norway's labor market is tight. We hypothesize demographic changes and skilled and unskilled job composition affects tertiary education participation through wage premium and job ...

  15. Understanding the woman entrepreneur: the dynamics of starting a business in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Hetland, Ida Jaarvik

    2013-01-01

    Master's thesis in Economic analysis Purpose The purpose of this thesis is to examine women entrepreneurship in the regional context of Norway, and how factors in their micro and meso/macro environment affect their success. More specifically the thesis addresses the following research question: How does the interplay between the micro and meso/macro environment affect the success of women entrepreneurs in Norway? Research Method The paper exploit a rich set of qualitative data to...

  16. Wind power offshore - industrial possibilities for Norway; Vindkraft offshore - industrielle muligheter for Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bysveen, S; Hoelseater, O H; Lier-Hansen, S; Hatlen, S; Soensteby, G. (Energiraadet, Oslo (Norway))

    2008-05-15

    The Europeans alteration of energy policy gives Norway a unique possibility to develop new business activity in the contractor industry as well as become a large exporter of renewable energy to Europe. Sea based wind power marks it self as the area with largest potential and is an area where Norway has a large advantage. This possibility is outlined in this report with offshore wind power as the foundation of business development and energy export to the continent

  17. Norway's historical and projected water balance in TWh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddeland, Ingjerd; Holmqvist, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Hydroelectric power production is closely linked to the water cycle, and variations in power production numbers reflect variations in weather. The expected climate changes will influence electricity supply through changes in annual and seasonal inflow of water to hydropower reservoirs. In Norway, more than 95 percent of the electricity production is from hydroelectric plants, and industry linked to hydropower has been an important part of the society for more than a century. Reliable information on historical and future available water resources is hence of crucial importance both for short and long-term planning and adaptation purposes in the hydropower sector. Traditionally, the Multi-area Power-market Simulator (EMPS) is used for modelling hydropower production in Norway. However, due to the models' high level of details and computational demand, this model is only used for historical analyses and a limited number of climate projections. A method has been developed that transfers water fluxes (mm day-1) and states (mm) into energy units (GWh mm-1), based on hydrological modelling of a limited number of catchments representing reservoir inflow to more than 700 hydropower plants in Norway. The advantages of using the conversion factor method, compared to EMPS, are its simplicity and low computational requirements. The main disadvantages are that it does not take into account flood losses and the time lag between inflow and power production. The method is used operationally for weekly and seasonal energy forecasts, and has proven successful at the range of results obtained for reproducing historical hydropower production numbers. In hydropower energy units, mean annual precipitation for the period 1981-2010 is estimated at 154 TWh year-1. On average, 24 TWh year-1 is lost through evapotranspiration, meaning runoff equals 130 TWh year-1. There are large interannual variations, and runoff available for power production ranges from 91 to 165 TWh year-1. The snow pack

  18. A Two-Year Ecological Study of Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a Brazilian Urban Slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panti-May, Jesús A; Carvalho-Pereira, Ticiana S A; Serrano, Soledad; Pedra, Gabriel G; Taylor, Josh; Pertile, Arsinoê C; Minter, Amanda; Airam, Vladimir; Carvalho, Mayara; Júnior, Nivison N; Rodrigues, Gorete; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I; Childs, James E; Begon, Mike; Costa, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The Norway or brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) is among the most ubiquitous of rodents. However, the lack of studies describing Norway rat populations from tropical areas have limited our understanding regarding their demography and seasonal dynamics. In this study, we describe seasonal pattern in the abundance, reproductive parameters, and morphometrics of Norway rat populations in Salvador, Brazil. Rodents were trapped over four seasonal trapping periods (2013-2014) from three valleys. A total of 802 Norway rats were trapped over the course of the study over 7653 trap-nights. Norway rat abundance was high, but there was no significant differences between seasons. The reproductive parameters (e.g. frequency of pregnant and lactating females) did not show statistical differences between seasons. Female rats collected in the rainy season were heavier and older than females from the dry season. Salvador rats had a high incidence of pregnancy and birth rate (estimated birth rate of 79 young per year) compared to previous studies. The information generated is critical for the understanding of the ecology of Norway rat, the main reservoir of Leptospira in Salvador. However, future studies examining the effect of rodent control programs aimed at reducing populations, and determining rates of recovery, will further clarify our understanding of population dynamics.

  19. Debris flow early warning systems in Norway: organization and tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleivane, I.; Colleuille, H.; Haugen, L. E.; Alve Glad, P.; Devoli, G.

    2012-04-01

    In Norway, shallow slides and debris flows occur as a combination of high-intensity precipitation, snowmelt, high groundwater level and saturated soil. Many events have occurred in the last decades and are often associated with (or related to) floods events, especially in the Southern of Norway, causing significant damages to roads, railway lines, buildings, and other infrastructures (i.e November 2000; August 2003; September 2005; November 2005; Mai 2008; June and Desember 2011). Since 1989 the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) has had an operational 24 hour flood forecasting system for the entire country. From 2009 NVE is also responsible to assist regions and municipalities in the prevention of disasters posed by landslides and snow avalanches. Besides assisting the municipalities through implementation of digital landslides inventories, susceptibility and hazard mapping, areal planning, preparation of guidelines, realization of mitigation measures and helping during emergencies, NVE is developing a regional scale debris flow warning system that use hydrological models that are already available in the flood warning systems. It is well known that the application of rainfall thresholds is not sufficient to evaluate the hazard for debris flows and shallow slides, and soil moisture conditions play a crucial role in the triggering conditions. The information on simulated soil and groundwater conditions and water supply (rain and snowmelt) based on weather forecast, have proved to be useful variables that indicate the potential occurrence of debris flows and shallow slides. Forecasts of runoff and freezing-thawing are also valuable information. The early warning system is using real-time measurements (Discharge; Groundwater level; Soil water content and soil temperature; Snow water equivalent; Meteorological data) and model simulations (a spatially distributed version of the HBV-model and an adapted version of 1-D soil water and energy balance

  20. The effects of food and maternal conditions in fetal growth and size in wild reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terje Skogland

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available Fetal growth rates and birth weights were studied in four wild reindeer areas in Southern Norway (Hardangervidda, Hallingskarvet, Knutshø, Forelhogna, representing high and low density populations, with a 5-fold difference in mean lichen winter-food availability. Fetal growth was depressed by 42% in the high-densitv Hardangervidda population, and mean birth weights were 3.7 vs. 6.2 kg, with a 10 days difference in mean birth dates. Fetal size was better correlated with maternal weight, than age. Maternal weights increased until 5 yrs. of age and then decreased in the high-density Hardangervidda population (but not so in the low density Knutshø-Forclhogna populations. 55% of the offspring died before weaning in the Hardangervidda herd, but no significant calf losses were found amont the large-sized does in the food-abundant areas.Effekter av ernæring og simlas kondisjon på vekst og størrelse av foster hos villrein.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Fostervekst og fødselsvekter ble undersøkt i fire villreinområder i Sør-Norge (Hardangervidda, Hallingskarvet, Knutshø og Forelhogna som representerer høg- og lågtetthetsstammer, med en 5-foldig forskjell i gjennomsnittlig lavbeite-tilgang om vinteren. Fosterveksten ble nedsatt med 42% i høgtetthetsstammen på Hardangervidda og fødselsvektene var i gjennomsnitt 3,7 kg, mot 6,2 kg i det beste området, og med en 10 dagers forsinkelse i midlere fødselsdato. Fosterets størrelse var korrelert med morens vekt, som igjen var avhengig av hennes alder. Hos de minste simlene i det dårligste området økte vektene til 5-års alder, for deretter å avta for hvert gjenlevende år. Hos simlene i det beste området økte vektene til 10-års alder, og var da dobbelt så tunge som fra det dårligste området. 55% av avkommet døde før de var avvent med diing hos Hardangervidda-simlene, mens det ikke var noen statistisk målbar dødelighet hos kalvene i Knutshø-Forelhogna.Ravinnon vaikutus ja

  1. Environmental considerations in physical planning in Norway and Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naess, P; Saglie, I L; Glowacki, W; Dunin-Woyseth, H

    1998-12-31

    As a part of an agreement on environmental cooperation between Norway and Eastern Europe, a comparative case study was carried out of environmental considerations in physical planning since 1968 in the Norwegian municipality of Sandefjord and the Polish municipality of Myslenice. This report discusses the final results. Land use planning is surprisingly similar in the two countries. In both, the plans emphasize the protection of farmland and scarce biotopes as well as sewage management. In Myslenice, a major concern has been cultural heritage and cultural landscapes while in Sandefjord attention was paid more to natural areas for outdoor recreation. In both cases there has been little focus on energy conservation and the concept of sustainable development has hardly been discussed. The plans have been considerably influenced by national environmental policies. The type of political system, capitalism vs. state socialism, has indirectly influenced the amount of construction and hence the pace of conversion of undeveloped land, but does not appear to have had much impact on the environmental content of the plans. The emphasis laid on various environmental issues in part reflects the actual local challenges, but also cross-national cultural differences and the fact that during the period the environmental agenda has been widened in both municipalities, most clearly seen in the case of Sandefjord. The plans seem to have been considerably influenced by professional ideals, knowledge and methods common among planners across national boundaries. 52 refs., 1 figure, 2 tabs.

  2. Governance of public health: Norway in a Nordic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgesen, Marit K

    2014-11-01

    The two pillars of public health are health promotion and disease prevention. Based on a notion of governance in the state -local relation as changing from hierarchical via New Public Management (NPM) to New Public Governance (NPG), the governance of public health in Norway is contrasted to governance of public health in the other Nordic states: Denmark, Finland and Sweden. The article aims to present and discuss the governance of public health as it is played out in the state-local relationship. The method is to study central state documents in the four countries, as well as articles, research reports and papers on public health. The article shows that the governance modes (hierarchy, NPM and NPG) exist in parallel, but that their mechanisms actually vary in use. Legal, economic and informational mechanisms are, to a varying degree, in use. In Finnish and Swedish public health policies, health promotion is at the forefront; while Danish and Norwegian public health policies spur the local governments to carry out interventions to prevent disease and hospital admissions. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  3. [When state authorisation was introduced for medical doctors in Norway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haave, Per

    2007-12-13

    In 1927, a law was implemented in Norway that for the first time required medical students to be state authorised before they could practice medicine and use the title medical doctor. The question of authorisation split the professional elite, both the Norwegian Medical Association and the Medical Faculty at the University of Oslo. Those very few members of the professional elite that advocated authorisation did, however, convince the government as well as the parliament that authorisation should be given and recalled by the state. State authorisation was first of all aimed at protecting the medical profession against "unfit" members; it was not a question of monopolising medical work or preventing other groups from working within the healthcare services. To put this into context, one should know that there had been a transition from a bureaucratic to a free labour market and most doctors were no longer engaged by the State, but had to practise in a private market. One feared that this would undermine the doctors' authority and status. In this situation, authorisation by the state was considered necessary to safeguard the public's confidence in doctors and their work.

  4. Selection of Norway spruce somatic embryos by computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamalainen, Jari J.; Jokinen, Kari J.

    1993-05-01

    A computer vision system was developed for the classification of plant somatic embryos. The embryos are in a Petri dish that is transferred with constant speed and they are recognized as they pass a line scan camera. A classification algorithm needs to be installed for every plant species. This paper describes an algorithm for the recognition of Norway spruce (Picea abies) embryos. A short review of conifer micropropagation by somatic embryogenesis is also given. The recognition algorithm is based on features calculated from the boundary of the object. Only part of the boundary corresponding to the developing cotyledons (2 - 15) and the straight sides of the embryo are used for recognition. An index of the length of the cotyledons describes the developmental stage of the embryo. The testing set for classifier performance consisted of 118 embryos and 478 nonembryos. With the classification tolerances chosen 69% of the objects classified as embryos by a human classifier were selected and 31$% rejected. Less than 1% of the nonembryos were classified as embryos. The basic features developed can probably be easily adapted for the recognition of other conifer somatic embryos.

  5. Quantitative variability of renewable energy resources in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakos, Konstantinos; Varlas, George; Cheliotis, Ioannis; Aalstad, Kristoffer; Papadopoulos, Anastasios; Katsafados, Petros; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan

    2017-04-01

    Based on European Union (EU) targets for 2030, the share of renewable energy (RE) consumption should be increased at 27%. RE resources such as hydropower, wind, wave power and solar power are strongly depending on the chaotic behavior of the weather conditions and climate. Due to this dependency, the prediction of the spatiotemporal variability of the RE resources is more crucial factor than in other energy resources (i.e. carbon based energy). The fluctuation of the RE resources can affect the development of the RE technologies, the energy grid, supply and prices. This study investigates the variability of the potential RE resources in Norway. More specifically, hydropower, wind, wave, and solar power are quantitatively analyzed and correlated with respect to various spatial and temporal scales. In order to analyze the diversities and their interrelationships, reanalysis and observational data of wind, precipitation, wave, and solar radiation are used for a quantitative assessment. The results indicate a high variability of marine RE resources in the North Sea and the Norwegian Sea.

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions in Norway: do carbon taxes work?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruvoll, Annegrete; Larsen, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    During the last decade, Norway has carried out an ambitious climate policy. The main policy tool is a relatively high carbon tax, which was implemented already in 1991. Data for the development in CO 2 emissions since then provide a unique opportunity to evaluate carbon taxes as a policy tool. To reveal the driving forces behind the changes in the three most important climate gases, CO 2 , methane and N 2 O in the period 1990-1999, we decompose the actually observed emissions changes, and use an applied general equilibrium simulation to look into the specific effect of carbon taxes. Although total emissions have increased, we find a significant reduction in emissions per unit of GDP over the period due to reduced energy intensity, changes in the energy mix and reduced process emissions. Despite considerable taxes and price increases for some fuel-types, the carbon tax effect has been modest. While the partial effect from lower energy intensity and energy mix changes was a reduction in CO 2 emissions of 14 percent, the carbon taxes contributed to only 2 percent reduction. This relatively small effect relates to extensive tax exemptions and relatively inelastic demand in the sectors in which the tax is actually implemented

  7. Preparing for climate change impacts in Norway's built environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert Lisoe, K.; Aandahl, G.; Eriksen, S.; Alfsen, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Norwegian climate policy and of the practical implications of preparing Norway for climate change, with special emphasis on the challenges confronting the built environment. Although the Norwegian government has been relatively proactive in instituting measures aimed at halting global climate change, less attention has been paid to the challenge of adapting to climate change. The global climate system is likely to undergo changes, regardless of the implementation of abatement policies under the Kyoto Protocol or other regimes. The full range of impacts resulting from these changes is still uncertain; however, it is becoming increasingly clear that adaptation to climate change is necessary and inevitable within several sectors. The potential impacts of climate change in the built environment are now being addressed. Both the functionality of the existing built environment and the design of future buildings are likely to be altered by climate change impacts, and the expected implications of these new conditions are now investigated. However, measures aimed at adjustments within individual sectors, such as altering the criteria and codes of practice for the design and construction of buildings, constitute only a partial adaptation to climate change. In order to adapt effectively, larger societal and intersectoral adjustments are necessary. (author)

  8. The impact of the Chernobyl accident on Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, G.C.

    1988-01-01

    As the fallout from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests gradually decreased during the 1970s, the national preparedness and analytical capacity in Norway gradually disintegrated as well. The Chernobyl accident was therefore met without any overall contingency preparedness plan. The affected governmental bodies and other institutions had to improvise their first steps, including information to the public, until necessary coordination had been established. A complicating factor was the change of government during the first days of May 1986, the reasons for this had however nothing to do with the reactor accident. A great deal of uncertainty prevailed about the accident and its consequences especially during the first days after the accident. The Ministry of Health and Social Affairs and the Ministry of the Environment in May 1986 both appointed committees to report on the accident and its impacts and on a future preparedness system, although their terms of reference were not identical. A third committee was appointed in June by the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs to report on the information crises in connection with the accident

  9. Electricity market reform failures: UK, Norway, Alberta and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikeung Woo; Lloyd, Debra; Tishler, Asher

    2003-01-01

    An analysis of electricity market reforms already taken place in the UK, Norway, Alberta (Canada) and California (USA) leads to our overall conclusion that the introduction of a competitive generation market, of itself, has failed to deliver reliable service at low and stable prices. The market reform failures are attributed to market power abuse by few dominant sellers (especially at times of transmission congestion), poor market design that invites strategic bidding by suppliers, the lack of customer response to price spikes, capacity shortage caused by demand growth not matched by new capacity, and thin trading of forward and futures contracts that are critical for price discovery and risk management. The paper then explains why an electricity market reform can easily fail to deliver the promised gains of better service at lower and more stable prices. The policy implication is that an electric market reform can be extremely risky, and may lead to a disastrous outcome. Thus, it is imprudent to implement such a reform in countries with limited sites for new generation and no indigenous fuels (e.g., Israel and Hong Kong). These countries should therefore consider introducing performance-based regulation that can immediately benefit electricity consumers in terms of lower prices, more stable prices, improved reliability, more choices, while encouraging the electric sector to pursue efficient operation and investment. (Author)

  10. PETROMAKS - Examples from petroleum research in Norway 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-01-15

    PETROMAKS is the umbrella for most of the petroleum-oriented research supported by the Research Council of Norway. The programme covers both long-term basic research and applied research, resulting in the development of new competence as well as innovation.This is the largest single programme run by the RCN. Insofar as possible, the programme will implement the strategy drawn up by the Norwegian petroleum industry's strategic body OG21 (Oil and Gas in the 21st Century). Large-scale programmes are an important tool at the Research Council towards realisation of prioritised central research policy. They shall provide enhanced knowledge in the long-term national sense, with an eye towards stimulated innovation and increased added-value or generate knowledge that contribute to solving prioritised social challenges. Content of the pamphlet: PETROMAKS - A Large-scale Programme for optimal management of petroleum resources; At the bottom of the sea; Robots at Alnabru; Seismic giant founded on research and innovation; Supplying electricity under water; The researcher who never gave up; Infrared eyes keeping watch in the north; Company on the offensive with research as its weapon; Long-term oil research produced new exploration technology; PETROMAKS - Summary of 2008. (AG)

  11. Resource revenue management and wealth neutrality in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohn, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    An important idea behind the Norwegian oil fund mechanism and the fiscal spending rule is to protect the non-oil economy from the adverse effects of excessive spending of resource revenues over the Government budget. A critical assumption in this respect is that public sector saving is not being offset by private sector dis-saving, which is at stake with the hypothesis of Ricardian equivalence. Based on a framework of co-integrating saving rates, this model provides an empirical test of the Ricardian equivalence hypothesis on Norwegian time series data. Although the model rejects the strong-form presence of Ricardian equivalence, results indicate that the Norwegian approach does not fully succeed in separating spending of resource revenues from the accrual of the same revenues. - Highlights: •A review of resource revenue management in Norway is presented. •A model of Ricardian equivalence is formulated for a resource-rich economy. •Econometric results are provided for LT equilibrium ST dynamics. •Results suggest modest substitution between government and household saving.

  12. The Chernobyl accident - did it affect pregnancy outcomes in Norway?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjeldestad, F.E.; Munch, J.S.; Madland, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    The outcome of pregnancies in the county of Soer-Troendelag in Norway, during the 27 months preceding and 21 months after the Chernobyl accident has been analysed on the basis of time of conception. The analysis showed a significant decrease in the number of conceptions during the three months immediately after the accident (April - June 1986). This finding can be interpreted to mean fewer ''planned'' conceptions. The Chernobyl accident did not seem to have had any impact on the proportion of conceptions ending as spontaneous abortions or ectopic pregnancies. There was a significant drop in the proportion of pregnancies ending as induced abortions during the year after the accident compared with the year before. However, due to some variation during this year, it is difficult to draw any definite conclusions concerning the impact of the accident on induced abortions in this county. The proportion of pregnancies ending as births increased significantly during the year after the Chernobyl accident compared with the year before. 22 refs., 1 tab

  13. Maternal Health Coping Strategies of Migrant Women in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Viken

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to explore the maternal health coping strategies of migrant women in Norway. The ethnic and cultural background of the Norwegian population have become increasingly diverse. A challenge in practice is to adjust maternal health services to migrant women’s specific needs. Previous studies have revealed that migrant women have difficulty achieving safe pregnancies and childbirths. Data were obtained by means of 17 semistructured interviews with women from South America, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and Africa. Qualitative content analysis was employed. One overall theme is as follows: keeping original traditions while at the same time being willing to integrate into Norwegian society, and four themes emerged as follows: balancing their sense of belongingness; seeking information and support from healthcare professionals; being open to new opportunities and focusing on feeling safe in the new country. The results were interpreted in the light of Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model. To provide quality care, healthcare professionals should focus on the development of migrant women’s capabilities. Adaptation of maternal health services for culturally diverse migrant women also requires a culturally sensitive approach on the part of healthcare professionals.

  14. [Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Norway 1992-2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmannskog, Svein; Flaegstad, Trond; Helgestad, Jon; Hellebostad, Marit; Zeller, Bernward; Glomstein, Anders

    2007-05-31

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common malignancy in childhood. The survival rate has increased steadily over the last 40 years. All children aged 0-15 years and diagnosed in Norway in the period 1992-2000, were included in the study (n = 301). The patients were followed up until 1.1. 2005. The diagnosis was made in 301 children, 33 new cases per year (range 24 to 40) on average. The peak incidence was between 2 and 5 years. Four of 6 infants with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and all 4 with mature B-cell leukemia are alive. Two of the remaining 291 children died before treatment was started. 289 were all treated according to the common Nordic NOPHO-ALL 1992 protocol. All children achieved remission (99.7%), except for one who died before remission was achieved. 55 children (19%) relapsed. Radiation to the brain as part of central nervous system prophylaxis was given to just 10% of the children. The 10-year event-free survival (p-EFS) was 76%, and 244 of 289 (84%) were alive 4-13 years after the diagnosis was made. The data are comparable with the best international results.

  15. Food advertising towards children and young people in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugge, Annechen Bahr

    2016-03-01

    Despite the fact that no studies have been carried out to map the amount of unhealthy food advertising aimed at Norwegian children and adolescents, it is still widely held belief that this type of advertising is disproportionately common. As a consequence, one of the issues high on the agenda in Norway in the 2000s was the possibility of imposing restrictions on advertising for unhealthy foods to children. The purpose of this study is to contribute with a research-based foundation for implementing this health initiative by mapping food marketing in media channels widely used by children and adolescents. In sum, the study shows that the food industry spends a lot of resources to influence young consumers' eating and drinking habits. Compared with studies from USA, UK and Australia, however, there are, strong indications that there is significantly less unhealthy food advertising in Scandinavian countries. Similar to a previous Swedish study, this study shows that Norwegian children and young people were exposed to little advertising for unhealthy food products through media channels such as TV, the Internet, magazines, comics and cinemas. The study also supports critical remarks from some researchers that the extensive use of the international discourse as a political argument and recommendation for Norwegian conditions is not accurate. For the future it may be beneficial to look more closely at the relationship between advertising and health policy, and how this relationship can be further developed to improve children and young people's diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Seasonal Development of Microbial Activity in Soils of Northern Norway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. B(O)LTER; N. SOETHE; R. HORN; C. UHLIG

    2005-01-01

    Seasonal development of soil microbial activity and bacterial biomass in sub-polar regions was investigated to determine the impacts of biotic and abiotic factors, such as organic matter content, temperature and moisture. The study was performed during spring thaw from three cultivated meadows and two non-cultivated forest sites near Alta, in northern Norway. Samples from all five sites showed increasing respiration rates directly after the spring thaw with soil respiration activity best related to soil organic matter content. However, distributions of bacterial biomass showed fewer similarities to these two parameters. This could be explained by variations of litter exploitation through the biomass. Microbial activity started immediately after the thaw while root growth had a longer time lag. An influence of root development on soil microbes was proposed for sites where microorganisms and roots had a tight relationship caused by a more intensive root structure. Also a reduction of microbial activity due to soil compaction in the samples from a wheel track could not be observed under laboratory conditions. New methodological approaches of differential staining for live and dead organisms were applied in order to follow changes within the microbial community. Under laboratory conditions freeze and thaw cycles showed a damaging influence on parts of the soil bacteria. Additionally, different patterns for active vs.non-active bacteria were noticeable after freeze-thaw cycles.

  17. Electricity market reform failures: UK, Norway, Alberta and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.-K.; Lloyd, Debra; Tishler, Asher

    2003-01-01

    An analysis of electricity market reforms already taken place in the UK, Norway, Alberta (Canada) and California (USA) leads to our overall conclusion that the introduction of a competitive generation market, of itself, has failed to deliver reliable service at low and stable prices. The market reform failures are attributed to market power abuse by few dominant sellers (especially at times of transmission congestion), poor market design that invites strategic bidding by suppliers, the lack of customer response to price spikes, capacity shortage caused by demand growth not matched by new capacity, and thin trading of forward and futures contracts that are critical for price discovery and risk management. The paper then explains why an electricity market reform can easily fail to deliver the promised gains of better service at lower and more stable prices. The policy implication is that an electric market reform can be extremely risky, and may lead to a disastrous outcome. Thus, it is imprudent to implement such a reform in countries with limited sites for new generation and no indigenous fuels (e.g., Israel and Hong Kong). These countries should therefore consider introducing performance-based regulation that can immediately benefit electricity consumers in terms of lower prices, more stable prices, improved reliability, more choices, while encouraging the electric sector to pursue efficient operation and investment

  18. Monitoring of raptors and their contamination levels in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjershaug, Jan Ove; Kålås, John Atle; Nygård, Torgeir; Herzke, Dorte; Folkestad, Alv Ottar

    2008-09-01

    This article summarizes results from raptor monitoring and contamination studies in Norway of the golden eagle, gyrfalcon, white-tailed sea eagle, osprey, peregrine, and merlin. Golden eagle and gyrfalcon populations have been monitored since 1990 as part of the "Monitoring Programme for Terrestrial Ecosystems" (TOV). No long-term trend in the population size or productivity of golden eagle has been shown in any of the 5 study areas. The reproductive output of gyrfalcon is monitored in 3 areas. It is positively correlated with the populations of its main prey species, the rock ptarmigan and the willow ptarmigan. The white-tailed sea eagle population has been monitored since 1974 by the Norwegian Ornithological Society, and the population is increasing. The levels of pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls are low in the eggs of both the golden eagle and the gyrfalcon, but elevated levels and effects on reproduction have been indicated for a coastal subpopulation of golden eagle. The pollutant levels in white-tailed sea eagle are lower than in the Baltic population of sea eagles, and shell thinning was never severe overall, but individual eggs have contained pollutant concentrations above critical levels. The levels of pollutants in the bird-eating falcons, peregrine, and merlin were higher than in other species. New emerging pollutants, like brominated diphenylethers and perfluorinated organic compounds, could be detected in all species. By incorporating available published and unpublished data, we were able to produce time trends for pollutants and shell thickness over 4 decades.

  19. Environmental considerations in physical planning in Norway and Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naess, P.; Saglie, I.L.; Glowacki, W.; Dunin-Woyseth, H.

    1997-12-31

    As a part of an agreement on environmental cooperation between Norway and Eastern Europe, a comparative case study was carried out of environmental considerations in physical planning since 1968 in the Norwegian municipality of Sandefjord and the Polish municipality of Myslenice. This report discusses the final results. Land use planning is surprisingly similar in the two countries. In both, the plans emphasize the protection of farmland and scarce biotopes as well as sewage management. In Myslenice, a major concern has been cultural heritage and cultural landscapes while in Sandefjord attention was paid more to natural areas for outdoor recreation. In both cases there has been little focus on energy conservation and the concept of sustainable development has hardly been discussed. The plans have been considerably influenced by national environmental policies. The type of political system, capitalism vs. state socialism, has indirectly influenced the amount of construction and hence the pace of conversion of undeveloped land, but does not appear to have had much impact on the environmental content of the plans. The emphasis laid on various environmental issues in part reflects the actual local challenges, but also cross-national cultural differences and the fact that during the period the environmental agenda has been widened in both municipalities, most clearly seen in the case of Sandefjord. The plans seem to have been considerably influenced by professional ideals, knowledge and methods common among planners across national boundaries. 52 refs., 1 figure, 2 tabs.

  20. Foreign exchange risk management : how are the largest non-financial companies in Norway managing their foreign exchange rate exposure?

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksen, Krister; Wedøe, Ola

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how the largest non-financial companies in Norway manage their foreign exchange rate exposure. This is investigated through the use of a survey distributed to a sample the largest non-financial firms in Norway. According to our results, the largest non-financial companies in Norway have a predefined strategy for managing foreign exchange risk, which is defined by the board of directors or by the management in the organisation. The companies’ mai...

  1. Norway's eternal wealth; Norway's and petroleum company Statoil's history; Norges evige rikdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, Arve

    2008-07-01

    The story of Norway's petroleum history told by narrator Arve Johnsen, the first CEO of the Norwegian petroleum company Statoil. An autobiographical account of how Johnsen arrived in the position as CEO, and his account of the years from the discovery of petroleum at the Norwegian continental shelf up to the present (2008) (ml)

  2. Norway maple displays greater seasonal growth and phenotypic plasticity to light than native sugar maple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Alain; Fontaine, Bastien; Berninger, Frank; Dubois, Karine; Lechowicz, Martin J; Messier, Christian; Posada, Juan M; Valladares, Fernando; Brisson, Jacques

    2012-11-01

    Norway maple (Acer platanoides L), which is among the most invasive tree species in forests of eastern North America, is associated with reduced regeneration of the related native species, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) and other native flora. To identify traits conferring an advantage to Norway maple, we grew both species through an entire growing season under simulated light regimes mimicking a closed forest understorey vs. a canopy disturbance (gap). Dynamic shade-houses providing a succession of high-intensity direct-light events between longer periods of low, diffuse light were used to simulate the light regimes. We assessed seedling height growth three times in the season, as well as stem diameter, maximum photosynthetic capacity, biomass allocation above- and below-ground, seasonal phenology and phenotypic plasticity. Given the north European provenance of Norway maple, we also investigated the possibility that its growth in North America might be increased by delayed fall senescence. We found that Norway maple had significantly greater photosynthetic capacity in both light regimes and grew larger in stem diameter than sugar maple. The differences in below- and above-ground biomass, stem diameter, height and maximum photosynthesis were especially important in the simulated gap where Norway maple continued extension growth during the late fall. In the gap regime sugar maple had a significantly higher root : shoot ratio that could confer an advantage in the deepest shade of closed understorey and under water stress or browsing pressure. Norway maple is especially invasive following canopy disturbance where the opposite (low root : shoot ratio) could confer a competitive advantage. Considering the effects of global change in extending the potential growing season, we anticipate that the invasiveness of Norway maple will increase in the future.

  3. Comparison of Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Policies in the Czech Republic and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnilicová, Helena; Nome, Siri; Dobiášová, Karolína; Zvolský, Miroslav; Henriksen, Roger; Tulupova, Elena; Kmecová, Zuzana

    2017-06-01

    The Czech Republic is characterized by high alcohol consumption and is well known as the world's biggest consumer of beer. In contrast, the alcohol consumption in Norway is relatively low. In this article, we describe and discuss alcohol policy development in the Czech Republic since the mid-1980s to the present and its impact on the alcohol consumption and compare our findings, including the dynamics of the total alcohol consumption and the development of drinking patterns among young people, with the situation in Norway. The study uses the methodology of "process tracing". Selected national statistics, research outcomes and related policy documents were analyzed to identify possible relations between the alcohol consumption and the alcohol policy in two different environments and institutional/policy settings. There was a clear difference in alcohol consumption trends in both countries in the last three decades. Norway was characterized by low alcohol consumption with tendency to decline in the last years. In contrast, the Czech Republic showed an upward trend. In addition, alcohol consumption among Czech youth has been continuously increasing since 1995, whereas the opposite trend has occurred in Norway since the late 1990s. The results revealed that the alcohol-control policies of the Czech Republic and Norway were significantly different during the study period. Norway had a very restrictive alcohol policy, in contrast to the liberal alcohol policy adopted in the Czech Republic, in particular after political transition in 1990. Liberalization of social life together with considerable decline of alcohol price due to complete privatization of alcohol production and sale contributed to an increase of the alcohol consumption in the Czech Republic. Persistently high alcohol consumption among general population and its growth among young people in the Czech Republic pose social, economic and health threats. Norway could provide the inspiration to Czech politicians

  4. Comparison of sick leave patterns between Norway and Denmark in the health and care sector: a register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krane, Line; Fleten, Nils; Stapelfeldt, Christina M; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Jensen, Chris; Johnsen, Roar; Braaten, Tonje

    2013-11-01

    Sickness absence is of considerable concern in both Norway and Denmark. Labour Force Surveys indicate that absence in Norway is about twice that in Denmark and twice that of the mean reported by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. This study compares absence patterns according to age, percentage of employment, and occupation between municipal employees in the health and care sectors in two municipalities in Norway and Denmark. Data recorded in the personnel registers of the municipalities of Kristiansand, Norway and Aarhus, Denmark were extracted for the years 2004 and 2008, revealing 3498 and 7751 employee-years, respectively. We calculated absence rates together with number of sick leave episodes, and their association with the above-mentioned covariates. Gender-specific comparative descriptive statistics and negative binomial regression analysis were performed. The sickness absence rate in women was 11.3% in Norway (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.2-11.4) and 7.0% in Denmark (95% CI 7.0-7.1) whereas mean number of sick leave episodes among women was 2.4 in Denmark, compared to 2.3 in Norway (p = 0.02). Young employees in Denmark had more sick leave episodes than in Norway. Proportion of absentees was higher in Denmark compared to Norway (p Norway, for whatever reasons, may indicate that more frequent sick leaves episodes prevent higher sick leaves rates.

  5. Hip fracture incidence is decreasing in the high incidence area of Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støen, R O; Nordsletten, L; Meyer, H E; Frihagen, J F; Falch, J A; Lofthus, C M

    2012-10-01

    This study reports a significant decrease in age-adjusted incidence rates of hip fracture for women in Oslo, Norway, even compared with data from 1978/1979. Use of bisphosphonate may explain up to one third of the decline in the incidence. The aims of the present study were to report the current incidence of hip fractures in Oslo and to estimate the influence of bisphosphonates on the current incidence. Using the electronic diagnosis registers and lists from the operating theaters of the hospitals of Oslo, all patients with ICD-10 codes S72.0 and S72.1 (hip fracture) in 2007 were identified. Medical records of all identified patients were reviewed to verify the diagnosis. Age- and gender-specific annual incidence rates were calculated using the population of Oslo on January 1, 2007 as the population at risk. Data on the use of bisphosphonates were obtained from official registers. A total number of 1,005 hip fractures, 712 (71%) in women, were included. The age-adjusted fracture rates per 10,000 for the age group >50 years were 82.0 for women and 39.1 for men in 2007, compared with 110.8 and 41.4 in 1996/1997, 116.5 and 42.9 in 1988/1989, and 97.5 and 34.5 in 1978/1979, respectively. It was estimated that the use of bisphosphonates may explain up to 13% of the decline in incidence in women aged 60-69 years and up to 34% in women aged 70-79 years. The incidence of hip fractures in women in Oslo has decreased significantly during the last decade and is now at a lower level than in 1978/1979. This reduction was not evident in men. The incidence of hip fractures in Oslo is, however, still the highest in the world.

  6. Epidemiology and Health-Related Quality of Life in Hypoparathyroidism in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astor, Marianne C; Løvås, Kristian; Debowska, Aleksandra; Eriksen, Erik F; Evang, Johan A; Fossum, Christian; Fougner, Kristian J; Holte, Synnøve E; Lima, Kari; Moe, Ragnar B; Myhre, Anne Grethe; Kemp, E Helen; Nedrebø, Bjørn G; Svartberg, Johan; Husebye, Eystein S

    2016-08-01

    The epidemiology of hypoparathyroidism (HP) is largely unknown. We aimed to determine prevalence, etiologies, health related quality of life (HRQOL) and treatment pattern of HP. Patients with HP and 22q11 deletion syndrome (DiGeorge syndrome) were identified in electronic hospital registries. All identified patients were invited to participate in a survey. Among patients who responded, HRQOL was determined by Short Form 36 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. Autoantibodies were measured and candidate genes (CaSR, AIRE, GATA3, and 22q11-deletion) were sequenced for classification of etiology. We identified 522 patients (511 alive) and estimated overall prevalence at 102 per million divided among postsurgical HP (64 per million), nonsurgical HP (30 per million), and pseudo-HP (8 per million). Nonsurgical HP comprised autosomal dominant hypocalcemia (21%), autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (17%), DiGeorge/22q11 deletion syndrome (15%), idiopathic HP (44%), and others (4%). Among the 283 respondents (median age, 53 years [range, 9-89], 75% females), seven formerly classified as idiopathic were reclassified after genetic and immunological analyses, whereas 26 (37% of nonsurgical HP) remained idiopathic. Most were treated with vitamin D (94%) and calcium (70%), and 10 received PTH. HP patients scored significantly worse than the normative population on Short Form 36 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale; patients with postsurgical scored worse than those with nonsurgical HP and pseudo-HP, especially on physical health. We found higher prevalence of nonsurgical HP in Norway than reported elsewhere. Genetic testing and autoimmunity screening of idiopathic HP identified a specific cause in 21%. Further research is necessary to unravel the causes of idiopathic HP and to improve the reduced HRQOL reported by HP patients.

  7. Ethical questions in landslide management and risk reduction in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurisano, A.; Lyche, E.; Thakur, V.; Wiig, T.; Øvrelid, K.; Devoli, G.

    2012-04-01

    The loss of lives caused by landslides in Norway is smaller than in other countries due to the low population density in exposed areas. However, annual economic losses from damage to properties and infrastructures are vast. Yet nationally coordinated efforts to manage and reduce landslide and snow avalanche risk are a recent challenge, having started only in the last decade. Since 2009, this has been a task of the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) under the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy. Ongoing work includes collection of landslide data, production of susceptibility and hazard maps, planning of mitigation measures along with monitoring and early warning systems, assistance to areal planning, providing expertise in emergencies and disseminating information to the public. These activities are realized in collaboration with the Norwegian Geological Survey (NGU), the Meteorological Institute, the Road and Railway authorities, universities and private consultant companies. As the total need for risk mitigating initiatives is by far larger than the annual budget, priority assessment is crucial. This brings about a number of ethical questions. 1. Susceptibility maps have been produced for the whole country and provide a first indication of areas with potential landslide or snow avalanche hazard, i.e. areas where special attention and expert assessments are needed before development. Areas where no potential hazard is shown can in practice be developed without further studies, which call for relatively conservative susceptibility maps. However, conservative maps are problematic as they too often increase both cost and duration of building projects beyond the reasonable. 2. Areas where hazard maps or risk mitigation initiatives will be funded are chosen by means of cost-benefits analyses which are often uncertain. How to estimate the benefits if the real probability for damage can only be judged on a very subjective level but not really calculated

  8. Explaining socioeconomic inequalities in exclusive breast feeding in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bærug, Anne; Laake, Petter; Løland, Beate Fossum; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Tufte, Elisabeth; Fretheim, Atle

    2017-08-01

    In high-income countries, lower socioeconomic position is associated with lower rates of breast feeding, but it is unclear what factors explain this inequality. Our objective was to examine the association between socioeconomic position and exclusive breast feeding, and to explore whether socioeconomic inequality in exclusive breast feeding could be explained by other sociodemographic characteristics, for example, maternal age and parity, smoking habits, birth characteristics, quality of counselling and breastfeeding difficulties. We used data from a questionnaire sent to mothers when their infants were five completed months as part of a trial of a breastfeeding intervention in Norway. We used maternal education as an indicator of socioeconomic position. Analyses of 1598 mother-infant pairs were conducted using logistic regression to assess explanatory factors of educational inequalities in breast feeding. Socioeconomic inequalities in exclusive breast feeding were present from the beginning and persisted for five completed months, when 22% of the most educated mothers exclusively breast fed compared with 7% of the least educated mothers: OR 3.39 (95% CI 1.74 to 6.61). After adjustment for all potentially explanatory factors, the OR was reduced to 1.49 (95% CI 0.70 to 3.14). This decrease in educational inequality seemed to be mainly driven by sociodemographic factors, smoking habits and breastfeeding difficulties, in particular perceived milk insufficiency. Socioeconomic inequalities in exclusive breast feeding at 5 months were largely explained by sociodemographic factors, but also by modifiable factors, such as smoking habits and breastfeeding difficulties, which can be amenable to public health interventions. NCT01025362. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Self reported involvement in emergency medicine among GPs in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortdahl, Magnus; Zakariassen, Erik; Halvorsen, Peder A

    2018-04-10

    To examine general practitioners' (GPs') perception of their role in emergency medicine and participation in emergency services including ambulance call outs, and the characteristics of the GPs and casualty clinics associated with the GPs' involvement in emergency medicine. Cross-sectional online survey. General practice. General practitioners in Norway (n = 1002). Proportion of GPs perceiving that they have a large role in emergency medicine, regularly being on call, and the proportion of ambulance callouts with GP participation. Forty six percent of the GPs indicated that they play a large role in emergency medicine, 63 percent of the GPs were regularly on call, and 28 percent responded that they usually took part in ambulance call outs. Multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that these outcomes were strongly associated with participation in multidisciplinary training. Furthermore, the main outcomes were associated with traits commonly seen at smaller casualty clinics such as those with an absence of nursing personnel and extra physicians, and based on the distance to the hospital. Our findings suggest that GPs play an important role in emergency medicine. Multidisciplinary team training may be important for their continued involvement in prehospital emergencies. Key Points   Health authorities and other stakeholders have raised concerns about general practitioner's (GPs) participation in emergency medicine, but few have studied opinions and perceptions among the GPs themselves.   • Norwegian GPs report playing a large role in emergency medicine, regularly being on call, and taking part in selected ambulance call outs.   • A higher proportion of GPs who took part in team training perceived themselves as playing a large role in emergency medicine, regularly being on call, and taking part in ambulance call outs.   • These outcomes were also associated with attributes commonly seen at smaller casualty clinics.

  10. Social inequalities in mental health in Norway: possible explanatory factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalgard Odd

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that there is a social gradient in mental health, the prevalence of mental disorders stepwise increasing by lower social status. The reason for this, however, is not clear, and the purpose of the present study was to explore possible mediating factors between social status and mental health. Methods The study has a cross-sectional design, and was based on a nationwide survey in Oslo, Norway, counting 12 310 people in the age of 30–60 years. Immigrants from non-western countries were excluded. Socio-demographic data were gathered from existing registers, whereas data on health, psychosocial variables and life style were gathered by structured interview. As indicator of mental health was used a 10-items version of Hopkins Symptom Checklist, measuring psychological distress. Measures of general self-efficacy and sense of powerlessness was used as indicators of control of own life situation. Results A strong social gradient in mental health was found, the prevalence of psychological distress increasing by decreasing social status. Psychosocial factors, including self-efficacy, sense of powerlessness, control of work, social support and negative life events, in particular economic problems, as well as life style factors (physical exercise, BMI, smoking and somatic health, likewise showed a social gradient, all risk factors increasing by decreasing social status. When adjusting for the risk factors in multivariate statistical analyses, the social gradient in mental health was eliminated. Low self-efficacy and sense of powerlessness emerged as important explanatory factors, alongside with poor social support, economic problems, smoking and somatic disorder. Conclusion Both individual characteristics, supposedly linked to the personality, like low self-efficacy, and factors related to the actual life situation, like economic problems and a feeling of powerlessness, contribute to the social gradient in mental health

  11. Severe hypertriglyceridemia in Norway: prevalence, clinical and genetic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retterstøl, Kjetil; Narverud, Ingunn; Selmer, Randi; Berge, Knut E; Osnes, Ingvild V; Ulven, Stine M; Halvorsen, Bente; Aukrust, Pål; Holven, Kirsten B; Iversen, Per O

    2017-06-12

    There is a lack of comprehensive patient-datasets regarding prevalence of severe hypertriglyceridemia (sHTG; triglycerides ≥10 mmol/L), frequency of co-morbidities, gene mutations, and gene characterization in sHTG. Using large surveys combined with detailed analysis of sub-cohorts of sHTG patients, we here sought to address these issues. We used data from several large Norwegian surveys that included 681,990 subjects, to estimate the prevalence. Sixty-five sHTG patients were investigated to obtain clinical profiles and candidate disease genes. We obtained peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from six male patients and nine healthy controls and examined expression of mRNAs involved in lipid metabolism. The prevalence of sHTG was 0.13 (95% CI 0.12-0.14)%, and highest in men aged 40-49 years and in women 60-69 years. Among the 65 sHTG patients, a possible genetic cause was found in four and 11 had experienced acute pancreatitis. The mRNA expression levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)-1A, CPT2, and hormone-sensitive lipase, were significantly higher in patients compared to controls, whereas those of ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G, member 1 were significantly lower. In Norway, sHTG is present in 0.1%, carries considerable co-morbidity and is associated with an imbalance of genes involved in lipid metabolism, all potentially contributing to increased cardiovascular morbidity in sHTG.

  12. A Bed-Deformation Experiment Beneath Engabreen, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, N. R.; Hooyer, T. S.; Fischer, U. H.; Cohen, D.; Jackson, M.; Moore, P. L.; Lappegard, G.; Kohler, J.

    2001-12-01

    Although deformation of sediment beneath ice masses may contribute to their motion and may sometimes enable fast glacier flow, both the kinematics and mechanics of deformation are controversial. This controversy stems, in part, from subglacial measurements that are difficult to interpret. Measurements have been made either beneath ice margins or remotely through boreholes with interpretive limitations caused by uncertain instrument position and performance, uncertain sediment thickness and bed geometry, and unknown disturbance of the bed and stress state by drilling. We have used a different approach made possible by the Svartisen Subglacial Laboratory, which enables human access to the bed of Engabreen, Norway, beneath 230 m of temperate ice. A trough (2 m x 1.5 m x 0.4 m deep) was blasted in the rock bed and filled with sediment (75 percent sand and gravel, 20 percent silt, 5 percent clay). Instruments were placed in the sediment to record shear deformation (tiltmeters), dilation and contraction, total normal stress, and pore-water pressure. Pore pressure was manipulated by feeding water to the base of the sediment with a high-pressure pump, operated in a rock tunnel 4 m below the bed surface. After irregular deformation during closure of ice on the sediment, shear deformation and volume change stopped, and total normal stress became constant at 2.2 MPa. Subsequent pump tests, which lasted several hours, induced pore-water pressures greater than 70 percent of the total normal stress and resulted in shear deformation over most of the sediment thickness with attendant dilation. Ice separated from the sediment when effective normal stress was lowest, arresting shear deformation. Displacement profiles during pump tests were similar to those observed by Boulton and co-workers at Breidamerkurjökull, Iceland, with rates of shear strain increasing upward toward the glacier sole. Such deformation does not require viscous deformation resistance and is expected in a

  13. The EISCAT_3D Project in Norway: E3DN

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Hoz, C.; Oksavik, K.

    2013-12-01

    EISCAT_3D (E3D) is a project to build the next generation of incoherent scatter radars endowed with 3-dimensional scalar and vector capabilities that will replace the current EISCAT radars in Northern Scandinavia. One active (transmitting) site in Norway and four passive (receiving) sites in the Nordic countries will provide 3-D vector imaging capabilities by rapid scanning and multi-beam forming. The unprecedented flexibility of the solid-state transmitter with high duty-cycle, arbitrary wave-forming and polarisation and its pulsed power of 10 MW will provide unrivalled experimental capabilities to investigate the highly non-stationary and non-homogeneous state of the polar upper atmosphere. Aperture Synthesis Imaging Radar (ASIR) will to endow E3D with imaging capabilities in 3-dimensions that includes sub-beam resolution. Complemented by pulse compression, it will provide 3-dimensional images of certain types of incoherent scatter radar targets resolved to about 100 metres at 100 km range, depending on the signal-to-noise ratio. The Norwegian scientific programme is inspired by the pioneer polar scientist Kristian Birkeland (picture) and includes pressing questions on polar upper atmospheric research, among others: (Q1) How to proceed beyond the present simplistic, static, stationary and homogeneous analysis of upper atmospheric and ionospheric processes? (Q2) How does space weather affect ionospheric processes and how to support modelling and space weather services? (Q3) How to advance fundamental plasma physics by employing the ionosphere as a natural plasma physics laboratory? (Q4) How does the influx of extraterrestrial material interact with the upper atmosphere and where does the material originate from? (Q5) How does solar activity couple from geospace into the lower atmosphere and climate system, and does this energy change the wave forcing of geospace from below? Kristian Birkeland, Norwegian scientist and pioneer in polar and auroral research.

  14. Visual impairment in children and adolescents in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Olav H; Bredrup, Cecilie; Rødahl, Eyvind

    2016-06-01

    BACKGROUND Due to failures in reporting and poor data security, the Norwegian Registry of Blindness was closed down in 1995. Since that time, no registration of visual impairment has taken place in Norway. All the other Nordic countries have registries for children and adolescents with visual impairment. The purpose of this study was to survey visual impairments and their causes in children and adolescents, and to assess the need for an ophthalmic registry.MATERIAL AND METHOD Data were collected via the county teaching centres for the visually impaired in the period from 2005 - 2010 on children and adolescents aged less than 20 years with impaired vision (n = 628). This was conducted as a point prevalence study as of 1 January 2004. Visual function, ophthalmological diagnosis, systemic diagnosis and additional functional impairments were recorded.RESULTS Approximately two-thirds of children and adolescents with visual impairment had reduced vision, while one-third were blind. The three largest diagnostic groups were neuro-ophthalmic diseases (37 %), retinal diseases (19 %) and conditions affecting the eyeball in general (14 %). The prevalence of additional functional impairments was high, at 53 %, most often in the form of motor problems or cognitive impairments.INTERPRETATION The results of the study correspond well with similar investigations in the other Nordic countries. Our study shows that the registries associated with teaching for the visually impaired are inadequate in terms of medical data, and this underlines the need for an ophthalmic registry of children and adolescents with visual impairment.

  15. Liberalization of the natural gas market in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Uchelen, W.J.N.; Roggenkamp, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    During the last few years, the gas market in Norway has been subject to an impressive amount of regulatory reform. Such reform was driven by the necessity to liberalise and internationalise this market in relation to state participation, the abolition of centralised gas sales, and the implementation of the gas directive. The part privatisation of Statoil (in excess of 18%) has been an important step in enabling this company to transform into an international player, managed in alignment with private investors' requirements for cost effectiveness. In addition, the transfer from Statoil to Petoro of management responsibilities regarding the Norwegian state's direct economic interests in exploration and production activities enables a clearer division between private and public interests. Regardless of these changes, the ownership interests and influence of Statoil in the oil and gas industry remain considerable. The abolition of centralised gas sales has led to an obligation for all gas producers to sell their equity gas on an individual basis. This has created a foundation for more competition on the supply side. In order to be able to compete, most of the existing gas sales agreements have had to be renegotiated, the process of which is by now almost complete. A prerequisite for further competition is that more uncontracted gas will be produced. A number of further competition restraints relating to the transport of gas can now be dealt with through the application of a set of new rules, which form the implementation of the gas directive. These rules, together with the harmonised ownership structure of all main gas export pipelines (Gassled), can contribute to the effective utilisation of the upstream gas infrastructure, through independent operatorship (Gassco) and non-discriminatory access. In order for the rules to serve this purpose in practice, it will be necessary for Gassco to develop into a pro-active and visibly independent operator [nl

  16. Hydrological Dynamics In High Mountain Catchment Areas of Central Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Jörg; Rößler, Ole

    Large-scaled landscape structure is regarded as a mosaic of ecotopes where process dynamics of water and energy fluxes are analysed due to its effects on ecosystem functioning. The investigations have been carried out in the continental most Vågå/Oppland high mountains in central Norway since 1994 (LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1999, 2000, 2001). Additionally, comparable investigations started in 2000 dealing with the oceanic high mountain landscapes on same latitudes (LÖFFLER et al. 2001). The theoretical and methodological framework of the project is given by the Landscape-Ecological Complex Analysis (MOSIMANN 1984, 1985) and its variations due to technical and principle methodical challenges in this high mountain landscape (KÖHLER et al. 1994, LÖFFLER 1998). The aim of the project is to characterize high mountain ecosystem structure, functioning and dynamics within small catchment areas, that are chosen in two different altitudinal belts each in the eastern continental and the western oceanic region of central Norway. In the frame of this research project hydrological and meteorological measurements on ground water, percolation and soil moisture dynamics as well as on evaporation, air humidity and air-, surface- and soil-temperatures have been conducted. On the basis of large-scaled landscape-ecological mappings (LÖFFLER 1997) one basic meteorological station and several major data logger run stations have been installed in representative sites of each two catchment areas in the low and mid alpine belts of the investigation regions ( JUNGet al. 1997, LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1997). Moreover, spatial differentiations of groundwater level, soil moisture and temperature profiles have been investigated by means of hand held measurements at different times of the day, during different climatic situations and different seasons. Daily and annual air-, surface- and soil-temperature dynamics are demonstrated by means of thermoisopleth-diagrams for different types of ecotopes of the

  17. Population dynamics of Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis in kelpforests and barren grounds in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerli, Camilla W.; Gran Stadniczeñko, Sandra; Pedersen, Morten Foldager

    2015-01-01

    A northward trend of declining abundance of sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) and increasing kelp recovery along the coast of Norway has provided an opportunity to explore whether the decline of sea urchins can be explained by systematic variations in demographic or fitness-related ......A northward trend of declining abundance of sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) and increasing kelp recovery along the coast of Norway has provided an opportunity to explore whether the decline of sea urchins can be explained by systematic variations in demographic or fitness......-related traits. The population density of sea urchins in mid-Norway (65°70′N) close to the boundary between barren grounds and recently recovered kelp forests was only 26 % of that on barren grounds in northern Norway (70°70′N). Populations were dominated by young (2–4 years) individuals and age-specific numbers...... decreased nearly exponentially with age. The variation in most demographic variables was high among replicate sampling sites and test size. Mean age and growth rates did not differ consistently among sites in mid- and northern Norway nor between barren ground and kelp sites. In contrast, mortality rates...

  18. Switching statins in Norway after new reimbursement policy: a nationwide prescription study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakshaug, Solveig; Furu, Kari; Karlstad, Øystein; Rønning, Marit; Skurtveit, Svetlana

    2007-10-01

    To assess the changes in prescribing of statins in Norway after implementation of the new reimbursement regulations for statins in June 2005. Data were retrieved from the Norwegian Prescription Database covering the total population in Norway (4.6 million). Outcome measures were the proportion of atorvastatin users switching to simvastatin and changes in the proportion of new statin users receiving simvastatin. Based on retail costs for all statin prescriptions dispensed in Norway, expenditure was measured in Norwegian currency. One-year prevalences of statin use increased from 6.3 to 6.8% for women and from 7.5 to 8.1% for men from the year before to the year after the new statin regulations. Of atorvastatin users (N = 131,222), 39% switched to simvastatin during the 13-month period after the implementation. The proportion of switching was higher in women (41%) than in men (36%). In May 2005, 48% of the new statin users received simvastatin. The proportion of new users receiving simvastatin increased rapidly after implementation of the new regulations to 68% in June 2005 and reached 92% in June 2006. Expenditure was reduced from 120 million to 95 million Euro when comparing the year before with the year after the new statin regulations. The new reimbursement policy for statins has had a great impact on physicians' prescribing of statins in Norway. Physicians in Norway acknowledge the importance of contributing to cost containment.

  19. How to keep the profit from Norwegian gas export in Norway?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nese, Gjermund; Straume, Odd Rune

    2005-01-01

    The EU has set a goal of facilitating increased competition in the European gas market, and that this among other things shall lead to lower prices on natural gas. A substantial aspect for Norway, as a big supplier of natural gas to the EU, is weather this will lead to a larger part of the profits being moved down the value chain, thus benefiting the gas consuming countries. In light of this the Norwegian regulating authorities are reviewed and an analysis is provided of how strategic pricing of the natural gas transport from Norway to the EU market can ensure that as much as possible of the profit remains in Norway. The results are divided; increased competition in the EU's gas market may result in importing countries getting more of the profit in the natural gas value chain, but increased competition within Norwegian gas production may give a welfare profit for Norway while it affects the consuming countries in the EU negatively. Strategic pricing of the natural gas transport can in both cases be used to influence the distribution of profits between Norway and importing countries (ml)

  20. Residential energy use: an international perspective on long-term trends in Denmark, Norway and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unander, Fridtjof; Ettestoel, Ingunn; Ting, Mike; Schipper, Lee

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines residential energy use in the Scandinavian countries: Denmark, Norway and Sweden, over the period 1973-1999. The paper uses a decomposition approach to investigate differences in residential energy demand structure and end-use intensities and discusses both differences in absolute levels of energy use and differences over time. Comparisons are also made to other countries that have been analysed in the IEA energy efficiency indicator project. The analysis shows that, in contrast to Denmark and Sweden, Norway saw a growth in total residential energy use between 1973 and 1999. This can be partially explained by the fact that Norway started from a lower per capita income level in the early 1970s but has since then enjoyed a rapid income growth that drove up house area and consequently put a pressure on energy use. But the analysis also shows that Denmark and Sweden achieved significant reductions of residential energy intensities between 1973 and 1990, while the reductions in Norway were negligible. After 1990, the picture changed; there was a strong decline in residential energy intensities in Norway and a high rate of energy savings compared to most other countries analysed by the IEA, while energy savings in Denmark and Sweden more or less came to a halt

  1. Options for CO2-lean hydrogen export from Norway to Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiller, Christoph; Buenger, Ulrich; Svensson, Ann Mari; Moeller-Holst, Steffen; Espegren, Kari Aamodt; Holm, Oeystein Bindesboell; Tomasgaard, Asgeir

    2008-01-01

    Norway is a nation with an abundant supply of energy, both from fossil and renewable resources. Due to limited domestic demand, Norway is today exporting large amounts of petroleum products. For the future, various options for export of CO 2 -lean energy exist, both from Northern and Southern Norway, and both from fossil sources (including carbon capture and storage), and renewable energies (particularly wind power). Transport vectors are hydrogen pipelines, liquid hydrogen ships and HVDC cables, and a plausible customer is central Europe due to its proximity, high population density and lack of domestic energy resources. Within the framework of the ''NorWays'' project, various options to deliver energy for hydrogen-based transportation from Norway to Germany were studied. Eight CO 2 -lean well-to-wheel energy export chains were evaluated with respect to efficiency, GHG emissions and other environmental impacts, costs and utilisation of Norwegian R and D experience. In the chosen scenarios, energy export via hydrogen pipelines and ships appeared energetically and economically interesting against existing approaches as NG and electricity export. Furthermore, increased utilisation of Norwegian R and D experience and higher value creation is anticipated by the export of a higher refined product. (author)

  2. Month of birth as a latitude-dependent risk factor for multiple sclerosis in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytten, Nina; Torkildsen, Øivind; Aarseth, Jan Harald; Benjaminsen, Espen; Celius, Elisabeth Gulowsen; Dahl, Ole Petter; Holmøy, Trygve; Løken-Amsrud, Kristin; Midgard, Rune; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Risberg, Geir; Vatne, Anita; Kampman, Margitta T

    2013-07-01

    We aimed to determine if the risk of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is associated with month of birth in Norway and to explore a possible latitudinal gradient. All patients with MS born between 1930 and 1979 registered in the Norwegian MS Registry or ascertained in Norwegian prevalence studies were included (n = 6649). The latitude gradient was divided in Southern, Middle and Northern Norway, according to the estimated regional yearly mean vitamin D effective UV dose. Risk of MS was 11% higher for those born in April (p = 0.045), and 5% higher for those born in May (p = 0.229), 5% lower for those born in November (p = 0.302) and 12% lower for those born in February (p = 0.053) compared with the corresponding population, unaffected mothers and siblings. In Southern Norway the odds ratio of MS births in April and May was 1.05 (0.98-1.24), in Middle Norway 1.11 (0.97-1.27) and in Northern Norway 1.28 (1.0-1.63) compared with the other months. This study confirms previous reports of increased MS births in spring and decreased MS births in the winter months. This could support the role of decreased sunlight exposure during pregnancy and vitamin D deficiency in prenatal life in MS.

  3. Metal Contamination of the Natural Environment in Norway from Long Range Atmospheric Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinnes, E.

    2001-01-01

    Long range atmospheric transport is the most important source of contamination to the natural environment in Norway with many heavy metals. Investigations based on aerosol studies, bulk deposition measurements and moss analysis show that airborne transport from other parts of Europe is the major mode for supply of vanadium, zinc, arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium, tin,antimony, tellurium, thallium, lead, and bismuth, whereas metals such as chromium, nickel, and copper are mainly derived from point sources within Norway and in northwestern Russia close to the Norwegian border. Elements associated with long range transport show substantial enrichment in the humus horizon of natural soils in southern Norway, sometimes to levels suspected to cause effects on soil microbial processes. E.g. lead concentration values of 150-200 ppm are observed in the most contaminated areas in the south as compared to about 5 ppm in the far north. Elements such as lead and cadmium also show enrichment in some terrestrial food chains. These elements also show considerably elevated levels over background concentrations in the water and sediment of small lakes in the southern part of the country. Retrospective studies based on ombrogenous peatcores indicate that long range transport has been a significant source of heavy metal contamination in southern Norway for the last couple of centuries. The deposition of most heavy metals in Norway has been considerably reduced over the last 20 yr, with the exception of contributions in the north from Russian smelters

  4. Economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Norway in 1986 and 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1988-01-01

    In the accident consequence assessment (ACA) area there is extensive cooperation between the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden), performed within the Nordic Safety Program, and partially funded by the Nordic Council of Ministers, via the Nordic Liaison Committee for Atomic Energy. One of the 17 projects in the ACA-related program area is concerned with the economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Finland, Norway, and Sweden. This paper is limited to describing conditions in Norway. There are areas in Norway where the Chernobyl fallout is >100 kBq/m 2 , and the total amount of radiocesium deposited over Norway is estimated by the National Institute for Radiation Hygiene to be 6% of the radiocesium released from the reactor. The areas where ground concentrations are highest are mostly in sparsely populated mountain areas. These areas are, however, important in connection with several nutritional pathways, notably, sheep, goats, reindeer, and freshwater fish. The purpose of this paper is to summarize information on mitigating actions and economic consequences of the deposited radioactive materials to Norwegian agriculture in the 1986-87 and 1987-88 slaughtering periods

  5. The labor market regimes of Denmark and Norway – One Nordic model?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gooderham, Paul; Navrbjerg, Steen Erik; Olsen, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    The literature on the Danish and Norwegian labor market systems emphasizes the commonalities of the two systems. We challenge this perception by investigating how employers in multinational companies in Denmark and Norway communicate with employees on staffing changes. We argue that the development...... of ‘flexicurity’ in Denmark grants Danish employers considerably greater latitude in engaging in staffing changes than its Nordic counterpart, Norway. Institutional theory leads us to suppose that large firms located in the Danish setting will be less likely to engage in employer–employee communication...... than their foreign-owned counterparts. We supplement institutional theory with an actor perspective in order to take into account the role of labor unions. Our analysis is based on a survey of 203 firms in Norway and Denmark which are either indigenous multinational companies or the subsidiaries...

  6. Transmittance of young Norway spruce stand canopy for photosynthetically active radiation during the growing season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markova, I.; Kubasek, J.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of transmittance of young Norway spruce stand canopy for photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was made at the study site of Bily Kriz (the Moravian-Silesian Beskids Mts., the Czech Republic) at different sky conditions during the growing season in 2010. For the description of PAR transmittance different phenological phases of the spruce stand development in clear and overcast days were chosen. The mean daily PAR transmittance of the spruce canopy was significantly higher in overcast days compared with clear ones. Diffuse PAR thus penetrated into lower parts of the canopy more efficiently than direct one. PAR transmittance of young Norway spruce stand canopy was different in individual phenological phases of the spruce stand canopy which was caused by changes in the stand structure during the growing season. Thus monitoring of transmittance of young Norway spruce stand canopy for PAR can help to describe the development of spruce stand canopy

  7. Cultivable mycobacteria in sphagnum vegetation of moors in South Sweden and coastal Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazda, J; Müller, K; Irgens, L M

    1979-04-01

    Intact sphagnum vegetation from moors in south Sweden and coastal areas of west Norway contained cultivable mycobacteria in 32% and 30% of the specimens, respectively. This frequency of specimens is lower than the 50% previously found in the partly altered moors of northwestern Germany, but the Scandinavian moors contained a larger variety of species. On both intact and altered moors M. chelonei and M. sphagni sp. nov. were found, the latter a homologous group of 151 strains. In south Sweden the highest frequency was found in S. balticum, S. recurvum. S. tenellum and S. compactum & molle. (40-65%). In coastal Norway the highest frequency was found in S. rubellum (48%) which offers favourable conditions for the accumulation of solar energy due to the red brown colour in the upper parts. Combined with a high humidity in coastal Norway in summer, this may contribute to the growth of mesophilic mycobacteria. A significant affinity of M. chelonei to S. tenellum was stated.

  8. Energy efficiency in Norway (1997). Cross Country Comparison on Energy Efficiency Indicators - Phase 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Leif Kristian

    2000-02-01

    This is the national report for Norway in phase 5 of the SAVE project 'Cross country comparison of energy efficiency indicators'. The report deals with energy use and energy efficiency in Norway the last 20 years, with a special emphasis on the period after 1990. A detailed sector analysis has been done, applying Laspeyres indices to attribute changes in energy use to either activity, structure or intensity (efficiency). Aggregating sectors, we have found a total efficiency improvement of maximum 7-8 TWH from 1990 to 1997. This corresponds to a saving of 0.5% per year. In the same period, final energy use per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was reduced by approx 2.4% per year. Thereby most of the reduction in final energy intensity can not be attributed to increased energy efficiency. Almost all data are taken from official Norwegian statistics (Statistics Norway). (author)

  9. Cadmium and zinc toxicity in white pine, red maple, and Norway spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, C.D.; Fretz, T.A.

    1977-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of Cd or Zn in white pine (Pinus strobus L.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and Norway spruce (Picea abies L.), resulted in reduced root initiation, poor development of root laterals, chlorosis, dwarfism, early leaf drop, wilting, and necrosis of current season's growth. Positive correlations existed between nutrient culture levels and tissue accumulation when plants were grown in sand. White pine seddlings accumulated more Cd and Zn than either red maple or Norway spurce when compared in similar experiments. White pine appeared to be more tolerant of Cd and Zn accumulation than either red maple or Norway spruce since visual phytotoxicity symptoms were observed only at the higher: 1 treatment levels. Accumulation of Cd and Zn from a medium of 2 sand:1 soil:1 perlite by volume was also observed.

  10. Cross-National Investigation of Health Indicators among Sexual Minorities in Norway and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J. Watson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A cross-national study of young adult sexual minorities was conducted in order to explore the associations between sexual orientation and measures of depression, suicidality, and substance use. Two nationally representative data sets were explored from the United States (N = 14,335 and Norway (N = 2423. Results indicated that sexual minorities experienced multiple health disparities (depression, suicidality, and substance use compared to their heterosexual counterparts. We found similar patterns of depression, suicidality, and substance use for sexual minorities in both the United States and Norway. The highest odds of substance use were among heterosexual-identified Norwegian youth who reported same-sex sexual activity, and the highest odds of suicidality were found for bisexual young adults in Norway. These findings have implications for how we consider culture and social policy as barriers and/or opportunities for sexual minorities.

  11. Energy efficiency in Norway (1996). Cross Country Comparison on Energy Efficiency Indicators, Phase 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Leif Kristian

    1998-12-01

    This is the national report for Norway in phase 4 of the SAVE project 'Cross country comparison of energy efficiency indicators'. The report deals with energy use and energy efficiency in Norway the last 20 years, with a special emphasis on the period after 1990. Final energy use per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was reduced by approx 2.3% per year from 1990 to 1996. Doing detailed sector analysis we are applying Laspeyres indices to attribute changes in energy use to either activity, structure or intensity. Calculating an aggregate intensity index from the sector intensities gives an average intensity reduction of 0.4% per year. Thereby most of the reduction in final energy per unit GDP are due to structural changes, and not technical improvements. Almost all data are taken from official Norwegian statistics (Statistics Norway). (author)

  12. Norway's experience of carbon dioxide storage: a basis for pursuing international commitments?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeverud, I.A.

    2007-01-01

    Does the Norwegian political landscape indicate advocacy of binding international carbon storage commitments in the foreseeable future? Norway's unique geology has understandably prompted a particular interest in the subject. This article analyses the interests and relative influence of the key domestic actors (the oil industry, environmental organizations, political parties and government bureaucracy) who wield influence in policy-making processes concerning carbon dioxide storage. Despite the level of interest aroused by the issue in Norway, the evidence suggests that policy will not move in the direction of an international carbon storage agreement. This is mainly because Norwegian policy-making in the field is dominated by the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, whose current interests do not seem compatible with such a position. The fact that carbon storage can be developed in accordance with Norway's interests as a petroleum producer may, however, be a decisive factor for the political parties, government bureaucracy and the oil industry in the future. (author)

  13. Improving the effectiveness of escape windows in directed Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus trawl fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Holst, René; Frandsen, Rikke

    2012-01-01

    A substantial improvement in the bycatch selectivity of Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus trawls is required, particularly with respect to cod Gadus morhua , whose stocks are at low levels in several areas. Conventional escape windows are not adequate to properly release cod and other bycatch...... species caught in the trawls. To address this issue, we developed a novel sorting box concept consisting of a four-panel section with a window on the top in order to improve the escape of cod and other bycatch species through an escape window while retaining the target catch of Norway lobster. The concept....... The reduction in bycatch decreased with decreasing mesh size and increasing height of the sorting box. Escape of Norway lobster through the escape window was limited. A modified version of the sorting box concept was implemented in the Kattegat fishery from 2009 onwards...

  14. Use of lithium in the adult populations of Denmark, Norway and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramness, Jørgen G; Ringbäck Weitoft, Gunilla; Hallas, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lithium is an important drug in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Earlier epidemiological studies of lithium use have depended on sales statistics, clinical surveys or population surveys. The national prescription databases in Denmark, Norway and Sweden may help provide more reliable.......25% of the populations in Denmark, Norway and Sweden respectively redeemed at least 1 prescription for lithium in the period studied. The amount prescribed per user per year varied with age, increasing to maximum doses at 40 years of age and then decreasing. CONCLUSION: This study is the first attempt to use...... information on the epidemiology of lithium use. METHODS: Data were taken from the three national prescription databases in Denmark, Norway and Sweden from July 2005 until June 2006, encompassing 1 year of prescription data. Similar methods were used to identify a number of different pharmacoepidemiological...

  15. Management of bladder dysfunction and satisfaction of life after spinal cord injury in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Ellen Merete; Rekand, Tiina

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is limited knowledge about bladder dysfunction and bladder management in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) after discharge from the hospital in Norway. The impact of bladder dysfunction on satisfaction of life has been rarely explored.Setting: Community-based survey from...... at the Spinal Cord Units were thoroughly followed by persons who had used catheters more than 5 years. Use of incontinence pads were associated with reduced satisfaction of life.Conclusions: The most common method of management of bladder dysfunction is clean intermittent catheterization in Norway...... Norway.Methods: An anonymous cross-sectional postal survey. A questionnaire was sent to the registered members of the Norwegian Spinal Cord Injuries Association. A total of 400 participants, with traumatic or non-traumatic SCI, received the questionnaire.Results: A total of 248 subjects (62%), 180 men...

  16. Strategy to reduce radon exposure in Norway; Strategi for aa redusere radoneksponeringen i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-06-15

    Radon in indoor air is a more widespread problem in Norway than in many other countries. It can be estimated that radon in indoor air causes about. 300 lung cancer deaths annually in Norway. Norway, together with Sweden and Finland, are among the countries in the world with the highest average concentration of radon in indoor air. Geological conditions and the cool climate provides great challenges, but radon problem can be solved in a cost effective way. The risk increases with exposure and is proportional with radon concentrations in indoor air and exposure time. The risk from radon, however, no lower threshold value. Moreover, the risk is highest for those who smoke and those who have smoked previously, but non-smokers can also develop lung cancer as a result of radon exposure. In recent years it has been conducted three large, important international joint studies that confirm earlier estimates of the risk. (AG)

  17. Changing trend? Sex ratios of children born to Indian immigrants in Norway revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tønnessen, Marianne; Aalandslid, Vebjørn; Skjerpen, Terje

    2013-09-05

    In some Western countries, a disturbingly low share of girls has been observed among new-borns from Indian immigrants. Also in Norway, a previous study based on figures from 1969-2005 showed a high percentage of boys among children of Indian origin living in Norway, when the birth was of higher order (third birth or later). This was suggested to reflect a practice of sex-selective abortions in the Indian immigrant population. In this article we have seen whether extended time series for the period 2006-2012 give further support to this claim. Based on data from the Norwegian Central Population Register we used observations for the sex of all live births in Norway for the period 1969-2012 where the mother was born in India. The percentage of boys was calculated for each birth order, during four sub periods. Utilising a binomial probability model we tested whether the observed sex differences among Indian-born women were significantly different from sex differences among all births. Contrary to findings from earlier periods and other Western countries, we found that Indian-born women in Norway gave birth to more girls than boys of higher order in the period 2006-2012. This is somewhat surprising, since sex selection is usually expected to be stronger if the mother already has two or more children. The extended time series do not suggest a prevalence of sex selective abortions among Indian-born women in Norway. We discuss whether the change from a majority of boys to a majority of girls in higher order could be explained by new waves of immigrant women, by new preferences among long-residing immigrant women in Norway - or by mere coincidence.

  18. A Norway spruce FLOWERING LOCUS T homolog is implicated in control of growth rhythm in conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Clapham, David; Källman, Thomas; Lagercrantz, Ulf

    2007-05-01

    Growth in perennial plants possesses an annual cycle of active growth and dormancy that is controlled by environmental factors, mainly photoperiod and temperature. In conifers and other nonangiosperm species, the molecular mechanisms behind these responses are currently unknown. In Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) seedlings, growth cessation and bud set are induced by short days and plants from southern latitudes require at least 7 to 10 h of darkness, whereas plants from northern latitudes need only 2 to 3 h of darkness. Bud burst, on the other hand, is almost exclusively controlled by temperature. To test the possible role of Norway spruce FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like genes in growth rhythm, we have studied expression patterns of four Norway spruce FT family genes in two populations with a divergent bud set response under various photoperiodic conditions. Our data show a significant and tight correlation between growth rhythm (both bud set and bud burst), and expression pattern of one of the four Norway spruce phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein gene family members (PaFT4) over a variety of experimental conditions. This study strongly suggests that one Norway spruce homolog to the FT gene, which controls flowering in angiosperms, is also a key integrator of photoperiodic and thermal signals in the control of growth rhythms in gymnosperms. The data also indicate that the divergent adaptive bud set responses of northern and southern Norway spruce populations, both to photoperiod and light quality, are mediated through PaFT4. These results provide a major advance in our understanding of the molecular control of a major adaptive trait in conifers and a tool for further molecular studies of adaptive variation in plants.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in the Netherlands and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spronk, S; van Kempen, B J H; Boll, A P M; Jørgensen, J J; Hunink, M G M; Kristiansen, I S

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in men aged 65 years, for both the Netherlands and Norway. A Markov model was developed to simulate life expectancy, quality-adjusted life-years, net health benefits, lifetime costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for both screening and no screening for AAA. The best available evidence was retrieved from the literature and combined with primary data from the two countries separately, and analysed from a national perspective. A threshold willingness-to-pay (WTP) of €20,000 and €62,500 was used for data from the Netherlands and Norway respectively. The additional costs of the screening strategy compared with no screening were €421 (95 per cent confidence interval 33 to 806) per person in the Netherlands, and the additional life-years were 0·097 (-0·180 to 0·365), representing €4340 per life-year. For Norway, the values were €562 (59 to 1078), 0·057 (-0·135 to 0·253) life-years and €9860 per life-year respectively. In Norway the results were sensitive to a decrease in the prevalence of AAA in 65-year-old men to 1 per cent, or lower. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses indicated that AAA screening has a 70 per cent probability of being cost-effective in the Netherlands with a WTP threshold of €20,000, and 70 per cent in Norway with a threshold of €62,500. Using this model, screening for AAA in 65-year-old men would be highly cost-effective in both the Netherlands and Norway. Copyright © 2011 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Beneath the Surface of Accountability: Answerability, Responsibility and Capacity-Building in Recent Education Reforms in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Recent educational reforms in Norway include national tests and monitoring mechanisms to see if key outcomes are being achieved. At the same time, Norway has not established the follow-up mechanisms like high-stakes incentives and rewards that are characteristic of accountability policies in some other countries. As a consequence, one could argue…

  1. Student Dropout in Upper Secondary Education in Norway: A Challenge to the Principles of the Welfare State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsrud, Kristoffer

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a review of extant research on student dropout in Norway, originally undertaken as part of a systematic review. The article contextualizes the foundational principle of equality as championed by the welfare state and identifies the significance of dropout in upper secondary education in Norway. The article then assesses…

  2. Mapping geomorphology, groundwater bodies and springs in Simadal, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austbø, I. L.; Øvrevik Skoglund, R.; Soldal, O. L.

    2015-12-01

    Simadal in Hardanger (Norway) is a narrow valley, famous for the waterfalls Rembedalsfossen and Skjykjedalsfossen which are regulated by Sima hydropower plant. Since the basin has been regulated between 1973-1979 the catchment area was reduced from 146km² to 35 km². There are currently plans for further expansion by also incorporating Skykjedalsvatnet, the last major remaining lake in the basin of Simaelva. In Simadal there are known to be large amounts of ground water, a greater understanding of how the groundwater interacts the river water is desirable in terms of water flow, residence time and water chemistry. Throughout the autumn of 2013 and winter of 2014 loggers were placed at various measuring points to log temperature and water levels. This included six loggers that measure temperature and pressure, as well as three loggers that measure only temperature. The goal with these loggers was to locate springs and monitor water level changes over a one-year period. In order to further investigate the water quality of the different measurement points, monthly water samples as well as pH-, and conductivity measurements were conducted. The water samples were analyzed for major ions as well as metal ions. The latter was based on earlier reported high copper levels. Flow measurements have been made in the upper and lower parts of Simadal during dry periods. The work has also included the accomplishment of Quaternary mapping; analysis of aerial photography; and using GPR. Our main concern has been to map the water resources in Simadal by registering groundwater and springs in sediments and rock faces. Furthermore, it has been desirable to draw lines to a larger regional knowledge based water management. It seems to be important to maintain a certain minimum of water of good quality, both for the ecology of the river in general, but perhaps especially considering the sustainable sea trout populations found in Simaelva today. Previous chemical, hydrogeological and fish

  3. White paper No 9 (2000 - 2001). The power exchange between Norway and Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Norwegian Government will be altering the power exchange between Norway and Denmark from January 1, 2001. This is motivated chiefly by the more open power markets in continental Europe and the establishment of the price area of the Nordic electricity pool Nord Pool in Denmark. The exchange across the Skagerrak cables will be based on the same principles as the old exchange between Norway, Sweden and Finland and on the area prices of the Nord Pool. The new exchange agreement requires a licence from the Government

  4. Determination of the terpene flux from orange species and Norway spruce by relaxed eddy accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, C.S.; Hummelshøj, P.; Jensen, N.O.

    2000-01-01

    Terpene fluxes from a Norway spruce (Picea abies) forest and an orange orchard (Citrus clementii and Citrus sinensis) were measured by relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) during summer 1997. alpha-pinene and beta-pinene were the most abundant terpenes emitted from Norway spruce and constituted approx...... rate by using two precision pumps operated at approximately 60 mi min(-1). The terpenes collected on the adsorbent tubes were significantly decomposed by ozone during sampling unless ozone scrubbers were applied. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  5. Consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield - Predicted impacts on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoerring, H.; Ytre-Eide, M.A.; Liland, A.

    2010-12-01

    This report describes the possible environmental consequences for Norway due to a hypothetical accident at the Sellafield complex in the UK. The scenario considered involves an explosion and fire at the B215 facility resulting in a 1 % release of the total HAL (Highly Active liquor) inventory of radioactive waste with a subsequent air transport and deposition in Norway. Air transport modelling is based on real meteorological data from October 2008 with wind direction towards Norway and heavy precipitation. This weather is considered to be quite representative as typical seasonal weather. Based on this weather scenario, the estimated fallout in Norway will be ∼ 17 P Bq of caesium-137 which is 7 times higher than the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. The modelled radioactive contamination is linked with data on transfer to the food chain and statistics on production and hunting to assess the consequences for foodstuffs. The investigation has been limited to the terrestrial environment, focussing on wild berries, fungi, and animals grazing unimproved pastures (i.e. various types of game, reindeer, sheep and goats). The predicted consequences are severe - especially in connection to sheep and goat production. Up to 80 % of the lambs in Norway could be exceeding the food intervention levels for radiocaesium the first years after the fallout, with 30-40 % likely to be above for many years. There will, consequently, be a need for extensive countermeasures in large areas for years or even decades involving several hundred thousand animals each year. Large consequences are also expected for reindeer husbandry - the first year in particular due to the time of fallout which is just prior to winter slaughter. The consequences will be most sever for reindeer herding in middle and southern parts of Norway, but problems may reach as far north as Finnmark where we find the majority of Norwegian reindeer production. The consequences for game will mostly depend on the regional

  6. Development and testing of a separator frame in a Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Holst, René

    2017-01-01

    Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus fisheries are often characterized by high bycatch and discard rates. However, fisheries species exhibit differences in vertical behaviour that can be used to develop selective devices. We developed a separator frame that can be inserted into the forward part...... the separator frame and ending up in the bottom cod-end, the top cod-end, or penetrating the window. The majority of Norway lobster and flatfish entered the bottom cod-end, and most gadoids entered the top cod-end. A relatively high proportion of gadoids and flatfish that entered the top cod-end penetrated...

  7. Consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield - Predicted impacts on the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoerring, H.; Ytre-Eide, M.A.; Liland, A.

    2010-12-15

    This report describes the possible environmental consequences for Norway due to a hypothetical accident at the Sellafield complex in the UK. The scenario considered involves an explosion and fire at the B215 facility resulting in a 1 % release of the total HAL (Highly Active liquor) inventory of radioactive waste with a subsequent air transport and deposition in Norway. Air transport modelling is based on real meteorological data from October 2008 with wind direction towards Norway and heavy precipitation. This weather is considered to be quite representative as typical seasonal weather. Based on this weather scenario, the estimated fallout in Norway will be approx 17 P Bq of caesium-137 which is 7 times higher than the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. The modelled radioactive contamination is linked with data on transfer to the food chain and statistics on production and hunting to assess the consequences for foodstuffs. The investigation has been limited to the terrestrial environment, focussing on wild berries, fungi, and animals grazing unimproved pastures (i.e. various types of game, reindeer, sheep and goats). The predicted consequences are severe - especially in connection to sheep and goat production. Up to 80 % of the lambs in Norway could be exceeding the food intervention levels for radiocaesium the first years after the fallout, with 30-40 % likely to be above for many years. There will, consequently, be a need for extensive countermeasures in large areas for years or even decades involving several hundred thousand animals each year. Large consequences are also expected for reindeer husbandry - the first year in particular due to the time of fallout which is just prior to winter slaughter. The consequences will be most sever for reindeer herding in middle and southern parts of Norway, but problems may reach as far north as Finnmark where we find the majority of Norwegian reindeer production. The consequences for game will mostly depend on the

  8. Food industry structure in Norway and Denmark since the 1990s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimek, Bjørn; Hansen, Henning Otte

    2017-01-01

    Structural changes in Norwegian and Danish food industry since the 1990s is analysed as a path dependent response to the neo-liberal turn. Norway entered the 1990s as a protected market and Denmark as case of an export oriented industry. These developmental strategies are rooted in early 20th...... ‘varieties of capitalism’ framework with corporate strategy theories on food industry M&As. We identify two different types of path dependent development, a self-reinforcing in Denmark and a transformative ‘breaking point’ in Norway....

  9. "No God and no Norway": collective resource loss among members of Tamil NGO's in Norway during and after the last phase of the civil war in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guribye, Eugene

    2011-08-17

    Studies on the mental health of refugees have tended to focus upon the impact of traumatic experiences in the country of origin, and acculturation processes in exile. The effects of crises in the country of origin on refugees living in exile have been little studied. This article examines how the final stages of the civil war in Sri Lanka in 2009 influenced members of pro-LTTE Tamil NGO's in Norway. Ethnographic fieldwork methods were employed within Tamil NGO's in the two largest cities in Norway between November 2008 and June 2011. The findings suggest that collective resources became severely drained as a result of the crisis, severely disrupting the fabric of social life. Public support from the majority community remained scarce throughout the crisis. The study suggests that there is a need for public support to exile groups indirectly affected by man-made crises in their country of origin.

  10. "No God and no Norway": collective resource loss among members of Tamil NGO's in Norway during and after the last phase of the civil war in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guribye Eugene

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the mental health of refugees have tended to focus upon the impact of traumatic experiences in the country of origin, and acculturation processes in exile. The effects of crises in the country of origin on refugees living in exile have been little studied. This article examines how the final stages of the civil war in Sri Lanka in 2009 influenced members of pro-LTTE Tamil NGO's in Norway. Method Ethnographic fieldwork methods were employed within Tamil NGO's in the two largest cities in Norway between November 2008 and June 2011. Results The findings suggest that collective resources became severely drained as a result of the crisis, severely disrupting the fabric of social life. Public support from the majority community remained scarce throughout the crisis. Conclusions The study suggests that there is a need for public support to exile groups indirectly affected by man-made crises in their country of origin.

  11. Survey of referrals and medical reports in optometric practices in Norway: midterm findings from a 3-year prospective Internet-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundmark PO

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Per O Lundmark,1 Knut Luraas1,2 1Department of Optometry, Radiography and Lighting Design, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, University College of Southeast Norway, Kongsberg, 2Rjukan Synssenter Optometri, Rjukan, Norway Purpose: The increasing demand for primary eye care due to an aging population implicates an enhanced role of optometrists in the communities. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the rate of referrals and returning medical reports between optometrists and health care professionals in Norway. The secondary objectives were to investigate the conformity of diagnoses in referrals and medical reports, the extent of optometric follow-up examinations and the use of ophthalmic diagnostic drugs in optometric practice.Materials and methods: This study is an ongoing prospective electronic survey administered on the Internet between November 2014 and December 2017. Optometrists in private optometric practice are eligible. Participants register data for up to 1 year, including examinations and the use of ophthalmic diagnostic drugs; referrals, including International Classification of Primary Care, second edition (ICPC-2 codes; medical reports, including the ICD-10 codes; and optometric follow-up enquiries. Analysis of agreement between referred and diagnosed conditions was made possible by encoding patients’ ID.Results: Seventeen months into the study, 67 optometrists were included (Female: 60%, mean age: 41 years.. There were 49,510 registered examinations (60% general, 28% contact lens, 12% auxiliary. Diagnostic drugs were used in 4% of these and in 14% of the examinations that resulted in a referral. There were 1,779 referrals (97% to ophthalmologists. Top three diagnoses were cataract (36%, glaucoma (11%, and age-related macular degeneration (7%. There were 1,036 returned medical reports, of which 76% could be linked with registered referrals. Diagnostic agreement was observed in 80% of the cases (74% for

  12. Dietary advice used as a countermeasure in Norway after the Chernobyl accident and dietary survey in the south and north of Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson Soerlie, A.; Strand, P.; Boee, E.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of dietary advice in reducing the intake of radiocaesium from food after the Chernobyl accident is estimated from dietary surveys. A majority of the specially selected groups from Sothern Norway (farmers/hunters and sami reindeer herdsmen) changed their dietary habits significantly after the accident. Between 40% and 80% did take precautions. The reduction in intake of radiocaesium was most pronounced for reindeer meat and freshwater fish. It is estimated that had they not made these dietary changes, the sami reindeer herdsmen would have received doses 7 to 10 times higher and farmers/hunters up to 50% higher, than those they actually received. For randomly selected people from an area in Southern Norway with a high fallout level, almost 50% did change their diet. The main sources for the intake of radiocaesium for the randomly selected people is freshwater fish and milk. For the specially selected the main source is reindeer meat, freshwater fish and milk. The specially selected group of sami reindeer herdsmen from Northern Norway, which is an area with low fallout from Chernobyl, 6-12% had made some dietary changes the first year after the Chernobyl accident. (au)

  13. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon along an altitudinal gradient from Norway spruce forest to the mountain birch/alpine ecotone in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, N.; Roesberg, I.; Aamlid, D.

    2005-07-01

    Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in soil water from the base of the soil organic layer were determined at three forest plots along an altitudinal gradient in eastern Norway. The lowest plot, at 830 m above sea level (a.s.l.), was in Norway spruce forest and there were additional plots at the ecotone between Norway spruce and mountain birch at 925 m a.s.l. and at the forest line (1000 m a.s.l.). DOC concentrations in soil water did not decrease uniformly with altitude although tree biomass, above-ground litterfall and the soil C pool all did so. Significant correlations between DOC and (H{sup +}) or electrical conductivity may reflect the contribution of DOC to solution acidity and the anionic charge, respectively. If mean temperature during the growing season increases, tree growth at any given altitude will tend to increase and the spruce-birch ecotone may move to a higher altitude than at present. Increased C inputs as litter to the soil might then lead to increasing DOC concentrations and fluxes in surface waters. (orig.)

  14. National Library of Norway's new database of 22 manuscript maps concerning the Swedish King Charles XII's campaign in Norway in 1716 and 1718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedicte Gamborg Brisa

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The National Library of Norway is planning to digitise approximately 1,500 manuscript maps. Two years ago we started working on a pilot project, and for this purpose we chose 22 maps small enough to be photographed in one piece. We made slides 6 x 7 cm in size, converted the slides into PhotoCDs and used four different resolutions on JPEG-files. To avoid large file sizes, we had to divide the version with the biggest resolution into four pieces. The preliminary work was done in Photoshop, the database on the web is made in Oracle. You can click on the map to zoom. Norwegians and probably Swedes during the Great Northern War drew the 22 maps when the Swedish King Charles XII in 1716 and 1718 unsuccessfully attempted to conquer Norway. The database is now accessible on the National Library of Norway's web site. The database is in Norwegian, but we are working on an English version as well. The maps are searchable on different topics, countries, counties, geographical names, shelfmarks or a combination of these. We are planning to expand the database to other manuscript maps later. This is the reason why it is possible to search for obvious subjects as Charles XII and the Great Northern War.

  15. Electronic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su

    2010-07-01

    This book is composed of five chapters, which introduces electronic technology about understanding of electronic, electronic component, radio, electronic application, communication technology, semiconductor on its basic, free electron and hole, intrinsic semiconductor and semiconductor element, Diode such as PN junction diode, characteristic of junction diode, rectifier circuit and smoothing circuit, transistor on structure of transistor, characteristic of transistor and common emitter circuit, electronic application about electronic equipment, communication technology and education, robot technology and high electronic technology.

  16. People's opinion of climate policy. Popular support for climate policy alternatives in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, Sjoevaag Marit; Bjoerge, Nils Erik; Ericson, Torgeir; Garnaasjordet, Per Arild; Karlsen, Haakon T.; Randers; Joergen; Rees, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    How can we evaluate whether national climate policies are sufficient? Which moral principles should be the basis of our policy efforts? The answers to these questions are central to the development of any climate policy framework, but not always made explicit in daily political discourse. In this article we seek to redress this imbalance through a survey of popular opinion in Norway.(Author)

  17. Faces across the North Sea: Viking art in Norway and England, AD 700-1300

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Tanner

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The Institute of Archaeology has begun a programme of academic collaboration with the Institutt for Arkeologi og Kulturhistorie in Trondheim, Norway. One of the first initiatives to be taken is a comparative study of facial representation in Viking art. A member of the research team outlines the project.

  18. Elite Female Business Students in China and Norway: Job-Related Values and Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhaug, Odd; Gooderham, Paul; Zhang, Xian; Liu, Yali; Birkelund, Gunn Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the work-related values, preferences, and future expectations among female students at two elite business schools in China and Norway. The paper argues that while gender theory predicts no significant differences between these two groups, both cultural and economic development theory imply fundamental differences. The…

  19. Some Aspects of Early School Leaving in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederberg, Margareta; Hartsmar, Nanny

    2013-01-01

    This article describes early school leaving in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland, using examples to show a complex representation of early school leaving and its consequences for young people's subsequent access to the labour market. We show how measures taken by governments and school authorities in the respective countries have resulted in…

  20. Environmental risk of oil production in sensitive areas[Pollution abatement in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahle, Salve; Larsen, Lars-Henrik

    2006-07-01

    The presentation discusses sensitive areas in the Arctic regions with focus on the north of Norway and the Barents Sea. Various ecosystem problems related to oil and gas production are pointed out. Characteristics of particularly sensitive areas are mentioned and some examples of vulnerable areas are discussed (tk)

  1. The Domestic Basis of the Scientific Career: Gender Inequalities in Ecology in France and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loison, Anne; Paye, Simon; Schermann, Agnes; Bry, Clementine; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Pelabon, Christophe; Bråthen, Kari-Anne

    2017-01-01

    Gender-related inequalities in scientific careers are widespread, evidenced by the attrition of women along the different stages of the promotion ladder. We studied the interwoven personal and professional trajectories of researchers in ecology and compared these trajectories between France and Norway. Given their differing welfare state policies…

  2. Oral health in a life-course : birth-cohorts from 1929 to 2006 in Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holst, D; Schuller, A A

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the work was to study the influence of the oral health environment at age 10, of adolescent and adulthood dental behaviours and of social status on oral health of three birth-cohorts in 1983 and two of the three birth-cohorts in 2006 in Norway. METHODS: The material

  3. Annex 1: 1998 review of energy efficiency policy in EU countries and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This document makes a status for the year 1998 of the energy efficiency policies implemented in the European Union member states and Norway (residential, transport and industrial sectors, institutional changes, measures and programmes, budget, utilities, pricing, efficiency standards, voluntary agreements, investment subsidies, taxation and tax exemptions). (J.S.)

  4. Integrating climate change adaptation into civil protection: comparative lessons from Norway, Sweden and the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groven, K.; Aall, C.; van den Berg, Maya Marieke; Carlsson-Kanyama, A.; Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Integrating policy on climate change adaptation into civil protection is explored through studies of extreme weather management at the national level in Norway, Sweden and the Netherlands, and through local case studies of the three coastal cities of Bergen, Malmö and Rotterdam. The research issues

  5. Ozone Induces Glucose Intolerance and Systemic Metabolic Effects in Young and Aged Brown Norway Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. We hypothesized that ozone could impair glucose homeostasis by altering insulin signaling and/or endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in very young and aged rats. Brown Norway (BN) rats, 1,4, 12, and 24 months ol...

  6. An oral sensitization model in Brown Norway rats to screen for potential allergenicity of food proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippels, L.M.J.; Houben, G.F.; Spanhaak, S.; Penninks, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    We developed an oral sensitization protocol for food proteins for the rat. Young Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to 1 mg ovalbumin (OVA) by daily gavage dosing for 42 days without the use of an adjuvant. OVA-specific IgE and IgG responses were determined by ELISA. On an oral challenge with OVA

  7. Equality in adults' oral health in Norway. Cohort and cross-sectional results over 33 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holst, Dorthe; Schuller, Annemarie A

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess social inequality in dental clinical parameters from 1973 to 2006. METHODS: Samples from two birth-cohorts born between 1929-1938 and 1959-1960, respectively, and 35-44-year-olds were drawn in 1973, 1983, 1994 and in 2006 in the county of Nord-Trøndelag in Norway. Standard

  8. The User Perspective in Performance Auditing--A Case Study of Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Arnfrid; Rydland, Lars Tore; Amundsen, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    The user perspective is an important contextual factor for Supreme Audit Institutions (SAIs). This article provides examples from performance audits in Norway and explores why the user perspective has become important in performance audit practices. It shows that user satisfaction can be employed as a key performance indicator of effectiveness of…

  9. Mr Bjørn Haugstad, State Secretary, Ministry of Education and Research, Norway

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Photos 01,02: Mr Bjørn Haugstad, State Secretary, Ministry of Education and Research, Norway signing the guest book; standing, Dr Carlo Wyss Photo 03: Luncheon in honour of Mr Bjørn Haugstad, State Secretary, Ministry of Education and Research, Norway, April 2003. Around the table, from left to right: State Secretary Haugstad (standing); Prof. Cecilia Jarlskog, Adviser to the Director-General for Member State Relations; Mr Morten Knutsen, CERN staff - Purchase; Mr Jens Vigen, CERN staff, Library and Norwegian Contact; Prof. Steinar Stapnes, Prof. Univ. of Oslo and Physicist in the ATLAS experiment (in profile), Dr Carlo Wyss, Director for Accelerators (standing), Dr Leif Westgaard, Senior Adviser, Research Council of Norway, CERN Delegate. Photo 04: Luncheon in honour of Mr Bjørn Haugstad, State Secretary, Ministry of Education and Research, Norway, April 2003. Around the table, from left to right: State Secretary Haugstad (standing); Mr Jens Vigen, CERN staff, Library and Norwegian Contact; Prof. Steinar ...

  10. Assessment for Learning in Norway and Portugal: The Case of Primary School Mathematics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortvedt, Guri A.; Santos, Leonor; Pinto, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aim to understand the forces driving assessment for learning (AfL) in primary school teaching. By applying a case study design, including the two cases of Norway and Portugal and using mathematics teaching as an example, available policy documents and research reports are analysed to identify the differences and similarities that…

  11. User Experiences With Editorial Control in Online Comments Sections After the 2011 Terror Attacks in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvlie, Anders Sundnes; Ihlebæk, Karoline Andrea; Larsson, Anders Olof

    This article investigates user experiences with editorial control of online comments sections in online newspapers, in light of the public backlash against online comments after the 2011 terror attacks in Norway. We analyse data from a quantitative survey (N=3470) among users of four newspaper...... their minds freely have become worse after the terror attacks....

  12. Oslo Epigenetics Symposium 2012. Oslo, Norway, 8-9 November 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collas, Philippe; Eskeland, Ragnhild

    2013-02-01

    The Oslo Epigenetics Symposium 2012 held in Oslo, Norway, brought together ten speakers from several European countries and the USA for an evening public lecture and a full day of presentations on emerging topics in the field of epigenetics, gene regulation and organization of the cell nucleus.

  13. Dyslexia: Group Screening among 15-16-Year-Olds in Oslo, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, K.; Tonnessen, F. E.; Tambs, K.; Thoresen, M.; Bjertness, E.

    2009-01-01

    In 15-16 year olds from Oslo, Norway, we investigated the occurrence of self-reported dyslexia and reading/writing difficulties (RWD), and we measured dyslexic symptoms using the "Duvan" dyslexia screening test. The prevalence of self-reported dyslexia was 8.2%, while 10.4% reported severe or moderate RWD. The group of self-reported…

  14. Economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Norway in the decade 1986-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.; Brynildsen, L.I.; Amundsen, I.; Bergan, T.D.S.

    1998-01-01

    Although the distance from Chernobyl to Norway is about 2000 km, it is estimated that 3-5% of the radiocesium released from Chernobyl was deposited upon Norwegian territory. This was caused by an unfortunate (for Norway) and unusual combination of large initial thermal lift of the plume (which kept the materials airborne), wind direction (which brought the plume across Scandinavia), and precipitation (which led to strong deposition in parts of Norway and Sweden). The areas in which deposition took place in Norway to a large extent comprise natural environments (mountain plains and forest) which are important in an agricultural context. In 1986, large amounts of mutton, reindeer meat and goat's cheese exceeded the limits for radiocesium content set by the authorities. Some non-destructive countermeasures were implemented, but much of the meat was condemned. By the following year the authorities had implemented a large programme of countermeasures, and thereby managed drastically to reduce the amount of discarded food. In the present report, the cost of these countermeasures, as well as the cost of discarded foodstuff, is summarized for each of the ten years since the accident. Although ten years have passed, all the countermeasures are still required, even though there has been some decline in the size of the areas and the number of animals involved. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  15. Obesity and Minority--Changing Meanings of Big Bodies among Young Pakistani Obesity Patients in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathne, Kjetil; Mburu, Christina Brux; Middelthon, Anne-Lise

    2015-01-01

    Globally, paediatric obesity causes widespread concern, and the role of ethnicity is an important focus. Investigating how culture can mediate health-related behaviour through ideas about bodies, food and physical activity, while addressing a notion that the Pakistani community in Norway is particularly conservative and slow to change, this…

  16. Recruitment to Teaching: The Changing Impact of Social Origins in Norway 1975-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    With, Mari Lande

    2018-01-01

    Concerns about the status of the teaching profession are widespread. In this paper, the social selection to teacher education is compared with the social selection to other higher education courses in Norway from 1975 to 2010. This comparison can shed light on changes in the status of teaching relative to other types of higher education. Using…

  17. Post-accession migration in construction and trade union responses in Denmark, Norway and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldring, Line; Fitzgerald, Ian; Arnholtz, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The article compares trade union responses in Denmark, Norway and the UK to the arrival of construction workers from the new EU member states. Organizing has been seen as a crucial means to avoid low-wage competition and social dumping. We analyse how the unions developed strategies for recruiting...

  18. Home Country National Intelligence and Self-Employment Rates among Immigrants in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, Evgueni; Kolvereid, Lars

    2010-01-01

    The level of self-employment varies significantly among immigrants from different countries of origin. The objective of this research is to examine the relationship between home-country national intelligence and self-employment rates among first generation immigrants in Norway. Empirical secondary data on self-employment among immigrants from 117…

  19. Contrasting Prospects: The Institutionalisation of VET for Retail and Office Work in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reegård, Kaja

    2017-01-01

    This article calls attention to the difficulty of institutionalising vocational education and training (VET) in the service sector in Norway, despite the growing importance of this sector for national economic performance. Drawing on interviews with apprentices, employers, stakeholders, representatives of trade unions and employer organisations,…

  20. Further Education and Training: A Comparison of Policy Models in Britain and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinningsrud, Tone

    1995-01-01

    Compares public intervention schemes in Britain and Norway supporting participation of public educational institutions in the delivery of continuing labor force development and training. These schemes demonstrate that British policy is based on belief in free market principles, while Norwegian policy combines elements of consumer choice and legal…

  1. Characterization of variable EST SSR markers for Norway spruce (Picea abies L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiess Nadine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Norway spruce is widely distributed across Europe and the predominant tree of the Alpine region. Fast growth and the fact that timber can be harvested cost-effectively in relatively young populations define its status as one of the economically most important tree species of Northern Europe. In this study, EST derived simple sequence repeat (SSR markers were developed for the assessment of putative functional diversity in Austrian Norway spruce stands. Results SSR sequences were identified by analyzing 14,022 publicly available EST sequences. Tri-nucleotide repeat motifs were most abundant in the data set followed by penta- and hexa-nucleotide repeats. Specific primer pairs were designed for sixty loci. Among these, 27 displayed polymorphism in a testing population of 16 P. abies individuals sampled across Austria and in an additional screening population of 96 P. abies individuals from two geographically distinct Austrian populations. Allele numbers per locus ranged from two to 17 with observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.075 to 0.99. Conclusions We have characterized variable EST SSR markers for Norway spruce detected in expressed genes. Due to their moderate to high degree of variability in the two tested screening populations, these newly developed SSR markers are well suited for the analysis of stress related functional variation present in Norway spruce populations.

  2. Women's and Men's Choice of Higher Education--What Explains the Persistent Sex Segregation in Norway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storen, Liv Anne; Arnesen, Clara Ase

    2007-01-01

    This article examines sex segregation in higher education in Norway. The extent to which parent's education and occupation and students' grades have an impact on the choice of male and female dominated subjects is analysed. The analysis uses a framework which integrates socialisation and rational choice perspectives. The data used are from a…

  3. Socializing Relations in the Everyday Lives of Children: Comparing Domestic Texts from Norway and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waerdahl, Randi; Haldar, Marit

    2013-01-01

    The text material analysed in this article consists of 20 teddy-diaries that circulated between the families of 6-year-old children in Beijing, China and in Oslo, Norway. The circulation process makes teddy-diaries highly normatively saturated domestic stories from families with 6-year-old children. A quantitative analysis of these texts inspired…

  4. The Organisation of Local Mental Health Services in Norway: Evidence, Uncertainty and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsdal, Helge; Hansen, Gunnar Vold

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses questions about health authorities' recommendations on the local organisation of services for people with mental health disorders in Norway. Analysis is made of the dynamic relationship between different evaluations, national guidelines and other knowledge that influence the organisation of services. The analysis is based…

  5. The Politics of PISA: The Media, Policy and Public Responses in Norway and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfenbeck, Therese N.; Görgen, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    Using the PISA 2015 releases in Norway and England, this article explores how PISA has been presented in the media and how the policy level has responded to the results. England will be used as an example for comparison. The article presents early media responses from the 20 most circulated daily newspapers in the two countries and discusses them…

  6. Policy Making Processes with Respect to Teacher Education in Finland and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afdal, Hilde Wagsas

    2013-01-01

    This article examines policy making processes in the area of teacher education (TE) in Finland and Norway. Particular attention is given to the roles different actors play in these processes and the potential effects of their involvement on the TE programs in the two countries. Contemporary policy processes are analyzed through a set of interviews…

  7. Balancing Tensions in Educational Policy Reforms: Large-Scale Implementation of Assessment for Learning in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfenbeck, Therese N.; Flórez Petour, María Teresa; Tolo, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how different stakeholders in Norway experienced a government-initiated, large-scale policy implementation programme on "Assessment for Learning" ("AfL"). Data were collected through 58 interviews with stakeholders in charge of the policy; Ministers of Education and members of the Directorate of…

  8. Reviews of National Policies for Education: Improving Lower Secondary Schools in Norway, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The report aims to help education authorities in Norway and other OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries to understand the importance of lower secondary education and to find approaches to strengthen this key education level. It provides an overview of the structure of lower secondary education and the main…

  9. Pursuing sustainable development in Norway: The challenge of living up to Brundtland at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafferty, W.M.; Knudsen, Jørgen; Larsen, Olav Mosvold

    2007-01-01

    With the Norwegian Prime Minister, Gro Harlem Brundtland, as chair of the World Commission on Environment and Development, Norway became an early mover in politics for sustainable development (SD). The pursuit of SD goals has been expressed in several national policy documents, though it was not

  10. Cumulative risk of bovine mastitis treatments in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valde, J P; Lawson, L G; Lindberg, A; Agger, J F; Saloniemi, H; Osterås, O

    2004-01-01

    Data from the national dairy cow recording systems during 1997 were used to calculate lactation-specific cumulative risk of mastitis treatments and cumulative risk of removal from the herds in Denmark, Finland Norway and Sweden. Sweden had the lowest risk of recorded mastitis treatments during 305 days of lactation and Norway had the highest risk. The incidence risk of recorded mastitis treatments during 305 days of lactation in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden was 0.177, 0.139, 0.215 and 0.127 for first parity cows and 0.228, 0.215, 0.358 and 0.204 for parities higher than three, respectively. The risk of a first parity cow being treated for mastitis was almost 3 times higher at calving in Norway than in Sweden. The period with the highest risk for mastitis treatments was from 2 days before calving until 14 days after calving and the highest risk for removal was from calving to 10 days after calving in all countries. The study clearly demonstrated differences in bovine mastitis treatment patterns among the Nordic countries. The most important findings were the differences in treatment risks during different lactations within each country, as well as differences in strategies with respect to the time during lactation mastitis was treated.

  11. The meaning of place: attachments to Femundsmarka National Park, Norway, among tourists and locals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorn P. Kaltenborn; Daniel R. Williams

    2002-01-01

    In Norway, the management of natural and cultural resources is subject to increasing public scrutiny. Conflicts are escalating over many issues concerning the balance between preservation and utilisation. Traditionally conflicts over issues like growth in commercial nature tourism, predator control, forest policies, protected areas management, cultural heritage...

  12. A Typology of Work-Family Arrangements among Dual-Earner Couples in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitterod, Ragni Hege; Lappegard, Trude

    2012-01-01

    A symmetrical family model of two workers or caregivers is a political goal in many western European countries. We explore how common this family type is in Norway, a country with high gender-equality ambitions, by using a multinomial latent class model to develop a typology of dual-earner couples with children based on the partners' allocations…

  13. Modelling long-term water yield effects of forest management in a Norway spruce forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yu, X.; Lamačová, A.; Duffy, Ch.; Krám, P.; Hruška, Jakub; White, T.; Bhatt, G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2015), s. 174-191 ISSN 0262-6667 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Lysina critical zone observatory * PIHM * Norway spruce * forest management Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.182, year: 2015

  14. People's opinion of climate policy. Popular support for climate policy alternatives in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, Sjoevaag Marit; Bjoerge, Nils Erik; Ericson, Torgeir; Garnaasjordet, Per Arild; Karlsen, Haakon T.; Randers; Joergen; Rees, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    How can we evaluate whether national climate policies are sufficient? Which moral principles should be the basis of our policy efforts? The answers to these questions are central to the development of any climate policy framework, but not always made explicit in daily political discourse. In this article we seek to redress this imbalance through a survey of popular opinion in Norway.(Author)

  15. Faunal succession in the upper Cambrian (Furongian) Leptoplastus Superzone at Slemmestad, southern Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bo Wilhelm; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj; Schovsbo, Niels H.

    2015-01-01

    The ‘Middle’ Cambrian–Tremadocian Alum Shale Formation is generally strongly tectonised in the Oslo area (southern Norway) and, as such, no complete succession through the Furongian exists in the area. The present paper presents a restored part of the Furongian interval through the Leptoplastus S...

  16. Environmental Education. University Level. 10 Years Development; Recommendations. Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen (Denmark).

    The Nordic countries have worked together over the last decade to enhance the efforts of environmental educators. This document details: (1) the history and activities of the group responsible for the coordination of efforts at the university level; (2) the types of environmental education occurring in Denmark, Iceland, Finland, Norway, and…

  17. Deliveries in maternity homes in Norway: results from a 2-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Nina; Abelsen, Birgit; Øian, Pål

    2002-08-01

    The study aims to report the short-term outcome for the mothers and newborns for all pregnancies accepted for birth at maternity homes in Norway. A 2-year prospective study of all mothers in labor in maternity homes, i.e. all births including women and newborns transferred to hospital intra partum or the first week post partum. The study included 1275 women who started labor in the maternity homes in Norway; 1% of all births in Norway during this period. Of those who started labor in a maternity home, 1217 (95.5%) also delivered there while 58 (4.5%) women were transferred to hospital during labor. In the post partum period there were 57 (4.7%) transferrals of mother and baby. Nine women had a vacuum extraction, one had a forceps and three had a vaginal breech (1.1% operative vaginal births in the maternity homes). Five babies (0.4%) had an Apgar score below 7 at 5 min. There were two (0.2%) neonatal deaths; both babies were born with a serious group B streptococcal infection. Midwives and general practitioners working in the districts can identify a low-risk population (estimated at 35%) of all pregnant women in the catchment areas who can deliver safely at the maternity homes in Norway. Only 4.5% of those who started labor in the maternity homes had to be transferred to hospital during labor.

  18. Visit by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway

    CERN Multimedia

    Guillaume, Jeanneret

    2014-01-01

    NTNU Pro-Rector Johan E. Hustad and CERN Director for Research and Computing Sergio Bertolucci signed an agreement between NTNU and CERN for the establishment of the a new Business Incubation Centre of CERN technology to be established in Trondheim, Norway. An agreement to strengthen the collaboration on student created spin-offs was also signed.

  19. Sources of Cost Expansion: Primary Education in Norway 1946-90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falch, Torberg; Rattso, Jorn

    1996-01-01

    Shows that primary education spending growth in Norway resulted from cost factors determined at the national level, together with lack of adjustment to rising costs in local governments. Policies to control school spending must address the central government's bargaining strength to hold back on teacher wages and employment and local governments'…

  20. Consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield - Predicted impacts on the environment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoerring, H.; Liland, A.

    2010-12-15

    This report deals with the environmental consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield. The investigation is limited to the terrestrial environment, and focus on animals grazing natural pastures, plus wild berries and fungi. Only 137Cs is considered. The predicted consequences are severe, in particular for mutton and goat milk production. (Author)

  1. Application of Raman spectroscopy to analyse lignin/cellulose ratio in Norway spruce tree rings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vítek, Petr; Klem, Karel; Urban, Otmar

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 20, 1-2 (2017), s. 41-48 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : dendrochronology * vibrational spectroscopy * lignification * Norway spruce * abiotic stress Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany

  2. Root uptake of lead by Norway spruce grown on Pb-210 spiked soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmand, M.F.; Nielsen, Sven Poul; Johnsen, I.

    2009-01-01

    The root uptake of lead (Pb) by trees and the transfer of Pb by leaf litter deposition to the forest floor were investigated through a pot experiment with Norway spruce. Natural Pb and radio isotopic lead (210Pb) were determined in needles and twigs and in the pot soil spiked with 210Pb...

  3. Blockfields in Reinheimen Nationalpark, Norway – Neogene weathering remnants or Quaternary periglacial origin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jane Lund; Egholm, David Lundbek; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou

    from five pit profiles dug through regolith mantle on the easternmost summits of Reinheimen Nationalpark in Norway. The study area only shows sporadic signs of glacial erosion, and could be classified as a relict non-glacial surface. We aim to use the residence time of regolith in this area to infer...

  4. Soluble and cell wall-bound phenolics and lignin in Ascocalyx abietina infected Norway spruces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cvikrová, Milena; Malá, J.; Hrubcová, Marie; Eder, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 170, č. 3 (2006), s. 563-570 ISSN 0168-9452 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/04/0999 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Ascocalyx abietina (Lagerberg) * Lignin * Norway spruce Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.631, year: 2006

  5. Brazils Role in environmental governance: Analysis of possibilities for increased Brazil-Norway cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valberg, Anna Helene

    2011-07-01

    This report examines the role played by Brazil in connection with certain international negotiations, such as the climate negotiations and the CBD. It identifies the driving factors that have influenced environmental politics and standards in Brazil, and take note of conflicts that must be discussed when Norway is seeking expanded cooperation with Brazil. In line with the mandate, FNI identifies areas of particular interest for further collaboration between the two countries, and recommend directions for supplementary Norwegian policy-making in light of a broadened scope for Norway-Brazil interaction. In recent years, the Norwegian government has initiated an extensive process aimed at reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). This is the most obvious shared environmental scope between Norway and Brazil. However, given the large body of literature that already exists on this field, this report will concentrate instead on issues more on the outskirts of the REDD discourse, such as biodiversity conservation, biofuel efficiency and challenges concerning hydropower, all of which threaten to impact negatively on the Amazonian areas. In our recommendations, we cite tangible examples to illustrate issues where we believe lessons learnt in Norway may have applicability to Brazil.(auth)

  6. Killer whale presence in relation to naval sonar activity and prey abundance in northern Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuningas, S.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Lam, F.P.A.; Miller, P.J.O.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, retrospective data on naval sonar activity and prey abundance were correlated with killer whale sightings within a fjord basin in northern Norway. In addition, passive acoustic and visual marine mammal surveys were conducted before, during, and after a specific navy exercise in 2006.

  7. Sedimentation and chronology of heavy metal pollution in Oslo harbor, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepland, Aivo; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Lepland, Aave

    2010-01-01

    Stratigraphic profiles of Cu, Cd and Hg in ten sediment cores from the Oslo harbor, Norway, combined with results of radiometric dating demonstrate that pollution by these metals peaked between 1940 and 1970. Dating results indicate that Hg discharges peaked between 1940 and 1950, Cd reached...

  8. Sea Kayaking Incidents in Norway 2000-2014: An Issue of Bad Weather or Poor Judgement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadland, Eivind; Noer, Gunnar; Vikene, Odd Lennart

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyse recreational sea kayaking and touring incidents in Norway with a specific focus on wind conditions and to elaborate on practical implications for the prevention of future incidents. We included 49 incidents reported by the media between 2000 and 2014. Incidents occurred in various wind conditions, but most…

  9. The Within-Job Motherhood Wage Penalty in Norway, 1979-1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Trond; Penner, Andrew M.; Hogsnes, Geir

    2010-01-01

    The motherhood wage penalty is a substantial obstacle to progress in gender equality at work. Using matched employer-employee data from Norway (1979-1996, N = 236,857 individuals, N = 1,027,462 individual-years), a country with public policies that promote combining family and career, we investigate (a) whether the penalty arises from differential…

  10. The contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and respiratory allergy in the Th2-prone Brown Norway rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, C.F.; Stierum, R.H.; Boorsma, A.; Schijf, M.A.; Prinsen, M.; Bruijntjes, J.P.; Bloksma, N.; Arts, J.H.E.

    2008-01-01

    All LMW respiratory allergens known to date can also induce skin allergy in test animals. The question here was if in turn skin allergens can induce allergy in the respiratory tract. Respiratory allergy was tested in Th2-prone Brown Norway (BN) rats by dermal sensitization with the contact allergen

  11. High-resolution stratigraphy of the northernmost concentric raised bog in Europe : Sellevollmyra, Andoya, northern Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorren, Karl-Dag; Wastegard, Stefan; Van Der Plicht, Johannes; Jensen, Christin; Wastegård, Stefan; Blaauw, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    From the Sellevollmyra bog at Andoya, northern Norway, a 440-cm long peat core covering the last c. 7000 calendar years was examined for humification, loss-on-ignition, microfossils, macrofossils and tephra. The age model was based on a Bayesian wiggle-match of 35 C-14 dates and two historically

  12. Willingness of nonindustrial private forest owners in Norway to supply logging residues for wood energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanne K. Sjolie; Dennis Becker; Daniel Habesland; Birger Solberg; Berit Hauger Lindstad; Stephanie Snyder; Mike. Kilgore

    2016-01-01

    Norway has set ambitious targets for increasing bioenergy production. Forest residue extraction levels are currently very low, but residues have the potential to be an important component of the wood energy supply chain. A representative sample of Norwegian nonindustrial private forest owners having at least 8 ha (20 acres) of productive forest land was surveyed about...

  13. Issues and Problems in the Organization of Children's Sport: A Case Study of Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirstad, Berit; Waddington, Ivan; Safvenbom, Reidar

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this article is on the organization of children's sport in Norway. More specifically, the paper sets out to examine (i) the changing pattern of relationships, and in particular the changing balance of conflict and cooperation, between the several organizations with responsibility for children's sport, and (ii) how sport for children…

  14. "Gender Utopias?": U.S. Student Reflections on Studying Abroad in Norway and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmeyer, Kristjane; Teig, Trisha; Bedera, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a study abroad experience in Norway and Sweden that was designed to explore gender equality in two of the world's most gender-progressive countries. Course readings explored the work of feminist sociologists and asked students to think critically about gender equality from a cross-cultural perspective. Students met with…

  15. The variability of wood density and compression strength of Norway spruce

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáček, Petr; Fajstavr, Marek; Stojanović, Marko

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, 1-2 (2017), s. 17-26 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : Norway spruce * wood density * compression strength * variability Subject RIV: GK - Forestry OBOR OECD: Forestry

  16. Development of new concepts for escape windows to minimise cod catches in Norway lobster fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Frandsen, Rikke; Holst, René

    2010-01-01

    Gear selectivity with regard to cod (Gadus morhua) needs to be improved in the Kattegat and Skagerrak Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) fishery. One way to achieve this goal is to improve the selectivity of an escape window (henceforth window) in the gear. Our gear development focused particul......Gear selectivity with regard to cod (Gadus morhua) needs to be improved in the Kattegat and Skagerrak Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) fishery. One way to achieve this goal is to improve the selectivity of an escape window (henceforth window) in the gear. Our gear development focused...... particularly on moving the window further back, gaining more stability in the codend to avoid loss of Norway lobster through the window, making a relatively narrow section where the window is located, and testing larger mesh sizes in the window. We designed a four panel sorting section—the sorting box......, but no improvement was observed for cod that came into contact with the window after reducing the distance from the window to the codline. The sorting box also showed a high reduction of flatfish and other roundfish species. The retention of Norway lobster above minimum landing size in the sorting box was higher...

  17. Study of the potential for biogas in Norway; Potensialstudie for biogass i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raadal, Hanne Lerche; Schakenda, Vibeke; Morken, John

    2008-07-01

    The project 'Study of the potential for biogas in Norway' is accomplished as a cooperation between Oestfoldforskning and UMB on task for Enova SF. The aim of the project was to document theoretical energy potentials from biogas resources in Norway and to enlighten the possibility for increased production, distribution and usage of biogas. Landfill gases equivalent approximately 300 GWh or 25% of total methane emission from Norwegian waste disposal sites are totally collected in Norway. 61% of collected landfill gases are exposed to electricity and/or heat production, while the rest - 39% - is flaring. The project has surveyed that approximately 180 GWh is produced from biogas plants in Norway, based on data collected from the actual plants. It is emphasised that data from 30% of the plants are missing. Approximately half the produced biogas is used in heat production, 18% in electricity production, 19% flared while 9% has uncertain usage. The theoretical energy potential from biogas resources from waste/by-product is calculated close to 6TWh/year. Manure amount 42% (the greatest potential), then industry (23%) and garbage from household, communal establishment and trade (16%). Possible synergy between natural gas and biogas is also considered, and the most important barriers for increased production and usage of biogas are mapped. (AG). 58 refs., 16 figs., 14 tabs

  18. An outline of the bibliometric indicator used for performancebased funding of research institutions in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg

    2009-01-01

    This article outlines and discusses the bibliometric indicator used for performance-based funding of research institutions in Norway. It is argued that the indicator is novel and innovative as compared to the indicators used in other funding models. It compares institutions based on all...

  19. Tolerance of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) embryogenic tissue to penicillin, carbapenem and aminoglycoside antibiotics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malá, J.; Pavingerová, Daniela; Cvrčková, H.; Bříza, Jindřich; Dostál, J.; Šíma, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2009), s. 156-161 ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71290 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : somatic embryogenesis * Norway spruce * penicillin antibiotics * Agrobacterium tumefaciens * carbapenem antibiotics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  20. Temporal and spatial heterogeneity of soil CO2 efflux in a Norway spruce stand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kurajdová, Jana; Acosta, Manuel; Pavelka, Marian

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 2006, č. 19 (2006), s. 1 ISSN 1803-1013 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 627.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : soil CO2 efflux * Norway spruce stand * temperature * spatial and temporal heterogeneity * stand density Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  1. A Comparison of Nursing and Teacher Education Students' Information Literacy Learning: Results from Norway, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierenberg, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    This study measures first-year undergraduate students' self-assessments and learning outcomes in information literacy skills in their first months of higher education in Norway. Comparisons are made between nursing students and teacher education students. Surveys were conducted before the library's information literacy course and after both…

  2. Juvenility and serial vegetative propagation of Norway spruce clones (Picea abies Karst.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.B. St. Clair; J. Kleinschmit; J. Svolba

    1985-01-01

    Effects associated with progressive maturation of clones are of greatest concern in clonal tree improvement programs. Serial propagation has been in use at the Lower Saxony Forest Research Institute since 1968 to arrest maturation in Norway spruce clones. By 1980 cuttings were established in the nursery that had been serially propagated from one to five cycles. This...

  3. First detection of European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldal, Torfinn; Vikøren, Turid; Cliquet, Florence; Marston, Denise A; van der Kooij, Jeroen; Madslien, Knut; Ørpetveit, Irene

    2017-07-11

    In Europe, bat rabies is primarily attributed to European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) and European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) which are both strongly host-specific. Approximately thirty cases of infection with EBLV-2 in Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii) and pond bats (M. dasycneme) have been reported. Two human cases of rabies caused by EBLV-2 have also been confirmed during the last thirty years, while natural spill-over to other non-flying mammals has never been reported. Rabies has never been diagnosed in mainland Norway previously. In late September 2015, a subadult male Daubenton's bat was found in a poor condition 800 m above sea level in the southern part of Norway. The bat was brought to the national Bat Care Centre where it eventually displayed signs of neurological disease and died after two days. EBLV-2 was detected in brain tissues by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by sequencing of a part of the nucleoprotein gene, and lyssavirus was isolated in neuroblastoma cells. The detection of EBLV-2 in a bat in Norway broadens the knowledge on the occurrence of this zoonotic agent. Since Norway is considered free of rabies, adequate information to the general public regarding the possibility of human cases of bat-associated rabies should be given. No extensive surveillance of lyssavirus infections in bats has been conducted in the country, and a passive surveillance network to assess rabies prevalence and bat epidemiology is highly desired.

  4. Cumulative Risk of Bovine Mastitis Treatments in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloniemi H

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Data from the national dairy cow recording systems during 1997 were used to calculate lactation-specific cumulative risk of mastitis treatments and cumulative risk of removal from the herds in Denmark, Finland Norway and Sweden. Sweden had the lowest risk of recorded mastitis treatments during 305 days of lactation and Norway had the highest risk. The incidence risk of recorded mastitis treatments during 305 days of lactation in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden was 0.177, 0.139, 0.215 and 0.127 for first parity cows and 0.228, 0.215, 0.358 and 0.204 for parities higher than three, respectively. The risk of a first parity cow being treated for mastitis was almost 3 times higher at calving in Norway than in Sweden. The period with the highest risk for mastitis treatments was from 2 days before calving until 14 days after calving and the highest risk for removal was from calving to 10 days after calving in all countries. The study clearly demonstrated differences in bovine mastitis treatment patterns among the Nordic countries. The most important findings were the differences in treatment risks during different lactations within each country, as well as differences in strategies with respect to the time during lactation mastitis was treated.

  5. Liquid Ice Surfers--The Construction of Surfer Identities in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langseth, Tommy

    2012-01-01

    Surfing is getting increasingly popular in Norway as well as other countries that have a coastline with rideable waves. As surfing gains in popularity, however, the boundaries of the surfing subculture become increasingly guarded. Through ethnography and qualitative interviews, this study examines identity construction on an individual and group…

  6. Comparison of different ground techniques to map leaf area index of Norway spruce forest canopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homolova, L.; Malenovsky, Z.; Hanus, J.; Tomaskova, I.; Dvoráková, M.; Pokorny, R.

    2007-01-01

    The leaf area index (LAI) of three monocultures of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst), different in age and structure, was measured by means of two indirect optical techniques of LAI field mapping: 1/ plant canopy analyser LAI-2000, and 2/ digital hemispherical photographs (DHP). The supportive

  7. Measurement methods and variability assessment of the Norway spruce total leaf area: Implications for remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homolova, L.; Lukes, P.; Malenovsky, Z.; Lhotakova, Z.; Kaplan, V.; Hanus, J.

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of total leaf area (LAT) is important to express biochemical properties in plant ecology and remote sensing studies. A measurement of LAT is easy in broadleaf species, but it remains challenging in coniferous canopies. We proposed a new geometrical model to estimate Norway spruce LAT and

  8. Do Time in Child Care and Peer Group Exposure Predict Poor Socioemotional Adjustment in Norway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, Elisabet; Wichstrøm, Lars; Belsky, Jay; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Extensive exposure to nonparental child care during the first 4.5 years of life has been demonstrated in some American studies to negatively affect children's socioemotional functioning. Data from 935 preschool children who averaged 54.9 (SD = 3.0) months of age, from Trondheim, Norway were used to examine whether such negative effects, would…

  9. Solar Water Heating as a Potential Source for Inland Norway Energy Mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejene Assefa Hagos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess solar potential and investigate the possibility of using solar water heating for residential application in Inland Norway. Solar potential based on observation and satellite-derived data for four typical populous locations has been assessed and used to estimate energy yield using two types of solar collectors for a technoeconomic performance comparison. Based on the results, solar energy use for water heating is competitive and viable even in low solar potential areas. In this study it was shown that a typical tubular collector in Inland Norway could supply 62% of annual water heating energy demand for a single residential household, while glazed flat plates of the same size were able to supply 48%. For a given energy demand in Inland Norway, tubular collectors are preferred to flat plate collectors for performance and cost reasons. This was shown by break-even capital cost for a series of collector specifications. Deployment of solar water heating in all detached dwellings in Inland could have the potential to save 182 GWh of electrical energy, equivalent to a reduction of 15,690 tonnes of oil energy and 48.6 ktCO2 emissions, and contributes greatly to Norway 67.5% renewable share target by 2020.

  10. Isoprenoid emission variation of Norway spruce across a European latitudinal transect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Meeningen, Ylva; Wang, Min; Karlsson, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    to the formation and growth of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere. Isoprenoid emissions were measured from Norway spruce trees at seven different sites, distributed from Ljubljana in Slovenia to Piikkiö in Finland. Four of the sites were part of a network of genetically identical spruce trees...

  11. When Work Comes First: Young Adults in Vocational Education and Training in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tønder, Anna Hagen; Aspøy, Tove Mogstad

    2017-01-01

    Since reforms implemented in 1994, vocational education and training (VET) in Norway has been integrated and standardized as part of upper-secondary education. When young people enter upper-secondary education at the age of 15 or 16, they can choose either a vocational programme or a general academic programme. The standard model in vocational…

  12. Phylogeographical pattern of Francisella tularensis in a nationwide outbreak of tularaemia in Norway, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afset, J E; Larssen, K W; Bergh, K; Larkeryd, A; Sjodin, A; Johansson, A; Forsman, M

    2015-05-14

    In 2011, a nationwide outbreak of tularaemia occurred in Norway with 180 recorded cases. It was associated with the largest peak in lemming density seen in 40 years. Francisella tularensis was isolated from 18 patients. To study the geographical distribution of F.tularensis genotypes in Norway and correlate genotype with epidemiology and clinical presentation,we performed whole genome sequencing of patient isolates. All 18 genomes from the outbreak carried genetic signatures of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica and were assigned to genetic clades using canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms. Ten isolates were assigned to major genetic clade B.6 (subclade B.7),seven to clade B.12, and one to clade B.4. The B.6 subclade B.7 was most common in southern and central Norway, while clade B.12 was evenly distributed between the southern, central and northern parts of the country. There was no association between genotype and clinical presentation of tularaemia, time of year or specimen type. We found extensive sequence similarity with F. tularensis subsp. holarctica genomes from high-endemic tularaemia areas in Sweden.Finding nearly identical genomes across large geographical distances in Norway and Sweden imply a life cycle of the bacterium without replication between the outbreaks and raise new questions about long-range migration mechanisms.

  13. Marginalisation Processes in Inclusive Education in Norway: A Longitudinal Study of Classroom Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendelborg, Christian; Tossebro, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the classroom participation of primary school children with disabilities who attend regular schools in Norway; to explore how relations between children with disabilities and their environment change, and further to chart how schools act in response to such change. The analyses are based on a life course study…

  14. Perceived outcomes of public libraries in Finland, Norway and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vakkari, P.; Aabø, S.; Audunson, R.; Huysmans, F.; Oomes, M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to compare the perceived benefits of public libraries and their structure in the major areas of life between Finland, Norway and the Netherlands. Design/methodology/approach - The data were based on representative samples of Finnish, Norwegian and Dutch adult

  15. Interaction of soil filamentous fungi affects needle composition and nutrition of Norway spruce seedlings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrnka, Libor; Tokárová, H.; Vosátka, Miroslav; Matějka, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 5 (2009), s. 887-897 ISSN 0931-1890 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/0269 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : mycelial interaction s * norway spruce * nutrient cycling Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.603, year: 2009

  16. 6th Nordic Workshop on Reindeer Research, 8-10 October 1990, Tromsø, Norway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Skjenneberg (ed.

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The Sixth Nordic Reindeer Scientist's Meeting, organised by the Nordic Council for Reindeer Research, was held at Tromsø, Norway, 8-10 October, 1990. The principal themes of the meeting were ' Reindeer husbandry. Basis for resources and the man' and ' Meat quality'.

  17. Air pollution and respiratory health of children: the PEACE study in Oslo, Norway.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clench-Aas, J.; Bartonova, A.; Skjonsberg, O.H.; Leegaard, J.; Hagen, L.O.; Giaever, P.; Moseng, J.; Roemer, W.

    1998-01-01

    As a part of the Pollution Effects on Asthmatic Children in Europe (PEACE) investigation, a 10 week panel study was conducted in Oslo, Norway, from December 1, 1993 to February 14, 1994. Of the 180 children recruited, 125 satisfactorily filled out a daily diary for the entire period, in addition to

  18. Yersinia enterocolitica outbreak associated with ready-to-eat salad mix, Norway, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Emily; Heier, Berit Tafjord; Nygård, Karin; Stalheim, Torunn; Cudjoe, Kofitsyo S; Skjerdal, Taran; Wester, Astrid Louise; Lindstedt, Bjørn-Arne; Stavnes, Trine-Lise; Vold, Line

    2012-09-01

    In 2011, an outbreak of illness caused by Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 in Norway was linked to ready-to-eat salad mix, an unusual vehicle for this pathogen. The outbreak illustrates the need to characterize isolates of this organism, and reinforces the need for international traceback mechanisms for fresh produce.

  19. Family Income Dynamics, Early Childhood Education and Care, and Early Child Behavior Problems in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachrisson, Henrik D.; Dearing, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high-quality ECEC buffers children from the…

  20. Consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield - Predicted impacts on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoerring, H.; Liland, A.

    2010-12-01

    This report deals with the environmental consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield. The investigation is limited to the terrestrial environment, and focus on animals grazing natural pastures, plus wild berries and fungi. Only 137Cs is considered. The predicted consequences are severe - in particular for mutton and goat milk production. (Author)

  1. A cross-sectional study of Tritrichomonas foetus infection among healthy cats at shows in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nødtvedt Ane

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the protozoan Tritrichomonas foetus has been recognised as an important cause of chronic large-bowel diarrhoea in purebred cats in many countries, including Norway. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the proportion of animals with T. foetus infection among clinically healthy cats in Norway and to assess different risk factors for T. foetus infection, such as age, sex, former history of gastrointestinal symptoms and concurrent infections with Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium sp. Methods The sample population consisted of 52 cats participating in three cat shows in Norway in 2009. Samples were examined for motile T. foetus by microscopy, after culturing and for T. foetus-DNA by species-specific nested PCR, as well as for Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts by immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT. Results By PCR, T. foetus-DNA was demonstrated in the faeces of 11 (21% of the 52 cats tested. DNA-sequencing of five positive samples yielded 100% identity with previous isolates of T. foetus from cats. Only one sample was positive for T. foetus by microscopy. By IFAT, four samples were positive for Giardia cysts and one for Cryptosporidium oocysts, none of which was co-infected with T. foetus. No significant associations were found between the presence of T. foetus and the various risk factors examined. Conclusions T. foetus was found to be a common parasite in clinically healthy cats in Norway.

  2. Genome sequence of the Brown Norway rat yields insights into mammalian evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbs, Richard A; Weinstock, George M; Metzker, Michael L

    2004-01-01

    The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) is an indispensable tool in experimental medicine and drug development, having made inestimable contributions to human health. We report here the genome sequence of the Brown Norway (BN) rat strain. The sequence represents a high-quality 'draft' covering ove...

  3. Soil saprotrophic micromycetes in Norway spruce forests in the Šumava National Park

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Alena

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 7, - (2001), s. 177-184 ISSN 1211-7420 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/99/1416 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : soil saprotrophic micromycetes * Norway spruce forest * bark beetle Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  4. Improvements of soil quality for increased food production in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øygarden, Lillian; Klakegg, Ove; Børresen, Trond; Krogstad, Tore; Kjersti Uhlen, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Since the 1990ties, agricultural land in use in Norway has diminished and yields per hectare for cereals and forages have stagnated. An expert panel appointed to advice on how to increase Norwegian grain production emphasizes low profitability and poor soil quality as limiting factors. A White Paper from the Norwegian Government, Report No.9 (2011-2012), stated that the main goal for the agricultural sector is to increase food production proportional to the expected increase in population (20 % by 2030) in order to maintain self-sufficiency at the present level. This is the background for the interdisciplinary project AGROPRO "Agronomy for increased food production - Challenges and solutions" (2013 - 2017)" financed by the Norwegian research council. A mail goal is seeking possibilities for improvements in agronomic practices for increased and sustainable food production and to identify drivers and challenges for their implementation. Are the key to higher yields hidden in the soil? The paper present an overview of the research activities in the project and some results of the improvements of soil quality to minimize yield gap in cereal and forage production. Detailed new soil maps provide soil information on field scale of soil quality and the suitability for growing different crops like cereal production or vegetables. The detailed soil information is also beeing used for development and adaptation of the planning tool «Terranimo» to reduce risk of soil compaction.The farmer get available soil information for each field, provide information about the maschinery in use- tractors and equipment, tyres, pressure. The decision tool evaluate when the soil is suitable for tillage, calculate the risk of compaction for dry, moist and wet soil. New research data for compaction on Norwegian clay and silt soil are included. Climate change with wetter conditions gives challenges for growing cereals. The project is testing genetic variation in cereals for tolerance to water

  5. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  6. Switching statins in Norway after new reimbursement policy – a nationwide prescription study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakshaug, Solveig; Furu, Kari; Karlstad, Øystein; Rønning, Marit; Skurtveit, Svetlana

    2007-01-01

    What is already known about this subject Use of statins is growing worldwide and costs represent a burden to public budgets. The introduction of simvastatin generics, generic substitution and price regulations have contributed to price reductions and resulted in overall cost reductions of statin use in Norway. What this study adds New reimbursement regulations for statins in Norway in June 2005, making simvastatin the drug of choice, had a great impact on physicians' prescribing of statins. Nearly 40% of the atorvastatin users switched to simvastatin during the 13-month period after implementation of the new regulations. Among the new users of statins the proportion receiving simvastatin increased from 48% in May 2005 to 92% in June 2006. The new regulations have reduced costs of statins, even though the prevalence of statin use has increased. Aims To assess the changes in prescribing of statins in Norway after implementation of the new reimbursement regulations for statins in June 2005. Methods Data were retrieved from the Norwegian Prescription Database covering the total population in Norway (4.6 million). Outcome measures were the proportion of atorvastatin users switching to simvastatin and changes in the proportion of new statin users receiving simvastatin. Based on retail costs for all statin prescriptions dispensed in Norway, expenditure was measured in Norwegian currency. Results One-year prevalences of statin use increased from 6.3 to 6.8% for women and from 7.5 to 8.1% for men from the year before to the year after the new statin regulations. Of atorvastatin users (N = 131 222), 39% switched to simvastatin during the 13-month period after the implementation. The proportion of switching was higher in women (41%) than in men (36%). In May 2005, 48% of the new statin users received simvastatin. The proportion of new users receiving simvastatin increased rapidly after implementation of the new regulations to 68% in June 2005 and reached 92% in June 2006

  7. General practitioners' experiences with sickness certification: a comparison of survey data from Sweden and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winde Lee D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In most countries with sickness insurance systems, general practitioners (GPs play a key role in the sickness-absence process. Previous studies have indicated that GPs experience several tasks and situations related to sickness certification consultations as problematic. The fact that the organization of primary health care and social insurance systems differ between countries may influence both GPs' experiences and certification. The aim of the present study was to gain more knowledge of GPs' experiences of sickness certification, by comparing data from Sweden and Norway, regarding frequencies and aspects of sickness certification found to be problematic. Methods Statistical analyses of cross-sectional survey data of sickness certification by GPs in Sweden and Norway. In Sweden, all GPs were included, with 3949 (60.6% responding. In Norway, a representative sample of GPs was included, with 221 (66.5% responding. Results Most GPs reported having consultations involving sickness certification at least once a week; 95% of the GPs in Sweden and 99% of the GPs in Norway. A majority found such tasks problematic; 60% of the GPs in Sweden and 53% in Norway. In a logistic regression, having a higher frequency of sickness certification consultations was associated with a higher risk of experiencing them as problematic, in both countries. A higher rate of GPs in Sweden than in Norway reported meeting patients wanting a sickness certification without a medical reason. GPs in Sweden found it more problematic to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of sick leave with patients and to issue a prolongation of a sick-leave period initiated by another physician. GPs in Norway more often worried that patients would go to another physician if they did not issue a certificate, and a higher proportion of Norwegian GPs found it problematic to handle situations where they and their patient disagreed on the need for sick leave. Conclusions The

  8. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  9. Estimating the magnitude of female genital mutilation/cutting in Norway: an extrapolation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyada, Mai M; Norberg-Schulz, Marthe; Johansen, R Elise B

    2016-02-02

    With emphasis on policy implications, the main objective of this study was to estimate the numbers of two main groups affected by FGM/C in Norway: 1) those already subjected to FGM/C and therefore potentially in need for health care and 2) those at risk of FGM/C and consequently the target of preventive and protective measures. Special attention has been paid to type III as it is associated with more severe complications. Register data from Statistics Norway (SSB) was combined with population-based survey data on FGM/C in the women/girls' countries of origin. As of January 1(st) 2013, there were 44,467 first and second-generation female immigrants residing in Norway whose country of origin is one of the 29 countries where FGM/C is well documented. About 40 pct. of these women and girls are estimated to have already been subjected to FGM/C prior to immigration to Norway. Type III is estimated in around 50 pct. of those already subjected to FGM/C. Further, a total of 15,500 girls are identified as potentially at risk, out of which an approximate number of girls ranging between 3000 and 7900 are estimated to be at risk of FGM/C. Reliable estimates on FGM/C are important for evidence-based policies. The study findings indicate that about 17,300 women and girls in Norway can be in need of health care, in particular the 9100 who are estimated to have type III. Preventive and protective measures are also needed to protect girls at risk (3000 to 7900) from being subjected to FGM/C. Nevertheless, as there are no appropriate tools at the moment that can single these girls out of all who are potentially at risk, all girls in the potentially at risk group (15,500) should be targeted with preventive measures.

  10. Varicella-related Primary Health-care Visits, Hospitalizations and Mortality in Norway, 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirinaviciute, Grazina; Kristensen, Erle; Nakstad, Britt; Flem, Elmira

    2017-11-01

    Norway does not currently implement universal varicella vaccination in childhood. We aimed to characterize health care burden of varicella in Norway in the prevaccine era. We linked individual patient data from different national registries to examine varicella vaccinations and varicella-coded primary care consultations, hospitalizations, outpatient hospital visits, deaths and viral infections of central nervous system in the whole population of Norway during 2008-2014. We estimated health care contact rates and described the epidemiology of medically attended varicella infection. Each year approximately 14,600 varicella-related contacts occurred within primary health care and hospital sector in Norway. The annual contact rate was 221 cases per 100,000 population in primary health care and 7.3 cases per 100,000 in hospital care. Both in primary and hospital care, the highest incidences were observed among children 1 year of age: 2,654 and 78.1 cases per 100,000, respectively. The annual varicella mortality was estimated at 0.06 deaths per 100,000 and in-hospital case-fatality rate at 0.3%. Very few (0.2-0.5%) patients were vaccinated against varicella. Among hospitalized varicella patients, 22% had predisposing conditions, 9% had severe-to-very severe comorbidities and 5.5% were immunocompromised. Varicella-related complications were reported in 29.3% of hospitalized patients. Varicella zoster virus was the third most frequent virus found among 16% of patients with confirmed viral infections of central nervous system. Varicella causes a considerable health care burden in Norway, especially among children. To inform the policy decision on the use of varicella vaccination, a health economic assessment of vaccination and mathematical modeling of vaccination impact are needed.

  11. The impact of daylight saving time on electricity consumption: Evidence from southern Norway and Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, Faisal Mehmood, E-mail: faisal.mirza@umb.no [Department of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB), P.O. Box 5003, 1432 As (Norway); Bergland, Olvar, E-mail: olvar.bergland@umb.no [Department of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB), P.O. Box 5003, 1432 As (Norway)

    2011-06-15

    This paper examines the impact of daylight saving time (DST) on electricity consumption in southern Norway and Sweden. As DST was implemented in both the countries in 1980, we do not have a clear counterfactual in the form of a control period to identify the impact of DST directly with before and after or with and without analysis. This problem in the study is resolved by using 'equivalent day normalization technique' to identify the impact of DST. The difference-in-difference (DID) average treatment effects model suggests an annual reduction of at least 1.0 percent in electricity consumption for both Norway and Sweden due to DST. The average annual electricity consumption reduction corresponding to DST effects equals 519 and 882 GWh for southern Norway and Sweden, resulting in an annual financial saving of 16.1 million Euros and 30.1 million Euros, respectively. The distribution of treatment effects across different hours of the day indicates a small but significant reduction in electricity consumption during the morning and a steep decline during the evening hours in both countries. - Highlights: > We assess the impact of DST on electricity consumption in southern Norway and Sweden. > DST reduces electricity consumption by 1.3 percent in both countries. > The impact is smaller during the morning hours but larger during evening hours. > Respective annual financial savings equal Euro 16.1 and 30.1 million for Norway and Sweden. > Average annual electricity savings equal 519 and 882 GWh for two countries, respectively.

  12. Mountain forest wood fuel supply chains: comparative studies between Norway and Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valente, Clara; Spinelli, Raffaele; Hillring, Bengt Gunnar; Solberg, Birger

    2014-01-01

    Case studies of mountain forest wood fuel supply chains from Norway and Italy are presented and compared. Results from previous studies in which greenhouse gas emissions and costs were evaluated using life cycle assessment and cost analysis respectively, are compared. The supply chain is more mechanized in Norway than Italy. Steeper terrain and low road density partly explain the persistence of motor-manual felling in the Italian case. Mechanized forest harvesting can increase productivity and reduce costs, but generates more greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than motor-manual harvesting. In both cases, the main sources of GHG emissions are truck transportation and chipping. The total emissions are 22.9 kg CO 2 /m 3 s.o.b. (Norway) and 13.2 kg CO 2 /m 3 s.o.b. (Italy). The Norwegian case has higher costs than the Italian one, 64 €/m 3 s.o.b. and 41 €/m 3 s.o.b. respectively, for the overall supply chain. The study shows that mountain forests constitute an interesting source for fuel biomass in both areas, but are a rather costly source, particularly in Norway. The study also exemplifies the care needed in transferring LCA results between regions and countries, particularly where forest biomass is involved. - Highlights: • We compare two mountain forest wood fuel supply chains in Norway and in Italy. • Transportation by truck generate the highest emissions in both case studies. • The energy use of the Norwegian supply chain was approximately twice as high as the Italian one. • Changes in fuel consumption affect significantly emissions and energy use from transportation and chipping operations. • Cable yarding and transportation by truck were the most expensive phases respectively in the Italian and Norwegian supply chain

  13. The impact of daylight saving time on electricity consumption: Evidence from southern Norway and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, Faisal Mehmood; Bergland, Olvar

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of daylight saving time (DST) on electricity consumption in southern Norway and Sweden. As DST was implemented in both the countries in 1980, we do not have a clear counterfactual in the form of a control period to identify the impact of DST directly with before and after or with and without analysis. This problem in the study is resolved by using 'equivalent day normalization technique' to identify the impact of DST. The difference-in-difference (DID) average treatment effects model suggests an annual reduction of at least 1.0 percent in electricity consumption for both Norway and Sweden due to DST. The average annual electricity consumption reduction corresponding to DST effects equals 519 and 882 GWh for southern Norway and Sweden, resulting in an annual financial saving of 16.1 million Euros and 30.1 million Euros, respectively. The distribution of treatment effects across different hours of the day indicates a small but significant reduction in electricity consumption during the morning and a steep decline during the evening hours in both countries. - Highlights: → We assess the impact of DST on electricity consumption in southern Norway and Sweden. → DST reduces electricity consumption by 1.3 percent in both countries. → The impact is smaller during the morning hours but larger during evening hours. → Respective annual financial savings equal Euro 16.1 and 30.1 million for Norway and Sweden. → Average annual electricity savings equal 519 and 882 GWh for two countries, respectively.

  14. North or East. Germany's crude oil and natural gas supply from Norway and Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, M.

    2004-01-01

    This work examines the crude oil and natural gas trade from Norway and Russia to Germany. There is a considerable need for energy import in Germany because only a small part of the national consumption can be met with domestic productions. This applies especially to crude oil and natural gas. Norway and Russia are among the leading crude oil and natural gas producers and exporters in the world. The geographical vicinity of these significant demand and supply potentials leads to extensive energy based relations between Germany and Norway respectively Russia. The focus of this work is on the perception of and attitudes towards Norway and Russia as crude oil and natural gas suppliers for the domestic markets in Germany. Reporting from two leading German newspapers, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung and Sueddeutsche Zeitung, are regarded to be a valid source for detecting these attitudes and perceptions. Relevant articles are analysed with content analysis and further multi- methodological approaches. For this reasons the work provides at the beginning full description of the Norwegian and Russian crude oil and natural gas sector as well as detailed information on the German energy markets and policy. It can be shown that differences in dealing with Norway and Russia in the articles exit. Accordingly, different perceptions and attitudes are detectable as well. This work shows where these differences can be found and examines their quality. It is argued that the reporting and the attitudes are not only based on economical facts but also on 'imagined space'. The need for impartial relations with both supplying countries is stressed. (orig.)

  15. Stories of pain and health by elderly Pakistani women in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverre, Beate Lie; Solbrække, Kari Nyheim; Eilertsen, Grethe

    2014-11-01

    This ethnographic study investigates the stories of elderly Pakistani women living in Norway. Migration studies indicate that elderly migrant women are passive, ill victims caught in a marginalized position due to age, ethnicity and gender, and thus have little access to opposition and agency. To broaden the picture it is necessary to develop an innovative approach to understand what is implicated in the process of migration. The importance of considering life conditions that surrounds potential health promotion behaviors of immigrants is stressed by several researchers. However, up to now limited research guided by this perspective has been done in Norway. Therefore, this study explored how elderly Pakistani women in Norway promote their health and well-being through some distinct social interactions. The intention is to bring awareness to how health, even by so-called disadvantaged social groups, may take place. These practices are important to take into consideration when developing health-promoting policies for elderly immigrants. An ethnographic study of 15 Pakistani women, aged 53-75, was carried out in a multisided fieldwork in Oslo using participant observation and ethnographic interviews. The analytical approach was inspired by the constructivist theoretical framework of narrative ethnography. The elderly Pakistani women in Norway construct stories of living in-between cultures and experiences of acculturative stress caused by being elderly, immigrants and women. However, this analysis also suggests that through distinct social relationships, primarily in the context of a voluntary organization, elderly Pakistani women do health by the way they interact and construct a repertoire of social identities. The healing practices taking place among elderly Pakistani women may counteract the negative health outcomes associated with age, migration and gender implications for immigrant health-promoting policy in Norway may be to increase the establishment and

  16. Electron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher

    2005-05-17

    A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.

  17. A comparative study of educational inequality in the risk of stillbirth in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden 1981-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Ane L; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Cnattingius, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Background The stillbirth rates in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden are among the lowest in the world, but socioeconomic disparities in stillbirth still exist. This study examined the educational patterns in the risk of stillbirth in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden from 1981 to 2000. Methods...... From the national birth registries, all singleton live births and stillbirths with a gestational age of at least 28 weeks were selected in Denmark (n=1¿182¿888), Finland (n=419¿729), Norway (n=1¿006¿767) and Sweden (n=1¿974¿101). The births were linked with individual data on parental...

  18. Landslide response signatures from storm Desmond (UK)/Synne (Norway), December 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Tom; Freeborough, Katy; Reeves, Helen; Nykjaer, Boje Soren; Sund, Monica; Devoli, Graziella; Banks, Vanessa

    2016-04-01

    Great Britain (GB) and coastal Norway share a common humid maritime climate and annually receive precipitation in the form of cyclonic low-pressure systems or as extra-tropical storms that travel across the Atlantic. Extreme meteorological events capable of triggering floods and landslides are becoming more frequent, with both GB and Norway being affected by a sequence of record-breaking precipitation events in the past decade. On the 5th and 6th of December 2015, storms Desmond/Synne struck northern GB and southwestern Norway with record-breaking rainfall; >340 mm in 24-hour in Cumbria (or 200% of long term average) and daily accumulations in Norway in excess of 140 mm and 236 mm/48hr. Landscape responses to hydro-meteorological stress are non-uniform and the result of a complex interaction of processes. Therefore, event-specific analysis provides an important tool to further our understanding, particularly to enhance the quality of daily landslide hazard assessments (DLHA) issued by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) and the British Geological Survey (BGS). The application of precipitation thresholds provides a useful first approximation for landslide triggering. However, antecedent conditioning of slopes and the spatial variability of precipitation signatures are important factors in determining the location of landslides. Given the magnitude of storms Desmond/Synne a much larger population of landslides was expected to occur. Within one month of the events occurring some 25 events are recorded in GB and circa 30 events in Norway. In GB most of these events are relatively small scale, dominated by translational slides and flows and about 80% of cases reported to occur along transport infrastructure. In Norway, roughly equal numbers of debris flows, shallow slides, rock falls, slush flows and snow avalanches are recorded in close proximity to infrastructure. As the media largely focused on simultaneous severe consequences of extensive

  19. Thorium as an energy source. Opportunities for Norway; Thorium som energikilde - Muligheter for Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-02-15

    Final Recommendations of the Thorium Report Committee: 1) No technology should be idolized or demonized. All carbon-dioxide (Co2) emission-free energy production technologies should be considered. The potential contribution of nuclear energy to a sustainable energy future should be recognized. 2) An investigation into the resources in the Fen Complex and other sites in Norway should be performed. It is essential to assess whether thorium in Norwegian rocks can be defined as an economical asset for the benefit of future generations. Furthermore, the application of new technologies for the extraction of thorium from the available mineral sources should be studied. 3) Testing of thorium fuel in the Halden Reactor should be encouraged, taking benefit of the well recognized nuclear fuel competence in Halden. 4) Norway should strengthen its participation in international collaborations by joining the EURATOM fission program and the GIF program on Generation IV reactors suitable for the use of thorium. 5) The development of an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) using thorium is not within the capability of Norway working alone. Joining the European effort in this field should be considered. Norwegian research groups should be encouraged to participate in relevant international projects, although these are currently focused on waste management. 6) Norway should bring its competence in waste management up to an international standard and collaboration with Sweden and Finland could be beneficial. 7) Norway should bring its competence with respect to dose assessment related to the thorium cycle up to an international standard. 8) Since the proliferation resistance of uranium-233 depends on the reactor and reprocessing technologies, this aspect will be of key concern should any thorium reactor be built in Norway. 9) Any new nuclear activities in Norway, e.g. thorium fuel cycles, would need strong international pooling of human resources, and in the case of thorium, a strong long

  20. A comparison of alcohol and drug use by random motor vehicle drivers in Brazil and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Hallvard; Sousa, Tanara R; De Boni, Raquel; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Limberger, Renata P; Zancanaro, Ivomar; Oiestad, Elisabeth L; Normann, Per T; Mørland, Jørg; Pechansky, Flavio

    2014-05-01

    A large proportion of road traffic crashes are related to driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol or drugs. The aim of this study was to compare the use of alcohol, illegal drugs and psychoactive medicinal drugs among random drivers in Brazil and Norway, two countries with the same legal limit for drunk driving, but with marked differences in legislation history, enforcement and penalties for DUI, and to discuss any differences found. Roadside surveys were conducted on Fridays and Saturdays between noon and midnight. Samples of oral fluid were collected for analysis of drugs, whereas alcohol was determined by breath testing or by analysis of oral fluid. High participation rates of 94-97% were obtained in both countries. The weighted prevalence of driving with alcohol concentrations in breath or oral fluid equivalent to blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) above 0.2g/L was 2.7% (95% CI 2.2-3.3) in Brazil and 0.2% (95% CI 0.0-0.5) in Norway. Stimulants (amphetamines or cocaine) were found in samples from 1.0% (95% CI 0.7-1.4) of drivers in Brazil and 0.3% (95% CI 0.1-0.7) in Norway. The prevalence of amphetamines was highest among Brazilian truck drivers (3.6%; 95% CI 2.0-6.4). Tetrahydrocannabinol was found in samples from 0.5% (95% CI 0.3-0.8) of drivers in Brazil and 1.0% (95% CI 0.6-1.5) in Norway, whereas benzodiazepines or zopiclone were found in 1.0% (95% CI 0.7-1.4) and 1.7% (95% CI 1.2-2.4) of the samples from Brazil and Norway, respectively. The difference in the prevalence of alcohol may be related to the fact that Norway has implemented steps to reduce drunk driving since 1936, whereas Brazil has attempted to do the same for only a few years. Differences for drugs may be related to different patterns in the use of stimulants, cannabis and medicines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.