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Sample records for hard-to-see sea life

  1. The sea - landfill or sphere of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haury, H.J.; Koller, U.; Assmann, G.

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Information Agency held its third seminar for journalists, entitled 'The sea - landfill or sphere of life' in Hamburg on July 18, 1989. Some 40 journalists - radio journalists and journalists from the staff of dailies and the technical press - took the opportunity to listen for a day to short lectures on selected subjects and submit their questions concerning sea pollution to scientists of diverse disciplines. (orig.) [de

  2. Noise-proof bubbles to protect sea life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deboutte, G.

    2012-01-01

    The construction of wind turbines in shallow sea might jeopardize the life of mammals living nearby. The wave sound generated by each hammer impact to drive the pillars deep in the sea bottom can reach up to 200 decibels at 750 m away from the construction site. Repeated noises at this sound level is thought to be damaging for audition systems of sea mammals. The German authorities have launched a 4-year long program to find efficient technical solutions to damp sound waves. Various techniques have been tested in the Baltic sea and it appears that most techniques are efficient but some seem more relevant like the bubble curtain in which air bubbles generated around the site disturb the propagation of sound waves, or the balloon curtain in which air balloons plays the role of the bubbles, or the network of vertical pipes set around the construction site, or the sound-proofed sheath set around the pillar and hammer. (A.C.)

  3. Emerging Methods and Systems for Observing Life in the Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, F.; Pearlman, J.; Simmons, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    There is a growing need for observations of life in the sea at time and space scales consistent with those made for physical and chemical parameters. International programs such as the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and Marine Biodiversity Observation Networks (MBON) are making the case for expanded biological observations and working diligently to prioritize essential variables. Here we review past, present and emerging systems and methods for observing life in the sea from the perspective of maintaining continuous observations over long time periods. Methods that rely on ships with instrumentation and over-the-side sample collections will need to be supplemented and eventually replaced with those based from autonomous platforms. Ship-based optical and acoustic instruments are being reduced in size and power for deployment on moorings and autonomous vehicles. In parallel a new generation of low power, improved resolution sensors are being developed. Animal bio-logging is evolving with new, smaller and more sophisticated tags being developed. New genomic methods, capable of assessing multiple trophic levels from a single water sample, are emerging. Autonomous devices for genomic sample collection are being miniaturized and adapted to autonomous vehicles. The required processing schemes and methods for these emerging data collections are being developed in parallel with the instrumentation. An evolving challenge will be the integration of information from these disparate methods given that each provides their own unique view of life in the sea.

  4. How deep-sea wood falls sustain chemosynthetic life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Bienhold

    Full Text Available Large organic food falls to the deep sea--such as whale carcasses and wood logs--are known to serve as stepping stones for the dispersal of highly adapted chemosynthetic organisms inhabiting hot vents and cold seeps. Here we investigated the biogeochemical and microbiological processes leading to the development of sulfidic niches by deploying wood colonization experiments at a depth of 1690 m in the Eastern Mediterranean for one year. Wood-boring bivalves of the genus Xylophaga played a key role in the degradation of the wood logs, facilitating the development of anoxic zones and anaerobic microbial processes such as sulfate reduction. Fauna and bacteria associated with the wood included types reported from other deep-sea habitats including chemosynthetic ecosystems, confirming the potential role of large organic food falls as biodiversity hot spots and stepping stones for vent and seep communities. Specific bacterial communities developed on and around the wood falls within one year and were distinct from freshly submerged wood and background sediments. These included sulfate-reducing and cellulolytic bacterial taxa, which are likely to play an important role in the utilization of wood by chemosynthetic life and other deep-sea animals.

  5. How Deep-Sea Wood Falls Sustain Chemosynthetic Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienhold, Christina; Pop Ristova, Petra; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Dittmar, Thorsten; Boetius, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Large organic food falls to the deep sea – such as whale carcasses and wood logs – are known to serve as stepping stones for the dispersal of highly adapted chemosynthetic organisms inhabiting hot vents and cold seeps. Here we investigated the biogeochemical and microbiological processes leading to the development of sulfidic niches by deploying wood colonization experiments at a depth of 1690 m in the Eastern Mediterranean for one year. Wood-boring bivalves of the genus Xylophaga played a key role in the degradation of the wood logs, facilitating the development of anoxic zones and anaerobic microbial processes such as sulfate reduction. Fauna and bacteria associated with the wood included types reported from other deep-sea habitats including chemosynthetic ecosystems, confirming the potential role of large organic food falls as biodiversity hot spots and stepping stones for vent and seep communities. Specific bacterial communities developed on and around the wood falls within one year and were distinct from freshly submerged wood and background sediments. These included sulfate-reducing and cellulolytic bacterial taxa, which are likely to play an important role in the utilization of wood by chemosynthetic life and other deep-sea animals. PMID:23301092

  6. Playing Sport In The Stormy Sea Of Street Life | Human | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Currently, there are many street children in South Africa (SA). They have been robbed from the safe harbour of family life and on a daily basis experience the stormy sea of street life. Society has an obligation to intervene in the lives of these street children through, for example, quality education, basic health services and ...

  7. Life on wood - the carnivorous deep-sea mussel Idas argenteus (Bathymodiolinae, Mytilidae, Bivalvia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ockelmann, Kurt W.; Dinesen, Grete E.

    2011-01-01

    to an ephemeral habitat in the deep sea of both species are described herein. Although larviphagi is known to occur in some filter-feeding bivalves, Idas argenteus is the first mytilid known to be specifically adapted to a carnivorous life. Further, it is argued that the modifications of I. argenteus with regard...... to its shell development, alimentary system, gill anatomy and life habits provide important clues to the evolution of the Bathymodiolinae....

  8. Early life developmental effects of marine persistent organic pollutants on the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drs Anselmo, H.M.R.; Koerting, L.; Devito, S.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Dubbeldam, M.; Kwadijk, C.J.A.F.; Murk, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    A new 16-day echinoid early life stage (ELS) bioassay was developed to allow for prolonged observation of possible adverse effects during embryogenesis and larval development of the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris. Subsequently, the newly developed bioassay was applied to study the effects of key

  9. Oceanic fronts in the Sargasso Sea control the early life and drift of Atlantic eels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Hansen, Michael Møller; Maas, Gregory E.

    2010-01-01

    Anguillid freshwater eels show remarkable life histories. In the Atlantic, the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) and American eel (Anguilla rostrata) undertake extensive migrations to spawn in the oceanic Sargasso Sea, and subsequently the offspring drift to foraging areas in Europe and North......, during a field expedition to the eel spawning sites in the Sargasso Sea, we carried out a wide range of dedicated bio-physical studies across areas of eel larval distribution. Our findings suggest a key role of oceanic frontal processes, retaining eel larvae within a zone of enhanced feeding conditions...

  10. The Lampedusa Disaster: How to Prevent Further Loss of Life at Sea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Coppens

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lampedusa – an Italian island barely 70 miles from northern Africa and 100 miles from Malta – has become a gateway to Europe for migrants. In some seasons, boats filled with asylum seekers arrive almost daily. However, yearly, hundreds of people die trying to cross the Mediterranean Sea. This paper will deal with the obligations of States towards seaborne migrants, the question of why so many people die near Lampedusa and the possible solutions in order to prevent further loss of life at sea.

  11. Life history variation in Barents Sea fish: implications for sensitivity to fishing in a changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedmann, Magnus A; Primicerio, Raul; Dolgov, Andrey; Ottesen, Camilla A M; Aschan, Michaela

    2014-09-01

    Under exploitation and environmental change, it is essential to assess the sensitivity and vulnerability of marine ecosystems to such stress. A species' response to stress depends on its life history. Sensitivity to harvesting is related to the life history "fast-slow" continuum, where "slow" species (i.e., large, long lived, and late maturing) are expected to be more sensitive to fishing than "fast" ones. We analyze life history traits variation for all common fish species in the Barents Sea and rank fishes along fast-slow gradients obtained by ordination analyses. In addition, we integrate species' fast-slow ranks with ecosystem survey data for the period 2004-2009, to assess life history variation at the community level in space and time. Arctic fishes were smaller, had shorter life spans, earlier maturation, larger offspring, and lower fecundity than boreal ones. Arctic fishes could thus be considered faster than the boreal species, even when body size was corrected for. Phylogenetically related species possessed similar life histories. Early in the study period, we found a strong spatial gradient, where members of fish assemblages in the southwestern Barents Sea displayed slower life histories than in the northeast. However, in later, warmer years, the gradient weakened caused by a northward movement of boreal species. As a consequence, the northeast experienced increasing proportions of slower fish species. This study is a step toward integrating life history traits in ecosystem-based areal management. On the basis of life history traits, we assess the fish sensitivity to fishing, at the species and community level. We show that climate warming promotes a borealization of fish assemblages in the northeast, associated with slower life histories in that area. The biology of Arctic species is still poorly known, and boreal species that now establish in the Arctic are fishery sensitive, which calls for cautious ecosystem management of these areas.

  12. General Concerns Life-Cycle Design of Economical Ice-Resistant Structures in the Bohai Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Da-yong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In China, the oil and natural gas resources of Bohai Bay are mainly marginal oil fields. It is necessary to build both iceresistant and economical offshore platforms. However, there are many risks during the life cycle of offshore platforms due to the imperfect preliminary design for the Bohai Sea economical ice-resistant structures. As a result, the whole life-cycle design should be considered, including plan, design, construction, management and maintenance design. Based on the demand of existing codes and research of the basic design, structural ice-resistant performance and the reasonable management and maintenance, the life-cycle design theory is discussed. It was concluded that the life-cycle cost-effective optimum design proposed will lead to a minimum risk.

  13. Borders of life: lessons from Microbiology of deep-sea hydrothermal vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieur, D.

    Thirty years ago, the deep-sea was known as a low density biotope due to coldness, darkness and famine-like conditions. The discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Eastern Pacific in 1977 and the associated black smokers in 1979 considerably changed our views about life on Earth. For the first time, an ecosystem almost independent (at least for tens of years) of solar nergy was discovered. Besides the spectacular and unexpected communities of invertebrates based on symbiotic associations with chemo-litho-autotrophic bacteria, prokaryotic communities associated with high temperature black smokers fascinated microbiologists of extreme environments. Within mineral structures where temperature gradients may fluctuate from ambient seawater temperatures (2°C) up to 350°C, thermophilic (optimal growth above 60°C) and hyperthermophilic (optimal growth above 80°C) microorganisms thrived under very severe conditions due to elevated hydrostatic pressure, toxic compounds or strong ionizing radiations. These organisms belong to both domains of Bacteria and Archaea and live aerobically but mostly anaerobically, using a variety of inorganic and organic carbon sources, and a variety of electron donnors and acceptors as well. The most thermophilic organism known on Earth was isolated from a mid-Atlantic-Ridge hydrotermal vent: Pyrolobus fumarii grows optimally at 110°c and its upper temperature limit for life is 113°C. Such an organism survived to autoclaving conditions currently used for sterilization procedures. Many other hyperthermophilic organisms were isolated and described, including fermenters, sulphate and sulphur reducers, hydrogen oxidizers, nitrate reducers, methanogens, etc. Although most of anaerobes are killed when exposed to oxygen, several deep-sea hyperthermophiles appeared to survive to both oxygen and starvation exposures, indicating that they probably can colonize rather distant environments Because of elevated hydrostatic pressure that exists at

  14. Life cycle and spring phenology of Temora longicornis in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutz, Jörg; Mohrholz, V.; van Beusekom, J. E. E.

    2010-01-01

    The seasonal variation in abundance, biomass and vertical distribution of nauplii and copepodites of Temora longicornis in the Bornholm Basin was studied from March 2002 to May 2003 to understand the overwintering, spring development and life cycle of this species in the Baltic Sea. The analysis...... of the life cycle by means of stage structure, copepodite length and stage duration revealed that T. longicornis produced 5 to 6 generations yr–1. The species overwintered in low abundance as an active, slowly developing generation with adults appearing from February/March onwards. The onset of the spring...... bloom in April triggered reproduction and initiated the first spring generation (G1) with a strong rise in nauplii abundance. The stock biomass increased in May with the occurrence of the copepodites of G1 and remained high during the succeeding generations G2 and G3 until August. The stock...

  15. Assessment of RFID Investment in the Military Logistics Systems Through The Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ozdemir, Ahmet; Bayrak, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is an emerging technology that has been recently used in numerous business and public fields. Most military applications of RFID have focused on logistics systems. Since RFID investment requires high initial cost and its benefits are hard to see in the short term, it needs an appropriate investment decision model. The purpose of this research is to propose a Life Cycle Cost (LCC) model for RFID integration into the Military Logistics System (MLS). The stu...

  16. Life under Climate Change Scenarios: Sea Urchins’ Cellular Mechanisms for Reproductive Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desislava Bögner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean Acidification (OA represents a major field of research and increased efforts are being made to elucidate its repercussions on biota. Species survival is ensured by successful reproduction, which may be threatened under detrimental environmental conditions, such as OA acting in synergy with other climate change related stressors. Achieving successful gametogenesis, fertilization, and the development of larvae into healthy juveniles and adults is crucial for the perpetuation of species and, thus, ecosystems’ functionality. The considerable vulnerability of the abovementioned developmental stages to the adverse conditions that future OA may impose has been shown in many species, including sea urchins which are commonly used due to the feasibility of their maintenance in captivity and the great amount of gametes that a mature adult is able to produce. In the present review, the latest knowledge about the impact of OA on various stages of the life cycle of sea urchins is summarized with remarks on the possible impact of other stressors. The cellular physiology of the gametes before, at fertilization and, at early development, is extensively described with a focus on the complex enzymatic machinery and the intracellular pH (pHi and Ca2+ homeostasis for their vulnerability when facing adverse conditions such as acidification, temperature variations, or hypoxia.

  17. Amphidromy in shrimps: a life cycle between rivers and the sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond T Bauer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Amphidromy is a diadromous life history pattern, common in tropical and subtropical freshwater caridean shrimps, in which adults live, breed and spawn small-sized embryos in freshwater but have extended larval development (ELD in marine waters. Most completely freshwater species spawn large embryos with either direct or abbreviated larval development (ALD. An important benefit of amphidromy is dispersal among river systems via marine larvae, which increases their access to alternative habitats. Thus, amphidromous species have much broader geographic distributions than closely related completely freshwater ones with ALD. ALD and freshwater ELD species appear to have evolved from amphidromous species with marine ancestors. Delivery of larvae to the sea in many amphidromous species is accomplished by upstream hatching and river drift of larvae to the sea. In other species, the females themselves apparently migrate down to marine waters to spawn. After development, the postlarvae must find a river mouth and migrate upstream to the adult habitat. Migrations occur at night, with juveniles swimming or crawling along the river or stream bank. Larvae are released during the wet or flood season of the year, while juvenile migrations take place during the dry or low-flow season. Both larval downstream and juvenile upstream movements are disrupted by human impacts such as dams and other forms of river control. Although much progress has been made in understanding the evolution and ecology of amphidromy, research is still needed on all aspects of shrimp amphidromy, especially in Latin America with its diverse freshwater shrimp fauna.

  18. Life Cycle Assessments of Manure Management Techniques for the Baltic Sea Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Baky, A; Cano-Bernal, J

    The report summarizes the key results of the consequential life cycle assessments (LCAs) carried out for a variety of manure management techniques over the Baltic Sea Regions (BSR). For all manure management technologies assessed, the environmental impacts (in terms of potential to global warming......, acidification of aquatic & terrestrial systems as well as phosphorus and nitrogen enrichment) are evaluated along the whole “manure management chain”, quantified and compared to the applying reference manure management system. The LCA results presented in this report cover 4 main manure types (dairy cow slurry....... Assessed separation technologies include concentration technologies, state-of-the-art decanter centrifuge and source-separation technologies. The energy production technologies addressed consist of thermal gasification, incineration and anaerobic digestion (for which a myriad of carbon co...

  19. Impacts of Global Warming and Sea Level Rise on Service Life of Chloride-Exposed Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Jian Gao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Global warming will increase the rate of chloride ingress and the rate of steel corrosion of concrete structures. Furthermore, in coastal (atmospheric marine zones, sea level rise will reduce the distance of concrete structures from the coast and increase the surface chloride content. This study proposes a probabilistic model for analyzing the effects of global warming and sea level rise on the service life of coastal concrete structures. First, in the corrosion initiation stage, an improved chloride diffusion model is proposed to determine chloride concentration. The Monte Carlo method is employed to calculate the service life in the corrosion initiation stage; Second, in the corrosion propagation stage, a numerical model is proposed to calculate the rate of corrosion, probability of corrosion cracking, and service life. Third, overall service life is determined as the sum of service life in the corrosion initiation and corrosion propagation stages. After considering the impacts of global warming and sea level rise, the analysis results show that for concrete structures having a service life of 50 years, the service life decreases by about 5%.

  20. Biology and life cycles of pelagic tunicates in the Lazarev Sea, Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, E. A.; Dubischar, C. D.; Hunt, B. P. V.; Strass, V.; Cisewski, B.; Siegel, V.; von Harbou, L.; Gurney, L.; Kitchener, J.; Bathmann, U.

    2011-07-01

    Four grid surveys were carried out in the top 200 m layer of the Lazarev Sea during fall 2004, summer 2005-06, winter 2006 and summer 2007-08 onboard the R.V. Polarstern as a part of the German SO-GLOBEC. The distribution, abundance and biology of two species of salps, Salpa thompsoni and Ihlea racovitzai, were investigated. With the exception of fall 2004, I. racovitzai dominated the salp community although being represented by low densities (<20 ind. 1000 m -3). S. thompsoni was scarce during the summers of 2005-06 and 2007-08 and almost absent from the region during winter 2006. Nevertheless, it was modestly numerous during fall 2004 reaching densities of up to 33 ind. 1000 m -3 in the south-western stations of the grid. The data on the seasonal population structure and life cycle of I. racovitzai showed that this species followed the generalized pattern typical of S. thompsoni, i.e. sexual/asexual reproduction and spawning during fall. I. racovitzai densities were the lowest during summer, increased during fall and peaked in during winter. Numerous offspring were produced by I. racovitzai during fall, just before the area became ice-covered. Conversely, S. thompsoni was not able to complete its life cycle in the Lazarev Sea, with a high occurrence of stage X (unfertilized) aggregates present. Highest S. thompsoni densities in summer and fall, and its disappearance in winter are indicative of a population of the expatriate origin that is sustained by advection.

  1. Sensitivity of Calanus spp. copepods to environmental changes in the North Sea using life-stage structured models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maar, Marie; Møller, Eva Friis; Gürkan, Zeren

    2013-01-01

    Sea because it allows them to utilize the spring bloom more efficiently and independently of the timing and amount of oceanic inflow. The combination of lower temperatures, higher overwintering and oceanic inflow simulating the situation in the 1960s largely favoured C. finmarchicus and their relative......, overwintering and oceanic inflow in the North Sea. Life-stage structured models are validated against CPR data and vertical distributions north of the Dogger Bank in the North Sea for the reference year 2005. The model shows that 1) ± 2°C changes from the current level mainly influence the seasonal patterns...... and not the relative occurrence of the two species, 2) changes due to oceanic inflow mainly appeared in the northern and southern part of the North Sea connected to the NE Atlantic and not in the central part and 3) the abundance of Calanus species were very sensitive to the degree of overwintering within the North...

  2. Proteomic profiles reveal age-related changes in coelomic fluid of sea urchin species with different life spans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Andrea

    2013-05-01

    Sea urchins have a different life history from humans and traditional model organisms used to study the process of aging. Sea urchins grow indeterminately, reproduce throughout their life span and some species have been shown to exhibit negligible senescence with no increase in mortality rate at advanced ages. Despite these properties, different species of sea urchins are reported to have very different natural life spans providing a unique model to investigate cellular mechanisms underlying life span determination and negligible senescence. To gain insight into the biological changes that accompany aging in these animals, proteomic profiles were examined in coelomic fluid from young and old sea urchins of three species with different life spans: short-lived Lytechinus variegatus, long-lived Strongylocentrotus franciscanus and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus which has an intermediate life span. The proteomic profiles of cell-free coelomic fluid were complex with many proteins exhibiting different forms and extensive post-translational modifications. Approximately 20% of the protein spots on 2-D gels showed more than two-fold change with age in each of the species. Changes that are consistent with age in all three species may prove to be useful biomarkers for age-determination for these commercially fished marine invertebrates and also may provide clues to mechanisms of negligible senescence. Among the proteins that change with age, the ectodomain of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) was significantly increased in the coelomic fluid of all three sea urchin species suggesting that the Wnt signaling pathway should be further investigated for its role in negligible senescence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sensitivity to UV radiation in early life stages of the Mediterranean sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis (Lamarck)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahon, Sarah [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France); CNRS, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France); Castro Porras, Viviana A. [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France); Pruski, Audrey M. [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France); CNRS, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France); Charles, Francois [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France); CNRS, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France)], E-mail: charles@obs-banyuls.fr

    2009-03-01

    The sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis was used to investigate the impact of relevant levels of UV-B radiation on the early life stages of a common Mediterranean free spawning benthic species. Sperm, eggs and embryos were exposed to a range of UV radiation doses. The resulting endpoints were evaluated in terms of fertilisation success, development and survival rates. Above a weighted UV radiation dose of 0.0029 kJ m{sup -2}, fertilisation capability of irradiated sperm decreased rapidly. The exposure of the eggs to 0.0175 kJ m{sup -2} and more led to delayed and inhibited development with ensuing embryonic morphological abnormalities. One-day old larvae remained strongly sensitive to UV radiation as shown by the 50% decrease of the larval survival rate for a dose of 0.025 kJ m{sup -2} UVR. The elevated sensitivity of embryos to experimental UVR went along with a lack of significant amount of sunscreen compounds (e.g., mycosporine-like amino acids) in the eggs. The present results demonstrated that gamete viability and embryonic development may be significantly impaired by solar UV radiation in S. granularis, compromising in this way the reproduction of the species. Unless adaptive behavioural reproductive strategies exist, the influence of ambient UV radiation appears as a selective force for population dynamics of broadcast spawners in the shallow benthic Mediterranean environment.

  4. Sensitivity to UV radiation in early life stages of the Mediterranean sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis (Lamarck)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahon, Sarah; Castro Porras, Viviana A.; Pruski, Audrey M.; Charles, Francois

    2009-01-01

    The sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis was used to investigate the impact of relevant levels of UV-B radiation on the early life stages of a common Mediterranean free spawning benthic species. Sperm, eggs and embryos were exposed to a range of UV radiation doses. The resulting endpoints were evaluated in terms of fertilisation success, development and survival rates. Above a weighted UV radiation dose of 0.0029 kJ m -2 , fertilisation capability of irradiated sperm decreased rapidly. The exposure of the eggs to 0.0175 kJ m -2 and more led to delayed and inhibited development with ensuing embryonic morphological abnormalities. One-day old larvae remained strongly sensitive to UV radiation as shown by the 50% decrease of the larval survival rate for a dose of 0.025 kJ m -2 UVR. The elevated sensitivity of embryos to experimental UVR went along with a lack of significant amount of sunscreen compounds (e.g., mycosporine-like amino acids) in the eggs. The present results demonstrated that gamete viability and embryonic development may be significantly impaired by solar UV radiation in S. granularis, compromising in this way the reproduction of the species. Unless adaptive behavioural reproductive strategies exist, the influence of ambient UV radiation appears as a selective force for population dynamics of broadcast spawners in the shallow benthic Mediterranean environment

  5. The effect of CO2 injection in the sea on the marine life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnesen, T.

    1993-02-01

    In the literature it is shown that aquatic organisms are very sensitive to changes in the pH value. Exposure to a lower pH value than what is normal for the animals, may lead to distinct effects in the reproduction, growth and survival. Harmful effects may arise by a reduction of only 0.2 pH units. The effects increase by increasing the pH reduction, and by increasing the exposure time. It is pointed out in the report that the data basis is small, and that only a few long term and life cycle studies have been performed. The background material of the report shows that injection of CO 2 into the sea will create a bottom stream with pH values between 4.5 and 6.5. These values are much lower than the normal pH value of seawater, and much lower than the limit value for harmful effects. For this reason, harmful effects on the bottom fauna may be expected. 57 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Heavy rare earth elements affect early life stages in Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula sea urchins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oral, Rahime; Pagano, Giovanni; Siciliano, Antonietta; Gravina, Maria; Palumbo, Anna; Castellano, Immacolata; Migliaccio, Oriana; Thomas, Philippe J.; Guida, Marco; Tommasi, Franca; Trifuoggi, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Background: Heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) have been scarcely studied for their toxicity, in spite of their applications in several technologies. Thus HREEs require timely investigations for their adverse health effects. Methods: Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula embryos and sperm were exposed to trichloride salts of five HREEs (Dy, Ho, Er, Yb and Lu) and to Ce(III) as a light REE (LREE) reference to evaluate: 1) developmental defects (% DD) in HREE-exposed larvae or in the offspring of HREE-exposed sperm; 2) mitotic anomalies; 3) fertilization success; and 4) reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Nominal HREE concentrations were confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results: HREEs induced concentration-related DD increases in P. lividus and A. lixula larvae, ranging from no significant DD increase at 10 −7 M HREEs up to ≅100% DD at 10 −5 M HREE. Larvae exposed to 10 −5 M Ce(III) resulted in less severe DD rates compared to HREEs. Decreased mitotic activity and increased aberration rates were found in HREE-exposed P. lividus embryos. Significant increases in ROS formation and NO levels were found both in HREE-exposed and in Ce(III) embryos, whereas only Ce(III), but not HREEs resulted in significant increase in MDA levels. Sperm exposure to HREEs (10 −5 –10 −4 M) resulted in a concentration-related decrease in fertilization success along with increase in offspring damage. These effects were significantly enhanced for Dy(III), Ho(III), Er(III) and Yb(III), compared to Lu(III) and to Ce(III). Conclusion: HREE-associated toxicity affected embryogenesis, fertilization, cytogenetic and redox endpoints showing different toxicities of tested HREEs. - Highlights: • Different toxicities were exerted by five tested HREEs on sea urchin early life stages. • Sea urchin embryos and sperm were sensitive to HREE levels ranging from 1 to 100 μM, according to

  7. Heavy rare earth elements affect early life stages in Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula sea urchins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oral, Rahime [Ege University, Faculty of Fisheries, TR-35100 Bornova, İzmir (Turkey); Pagano, Giovanni, E-mail: gbpagano@tin.it [“Federico II” University of Naples, Department of Chemical Sciences, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples (Italy); Siciliano, Antonietta; Gravina, Maria [“Federico II” University of Naples, Department of Biology, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Palumbo, Anna; Castellano, Immacolata; Migliaccio, Oriana [Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples (Italy); Thomas, Philippe J. [Environment and Climate Change Canada, Science & Technology Branch, National Wildlife Research Center – Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Guida, Marco [“Federico II” University of Naples, Department of Biology, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Tommasi, Franca [University of Bari, Department of Biology, Bari (Italy); Trifuoggi, Marco [“Federico II” University of Naples, Department of Chemical Sciences, I-80126 Naples (Italy)

    2017-04-15

    Background: Heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) have been scarcely studied for their toxicity, in spite of their applications in several technologies. Thus HREEs require timely investigations for their adverse health effects. Methods: Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula embryos and sperm were exposed to trichloride salts of five HREEs (Dy, Ho, Er, Yb and Lu) and to Ce(III) as a light REE (LREE) reference to evaluate: 1) developmental defects (% DD) in HREE-exposed larvae or in the offspring of HREE-exposed sperm; 2) mitotic anomalies; 3) fertilization success; and 4) reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Nominal HREE concentrations were confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results: HREEs induced concentration-related DD increases in P. lividus and A. lixula larvae, ranging from no significant DD increase at 10{sup −7} M HREEs up to ≅100% DD at 10{sup −5} M HREE. Larvae exposed to 10{sup −5} M Ce(III) resulted in less severe DD rates compared to HREEs. Decreased mitotic activity and increased aberration rates were found in HREE-exposed P. lividus embryos. Significant increases in ROS formation and NO levels were found both in HREE-exposed and in Ce(III) embryos, whereas only Ce(III), but not HREEs resulted in significant increase in MDA levels. Sperm exposure to HREEs (10{sup −5}–10{sup −4} M) resulted in a concentration-related decrease in fertilization success along with increase in offspring damage. These effects were significantly enhanced for Dy(III), Ho(III), Er(III) and Yb(III), compared to Lu(III) and to Ce(III). Conclusion: HREE-associated toxicity affected embryogenesis, fertilization, cytogenetic and redox endpoints showing different toxicities of tested HREEs. - Highlights: • Different toxicities were exerted by five tested HREEs on sea urchin early life stages. • Sea urchin embryos and sperm were sensitive to HREE levels ranging from 1 to 100

  8. Life cycle assessment of different sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guodong; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang; Xu, Kefeng

    2015-12-01

    The life cycle assessment was employed to evaluate the environmental impacts of three farming systems (indoor intensive, semi-intensive and extensive systems) of sea cucumber living near Qingdao, China, which can effectively overcome the interference of inaccurate background parameters caused by the diversity of economic level and environment in different regions. Six indicators entailing global warming potential (1.86E + 04, 3.45E + 03, 2.36E + 02), eutrophication potential (6.65E + 01, -1.24E + 02, -1.65E + 02), acidification potential (1.93E + 02, 4.33E + 01, 1.30E + 00), photochemical oxidant formation potential (2.35E-01, 5.46E -02, 2.53E-03), human toxicity potential (2.47E + 00, 6.08E-01, 4.91E + 00) and energy use (3.36E + 05, 1.27E + 04, 1.48E + 03) were introduced in the current study. It was found that all environmental indicators in the indoor intensive farming system were much higher than those in semi-intensive and extensive farming systems because of the dominant role of energy input, while energy input also contributed as the leading cause factor for most of the indicators in the semi-intensive farming system. Yet in the extensive farming system, infrastructure materials played a major role. Through a comprehensive comparison of the three farming systems, it was concluded that income per unit area of indoor intensive farming system was much higher than those of semi-intensive and extensive farming systems. However, the extensive farming system was the most sustainable one. Moreover, adequate measures were proposed, respectively, to improve the environmental sustainability of each farming system in the present study.

  9. The influence of environmental conditions on early life stages of flounder (Platichthys flesus) in the central Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustups, Didzis; Müller-Karulis, Bärbel; Bergstrom, Ulf; Makarchouk, Andrej; Sics, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    Flounder (Platichthys flesus) is a temperate marine fish that is well adapted to the brackish waters of the Baltic Sea. There are two sympatric flounder populations in the Baltic Sea, pelagic and demersal spawners, which differ in their spawning habitat and egg characteristics. In the present study, pelagic spawning flounder of the central Baltic Sea was studied. We examined whether variations in hydrological regime can explain fluctuations in flounder early life stages that have occurred over the past 30 years (1970-2005). Using generalized additive modeling to explain the abundance of flounder eggs and larvae in a Latvian ichthyoplankton dataset, we evaluate the hypothesis that the available reproductive volume, defined as the water column with dissolved oxygen larger than 1 ml/l and salinity between 10.6 and 12 PSU, affects the survival of flounder ichthyoplankton and determines recruitment success. Both reproductive volume and spawning stock biomass were significant factors determining flounder ichthyoplankton abundance. Different measures of water temperature did not contribute significantly to the variability of eggs or larvae. However, recruitment did not correlate to the supply of larvae. The findings presented in this study on the relationship between flounder reproduction, spawning stock biomass and reproductive volume, as well as the lack of correlation to recruitment, are valuable for the understanding of flounder ecology in the Baltic Sea, and for developing the management of the species.

  10. 15 CFR 971.701 - Criteria for safety of life and property at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS... (pursuant to § 971.205(a)). United States flag vessels are under United States jurisdiction on the high seas...

  11. 15 CFR 970.801 - Criteria for safety of life and property at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Safety... jurisdiction on the high seas and subject to domestic enforcement procedures. With respect to foreign flag...

  12. Impact of life history traits on gene flow: A multispecies systematic review across oceanographic barriers in the Mediterranean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Pascual, Marta

    2017-05-10

    Marine species can demonstrate strong genetic differentiation and population structure despite the hypothesis of open seas and high connectivity. Some suggested drivers causing the genetic breaks are oceanographic barriers and the species\\' biology. We assessed the relevance of seven major oceanographic fronts on species connectivity while considering their dispersal capacity and life strategy.We systematically reviewed the scientific articles reporting population genetic differentiation along the Mediterranean Sea and across the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition. We retained those considering at least one sampling locality at each side of an oceanographic front, and at least two localities with no-front between them to correctly assess the effect of the front. To estimate the impact of life history characteristics affecting connectivity we considered the planktonic larval duration (PLD) and adult life strategy.Oceanographic barriers in the Mediterranean Sea seem to reduce gene flow globally; however, this effect is not homogeneous considering the life history traits of the species. The effect of the oceanographic fronts reduces gene flow in highly mobile species with PLD larger than 2-4 weeks. Benthic sessile species and/or with short PLD (< 2 weeks) have more significant genetic breaks between localities than species with higher motility; however, genetic differentiation occurs independently of the presence of a front.Genetic connectivity is important for populations to recover from anthropogenic or natural impacts. We show that species with low mobility, mostly habitat-formers, have high genetic differentiation but low gene flow reduction mediated by the front, therefore, considering the importance of these species, we emphasize the vulnerability of the Mediterranean ecosystems and the necessity of protection strategies based on the whole ecosystem.

  13. Evolution of genomic diversity and sex at extreme environments: Fungal life under hypersaline Dead Sea stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis-Papo, Tamar; Kirzhner, Valery; Wasser, Solomon P.; Nevo, Eviatar

    2003-01-01

    We have found that genomic diversity is generally positively correlated with abiotic and biotic stress levels (1–3). However, beyond a high-threshold level of stress, the diversity declines to a few adapted genotypes. The Dead Sea is the harshest planetary hypersaline environment (340 g·liter–1 total dissolved salts, ≈10 times sea water). Hence, the Dead Sea is an excellent natural laboratory for testing the “rise and fall” pattern of genetic diversity with stress proposed in this article. Here, we examined genomic diversity of the ascomycete fungus Aspergillus versicolor from saline, nonsaline, and hypersaline Dead Sea environments. We screened the coding and noncoding genomes of A. versicolor isolates by using >600 AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) markers (equal to loci). Genomic diversity was positively correlated with stress, culminating in the Dead Sea surface but dropped drastically in 50- to 280-m-deep seawater. The genomic diversity pattern paralleled the pattern of sexual reproduction of fungal species across the same southward gradient of increasing stress in Israel. This parallel may suggest that diversity and sex are intertwined intimately according to the rise and fall pattern and adaptively selected by natural selection in fungal genome evolution. Future large-scale verification in micromycetes will define further the trajectories of diversity and sex in the rise and fall pattern. PMID:14645702

  14. Chemosynthesis in deep-sea red-clay: Linking concepts to probable martian life

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Das, A.; Mourya, B.S.; Mamatha, S.S.; Khadge, N.H.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    of microbial biogeochemistry are used in the pres- ent deep-sea analogue studies and would be imple- mented for actual Martian soil samples in future: Microbial abundance in terms of total counts » Diversity of culture dependent and independent Chemos... soils done earlier by Viking I robots [5, Bianciardi et. al, 2012

  15. Shifting patterns of nitrogen excretion and amino acid catabolism capacity during the life cycle of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, Michael P; Claude, Jaime F; Cockshutt, Amanda; Holmes, John A; Wang, Yuxiang S; Youson, John H; Walsh, Patrick J

    2006-01-01

    The jawless fish, the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), spends part of its life as a burrow-dwelling, suspension-feeding larva (ammocoete) before undergoing a metamorphosis into a free swimming, parasitic juvenile that feeds on the blood of fishes. We predicted that animals in this juvenile, parasitic stage have a great capacity for catabolizing amino acids when large quantities of protein-rich blood are ingested. The sixfold to 20-fold greater ammonia excretion rates (J(Amm)) in postmetamorphic (nonfeeding) and parasitic lampreys compared with ammocoetes suggested that basal rates of amino acid catabolism increased following metamorphosis. This was likely due to a greater basal amino acid catabolizing capacity in which there was a sixfold higher hepatic glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity in parasitic lampreys compared with ammocoetes. Immunoblotting also revealed that GDH quantity was 10-fold and threefold greater in parasitic lampreys than in ammocoetes and upstream migrant lampreys, respectively. Higher hepatic alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities in the parasitic lampreys also suggested an enhanced amino acid catabolizing capacity in this life stage. In contrast to parasitic lampreys, the twofold larger free amino acid pool in the muscle of upstream migrant lampreys confirmed that this period of natural starvation is accompanied by a prominent proteolysis. Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III was detected at low levels in the liver of parasitic and upstream migrant lampreys, but there was no evidence of extrahepatic (muscle, intestine) urea production via the ornithine urea cycle. However, detection of arginase activity and high concentrations of arginine in the liver at all life stages examined infers that arginine hydrolysis is an important source of urea. We conclude that metamorphosis is accompanied by a metabolic reorganization that increases the capacity of parasitic sea lampreys to catabolize intermittently large amino acid loads arising

  16. Extreme longevity in a deep-sea vestimentiferan tubeworm and its implications for the evolution of life history strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Alanna; Fisher, Charles R.; Cordes, Erik E.

    2017-08-01

    The deep sea is home to many species that have longer life spans than their shallow-water counterparts. This trend is primarily related to the decline in metabolic rates with temperature as depth increases. However, at bathyal depths, the cold-seep vestimentiferan tubeworm species Lamellibrachia luymesi and Seepiophila jonesi reach extremely old ages beyond what is predicted by the simple scaling of life span with body size and temperature. Here, we use individual-based models based on in situ growth rates to show that another species of cold-seep tubeworm found in the Gulf of Mexico, Escarpia laminata, also has an extraordinarily long life span, regularly achieving ages of 100-200 years with some individuals older than 300 years. The distribution of results from individual simulations as well as whole population simulations involving mortality and recruitment rates support these age estimates. The low 0.67% mortality rate measurements from collected populations of E. laminata are similar to mortality rates in L. luymesi and S. jonesi and play a role in evolution of the long life span of cold-seep tubeworms. These results support longevity theory, which states that in the absence of extrinsic mortality threats, natural selection will select for individuals that senesce slower and reproduce continually into their old age.

  17. Making Marine Noise Pollution Impacts Heard: The Case of Cetaceans in the North Sea within Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleen Middel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Oceans represent more than 95% of the world’s biosphere and are among the richest sources of biodiversity on Earth. However, human activities such as shipping and construction of marine infrastructure pose a threat to the quality of marine ecosystems. Due to the dependence of most marine animals on sound for their communication, foraging, protection, and ultimately their survival, the effects of noise pollution from human activities are of growing concern. Life cycle assessment (LCA can play a role in the understanding of how potential environmental impacts are related to industrial processes. However, noise pollution impacts on marine ecosystems have not yet been taken into account. This paper presents a first approach for the integration of noise impacts on marine ecosystems into the LCA framework by developing characterization factors (CF for the North Sea. Noise pollution triggers a large variety of impact pathways, but as a starting point and proof-of-concept we assessed impacts on the avoidance behaviour of cetaceans due to pile-driving during the construction of offshore windfarms in the North Sea. Our approach regards the impact of avoidance behaviour as a temporary loss of habitat, and assumes a temporary loss of all individuals within that habitat from the total regional population. This was verified with an existing model that assessed the population-level effect of noise pollution on harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena in the North Sea. We expanded our CF to also include other cetacean species and tested it in a case study of the construction of an offshore windfarm (Prinses Amalia wind park. The total impact of noise pollution was in the same order of magnitude as impacts on other ecosystems from freshwater eutrophication, freshwater ecotoxicity, terrestrial acidification, and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Although there are still many improvements to be made to this approach, it provides a basis for the implementation of noise

  18. Comparative anatomy and histology of developmental and parasitic stages in the life cycle of the lined sea anemone Edwardsiella lineata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzel, Adam M; Daly, Marymegan; Sullivan, James C; Finnerty, John R

    2009-02-01

    The evolution of parasitism is often accompanied by profound changes to the developmental program. However, relatively few studies have directly examined the developmental evolution of parasitic species from free-living ancestors. The lined sea anemone Edwardsiella lineata is a relatively recently evolved parasite for which closely related free-living outgroups are known, including the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. The larva of E. lineata parasitizes the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, and, once embedded in its host, the anemone assumes a novel vermiform body plan. That we might begin to understand how the developmental program of this species has been transformed during the evolution of parasitism, we characterized the gross anatomy, histology, and cnidom of the parasitic stage, post-parasitic larval stage, and adult stage of the E. lineata life cycle. The distinct parasitic stage of the life cycle differs from the post-parasitic larva with respect to overall shape, external ciliation, cnida frequency, and tissue architecture. The parasitic stage and planula both contain holotrichs, a type of cnida not previously reported in Edwardsiidae. The internal morphology of the post-parasitic planula is extremely similar to the adult morphology, with a complete set of mesenterial tissue and musculature despite this stage having little external differentiation. Finally, we observed 2 previously undocumented aspects of asexual reproduction in E. lineata: (1) the parasitic stage undergoes transverse fission via physal pinching, the first report of asexual reproduction in a pre-adult stage in the Edwardsiidae; and (2) the juvenile polyp undergoes transverse fission via polarity reversal, the first time this form of fission has been reported in E. lineata.

  19. From traits to life-history strategies: Deconstructing fish community composition across European seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécuchet, Lauréne; Lindegren, Martin; Hidalgo, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The life history of a species is determined by trade-offs between growth, survival and reproduction to maximize fitness in a given environment. Following a theoretical model, we investigate whether the composition of marine fish communities can be understood in terms of a set of lifehistory...

  20. Transgenerational plasticity in the sea: context-dependent maternal effects across the life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Dustin J

    2008-02-01

    Maternal effects can have dramatic influences on the phenotype of offspring. Maternal effects can act as a conduit by which the maternal environment negatively affects offspring fitness, but they can also buffer offspring from environmental change by altering the phenotype of offspring according to local environmental conditions and as such, are a form of transgenerational plasticity. The benefits of maternal effects can be highly context dependent, increasing performance in one life-history stage but reducing it in another. While maternal effects are increasingly well understood in terrestrial systems, studies in the marine environment are typically restricted to a single, early life-history stage. Here, I examine the role of maternal effects across the life history of the bryozoan Bugula neritina. I exposed maternal colonies to a common pollution stress (copper) in the laboratory and then placed them in the field for one week to brood offspring. I then examined the resistance of offspring to copper from toxicant-exposed and toxicant-naïve mothers and found that offspring from toxicant-exposed mothers were larger, more dispersive, and more resistant to copper stress than offspring from naïve mothers. However, maternal exposure history had pervasive, negative effects on the post-metamorphic performance (particularly survival) of offspring: offspring from toxicant-exposed mothers had poorer performance after six weeks in the field, especially when facing high levels of intraspecific competition. Maternal experience can have complex effects on offspring phenotype, enhancing performance in one life-history stage while decreasing performance in another. The context-dependent costs and benefits associated with maternally derived pollution resistance may account for why such resistance is induced rather than continually expressed: mothers must balance the benefits of producing pollution-resistant larvae with the costs of producing poorer performing adults (in the

  1. Nautilus pompilius life history and demographics at the Osprey Reef Seamount, Coral Sea, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Dunstan

    Full Text Available Nautiloids are the subject of speculation as to their threatened status arising from the impacts of targeted fishing for the ornamental shell market. Life history knowledge is essential to understand the susceptibility of this group to overfishing and to the instigation of management frameworks. This study provides a comprehensive insight into the life of Nautilus in the wild. At Osprey Reef from 1998-2008, trapping for Nautilus was conducted on 354 occasions, with 2460 individuals of one species, Nautilus pompilius, captured and 247 individuals recaptured. Baited remote underwater video systems (BRUVS were deployed on 15 occasions and six remotely operated vehicle (ROV dives from 100-800 m were conducted to record Nautilus presence and behavior. Maturity, sex and size data were recorded, while measurements of recaptured individuals allowed estimation of growth rates to maturity, and longevity beyond maturity. We found sexual dimorphism in size at maturity (males: 131.9±SD = 2.6 mm; females: 118.9±7.5 mm shell diameter in a population dominated by mature individuals (58%. Mean growth rates of 15 immature recaptured animals were 0.061±0.023 mm day(-1 resulting in an estimate of around 15.5 years to maturation. Recaptures of mature animals after five years provide evidence of a lifespan exceeding 20 years. Juvenile Nautilus pompilius feeding behavior was recorded for the first time within the same depth range (200-610 m as adults. Our results provide strong evidence of a K-selected life history for Nautilus from a detailed study of a 'closed' wild population. In conjunction with population size and density estimates established for the Osprey Reef Nautilus, this work allows calculations for sustainable catch and provides mechanisms to extrapolate these findings to other extant nautiloid populations (Nautilus and Allonautilus spp. throughout the Indo-Pacific.

  2. Life-history responses to changing temperature and salinity of the Baltic Sea copepod Eurytemora affinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Konrad; Puiac, Simona; Winder, Monika

    2018-01-01

    To understand the effects of predicted warming and changing salinity of marine ecosystems, it is important to have a good knowledge of species vulnerability and their capacity to adapt to environmental changes. In spring and autumn of 2014, we conducted common garden experiments to investigate how different populations of the copepod Eurytemora affinis from the Baltic Sea respond to varying temperatures and salinity conditions. Copepods were collected in the Stockholm archipelago, Bothnian Bay, and Gulf of Riga (latitude, longitude: 58°48.19', 17°37.52'; 65°10.14', 23°14.41'; 58°21.67', 24°30.83'). Using individuals with known family structure, we investigated within population variation of the reaction norm (genotype and salinity interaction) as a means to measure adaptive capacity. Our main finding was that low salinity has a detrimental effect on development time, the additive effects of high temperature and low salinity have a negative effect on survival, and their interaction has a negative effect on hatching success. We observed no variation in survival and development within populations, and all genotypes had similar reaction norms with higher survival and faster development in higher salinities. This suggests that there is no single genotype that performs better in low salinity or high salinity; instead, the best genotype in any given salinity is best in all salinities. Genotypes with fast development time also had higher survival compared to slow developing genotypes at all salinities. Our results suggest that E. affinis can tolerate close to freshwater conditions also in high temperatures, but with a significant reduction in fitness.

  3. Preliminary Investigation on the Use of Allyi Isothiocyanate to Increase the Shelf-Life of Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus Aurata) Fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratana, Filippo; Crinò, Chiara; Muscolino, Daniele; Beninati, Chiara; Ziino, Graziella; Giuffrida, Alessandro; Panebianco, Antonio

    2015-06-30

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the activity of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) against fish spoilage bacteria (specific spoilage organisms; SSOs) as well as its possible use in gilthead sea bream ( Sparus aurata ) fillets to extend their shelf-life. In this regard, in vitro tests are carried out in order to evaluate the inhibitory activity of AITC and its vapours on several strains of SSOs. The AITC effect on the shelf-life of sea bream fillets was made by putting them in plastic trays hermetically closed with the addition AITC. Microbiological and sensorial evaluations were made on fish fillets during storage. Treated fillets maintained microbial populations at a significantly lower level compared with the control samples during storage, showing better sensorial characteristics. Therefore, the use of AITC's vapours seems to be a new and interesting alternative way to increase fish product shelf-life.

  4. Life-history traits of the long-nosed skate Dipturus oxyrinchus, from the central western Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Mulas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Skates are often considered vulnerable to overfishing because of their peculiar life cycle characteristics rendering them susceptible to overexploitation. In this regard, life-history traits of a by-catch species, the long-nosed skate Dipturus oxyrinchus (Linnaeus, 1758 from Sardinian waters, were investigated. The age, growth and reproduction were studied using 706 specimens sampled during experimental and commercial hauls (depths 76-671 metres. Females (10.4-117.5 cm in total length, TL attained larger sizes than males (14.5-99.5 cm TL. To evaluate the growth, a subsample of 130 individuals (76 females and 54 males was employed. The age was estimated through the annuli counts on sectioned vertebral centra. A high ageing reproducibility and precision was obtained (Index of Average Percent Error=6.56; %CV=8.9. Four models were applied on length at age data: the von Bertalanffy (VBGF, the Exponential, the Gompertz and the Logistic functions. According to the Akaike’s Information Criterion, the Gompertz model (L∞=127.5±4.9 cm; k=0.14±0.009; inflection point=3.97 y-1±0.9 provided the best fitting curve, showing a higher growth rate and a lower L∞ than what obtained with the VBGF (L∞=144.4±11.5 cm; k=0.08±0.001; t0=-1.09±0.23. The oldest female and male were 17 (115.5 cm TL and 15 years (96 cm TL, respectively. Lengths at maturity were 103.5 cm (14 years for females and 91 cm (12.1 years for males corresponding to 88 and 91.5% of the maximum observed length, respectively. The monthly evolution of maturity stages highlighted an extended reproductive cycle with spawning females and active males almost over the year, as confirmed by the Gonado-somatic Index. Ovarian fecundity reached a maximum of 26 yolked follicles. Given the relative abundance in Sardinian seas, we hope that these results will prove useful for the implementation of basic management measures in order to ensure the sustainability of catches of this species, particularly

  5. Sea Legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Kenneth C.

    Forty-foot, storm-swept seas, Spitzbergen polar bears roaming vast expanses of Arctic ice, furtive exchanges of forbidden manuscripts in Cold War Moscow, the New York city fashion scene, diving in mini-subs to the sea floor hot srings, life with the astronauts, romance and heartbreak, and invading the last bastions of male exclusivity: all are present in this fast-moving, non-fiction account of one woman' fascinating adventures in the world of marine geology and oceanography.

  6. Activity of R(+) limonene on the maximum growth rate of fish spoilage organisms and related effects on shelf-life prolongation of fresh gilthead sea bream fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratana, Filippo; Muscolino, Daniele; Beninati, Chiara; Ziino, Graziella; Giuffrida, Alessandro; Panebianco, Antonio

    2016-11-21

    R(+)limonene (LMN) is the major aromatic compound in essential oils obtained from oranges, grapefruits, and lemons. The improvement of preservation techniques to reduce the growth and activity of spoilage microorganisms in foods is crucial to increase their shelf life and to reduce the losses due to spoilage. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of LMN on the shelf life of fish fillets. Its effectiveness was preliminarily investigated in vitro against 60 strains of Specific Spoilage Organisms (SSOs) and then on gilt-head sea bream fillets stored at 2±0.5°C for 15days under vacuum. LMN showed a good inhibitory effect against tested SSOs strains. On gilt-head sea bream fillets, LMN inhibited the growth SSOs effectively, and its use resulted in a shelf-life extension of ca. 6-9days of treated fillets, compared to the control samples. The LMN addition in Sparus aurata fillets giving a distinctive smell and like-lemon taste to fish fillets that resulted pleasant to panellists. Its use contributed to a considerable reduction of fish spoilage given that the fillets treated with LMN were still sensory acceptable after 15days of storage. LMN may be used as an effective antimicrobial system to reduce the microbial growth and to improve the shelf life of fresh gilt-head sea bream fillets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. ``Out To Sea: Life as a Crew Member Aboard a Geologic Research Ship'' - Production of a Video and Teachers Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rack, F. R.; Tauxe, K.

    2004-12-01

    In May 2002, Joint Oceanographic Institutions (JOI) received a proposal entitled "Motivating Middle School Students with the JOIDES Resolution", from a middle school teacher in New Mexico named Katie Tauxe. Katie was a former Marine Technician who has worked aboard the R/V JOIDES Resolution in the early years of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). She proposed to engage the interest of middle school students using the ODP drillship as the centerpiece of a presentation focused on the lives of the people who work aboard the ship and the excitement of science communicated through an active shipboard experience. The proposal asked for travel funds to and from the ship, the loan of video camera equipment from JOI, and a small amount of funding to cover expendable supplies, video editing, and production at the local Public Broadcasting Station in Los Alamos, NM. Katie sailed on the transit of the JOIDES Resolution through the Panama Canal, following the completion of ODP Leg 206 in late 2002. This presentation will focus on the outcome of this video production effort, which is a 19 minute-long video entitled "Out to Sea: Life as a Crew Member Aboard a Geologic Research Ship", and a teacher's guide that can be found online.

  8. Delta-associated molluscan life and death assemblages in the northern Adriatic Sea: Implications for paleoecology, regional diversity and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Kristina; Zuschin, Martin

    2013-01-15

    Life-death (LD) studies of shelly macrofauna are important to evaluate how well a fossil assemblage can reflect the original living community, but can also serve as a proxy for recent ecological shifts in marine habitats and in practice this has to be distinguished using taphonomic preservation pattern and estimates of time-averaging. It remains to be rigorously evaluated, however, how to distinguish between sources of LD disagreement. In addition, death assemblages (DAs) also preserve important information on regional diversity which is not available from single censuses of the life assemblages (LAs). The northern Adriatic Sea is an ecosystem under anthropogenic pressure, and we studied the distribution and abundance of living and dead bivalve and gastropod species in the physically stressful environments (tidal flat and shallow sublittoral soft bottoms) associated with the delta of the Isonzo River (Gulf of Trieste). Specifically we evaluated the fidelity of richness, evenness, abundance, habitat discrimination and beta diversity. A total of 10,740 molluscs from fifteen tidal flat and fourteen sublittoral sites were analyzed for species composition and distribution of living and dead molluscs. Of 78 recorded species, only eleven were numerically abundant. There were many more dead than living individuals and rarefied species richness in the DA was higher at all spatial scales, but the differences are lower in habitats and in the region than at individual stations. Evenness was always higher in death assemblages, and probably due to temporally more variable LAs the differences are stronger in the sublittoral habitats. Distinct assemblages characterized intertidal and sublittoral habitats, and the distribution and abundance of empty shells generally corresponded to that of the living species. Death assemblages have lower beta diversity than life assemblages, but empty shells capture compositional differences between habitats to a higher degree than living shells

  9. Detection of emamectin benzoate tolerance emergence in different life stages of sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P G; Hammell, K L; Gettinby, G; Revie, C W

    2013-03-01

    Emamectin benzoate has been used to treat sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infestations on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Recent evidence suggests a reduction in effectiveness in some locations. A major challenge in the detection of tolerance emergence can be the typically low proportion of resistant individuals in a population during the early phases. The objectives of this study were to develop a method for determining differences in temporal development of tolerance between sea lice life stages and to explore how these differences might be used to improve the monitoring of treatment effectiveness in a clinical setting. This study examined two data sets based on records of sea lice abundance following emamectin benzoate treatments from the west coast of Scotland (2002-2006) and from New Brunswick, Canada (2004-2008). Life stages were categorized into two groups (adult females and the remaining mobile stages) to examine the trends in mean abundance and treatment effectiveness. Differences in emamectin benzoate effectiveness were found between the two groups by year and location, suggesting that an important part of monitoring drug resistance development in aquatic ectoparasites may be the need to focus on key life stages. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. The embryonic life history of the tropical sea hare Stylocheilus striatus (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia under ambient and elevated ocean temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rael Horwitz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ocean warming represents a major threat to marine biota worldwide, and forecasting ecological ramifications is a high priority as atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions continue to rise. Fitness of marine species relies critically on early developmental and reproductive stages, but their sensitivity to environmental stressors may be a bottleneck in future warming oceans. The present study focuses on the tropical sea hare, Stylocheilus striatus (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia, a common species found throughout the Indo-West Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Its ecological importance is well-established, particularly as a specialist grazer of the toxic cyanobacterium, Lyngbya majuscula. Although many aspects of its biology and ecology are well-known, description of its early developmental stages is lacking. First, a detailed account of this species’ life history is described, including reproductive behavior, egg mass characteristics and embryonic development phases. Key developmental features are then compared between embryos developed in present-day (ambient and predicted end-of-century elevated ocean temperatures (+3 °C. Results showed developmental stages of embryos reared at ambient temperature were typical of other opisthobranch species, with hatching of planktotrophic veligers occurring 4.5 days post-oviposition. However, development times significantly decreased under elevated temperature, with key embryonic features such as the velum, statocysts, operculum, eyespots and protoconch developing approximately 24 h earlier when compared to ambient temperature. Although veligers hatched one day earlier under elevated temperature, their shell size decreased by approximately 20%. Our findings highlight how an elevated thermal environment accelerates planktotrophic development of this important benthic invertebrate, possibly at the cost of reducing fitness and increasing mortality.

  11. Microbiological changes, shelf life and identification of initial and spoilage microbiota of sea bream fillets stored under various conditions using 16S rRNA gene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlapani, Foteini F; Kormas, Konstantinos Ar; Boziaris, Ioannis S

    2015-09-01

    Sea bream fillets are one of the most important value-added products of the seafood market. Fresh seafood spoils mainly owing to bacterial action. In this study an exploration of initial and spoilage microbiota of sea bream fillets stored under air and commercial modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) at 0 and 5 °C was conducted by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of isolates grown on plates. Sensory evaluation and enumeration of total viable counts and spoilage microorganisms were also conducted to determine shelf life and bacterial growth respectively. Different temperatures and atmospheres affected growth and synthesis of spoilage microbiota as well as shelf life. Shelf life under air at 0 and 5 °C was 14 and 5 days respectively, while under MAP it was 20 and 8 days respectively. Initial microbiota were dominated by Pseudomonas fluorescens, Psychrobacter and Macrococcus caseolyticus. Different temperatures and atmospheres affected the synthesis of spoilage microbiota. At the end of shelf life, different phylotypes of Pseudomonas closely related to Pseudomonas fragi were found to dominate in most cases, while Pseudomonas veronii dominated in fillets under MAP at 0 °C. Furthermore, in fillets under MAP at 5 °C, new dominant species such as Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Carnobacterium divergens and Vagococcus fluvialis were revealed. Different temperature and atmospheric conditions affected bacterial growth, shelf life and the synthesis of spoilage microbiota. Molecular identification revealed species and strains of microorganisms that have not been reported before for sea bream fillets stored under various conditions, thus providing valuable information regarding microbiological spoilage. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Life on the margin: genetic isolation and diversity loss in a peripheral marine ecosystem, the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Kerstin; André, Carl

    2006-07-01

    Marginal populations are often isolated and under extreme selection pressures resulting in anomalous genetics. Consequently, ecosystems that are geographically and ecologically marginal might have a large share of genetically atypical populations, in need of particular concern in management of these ecosystems. To test this prediction, we analysed genetic data from 29 species inhabiting the low saline Baltic Sea, a geographically and ecologically marginal ecosystem. On average Baltic populations had lost genetic diversity compared to Atlantic populations: a pattern unrelated to dispersal capacity, generation time of species and taxonomic group of organism, but strongly related to type of genetic marker (mitochondrial DNA loci had lost c. 50% diversity, and nuclear loci 10%). Analyses of genetic isolation by geographic distance revealed clinal patterns of differentiation between Baltic and Atlantic regions. For a majority of species, clines were sigmoid with a sharp slope around the Baltic Sea entrance, indicating impeded gene flows between Baltic and Atlantic populations. Some species showed signs of allele frequencies being perturbed at the edge of their distribution inside the Baltic Sea. Despite the short geological history of the Baltic Sea (8000 years), populations inhabiting the Baltic have evolved substantially different from Atlantic populations, probably as a consequence of isolation and bottlenecks, as well as selection on adaptive traits. In addition, the Baltic Sea also acts a refuge for unique evolutionary lineages. This marginal ecosystem is thus vulnerable but also exceedingly valuable, housing unique genes, genotypes and populations that constitute an important genetic resource for management and conservation.

  13. Modelling the beginning and end of a planktonic life stage — the distribution of cod eggs and settled juveniles in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höffle, Hannes; Munk, Peter

    2012-01-01

    distribution of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), whiting (Merlangius merlangus), and plaice (Pleuronectes platessa). Findings indicated that in the egg stage, the environment is more important for the probability of occurrence, while abundance is more under the control of spatial dependency. Modelling......The North Sea cod stock is close to the southern limit of the species’ range. Therefore, it might be vulnerable to future climate change. Direct as well as indirect effects of climate forcing may have the greatest effects on early life stages. Here we present a study on the distribution of cod...

  14. Seasonal and life-phase related differences in growth in Scarus ferrugineus on a southern Red Sea fringing reef

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afeworki, Y.; Videler, J. J.; Berhane, Y. H.; Bruggemann, J. H.

    Temporal trends in growth of the rusty parrotfish Scarus ferrugineus were studied on a southern Red Sea fringing reef that experiences seasonal changes in environmental conditions and benthic algal resources. Length increment data from tagging and recapture were compared among periods and sexes and

  15. Husbandry streaa during early life stages affects the stress response and health status of juvenile sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varsamos, S.; Flik, G.; Pepin, S.E.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Breuil, G.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In aquaculture management it is important to establish objective criteria to assess health and welfare of the fish. Here we show that European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) confronted with husbandry-associated stress (tank cleaning, i.e. scrubbing, and water temperature variation) during

  16. The elemental composition of purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) calcite and potential effects of pCO2 during early life stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVigne, M.; Hill, T. M.; Sanford, E.; Gaylord, B.; Russell, A. D.; Lenz, E. A.; Hosfelt, J. D.; Young, M. K.

    2013-06-01

    Ocean acidification will likely have negative impacts on invertebrates producing skeletons composed of calcium carbonate. Skeletal solubility is partly controlled by the incorporation of "foreign" ions (e.g. magnesium) into the crystal lattice of these skeletal structures, a process that is sensitive to a variety of biological and environmental factors. Here we explore effects of life stage, oceanographic region of origin, and changes in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in seawater (pCO2) on trace elemental composition in the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus). We show that, similar to other urchin taxa, adult purple sea urchins have the ability to precipitate skeleton composed of a range of biominerals spanning low- to high-Mg calcites. Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca ratios were substantially lower in adult spines compared to adult tests. On the other hand, trace elemental composition was invariant among adults collected from four oceanographically distinct regions spanning a range of carbonate chemistry conditions (Oregon, Northern California, Central California, and Southern California). Skeletons of newly settled juvenile urchins that originated from adults from the four regions exhibited intermediate Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca between adult spine and test endmembers, indicating that skeleton precipitated during early life stages is more soluble than adult spines and less soluble than adult tests. Mean skeletal Mg / Ca or Sr / Ca of juvenile skeleton did not vary with source region when larvae were reared under present-day, global-average seawater carbonate conditions (400 μatm; pHT = 8.02 ± 0.03 1 SD; Ωcalcite = 3.3 ± 0.2 1 SD). However, when reared under elevated pCO2 (900 μatm; pHT = 7.73 ± 0.03; Ωcalcite = 1.8 ± 0.1), skeletal Sr / Ca in juveniles exhibited increased variance across the four regions. Although larvae from the northern populations (Oregon, Northern California, Central California) did not exhibit differences in Mg or Sr

  17. The elemental composition of purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus calcite and potential effects of pCO2 during early life stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. LaVigne

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification will likely have negative impacts on invertebrates producing skeletons composed of calcium carbonate. Skeletal solubility is partly controlled by the incorporation of "foreign" ions (e.g. magnesium into the crystal lattice of these skeletal structures, a process that is sensitive to a variety of biological and environmental factors. Here we explore effects of life stage, oceanographic region of origin, and changes in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in seawater (pCO2 on trace elemental composition in the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. We show that, similar to other urchin taxa, adult purple sea urchins have the ability to precipitate skeleton composed of a range of biominerals spanning low- to high-Mg calcites. Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca ratios were substantially lower in adult spines compared to adult tests. On the other hand, trace elemental composition was invariant among adults collected from four oceanographically distinct regions spanning a range of carbonate chemistry conditions (Oregon, Northern California, Central California, and Southern California. Skeletons of newly settled juvenile urchins that originated from adults from the four regions exhibited intermediate Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca between adult spine and test endmembers, indicating that skeleton precipitated during early life stages is more soluble than adult spines and less soluble than adult tests. Mean skeletal Mg / Ca or Sr / Ca of juvenile skeleton did not vary with source region when larvae were reared under present-day, global-average seawater carbonate conditions (400 μatm; pHT = 8.02 ± 0.03 1 SD; Ωcalcite = 3.3 ± 0.2 1 SD. However, when reared under elevated pCO2 (900 μatm; pHT = 7.73 ± 0.03; Ωcalcite = 1.8 ± 0.1, skeletal Sr / Ca in juveniles exhibited increased variance across the four regions. Although larvae from the northern populations (Oregon, Northern California, Central California did not exhibit differences in Mg or Sr

  18. Colonial life under the Humboldt Current System: deep-sea corals from O'Higgins I seamount

    OpenAIRE

    Cañete,Juan I; Haussermann,Verena

    2012-01-01

    A benthic community constituted by an assemblage of at least four species of deep-sea corals collected in only one trawl carried-out on the summit of the O'Higgins I seamount, central Chile. The corals were collected in only one trawl carried-out during a Chilean-Japanese cruise onboard the R/V" Koyo Maru" in December 29, 2004. Presence of oxygenated and cold Antarctic Intermediate Water (>400 m depth) on the plateau was recorded under of the Equatorial Subsurface Water associated to the o...

  19. Colonial life under the Humboldt Current System: deep-sea corals from O'Higgins I seamount

    OpenAIRE

    Cañete, Juan I; Haussermann, Verena

    2012-01-01

    A benthic community constituted by an assemblage of at least four species of deep-sea corals collected in only one trawl carried-out on the summit of the O'Higgins I seamount, central Chile. The corals were collected in only one trawl carried-out during a Chilean-Japanese cruise onboard the R/V" Koyo Maru" in December 29, 2004. Presence of oxygenated and cold Antarctic Intermediate Water (>400 m depth) on the plateau was recorded under of the Equatorial Subsurface Water associated to the oxyg...

  20. Impact of life history traits on gene flow: A multispecies systematic review across oceanographic barriers in the Mediterranean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Pascual, Marta; Rives, Borja; Schunter, Celia Marei; Macpherson, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    . We assessed the relevance of seven major oceanographic fronts on species connectivity while considering their dispersal capacity and life strategy.We systematically reviewed the scientific articles reporting population genetic differentiation along

  1. Taxonomy of the early life stages of arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and Kamchatka flounder (A. evermanni) in the eastern Bering Sea, with notes on distribution and condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Forest, Lisa; Duffy-Anderson, J. T.; Heintz, R. A.; Matarese, A. C.; Siddon, E. C.; Smart, T. I.; Spies, I. B.

    2014-11-01

    Arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and Kamchatka flounder (A. evermanni) are closely related flatfish species that co-occur in the eastern Bering Sea. As adults, arrowtooth flounder can be distinguished from Kamchatka flounder; however, larvae and early juveniles can only be indentified to the genus level due to morphological similarities. This has precluded studies of ecology for the early life stages of both species in the eastern Bering Sea. In this study, we developed a genetic technique to identify the larvae and early juveniles of the two species using mtDNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI). Genetically identified specimens were then examined to determine a visual identification method based on pigment patterns and morphology. Specimens 6.0-12.0 mm SL and≥18.0 mm SL can be identified to the species level, but species identification of individuals 12.1-17.9 mm SL by visual means alone remains elusive. The distribution of larvae (<25.0 mm SL) of both arrowtooth flounder and Kamchatka flounder is similar in the eastern Bering Sea; however, juvenile (≥25.0 mm SL) Kamchatka flounder occur closer to the shelf break and in deeper water than juvenile arrowtooth flounder. Condition was determined for larvae and juveniles of each species by analyzing lipid content (%) and energy density (kJ/g dry mass). Kamchatka flounder larvae on average had higher lipid content than arrowtooth flounder larvae, but were also larger on average than arrowtooth flounder larvae in the summer. When corrected for length, both species had similar lipid content in the larval and juvenile stages.

  2. Life history inhomogeneity in Baltic Sea whitefish populations revealed by otolith strontium signatures – identification of stocked fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Hägerstrand

    2015-11-01

    The strontium concentrations in the otolith cores of whitefish from River Tornionjoki were higher than that of the four otoliths with low core strontium from fishes caught at sea (Table 1. Supposing that this latter group represent stocked fish raised in freshwater ponds, the vast majority of River Tornionjoki whitefish is naturally reproduced fish. This is plausible because in River Tornionjoki, the major whitefish spawning river in Finland, no larger stocking have been made since 1990s (Jokikokko and Huhmarniemi 2014. In conclusion, the concentration of otolith core strontium differs in whitefish hatched in fresh-water and in whitefish hatched in river water or in brackish Baltic Sea water. This difference can be used to reveal stocked whitefish. Barium concentration may be an even better indicator in this respect than strontium, as previous results indicate (Hägerstrand et al., 2015. Stocked river spawning whitefish appear in large amount at the southern feeding grounds around the Åland Islands, as already indicated by e.g. Leskelä et al. (2009.

  3. Impacts of ocean acidification on sea urchin growth across the juvenile to mature adult life-stage transition is mitigated by warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworjanyn, Symon A; Byrne, Maria

    2018-04-11

    Understanding how growth trajectories of calcifying invertebrates are affected by changing climate requires acclimation experiments that follow development across life-history transitions. In a long-term acclimation study, the effects of increased acidification and temperature on survival and growth of the tropical sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla from the early juvenile (5 mm test diameter-TD) through the developmental transition to the mature adult (60 mm TD) were investigated. Juveniles were reared in a combination of three temperature and three pH/ p CO 2 treatments, including treatments commensurate with global change projections. Elevated temperature and p CO 2 /pH both affected growth, but there was no interaction between these factors. The urchins grew more slowly at pH 7.6, but not at pH 7.8. Slow growth may be influenced by the inability to compensate coelomic fluid acid-base balance at pH 7.6. Growth was faster at +3 and +6°C compared to that in ambient temperature. Acidification and warming had strong and interactive effects on reproductive potential. Warming increased the gonad index, but acidification decreased it. At pH 7.6 there were virtually no gonads in any urchins regardless of temperature. The T. gratilla were larger at maturity under combined near-future warming and acidification scenarios (+3°C/pH 7.8). Although the juveniles grew and survived in near-future warming and acidification conditions, chronic exposure to these stressors from an early stage altered allocation to somatic and gonad growth. In the absence of phenotypic adjustment, the interactive effects of warming and acidification on the benthic life phases of sea urchins may compromise reproductive fitness and population maintenance as global climatic change unfolds. © 2018 The Author(s).

  4. Remembering the Sea: Personal and Communal Recollections of Maritime Life in Jizan and the Farasan Islands, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Dionisius A.; Cooper, John P.; Semaan, Lucy; Zazzaro, Chiara; Carter, Robert

    2016-08-01

    People create narratives of their maritime past through the remembering and forgetting of seafaring experiences, and through the retention and disposal of maritime artefacts that function mnemonically to evoke or suppress those experiences. The sustenance and reproduction of the resulting narratives depends further on effective media of intergenerational transmission; otherwise, they are lost. Rapid socio-economic transformation across Saudi Arabia in the age of oil has disrupted longstanding seafaring economies in the Red Sea archipelago of the Farasan Islands, and the nearby mainland port of Jizan. Vestiges of wooden boatbuilding activity are few; long-distance dhow trade with South Asia, the Arabian-Persian Gulf and East Africa has ceased; and a once substantial pearling and nacre (mother of pearl) collection industry has dwindled to a tiny group of hobbyists: no youth dive today. This widespread withdrawal from seafaring activity among many people in these formerly maritime-oriented communities has diminished the salience of such activity in cultural memory, and has set in motion narrative creation processes, through which memories are filtered and selected, and objects preserved, discarded, or lost. This paper is a product of the encounter of the authors with keepers of maritime memories and objects in the Farasan Islands and Jizan. An older generation of men recall memories of their experiences as boat builders, captains, seafarers, pearl divers and fishermen. Their recounted memories are inscribed, and Arabic seafaring terms recorded. The extent of the retention of maritime material cultural items as memorials is also assessed, and the rôle of individual, communal and state actors in that retention is considered. Through this reflection, it becomes clear that the extra-biological memory and archive of the region's maritime past is sparse; that intergenerational transmission is failing; that the participation of state agencies in maritime heritage creation

  5. Deep sea minerals prolong life span of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by compensatory augmentation of the IGF-I-survival signaling and inhibition of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hung-En; Shibu, Marthandam Asokan; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Pai, Pei-Ying; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Lin, Jing-Ying; Wen, Su-Ying; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-07-01

    Consumption of deep sea minerals (DSM), such as magnesium, calcium, and potassium, is known to reduce hypercholesterolemia-induced myocardial hypertrophy and cardiac-apoptosis and provide protection against cardiovascular diseases. Heart diseases develop as a lethal complication among diabetic patients usually due to hyperglycemia-induced cardiac-apoptosis that causes severe cardiac-damages, heart failure, and reduced life expectancy. In this study, we investigated the potential of DSM and its related cardio-protection to increase the life expectancy in diabetic rats. In this study, a heart failure rat model was developed by using streptozotocin (65 mg kg(-1) ) IP injection. Different doses of DSM-1× (37 mg kg(-1) day(-1) ), 2× (74 mg kg(-1) day(-1) ) and 3× (111 mg kg(-1) day(-1) ), were administered to the rats through gavages for 4 weeks. The positive effects of DSM on the survival rate of diabetes rats were determined with respect to the corresponding effects of MgSO4 . Further, to understand the mechanism by which DSM enhances the survival of diabetic rats, their potential to regulate cardiac-apoptosis and control cardiac-dysfunction were examined. Echocardiogram, tissue staining, TUNEL assay, and Western blotting assay were used to investigate modulations in the myocardial contractile function and related signaling protein expression. The results showed that DSM regulate apoptosis and complement the cardiomyocyte proliferation by enhancing survival mechanisms. Moreover DSM significantly reduced the mortality rate and enhanced the survival rate of diabetic rats. Experimental results show that DSM administration can be an effective strategy to improve the life expectancy of diabetic subjects by improving cardiac-cell proliferation and by controlling cardiac-apoptosis and associated cardiac-dysfunction. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 769-781, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The street children of Manila are affected by early-in-life periodontal infection: description of a treatment modality: sea salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, J F; Michel, M G; Nadan, J; Nowzari, H

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of street children of Manila are affected by early-in-life oral infection. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of a sea-salt mouthrinse solution in street children of Manila affected by mild to severe forms of periodontal disease. These children were all in need of special protection: abandoned, abused, exploited, neglected, orphaned, poor. During 3 oral-health missions in 2003, 2004 and 2005, 617 abandoned children (5 to 13 year-old), received oral examination at a non-sectarian child-caring institution in Metro Manila (Virlanie Foundation) by calibrated examiners. A treatment based on what could be done was proposed: 1. Teaching of a precise tooth brushing technique with sea-salt, controlled and reinforced every two days for one week by calibrated health educators, 2. The application of sea-salt water mouthrinse (2.5 gram in 20 ml). Periodontal measurements were repeated at the end of each mission. All children returned to child-caring institution for the followup examinations. In 2003, 10 male and 11 female (n=21) were diagnosed with aggressive periodontitis. In 2009 and 2010, none was affected by aggressive periodontitis. For all patients, the gingival index decreased from 1.08 at the first mission to 1.04 at the end of the second mission and 0.98 at the end of the third mission. The periodontal index decreased from 1.33 at the first mission to 0.98 at the second mission and 0.92 at the last mission. The present investigation confirms that prevention and early diagnosis can result in success with minimum cost. The provided oral health program empowered street children in the most desperate circumstances to be educated and become self-reliant, independent, and responsible. We propose here an antimicrobial approach which has a high degree of efficacy and tolerability, and can be implemented in virtually all parts of the world using low-cost resources.

  7. Parameter Estimations of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB Model over the Life History of a Key Antarctic Species: The Antarctic Sea Star Odontaster validus Koehler, 1906.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Agüera

    Full Text Available Marine organisms in Antarctica are adapted to an extreme ecosystem including extremely stable temperatures and strong seasonality due to changes in day length. It is now largely accepted that Southern Ocean organisms are particularly vulnerable to global warming with some regions already being challenged by a rapid increase of temperature. Climate change affects both the physical and biotic components of marine ecosystems and will have an impact on the distribution and population dynamics of Antarctic marine organisms. To predict and assess the effect of climate change on marine ecosystems a more comprehensive knowledge of the life history and physiology of key species is urgently needed. In this study we estimate the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB model parameters for key benthic Antarctic species the sea star Odontaster validus using available information from literature and experiments. The DEB theory is unique in capturing the metabolic processes of an organism through its entire life cycle as a function of temperature and food availability. The DEB model allows for the inclusion of the different life history stages, and thus, becomes a tool that can be used to model lifetime feeding, growth, reproduction, and their responses to changes in biotic and abiotic conditions. The DEB model presented here includes the estimation of reproduction handling rules for the development of simultaneous oocyte cohorts within the gonad. Additionally it links the DEB model reserves to the pyloric caeca an organ whose function has long been ascribed to energy storage. Model parameters described a slowed down metabolism of long living animals that mature slowly. O. validus has a large reserve that-matching low maintenance costs- allow withstanding long periods of starvation. Gonad development is continuous and individual cohorts developed within the gonads grow in biomass following a power function of the age of the cohort. The DEB model developed here for O

  8. Divergent trends in life-history traits between Atlantic salmon Salmo salar of wild and hatchery origin in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainikka, A; Kallio-Nyberg, I; Heino, M; Koljonen, M-L

    2010-02-01

    Four Atlantic salmon Salmo salar stocks in the Baltic Sea, varying in their breeding history, were studied for changes in life-history traits over the years 1972-1995. Total length (L(T)) at age of captured (L(TC)) fish had increased throughout the study period, partly due to increased temperature and increased L(T) at release, (L(TR)) but also due to remaining cohort effects that could represent unaccounted environmental or genetic change. Simultaneously, maturation probabilities controlled for water temperature, L(TC) and L(TR) had increased in all stocks. The least change was observed in the River Tornionjoki S. salar that was subject only to supportive stockings originating from wild parents. These results suggest a long-term divergence between semi-natural and broodstock-based S. salar stocks. Increased L(T) at age explained advanced maturation only marginally, and it remains an open question to what extent the generally increased probabilities to mature at early age reflected underlying genetic changes.

  9. Impacts of ocean acidification on early life-history stages and settlement of the coral-eating sea star Acanthaster planci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthicke, Sven; Pecorino, Danilo; Albright, Rebecca; Negri, Andrew Peter; Cantin, Neal; Liddy, Michelle; Dworjanyn, Symon; Kamya, Pamela; Byrne, Maria; Lamare, Miles

    2013-01-01

    Coral reefs are marine biodiversity hotspots, but their existence is threatened by global change and local pressures such as land-runoff and overfishing. Population explosions of coral-eating crown of thorns sea stars (COTS) are a major contributor to recent decline in coral cover on the Great Barrier Reef. Here, we investigate how projected near-future ocean acidification (OA) conditions can affect early life history stages of COTS, by investigating important milestones including sperm motility, fertilisation rates, and larval development and settlement. OA (increased pCO2 to 900-1200 µatm pCO2) significantly reduced sperm motility and, to a lesser extent, velocity, which strongly reduced fertilization rates at environmentally relevant sperm concentrations. Normal development of 10 d old larvae was significantly lower under elevated pCO2 but larval size was not significantly different between treatments. Settlement of COTS larvae was significantly reduced on crustose coralline algae (known settlement inducers of COTS) that had been exposed to OA conditions for 85 d prior to settlement assays. Effect size analyses illustrated that reduced settlement may be the largest bottleneck for overall juvenile production. Results indicate that reductions in fertilisation and settlement success alone would reduce COTS population replenishment by over 50%. However, it is unlikely that this effect is sufficient to provide respite for corals from other negative anthropogenic impacts and direct stress from OA and warming on corals.

  10. Collaborative web-based annotation of video footage of deep-sea life, ecosystems and geological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottmann, R.; Ratmeyer, V.; Pop Ristov, A.; Boetius, A.

    2012-04-01

    More and more seagoing scientific expeditions use video-controlled research platforms such as Remote Operating Vehicles (ROV), Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV), and towed camera systems. These produce many hours of video material which contains detailed and scientifically highly valuable footage of the biological, chemical, geological, and physical aspects of the oceans. Many of the videos contain unique observations of unknown life-forms which are rare, and which cannot be sampled and studied otherwise. To make such video material online accessible and to create a collaborative annotation environment the "Video Annotation and processing platform" (V-App) was developed. A first solely web-based installation for ROV videos is setup at the German Center for Marine Environmental Sciences (available at http://videolib.marum.de). It allows users to search and watch videos with a standard web browser based on the HTML5 standard. Moreover, V-App implements social web technologies allowing a distributed world-wide scientific community to collaboratively annotate videos anywhere at any time. It has several features fully implemented among which are: • User login system for fine grained permission and access control • Video watching • Video search using keywords, geographic position, depth and time range and any combination thereof • Video annotation organised in themes (tracks) such as biology and geology among others in standard or full screen mode • Annotation keyword management: Administrative users can add, delete, and update single keywords for annotation or upload sets of keywords from Excel-sheets • Download of products for scientific use This unique web application system helps making costly ROV videos online available (estimated cost range between 5.000 - 10.000 Euros per hour depending on the combination of ship and ROV). Moreover, with this system each expert annotation adds instantaneous available and valuable knowledge to otherwise uncharted

  11. Radionuclides in the sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-07-01

    Water covers a little more than two-thirds of the earth's surface. What is thrown into the sea from a ship may be washed up on a shore thousands of miles away; wastes discharged into the seas or into rivers flowing into them can affect marine life and possibly also the health of man. The study, prevention and control of pollution of the seas and oceans by radionuclides introduced as by-products of man's use of nuclear energy is thus of global interest. (author)

  12. Seasonal dynamics of early life stages of invasive and native ctenophores give clues to invasion and bloom potential in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Haraldsson, Matilda; Lombard, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    and distribution of larvae and eggs of these two species. We show that their occurrence is significantly but inversely related to salinity. Mertensia ovum was present year round throughout the brackish Baltic Sea but also occurred in high-saline areas during cold seasons. Larvae of M. leidyi occurred throughout......Recently, both the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and the arctic Mertensia ovum were discovered in the Baltic Sea but their range expansion remains unclear due to misidentification of their larval stages. Supported by molecular species verification we describe seasonal abundance...

  13. Shelf-life extension of refrigerated sea bass slices wrapped with fish protein isolate/fish skin gelatin-ZnO nanocomposite film incorporated with basil leaf essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfat, Yasir Ali; Benjakul, Soottawat; Vongkamjan, Kitiya; Sumpavapol, Punnanee; Yarnpakdee, Suthasinee

    2015-10-01

    Microbiological, chemical and sensory changes of sea bass slices wrapped with fish protein isolate (FPI)/fish skin gelatin (FSG) films incorporated with 3 % ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONP) (w/w, based on protein content) and 100 % basil leaf essential oil (BEO) (w/w, based on protein content) during storage of 12 days at 4 °C were investigated. Sea bass slices wrapped with FPI/FSG-ZnONP-BEO film had the lowest growth of psychrophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and spoilage microorganisms including Pseudomonas , H2S-producing bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae throughout storage of 12 days in comparison with those wrapped with FPI/FSG-BEO, FPI/FSG-ZnONP, FPI/FSG film, polypropylene film (PP film) and the control (without wrapping), respectively (P < 0.05). Lowered increases in pH, total volatile base, peroxide value and TBARS value were found in FPI/FSG-ZnO-BEO film wrapped samples, compared with others (P < 0.05). Sensory evaluation revealed that shelf-life of sea bass slices was longest for samples wrapped with FPI/FSG-ZnONP-BEO film (12 days), as compared to the control (6 days) (P < 0.05).

  14. Control of bleaching in mushroom coral populations (Scleractinia: Fungiidae) in the Java Sea: stress tolerance and interference by life history strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, B.W.

    1991-01-01

    Bleaching was studied in populations of phylogenetically closely related species (n = 21) of mushroom corals (Scleractinia: Fungiidae) around Pari Island (Java Sea) during a period of excessive seawater warming in 1983. The interspecific variation in the proportions of affected individuals was

  15. Sea Dragon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... In preparation for these changes, the Navy is exploring new command and control relationships, and the Marine Corps established Sea Dragon to experiment with emerging technologies, operational...

  16. An overview of the ecological half-life of the 137Cs radioisotope and a determination of radioactivity levels in sediment samples after Chernobyl in the Eastern Black Sea, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltas, Hasan; Sirin, Murat; Dalgic, Goktug; Cevik, Ugur

    2018-01-01

    A study which determined the activity concentration of 137Cs in sediments contaminated by effluents from the Chernobyl accident which had collected along the coast of the Eastern Black Sea region in Turkey was carried out in 1993. Marine sediment samples were collected in 2015 from the same fifteen sampling points, and the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs were determined for the sediment samples. The activity concentrations ranged from 10.94-25.95, 12.14-33.05, 265.74-459.89 and 2.08-37.45 Bq kg- 1 for 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs respectively. The results showed that there was a steep decline in 137Cs within the sediment at most of the sampling sites from the Eastern Black Sea region during the 22-year period, except for two sites at which the measured levels were much higher. This may be the result of the combined effects of radioactive contaminant entry into this area from rivers, environmental changes and nuclear testing between 1993 and 2015. Furthermore, the ecological half-life (EHL) of the 137Cs radionuclide was estimated for the sediment samples, and radiological hazard parameters such as the absorbed dose rate in air (D), the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) and the excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) were calculated and compared with the international recommended values. It was shown that these sediments do not present any significant health risk for humans in this area.

  17. Influence of body size, metabolic rate and life history stage on the uptake and excretion of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) by invasive sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Laura R; Long, Tristan A F; Wilkie, Michael P

    2018-01-01

    Invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) are controlled in the Great Lakes using the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), which is applied to streams infested with larval lamprey. However, lamprey that survive treatments (residuals) remain a challenge because they may subsequently undergo metamorphosis into parasitic juvenile animals that migrate downstream to the Great Lakes, where they feed on important sport and commercial fishes. The goal of this study was to determine if body size and life stage could potentially influence sea lamprey tolerance to TFM by influencing patterns of TFM uptake and elimination. Because mass specific rates of oxygen consumption (M˙O 2 ) are lower in larger compared to smaller lamprey, we predicted that TFM uptake would be negatively correlated to body size, suggesting that large larvae would be more tolerant to TFM exposure. Accordingly, TFM uptake and M˙O 2 were measured in larvae ranging in size from 0.2-4.2g using radio-labelled TFM ( 14 C-TFM) and static respirometry. Both were inversely proportional to wet mass (M), and could be described usingthe allometric power relationship: Y=aM b , in which M˙O 2 =1.86M 0.53 and TFM Uptake=7.24M 0.34 . We also predicted that body size would extend to rates of TFM elimination, which was measured following the administration of 14 C-TFM (via intraperitoneal injection). However, there were no differences in the half-lives of elimination of TFM (T 1/2 -TFM). There were also no differences in M˙O 2 or TFM uptake amongst size-matched larval, metamorphosing (stages 6-7), or post-metamorphic (juvenile) sea lamprey. However, the T 1/2 -TFM was significantly lower in larval than post-metamorphic lamprey (juvenile), indicating the larval lamprey cleared TFM more efficiently than juvenile lamprey. We conclude that larger larval sea lamprey are more likely to survive TFM treatments suggesting that body size might be an important variable to consider when treating streams with TFM to

  18. Reference life cycle assessment scenarios for manure management in the Baltic Sea Regions - An assessment covering six animal production, five BSR countries, and four manure types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Baky, A; Cano-Bernal, J

    the manure is applied, specific legislations governing the manure management practices, etc.). Further, it presents a reference manure composition for each of these reference systems, including key parameters such as dry matter, nitrogen (inorganic and total), phosphorus, carbon and volatile solids content......One major pre-condition for assessing a manure management technique in a whole system or LCA-approach is to define a reference system against which this technique can be assessed. This report thus presents and details the establishment of such reference systems, comprising eight different manure...... types (fattening pig slurry, dairy cow slurry, hens manure, bulls deep litter, fattening pig solid manure, dairy cow solid manure, horse manure & broilers manure) and five Baltic Sea Regions (Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Poland), for a total of 15 reference systems. It presents, for each...

  19. Life in the fluvial hinterland of the late Sarmatian Sea (middle Miocene): a rare terrestrial fossil site in the Styrian Basin (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubrawa, Monika; Gross, Martin; Harzhauser, Mathias

    2018-02-01

    This paper describes the section and fossil content of a former gravel pit in the Eastern Styrian Basin (SE Austria), which exposes sediments of a fluvial system, ranging from within channel to overbank environments. A predominately terrestrial gastropod fauna of 15 species so far, was recovered from a palaeosol formed in a moist and vegetated, floodplain or abandoned channel. Up-section, a shallow freshwater pond/lake developed within the floodplain, settled by fishes, molluscs and ostracods. By integrating regional geological and biostratigraphical data derived from the terrestrial gastropod fauna as well as from the other recovered biota, these strata are of late middle Miocene (late Sarmatian s.str.) age. Hence, this fossil site provides a rare insight into the terrestrial habitats in the hinterland of the Sarmatian Sea and their biota, which are otherwise barely known in Central Europe.

  20. Sea level trends in South East Asian Seas (SEAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburg, M. W.; Hamlington, B. D.; Leben, R. R.; Manurung, P.; Lumban Gaol, J.; Nababan, B.; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

    2014-10-01

    Southeast Asian Seas (SEAS) span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The SEAS regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost two decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17 year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement in areas and at times of strong signal to noise associated decadal variability forced by low frequency variations in Pacific trade winds. The SEAS region exhibits sea level trends that vary dramatically over the studied time period. This historical variation suggests that the strong regional sea level trends observed during the modern satellite altimeter record will abate as trade winds fluctuate on decadal and longer time scales. Furthermore, after removing the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to sea level trends in the past twenty years, the rate of sea level rise is greatly reduced in the SEAS region. As a result of the influence of the PDO, the SEAS regional sea level trends during 2010s and 2020s are likely to be less than the global mean sea level (GMSL) trend if the observed oscillations in wind forcing and sea level persist. Nevertheless, long-term sea level trends in the SEAS will continue to be affected by GMSL rise occurring now and in the future.

  1. Copepods in ice-covered seas—Distribution, adaptations to seasonally limited food, metabolism, growth patterns and life cycle strategies in polar seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. J.; Huntley, M.

    1991-07-01

    While a seasonal ice cover limits light penetration into both polar seas for up to ten months a year, its presence is not entirely negative. The mixed layer under sea ice will generally be shallower than in open water at the same latitude and season. Ice forms a substrate on which primary production can be concentrated, a condition which contrasts with the generally dilute nutritional conditions which prevail in the remaining ocean. The combination of a shallow, generally stable mixed layer with a close proximity to abundant food make the under-ice zone a suitable nursery for both pelagic and benthic species, an upside-down benthos for opportunistic substrate browsers, and a rich feeding environment for species often considered to be neritic in temperate environments. Where the ice cover is not continuous there may be a retreating ice edge that facilitates the seasonal production of phytoplankton primarily through increased stability from the melt water. Ice edge blooms similarly encourage secondary production by pelagic animals. Pseudocalanus acuspes, which may be the most abundant and productive copepod in north polar latitudes, initiates growth at the start of the "spring bloom" of epontic algae, reaching sexual maturity at breakup or slightly before. In the Southern Hemisphere, the small neritic copepod Paralabidocera antarctica and adult krill have been observed to utilize ice algae. Calanus hyperboreus breeds in the dark season at depth and its buoyant eggs, slowly developing on the ascent, reach the under-ice layer in April as nauplii ready to benefit from the primary production there. On the other hand, C. glacialis may initiate ontogenetic migrations and reproduction in response to increased erosion of ice algae due to solar warming and melting at the ice-water interface. While the same species in a phytoplankton bloom near the ice edge reproduces actively, those under still-consolidated ice nearby can have immature gonads. Diel migration and diel feeding

  2. Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  3. Potential Physiologies of Deep Branches on the Tree of Life with Deep Subsurface Samples from IODP Leg 347: Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, K. G.; Bird, J. T.; Shumaker, A.

    2014-12-01

    Very little is known about how evolutionary branches that are distantly related to cultured microorganisms make a living in the deep subsurface marine environment. Here, sediments are cut-off from surface inputs of organic substrates for tens of thousands of years; yet somehow support a diverse population of microorganisms. We examined the potential metabolic and ecological roles of uncultured archaea and bacteria in IODP Leg 347: Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment samples, using quantitative PCR holes 60B, 63E, 65C, and 59C and single cell genomic analysis for hole 60B. We quantified changes in total archaea and bacteria, as well as deeply-branching archaeal taxa with depth. These sediment cores alternate between high and low salinities, following a glacial cycle. This allows changes in the quantities of these groups to be placed in the context of potentially vastly different organic matter sources. In addition, single cells were isolated, and their genomes were amplified and sequenced to allow a deeper look into potential physiologies of uncultured deeply-branching organisms found up to 86 meters deep in marine sediments. Together, these data provide deeper insight into the relationship between microorganisms and their organic matter substrates in this extreme environments.

  4. Sea level change

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Church, J.A.; Clark, P.U.; Cazenave, A.; Gregory, J.M.; Jevrejeva, S.; Levermann, A.; Merrifield, M.A.; Milne, G.A.; Nerem, R.S.; Nunn, P.D.; Payne, A.J.; Pfeffer, W.T.; Stammer, D.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    This chapter considers changes in global mean sea level, regional sea level, sea level extremes, and waves. Confidence in projections of global mean sea level rise has increased since the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) because of the improved...

  5. Oil and the Caspian Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Poure Daryaei, N.

    2000-01-01

    Caspian Sea is the biggest lake in the world. It is almost F-shape and located between five Countries of Iran, Turkmenistan, Russia, Azarbayjohn, Ghazaghestan. Un fortunately, in the different region of the sea there are highly contaminated oil, in addition with other source of pollutants such as: agricultural, industrial and domestic pollution, which causes to eliminate the natural habitats of aquatic life and thus, the Caspian sea with all of the valuable natural sources of foods and energy is close to be destroyed. This paper studies the pollution by oil industry which causes the elimination of aquatic life and natural ecosystem, as well as, necessary plan to over come the present situation

  6. Trans-life cycle acclimation to experimental ocean acidification affects gastric pH homeostasis and larval recruitment in the sea star Asterias rubens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Marian Y; Lein, Etienne; Bleich, Markus; Melzner, Frank; Stumpp, Meike

    2018-04-16

    Experimental simulation of near-future ocean acidification (OA) has been demonstrated to affect growth and development of echinoderm larval stages through energy allocation towards ion and pH compensatory processes. To date, it remains largely unknown how major pH regulatory systems and their energetics are affected by trans-generational exposure to near-future acidification levels. Here we used the common sea star Asterias rubens in a reciprocal transplant experiment comprising different combinations of OA scenarios, in order to study trans-generational plasticity using morphological and physiological endpoints. Acclimation of adults to pH T 7.2 (pCO 2 3500μatm) led to reductions in feeding rates, gonad weight, and fecundity. No effects were evident at moderate acidification levels (pH T 7.4; pCO 2 2000μatm). Parental pre-acclimation to pH T 7.2 for 85 days reduced developmental rates even when larvae were raised under moderate and high pH conditions, whereas pre-acclimation to pH T 7.4 did not alter offspring performance. Microelectrode measurements and pharmacological inhibitor studies carried out on larval stages demonstrated that maintenance of alkaline gastric pH represents a substantial energy sink under acidified conditions that may contribute up to 30% to the total energy budget. Parental pre-acclimation to acidification levels that are beyond the pH that is encountered by this population in its natural habitat (e.g. pH T 7.2) negatively affected larval size and development, potentially through reduced energy transfer. Maintenance of alkaline gastric pH and reductions in maternal energy reserves probably constitute the main factors for a reduced juvenile recruitment of this marine keystone species under simulated OA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Population Trend and Elasticities of Vital Rates for Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus in the Eastern Gulf of Alaska: A New Life-History Table Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Maniscalco

    Full Text Available Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus numbers are beginning to recover across most of the western distinct population segment following catastrophic declines that began in the 1970s and ended around the turn of the century. This study makes use of contemporary vital rate estimates from a trend-site rookery in the eastern Gulf of Alaska (a sub-region of the western population in a matrix population model to estimate the trend and strength of the recovery across this region between 2003 and 2013. The modeled population trend was projected into the future based on observed variation in vital rates and a prospective elasticity analysis was conducted to determine future trends and which vital rates pose the greatest threats to recovery. The modeled population grew at a mean rate of 3.5% per yr between 2003 and 2013 and was correlated with census count data from the local rookery and throughout the eastern Gulf of Alaska. If recent vital rate estimates continue with little change, the eastern Gulf of Alaska population could be fully recovered to pre-decline levels within 23 years. With density dependent growth, the population would need another 45 years to fully recover. Elasticity analysis showed that, as expected, population growth rate (λ was most sensitive to changes in adult survival, less sensitive to changes in juvenile survival, and least sensitive to changes in fecundity. A population decline could be expected with only a 6% decrease in adult survival, whereas a 32% decrease in fecundity would be necessary to bring about a population decline. These results have important implications for population management and suggest current research priorities should be shifted to a greater emphasis on survival rates and causes of mortality.

  8. Population Trend and Elasticities of Vital Rates for Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in the Eastern Gulf of Alaska: A New Life-History Table Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniscalco, John M; Springer, Alan M; Adkison, Milo D; Parker, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) numbers are beginning to recover across most of the western distinct population segment following catastrophic declines that began in the 1970s and ended around the turn of the century. This study makes use of contemporary vital rate estimates from a trend-site rookery in the eastern Gulf of Alaska (a sub-region of the western population) in a matrix population model to estimate the trend and strength of the recovery across this region between 2003 and 2013. The modeled population trend was projected into the future based on observed variation in vital rates and a prospective elasticity analysis was conducted to determine future trends and which vital rates pose the greatest threats to recovery. The modeled population grew at a mean rate of 3.5% per yr between 2003 and 2013 and was correlated with census count data from the local rookery and throughout the eastern Gulf of Alaska. If recent vital rate estimates continue with little change, the eastern Gulf of Alaska population could be fully recovered to pre-decline levels within 23 years. With density dependent growth, the population would need another 45 years to fully recover. Elasticity analysis showed that, as expected, population growth rate (λ) was most sensitive to changes in adult survival, less sensitive to changes in juvenile survival, and least sensitive to changes in fecundity. A population decline could be expected with only a 6% decrease in adult survival, whereas a 32% decrease in fecundity would be necessary to bring about a population decline. These results have important implications for population management and suggest current research priorities should be shifted to a greater emphasis on survival rates and causes of mortality.

  9. Sea level trends in Southeast Asian seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburg, M. W.; Hamlington, B. D.; Leben, R. R.; Manurung, P.; Lumban Gaol, J.; Nababan, B.; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

    2015-05-01

    Southeast Asian seas span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian oceans. The Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost 2 decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17-year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement with decadal variability associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and related fluctuations of trade winds in the region. The Southeast Asian sea region exhibits sea level trends that vary dramatically over the studied time period. This historical variation suggests that the strong regional sea level trends observed during the modern satellite altimeter record will abate as trade winds fluctuate on decadal and longer timescales. Furthermore, after removing the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to sea level trends in the past 20 years, the rate of sea level rise is greatly reduced in the Southeast Asian sea region. As a result of the influence of the PDO, the Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends during the 2010s and 2020s are likely to be less than the global mean sea level (GMSL) trend if the observed oscillations in wind forcing and sea level persist. Nevertheless, long-term sea level trends in the Southeast Asian seas will continue to be affected by GMSL rise occurring now and in the future.

  10. Emergence, development, and maturity of the gonad of two species of chitons "sea cockroach" (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) through the early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Abadia-Chanona, Quetzalli Yasú

    2013-01-01

    This study describes and recognises, using histological and microscopical examinations on a morphometrical basis, several gonad traits through the early life stages of Chiton articulatus and C. albolineatus. Gonadal ontogenesis, gonad development stages, sexual differentiation, onset of the first sexual maturity, and growth sequences or "early life stages" were determined. In addition, allometry between lengths and body weight pooled for both sexes per each chiton were calculated using equation Y = aX(b) . A total of 125 chitons (4≤TL≤40 mm, in total length "TL") were used. All allometric relations showed a strong positive correlation (r), close to 1, with b-values above three, indicating an isometric growth. Gonadal ontogenesis and gonad development stages were categorised into three periods ("Pw" without gonad, "Pe" gonad emergence, and "Pf" gonadal sac formed) and four stages ("S0" gametocytogenesis, "S1" gametogenesis, "S2" mature, and "S3" spawning), respectively. Compound digital images were attained for each process. Periods and stages are overlapped among them and between species, with the following overall confidence intervals in TL: Pw 6.13-14.32 mm, Pe 10.32-16.93 mm, Pf 12.99-25.01 mm, S0 16.08-24.34 mm (females) and 19.51-26.60 mm (males), S1 27.15-35.63 mm (females) and 23.45-32.27 mm (males), S2 24.48-40.24 mm (females) and 25.45-32.87 mm (males). Sexual differentiation (in S0) of both chitons occurs first as a female then as a male; although, males reach the onset of the first sexual maturity earlier than females, thus for C. articulatus males at 17 mm and females at 32 mm, and for C. albolineatus males at 23.5 mm and females at 28 mm, all in TL. Four early life stages (i.e., subjuvenile, juvenile, subadult, and adult) are described and proposed to distinguish growth sequences. Our results may be useful to diverse disciplines, from developmental biology to fisheries management.

  11. Emergence, development, and maturity of the gonad of two species of chitons "sea cockroach" (Mollusca: Polyplacophora through the early life stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Hernando Avila-Poveda

    Full Text Available This study describes and recognises, using histological and microscopical examinations on a morphometrical basis, several gonad traits through the early life stages of Chiton articulatus and C. albolineatus. Gonadal ontogenesis, gonad development stages, sexual differentiation, onset of the first sexual maturity, and growth sequences or "early life stages" were determined. In addition, allometry between lengths and body weight pooled for both sexes per each chiton were calculated using equation Y = aX(b . A total of 125 chitons (4≤TL≤40 mm, in total length "TL" were used. All allometric relations showed a strong positive correlation (r, close to 1, with b-values above three, indicating an isometric growth. Gonadal ontogenesis and gonad development stages were categorised into three periods ("Pw" without gonad, "Pe" gonad emergence, and "Pf" gonadal sac formed and four stages ("S0" gametocytogenesis, "S1" gametogenesis, "S2" mature, and "S3" spawning, respectively. Compound digital images were attained for each process. Periods and stages are overlapped among them and between species, with the following overall confidence intervals in TL: Pw 6.13-14.32 mm, Pe 10.32-16.93 mm, Pf 12.99-25.01 mm, S0 16.08-24.34 mm (females and 19.51-26.60 mm (males, S1 27.15-35.63 mm (females and 23.45-32.27 mm (males, S2 24.48-40.24 mm (females and 25.45-32.87 mm (males. Sexual differentiation (in S0 of both chitons occurs first as a female then as a male; although, males reach the onset of the first sexual maturity earlier than females, thus for C. articulatus males at 17 mm and females at 32 mm, and for C. albolineatus males at 23.5 mm and females at 28 mm, all in TL. Four early life stages (i.e., subjuvenile, juvenile, subadult, and adult are described and proposed to distinguish growth sequences. Our results may be useful to diverse disciplines, from developmental biology to fisheries management.

  12. Sea salt

    OpenAIRE

    Galvis-Sánchez, Andrea C.; Lopes, João Almeida; Delgadillo, Ivone; Rangel, António O. S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The geographical indication (GI) status links a product with the territory and with the biodiversity involved. Besides, the specific knowledge and cultural practices of a human group that permit transforming a resource into a useful good is protected under a GI designation. Traditional sea salt is a hand-harvested product originating exclusively from salt marshes from specific geographical regions. Once salt is harvested, no washing, artificial drying or addition of anti-caking agents are all...

  13. Understanding the life of a sandy beach polychaete of functional importance - Scolelepis squamata (Polychaeta: Spionidae) on Belgian sandy beaches (northeastern Atlantic, North Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speybroeck, Jeroen; Alsteens, Lotte; Vincx, Magda; Degraer, Steven

    2007-08-01

    The cosmopolitan sandy beach polychaete Scolelepis squamata constitutes an important food resource for juvenile flatfish and wading birds in the northeastern Atlantic, thus playing an important role in sandy beach ecosystem functioning. However, its population dynamics and life history in this part of the world have gone widely uninvestigated. Eight beach transects on Belgian sandy beaches were sampled monthly from October 2003 until October 2004, in order to investigate seasonal trends in the species' abundance, biomass, secondary production, and patterns in reproduction and zonation. Average density, modal density and modal biomass (ash-free dry weight) (mean average density = 169 ± 9 SE ind/m 2; mean modal density = 505 ± 38 SE ind/m 2; mean modal biomass = 0.25 ± 0.02 SE g/m 2) did not exhibit major seasonal changes, whereas average biomass (0.081 ± 0.005 SE g/m 2) and individuals and biomass per strip transect (IST = 16286 ± 1330 SE ind/m; BMST = 7.8 + 0.7 SE g/m) did, peaking in May 2004. Production was calculated at 1.9 g/(m 2*year) (size-frequency method, SFM) and 0.88 g/(m 2*year) (mass specific growth rate method, MSGR) and mean annual biomass was 0.797 g/m 2; resulting in a P/B ratio of 2.40/year (SFM) and 1.11/year (MSGR), which is intermediate to moderately low compared to other polychaete species. Gravid individuals were found from February until August and a single recruitment period was observed from July until September. An average sex ratio of 1.41 ± 0.08 SE was calculated, with a female predominance. Highest densities (>200 ind/m 2) were mostly found above 3 m above MLLWS and at a median grain size from 190 to 320 μm. Average modal or peak density along each transect was situated from 3.95 m up to 4.40 m above MLLWS, in contrast to some other studies where the species was restricted to mid-tidal levels. Significant differences in elevation of peak density were found between non-gravid (411 ± 4 SE cm) and gravid (402 ± 5 SE cm) animals

  14. The watch on the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The film introduces the International Atomic Energy Agency's Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity in Monaco. Established to conduct a special programme of research, the Monaco Laboratory is maintained through the cooperation of the Monaco and the French authorities and with the participation of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The work of the Laboratory in surveying the radioactivity in seawater as well as the rate of absorption of radioactivity in the sea bed is described. Also shown is the laboratory's ship 'Winaretta Singer' as it trawls for specimens of sea life from the seabed and the method by which it obtains samples of seawater at various depths

  15. The watch on the sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1968-12-31

    The film introduces the International Atomic Energy Agency`s Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity in Monaco. Established to conduct a special programme of research, the Monaco Laboratory is maintained through the cooperation of the Monaco and the French authorities and with the participation of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The work of the Laboratory in surveying the radioactivity in seawater as well as the rate of absorption of radioactivity in the sea bed is described. Also shown is the laboratory`s ship `Winaretta Singer` as it trawls for specimens of sea life from the seabed and the method by which it obtains samples of seawater at various depths

  16. European Life-Modes at Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højrup, Thomas; Schriewer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Analyse og syntese af de biologiske livsformers betydning som mulighedsbetingelse for de anvendte teknologier og fangstmåders betydning som mulighedsbetingelse for de to produktionsmåders sameksistens i euroæisk fiskeri i 500 år og deres betydning som mulighedsbetingelser for de sameksisterende k...

  17. Adhesive Bioactive Coatings Inspired by Sea Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, Sónia J; Vale, Ana C; Luz, Gisela M; Mano, João F; Alves, Natália M

    2016-01-19

    Inspired by nature, in particular by the marine mussels adhesive proteins (MAPs) and by the tough brick-and-mortar nacre-like structure, novel multilayered films are prepared in the present work. Organic-inorganic multilayered films, with an architecture similar to nacre based on bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG), chitosan, and hyaluronic acid modified with catechol groups, which are the main components responsible for the outstanding adhesion in MAPs, are developed for the first time. The biomimetic conjugate is prepared by carbodiimide chemistry and analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. The buildup of the multilayered films is monitored with a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, and their topography is characterized by atomic force microscopy. The mechanical properties reveal that the films containing catechol groups and BG present an enhanced adhesion. Moreover, the bioactivity of the films upon immersion in a simulated body fluid solution is evaluated by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. It was found that the constructed films promote the formation of bonelike apatite in vitro. Such multifunctional mussel inspired LbL films, which combine enhanced adhesion and bioactivity, could be potentially used as coatings of a variety of implants for orthopedic applications.

  18. What Happens to Bio-degradables in the Ocean? Due to the increasing amount of plastic that ends up in the ocean there is much alarm about it killing sea life from ingestion and changing chemical properties of the ocean. But what really happens t these products in the ocean, and how do they affect the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, A.

    2016-12-01

    What Happens to Bio-degradables in the Ocean? Due to the increasing amount of plastic that ends up in the ocean there is much alarm about it killing sea life from entanglement and ingestion and changing chemical properties of the ocean. Our society is trying to take action by purchasing and using materials that claim to be biodegradable. But how long do these materials take to degrade in ocean water and do they actually change the water composition? Answering these questions will determine if one should invest in these materials as an alternative to plastic.

  19. Sea Lion Diet Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — California sea lions pup and breed at four of the nine Channel Islands in southern California. Since 1981, SWFSC MMTD has been conducting a diet study of sea lions...

  20. 75 FR 81201 - 2011 Annual Determination for Sea Turtle Observer Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... implement programs to conserve marine life listed as endangered or threatened. All sea turtles found in U.S... endangered wherever they occur in U.S. waters. While some sea turtle populations have shown signs of recovery... attempting to engage in any such conduct), including incidental take, of endangered sea turtles. Pursuant to...

  1. 77 FR 75999 - 2013 Annual Determination for Sea Turtle Observer Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... to implement programs to conserve marine life listed as endangered or threatened. All sea turtles... (Dermochelys coriacea), and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) sea turtles are listed as endangered. Loggerhead... turtles endangered wherever they occur in U.S. waters. While some sea turtle populations have shown signs...

  2. How Much Are Floridians Willing to Pay for Protecting Sea Turtles from Sea Level Rise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Ahmed; Madani, Kaveh; Von Holle, Betsy; Wright, James; Milon, J Walter; Bossick, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) is posing a great inundation risk to coastal areas. Some coastal nesting species, including sea turtle species, have experienced diminished habitat from SLR. Contingent valuation method (CVM) was used in an effort to assess the economic loss impacts of SLR on sea turtle nesting habitats for Florida coasts; and to elicit values of willingness to pay (WTP) of Central Florida residents to implement certain mitigation strategies, which would protect Florida's east coast sea turtle nesting areas. Using the open-ended and dichotomous choice CVM, we sampled residents of two Florida communities: Cocoa Beach and Oviedo. We estimated the WTP of households from these two cities to protect sea turtle habitat to be between $42 and $57 per year for 5 years. Additionally, we attempted to assess the impact of the both the respondents' demographics and their perception toward various situations on their WTP value. Findings include a negative correlation between the age of a respondent and the probability of an individual willing to pay the hypothetical WTP amount. We found that WTP of an individual was not dependent on prior knowledge of the effects of SLR on sea turtle habitat. The greatest indicators of whether or not an individual was willing to pay to protect sea turtle habitat were the respondents' perception regarding the trustworthiness and efficiency of the party which will implement the conservation measures and their confidence in the conservation methods used. Respondents who perceive sea turtles having an effect on their life were also more likely to pay.

  3. Sea level report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    Study of Cenozoic Era sea levels shows a continual lowering of sea level through the Tertiary Period. This overall drop in sea level accompanied the Pleistocene Epoch glacio-eustatic fluctuations. The considerable change of Pleistocene Epoch sea level is most directly attributable to the glacio-eustatic factor, with a time span of 10 5 years and an amplitude or range of approximately 200 m. The lowering of sea level since the end of the Cretaceous Period is attributed to subsidence and mid-ocean ridges. The maximum rate for sea level change is 4 cm/y. At present, mean sea level is rising at about 3 to 4 mm/y. Glacio-eustacy and tectono-eustacy are the parameters for predicting sea level changes in the next 1 my. Glacio-eustatic sea level changes may be projected on the basis of the Milankovitch Theory. Predictions about tectono-eustatic sea level changes, however, involve predictions about future tectonic activity and are therefore somewhat difficult to make. Coastal erosion and sedimentation are affected by changes in sea level. Erosion rates for soft sediments may be as much as 50 m/y. The maximum sedimentation accumulation rate is 20 m/100 y

  4. Life histories of potamodromous fishes [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell F. Thurow

    2016-01-01

    Potamodromous fishes move and complete their life cycle entirely within freshwater. Myers (1949) proposed the term potamodromous to distinguish freshwater migratory fishes from diadromous fishes, which migrate between the sea and freshwater and oceanodromous fishes that migrate wholly within the sea. Diadromous fishes include anadromous, catadromous and amphidromous...

  5. Salish Sea Genetics - Salish Sea genetic inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Salish Sea comprises most of the Puget Sound water area. Marine species are generally assemblages of discrete populations occupying various ecological niches....

  6. Contemporary Arctic Sea Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    During recent decades, the Arctic region has warmed at a rate about twice the rest of the globe. Sea ice melting is increasing and the Greenland ice sheet is losing mass at an accelerated rate. Arctic warming, decrease in the sea ice cover and fresh water input to the Arctic ocean may eventually impact the Arctic sea level. In this presentation, we review our current knowledge of contemporary Arctic sea level changes. Until the beginning of the 1990s, Arctic sea level variations were essentially deduced from tide gauges located along the Russian and Norwegian coastlines. Since then, high inclination satellite altimetry missions have allowed measuring sea level over a large portion of the Arctic Ocean (up to 80 degree north). Measuring sea level in the Arctic by satellite altimetry is challenging because the presence of sea ice cover limits the full capacity of this technique. However adapted processing of raw altimetric measurements significantly increases the number of valid data, hence the data coverage, from which regional sea level variations can be extracted. Over the altimetry era, positive trend patterns are observed over the Beaufort Gyre and along the east coast of Greenland, while negative trends are reported along the Siberian shelf. On average over the Arctic region covered by satellite altimetry, the rate of sea level rise since 1992 is slightly less than the global mea sea level rate (of about 3 mm per year). On the other hand, the interannual variability is quite significant. Space gravimetry data from the GRACE mission and ocean reanalyses provide information on the mass and steric contributions to sea level, hence on the sea level budget. Budget studies show that regional sea level trends over the Beaufort Gyre and along the eastern coast of Greenland, are essentially due to salinity changes. However, in terms of regional average, the net steric component contributes little to the observed sea level trend. The sea level budget in the Arctic

  7. Arctic Sea Level Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde

    Reconstruction of historical Arctic sea level is very difficult due to the limited coverage and quality of tide gauge and altimetry data in the area. This thesis addresses many of these issues, and discusses strategies to help achieve a stable and plausible reconstruction of Arctic sea level from...... 1950 to today.The primary record of historical sea level, on the order of several decades to a few centuries, is tide gauges. Tide gauge records from around the world are collected in the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) database, and includes data along the Arctic coasts. A reasonable...... amount of data is available along the Norwegian and Russian coasts since 1950, and most published research on Arctic sea level extends cautiously from these areas. Very little tide gauge data is available elsewhere in the Arctic, and records of a length of several decades,as generally recommended for sea...

  8. SEA and planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoeglehner, G.; Brown, A.L.; Kørnøv, Lone

    2009-01-01

    , and the relationship of the SEA to the planning activity itself. This paper focuses on the influence that planners have in these implementation processes, postulating the hypothesis that these are key players in achieving effectiveness in SEA. Based upon implementation theory and empirical experience, the paper......As the field of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has matured, the focus has moved from the development of legislation, guidelines and methodologies towards improving the effectiveness of SEA. Measuring and of course achieving effectiveness is both complex and challenging. This paper...

  9. Metagenomic studies of the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Ibarra, Martin Augusto; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Metagenomics has significantly advanced the field of marine microbial ecology, revealing the vast diversity of previously unknown microbial life forms in different marine niches. The tremendous amount of data generated has enabled identification of a large number of microbial genes (metagenomes), their community interactions, adaptation mechanisms, and their potential applications in pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based industries. Comparative metagenomics reveals that microbial diversity is a function of the local environment, meaning that unique or unusual environments typically harbor novel microbial species with unique genes and metabolic pathways. The Red Sea has an abundance of unique characteristics; however, its microbiota is one of the least studied among marine environments. The Red Sea harbors approximately 25 hot anoxic brine pools, plus a vibrant coral reef ecosystem. Physiochemical studies describe the Red Sea as an oligotrophic environment that contains one of the warmest and saltiest waters in the world with year-round high UV radiations. These characteristics are believed to have shaped the evolution of microbial communities in the Red Sea. Over-representation of genes involved in DNA repair, high-intensity light responses, and osmoregulation were found in the Red Sea metagenomic databases suggesting acquisition of specific environmental adaptation by the Red Sea microbiota. The Red Sea brine pools harbor a diverse range of halophilic and thermophilic bacterial and archaeal communities, which are potential sources of enzymes for pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based application. Understanding the mechanisms of these adaptations and their function within the larger ecosystem could also prove useful in light of predicted global warming scenarios where global ocean temperatures are expected to rise by 1-3°C in the next few decades. In this review, we provide an overview of the published metagenomic studies that were conducted in the Red Sea, and

  10. Colonial life under the Humboldt Current System: deep-sea corals from O'Higgins I seamount La vida colonial bajo el sistema de la corriente de Humboldt: corales de aguas profundas en el monte submarino O'Higgins I

    OpenAIRE

    Juan I Cañete; Verena Haussermann

    2012-01-01

    A benthic community constituted by an assemblage of at least four species of deep-sea corals collected in only one trawl carried-out on the summit of the O'Higgins I seamount, central Chile. The corals were collected in only one trawl carried-out during a Chilean-Japanese cruise onboard the R/V" Koyo Maru" in December 29, 2004. Presence of oxygenated and cold Antarctic Intermediate Water (>400 m depth) on the plateau was recorded under of the Equatorial Subsurface Water associated to the oxyg...

  11. Sea surface temperatures and salinities from platforms in the Barents Sea, Sea of Japan, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippine Sea, Red Sea, and the South China Sea (Nan Hai) from 1896-1950 (NODC Accession 0000506)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface temperatures and salinities were collected in the Barents Sea, Sea of Japan, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippine Sea, Red Sea, and South China Sea (Nan Hai)...

  12. Dilemmas in SEA application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar

    Dilemmas in SEA Application: The DK Energy SectorIvar Lyhne - lyhne@plan.aau.dk. Based on three years of collaborative research, this paper outlines dilemmas in the application of SEA in the strategic development of the Danish energy sector. The dilemmas are based on concrete examples from practice...

  13. Indicators and SEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    Abstract: Indicators are widely used in SEA to measure, communicate and monitor impacts from a proposed policy, plan or programme, and can improve the effectiveness for the SEA by simplifying the complexity of both assessment and presentation. Indicators can be seen as part of the implementation...... and if the information requirement for different target groups is not addressed. Indicators are widely used in SEA to measure, communicate and monitor impacts from a proposed policy, plan or programme, and can improve the effectiveness for the SEA by simplifying the complexity of both assessment and presentation...... process helping to understand, communicate and, integrate important environmental issues in planning and decision-making. On the other hand, use of indicators can also limit SEA effectiveness, if the ones chosen are biased or limited, if the aggregation gives incorrect interpretation...

  14. Environmental pollution of the Black Sea: A search for answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, V.; Osvath, I.; Froehlich, K.

    1993-01-01

    The Black Sea region governments have initiated a regional approach to the management and protection of the marine environment supported by research at national and international levels. Environmental problems in the Black Sea are serious. The Sea's shallow, mixed surface waters receive river discharges which are heavily loaded with nutrients containing nitrogen and phosphorus and contaminated with industrial and mining wastes. In addition, coastal industries appear to discharge wastes directly into the sea with little or no treatment. Thus the water quality of the life-supporting surface layer has seriously deteriorated. Eutrophication (an enrichment in nutrients) presently prevails in many parts of the Black Sea. It has dramatically changed the marine food chain, thus contributing to the demise of the Black Sea fishery and, especially in the northwestern region, to its diminished amenity value. Other factors also are at work, including changes in the hydrological balance, overfishing, and chemical pollution. Following the Chernobyl accident in 1986, riparian countries further identified radioactive pollution as having a high priority. This article looks at major aspects of the state of the Black Sea's environment, and outlines the potential of, and first results derived from, the use of isotope tracers in Black Sea studies. It further discusses IAEA initiatives to join concerted international actions directed towards rehabilitation of the Black Sea environment. 1 fig., 3 tabs, 2 maps

  15. Anthropogenic radionuclides in sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Teruyuki

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of data base of IAEA-MEL (International Atomic Energy Agency, Marine Environment Laboratory) and other organizations, the distribution and behavior of anthropogenic radionuclides in sea water, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am and 3 H, are explained. 137 Cs (β - , γ: 30.2 y half life) is the most important pollution source and tracer to make clear mixture and diffusion process in seawater. The concentration of 137 Cs in surface seawater of Northern Hemisphere is larger than that of Southern Hemisphere, because many inner space nuclear tests were carried out in the Northern Hemisphere. Especially, the concentration of Northern-east Ocean and Mediterranean Sea are 21 Bq/m 3 and 13 Bq/m 3 , respectively, ten times as much as the other, because of discharge of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants and Chernobyl accident. 2.5 Bq/m 3 137 Cs was observed in North Atlantic Ocean. Behavior of 90 Sr (β - : 29.0 y half life) is the same as 137 Sr in seawater. Secular change of 137 Sr and 90 Sr in seawater in coastal areas of Japan shows decrease of the values from 1964 and reached to 2 to 4 mBq/l and 1 to 3 mBq/l, respectively. 239+240 Pu is the most large load of transuranic elements (TRU) in the earth and originated from nuclear tests. The concentration of 239+240 Pu is 20 to 30 (10 -4 pCi/l, 1968) in the Pacific Ocean and 2.5 to 10.0 μBq/l (1982 to 1993). 241 Am (α: 433 y half life) is generated by decay of 241 Pu. Accordingly, the maximum value is observed after about 100 years. 241 Am/ 239+240 Pu showed less than about 0.3 of fall out, so that emission of 241 Am increases much more than 239+240 Pu. 3 H (β - : 12.3 y half life) has the most short half life in the anthropogenic radionuclides and exists the form as water (HTO) in the sea. The origin of 3 H is hydrogen bomb tests during 1952 and 1975. The concentration of 3 H in sea is average 3.6 TU (1994). The vertical profile of 137 Cs and 90 Sr is similar to each other since both nuclides become ions such

  16. Caspian sea: petroleum challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Caspian sea is one of the world areas the most promising in terms of investments and petroleum development. This study presents the petroleum challenges generated by this hydrocarbons reserve. The first part discusses the juridical status (sea or lake), the petroleum and the gas reserves, the ecosystem and the today environment (fishing and caviar), the geostrategic situation and the transport of gas and oil. It provides also a chronology from 1729 to 2005, a selection of Internet sites, books and reports on the subject and identity sheets of the countries around the Caspian sea. (A.L.B.)

  17. FROM PONDS TO MAN-MADE SEAS IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Gorshkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Russia has more than 2200 reservoirs and large ponds. As time went by, ponds lost their importance in some aspects of human life, while newly created man-made seas impacted the nature and the people in two ways. The costs involved in designing, constructing, and operating the artificial seas, especially on the plains, have been too high to consider them as an undisputed achievement of the Soviet scientists transforming the nature. This paper discusses the problem of ponds and man-made seas in Russia.

  18. RNA viruses in the sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andrew S; Rise, Matthew L; Culley, Alexander I; Steward, Grieg F

    2009-03-01

    Viruses are ubiquitous in the sea and appear to outnumber all other forms of marine life by at least an order of magnitude. Through selective infection, viruses influence nutrient cycling, community structure, and evolution in the ocean. Over the past 20 years we have learned a great deal about the diversity and ecology of the viruses that constitute the marine virioplankton, but until recently the emphasis has been on DNA viruses. Along with expanding knowledge about RNA viruses that infect important marine animals, recent isolations of RNA viruses that infect single-celled eukaryotes and molecular analyses of the RNA virioplankton have revealed that marine RNA viruses are novel, widespread, and genetically diverse. Discoveries in marine RNA virology are broadening our understanding of the biology, ecology, and evolution of viruses, and the epidemiology of viral diseases, but there is still much that we need to learn about the ecology and diversity of RNA viruses before we can fully appreciate their contributions to the dynamics of marine ecosystems. As a step toward making sense of how RNA viruses contribute to the extraordinary viral diversity in the sea, we summarize in this review what is currently known about RNA viruses that infect marine organisms.

  19. Sea Scallop Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Sea Scallop Survey began in 1980 and has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey aims to determine the distribution and...

  20. Energy from sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruberti, M.

    2000-01-01

    The devices to obtain energy from sea exploiting thermal gradient and wave motion are numerous and efficient. Costs are at present prohibitive in our country and the utilization cannot be possible [it

  1. Sea Ice Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters.

  2. Black Sea aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacisalihoglu, G.; Eliyakut, F.; Anwari, M.A.; Ataman, O.Y.; Balkas, T.I.; Tuncel, G.; Olmez, I.

    1991-01-01

    Shipboard, high volume air particulate samples were collected from the Black Sea atmosphere and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrophotometry and ion chromatography for about 40 elements and ions. Concentrations of elements in the eastern and western parts of the Black Sea are different at the 95% confidence level, with lower concentrations in the eastern Black Sea. Back-trajectories and concentrations of elements in trajectory groups show that Europe accounts for more than 70% of the anthropogenic elements in the atmosphere. The average sulfate concentration was 7 μg/m 3 , which is comparable with rural sulfate levels in western Europe. Fluxes of elements from the atmosphere to the Black Sea are in good agreement with the results of similar flux calculations for other regions

  3. Pollution of Coastal Seas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These are the things ideally required for locating industries also. The mega-cities .... waste water released into coastal seas raises the ambient temperature causing .... Problems of ozone holes and greenhouse gases were, perhaps, beyond ...

  4. Pollution of coastal seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Pollution of various environments is a consequence of population growth and industrialisation. Coastal seas form part of marine environment and are very rich in minerals, crude oil fishes etc. They are also being used for disposal of wastes from...

  5. Oceanography of marginal seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.

    in the first two shallow seas are driven by surface densification following evaporation that in the latter is largely influenced by freshwater discharge from Irrawaddy and inflows across the Andaman Ridge from east Bay of Bengal. Biological productivity...

  6. South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Brian; Blackmore, Graham

    2001-01-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of the three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the South

  7. South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, Brian [Hong Kong Univ., Swire Inst. of Marine Science, Hong Kong (China); Hong Kong Univ., Dept. of Ecology and Biodiversity, Hong Kong (China); Blackmore, Graham [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Biology, Hong Kong (China)

    2001-07-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshops and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km{sup 2} and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economics on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken

  8. South China Sea Dispute

    OpenAIRE

    Tanderup, Kasper Buch; Grinderslev, Emil Juhler; Tønnesen-Højbjerg, Asser Laurits Svend

    2017-01-01

    China is rising rapidly in terms of economics, military spending, sphere of influence and claims to in their view former territory. This paper has aimed to discuss the latter through analysis of the present dispute concerning islands and maritime territory in the South China Sea. The Chinese have become increasingly assertive in their claims formulated through a U-shaped line entailing most of the area within the South China Sea. The claims are contested by Vietnam, the Philippines, Indonesia...

  9. Contemporary sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, Anny; Llovel, William

    2010-01-01

    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes has considerably improved in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing observations have become available. Here we report on most recent results on contemporary sea level rise. We first present sea level observations from tide gauges over the twentieth century and from satellite altimetry since the early 1990s. We next discuss the most recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on timescales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion of the oceans, land ice mass loss, and land water-storage change. We show that for the 1993-2007 time span, the sum of climate-related contributions (2.85 +/- 0.35 mm year(-1)) is only slightly less than altimetry-based sea level rise (3.3 +/- 0.4 mm year(-1)): approximately 30% of the observed rate of rise is due to ocean thermal expansion and approximately 55% results from land ice melt. Recent acceleration in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets increases the latter contribution up to 80% for the past five years. We also review the main causes of regional variability in sea level trends: The dominant contribution results from nonuniform changes in ocean thermal expansion.

  10. Projecting future sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Bromirski, Peter; Hayhoe, Katharine; Tyree, Mary; Dettinger, Mike; Flick, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    California’s coastal observations and global model projections indicate that California’s open coast and estuaries will experience increasing sea levels over the next century. Sea level rise has affected much of the coast of California, including the Southern California coast, the Central California open coast, and the San Francisco Bay and upper estuary. These trends, quantified from a small set of California tide gages, have ranged from 10–20 centimeters (cm) (3.9–7.9 inches) per century, quite similar to that estimated for global mean sea level. So far, there is little evidence that the rate of rise has accelerated, and the rate of rise at California tide gages has actually flattened since 1980, but projections suggest substantial sea level rise may occur over the next century. Climate change simulations project a substantial rate of global sea level rise over the next century due to thermal expansion as the oceans warm and runoff from melting land-based snow and ice accelerates. Sea level rise projected from the models increases with the amount of warming. Relative to sea levels in 2000, by the 2070–2099 period, sea level rise projections range from 11–54 cm (4.3–21 in) for simulations following the lower (B1) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, from 14–61 cm (5.5–24 in) for the middle-upper (A2) emission scenario, and from 17–72 cm (6.7–28 in) for the highest (A1fi) scenario. In addition to relatively steady secular trends, sea levels along the California coast undergo shorter period variability above or below predicted tide levels and changes associated with long-term trends. These variations are caused by weather events and by seasonal to decadal climate fluctuations over the Pacific Ocean that in turn affect the Pacific coast. Highest coastal sea levels have occurred when winter storms and Pacific climate disturbances, such as El Niño, have coincided with high astronomical tides. This study considers a range of projected future

  11. The White Sea, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the

  12. Henricia djakonovi sp. nov. (Echinodermata, Echinasteridae): a new sea star species from the Sea of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichvarkhin, Anton

    2017-01-01

    A new sea star species, H. djakonovi sp.n., was discovered in Rudnaya Bay in the Sea of Japan. This is a sympatric species of the well-known and common species Henricia pseudoleviuscula Djakonov, 1958. Both species are similar in body size and proportions, shape of skeletal plates, and life coloration, which distinguishes them from the other Henricia species inhabiting the Sea of Japan. Nevertheless, these species can be distinguished by their abactinal spines: in both species, they are short and barrel-like, but the new species is the only Henricia species in Russian waters of the Pacific that possesses such spines with a massive, smooth, bullet-like tip. The spines in H. pseudoleviuscula are crowned with a variable number of well-developed thorns. About half (new species are oval, not crescent-shaped as in H. pseudoleviuscula .

  13. Sea-ice habitat preference of the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) in the Bering Sea: A multiscaled approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Alexander Edward

    The goal of this thesis is to define specific parameters of mesoscale sea-ice seascapes for which walruses show preference during important periods of their natural history. This research thesis incorporates sea-ice geophysics, marine-mammal ecology, remote sensing, computer vision techniques, and traditional ecological knowledge of indigenous subsistence hunters in order to quantitatively study walrus preference of sea ice during the spring migration in the Bering Sea. Using an approach that applies seascape ecology, or landscape ecology to the marine environment, our goal is to define specific parameters of ice patch descriptors, or mesoscale seascapes in order to evaluate and describe potential walrus preference for such ice and the ecological services it provides during an important period of their life-cycle. The importance of specific sea-ice properties to walrus occupation motivates an investigation into how walruses use sea ice at multiple spatial scales when previous research suggests that walruses do not show preference for particular floes. Analysis of aerial imagery, using image processing techniques and digital geomorphometric measurements (floe size, shape, and arrangement), demonstrated that while a particular floe may not be preferred, at larger scales a collection of floes, specifically an ice patch (cross-cultural sea-ice observations, knowledge and science to determine sea ice importance to marine mammals in a changing Arctic.

  14. New records of early life-stages of cephalopods in the Chiloé Interior Sea Nuevos registros de estadios de vida tempranos de cefalópodos en el mar interior de Chiloé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A Carrasco

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Early life stages of cephalopods were sampled with zooplankton nets in southern Chile (41°-43°S during the CIMAR 11 Fiordos cruise, November 2005. A total of 52 individuals were collected, comprising three families (Octopodidae, Sepiolidae, Onychoteuthidae and four species (Robsonella fontaniana, Enteroctopus megalocyathus, Semirossia patagonica, an undetermined Onychoteuthidae species. Paralarvae of Octopodidae have been previously recorded in northern and southern Chile; however, for Sepiolidae and Onychoteuthidae, this is the first record of early life stages in Chilean waters.Estadios tempranos de cefalópodos fueron obtenidos con redes de zooplancton en el sur de Chile (41°-43°S durante el crucero CIMAR 11 Fiordos en noviembre de 2005. Un total de cincuenta y dos individuos fueron recolectados, comprendiendo tres familias (Octopodidae, Sepiolidae and Onychoteuthidae y cuatro especies (Robsonella fontaniana, Enteroctopus megalocyathus, Semirossia patagonica, y una especie indeterminada de Onychoteuthidae. Si bien existen descripciones previas de paralarvas de Octopodidae para el norte y sur de Chile, este trabajo provee el primer registro de estadios tempranos de vida de Sepiolidae y Onychoteuthidae para aguas chilenas.

  15. Combined effect of vacuum-packaging and oregano essential oil on the shelf-life of Mediterranean octopus (Octopus vulgaris) from the Aegean Sea stored at 4 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atrea, I; Papavergou, A; Amvrosiadis, I; Savvaidis, I N

    2009-04-01

    The present study evaluated the use of vacuum packaging (alone) or with addition of oregano essential oil (EO), as an antimicrobial treatment for shelf-life extension of fresh Mediterranean octopus stored under refrigeration for a period of 23 days. Four different treatments were tested: A, control sample; under aerobic storage in the absence of oregano essential oil; VP, under vacuum packaging in the absence of oregano essential oil; and VO1, VO2, treated samples with oregano essential oil 0.2 and 0.4% (v/w), respectively, under VP. Of all the microorganisms enumerated, Pseudomonas spp., H2S-producing bacteria and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were the groups that prevailed in octopus samples, irrespective of antimicrobial treatment. With regard to the chemical freshness indices determined, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values were low in all octopus samples, as could have been expected from the low fat content of the product. Both trimethylamine nitrogen (TMA-N) and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) values of oregano treated under VP octopus samples were significantly lower compared to control samples during the entire refrigerated storage period. Based primarily on sensory evaluation (odor), the use of VP, VO1 and VO2 extended the shelf-life of fresh Mediterranean octopus by ca. 3, 11 and 20 days, respectively.

  16. The Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Dead Sea is the lowest point on Earth at 418 meters below sea level, and also one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth with a salinity of about 300 parts-per-thousand (nine times greater than ocean salinity). It is located on the border between Jordan and Israel, and is fed by the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is located in the Dead Sea Rift, formed as a result of the Arabian tectonic plate moving northward away from the African Plate. The mineral content of the Dead Sea is significantly different from that of ocean water, consisting of approximately 53% magnesium chloride, 37% potassium chloride and 8% sodium chloride. In the early part of the 20th century, the Dead Sea began to attract interest from chemists who deduced that the Sea was a natural deposit of potash and bromine. From the Dead Sea brine, Israel and Jordan produce 3.8 million tons potash, 200,000 tons elemental bromine, 45,000 tons caustic soda, 25, 000 tons magnesium metal, and sodium chloride. Both countries use extensive salt evaporation pans that have essentially diked the entire southern end of the Dead Sea. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining

  17. Abrupt warming of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Raitsos, D. E.

    2011-07-19

    Coral reef ecosystems, often referred to as “marine rainforests,” concentrate the most diverse life in the oceans. Red Sea reef dwellers are adapted in a very warm environment, fact that makes them vulnerable to further and rapid warming. The detection and understanding of abrupt temperature changes is an important task, as ecosystems have more chances to adapt in a slowly rather than in a rapid changing environment. Using satellite derived sea surface and ground based air temperatures, it is shown that the Red Sea is going through an intense warming initiated in the mid-90s, with evidence for an abrupt increase after 1994 (0.7°C difference pre and post the shift). The air temperature is found to be a key parameter that influences the Red Sea marine temperature. The comparisons with Northern Hemisphere temperatures revealed that the observed warming is part of global climate change trends. The hitherto results also raise additional questions regarding other broader climatic impacts over the area.

  18. Abrupt warming of the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raitsos, D. E.; Hoteit, I.; Prihartato, P. K.; Chronis, T.; Triantafyllou, G.; Abualnaja, Y.

    2011-07-01

    Coral reef ecosystems, often referred to as “marine rainforests,” concentrate the most diverse life in the oceans. Red Sea reef dwellers are adapted in a very warm environment, fact that makes them vulnerable to further and rapid warming. The detection and understanding of abrupt temperature changes is an important task, as ecosystems have more chances to adapt in a slowly rather than in a rapid changing environment. Using satellite derived sea surface and ground based air temperatures, it is shown that the Red Sea is going through an intense warming initiated in the mid-90s, with evidence for an abrupt increase after 1994 (0.7°C difference pre and post the shift). The air temperature is found to be a key parameter that influences the Red Sea marine temperature. The comparisons with Northern Hemisphere temperatures revealed that the observed warming is part of global climate change trends. The hitherto results also raise additional questions regarding other broader climatic impacts over the area.

  19. There goes the sea ice: following Arctic sea ice parcels and their properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschudi, M. A.; Tooth, M.; Meier, W.; Stewart, S.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic sea ice distribution has changed considerably over the last couple of decades. Sea ice extent record minimums have been observed in recent years, the distribution of ice age now heavily favors younger ice, and sea ice is likely thinning. This new state of the Arctic sea ice cover has several impacts, including effects on marine life, feedback on the warming of the ocean and atmosphere, and on the future evolution of the ice pack. The shift in the state of the ice cover, from a pack dominated by older ice, to the current state of a pack with mostly young ice, impacts specific properties of the ice pack, and consequently the pack's response to the changing Arctic climate. For example, younger ice typically contains more numerous melt ponds during the melt season, resulting in a lower albedo. First-year ice is typically thinner and more fragile than multi-year ice, making it more susceptible to dynamic and thermodynamic forcing. To investigate the response of the ice pack to climate forcing during summertime melt, we have developed a database that tracks individual Arctic sea ice parcels along with associated properties as these parcels advect during the summer. Our database tracks parcels in the Beaufort Sea, from 1985 - present, along with variables such as ice surface temperature, albedo, ice concentration, and convergence. We are using this database to deduce how these thousands of tracked parcels fare during summer melt, i.e. what fraction of the parcels advect through the Beaufort, and what fraction melts out? The tracked variables describe the thermodynamic and dynamic forcing on these parcels during their journey. This database will also be made available to all interested investigators, after it is published in the near future. The attached image shows the ice surface temperature of all parcels (right) that advected through the Beaufort Sea region (left) in 2014.

  20. Polar bear and walrus response to the rapid decline in Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, K.; Whalen, M.; Douglas, David C.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Atwood, Todd C.; Jay, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Arctic is warming faster than other regions of the world due to positive climate feedbacks associated with loss of snow and ice. One highly visible consequence has been a rapid decline in Arctic sea ice over the past 3 decades - a decline projected to continue and result in ice-free summers likely as soon as 2030. The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) are dependent on sea ice over the continental shelves of the Arctic Ocean's marginal seas. The continental shelves are shallow regions with high biological productivity, supporting abundant marine life within the water column and on the sea floor. Polar bears use sea ice as a platform for hunting ice seals; walruses use sea ice as a resting platform between dives to forage for clams and other bottom-dwelling invertebrates. How have sea ice changes affected polar bears and walruses? How will anticipated changes affect them in the future?

  1. Colonial life under the Humboldt Current System: deep-sea corals from O'Higgins I seamount La vida colonial bajo el sistema de la corriente de Humboldt: corales de aguas profundas en el monte submarino O'Higgins I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan I Cañete

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A benthic community constituted by an assemblage of at least four species of deep-sea corals collected in only one trawl carried-out on the summit of the O'Higgins I seamount, central Chile. The corals were collected in only one trawl carried-out during a Chilean-Japanese cruise onboard the R/V" Koyo Maru" in December 29, 2004. Presence of oxygenated and cold Antarctic Intermediate Water (>400 m depth on the plateau was recorded under of the Equatorial Subsurface Water associated to the oxygen-minimum zone (OMZ, Se describe una comunidad bentónica constituida por un ensamble de cuatro especies de corales de profundidad recolectados mediante un lance de arrastre efectuado sobre el margen de la meseta del monte submarino O'Higgins I, Chile central. Sobre la meseta se detectó la presencia de agua oxigenadas frías correspondientes al Agua Intermedia Antártica (>400 m de profundidad y sobre ésta, el Agua Ecuatorial Subsuperficial asociada a la zona de mínimo de oxígeno (OMZ, <1 mL O2 L-1. La fauna muestra un origen biogeográfico de tipo subantártico sumado a la presencia de fauna típica del margen continental de la zona central de Chile. Este ensamble está representado por dos especies de Antipataria (Leiopathes sp. y Chrysopathes sp., una especie no identificada de la familia Paragorgiidae y una especie perteneciente a la familia Isididae (Acanella chilensis. Este estudio muestra que este ensamble de corales de profundidad provee un hábitat crítico para el camarón nailon (Heterocarpus reedi, crustáceo de importancia pesquera. La presencia de este crustáceo más algunos peces como el alfonsino (Beryx splendens y orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus podrían atraer la atención de la industria sobre estas frágiles, singulares y escasamente conocidas comunidades bentónicas chilenas y por lo tanto se requiere con urgencia acciones para su conservación.

  2. Sea Spray Aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butcher, Andrew Charles

    emissions produced directly from bubble bursting as the result of air entrainment from breaking waves and particles generated from secondary emissions of volatile organic compounds. In the first paper, we study the chemical properties of particles produced from several sea water proxies with the use...... of a cloud condensation nuclei ounter. Proxy solutions with high inorganic salt concentrations and some organics produce sea spray aerosol particles with little change in cloud condensation activity relative to pure salts. Comparison is made between a frit based method for bubble production and a plunging...... a relationship between plunging jet particle ux, oceanic particle ux, and energy dissipation rate in both systems. Previous sea spray aerosol studies dissipate an order of magnitude more energy for the same particle ux production as the open ocean. A scaling factor related to the energy expended in air...

  3. Replenishment at sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohdan Pac

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Replenishment at sea is a process which plays the key role in the contemporary naval logistics during military and crisis operations. As the last element of the supply chain, it must use specific standards within the areas of procedures, technical equipment, logistic assets and resources, as well as safety, especially in multinational operations. The methods applied enable ships to operate at sea in the long term without logistic support provided by sea ports. The paper explains all the methods of the solids and liquids replenishment, and also gives an idea how to estimate the resupply process, using the measures. The level of standardization of procedures and assets implemented by NATO, the EU and other willing states has been described.

  4. Air-Sea Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csanady, G. T.

    2001-03-01

    In recent years air-sea interaction has emerged as a subject in its own right, encompassing small-scale and large-scale processes in both air and sea. Air-Sea Interaction: Laws and Mechanisms is a comprehensive account of how the atmosphere and the ocean interact to control the global climate, what physical laws govern this interaction, and its prominent mechanisms. The topics covered range from evaporation in the oceans, to hurricanes, and on to poleward heat transport by the oceans. By developing the subject from basic physical (thermodynamic) principles, the book is accessible to graduate students and research scientists in meteorology, oceanography, and environmental engineering. It will also be of interest to the broader physics community involved in the treatment of transfer laws, and thermodynamics of the atmosphere and ocean.

  5. Caribbean Sea Level Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Crespo Jones, H.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 500 years almost 100 tsunamis have been observed in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic, with at least 3510 people having lost their lives to this hazard since 1842. Furthermore, with the dramatic increase in population and infrastructure along the Caribbean coasts, today, millions of coastal residents, workers and visitors are vulnerable to tsunamis. The UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for Tsunamis and other Coastal Hazards for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) was established in 2005 to coordinate and advance the regional tsunami warning system. The CARIBE EWS focuses on four areas/working groups: (1) Monitoring and Warning, (2) Hazard and Risk Assessment, (3) Communication and (4) Education, Preparedness and Readiness. The sea level monitoring component is under Working Group 1. Although in the current system, it's the seismic data and information that generate the initial tsunami bulletins, it is the data from deep ocean buoys (DARTS) and the coastal sea level gauges that are critical for the actual detection and forecasting of tsunamis impact. Despite multiple efforts and investments in the installation of sea level stations in the region, in 2004 there were only a handful of sea level stations operational in the region (Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands, Bermuda, Bahamas). Over the past 5 years there has been a steady increase in the number of stations operating in the Caribbean region. As of mid 2012 there were 7 DARTS and 37 coastal gauges with additional ones being installed or funded. In order to reach the goal of 100 operational coastal sea level stations in the Caribbean, the CARIBE EWS recognizes also the importance of maintaining the current stations. For this, a trained workforce in the region for the installation, operation and data analysis and quality control is considered to be critical. Since 2008, three training courses have been offered to the sea level station operators and data analysts. Other

  6. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki

    2011-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s...... about 14%. For 90Sr in the Baltic Sea, input from atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons tests has contributed about 81%, while the contribution from Chernobyl fallout was about 13%. Cesium-137 is the main indicator of Baltic seawater with respect to anthropogenic radioactivity. The highest...... concentrations in seawater during 1999–2006 were found in the Baltic Proper and the Bothnian Sea. The general trend is steadily decreasing. Concentrations of anthropogenic radioactivity in fish generally show decreasing trends in agreement with concentrations in seawater. Among freshwater fish, pike showed large...

  7. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki

    2010-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s...... about 14%. For 90Sr in the Baltic Sea, input from atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons tests has contributed about 81%, while the contribution from Chernobyl fallout was about 13%. Cesium-137 is the main indicator of Baltic seawater with respect to anthropogenic radioactivity. The highest...... concentrations in seawater during 1999–2006 were found in the Baltic Proper and the Bothnian Sea. The general trend is steadily decreasing. Concentrations of anthropogenic radioactivity in fish generally show decreasing trends in agreement with concentrations in seawater. Among freshwater fish, pike showed large...

  8. Mediterranean, our sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markaki, Foteini

    2017-04-01

    My school (1o EPAL Ymittos -Athens, Greece) is a technical school of secondary education and throughout this school year being drafted a program of environmental education. The main theme is the Mediterranean Sea, the biggest closed sea extending between three continents. Topics studied: 1. Biodiversity and the risks threat. 2. The geophysics that characterize (earthquakes, volcanoes explosions, etc). 3. The Mediterranean Sea as environment anthropogenesis, a mosaic of other cultures and even place current notions of social phenomena (refugees). Pedagogical Objectives: Cognitive/Enviromental: 1. To investigate and understand the biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea and the risks to threaten and phenomena that characterize. 2. To understand the position of the Mediterranean Sea in the land and the role of the historical, cultural and social human environment. 3. To come in contact with texts literary, social, articles on the Mediterranean. Psychomotor: 1. To work together and collect information for the Mediterranean Sea. 2. Experiential approach to the natural environment. 3. Develop critical thinking. 4. Undertake responsibilities for the presentation of the program. Emotional: 1. To feel joy from participation in the program. 2. Being sensitized and configure attitudes and actions of respect towards the environment. Methodology implementation: Teamwork. Interdisciplinary - holistic to dissemination of program recordings to courses curriculum. Study in the field. Gathering information from newspapers, magazines, internet, maps, and photographs. Experiential method- Project. Assessment methods and self-assessment. Fields of courses: Greek language- History- Biology- Chemistry- Technology Dissemination of results: Make a page of social media (facebook), a blog, enhancing environmental awareness via video, make an electronic poster.

  9. Stickleback increase in the Baltic Sea : A thorny issue for coastal predatory fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstrom, Ulf; Olsson, Jens; Casini, Michele; Eriksson, Britas Klemens; Fredriksson, Ronny; Wennhage, Hakan; Appelberg, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    In the Baltic Sea, the mesopredator three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) spends a large part of its life cycle in the open sea, but reproduces in shallow coastal habitats. In coastal waters, it may occur in high abundances, is a potent predator on eggs and larvae of fish, and has been

  10. Life cycle planning: An evolving concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, P.J.R.; Gorman, I.G.

    1994-01-01

    Life-cycle planning is an evolving concept in the management of oil and gas projects. BHP Petroleum now interprets this idea to include all development planning from discovery and field appraisal to final abandonment and includes safety, environmental, technical, plant, regulatory, and staffing issues. This article describes in the context of the Timor Sea, how despite initial successes and continuing facilities upgrades, BHPP came to perceive that current operations could be the victim of early development successes, particularly in the areas of corrosion and maintenance. The search for analogies elsewhere lead to the UK North Sea, including the experiences of Britoil and BP, both of which performed detailed Life of Field studies in the later eighties. These materials have been used to construct a format and content for total Life-cycle plans in general and the social changes required to ensure their successful application in Timor Sea operations and deployment throughout Australia

  11. Air-sea exchange studies at the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, G. de; Eijk, A.M.J. van; Kunz, G.J.; Veefkind, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    The North Sea can be considered as a local 'inner' sea in which many processes are quite different from these over the open ocean. The surrounding land has a major influence, being the source for man-made aerosols and gases, whereas the North Sea acts as a sink for these. At the same time the North

  12. Phosphorus dynamics in the Black Sea and Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372617034

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of the key nutrient phosphorus (P) in hypoxic and anoxic marine basins are still incompletely understood. This thesis focuses on the cycling of P in two of such basins: the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea. Water column particulates and sediments from the deep basin of the Black Sea were

  13. Bacterial Diversity in Deep-Sea Sediments from Afanasy Nikitin Seamount, Equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, R.; Meena, R.M.; Deobagkar, D.D.

    Deep-sea sediments can reveal much about the last 200 million years of Earth history, including the history of ocean life and climate. Microbial diversity in Afanasy Nikitin seamount located at Equatorial East Indian Ocean (EEIO) was investigated...

  14. Tradition and Technology: Sea Ice Science on Inuit Sleds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Jeremy P.; Hanson, Susanne; Hughes, Nick E.; James, Alistair; Jones, Bryn; MacKinnon, Rory; Rysgaard, Søren; Toudal, Leif

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic is home to a circumpolar community of native people whose culture and traditions have enabled them to thrive in what most would perceive as a totally inhospitable and untenable environment. In many ways, sea ice can be viewed as the glue that binds these northern communities together; it is utilized in all aspects of their daily life. Sea ice acts as highways of the north; indeed, one can travel on these highways with dogsleds and snowmobiles. These travels over the frozen ocean occur at all periods of the sea ice cycle and over different ice types and ages. Excursions may be hunting trips to remote regions or social visits to nearby villages. Furthermore, hunting on the sea ice contributes to the health, culture, and commercial income of a community.

  15. Temperature measurement in the sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnamacharyulu, R.J.; Rao, L.V.G.

    The importance of measuring sea temperature is explained and the various methods employed for this purpose are reviewed. Instruments used for spot measurement of water temperature at the sea surface and at discrete depths (bucket thermometer...

  16. Deep-sea fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C; Damare, S.R.

    significant in terms of carbon sequestration (5, 8). In light of this, the diversity, abundance, and role of fungi in deep-sea sediments may form an important link in the global C biogeochemistry. This review focuses on issues related to collection...

  17. The Dirac Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Dimock, J.

    2010-01-01

    We give an alternate definition of the free Dirac field featuring an explicit construction of the Dirac sea. The treatment employs a semi-infinite wedge product of Hilbert spaces. We also show that the construction is equivalent to the standard Fock space construction.

  18. Farming the Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, William

    1971-01-01

    Florida has initiated a training program in an entirely new dimension--Sea Farming. Presented is a description of the vocational agriculture program designed to teach propagation, cultivation, harvesting, marketing, and conservation practices related to production of oysters, shrimp, scallops, crabs, and fin fishes. (Editor/GB)

  19. Pollution around Malta's sea

    OpenAIRE

    Formosa, Nicolette

    2014-01-01

    Marine littering is a global concern and every single year tons of litter end up in the ocean all around the globe. It has become such a problem that the waste has amalgamated into huge ‘islands’ floating in the world’s oceans. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/pollution-around-maltas-sea/

  20. Wadden Sea Mud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, P.

    The present thesis deals with the transport phenomena of estuarine cohesive sediment from a laboratory and a numerical point of view. The cohesive sediment used throughout the whole process was natural mud from the Danish part of the Wadden sea, Ho Bay. In the laboratory, the work was concentrated...

  1. Comparing Acoustic Tag Attachments Designed for Mobile Tracking of Hatchling Sea Turtles

    OpenAIRE

    Hoover, Aimee L.; Shillinger, George L.; Swiggs, Jennifer; Bailey, Helen

    2017-01-01

    The poorly understood movements of sea turtles during the “lost years” of their early life history have been characterized as a “passive drifter” stage. Biologging technology allows us to study patterns of dispersal, but the small body size of young life stages requires particular consideration that such tagging does not significantly impede animal movements. We tested the effect of instrument attachment methods for mobile acoustic tracking of hatchling sea turtles, including a design that wo...

  2. Sea floor magnetic observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korepanov, V.; Prystai, A.; Vallianatos, F.; Makris, J.

    2003-04-01

    The electromagnetic precursors of seismic hazards are widely accepted as strong evidence of the approaching earthquake or volcano eruption. The monitoring of these precursors are of main interest in densely populated areas, what creates serious problems to extract them at the strong industrial noise background. An interesting possibility to improve signal-to-noise ratio gives the installation of the observation points in the shelf zones near the possible earthquake places, what is fairly possible in most seismically active areas in Europe, e. g. in Greece and Italy. The serious restriction for this is the cost of the underwater instrumentation. To realize such experiments it requires the unification of efforts of several countries (e. g., GEOSTAR) or of the funds of some great companies (e. g., SIO magnetotelluric instrument). The progress in electronic components development as well as the appearance of inexpensive watertight glass spheres made it possible to decrease drastically the price of recently developed sea floor magnetic stations. The autonomous vector magnetometer LEMI-301 for sea bed application is described in the report. It is produced on the base of three-component flux-gate sensor. Non-magnetic housing and minimal magnetism of electronic components enable the instrument to be implemented as a monoblock construction where the electronic unit is placed close to the sensor. Automatic circuit provides convenient compensation of the initial field offset and readings of full value (6 digits) of the measured field. Timing by internal clock provides high accuracy synchronization of data. The internal flash memory assures long-term autonomous data storage. The system also has two-axes tilt measurement system. The methodological questions of magnetometer operation at sea bed were studied in order to avoid two types of errors appearing at such experimental cases. First is sea waving influence and second one magnetometer orientation at its random positioning on

  3. Survival and breeding of polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea in relation to sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, E.V.; Hunter, C.M.; Caswell, H.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Stirling, I.

    2010-01-01

    1. Observed and predicted declines in Arctic sea ice have raised concerns about marine mammals. In May 2008, the US Fish and Wildlife Service listed polar bears (Ursus maritimus) - one of the most ice-dependent marine mammals - as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act. 2. We evaluated the effects of sea ice conditions on vital rates (survival and breeding probabilities) for polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea. Although sea ice declines in this and other regions of the polar basin have been among the greatest in the Arctic, to date population-level effects of sea ice loss on polar bears have only been identified in western Hudson Bay, near the southern limit of the species' range. 3. We estimated vital rates using multistate capture-recapture models that classified individuals by sex, age and reproductive category. We used multimodel inference to evaluate a range of statistical models, all of which were structurally based on the polar bear life cycle. We estimated parameters by model averaging, and developed a parametric bootstrap procedure to quantify parameter uncertainty. 4. In the most supported models, polar bear survival declined with an increasing number of days per year that waters over the continental shelf were ice free. In 2001-2003, the ice-free period was relatively short (mean 101 days) and adult female survival was high (0 ∙ 96-0 ∙ 99, depending on reproductive state). In 2004 and 2005, the ice-free period was longer (mean 135 days) and adult female survival was low (0 ∙ 73-0 ∙ 79, depending on reproductive state). Breeding rates and cub litter survival also declined with increasing duration of the ice-free period. Confidence intervals on vital rate estimates were wide. 5. The effects of sea ice loss on polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea may apply to polar bear populations in other portions of the polar basin that have similar sea ice dynamics and have experienced similar, or more severe, sea ice declines. Our findings

  4. Survival and breeding of polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea in relation to sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, Eric V; Hunter, Christine M; Caswell, Hal; Amstrup, Steven C; Stirling, Ian

    2010-01-01

    1. Observed and predicted declines in Arctic sea ice have raised concerns about marine mammals. In May 2008, the US Fish and Wildlife Service listed polar bears (Ursus maritimus) - one of the most ice-dependent marine mammals - as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act. 2. We evaluated the effects of sea ice conditions on vital rates (survival and breeding probabilities) for polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea. Although sea ice declines in this and other regions of the polar basin have been among the greatest in the Arctic, to date population-level effects of sea ice loss on polar bears have only been identified in western Hudson Bay, near the southern limit of the species' range. 3. We estimated vital rates using multistate capture-recapture models that classified individuals by sex, age and reproductive category. We used multimodel inference to evaluate a range of statistical models, all of which were structurally based on the polar bear life cycle. We estimated parameters by model averaging, and developed a parametric bootstrap procedure to quantify parameter uncertainty. 4. In the most supported models, polar bear survival declined with an increasing number of days per year that waters over the continental shelf were ice free. In 2001-2003, the ice-free period was relatively short (mean 101 days) and adult female survival was high (0.96-0.99, depending on reproductive state). In 2004 and 2005, the ice-free period was longer (mean 135 days) and adult female survival was low (0.73-0.79, depending on reproductive state). Breeding rates and cub litter survival also declined with increasing duration of the ice-free period. Confidence intervals on vital rate estimates were wide. 5. The effects of sea ice loss on polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea may apply to polar bear populations in other portions of the polar basin that have similar sea ice dynamics and have experienced similar, or more severe, sea ice declines. Our findings therefore are

  5. The radioactivity of the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, M.I.; Rose, K.S.B.

    1990-01-01

    The radioactivity in the world's surface sea water averages 13.6 Bq/kg of water. Over 88% of this activity arises from a single natural radionuclide, 40 K, and 7% of the remainder results from nuclear weapon test fallout. Variations in the radioactivity occur due to changes in salinity, weapon test fallout and discharges of artificial radionuclides, and are examined here on the basis of published measurements. The most radioactive sea identified by these measurements is the Dead Sea, which averages 178 Bq/kg due to its high salinity. Other enclosed, highly saline waters can be expected to have similar levels. The radioactivity in open seas varies within a much narrower range, generally within 20% of the world average. The highest averages are found in the Persian Gulf (22 Bq/kg), the Red Sea (15 Bq/kg) and the Eastern Mediterranean (14.6 Bq/kg). The Irish Sea averaged 13.7 Bq/kg in 1987, with the effect of the Sellafield discharges being partly offset by lower than average salinity. Although higher levels occurred in the Irish Sea during the 1970s when the Sellafield discharges were higher, the average level has always been much less than that in the Dead Sea, so that the Irish Sea has never been the most radioactive sea in the world. Exceptionally low levels of radioactivity (4 Bq/kg) occur in the Baltic Sea due to dilution by fresh water. (author)

  6. Integrated occupational health care at sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    2011-01-01

    exposures during life at sea and work place health promotion. SEAHEALTH and some of the shipping companies have already added workplace health promotion to occupational health care programs. The purpose of this article is to reinforce this trend by adding some international perspectives and by providing......Workplace Health Promotion is the combined efforts of employers, employees and society to improve the health and well-being of people at work. Integrated maritime health care can be defined as the total maritime health care function that includes the prevention of health risks from harmful...

  7. Deep sea radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanisch, G.; Vobach, M.

    1993-01-01

    Every year since 1979, either in sping or in summer, the fishing research vessel 'Walther Herwig' goes to the North Atlantic disposal areas of solid radioactive wastes, and, for comparative purposes, to other areas, in order to collect water samples, plankton and nekton, and, from the deep sea bed, sediment samples and benthos organisms. In addition to data on the radionuclide contents of various media, information about the plankton, nekton and benthos organisms living in those areas and about their biomasses could be gathered. The investigations are aimed at acquiring scientifically founded knowledge of the uptake of radioactive substances by microorganisms, and their migration from the sea bottom to the areas used by man. (orig.) [de

  8. Changing Sea Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, David

    2004-04-01

    Flooding of coastal communities is one of the major causes of environmental disasters world-wide. This textbook explains how sea levels are affected by astronomical tides, weather effects, ocean circulation and climate trends. Based on courses taught by the author in the U.K. and the U.S., it is aimed at undergraduate students at all levels, with non-basic mathematics being confined to Appendices and a website http://publishing.cambridge.org/resources/0521532183/.

  9. Sea Wind Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-02-01

    The first and defining step towards European leadership in renewable energy must be the successful setting of an ambitious EU renewable energy target for 2020. This will set out the vision and create the framework within which our clean energy future can be delivered. Sea Wind Europe offers a clear blueprint of how to achieve its vision and outlines concrete policy measures that will give European renewables the foundation they need for success on a giant scale

  10. Lateral and vertical distribution of downstream migrating juvenile sea lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotola, V. Alex; Miehls, Scott M.; Simard, Lee G.; Marsden, J. Ellen

    2018-01-01

    Sea lamprey is considered an invasive and nuisance species in the Laurentian Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Finger Lakes of New York and is a major focus of control efforts. Currently, management practices focus on limiting the area of infestation using barriers to block migratory adults, and lampricides to kill ammocoetes in infested tributaries. No control efforts currently target the downstream-migrating post-metamorphic life stage which could provide another management opportunity. In order to apply control methods to this life stage, a better understanding of their downstream movement patterns is needed. To quantify spatial distribution of downstream migrants, we deployed fyke and drift nets laterally and vertically across the stream channel in two tributaries of Lake Champlain. Sea lamprey was not randomly distributed across the stream width and lateral distribution showed a significant association with discharge. Results indicated that juvenile sea lamprey is most likely to be present in the thalweg and at midwater depths of the stream channel. Further, a majority of the catch occurred during high flow events, suggesting an increase in downstream movement activity when water levels are higher than base flow. Discharge and flow are strong predictors of the distribution of out-migrating sea lamprey, thus managers will need to either target capture efforts in high discharge areas of streams or develop means to guide sea lamprey away from these areas.

  11. Black Sea challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drevet, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    In this month's European column, Jean-Francois Drevet examines the issues that arise for Europe from the Black Sea region. The Black Sea is increasingly becoming a crucial place of transit for hydrocarbon imports from the Caspian and Russia into the European Union. The considerable increase in this traffic raises both environmental problems (the risk of oil slicks) and issues of security of supply, on account of the economic and political fragility of some of the bordering or neighbouring states (Ukraine, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Russia/Chechnya etc.). This is why, as Jean-Francois Drevet stresses, the European Union has been trying since the mid-1990's to claim a role in the management of the affairs of the region. With two bordering states (Rumania and Bulgaria) joining the EU in 2007, cooperation in the Black Sea has become a priority within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy, and this column delineates a number of the obstacles that still have to be surmounted. (author)

  12. Environmental safety evaluation in test sea disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The study results on the environmental safety in the test sea disposal of low-level wastes by Subcommittee on Radioactive Waste Safety Technology in Nuclear Safety Commission are given in connection with the test disposal of radioactive wastes into sea reported by the Nuclear Safety Bureau. The Subcommittee concludes that the effect of the test disposal of radioactive wastes into sea on the environment is extremely small. The contents are as follows. The full text of the report; attached data, (1) prediction of the concentrations of radioactive nuclides in sea, (2) calculation of the concentrations of radioactive nuclides in marine life with biological paths, and (3) estimation of exposure dose in general people; references (1) radiation exposure of the personnel engaged in sea disposal, (2) the effect of a sea disaster during ocean transport. (J.P.N.)

  13. Postmortem examination of Australian sea snakes ( Hydrophiinae): Anatomy and common pathologic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Amber K; Ploeg, Richard; Flint, Mark; Mills, Paul C

    2017-09-01

    There is limited published information about disease in wild sea snakes and no standardized guideline for postmortem examination of sea snakes. Identifying causes of morbidity and mortality of marine vertebrate species has been pivotal to understanding disease factors implicated in stranding events and assisting with the formulation of conservation plans. Additionally, postmortem findings can provide valuable information on life history traits and the ecology of these reclusive species. Sick, moribund, or dead sea snakes are intermittently washed ashore along Australian and international beaches and provide an opportunity to examine a subset of the population and identify causes of population decline. We present an illustrated description of sea snake anatomy and describe a systematic approach to postmortem examination of sea snakes. We describe common pathologic conditions identified from clinical and postmortem examinations of stranded Australian sea snakes from southeast Queensland. Notable pathologic conditions include traumatic injury, inflammatory conditions, parasitic infections, and neoplasia.

  14. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Có zar, André s; Sanz-Martí n, Marina; Martí , Elisa; Gonzá lez-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bá rbara; Gá lvez, José Á .; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  15. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Cózar

    Full Text Available Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2, as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled, are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  16. Worldwide market forces threaten North Sea wealth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, D

    1977-01-01

    The challenges that the petroleum industry faces in winning all the oil resources in the North Sea are reviewed. All these hydrocarbons that will soon sustain governments, bolster the standard of living, and bring profits to investors will one day be gone, perhaps. The author says, ''if demand for oil continues to rise by a few percent each year for the next 25 years the prospect of the North Sea drained of its riches is real. Even if Britain makes no more demands on it than those needs of today, the global concept of the oil business will mean that other markets will place the North Sea reserves at risk of exhaustion. Two major factors affect this assumption: market forces and government-implemented depletion rates.'' After explaining these two assumptions, the author graphically portrays what life will be like when petrol becomes a luxury item. It is forgotten that the hydrocarbons are being consumed in a lifetime, when it took several millions of years to put them together. (MCW)

  17. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region. PMID:25831129

  18. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Cózar, Andrés

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  19. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  20. Picturing Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Bathje MS, OTR/L

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The cover art of the summer 2013 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy provided by Jonathan Darnall reflects his unique life perspective, current roles, and values. An exploration of Jon’s life experience reveals how creative arts, including photography, have positively influenced his life and inform OT practitioners about the benefits of photography as an intervention and an occupation.

  1. Arctic landfast sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konig, Christof S.

    Landfast ice is sea ice which forms and remains fixed along a coast, where it is attached either to the shore, or held between shoals or grounded icebergs. Landfast ice fundamentally modifies the momentum exchange between atmosphere and ocean, as compared to pack ice. It thus affects the heat and freshwater exchange between air and ocean and impacts on the location of ocean upwelling and downwelling zones. Further, the landfast ice edge is essential for numerous Arctic mammals and Inupiat who depend on them for their subsistence. The current generation of sea ice models is not capable of reproducing certain aspects of landfast ice formation, maintenance, and disintegration even when the spatial resolution would be sufficient to resolve such features. In my work I develop a new ice model that permits the existence of landfast sea ice even in the presence of offshore winds, as is observed in mature. Based on viscous-plastic as well as elastic-viscous-plastic ice dynamics I add tensile strength to the ice rheology and re-derive the equations as well as numerical methods to solve them. Through numerical experiments on simplified domains, the effects of those changes are demonstrated. It is found that the modifications enable landfast ice modeling, as desired. The elastic-viscous-plastic rheology leads to initial velocity fluctuations within the landfast ice that weaken the ice sheet and break it up much faster than theoretically predicted. Solving the viscous-plastic rheology using an implicit numerical method avoids those waves and comes much closer to theoretical predictions. Improvements in landfast ice modeling can only verified in comparison to observed data. I have extracted landfast sea ice data of several decades from several sources to create a landfast sea ice climatology that can be used for that purpose. Statistical analysis of the data shows several factors that significantly influence landfast ice distribution: distance from the coastline, ocean depth, as

  2. USE OF SEA BUCKTHORN FRUITS IN THE PASTRY MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODICA A. STURZA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Different researches on optimizing the shelf life of pastries (gingerbread, sponge cakes that are produced by adding sea buckthorn flour (2 - 4 % by weight of the flour used are presented in this study. This study shows the impact of biologically active substances on structural and mechanical, physicochemical, microbiological properties as well as the antioxidant activity of products under the conditions of in vitro gastric digestion. It has been demonstrated that the sea buckthorn flour increases the porosity of pastries, reduces the wet gluten amount and this contributes to moisture loss. The organoleptic assessment indicates that the addition of 2 % sea buckthorn flour improves the appearance, the color and the consistency of pastries. Microbiological analysis showed that samples with added sea buckthorn flour exhibit microbiological stability due to the sea buckthorn chemical composition. The antiradical activity DPPH• in conditions of in vitro gastric digestion of the samples with added sea buckthorn flour increases in a positive way, indicating a clearly positive effect on health.

  3. Occurrence, effects, and fate of oil polluting the sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZoBell, C E

    1963-01-01

    A major source of oil polluting the sea is ships which use their cargo or fuel tanks alternately for carrying different kinds of oil and salt water ballast. Wash waters, wrecks, bilge water, and accidental spills account for large volumes of oils being discharged into the sea. Recreational beaches and sea birds are most adversely affected by oil pollution. Oysters and other shellfish in certain beds are injured by oil. Only at its worst does oil pollution appear to be injurious to animal and plant life in the sea. The movement, modification, and persistence of oil in the sea or on its shores are influenced by the properties of the oil, its dispersion in water, ocean currents, wind, sunlight, and many other factors. Most beached oils and tars become mixed with or smeared on solids to be buried, decomposed, or carried back into the sea by the tidal currents and the backwash of waves. Virtually all kinds of oils are susceptible to microbial oxidation, which is most rapid at temperatures ranging from 15 to 35 degrees C. In the marine environment oil persists only when protected from bacterial action. 78 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Observational analysis of air-sea fluxes and sea water temperature offshore South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, X.; Huang, J.; Gao, Z.; Liu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    This paper investigates the air-sea fluxes (momentum flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux) from eddy covariance method based on data collected at an offshore observation tower in the South China Sea from January 2009 to December 2016 and sea water temperature (SWT) on six different levels based on data collected from November 2011 to June 2013. The depth of water at the tower over the sea averages about 15 m. This study presents the in-situ measurements of continuous air-sea fluxes and SWT at different depths. Seasonal and diurnal variations in air-sea fluxes and SWT on different depths are examined. Results show that air-sea fluxes and all SWT changed seasonally; sea-land breeze circulation appears all the year round. Unlike winters where SWT on different depths are fairly consistent, the difference between sea surface temperature (SST) and sea temperature at 10 m water depth fluctuates dramatically and the maximum value reaches 7 °C during summer.

  5. Adapting to Rising Sea Level: A Florida Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Randall W.

    2009-07-01

    Global climate change and concomitant rising sea level will have a profound impact on Florida's coastal and marine systems. Sea-level rise will increase erosion of beaches, cause saltwater intrusion into water supplies, inundate coastal marshes and other important habitats, and make coastal property more vulnerable to erosion and flooding. Yet most coastal areas are currently managed under the premise that sea-level rise is not significant and the shorelines are static or can be fixed in place by engineering structures. The new reality of sea-level rise and extreme weather due to climate change requires a new style of planning and management to protect resources and reduce risk to humans. Scientists must: (1) assess existing coastal vulnerability to address short term management issues and (2) model future landscape change and develop sustainable plans to address long term planning and management issues. Furthermore, this information must be effectively transferred to planners, managers, and elected officials to ensure their decisions are based upon the best available information. While there is still some uncertainty regarding the details of rising sea level and climate change, development decisions are being made today which commit public and private investment in real estate and associated infrastructure. With a design life of 30 yrs to 75 yrs or more, many of these investments are on a collision course with rising sea level and the resulting impacts will be significant. In the near term, the utilization of engineering structures may be required, but these are not sustainable and must ultimately yield to "managed withdrawal" programs if higher sea-level elevations or rates of rise are forthcoming. As an initial step towards successful adaptation, coastal management and planning documents (i.e., comprehensive plans) must be revised to include reference to climate change and rising sea-level.

  6. Life sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, L. (ed.)

    1991-04-01

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs. (MHB)

  7. Life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, L.

    1991-04-01

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs

  8. Waste disposal into the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlers, P.; Kunig, P.

    1987-01-01

    The waste disposal at sea is regulated for the most part by national administrative law, which mainly is based on international law rules supplemented by EC-law. The dumping of low-level radioactive waste into the sea is more and more called into question. The disposal of high-level radioactive waste into the subsoil of the sea does not correspond to the London Convention. (WG) [de

  9. Air sea ratio reduction initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberle, Jean

    2010-09-15

    Airfreight is the most expensive mode of transportation as well as the most impacting in terms of CO{sup 2} emissions. It is 7 times more expensive on average to ship by air than shipping by sea 1. Airfreight transportation mode emits 30 times more CO{sup 2} than sea freight mode 2. These elements provided a compelling platform to design a global logistics program to initiate a modal shift from air to sea freight without compromising service to customers.

  10. The USGS Salton Sea Science Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Harvey Lee; Barnum, Douglas A.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Salton Sea Science Office (SSSO) provides scientific information and evaluations to decisionmakers who are engaged in restoration planning and actions associated with the Salton Sea. The primary focus is the natural resources of the Salton Sea, including the sea?s ability to sustain biological resources and associated social and economic values.

  11. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Toshikatus; Mizushima, Toshihiko

    1992-01-01

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author)

  12. Sea Urchin Morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClay, David R

    2016-01-01

    In the sea urchin morphogenesis follows extensive molecular specification. The specification controls the many morphogenetic events and these, in turn, precede patterning steps that establish the larval body plan. To understand how the embryo is built it was necessary to understand those series of molecular steps. Here an example of the historical sequence of those discoveries is presented as it unfolded over the last 50 years, the years during which major progress in understanding development of many animals and plants was documented by CTDB. In sea urchin development a rich series of experimental studies first established many of the phenomenological components of skeletal morphogenesis and patterning without knowledge of the molecular components. The many discoveries of transcription factors, signals, and structural proteins that contribute to the shape of the endoskeleton of the sea urchin larva then followed as molecular tools became available. A number of transcription factors and signals were discovered that were necessary for specification, morphogenesis, and patterning. Perturbation of the transcription factors and signals provided the means for assembling models of the gene regulatory networks used for specification and controlled the subsequent morphogenetic events. The earlier experimental information informed perturbation experiments that asked how patterning worked. As a consequence it was learned that ectoderm provides a series of patterning signals to the skeletogenic cells and as a consequence the skeletogenic cells secrete a highly patterned skeleton based on their ability to genotypically decode the localized reception of several signals. We still do not understand the complexity of the signals received by the skeletogenic cells, nor do we understand in detail how the genotypic information shapes the secreted skeletal biomineral, but the current knowledge at least outlines the sequence of events and provides a useful template for future

  13. Crescer como transplantado de medula óssea: repercussões na qualidade de vida de crianças e adolescentes Crecer como trasplantado de médula ósea: repercusiones en la calidad de vida de niños y adolescentes Growing up with bone marrow transplantation: repercussions for the quality of life of children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Cristina Anders

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Nos dias atuais, é crescente o interesse das diversas áreas do conhecimento pela discussão da qualidade de vida das pessoas submetidas ao transplante de medula óssea-TMO. O presente estudo tem como objetivo descrever as experiências de crianças e adolescentes, sobreviventes do TMO, e apreender como essa modalidade terapêutica influenciou a qualidade de vida de ambos. Participaram do estudo 14 crianças e adolescentes sobreviventes do TMO. Nesta pesquisa, de natureza qualitativa, utilizou-se a entrevista como técnica de coleta dos dados, realizada no domicílio ou nos retornos ambulatoriais. Identificou-se uma vida permeada por inseguranças, alteração da imagem corporal, problemas de ordem física e emocional. Esses dados indicam a importância de compreender a experiência da criança e do adolescente, que vivem a condição de transplantado, buscando identificar aspectos para intervenção e planejamento dos cuidados de enfermagem com o fim de contribuir para a sua reinserção, visando a melhoria da sua qualidade de vida.Hoy en día, es creciente el interés de las diversas áreas del conocimiento por la discusión acerca de la calidad de vida de las personas sometidas al trasplante de médula ósea-TMO. La finalidad de este estudio es describir las experiencias de niños y adolescentes sobrevivientes del TMO y aprender como esta modalidad terapéutica influyó sobre su calidad de vida. Participaron del estudio 14 niños y adolescentes sobrevivientes del TMO. En esta investigación cualitativa, la colección de datos fue construida mediante entrevistas realizadas en el domicilio o durante los regresos a la clínica. Identificamos una vida caracterizada por inseguridades, alteración de la imagen corporal, problemas físicos y emocionales. Esos datos indican la importancia de comprender la experiencia de niños/adolescentes que viven como trasplantados, para identificar aspectos para intervención y planificación de los cuidados de

  14. Sea Fighter Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    which is used by the model to drive the normal activities of the crew (Figure C.1-2). These routines consist of a sequential list of high- level...separately. Figure C.1-3: Resources & Logic Sheet C.1.1.4 Scenario The scenario that is performed during a model run is a sequential list of all...were marked with a white fore and aft lineup stripe on both landing spots. Current Sea Fighter design does not provide a hangar; however, there

  15. Beside the Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Olmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We are delighted to publish an extract from "Beside the Sea" by Véronique Olmi. Bord de Mer was first published in 2001 by Peirene Press which is an award-winning, independent publishing house. It specializes in contemporary European literature in English translation. Peirene's books are all under 200 pages and can be read in the same time it takes to watch a DVD. Peirene's authors are award-winners and bestsellers in their own countries. 'Two-hour-books to be devoured in a single sitting: literary cinema for those fatigued by film.' Times Literary Supplement. www.peirenepress.com

  16. The Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Naik, H.; Narvekar, P.V.

    high chI are also encountered offshore, presumably associated with the mesoscale features such as filaments and eddies. In conformity with the satellite data, elevated chI levels persist~lOOOkmfrom the Omani coast. During the Sl, chI levels are quite... is consumed rapidly for the degradation of copious amounts of organic matter produced within the Arabian Sea itself. Consequently, 02 levels fall very close to zero while nutrients accumulate in high concentrations within a zone that extends from the base...

  17. Polarimetric signatures of sea ice in the Greenland Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Henning; Pedersen, Leif Toudal

    1995-01-01

    Polarimetric SAR data of sea ice have been acquired by the Danish polarimetric SAR (EMISAR) during a mission at the Greenland Sea in August 1994. Video recordings from a low-altitude acquisition have been used for interpretation of the SAR data. Also, ERS-1 SAR data and NOAA AVHRR-data have been...

  18. Investigating Arctic Sea Ice Survivability in the Beaufort Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Tooth

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Arctic sea ice extent has continued to decline in recent years, and the fractional coverage of multi-year sea ice has decreased significantly during this period. The Beaufort Sea region has been the site of much of the loss of multi-year sea ice, and it continues to play a large role in the extinction of ice during the melt season. We present an analysis of the influence of satellite-derived ice surface temperature, ice thickness, albedo, and downwelling longwave/shortwave radiation as well as latitude and airborne snow depth estimates on the change in sea ice concentration in the Beaufort Sea from 2009 to 2016 using a Lagrangian tracking database. Results from this analysis indicate that parcels that melt during summer in the Beaufort Sea reside at lower latitudes and have lower ice thickness at the beginning of the melt season in most cases. The influence of sea ice thickness and snow depth observed by IceBridge offers less conclusive results, with some years exhibiting higher thicknesses/depths for melted parcels. Parcels that melted along IceBridge tracks do exhibit lower latitudes and ice thicknesses, however, which indicates that earlier melt and breakup of ice may contribute to a greater likelihood of extinction of parcels in the summer.

  19. [Mini review] metagenomic studies of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Ibarra, Martin Augusto; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Gojobori, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomics has significantly advanced the field of marine microbial ecology, revealing the vast diversity of previously unknown microbial life forms in different marine niches. The tremendous amount of data generated has enabled identification of a large number of microbial genes (metagenomes), their community interactions, adaptation mechanisms, and their potential applications in pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based industries. Comparative metagenomics reveals that microbial diversity is a function of the local environment, meaning that unique or unusual environments typically harbor novel microbial species with unique genes and metabolic pathways. The Red Sea has an abundance of unique characteristics; however, its microbiota is one of the least studied amongst marine environments. The Red Sea harbors approximately 25 hot anoxic brine pools, plus a vibrant coral reef ecosystem. Physiochemical studies describe the Red Sea as an oligotrophic environment that contains one of the warmest and saltiest waters in the world with year-round high UV radiations. These characteristics are believed to have shaped the evolution of microbial communities in the Red Sea. Over-representation of genes involved in DNA repair, high-intensity light responses, and osmolyte C1 oxidation were found in the Red Sea metagenomic databases suggesting acquisition of specific environmental adaptation by the Red Sea microbiota. The Red Sea brine pools harbor a diverse range of halophilic and thermophilic bacterial and archaeal communities, which are potential sources of enzymes for pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based application. Understanding the mechanisms of these adaptations and their function within the larger ecosystem could also prove useful in light of predicted global warming scenarios where global ocean temperatures are expected to rise by 1–3 °C in the next few decades. In this review, we provide an overview of the published metagenomic studies that were conducted in the

  20. [Mini review] metagenomic studies of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Behzad, Hayedeh

    2015-10-23

    Metagenomics has significantly advanced the field of marine microbial ecology, revealing the vast diversity of previously unknown microbial life forms in different marine niches. The tremendous amount of data generated has enabled identification of a large number of microbial genes (metagenomes), their community interactions, adaptation mechanisms, and their potential applications in pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based industries. Comparative metagenomics reveals that microbial diversity is a function of the local environment, meaning that unique or unusual environments typically harbor novel microbial species with unique genes and metabolic pathways. The Red Sea has an abundance of unique characteristics; however, its microbiota is one of the least studied amongst marine environments. The Red Sea harbors approximately 25 hot anoxic brine pools, plus a vibrant coral reef ecosystem. Physiochemical studies describe the Red Sea as an oligotrophic environment that contains one of the warmest and saltiest waters in the world with year-round high UV radiations. These characteristics are believed to have shaped the evolution of microbial communities in the Red Sea. Over-representation of genes involved in DNA repair, high-intensity light responses, and osmolyte C1 oxidation were found in the Red Sea metagenomic databases suggesting acquisition of specific environmental adaptation by the Red Sea microbiota. The Red Sea brine pools harbor a diverse range of halophilic and thermophilic bacterial and archaeal communities, which are potential sources of enzymes for pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based application. Understanding the mechanisms of these adaptations and their function within the larger ecosystem could also prove useful in light of predicted global warming scenarios where global ocean temperatures are expected to rise by 1–3 °C in the next few decades. In this review, we provide an overview of the published metagenomic studies that were conducted in the

  1. Evolutionary Genomics of Life in (and from) the Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boore, Jeffrey L.; Dehal, Paramvir; Fuerstenberg, Susan I.

    2006-01-09

    High throughput genome sequencing centers that were originally built for the Human Genome Project (Lander et al., 2001; Venter et al., 2001) have now become an engine for comparative genomics. The six largest centers alone are now producing over 150 billion nucleotides per year, more than 50 times the amount of DNA in the human genome, and nearly all of this is directed at projects that promise great insights into the pattern and processes of evolution. Unfortunately, this data is being produced at a pace far exceeding the capacity of the scientific community to provide insightful analysis, and few scientists with training and experience in evolutionary biology have played prominent roles to date. One of the consequences is that poor quality analyses are typical; for example, orthology among genes is generally determined by simple measures of sequence similarity, when this has been discredited by molecular evolutionary biologists decades ago. Here we discuss the how genomes are chosen for sequencing and how the scientific community can have input. We describe the PhIGs database and web tools (Dehal and Boore 2005a; http://PhIGs.org), which provide phylogenetic analysis of all gene families for all completely sequenced genomes and the associated 'Synteny Viewer', which allows comparisons of the relative positions of orthologous genes. This is the best tool available for inferring gene function across multiple genomes. We also describe how we have used the PhIGs methods with the whole genome sequences of a tunicate, fish, mouse, and human to conclusively demonstrate that two rounds of whole genome duplication occurred at the base of vertebrates (Dehal and Boore 2005b). This evidence is found in the large scale structure of the positions of paralogous genes that arose from duplications inferred by evolutionary analysis to have occurred at the base of vertebrates.

  2. Operation of ULCS - real life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Prpić-Oršić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the real life operation of ULCS (Ultra Large Container Ships is presented from the point of view of shipmasters. The paper provides interpretation of results of questionnaire filled by masters of large container ships during Tools for Ultra Large Container Ships (TULC EUI FP7 project. This is done in a way that results of questionnaire are further reviewed and commented by experienced master of ULCS. Following phenomena are subject of questionnaire and further discussed in the paper: parametric rolling, slamming, whipping, springing, green water and rogue waves. Special attention is given to the definition of rough sea states as well as to measures that ship masters take to avoid them as well as to the manoeuvring in heavy seas. The role of the wave forecast and weather routing software is also discussed.

  3. Deep sea biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yayanos, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    A collection of deep-sea bacterial cultures was completed. Procedures were instituted to shelter the culture collection from accidential warming. A substantial data base on the rates of reproduction of more than 100 strains of bacteria from that collection was obtained from experiments and the analysis of that data was begun. The data on the rates of reproduction were obtained under conditions of temperature and pressure found in the deep sea. The experiments were facilitated by inexpensively fabricated pressure vessels, by the streamlining of the methods for the study of kinetics at high pressures, and by computer-assisted methods. A polybarothermostat was used to study the growth of bacteria along temperature gradients at eight distinct pressures. This device should allow for the study of microbial processes in the temperature field simulating the environment around buried HLW. It is small enough to allow placement in a radiation field in future studies. A flow fluorocytometer was fabricated. This device will be used to determine the DNA content per cell in bacteria grown in laboratory culture and in microorganisms in samples from the ocean. The technique will be tested for its rapidity in determining the concentration of cells (standing stock of microorganisms) in samples from the ocean

  4. Reactors at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, Colin

    1988-01-01

    The Greenpeace Nuclear Free Seas Campaign is outlined. The campaign aims to bring the environmental hazards from nuclear submarines and naval ships carrying nuclear weapons to public attention. Worldwide there are 544 nuclear reactor ships or submarines each with the potential to meltdown with serious environmental consequences. One meltdown is known to have occurred. Five reactors have been abandoned on the sea bed. Nuclear powered submarines are based at Rosyth, Faslane, Holy Loch, Plymouth and Portsmouth and routinely come into and out of those harbours. There have also been accidents involving nuclear weapons on board submarines, aircraft carriers or destroyers which carry nuclear depth bombs and free fall bombs. The Royal Navy's accident emergency plans for nuclear naval bases are inadequate. There is a threat to the environment when the reactors are decommissioned. There are no clear plans as to how to deal with the decommissioning of the submarines or ships although the fuel rods have been removed from the first British nuclear submarine, Dreadnought. (U.K.)

  5. Life-cycle stages of Dinophysis acuminata (Dinophyceae) in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite many observations of different life-cycle stages of Dinophysis species, the complete life history of the genus is still unknown owing to the difficulties encountered in culturing these species. The seasonal distribution of D. acuminata was followed at two offshore stations in the brackish Baltic Sea by means of in situ ...

  6. Qualitative assessment of the diet of European eel larvae in the Sargasso Sea resolved by DNA barcoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riemann, L.; Alfredsson, H.; Hansen, Michael Møller

    2010-01-01

    , the Sargasso Sea is oligotrophic, with generally low plankton biomass, and the feeding biology of eel larvae has so far remained a mystery, hampering understanding of this peculiar life history. DNA barcoding of gut contents of 61 genetically identified A. anguilla larvae caught in the Sargasso Sea showed...

  7. Intraseasonal sea surface temperature variability in Indonesian seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napitu, A. M.; Gordon, A. L.; Yuan, X.

    2012-12-01

    The satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) data, 1998-mid 2012, are used to examine intraseasonal variability (ISV; 20-90 days) across the Indonesian seas. The most energetic ISV is observed in the Banda Sea and across the Indo-Australia basin with an The satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) data, 1998-mid 2012, are used to examine intraseasonal variability (ISV; 20-90 days) across the Indonesian seas. The most energetic ISV is observed in the Banda Sea and across the Indo-Australia basin with an average SST standard deviation (STD) between 0.4-0.5°C, with strongest signature during boreal winter. What physical processes force the SST ISV variability within the Indonesian seas? Ocean process, sea-air interaction, or both? To help identify the main forcing, the satellite derived outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and wind stress data in the region are examined. The OLR shows robust intraseasonal variations and is significantly correlated with the SST, particularly for variability with periods of 30-60 days, with OLR accounting for ~60-70% of the SST variance. The OLR is also maximum during boreal winter. Conversely, the surface wind may play insignificant role in perturbing the SST at intraseasonal timescales as shown by weak correlation between wind stress and SST. We thus suspect that the surface solar flux (suggested by the OLR) is likely more dominant than the surface turbulent heat flux (indicated by the surface wind) as the main source for the ISV in the SST in Indonesian seas. Furthermore the maximum OLR phase, coupled with a period of minimum mixed layer depth, may explain the strong SST variation during boreal winter in Indonesian seas. The influence of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) on the OLR and SST variability is currently being evaluated.

  8. Extraterrestrial Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    Extraterrestrial Intelligence is intelligent life that developed somewhere other than the earth. Such life has not yet been discovered. However, scientific research, including astronomy, biology, planetary science and studies of fossils here on earth have led many scientists to conclude that such life may exist on planets orbiting at least some of the hundreds of billions of stars in our Milky Way Galaxy. Today, some researchers are trying to find evidence for extraterrestrial intelligence. This effort is often called SETI, which stands for Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence. SETI researchers decided that looking for evidence of their technology might be the best way to discover other intelligent life in the Galaxy. They decided to use large radio telescopes to search the sky over a wide range of radio frequencies...

  9. Governance of the Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob, Adriaan F.L.; Geerdink, T.R.A.; Rockmann, Christine; Vöge, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Wadden Sea is a unique area from ecological, geological and cultural perspectives and lies in the territories of Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. The trilateral cooperation on the protection of the Wadden Sea can be marked to start in 1978, although the countries already cooperated

  10. Sea Level Rise Data Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, N.; Huang, T.; Boening, C.; Gill, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    Research related to sea level rise crosses multiple disciplines from sea ice to land hydrology. The NASA Sea Level Change Portal (SLCP) is a one-stop source for current sea level change information and data, including interactive tools for accessing and viewing regional data, a virtual dashboard of sea level indicators, and ongoing updates through a suite of editorial products that include content articles, graphics, videos, and animations. The architecture behind the SLCP makes it possible to integrate web content and data relevant to sea level change that are archived across various data centers as well as new data generated by sea level change principal investigators. The Extensible Data Gateway Environment (EDGE) is incorporated into the SLCP architecture to provide a unified platform for web content and science data discovery. EDGE is a data integration platform designed to facilitate high-performance geospatial data discovery and access with the ability to support multi-metadata standard specifications. EDGE has the capability to retrieve data from one or more sources and package the resulting sets into a single response to the requestor. With this unified endpoint, the Data Analysis Tool that is available on the SLCP can retrieve dataset and granule level metadata as well as perform geospatial search on the data. This talk focuses on the architecture that makes it possible to seamlessly integrate and enable discovery of disparate data relevant to sea level rise.

  11. Sea level and climate variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1985-01-01

    Review paper, ESA Symposium on Application of Satellite Data to Climate Modelling. Alpbach (Austria) Sea level is an essential component of the climate system, on which many human activities in the coastal zone depend. Climate variations leading to changes in relative sea level are

  12. Status of marine biodiversity of the China seas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Y Liu

    Full Text Available China's seas cover nearly 5 million square kilometers extending from the tropical to the temperate climate zones and bordering on 32,000 km of coastline, including islands. Comprehensive systematic study of the marine biodiversity within this region began in the early 1950s with the establishment of the Qingdao Marine Biological Laboratory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Since that time scientists have carried out intensive multidisciplinary research on marine life in the China seas and have recorded 22,629 species belonging to 46 phyla. The marine flora and fauna of the China seas are characterized by high biodiversity, including tropical and subtropical elements of the Indo-West Pacific warm-water fauna in the South and East China seas, and temperate elements of North Pacific temperate fauna mainly in the Yellow Sea. The southern South China Sea fauna is characterized by typical tropical elements paralleled with the Philippine-New Guinea-Indonesia Coral triangle typical tropical faunal center. This paper summarizes advances in studies of marine biodiversity in China's seas and discusses current research mainly on characteristics and changes in marine biodiversity, including the monitoring, assessment, and conservation of endangered species and particularly the strengthening of effective management. Studies of (1 a tidal flat in a semi-enclosed embayment, (2 the impact of global climate change on a cold-water ecosystem, (3 coral reefs of Hainan Island and Xisha-Nansha atolls, (4 mangrove forests of the South China Sea, (5 a threatened seagrass field, and (6 an example of stock enhancement practices of the Chinese shrimp fishery are briefly introduced. Besides the overexploitation of living resources (more than 12.4 million tons yielded in 2007, the major threat to the biodiversity of the China seas is environmental deterioration (pollution, coastal construction, particularly in the brackish waters of estuarine environments, which are

  13. Diet and investigation of immature sea turtles in the coastal waters of West Florida 1997-2003 (NCEI Accession 0156706)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data contains sea turtle life history,diet analysis, and environmental data, recorded as csv spreadsheets ranging from 1997 to 2003. This data was used to...

  14. Exploring Archaeal Communities And Genomes Across Five Deep-Sea Brine Lakes Of The Red Sea With A Focus On Methanogens

    KAUST Repository

    Guan, Yue

    2015-12-15

    The deep-sea hypersaline lakes in the Red Sea are among the most challenging, extreme, and unusual environments on the planet Earth. Despite their harshness to life, they are inhabited by diverse and novel members of prokaryotes. Methanogenesis was proposed as one of the main metabolic pathways that drive microbial colonization in similar habitats. However, not much is known about the identities of the methane-producing microbes in the Red Sea, let alone the way in which they could adapt to such poly extreme environments. Combining a range of microbial community assessment, cultivation and omics (genomics, transcriptomics, and single amplified genomics) approaches, this dissertation seeks to fill these gaps in our knowledge by studying archaeal composition, particularly methanogens, their genomic capacities and transcriptomic characteristics in order to elucidate their diversity, function, and adaptation to the deep-sea brines of the Red Sea. Although typical methanogens are not abundant in the samples collected from brine pool habitats of the Red Sea, the pilot cultivation experiment has revealed novel halophilic methanogenic species of the domain Archaea. Their physiological traits as well as their genomic and transcriptomic features unveil an interesting genetic and functional adaptive capacity that allows them to thrive in the unique deep-sea hypersaline environments in the Red Sea.

  15. SeaWinds - Oceans, Land, Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The SeaWinds scatterometer on the QuikScat satellite makes global radar measurements -- day and night, in clear sky and through clouds. The radar data over the oceans provide scientists and weather forecasters with information on surface wind speed and direction. Scientists also use the radar measurements directly to learn about changes in vegetation and ice extent over land and polar regions.This false-color image is based entirely on SeaWinds measurements obtained over oceans, land, and polar regions. Over the ocean, colors indicate wind speed with orange as the fastest wind speeds and blue as the slowest. White streamlines indicate the wind direction. The ocean winds in this image were measured by SeaWinds on September 20, 1999. The large storm in the Atlantic off the coast of Florida is Hurricane Gert. Tropical storm Harvey is evident as a high wind region in the Gulf of Mexico, while farther west in the Pacific is tropical storm Hilary. An extensive storm is also present in the South Atlantic Ocean near Antarctica.The land image was made from four days of SeaWinds data with the aid of a resolution enhancement algorithm developed by Dr. David Long at Brigham Young University. The lightest green areas correspond to the highest radar backscatter. Note the bright Amazon and Congo rainforests compared to the dark Sahara desert. The Amazon River is visible as a dark line running horizontally though the bright South American rain forest. Cities appear as bright spots on the images, especially in the U.S. and Europe.The image of Greenland and the north polar ice cap was generated from data acquired by SeaWinds on a single day. In the polar region portion of the image, white corresponds to the largest radar return, while purple is the lowest. The variations in color in Greenland and the polar ice cap reveal information about the ice and snow conditions present.NASA's Earth Science Enterprise is a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth

  16. The Barbados Sea Level Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, R. G.; Mortlock, R. A.; Abdul, N. A.; Wright, J. D.; Cao, L.; Mey, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Additional offshore drill cores, nearly 100 new radiometric dates, and more than 1000 kilometers of Multibeam mapping greatly enhance the Barbados Sea Level record. Extensive Multibeam mapping around the entire island covers approximately 2650 km2 of the sea bottom and now integrates the offshore reef topography and Barbados Sea Level Record with the unparalleled onshore core collection, digital elevation maps, and Pleistocene sea level record spanning the past one million years. The reef crest coral, Acropora palmata, remains the stalwart indicator of sea level for many reasons that are validated by our redundant sea level records and redundant dating via Th/U and Pa/U analyses. Microanalysis and densitometry studies better explain why Acropora palmata is so well preserved in the Pleistocene reef records and therefore why it is the species of choice for sea level reconstructions and radiometric dating. New drill cores into reefs that formed during Marine Isotope Stage 3 lead us to a model of diagenesis that allows us to better prospect for unaltered coral samples in older reefs that may be suitable for Th/U dating. Equally important, our diagenesis model reinforces our rigorous sample quality criteria in a more quantitative manner. The Barbados Sea Level record has a sampling resolution of better than 100 years throughout much of the last deglaciation showing unprecedented detail in redundant drill cores. The Melt Water Pulses (MWP1A and MWP1B) are well resolved and the intervening interval that includes the Younger Dryas reveals sea level changes in new detail that are consistent with the terrestrial records of ice margins (see Abdul et al., this section). More than 100 paired Th/U and radiocarbon ages place the Barbados Sea Level Record unambiguously on the radiocarbon time scale for direct comparisons with the terrestrial records of ice margin changes.

  17. Age-dependent mixing of deep-sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.R.; Maggaard, L.; Pope, R.H.; DeMaster, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Rates of bioturbation measured in deep-sea sediments commonly are tracer dependent; in particular, shorter lived radiotracers (such as 234 Th) often yield markedly higher diffusive mixing coefficients than their longer-lived counterparts (e.g., 210 Pb). At a single station in the 1,240-m deep Santa Catalina Basin, the authors document a strong negative correlation between bioturbation rate and tracer half-life. Sediment profiles of 234 Th (half-life = 24 days) yield an average mixing coefficient (60 cm 2 y -1 ) two orders of magnitude greater than that for 210 Pb (half-life = 22 y, mean mixing coefficient = 0.4 cm 2 y -1 ). A similar negative relationship between mixing rate and tracer time scale is observed at thirteen other deep-sea sites in which multiple radiotracers have been used to assess diffusive mixing rates. This relationship holds across a variety of radiotracer types and time scales. The authors hypothesize that this negative relationship results from age-dependent mixing, a process in which recently sedimented, food-rich particles are ingested and mixed at higher rates by deposit feeders than are older, food-poor particles. Results from an age-dependent mixing model demonstrate that this process indeed can yield the bioturbation-rate vs. tracer-time-scale correlations observed in deep-sea sediments. Field data on mixing rates of recently sedimented particles, as well as the radiotracer activity of deep-sea deposit feeders, provide strong support for the age-dependent mixing model. The presence of age-dependent mixing in deep-sea sediments may have major implications for diagenetic modeling, requiring a match between the characteristic time scales of mixing tracers and modeled reactants. 102 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Highly variable Pliocene sea surface conditions in the Norwegian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Bachem

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Pliocene was a time of global warmth with small sporadic glaciations, which transitioned towards the larger-scale Pleistocene glacial–interglacial variability. Here, we present high-resolution records of sea surface temperature (SST and ice-rafted debris (IRD in the Norwegian Sea from 5.32 to 3.14 Ma, providing evidence that the Pliocene surface conditions of the Norwegian Sea underwent a series of transitions in response to orbital forcing and gateway changes. Average SSTs are 2 °C above the regional Holocene mean, with notable variability on millennial to orbital timescales. Both gradual changes and threshold effects are proposed for the progression of regional climate towards the Late Pliocene intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Cooling from 4.5 to 4.3 Ma may be linked to the onset of poleward flow through the Bering Strait. This cooling was further intensified by a period of cool summers due to weak obliquity forcing. A 7 °C warming of the Norwegian Sea at 4.0 Ma suggests a major increase in northward heat transport from the North Atlantic, leading to an enhanced zonal SST gradient in the Nordic Seas, which may be linked to the expansion of sea ice in the Arctic and Nordic Seas. A warm Norwegian Sea and enhanced zonal temperature gradient between 4.0 and 3.6 Ma may have been a priming factor for increased glaciation around the Nordic Seas due to enhanced evaporation and precipitation at high northern latitudes.

  19. Arabian Red Sea coastal soils as potential mineral dust sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jish Prakash

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI satellite observations suggest that the narrow heterogeneous Red Sea coastal region is a frequent source of airborne dust that, because of its proximity, directly affects the Red Sea and coastal urban centers. The potential of soils to be suspended as airborne mineral dust depends largely on soil texture, moisture content and particle size distributions. Airborne dust inevitably carries the mineralogical and chemical signature of a parent soil. The existing soil databases are too coarse to resolve the small but important coastal region. The purpose of this study is to better characterize the mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of soils from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain, which in turn will help to improve assessment of dust effects on the Red Sea, land environmental systems and urban centers. Thirteen surface soils from the hot-spot areas of windblown mineral dust along the Red Sea coastal plain were sampled for analysis. Analytical methods included optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, ion chromatography (IC, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and laser particle size analysis (LPSA. We found that the Red Sea coastal soils contain major components of quartz and feldspar, as well as lesser but variable amounts of amphibole, pyroxene, carbonate, clays and micas, with traces of gypsum, halite, chlorite, epidote and oxides. The range of minerals in the soil samples was ascribed to the variety of igneous and metamorphic provenance rocks of the Arabian Shield forming the escarpment to the east of the Red Sea coastal plain. The analysis revealed that the samples contain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron that are essential nutrients to marine life. The analytical results from this study will provide a valuable input into dust emission models

  20. Evolutionary process of deep-sea bathymodiolus mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Jun-Ichi; de Oliveira Martins, Leonardo; Fujita, Yuko; Matsumoto, Hiroto; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro

    2010-04-27

    Since the discovery of deep-sea chemosynthesis-based communities, much work has been done to clarify their organismal and environmental aspects. However, major topics remain to be resolved, including when and how organisms invade and adapt to deep-sea environments; whether strategies for invasion and adaptation are shared by different taxa or unique to each taxon; how organisms extend their distribution and diversity; and how they become isolated to speciate in continuous waters. Deep-sea mussels are one of the dominant organisms in chemosynthesis-based communities, thus investigations of their origin and evolution contribute to resolving questions about life in those communities. We investigated worldwide phylogenetic relationships of deep-sea Bathymodiolus mussels and their mytilid relatives by analyzing nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated sequence data showed that mussels of the subfamily Bathymodiolinae from vents and seeps were divided into four groups, and that mussels of the subfamily Modiolinae from sunken wood and whale carcasses assumed the outgroup position and shallow-water modioline mussels were positioned more distantly to the bathymodioline mussels. We provisionally hypothesized the evolutionary history of Bathymodilolus mussels by estimating evolutionary time under a relaxed molecular clock model. Diversification of bathymodioline mussels was initiated in the early Miocene, and subsequently diversification of the groups occurred in the early to middle Miocene. The phylogenetic relationships support the "Evolutionary stepping stone hypothesis," in which mytilid ancestors exploited sunken wood and whale carcasses in their progressive adaptation to deep-sea environments. This hypothesis is also supported by the evolutionary transition of symbiosis in that nutritional adaptation to the deep sea proceeded from extracellular

  1. Evolutionary process of deep-sea bathymodiolus mussels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ichi Miyazaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since the discovery of deep-sea chemosynthesis-based communities, much work has been done to clarify their organismal and environmental aspects. However, major topics remain to be resolved, including when and how organisms invade and adapt to deep-sea environments; whether strategies for invasion and adaptation are shared by different taxa or unique to each taxon; how organisms extend their distribution and diversity; and how they become isolated to speciate in continuous waters. Deep-sea mussels are one of the dominant organisms in chemosynthesis-based communities, thus investigations of their origin and evolution contribute to resolving questions about life in those communities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We investigated worldwide phylogenetic relationships of deep-sea Bathymodiolus mussels and their mytilid relatives by analyzing nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4 genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated sequence data showed that mussels of the subfamily Bathymodiolinae from vents and seeps were divided into four groups, and that mussels of the subfamily Modiolinae from sunken wood and whale carcasses assumed the outgroup position and shallow-water modioline mussels were positioned more distantly to the bathymodioline mussels. We provisionally hypothesized the evolutionary history of Bathymodilolus mussels by estimating evolutionary time under a relaxed molecular clock model. Diversification of bathymodioline mussels was initiated in the early Miocene, and subsequently diversification of the groups occurred in the early to middle Miocene. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The phylogenetic relationships support the "Evolutionary stepping stone hypothesis," in which mytilid ancestors exploited sunken wood and whale carcasses in their progressive adaptation to deep-sea environments. This hypothesis is also supported by the evolutionary transition of

  2. Arabian Red Sea coastal soils as potential mineral dust sources

    KAUST Repository

    Prakash, P. Jish

    2016-09-26

    Both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) satellite observations suggest that the narrow heterogeneous Red Sea coastal region is a frequent source of airborne dust that, because of its proximity, directly affects the Red Sea and coastal urban centers. The potential of soils to be suspended as airborne mineral dust depends largely on soil texture, moisture content and particle size distributions. Airborne dust inevitably carries the mineralogical and chemical signature of a parent soil. The existing soil databases are too coarse to resolve the small but important coastal region. The purpose of this study is to better characterize the mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of soils from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain, which in turn will help to improve assessment of dust effects on the Red Sea, land environmental systems and urban centers. Thirteen surface soils from the hot-spot areas of windblown mineral dust along the Red Sea coastal plain were sampled for analysis. Analytical methods included optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), ion chromatography (IC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser particle size analysis (LPSA). We found that the Red Sea coastal soils contain major components of quartz and feldspar, as well as lesser but variable amounts of amphibole, pyroxene, carbonate, clays and micas, with traces of gypsum, halite, chlorite, epidote and oxides. The range of minerals in the soil samples was ascribed to the variety of igneous and metamorphic provenance rocks of the Arabian Shield forming the escarpment to the east of the Red Sea coastal plain. The analysis revealed that the samples contain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron that are essential nutrients to marine life. The analytical results from this study will provide a valuable input into dust emission models used in climate

  3. The Dead Sea, The Lake and Its Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Uri ten

    I cannot think of a subject more befitting the description of interdisciplinary research with societal relevance than the study of the Dead Sea, a terminal lake of the Jordan River in Israel and Jordan. The scientific study of the Dead Sea is intimately connected with politics, religion, archeology, economic development, tourism, and environmental change.The Dead Sea is a relatively closed geologic and limnologic system with drastic physical changes often occurring on human timescales and with a long human history to observe these changes. Research in this unique area covers diverse aspects such as active subsidence and deformation along strike-slip faults; vertical stratification and stability of the water column; physical properties of extremely saline and dense (1234 kg/m3) water; spontaneous precipitation of minerals in an oversaturated environment; origin of the unusual chemical composition of the brine; existence of life in extreme environments; use of lake level fluctuations as a paleoclimatic indicator; and effects on the environment of human intervention versus natural climatic variability. Although the Dead Sea covers a small area on a global scale, it is nevertheless one of the largest natural laboratories for these types of research on Earth. These reasons make the Dead Sea a fascinating topic for the curious mind.

  4. Uranium from sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westermark, T.; Forsberg, S.

    1980-01-01

    The prevalent situation in the field of uranium extraction from the oceans was reviewed from a scientific and technological standpoint and as to legality too. No international convention seems to limit the access to dissolved or suspended matter in free area of the oceans. All publications received through 1979 point to adsorption as the method of choice, at some form of hydrated titanium ''oxide'' as the most promising sorbent, and, generally spoken, at the cost of pumping water through the contacting system as a huge economical problem. A recent Swedish invention may circumvent the pumping problem by making available, in a previously unknown manner, some kind of self-renewing energy from the oceans. A simple economic calculus has resulted in costs from two to six times the present world market price of crude uranium oxide (which is assumed to be US dollar 43.-/1b), with a possibility to compete really after some technical and systematic developments. Results from a small-scale adsorption experiment in genuine sea water are presented: During a few weeks sea water was pumped through tiny, 10 cm high beds of sodium titanate ion exchangers, partly in the hydrogen form. The grain size was 250-500 μm, the flow rate 0.15-0.61 m/min. About 5% of the total amount of uranium passing the columns was retained, resulting in 8-11 μg/Ug. Also, large amounts of manganese, strontium, vanadium and zink were retained. Some of these elements and plankton as well may perhaps be recovered with an economic gain

  5. Investigating the Equatorial Gaps in Snowball Earth Sea Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding-Astudillo, F.; Ashkenazy, Y.; Tziperman, E.; Abbot, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    The way photosynthetic life survived the Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth events is still a matter of debate that has deep implications for planetary habitability. One option is that gaps in thick, semi-global ice coverage (sea glaciers) could be maintained at the equator by ocean-ice-atmosphere dynamics. We investigate this idea by modifying a global ocean-thick-marine-ice model developed for modeling Neoproterozoic Snowball Events to account for gaps in thick ice and interactions with atmospheric dynamics. Our hypothesis is that in the parameter regime that allows for sea glacier flow, ice flow will make gaps in the thick ice, and therefore an open ocean solution, less likely. This would suggest that oases in thick ice are a more viable survival mechanism for photosynthetic life during a Snowball Earth event.

  6. Avian Influenza Ecology in North Atlantic Sea Ducks: Not All Ducks Are Created Equal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Russell, Robin E.; Franson, J. Christian; Soos, Catherine; Dusek, Robert J.; Allen, R. Bradford; Nashold, Sean W.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Jónsson, Jón Eínar; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Harms, Naomi Jane; Brown, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are primary reservoirs of avian influenza viruses (AIV). However the role of sea ducks in the ecology of avian influenza, and how that role differs from freshwater ducks, has not been examined. We obtained and analyzed sera from North Atlantic sea ducks and determined the seroprevalence in those populations. We also tested swab samples from North Atlantic sea ducks for the presence of AIV. We found relatively high serological prevalence (61%) in these sea duck populations but low virus prevalence (0.3%). Using these data we estimated that an antibody half-life of 141 weeks (3.2 years) would be required to attain these prevalences. These findings are much different than what is known in freshwater waterfowl and have implications for surveillance efforts, AIV in marine environments, and the roles of sea ducks and other long-lived waterfowl in avian influenza ecology. PMID:26677841

  7. Avian influenza ecology in North Atlantic sea ducks: Not all ducks are created equal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Russell, Robin E.; Franson, J. Christian; Soos, Catherine; Dusek, Robert J.; Allen, R. Bradford; Nashold, Sean W.; Teslaa, Joshua L.; Jónsson, Jón Einar; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Harms, Naomi Jnae; Brown, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are primary reservoirs of avian influenza viruses (AIV). However the role of sea ducks in the ecology of avian influenza, and how that role differs from freshwater ducks, has not been examined. We obtained and analyzed sera from North Atlantic sea ducks and determined the seroprevalence in those populations. We also tested swab samples from North Atlantic sea ducks for the presence of AIV. We found relatively high serological prevalence (61%) in these sea duck populations but low virus prevalence (0.3%). Using these data we estimated that an antibody half-life of 141 weeks (3.2 years) would be required to attain these prevalences. These findings are much different than what is known in freshwater waterfowl and have implications for surveillance efforts, AIV in marine environments, and the roles of sea ducks and other long-lived waterfowl in avian influenza ecology.

  8. Genetic connectivity between land and sea: the case of the beachflea Orchestia montagui (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae) in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavesi, Laura; Tiedemann, Ralph; De Matthaeis, Elvira; Ketmaier, Valerio

    2013-04-25

    We examined patterns of genetic divergence in 26 Mediterranean populations of the semi-terrestrial beachflea Orchestia montagui using mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase subunit I), microsatellite (eight loci) and allozymic data. The species typically forms large populations within heaps of dead seagrass leaves stranded on beaches at the waterfront. We adopted a hierarchical geographic sampling to unravel population structure in a species living at the sea-land transition and, hence, likely subjected to dramatically contrasting forces. Mitochondrial DNA showed historical phylogeographic breaks among Adriatic, Ionian and the remaining basins (Tyrrhenian, Western and Eastern Mediterranean Sea) likely caused by the geological and climatic changes of the Pleistocene. Microsatellites (and to a lesser extent allozymes) detected a further subdivision between and within the Western Mediterranean and the Tyrrhenian Sea due to present-day processes. A pattern of isolation by distance was not detected in any of the analyzed data set. We conclude that the population structure of O. montagui is the result of the interplay of two contrasting forces that act on the species population genetic structure. On one hand, the species semi-terrestrial life style would tend to determine the onset of local differences. On the other hand, these differences are partially counter-balanced by passive movements of migrants via rafting on heaps of dead seagrass leaves across sites by sea surface currents. Approximate Bayesian Computations support dispersal at sea as prevalent over terrestrial regionalism.

  9. Integrating out the Dirac sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbstein, Felix

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new method for dealing with fermionic quantum field theories amenable to a mean-field-type approximation. In this work we focus on the relativistic Hartree approximation. Our aim is to integrate out the Dirac sea and derive a no-sea effective theory'' with positive energy single particle states only. As the derivation of the no-sea effective theory involves only standard Feynman diagrams, our approach is quite general and not restricted to particular space-time dimensions. We develop and illustrate the approach in the ''large N'' limit of the Gross-Neveu model family in 1+1 dimensions. As the Gross-Neveu model has been intensely studied and several analytical solutions are known for this model, it is an ideal testing ground for our no-sea effective theory approach. The chiral Gross-Neveu model, also referred to as 1+1 dimensional Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, turns out to be of particular interest. In this case, we explicitly derive a consistent effective theory featuring both elementary ''π meson'' fields and (positive energy) ''quark'' fields, starting from a purely fermionic quantum field theory. In the second part of this work, we apply our approach to the Walecka model in 1+1 and 3+1 dimensions. As the Dirac sea caused considerable difficulties in attempts to base nuclear physics on field theoretic models like the Walecka model, mean-field calculations were typically done without the sea. We confront several of these mean-field theory results with our no-sea effective theory approach. The potential of our approach is twofold. While the no-sea effective theory can be utilized to provide new analytical insights in particular parameter regimes, it also sheds new light on more fundamental issues as the explicit emergence of effective, Dirac-sea induced multi-fermion interactions in an effective theory with positive energy states only. (orig.)

  10. Recognising life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    ’ – that the contemporary discursive pragmatics of more or less pharmaceutical life practices still include forms of transcendence – and by the wish to fertilize the field of bio-politics with the indexical inter-subjectivity of the concept of ideology, as derived from an antiessentialist reading of Hegelian......–Marxist traditions. The analysis unfolds as an ideology critique that reconstructs, and seeks ways to overcome, particular forms of recognition that are identifiable in the data and in the field of drug practices, and how these form part of the constitution of singular collectives and participants – in these life...

  11. Maritime supply chain security: navigating through a sea of compliance requirements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maspero, EL

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available MTSA Maritime Transportation Security Act RFID Radio Frequency Identification SAFE Security and Accountability For Every port SOLAS Safety Of Life At Sea SST Smart and Secure Tradelane UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development... for increased security within maritime shipping and so the SOLAS (the Safety of Lives at Sea) Convention Chapter 11 was amended to provide for the inclusion of the International Ships and Port Facilities Security Code (ISPS Code), which was internationally...

  12. An abyssal mobilome: Viruses, plasmids and vesicles from deep-sea hydrothermal vents

    OpenAIRE

    Lossouarn, Julien; Dupont, Samuel; Gorlas, Aurore; Mercier, Coraline; Bienvenu, Nadege; Marguet, Evelyne; Forterre, Patrick; Geslin, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) such as viruses, plasmids, vesicles, gene transfer agents (GTAs), transposons and transpovirions, which collectively represent the mobilome, interact with cellular organisms from all three domains of life, including those thriving in the most extreme environments. While efforts have been made to better understand deep-sea vent microbial ecology, our knowledge of the mobilome associated with prokaryotes inhabiting deep-sea hydrothermal vents remains limited. Here...

  13. Deep-sea geohazards in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shiguo; Wang, Dawei; Völker, David

    2018-02-01

    Various geological processes and features that might inflict hazards identified in the South China Sea by using new technologies and methods. These features include submarine landslides, pockmark fields, shallow free gas, gas hydrates, mud diapirs and earthquake tsunami, which are widely distributed in the continental slope and reefal islands of the South China Sea. Although the study and assessment of geohazards in the South China Sea came into operation only recently, advances in various aspects are evolving at full speed to comply with National Marine Strategy and `the Belt and Road' Policy. The characteristics of geohazards in deep-water seafloor of the South China Sea are summarized based on new scientific advances. This progress is aimed to aid ongoing deep-water drilling activities and decrease geological risks in ocean development.

  14. Chemical oceanography of the Arabian Sea Part iv Laccadive sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Moraes, C.; Kureishy, T.W.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Jana, T.K.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Rajagopal, M.D

    Patterns of distribution of nutrients and nutrients-oxygen relationships are similar to those observed in other parts of the Arabian Sea High magnesium and low fluoride concentrations in the water indicate probable loss of the latter as insoluble ion...

  15. Sea dumping of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.

    1980-01-01

    From 1967 until 1976 ca. 45,000 t of weak radioactive wastes had been dumped into the sea during several actions under the supervision of the NEA. The requirements to be deduced from the experiences with regard to marine areas, packaging and transports of the wastes are described. Up to now the possibilities of the sea dumping of strong radioactive wastes has been just discussed. The natural removal of the decay heat by sea water would be advantageous but the problem of water-proof packagings for the period of 1000 years have not been solved yet. (orig.) [de

  16. Radioisotopes in sedimentary study of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laptev, Gennady; Voitsekhovych, Oleg V.

    2013-04-01

    Natural archives, such as lake or marine sediment, are widely used in erosion/sedimentation, water quality, climate change and eutrophication study alongside with the retrospective reanalysis of contaminants fluxes (trace metals, organic pollutants or radionuclides). In order to "read" information stored in sediment sequences a chronostatigraphic method have been developed and used since 1950s which is based upon variation of activity of 210Pb over the sediment profile, natural radioisotope of Uranium decay series with half-life 22 years, and hence valid for the last 100-150 years of recent sedimentation history. The 210Pb chronology is prone to be validated by other time-markers, such as artificial radionuclides globally dispersed after the nuclear weapons tests of 1960s or major accidents on NPP (the Chernobyl accident of 1986 or latest on the Fukushima Daiichi in 2011). In the last decade an intensive study using sediment cores collected from shelf and deep-sea areas in the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea have been undertaken within the framework of a number of international research projects organized by IAEA and UNOPS-GEF and devoted to environmental problems of this enclosed, and therefore sensitive to environmental impact, marine systems. Elaborative analysis of the experimental data and sediment age calculation have been done by application of CRS and CIC dating models to unsupported 210Pb activity over the sediment profile. Measured in sediment 137Cs and 241Am clearly showed well resolved Bomb test and Chernobyl fallout peaks and were used as markers in order to corroborate radiometrically determined age of sediment. Geochronological reconstruction of the fallout radionuclides inventory, fluxes and accumulation rate in the sediment of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea by application of combined radiometric dating technique proved to be very consistent with the historical data of atmospheric fallout observations of that artificial radionuclides recorded worldwide

  17. Discriminating Sea Spikes in Incoherent Radar Measurements of Sea Clutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    het detecteren echter niet te verwachten dat bet gebruik van sea spikes te onderzoeken. Een van deze modellen zal leiden tot een Auteur (s) dergelijk...report I TNO-DV 2008 A067 6/33 Abbreviations CFAR Constant False-Alarm Rate CST Composite Surface Theory FFT Fast Fourier Transform PDF Probability Density...described by the composite surface theory (CST). This theory describes the sea surface as small Bragg-resonant capillary waves riding on top of

  18. Potential Evaporite Biomarkers from the Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Penny A.; Wentworth, Susan J.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie; Allen, Carlton C.; McKay, David S.

    2001-01-01

    The Dead Sea is located on the northern branch of the African-Levant Rift systems. The rift system, according to one model, was formed by a series of strike slip faults, initially forming approximately two million years ago. The Dead Sea is an evaporite basin that receives freshwater from springs and from the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is different from other evaporite basins, such as the Great Salt Lake, in that it possesses high concentrations of magnesium and has an average pH of 6.1. The dominant cation in the Great Salt Lake is sodium, and the pH is 7.7. Calcium concentrations are also higher in the Dead Sea than in the Great Salt Lake. Both basins are similar in that the dominant anion is chlorine and the salinity levels are approximately 20 %. Other common cations that have been identified from the waters of the Dead Sea and the Great Salt Lake include sodium and potassium. A variety of Archea, Bacteria, and a single genus of a green algal, Dunaliella, has been described from the Dead Sea. Earlier studies concentrated on microbial identification and analysis of their unique physiology that allows them to survive in this type of extreme environment. Potential microbial fossilization processes, microbial fossils, and the metallic ions associated with fossilization have not been studied thoroughly. The present study is restricted to identifying probable microbial morphologies and associated metallic ions. XRD (X Ray Diffraction) analysis indicates the presence of halite, quartz, and orthoclase feldspar. In addition to these minerals, other workers have reported potassium chloride, magnesium bromide, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, and calcium sulfate. Halite, calcium sulfate, and orthoclase were examined in this report for the presence of microbes, microbially induced deposits or microbial alteration. Neither the gypsum nor the orthoclase surfaces possesses any obvious indications of microbial life or fossilization. The sand-sized orthoclase particles are

  19. Environmental impact assessment of oilfield upgrades in Bohai Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruihui; Xiong, Yanna; Li, Jiao; Li, Xianbo

    2018-02-01

    This paper designed 65 environmental monitoring sites to collect samples and analyze for better evaluating the environmental impact generated by cuttings, mud, produced water with oil and oil pollutions that produced during the upgrading in the Bohai Sea where the oil field 34-1 upgraded. Collecting samples include ocean water, marine life and sediments and test items involve PH, dissolved oxygen (DO), salinity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), phosphate, organic carbon, sulfide, inorganic nitrogen, petroleum, copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), total chromium (Cr), total mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As). Meanwhile sample sites collect and analyze the abundance and diversity of marine plants and elaborated the environmental impact caused by upgrading renovation project from the aspects of sea water, marine life and marine sediments. Through analysis and comparison we found that seawater quality conform the Ш seawater quality standards, the excessive rate of Cu is 10%, the average diversity index of marine life is 2.34 and evenness is 0.68. Influence range of marine sediments and pollutants of production is within 2.68km and basically has no serious impact in the surrounding sea area. It’s worth nothing that reconstruction project has the risk of oil spilling and protective measures must be prepared.

  20. Otolith Sr concentration analyzed by PIXE in Ariake estuary-dependent sea bass juveniles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Taro; Arai, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Masaru; Yoshida, Koji

    1997-01-01

    Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus) is a typical euryhaline marine fish and frequently migrates from salt to freshwater environments during early life stages. We hypothesized that strontium concentrations in the otolith could be a useful index to examine freshwater entry because of its lower concentration in freshwater. Otoliths of Japanese sea bass juveniles collected in the Chikugo river and estuary were analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) to see relationship between strontium concentration and ambient salinity. Strontium concentrations in otoliths of sea bass juveniles are significantly lower in the river samples than in brackish water samples. (author)

  1. Restoration of deep-sea macrofauna after simulated benthic disturbance in the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Pavithran, S.; Ansari, Z.A.

    feeding by holoyhurians in the deep sea: some observations and comments. Progress in Oceanography 50, 407-421. Glasby, G.P., 1977. Marine manganese deposits. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp.523. Grassle, J.F. and Sanders, H.L., 1973. Life histories and role... gesamten Hydrobiologie 77, 331-339. Thiel, H., 2001. Use and protection of the deep sea - an introduction. Deep-Sea Research II 48, (17-18), 3427-3431. Trueblood, D., Ozturgut, E., Pilipchuk, M., Gloumov, I. 1997. The ecological impacts of the joint U...

  2. An abyssal mobilome: viruses, plasmids and vesicles from deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossouarn, Julien; Dupont, Samuel; Gorlas, Aurore; Mercier, Coraline; Bienvenu, Nadege; Marguet, Evelyne; Forterre, Patrick; Geslin, Claire

    2015-12-01

    Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) such as viruses, plasmids, vesicles, gene transfer agents (GTAs), transposons and transpovirions, which collectively represent the mobilome, interact with cellular organisms from all three domains of life, including those thriving in the most extreme environments. While efforts have been made to better understand deep-sea vent microbial ecology, our knowledge of the mobilome associated with prokaryotes inhabiting deep-sea hydrothermal vents remains limited. Here we focus on the abyssal mobilome by reviewing accumulating data on viruses, plasmids and vesicles associated with thermophilic and hyperthermophilic Bacteria and Archaea present in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Copper in the sea: a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R.L.

    1977-04-01

    Life in the sea is vulnerable to the influx of trace metals resulting from man's activities. Although many pollutants introduced to the sea eventually degrade to less harmful forms, trace metals accumulate in sediments and have a continued potential for effect on biota. Copper has a toxic potential exceeding all other metals due to the quantity discharged and its toxicological effect. Fortunately, copper in the oceans is rendered less bioavailable or less toxic by its ready interaction with the complex chemical components of seawater. This bibliography was prepared to illustrate the status of current knowledge of the biogeochemistry of copper and to aid the development of research programs to define the effects of copper discharged to the marine environment. The references are categorized to aid the reader to locate literature concerning specific aspects of the biogeochemistry of copper. A brief comment describing the important findings in each category is given. Although this bibliography is not exhaustive, the listed references are likely representative of current knowledge.

  4. Eustatic and Relative Sea Level Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovere, A.; Stocchi, P.; Vacchi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Sea level changes can be driven by either variationsin the masses or volume of the oceans, or bychanges of the land with respect to the sea surface. Inthe first case, a sea level change is defined ‘eustatic’;otherwise, it is defined ‘relative’. Several techniques canbe used to observe changes in sea

  5. ISLSCP II Sea Surface Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sea surface temperature (SST) is an important indicator of the state of the earth climate system as well as a key variable in the coupling between the atmosphere and...

  6. Black Sea Bass genetic connectivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Microsatellite analysis of black sea bass was undertaken to determine magnitude and direction of mixing of black seabass across the Hatteras boundary, as well as...

  7. Sea Turtle Acoustic Telemetry Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Acoustic transmitters attached to sea turtles captured in various fishing gear enable the animals to be passively tracked. Acoustic receivers set up in an array...

  8. Sea Turtle Radio Telemetry Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radio transmitters attached to sea turtles captured in various fishing gear enabled us to track and measure surfacing time of each turtle. Determining location of...

  9. Sea Turtle Satellite Telemetry Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea turtles captured in various fishing gear (pound nets, long haul seines, gill nets) were outfitted with satellite transmitters so that their movements, migratory...

  10. Sea bed mapping and inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference has 24 presentations on the topics: Sea bed mapping, inspection, positioning, hydrography, marine archaeology, remote operation vehicles and computerized simulation technologies, oil field activities and plans, technological experiences and problems. (tk)

  11. Sea Turtle Stranding Network Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sea Turtle Stranding and Salvage Network (STSSN) was formally established in 1980 to collect information on and document the stranding of marine turtles along...

  12. Metals extraction from sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chryssostomidis, C.; Larue, G.J.; Morgan, D.T.

    1981-01-01

    A method and system for continuously extracting metals from sea water by deploying adsorber sheets in a suitable current of sea water, recovering the adsorber sheets after they become loaded with metal and eluting the metal from the recovered sheets. The system involves the use of hollow, perforated bobbins on which the sheets are rolled as they are recovered and through which elutant is introduced

  13. Intermittent sea-level acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, M.; Spada, G.

    2013-10-01

    Using instrumental observations from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), we provide a new assessment of the global sea-level acceleration for the last ~ 2 centuries (1820-2010). Our results, obtained by a stack of tide gauge time series, confirm the existence of a global sea-level acceleration (GSLA) and, coherently with independent assessments so far, they point to a value close to 0.01 mm/yr2. However, differently from previous studies, we discuss how change points or abrupt inflections in individual sea-level time series have contributed to the GSLA. Our analysis, based on methods borrowed from econometrics, suggests the existence of two distinct driving mechanisms for the GSLA, both involving a minority of tide gauges globally. The first effectively implies a gradual increase in the rate of sea-level rise at individual tide gauges, while the second is manifest through a sequence of catastrophic variations of the sea-level trend. These occurred intermittently since the end of the 19th century and became more frequent during the last four decades.

  14. Alien seas oceans in space

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, Rosaly

    2013-01-01

    In the early days of planetary observation, oceans were thought to exist in all corners of the Solar System. Carbonated seas percolated beneath the clouds of Venus. Features on the Moon's surface were given names such as "the Bay of Rainbows” and the "Ocean of Storms." With the advent of modern telescopes and spacecraft exploration these ancient concepts of planetary seas have been replaced by the reality of something even more exotic. Alien Seas serves up the current research, past beliefs, and new theories to offer a rich array of the "seas" on other worlds. It is organized by location and by the material composing the oceans under discussion, with expert authors penning chapters on their  specialty. Each chapter features new original art depicting alien seas, as well as the latest ground-based and spacecraft images. With the contributors as guides, readers can explore the wild seas of Jupiter's watery satellite Europa, believed similar in composition to battery acid. Saturn's planet-sized moon Titan see...

  15. The Importance of Water for Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westall, Frances; Brack, André

    2018-03-01

    Liquid water is essential for life as we know it, i.e. carbon-based life. Although other compound-solvent pairs that could exist in very specific physical environments could be envisaged, the elements essential to carbon and water-based life are among the most common in the universe. Carbon molecules and liquid water have physical and chemical properties that make them optimised compound-solvent pairs. Liquid water is essential for important prebiotic reactions. But equally important for the emergence of life is the contact of carbon molecules in liquid water with hot rocks and minerals. We here review the environmental conditions of the early Earth, as soon as it had liquid water at its surface and was habitable. Basing our approach to life as a "cosmic phenomenon" (de Duve 1995), i.e. a chemical continuum, we briefly address the various hypotheses for the origin of life, noting their relevance with respect to early environmental conditions. It appears that hydrothermal environments were important in this respect. We continue with the record of early life noting that, by 3.5 Ga, when the sedimentary environment started being well-preserved, anaerobic life forms had colonised all habitable microenvironments from the sea floor to exposed beach environments and, possibly, in the photic planktonic zone of the sea. Life on Earth had also evolved to the relatively sophisticated stage of anoxygenic photosynthesis. We conclude with an evaluation of the potential for habitability and colonisation of other planets and satellites in the Solar System, noting that the most common life forms in the Solar System and probably in the Universe would be similar to terrestrial chemotrophs whose carbon source is either reduced carbon or CO2 dissolved in water and whose energy would be sourced from oxidized carbon, H2, or other transition elements.

  16. Inuit and Scientific Perspectives on the Relationship Between Sea Ice and Climate Change. The Ideal Complement?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laidler, G.J. [Department of Geography, University of Toronto at Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road North, Mississauga, Ontario, L5L 1C6 (Canada)

    2006-10-15

    Sea ice is influential in regulating energy exchanges between the ocean and the atmosphere, and has figured prominently in scientific studies of climate change and climate feedbacks. However, sea ice is also a vital component of everyday life in Inuit communities of the circumpolar Arctic. Therefore, it is important to understand the links between the potential impacts of climate change on Arctic sea ice extent, distribution, and thickness as well as the related consequences for northern coastal populations. This paper explores the relationship between sea ice and climate change from both scientific and Inuit perspectives. Based on an overview of diverse literature the experiences, methods, and goals which differentiate local and scientific sea ice knowledge are examined. These efforts are considered essential background upon which to develop more accurate assessments of community vulnerability to climate, and resulting sea ice, change. Inuit and scientific perspectives may indeed be the ideal complement when investigating the links between sea ice and climate change, but effective and appropriate conceptual bridges need to be built between the two types of expertise. The complementary nature of these knowledge systems may only be realized, in a practical sense, if significant effort is expended to: (1) understand sea ice from both Inuit and scientific perspectives, along with their underlying differences; (2) investigate common interests or concerns; (3) establish meaningful and reciprocal research partnerships with Inuit communities; (4) engage in, and improve, collaborative research methods; and, (5) maintain ongoing dialogue.

  17. One life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demkova E.E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is not easy to care for a special needs child. Especially, it is easy to understand parents’ worries about their grown up children. Living in one’s own family or supported living in the community are much more preferable than the options the state can offer. The author — a mother of a young woman with autism — contemplates about possibilities for independent living for a person with special needs after their parents are gone. She is confident that teaching a child skills for independent living is not less important than giving them school education. The author illustrates her thoughts with real examples of support for adults with disabilities in their independent life or life in a foster family in a city, as well in rural areas.

  18. Pumping life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitsel, Oleg; Dach, Ingrid; Hoffmann, Robert Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The name PUMPKIN may suggest a research centre focused on American Halloween traditions or the investigation of the growth of vegetables – however this would be misleading. Researchers at PUMPKIN, short for Centre for Membrane Pumps in Cells and Disease, are in fact interested in a large family o......’. Here we illustrate that the pumping of ions means nothing less than the pumping of life....

  19. EXTRA LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth S. Contreras Espinosa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available El creciente número de personas jugando videojuegos significa que estos están teniendo un efecto innegable sobre nuestra cultura. Este efecto es claramente visible en una aceptación general. Los videojuegos también han cambiado la forma en que muchas otras formas de medios de comunicación, se producen y consumen. Los videojuegos tienen una influencia creciente en nuestra cultura, y en "EXTRA LIFE" diferentes autores expresan sus opiniones sobre este nuevo medio. EXTRA LIFE Abstract The increasing number of people playing video games means that they are having an undeniable effect on culture. This effect is clearly visible in the increasing mainstream acceptance of aspects of gaming culture. Video games have also changed the way that many other forms of media, are produced and consumed. Video games have an increasing influence on our culture,  and in "EXTRA LIFE" diferent authors have voiced their opinions on this new media. Keywords: Video games; culture; effects; games.

  20. Gaia and the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. Hsü

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Earth is a self-organizing system liking a living organism. Lovelock proposed Gaia as a metaphor to designate the check and balance ofterrestrial temperatures: the Earth is never too hot so that the ocean could boil, and the Earth is never too cold that the ocean could freeze from top to bottom. Hsü proposed that Gaia is endothermic because the life on Earth has been alternate successions of air-conditioners and heaters which evolved and deactivate or reinforce the terrestial greenhouse of carbon dioxide in atmosphere. When Earth was heating up too much, the air-conditioneers, such as anaerobic bacteria, cyanobacteria, skeletal organisms and trees, and finally calcareous plankton, went to work to bring the terrestrial temperature down. When the Earth was freezing at times of continental glaciation, heaters went to work, such as methanogenic bacteria, Ediacaran faunas, tundra and desert plants, and now Homo sapiens. Gaia has to have other organs to keep the self-organizing system vital. This paper presents a postulate that the Miocene Mediterranean Sea acted as Gaia´s kidney. The steady influx of dissolved ions and debris into the ocean causes inevitable increase of ocean´s salinity. The fossil and geochemicl records indicate that the ocean has never been too saline nor too brackish for the survival of normal marine organisms: the salinity ranged from about 32 to 36 pro mil during the last billion years. Ocean-drilling cruises to the Mediterranean discovered a very large salt formation, deposited during some 5 million years ago when the Mediterranean dried up. A study of the geochemical balance of the oceans indicates that the deposition of very large salt bodies in isolated basins such as the Miocene Mediterranean every 100 million years or so. The saline giants have the function of Gaia´s kidney. With periodical removals of the salt ions and the heavy metals from seawater, the world´s ocean have been rendered forever habitable. Gaia

  1. Radioactivity levels in Barents, Petshora, Kara, Laptev and White Seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rissanen, K.; Matishov, D.; Matishov, G.G.

    1995-01-01

    The samples collected and analysed during joint work between the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety and the Murmansk Marine Biological Institute cover a rather large area of the arctic in north west Russia. All the analysed sediments, algae, benthic and fish samples, have shown surprisingly low radionuclide concentrations and indicate that the open sea areas are almost uncontaminated. But the most interesting locations with potential risk sources are closed areas. 134 Cs isotope originating from the fallout of the Chernobyl accident was measured only in terrestrial samples collected on the Kola peninsula and around the White Sea. Small amounts of this isotope with only 2 years half-life was also noticed in some sediment samples from White Sea. 134 Cs isotopes was not noticed in any terrestrial sample collected from the coastal area between the Kanin peninsula and the Jenisey river. The very low concentrations of 134 Cs isotope measured in Kara Sea sediment samples were usually in association with an outlet of a river and were obviously transported by river water from the central parts of Russia. The measured low concentrations of the antropogenic radionuclides in the Barents and Petshora Sea originate obviously from the global fallout. The higher White Sea concentrations contain also additional fallout from the Chernobyl accident and probably also some terrestrial runoff. Low concentration of 60 Co isotopes in some sediment, algae and benthic fauna samples, reveals, however, slight fresh contamination, as were concentrations also at the outlet of Jenisey river. The results on well documented sampling locations represent also background data for possible leakage or other accidents. 5 refs., 3 figs, 3 tabs

  2. Thermodynamics and life span estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuddusi, Lütfullah

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the life span of people living in seven regions of Turkey is estimated by applying the first and second laws of thermodynamics to the human body. The people living in different regions of Turkey have different food habits. The first and second laws of thermodynamics are used to calculate the entropy generation rate per unit mass of a human due to the food habits. The lifetime entropy generation per unit mass of a human was previously found statistically. The two entropy generations, lifetime entropy generation and entropy generation rate, enable one to determine the life span of people living in seven regions of Turkey with different food habits. In order to estimate the life span, some statistics of Turkish Statistical Institute regarding the food habits of the people living in seven regions of Turkey are used. The life spans of people that live in Central Anatolia and Eastern Anatolia regions are the longest and shortest, respectively. Generally, the following inequality regarding the life span of people living in seven regions of Turkey is found: Eastern Anatolia < Southeast Anatolia < Black Sea < Mediterranean < Marmara < Aegean < Central Anatolia. - Highlights: • The first and second laws of thermodynamics are applied to the human body. • The entropy generation of a human due to his food habits is determined. • The life span of Turks is estimated by using the entropy generation method. • Food habits of a human have effect on his life span

  3. Past and present Aral Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukhovniy, Viktor; Stulina, Galina; Eshchanov, Odylbek

    2013-04-01

    The tragedy of disappearing of Aral Sea is well known to the World. Before and after collapse of Soviet Union, a huge quantity of scientific and popular editions described with grief the situation around the Aral Sea. After the NIS states became independent, World Bank, UNDP, UNEP in proper competition with each other had provided some assessment of the situation through presentation of some small and medium grants, but after 2000, the local population remained alone with own problems. Although on the eyes of the present generation a unique transformation of great water body into deserts took place, the global scientific community did not find forces and financing for real and detail investigation of the processes accompanying the Sea shrinking and land formation. We should acknowledge and give big respect to NATO, later to German Government that through GTZ (now GIZ) - German International Collaboration Agency - and GFZ (Potzdam) paid attention to this area of environment crisis and organized scientific and protective design in the so-called Priaralie - the territory around the drying Sea and delta of the two rivers - Amudarya and Syrdarya. Thank to this assistance, the local specialists in collaboration with limited a number of foreign scientists (N.Aladin, P.Zavialov, Joop de Schutter, Hans Wilps, Hedi Oberhansli) organized significant works for detail socioeconomic, ecological and hydrological assessment situation in Priaralie and on the Aral sea coast. On this base, Ministry of Agriculture and Water resources of Uzbekistan and State Committee of Water resources of Kazakhstan developed a plan of rehabilitation of Amudarya and Syrdarya deltas and started implementation of these projects. If Kazakh water authority moved ahead in wetland restoration faster, a forestation of delta and drying bed of Aral Sea got big success in Uzbek territory. 244 thousands hectares of saxsaul and tamarix were planted for protection of the Priaralie. By request of GTZ SIC, ICWC

  4. Late Holocene sea ice conditions in Herald Canyon, Chukchi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, C.; O'Regan, M.; Rattray, J. E.; Hutchinson, D. K.; Cronin, T. M.; Gemery, L.; Barrientos, N.; Coxall, H.; Smittenberg, R.; Semiletov, I. P.; Jakobsson, M.

    2017-12-01

    Sea ice in the Arctic Ocean has been in steady decline in recent decades and, based on satellite data, the retreat is most pronounced in the Chukchi and Beaufort seas. Historical observations suggest that the recent changes were unprecedented during the last 150 years, but for a longer time perspective, we rely on the geological record. For this study, we analyzed sediment samples from two piston cores from Herald Canyon in the Chukchi Sea, collected during the 2014 SWERUS-C3 Arctic Ocean Expedition. The Herald Canyon is a local depression across the Chukchi Shelf, and acts as one of the main pathways for Pacific Water to the Arctic Ocean after entering through the narrow and shallow Bering Strait. The study site lies at the modern-day seasonal sea ice minimum edge, and is thus an ideal location for the reconstruction of past sea ice variability. Both sediment cores contain late Holocene deposits characterized by high sediment accumulation rates (100-300 cm/kyr). Core 2-PC1 from the shallow canyon flank (57 m water depth) is 8 meter long and extends back to 4200 cal yrs BP, while the upper 3 meters of Core 4-PC1 from the central canyon (120 mwd) cover the last 3000 years. The chronologies of the cores are based on radiocarbon dates and the 3.6 ka Aniakchak CFE II tephra, which is used as an absolute age marker to calculate the marine radiocarbon reservoir age. Analysis of biomarkers for sea ice and surface water productivity indicate stable sea ice conditions throughout the entire late Holocene, ending with an abrupt increase of phytoplankton sterols in the very top of both sediment sequences. The shift is accompanied by a sudden increase in coarse sediments (> 125 µm) and a minor change in δ13Corg. We interpret this transition in the top sediments as a community turnover in primary producers from sea ice to open water biota. Most importantly, our results indicate that the ongoing rapid ice retreat in the Chukchi Sea of recent decades was unprecedented during the

  5. Deep-sea Hexactinellida (Porifera) of the Weddell Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janussen, Dorte; Tabachnick, Konstantin R.; Tendal, Ole S.

    2004-07-01

    New Hexactinellida from the deep Weddel Sea are described. This moderately diverse hexactinellid fauna includes 14 species belonging to 12 genera, of which five species and one subgenus are new to science: Periphragella antarctica n. sp., Holascus pseudostellatus n. sp., Caulophacus (Caulophacus) discohexactinus n. sp., C. ( Caulodiscus) brandti n. sp., C. ( Oxydiscus) weddelli n. sp., and C. ( Oxydiscus) n. subgen. So far, 20 hexactinellid species have been reported from the deep Weddell Sea, 15 are known from the northern part and 10 only from here, while 10 came from the southern area, and five of these only from there. However, this apparent high "endemism" of Antarctic hexactinellid sponges is most likely the result of severe undersampling of the deep-sea fauna. We find no reason to believe that a division between an oceanic and a more continental group of species exists. The current poor database indicates that a substantial part of the deep hexactinellid fauna of the Weddell Sea is shared with other deep-sea regions, but it does not indicate a special biogeographic relationship with any other ocean.

  6. Life in Europe under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcamo, J.; Olesen, Jørgen E

    Life in Europe will indeed go on as the climate changes, but not in the same way as before. The air will be warmer, winds will change, patterns of rainfall and snowfall will alter, and sea level is likely to rise. These phenomena are already being seen. Europe will in the future experience marked...... changes in vegetation cover, increased floods along rivers and coastlines as well as more frequent droughts and forest fires, often leading to large societal costs. The changes will be minor in some cases, profound in others, but in any case, pervasive.......Life in Europe will indeed go on as the climate changes, but not in the same way as before. The air will be warmer, winds will change, patterns of rainfall and snowfall will alter, and sea level is likely to rise. These phenomena are already being seen. Europe will in the future experience marked...

  7. Submersible Data (Dive Trackpoints) for Life on the Edge 2004 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data and information collected by the submersible Johnson Sea-Link I along its track during twenty-five dives of the 2004 "Life on the Edge" expedition sponsored by...

  8. Climatology of sea breezes along the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Basit

    2018-04-25

    Long-term near-surface observations from five coastal stations, high-resolution model data from Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and high-resolution daily sea surface temperature (SST) from National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) are used to investigate the climatology of sea breezes over the eastern side of the Red Sea region. Results show existence of separate sea breeze systems along different segments of the Red Sea coastline. Based on the physical character and synoptic influences, sea breezes in the Red Sea are broadly divided into three regions: the north and the middle Red Sea (NMRS), the Red Sea convergence zone (RSCZ) and the southern Red Sea (SRS) regions. On average, sea breezes developed on 67% of days of the 10-year study period. Although sea breezes occur almost all year, this mesoscale phenomenon is most frequent from May to October (78% of the total sea breeze days). The sea breeze frequency increases from north to south (equatorwards), and sea breeze characteristics appear to vary both temporally and spatially. In addition to land-sea thermal differential, coastline shape, latitude and topography, the prevailing northwesterly at NMRS region, the convergence of northwesterly and southeasterly wind system at RSCZ region and the northeast and southwest monsoon at SRS region play an important role in defining the sea breeze characteristics over the Red Sea.

  9. Life lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitschke, Jonathan R

    2015-01-01

    Reminiscing about his younger self: "I mean I can't very well just 86 [in American slang, to "86" is to eject, remove, or discard someone or something, J.R.N.] this guy from my life. On the other hand, if through some as yet undeveloped technology I were to run into him today, how comfortable would I feel about lending him money, or for that matter even stepping down the street to have a beer and talk over old times?" - Thomas Pynchon, Slow Learner.

  10. Integrating out the Dirac sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karbstein, Felix

    2009-07-08

    We introduce a new method for dealing with fermionic quantum field theories amenable to a mean-field-type approximation. In this work we focus on the relativistic Hartree approximation. Our aim is to integrate out the Dirac sea and derive a no-sea effective theory'' with positive energy single particle states only. As the derivation of the no-sea effective theory involves only standard Feynman diagrams, our approach is quite general and not restricted to particular space-time dimensions. We develop and illustrate the approach in the ''large N'' limit of the Gross-Neveu model family in 1+1 dimensions. As the Gross-Neveu model has been intensely studied and several analytical solutions are known for this model, it is an ideal testing ground for our no-sea effective theory approach. The chiral Gross-Neveu model, also referred to as 1+1 dimensional Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, turns out to be of particular interest. In this case, we explicitly derive a consistent effective theory featuring both elementary ''{pi} meson'' fields and (positive energy) ''quark'' fields, starting from a purely fermionic quantum field theory. In the second part of this work, we apply our approach to the Walecka model in 1+1 and 3+1 dimensions. As the Dirac sea caused considerable difficulties in attempts to base nuclear physics on field theoretic models like the Walecka model, mean-field calculations were typically done without the sea. We confront several of these mean-field theory results with our no-sea effective theory approach. The potential of our approach is twofold. While the no-sea effective theory can be utilized to provide new analytical insights in particular parameter regimes, it also sheds new light on more fundamental issues as the explicit emergence of effective, Dirac-sea induced multi-fermion interactions in an effective theory with positive energy states only. (orig.)

  11. Atmospheric forcing of sea ice leads in the Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, B. J.; Hutchings, J.; Mahoney, A. R.; Shapiro, L. H.

    2016-12-01

    Leads in sea ice play an important role in the polar marine environment where they allow heat and moisture transfer between the oceans and atmosphere and act as travel pathways for both marine mammals and ships. Examining AVHRR thermal imagery of the Beaufort Sea, collected between 1994 and 2010, sea ice leads appear in repeating patterns and locations (Eicken et al 2005). The leads, resolved by AVHRR, are at least 250m wide (Mahoney et al 2012), thus the patterns described are for lead systems that extend up to hundreds of kilometers across the Beaufort Sea. We describe how these patterns are associated with the location of weather systems relative to the coastline. Mean sea level pressure and 10m wind fields from ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis are used to identify if particular lead patterns can be uniquely forecast based on the location of weather systems. Ice drift data from the NSIDC's Polar Pathfinder Daily 25km EASE-Grid Sea Ice Motion Vectors indicates the role shear along leads has on the motion of ice in the Beaufort Gyre. Lead formation is driven by 4 main factors: (i) coastal features such as promontories and islands influence the origin of leads by concentrating stresses within the ice pack; (ii) direction of the wind forcing on the ice pack determines the type of fracture, (iii) the location of the anticyclone (or cyclone) center determines the length of the fracture for certain patterns; and (iv) duration of weather conditions affects the width of the ice fracture zones. Movement of the ice pack on the leeward side of leads originating at promontories and islands increases, creating shear zones that control ice transport along the Alaska coast in winter. . Understanding how atmospheric conditions influence the large-scale motion of the ice pack is needed to design models that predict variability of the gyre and export of multi-year ice to lower latitudes.

  12. Radio-active waste disposal and deep-sea biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    The deep-sea has been widely thought of as a remote, sparsely populated, and biologically inactive environment, well suited to receive the noxious products of nuclear fission processes. Much of what is known of abyssal biology tends to support this view, but there are a few disquieting contra-indications. The realisation, in recent years, that many animal groups show a previously unsuspected high species diversity in the deep-sea emphasized the paucity of our knowledge of this environment. More dramatically, the discovery of a large, active, and highly mobile abysso-bentho-pelagic fauna changed the whole concept of abyssal life. Finally, while there is little evidence for the existence of vertical migration patterns linking the deep-sea bottom communities with those of the overlying water layers, there are similarly too few negative results for the possibility of such transport mechanisms to be dismissed. In summary, biological knowledge of the abyss is insufficient to answer the questions raised in connection with deep-sea dumping, but in the absence of adequate answers it might be dangerous to ignore the questions

  13. Global distribution of two fungal pathogens threatening endangered sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento-Ramírez, Jullie M; Abella-Pérez, Elena; Phillott, Andrea D; Sim, Jolene; van West, Pieter; Martín, María P; Marco, Adolfo; Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Nascent fungal infections are currently considered as one of the main threats for biodiversity and ecosystem health, and have driven several animal species into critical risk of extinction. Sea turtles are one of the most endangered groups of animals and only seven species have survived to date. Here, we described two pathogenic species, i.e., Fusarium falciforme and Fusarium keratoplasticum, that are globally distributed in major turtle nesting areas for six sea turtle species and that are implicated in low hatch success. These two fungi possess key biological features that are similar to emerging pathogens leading to host extinction, e.g., high virulence, and a broad host range style of life. Their optimal growth temperature overlap with the optimal incubation temperature for eggs, and they are able to kill up to 90% of the embryos. Environmental forcing, e.g., tidal inundation and clay/silt content of nests, were correlated to disease development. Thus, these Fusarium species constitute a major threat to sea turtle nests, especially to those experiencing environmental stressors. These findings have serious implications for the survival of endangered sea turtle populations and the success of conservation programs worldwide.

  14. Global distribution of two fungal pathogens threatening endangered sea turtles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jullie M Sarmiento-Ramírez

    Full Text Available Nascent fungal infections are currently considered as one of the main threats for biodiversity and ecosystem health, and have driven several animal species into critical risk of extinction. Sea turtles are one of the most endangered groups of animals and only seven species have survived to date. Here, we described two pathogenic species, i.e., Fusarium falciforme and Fusarium keratoplasticum, that are globally distributed in major turtle nesting areas for six sea turtle species and that are implicated in low hatch success. These two fungi possess key biological features that are similar to emerging pathogens leading to host extinction, e.g., high virulence, and a broad host range style of life. Their optimal growth temperature overlap with the optimal incubation temperature for eggs, and they are able to kill up to 90% of the embryos. Environmental forcing, e.g., tidal inundation and clay/silt content of nests, were correlated to disease development. Thus, these Fusarium species constitute a major threat to sea turtle nests, especially to those experiencing environmental stressors. These findings have serious implications for the survival of endangered sea turtle populations and the success of conservation programs worldwide.

  15. Checking contamination of the sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-07-01

    In July, 133 scientists from 15 countries attended an IAEA symposium on the Interaction of Radioactive Contaminants with the Constituents of the Marine Environment. It was held at the University of Washington, with the USAEC acting as host. Representatives from five international organisations, the CEC, OECD-NEA, WFUNA, WHO and the IAEA attended. The symposium was primarily aimed at elucidating the influence of radioactivity on the marine ecosystem and providing some background material for estimation of the capacity of the sea to accept radioactive waste without any significant harmful effects on man and the ecosystem. At the U. N. Conference on Human Environment held in Stockholm in June this year, a special concern was expressed regarding the international waters, such as the seas and oceans, and the need to conserve the resources of the sea. For the past 14 years the Agency has conducted an intensive programme on the discharge of radioactive waste into the sea, and the behaviour of radionuclides in the sea. (author)

  16. Barents Sea Monitoring with a SEA EXPLORER Glider

    OpenAIRE

    Field, Michael; Béguery, Laurent; Oziel, Laurent; Gascard, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The use of gliders in the Polar Regions offers clever and inexpensive methods for large scale monitoring and exploration. In August and September of 2014, a SEA EXPLORER glider successfully completed a 388 km mission in the central Barents Sea to monitor the physical and biological features over a transect between 72° 30' N and 74° 30' N latitude and between 32° E and 33° E longitude, as part of the European FP7 ACCESS project and in cooperation with the Institute of M...

  17. Computers make rig life extension an option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The worldwide semisubmersible drilling rig fleet is approaching retirement. But replacement is not an attractive option even though dayrates are reaching record highs. In 1991, Schlumberger Sedco Forex managers decided that an alternative might exist if regulators and insurers could be convinced to extend rig life expectancy through restoration. Sedco Forex chose their No. 704 semisubmersible, an 18-year North Sea veteran, to test their process. The first step was to determine what required restoration, meaning fatigue life analysis of each weld on the huge vessel. If inspected, the task would be unacceptably time-consuming and of questionable accuracy. Instead a suite of computer programs modeled the stress seen by each weld, statistically estimated the sea states seen by the rig throughout its North Sea service and calibrated a beam-element model on which to run their computer simulations. The elastic stiffness of the structure and detailed stress analysis of each weld was performed with ANSYS, a commercially available finite-element analysis program. The use of computer codes to evaluate service life extension is described.

  18. Alone by the Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Ferić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available 1.At first the island is just a sign on a yellow board with a drawing of a vessel and the letters saying “Car Ferry,” then it is a grayish silhouette in the blue of the sea, and then, later still, an acquaintance working on the ferry, who just nods briefly in greeting. Jablanac, ferry port, its pleasant lobby, and then, from the upper deck, a giant rock approaching. That is the object of a year-long desire: the moment of stepping off the boat and smelling the rosemary, diesel and sheep droppings, seeing the sharp rocks looking at the Strait of Senj, coarse limestone in sharp opposition to the signs that say: Benvenuti, Welcome, Willkommen!At home, on the terrace, in the shade of the oleander, there’s no wish to eat. Only swimming trunks are put on and then, barefoot, without a towel or sun-tanning lotion, off to the beach.“Why won’t you eat something?” grandma asks.She knows that there’s an exciting world waiting out there, but she knows nothing of the details. All friends went on a boat trip. And suddenly one step from the shade of a path covered with oleanders and acacias leads into the burning sun of the afternoon. The light screams, just like children in the water, just like white objects that radiate as if there are some powerful light bulbs within. The feeling of freedom of someone who has just arrived in a foreign place and can now do anything. There’s no one familiar on the beach, they all got in the boat and left. The seafront leading to the camp is full of people, naked children with dirty faces licking ice cream, young families pushing strollers, groups of teenagers who have just woken up from their last night’s party. But there’s no one that must be greeted. The feeling of freedom that’s at the same time close to death. Suddenly, all paths are open. That there are no obligations or friends waiting, this afternoon, until they come back, is a complete boon.

  19. Cosmopolitan and Vernacular: Petrarch at Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Mallette

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Casual readers and scholars alike celebrate Petrarch’s Rerum vulgarium fragmenta (RVF as an early masterpiece of vernacular lyric. Yet Petrarch directed most of his professional energies as writer to Latin composition, in the belief that Latin was the language of his most important literary models and of the literary future. This essay studies Petrarch’s life – in particular, episodes revealing his conflicted attitudes toward the sea and especially toward travel by ship – in order to comment on his attitude toward the language of literature: his respect for Latin, his enduring affection for Italian, and his work on the vernacular lyrics at the very end of his life. The essay uses Theodor Adorno’s formulation of late style (Adorno used this concept to discuss the late work of composers, in particular Beethoven to describe Petrarch’s late work on the RVF in his last years. It argues that Petrarch’s turn to the vernacular in his final years should be read as a kind of linguistic experimentalism – fragmentary and catastrophic, as Adorno would describe it, rather than sweet, unified and harmonic – made possible when Petrarch is no longer using Latin to think about literary posterity.

  20. On The Black Sea Surozhian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraivan, Glicherie; Corneliu, Cerchia

    2016-04-01

    Some Black Sea researchers still support the idea of no other connection to the Mediterranean Sea between LGM and Karangatian Stage (Riss - Wurm). We try to clarify the source of these disagreements. C14 AMS age data (HERAS Project) made on undisturbed samples from a new Mamaia drilling hole where compared with the classical Black Sea stratigraphic schemes. A first transgressive event (Zone D) is found between 38.00 - 20.20 m depth. Zone D4 shows a fairly rapid rise of sea level, about 10 m below the present one indicating an inner shelf marine polyhaline environment. AMS age data show 14C ages between 53690 - 47359 y (MIS 1), corresponding to the "Surozhian Beds" of Popov. The "beach rock" from Zone E marks the decrease of the sea level after the maximum reached in Zone D4. Zone E mollusc shells AMS data, indicate 14C ages of 48724 - 44604 y, suggesting a long-time reworked material from the previous D4 zone sediments, and represents the beginning of the "regressive Tarkankutian" sequence.The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) led to the retreat of the sea level down to about 100 m below the current one (27-17 ky BP), followed by an retreat of the shoreline to the present position. At the beginning of the Holocene - MIS 1 (8408-8132 cal. y BP), Black Sea brackish water level grew rapidly, up to -14 m below the present one (Zone F: 22, 57-20, 20 m). Zone F deposits could be correlated with the Bugazian strata. Then, a continuous rising of the Black Sea level is recorded up to a maximum of -2 m under the present one, about 6789 - 7063 cal. y BP, when a transgressive spurt ("Neolithic transgression") may have taken place. After that, given a weak Danubian sedimentary input, coastal erosion intensified. The coarse sandy sediments were reworked and pushed over the previous peat deposits, and suggest a classical "sedimentary regression", not a sea-level decrease. During the last 1.5 ky, sea level has risen towards the current one. Previous C14 dates from "Karangatian

  1. Vulnerability of marginal seas to sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomis, Damia; Jordà, Gabriel

    2017-04-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) is a serious thread for coastal areas and has a potential negative impact on society and economy. SLR can lead for instance to land loss, beach reduction, increase of the damage of marine storms on coastal infrastructures and to the salinization of underground water streams. It is well acknowledged that future SLR will be inhomogeneous across the globe, with regional differences of up to 100% with respect to global mean sea level (GMSL). Several studies have addressed the projections of SLR at regional scale, but most of them are based on global climate models (GCMs) that have a relatively coarse spatial resolution (>1°). In marginal seas this has proven to be a strong limitation, as their particular configurations require spatial resolutions that are not reachable by present GCMs. A paradigmatic case is the Mediterranean Sea, connected to the global ocean through the Strait of Gibraltar, a narrow passage of 14 km width. The functioning of the Mediterranean Sea involves a variety of processes including an overturning circulation, small-scale convection and a rich mesoscale field. Moreover, the long-term evolution of Mediterranean sea level has been significantly different from the global mean during the last decades. The observations of present climate and the projections for the next decades have lead some authors to hypothesize that the particular characteristics of the basin could allow Mediterranean mean sea level to evolve differently from the global mean. Assessing this point is essential to undertake proper adaptation strategies for the largely populated Mediterranean coastal areas. In this work we apply a new approach that combines regional and global projections to analyse future SLR. In a first step we focus on the quantification of the expected departures of future Mediterranean sea level from GMSL evolution and on the contribution of different processes to these departures. As a result we find that, in spite of its particularities

  2. Sea ice dynamics across the Mid-Pleistocene transition in the Bering Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detlef, H; Belt, S T; Sosdian, S M; Smik, L; Lear, C H; Hall, I R; Cabedo-Sanz, P; Husum, K; Kender, S

    2018-03-05

    Sea ice and associated feedback mechanisms play an important role for both long- and short-term climate change. Our ability to predict future sea ice extent, however, hinges on a greater understanding of past sea ice dynamics. Here we investigate sea ice changes in the eastern Bering Sea prior to, across, and after the Mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT). The sea ice record, based on the Arctic sea ice biomarker IP 25 and related open water proxies from the International Ocean Discovery Program Site U1343, shows a substantial increase in sea ice extent across the MPT. The occurrence of late-glacial/deglacial sea ice maxima are consistent with sea ice/land ice hysteresis and land-glacier retreat via the temperature-precipitation feedback. We also identify interactions of sea ice with phytoplankton growth and ocean circulation patterns, which have important implications for glacial North Pacific Intermediate Water formation and potentially North Pacific abyssal carbon storage.

  3. Steady as he goes: at-sea movement of adult male Australian sea lions in a dynamic marine environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Lowther

    Full Text Available The southern coastline of Australia forms part of the worlds' only northern boundary current system. The Bonney Upwelling occurs every austral summer along the south-eastern South Australian coastline, a region that hosts over 80% of the worlds population of an endangered endemic otariid, the Australian sea lion. We present the first data on the movement characteristics and foraging behaviour of adult male Australian sea lions across their South Australian range. Synthesizing telemetric, oceanographic and isotopic datasets collected from seven individuals enabled us to characterise individual foraging behaviour over an approximate two year time period. Data suggested seasonal variability in stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes that could not be otherwise explained by changes in animal movement patterns. Similarly, animals did not change their foraging patterns despite fine-scale spatial and temporal variability of the upwelling event. Individual males tended to return to the same colony at which they were tagged and utilized the same at-sea regions for foraging irrespective of oceanographic conditions or time of year. Our study contrasts current general assumptions that male otariid life history strategies should result in greater dispersal, with adult male Australian sea lions displaying central place foraging behaviour similar to males of other otariid species in the region.

  4. Behavioral and physiological correlates of the geographic distributions of amphibious sea kraits (Laticauda spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brischoux, François; Tingley, Reid; Shine, Richard; Lillywhite, Harvey B.

    2013-02-01

    The physiological costs of living in seawater likely influenced the secondary evolutionary transitions to marine life in tetrapods. However, these costs are alleviated for species that commute between the land and the sea, because terrestrial habitats can provide frequent access to fresh water. Here, we investigate how differences in the ecology and physiology of three sea krait species (Laticauda spp.) interact to determine their environmental tolerances and geographic distributions. These three species vary in their relative use of terrestrial versus marine environments, and they display concomitant adaptations to life on land versus at sea. A species with relatively high dehydration rates in seawater (Laticauda colubrina) occupied oceanic areas with low mean salinities, whereas a species with comparatively high rates of transcutaneous evaporative water loss on land (Laticauda semifasciata) occupied regions with low mean temperatures. A third taxon (Laticauda laticaudata) was intermediate in both of these traits, and yet occupied the broadest geographic range. Our results suggest that the abilities of sea kraits to acquire fresh water on land and tolerate dehydration at sea determine their environmental tolerances and geographic distributions. This finding supports the notion that speciation patterns within sea kraits have been driven by interspecific variation in the degree of reliance upon terrestrial versus marine habitats. Future studies could usefully examine the effects of osmotic challenges on diversification rates in other secondarily marine tetrapod species.

  5. Potential Osteoporosis Recovery by Deep Sea Water through Bone Regeneration in SAMP8 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hen-Yu Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the therapeutic potential of deep sea water (DSW on osteoporosis. Previously, we have established the ovariectomized senescence-accelerated mice (OVX-SAMP8 and demonstrated strong recovery of osteoporosis by stem cell and platelet-rich plasma (PRP. Deep sea water at hardness (HD 1000 showed significant increase in proliferation of osteoblastic cell (MC3T3 by MTT assay. For in vivo animal study, bone mineral density (BMD was strongly enhanced followed by the significantly increased trabecular numbers through micro-CT examination after a 4-month deep sea water treatment, and biochemistry analysis showed that serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity was decreased. For stage-specific osteogenesis, bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs were harvested and examined. Deep sea water-treated BMSCs showed stronger osteogenic differentiation such as BMP2, RUNX2, OPN, and OCN, and enhanced colony forming abilities, compared to the control group. Interestingly, most untreated OVX-SAMP8 mice died around 10 months; however, approximately 57% of DSW-treated groups lived up to 16.6 months, a life expectancy similar to the previously reported life expectancy for SAMR1 24 months. The results demonstrated the regenerative potentials of deep sea water on osteogenesis, showing that deep sea water could potentially be applied in osteoporosis therapy as a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM.

  6. GHRSST Level 4 DMI_OI North Sea and Baltic Sea Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis by the Danish...

  7. 16 MW under the seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mary, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the Nemo project (Nemo stands for New Energy for Martinique and Overseas) and its precursor project, Ner 300, developed in cooperation between Akuo Energy and DCNS, and which is financed by the European Bank for Investment. These projects aim at exploiting sea thermal energy. Ner 300 will exploit the 20 degree difference between surface waters (25 C) and deep waters (5 C at 1.000 m under sea level). The article evokes works performed by DCNS to develop a prototype near the Reunion Island. The principle and operation are briefly described, and technological challenges are outlined

  8. How SEA can inform lenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banhalmi-Zakar, Zsuzsa; Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    with identifying the financial incentives that ‘green’ projects attract. Although bank lending decisions apply to projects, examination of the lending practices of an Australian and a Hungarian bank have shown that decisions about the type of projects to target or avoid are also made at strategic level...... to inform bank lending decisions.......SEA can be a powerful tool to improve decision-making for plans, policies and programmes, but it can also be a useful for banks. SEA can help lenders address the reputational risks they are exposed to through financing projects that may have a negative impact on the environment and it can also help...

  9. North Sea oil directory 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    This edition of the North Sea Oil Directory has been revised to keep pace with the ever-changing North Sea industry. The information is grouped under the following topics: exploration and production; group licensees; Dutch and Norwegian licensees; UK Offshore Operators Association Committees; drilling contractors; offshore exploration and surveys; cement, drilling fluids, and related equipment; drilling equipment; prime mover, transmission equipment; production and process equipment; rig and platform equipment suppliers; rig builders, ship builders; rig and platform logistics; ports, supply bases; marine civil engineering; specialized equipment and services; classified index; and an alphabetical index. (MCW)

  10. Black Sea coastal forecasting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Kubryakov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea coastal nowcasting and forecasting system was built within the framework of EU FP6 ECOOP (European COastalshelf sea OPerational observing and forecasting system project for five regions: the south-western basin along the coasts of Bulgaria and Turkey, the north-western shelf along the Romanian and Ukrainian coasts, coastal zone around of the Crimea peninsula, the north-eastern Russian coastal zone and the coastal zone of Georgia. The system operates in the real-time mode during the ECOOP project and afterwards. The forecasts include temperature, salinity and current velocity fields. Ecosystem model operates in the off-line mode near the Crimea coast.

  11. Is sea-level rising?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    correction in the estimation of trends obtained for tide gauge records. The altimeter data permits to prepare spatial maps of sea-level rise trends. We present a map prepared for the Indian Ocean (Figure 4) north of 10oS , which shows a fairly uniform... drawn information from research papers published by the author and report of the IPCC AR5 WG1 Chapter 13: Sea Level Changes, in which the author has served as a ‘Lead Author’. Figure1 is prepared using data from the University of Colorado. Nerem, R...

  12. Egypt’s Red Sea Coast: Phylogenetic analysis of cultured microbial consortia in industrialized sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada A. Mustafa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Red Sea has a unique geography and ecosystem and its shores are very rich in mangrove, macro-algae and coral reefs. Different sources of pollution are affecting the Red Sea shores and waters which impacts biological life including microbial life. We assessed the effects of industrialization, along the Egyptian Red Sea coast in eight coastal sites and two lakes, on microbial life. The bacterial community in sediment samples was analyzed using bacterial 16S rDNApyrosequencing of V6-V4 hypervariable regions. Taxonomical assignment of 131,402 significant reads to major bacterial taxa revealed five main bacterial phyla dominating the sampled Red Sea sites. This includes Proteobacteria (68%, Firmicutes (13%, Fusobacteria (12%, Bacteriodetes (6% and Spirochetes (0.03%. Further analysis revealed distinct bacterial consortium formed mainly of: 1 marine Vibrio’s- suggesting a Marine Vibrio phenomenon 2 potential human pathogens and 3 oil-degrading bacteria. We discuss a distinct microbial consortium in Solar Lake West near Taba/Eilat and Saline Lake in Ras Muhammad; revealing the highest abundance of human pathogens versus no pathogens, respectively. Our results draw attention to the affects of industrialization on the Red Sea, and suggest further analysis to overcome hazardous affects on the impacted sites.

  13. Stickleback increase in the Baltic Sea - A thorny issue for coastal predatory fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Ulf; Olsson, Jens; Casini, Michele; Eriksson, Britas Klemens; Fredriksson, Ronny; Wennhage, Håkan; Appelberg, Magnus

    2015-09-01

    In the Baltic Sea, the mesopredator three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) spends a large part of its life cycle in the open sea, but reproduces in shallow coastal habitats. In coastal waters, it may occur in high abundances, is a potent predator on eggs and larvae of fish, and has been shown to induce trophic cascades with resulting eutrophication symptoms through regulation of invertebrate grazers. Despite its potential significance for the coastal food web, little is known about its life history and population ecology. This paper provides a description of life history traits, migration patterns and spatiotemporal development of the species in the Baltic Sea during the past decades, and tests the hypothesis that stickleback may have a negative impact on populations of coastal predatory fish. Offshore and coastal data during the last 30 years show that stickleback has increased fourfold in the Bothnian Sea, 45-fold in the Central Baltic Sea and sevenfold in the Southern Baltic Sea. The abundances are similar in the two northern basins, and two orders of magnitude lower in the Southern Baltic Sea. The coastward spawning migration of sticklebacks from offshore areas peaks in early May, with most spawners being two years of age at a mean length of 65 mm. The early juvenile stage is spent at the coast, whereafter sticklebacks perform a seaward feeding migration in early autumn at a size of around 35 mm. A negative spatial relation between the abundance of stickleback and early life stages of perch and pike at coastal spawning areas was observed in spatial survey data, indicating strong interactions between the species. A negative temporal relationship was observed also between adult perch and stickleback in coastal fish monitoring programmes supporting the hypothesis that stickleback may have negative population level effects on coastal fish predators. The recent increase in stickleback populations in different basins of the Baltic Sea in combination with

  14. Sea Turtle Research Program Summary Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The USACE Sea Turtle Research Program (STRP) was conducted to minimize the risk to sea turtle populations in channels along the southeast Atlantic region of the United States from hopper-dredging activities...

  15. Primary production in the Sulu Sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    its remotely sensed values from OCTS (Ocean Colour Temperature Scanner) are found to be in ... Although the Sulu Sea is more productive than the adjacent South China Sea, the central area ... surrounding ocean by a chain of islands.

  16. Sea turtles sightings in North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea turtles sightings are reported to the NMFS Beaufort Laboratory sea turtle program by the general public as they are fishing, boating, etc. These sightings...

  17. Comparative metagenomics of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    started monthly samplings of the metagenomes in the Red Sea under KAUST-CCF project. In collaboration with Kitasato University, we also collected the metagenome data from the ocean in Japan, which shows contrasting features to the Red Sea. Therefore

  18. 2010 USGS Lidar: Salton Sea (CA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The USGS Salton Sea project encompasses a 5-kilometer buffer around the Salton Sea, California. Dewberry classified LiDAR for a project boundary that touches 623...

  19. Nutrient Limitation in Central Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier

    2016-01-01

    Red Sea have characteristic heights of ~2 m, suggesting nutrient limitation. We assessed the nutrient status of mangrove stands in the Central Red Sea and conducted a fertilization experiment (N, P and Fe and various combinations thereof) on 4-week

  20. Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) dataset is a global monthly sea surface temperature analysis derived from the International Comprehensive...

  1. Quarterly Fishery Surveys - Salton Sea [ds428

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — In the spring of 2003, California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) personnel began quarterly sampling of Salton Sea fish at fourteen stations around the sea, as...

  2. Arctic Sea Ice Freeboard and Thickness

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides measurements of sea ice freeboard and sea ice thickness for the Arctic region. The data were derived from measurements made by from the Ice,...

  3. Warming shelf seas drive the subtropicalization of European pelagic fish communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Serra, Ignasi; Edwards, Martin; Genner, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Pelagic fishes are among the most ecologically and economically important fish species in European seas. In principle, these pelagic fishes have potential to demonstrate rapid abundance and distribution shifts in response to climatic variability due to their high adult motility, planktonic larval stages, and low dependence on benthic habitat for food or shelter during their life histories. Here, we provide evidence of substantial climate-driven changes to the structure of pelagic fish communities in European shelf seas. We investigated the patterns of species-level change using catch records from 57,870 fisheries-independent survey trawls from across European continental shelf region between 1965 and 2012. We analysed changes in the distribution and rate of occurrence of the six most common species, and observed a strong subtropicalization of the North Sea and Baltic Sea assemblages. These areas have shifted away from cold-water assemblages typically characterized by Atlantic herring and European sprat from the 1960s to 1980s, to warmer-water assemblages including Atlantic mackerel, Atlantic horse mackerel, European pilchard and European anchovy from the 1990s onwards. We next investigated if warming sea temperatures have forced these changes using temporally comprehensive data from the North Sea region. Our models indicated the primary driver of change in these species has been sea surface temperatures in all cases. Together, these analyses highlight how individual species responses have combined to result in a dramatic subtropicalization of the pelagic fish assemblage of the European continental shelf. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Possibilities of Production and Storage of Hydrogen in the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmet Haklidir; Fusun Servin Tut; Sule Kapkin

    2006-01-01

    Black Sea, a highly-isolated inland sea, is the largest anoxic zone in the world. Since the hydrogen sulphide zone was discovered in early 19. century in the Black Sea, it has been adopted that there is no life in the depths of the Black Sea and there are only bacteria live in the hydrogen sulphide layer. High content of organic matter, with maximum processes of bacterial sulfate reduction is the major source of this hydrogen sulphide zone. Hydrogen sulphide is one of the most poisonous gases in the world but it has great economic value to obtain hydrogen via dissociated into hydrogen and sulphur. Thus the Black Sea is not only has a serious environmental contamination but also has potential source of hydrogen energy, if a decomposition process can be developed. In this study, the sources of hydrogen sulphide, environmental impact of hydrogen sulphide in the Black Sea, the available techniques of hydrogen production from hydrogen sulphide and the possibilities of hydrogen storage by the natural sources in the Black Sea have been investigated. (authors)

  5. First satellite tracks of neonate sea turtles redefine the ‘lost years’ oceanic niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Katherine L.; Wyneken, Jeanette; Porter, Warren P.; Luo, Jiangang

    2014-01-01

    Few at-sea behavioural data exist for oceanic-stage neonate sea turtles, a life-stage commonly referred to as the sea turtle ‘lost years’. Historically, the long-term tracking of small, fast-growing organisms in the open ocean was logistically or technologically impossible. Here, we provide the first long-term satellite tracks of neonate sea turtles. Loggerheads (Caretta caretta) were remotely tracked in the Atlantic Ocean using small solar-powered satellite transmitters. We show that oceanic-stage turtles (i) rarely travel in Continental Shelf waters, (ii) frequently depart the currents associated with the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre, (iii) travel quickly when in Gyre currents, and (iv) select sea surface habitats that are likely to provide a thermal benefit or refuge to young sea turtles, supporting growth, foraging and survival. Our satellite tracks help define Atlantic loggerhead nursery grounds and early loggerhead habitat use, allowing us to re-examine sea turtle ‘lost years’ paradigms. PMID:24598420

  6. Temperature, salinity, and nutrients data collected from North Atlantic Ocean, White Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, and Sea of Azov from 1924-03-19 to 1989-11-19 by multiple Soviet Union institutes (NODC Accession 0077413)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, and nutrients data collected from North Atlantic Ocean, White Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, and Sea of Azov from 1924-03-19 to 1989-11-19...

  7. Io: Loki Patera as a Magma Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Dennis L.; Davies, Ashley Gerard; Veeder, Glenn J.; Rathbun, Julie A.; Johnson, Torrence V.; Castillo, Julie C.

    2006-01-01

    We develop a physical model for Loki Patera as a magma sea. We calculate the total volume of magma moving through the Loki Patera volcanic system every resurfacing cycle (approx.540 days) and the resulting variation in thermal emission. The rate of magma solidification at times reaches 3 x 10(exp 6) kg per second, with a total solidified volume averaging 100 cu km per year. A simulation of gas physical chemistry evolution yields the crust porosity profile and the timescale when it will become dense enough to founder in a manner consistent with observations. The Loki Patera surface temperature distribution shows that different areas are at different life cycle stages. On a regional scale, however, there can be coordinated activity, indicated by the wave of thermal change which progresses from Loki Patera's SW quadrant toward the NE at a rate of approx.1 km per day. Using the observed surface temperature distribution, we test several mechanisms for resurfacing Loki Patera, finding that resurfacing with lava flows is not realistic. Only the crustal foundering process is consistent with observations. These tests also discovered that sinking crust has a 'heat deficit' which promotes the solidification of additional magma onto the sinking plate ("bulking up"). In the limiting case, the mass of sinking material can increase to a mass of approx.3 times that of the foundering plate. With all this solid matter sinking, there is a compensating upward motion in the liquid magma. This can be in excess of 2 m per year. In this manner, solid-liquid convection is occurring in the sea.

  8. Modelling the extinction of Steller's sea cow

    OpenAIRE

    Turvey, S.T; Risley, C.L

    2005-01-01

    Steller's sea cow, a giant sirenian discovered in 1741 and extinct by 1768, is one of the few megafaunal mammal species to have died out during the historical period. The species is traditionally considered to have been exterminated by ‘blitzkrieg’-style direct overharvesting for food, but it has also been proposed that its extinction resulted from a sea urchin population explosion triggered by extirpation of local sea otter populations that eliminated the shallow-water kelps on which sea cow...

  9. Autonomous Sea-Ice Thickness Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    the conductivity of an infinitely thick slab of sea ice. Ice thickness, Hice, is then obtained by subtracting the height of the ...Thickness Survey of Sea Ice Runway” ERDC/CRREL SR-16-4 ii Abstract We conducted an autonomous survey of sea -ice thickness using the Polar rover Yeti...efficiency relative to manual surveys routinely con- ducted to assess the safety of roads and runways constructed on the sea ice. Yeti executed the

  10. Climatology of sea breezes along the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Basit; Abualnaja, Yasser; Al-Subhi, Abdullah M.; Nellayaputhenpeedika, Mohammedali; Nellikkattu Thody, Manoj; Sturman, Andrew P.

    2018-01-01

    and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) are used to investigate the climatology of sea breezes over the eastern side of the Red Sea region. Results show existence of separate sea breeze systems along different segments of the Red Sea coastline. Based on the physical

  11. Sea Surface Height Variability and Eddy Statistical Properties in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Satellite sea surface height (SSH) data over 1992-2012 are analyzed to study the spatial and temporal variability of sea level in the Red Sea. Empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) analysis suggests the remarkable seasonality of SSH in the Red Sea

  12. Monitoring sea level and sea surface temperature trends from ERS satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per; Beckley, B.

    2002-01-01

    Data from the two ESA satellites ERS-1 and ERS-2 are used in global and regional analysis of sea level and sea surface temperature trends over the last, 7.8 years. T he ERS satellites and in the future the ENVISAT satellite provide unique opportunity for monitoring both changes in sea level and sea...

  13. Risk Analysis Reveals Global Hotspots for Marine Debris Ingestion by Sea Turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Q. A.; Wilcox, C.; Townsend, K.; Wedemeyer-Strombel, K.; Balazs, G.; van Sebille, E.; Hardesty, B. D.

    2016-02-01

    Plastic marine debris pollution is rapidly becoming one of the critical environmental concerns facing wildlife in the 21st century. Here we present a risk analysis for plastic ingestion by sea turtles on a global scale. We combined global marine plastic distributions based on ocean drifter data with sea turtle habitat maps to predict exposure levels to plastic pollution. Empirical data from necropsies of deceased animals were then utilised to assess the consequence of exposure to plastics. We modelled the risk (probability of debris ingestion) by incorporating exposure to debris and consequence of exposure, and included life history stage, species of sea turtle, and date of stranding observation as possible additional explanatory factors. Life history stage is the best predictor of debris ingestion, but the best-fit model also incorporates encounter rates within a limited distance from stranding location, marine debris predictions specific to the date of the stranding study, and turtle species. There was no difference in ingestion rates between stranded turtles vs. those caught as bycatch from fishing activity, suggesting that stranded animals are not a biased representation of debris ingestion rates in the background population. Oceanic life-stage sea turtles are at the highest risk of debris ingestion, and olive ridley turtles are the most at-risk species. The regions of highest risk to global sea turtle populations are off of the east coasts of the USA, Australia, and South Africa; the east Indian Ocean, and Southeast Asia. Model results can be used to predict the number of sea turtles globally at risk of debris ingestion. Based on currently available data, initial calculations indicate that up to 52% of sea turtles may have ingested debris.

  14. Risk analysis reveals global hotspots for marine debris ingestion by sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Qamar A; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy A; Wedemeyer-Strombel, Kathryn R; Balazs, George; van Sebille, Erik; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2016-02-01

    Plastic marine debris pollution is rapidly becoming one of the critical environmental concerns facing wildlife in the 21st century. Here we present a risk analysis for plastic ingestion by sea turtles on a global scale. We combined global marine plastic distributions based on ocean drifter data with sea turtle habitat maps to predict exposure levels to plastic pollution. Empirical data from necropsies of deceased animals were then utilised to assess the consequence of exposure to plastics. We modelled the risk (probability of debris ingestion) by incorporating exposure to debris and consequence of exposure, and included life history stage, species of sea turtle and date of stranding observation as possible additional explanatory factors. Life history stage is the best predictor of debris ingestion, but the best-fit model also incorporates encounter rates within a limited distance from stranding location, marine debris predictions specific to the date of the stranding study and turtle species. There is no difference in ingestion rates between stranded turtles vs. those caught as bycatch from fishing activity, suggesting that stranded animals are not a biased representation of debris ingestion rates in the background population. Oceanic life-stage sea turtles are at the highest risk of debris ingestion, and olive ridley turtles are the most at-risk species. The regions of highest risk to global sea turtle populations are off of the east coasts of the USA, Australia and South Africa; the east Indian Ocean, and Southeast Asia. Model results can be used to predict the number of sea turtles globally at risk of debris ingestion. Based on currently available data, initial calculations indicate that up to 52% of sea turtles may have ingested debris. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Ecosystem function and services provided by the deep sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, A. R.; Sweetman, A. K.; Narayanaswamy, B. E.; Jones, D. O. B.; Ingels, J.; Hansman, R. L.

    2014-07-01

    The deep sea is often viewed as a vast, dark, remote, and inhospitable environment, yet the deep ocean and seafloor are crucial to our lives through the services that they provide. Our understanding of how the deep sea functions remains limited, but when treated synoptically, a diversity of supporting, provisioning, regulating and cultural services becomes apparent. The biological pump transports carbon from the atmosphere into deep-ocean water masses that are separated over prolonged periods, reducing the impact of anthropogenic carbon release. Microbial oxidation of methane keeps another potent greenhouse gas out of the atmosphere while trapping carbon in authigenic carbonates. Nutrient regeneration by all faunal size classes provides the elements necessary for fueling surface productivity and fisheries, and microbial processes detoxify a diversity of compounds. Each of these processes occur on a very small scale, yet considering the vast area over which they occur they become important for the global functioning of the ocean. The deep sea also provides a wealth of resources, including fish stocks, enormous bioprospecting potential, and elements and energy reserves that are currently being extracted and will be increasingly important in the near future. Society benefits from the intrigue and mystery, the strange life forms, and the great unknown that has acted as a muse for inspiration and imagination since near the beginning of civilization. While many functions occur on the scale of microns to meters and timescales up to years, the derived services that result are only useful after centuries of integrated activity. This vast dark habitat, which covers the majority of the globe, harbors processes that directly impact humans in a variety of ways; however, the same traits that differentiate it from terrestrial or shallow marine systems also result in a greater need for integrated spatial and temporal understanding as it experiences increased use by society. In

  16. Global sea turtle conservation successes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaris, Antonios D; Schofield, Gail; Gkazinou, Chrysoula; Almpanidou, Vasiliki; Hays, Graeme C

    2017-09-01

    We document a tendency for published estimates of population size in sea turtles to be increasing rather than decreasing across the globe. To examine the population status of the seven species of sea turtle globally, we obtained 299 time series of annual nesting abundance with a total of 4417 annual estimates. The time series ranged in length from 6 to 47 years (mean, 16.2 years). When levels of abundance were summed within regional management units (RMUs) for each species, there were upward trends in 12 RMUs versus downward trends in 5 RMUs. This prevalence of more upward than downward trends was also evident in the individual time series, where we found 95 significant increases in abundance and 35 significant decreases. Adding to this encouraging news for sea turtle conservation, we show that even small sea turtle populations have the capacity to recover, that is, Allee effects appear unimportant. Positive trends in abundance are likely linked to the effective protection of eggs and nesting females, as well as reduced bycatch. However, conservation concerns remain, such as the decline in leatherback turtles in the Eastern and Western Pacific. Furthermore, we also show that, often, time series are too short to identify trends in abundance. Our findings highlight the importance of continued conservation and monitoring efforts that underpin this global conservation success story.

  17. Ploughing the deep sea floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Pere; Canals, Miquel; Company, Joan B; Martín, Jacobo; Amblas, David; Lastras, Galderic; Palanques, Albert

    2012-09-13

    Bottom trawling is a non-selective commercial fishing technique whereby heavy nets and gear are pulled along the sea floor. The direct impact of this technique on fish populations and benthic communities has received much attention, but trawling can also modify the physical properties of seafloor sediments, water–sediment chemical exchanges and sediment fluxes. Most of the studies addressing the physical disturbances of trawl gear on the seabed have been undertaken in coastal and shelf environments, however, where the capacity of trawling to modify the seafloor morphology coexists with high-energy natural processes driving sediment erosion, transport and deposition. Here we show that on upper continental slopes, the reworking of the deep sea floor by trawling gradually modifies the shape of the submarine landscape over large spatial scales. We found that trawling-induced sediment displacement and removal from fishing grounds causes the morphology of the deep sea floor to become smoother over time, reducing its original complexity as shown by high-resolution seafloor relief maps. Our results suggest that in recent decades, following the industrialization of fishing fleets, bottom trawling has become an important driver of deep seascape evolution. Given the global dimension of this type of fishery, we anticipate that the morphology of the upper continental slope in many parts of the world’s oceans could be altered by intensive bottom trawling, producing comparable effects on the deep sea floor to those generated by agricultural ploughing on land.

  18. The politics of SEA indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    2013-01-01

    The use of indicators is not only technical and science-led, but also a value-laden social process, and thus concerns public participation, political judgment and decision-making. This article approaches the Chinese SEA indicator system from a science-policy interface and aims at: 1) contributing...

  19. Internal Waves, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Subsurface ocean currents, frequently referred to as internal waves, are frequently seen from space under the right lighting conditions when depth penetration can be achieved. These internal waves observed in the South China Sea off the SE coast of the island of Hainan (18.5N, 110.5E) visibly demonstrate turbidity in the ocean's depths at the confluence of conflicting currents.

  20. Killer storms from the seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    The author has discussed the distruction taking place due to cyclone in the Indian subcontinent of formation which is said to be the result of thermal fronts in the atmosphere and sea interaction of different air masses is discussed in detailed...

  1. Climate change challenges for SEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    This paper takes a theoretical perspective on the challenges that climate changes pose for SEA. The theoretical framework used is the sociologist Ulrich Beck’s theory of risk society and the aspects that characterise this society. Climate change is viewed as a risk, and the theory is used to derive...

  2. Meiofauna of the Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Total meiofauna of the Andaman Sea, in the depth range 30-2150m was between 68 and 438/10cm2 (X-bar = 247.8). The biomass was within the range 3.57 and 32.8mg/10cm 2 (X-bar = 14.46). faunal components were maximum in sandy sediments which contained...

  3. IAHR List of Sea Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Helm-Petersen, J; Klopman, G.

    1997-01-01

    A Working Group on multidirectional waves formed by the International Association for Hydraulic Research has proposed an update of the IAHR List of Sea State Parameters from 1986 in the part concerning directional. Especially wave structure interaction with reflection of the waves have been treated....

  4. A Deep-Sea Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Georgia E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity that simulates exploration techniques used in deep-sea explorations and teaches students how this technology can be used to take a closer look inside volcanoes, inspect hazardous waste sites such as nuclear reactors, and explore other environments dangerous to humans. (DDR)

  5. Salton Sea Ecosystem Monitoring Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, A. Keith; Ricca, Mark A.; Meckstroth, Anne; Spring, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    The Salton Sea is critically important for wintering and breeding waterbirds, but faces an uncertain future due to water delivery reductions imposed by the Interstate and Federal Quantification Settlement Agreement of 2003. The current preferred alternative for wetland restoration at the Salton Sea is saline habitat impoundments created to mitigate the anticipated loss of wetland habitat. In 2006, a 50-hectare experimental complex that consisted of four inter-connected, shallow water saline habitat ponds (SHP) was constructed at the southeastern shoreline of the Salton Sea and flooded with blended waters from the Alamo River and Salton Sea. The present study evaluated ecological risks and benefits of the SHP concept prior to widespread restoration actions. This study was designed to evaluate (1) baseline chemical, nutrient, and contaminant measures from physical and biological constituents, (2) aquatic invertebrate community structure and colonization patterns, and (3) productivity of and contaminant risks to nesting waterbirds at the SHP. These factors were evaluated and compared with those of nearby waterbird habitat, that is, reference sites.

  6. Ecologically least vulnerable sites for exploration drilling in the Wadden Sea and the North Sea coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeboom, H.J.; Bergman, M.J.N.; De Gee, A.

    1996-01-01

    The Dutch Oil Company (NAM, abbreviated in Dutch) applied for a number of exploration drilling in the Dutch part of the Wadden Sea and the North Sea coastal area. NAM is obliged to draft a so-called MER (environmental impact report) to indicate the most environment-friendly alternative for the test drilling. By order of NAM, NIOZ and the IBN-DLO (Institute for Research on Forests and Nature) analyzed samples of the animal life in all the potential sites. Based on the results of the analyses, literature and expert knowledge the ecologically least vulnerable sites and the ecologically least vulnerable season were selected during a workshop. In this report the results are given of the workshop, the field sample analyses and a sailing trip along the sites

  7. [Multiple scattering of visible and infrared light by sea fog over wind driving rough sea surface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xian-Ming; Wang, Hai-Hua; Lei, Cheng-Xin; Shen, Jin

    2013-08-01

    The present paper is concerned with computing the multiple scattering characteristics of a sea fog-sea surface couple system within this context. The single scattering characteristics of sea fog were studied by Mie theory, and the multiple scattering of sunlight by single sea fog layer was studied by radiative transfer theory. The reflection function of a statistically rough ocean surface was obtained using the standard Kirchhoff formulation, with shadowing effects taken into account. The reflection properties of the combined sea fog and ocean surface were obtained employing the adding method, and the results indicated that the reflected light intensity of sea fog increased with the sea background.

  8. 50 CFR 223.205 - Sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sea turtles. 223.205 Section 223.205... Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.205 Sea turtles. (a) The prohibitions of section 9 of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1538) relating to endangered species apply to threatened species of sea turtle, except as...

  9. Parasites in the Wadden Sea food web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thieltges, D.W.; Engelsma, M.Y.; Wendling, C.C.; Wegner, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    While the free-living fauna of the Wadden Sea has received much interest, little is known on the distribution and effects of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. However, recent studies on this special type of trophic interaction indicate a high diversity of parasites in the Wadden Sea and suggest

  10. OW NASA SeaWIFS Ocean Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains satellite-derived sea-surface ocean color (chlorophyll-a) measurements collected by means of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS)...

  11. Personel and life coaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael

    2018-01-01

    Personal coaching and life-coaching psychology is for assisting individuals clarify values, visions and meaning of life, through a systematic process in which the coach facilitates improvement of satisfying and fruitful life experiences and achievement of personal life goals....

  12. Vision in the deep sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric J; Locket, N Adam

    2004-08-01

    The deep sea is the largest habitat on earth. Its three great faunal environments--the twilight mesopelagic zone, the dark bathypelagic zone and the vast flat expanses of the benthic habitat--are home to a rich fauna of vertebrates and invertebrates. In the mesopelagic zone (150-1000 m), the down-welling daylight creates an extended scene that becomes increasingly dimmer and bluer with depth. The available daylight also originates increasingly from vertically above, and bioluminescent point-source flashes, well contrasted against the dim background daylight, become increasingly visible. In the bathypelagic zone below 1000 m no daylight remains, and the scene becomes entirely dominated by point-like bioluminescence. This changing nature of visual scenes with depth--from extended source to point source--has had a profound effect on the designs of deep-sea eyes, both optically and neurally, a fact that until recently was not fully appreciated. Recent measurements of the sensitivity and spatial resolution of deep-sea eyes--particularly from the camera eyes of fishes and cephalopods and the compound eyes of crustaceans--reveal that ocular designs are well matched to the nature of the visual scene at any given depth. This match between eye design and visual scene is the subject of this review. The greatest variation in eye design is found in the mesopelagic zone, where dim down-welling daylight and bio-luminescent point sources may be visible simultaneously. Some mesopelagic eyes rely on spatial and temporal summation to increase sensitivity to a dim extended scene, while others sacrifice this sensitivity to localise pinpoints of bright bioluminescence. Yet other eyes have retinal regions separately specialised for each type of light. In the bathypelagic zone, eyes generally get smaller and therefore less sensitive to point sources with increasing depth. In fishes, this insensitivity, combined with surprisingly high spatial resolution, is very well adapted to the

  13. Variation in organotin accumulation in relation to the life history in the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohji, Madoka; Harino, Hiroya; Arai, Takaomi

    2009-08-01

    In order to examine the ecological risks caused by organotin compounds (OTs) in diadromous fish migrating between sea and freshwaters, tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) compounds and their breakdown products were determined in the catadromous eel Anguilla japonica, which has sea, estuarine and river life histories, collected in Japanese sea, brackish and freshwaters within the same region. Ontogenic changes in otolith strontium (Sr) and calcium (Ca) concentrations were examined along the life history transect to discriminate the migration type. There were generally three different patterns, which were categorized as 'sea eels', 'estuarine eels' and 'river eels' according to the otolith Sr:Ca ratio. The concentrations of TBT in silver eels (mature eels) were significantly higher than that in yellow eels (immature eels), and the percentages of TBT were also higher in silver eels than in yellow eels. A positive correlation was found between TBT concentration and the gonad-somatic index (GSI). It is thus considered that silver eels have a higher risk of contamination by TBT than yellow eels. TBT and TPT concentrations in sea eels were significantly higher than those in river eels, while no significant differences were observed in TBT and TPT concentrations in estuarine eels compared to sea and river eels. These results suggest that sea eels have a higher ecological risk of OT contamination than river eels during their life history, and the risk of OTs in estuarine eels is considered to be intermediate between that of sea and river eels. Positive linear relationships were found between Sr:Ca ratios and the concentrations of TBT and TPT. Therefore, these results suggest that the ecological risk of OTs increase as the sea residence period in the eel becomes longer. TBT and TPT concentrations in sea eels were significantly higher than those in river eels even at the same growth stage. Thus, it is clear that migratory type is the most important factor for OT

  14. Origin of life and living matter in hot mineral water

    OpenAIRE

    Ignatov, Ignat; Mosin, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    In this review the composition of water and isotopic structure of water during a process of origin of life is submitted. The data obtained testify that life maintenance depends on physical-chemical properties of water and external factors – temperature and рН. Hot mineral alkaline water, which interacts with CaCO 3 is closest to these conditions. Next in line with regard to quality is sea and mountain water.

  15. Temperature affects the timing of spawning and migration of North Sea mackerel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Gislason, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Climate change accentuates the need for knowing how temperature impacts the life history and productivity of economically and ecologically important species of fish. We examine the influence of temperature on the timing of the spawning and migrations of North Sea Mackerel using data from larvae C...

  16. Persistence and fate of some organophosphorus pesticides in sea sediments along east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; SenGupta, R.

    and fate of these pesticides Rate of hydrolysis of these pesticides in freshwater, brackish water and sea-sediments followed the path of pseudo first order reaction The rate constants (K1) and the half life periods (T2) of these pesticides were determined...

  17. Hemingway's Language Style and Writing Techniques in "The Old Man and the Sea"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yaochen

    2008-01-01

    Among many great American writers, Hemingway is famous for his objective and terse prose style. As all the novels Hemingway published in his life, "The Old Man and the Sea" typically reflects his unique writing style. The language is simple and natural on the surface, but actually deliberate and artificial. Hemingway's style is related…

  18. Thermal biology of sea snakes and sea kraits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatwole, Harold; Grech, Alana; Monahan, John F; King, Susan; Marsh, Helene

    2012-08-01

    Temperature probably had no direct effect on the evolution of sea kraits within their center of origin, a geologically stable thermal zone straddling the equator, but may have indirectly affected expansions and contractions in distributions beyond that zone through global fluctuations that caused alternation of higher and lower sea levels. The northern limit of the Laticauda colubrina complex seems to be the 20°C isotherm; in the south, the range does not reach that isotherm because there is no land (also a habitat requirement of sea kraits) within the zone of suitable temperature. The relationship of temperature to the pattern of geographic variation in morphology supports either the hypothesis of peripheral convergence or the developmental hypothesis but does not distinguish between them. Quadratic surfaces relating cumulative scores for coloration and morphological characters to global position showed a strong latitudinal component and an even stronger longitudinal one in which the direction of the latitudinal effect was reversed between east and west. A multivariate analysis revealed that while morphological characters vary significantly by location and climate when tested separately, when the influence of location on morphology is taken into account, no residual relationship between climate and morphology remains. Most marine snakes have mean upper temperature tolerances between 39°C and 40°C and operate at temperatures much nearer their upper thermal limits than their lower limits but still avoid deleterious extremes by diving from excessively hot water to deeper, cooler strata, and by surfacing when water is cold. At the surface in still water in sunlight, Pelamis can maintain its body temperature slightly above that of the water, but whether this is significant in nature is questionable. As temperature falls below 18-20°C, survival time is progressively reduced, accompanied by the successive occurrence of cessation of feeding, cessation of swimming, and

  19. Situation in the sea area between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Situationen i havsomraadet mellan Nordsjoen och Oestersjoen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dybern, B.I.; Soederstroem, J.; Thorell, L.

    1984-01-01

    Due to the special topographical and hydrological features the seas surrounding Sweden are very sensitive to both natural changes and changes caused by man. The sea area between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea has come into focus during the last few decades due to problems with pollution and its impact on the ecosystems and to overfishing of some commer- cially important species. In order to elucidate the present situation from the Swedish viewpoint, the National Board of Fisheries, the National Environment Protection Board and the County Council of the County Goeteborg and Bohyslaen arranged a Symposium on the Situation in the Sea Area between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea in Goeteborg, 14-16 March, 1983. This volume contains lectures given at that Symposium. In most cases there are English summaries and English translations of texts to figures and tables.

  20. Corrosion behaviour of non-ferrous metals in sea water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birn, Jerzy; Skalski, Igor [Ship Design and Research Centre, Al. Rzeczypospolitej 8, 80-369 Gdansk (Poland)

    2004-07-01

    caused by a significant difference of corrosion potentials of aluminium alloy and most of metals used in technical applications. Exfoliation is observed mainly in case of Al-Zn-Mg alloys after welding. Corrosion in the presence of OH- ions occurs usually as an effect of application of cathodic protection of aluminium alloys in the over-protected zone. For most of the above mentioned alloys models of corrosion phenomena are presented. Furthermore, the long term prediction of applied alloys life in sea water is discussed. At the end of the paper areas of future studies are presented. (authors)

  1. Essential coastal habitats for fish in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraufvelin, Patrik; Pekcan-Hekim, Zeynep; Bergström, Ulf; Florin, Ann-Britt; Lehikoinen, Annukka; Mattila, Johanna; Arula, Timo; Briekmane, Laura; Brown, Elliot John; Celmer, Zuzanna; Dainys, Justas; Jokinen, Henri; Kääriä, Petra; Kallasvuo, Meri; Lappalainen, Antti; Lozys, Linas; Möller, Peter; Orio, Alessandro; Rohtla, Mehis; Saks, Lauri; Snickars, Martin; Støttrup, Josianne; Sundblad, Göran; Taal, Imre; Ustups, Didzis; Verliin, Aare; Vetemaa, Markus; Winkler, Helmut; Wozniczka, Adam; Olsson, Jens

    2018-05-01

    Many coastal and offshore fish species are highly dependent on specific habitat types for population maintenance. In the Baltic Sea, shallow productive habitats in the coastal zone such as wetlands, vegetated flads/lagoons and sheltered bays as well as more exposed rocky and sandy areas are utilized by fish across many life history stages including spawning, juvenile development, feeding and migration. Although there is general consensus about the critical importance of these essential fish habitats (EFH) for fish production along the coast, direct quantitative evidence for their specific roles in population growth and maintenance is still scarce. Nevertheless, for some coastal species, indirect evidence exists, and in many cases, sufficient data are also available to carry out further quantitative analyses. As coastal EFH in the Baltic Sea are often found in areas that are highly utilized and valued by humans, they are subjected to many different pressures. While cumulative pressures, such as eutrophication, coastal construction and development, climate change, invasive species and fisheries, impact fish in coastal areas, the conservation coverage for EFH in these areas remains poor. This is mainly due to the fact that historically, fisheries management and nature conservation are not integrated neither in research nor in management in Baltic Sea countries. Setting joint objectives for fisheries management and nature conservation would hence be pivotal for improved protection of EFH in the Baltic Sea. To properly inform management, improvements in the development of monitoring strategies and mapping methodology for EFH are also needed. Stronger international cooperation between Baltic Sea states will facilitate improved management outcomes across ecologically arbitrary boundaries. This is especially important for successful implementation of international agreements and legislative directives such as the Baltic Sea Action Plan, the Marine Strategy Framework

  2. The Mediterranean Sea Mollusks - a school shell collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Delia

    2017-04-01

    School: 1. "Ana Aslan" Technical College, Street Decebal 1, Cluj-Napoca, Romania 2. Orthodox Theological Seminary, Avram Iancu Square No.18, Cluj-Napoca, Romania The aim of the present project is to develop the students awareness of human activities impact on mollusks population in the Mediterranean Sea. Students have studied about the Geography of the Mediterranean Sea and they have the theoretical knowledge related to the its specific flora and fauna. One of the main fears related to the Mediterranean Sea is the loss of marine and coastal biodiversity due to biological disturbance, climate change and human activities. Out of all reasons, the human impact is considered to be the major cause of habitat loss, degradation and extinction. Regarding the Phylum Mollusca a major threat is represented by unregulated fisheries and shell traffic. In order to enable the students possibility to observe the great diversity of the Phylum Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea, a school shell collection was made. The shells were brought by the students and they had to mention if the shells were bought, received as a souvenir or picked from their environment. Further, the students learned how to prepare the shells for the collection. The next step involved the shell classification and by this activity the students learned how to use the IUCN: International Union for Conservation of Nature database to identify the threatened species, as well as the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) for a correct identification of the species. As Romania romania bordering the Black Sea, the students had the opportunity to identify the mollusks species common for both the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. The objectives of this study were to highlight the human-environment relation and the interconnection between environment conditions and life quality, to develop the students research, exploration and investigation skills, to be able to identify the causes of species extinction and methods

  3. Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen, Phosphate, pH and Alkalinity data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean, Baltic Sea, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea and White Sea from R/Vs Artemovsk, Atlantida, Okeanograf, Professor Rudovits, and ice observations, 1957 - 1995 (NODC Accession 0073674)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen, Phosphate, pH and Alkalinity data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean, Baltic Sea, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, North Sea, Norwegian...

  4. A scattering approach to sea wave diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, M. L., E-mail: letizia.corradini@unicam.it; Garbuglia, M., E-mail: milena.garbuglia@unicam.it; Maponi, P., E-mail: pierluigi.maponi@unicam.it [University of Camerino, via Madonna delle Carceri, 9, 62032, Camerino (Italy); Ruggeri, M., E-mail: ru.marco@faggiolatipumps.it [Faggiolati Pumps S.p.A., Z.Ind Sforzacosta, 62100, Macerata (Italy)

    2016-06-08

    This paper intends to show a model for the diffraction of sea waves approaching an OWC device, which converts the sea waves motion into mechanical energy and then electrical energy. This is a preliminary study to the optimisation of the device, in fact the computation of sea waves diffraction around the device allows the estimation of the sea waves energy which enters into the device. The computation of the diffraction phenomenon is the result of a sea waves scattering problem, solved with an integral equation method.

  5. Deglacial sea level history of the East Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas M.; O'Regan, Matt; Pearce, Christof; Gemery, Laura; Toomey, Michael; Semiletov, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Deglacial (12.8–10.7 ka) sea level history on the East Siberian continental shelf and upper continental slope was reconstructed using new geophysical records and sediment cores taken during Leg 2 of the 2014 SWERUS-C3 expedition. The focus of this study is two cores from Herald Canyon, piston core SWERUS-L2-4-PC1 (4-PC1) and multicore SWERUS-L2-4-MC1 (4-MC1), and a gravity core from an East Siberian Sea transect, SWERUS-L2-20-GC1 (20-GC1). Cores 4-PC1 and 20-GC were taken at 120 and 115 m of modern water depth, respectively, only a few meters above the global last glacial maximum (LGM;  ∼  24 kiloannum or ka) minimum sea level of  ∼  125–130 meters below sea level (m b.s.l.). Using calibrated radiocarbon ages mainly on molluscs for chronology and the ecology of benthic foraminifera and ostracode species to estimate paleodepths, the data reveal a dominance of river-proximal species during the early part of the Younger Dryas event (YD, Greenland Stadial GS-1) followed by a rise in river-intermediate species in the late Younger Dryas or the early Holocene (Preboreal) period. A rapid relative sea level rise beginning at roughly 11.4 to 10.8 ka ( ∼  400 cm of core depth) is indicated by a sharp faunal change and unconformity or condensed zone of sedimentation. Regional sea level at this time was about 108 m b.s.l. at the 4-PC1 site and 102 m b.s.l. at 20-GC1. Regional sea level near the end of the YD was up to 42–47 m lower than predicted by geophysical models corrected for glacio-isostatic adjustment. This discrepancy could be explained by delayed isostatic adjustment caused by a greater volume and/or geographical extent of glacial-age land ice and/or ice shelves in the western Arctic Ocean and adjacent Siberian land areas.

  6. Deglacial sea level history of the East Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Cronin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Deglacial (12.8–10.7 ka sea level history on the East Siberian continental shelf and upper continental slope was reconstructed using new geophysical records and sediment cores taken during Leg 2 of the 2014 SWERUS-C3 expedition. The focus of this study is two cores from Herald Canyon, piston core SWERUS-L2-4-PC1 (4-PC1 and multicore SWERUS-L2-4-MC1 (4-MC1, and a gravity core from an East Siberian Sea transect, SWERUS-L2-20-GC1 (20-GC1. Cores 4-PC1 and 20-GC were taken at 120 and 115 m of modern water depth, respectively, only a few meters above the global last glacial maximum (LGM;  ∼  24 kiloannum or ka minimum sea level of  ∼  125–130 meters below sea level (m b.s.l.. Using calibrated radiocarbon ages mainly on molluscs for chronology and the ecology of benthic foraminifera and ostracode species to estimate paleodepths, the data reveal a dominance of river-proximal species during the early part of the Younger Dryas event (YD, Greenland Stadial GS-1 followed by a rise in river-intermediate species in the late Younger Dryas or the early Holocene (Preboreal period. A rapid relative sea level rise beginning at roughly 11.4 to 10.8 ka ( ∼  400 cm of core depth is indicated by a sharp faunal change and unconformity or condensed zone of sedimentation. Regional sea level at this time was about 108 m b.s.l. at the 4-PC1 site and 102 m b.s.l. at 20-GC1. Regional sea level near the end of the YD was up to 42–47 m lower than predicted by geophysical models corrected for glacio-isostatic adjustment. This discrepancy could be explained by delayed isostatic adjustment caused by a greater volume and/or geographical extent of glacial-age land ice and/or ice shelves in the western Arctic Ocean and adjacent Siberian land areas.

  7. Deglacial sea level history of the East Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas M.; O'Regan, Matt; Pearce, Christof; Gemery, Laura; Toomey, Michael; Semiletov, Igor; Jakobsson, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Deglacial (12.8-10.7 ka) sea level history on the East Siberian continental shelf and upper continental slope was reconstructed using new geophysical records and sediment cores taken during Leg 2 of the 2014 SWERUS-C3 expedition. The focus of this study is two cores from Herald Canyon, piston core SWERUS-L2-4-PC1 (4-PC1) and multicore SWERUS-L2-4-MC1 (4-MC1), and a gravity core from an East Siberian Sea transect, SWERUS-L2-20-GC1 (20-GC1). Cores 4-PC1 and 20-GC were taken at 120 and 115 m of modern water depth, respectively, only a few meters above the global last glacial maximum (LGM; ˜ 24 kiloannum or ka) minimum sea level of ˜ 125-130 meters below sea level (m b.s.l.). Using calibrated radiocarbon ages mainly on molluscs for chronology and the ecology of benthic foraminifera and ostracode species to estimate paleodepths, the data reveal a dominance of river-proximal species during the early part of the Younger Dryas event (YD, Greenland Stadial GS-1) followed by a rise in river-intermediate species in the late Younger Dryas or the early Holocene (Preboreal) period. A rapid relative sea level rise beginning at roughly 11.4 to 10.8 ka ( ˜ 400 cm of core depth) is indicated by a sharp faunal change and unconformity or condensed zone of sedimentation. Regional sea level at this time was about 108 m b.s.l. at the 4-PC1 site and 102 m b.s.l. at 20-GC1. Regional sea level near the end of the YD was up to 42-47 m lower than predicted by geophysical models corrected for glacio-isostatic adjustment. This discrepancy could be explained by delayed isostatic adjustment caused by a greater volume and/or geographical extent of glacial-age land ice and/or ice shelves in the western Arctic Ocean and adjacent Siberian land areas.

  8. Habituation of adult sea lamprey repeatedly exposed to damage-released alarm and predator cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imre, Istvan; Di Rocco, Richard T.; Brown, Grant E.; Johnson, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Predation is an unforgiving selective pressure affecting the life history, morphology and behaviour of prey organisms. Selection should favour organisms that have the ability to correctly assess the information content of alarm cues. This study investigated whether adult sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus habituate to conspecific damage-released alarm cues (fresh and decayed sea lamprey extract), a heterospecific damage-released alarm cue (white sucker Catostomus commersoniiextract), predator cues (Northern water snake Nerodia sipedon washing, human saliva and 2-phenylethylamine hydrochloride (PEA HCl)) and a conspecific damage-released alarm cue and predator cue combination (fresh sea lamprey extract and human saliva) after they were pre-exposed 4 times or 8 times, respectively, to a given stimulus the previous night. Consistent with our prediction, adult sea lamprey maintained an avoidance response to conspecific damage-released alarm cues (fresh and decayed sea lamprey extract), a predator cue presented at high relative concentration (PEA HCl) and a conspecific damage-released alarm cue and predator cue combination (fresh sea lamprey extract plus human saliva), irrespective of previous exposure level. As expected, adult sea lamprey habituated to a sympatric heterospecific damage-released alarm cue (white sucker extract) and a predator cue presented at lower relative concentration (human saliva). Adult sea lamprey did not show any avoidance of the Northern water snake washing and the Amazon sailfin catfish extract (heterospecific control). This study suggests that conspecific damage-released alarm cues and PEA HCl present the best options as natural repellents in an integrated management program aimed at controlling the abundance of sea lamprey in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  9. Black Sea and Caspian Sea, Symposium II, Constanta, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Great, the Bronze Horseman . You may have heard me quote this before, but Pushkin in his poem “Th e Bronze Horseman ,” asks rhe- torically “Whither dost...mile down the embankment from the Bronze Horseman in front of the Admiralty Building in Petersburg. It commemorates the Czarist Foreign Minister...need for a coordinated approach to broader political developments in the Black and Caspian Sea regions. Th e December 21, 2006 death of

  10. The distribution and diversity of sea cucumbers in the coral reefs of the South China Sea, Sulu Sea and Sulawesi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sau Pinn; Yasin, Zulfigar; Ismail, Siti Hasmah; Tan, Shau Hwai

    2013-11-01

    A study on the distribution and diversity of sea cucumbers in the coral reefs of the South China Sea, Sulu Sea and Sulawesi Sea was carried out in July 2009. The survey was done using wandering transect underwater with SCUBA. Twelve species of sea cucumber were found from four different families and nine genera. The most dominant family was Holothuriidae (five species), followed by Stichopodidae (three species), Synaptidae (three species) and Cucumariidae with only one species. The most dominant species found around the island was Pearsonothuria graffei, which can be found abundantly on substrate of dead corals in a wide range of depth (6-15 m). The Sulawesi Sea showed a higher diversity of sea cucumber with seven different species compared to the South China Sea with only six different species and Sulu Sea with only two species. Ordination by multidimensional scaling of Bray-Curtis similarities clustered the sampling locations to three main clusters with two outgroups. Previous studies done indicated a higher diversity of sea cucumber as compared to this study. This can be indication that the population and diversity of sea cucumbers in the reef is under threat.

  11. Sea Cucumber (Holothuroidea Species of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet AYDIN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There are nearly 1200 sea cucumber species in the world oceans, while only 37 species from Holothuroidea class lives in the Mediterranean Sea. This preliminary study aims identification sea cucumbers species of the Turkish waters. The sea cucumber samples used in this study were obtained from a series of different studies between the years of 2008 and 2014. Identification of the species are mainly based on the morphometric characteristics while some of species are determined from their calcareous spicules. Eight sea species were identified in this research which are; Holothuria tubulosa, Holothuria polii, Holothuria mammata, Holothuria (Platyperona sanctori, Holothuria forskali, Stichopus regalis, Synaptula reciprocans and Stereoderma kirschbergi. There are limited number of studies in the literature focusing on the identification of the sea cucumber species spread in our seas. Therefore, this study is believed to play an important role in guiding future researches.

  12. Trusted Cells: A Sea Change for Personal Data Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anciaux, Nicolas; Bouganim, Luc; Nquyen, Benjamin

    How do you keep a secret about your personal life in an age where your daughter's glasses record and share everything she senses, your wallet records and shares your financial transactions, and your set-top box records and shares your family's energy consumption? Your personal data has become......, could trigger a sea change. We propose the vision of trusted cells: personal data servers running on secure smart phones, set-top boxes, secure portable tokens or smart cards to form a global, decentralized data platform that provides security yet enables innovative applications. We motivate our...

  13. Hearing in the Juvenile Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas: A Comparison of Underwater and Aerial Hearing Using Auditory Evoked Potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy E D Piniak

    Full Text Available Sea turtles spend much of their life in aquatic environments, but critical portions of their life cycle, such as nesting and hatching, occur in terrestrial environments, suggesting that it may be important for them to detect sounds in both air and water. In this study we compared underwater and aerial hearing sensitivities in five juvenile green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas by measuring auditory evoked potential responses to tone pip stimuli. Green sea turtles detected acoustic stimuli in both media, responding to underwater stimuli between 50 and 1600 Hz and aerial stimuli between 50 and 800 Hz, with maximum sensitivity between 200 and 400 Hz underwater and 300 and 400 Hz in air. When underwater and aerial hearing sensitivities were compared in terms of pressure, green sea turtle aerial sound pressure thresholds were lower than underwater thresholds, however they detected a wider range of frequencies underwater. When thresholds were compared in terms of sound intensity, green sea turtle sound intensity level thresholds were 2-39 dB lower underwater particularly at frequencies below 400 Hz. Acoustic stimuli may provide important environmental cues for sea turtles. Further research is needed to determine how sea turtles behaviorally and physiologically respond to sounds in their environment.

  14. The Greenlandic Life Script and Life Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaragoza Scherman, Alejandra; Berntsen, Dorthe

    Adults older than 40 years remember a significantly greater amount of personal life events from their 15 - 30 years of age. This phenomenon is known as the reminiscence bump (Rubin, Rahal, & Poon, 1998). The reminiscence bump is highly populated by emotionally positive events (Rubin & Berntsen......, 2003), when cued by requests for important events. This dominance of positive events is not seen when cued by random words. Berntsen and Rubin (2004) presented a cultural explanation for the bump: cultural life script theory. Their theory claims that the bump for the life story can be explained...... by the life script; that is, culturally shared expectations about the order and timing of life events in an typical, idealized life course. According to the cultural life script theory, the life script is used as a guideline for the recall of autobiographical memories, which help construct personal life...

  15. Modelling the increased frequency of extreme sea levels in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta due to sea level rise and other effects of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, S; Caesar, J; Wolf, J; Bricheno, L; Nicholls, R J; Saiful Islam, A K M; Haque, A; Pardaens, A; Lowe, J A

    2015-07-01

    Coastal flooding due to storm surge and high tides is a serious risk for inhabitants of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) delta, as much of the land is close to sea level. Climate change could lead to large areas of land being subject to increased flooding, salinization and ultimate abandonment in West Bengal, India, and Bangladesh. IPCC 5th assessment modelling of sea level rise and estimates of subsidence rates from the EU IMPACT2C project suggest that sea level in the GBM delta region may rise by 0.63 to 0.88 m by 2090, with some studies suggesting this could be up to 0.5 m higher if potential substantial melting of the West Antarctic ice sheet is included. These sea level rise scenarios lead to increased frequency of high water coastal events. Any effect of climate change on the frequency and severity of storms can also have an effect on extreme sea levels. A shelf-sea model of the Bay of Bengal has been used to investigate how the combined effect of sea level rise and changes in other environmental conditions under climate change may alter the frequency of extreme sea level events for the period 1971 to 2099. The model was forced using atmospheric and oceanic boundary conditions derived from climate model projections and the future scenario increase in sea level was applied at its ocean boundary. The model results show an increased likelihood of extreme sea level events through the 21st century, with the frequency of events increasing greatly in the second half of the century: water levels that occurred at decadal time intervals under present-day model conditions occurred in most years by the middle of the 21st century and 3-15 times per year by 2100. The heights of the most extreme events tend to increase more in the first half of the century than the second. The modelled scenarios provide a case study of how sea level rise and other effects of climate change may combine to produce a greatly increased threat to life and property in the GBM delta by the end

  16. Variability and Trends in Sea Ice Extent and Ice Production in the Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino; Kwok, Ronald; Martin, Seelye; Gordon, Arnold L.

    2011-01-01

    Salt release during sea ice formation in the Ross Sea coastal regions is regarded as a primary forcing for the regional generation of Antarctic Bottom Water. Passive microwave data from November 1978 through 2008 are used to examine the detailed seasonal and interannual characteristics of the sea ice cover of the Ross Sea and the adjacent Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas. For this period the sea ice extent in the Ross Sea shows the greatest increase of all the Antarctic seas. Variability in the ice cover in these regions is linked to changes in the Southern Annular Mode and secondarily to the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave. Over the Ross Sea shelf, analysis of sea ice drift data from 1992 to 2008 yields a positive rate of increase in the net ice export of about 30,000 sq km/yr. For a characteristic ice thickness of 0.6 m, this yields a volume transport of about 20 cu km/yr, which is almost identical, within error bars, to our estimate of the trend in ice production. The increase in brine rejection in the Ross Shelf Polynya associated with the estimated increase with the ice production, however, is not consistent with the reported Ross Sea salinity decrease. The locally generated sea ice enhancement of Ross Sea salinity may be offset by an increase of relatively low salinity of the water advected into the region from the Amundsen Sea, a consequence of increased precipitation and regional glacial ice melt.

  17. Micromechanics of Sea Urchin spines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Tsafnat

    Full Text Available The endoskeletal structure of the Sea Urchin, Centrostephanus rodgersii, has numerous long spines whose known functions include locomotion, sensing, and protection against predators. These spines have a remarkable internal microstructure and are made of single-crystal calcite. A finite-element model of the spine's unique porous structure, based on micro-computed tomography (microCT and incorporating anisotropic material properties, was developed to study its response to mechanical loading. Simulations show that high stress concentrations occur at certain points in the spine's architecture; brittle cracking would likely initiate in these regions. These analyses demonstrate that the organization of single-crystal calcite in the unique, intricate morphology of the sea urchin spine results in a strong, stiff and lightweight structure that enhances its strength despite the brittleness of its constituent material.

  18. Scaling the Baltic Sea environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    2008-01-01

    of this development, this article suggests that environmental politics critically depend on the delineation of relatively bounded spaces that identify and situate particular environmental concerns as spatial objects for politics. These spaces are not simply determined by ‘nature' or some environmental......The Baltic Sea environment has since the early 1970s passed through several phases of spatial objectification in which the ostensibly well-defined semi-enclosed sea has been framed and reframed as a geographical object for intergovernmental environmental politics. Based on a historical analysis......-scientific logic, but should rather be seen as temporal outcomes of scale framing processes, processes that are accentuated by contemporary conceptions of the environment (or nature) in terms of multi-scalar ecosystems. This has implications for how an environmental concern is perceived and politically addressed....

  19. Generic Hurricane Extreme Seas State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehmeyer, Christof; Skourup, Jesper; Frigaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Extreme sea states, which the IEC 61400-3 (2008) standard requires for the ultimate limit state (ULS) analysis of offshore wind turbines are derived to establish the design basis for the conceptual layout of deep water floating offshore wind turbine foundations in hurricane affected areas....... Especially in the initial phase of floating foundation concept development, site specific metocean data are usually not available. As the areas of interest are furthermore not covered by any design standard, in terms of design sea states, generic and in engineering terms applicable environmental background...... data is required for a type specific conceptual design. ULS conditions for different return periods are developed, which can subsequently be applied in siteindependent analysis and conceptual design. Recordings provided by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), of hurricanes along...

  20. Astrophysical life extinctions what killed the dinosaurs?

    CERN Document Server

    Dar, Arnon

    1999-01-01

    Geological records indicate that the exponential diversification of marine and continental life on Earth in the past 500 My was interrupted by many life extinctions. They also indicate that the major mass extinctions were correlated in time with large meteoritic impacts, gigantic volcanic eruptions, sea regressions and drastic changes in global climate. Some of these catastrophes coincided in time. The astrophysical life extinction mechanisms which were proposed so far, in particular, meteoritic impacts, nearby supernova explosions, passage through molecular or dark matter clouds, and Galactic gamma/cosmic ray bursts cannot explain the time coincidences between these catastrophes. However, recent observations suggest that many planetary-mass objects may be present in the outer solar system between the Kuiper belt and the Oort cloud. Gravitational perturbations may occasionally bring them into the inner solar system. Their passage near Earth could have generated gigantic tidal waves, large volcanic eruptions, ...

  1. Heavy metals in sea turtles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witkowski, S.A. (Millersville State College, PA); Frazier, J.G.

    1982-07-01

    Bone and barnacle samples from sea turtles (Hepidochelys olivacea) in Ecuador were analyzed for manganese, iron, copper, zinc and lead. Analysis was performed by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results show that zinc and iron levels in bone and barnacles were greater than copper, manganese and lead levels. The significance of the findings is difficult to interpret because so little is known about baseline levels and physiological effects of heavy metals in the animals. (JMT)

  2. Sea sand for reactive barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia R, G.; Ordonez R, E.; Ordonez R, En.

    2002-01-01

    Some phosphates have the property to suck in radioactive metals in solution, what it is taken in advance to make reactive barriers which are placed in the nuclear waste repositories. In an effort for contributing to the study of this type of materials, it has been obtained the zirconium silicate (ZrSiO 4 ) and the alpha zirconium hydrogen phosphate (Zr(HPO 4 ) 2H 2 O) starting from sea sand in an easy and economic way. (Author)

  3. Growing halophytes floating at sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Radulovich

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater shortages are increasingly limiting both irrigated and rainfed agriculture. To expand possibilities for controlled plant production without using land nor freshwater, we cultivated potted halophytes floating at sea that were provided with rain- and seawater. Plantlets of two mangroves (Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle and plants of two herbaceous species, sea purslane (Sesuvium portulacastrum and salt couch grass (Sporobolus virginicus were grown in near-coastal tropical Pacific waters of Costa Rica for 733 days. There were a total of 504 rainless days, including two dry periods of ca. 150 d long each, evidencing prolonged and exclusive reliance on seawater. Pots with a sandy soil mixture and the transplanted plants were placed on low-cost wooden floating rafts with their lower end perforated and immersed for capillary rise of water. Free seawater entry and exit through the bottom from bobbing with waves, which also occasionally added water from the top, effectively controlled soil salinity build-up even during the rainless seasons. Continuous leaching made necessary frequent fertilizer addition. No water deficit symptoms were observed and midday canopy temperature during rainless periods was not significantly different between species or from air temperature. With all-year-round growth, height increase of mangrove plantlets ranged from 208.1 to 401.5 mm yr−1. Fresh biomass production of sea purslane and the grass was 10.9 and 3.0 kg m−2 yr−1 respectively. High yield, edibility and protein content of 10.2% dry weight established sea purslane as a potential crop. While further research is needed, the method evidenced to be a viable plant production option of potentially far-reaching applications.

  4. Alkalinity of the Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Anke; Wallace, Douglas W.R.; Körtzinger, Arne

    2007-01-01

    Total alkalinity (AT) was measured during the Meteor 51/2 cruise, crossing the Mediterranean Sea from west to east. AT concentrations were high (∼2600 μmol kg−1) and alkalinity-salinity-correlations had negative intercepts. These results are explained by evaporation coupled with high freshwater AT inputs into coastal areas. Salinity adjustment of AT revealed excess alkalinity throughout the water column compared to mid-basin surface waters. Since Mediterranean waters are supersaturated with r...

  5. Sea Quarks in the Proton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reimer Paul E

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The proton is a composite particle in which the binding force is responsible for the majority of its mass. To understand this structure, the distributions and origins of the quark-antiquark pairs produced by the strong force must be measured. The SeaQuest collaboration is using the Drell-Yan process to elucidate antiquark distributions in the proton and to study their modification when the proton is held within a nucleus.

  6. Submersible Data (Dive Waypoints) for Life on the Edge 2003: Exploring Deep Ocean Habitats - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data and information collected by the submersible Johnson Sea-Link II at waypoints along its track during two of the seventeen dives of the 2003 "Life on the Edge -...

  7. Sedimentation rate in Ariake Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoshima, Noriyuki; Nishio, Souma; Honza, Eiichi

    2004-01-01

    The Ariake Sea is a shallow and almost enclosed sea located in western Kyushu, Japan with an area of about 1,700 km 2 and the deepest up to 30 m at north area. The most inner part of the bay area is very shallow and during low tide big mudflats tideland appears and extends up to several km. The tidal range is the highest in Japan with a maximum of about 6 m. The area is one of Japan's most important area for fishery, with over 40% of the total seaweed production in Japan In the year 2001, due to environmental conditions, the seaweed population decreased substantially with a production drop of about 50%. This was caused by an earlier winter outbreak of red tide that affected the seaweed quality. One proposed cause for this decline might be the land reclamation project in the western part of Ariake Sea, Isahaya Bay. This project started in April 1997 were more than 3,000 ha of the bay where closed by a 7 km long seawall. Contaminated water is regularly discharged from the reservoir inside the dike, which have resulted in changes in water flows and perhaps a decrease in tidal range. In 2002, the gates at the dike were open for two months for a survey campaign and the seaweed harvest in the winter 2002-2003 was quite good. However, the problem may be linked to totally different causes, e.g. increase in industrial pollution discharge, chemicals used in the disinfection methods of washing seaweed, or change in water pH after the volcanic eruptions of the Unzen mountain in 1992 and 1993. The purpose of the research is to elucidate present condition of the Ariake Sea and past history using by radiometric methods, and obtained useful information will resolve the environmental status of Ariake Sea and give us answers way to save the Ariake Sea. Sea sediment cores were taken on board in 2003 at several points covering the Ariake sea. Two cores taken in inner area of the sea were sectioned at every 2 cm intervals and subjected to gamma spectrometry to determine sedimentation

  8. Uranium in the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babinets, A.E.; Zhorov, V.A.; Bezborodov, A.A.; Kobylyanskaya, A.G.; Solov'eva, L.V.; Urdenko, V.A.

    1975-01-01

    Water samples for uranium analysis have been collected over the entire Black Sea, from the surface to the sea floor. As distinct from the previously known facts, it has been established that the uranium content in different parts of the sea appears to vary both in extent and with depth. A behaviour of uranium is governed by redox conditions of the environment. A decrease in pH value of water to 7.5 and a change of Eh value from +0.4 to -0.2 v lead to reduction of U 6+ → U 4+ and ensure higher sorption properties of the solid phases. The reducing reaction is proved possible through the calculated data. It is shown that the rate of uranium isolation is increasing with depth and its content is going down. Using optical properties of water, a hydrogeochemical behaviour of organic matter and uranium in water thickness is explained. Role of organic matter and mineral components in the uranium deposition is described. Sorption of U 6+ ions on twelve components, which constitute a base of suspensions and floor sediments, has been also studied [ru

  9. Radioactivity in the Arctic Seas. Report for the International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    This report provides comprehensive information on environmental conditions in the Arctic Seas as required for the study of possible radiological consequences from dumped high level radioactive wastes in the Kara Sea. The report describes the oceanography of the regions, with emphasis on the Kara and Barents Seas, including the East Novaya Zemlya Fjords. The ecological description concentrates on biological production, marine food-weds and fisheries in the Arctic Seas. The report presents data on radionuclide concentrations in the Kara and Barents Seas and uses these data to estimate the inventories of radionuclides currently in the marine environment of the Kara and Barents Seas

  10. Active dispersal in loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) during the 'lost years'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, D K; Parker, D M; Balazs, G H; Kurita, M; Saito, T; Okamoto, H; Rice, M; Polovina, J J; Crowder, L B

    2016-06-15

    Highly migratory marine species can travel long distances and across entire ocean basins to reach foraging and breeding grounds, yet gaps persist in our knowledge of oceanic dispersal and habitat use. This is especially true for sea turtles, whose complex life history and lengthy pelagic stage present unique conservation challenges. Few studies have explored how these young at-sea turtles navigate their environment, but advancements in satellite technology and numerical models have shown that active and passive movements are used in relation to open ocean features. Here, we provide the first study, to the best of our knowledge, to simultaneously combine a high-resolution physical forcing ocean circulation model with long-term multi-year tracking data of young, trans-oceanic North Pacific loggerhead sea turtles during their 'lost years' at sea. From 2010 to 2014, we compare simulated trajectories of passive transport with empirical data of 1-3 year old turtles released off Japan (29.7-37.5 straight carapace length cm). After several years, the at-sea distribution of simulated current-driven trajectories significantly differed from that of the observed turtle tracks. These results underscore current theories on active dispersal by young oceanic-stage sea turtles and give further weight to hypotheses of juvenile foraging strategies for this species. Such information can also provide critical geographical information for spatially explicit conservation approaches to this endangered population. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. The ecophysiology of Sprattus sprattus in the Baltic and North Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peck, Myron A.; Baumann, Hannes; Bernreuther, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    at the northern limits of its latitudinal range (such as the Baltic Sea). Based on stage- and temperature-specific mortality and growth potential of early life stages, our analysis suggests that young-of-the year sprat would benefit from inhabiting warmer, near-shore environments rather than the deeper...... with an emphasis on describing how environmental factors influence the life-history strategy of this small pelagic fish. Ontogenetic changes in feeding and growth, and the impacts of abiotic and biotic factors on vital rates are discussed with particular emphasis on the role of temperature as a constraint to life...

  12. Sea-ice cover in the Nordic Seas and the sensitivity to Atlantic water temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mari F.; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.; Spall, Michael A.

    2017-04-01

    Changes in the sea-ice cover of the Nordic Seas have been proposed to play a key role for the dramatic temperature excursions associated with the Dansgaard-Oeschger events during the last glacial. However, with its proximity to the warm Atlantic water, how a sea-ice cover can persist in the Nordic Seas is not well understood. In this study, we apply an eddy-resolving configuration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model with an idealized topography to study the presence of sea ice in a Nordic Seas-like domain. We assume an infinite amount of warm Atlantic water present in the south by restoring the southern area to constant temperatures. The sea-surface temperatures are restored toward cold, atmospheric temperatures, and as a result, sea ice is present in the interior of the domain. However, the sea-ice cover in the margins of the Nordic Seas, an area with a warm, cyclonic boundary current, is sensitive to the amount of heat entering the domain, i.e., the restoring temperature in the south. When the temperature of the warm, cyclonic boundary current is high, the margins are free of sea ice and heat is released to the atmosphere. We show that with a small reduction in the temperature of the incoming Atlantic water, the Nordic Seas-like domain is fully covered in sea ice. Warm water is still entering the Nordic Seas, however, this happens at depths below a cold, fresh surface layer produced by melted sea ice. Consequently, the heat release to the atmosphere is reduced along with the eddy heat fluxes. Results suggest a threshold value in the amount of heat entering the Nordic Seas before the sea-ice cover disappears in the margins. We study the sensitivity of this threshold to changes in atmospheric temperatures and vertical diffusivity.

  13. Sea Ice Drift Monitoring in the Bohai Sea Based on GF4 Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Wei, P.; Zhu, H.; Xing, B.

    2018-04-01

    The Bohai Sea is the inland sea with the highest latitude in China. In winter, the phenomenon of freezing occurs in the Bohai Sea due to frequent cold wave influx. According to historical records, there have been three serious ice packs in the Bohai Sea in the past 50 years which caused heavy losses to our economy. Therefore, it is of great significance to monitor the drift of sea ice and sea ice in the Bohai Sea. The GF4 image has the advantages of short imaging time and high spatial resolution. Based on the GF4 satellite images, the three methods of SIFT (Scale invariant feature - the transform and Scale invariant feature transform), MCC (maximum cross-correlation method) and sift combined with MCC are used to monitor sea ice drift and calculate the speed and direction of sea ice drift, the three calculation results are compared and analyzed by using expert interpretation and historical statistical data to carry out remote sensing monitoring of sea ice drift results. The experimental results show that the experimental results of the three methods are in accordance with expert interpretation and historical statistics. Therefore, the GF4 remote sensing satellite images have the ability to monitor sea ice drift and can be used for drift monitoring of sea ice in the Bohai Sea.

  14. Sea Surface Temperature Climate Data Record for the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Jacob L.; Karagali, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    A 30-yr climate data record (CDR) of sea surface temperature (SST) has been produced with daily gap-free analysis fields for the North Sea and the Baltic Sea region from 1982 to 2012 by combining the Pathfinder AVHRR satellite data record with the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) Reprocessing...... for Climate (ARC) dataset and with in situ observations. A dynamical bias correction scheme adjusts the Pathfinder observations toward the ARC and in situ observations. Largest Pathfinder-ARC differences are found in the summer months, when the Pathfinder observations are up to 0.4 °C colder than the ARC...... observations on average. Validation against independent in situ observations shows a very stable performance of the data record, with a mean difference of -0.06 °C compared to moored buoys and a 0.46 °C standard deviation of the differences. The mean annual biases of the SST CDR are small for all years...

  15. Winter sea ice export from the Laptev Sea preconditions the local summer sea ice cover and fast ice decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Itkin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ice retreat in the eastern Eurasian Arctic is a consequence of atmospheric and oceanic processes and regional feedback mechanisms acting on the ice cover, both in winter and summer. A correct representation of these processes in numerical models is important, since it will improve predictions of sea ice anomalies along the Northeast Passage and beyond. In this study, we highlight the importance of winter ice dynamics for local summer sea ice anomalies in thickness, volume and extent. By means of airborne sea ice thickness surveys made over pack ice areas in the south-eastern Laptev Sea, we show that years of offshore-directed sea ice transport have a thinning effect on the late-winter sea ice cover. To confirm the preconditioning effect of enhanced offshore advection in late winter on the summer sea ice cover, we perform a sensitivity study using a numerical model. Results verify that the preconditioning effect plays a bigger role for the regional ice extent. Furthermore, they indicate an increase in volume export from the Laptev Sea as a consequence of enhanced offshore advection, which has far-reaching consequences for the entire Arctic sea ice mass balance. Moreover we show that ice dynamics in winter not only preconditions local summer ice extent, but also accelerate fast-ice decay.

  16. Cleaning up the sea bed in the North Sea. 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The yearly raid was executed in an efficient way and without excess technical equipment interruptions. The vessel ''Lance'' owned by the Norwegian Sea Mapping Authorities which was used for the sonar mapping of the sea bed, was equipped with a Klein 531T side seeking sonar, a Simrad echo sounder of the type EM100 (multiray) and differential GPS navigation system. The executive committee has earlier expressed desire for a strengthening of the co-operation with the Norwegian Sea Mapping Authorities. The use of the vessel was in accordance with this wish. Stolt Comex Seaway A/S used the vessel M/S ''Seaway Commander'' and the underwater vessel ''Solo'' for the cleaning up project. The systems worked satisfactory during the entire operation. The cleaning operation was in 1994 carried out in 2 sections. The Petroleum Directorate agreed to letting the M/S ''Seaway Commander'' complete the project for Norsk Hydro at the Troll field in order to avoid delays in the Troll Oil project. In both periods there were good weather conditions. There was no extensive discontinuations due to the weather. During the two periods of 13,5 days 259 out of 370 positions were investigated visually through the systems. This is in average about 20 inspected positions a day. The reason for the high average is that the sailing distances are short between the positions and the findings corresponded to stated positions and sonar interpretations. Also this year there was installed a side seeking sonar in the underwater vessel which resulted in reduced investigation time at each aim. It was possible with this type of sonar to identify the goal quicker and to seek during transit between goals at moderate distances. Few articles with certainty contributed by the petroleum activities were retrieved

  17. Nordic children’s ideas about living things in the sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stougaard, Birgitte

    The aim of the study is to explores what kind of ideas eight years old children in the Nordic countries have about life in the sea according to their drawings. It aim is also to see if there is a difference between their ideas and if so, what kind of difference. The children were asked to draw...... everything they knew that lives in the sea. Each child was asked to explain their drawing. A special scale was used to analyse the drawings. Oral presentation at ASE Annual Conference, University of Reading 6-8 January 2011...

  18. Conception of the Maritime Transport Safety in the Baltic Sea in 2009 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caban Jacek

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The maritime transport is particularly exposed to danger due to the environment of its operations. These are the threat dependent and independent of human e.g. environmental, safety health and life of humans or belongings. In spite of attempts to limit the risk of danger, it is impossible to completely eliminate it. The article presents some aspects of the state of transportation safety in the Baltic Sea from Statistical Yearbook of Maritime Economy and Helcom as well as attempt the undertaken to analyses the security state of this sea area in 2009 to 2015.

  19. The importance of the sea in Lima religion: an interdisciplinary proposal

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Nalvarte, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    This article proposes the existence of a cult dedicated to a female sea deity on the Central Coast of Peru during the Early Intermediate Period (200-700 AD). This research is based on archaeological evidence of ritual activity as well as ethnohistoric, ethnographic, and linguistic data that supports the proposal. A goddess of the sea, with a court of marine life, linked to the feminine aspects of the cosmos could have had Huaca Pucllana as one of its centers of worship, with the abundance of ...

  20. Species distribution models of two critically endangered deep-sea octocorals reveal fishing impacts on vulnerable marine ecosystems in central Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauria, V; Garofalo, G; Fiorentino, F; Massi, D; Milisenda, G; Piraino, S; Russo, T; Gristina, M

    2017-08-14

    Deep-sea coral assemblages are key components of marine ecosystems that generate habitats for fish and invertebrate communities and act as marine biodiversity hot spots. Because of their life history traits, deep-sea corals are highly vulnerable to human impacts such as fishing. They are an indicator of vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs), therefore their conservation is essential to preserve marine biodiversity. In the Mediterranean Sea deep-sea coral habitats are associated with commercially important crustaceans, consequently their abundance has dramatically declined due to the effects of trawling. Marine spatial planning is required to ensure that the conservation of these habitats is achieved. Species distribution models were used to investigate the distribution of two critically endangered octocorals (Funiculina quadrangularis and Isidella elongata) in the central Mediterranean as a function of environmental and fisheries variables. Results show that both species exhibit species-specific habitat preferences and spatial patterns in response to environmental variables, but the impact of trawling on their distribution differed. In particular F. quadrangularis can overlap with fishing activities, whereas I. elongata occurs exclusively where fishing is low or absent. This study represents the first attempt to identify key areas for the protection of soft and compact mud VMEs in the central Mediterranean Sea.

  1. Managing Daily Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Duchenne / Managing Daily Life Print Email Managing Daily Life Environmental accessibility As the person with Duchenne starts ... such as wider doorways and ramps, can make life easier once the person with Duchenne cannot climb ...

  2. First evaluation of neustonic microplastics in Black Sea waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytan, Ulgen; Valente, Andre; Senturk, Yasemen; Usta, Riza; Esensoy Sahin, Fatma Basak; Mazlum, Rahsan Evren; Agirbas, Ertugrul

    2016-08-01

    The Black Sea has a high risk of plastic pollution given the high river discharge of several industrialized countries into this semi-enclosed sea. Here, for the first time, the occurrence and distribution of microplastics are reported for the Black Sea. Microplastics were assessed from zooplankton samples taken during two cruises along the south eastern coast of the Black Sea in the November of 2014 and February of 2015. In each cruise neuston samples were collected at 12 stations using a WP2 net with 200 μm mesh. Microplastics (0.2-5 mm) were found in 92% of the samples. The primary shapes were fibres (49.4%) followed by plastic films (30.6%) and fragments (20%), and no micro beads were found. Average microplastic concentration in November (1.2 ± 1.1 × 10(3) par. m(-3)) was higher than in February (0.6 ± 0.55 × 10(3) par. m(-3)). Reduced concentrations in February were possibly caused by increased mixing. The highest concentrations of microplastics were observed in offshore stations during November sampling. The heterogeneous spatial distribution (0.2 × 10(3)-3.3 × 10(3) par. m(-3) for all samples) and accumulation in some stations could be associated to transport and retention mechanisms linked with wind and the dynamics of the rim current, as well by different sources of plastic. There were no statistically significant differences in MP concentration between sampling stations and sampling periods (t-test, p pollution and there is an urgency to understand their origins, transportation and effects on marine life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Costs of a Cleaner baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Sisse Liv; Konrad, Maria Theresia Hedegaard; Hasler, Berit

    2009-01-01

    In 2007 the Helcom (The Helsinki Comity), representing most of the countries around the Baltic, made an agreement for the future of the Baltic Sea, on reducing the nutrient input to the Baltic Sea and thereby avert further environmental damage, called the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP). One...... of the results was nutrient reduction targets for each country - the BSAP targets. Because the Baltic Sea is such an international marine area, receiving pollutants from many  countries, an international approach is necessary to make effective solutions. But is the BSAP the most cost-effective solution...... to the regulation of the Baltic Sea? And does the BSAP result in cost-effective reductions in the different countries, which is a requirement of the Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Directive?   These questions are studied and answered using a cost minimisation model for the Baltic sea, initially...

  4. Evaporation of boric acid from sea water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gast, J A; Thompson, T G

    1959-01-01

    Previous investigators have shown that the boron-chlorinity ratios of rain waters are many times greater than the boron-chlorinity ratio of sea water. The presence of boron in the atmosphere has been attributed to sea spray, volcanic activity, accumulation in dust, evaporation from plants, and industrial pollution. In this paper data are presented to demonstrate that boric acid in sea water has a vapor pressure at ordinary temperatures of the sea and, when sea water evaporates, boric acid occurs in the condensate of the water vapor. It is postulated that, while some of the boron in the atmosphere can be attributed to the sources mentioned above, most of the boric acid results from evaporation from the sea.

  5. Sea water pipeline for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Ken-ichi.

    1992-01-01

    Heating coils, for example, are wound around sea water pipelines as a heater. The outer wall surface of the sea water pipelines is heated by the heating coils. The inner wall surfaces of the sea water pipelines can be warmed to higher than a predetermined temperature by heating the outer wall surfaces to die out marine organisms deposited at the inner surfaces. Further, thermocouples for the external wall and the internal wall are disposed so that the temperature at the inner wall surface of the sea water pipelines can be controlled. Further, a temperature keeping material is disposed at the external surface of the sea water system pipelines. With such a constitution, the marine organisms deposited on the internal wall surface of the sea water system pipelines are died out to suppress the deposition amount of the marine organisms. Accordingly, the maintenance and the operation reliability is improved after maintenance. (I.N.)

  6. Innovative eco-friendly bio- solvent for combating sea surface and sedimented oil pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, Paraskevas

    2017-04-01

    The combating of oil spill at sea surface by chemical dispersants accelerates the evaporation and disperse the oil into the water column, where it is broken down by natural processes and/or is sedimented at the sea bottom, especially at near coastal shallow areas, ports and marinas. The usual methodology for cleaning the sedimented oil from the sea bottom is mainly carried out via excavation and dumping of the polluted sediment into deeper sea areas, where the contamination is transferred from one area to another. The eco-friendly bio-solvent MSL Aqua 250 is an innovative new solution based mainly on natural constituents. The action mechanism and the effectiveness of this eco-friendly solvent is based on the high surface tension process. Organic compounds, including hydrocarbons upon coming in contact with MSL Aqua 250 solvent generate a significant surface tension reaction, which is able to alter the organic compounds to liquid form and then to drastically evaporate it. The use of MSL Aqua 250 solvent, both at sea surface and at the bottom, has the following advantages compared to the dispersants: • Efficient solution without transferring the pollution from sea surface to the water column and to the bottom or disturbing the Aquatic Eco System. • Non-Toxic. • Environmentally friendly with a restoration of marine life in the Eco System. • Cost effective. The MSL Aqua 250 solvent has been tested in cooperation with the Cyprus Department of Fisheries and Marine Research and the Technological University of Cyprus and used during the years 2015 and 2016 in marinas and fishing shelters in Cyprus faced oil pollution, with high concentration in the sea water and at the sea bottom of chemical parameters (BOD5, COD, FOG, TKN, TP, TPH), with excellent results.

  7. De novo transcriptome assembly and positive selection analysis of an individual deep-sea fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yi; Sun, Jin; Xu, Ting; Chen, Chong; Tian, Renmao; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2018-05-24

    High hydrostatic pressure and low temperatures make the deep sea a harsh environment for life forms. Actin organization and microtubules assembly, which are essential for intracellular transport and cell motility, can be disrupted by high hydrostatic pressure. High hydrostatic pressure can also damage DNA. Nucleic acids exposed to low temperatures can form secondary structures that hinder genetic information processing. To study how deep-sea creatures adapt to such a hostile environment, one of the most straightforward ways is to sequence and compare their genes with those of their shallow-water relatives. We captured an individual of the fish species Aldrovandia affinis, which is a typical deep-sea inhabitant, from the Okinawa Trough at a depth of 1550 m using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). We sequenced its transcriptome and analyzed its molecular adaptation. We obtained 27,633 protein coding sequences using an Illumina platform and compared them with those of several shallow-water fish species. Analysis of 4918 single-copy orthologs identified 138 positively selected genes in A. affinis, including genes involved in microtubule regulation. Particularly, functional domains related to cold shock as well as DNA repair are exposed to positive selection pressure in both deep-sea fish and hadal amphipod. Overall, we have identified a set of positively selected genes related to cytoskeleton structures, DNA repair and genetic information processing, which shed light on molecular adaptation to the deep sea. These results suggest that amino acid substitutions of these positively selected genes may contribute crucially to the adaptation of deep-sea animals. Additionally, we provide a high-quality transcriptome of a deep-sea fish for future deep-sea studies.

  8. First biological measurements of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, C; Berumen, M L; Bouwmeester, J; Papathanassiou, E; Al-Suwailem, A; Voolstra, C R

    2013-10-03

    It is usually assumed that metabolic constraints restrict deep-sea corals to cold-water habitats, with 'deep-sea' and 'cold-water' corals often used as synonymous. Here we report on the first measurements of biological characters of deep-sea corals from the central Red Sea, where they occur at temperatures exceeding 20°C in highly oligotrophic and oxygen-limited waters. Low respiration rates, low calcification rates, and minimized tissue cover indicate that a reduced metabolism is one of the key adaptations to prevailing environmental conditions. We investigated four sites and encountered six species of which at least two appear to be undescribed. One species is previously reported from the Red Sea but occurs in deep cold waters outside the Red Sea raising interesting questions about presumed environmental constraints for other deep-sea corals. Our findings suggest that the present understanding of deep-sea coral persistence and resilience needs to be revisited.

  9. Oceanographic cruise: Coral Sea, Arafura Sea, and Java Trench, April - May 1969 (NODC Accession 7100914)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report contains oceanographic data which was obtained aboard HMAS DIAMANTINA during an oceanographic cruise in the Coral Sea, Arafura Sea, and Java Trench...

  10. GHRSST Level 4 ODYSSEA Mediterranean Sea Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at Ifremer/CERSAT...

  11. The lowering of sea surface temperature in the east central Arabian sea associated with a cyclone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, V.S.N.; Rao, D.P.; Sastry, J.S.

    An analysis of thermal Structure in the East Central Arabian Sea associated with a moderate cyclone is presented. The heat storage and the heat budget components have been computed. Under the influence of the cyclone the Sea Surface Temperature (SST...

  12. GHRSST Level 4 EUR Mediterranean Sea Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily by Ifremer/CERSAT (France) using optimal...

  13. First biological measurements of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea.

    KAUST Repository

    Roder, Cornelia

    2013-10-03

    It is usually assumed that metabolic constraints restrict deep-sea corals to cold-water habitats, with \\'deep-sea\\' and \\'cold-water\\' corals often used as synonymous. Here we report on the first measurements of biological characters of deep-sea corals from the central Red Sea, where they occur at temperatures exceeding 20°C in highly oligotrophic and oxygen-limited waters. Low respiration rates, low calcification rates, and minimized tissue cover indicate that a reduced metabolism is one of the key adaptations to prevailing environmental conditions. We investigated four sites and encountered six species of which at least two appear to be undescribed. One species is previously reported from the Red Sea but occurs in deep cold waters outside the Red Sea raising interesting questions about presumed environmental constraints for other deep-sea corals. Our findings suggest that the present understanding of deep-sea coral persistence and resilience needs to be revisited.

  14. A deep sea community at the Kebrit brine pool in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Vestheim, Hege; Kaartvedt, Stein

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 25 deep sea brine pools occur along the mid axis of the Red Sea. These hypersaline, anoxic, and acidic environments have previously been reported to host diverse microbial communities. We visited the Kebrit brine pool in April 2013

  15. Speciation studies of cobalt in sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toteja, R.S.D.; Sudersanan, M.; Iyer, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    Recent results on the speciation of cobalt in simulated and actual sea water is reported using ion exchangers. The influence of magnesium ions in affecting the composition of ion exchangers and subsequent interpretation of the results is discussed. The results indicated that Co +2 may predominate in both the simulated and actual sea water and the presence of other constituents in sea water does not affect the nature of complex species present. (author). 2 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  16. The International Arctic Seas Assessment Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsley, G.S.; Sjoeblom, K.L.

    1994-01-01

    The International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP) was initiated in 1993 to address widespread concern over the possible health and environmental impacts associated with the radioactive waste dumped into the shallow waters of the Arctic Seas. This article discusses the project with these general topics: A brief history of dumping activities; the international control system; perspectives on arctic Seas dumping; the IASAP aims and implementation; the IASAP work plan and progress. 2 figs

  17. Multiscale Models of Melting Arctic Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Sea ice reflectance or albedo , a key parameter in climate modeling, is primarily determined by melt pond and ice floe configurations. Ice - albedo ...determine their albedo - a key parameter in climate modeling. Here we explore the possibility of a conceptual sea ice climate model passing through a...bifurcation points. Ising model for melt ponds on Arctic sea ice Y. Ma, I. Sudakov, and K. M. Golden Abstract: The albedo of melting

  18. The Sea Floor: A Living Learning Residential Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guentzel, J. L.; Rosch, E.; Stoughton, M. A.; Bowyer, R.; Mortensen, K.; Smith, M.

    2016-02-01

    Living learning communities are collaborations between university housing and academic departments designed to enhance the overall student experience by integrating classroom/laboratory learning, student life and extracurricular activities. At Coastal Carolina University, the residential community associated with the Marine Science program is known as the Sea Floor. Students selected to become members of the Sea Floor remain "in residence" for two consecutive semesters. These students are first-time freshman that share a common course connection. This course is usually Introduction to Marine Science (MSCI 111) or MSCI 399s, which are one credit field/laboratory centered internships. The common course connection is designed so residents can establish and maintain an educational dialog with their peers. Activities designed to enhance the students' networking skills and educational and social development skills include monthly lunches with marine science faculty and dinner seminars with guest speakers from academia, industry and government. Additionally, each semester several activities outside the classroom are planned so that students can more frequently interact with themselves and their faculty and staff partners. These activities include field trips to regional aquariums, local boat trips that include water sample collection and analysis, and an alternative spring break trip to the Florida Keys to study the marine environment firsthand. The resident advisor that supervises the Sea Floor is usually a sophomore or junior marine science major. This provides the residents with daily communication and mentoring from a marine science major that is familiar with the marine science program and residence life. Assessment activities include: a university housing community living survey, student interest housing focus groups, fall to spring and fall to fall retention, and evaluation of program advisors and program activities.

  19. An operational search and rescue model for the Norwegian Sea and the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Øyvind; Allen, Arthur A.

    A new operational, ensemble-based search and rescue model for the Norwegian Sea and the North Sea is presented. The stochastic trajectory model computes the net motion of a range of search and rescue objects. A new, robust formulation for the relation between the wind and the motion of the drifting object (termed the leeway of the object) is employed. Empirically derived coefficients for 63 categories of search objects compiled by the US Coast Guard are ingested to estimate the leeway of the drifting objects. A Monte Carlo technique is employed to generate an ensemble that accounts for the uncertainties in forcing fields (wind and current), leeway drift properties, and the initial position of the search object. The ensemble yields an estimate of the time-evolving probability density function of the location of the search object, and its envelope defines the search area. Forcing fields from the operational oceanic and atmospheric forecast system of The Norwegian Meteorological Institute are used as input to the trajectory model. This allows for the first time high-resolution wind and current fields to be used to forecast search areas up to 60 h into the future. A limited set of field exercises show good agreement between model trajectories, search areas, and observed trajectories for life rafts and other search objects. Comparison with older methods shows that search areas expand much more slowly using the new ensemble method with high resolution forcing fields and the new leeway formulation. It is found that going to higher-order stochastic trajectory models will not significantly improve the forecast skill and the rate of expansion of search areas.

  20. Context awareness and sensitivity in SEA implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija; Bjarnadottir, Holmfridur

    2007-01-01

    The Impact Assessment research community repeatedly asserts that the implementation of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) should take the issue of context into consideration. The primary aim of this paper then is to attempt to give substance to the concept of 'context' in relation to the implementation of SEA. The second aim is to discuss the relevance of context consciousness and sensitivity in relation to one of the main aims given to SEA implementation i.e. to contribute to the 'integration' of environmental perspectives in planning processes. Context must be defined in relation to a certain question. In this paper the question in focus is the assumption that SEA implementation will contribute to integration of environmental issues in planning processes. Research results relating to the use of environmental tools, like for example SEA, and experiences of integration efforts, strongly indicate that the use of a single tool like SEA is not enough to achieve this integration. The current 'context free' normative and procedural assumptions concerning the aim of SEA implementation and 'best practice' in term of SEA can be criticised on the same grounds as normative and procedural planning theories, as being context free. The assumptions behind the current formulations of the aim and best practice of SEA need to be revisited. A firm empirical and theoretical knowledge and discussion is needed, especially in relation to the issue of context and integration. This paper provides a starting point in this direction

  1. Sea level rise in the Arctic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Proshutinsky, Andrey; Pavlov, Vladimir; Bourke, Robert H.

    2001-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2000GL012760 About 60 tide-gauge stations in the Kara, Laptev, East-Siberian and Chukchi Seas have recorded the sea level change from the 1950s through 1990s. Over this 40-year period, most of these stations show a significant sea level rise (SLR). In light of global change, this SLR could be a manifestation of warming in the Artic coupled with a decrease of sea ice extent, warming of Atlantic waters, changes in...

  2. Arctic tides from GPS on sea ice

    OpenAIRE

    Kildegaard Rose, Stine; Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René

    2012-01-01

    The presence of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean plays a significant role in the Arctic climate. Sea ice dampens the ocean tide amplitude with the result that global tidal models which use only astronomical data perform less accurately in the polar regions. This study presents a kinematic processing of Global Positioning System (GPS) buoys placed on sea-ice at five different sites north of Greenland for the study of sea level height and tidal analysis to improve tidal models in the Central Arctic....

  3. [Reflectance of sea ice in Liaodong Bay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhan-tang; Yang, Yue-zhong; Wang, Gui-fen; Cao, Wen-xi; Kong, Xiang-peng

    2010-07-01

    In the present study, the relationships between sea ice albedo and the bidirectional reflectance distribution in Liaodong Bay were investigated. The results indicate that: (1) sea ice albedo alpha(lambda) is closely related to the components of sea ice, the higher the particulate concentration in sea ice surface is, the lower the sea ice albedo alpha(lambda) is. On the contrary, the higher the bubble concentration in sea ice is, the higher sea ice albedo alpha(lambda) is. (2) Sea ice albedo alpha(lambda) is similar to the bidirectional reflectance factor R(f) when the probe locates at nadir. The R(f) would increase with the increase in detector zenith theta, and the correlation between R(f) and the detector azimuth would gradually increase. When the theta is located at solar zenith 63 degrees, the R(f) would reach the maximum, and the strongest correlation is also shown between the R(f) and the detector azimuth. (3) Different types of sea ice would have the different anisotropic reflectance factors.

  4. Parasites in the Wadden Sea food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieltges, David W.; Engelsma, Marc Y.; Wendling, Carolin C.; Wegner, K. Mathias

    2013-09-01

    While the free-living fauna of the Wadden Sea has received much interest, little is known on the distribution and effects of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. However, recent studies on this special type of trophic interaction indicate a high diversity of parasites in the Wadden Sea and suggest a multitude of effects on the hosts. This also includes effects on specific predator-prey relationships and the general structure of the food web. Focussing on molluscs, a major group in the Wadden Sea in terms of biomass and abundance and an important link between primary producers and predators, we review existing studies and exemplify the ecological role of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. First, we give a brief inventory of parasites occurring in the Wadden Sea, ranging from microparasites (e.g. protozoa, bacteria) to macroparasites (e.g. helminths, parasitic copepods) and discuss the effects of spatial scale on heterogeneities in infection levels. We then demonstrate how parasites can affect host population dynamics by acting as a strong mortality factor, causing mollusc mass mortalities. In addition, we will exemplify how parasites can mediate the interaction strength of predator-prey relationships and affect the topological structure of the Wadden Sea food web as a whole. Finally, we highlight some ongoing changes regarding parasitism in the Wadden Sea in the course of global change (e.g. species introduction, climate change) and identify important future research questions to entangle the role of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web.

  5. The economics of fishing the high seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Enric; Mayorga, Juan; Costello, Christopher; Kroodsma, David; Palomares, Maria L D; Pauly, Daniel; Sumaila, U Rashid; Zeller, Dirk

    2018-06-01

    While the ecological impacts of fishing the waters beyond national jurisdiction (the "high seas") have been widely studied, the economic rationale is more difficult to ascertain because of scarce data on the costs and revenues of the fleets that fish there. Newly compiled satellite data and machine learning now allow us to track individual fishing vessels on the high seas in near real time. These technological advances help us quantify high-seas fishing effort, costs, and benefits, and assess whether, where, and when high-seas fishing makes economic sense. We characterize the global high-seas fishing fleet and report the economic benefits of fishing the high seas globally, nationally, and at the scale of individual fleets. Our results suggest that fishing at the current scale is enabled by large government subsidies, without which as much as 54% of the present high-seas fishing grounds would be unprofitable at current fishing rates. The patterns of fishing profitability vary widely between countries, types of fishing, and distance to port. Deep-sea bottom trawling often produces net economic benefits only thanks to subsidies, and much fishing by the world's largest fishing fleets would largely be unprofitable without subsidies and low labor costs. These results support recent calls for subsidy and fishery management reforms on the high seas.

  6. Do Indicators Influence Communication in SEA?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    2013-01-01

    Indicators have become one of the primary tools for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in the Chinese context, but what does this use of indicators mean for communication within the SEA processes? This article explores how the selection and use of indicators influence the communication...... between different stakeholders involved in SEA. The article provides a conceptual communication model covering directions and level of communication. Using this model on empirical findings from interviews with two specific SEA cases and from general experience collected through an online survey...

  7. Environmental security of coastal seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, Vladivoj; Sudac, Davorin; Nad, Karlo; Obhodas, Jasmina; Kollar, Robert; Matika, Dario

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The bottoms of the coastal seas are contaminated by many man-made objects including a variety of ammunition. This contamination is world wide spread with some areas being highly polluted presenting a serious threat to local population and to visitors as well. All littoral nations are investing lots of effort into the remediation of their coastal areas. In this report an effort to identify the nature of the object on the sea bottom is presented. Once the presence of the anomaly on the bottom of the shallow coastal sea water is confirmed (by visual identification and by using one or several sensors, namely magnetometer, sonar and optical cameras) it is necessary to establish if it contains explosive and/or chemical warfare charge. In our work we propose this to be performed by using neutron sensor installed within an underwater vessel - 'Surveyor'. When positioned above the object, or to its side, the system inspects the object for the presence of the threat material by using alpha particle tagged neutrons from the sealed tube d+t neutron generator. The inside of the first prototype of the underwater system 'Surveyor' containing neutron generator, shielding and gamma ray detector is shown in figure. The neutron generator used by the 'Surveyor' is rotated by two step motors so that different volume elements chosen by the relative position of the neutron generator and gamma ray detector could be inspected. In such a way a profile of concentrations could also be measured. The preliminary results from the laboratory tests are presented

  8. The North Sea contracting industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, P.J.C.

    1996-09-01

    The North Sea Contracting Industry provides in-depth profiles of major contracting organisations including manpower, facilities, expertise, future directions and financial details. It addresses key issues such as: how will the role of operators and contractors change toward 2000 and beyond?; how will the contractor-operator relationship develop?; will the contractors take a more speculative role in projects such as leasing and contract to produce?; does the future belong to broad skilled providers or small specialised niche players, or both?; and how will rapid technological improvements affect the industry? (author)

  9. Towards Good Order at Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas; Vreÿ, Francois

    . The problems originating from the resultant “bad order at sea” can be directly felt on land, when smuggling, terrorism and related criminal activities operate more or less unhindered. The book provides an important mapping of the challenges preventing good order at sea off the African coast and East Africa...... in particular. The chapters offer suggestions for increased maritime security in the future and go some way to assist the African Union to implement its maritime strategy and raise the maritime security awareness of its member states....

  10. Banning nuclear power at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handler, J.

    1993-01-01

    This article argues that now that the East-West conflict is over, nuclear-powered vessels should be retired. Nuclear-powered ships and submarines lack military missions, are expensive to build and operate, generate large amounts of long-lived deadly nuclear waste from their normal operations and when they are decommissioned, and are subject to accidents or deliberate attack which can result in the sinking of nuclear reactors and the release of radiation. With the costs of nuclear-powered vessels mounting, the time has come to ban nuclear power at sea. (author)

  11. Authigenic gypsum in a deep sea core from Southeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Guptha, M.V.S.

    Authigenic gypsum has been encountered in a deep sea core RC9-157 from the southeastern Arabian Sea at a depth of 4111 m which is a zone of lysocline. The formation of gypsum in the deep sea region is attributed to the prevailing sulphate rich...

  12. Potential of sea level rise impact on South China Sea: a preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the sea level rise was involved the existence of sea water intrusion and coastal erosion phenomenon in the coastal of Terengganu. This study aim to determine fluctuation of high and low tides of the South China Sea in their relation to water quality value of Marang and Paka Rivers as well as from wells ...

  13. Sea Turtle Conservation on Bonaire. Sea Turtle Club Bonaire 1997. Project Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuit, M.; Put, van A.L.L.M.; Valkering, N.P.; Eijck, van T.J.W.

    1998-01-01

    The Sea Turtle Club Bonaire (STCB) is a non-governmental, non-profit organization. Its main goal is the conservation of the sea turtles that occur on Bonaire. To reach this goal, annual projects are undertaken, such as research and the promotion of public awareness on sea turtle conservation. The

  14. 50 CFR 697.12 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... sampler/observer access to and use of the vessel's communications equipment and personnel upon request for...) Allow the sea sampler/observer to inspect and copy the vessel's log, communications log, and records... must: (1) Notify the sea sampler/observer of any sea turtles, marine mammals, or other specimens taken...

  15. Biological interactions in the Sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ddattesh

    communication. Life cycle of red abalone ... Red Tide. Dense phytoplankton population appearing suddenly & colouring the water red or red-brown. Effects. Toxic. Anoxia. Clogging. Harmful Algal Bloom. Page 15. Pressure: Inter-tidal & Estuarine regions.

  16. Wind-sea surface temperature-sea ice relationship in the Chukchi-Beaufort Seas during autumn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Stegall, Steve T.; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2018-03-01

    Dramatic climate changes, especially the largest sea ice retreat during September and October, in the Chukchi-Beaufort Seas could be a consequence of, and further enhance, complex air-ice-sea interactions. To detect these interaction signals, statistical relationships between surface wind speed, sea surface temperature (SST), and sea ice concentration (SIC) were analyzed. The results show a negative correlation between wind speed and SIC. The relationships between wind speed and SST are complicated by the presence of sea ice, with a negative correlation over open water but a positive correlation in sea ice dominated areas. The examination of spatial structures indicates that wind speed tends to increase when approaching the ice edge from open water and the area fully covered by sea ice. The anomalous downward radiation and thermal advection, as well as their regional distribution, play important roles in shaping these relationships, though wind-driven sub-grid scale boundary layer processes may also have contributions. Considering the feedback loop involved in the wind-SST-SIC relationships, climate model experiments would be required to further untangle the underlying complex physical processes.

  17. Filling regulatory gaps in high seas fisheries: discrete high seas fish stocks, deep-sea fisheries and vulnerable marine ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takei, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the legal regime of high seas fisheries with a view to identifying regulatory gaps. The main research questions are as follows: 1. What general principles are applicable to high seas fisheries?; 2. What implications do these general principles have for new challenges in

  18. Effect of different dose gamma radiation and refrigeration on the chemical and sensory properties and microbiological status of aqua cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozden, Ozkan; Inugur, Muege; Erkan, Nuray

    2007-01-01

    Quality and shelf life of non-irradiated and irradiated (2.5 and 5kGy) sea bass in ice conditions and stored at +4 deg. C were investigated by measurement in microbiological, chemical sensory analyses. Microbial counts for non-irradiated sea bass samples were higher than irradiated fish. Among chemical indicators of spoilage, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) values increased to 36.44mg/100g for non-irradiated sea bass during iced storage, whereas for irradiated fish lower values of 25.26mg/100g and 23.61mg/100g were recorded at 2.5 and 5kGy, respectively (day 17). Trimethylamine (TMA-N) values and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values for irradiated samples were lower than that for non-irradiated samples. Acceptability scores for odour, taste and texture of cooked sea bass decreased with storage time. The sensory scores of sea bass stored in control and 2.5-5kGy at +4 deg. C were 13 and 15 days, respectively. The results obtained from this study showed that the shelf life of sea bass stored in ice, as determined by overall acceptability of all data, is 13 days for non-irradiated sea bass and 15 days for 2.5kGy irradiated and 17 days for 5kGy irradiated sea bass

  19. Processes driving sea ice variability in the Bering Sea in an eddying ocean/sea ice model: Mean seasonal cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linghan; McClean, Julie L.; Miller, Arthur J.; Eisenman, Ian; Hendershott, Myrl C.; Papadopoulos, Caroline A.

    2014-12-01

    The seasonal cycle of sea ice variability in the Bering Sea, together with the thermodynamic and dynamic processes that control it, are examined in a fine resolution (1/10°) global coupled ocean/sea-ice model configured in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) framework. The ocean/sea-ice model consists of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Parallel Ocean Program (POP) and the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE). The model was forced with time-varying reanalysis atmospheric forcing for the time period 1970-1989. This study focuses on the time period 1980-1989. The simulated seasonal-mean fields of sea ice concentration strongly resemble satellite-derived observations, as quantified by root-mean-square errors and pattern correlation coefficients. The sea ice energy budget reveals that the seasonal thermodynamic ice volume changes are dominated by the surface energy flux between the atmosphere and the ice in the northern region and by heat flux from the ocean to the ice along the southern ice edge, especially on the western side. The sea ice force balance analysis shows that sea ice motion is largely associated with wind stress. The force due to divergence of the internal ice stress tensor is large near the land boundaries in the north, and it is small in the central and southern ice-covered region. During winter, which dominates the annual mean, it is found that the simulated sea ice was mainly formed in the northern Bering Sea, with the maximum ice growth rate occurring along the coast due to cold air from northerly winds and ice motion away from the coast. South of St Lawrence Island, winds drive the model sea ice southwestward from the north to the southwestern part of the ice-covered region. Along the ice edge in the western Bering Sea, model sea ice is melted by warm ocean water, which is carried by the simulated Bering Slope Current flowing to the northwest, resulting in the S-shaped asymmetric ice edge. In spring and fall, similar thermodynamic and dynamic

  20. Identification of nickel response genes in abnormal early developments of sea urchin by differential display polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Tae Kwon; Lee, Gunsup; Rhee, Yong; Park, Heung-Sik; Chang, Man; Lee, Sukchan; Lee, Jaean; Lee, Taek-Kyun

    2012-10-01

    Bioassays and biomarkers have been previously developed to assess the effects of heavy metal contaminants on the early life stages of the sea urchin. In this study, malformation in the early developmental processes was observed in sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus intermedius) larvae exposed to 10 ppm Ni for over 30 h. The most critical stage at which the triggering of nickel effects takes place is thought to be the blastula stage, which occurs after fertilization in larval development. To investigate the molecular-level responses of sea urchin exposed to heavy metal stress and to explore the differentially expressed genes that are induced or repressed by nickel, differential display polymerase chain reaction (DD-PCR) was used with sea urchin mRNAs. The malformation-related genes expressed in the early life stages of the sea urchin were cloned from larvae exposed to 10 ppm of nickel for 15 h, and accessed via DD-PCR. Sequence analysis results revealed that each of the genes evidenced high homology with EGF2, PCSK9, serine/threonine protein kinase, apolipophorin precursor protein, and MGC80921 protein/transcript variant 2. This result may prove useful in the development of novel biomarkers for the assessment of heavy metal stresses on sea urchin embryos. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A heavy sea fog event over the Yellow Sea in March 2005: Analysis and numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shanhong; Lin, Hang; Shen, Biao; Fu, Gang

    2007-02-01

    In this paper, a heavy sea fog episode that occurred over the Yellow Sea on 9 March 2005 is investigated. The sea fog patch, with a spatial scale of several hundred kilometers at its mature stage, reduced visibility along the Shandong Peninsula coast to 100 m or much less at some sites. Satellite images, surface observations and soundings at islands and coasts, and analyses from the Japan Meteorology Agency (JMA) are used to describe and analyze this event. The analysis indicates that this sea fog can be categorized as advection cooling fog. The main features of this sea fog including fog area and its movement are reasonably reproduced by the Fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5). Model results suggest that the formation and evolution of this event can be outlined as: (1) southerly warm/moist advection of low-level air resulted in a strong sea-surface-based inversion with a thickness of about 600 m; (2) when the inversion moved from the warmer East Sea to the colder Yellow Sea, a thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) gradually formed at the base of the inversion while the sea fog grew in response to cooling and moistening by turbulence mixing; (3) the sea fog developed as the TIBL moved northward and (4) strong northerly cold and dry wind destroyed the TIBL and dissipated the sea fog. The principal findings of this study are that sea fog forms in response to relatively persistent southerly warm/moist wind and a cold sea surface, and that turbulence mixing by wind shear is the primary mechanism for the cooling and moistening the marine layer. In addition, the study of sensitivity experiments indicates that deterministic numerical modeling offers a promising approach to the prediction of sea fog over the Yellow Sea but it may be more efficient to consider ensemble numerical modeling because of the extreme sensitivity to model input.

  2. Legacy of the Sea Express

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Ian

    1997-01-01

    In February 1996, an oil tanker, the Sea Empress, ran aground in high seas in Milford Haven in the United Kingdom. Over the course of a few days, 72,000 tonnes of crude oil and 360 tonnes of heavy fuel oil leaked from the ship into a maritime and coastal area of designated scientific importance and environmental sensitivity. The Countryside Council for Wales (CCW), who are responsible for nature conservation in the area, carried out immediate surveys of the coverage of oil on the coastline. The data was fed into the CCW's geographic information system (GIS) which also holds other spill-related and environmental information. The GIS provided an ideal storage and retrieval system to enable CCW rapidly to produce high quality maps of the affected area and accurately pinpoint the protected sites involved. In summer 1996, CCW carried out a second, more detailed survey. By this time the tides and mechanical recovery had dispersed all the major concentrations of oil. A thorough comparison of the two surveys will be carried out in order to assess and catalogue the removal of the oil by natural processes and the effectiveness of the shoreline treatment. (UK)

  3. iTRAQ reveals proteomic changes during intestine regeneration in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lina; Xu, Dongxue; Xu, Qinzeng; Sun, Jingchun; Xing, Lili; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng

    2017-06-01

    Sea cucumbers have a striking capacity to regenerate most of their viscera after evisceration, which has drawn the interest of many researchers. In this study, the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) was utilized to investigate protein abundance changes during intestine regeneration in sea cucumbers. A total of 4073 proteins were identified, and 2321 proteins exhibited significantly differential expressions, with 1100 upregulated and 1221 downregulated proteins. Our results suggest that intestine regeneration constitutes a complex life activity regulated by the cooperation of various biological processes, including cytoskeletal changes, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and ECM-receptor interactions, protein synthesis, signal recognition and transduction, energy production and conversion, and substance transport and metabolism. Additionally, real-time PCR showed mRNA expression of differentially expressed genes correlated positively with their protein levels. Our results provided a basis for studying the regulatory mechanisms associated with sea cucumber regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Coastal life is not under threat by the carbon dioxide emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Parker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The near future of coastal life is threated by the claim of global warming alarmist that sea levels will rise by one to seven metres by 2100, destroying many coastal cities and habitats. This paper shows that sea levels will more likely rise no more than just a few centimetres during this century as the Earth defrosts from the Little Ice Age 500 years ago with a mild warming.

  5. Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent - Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH) products provide measurements of daily sea ice extent and sea ice edge boundary for the...

  6. Winter cooling in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Prasad, T.G.

    forcing that leads to the observed high productivity during winter in the northern Arabian Sea. The weak northerly winds and increased solar insolation during the inter-monsoon period, led to the development of a highly stratified upper layer with warm sea...

  7. Coastal Sea Levels, Impacts, and Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wahl

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sea-level rise (SLR poses a great threat to approximately 10% of the world’s population residing in low-elevation coastal zones (i.e., land located up to 10 m of present-day mean sea-level (MSL[...

  8. Causes for contemporary regional sea level changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammer, Detlef; Cazenave, Anny; Ponte, Rui M; Tamisiea, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    Regional sea level changes can deviate substantially from those of the global mean, can vary on a broad range of timescales, and in some regions can even lead to a reversal of long-term global mean sea level trends. The underlying causes are associated with dynamic variations in the ocean circulation as part of climate modes of variability and with an isostatic adjustment of Earth's crust to past and ongoing changes in polar ice masses and continental water storage. Relative to the coastline, sea level is also affected by processes such as earthquakes and anthropogenically induced subsidence. Present-day regional sea level changes appear to be caused primarily by natural climate variability. However, the imprint of anthropogenic effects on regional sea level-whether due to changes in the atmospheric forcing or to mass variations in the system-will grow with time as climate change progresses, and toward the end of the twenty-first century, regional sea level patterns will be a superposition of climate variability modes and natural and anthropogenically induced static sea level patterns. Attribution and predictions of ongoing and future sea level changes require an expanded and sustained climate observing system.

  9. The carbon budget of the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, H.; Bozec, Y.; Baar, H.J.W. de; Elkalay, K.; Frankignoulle, M.; Schiettecatte, L.-S.; Kattner, G.; Borges, A.V.; Gattuso, J.-P.

    2005-01-01

    A carbon budget has been established for the North Sea, a shelf sea on the NW European continental shelf. The carbon exchange fluxes with the North Atlantic Ocean dominate the gross carbon budget. The net carbon budget – more relevant to the issue of the contribution of the coastal ocean to the

  10. Source of Aegean Sea harbour porpoises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lockyer, Christina; Rosel, P. E.; Frantzis, A.

    2003-01-01

    Documented sightings of harbour porpoises in the Mediterranean are rare, although the species is common in the neighbouring North Atlantic and Black Sea. However, in the past 2 decades, 4 harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena have been recorded in the northern Aegean Sea in the eastern Mediterranea...

  11. Salinity extrema in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Shetye, S.R.; Gouveia, A.D.; Michael, G.S.

    are described. Two of the maxima arise from the influence of Red Sea and the Persian Gulf Water. The third, which lies at the bottom of the Equatorial Surface Water, forms due to freshening at the surface of high salinity Arabian Sea near-surface waters...

  12. Sea level rise : A literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Essink, G.H.P.

    1992-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of sea level rise on Water Management, it is useful to understand the mechanisrns that determine the level of the sea. In this study, a literature survey is executed to analyze these mechanisms. Climate plays a centra! role in these mechanisms, Climate mainly changes

  13. Red Sea as a source for bioprospecting

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2015-01-01

    King-Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) is located on the shores of the Red Sea in Saudi Arabia. The Red Sea is well known for its unique environment, harboring various microbes capable of surviving in salty brines. We collected

  14. Mesoscale Eddies in the Solomon Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristova, H. G.; Kessler, W. S.; McWilliams, J. C.; Molemaker, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Water mass transformation in the strong equatorward flows through the Solomon Sea influences the properties of the Equatorial Undercurrent and subsequent cold tongue upwelling. High eddy activity in the interior Solomon Sea seen in altimetric sea surface height (SSH) and in several models may provide a mechanism for these transformations. We investigate these effects using a mesoscale (4-km resolution) sigma-coordinate (ROMS) model of the Solomon Sea nested in a basin solution, forced by a repeating seasonal cycle, and evaluated against observational data. The model generates a vigorous upper layer eddy field; some of these are apparently shed as the New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent threads through the complex topography of the region, others are independent of the strong western boundary current. We diagnose the scales and vertical structure of the eddies in different parts of the Solomon Sea to illuminate their generation processes and propagation characteristics, and compare these to observed eddy statistics. Hypotheses tested are that the Solomon Sea mesoscale eddies are generated locally by baroclinic instability, that the eddies are shed as the South Equatorial Current passes around and through the Solomon Island chain, that eddies are generated by the New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent, or that eddies occurring outside of the Solomon Sea propagate into the Solomon Sea. These different mechanisms have different implications for the resulting mixing and property fluxes. They also provide different interpretations for SSH signals observed from satellites (e.g., that will be observed by the upcoming SWOT satellite).

  15. Greenhouse warming and changes in sea level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1989-01-01

    It is likely that the anticipated warming due to the effect of increasing concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases will lead to a further and faster rise in world mean sea level. There are many processes in the climate system controlling sea level, but the most important

  16. Working with Nature in Wadden Sea Ports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baptist, M.J.; Eekelen, van E.; Dankers, P.J.T.; Grasmeijer, B.; Kessel, van T.; Maren, van D.S.

    2017-01-01

    Wadden Sea ports are situated at the border of the UNESCO World Heritage site Wadden Sea. Because of the protected status of this area, developing new economic activities is not straightforward. However, maintaining and developing port activities is needed to safeguard the economic viability of the

  17. Nitrite maxima in the Northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; DeSousa, S.N.; Fondekar, S.P.

    There are 2 nitrite maxima in the Northern Arabian Sea, one at the thermocline depth and the other at depths between 300 and 500 m. The 2nd maximum is more prominent in the northeastern part of the Arabian Sea. The 1st maximum is associated...

  18. SeaWiFS: North Pacific Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    An extratropical storm can be seen swirling over the North Pacific just south of Alaska. This SeaWiFS image was collected yesterday at 23:20 GMT. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  19. The South Pole and the Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows a rare clear view of the South Pole (lower right) and the Ross Sea, Antarctica. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) acquired the scene on December 26, 2001. The geographic South Pole is located in the center of Antarctica, at an altitude of 2,900 meters (9,300 feet). It rests on a continent-wide ice sheet that is 2,870 m thick, with the underlying bedrock only 30 m (98 feet) above sea level. The ice underlying the South Pole is as much as 140,000 years old, and is currently accumulating at about 82 cm (32 inches) per year. Roughly 2,500 km (1,550 miles) away is the green water of the Ross Sea, which indicates the presence of large numbers of phytoplankton. This is a highly productive part of the world's oceans. Also note the ice gathered around McMurdo Sound, seen toward the lefthand shoreline of the Ross Sea, at the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf. According to National Science Foundation researchers, this ice is making it difficult for penguins to reach their food supply. Separating the continental Antarctic ice sheet from the Ross Sea are the Queen Maud Mountains and the Ross Ice Shelf. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  20. Metagenomic sequencing of two salton sea microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Erik R; Schackwitz, Wendy; Hess, Matthias

    2014-01-23

    The Salton Sea is the largest inland body of water in California, with salinities ranging from brackish freshwater to hypersaline. The lake experiences high nutrient input, and its surface water is exposed to temperatures up to 40°C. Here, we report the community profiles associated with surface water from the Salton Sea.

  1. Metagenomic Sequencing of Two Salton Sea Microbiomes

    OpenAIRE

    Hawley, Erik R.; Schackwitz, Wendy; Hess, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The Salton Sea is the largest inland body of water in California, with salinities ranging from brackish freshwater to hypersaline. The lake experiences high nutrient input, and its surface water is exposed to temperatures up to 40°C. Here, we report the community profiles associated with surface water from the Salton Sea.

  2. Sea Level Changes: Determination and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, P. L.; Pugh, D. T.; DeRonde, J. G.; Warrick, R. G.; Hannah, J.

    The measurement of sea level is of fundamental importance to a wide range of research in climatology, oceanography, geology and geodesy. This volume attempts to cover many aspects of the field. The volume opens with a description by Bolduc and Murty of one of the products stemming from the development of tide gauge networks in the northern and tropical Atlantic. This work is relevant to the growth of the Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS), the main goal of which is to provide the world with an efficient, coherent sea level monitoring system for océanographie and climatological research. The subsequent four papers present results from the analysis of existing tide gauge data, including those datasets available from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level and the TOGA Sea Level Center. Two of the four, by Wroblewski and by Pasaric and Orlic, are concerned with European sea level changes, while Yu Jiye et al. discuss inter-annual changes in the Pacific, and Wang Baocan et al. describe variability in the Changjiang estuary in China. The papers by El- Abd and A wad, on Red Sea levels, are the only contributions to the volume from the large research community of geologists concerned with sea level changes.

  3. Sea cucumbers, the ocean of bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Ebrahimi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers are one of the most echinoderms and from the class Holothuroidea. Some of their specific biological activities are including anti-cancer, anticoagulant, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-atherosclerosis and anti-tumor properties, as well as accelerate wound healing. The presence of different compounds such as saponins, chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycans, sulfated Polysaccharides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential and non essential fatty acids, are the causes of their biological properties. Saponins, which are produced for compatibility with the environment, are as theire secondary metabolites. These active compounds have biological properties like hemolytic, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, ichthyotoxic, cytostatic, anti neogenic, antineoplastic, and uric acid lowering effects. Sea cucumber, have high economic value. In East Asia, Since ancient times, it have been traditionally used for the treatment of fatigue, sexual impotence, impotence caused by aging, constipation due to intestinal dryness, urinary incontinence, asthma, hypertension, arthritis and anemia. Also, toxins obtained from sea cucumber, have anti-viral, anti-tumor, anti-cancer and anti-pregnancy properties. According to literatures, the aqueous extract and high molecular weight compounds from sea cucumbers can inhibit tumor activity, via the apoptosis induction. Sea cucumbers because of the high percentage of protein and the absence of cholesterol, classified as an invigorating food. Because of different species of sea cucumbers in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea the identification of compounds and biological properties of sea cucumber species in these regions is recommended to the researchers.

  4. Albedo of the ice-covered Weddell and Bellingshausen Sea

    OpenAIRE

    A. I. Weiss; J. C. King; T. A. Lachlan-Cope; R. S. Ladkin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the surface albedo of the sea ice areas adjacent to the Antarctic Peninsula during the austral summer. Aircraft measurements of the surface albedo which were conducted in the sea ice areas of the Weddell and Bellingshausen Sea show significant differences between these two regions. The averaged surface albedo varied between 0.13 and 0.81. The ice cover of the Bellingshausen Sea consisted mainly of first year ice and the sea surface showed an averaged sea ice albed...

  5. Advances in deep-sea biology: biodiversity, ecosystem functioning and conservation. An introduction and overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Marina R.; Hilário, Ana; Santos, Ricardo S.

    2017-03-01

    Once considered as monotonous and devoid of life, the deep sea was revealed during the last century as an environment with a plethora of life forms and extremely high species richness (Rex and Etter, 2010). Underwater vehicle developments allowed direct observations of the deep, disclosing unique habitats and diverse seascapes, and other technological advances enabled manipulative experimentation and unprecedented prospects to pursue novel research topics (Levin and Sibuet, 2012; Danovaro et al., 2014). Alongside, the growing human population greatly increased the pressure on deep-sea ecosystems and the services they provide (Ramirez-Llodra et al., 2011; Thurber et al., 2014; Levin et al., 2016). Societal changes further intensified worldwide competition for natural resources, extending the present footprint of impacts over most of the global ocean (Halpern et al., 2008). In this socio-economic context, and in tandem with cutting edge technological advances and an unclear legal framework to regulate access to natural resources (Boyes and Elliott, 2014), the deep sea has emerged as a new opportunity for industrial exploitation and novel economic activities. The expanding use of the deep sea prompted a rapid reply from deep-sea scientists that recommended "a move from a frontier mentality of exploitation and single-sector management to a precautionary system that balances use of living marine resources, energy, and minerals from the deep ocean with maintenance of a productive and healthy marine environment, while improving knowledge and collaboration" and proposed "three directions to advance deep-ocean stewardship: i) protection and mitigation, ii) research, and iii) collaborative governance" (Mengerink et al., 2014). The European Marine Board position paper 22 (Rogers et al., 2015) further examined the key societal and environmental drivers confronting the deep sea and the role of deep-sea research to deliver future knowledge needs for science and society; a clear

  6. The wind sea and swell waves climate in the Nordic seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedo, Alvaro; Vettor, Roberto; Breivik, Øyvind; Sterl, Andreas; Reistad, Magnar; Soares, Carlos Guedes; Lima, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    A detailed climatology of wind sea and swell waves in the Nordic Seas (North Sea, Norwegian Sea, and Barents Sea), based on the high-resolution reanalysis NORA10, developed by the Norwegian Meteorological Institute, is presented. The higher resolution of the wind forcing fields, and the wave model (10 km in both cases), along with the inclusion of the bottom effect, allowed a better description of the wind sea and swell features, compared to previous global studies. The spatial patterns of the swell-dominated regional wave fields are shown to be different from the open ocean, due to coastal geometry, fetch dimensions, and island sheltering. Nevertheless, swell waves are still more prevalent and carry more energy in the Nordic Seas, with the exception of the North Sea. The influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the winter regional wind sea and swell patterns is also presented. The analysis of the decadal trends of wind sea and swell heights during the NORA10 period (1958-2001) shows that the long-term trends of the total significant wave height (SWH) in the Nordic Seas are mostly due to swell and to the wave propagation effect.

  7. Sea Surface Temperature and Ocean Color Variability in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaty, A. P.

    2001-12-01

    The South China Sea is a marginal sea in the Southeast Asian region whose surface circulation is driven by monsoons and whose surface currents have complex seasonal patterns. Its rich natural resources and strategic location have made its small islands areas of political dispute among the neighboring nations. This study aims to show the seasonal and interannual variability of sea surface temperature and ocean color in South China Sea. It makes use of NOAA's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite data sets on sea surface temperature for the period 1981-2000 and NASA's Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) and Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) satellite data sets on pigment concentration (ocean color) for the period 1981-1996 and 1997-2000, respectively. Transect lines were drawn along several potential hotspot areas to show the variability in sea surface temperature and pigment concentration through time. In-situ data on sea surface temperature along South China Sea were likewise plotted to see the variability with time. Higher seasonal variability in sea surface temperature was seen at higher latitudes. Interannual variability was within 1-3 Kelvin. In most areas, pigment concentration was higher during northern hemisphere winter and autumn, after the monsoon rains, with a maximum of 30 milligrams per cubic meter.

  8. Sea Water Characterization at Ujung Kulon Coastal Depth as Raw Water Source for Desalination and Potential Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugisidi Dan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresh water is basic need for life while the source is limited. Therefore, sea water is used as fresh water through desalination process. Sea water has different physical and chemical properties ranging from the surface to the seabed. The energy potential that can be obtained from the hydrostatic pressure also changes according to the depth. As part of the research of the utilization of sea water into fresh water, the aim of this study is to know the characteristics of sea water in the depth that can be utilized as source of fresh water. The sea water samples were taken at 11km from Ujung Kulon beach with depth of 0m, 20m, 40m, 60m, 80m, and 100m under the surface. The results showed that the physical properties at every depth were below the maximum allowable drinking water except for the amount of dissolved solids. Chemical characteristics at any depth above allowable level were fluoride, hardness (CaCo3, chloride, sodium, sulphate, and (KMnO4. In addition to the properties, pressure is one of the considerations in this study to determine the depth of sea water as sources for desalination. Pressure increased by 36.11% as the depth of the sea increased.

  9. Sea Water Characterization at Ujung Kulon Coastal Depth as Raw Water Source for Desalination and Potential Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugisidi, Dan; Heriyani, Okatrina

    2018-02-01

    Fresh water is basic need for life while the source is limited. Therefore, sea water is used as fresh water through desalination process. Sea water has different physical and chemical properties ranging from the surface to the seabed. The energy potential that can be obtained from the hydrostatic pressure also changes according to the depth. As part of the research of the utilization of sea water into fresh water, the aim of this study is to know the characteristics of sea water in the depth that can be utilized as source of fresh water. The sea water samples were taken at 11km from Ujung Kulon beach with depth of 0m, 20m, 40m, 60m, 80m, and 100m under the surface. The results showed that the physical properties at every depth were below the maximum allowable drinking water except for the amount of dissolved solids. Chemical characteristics at any depth above allowable level were fluoride, hardness (CaCo3), chloride, sodium, sulphate, and (KMnO4). In addition to the properties, pressure is one of the considerations in this study to determine the depth of sea water as sources for desalination. Pressure increased by 36.11% as the depth of the sea increased.

  10. Flavor Structure of Intrinsic Nucleon Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Jen-Chieh; Chang, Wen-Chen; Cheng, Hai-Yang; Liu, Keh-Fei

    2015-01-01

    The concept of intrinsic charm suggested by Brodsky et al. is extended to lighter quarks. Extraction of the intrinsic ū, d-macron, and s-macron seas is obtained from an analysis of the d-macron − ū, s + s-macron, and ū + d-macron − s −s-macron distributions. The connection between the intrinsic/extrinsic seas and the connected/disconnected seas in lattice QCD is also examined. It is shown that the connected and disconnected components for the ū(x) + d-macron(x) sea can be separated. The striking x-dependence of the [s(x) + s-macron(x)]/[ū(x) + d-macron(x)] ratio is interpreted as an interplay between the connected and disconnected seas. (author)

  11. Aquatic antagonists: cutaneous sea urchin spine injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Clifford; Aronson, Erica R; Ruiz de Luzuriaga, Arlene M

    2016-11-01

    Injuries from sea urchin spines are commonly seen in coastal regions with high levels of participation in water activities. Although these injuries may seem minor, the consequences vary based on the location of the injury. Sea urchin spine injuries may cause arthritis and synovitis from spines in the joints. Nonjoint injuries have been reported, and dermatologic aspects of sea urchin spine injuries rarely have been discussed. We present a case of a patient with sea urchin spines embedded in the thigh who subsequently developed painful skin nodules. Tissue from the site of the injury demonstrated foreign-body type granulomas. Following the removal of the spines and granulomatous tissue, the patient experienced resolution of the nodules and associated pain. Extraction of sea urchin spines can attenuate the pain and decrease the likelihood of granuloma formation, infection, and long-term sequelae.

  12. Loss of sea ice in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, Donald K; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline A

    2009-01-01

    The Arctic sea ice cover is in decline. The areal extent of the ice cover has been decreasing for the past few decades at an accelerating rate. Evidence also points to a decrease in sea ice thickness and a reduction in the amount of thicker perennial sea ice. A general global warming trend has made the ice cover more vulnerable to natural fluctuations in atmospheric and oceanic forcing. The observed reduction in Arctic sea ice is a consequence of both thermodynamic and dynamic processes, including such factors as preconditioning of the ice cover, overall warming trends, changes in cloud coverage, shifts in atmospheric circulation patterns, increased export of older ice out of the Arctic, advection of ocean heat from the Pacific and North Atlantic, enhanced solar heating of the ocean, and the ice-albedo feedback. The diminishing Arctic sea ice is creating social, political, economic, and ecological challenges.

  13. Early Spring Dust over the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) observed this large cloud of dust (brownish pixels) blowing from northern Africa across the Mediterranean Sea on March 4, 2002. The dust can be seen clearly blowing across Southern Italy, Albania, Greece, and Turkey-all along the Mediterranean's northeastern shoreline. Notice that there also appears to be human-made aerosol pollution (greyish pixels) pooling in the air just south of the Italian Alps and blowing southeastward over the Adriatic Sea. The Alps can be easily identified as the crescent-shaped, snow-capped mountain range in the top center of this true-color scene. There also appears to be a similar haze over Austria, Hungary, and Yugoslavia to the north and east of Italy. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  14. History of sea ice in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyak, Leonid; Alley, Richard B.; Andrews, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Arctic sea-ice extent and volume are declining rapidly. Several studies project that the Arctic Ocean may become seasonally ice-free by the year 2040 or even earlier. Putting this into perspective requires information on the history of Arctic sea-ice conditions through the geologic past. This inf......Arctic sea-ice extent and volume are declining rapidly. Several studies project that the Arctic Ocean may become seasonally ice-free by the year 2040 or even earlier. Putting this into perspective requires information on the history of Arctic sea-ice conditions through the geologic past...... Optimum, and consistently covered at least part of the Arctic Ocean for no less than the last 13–14 million years. Ice was apparently most widespread during the last 2–3 million years, in accordance with Earth’s overall cooler climate. Nevertheless, episodes of considerably reduced sea ice or even...

  15. Developing twenty-first century skills: insights from an intensive interdisciplinary workshop Mosaic of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Milosevic

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Sea, one of the world’s largest semi-enclosed seas, which, with its very low salinity and quasi-isolation from the big oceans cannot decide whether it is a sea or a large lake. This geologically-unique environment supports an even more surprising and delicate marine ecosystem, where a complex community of fishes, marine mammals and important microscopic organisms creates a magical mosaic of life. Humans have enjoyed the abundance of life in the Baltic Sea for thousands of years, and major Scandinavian and Baltic cities have oriented themselves towards this geo-ecosystem in order to develop and seek ecological, economical and cultural inspiration and wealth. The ‘Mosaic of Life’ workshop aimed at going beyond the obvious in examining the meaning of the Baltic Sea by gathering together a selection of young, creative minds from different backgrounds ranging from the arts and economics to geology and life sciences. This intensive workshop was designed as a unique training opportunity to develop essential twenty-first century skills – to introduce and develop creative, critical and interdisciplinary thinking and collaborative teamwork, as well as to foster a visual and scientific literacy, using project-based learning and hands-on activities. Our final goal has been to be inspired by the resulting connections, differences and unifying concepts, creating innovative, interdisciplinary projects which would look further than the sea – further than the eye can see and further into the future.

  16. Sea ice contribution to the air-sea CO(2) exchange in the Arctic and Southern Oceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard...[], Søren; Bendtsen, Jørgen; Delille, B.

    2011-01-01

    Although salt rejection from sea ice is a key process in deep-water formation in ice-covered seas, the concurrent rejection of CO(2) and the subsequent effect on air-sea CO(2) exchange have received little attention. We review the mechanisms by which sea ice directly and indirectly controls the air......-sea CO(2) exchange and use recent measurements of inorganic carbon compounds in bulk sea ice to estimate that oceanic CO(2) uptake during the seasonal cycle of sea-ice growth and decay in ice-covered oceanic regions equals almost half of the net atmospheric CO(2) uptake in ice-free polar seas. This sea......-sea CO(2) exchange during winter, and (3) release of CO(2)-depleted melt water with excess total alkalinity during sea-ice decay and (4) biological CO(2) drawdown during primary production in sea ice and surface oceanic waters....

  17. Captive sea turtle rearing inventory, feeding, and water chemistry in sea turtle rearing tanks at NOAA Galveston 1995-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The database contains daily records of sea turtle inventories by species feeding rates type of food fed sick sea turtles sea turtles that have died log of tanks...

  18. 76 FR 43698 - Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... implementation of sea lamprey control techniques alternative to lampricide that are technically feasible, cost... provide advice regarding the implementation of sea lamprey control methods alternative to lampricides, to...

  19. 76 FR 12129 - Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... implementation of sea lamprey control techniques alternative to lampricide that are technically feasible, cost... regarding the implementation of sea lamprey control methods alternative to lampricides, to recommend...

  20. Population ecology of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) as an invasive species in the Laurentian Great Lakes and an imperiled species in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Slade, Jeffrey W.; Steeves, Todd B.; Almeida, Pedro R.; Quintella, Bernardo R.

    2016-01-01

    The sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus (Linnaeus) is both an invasive non-native species in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America and an imperiled species in much of its native range in North America and Europe. To compare and contrast how understanding of population ecology is useful for control programs in the Great Lakes and restoration programs in Europe, we review current understanding of the population ecology of the sea lamprey in its native and introduced range. Some attributes of sea lamprey population ecology are particularly useful for both control programs in the Great Lakes and restoration programs in the native range. First, traps within fish ladders are beneficial for removing sea lampreys in Great Lakes streams and passing sea lampreys in the native range. Second, attractants and repellants are suitable for luring sea lampreys into traps for control in the Great Lakes and guiding sea lamprey passage for conservation in the native range. Third, assessment methods used for targeting sea lamprey control in the Great Lakes are useful for targeting habitat protection in the native range. Last, assessment methods used to quantify numbers of all life stages of sea lampreys would be appropriate for measuring success of control in the Great Lakes and success of conservation in the native range.

  1. Release strategies for rehabilitated sea otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGange, Anthony R.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bayha, Keith; Williams, Terrie M.; Davis, Randall W.

    1995-01-01

    According to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services’ (USFWS) Response Plan for sea otters (USFWS, in preparation), in the event of an oil spill, the decision to release sea otters from rehabilitation centers following treatment will be linked to the decision on whether to capture sea otters for treatment. Assuming a scenario similar to the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), once the decision to capture sea otters is made, the ultimate goal is to return as many sea otters to the wild as possible, even though the rescue may not be expected to produce results significant at the population level. The decision by the USFWS to proceed with capture, rehabilitation, and release will be made on a case-by-case basis (USFWS, in preparation). Many factors will influence the decision. Perhaps the most important factors in deciding when and where to release sea otters are the location and availability of suitable release sites and verification that the otters are free of diseases that might be transmitted to the wild population.Alternative release strategies for sea otters will be contained in the sea otter response portion of the USFWS’s oil spill contingency plans for Alaska and California that are being developed as required by the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Public review of these plans before they are implemented will help to reduce public concern about the survival of rehabilitated otters, their biological effect on the release area, and the potential introduction or spread of disease into the wild sea otter population.The objective of this chapter is to review alternative strategies for the disposition of rehabilitated sea otters. Our assumption is that returning as many animals to the wild as possible, whether it be for humanitarian or biological reasons, is the ultimate goal of this effort (Figure 10.1).

  2. Sea ice biogeochemistry: a guide for modellers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Tedesco

    Full Text Available Sea ice is a fundamental component of the climate system and plays a key role in polar trophic food webs. Nonetheless sea ice biogeochemical dynamics at large temporal and spatial scales are still rarely described. Numerical models may potentially contribute integrating among sparse observations, but available models of sea ice biogeochemistry are still scarce, whether their relevance for properly describing the current and future state of the polar oceans has been recently addressed. A general methodology to develop a sea ice biogeochemical model is presented, deriving it from an existing validated model application by extension of generic pelagic biogeochemistry model parameterizations. The described methodology is flexible and considers different levels of ecosystem complexity and vertical representation, while adopting a strategy of coupling that ensures mass conservation. We show how to apply this methodology step by step by building an intermediate complexity model from a published realistic application and applying it to analyze theoretically a typical season of first-year sea ice in the Arctic, the one currently needing the most urgent understanding. The aim is to (1 introduce sea ice biogeochemistry and address its relevance to ocean modelers of polar regions, supporting them in adding a new sea ice component to their modelling framework for a more adequate representation of the sea ice-covered ocean ecosystem as a whole, and (2 extend our knowledge on the relevant controlling factors of sea ice algal production, showing that beyond the light and nutrient availability, the duration of the sea ice season may play a key-role shaping the algal production during the on going and upcoming projected changes.

  3. Sea ice-albedo climate feedback mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, J.L.; Curry, J.A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Ebert, E.E. [Bureau of Meterology Research Center, Melbourne (Australia)

    1995-02-01

    The sea ice-albedo feedback mechanism over the Arctic Ocean multiyear sea ice is investigated by conducting a series of experiments using several one-dimensional models of the coupled sea ice-atmosphere system. In its simplest form, ice-albedo feedback is thought to be associated with a decrease in the areal cover of snow and ice and a corresponding increase in the surface temperature, further decreasing the area cover of snow and ice. It is shown that the sea ice-albedo feedback can operate even in multiyear pack ice, without the disappearance of this ice, associated with internal processes occurring within the multiyear ice pack (e.g., duration of the snow cover, ice thickness, ice distribution, lead fraction, and melt pond characteristics). The strength of the ice-albedo feedback mechanism is compared for several different thermodynamic sea ice models: a new model that includes ice thickness distribution., the Ebert and Curry model, the Mayjut and Untersteiner model, and the Semtner level-3 and level-0 models. The climate forcing is chosen to be a perturbation of the surface heat flux, and cloud and water vapor feedbacks are inoperative so that the effects of the sea ice-albedo feedback mechanism can be isolated. The inclusion of melt ponds significantly strengthens the ice-albedo feedback, while the ice thickness distribution decreases the strength of the modeled sea ice-albedo feedback. It is emphasized that accurately modeling present-day sea ice thickness is not adequate for a sea ice parameterization; the correct physical processes must be included so that the sea ice parameterization yields correct sensitivities to external forcing. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. The effects of additional black carbon on Arctic sea ice surface albedo: variation with sea ice type and snow cover

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Marks; M. D. King

    2013-01-01

    Black carbon in sea ice will decrease sea ice surface albedo through increased absorption of incident solar radiation, exacerbating sea ice melting. Previous literature has reported different albedo responses to additions of black carbon in sea ice and has not considered how a snow cover may mitigate the effect of black carbon in sea ice. Sea ice is predominately snow covered. Visible light absorption and light scattering coefficients are calculated for a typical first year and multi-y...

  5. Snowball Earth: Asynchronous coupling of sea-glacier flow with a global climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, D.; Kasting, J. F.; Zugger, M. E.

    2017-05-01

    During Snowball Earth episodes of the Neoproterozoic and Paleoproterozoic, limited amounts of tropical open ocean (Jormungand), or tropical ocean with thin ice cover, would help to explain (1) vigorous glacial activity in low latitudes, (2) survival of photosynthetic life, and (3) deglacial recovery without excessive buildup of atmospheric CO2. Some previous models have suggested that tropical open ocean or thin-ice cover is possible; however, its viability in the presence of kilometer-thick sea glaciers flowing from higher latitudes has not been demonstrated conclusively. Here we describe a new method of asynchronously coupling a zonal sea-glacier model with a 3-D global climate model and apply it to Snowball Earth. Equilibrium curves of ice line versus CO2 are mapped out, as well as their dependence on ocean heat transport efficiency, sea-glacier flow, and other model parameters. No climate states with limited tropical open ocean or thin ice are found in any of our model runs, including those with sea glaciers. If this result is correct, then other refugia such as cryoconite pans would have been required for life to survive. However, the reasons for the differences between our results and others should first be resolved. It is suggested that small-scale convective dynamics, affecting fractional snow cover in low latitudes, may be a critical factor accounting for these differences.

  6. Sea level rise in the Severn Estuary and Bristol Channel and impacts of a Severn Barrage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Reza; Olbert, Agnieszka I.; Hartnett, Michael; Falconer, Roger A.

    2014-05-01

    Many research projects in recent years have focused on marine renewable energy devices and structures due to the growing interest in marine renewable energy. These devices and structures have very different life spans. Schemes such as the Severn Barrage in the UK, as originally proposed by the Severn Tidal Power Group (STPG), would be the largest tidal renewable energy generation project in the world and would be operational for well over a century if built. Due to the long working life of some of these marine renewable energy schemes, it is important to study the impacts of climate change on such schemes, and particularly sea level rise. This study focuses on investigating the impacts of sea level rise due to climate change on the largest macro-tidal estuary in the UK, namely the Severn Estuary and Bristol Channel, and the alterations of the impacts and the performance of the Severn Barrage as a result of climate change. A hierarchy of computer models was implemented to identify the more localised impacts of climate change in the region of the study. Moreover, the potential benefits of the barrage on reducing flood risk, as well as the impact of climate change and the barrage on intertidal mudflats were investigated. The model predictions showed that the barrage would reduce flood risk due to the sea level rise. Furthermore, annual power output and the initial reduction in flood risk of the barrage would not be affected by sea level rise.

  7. Sea otter population structure and ecology in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Monson, Daniel H.

    2002-01-01

    environmental conditions. During the past decade, using molecular genetics, researchers have been trying to understand how sea otter populations might differ throughout the North Pacific and what effects population reductions and recovery have had on population genetics. Also, as a result of the varying degree of recovery among isolated populations, we have the opportunity to contrast life history attributes (such as condition, reproduction, and survival) among populations throughout their range. These contrasts may be useful in developing methods to assess the status of populations where traditional methods of surveying abundance are difficult and expensive.

  8. Man and the last great wilderness: human impact on the deep sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ramirez-Llodra

    Full Text Available The deep sea, the largest ecosystem on Earth and one of the least studied, harbours high biodiversity and provides a wealth of resources. Although humans have used the oceans for millennia, technological developments now allow exploitation of fisheries resources, hydrocarbons and minerals below 2000 m depth. The remoteness of the deep seafloor has promoted the disposal of residues and litter. Ocean acidification and climate change now bring a new dimension of global effects. Thus the challenges facing the deep sea are large and accelerating, providing a new imperative for the science community, industry and national and international organizations to work together to develop successful exploitation management and conservation of the deep-sea ecosystem. This paper provides scientific expert judgement and a semi-quantitative analysis of past, present and future impacts of human-related activities on global deep-sea habitats within three categories: disposal, exploitation and climate change. The analysis is the result of a Census of Marine Life--SYNDEEP workshop (September 2008. A detailed review of known impacts and their effects is provided. The analysis shows how, in recent decades, the most significant anthropogenic activities that affect the deep sea have evolved from mainly disposal (past to exploitation (present. We predict that from now and into the future, increases in atmospheric CO(2 and facets and consequences of climate change will have the most impact on deep-sea habitats and their fauna. Synergies between different anthropogenic pressures and associated effects are discussed, indicating that most synergies are related to increased atmospheric CO(2 and climate change effects. We identify deep-sea ecosystems we believe are at higher risk from human impacts in the near future: benthic communities on sedimentary upper slopes, cold-water corals, canyon benthic communities and seamount pelagic and benthic communities. We finalise this

  9. SeaNine 211 as antifouling biocide: A coastal pollutant of emerging concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lianguo; Lam, James C W

    2017-11-01

    SeaNine 211, with 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT) being the biocidal ingredient, is a widely-used antifouling agent to deter the undesirable biofouling phenomenon. It is commercially promoted as an environmentally acceptable antifoulant mainly due to its claimed rapid degradation in marine environment. However, increasing researches document varying degradative kinetics in different environments, proving that SeaNine 211 is actually not degraded equally fast around the world (half-life between antifouling coatings has also caused global contamination of marine environment in various compartments. For example, accumulation of SeaNine 211 is detected as high as 3700ng/L in Spanish seawater and 281ng/g dry weight in Korean sediment. Considering that SeaNine 211 is highly toxic against non-target marine organisms, environmental risk assessment finds that most marine organisms are endangered by SeaNine 211 in worst-case scenario. Its endocrine disrupting and reproductive impairing effects at environmentally worst-case concentrations further constitute a long-term threat to the maintenance of population stability. Therefore, in the light of the varying degradability, environmental pollution and high toxicity, especially the endocrine disruption, SeaNine 211 as an antifouling agent is likely to cause non-negligible damages to the marine ecosystem. There is an urgency to perform a systematic ecological risk assessment of SeaNine 211 to prevent the potential impacts on the health of marine environment. A regular monitoring also becomes necessary to place the usage of antifouling biocides under control. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Study of Arabian Red Sea coastal soils as potential mineral dust sources

    KAUST Repository

    Prakash, P. Jish; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Tao, Weichun; Yapici, Tahir; Warsama, Bashir H.; Engelbrecht, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) satellite observations suggest that the narrow heterogeneous Red Sea coastal region is a frequent source of airborne dust that, because of its proximity, directly affects the Red Sea and coastal urban centers. The potential of soils to be suspended as airborne mineral dust depends largely on soil texture, moisture content, and particle size distributions. Airborne dust inevitably carries the mineralogical and chemical signature of a parent soil. The existing soil databases are too coarse to resolve the small but important coastal region. The purpose of this study is to better characterize the mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of soils from the Red Sea Arabian coastal plane, which in turn will help to improve assessment of dust effect on the Red Sea and land environmental systems and urban centers. Thirteen surface soils from the hot-spot areas of wind-blown mineral dust along the Red Sea coastal plain were sampled for analysis. Analytical methods included Optical Microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), Ion Chromatography (IC), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Laser Particle Size Analysis (LPSA). We found that the Red Sea coastal soils contain major components of quartz and feldspar, as well as lesser but variable amounts of amphibole, pyroxene, carbonate, clays, and micas, with traces of gypsum, halite, chlorite, epidote and oxides. The wide range of minerals in the soil samples was ascribed to the variety of igneous and metamorphic provenance rocks of the Arabian Shield forming the escarpment to the east of the Red Sea coastal plain. The analysis revealed that the samples contain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron that are essential nutrients to marine life. The analytical results from this study will provide a valuable input into dust emission models used

  11. Study of Arabian Red Sea coastal soils as potential mineral dust sources

    KAUST Repository

    Prakash, P. Jish

    2016-03-23

    Both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) satellite observations suggest that the narrow heterogeneous Red Sea coastal region is a frequent source of airborne dust that, because of its proximity, directly affects the Red Sea and coastal urban centers. The potential of soils to be suspended as airborne mineral dust depends largely on soil texture, moisture content, and particle size distributions. Airborne dust inevitably carries the mineralogical and chemical signature of a parent soil. The existing soil databases are too coarse to resolve the small but important coastal region. The purpose of this study is to better characterize the mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of soils from the Red Sea Arabian coastal plane, which in turn will help to improve assessment of dust effect on the Red Sea and land environmental systems and urban centers. Thirteen surface soils from the hot-spot areas of wind-blown mineral dust along the Red Sea coastal plain were sampled for analysis. Analytical methods included Optical Microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), Ion Chromatography (IC), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Laser Particle Size Analysis (LPSA). We found that the Red Sea coastal soils contain major components of quartz and feldspar, as well as lesser but variable amounts of amphibole, pyroxene, carbonate, clays, and micas, with traces of gypsum, halite, chlorite, epidote and oxides. The wide range of minerals in the soil samples was ascribed to the variety of igneous and metamorphic provenance rocks of the Arabian Shield forming the escarpment to the east of the Red Sea coastal plain. The analysis revealed that the samples contain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron that are essential nutrients to marine life. The analytical results from this study will provide a valuable input into dust emission models used

  12. Man and the Last Great Wilderness: Human Impact on the Deep Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Tyler, Paul A.; Baker, Maria C.; Bergstad, Odd Aksel; Clark, Malcolm R.; Escobar, Elva; Levin, Lisa A.; Menot, Lenaick; Rowden, Ashley A.; Smith, Craig R.; Van Dover, Cindy L.

    2011-01-01

    The deep sea, the largest ecosystem on Earth and one of the least studied, harbours high biodiversity and provides a wealth of resources. Although humans have used the oceans for millennia, technological developments now allow exploitation of fisheries resources, hydrocarbons and minerals below 2000 m depth. The remoteness of the deep seafloor has promoted the disposal of residues and litter. Ocean acidification and climate change now bring a new dimension of global effects. Thus the challenges facing the deep sea are large and accelerating, providing a new imperative for the science community, industry and national and international organizations to work together to develop successful exploitation management and conservation of the deep-sea ecosystem. This paper provides scientific expert judgement and a semi-quantitative analysis of past, present and future impacts of human-related activities on global deep-sea habitats within three categories: disposal, exploitation and climate change. The analysis is the result of a Census of Marine Life – SYNDEEP workshop (September 2008). A detailed review of known impacts and their effects is provided. The analysis shows how, in recent decades, the most significant anthropogenic activities that affect the deep sea have evolved from mainly disposal (past) to exploitation (present). We predict that from now and into the future, increases in atmospheric CO2 and facets and consequences of climate change will have the most impact on deep-sea habitats and their fauna. Synergies between different anthropogenic pressures and associated effects are discussed, indicating that most synergies are related to increased atmospheric CO2 and climate change effects. We identify deep-sea ecosystems we believe are at higher risk from human impacts in the near future: benthic communities on sedimentary upper slopes, cold-water corals, canyon benthic communities and seamount pelagic and benthic communities. We finalise this review with a short

  13. Defending definitions of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mix, Lucas John

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, it has become unpopular to talk about definitions of life, under the assumption that attempts at a precise definition are counterproductive. Recent attempts have failed to meet strict philosophical criteria for definitions and have failed to reach consensus. I argue that provisional definitions are necessary for clear communications. Our current knowledge of biology justifies a number of universal claims about the category of life. Whether or not "life" represents a natural category, it maps to a number of important, observable processes. Given the importance of those processes and the extent of our knowledge, plural explicit definitions of life (and related categories) will be necessary for progress in astrobiology and origin-of-life studies as well as biology in general. I propose concrete categories related to, but not necessarily coextensive with, life for clear communication and hypothesis formation: Woese life, Darwin life, Haldane life.

  14. Measuring the sea quark polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makdisi, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Spin is a fundamental degree of freedom and measuring the spin structure functions of the nucleon should be a basic endeavor for hadron physics. Polarization experiments have been the domain of fixed target experiments. Over the years large transverse asymmetries have been observed where the prevailing QCD theories predicted little or no asymmetries, and conversely the latest deep inelastic scattering experiments of polarized leptons from polarized targets point to the possibility that little of the nucleon spin is carried by the valence quarks. The possibility of colliding high luminosity polarized proton beams in the Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) provides a great opportunity to extend these studies and systematically probe the spin dependent parton distributions specially to those reactions that are inaccessible to current experiments. This presentation focuses on the measurement of sea quark and possibly the strange quark polarization utilizing the approved RHIC detectors

  15. NESTOR Deep Sea Neutrino Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggouras, G.; Anassontzis, E.G.; Ball, A.E.; Bourlis, G.; Chinowsky, W.; Fahrun, E.; Grammatikakis, G.; Green, C.; Grieder, P.; Katrivanos, P.; Koske, P.; Leisos, A.; Markopoulos, E.; Minkowsky, P.; Nygren, D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Przybylski, G.; Resvanis, L.K.; Siotis, I.; Sopher, J.; Staveris-Polikalas, A.; Tsagli, V.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Zhukov, V.A.

    2006-01-01

    One module of NESTOR, the Mediterranean deep-sea neutrino telescope, was deployed at a depth of 4000m, 14km off the Sapienza Island, off the South West coast of Greece. The deployment site provides excellent environmental characteristics. The deployed NESTOR module is constructed as a hexagonal star like latticed titanium star with 12 Optical Modules and an one-meter diameter titanium sphere which houses the electronics. Power and data were transferred through a 30km electro-optical cable to the shore laboratory. In this report we describe briefly the detector and the detector electronics and discuss the first physics data acquired and give the zenith angular distribution of the reconstructed muons

  16. Influence of potentially confounding factors on sea urchin porewater toxicity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, R.S.; Biedenbach, J.M.; Nipper, M.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of potentially confounding factors has been identified as a concern for interpreting sea urchin porewater toxicity test data. The results from >40 sediment-quality assessment surveys using early-life stages of the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata were compiled and examined to determine acceptable ranges of natural variables such as pH, ammonia, and dissolved organic carbon on the fertilization and embryological development endpoints. In addition, laboratory experiments were also conducted with A. punctulata and compared with information from the literature. Pore water with pH as low as 6.9 is an unlikely contributor to toxicity for the fertilization and embryological development tests with A. punctulata. Other species of sea urchin have narrower pH tolerance ranges. Ammonia is rarely a contributing factor in pore water toxicity tests using the fertilization endpoint, but the embryological development endpoint may be influenced by ammonia concentrations commonly found in porewater samples. Therefore, ammonia needs to be considered when interpreting results for the embryological development test. Humic acid does not affect sea urchin fertilization at saturation concentrations, but it could have an effect on the embryological development endpoint at near-saturation concentrations. There was no correlation between sediment total organic carbon concentrations and porewater dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Because of the potential for many varying substances to activate parthenogenesis in sea urchin eggs, it is recommended that a no-sperm control be included with every fertilization test treatment. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  17. The sea: place of ultimate freedom? Ethnographic reflection on in-between places and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Rogelja

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the rapid development of navigation and communication technology, boat building technology, popularity of travel and the sea, increased living standards, mobile work opportunities, as well as recessions and disillusionment with the nation-state system and postindustrial economy, a constantly increasing number of people adopt mobility on the sea as a way of life. The paper explores the connection between sea imaginaries and maritime lifestyle migration, discussing the process by which sea imaginaries are translated into practice but also how the physical maritime environment influences the experience of lifestyle migrants. In doing so, the concept of liminality, as previously tailored to the lifestyle migration literature and initially introduced by Arnold Van Gennep and Victor Turner, will be put in a dialogue with the ethnographic material. First, the paper explains the theoretical foundations of lifestyle migration, emphasizing the relation between the social construction of places and choices of lifestyle migrants, while also introducing the debate on liminality; second, it discusses the importance of these cultural dimensions in the specific ethnographic setting among Westerners in the Mediterranean who live, travel and work on sailing boats. Finally, the sea images, the maritime environment and details from individualized biographies will be put in a dialogue with each other in order to discuss in-between practices and places.

  18. Copper in the sediment and sea surface microlayer near a fallowed, open-net fish farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Ronald H; Smith, Ruth E; Fisher, Clyde V; Fisher, E Brian

    2012-09-01

    Sediment and sea surface microlayer samples near an open-net salmon farm in Nova Scotia, were analysed for copper. Copper is a constituent of the feed and is an active ingredient of anti-foulants. The salmon farm was placed in fallow after 15 years of production. Sampling was pursued over 27 months. Elevated copper concentrations in the sediments indicated the farm site as a source. Bubble flotation due to gas-emitting sediments from eutrophication is a likely process for accumulating copper in the sea surface microlayer at enriched concentrations. Elevated and enriched concentrations in the sea surface microlayer over distance from the farm site led, as a result of wind-drift, to an enlarged farm footprint. The levels of copper in both sediments and sea surface microlayer exceeded guidelines for protection of marine life. Over the 27 months period, copper levels persisted in the sediments and decreased gradually in the sea surface microlayer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on yeasts isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgaud, Gaëtan; Hué, Nguyen Thi Minh; Arzur, Danielle; Coton, Monika; Perrier-Cornet, Jean-Marie; Jebbar, Mohamed; Barbier, Georges

    2015-11-01

    Hydrostatic pressure plays a significant role in the distribution of life in the biosphere. Knowledge of deep-sea piezotolerant and (hyper)piezophilic bacteria and archaea diversity has been well documented, along with their specific adaptations to cope with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP). Recent investigations of deep-sea microbial community compositions have shown unexpected micro-eukaryotic communities, mainly dominated by fungi. Molecular methods such as next-generation sequencing have been used for SSU rRNA gene sequencing to reveal fungal taxa. Currently, a difficult but fascinating challenge for marine mycologists is to create deep-sea marine fungus culture collections and assess their ability to cope with pressure. Indeed, although there is no universal genetic marker for piezoresistance, physiological analyses provide concrete relevant data for estimating their adaptations and understanding the role of fungal communities in the abyss. The present study investigated morphological and physiological responses of fungi to HHP using a collection of deep-sea yeasts as a model. The aim was to determine whether deep-sea yeasts were able to tolerate different HHP and if they were metabolically active. Here we report an unexpected taxonomic-based dichotomic response to pressure with piezosensitve ascomycetes and piezotolerant basidiomycetes, and distinct morphological switches triggered by pressure for certain strains. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. A new clarification method to visualize biliary degeneration during liver metamorphosis in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Davidson, Peter J.; Scott, Anne M.; Walaszczyk, Erin J.; Brant, Cory O.; Buchinger, Tyler; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Li, Weiming

    2014-01-01

    Biliary atresia is a rare disease of infancy, with an estimated 1 in 15,000 frequency in the southeast United States, but more common in East Asian countries, with a reported frequency of 1 in 5,000 in Taiwan. Although much is known about the management of biliary atresia, its pathogenesis is still elusive. The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) provides a unique opportunity to examine the mechanism and progression of biliary degeneration. Sea lamprey develop through three distinct life stages: larval, parasitic, and adult. During the transition from larvae to parasitic juvenile, sea lamprey undergo metamorphosis with dramatic reorganization and remodeling in external morphology and internal organs. In the liver, the entire biliary system is lost, including the gall bladder and the biliary tree. A newly-developed method called “CLARITY” was modified to clarify the entire liver and the junction with the intestine in metamorphic sea lamprey. The process of biliary degeneration was visualized and discerned during sea lamprey metamorphosis by using laser scanning confocal microscopy. This method provides a powerful tool to study biliary atresia in a unique animal model.

  1. Thermodynamic properties of sea air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Feistel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Very accurate thermodynamic potential functions are available for fluid water, ice, seawater and humid air covering wide ranges of temperature and pressure conditions. They permit the consistent computation of all equilibrium properties as, for example, required for coupled atmosphere-ocean models or the analysis of observational or experimental data. With the exception of humid air, these potential functions are already formulated as international standards released by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS, and have been adopted in 2009 for oceanography by IOC/UNESCO.

    In this paper, we derive a collection of formulas for important quantities expressed in terms of the thermodynamic potentials, valid for typical phase transitions and composite systems of humid air and water/ice/seawater. Particular attention is given to equilibria between seawater and humid air, referred to as "sea air" here. In a related initiative, these formulas will soon be implemented in a source-code library for easy practical use. The library is primarily aimed at oceanographic applications but will be relevant to air-sea interaction and meteorology as well.

    The formulas provided are valid for any consistent set of suitable thermodynamic potential functions. Here we adopt potential functions from previous publications in which they are constructed from theoretical laws and empirical data; they are briefly summarized in the appendix. The formulas make use of the full accuracy of these thermodynamic potentials, without additional approximations or empirical coefficients. They are expressed in the temperature scale ITS-90 and the 2008 Reference-Composition Salinity Scale.

  2. The North Sea Bird Club

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, P.A.T.; Gorman, M.L.; Patterson, I.J.; Howe, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the creation of a club for the purpose of encouraging oil and gas workers to watch birds may not at first seem a viable proposition. To the layperson, birds offshore conjures up an image of hundreds of seagulls following fishing boats, and very little else. Also, the act of birdwatching is not seen as a typical offshore worker's activity. Anyone who has worked on an installation offshore and who has any interest in wildlife will be aware of the occasional presence of land-birds. Two decades ago, prompted by some keen offshore workers, a single oil company set up a monitoring program, which quickly became popular with a number of its employees. Birds seem offshore were recorded on data forms and collected together. At this stage the club was purely another recreation facility; however, when the data were collated it was soon realized that installations offshore were being used as staging posts by birds on migration, and that the information being collected would be of great interest in the study of bird movements. All over Britain, at strategic points on the coastline, there are bird observatories which record the arrival and departure of migrating birds. The presence of several hundred solid structures up and down the North Sea, which are used by birds en route, represents a huge, unique bird observatory, capable of uncovering facts about bird migration which have long eluded land-based scientists. Eleven years ago, the North Sea Bird Club began, composed of eight member companies, a recorder from Aberdeen University and a representative from the Nature Conservancy Council. The club received data from 41 installations, and the recorder collated these on Aberdeen University's computer and produced an annual report of sightings

  3. Review of critical factors for SEA implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jie, E-mail: jasmine@plan.aau.dk; Christensen, Per; Kornov, Lone

    2013-01-15

    The implementation process involved in translating Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) intention into action is vital to an effective SEA. Many factors influence implementation and thus the effectiveness of an SEA. Empirical studies have identified and documented some factors influencing the implementation of an SEA. This research is fragmented, however, and it is still not clear what are the most critical factors of effective SEA performance, and how these relate to different stages of the implementation process or other contextual circumstances. The paper takes its point of departure in implementation theory. Firstly, we introduce implementation theory, and then use it in practice to establish a more comprehensive model related to the stages in the implementation process. Secondly, we identify the critical factors in order to see how they are related to the different stages of SEA or are more general in character. Finally we map the different critical factors and how they influence the overall results of an SEA. Based on a literature review, we present a comprehensive picture of the critical factors and where they are found in the process. We conclude that most of the critical factors identified are of a more general character influencing the SEA process as such, while only one out of four of these factors relates to the specific stages of the SEA. Based on this mapping we can sketch a picture of the totality of critical factors. In this study 266 notions of critical factors were identified. Seen at the level of notions of critical factors, only 24% of these relate to specific stages while for 76% the critical factors are of a more general nature. These critical factors interact in complex ways and appear in different combinations in different stages of the implementation process so tracing the cause and effect is difficult. The pervasiveness of contextual and general factors also clearly suggests that there is no single way to put SEA into practice. The

  4. Review of critical factors for SEA implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jie; Christensen, Per; Kørnøv, Lone

    2013-01-01

    The implementation process involved in translating Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) intention into action is vital to an effective SEA. Many factors influence implementation and thus the effectiveness of an SEA. Empirical studies have identified and documented some factors influencing the implementation of an SEA. This research is fragmented, however, and it is still not clear what are the most critical factors of effective SEA performance, and how these relate to different stages of the implementation process or other contextual circumstances. The paper takes its point of departure in implementation theory. Firstly, we introduce implementation theory, and then use it in practice to establish a more comprehensive model related to the stages in the implementation process. Secondly, we identify the critical factors in order to see how they are related to the different stages of SEA or are more general in character. Finally we map the different critical factors and how they influence the overall results of an SEA. Based on a literature review, we present a comprehensive picture of the critical factors and where they are found in the process. We conclude that most of the critical factors identified are of a more general character influencing the SEA process as such, while only one out of four of these factors relates to the specific stages of the SEA. Based on this mapping we can sketch a picture of the totality of critical factors. In this study 266 notions of critical factors were identified. Seen at the level of notions of critical factors, only 24% of these relate to specific stages while for 76% the critical factors are of a more general nature. These critical factors interact in complex ways and appear in different combinations in different stages of the implementation process so tracing the cause and effect is difficult. The pervasiveness of contextual and general factors also clearly suggests that there is no single way to put SEA into practice. The

  5. Corrosion fatigue performance in simulated sea water of aluminium 6061-T651 welded using ER4043 filler wire

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mutombo, K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue life of Al6061-T651 for various applied stress amplitudes in the unwelded and welded conditions was significantly lower in 3.5% NaCl simulated sea water solution, compared to that in air. The damage ratio increased with a decrease...

  6. Regional and seasonal differences in growth of larval North Sea herring (clupea harengus L.) estimated by otolith microstructure analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Heath, Mike; Skaarup, Bo

    1991-01-01

    The ecology processes of the larval life of autumn-spawned North Sea herring have been studied in a multidisciplinary and internationally coordinated research programme (ACE). The programme focused on larval advection and the importance of the autumn/winter circulation in determining larval distr...

  7. Fecundity regulation in relation to habitat utilisation of two sympatric flounder (Platichtys flesus) populations in the brackish water Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissling, Anders; Thorsen, Anders; da Silva, Filipa F.G.

    2015-01-01

    Two populations of flounder (Platichtys flesus) with different life history traits inhabit the brackish water Baltic Sea. Both types share feeding areas in coastal waters during summer-autumn but utilise different habitats for spawning in spring, namely offshore spawning with pelagic eggs and coa...

  8. Modelling retention and dispersion mechanisms of bluefin tuna eggs and larvae in the Northwest Mediterranean Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariani, Patrizio; MacKenzie, Brian; Iudicone, D.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of early life history of most fish species in the Mediterranean Sea is sparse and processes affecting their recruitment are poorly understood. This is particularly true for bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, even though this species is one of the world's most valued fish species. Here we...... develop, apply and validate an individually based coupled biological-physical oceanographic model of fish early life history in the Mediterranean Sea. We first validate the general structure of the coupled model with a 12-day Lagrangian drift study of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) larvae in the Catalan...... mesoscale processes in the Balearic area and thus potentially affect bluefin tuna larvae. These modelling approaches can increase understanding of bluefin tuna recruitment processes and eventually contribute to management of bluefin tuna fisheries....

  9. Deserts on the sea floor: Edward Forbes and his azoic hypothesis for a lifeless deep ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Thomas R; Rice, Tony

    2006-12-01

    While dredging in the Aegean Sea during the mid-19th century, Manxman Edward Forbes noticed that plants and animals became progressively more impoverished the greater the depth they were from the surface of the water. By extrapolation Forbes proposed his now infamous azoic hypothesis, namely that life would be extinguished altogether in the murky depths of the deep ocean. The whole idea seemed so entirely logical given the enormous pressure, cold and eternal darkness of this apparently uninhabitable environment. Yet we now know that the sea floor is teeming with life. Curiously, it took 25 years for the azoic hypothesis to fall from grace. This was despite the presence of ample contrary evidence, including starfishes, worms and other organisms that seemingly originated from the deep seabed. This is a tale of scientists ignoring observations that ran counter to their deep-seated, yet entirely erroneous, beliefs.

  10. Life Stories and Trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongshøj, Inge Lise Lundsgaard; Bohn, Annette; Berntsen, Dorthe

    Research has shown a connection between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and integration of traumatic experiences into the life story. Furthermore, empirical evidence suggests that life story formation begins in mid to late adolescence. Following these findings, the present study investigated...... whether experiencing trauma in youth was associated with a greater risk to integrate the trauma into the life story compared to adult traumatic exposure. Life stories were collected from 115 participants recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk. Moreover, participants filled out questionnaires regarding...... often integrate the trauma into their life story? Results will be discussed in relation to theories of development of life stories and of PTSD....

  11. Sea Reclamation Status of Countries around the South China Sea from 1975 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjue Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As a way of turning sea into land for living space for humans, the actions of sea reclamation bring about significant benefits. Nevertheless, it is also an under-recognized threat to the environment and the marine ecosystem. Based on images in two periods, sea reclamation information of countries around the South China Sea was extracted from 1975 to 2010. The spatial state and driven forces of sea reclamation are then discussed. Results show that the overall strength of sea reclamation in the South China Sea was great. New reclaimed land added up to 3264 km2. Sea reclamation for fish farming was the main reclamation type and widely distributed in the whole area, especially on the coast from the Pearl River Delta to the Red River Delta, and the coast of Ca Mau Peninsula. Sea reclamation in China and Vietnam was rather significant, which occupies 80.6% of the total reclamation area. Singapore had the highest level of sea reclamation. New reclaimed land for fish farming holds a key role in China, Vietnam, and Indonesia, while new reclaimed land for construction and docks dominated in Malaysia, Singapore, and Brunei. Areas and use-type compositions of new reclaimed land in countries varied greatly due to the differences of economic factors, policy inclination, and landscapes in the respective countries.

  12. An overview of sea otter studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.; DeGange, Anthony R.; Loughlin, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    The Exxron Valdez oil spill (EVOS) on 24 March 1989 threatened extensive areas of prime sea otter (Enhydra lutris) habitat along the coasts of south-central Alaska. The spill occurred in northeastern Prince William Sound (PWS), and oil moved rapidly south and west through PWS into the Gulf of Alaska. Much of the coastline of western PWS was heavily oiled, and the slick eventually spread as far southwest as Kodiak Island and the Alaska Peninsula (Galt and Payton 1990; Morris and Loughlin, Chapter 1). All coastal waters affected by the spill were inhabited by sea otters.Concern for the survival of sea otters following the oil spill was immediate and well founded. Sea otters are particularly vulnerable to oil contamination because they rely on pelage rather than blubber for insulation, and oiling drastically reduces the insulative value of the fur (Costa and Kooyman 1982; Siniff et al. 1982; Geraci and Williams 1990). Within days of the spill, recovery of oiled live otters and carcasses began. During the several months following the spill, sea otters became symbolic of the mortality associated with the spilled oil, and of the hope for rescue and recovery of injured wildlife (Batten 1990).An extensive sea otter rescue and rehabilitation effort was mounted in the weeks and months following the spill. Handling and treatment of the captive sea otters posed an enormous and difficult challenge, given the large number of otters held at the facilities and minimal prior experience in caring for oiled sea otters. Rehabilitation of sea otters was a separate effort from the postspill studies designed to evaluate injury to the otter populations and is not addressed in this chapter only as it relates to evaluation of damage assessment studies. Detailed information on the rehabilitation effort is presented in Bayha and Kormendy (1990) and Williams and Davis (1990).Sea otters retained a high profile in the Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) studies largely because the initial

  13. Putting SEA in context: A discourse perspective on how SEA contributes to decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runhaar, Hens

    2009-01-01

    Over the last couple of years there is an ongoing debate in the environmental assessment literature about the contribution of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) to public decision-making and how this can be understood and enhanced by better incorporating insights from policy analysis, planning theory and political sciences. By explicitly framing SEA as an element in a process where stakeholders with diverging interests struggle, acceptability of SEA processes and results by stakeholders has become an important element in SEA evaluation. In addition, the importance of other context variables, such as the institutional organisation, and the need for SEA to adapt to this context, is stressed. Thus far, publications in this area have been dealing with the operationalisation of SEA's 'contribution', typologies of roles that SEA can or should play in different policy settings and on factors that stimulate or impede SEA to play these roles. In this paper an alternative approach is suggested that starts from the deliberative processes around a particular policy issue or decision supported by SEA. Of particular interest are 'discourses': the frames through which groups of actors give meaning to aspects of the policy issues and decisions that are supported by SEA. Discourses do not only reflect conflicts of interests and power play, but also the ways in which actors perceive and understand aspects of the world. Decision-making is conceptualised as a 'system of competing discourse coalitions and their struggles to 'control shared meanings' and to gain acceptance of their framing of a policy issue' [Durning D. A review of Fischer and Forrester (1993) The argumentative turn in policy analysis and planning. Policy Sci 1995;28(1):102-8]. SEA is one of the events in this process that may impact upon dominant discourses. Discourse analysis allows for an understanding of arguments that are considered legitimate for (not) incorporating particular elements of SEA. In addition it

  14. Decadal Stability of Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan; Aljowair, Abdulaziz; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier

    2015-01-01

    Across the Earth, mangroves play an important role in coastal protection, both as nurseries and carbon sinks. However, due to various human and environmental impacts, the coverage of mangroves is declining on a global scale. The Red Sea is in the northern-most area of the distribution range of mangroves. Little is known about the surface covered by mangroves at this northern limit or about the changes experienced by Red Sea mangroves. We sought to study changes in the coverage of Red Sea mangroves by using multi-temporal Landsat data (1972, 2000 and 2013). Interestingly, our results show that there has been no decline in mangrove stands in the Red Sea but rather a slight increase. The area covered by mangroves is about 69 Km2 along the African shore and 51 Km2 along the Arabian Peninsula shore. From 1972 to 2013, the area covered by mangroves increased by about 0.29% y-1. We conclude that the trend exhibited by Red Sea mangroves departs from the general global decline of mangroves. Along the Red Sea, mangroves expanded by 12% over the 41 years from 1972 to 2013. Losses to Red Sea mangroves, mostly due to coastal development, have been compensated by afforestation projects.

  15. Decadal Stability of Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan

    2015-12-15

    Across the Earth, mangroves play an important role in coastal protection, both as nurseries and carbon sinks. However, due to various human and environmental impacts, the coverage of mangroves is declining on a global scale. The Red Sea is in the northern-most area of the distribution range of mangroves. Little is known about the surface covered by mangroves at this northern limit or about the changes experienced by Red Sea mangroves. We sought to study changes in the coverage of Red Sea mangroves by using multi-temporal Landsat data (1972, 2000 and 2013). Interestingly, our results show that there has been no decline in mangrove stands in the Red Sea but rather a slight increase. The area covered by mangroves is about 69 Km2 along the African shore and 51 Km2 along the Arabian Peninsula shore. From 1972 to 2013, the area covered by mangroves increased by about 0.29% y-1. We conclude that the trend exhibited by Red Sea mangroves departs from the general global decline of mangroves. Along the Red Sea, mangroves expanded by 12% over the 41 years from 1972 to 2013. Losses to Red Sea mangroves, mostly due to coastal development, have been compensated by afforestation projects.

  16. Crust Structure Data of Seas Surrounding Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maden, N.; Gelisli, K.

    2007-01-01

    Black Sea, Aegean, Mediterranean and Marmara Sea, which surround the Turkey, have not been examined with respect to the Geological, Geophysical and other natural sciences sufficiently. In fact, it is not attach importance the Turkish seas adequately and abandoned with respect to the scientific researches. The most important reason of this situation is the lack of the education of the Marine Sciences in the Turkish Universities. In this study, it is tried to construct a crustal structure data base of the surrounding seas of the Turkey by collecting crustal structure data sets done by different authors in different times so far. The data acquired in the base are collected from different data base sources by dragging. The Moho depth in the eastern and western basin of the Black sea is 22 km and 19 km, respectively. In the Marmara Sea the Moho depth is 24 km. The moho value in the southern Aegean is 20 km, in the northern Aegean the moho depth is 30 km. on the other hand, the moho depth value in the eastern and western basin of the Mediterranean Sea are 15-20 km and 25-30 km, respectively

  17. CO2 enhanced oil recovery and storage in the North Sea - a UK perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckly, Andy; Hughes, David S.

    2006-01-01

    Considerable technical and economic challenges must be overcome if the potential for CO 2 injection and sequestration is to be fully realised. However, there is an opportunity to exploit the synergy between the need to reduce CO 2 emissions and the potential to use CO 2 to increase North Sea oil reserves and extend the life of the basin. This opportunity is available now, while the infrastructure remains in place

  18. Firms plunge into the sea. Marine Biotechnology Industry, a first investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Gaia Raffaella eGreco; Marco eCinquegrani

    2016-01-01

    Marine biology made in the last four decades giant leaps. Several scientific and technological breakthroughs shaped research in the marine environment. Thanks to the revelation of the enormous width and complexity of sea life, marine biotechnology began a fast path of development that involved both the public and the private domain. Although there exist some studies on the dimensions and the evolution of the industry, few and scattered is the knowledge about the firms and the dynamics that ch...

  19. The Caribbean conundrum of Holocene sea level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Luke; Mound, Jon

    2014-05-01

    In the tropics, pre-historic sea-level curve reconstruction is often problematic because it relies upon sea-level indicators whose vertical relationship to the sea surface is poorly constrained. In the Caribbean, fossil corals, mangrove peats and shell material dominate the pre-historic indicator record. The common approach to reconstruction involves the use of modern analogues to these indicators to establish a fixed vertical habitable range. The aim of these reconstructions is to find spatial variability in the Holocene sea level in an area gradually subsiding (different depths. We use the first catalogue to calibrate 14C ages to give a probabilistic age range for each indicator. We use the second catalogue to define a depth probability distribution function (pdf) for mangroves and each coral species. The Holocene indicators are grouped into 12 sub-regions around the Caribbean. For each sub-region we apply our sea-level reconstruction, which involves stepping a fixed-length time window through time and calculating the position (and rate) of sea-level (change) using a thousand realisations of the time/depth pdfs to define an envelope of probable solutions. We find that the sub-regional relative sea-level curves display spatio-temporal variability including a south-east to north-west 1500 year lag in the arrival of Holocene sea level to that of the present day. We demonstrate that these variations are primarily due to glacial-isostatic-adjustment induced sea-level change and that sub-regional variations (where sufficient data exists) are due to local uplift variability.

  20. Radioactivity in the northern seas of europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Madruga, Maria Jose; Oliveira, Joao M.; Gouveia, Jorge M.; Silva, Lidia

    2004-01-01

    The recent accidents with nuclear powered Russian submarines, such as the Kursk and the K-159, that took place in the Arctic Seas, give rise to high concerns of the public and the media about the radioactive contamination of marine ecosystems and radiological safety of the European population. Those accidents were preceded by decades of discharges of radioactive liquid effluents into coastal seas of Europe and the dumping of packed radioactive waste into the North Atlantic. Being Portugal one country with high consumption rate of seafood caught in its own coastal waters as well as in far seas including the Ar tic seas, the investigation of the radioactive contamination of fish was investigated. Analysis of fish from the Sea of Labrador, Sea of Iceland and Barents Sea, has shown that gamma-emitting radionuclides of artificial origin are in general not detected. The only gamma emitting radionuclide present is Cs-137, in concentrations not higher than 0.3 Bq/kg. This radionuclide originates in the deposition of radioactive fallout following nuclear weapon tests performed in the fifties and sixties. Radionuclides in fish from northern regions and in fish from the Portuguese coast generally are present in concentrations lower than those currently reported for fish from the Irish Sea and the Baltic Sea, impacted with the discharges of radioactive waste from Sellafield and the deposition of fallout from Chernobyl, respectively. Nevertheless, the potential for future accidents and the radioactive waste dumped into the North Atlantic may in the future modify this scenario and potentially increase the currently very low radionuclide concentration in fish included in the Portuguese diet. Therefore, the research and radiological surveillance must be maintained in order to monitor the radiological risk and to ensure the quality of food available to consumers. (author)