WorldWideScience

Sample records for hard-to-detect radionuclide levels

  1. Radionuclide exercise ventriculography and levels of workload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynchank, S.

    1982-01-01

    The wealth of useful information made available from the utilization of radionuclide cardiological investigations by non-invasive means is outlined and reasons for investigating results obtained under conditions of increased heart workload are explained. The lack of an accepted protocol for the determination of exercise levels is noted. A format for obtaining increasing heart loads dependent on increasing pulse rate is offered, with justification. Exercise radionuclide ventriculography examinations can be conducted which are simple, reproducible and allow appropriate levels of stress in patients who can benefit from such investigations

  2. Derived intervention levels for radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    After the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in 1986, many countries were affected by widespread radioactive contamination. It became clear that the available guidance on dealing with the consequences of a nuclear accident was inappropriate for the long term and for areas far removed from the accident site. A particular concern was the safety of radioactively contaminated food and drinking-water in the ''far field'' region. The present guidelines, based on health protection principles, have been prepared by the World Health Organization in response to this concern. For various food categories, recommendations are made on levels of contamination by radionuclides at which corrective action might be justified to reduce the health risk to the population. The guidelines are based on accepted radiation dose criteria, on food consumption data from different parts of the world, and on dosimetric information for the relevant radionuclides. They are intended to assist in national decision-making in the event of another major nuclear accident. Refs, 1 fig., 14 tabs

  3. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudin, M.J.; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-02-01

    This volume serves as an introduction to the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series. This report includes discussions of radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha-emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than five years). Each report includes information regarding radiological and chemical characteristics of specific radionuclides. Information is also included discussing waste streams and waste forms that may contain each radionuclide, and radionuclide behavior in the environment and in the human body. Not all radionuclides commonly found at low-level radioactive waste sites are included in this report. The discussion in this volume explains the rationale of the radionuclide selection process

  4. Radionuclides in ground-level air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkko, K.

    1987-01-01

    In the air surveillance programme the concentrations of artificial radionuclides are monitored in the air close to the ground to obtain the necessary basic data for estimating the exposure of the Finnish population to fall-out radionuclides and also to detect atmospheric traces of radioactive materials caused by their use or production. Airborne dust is collected on filters with high-volume air samplers and the concentrations of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the air are evaluated. In the first quarter of 1986 only long-lived cesium, caused by earlier atmospheric nuclear explosions was detected. The concentrations of cesium were very low. In January and March a small amount of short-lived, fresh fission and activation products were also observed

  5. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237

  6. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237.

  7. Evaluation of radionuclide concentrations in high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehringer, D.J.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes a possible approach for development of a numerical definition of the term ''high-level radioactive waste.'' Five wastes are identified which are recognized as being high-level wastes under current, non-numerical definitions. The constituents of these wastes are examined and the most hazardous component radionuclides are identified. This report suggests that other wastes with similar concentrations of these radionuclides could also be defined as high-level wastes. 15 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Derived intervention levels for radionuclides in foods in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinones O, O.; Tomicic M, I.

    1992-01-01

    The present paper reports the methodology and Derived Intervention Levels (DILs) for radionuclides in foods in Chile for international trading, in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency. The radionuclides of interest were classified in three groups, according to their radiotoxicity, and the DILs calculated for each category of food (Cereals, Roots, Vegetables, Fruits, Meat, Fish and Milk). Values of 1[mSv.y -1 ] [5] as a Dose Reference Level and 507 [Kg.a -1 ] [1] as a Total Annual Consumption, were considered. (author)

  9. Effects of culinary preparation on radionuclide levels in vegetable foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, B.T.; Bradley, E.J.; Dodd, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    Vegetables contaminated by fall-out from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident have been used to investigate how simple culinary methods can affect the levels of various radionuclides in the portion consumed by man. Only ..gamma.. ray emitting radionuclides were investigated. Those parts of vegetables normally considered inedible, for example coarse outer leaves, foliage or roots, can account for between 50% and 97% of the total radionuclide content. Washing of the edible parts of vegetables can reduce the levels still further, although the efficacy is dependent on both the radionuclide and the vegetable type. These normal domestic procedures can reduce intakes of recently deposited radionuclides on vegetables by about an order of magnitude. The results have implications for the scope of monitoring programmes that might follow any future accidental release. They also reinforce very strongly the requirement for measurements on edible parts rather than whole samples as a direct input to dose evaluation. These results further suggest that there is no need to revise the general assumptions made in accident consequence models regarding losses of activity between harvest and consumption. However, more rigorous assessments of dose should take account of vegetable type and probable means of preparation.

  10. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudin, M.J.; Stanton, C.; Patterson, R.G.; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-02-01

    This report, Volume 2 of the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses radiological and chemical characteristics of technetium-99. This report also includes discussions about waste streams in which technetium-99 can be found, waste forms that contain technetium-99, and technetium-99's behavior in the environment and in the human body

  11. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudin, M.J.; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-02-01

    This report, Volume 3 of the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of carbon-14. The report also discusses waste streams that contain carbon-14, waste forms that contain carbon-14, and carbon-14 behavior in the environment and in the human body

  12. The principal radionuclides in high level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulyanto

    1998-01-01

    The principal radionuclides in high level radioactive waste management. The selection of the principal radionuclides in the high level waste (HLW) management was developed in order to improve the disposal scenario of HLW. In this study the unified criteria for selection of the principal radionuclides were proposed as; (1) the value of hazard index estimated by annual limit of intake (ALI) for long-term tendency,(2) the relative dose factor related to adsorbed migration rate transferred by ground water, and (3) heat generation in the repository. From this study it can be concluded that the principal radionuclides in the HLW management were minor actinide (MA=Np, Am, Cm, etc), Tc, I, Cs and Sr, based on the unified basic criteria introduced in this study. The remaining short-lived fission product (SLFPs), after the selected nuclides are removed, should be immobilized and solidified in a glass matrix. Potential risk due to the remaining SLFPs can be lower than that of uranium ore after about 300 year. (author)

  13. The rocky flats controversy on radionuclide soil action levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, T.C.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the Rocky Flats radionuclide soil action level controversy as a case study for the purpose of understanding the nature and value of stakeholder involvement in the management of radiological hazards. The report consists of three main sections. The first section outlines the Rocky Flats story, including the Cold War era, the post-Cold War era, and the transition between the two. This provides the context necessary to understand the radionuclide soil action level controversy, the main events of which are described in the second section. In the final section, the Rocky Flats case is briefly discussed within the framework of a general model of stakeholder involvement and the lessons learned from the case are identified. (author)

  14. The dependence of radioprotection qualities of some plants on the level of accumulation of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katulina, T.A.; Nikolajchuk, L.V.; Zubets, I.V.

    2000-01-01

    Incorporated radionuclides in fluence the process of peroxide oxidation of lipids in plants. The reactions of adaptation developed to the certain level of radionuclides to the given type of plants. This plants using as radioprotectors displays advanced effectiveness. (authors)

  15. Quantification of radionuclide uptake levels for primary bone tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasford Francis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to quantify the level of uptake of administered radionuclide in primary bone tumors for patients undergoing bone scintigraphy. Retrospective study on 48 patient's scintigrams to quantify the uptake levels of administered radiopharmaceuticals was performed in a nuclear medicine unit in Ghana. Patients were administered with activity ranging between 0.555 and 1.110 MBq (15–30 mCi, and scanned on Siemens e.cam SPECT system. Analyses on scintigrams were performed with Image J software by drawing regions of interest (ROIs over identified hot spots (pathologic sites. Nine skeletal parts namely cranium, neck, shoulder, sacrum, sternum, vertebra, femur, ribcage, and knee were considered in the study, which involved 96 identified primary tumors. Radionuclide uptakes were quantified in terms of the estimated counts of activity per patient for identified tumor sites. Average normalized counts of activity (nGMC per patient ranged from 5.2759 ± 0.6590 cts/mm2/MBq in the case of cranium tumors to 72.7569 ± 17.8786 cts/mm2/MBq in the case of ribcage tumors. The differences in uptake levels could be attributed to different mechanisms of Tc-99m MDP uptake in different types of bones, which is directly related to blood flow and degree of osteoblastic activity. The overall normalized count of activity for the 96 identified tumors was estimated to be 23.0350 ± 19.5424 cts/mm2/MBq. The study revealed highest uptake of activity in ribcage and least uptake in cranium. Quantification of radionuclide uptakes in tumors is important and recommended in assessing patient's response to therapy, doses to critical organs and in diagnosing tumors.

  16. 40 CFR 141.66 - Maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... beta particle and photon radioactivity from man-made radionuclides in drinking water must not produce.../year). (2) Except for the radionuclides listed in table A, the concentration of man-made radionuclides... may make this technology too complex for small surface water systems. e Removal efficiencies can vary...

  17. The rocky flats controversy on radionuclide soil action levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, T.C.

    2004-01-01

    An account of the Rocky Flats radionuclide soil action level controversy is presented as: a case study for the purpose of understanding the nature and value of stakeholder involvement in the management of radiological hazards. The report consists of three main sections. The first section outlines the Rocky Flats story, including the Cold War era, which was characterised by secrecy and distrust, the post-Cold War era, in which trust and co-operation between risk managers and the public began to develop. This contrast between these two historical periods provides the context necessary to understand the radionuclide soil action level controversy, the main events of which are described in the second section. In the final section, the Rocky Flats case is briefly discussed within the framework of a general model of stakeholder involvement and the lessons learned from the case are identified: (1) without a basis in shared values, collaborative public involvement in the management of radiological hazards is not possible; (2) given a basis in shared values, collaborative public involvement can lead to improved solutions to the management of radiological hazards; and (3) risk managers should therefore seek to understand the values of public stakeholders and to identify ways, through stakeholder involvement, that those values can be incorporated in management practice. (author)

  18. Radionuclide release from low-level waste in field lysimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oblath, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    A field program has been in operation for 8 years at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) to determine the leaching/migration behavior of low-level radioactive waste using lysimeters. The lysimeters are soil-filled caissons containing well characterized wastes, with each lysimeter serving as a model of a shallow land burial trench. Sampling and analysis of percolate water and vegetation from the lysimeters provide a determination of the release rates of the radionuclides from the waste/soil system. Vegetative uptake appears to be a major pathway for migration. Fractional release rates from the waste/soil system are less than 0.01% per year. Waste-to-soil leach rates up to 10% per year have been determined by coring several of the lysimeters. The leaching of solidified wasteforms under unsaturated field conditions has agreed well with static, immersion leaching of the same type waste in the laboratory. However, releases from the waste/soil system in the lysimeter may be greater than predicted based on leaching alone, due to complexation of the radionuclides by other components leached from the wastes to form mobile, anionic species

  19. Regulation Concepts for Clearance Level of Radionuclide in Solid Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanang Triagung Edi Hermawan

    2008-01-01

    Practices of nuclear energy have expanded in some fields such as researches and development, educations, agricultures, medicines and industries. Every practice beside give much benefit, could generate residue or waste. Radioactive waste needs management to ensure the safety of workers, member of the public, and for the eternal of environment. The product of radioactive waste management, in generally, is some containment of radionuclide concentration in solid matrix material after immobilization or conditioning process. Some kind of processed radioactive wastes with short half live then decay faster to stabile condition. The decay will reach clearance level in sometimes, so from the radiation protection views is harmless. This materials above didn’t need control and must be cleared from all determinate and regulation aspects of radioactive material practices. There is clearance for harmless material off course will be simplify management task and efficiency of money. So the regulation about clearance levels will be important as law basic for technical practices in field. (author)

  20. The rocky flats controversy on radionuclide soil action levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, T.C.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes how stakeholder involvement processes led to the successful resolution of a dispute over radionuclide soil action levels at the Rocky Flats Site near Denver, Colorado. During the Cold War Era, Rocky Flats, a plutonium fabrication plant, was part of the American government's multi-site nuclear weapons production facilities. Although the Rocky Flats plant had significant positive effects on the local economy, it became a target of public protest due to concerns over both public safety in the area surrounding the site and global nuclear proliferation. In the late 1980's, local safety concerns led to investigations by state and federal agencies. In 1992, with the Cold War ended, the Department of Energy decided to decommission the Rocky Flats site and to begin the long process of decontamination. (author)

  1. Radionuclide content of wastewater and solid waste from a low-level effluent treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Zalina Laili; Nik Marzukee Nik Ibrahim; Mat Bakar Mahusin

    2010-01-01

    A study on radioactivity levels of wastewater and solid waste from a Low-level Effluent Treatment Plant has been carried out. The measurement of radionuclide concentration was carried out using gamma spectrometry. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides were detected in solid radioactive waste recovered from the treatment plant. The presence of radionuclides in waste water varies depending on activities carried out in laboratories and facilities connected to the plant. (author)

  2. Long-lived radionuclides in low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, J.E.; Coe, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    In July 1982, the Low-Level Waste Licensing Branch of the NRC, anticipating the impact of the proposed Part 61 to 10 CFR, funded a two-year project by SAI to study the radionuclide contents of LWR generated in low-level waste. The objectives of the study are: (1) to analyze, using verified techniques, 150 archived samples for specified beta- and x-ray-emitting nuclides that had not previously been analyzed; (2) to analyze twenty new samples obtained from operating plants for all relevant nuclides and compare them to previous data to ascertain trends; (3) to develop empirical scaling factors through the use of which concentrations of hard-to-analyze nuclides can be estimated from analyses of the gamma-ray emitting nuclides. The new samples are analyzed and the results are summarized and interpreted. Over fifty archived samples have also been analyzed. We discuss scaling factor development. Factors are presented that relate 63 Ni and 59 Ni to 60 Co for PWRs and to 58 Co for BWRs, 90 Sr to 137 Cs for BWRs and 241 Pu, 239 Pu, 241 Am, and 244 Cm to 144 Ce for all LWRs. 8 figures, 3 tables

  3. Radionuclide compositions of spent fuel and high level waste from commercial nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodill, D.R.; Tymons, B.J.

    1984-10-01

    This report provides information on radionuclide compositions of spent fuel and high level waste produced during reprocessing. The reactor types considered are Magnox, AGR, PWR and CFR. The activities of the radionuclides are calculated using the FISPIN code. The results are presented in a form suitable for radioactive waste management calculations. (author)

  4. National low-level waste management program radionuclide report series, Volume 15: Uranium-238

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.P.

    1995-09-01

    This report, Volume 15 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of uranium-238 ( 238 U). The purpose of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the waste disposal facility environment. This report also includes discussions about waste types and forms in which 238 U can be found, and 238 U behavior in the environment and in the human body

  5. Quarterly report on measurements of radionuclides in ground level air in Sweden. Third quarter 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederstroem, C.; Arntsing, R.; Lindh, K.

    2005-04-01

    Filtering of ground level air is performed weekly at six different locations in Sweden: Kiruna, Umeaa, Gaevle, Ursvik, Visby and Ljungbyhed. The filters are pressed and the contents of different radionuclides are measured by gamma spectroscopy. Precipitation is also collected at four of the stations: Kiruna, Gaevle, Ursvik and Ljungbyhed, the samples are ashed and the contents of radionuclides measured. The levels of 7 Be and 137 Cs in air and deposition are presented for the different stations. Other anthropogenic radionuclides detected, if any, are also presented

  6. Quarterly report on measurements of radionuclides in ground level air in Sweden. Third quarter 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederstroem, C.; Arntsing, R.; Vintersved, I.

    2002-01-01

    Filtering of ground level air is performed weekly at seven different locations in Sweden: Kiruna, Umeaa, Gaevle, Ursvik, Grindsjoen, Visby and Ljungbyhed. The filters are compressed and the contents of different radionuclides are measured by gamma spectroscopy. Precipitation is also collected at four of the stations: Kiruna, Gaevle, Ursvik and Ljungbyhed, the samples are ashed and the contents of radionuclides measured. The levels of 7 Be and 137 Cs in air and deposition are presented for the different stations. Other anthropogenic radionuclides detected, if any, are also presented

  7. Uncertainties in geologic disposal of high-level wastes - groundwater transport of radionuclides and radiological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Bard, C.S.

    1983-01-01

    The analysis for radionuclide transport in groundwater considers models and methods for characterizing (1) the present geologic environment and its future evolution due to natural geologic processes and to repository development and waste emplacement, (2) groundwater hydrology, (3) radionuclide geochemistry, and (4) the interactions among these phenomena. The discussion of groundwater transport focuses on the nature of the sources of uncertainty rather than on quantitative estimates of their magnitude, because of the lack of evidence that current models can provide realistic quantitative predictions of radionuclide transport in groundwater for expected repository environments. The analysis for the long-term health risk to man following releases of long-lived radionuclides to the biosphere is more quantitative and involves estimates of uncertainties in (1) radionuclide concentrations in man's exposure environment, (2) radionuclide intake by exposed individuals per unit concentration in the environment, (3) the dose per unit intake, (4) the number of exposed individuals, and (5) the health risk per unit dose. For the important long-lived radionuclides in high-level waste, uncertainties in most of the different components of a calculation of individual and collective dose per unit release appear to be no more than two or three orders of magnitude; these uncertainties are certainly much less than uncertainties in predicting groundwater transport of radionuclides between a repository and the biosphere. Several limitations in current models for predicting the health risk to man per unit release to the biosphere are discussed

  8. Particle size and radionuclide levels in some west Cumbrian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livens, F.R.

    1988-01-01

    Four west Cumbrian soils of contrasting types, together with an estuarine silt sample, were separated into different particle size fractions by a combination of sieving and settling techniques. These sub-samples were analysed by quantitative gamma-ray spectrometry for several nuclides, principally 137 Cs, 106 Ru and 241 Am, followed by chemical separation and alpha spectrometric determination of 238,239,240 Pu. A simple empirical method of correction for differing sample sizes, and hence counting geometries, was developed for gamma spectrometry and found to give good results. The radionuclides were concentrated into the finer size fractions, with clay-sized ( 137 Cs from 3 to 35 times. The enhancement was greatest for all radionuclides in a sandy soil with a very low clay content (0.2% by weight) and it was found that, as the abundance of fine particles increased, so the concentration effect decreased. No evidence was found for a simple relationship between organic content and radionuclide activity, although the organic matter does have some effect. 17 refs.; 3 figs.; 6 tabs

  9. Assessment of permissible low-level releases of radionuclides into the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, I.I.; Sazykina, T.G.

    2002-01-01

    The subject of this paper is radio-ecological assessment of permissible low-level releases of radionuclides in sea waters ensuring the radiological protection of the human population, as well as marine biota. (author)

  10. Effect of organic complexants on the mobility of low-level-waste radionuclides in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, J.L.

    1982-02-01

    The effect of certain organic complexants on the distribution of some radionuclides between solution and soil has been measured. The complexants and radionuclides examined are some of those most likely to be present in low-level waste disposal sites; Cs, Sr, Ni, Co, and Eu radionuclides, and EDTA, DTPA, oxalate, and citrate complexants. The effect of complexants was found to vary widely; in some systems there was no effect and in other systems there were large effects. In some cases slow rates of reaction have not allowed equilibrium measurements to be made

  11. The physical and chemical environment and radionuclide migration in a low level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torok, J.; Buckley, L.P.

    1988-01-01

    The expected physical and chemical environment within the low-level radioactive waste repository to be sited at Chalk River is being studied to establish the rate of radionuclide migration. Chemical conditions in the repository are being assessed for their effect on buffer performance and the degradiation of the concrete structure. Experimental programs include the effect of changes in solution chemistry on radionuclide distribution between buffer/backfill materials and the aqueous phase; the chemical stability of the buffer materials and the determination of the controlling mechanism for radionuclide transport during infiltration

  12. Automatic procedure go keep updated the activity levels for each radionuclide existing in a radioactivity laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    An automatic procedure to keep updated the activity levels each radionuclide existing in a radioactivity laboratory, and its classification according to the Spanish Regulations on Nuclear and Radioactive Establishments is described. This procedure takes into account the mixed composition of each source and whether it is sealed or the activity and mass variation due to extraction or evaporation in non-sealed sources. For a given date and time, the procedure prints out a complete listing of the activity of each radioactive source, the accumulated activity for each radionuclide, for each kind of radionuclide and the actual classification of the laboratory according to the legal regulations above mentioned. (Author)

  13. Assessment and the levels of radioactivity of natural radionuclides in drinking waters in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yulan

    1989-03-01

    In order to assess the levels of radioactivity of natural radionuclides in drinking waters and to estimate the internal doses of the population of China from ingestion, 1650 samples of waters were collected from normal radiation background areas of 28 provinces or autonomous regions of China. Radioactivity levels of U, Th, 226 Ra and 40 K in drinking waters were determined. The levels and the characteristics of distribution of 4 radionuclides are given. The results show that radioactivity levels in the southeast China are lower than in the north and northwest China. The average radioactivity levles of the 4 radionuclides in China close to the average levels given in UNSCEAR 1986 report. The result of estimation of internal doses from ingestion in the population of China is below the corresponding results given in UNSCEAR 1986 report, but near the result given by ICRP

  14. Hydrologic transport of radionuclides from low-level waste burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguid, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    The physical characteristics of the virgin site and of the disturbed site after burial drastically affect the transport of radionuclides from buried waste. The disturbance of the land surface during the waste burial operation causes changes in the local ground-water regimen. These changes can increase the water table elevation and cause the occurrence of perched water in burial trenches. The combination of these changes may lead to submersion of the waste and to increased radionuclide transport from the burial site in both surface and groundwater. Factors such as ion exchange can retard or in some cases, with competing ions, can also mobilize radionuclides and increase their discharge into ground and surface water. Because of complexing agents (organics) contained in the waste, increased mobility of some radionuclides can be expected. The chemical form of radionuclides in the water, the ground-water quality, and the chemistry of the geologic formation in which the waste is buried all influence the movement of radionuclides in the hydrologic system. For the assessment of the environmental impact of low-level waste burial, models capable of simulating both the chemical and the physical factors that affect hydrologic transport must be available. Several models for conducting such simulation are presently available. However, the input parameters used in these models are highly variable; and the accuracy of parameter measurement must be considered in evaluating the reliability of simulated results

  15. Hydrologic transport of radionuclides from low-level waste burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguid, J.O.

    1977-01-01

    The physical characteristics of the virgin site and of the disturbed site after burial drastically affect the transport of radionuclides from buried waste. The disturbance of the land surface during the waste burial operation causes changes in the local ground-water regimen. These changes can increase the water table elevation and cause the occurrence of perched water in burial trenches. The combination of these changes may lead to submersion of the waste and to increased radionuclide transport from the burial site in both surface and ground water. Factors such as ion exchange can retard or in some cases, with competing ions, can also mobilize radionuclides and increase their discharge into ground and surface water. Because of complexing agents (organics) contained in the waste, increased mobility of some radionuclides can be expected. The chemical form of radionuclides in the water, the ground-water quality, and the chemistry of the geologic formation in which the waste is buried all influence the movement of radionuclides in the hydrologic system. For the assessment of the environmental impact of low-level waste burial, models capable of simulating both the chemical and the physical factors that affect hydrologic transport must be available. Several models for conducting such simulation are presently available. However,the input parameters used in these models are highly variable, and the accuracy of parameter measurement must be considered in evaluating the reliability of simulated results

  16. The levels of radionuclides and heavy metals in Black Sea ecosystems (Bulgaria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strezov, A.; Nonova, Tz.

    2006-01-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of geographically varying marine ecosystem properties on the uptake of radionuclides and toxic metals in marine environment, samples of sand, slime and silt sediments were taken during the period 1991-2004. Samples were collected from different zones along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast - from the north Romanian border (Durankulak) to the South Turkish border (Rezovo). Technogenic and natural radionuclides were measured by Low-level Gamma Spectroscopy using HPGe detector with 35 % counting efficiency and energy resolution 1.8 KeV (1332 KeV). Heavy metals (HM) were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) - ETAAS (Perkin - Elmer Zeeman 3030 with graphite furnace) and flame AAS - Pye Unicam SP 1950. The measured radionuclides concentrations in Black Sea sediments were found to depend on sediment type - slime sediments accumulate technogenic ( 1 37Cs) and natural nuclides (U and Th series) to the highest extent. Considerably low levels of technogenic and natural radionuclides and a narrow concentration intervals were established for sand and silt sediment samples. The intercomparison of radionuclide and HM content in bottom sediments from one and the same sampling location gives information for mechanisms of radionuclide transfer and shows the trend of potential hazard of anthropogenic impact on marine ecosystems. The obtained data show that highest nuclide and heavy metal content in Black Sea sediments were determined in the northern part of the Black Sea coast. It can be attributed to the influence of the big rivers entering the northern part of the Black Sea - Danube, Dnyepr, Dnester. Data for radionuclides and heavy metals in sediments are in the limits of the cited in literature natural levels, showing no additional anthropogenic contamination

  17. Critical level of radionuclides pollution estimation for different soil type of Ukrainian Polessye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravets, A.; Pavlenko, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The successive development and adaptation of general algorithm of calculation of doses from intake 137 Cs and 90 Sr as a function of pollution level and a type of soil as a source of the human trophycal chains and its use in solution of reverse problem, namely- estimation of the critical level of radionuclides pollution for the main type of soil of Ukrainian Polessye has been proposed. Calculation was realized as a combination of dynamic model of migration of radionuclides in soil and spreadsheet form with Quattro Pro, version 4.0. (author)

  18. Simulating Radionuclide Migrations of Low-level Wastes in Nearshore Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C. C.; Li, M. H.; Chen, J. S.; Yeh, G. T.

    2016-12-01

    Tunnel disposal into nearshore mountains was tentatively selected as one of final disposal sites for low-level wastes in Taiwan. Safety assessment on radionuclide migrations in far-filed may involve geosphere processes under coastal environments and into nearshore ocean. In this study the 3-D HYDROFEOCHE5.6 numerical model was used to perform simulations of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport with decay chains. Domain of interest on the surface includes nearby watersheds delineated by digital elevation models and nearshore seabed. As deep as 800 m below the surface and 400 m below sea bed were considered for simulations. The disposal site was located at 200m below the surface. Release rates of radionuclides from near-field was estimated by analytical solutions of radionuclide diffusion with decay out of engineered barriers. Far-field safety assessments were performed starting from the release of radionuclides out of engineered barriers to a time scale of 10,000 years. Sensitivity analyses of geosphere and transport parameters were performed to improve our understanding of safety on final disposal of low-level waste in nearshore environments.

  19. Marine plankton as an indicator of low-level radionuclide contamination in the Southern Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1984-07-01

    We have initiated an investigation of the utility of marine plankton as bioconcentrating samplers of low-level marine radioactivity in the southern hemisphere. A literature review shows that both freshwater and marine plankton have trace element and radionuclide concentration factors (relative to water) of up to 10 4 . In the years 1956-1958, considerable work was done on the accumulation and distribution of a variety of fission and activation products produced by the nuclear tests in the Marshall Islands. Since then, studies have largely been confined to a few selected radionuclides, and by far most of this work has been done in the northern hemisphere. We participated in Operation Deepfreeze 1981, collecting 32 plankton samples from the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Glacier on its Antarctic cruise, while Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories concurrently sampled air, water, rain and fallout. We were able to measure concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides 7 Be, 40 K and the U and th series, and we believe that we have detected low levels of 144 Ce and 95 Nb in seven samples ranging as far south as 68 0 . There is a definite association between the radionuclide content of plankton and air filters, suggesting that aerosol resuspension of marine radioactivity may be occurring. Biological identification of the plankton suggests a possible correlation between radionuclide concentration and foraminifera content of the samples. 38 references, 7 figures, 3 tables

  20. The effects of culinary preparation on radionuclide levels in vegetable foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, B.T.; Bradley, E.J.; Dodd, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    Vegetables contaminated by fall-out from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident have been used to investigate how simple culinary methods can affect the levels of various radionuclides in the portion consumed by man. Only γ ray emitting radionuclides were investigated. Those parts of vegetables normally considered inedible, for example coarse outer leaves, foliage or roots, can account for between 50% and 97% of the total radionuclide content. Washing of the edible parts of vegetables can reduce the levels still further, although the efficacy is dependent on both the radionuclide and the vegetable type. These normal domestic procedures can reduce intakes of recently deposited radionuclides on vegetables by about an order of magnitude. The results have implications for the scope of monitoring programmes that might follow any future accidental release. They also reinforce very strongly the requirement for measurements on edible parts rather than whole samples as a direct input to dose evaluation. These results further suggest that there is no need to revise the general assumptions made in accident consequence models regarding losses of activity between harvest and consumption. However, more rigorous assessments of dose should take account of vegetable type and probable means of preparation. (author)

  1. International symposium on low level measurements of radionuclides in the environment, 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The International Symposium of Low-Level Measurements of Radionuclides in the Environment was held on April 19-23, 2004 in Guilin, China, and sponsored by the Chinese Nuclear Society. The articles are published in the form of abstracts, and the contents include: 1. special lectures; 2.Environmental Radioanalysis; 3. Concentration and migration of radionuclides; 4. Analysis with instrumentation and applications; 5. preparation of samples and trace in living beings; 6. Environment impact assessment and calculation of dose; 7. Decommissioning, monitoring in emergency condition and others

  2. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, Volume 17: Plutonium-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.P.; Carboneau, M.L.

    1999-01-01

    This report, Volume 17 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of plutonium-239 (Pu-239). This report also discusses waste types and forms in which Pu-239 can be found, waste and disposal information on Pu-239, and Pu-239 behavior in the environment and in the human body

  3. Radionuclide blood levels during cisternography of patients with normal-pressure hydrocephalus or Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaley, M.S. Jr.; Wilkinson, R.H. Jr.; Sivalingham, S.; Friedman, H.; Tyson, W.; Goodrich, J.K.

    1974-01-01

    Various diagnostic procedures were compared during investigations of 37 dementia patients undergoing differential study for normal-pressure hydrocephalus or Alzheimer's disease. A diminished radionuclide level in the blood, with abnormal cisternography and pneumoencephalography, provided the most valuable diagnostic evidence of normal-pressure hydrocephalus. (U.S.)

  4. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, Volume 17: Plutonium-239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. P. Adams; M. L. Carboneau

    1999-03-01

    This report, Volume 17 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of plutonium-239 (Pu-239). This report also discusses waste types and forms in which Pu-239 can be found, waste and disposal information on Pu-239, and Pu-239 behavior in the environment and in the human body.

  5. Levels of natural radionuclides in soil samples around a phosphate fertilizer plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajmal, P.Y.; Sahu, S.K.; Bhangare, R.C.; Pandit, G.G.; Puranik, V.D.

    2010-01-01

    The present study is aimed at the determination of the activity levels of primordial radionuclides in soil from various locations around a phosphate fertilizer plant and also to figure out the external dose rate due to natural gamma background in the area by mapping the dose rates with the geographical co-ordinates within the plant premises

  6. National Low-Level Waste Management Program radionuclide report series. Volume 13, Curium-242

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.P.

    1995-08-01

    This report, Volume 13 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of curium-242 ( 242 Cm). This report also includes discussions about waste types and forms in which 242 Cm can be found and 242 Cm behavior in the environment and in the human body

  7. National low-level waste management program radionuclide report series, Volume 14: Americium-241

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winberg, M.R.; Garcia, R.S.

    1995-09-01

    This report, Volume 14 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of americium-241 ( 241 Am). This report also includes discussions about waste types and forms in which 241 Am can be found and 241 Am behavior in the environment and in the human body

  8. National Low-Level Waste Management Program radionuclide report series. Volume 13, Curium-242

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J.P.

    1995-08-01

    This report, Volume 13 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of curium-242 ({sup 242}Cm). This report also includes discussions about waste types and forms in which {sup 242}Cm can be found and {sup 242}Cm behavior in the environment and in the human body.

  9. Identification of some heavy metals and natural radionuclides levels in Mzerib lake environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Nimeh, M.; Al-Rayyes, A.; Al-Masri, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    Some trace metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn) and natural radionuclides ( 238 U, 210 Po, 210 Pb) were measured in environmental samples from Mzerib lake during 1998. This will help in evaluating the water quality and the effects of agricultural and humanitarian activities on the lake environment. Results showed that the lake water is of a good quality. Trace metals levels in water, sediments, freshwater clam (Unio terminals), and fish (cyprinus Cario) fall within the accepted range, although they were higher in some sites due to the presence of a potential source for pollution (e.g. the restaurant). The clam soft tissue samples showed the highest levels of Cd. Carp fish gonads and gills also showed high levels of cadmium, while Carp fish samples showed the highest levels of zinc. radionuclides levels were low and in agreement with levels reported in previous local and international studies. (authors)

  10. Determination of radionuclide concentrations in ground level air using the ASS-500 high volume sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenzel, E.; Arnold, D.; Wershofen, H.

    1996-01-01

    A method for determination of radionuclide concentrations in air aerosol samples collected by the high volume aerosol sampler ASS-500 was elaborated. The aerosol sampling station ASS-500 is a Stand alone, all-weather proofed instrument. It is designed for representative sampling of airborne radionuclides from ground level air at a height of about 1.5 m above ground level. The ASS-500 station enables continuous air monitoring both normal and emergency Situations. The collection of aerosols on the Petrianov FPP-15-1.5 type filter out of an air volume of about 100,000 m 3 (sampling period 1 wk) or of about 250,000 m 3 (sampling period 3 wk) admits accurate spectrometric low level measurements of natural and artificial radionuclides. The achieved detection limit is 0.5 μBq m -3 and 0.2 μBq m -3 for 137 Cs, respectively. A new developed air flow Meter system allows to enhance the collected air volume to about 150,000 m 3 per week and lowers the detection limit to -3 for 137 Cs for weekly collected aerosol samples. In Poland the CLOR uses 9 Stations ASS-500 at different sites as atmospheric radioactivity control system. On the basis of spectrometric measurements of natural and artificial radionuclides in the collected aerosol samples at the different sites, CLOR establishes a weekly report about the radiological situation at Poland for responsible authorities. The very low achievable detection limit of the Station ASS-500 due 10 the high air flow fate and the long possible sampling period were the key argument for other government radiation protection authorities in Europe to introduce the Station ASS-500 into their low level radionuclide atmospheric monitoring programs (Austria, Belarus, France, Germany, Iceland, Spain, Switzerland, Ukraine)

  11. Radionuclide levels in vegetation growing on uranium tailings, Elliot Lake, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pave, N.K.; Cloutier, N.R.; Lim, T.P.

    1985-01-01

    In Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada, most of the inactive uranium tailings have been reclaimed by revegetation where a thick vegetation cover has been established. The surface amendments have also prompted volunteer growth of various species of local trees and shrubs on tailings. Radionuclide levels were measured in various tissues of grasses, legumes and trees growing on uranium tailings at different sites. Lower Th than Ra and Pb levels in tailings substrate were believed to be the cause for the relatively lower Th levels measured in vegetation when compared to Ra and Pb concentrations. No correlation was observed between the level of a given radionuclide in tailings and in the vegetation growing on that tailings

  12. High levels of natural radionuclides in a deep-sea infaunal xenophyophore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinbanks, D D; Shirayama, Y

    1986-03-27

    The paper concerns the high levels of natural radionuclides in a deep-sea infaunal xenophyophore from the Izu-Ogasawara Trench. Measured /sup 210/Po activities and barium contents of various parts of Occultammina profunda and the surrounding sediment are given, together with their estimated /sup 210/Pb and /sup 226/Ra activities. The data suggest that xenophyphores are probably subject to unusually high levels of natural radiation.

  13. National Low-Level Waste Management Program radionuclide report series. Volume 2, Niobium-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.P.; Carboneau, M.L.

    1995-04-01

    The Purpose of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series is to provide information to, state representatives and developers of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities about the radiological chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the low-level radioactive waste disposal facility environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information used to produce this series of reports and an introductory report. This report is Volume 11 of the series. It outlines the basic radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of niobium-94, waste types and forms that contain it, and its behavior in environmental media such as soils, plants, groundwater, air, animals and the human body

  14. Development of scaling factor prediction method for radionuclide composition in low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Beak

    1995-02-01

    Low-level radioactive waste management require the knowledge of the natures and quantities of radionuclides in the immobilized or packaged waste. U. S. NRC rules require programs that measure the concentrations of all relevant nuclides either directly or indirectly by relating difficult-to-measure radionuclides to other easy-to-measure radionuclides with application of scaling factors. Scaling factors previously developed through statistical approach can give only generic ones and have many difficult problem about sampling procedures. Generic scaling factors can not take into account for plant operation history. In this study, a method to predict plant-specific and operational history dependent scaling factors is developed. Realistic and detailed approach are taken to find scaling factors at reactor coolant. This approach begin with fission product release mechanisms and fundamental release properties of fuel-source nuclide such as fission product and transuranic nuclide. Scaling factors at various waste streams are derived from the predicted reactor coolant scaling factors with the aid of radionuclide retention and build up model. This model make use of radioactive material balance within the radioactive waste processing systems. Scaling factors at reactor coolant and waste streams which can include the effects of plant operation history have been developed according to input parameters of plant operation history

  15. Risk-informed assessment of radionuclide release from dissolution of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Tae M., E-mail: tae.ahn@nrc.gov

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Dissolution of HLW waste form was assessed with long-term risk informed approach. • The radionuclide release rate decreases with time from the initial release rate. • Fast release radionuclides can be dispersed with discrete container failure time. • Fast release radionuclides can be restricted by container opening area. • Dissolved radionuclides may be further sequestered by sorption or others means. - Abstract: This paper aims to detail the different parameters to be considered for use in an assessment of radionuclide release. The dissolution of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste glass was considered for risk and performance insights in a generic disposal system for more than 100,000 years. The probabilistic performance assessment includes the waste form, container, geology, and hydrology. Based on the author’s previous extended work and data from the literature, this paper presents more detailed specific cases of (1) the time dependence of radionuclide release, (2) radionuclide release coupled with container failure (rate-limiting process), (3) radionuclide release through the opening area of the container and cladding, and (4) sequestration of radionuclides in the near field after container failure. These cases are better understood for risk and performance insights. The dissolved amount of waste form is not linear with time but is higher at first. The radionuclide release rate from waste form dissolution can be constrained by container failure time. The partial opening area of the container surface may decrease radionuclide release. Radionuclides sequestered by various chemical reactions in the near field of a failed container may become stable with time as the radiation level decreases with time.

  16. Annual limits on intake for members of the public and derived reference levels of radionuclide concentrations in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, G.C.

    1983-01-01

    A proposal is presented recommending the introduction in Australia of Annual Limits on Intake of radionuclides for members of the public and of corresponding reference levels of radionuclide concentrations in the environment. The proposal is related to recent recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection and draft recommendations under consideration by the International Atomic Energy Agency

  17. Measurement of shunt amount using radionuclide angiocardiography: accuracy according to level of shunt and associated lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yang Min [Sejong General Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-08-15

    Determination of pulmonary to systemic blood flow ratio (QP/QS) is important for the management of patients with left-to-right shunt. This study was performed to assess the agreement of Qp/Qs ratio using the radionuclide method and oxymetry, to investigate the factors influencing the agreement, and to know how interchangeable the results of each technique. We compared the Qp/Qs measured by single-pass radionuclide angiocardiography and oxymetry during catheterization in 207 patients who underwent both studies. In radionuclide method, Qp/Qs was calculated from the pulmonary time-activity curves using a gamma variate fit. The correlation and Bland-Altman analysis were performed according to the levels of shunt and associated lesions. The mean Qp/Qs was 1.83 {+-} 0.50 by radionuclide, and 1.74 {+-} 0.51 by oxymetry. The overall correlation coefficient was 0.86 ({rho} 0.001), and Bland-Altman range of agreement encompassing 4SD was 1.05. For atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, tricuspid and mitral insufficiency, the correlation coefficient was 0.78, 0.90, 0.84, 0.63 and 0.44 and Bland-Altman range was 1.52, 0.74, 0.96, 1.57 and 1.50, respectively. There is good agreement but wide variance between the Qp/Qs ratios by radionuclide method and oxymetry. Associated atrioventricular valvar insufficiency decreases the correlation coefficient and widens the variance. Wide overall variance suggests that Qp/Qs measurements by two techniques should not be used interchangeably.

  18. Measurement of shunt amount using radionuclide angiocardiography: accuracy according to level of shunt and associated lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yang Min

    2006-01-01

    Determination of pulmonary to systemic blood flow ratio (QP/QS) is important for the management of patients with left-to-right shunt. This study was performed to assess the agreement of Qp/Qs ratio using the radionuclide method and oxymetry, to investigate the factors influencing the agreement, and to know how interchangeable the results of each technique. We compared the Qp/Qs measured by single-pass radionuclide angiocardiography and oxymetry during catheterization in 207 patients who underwent both studies. In radionuclide method, Qp/Qs was calculated from the pulmonary time-activity curves using a gamma variate fit. The correlation and Bland-Altman analysis were performed according to the levels of shunt and associated lesions. The mean Qp/Qs was 1.83 ± 0.50 by radionuclide, and 1.74 ± 0.51 by oxymetry. The overall correlation coefficient was 0.86 (ρ 0.001), and Bland-Altman range of agreement encompassing 4SD was 1.05. For atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, tricuspid and mitral insufficiency, the correlation coefficient was 0.78, 0.90, 0.84, 0.63 and 0.44 and Bland-Altman range was 1.52, 0.74, 0.96, 1.57 and 1.50, respectively. There is good agreement but wide variance between the Qp/Qs ratios by radionuclide method and oxymetry. Associated atrioventricular valvar insufficiency decreases the correlation coefficient and widens the variance. Wide overall variance suggests that Qp/Qs measurements by two techniques should not be used interchangeably

  19. Characterization of radionuclide-chelating agent complexes found in low-level radioactive decontamination waste. Literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.; Felmy, A.R.; Cantrell, K.J.; Krupka, K.M.; Campbell, J.A.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Fredrickson, J.K.

    1996-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is responsible for regulating the safe land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes that may contain organic chelating agents. Such agents include ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), picolinic acid, oxalic acid, and citric acid, and can form radionuclide-chelate complexes that may enhance the migration of radionuclides from disposal sites. Data from the available literature indicate that chelates can leach from solidified decontamination wastes in moderate concentration (1--100 ppm) and can potentially complex certain radionuclides in the leachates. In general it appears that both EDTA and DTPA have the potential to mobilize radionuclides from waste disposal sites because such chelates can leach in moderate concentration, form strong radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be recalcitrant to biodegradation. It also appears that oxalic acid and citric acid will not greatly enhance the mobility of radionuclides from waste disposal sites because these chelates do not appear to leach in high concentration, tend to form relatively weak radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be readily biodegraded. In the case of picolinic acid, insufficient data are available on adsorption, complexation of key radionuclides (such as the actinides), and biodegradation to make definitive predictions, although the available data indicate that picolinic acid can chelate certain radionuclides in the leachates

  20. Characterization of radionuclide-chelating agent complexes found in low-level radioactive decontamination waste. Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R.J.; Felmy, A.R.; Cantrell, K.J.; Krupka, K.M.; Campbell, J.A.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Fredrickson, J.K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is responsible for regulating the safe land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes that may contain organic chelating agents. Such agents include ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), picolinic acid, oxalic acid, and citric acid, and can form radionuclide-chelate complexes that may enhance the migration of radionuclides from disposal sites. Data from the available literature indicate that chelates can leach from solidified decontamination wastes in moderate concentration (1--100 ppm) and can potentially complex certain radionuclides in the leachates. In general it appears that both EDTA and DTPA have the potential to mobilize radionuclides from waste disposal sites because such chelates can leach in moderate concentration, form strong radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be recalcitrant to biodegradation. It also appears that oxalic acid and citric acid will not greatly enhance the mobility of radionuclides from waste disposal sites because these chelates do not appear to leach in high concentration, tend to form relatively weak radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be readily biodegraded. In the case of picolinic acid, insufficient data are available on adsorption, complexation of key radionuclides (such as the actinides), and biodegradation to make definitive predictions, although the available data indicate that picolinic acid can chelate certain radionuclides in the leachates.

  1. Radionuclide concentrations in ground level air and precipitation in South Germany from 1976 to 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Rosner, G.; Winkler, R.

    1983-08-01

    The activity concentrations of fallout radionuclides from atmospheric nuclear test explosions and of Be-7 in ground level air and precipitation have been determined by the Institut fuer Strahlenschutz at Munich-Neuherberg since 1970. While methods and results from 1970 to 1975 have been published in a previous report, the present report describes the revised program which includes now the naturally occurring nuclides Pb-210 and Po-210, as well as H-3. Sampling methods, analytical techniques and measuring procedures are given. The results up to the end of 1982 are reported and seasonal and long-term variations of radionuclide concentrations as well as frequency distributions of the data are discussed. The data are compared with those of other stations. As a consequence of some recent atmospheric nuclear test explosions by the People's Republic of China also short-lived radionuclides have been detected in ground level air and precipitation. The radiation exposure due to the radioactivity in ground level air and precipitation is estimated. (orig.)

  2. Background information on sources of low-level radionuclide emissions to air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbit, C.D.; Herrington, W.N.; Higby, D.P.; Stout, L.A.; Corley, J.P.

    1983-09-01

    This report provides a general description and reported emissions for eight low-level radioactive source categories, including facilties that are licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Agreement States, and non-Department of Energy (DOE) federal facilities. The eight categories of low-level radioactive source facilities covered by this report are: research and test reactors, accelerators, the radiopharmaceutical industry, source manufacturers, medical facilities, laboratories, naval shipyards, and low-level commercial waste disposal sites. Under each category five elements are addressed: a general description, a facility and process description, the emission control systems, a site description, and the radionuclides released to air (from routine operations)

  3. Background information on sources of low-level radionuclide emissions to air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbit, C.D.; Herrington, W.N.; Higby, D.P.; Stout, L.A.; Corley, J.P.

    1983-09-01

    This report provides a general description and reported emissions for eight low-level radioactive source categories, including facilties that are licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Agreement States, and non-Department of Energy (DOE) federal facilities. The eight categories of low-level radioactive source facilities covered by this report are: research and test reactors, accelerators, the radiopharmaceutical industry, source manufacturers, medical facilities, laboratories, naval shipyards, and low-level commercial waste disposal sites. Under each category five elements are addressed: a general description, a facility and process description, the emission control systems, a site description, and the radionuclides released to air (from routine operations).

  4. Monitoring program for evaluating radionuclide emissions from incineration of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittmer, S.C.; Solomon, H.F.

    1984-01-01

    The implementation of an incineration program for low-level radioactive waste is a complex task, especially in the area of obtaining environmental permits. To provide assurance to the appropriate regulatory agencies involved with environmental permitting and others that an incineration program is properly conducted, emissions monitoring to identify radionuclides and their fate may be needed. An electronic spreadsheet software program Lotus 1-2-3 (Lotus Development Corporation) on an IBM Personal Computer has been used to perform data reduction for test results from such a monitoring program and to present them graphically to facilitate interpretation. The sampling technique includes: (1) the use of an EPA Method 5 stack sampling train modified to exclude the dry-catch filtration assembly with ethanolamine used to scrub incinerator gas at depressed temperatures and (2) a continuous composite liquid sampler for incinerator wet scrubber discharge to the sanitary sewer. Radionuclides in the samples are assayed using scintillation spectrometry

  5. Determination of Natural Levels of Radionuclides in Proposed Mushroom Reference Material (A Proficiency Test Exercise)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Rahman, A.; Siddique, N.; Ahmad, S.; Zaidi, J.H.

    2006-08-01

    A proficiency test (PT) was organized within the framework of international Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) project INT/1/054, entitled 'Preparation' of Reference Materials and Organization of Proficiency Test Rounds'. This exercise served to estimate the proficiency of the analytical laboratories from participating countries. This report presents the results of the proficiency test exercise on the proposed Mushroom Reference Material for the determination of natural levels of radionuclides. Laboratories from 6 different countries submitted data on the following three radionuclides: /sup 134/Cs, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K. Results for /sup 134/Cs, 137/sup 137/Cs, and /sup 40/K in the mushroom reference material were reported by three or more participating laboratories and could be subjected to statistical evaluation. The original data of these raionuclides was subjected to a computer program 'Histo Vession 2.1' provided by IAEA. The four outlier tests i.e. Dixon, Grubbs, Skewness and Kurtosis were applied to the data sets. All values for these three radionuclides were accepted by the software. Consensus (overall) mean value, absolute standard deviation, relative standard deviation, standard error, median and range of values for these three radionuclides have been are obtained (at significance level 0.05). the consensus mean values and confidence intervals are given./sup 134/Cs: 4.4 Bq/kg (3.4-5.3 Bq/kg) /sup 137/Cs: 2899 Bq/kg (2740-3058 Bq/kg) /sup 40/K: 1136 Bq/kg (1046-1226 Bq/kg). (author)

  6. Derivation of residual radionuclide inventory guidelines for implace closure of high-level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, L.; Yuan, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Residual radionuclide inventory guidelines were derived for the high-level waste tanks at a vitrification facility. The decommissioning scenario assumed for this derivation was that the tanks were to be stabilized at the present locations and the site is released for unrestricted use following a 100-year institutional control period. It was assumed that loss of institutional control would occur at 100-years following tank closure. The derivation of the residual radionuclide inventory guidelines was based on the requirement that the effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a hypothetical individual who lives in the vicinity of the site should not exceed a dose of 0.15 mSv/yr off-site and 5 mSv/yr on-site following closure of the tanks. The RESRAD computer code, modified for exposure scenarios specific for the site, was used for this evaluation. The results of the derivation indicate that the allowable off-site dose limit will not be exceeded. The estimated potential doses to individuals using water offsite from a creek are negligibly small fractions of the 0.15 mSv/yr allowable dose limit. With an assumed 3% heel remaining in the tanks, the estimated peak dose rate for the future offsite water user is about 0.00025 mSv/yr. The residual radionuclide inventory guidelines derived based on potential doses to the on-site resident farmer indicate that, with the exception of Tc-99 and C-14, a 3% heel remaining in the tanks would not result in doses exceeding the 5 mSv/yr allowable dose limit. For this on-site exposure scenario, the peak dose rates occur at about 2000 years after tank closure. The peak dose rate is calculated to be 25 mSv/yr, with greater than 99% produced by four radionuclides: C-14, Tc-99, Np-237, and Am-241. Ingestion of contaminated vegetation contributes most (90%) of the peak dose. Since the inventories used for the derivation are mostly estimated from fuel depletion calculations. There is a need to determine further the actual inventories of these

  7. Process and research method of radionuclide migration in high level radioactive waste geological disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Rui; Zhang Zhanshi

    2014-01-01

    Radionuclides released from waste can migrate from the repository to the rock and soil outside. On the other hand, nuclides also are retarded by the backfill material. Radionuclide migration is the main geochemical process of the waste disposal. This paper introduces various methods for radionuclide migration research, and give a brief analysis of the geochemical process of radionuclide migration. Finally, two of the most important processes of the radionuclide migration have been instanced. (authors)

  8. A practical intercomparison of non-radiometric methods for the determination of low levels of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, A.W.

    1991-01-01

    Non-Radiometric, methods of elemental analysis have been assessed as alternatives to radiometric methods for the determination of low levels of radionuclides. The methods have been assessed in a practical intercomparison, using a set of samples containing known, low levels of analytes in a variety of matrices. It was found that all of the methods considered have a role to play and are to some extent complementary in terms of cost, rate of sample throughput, elemental coverage, imaging capability sensitivity and quantitative capabilities. Techniques based on mass spectrometry have most to offer in this application, allowing sensitive isotope specific determinations. (author)

  9. Key radionuclides and parameters that determine performance of geologic repositories for high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joonhong Ahn; Atsuyuki Suzuki

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents results of a mathematical analysis for performance of the engineered barriers of high-level radioactive waste repositories. The main body of the mathematical model developed in this study is mass transport of actinides in a bentonite region. In an analysis of actinide transport, radioactive decay chain and effects of low solubilities must be taken into account. In many previous models for mass transport in engineered barriers including radioactive decay chain, however, boundary conditions at the interface between the waste form and the bentonite region cannot be determined flexibly. In some models, solubility-limited boundary condition is assumed for all the members in a chain. In order to investigate what are key radionuclides and parameters that control performance of engineered barriers of a geologic repository, we must evaluate mass transport with the source boundary condition determined by a detailed analysis on mass transfer at the boundary. In this study, we developed a mathematical model, which can determine whether the inner boundary condition is solubility-limited or congruent release, based on a mathematical analysis for mass transfer at the glass dissolution location, and how long the solubility-limited boundary condition applies. Based on the mathematical model, we point out radionuclides and parameters that have primary influences on the performance of a repository, and investigate a reasonable strategy for coupling geologic disposal and partitioning of those key radionuclides from the standpoint of reducing hazard of geologic disposal. (authors). 4 tabs., 2 figs., 8 refs

  10. Radionuclide adsorption distribution coefficients measured in Hanford sediments for the low level waste performance assessment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D.I.; Serne, R.J.; Owen, A.T.

    1996-08-01

    Preliminary modeling efforts for the Hanford Site's Low Level Waste-Performance Assessment (LLW PA) identified 129 I, 237 Np, 79 Se, 99 Tc, and 234 , 235 , 238 U as posing the greatest potential health hazard. It was also determined that the outcome of these simulations was very sensitive to the parameter describing the extent to which radionuclides sorb to the subsurface matrix, i.e., the distribution coefficient (K d ). The distribution coefficient is a ratio of the radionuclide concentration associated with the solid phase to that in the liquid phase. The objectives of this study were to (1) measure iodine, neptunium, technetium, and uranium K d values using laboratory conditions similar to those expected at the LLW PA disposal site, and (2) evaluate the effect of selected environmental parameters, such as pH, ionic strength, moisture concentration, and radio nuclide concentration, on K d values of selected radionuclides. It is the intent of these studies to develop technically defensible K d values for the PA. The approach taken throughout these studies was to measure the key radio nuclide K d values as a function of several environmental parameters likely to affect their values. Such an approach provides technical defensibility by identifying the mechanisms responsible for trends in K d values. Additionally, such studies provide valuable guidance regarding the range of K d values likely to be encountered in the proposed disposal site

  11. Radionuclide Transport in Fractured Rock: Numerical Assessment for High Level Waste Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Siqueira da Silveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep and stable geological formations with low permeability have been considered for high level waste definitive repository. A common problem is the modeling of radionuclide migration in a fractured medium. Initially, we considered a system consisting of a rock matrix with a single planar fracture in water saturated porous rock. Transport in the fracture is assumed to obey an advection-diffusion equation, while molecular diffusion is considered the dominant mechanism of transport in porous matrix. The partial differential equations describing the movement of radionuclides were discretized by finite difference methods, namely, fully explicit, fully implicit, and Crank-Nicolson schemes. The convective term was discretized by the following numerical schemes: backward differences, centered differences, and forward differences. The model was validated using an analytical solution found in the literature. Finally, we carried out a simulation with relevant spent fuel nuclide data with a system consisting of a horizontal fracture and a vertical fracture for assessing the performance of a hypothetical repository inserted into the host rock. We have analysed the bentonite expanded performance at the beginning of fracture, the quantified radionuclide released from a borehole, and an estimated effective dose to an adult, obtained from ingestion of well water during one year.

  12. A method for determining allowable residual contamination levels of radionuclide mixtures in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.

    1982-05-01

    An important consideration in the disposal of radioactive wastes, and consequently in the preparation of plans for remedial actions at contaminated sites, is the amount of radioactive contamination that may be allowed to remain at any particular waste site. The allowable residual contamination level (ARCL) is dependent on the radiation dose limit imposed, the physical and environmental characteristics of the waste site, and the time at which exposure to the wastes is assumed to occur. The steps in generating an ARCL are generally as follows: (1) develop plausible, credible site-specific exposure scenario; (2) calculate maximum annual radiation doses to an individual for each radionuclide based on the existing physical characteristics of the waste site and the site-specific exposure scenario; (3) calculate the ARCL for the dose limit desired, including all radionuclides present, uncorrected for site cleanup or barrier considerations; and (4) apply any corrections for proposed cleanup activity or addition of barriers to waste migration or uptake to obtain the ARCL applicable to the proposed action. Use of this method allows appropriate application of resources to achieve uniform compliance with a single regulatory standard, i.e., a radiation dose rate limit. Application and modification of the ARCL method requires appropriate models of the environmental transport and fate of radionuclides. Example calculations are given for several specific waste forms and waste site types in order to demonstrate the technique and generate comparisons with other approaches

  13. Determination of long-lived radionuclides at ultratrace level using advanced mass spectrometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoriy, M.

    2005-11-01

    Determination of long-lived radionuclides at sub-fg concentration level is a challenging task in analytical chemistry. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with its ability to provide the sensitive and fast multielemental analysis is one of the most suitable method for the measurements of long lived radionuclides in the trace and ultra trace concentration range. In present the Ph.D. study a variety of procedures have been developed permitting the sub fg ml-1 determination of long-lived radionuclides (e.g. U, Th, Pu) as well as 226 Ra (T 1/2 = 1600 y) and 90 Sr (T 1/2 = 28.1 y) in different samples. In order to avoid isobaric interferences, to increase the sensitivity, precision and accuracy of the methods the application of different techniques: pre-concentration of the sample, off-line separation on the crown resin, measurements under cold plasma conditions, using microconcentric nebulizers (e.g DIHEN, DS-5) or the application of LA-ICP-MS for sample introduction have been studied. The limits of detection for different radionuclides was significantly improved in comparison to the ones reported in the literature, and, depending on the method applied, was varied from 10 -15 to 10 -18 g ml -1 concentration range. In addition to the analysis of long lived radionuclides, some other elements, that can present potential interest to the analyzed sample, were measured within the framework of the present study. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LAICP- MS) was used to produce images of element distribution in 20μm m thin sections of human brain tissue. The sample surface was scanned (raster area ∝80 mm 2 ) with a focused laser beam (wavelength 213 nm, diameter of laser crater 50μm, and laser power density 3x10 9 W cm -2 ) in a cooled laser ablation chamber developed for these measurements. Cross sections of human brain samples - hippocampus as well as brain tissues infected and non-infected with Glioblastoma Multiforme (tumor

  14. Radionuclide transport modelling for a buried near surface low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzi, R.

    2004-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste, which is the last step of any radioactive waste management policy, has not yet been developed in Turkey. The existing legislation states only the discharge limits for the radioactive wastes to be discharged to the environment. The objective of this modelling study is to assist in safety assessment and selecting disposal site for gradually increasing non-nuclear radioactive wastes. This mathematical model has been developed for the environmental radiological assessment of near surface disposal sites for the low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. The model comprised of three main components: source term, geosphere transport and radiological assessment. Radiation dose for the babies (1 years age) and adults (≥17 years age) have been computed for the radionuclides Cesium 137 (Cs-137) and Strontium 90 (Sr-90), having the activity of 1.10 12 Becquerel(Bq), in radioactive waste through transport of radionuclide in liquid phase with the various pathways. The model consisted of first order ordinary differential equations was coded as a TCODE file in MATLAB program. The radiation dose to man for the realist case and low probability case have been calculated by using Runge-Kutta solution method in MATLAB programme for radionuclide transport from repository to soil layer and then to the ground water(saturated zone) through drinking water directly and consuming agricultural and animal products pathways in one year period. Also, the fatal cancer risk assessment has been made by taking into account the annual dose received by people. Various dose values for both radionuclides have been found which depended on distribution coefficient, retardation factor and dose conversion factors. The most important critical parameters on radiological safety assessment are the distribution coefficient in soil layer, seepage velocity in unsaturated zone and thickness of the unsaturated zone (soil zone). The highest radiation dose and average dose to

  15. Calculation of nuclear level density parameters of some light deformed medical radionuclides using collective excitation modes of observed nuclear spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuducu, S.; Sarac, H.; Akti, N. N.; Boeluekdemir, M. H.; Tel, E.

    2010-01-01

    In this study the nuclear energy level density based on nuclear collective excitation mechanism has been identified in terms of the low-lying collective level bands at near the neutron binding energy. Nuclear level density parameters of some light deformed medical radionuclides used widely in medical applications have been calculated by using different collective excitation modes of observed nuclear spectra. The calculated parameters have been used successfully in estimation of the neutron-capture cross section basic data for the production of new medical radionuclides. The investigated radionuclides have been considered in the region of mass number 40< A< 100. The method used in the present work assumes equidistance spacing of the collective coupled state bands of the interest radionuclides. The present calculated results have been compared with the compiled values from the literatures for s-wave neutron resonance data.

  16. Prediction of radionuclide inventory for the low-and intermediated-level radioactive waste disposal facility the radioactive waste classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kang Il; Jeong, Noh Gyeom; Moon, Young Pyo; Jeong, Mi Seon; Park, Jin Beak

    2016-01-01

    To meet nuclear regulatory requirements, more than 95% individual radionuclides in the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste inventory have to be identified. In this study, the radionuclide inventory has been estimated by taking the long-term radioactive waste generation, the development plan of disposal facility, and the new radioactive waste classification into account. The state of radioactive waste cumulated from 2014 was analyzed for various radioactive sources and future prospects for predicting the long-term radioactive waste generation. The predicted radionuclide inventory results are expected to contribute to secure the development of waste disposal facility and to deploy the safety case for its long-term safety assessment

  17. Effect of buffer thickness on the retardation of radionuclide release from the high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Won Jin; Lee, Jae Owan; Kang, Chul Hyung; Han, Kyung Won

    2000-12-01

    The radionuclide release from buffer in the high-level waste repository to the surrounding host rock was assessed, and the effect of the radial buffer thickness on the release rate was analyzed. The total release rates decrease sharply with increasing radial buffer thickness up to 0.25 m, and decrease moderately at the buffer thickness between 0.25 m and 0.5 m. But increasing the radial buffer thickness beyond 0.5 m has little effect in reducing radionuclide release. Therefore a radial buffer thickness between 0.25 m and 0.5 m is sufficient based on the viewpoint of radionuclide retention

  18. Comparison of radionuclide levels in soil, sagebrush, plant litter, cryptogams, and small mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeen, D.S.

    1994-09-01

    Soil, sagebrush, plant litter, cryptogam, and small mammal samples were collected and analyzed for cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium 239/240, technetium-99, and iodine-129 from 1981 to 1986 at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State as part of site characterization and environmental monitoring activities. Samples were collected on the 200 Areas Plateau, downwind from ongoing waste management activities. Plant litter, cryptogams, and small mammals are media that are not routinely utilized in monitoring or characterization efforts for determination of radionuclide concentrations. Studies at Hanford, other US Department of Energy sites, and in eastern Europe have indicated that plant litter and cryptogams may serve as effective ''natural'' monitors of air quality. Plant litter in this study consists of fallen leaves from sagebrush and ''cryptogams'' describes that portion of the soil crust composed of mosses, lichens, algae, and fungi. Comparisons of cesium-137 and strontium-90 concentrations in the soil, sagebrush, litter, and cryptogams revealed significantly higher (p<0.05) levels in plant litter and cryptogams. Technetium-99 values were the highest in sagebrush and litter. Plutonium-238 and 239/40 and iodine-129 concentrations never exceeded 0.8 pCi/gm in all media. No evidence of any significant amounts of any radionuclides being incorporated into the small mammal community was discovered. The data indicate that plant litter and cryptogams may be better, indicators of environmental quality than soil or vegetation samples. Augmenting a monitoring program with samples of litter and cryptogams may provide a more accurate representation of radionuclide environmental uptake and/or contamination levels in surrounding ecosystems. The results of this study may be applied directly to other radioecological monitoring conducted at other nuclear sites and to the monitoring of other pollutants

  19. Clearance levels for radionuclides in solid materials. Application of exemption principles. Interim report for comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report proposes levels of radionuclides in solid wastes below which regulatory control may be relinquished on the grounds that the associated radiation hazards are trivial. The radiological basis for the guidance is the international consensus on principles for the exemption of radiation sources and practices from regulatory control reached in 1988 and published in IAEA Safety Series No. 89. The levels are intended as international reference values. The levels may be seen as those below which release from regulatory control is 'automatic' without further consideration being needed. Release from regulatory control may, of course, be allowed under other conditions; regulatory authorities may decide, on the basis of a generic or site specific optimization subject to dose constraints, to select other, less restrictive, release levels. This optimization process includes consideration of factors other than those associated with radiation protection, for example, those concerned with the health, social, environmental and economic benefits and risks of implementing the practice. 44 refs, tabs

  20. A model to predict the level of artificial radionuclides in environmental materials in the Severn Estuary and the Bristol Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McColl, N.P.

    1988-01-01

    The NRPB SEVERN compartment model, of the Bristol Channel and Severn Estuary, has been developed for used in predicting environmental concentrations of artificial radionuclides present in the estuary. A comparison between predicted and measured values of salinity and environmental 137 Cs concentrations has demonstrated the overall validity of the model. SEVERN has been used to assess the radiological impact of radionuclides present in the estuary which result from low-level routine discharges from the nuclear power industry. (author)

  1. Geochemical factors affecting radionuclide transport through near and far fields at a Low-Level Waste Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D.I.; Seme, R.J.; Piepkho, M.G.

    1995-03-01

    The concentration of low-level waste (LLW) contaminants in groundwater is determined by the amount of contaminant present in the solid waste, rate of release from the waste and surrounding barriers, and a number of geochemical processes including adsorption, desorption, diffusion, precipitation, and dissolution. To accurately predict radionuclide transport through the subsurface, it is essential that the important geochemical processes affecting radionuclide transport be identified and, perhaps more importantly, accurately quantified and described in a mathematically defensible manner

  2. Evaluating biological transport of radionuclides at low-level waste burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwell, L.L.; Kennedy, W.E.; McKenzie, D.H.

    1983-08-01

    The purpose of the work reported here is to develop and demonstrate methods for evaluating the long-term impact of biological processes at low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites. As part of this effort, we developed order-of-magnitude estimates of dose-to-man resulting from animal burrowing activity and plant translocation of radionuclides. Reference low-level waste sites in both arid and humid areas of the United States were examined. The results of our evaluation for generalized arid LLW burial site are presented here. Dose-to-man estimates resulting from biotic transport are compared with doses calculated from human intrusion exposure scenarios. Dose-to-man estimates, as a result of biotic transport, are of the same order of magnitude as those resulting from a more commonly evaluated human intrusion scenario. The reported lack of potential importance of biotic transport at LLW sites in earlier assessment studies is not confirmed by our findings. These results indicate that biotic transport has the long-term potential to mobilize radionuclides. Therefore, biotic transport should be carefully evaluated during burial site assessment

  3. Referent 3D tumor model at cellular level in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaic, R.; Ilic, R.D.; Petrovic, B.J.

    2002-01-01

    Aim Conventional internal dosimetry has a lot of limitations because of tumor dose nonuniformity. The best approach for absorbed dose at cellular level for different tumors in radionuclide therapy calculation is Monte Carlo method. The purpose of this study is to introduce referent tumor 3D model at cellular level for Monte Carlo simulation study in radionuclide therapy. Material and Methods The moment when tumor is detectable and when same therapy can start is time period in which referent 3D tumor model at cellular level was defined. In accordance with tumor growth rate at that moment he was a sphere with same radius (10 000 μm). In that tumor there are cells or cluster of cells, which are randomly distributed spheres. Distribution of cells/cluster of cells can be calculated from histology data but it was assumed that this distribution is normal with the same mean value and standard deviation (100±50 mm). Second parameter, which was selected to define referent tumor, is volume density of cells (30%). In this referent tumor there are no necroses. Stroma is defined as space between spheres with same concentration of materials as in spheres. Results: Referent tumor defined on this way have about 2,2 10 5 cells or cluster of cells random distributed. Using this referent 3D tumor model and for same concentration of radionuclides (1:100) and energy of beta emitters (1000 keV) which are homogeneously distributed in labeled cells absorbed dose for all cells was calculated. Simulations are done using FOTELP Monte Carlo code, which is modified for this purposes. Results of absorbed dose in cells are given in numerical values (1D distribution) and as the images (2D or 3D distributions). Conclusion Geometrical module for Monte Carlo simulation study can be standardized by introducing referent 3D tumor model at cellular level. This referent 3D tumor model gives most realistic presentation of different tumors at the moment of their detectability. Referent 3D tumor model at

  4. Radionuclide transport in fractured rock: quantifying releases from final disposal of high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Claudia S. da; Alvim, Antonio C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Crystalline rock has been considered as a potentially suitable matrix for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository because it is found in very stable geological formations and may have very low permeability. In this study the adopted physical system consists of the rock matrix containing a discrete horizontal fracture in a water saturated porous rock and a system of vertical fractures as a lineament. The transport in the fractures - horizontal and vertical, is assumed to obey a relation convection-diffusion, while the molecular diffusion is considered dominant mechanism of transport in porous rock. In this model the decay chain is considered. We use a code in Fortran 90, where the partial differential equations that describe the movement of radionuclides were discretized by finite differences methods. We use the fully implicit method for temporal discretization schemes. The simulation was performed with relevant data of nuclides in spent fuel for performance assessment in a hypothetical repository, thus quantifying the radionuclides released into the host rock. (author)

  5. Allowable residual contamination levels of radionuclides in soil from pathway analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyquist, J.E.; Baes, C.F. III.

    1987-01-01

    The uncertainty regarding radionuclide distributions among Remedial Action Program (RAP) sites and long-term decommissioning and closure options for these sites requires a flexible approach capable of handling different levels of contamination, dose limits, and closure scenarios. We identified a commercially available pathway analysis model, DECOM, which had been used previously in support of remedial activities involving contaminated soil at the Savannah River Plant. The DECOM computer code, which estimates concentrations of radionuclides uniformly distributed in soil that correspond to an annual effective dose equivalent, is written in BASIC and runs on an IBM PC or compatible microcomputer. We obtained the latest version of DECOM and modified it to make it more user friendly and applicable to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) RAP. Some modifications involved changes in default parameters or changes in models based on approaches used by the EPA in regulating remedial actions for hazardous substances. We created a version of DECOM as a LOTUS spreadsheet, using the same models as the BASIC version of DECOM. We discuss the specific modeling approaches taken, the regulatory framework that guided our efforts, the strengths and limitations of each approach, and areas for improvement. We also demonstrate how the LOTUS version of DECOM can be applied to specific problems that may be encountered during ORNL RAP activities. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Phase chemistry and radionuclide retention of high level radioactive waste tank sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumhansl, James L.; Brady, Patrick V.; Zhang, Pengchu; Arthur, Sara E.; Hutcherson, Sheila K.; Liu, J.; Qian, M.; Anderson, Howard L.

    2000-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of high level nuclear waste stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Washington and Savannah River, South Carolina. These tanks will eventually be emptied and decommissioned. This will leave a residue of sludge adhering to the interior tank surfaces that may contaminate groundwaters with radionuclides and RCRA metals. Experimentation on such sludges is both dangerous and prohibitively expensive so there is a great advantage to developing artificial sludges. The US DOE Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) has funded a program to investigate the feasibility of developing such materials. The following text reports on the success of this program, and suggests that much of the radioisotope inventory left in a tank will not move out into the surrounding environment. Ultimately, such studies may play a significant role in developing safe and cost effective tank closure strategies

  7. Radionuclide concentration in ground-level air in 1991 in North Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, W.; Wershofen, H.

    1992-03-01

    The activity concentration of various fission products and some other radionuclides (e.g. Be-7, Na-22, K-40 and Pb-210) contained in ground-level air were determined by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Weekly and mean monthly activity concentrations measured in Brunswick and Berlin are tabulated. From 1990 to 1991 the Cs-137 concentration in Brunswick decreased only slightly. It was less than 0.1% of that in 1986 but due to resuspended soil dust still three times higher than in 1985. Occasionally, traces of activation products were detected such as Cr-51, Mn-54 or Co-60 in Januray and February in Brunswick and Berlin. The effective equivalent dose due to the inhalation of fission products is estimated to be less than 0.1% of the Pb-210 inhalation dose. (orig.) [de

  8. Potential effects of bacteria on radionuclide transport from a Swedish high level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, K.

    1990-01-01

    Microorganisms can influence radionuclide migration if their concentration are high in comparison with other organic particles. Data on the numbers of microorganisms in undisturbed ground-water have been collected. The average number of cells in the samples from 17 levels in 5 boreholes was 3.0 x 10 5 cells ml -1 . A biofilm experiment indicated an active microbial rock surface population. Radiographic uptake experiments suggest inactive bulk water populations. The bulk water microbial cells in deep ground water might then be inactive cells detached from active biofilms. Enrichment cultures for anaerobic bacteria demonstrated the presence of anaerobic bacteria capable of growth on C-1 compounds with hydrogen and carbon dioxide, presumably methanogenic bacteria. Further, growth in enrichment cultures with sulphate as electron-acceptor and lactate as carbon source proved dissimilatory sulphate reducing bacteria to be present. (author)

  9. Assessment of human health risk of reported soil levels of metals and radionuclides in Port Hope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    Risk assessment methods are applied to the question of health implications of contaminated soil in the Port Hope area. Soil-related as well as other pathways of exposure are considered. Exposures to the reported levels of uranium, antimony, chromium, copper, nickel, cadmium, cobalt, selenium, and zinc in Port Hope soils are not expected to result in adverse health consequences. Oral exposure to arsenic in soil at the reported levels is estimated to result in incremental cancer risk levels in the negligible range (10 -5 ). Estimated exposures also fall well below suggested toxic thresholds for arsenic. For the two small areas within the >50 μg/g isopleth, assessment of exposure is difficult without more definitive data on soil concentrations in these zones. Contamination of soils with lead is overall quite limited. In general, the reported soil levels of lead are not anticipated to pose a hazard. The site with the highest concentrations of lead is located on the west bank of the Ganaraska River, a popular fishing area. Depending on the level and extent of contamination, as well as degree of contact with the site, potential exposures could exceed tolerable intakes for children. Exposures to the radionuclides Ra(226), Pb(210), and U(238) in soil at the reported levels are estimated to fall well within recommended population limits

  10. Determination of soil screening levels for natural radionuclides in Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peixoto, Claudia Marques; Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano; Balaine, Fernando; Taddei, Maria Helena

    2013-01-01

    Soil screening levels express the levels of contaminant concentration in the soil, which guide the actions to be taken following investigation to confirm contamination. The list of toxic substances or elements under Brazilian legislation includes organics, volatile organics and metals but does not consider radioactive elements. Radioactive elements are all potentially carcinogenic and therefore need to be subject to legal control. The National Nuclear Energy Commission, the federal agency currently responsible for legislation regarding the control of Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) facilities does not establish guiding values for intervention in terms of soil activity concentration in the case of contamination with radioactive elements. In mining, the processing and treating of ores such as cassiterite, uranium, phosphate, niobium, and rare earths contribute to the generation of large amounts of NORM residues. Obviously, the improper disposal of these materials may lead to situations that result in soil and groundwater contamination and unnecessary exposure of the population in general. In order to establish guiding values for soil quality for natural radionuclides in the state of Minas Gerais, the study area included the entire state, which has unique characteristics related to the lithology, genesis, and morphology of the soils. These characteristics have tremendous influence on the petrogeochemistry of elements and radionuclides. A total of 110 soil samples were collected and analyzed in order to determine the activity concentration of U, Th, 226Ra, 228Ra e 210Pb. In general, it was possible to verify that the activity concentrations of U are higher than those of Th. This fact can be explained by the intense weathering that most of the state's soil has undergone and the chemical and geochemical characteristics of the two elements. The values obtained up to the present are higher than the reference values for soil quality adopted in other parts of

  11. Natural radionuclides in environmental media: a review of natural levels of radioactivity and background radiation levels and an assessment of factors affecting these levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    A review of the literature has been carried out to assemble the information available on the levels of naturally-occurring radionuclides in environmental media in the UK. Some data from other countries are included for comparison. The data are compiled on the basis of geographical origin into five main sectors: air; waters; vegetation; soils, rocks and sediments; and foodstuffs. A summary table is provided for each main section. (author)

  12. Interactions of radionuclides and CO2 with clays: elucidating mechanisms at nano-scale level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In order to predict and regulate the environmental impact of human activities such as uranium mining and radioactive waste disposal, it is necessary to understand the behavior of actinides in the environment because their interaction with clay mineral is an important factor to control the migration of radionuclide in the environment. The behavior of actinides in the soil is mainly the surface adsorption interactions, which change the forms of radioactive elements and reduces the mobility of actinides in the natural systems. Therefore, it is important to search how the actinides interact with clay mineral such as the fundamental process of surface precipitation. Uranium is the predominant heavy metal content of the final waste in the nuclear fuel cycle (≥95% UO 2 ). In addition, uranium is a major contaminant in the soil, subsurface and groundwater as a result of human activity. Under standard environmental conditions, the most stable chemical form of U(VI) is the uranyl ion UO 2 2+ , which is potentially very mobile and readily complexes with organic and inorganic matter. On the other hand, carbon dioxide is an important greenhouse gas, warming the earth's surface to a higher temperature by reducing outward radiation. However, problems may occur when the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases increases. Amounts of carbon dioxide were produced since the industrial revolution, which is behind the significant global warming and rising sea level. Clay minerals are of great practical importance here, in storage of carbon dioxide due to its hydraulic permeability and ability to retain mobile species. We have chosen kaolinite and montmorillonite as prototypes of clay minerals of 1:1 and 2:1. Classical Monte Carlo (MC) and molecular dynamics (MD) methods have been used in this work in order to understand the adsorption behaviour of radionuclide and carbon dioxide in clays surface. In this thesis, we will investigate first the adsorption of uranyl on kaolinite

  13. Application of biomass for the sorption of radionuclides from low level Purex aqueous wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanujam, A; Gopalakrishnan, V; Dhami, P S; Kannan, R [Fuel Reprocessing Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Udupa, S R; Salvi, N A [Bio-Organic Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1997-05-01

    Microbial biomass have been found to be good biological adsorbents for radioactive nuclides such as uranium and thorium with comparatively easy desorption and recovery. Based on this, sorption studies have been carried out to assess the feasibility of using biomass Rhizopus arrhizus (RA) for the removal of radionuclides present in Purex low level waste streams. Biomass Rhizopus arrhizus (RA) appears effective for the removal of actinides and fission products from low level Purex plant waste/effluent solutions. Maximum sorption for uranium and plutonium is observed at 6-7 pH whereas for Am, Eu, Pm, Ce and Zr the sorption is maximum at pH 2 with high D values and fast kinetics in both cases. Sorption for Ru and Cs are negligible. Sorbed nuclides are recoverable by elution with 1 M HNO{sub 3}, on once through basis. The method can be used for treating the evaporator condensates from the plant and the hold-up delay tank solution. The sodium nitrate salt concentration in the aqueous solution beyond 0.14 M seriously affects the metal uptake. The results from column experiments indicate a limited loading capacity in terms of mg of Am/U/Pu etc. per gm of RA. However, as the Purex low level effluents contain only trace level activities whose absolute ionic concentrations are much lower, the capacities observed with the present form of biomass may still be satisfactory. 15 refs., 12 tabs.

  14. Application of biomass for the sorption of radionuclides from low level Purex aqueous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanujam, A.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Dhami, P.S.; Kannan, R.; Udupa, S.R.; Salvi, N.A.

    1997-05-01

    Microbial biomass have been found to be good biological adsorbents for radioactive nuclides such as uranium and thorium with comparatively easy desorption and recovery. Based on this, sorption studies have been carried out to assess the feasibility of using biomass Rhizopus arrhizus (RA) for the removal of radionuclides present in Purex low level waste streams. Biomass Rhizopus arrhizus (RA) appears effective for the removal of actinides and fission products from low level Purex plant waste/effluent solutions. Maximum sorption for uranium and plutonium is observed at 6-7 pH whereas for Am, Eu, Pm, Ce and Zr the sorption is maximum at pH 2 with high D values and fast kinetics in both cases. Sorption for Ru and Cs are negligible. Sorbed nuclides are recoverable by elution with 1 M HNO 3 , on once through basis. The method can be used for treating the evaporator condensates from the plant and the hold-up delay tank solution. The sodium nitrate salt concentration in the aqueous solution beyond 0.14 M seriously affects the metal uptake. The results from column experiments indicate a limited loading capacity in terms of mg of Am/U/Pu etc. per gm of RA. However, as the Purex low level effluents contain only trace level activities whose absolute ionic concentrations are much lower, the capacities observed with the present form of biomass may still be satisfactory

  15. Worldwide marine radioactivity studies (WOMARS): Radionuclide levels in oceans and seas. Final report of a coordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This publication summarizes the results of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Worldwide Marine Radioactivity Studies (WOMARS) carried out by the IAEA's Marine Environment Laboratory in Monaco. It provides the most comprehensive information on levels of anthropogenic radionuclides in the world ocean. Three anthropogenic radionuclides - 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu - were chosen as the most representative of anthropogenic radioactivity in the marine environment, comprising beta-, gamma- and alpha-emitters which have the highest potential contribution to radiation doses to humans via seafood consumption. Although the ocean contains the majority of the anthropogenic radionuclides released into the environment, the radiological impact of this contamination is low. Radiation doses from naturally-occurring radionuclides in the marine environment (e.g. 210 Po) are on the average two orders of magnitude higher. The results confirm that the dominant source of anthropogenic radionuclides in the marine environment is global fallout. The total 137 Cs input from global fallout was estimated to be 311 PBq for the Pacific Ocean, 201 PBq for the Atlantic Ocean, 84 PBq for the Indian Ocean and 7.4 PBq for the Arctic Ocean. For comparison, about 40 PBq of 137 Cs was released to the marine environment from Sellafield and Cap de la Hague reprocessing plants. The Chernobyl accident contributed about 16 PBq of 137 Cs to the sea, mainly the Baltic and Black Seas, where the present average concentrations of 137 Cs in surface water were estimated to be about 60 and 25 Bq/m 3 , respectively, while the worldwide average concentration due to global fallout is about 2 Bq/m 3 . For the purposes of this study, the world ocean was divided into latitudinal belts for which average radionuclide concentrations were estimated. Further, where available, time trends in radionuclide concentrations in surface water were studied and mean residence times of radionuclides in these areas as well as in

  16. Analysis of the low-level waste radionuclide inventory for the Radioactive Waste Management Complex performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plansky, L.E.; Hoiland, S.A.

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study to improve the estimates of the radionuclides in the low-level radioactive waste (LLW) inventory which is buried in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). The work is done to support the RWMC draft performance assessment (PA). Improved radionuclide inventory estimates are provided for the INEL LLW generators. Engineering, environmental assessment or other research areas may find use for the information in this report. It may also serve as a LLW inventory baseline for data quality assurance. The individual INEL LLW generators, their history and their activities are also described in detail.

  17. Analysis of the low-level waste radionuclide inventory for the Radioactive Waste Management Complex performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plansky, L.E.; Hoiland, S.A.

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study to improve the estimates of the radionuclides in the low-level radioactive waste (LLW) inventory which is buried in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). The work is done to support the RWMC draft performance assessment (PA). Improved radionuclide inventory estimates are provided for the INEL LLW generators. Engineering, environmental assessment or other research areas may find use for the information in this report. It may also serve as a LLW inventory baseline for data quality assurance. The individual INEL LLW generators, their history and their activities are also described in detail

  18. Development of uncertainty analyses for the transport of radionuclides from a repository for high-level radioactive waste. Stage one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundstroem, B.

    1986-10-01

    The escape of radionuclides from a repository for high level waste is described by the near field model LCHCAL and the geosphere models GEO1/SU and NUCDIF. These models are used to calculate the radionuclide outflow to the biosphere. The uncertainties in the input parameters to the near field and geosphere models are handled by the uncertainty analysis models PARVAR and SYVAC/SU. The uncertainty analysis models have been tested on two nuclides, 14 C and 135 Cs, for cases with pure surface sorption and matrix diffusion. In the case of surface sorption five input parameters and for matrix diffusion six input parameters were varied. The results of the uncertainty analyses are presented in the form of histograms, scatter plots, isocontour plots and 3-dimensional plots of the radionuclide release to the biosphere. Also the ten highest maximum release rates and correlation coefficients are presented. (orig.)

  19. Past and present levels of some radionuclides in fish from Bikini and Enewetak Atolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noshkin, V E; Robison, W L; Wong, K M; Brunk, J L; Eagle, R J; Jones, H E

    1997-07-01

    Bikini and Enewetak were the sites in the Northern Marshall Islands that were used by the United States as testing grounds for nuclear devices between 1946 and 1958. The testing produced close-in fallout debris that was contaminated with different radionuclides and which entered the aquatic environment. The contaminated lagoon sediments became a reservoir and source term of manmade radionuclides for the resident marine organisms. This report contains a summary of all the available data on the concentrations of 137Cs, 60Co and 207Bi in flesh samples of reef and pelagic fish collected from Bikini and Enewetak Atolls between 1964 and 1995. The selection of these three radionuclides for discussion is based on the fact that these are the only radionuclides that have been routinely detected by gamma spectrometry in flesh samples from all fish for the last 20 y. Flesh from fish is an important source of food in the Marshallese diet. These radionuclides along with the transuranic radionuclides and 90Sr contribute most of the small radiological dose from ingesting marine foods. Some basic relationships among concentrations in different tissues and organs are discussed. The reef fish can be used as indicator species because their body burden is derived from feeding, over a lifetime, within a relatively small contaminated area of the lagoon. Therefore, the emphasis of this report is to use this extensive and unique concentration data base to describe the effective half lives and cycling for the radionuclides in the marine environments during the 31-y period between 1964 and 1995. The results from an analysis of the radionuclide concentrations in the flesh samples indicate the removal rates for the 3 radionuclides are significantly different. 137Cs is removed from the lagoons with an effective half life of 9-12 y. Little 60Co is mobilized to the water column so that it is depleted in both environments, primarily through radioactive decay. The properties of 207Bi are different

  20. Levels and effects of natural radionuclides in soil samples of Garhwal Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjulata Yadav; Mukesh Rawat; Anoop Dangwal; Mukesh Prasad; Gusain, G.S.; Ramola, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Distribution of natural radionuclide gives significant parameter to assess the presence of gamma radioactivity and its radiological effect in our environment. Natural radionuclides are present in the form of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in soil, rocks, water, air, and building materials. Distribution of natural radionuclides depends on the type of minerals present in the soil and rocks. For this purpose gamma spectrometer is used as tool for finding the concentration of these radionuclides. The activity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in these soil samples were found to vary from of 8 ± 1 Bq/kg to 50 ± 10 Bq/kg with an average 20 Bq/kg, 7 ± 1-88 ± 16 Bq/kg with an Average 26 Bq/kg and 115 ± 18-885 ± 132 Bq/kg with an average 329 Bq/kg, respectively. In this paper, we are presenting the radiological effect due to distribution of natural radionuclide present in soil of Garhwal Himalaya. (author)

  1. Complete decay of radionuclides: Implications for low-level waste disposal in municipal landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meck, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The time required for the complete decay of a radioactive source can be quantified by specifying an acceptable probability and using an original derivation. The physical phenomenon of complete decay may be used as the technical basis to change regulations and permit, with public acceptance, the inexpensive disposal of short half-lived radioactive waste into municipal landfills. Current regulations require isolation of trash form the biosphere for 30 years during the post-closure control period for municipal landfills. Thirty years is sufficient time for complete decay of significant quantities of short-lived radionuclides, and there is a large decay capacity in the nation's landfills. As the major generators of low-level radioactive waste with relatively short half-lives, the academic, medical, and research communities likely would benefit most from such regulatory relief. Disposal of such waste is prohibited or costly. The waste must be specially packaged, stored, transported, and disposed in designated repositories. Regulatory relief can be initiated by citizens since the Administrative Procedures Act gives citizens the right to petition for regulatory change. 10 refs., 2 tabs

  2. Determination of radionuclide levels in rainwater using ion exchange resin and γ-spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungck, Matthias H.A.; Andrey, Jean-Louis; Froidevaux, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of radioactivity accidentally released into the atmosphere involves determining the radioactivity levels of rainwater samples. Rainwater scavenges atmospheric airborne radioactivity in such a way that surface contamination can be deduced from rainfall rate and rainwater radioactivity content. For this purpose, rainwater is usually collected in large surface collectors and then measured by γ-spectrometry after such treatments as evaporation or iron hydroxide precipitation. We found that collectors can be adapted to accept large surface (diameter 47 mm) cartridges containing a strongly acidic resin (Dowex AG 88) which is able to quantitatively extract radioactivity from rainwater, even during heavy rainfall. The resin can then be measured by γ-spectrometry. The detection limit is 0.1 Bq per sample of resin (80 g) for 137 Cs. Natural 7 Be and 210 Pb can also be measured and the activity ratio of both radionuclides is comparable with those obtained through iron hydroxide precipitation and air filter measurements. Occasionally 22 Na has also been measured above the detection limit. A comparison between the evaporation method and the resin method demonstrated that 2/3 of 7 Be can be lost during the evaporation process. The resin method is simple and highly efficient at extracting radioactivity. Because of these great advantages, we anticipate it could replace former rainwater determination methods. Moreover, it does not necessitate the transportation of large rainwater volumes to the laboratory

  3. Particle count monitoring of reverse osmosis water treatment for removal of low-level radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moritz, E.J.; Hoffman, C.R.; Hergert, T.R.

    1995-01-01

    Laser diode particle counting technology and analytical measurements were used to evaluate a pilot-scale reverse osmosis (RO) water treatment system for removal of particulate matter and sub-picocurie low-level radionuclides. Stormwater mixed with Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) effluent from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), formerly a Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons production facility, were treated. No chemical pretreatment of the water was utilized during this study. The treatment system was staged as follows: multimedia filtration, granular activated carbon adsorption, hollow tube ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis membrane filtration. Various recovery rates and two RO membrane models were tested. Analytical measurements included total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), gross alpha (α) and gross beta (β) activity, uranium isotopes 233/234 U and 238 U, plutonium 239/240 Pu, and americium 241 Am. Particle measurement between 1--150 microns (μ) included differential particle counts (DPC), and total particle counts (TPC) before and after treatment at various sampling points throughout the test. Performance testing showed this treatment system produced a high quality effluent in clarity and purity. Compared to raw water levels, TSS was reduced to below detection of 5 milligrams per liter (mg/L) and TDS reduced by 98%. Gross α was essentially removed 100%, and gross β was reduced an average of 94%. Uranium activity was reduced by 99%. TPC between 1-150μ were reduced by an average 99.8% to less than 1,000 counts per milliliter (mL), similar in purity to a good drinking water treatment plant. Raw water levels of 239/240 Pu and 241 Am were below reliable quantitation limits and thus no removal efficiencies could be determined for these species

  4. Recent levels of radionuclides in lichens from southwest Poland with particular reference to 134Cs and 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaward, M.R.D.; Bylinska, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    Analyses of Umbilicaria species collected from southwest Poland in August 1986 have shown there to be significant increases in levels of various radionuclides since previous analyses based on fieldwork in 1978-1979. The composition and ratio of the various radionuclides, particularly in respect of 134 Cs and 137 Cs, exhibit a characteristic signature consistent with contamination derived from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor in April 1986. Intraspecific variation in levels of 137 Cs in Umbilicaria is related to such factors as location, altitude and, to a lesser degree, aspect; interspecific variation in levels is related to ecological requirements and geographical pattern, and hence the same factors, although morphological differences in thalli may be implicated. (author)

  5. Distribution of radionuclides and radiation levels in some district of Karnataka State, India - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannappa, J.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation is a form of energy that can be travelled through the medium in the form of waves or particles. The heat, sound and light are different forms of radiations that peoples can feel or see but there are other kinds of radiations that human senses cannot detect. Indeed we are constantly receiving such invisible radiation from the sky, earth crust, air, food and even our own body. Such radiations can be divided into ionizing and non ionizing radiation. The exposure of human beings to ionizing radiation from natural sources is a continuing and inescapable feature of life on earth. Our environment contains natural radionuclides in variable amounts. A large number of natural radioactivity measurements were conducted throughout world, in order to know their distribution and to assess their radiological health hazards. Karnataka state has 30 districts and having 74,051 sq m area and it is having various geological formations. The Archean complex made up of Dharwad schists and granitic gneisses, these cover around 60% of the area of the state and it consists of gneisses, granite and charnockite rocks. Some of the minerals found in this region are dolomite, lime stone, gabbro, quartzite, pyroxenite, manganese and iron ore and metabasalt. In addition the proposed uranium mining region is also present in Googi region of Yadagiri district. In many places Iron and manganese mining activities, crushing and quarrying activities are continuously going on. It is expected that such mining and extraction activities can enhance the natural radiation level in the environment. Hence there is a need to estimate the environmental radiation levels in the habitats of these areas. Our research group along with many researches in the Karnataka state initiated systematic study on the dose received by the population in some district of different environmental matrixes and more data are reported in Karnataka state, which have been reviewed and compiled in this paper. (author)

  6. Low level measurements of natural radionuclides in soil samples around a coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, G.; Bunzl, K.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1984-01-01

    To detect a possible contribution of airborne radioactivity from stack effluents to the soil radioactivity, several radionuclides in the soil around a coal-fired power plant have been determined. A plant situated in a rural region of Bavaria was selected to minimize contributions from other civilisatory sources. The soil sampling network consisted of 5 concentric circles with diameters between 0.4 and 5.2 km around the plant, 16 sampling points being distributed regularly on each circle. Radiochemical analysis techniques for 210 Pb and 210 Po in soil samples of several grams has to be developed. They include a wet dissolution procedure, simultaneous precipitation of lead and polonium as the sulfides, purification via lead sulfate, counting of the lead as the chromate in a low-level beta counter and alpha spectrometric determination of the 210 Po in a gridded ionization chamber. The 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were counted by low level gamma spectrometry. Specific activities found were in the range of 0.7 to 2.0 pCi g -1 for 210 Pb and 0.3 to 1.6 pCi g -1 for 226 Ra. The distribution patterns of 210 Po and 210 Pb around the plant were found to be similar. They were different, however, from that of 226 Ra. The highest 210 Pb/ 226 Ra activity ratio was 3.9 at a distance of 0.76 km SSE from the plant. Nevertheless, the evidence is not considered to be sufficient to attribute these observations unambiguously to plant release. (orig.)

  7. Low level measurements of natural radionuclides in soil samples around a coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosner, G.; Bunzl, K.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung m.b.H. Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz)

    1984-06-15

    To detect a possible contribution of airborne radioactivity from stack effluents to the soil radioactivity, several radionuclides in the soil around a coal-fired power plant have been determined. A plant situated in a rural region of Bavaria was selected to minimize contributions from other civilisatory sources. The soil sampling network consisted of 5 concentric circles with diameters between 0.4 and 5.2 km around the plant, 16 sampling points being distributed regularly on each circle. Radiochemical analysis techniques for /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po in soil samples of several grams has to be developed. They include a wet dissolution procedure, simultaneous precipitation of lead and polonium as the sulfides, purification via lead sulfate, counting of the lead as the chromate in a low-level beta counter and alpha spectrometric determination of the /sup 210/Po in a gridded ionization chamber. The /sup 238/U, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th and /sup 40/K were counted by low level gamma spectrometry. Specific activities found were in the range of 0.7 to 2.0 pCi g/sup -1/ for /sup 210/Pb and 0.3 to 1.6 pCi g/sup -1/ for /sup 226/Ra. The distribution patterns of /sup 210/Po and /sup 210/Pb around the plant were found to be similar. They were different, however, from that of /sup 226/Ra. The highest /sup 210/Pb//sup 226/Ra activity ratio was 3.9 at a distance of 0.76 km SSE from the plant. Nevertheless, the evidence is not considered to be sufficient to attribute these observations unambiguously to plant release.

  8. A BENCHMARKING ANALYSIS FOR FIVE RADIONUCLIDE VADOSE ZONE MODELS (CHAIN, MULTIMED_DP, FECTUZ, HYDRUS, AND CHAIN 2D) IN SOIL SCREENING LEVEL CALCULATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five radionuclide vadose zone models with different degrees of complexity (CHAIN, MULTIMED_DP, FECTUZ, HYDRUS, and CHAIN 2D) were selected for use in soil screening level (SSL) calculations. A benchmarking analysis between the models was conducted for a radionuclide (99Tc) rele...

  9. Evaluation of radionuclide levels and radiological dose in three populations of marine mammals in the eastern Canadian Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, C.R.; Ewing, L.L.; Wiewel, A.M.; Harris, D.A.; Stewart, R.E.A.

    1993-01-01

    Radionuclide levels were measured in beluga, walrus and ringed seal populations collected in 1992 to assess radiation dose and changes in dose with age and sex. The authors hypothesized that Arctic marine food chains accumulate high levels of naturally-occurring radionuclides such as polonium-210 and that radiation may pose a stress to animals which also accumulate metals such as cadmium. Liver, kidney, muscle and jawbone were analyzed by gamma spectrometry for cesium-137, cesium-134, lead-210, potassium-40 and radium-226 and fission-derived nuclides. Polonium-210 was analyzed by alpha spec after autodeposition onto a silver disk. Cesium-137 concentrations in muscle in all three populations were low, and ranged from below detection limits to 10 Bq/kg ww. There was no evidence of fission-derived radionuclides such as zinc-65 or cobalt-60. Lead-210 levels ranged from below detection limits in muscle of ringed seal and walrus to a mean of 82.3 Bq/kg ww in walrus bone. Polonium-210 in the three population ranged from 10 to 30 Bq/kg ww in bone and kidney. The major contributor to dose in the animals was polonium-210 because it is an alpha emitter and accumulates to moderate levels in liver and kidney. Radiological dose is approximately 20--30 times higher than background in humans, and is considerably lower than the dose observed in terrestrial food chains in the Arctic

  10. Determination of natural radionuclide level in industrial waste slags and evaluation of comprehensive utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ruixiang; Liu Xinhua; Gan Lin

    1994-09-01

    Natural radionuclide contents were measured in various industrial waste slags in China by a low background HPGe γ spectrometer and the radiological impact was estimated for some comprehensive utilization of these slags. Most waste slags can be used for building materials except for tailing and waste rock form nuclear industry

  11. Radionuclide compositions of spent fuel and high level waste for the uranium and plutonium fuelled PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairclough, M.P.; Tymons, B.J.

    1985-06-01

    The activities of a selection of radionuclides are presented for three types of reactor fuel of interest in radioactive waste management. The fuel types are for a uranium 'burning' PWR, a plutonium 'burning' PWR using plutonium recycled from spent uranium fuel and a plutonium 'burning' PWR using plutonium which has undergone multiple recycle. (author)

  12. Statistical methods for determination of background levels for naturally occuring radionuclides in soil at a RCRA facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guha, S.; Taylor, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    It is critical that summary statistics on background data, or background levels, be computed based on standardized and defensible statistical methods because background levels are frequently used in subsequent analyses and comparisons performed by separate analysts over time. The final background for naturally occurring radionuclide concentrations in soil at a RCRA facility, and the associated statistical methods used to estimate these concentrations, are presented. The primary objective is to describe, via a case study, the statistical methods used to estimate 95% upper tolerance limits (UTL) on radionuclide background soil data sets. A 95% UTL on background samples can be used as a screening level concentration in the absence of definitive soil cleanup criteria for naturally occurring radionuclides. The statistical methods are based exclusively on EPA guidance. This paper includes an introduction, a discussion of the analytical results for the radionuclides and a detailed description of the statistical analyses leading to the determination of 95% UTLs. Soil concentrations reported are based on validated data. Data sets are categorized as surficial soil; samples collected at depths from zero to one-half foot; and deep soil, samples collected from 3 to 5 feet. These data sets were tested for statistical outliers and underlying distributions were determined by using the chi-squared test for goodness-of-fit. UTLs for the data sets were then computed based on the percentage of non-detects and the appropriate best-fit distribution (lognormal, normal, or non-parametric). For data sets containing greater than approximately 50% nondetects, nonparametric UTLs were computed

  13. Natural radionuclides near a coal-fired power station. [/sup 210/Po and /sup 210/Pb levels in cattle livers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Briggs, J L; Crick, M J [National Radiological Protection Board, Harwell (UK)

    1982-11-01

    Previous measurements have shown enhanced levels of /sup 210/Po and /sup 210/Pb from fly ash deposited in the environment around old coal-fired power stations. Preliminary results are presented for levels of /sup 210/Po and /sup 210/Pb in liver samples from cattle which had grazed for two to three years in a field adjacent to a modern power station. No significant difference in the levels of these natural radionuclides was found compared to liver samples obtained from cattle in a control area.

  14. Mathematical modelling of radionuclide transport through fractured rock using numerical inversion of Laplace transforms: applications to INTRACOIN Level 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgkinson, D.P.; Lever, D.A.; England, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    A model for the transport of radionuclides through fractured rock has been developed and used to study a problem which forms part of Level 3 of the INTRACOIN project (the international exercise in which the results from various radionuclide-migration computer programs are compared). The model includes the effects of 1-D advection, dispersion, kinetic and/or equilibrium surface sorption, diffusion into the rock matrix with equilibrium bulk sorption and radioactive decay, and incorporates flexible input and output boundary conditions. It is evaluated by numerically inverting the analytical solution to the Laplace-transformed transport equations. Matrix diffusion was found to be the most important retardation mechanism for Np based on data reflecting the conditions at the Finnsjeeo site in east central Sweden. However, improved data and field testing are required to make the predictions of such models more reliable. (author)

  15. Health implications of radionuclide levels in cattle raised near U mining and milling facilities in Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapham, S.C.; Millard, J.B.; Samet, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine radionuclide tissue levels in cattle raised near U mining and milling facilities. Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, has been the site of extensive U mining for 30 y and contains several underground U mines, a processing mill, and two large U tailings piles. Ten cows were purchased from two grazing areas in Ambrosia Lake and ten control animals were purchased from Crownpoint, New Mexico. Muscle, liver, kidney, and bone tissue taken from these animals, and environmental samples, including water, grasses and soil collected from the animals' grazing areas, were analyzed for 238 U, 234 U, 230 Th, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, and 210 Po. Mean radionuclide levels in cattle tissue and environmental samples from Ambrosia Lake were higher in almost every comparison than those found in respective controls. Liver and kidney tissues were particularly elevated in 226 Ra and 210 Po. Radiation dose commitments from eating cattle tissue with these radionuclide concentrations were calculated. We concluded that the health risk to the public from eating exposed cattle is minimal, unless large amounts of this tissue, especially liver and kidney, are ingested

  16. Modeling of release of radionuclides from an engineered disposal facility for shallow-land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzuru, H.; Suzuki, A.

    1989-01-01

    The computer code, ENBAR-1, for the simulation of radionuclide releases from an engineered disposal facility has been developed to evaluate the source term for subsequent migration of radionuclides in and through a natural barrier. The system considered here is that a waste package (waste form and container) is placed, together with backfill materials, into a concrete pit as a disposal unit for shallow-land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. The code developed includes the following modules: water penetration into a concrete pit, corrosion of a drum as a container, leaching of radionuclides from a waste form, migration of radionuclides in backfill materials, release of radionuclides from the pit. The code has the advantage of its simplicity of operation and presentation while still allowing comprehensive evaluation of each element of an engineered disposal facility to be treated. The performance and source term of the facility might be readily estimated with a few key parameters to define the problem

  17. A preliminary investigation of radiation level and some radionuclides in imported food and food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinakhom, F.; Mongkolphantha, S.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary study of gross beta activity and content of some long-lived radionuclides associated with fission products in various types of imported food and food-products was carried out. Food samples were purchased monthly during 1976-1977 from general well-known supermarkets and local grocery stores up to a total of 89 samples. The gamma spectrum of long-lived radionuclides was searched using a 128 channel analyzer coupled with 3'' x 3'' NaI (T1) crystal detector. Two radionuclides were frequently found to be present in these food samples, viz. potassium-40 and cesium-137 and their concentrations were subsequently determined. The limits of detection under the conditions used for potassium-40 and cesium-137 were 0.04 and 0.03 pCi/g-wet weight, respectively. Samples were dry-ashed and counted for gross beta activity utilizing a low background anti-coincidence G.M. counter. The content of strontium-90 was also investigated concurrently by solvent extraction technique employing tri-n-butyl phosphate as an extractant. Results of the study are tabulated. (author)

  18. The Concentration Levels Of Some Isotopic Radionuclides In The Coastal Sediments Of The Red Sea, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL SAHARTY, A.A.; DAR, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The radionuclide activities of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs were measured using high resolution gamma spectrometry system. The total organic matter (TOM) and carbonate contents were also measured in the surface sediments of three valleys downstream at the southern Egyptian Red Sea coast. These localities are characterized by the presence of mangrove swamps with dense aerobic roots that provide calm conditions for particulate and fine sediments settlement. 238 U and 232 Th recorded almost equal activity values in the studied localities and their occurrence in the localities indicated that the metal accumulation are due to the complex and multiple processes that characterize the mangrove environments including accumulation in particulate form with the fine sediments, absorption on iron and manganese oxides and hydroxides from the sea water, incorporation inside the carbonate frameworks and as detrital phase. 40 K showed obvious radioactivity in the three localities indicating the presence of terrestrial radionuclide. 137 Cs concentrations were not evident in the studied localities which may indicate non-significant artificial source of radionuclide activity.

  19. Study on radionuclide migration through a buffer material of the repository for high level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Masaki; Ohe, Toshiaki

    1989-01-01

    The present report discusses radionuclide migration through a buffer material from the view point of experimental and data analysis. Na-bentonite loosely compacted with dry density of 0.8 - 1 g/cm 3 was contacted with cesium chloride solution of about 100 ppb containing Cs-134 as a tracer at 40degC and at 70degC. After the experiments, the bentonite cake was sliced and cesium distribution in the cake was measured by gamma-spectrometry. Apparent diffusivities of 2∼5 x 10 -7 cm 2 /sec was determined through the analysis method where pore diffusion and adsorption were involved. Numerical solution well described the observed data. The pore diffusion would be clearfied to be a dominant mechanism of the radionuclide migration in the bentonite, through discussing the pore diffusion mechanism and activation energy of the diffusion. This report also discusses the capability of the chemical transport model CHEMTRN for long-term predictions of the radionuclide migration. (author)

  20. Distribution and dynamics of radionuclides and stable elements in the coastal waters off Rokkasho Village, Japan, prior to the opening of a nuclear reprocessing facility. Part 3. Concentration levels of radionuclides in seawater off Rokkasho Village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, K.; Kawabata, H.; Ueda, S.; Akata, N.; Inaba, J.; Ohmomo, Y.; Mitamura, O.; Seike, Y.

    2003-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the concentration levels of 3 H, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 238,239+240 Pu, and 234,235,238 U in seawater off Rokkasho Village, Japan, before the start-up of a nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant. The level, fluctuation range and distribution characteristics of each radionuclide was determined. (author)

  1. Monitoring Programme of Radionuclide Migration Through Food Chains at Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Repository in Trgoska Gora Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, A.; Lokner, V.; Kucar Dragicevic, S.; Subasic, D.; Barisic, D.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Basic objective of the paper is to prepare a comprehensive programme of monitoring at the preferred site for low and intermediate level radioactive waste repository in the region of Trgovska Gora mountain. The programme is based on available information regarding hydrogeology, lithostratigraphy, tectonics, seismotectonics, geomorphology, meteorology, bioecology, demography and other site relevant disciplines. It is supposed to ensure (1) identification of the zero state at the broader region of the Trgovska gora mountain, and (2) to underline activities needed for monitoring of concentrations of expected radionuclides throughout possible pathways (particularly through food chains) that would migrate to the biosphere in the period after start of radioactive waste repository operation. Inventory of radionuclides contained in the radioactive waste to be disposed of at the site is naturally an important element of the programme structure. There should be identified those radionuclides which concentrations require to be monitored. Concentration measuring methods are proposed in the article. In addition, relevant aquatic and terrestrial organisms, serving as bioindicators, are identified. Types, quantities, frequency and methodology of sampling present an important part of the monitoring programme. Determination of monitoring sites for undertaking particular types of sampling (e.g. stream waters, stream sediment, detritus, ichtiofauna, groundwater, terrestrial organisms, honey, etc.), presenting an important aspect of a well-organised monitoring programme, is also included into this presentation. (author)

  2. Sediments, fauna, and the dispersal of radionuclides at the N.E. Atlantic dumpsite for low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutgers van der Loeff, M.M.; Lavaleye, M.S.S.

    1986-01-01

    The seafloor at the NEA dumpsite for low-level radioactive waste has been investigated by geochemical and biological techniques. Evidence of local turbidities and slumping is recorded in the sediment, probably related to the steep local topography. Slumping events could be triggered by dumping operations. The CaCO 3 content is the principle variable that accounts for most of the variation in the elemental composition and cation exchange capacity of the sediment. Diagenetic modeling is used to explain the interrelationships between: (1) mineralization of organic material and (2) redox transitions, (3) cation exchange, and (4) carbonate dissolution and recrystallization. These diagenetic processes are discussed in terms of their effects on the redistribution and transport of trace elements and radionuclides within the sediment and between sediment and overlying water. Composition, density, biomass, vertical and horizontal distribution has been studied of benthic meio- as well as macrofauna of the NEA-dumpsite. The processes that have been shown to influence the fate of radionuclides that are released from the waste packages are: transport from bottom water to sediment; transport within the sediment; and transformation of radionuclides within the sediment. 194 refs.; 58 figs.; 40 tabs

  3. Distribution of natural radionuclides and radiation level measurements in Karnataka State, India. An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangaswamy, D.R.; Sannappa, J.

    2016-01-01

    The exposure of human beings to ionizing radiation from natural sources is a continuing and inescapable feature of life on earth. A large number of natural radioactivity measurements were conducted throughout world, in order to know their distribution and to assess their radiological health hazards. In this regard, considerable studies have been conducted by different research groups in Karnataka state and more data are reported. In this article, all the studies of natural radioactivity measurements have been combined and reviewed. The majority of the reported articles are about monitoring, distribution and assessment of the radiological health hazards of naturally occurring radionuclides. (author)

  4. Radioecology teaching: evaluation of the background radiation levels from areas with high concentrations of radionuclides in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, R M; Okuno, E; Gomes, P R S; Veiga, R; Estellita, L; Mangia, L; Uzeda, D; Soares, T; Facure, A; Brage, J A P; Mosquera, B; Carvalho, C; Santos, A M A

    2004-01-01

    The study of environmental radioactivity is a topic which is not usually included in physics courses in Brazilian and Latin American universities. Consequently, high-school teachers are not able to show experimentally or discuss with their students the effects of exposure to terrestrial radiation. This paper presents a laboratory experiment in a teaching programme on the physics of ionizing radiation. It is based on the evaluation of the background radiation levels from areas with high concentrations of natural or artificial radionuclides in the soil. A brief analysis of the theory behind the technique and a description of some measurements, including their interpretations, are presented

  5. Heavy metal and natural radionuclide levels in urban soils from Cienfuegos city, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Rizo, Oscar; Quintana Miranda, Eduardo; D Alessandro Rodriguez, Katia; Lopez Pino, Neivy; Arado Lopez, Juana O.; Alonso Hernandez, Carlos M.; Cartas Aguila, Hector

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals and natural radionuclides in topsoil (0-10cm) from Cienfuegos city, Cuba, were determined by using X-ray fluorescence analysis and gamma ray spectrometry, respectively. The measured results of heavy metals show that the mean concentrations of Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in the studied soil samples are higher than their corresponding background values. The calculated results of integrated pollution index of heavy metals indicate that the studied soils present severely heavy metal contamination. The concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the studied soil samples range from 8.3 to 32.7, 3.7 to 10.7 and 129 to 356 Bq.kg-1 with an average of 22.6, 6.3 and 272 Bq.kg-1 , respectively, which are similar than the average concentrations reported for South-central Cuban soils. The air absorbed dose rate and the annual effective dose equivalent received by the local residents due to the natural radionuclides in soil are lesser than the worldwide established limits. A significantly positive 232Th-Cu and 232Th-Zn correlations were determined, indicating the possible presence of these elements pollution source in the area.(author)

  6. Allowable residual contamination levels of radionuclides in soil from pathway analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyquist, J.E.; Baes, C.F. III

    1987-01-01

    The Remedial Action Program (RAP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory will include well drilling, facility upgrades, and other waste management operations likely to involve soils contaminated with radionuclides. A preliminary protocol and generalized criteria for handling contaminated soils is needed to coordinate and plan RAP activities, but there exists only limited information on contaminate nature and distribution at ORNL RAP sites. Furthermore, projections of long-term decommissioning and closure options for these sites are preliminary. They have adapted a pathway analysis model, DECOM, to quantify risks to human health from radionuclides in soil and used it to outline preliminary criteria for determining the fate of contaminated soil produced during RAP activities. They assumed that the site could be available for unrestricted use immediately upon decontamination. The pathways considered are consumption of food grown on the contaminated soil, including direct ingestion of soil from poorly washed vegetables, direct radiation from the ground surface, inhalation of resuspended radioactive soil, and drinking water from a well drilled through or near the contaminated soil. We will discuss the assumptions and simplifications implicit in DECOM, the site-specific data required, and the results of initial calculations for the Oak Ridge Reservation

  7. Radionuclide transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, G.B.

    1993-01-01

    The research project described here had the aim to obtain further information on the transfer of nuclides during pregnancy and lactation. The tests were carried out in mini-pigs and rats receiving unchanging doses of radionuclides with the food. The following findings were revealed for the elements examined: Fe, Se, Cs and Zn were characterized by very high transfer levels in the mother, infant and foetus. A substantial uptake by the mother alone was observed for Co, Ag and Mn. The uptake by the foetus and infant here was 1 to 10 times lower. A preferential concentration in certain tissues was seen for Sr and Tc; the thyroid levels of Tc were about equally high in mothers and infants, while Sr showed less accumulation in the maternal bone. The lanthanide group of substances (Ce, Eu and Gd as well as Y and Ru) were only taken up to a very limited extent. The uptake of the examined radionuclides (Fe, Co, Ag, Ce) with the food ingested was found here to be ten times greater in rats as compared to mini-pigs. This showed that great caution must be observed, if the behaviour of radionuclides in man is extrapolated from relevant data obtained in rodents. (orig./MG) [de

  8. Radionuclide Concentration in Soils and Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.R. Fresquez; M.W. McNaughton; M.J. Winch

    2005-10-01

    Soil samples were collected at 15 locations and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation samples were collected from up to nine locations within and around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Soil and plant samples were also collected from the proposed expansion area west of Area G for the purpose of gaining preoperational baseline data. Soil and plant samples were analyzed for radionuclides that have shown a history of detection in past years; these included {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 238}U for soils and {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup 239,240}Pu for plants. As in previous years, the highest levels of {sup 3}H in soils and vegetation were detected at the south portion of Area G near the {sup 3}H shafts; whereas, the highest concentrations of the Pu isotopes were detected in the northern and northeastern portions near the pads for transuranic waste. All concentrations of radionuclides in soils and vegetation, however, were still very low (pCi range) and far below LANL screening levels and regulatory standards.

  9. Radionuclide Concentration in Soils and Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresquez, P.R.; McNaughton, M.W.; Winch, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Soil samples were collected at 15 locations and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation samples were collected from up to nine locations within and around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Soil and plant samples were also collected from the proposed expansion area west of Area G for the purpose of gaining preoperational baseline data. Soil and plant samples were analyzed for radionuclides that have shown a history of detection in past years; these included 3 H, 238 Pu, 239,240 Pu, 241 Am, 234 U, 235 U, and 238 U for soils and 3 H, 238 Pu, and 239,240 Pu for plants. As in previous years, the highest levels of 3 H in soils and vegetation were detected at the south portion of Area G near the 3 H shafts; whereas, the highest concentrations of the Pu isotopes were detected in the northern and northeastern portions near the pads for transuranic waste. All concentrations of radionuclides in soils and vegetation, however, were still very low (pCi range) and far below LANL screening levels and regulatory standards

  10. Distribution coefficient of radionuclides on rocks for performance assessment of high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibutani, Tomoki; Shibata, Masahiro; Suyama, Tadahiro

    1999-11-01

    Distribution coefficients of radionuclides on rocks are selected for safety assessment in the 'Second Progress Report on Research and Development for the geological disposal of HLW in Japan (H12 Report)'. The categorized types of rock are granitic rocks (crystalline and acidic rocks), basaltic rocks (crystalline and basic rocks), psammitic rocks (neogene sedimentary (soft)), and tuffaceous-pelitic rocks (pre-neogene sedimentary rocks (hard)). The types of groundwater are FRHP (fresh reducing high-pH), FRLP (fresh reducing low-pH), SRHP (saline reducing high-pH), SRLP (saline reducing low-pH), MRNP (mixing reducing neutral-pH) and FOHP (fresh oxidizing high-pH) groundwater. The elements to be surveyed are Ni, Se, Zr, Nb, Tc, Pd, Sn, Cs, Sm, Pb, Ra, Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm. Distribution coefficients are collected from literatures describing batch sorption experimental results, and are selected under consideration of conservativity. (author)

  11. The assessment of low-level contamination from gamma-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.W.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate a new analytical technique to improve the radionuclide activity estimate from area measurements of small-area spectral peaks obtained using multi-channel spectrometry. These improvements are based on the application of Bayesian peak fitting, a method of peak fitting that allows the information contained in a spectrum to be used more fully than is possible with the method of gross counting currently employed. The study carried out showed that activity estimates and confidence intervals for activity could be more precisely defined, and the time-related costs reduced up to 50% when making activity measurements by the peak-fitting method (for a fixed detection limit) instead of gross counting. Testing of the method under real conditions would be the logical follow-up to the work achieved

  12. Radionuclide migration studies at the Savannah River Plant humid shallow land burial site for low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.; Oblath, S.B.; Hawkins, R.H.; Emslie, R.H.; Hoeffner, S.L.; King, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    A program of field, laboratory, and modeling studies for the Savannah River Plant low-level waste burial ground has been conducted for several years. The studies provide generic data on an operating shallow land burial site in a humid region. Recent results from individual studies on subsurface monitoring, lysimeter tests, soil-water chemistry, and transport modeling are reported. Monitoring continues to show little movement of radionuclides except tritium. Long-term lysimeter tests with a variety of defense wastes measure migration under controlled field conditions. One lysimeter was excavated to study radionuclide distribution on the soil column beneath the waste. New soil-water distribution coefficients (K/sub d/) were measured for Co-60, Sr-90, Ru-106, Sb-125, and I-129. Laboratory and field data are integrated by means of the SRL dose-to-man model, to evaluate effects of alternative disposal practices. The model recently has been used to evaluate TRU disposal criteria and to predict migration behavior of tritium, Tc-99, and I-129. 14 references, 2 tables

  13. Prediction of radionuclide invention for low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste by considering concentration limit of waste package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kang Il; Kim, Min Seong; Jeong, Noh Gyeon; Park, Jin Beak [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency(KORAD), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The result of a preliminary safety assessment that was completed by applying the radionuclide inventory calculated on the basis of available data from radioactive waste generation agencies suggested that many difficulties are to be expected with regard to disposal safety and operation. Based on the results of the preliminary safety assessment of the entire disposal system, in this paper, a unit package exceeding the safety goal is selected that occupies a large proportion of radionuclides in intermediate-level radioactive waste. We introduce restrictions on the amount of radioactivity in a way that excludes the high surface dose rate of the package. The radioactivity limit for disposal will be used as the baseline data for establishing the acceptance criteria and the disposal criteria for each disposal facility to meet the safety standards. It is necessary to draw up a comprehensive safety development plan for the Gyeongju waste disposal facility that will contribute to the construction of a Safety Case for the safety optimization of radioactive waste disposal facilities.

  14. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization: Estimated volumes, radionuclide activities, and other characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulse, R.A.

    1991-08-01

    Planning for storage or disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of that waste to estimate volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms. Data from existing literature, disposal records, and original research were used to estimate the characteristics and project volumes and radionuclide activities to the year 2035. GTCC LLW is categorized as: nuclear utilities waste, sealed sources waste, DOE-held potential GTCC LLW; and, other generator waste. It has been determined that the largest volume of those wastes, approximately 57%, is generated by nuclear power plants. The Other Generator waste category contributes approximately 10% of the total GTCC LLW volume projected to the year 2035. Waste held by the Department of Energy, which is potential GTCC LLW, accounts for nearly 33% of all waste projected to the year 2035; however, no disposal determination has been made for that waste. Sealed sources are less than 0.2% of the total projected volume of GTCC LLW

  15. Modelling of radionuclide migration and heat transport from an High-Level-Radioactive-Waste-repository (HLW) in Boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Put, M.; Henrion, P.

    1992-01-01

    For the modelling of the migration of radionuclides in the Boom clay formation, the analytical code MICOF has been updated with a 3-dimensional analytical solution for discrete sources. the MICOF program is used for the calculation of the release of α and β emitters from the HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES (HLW). A coherent conceptual model is developed which describes all the major physico-chemical phenomena influencing the migration of radionuclides in the Boom clay. The concept of the diffusion accessible porosity is introduced and included in the MICOF code. Different types of migration experiments are described with their advantages and disadvantages. The thermal impact of the HLW disposal in the stratified Boom clay formation has been evaluated by a finite element simulation of the coupled heat and mass transport equation. The results of the simulations show that under certain conditions thermal convection cells may form, but the convective heat transfer in the clay formation is negligible. 6 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs., 5 appendices

  16. Technologies for destruction of long-lived radionuclides in high-level nuclear waste: Overview and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, E.D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper, and this topical session on Nuclear Waste Minimization, Management and Remediation, focuses on two nuclear systems, and their associated technologies, that have the potential to address concerns surrounding long-lived radionuclides in high-level waste. Both systems offer technology applicable to HLW from present light-water reactors (LWR). Additionally these systems represent advanced nuclear power concepts that have important features associated with integrated management of wastes, long-term fuel supplies, and enhanced safety. The first system is the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept. This system incorporates a metal-fueled fast reactor coupled with chemical separations based on pyroprocessing to produce power while simultaneously burning long-lived actinide waste. IFR applications include burning of actinides from current LWR spent fuel and energy production in a breeder environment. The second concept, Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW), is based upon an accelerator-induced intense source of thermal neutrons and is aimed at destruction of long-lived actinides and fission products. This concept can be applied to long-lived radionuclides in spent fuel HLW as well as a future fission power source built around use of natural thorium or uranium as fuels coupled with concurrent waste destruction

  17. The present-day level of long-living artificial radionuclides content in mosses, lichens and needles of Siberia areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strakhovenko, V.D.; Sukhorukov, F.V.; Shcherbov, B.L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to estimate the present-day level of long-living artificial radionuclides activity in lichen-moss cover and needles in the Siberia region. During the expeditionary activities (1995-2004) the Lichen cover mosses and needles were sampled in the Ust'-Ordinsky and Aginsky Buryatsky autonomous regions, Altai area, Republic of Altai, Novosibirsk Region, the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous region. The identical species of lichen, mosses. needles were collected from Siberia (lichens - Cladonia, Evernia, Usnea, Parmeli; mosses - Polytrichum, Hylocomium, Pleurozium, Sphagnum; needles - Pinaceae). It was collected 6 and more lichen species from each of 18 sample sites, more than 3 Moss species from 7 sample sites, and in place of coniferous trees joint growth (a pine, a cedar, a fir, a fur-tree and a larch). The needles were selected from all trees and thus were divided into one-year-old and many-year old. The samples were analyzed in the Laboratory of Trace Elements Geochemistry and Ecogeochemistry of the UIGGM, Novosibirsk, using special sample preparation and analysis techniques. The content of 137 Cs were determined by gamma-spectrometry (analyst Stepin A.S.), 90 Sr by beta-radiometry with a radiochemical sample preparation (analyst Makeover I.V.). The data reported are evidence that a present-day level of radioactive contamination in moss-lichen cover and needles of Siberia areas corresponds to this of global background, expect for northern area of Siberia (YNAD) for which hyperactivity are determined for the each of three components. Radiocesium concentration in one-year old needles reflects a level of atmospheric intake only for accidents, for other cases the condition of current needles reflects basically radionuclide level established as the result of dynamic balance between root intake and annual biogenic abscission of needles. (author)

  18. Radionuclide trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition

  19. Radionuclide migration in ground water at a low-level waste disposal site: a comparison of predicted radionuclide transport modeling versus field observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, M.P.; Robertson, D.E.; Champ, D.R.; Killey, R.W.D.; Moltyaner, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    At the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL), in Ontario, Canada, a number of LLW shallow-land burial facilities have existed for 25-30 years. These facilities are useful for testing the concept of site modelability. In 1984, CRNL and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) established a cooperative research program to examine two disposal sites having plumes of slightly contaminated ground water for study. This report addresses the LLW Nitrate Disposal Pit site, which received liquid wastes containing approximately 1000-1500 curies of mixed fission products during 1953-54. The objective of this study is to test the regulatory requirement that a site be modeled and to use the Nitrate Disposal Pit site as a field site for testing the reliability of models in predicting radionuclide movement in ground water. The study plan was to approach this site as though it were to be licensed under the requirements of 10 CFR 61. Under the assumption that little was known about this site, a characterization plan was prepared describing the geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical information needed to assess site performance. After completion of the plan, site data generated by CRNL were selected to fill the plan data requirements. This paper describes the site hydrogeology, modeling of ground water flow, the comparison of observed and predicted radionuclide movement, and summarizes the conclusions and recommendations. 3 references, 10 figures

  20. Technologies for destruction of long-lived radionuclides in high-level nuclear waste - overview and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, E.D.

    1993-01-01

    A major issue surrounding current nuclear power generation is the management and disposal of long-lived, high-level waste (HLW). The planned and scientifically acceptable destination for this waste is in deep underground, geologically stable, repositories. However, public concerns surrounding such disposal of long-lived nuclear wastes and other issues such as proliferation and safety negatively affect the potential role that nuclear power can play in meeting current and future national energy needs. This paper and this topical session on nuclear waste minimization, management, and remediation focus on two nuclear systems and their associated technologies that have the potential to address concerns surrounding long-lived radionuclides in HLW. Both systems offer technology applicable to HLW from current light water reactors (LWRs). In addition, these systems represent advanced nuclear power concepts that have important features associated with integrated management of wastes long-term fuel supplies, and enhanced safety. The first system is the integral fast reactor (IFR) concept. This system incorporates a metal-fueled fast reactor coupled with chemical separations based on pyroprocessing to produce power while burning long-lived actinide waste. The IFR applications include the burning of actinides from current LWR spent fuel and energy production in a breeder environment. The second concept, accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW), is based on an accelerator-induced intense source of thermal neutrons and is aimed at the destruction of long-lived actinides and fission products. This concept can be applied to long-lived radionuclides in spent-fuel HLW as well as a future fission power source built around use of natural thorium or uranium as fuels coupled with concurrent waste destruction

  1. Sedimentation Studies relevant to low-level radioactive effluent dispersal in the Irish Sea. Part 1. Radionuclides in marine sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T J; Parker, W R; Kirby, R

    1980-01-01

    This report examines the discharge of various radionuclides into the Irish Sea with particular reference to the interaction between the radionuclides and the sediments. A review of the relevant literature has revealed a variety of possible interaction mechanisms which are sensitive to many environmental parameters. It is concluded that the particular mechanism and any potential for remobilisation are dependent on the unique conditions existing at a particular site. The precise nature of the interaction in the Irish Sea and the remobilisation potential of the various radionuclides are poorly known. Measurements of radionuclide distributions have previously been used to infer rates of sedimentary processes. The assumptions underlying these interpretations are considered and it is shown that a large amount of information on the sedimentological regime of a given area is required before confident interpretations of radionuclide distributions can be made. This background material is only partially available for the Irish Sea.

  2. Effects on radionuclide concentrations by cement/ground-water interactions in support of performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupka, K.M.; Serne, R.J.

    1998-05-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is developing a technical position document that provides guidance regarding the performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This guidance considers the effects that the chemistry of the vault disposal system may have on radionuclide release. The geochemistry of pore waters buffered by cementitious materials in the disposal system will be different from the local ground water. Therefore, the cement-buffered environment needs to be considered within the source term calculations if credit is taken for solubility limits and/or sorption of dissolved radionuclides within disposal units. A literature review was conducted on methods to model pore-water compositions resulting from reactions with cement, experimental studies of cement/water systems, natural analogue studies of cement and concrete, and radionuclide solubilities experimentally determined in cement pore waters. Based on this review, geochemical modeling was used to calculate maximum concentrations for americium, neptunium, nickel, plutonium, radium, strontium, thorium, and uranium for pore-water compositions buffered by cement and local ground-water. Another literature review was completed on radionuclide sorption behavior onto fresh cement/concrete where the pore water pH will be greater than or equal 10. Based on this review, a database was developed of preferred minimum distribution coefficient values for these radionuclides in cement/concrete environments

  3. Effects on radionuclide concentrations by cement/ground-water interactions in support of performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, K.M.; Serne, R.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is developing a technical position document that provides guidance regarding the performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This guidance considers the effects that the chemistry of the vault disposal system may have on radionuclide release. The geochemistry of pore waters buffered by cementitious materials in the disposal system will be different from the local ground water. Therefore, the cement-buffered environment needs to be considered within the source term calculations if credit is taken for solubility limits and/or sorption of dissolved radionuclides within disposal units. A literature review was conducted on methods to model pore-water compositions resulting from reactions with cement, experimental studies of cement/water systems, natural analogue studies of cement and concrete, and radionuclide solubilities experimentally determined in cement pore waters. Based on this review, geochemical modeling was used to calculate maximum concentrations for americium, neptunium, nickel, plutonium, radium, strontium, thorium, and uranium for pore-water compositions buffered by cement and local ground-water. Another literature review was completed on radionuclide sorption behavior onto fresh cement/concrete where the pore water pH will be greater than or equal 10. Based on this review, a database was developed of preferred minimum distribution coefficient values for these radionuclides in cement/concrete environments.

  4. Radionuclide Concentrations in Soils and Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during the 1997 Growing Season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Naranjo, Jr.; P. R. Fresquez; R. J. Wechsler

    1998-08-01

    Soil and overstory and understory vegetation (washed and unwashed) collected at eight locations within and around Area G-a low-level radioactive solid-waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory-were analyzed for 3H, 238Pu, 239Pu, 137CS, 234U, 235U, 228AC, Be, 214Bi, 60Co, 40& 54Mn, 22Na, 214Pb and 208Tl. In general, most radionuclide concentrations, with the exception of 3Ef and ~9Pu, in soils and overstory and understory vegetation collected from within and around Area G were within upper (95'%) level background concentrations. Although 3H concentrations in vegetation from most sites were significantly higher than background (>2 pCi mL-l), concentrations decreased markedly in comparison to last year's results. The highest `H concentration in vegetation was detected from a juniper tree that was growing over tritium shaft /+150; it contained 530,000 pCi 3H mL-l. Also, as in the pas~ the transuranic waste pad area contained the highest levels of 239Pu in soils and in understory vegetation as compared to other areas at Area G.

  5. Transfer mechanisms in cultivated soils of waste radionuclides from electronuclear power plants in the system river--irrigated soil--underground water level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saas, A; Grauby, A

    1974-12-31

    From symposinm on environmentl behavior of radionuclides released in the nuclear industry; Aix-en-Provence, France (14 May 1973). The location of nuclear power plants by rivers whose waters are used for irrigation and industrial and domestic consumption necessities a profound study of the river-irrigated soil- ground water system. Mechanisms of radionuclide transport in cultivated soil are considered under three principal aspects: the effect of the quality of the river water, of the irrigation channels, and of the ground water level on the mobility of the radionuclides in the soil; the influence of the type of soil (the four types of soils considered are acid brown soil, calcic brown soil, chalky brown soil, and chalky alluvial soil); and the distribution of radionuclides in the soil (hydrosoluble forms can contminate the ground water level and these are the forms in which they are taken up by plants. A study was made on the following nuclides: /sup 22/Na, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 85/Sr, /Sup 54/Mn, /Sup 59/Fe, /Sup 60/ Co, /sup 65/Zn, /sup 124/Sb, /sup 141 in the cultivated soils permit the evaluation of the risks of contmination of the food chain and of the underground water. This study also showed new perspectives of the behavior of radionuclides as a function of their contmination of the organo-mineral wastes of industrial and domestic origin. This pollution interfers largely with the formation of stble complexes carried by the river to irrigated soils. The quality of the water determines the distribution of the radionuclides in the profile. The hydrosoluble complex persists in the soil and migrates toward the underground water level if they are not biodegradable. The stability of these forms as a function of the soil pH and of its physicochemical characteristics, as well as that of the radionuclides considered, permit the formulation of a new balance of the radionuclides in soils. The formulation of new proposals for the contml of nuclear sites is discussed. (tr-auth)

  6. Progress in evaluation of radionuclide geochemical information developed by DOE high-level nuclear waste repository site projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; O'Kelley, G.D.; Case, F.I.; Land, J.F.

    1989-08-01

    Information that is being developed by projects within the Department of Energy (DOE) pertinent to the potential geochemical behavior of radionuclides at candidate sites for a high-level radioactive waste repository is being evaluated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). During this report period, all experiments were conducted with tuff from the proposed high-level nuclear waste site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The principal emphasis in this report period was on column studies of migration of uranium and technetium in water from well J-13 at the Yucca Mountain site. Columns 1 cm in diameter and about 5 cm long were constructed and carefully packed with ground tuff. The characteristics of the columns were tested by determination of elution curves of tritium and TcO 4 - . Elution peaks obtained in past studies with uranium were asymmetrical and the shapes were often complex, observations that suggested irreversibilities in the sorption reaction. To try to understand these observations, the effects of flow rate and temperature on uranium migration were studied in detail. Sorption ratios calculated from the elution peaks became larger as the flow rate decreased and as the temperature increased. These observations support the conclusion that the sorption of uranium is kinetically hindered. To confirm this, batch sorption ratio experiments were completed for uranium as a function of time for a variety of conditions

  7. Radionuclide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, P.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this symposium was to review the radionuclide toxicity problems. Five topics were discussed: (1) natural and artificial radionuclides (origin, presence or emission in the environment, human irradiation); (2) environmental behaviour of radionuclides and transfer to man; (3) metabolism and toxicity of radionuclides (radioiodine, strontium, rare gas released from nuclear power plants, ruthenium-activation metals, rare earths, tritium, carbon 14, plutonium, americium, curium and einsteinium, neptunium, californium, uranium) cancerogenous effects of radon 222 and of its danghter products; (4) comparison of the hazards of various types of energy; (5) human epidemiology of radionuclide toxicity (bone cancer induction by radium, lung cancer induction by radon daughter products, liver cancer and leukaemia following the use of Thorotrast, thyroid cancer; other site of cancer induction by radionuclides) [fr

  8. Radionuclide Concentrations in soils an Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G During 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Lopez, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Soil samples were collected at 15 locations and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation samples were collected at nine locations within and around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). These samples were analyzed for 3 H, 238 Pu, 239,240 Pu, 90 Sr, 241 Am, 137 Cs, 234 U, 235 U, and 238 U. Soil samples collected at Area G contained detectable concentrations of 3H (27%), 239,240 Pu (60%), 238 Pu (40%), and 241 Am (47%) above regional statistical reference levels (RSRLs). In contrast, the levels of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and U in all of the soil samples at Area G were either nondetectable or within RSRLs. The highest levels of 3 H in soils were detected in the southwestern portion of Area G near the 3 H shafts, whereas the highest concentrations of the Pu isotopes were detected in the northern and northeastern portions. All concentrations of 3 H and Pu in soils, however, were far below LANL screening action levels. As for vegetation, most radionuclides in/on plants were either nondetectable or within RSRLs. The exceptions were 3 H in overstory and some understory vegetation, particularly in the southwestern portion of Area G, which correlated very well with the soils data in that area. Also, there was some foliar contamination from 241 Am and Pu isotopes in/on a few plant samples--the highest concentrations occurring in the northern section of Area G

  9. Radionuclide Concentrations in soils an Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G During 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.R. Fresquez; E.A. Lopez

    2004-11-01

    Soil samples were collected at 15 locations and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation samples were collected at nine locations within and around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). These samples were analyzed for {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 238}U. Soil samples collected at Area G contained detectable concentrations of 3H (27%), {sup 239,240}Pu (60%), {sup 238}Pu (40%), and {sup 241}Am (47%) above regional statistical reference levels (RSRLs). In contrast, the levels of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and U in all of the soil samples at Area G were either nondetectable or within RSRLs. The highest levels of {sup 3}H in soils were detected in the southwestern portion of Area G near the {sup 3}H shafts, whereas the highest concentrations of the Pu isotopes were detected in the northern and northeastern portions. All concentrations of {sup 3}H and Pu in soils, however, were far below LANL screening action levels. As for vegetation, most radionuclides in/on plants were either nondetectable or within RSRLs. The exceptions were {sup 3}H in overstory and some understory vegetation, particularly in the southwestern portion of Area G, which correlated very well with the soils data in that area. Also, there was some foliar contamination from {sup 241}Am and Pu isotopes in/on a few plant samples--the highest concentrations occurring in the northern section of Area G.

  10. Influence of heavy metals in non-anthropized soils with high levels of primordial radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra, Jairo Dias; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Santos Junior, Jose Araujo dos; Rocha, Edilson Accioly; Oliveira, Jose Valdez Monterazo de; Bispo, Rodrigo Cesar Bezerra

    2011-01-01

    High concentrations of heavy metals in the ecosystem depend naturally geological formation in each area of the planet and of anthropic activities that contribute to contamination of soil, water sources and food produced in these areas. In this context, we highlight the importance in the study of As, Cr and Ba because of the level of toxicity, availability and chemical speciation that have. The study area was chosen to present agricultural activity and milk production on a large scale. This area is located in the rugged region of the state of Pernambuco, in the town of stone, where the arable soil was monitored aiming to determine the levels of these metals. Analyses were performed by the technique of neutron activation analysis coupled with the high-resolution gamma spectrometry. Were analyzed twenty-three soil samples collected from the horizon C. The results obtained varied from values smaller that (0.2 to 6.7) mg.kg -1 for As; (12.1 to 65.5) mg.kg -1 for Cr and (443 a 1,497) mg.kg -1 for Ba. Comparing them with the values established by CONAMA Resolution 420/2009, it was found that the concentrations of Ba are 100% above the value of prevention, and approximately 91% of values above the intervention value. The As and Cr showed 100% of results below the value of prevention. Whereas the study area has no industrial activity, high concentrations are determined for the Ba from natural processes. For the levels found evidence of a possible contamination of water sources and food produced in this region. (author)

  11. Development of a multimedia radionuclide exposure model for low-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Whelan, G.; Skaggs, R.L.

    1982-03-01

    A method is being developed for assessing exposures of the air, water, and plants to low-level waste (LLW) as a part of an overall development effort of a LLW site evaluation methodology. The assessment methodology will predict LLW exposure levels in the environment by simulating dominant mechanisms of LLW migration and fate. The methodology consists of a series of physics-based models with proven histories of success; the models interact with each other to simulate LLW transport in the ecosystem. A scaled-down version of the methodology was developed first by combining the terrestrial ecological model, BIOTRAN; the overland transport model, ARM; the instream hydrodynamic model, DKWAV; and the instream sediment-contaminant transport model, TODAM (a one-dimensional version of SERATRA). The methodology was used to simulate the migration of 239 Pu from a shallow-land disposal site (known as Area C) located near the head of South Mortandad Canyon on the LANL site in New Mexico. The scenario assumed that 239 Pu would be deposited on the land surface through the natural processes of plant growth, LLW uptake, dryfall, and litter decomposition. Runoff events would then transport 239 Pu to and in the canyon. The model provided sets of simulated LLW levels in soil, water and terrestrial plants in the region surrounding the site under a specified land-use and a waste management option. Over a 100-yr simulation period, only an extremely small quantity (6 x 10 -9 times the original concentration) of buried 239 Pu was taken up by plants and deposited on the land surface. Only a small fraction (approximately 1%) of that contamination was further removed by soil erosion from the site and carried to the canyon, where it remained. Hence, the study reveals that the environment around Area C has integrity high enough to curtail LLW migration under recreational land use

  12. Modeling for speciation of radionuclides in waste packages with high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyand, Torben; Bracke, Guido; Seher, Holger

    2016-10-01

    Based on a literature search on radioactive waste inventories adequate thermodynamic data for model inventories were derived for geochemical model calculations using PHREEQC in order to determine the solid phase composition of high-level radioactive wastes in different containers. The calculations were performed for different model inventories (PWR-MOX, PWR-UO2, BWR-MOX, BMR-UO2) assuming intact containers under reduction conditions. The effect of a defect in the container on the solid phase composition was considered in variation calculations assuming air contact induced oxidation.

  13. Radionuclide release from high level waste forms under repository conditions in clay or granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godon, N.; Lanza, F.

    1990-01-01

    The behaviour of both fully active and simulated vitrified high level waste (HLW) has been studied under conditions that are likely to occur in future repositories in clay and granite. The simulated HLW was doped with Cs, Sr, Tc and the actinides and the leaching of these elements from the glass has been measured together with their concentrations in the water of the near-field and their distribution between the various components of the repository. The diffusion coefficients of several elements in Boom clay has also been measured. The results show that the concentrations of Tc and the actinides in the near-field of a repository will be very low and that the actinides will only diffuse very slowly away from the vicinity of the glass. 24 refs., 1 figs., 7 tabs

  14. An exposure assessment of radionuclide emissions associated with potential mixed-low level waste disposal facilities at fifteen DOE sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, D.A.; Socolof, M.L.

    1996-01-01

    A screening method was developed to compare the doses received via the atmospheric pathway at 15 potential DOE MLLW (mixed low-level waste) sites. Permissible waste concentrations were back calculated using the radioactivity NESHAP (National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) in 40 FR 61 (DOE Order 5820.2A performance objective). Site-specific soil and meteorological data were used to determine permissible waste concentrations (PORK). For a particular radionuclide, perks for each site do not vary by more than one order of magnitude. perks of 14 C are about six orders of magnitude more restrictive than perks of 3 H because of differences in liquid/vapor partitioning, decay, and exposure dose. When comparing results from the atmospheric pathway to the water and intruder pathways, 14 C disposal concentrations were limited by the atmospheric pathway for most arid sites; for 3 H, the atmospheric pathway was not limiting at any of the sites. Results of this performance evaluation process are to be used for planning for siting of disposal facilities

  15. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series. Volume 10, Nickel-63

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carboneau, M.L.; Adams, J.P.

    1995-02-01

    This report outlines the basic radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of nickel-63 ( 63 Ni) and examines how these characteristics affect the behavior of 63 Ni in various environmental media, such as soils, groundwater, plants, animals, the atmosphere, and the human body. Discussions also include methods of 63 Ni production, waste types, and waste forms that contain 63 Ni. The primary source of 63 Ni in the environment has been low-level radioactive waste material generated as a result of neutron activation of stable 62 Ni that is present in the structural components of nuclear reactor vessels. 63 Ni enters the environment from the dismantling activities associated with nuclear reactor decommissioning. However, small amounts of 63 Ni have been detected in the environment following the testing of thermonuclear weapons in the South Pacific. Concentrations as high as 2.7 Bq a per gram of sample (or equivalently 0.0022 parts per billion) were observed on Bikini Atoll (May 1954). 63 Ni was not created as a fission product species (e.g., from 235 U or 239 Pu fissions), but instead was produced as a result of neutron capture in 63 Ni, a common nickel isotope present in the stainless steel components of nuclear weapons (e.g., stainless-304 contains ∼9% total Ni or ∼0.3% 63 Ni)

  16. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series. Volume 10, Nickel-63

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carboneau, M.L.; Adams, J.P.

    1995-02-01

    This report outlines the basic radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of nickel-63 ({sup 63}Ni) and examines how these characteristics affect the behavior of {sup 63}Ni in various environmental media, such as soils, groundwater, plants, animals, the atmosphere, and the human body. Discussions also include methods of {sup 63}Ni production, waste types, and waste forms that contain {sup 63}Ni. The primary source of {sup 63}Ni in the environment has been low-level radioactive waste material generated as a result of neutron activation of stable {sup 62}Ni that is present in the structural components of nuclear reactor vessels. {sup 63}Ni enters the environment from the dismantling activities associated with nuclear reactor decommissioning. However, small amounts of {sup 63}Ni have been detected in the environment following the testing of thermonuclear weapons in the South Pacific. Concentrations as high as 2.7 Bq{sup a} per gram of sample (or equivalently 0.0022 parts per billion) were observed on Bikini Atoll (May 1954). {sup 63}Ni was not created as a fission product species (e.g., from {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu fissions), but instead was produced as a result of neutron capture in {sup 63}Ni, a common nickel isotope present in the stainless steel components of nuclear weapons (e.g., stainless-304 contains {approximately}9% total Ni or {approximately}0.3% {sup 63}Ni).

  17. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series: Volume 12, Cobalt-60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J.P.

    1995-06-01

    This report outlines the basic radiological and chemical characteristics of cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co) and examines how these characteristics affect the behavior of {sup 60}Co in various environmental media, such as soils, groundwater, plants, animals, the atmosphere, and the human body. Discussions also include methods of {sup 60}Co production, waste types, and waste forms that contain {sup 60}Co. All cobalt atoms contain 27 protons (Z = 27) and various numbers of neutrons (typically N = 27 to 37 neutrons) within the atom`s nucleus. There is only one stable isotope of cobalt, namely {sup 59}Co. All other cobalt isotopes, including {sup 60}Co, are radioactive. The radioactive isotopes of cobalt have half-lives ranging from less than a second ({sup 54}Co-0.19 s) to 5.2 years ({sup 60}Co). The radioactive isotopes of cobalt are not a normal constituent of the natural environment and are generated as a result of human activities. The primary source of {sup 60}Co in the environment has been low-level radioactive waste material generated as a result of neutron activation of stable {sup 59}Co that is present in the structural components of nuclear reactor vessels. This isotope is also intentionally produced, usually in reactors but also to some degree in accelerators for industrial and medical uses, such as for radiation sources for cancer treatment and nondestructive testing of metals and welds. {sup 60}Co may enter the environment as a result of the activities associated with nuclear reactor operations and decommissioning and when industrial and medical sources are being used, manufactured, or disposed.

  18. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series: Volume 12, Cobalt-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.P.

    1995-06-01

    This report outlines the basic radiological and chemical characteristics of cobalt-60 ( 60 Co) and examines how these characteristics affect the behavior of 60 Co in various environmental media, such as soils, groundwater, plants, animals, the atmosphere, and the human body. Discussions also include methods of 60 Co production, waste types, and waste forms that contain 60 Co. All cobalt atoms contain 27 protons (Z = 27) and various numbers of neutrons (typically N = 27 to 37 neutrons) within the atom's nucleus. There is only one stable isotope of cobalt, namely 59 Co. All other cobalt isotopes, including 60 Co, are radioactive. The radioactive isotopes of cobalt have half-lives ranging from less than a second ( 54 Co-0.19 s) to 5.2 years ( 60 Co). The radioactive isotopes of cobalt are not a normal constituent of the natural environment and are generated as a result of human activities. The primary source of 60 Co in the environment has been low-level radioactive waste material generated as a result of neutron activation of stable 59 Co that is present in the structural components of nuclear reactor vessels. This isotope is also intentionally produced, usually in reactors but also to some degree in accelerators for industrial and medical uses, such as for radiation sources for cancer treatment and nondestructive testing of metals and welds. 60 Co may enter the environment as a result of the activities associated with nuclear reactor operations and decommissioning and when industrial and medical sources are being used, manufactured, or disposed

  19. Radionuclide cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to show that radionuclide cisternography makes an essential contribution to the investigation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics, especially for the investigation of hydrocephalus. The technical details of radionuclide cisternography are discussed, followed by a description of the normal and abnormal radionuclide cisternograms. The dynamics of CFS by means of radionuclide cisternography were examined in 188 patients in whom some kind of hydrocephalus was suspected. This study included findings of anomalies associated with hydrocephalus in a number of cases, such as nasal liquorrhea, hygromas, leptomeningeal or porencephalic cysts. The investigation substantiates the value of radionuclide cisternography in the diagnosis of disturbances of CSF flow. The retrograde flow of radiopharmaceutical into the ventricular system (ventricular reflux) is an abnormal phenomenon indicating the presence of communicating hydrocephalus. (Auth.)

  20. Determination of scaling factors to estimate the radionuclide inventory in waste with low and intermediate-level activity from the IEA-R1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo

    2013-01-01

    Regulations regarding transfer and final disposal of radioactive waste require that the inventory of radionuclides for each container enclosing such waste must be estimated and declared. The regulatory limits are established as a function of the annual radiation doses that members of the public could be exposed to from the radioactive waste repository, which mainly depend on the activity concentration of radionuclides, given in Bq/g, found in each waste container. Most of the radionuclides that emit gamma-rays can have their activity concentrations determined straightforwardly by measurements carried out externally to the containers. However, radionuclides that emit exclusively alpha or beta particles, as well as gamma-rays or X-rays with low energy and low absolute emission intensity, or whose activity is very low among the radioactive waste, are generically designated as Difficult to Measure Nuclides (DTMs). The activity concentrations of these DTMs are determined by means of complex radiochemical procedures that involve isolating the chemical species being studied from the interference in the waste matrix. Moreover, samples must be collected from each container in order to perform the analyses inherent to the radiochemical procedures, which exposes operators to high levels of radiation and is very costly because of the large number of radioactive waste containers that need to be characterized at a nuclear facility. An alternative methodology to approach this problem consists in obtaining empirical correlations between some radionuclides that can be measured directly – such as 60 Co and 137 Cs, therefore designated as Key Nuclides (KNs) – and the DTMs. This methodology, denominated Scaling Factor, was applied in the scope of the present work in order to obtain Scaling Factors or Correlation Functions for the most important radioactive wastes with low and intermediate-activity level from the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. (author)

  1. Radioactivity: radionuclides in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R.E.; Baratta, E.J.; Jelinek, C.F.

    1977-01-01

    The results are summarized of the analysis for strontium-90, cesium-137, iodine-131, ruthenium-106, and potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, in samples of total diet and selected import commodities in the foods compliance program of the Food and Drug Administration. On the basis of the radionuclide intake guidelines established by the Federal Radiation Council (FRC), the low content of radionuclides found in the total diet samples for fiscal years 1973 and 1974 demonstrates the need for surveillance only at the present level. The low levels of radionuclides found in a limited number of edible imported commodities indicate that their contribution to the total diet would not increase the levels of these radionuclides above those recommended for only periodic surveillance by the FRC. The potassium levels, determined from potassium-40 activity, found in meats and fish agree with the value for normal muscle tissue for the reference man reported by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. Of the other commodities, nuts contained the highest levels, while sugar, beverages, and processed foods contained the lowest levels of potassium. Although cesium and potassium are chemical analogs with similar metabolic properties, because of their variable content in some leafy samples as a result of surface contamination, a correlation between cesium-137 levels and the cesium-137-to-potassium ratio was inconclusive

  2. Radionuclide migration in groundwater at a low-level waste disposal site: a comparison of predictive performance modeling versus field observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.E.; Myers, D.A.; Bergeron, M.P.; Champ, D.R.; Killey, R.W.D.; Moltyaner, G.L.; Young, J.L.

    1985-08-01

    This paper describes a project which is structured to test the concept of modeling a shallow land low-level waste burial site. The project involves a comparison of the actual observed radionuclide migration in groundwaters at a 30-year-old well-monitored field site with the results of predictive transport modeling. The comparison is being conducted as a cooperative program with the Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) at the low-level waste management area at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, Ontario, Canada. A joint PNL-AECL field inviestigation was conducted in 1983 and 1984 to complement the existing extensive data base on actual radionuclide migration. Predictive transport modeling is currently being conducted for this site; first, as if it were a new location being considered for a low-level waste shallow-land burial site and only minimal information about the site were available, and second, utilizing the extensive data base available for the site. The modeling results will then be compared with the empirical observations to provide insight into the level of effort needed to reasonably predict the spacial and temporal movement of radionuclides in the groundwater enviroment. 8 refs., 5 figs.,

  3. Radionuclide migration in groundwater at a low-level waste disposal site: a comparison of predictive performance modeling versus field observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.E.; Myers, D.A.; Abel, K.H.; Bergeron, M.P.; Champ, D.R.; Killey, R.W.D.; Moltyaner, G.L.; Young, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a project which is structured to test the concept of modeling a shallow land low-level waste burial site. The project involves a comparison of the actual observed radionuclide migration in groundwaters at a 30-year old well-monitored field site with the results of predictive transport modeling. The comparison is being conducted as a cooperative program with the Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) at the low-level waste management area at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, Ontario, Canada. A joint PNL-AECL field investigation was conducted in 1983 and 1984 to compliment the existing extensive data base on actual radionuclide migration. Predictive transport modeling is currently being conducted for this site; first, as if it were a new location being considered for a low-level waste shallow-land burial site and only minimal information about the site were available, and second, utilizing the extensive data base available for the site. The modeling results will then be compared with the level of effort needed to reasonably predict the spacial and temporal movement of radionuclides in the groundwater environment

  4. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization: Estimated volumes, radionuclide activities, and other characteristics. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) planning for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of the waste. This report estimates volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms of GTCC LLW to the year 2035. It groups the waste into four categories, representative of the type of generator or holder of the waste: Nuclear Utilities, Sealed Sources, DOE-Held, and Other Generator. GTCC LLW includes activated metals (activation hardware from reactor operation and decommissioning), process wastes (i.e., resins, filters, etc.), sealed sources, and other wastes routinely generated by users of radioactive material. Estimates reflect the possible effect that packaging and concentration averaging may have on the total volume of GTCC LLW. Possible GTCC mixed LLW is also addressed. Nuclear utilities will probably generate the largest future volume of GTCC LLW with 65--83% of the total volume. The other generators will generate 17--23% of the waste volume, while GTCC sealed sources are expected to contribute 1--12%. A legal review of DOE`s obligations indicates that the current DOE-Held wastes described in this report will not require management as GTCC LLW because of the contractual circumstances under which they were accepted for storage. This report concludes that the volume of GTCC LLW should not pose a significant management problem from a scientific or technical standpoint. The projected volume is small enough to indicate that a dedicated GTCC LLW disposal facility may not be justified. Instead, co-disposal with other waste types is being considered as an option.

  5. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization: Estimated volumes, radionuclide activities, and other characteristics. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) planning for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of the waste. This report estimates volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms of GTCC LLW to the year 2035. It groups the waste into four categories, representative of the type of generator or holder of the waste: Nuclear Utilities, Sealed Sources, DOE-Held, and Other Generator. GTCC LLW includes activated metals (activation hardware from reactor operation and decommissioning), process wastes (i.e., resins, filters, etc.), sealed sources, and other wastes routinely generated by users of radioactive material. Estimates reflect the possible effect that packaging and concentration averaging may have on the total volume of GTCC LLW. Possible GTCC mixed LLW is also addressed. Nuclear utilities will probably generate the largest future volume of GTCC LLW with 65--83% of the total volume. The other generators will generate 17--23% of the waste volume, while GTCC sealed sources are expected to contribute 1--12%. A legal review of DOE's obligations indicates that the current DOE-Held wastes described in this report will not require management as GTCC LLW because of the contractual circumstances under which they were accepted for storage. This report concludes that the volume of GTCC LLW should not pose a significant management problem from a scientific or technical standpoint. The projected volume is small enough to indicate that a dedicated GTCC LLW disposal facility may not be justified. Instead, co-disposal with other waste types is being considered as an option

  6. Influence of the complexones on the ionic transfer through cell membranes and the level of radionuclides-metals accumulation in water plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchiulioniene, D.P.; Motiejuniene, Eh.B.; Zemkajiene, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of the complexones diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and hydroxyethylidenediphosphonic acid (HEDP) with relatively low concentrations (from 0.1 to 50 mg/l) on ionic permeability of cell membranes of Nitellopsis obtusa algae, as well as on the accumulation levels of the radionuclides 144 Ce, 106 Ru, 90 Sr and 137 Cs in different species of water plants has been studied. It has been shown that complexones under study (with the concentrations up to 50 mg/l) may reduce accumulation levels of three- and four-valent metals and their radionuclides in water plants. For the plants in natural as well as in artificial nutrient medium, however, the complexones increase the availability of metals, forming with the readibly soluble, mobile complex compounds

  7. Radionuclide carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, F.A.; Kretschmar, H.C.; Tofe, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    A physiologically acceptable particulate radionuclide carrier is described. It comprises a modified anionic starch derivative with 0.1% to 1.5% by weight of a reducing agent and 1 to 20% by weight of anionic substituents

  8. Progress in evaluation of radionuclide geochemical information developed by DOE high-level nuclear waste repository site projects. Annual report, October 1984-September 1985. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; Blencoe, J.G.; Jacobs, G.K.; Kelmers, A.D.; Seeley, F.G.; Whatley, S.K.

    1986-05-01

    Information pertaining to the potential geochemical behavior of radionuclides at candidate sites for a high-level radioactive waste repository, which is being developed by projects within the Department of Energy (DOE), is being evaluated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). During this report period, emphasis was placed on the evaluation of information pertinent to the Hanford site in southeastern Washington. Results on the sorption/solubility behavior of technetium, neptunium, and uranium in the basalt/water geochemical system are summarized and compared to the results of DOE. Also, summaries of results are reported from two geochemical modeling studies: (1) an evaluation of the information developed by DOE on the native copper deposits of Michigan as a natural analog for the emplacement of copper canisters in a repository in basalt, and (2) calculation of the solubility and speciation of radionuclides for representative groundwaters from the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada

  9. Radionuclide data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Chapter 8 presents tables on selected alpha, beta, gamma and x-ray emitters by increasing energy; information on specific activity for selected radionuclides; naturally occurring radionuclides; the natural decay series; and the artificially produced neptunium series. A table of alpha emitters is listed by increasing atomic number and by energy. The table of β emitters presented is useful in identifying β emitters whose energies and possibly half-lives have been determined by standard laboratory techniques. It is also a handy guide to β-emitting isotopes for applications requiring specific half-lives and/or energies. Gamma rays for radionuclides of importance to radiological assessments and radiation protection are listed by increasing energy. The energies and branching ratios are important for radionuclide determinations with gamma spectrometry detectors. This section also presents a table of x-ray energies which are useful for radiochemical analyses. A number of nuclides emit x-rays as part of their decay scheme. These x-rays may be counted with Ar proportional counters, Ge planar or n-type Ge co-axial detectors, or thin crystal NaI(T1) scintillation counters. In both cases, spectral measurements can be made and both qualitative and quantitative information obtained on the sample. Nuclear decay data (energy and probability by radiation type) for more than one hundred radionuclides that are important to health physicists are presented in a schematic manner

  10. Radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    The status of radionuclide generators for chemical research and applications related to the life sciences and biomedical research are reviewed. Emphasis is placed upon convenient, efficient and rapid separation of short-lived daughter radionuclides in a chemical form suitable for use without further chemical manipulation. The focus is on the production of the parent, the radiochemistry associated with processing the parent and daughter, the selection and the characteristic separation methods, and yields. Quality control considerations are briefly noted. The scope of this review includes selected references to applications of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, and the life sciences, particularly in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. The 99 Mo-sup(99m)Tc generator was excluded. 202 references are cited. (orig.)

  11. Radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Wollongong Univ.; Tomiyoshi, K.; Sekine, T.

    1997-01-01

    The present status and future directions of research and development on radionuclide generator technology are reported. The recent interest to develop double-neutron capture reactions for production of in vivo generators; neutron rich nuclides for radio-immunotherapeutic pharmaceuticals: and advances with ultra-short lived generators is highlighted. Emphasis is focused on: production of the parent radionuclide; the selection and the evaluation of support materials and eluents with respect to the resultant radiochemical yield of the daughter, and the breakthrough of the radionuclide parent: and, the uses of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, biomedical and industrial applications. The 62 Zn → 62 Cu, 66 Ni → 66 Cu, 103m Rh → 103 Rh, 188 W → 188 Re and the 225 Ac → 221 Fr → 213 Bi generators are predicted to be emphasized for future development. Coverage of the 99 Mo → 99m Tc generator was excluded, as it the subject of another review. The literature search ended June, 1996. (orig.)

  12. Radionuclide scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide scanning is the production of images of normal and diseased tissues and organs by means of the gamma-ray emissions from radiopharmaceutical agents having specific distributions in the body. The gamma rays are detected at the body surface by a variety of instruments that convert the invisible rays into visible patterns representing the distribution of the radionuclide in the body. The patterns, or images, obtained can be interpreted to provide or to aid diagnoses, to follow the course of disease, and to monitor the management of various illnesses. Scanning is a sensitive technique, but its specificity may be low when interpreted alone. To be used most successfully, radionuclide scanning must be interpreted in conjunction with other techniques, such as bone radiographs with bone scans, chest radiographs with lung scans, and ultrasonic studies with thyroid scans. Interpretation is also enhanced by providing pertinent clinical information because the distribution of radiopharmaceutical agents can be altered by drugs and by various procedures besides physiologic and pathologic conditions. Discussion of the patient with the radionuclide scanning specialist prior to the study and review of the results with that specialist after the study are beneficial

  13. Impact assessment of shallow land burial for low-level waste: modelling of the water flow and transport of radionuclides in the near-field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walravens, J; Volckaert, G

    1996-09-18

    The Belgian concept for disposal of low-level waste consists of storage of waste drums into a concrete vault backfilled with a cementitious grout. The vault is placed above the water table and will be covered with a multilayer cap of clay, gravel, and sandy materials. The SCK/CEN is charged with the long-term performance assessment of the disposal site. The main processes and parameters determining the radioactivity release from the site are identified. The principal processes are the infiltration through the top cover and the sorption of waste on the backfill. The release of radionuclides from the site was modelled with the PORFLOW numerical code.

  14. Feasibility of disposal of high-level radioactive waste into the seabed. Volume 5: Dispersal of radionuclides in the oceans: Models, data sets and regional descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marietta, M.G.; Simmons, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    One of the options suggested for disposal of high-level radioactive waste resulting from the generation of nuclear power is burial beneath the deep ocean floor in geologically stable sediment formations which have no economic value. The 8-volume series provides an assessment of the technical feasibility and radiological safety of this disposal concept based on the results obtained by ten years of co-operation and information exchange among the Member countries participating in the NEA Seabed Working Group. This report summarizes the development of a realistic and credible methodology to describe the oceanic dispersion of radionuclides for risk assessment calculations

  15. Radionuclides in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains data on the levels of radionuclides in the UK foodchain. Most data derive from monitoring programmes that exist around nuclear sites, and in some cases date back to the 1960s. Some comparative data from site operator and government-run programmes are included. Data from monitoring undertaken after the Chernobyl accident are summarised. General monitoring of the foodchain for both artificial and natural radionuclides, and the results of relevant government-sponsored research are also described. The report includes basic information on radioactivity in the environment, radiation protection standards and describes what measures are taken to routinely monitor the foodchain and assess public risk. (Author)

  16. Radionuclide concentration in ground-level air from 1986 to 1987 in North Germany and North Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, W.

    1988-03-01

    The activity concentration of various fission products and some other radionuclides (e.g. Be-7, Na-22, K-40 and Pb-210) contained in surface air were determined by γ-spectroscopy. The mean monthly acitvity concentrations of up to 30 radionuclides measured in 1986 and 1987 in Brunswick, Berlin and Skibotn (North Norway) are tabulated. The Chernobyl accident of April 26, 1986, resulted in 1986 in an annual mean Cs-137 activity concentration of 2.4 mBq/m 3 in Brunswick, 8.8 mBq/m 3 in Berlin and 0.3 mBq/m 3 at Skibotn. In 1987 the Cs-137 concentrations were just about 1% of these values. Occasionally fresh fission products from other sources were detected as e.g. I-131 in March 1987 (very likely released from a reactor site in Ukraine) and in August 1987 (released from an underground nuclear test on Novaja Zemlya together with other short-lived fission products). The effective dose equivalent due to inhalation of fission products is estimated for all three sites and compared with the Pb-210 inhalation dose. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Radionuclides retention in C-S-H, main phases of cement matrices for low and intermediate-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badillo A, V. E.; Lopez R, C.; Vidal M, J.; Gutierrez B, O.

    2014-10-01

    Knowing that the behavior of cementitious materials based on hydraulic binder called cement is essentially determined by the physicochemical evolution of the cement paste (water + cement) which constitutes it, the evolution of the cement paste in contact with different aqueous solutions is studied since one of the main risks in safety of systems is composed of surface and groundwater, which contribute to the alteration of the different barriers and represent the main way of radionuclides transport. The calcium silicates CSH are the main phases that compose the systems based on Portland cement. The hydrates calcium silicates possess a high degree of structural complexity which includes crystalline, partially crystalline and amorphous phases. In this study the microstructures of the CSH phases as well as the retention of radionuclide Sr (II) are studied through the 87m Sr in formulations of water/cement w/c = 0.55; experimental values of K d low around 20 ml g -1 are obtained in function of hydration time of the cement paste in equilibrium with aqueous solutions. (Author)

  18. Interactions of low-level, liquid radioactive wastes with soils. 1. Behavior of radionuclides in soil-waste systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.B.; Essington, E.H.; Polzer, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of radioactive wastes and soils vary over a wide range. Liquid radioactive waste entering the environment will eventually contact the soil or geological matrix; interactions will be determined by the chemical and physical nature of the liquid, as well as the soil matrix. We report here the results from an investigation of certain of those characteristics as they relate to retention of radionuclides by soils. Three fractions were demonstrated in the waste as filterable, soluble-sorbable, and soluble-nonsorbable; the physical nature of each fraction was demonstrated using autoradiographic techniques. Isotopes of plutonium and uranium and americium-241 in the soluble fraction of the waste were shown to have a negative charge as determined by ion exchange techniques. In the soil-waste systems, the net charge for those radionuclides was shown to change from predominantly negative to predominantly positive. Nevertheless, cesium-137 was shown to be predominantly positited by TVA and approved by NRC (formerly AEC) since June 1973. This report is based upon the revisions, approved through the end of this reporting period

  19. Radionuclide examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentle, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on radionuclide examinations of the pancreas. The pancreas, situated retroperitonally high in the epigastrium, was a particularly difficult organ to image noninvasively before ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) became available. Indeed the organ still remains difficult to examine in some patients, a fact reflected in the variety of methods available to evaluate pancreatic morphology. It is something of a paradox that the pancreas is metabolically active and physiologically important but that its examination by radionuclide methods has virtually ceased to have any role in day-to-day clinical practice. To some extent this is caused by the tendency of the pancreas's commonest gross diseases emdash carcinoma and pancreatitis, for example emdash to result in nonfunction of the entire organ. Disorders of pancreatic endocrine function have generally not required imaging methods for diagnosis, although an understanding of diabetes mellitus and its nosology has been advanced by radioimmunoassay of plasma insulin concentrations

  20. Standards, intercomparisons and performance evaluations for low-level and environmental radionuclide mass spectrometry and atom counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inn, K.G.W.; McCurdy, D.; Bell III, T.; Loesch, R.; Barss, N.M.; Morton, J.S.; Povinec, P.; Burns, K.; Henry, R.

    2001-01-01

    Because of the demand for higher sensitivity radionuclide measurements, atom counting technology will become an increasingly used modality in geo-and bio-studies, and process control operations. It is anticipated that requests, intercomparisons and performance evaluations services will surge in near future. In anticipation of such requests, the state-of-the-art needed to be assessed for proactive planning purposes. The results of a workshop focused on these issues indicated that there are several ongoing standards, intercomparisons and performance evaluations thrusts which are expected to expand in the future. Furthermore, new projects were planned and the Council on Ionizing Radiation Measurements and Standards (Public and Environmental Radiation Protection subcommittee) ws proposed as an information coordinator. (author)

  1. Radionuclides, Heavy Metals, and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Soils Collected Around the Perimeter of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. R. Fresquez

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-one soil surface samples were collected in March around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Three more samples were collected in October around the northwest corner after elevated tritium levels were detected on an AIRNET station located north of pit 38 in May. Also, four soil samples were collected along a transect at various distances (48, 154, 244, and 282 m) from Area G, starting from the northeast corner and extending to the Pueblo de San Ildefonso fence line in a northeasterly direction (this is the main wind direction). Most samples were analyzed for radionuclides ( 3 H, 238 Pu, 239,240 Pu, 241 Am, 234 U, 235 U, and 238 U), inorganic elements (Al, Ba, Be, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, K, Na, V, Hg, Zn, Sb, As, Cd, Pb, Se, Ag, and Tl) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations. As in previous years, the highest levels of 3 H in soils (690 pCi/mL) were detected along the south portion of Area G near the 3 H shafts; whereas, the highest concentrations of 241 Am (1.2 pCi/g dry) and the Pu isotopes (1.9 pCi/g dry for 238 Pu and 5 pCi/g dry for 239,240 Pu) were detected along the northeastern portions near the transuranic waste pads. Concentrations of 3 H in three soil samples and 241 Am and Pu isotopes in one soil sample collected around the northwest corner in October increased over concentrations found in soils collected at the same locations earlier in the year. Almost all of the heavy metals, with the exception of Zn and Sb in one sample each, in soils around the perimeter of Area G were below regional statistical reference levels (mean plus three standard deviations) (RSRLs). Similarly, only one soil sample collected on the west side contained PCB concentrations--67 (micro)g/kg dry of aroclor-1254 and 94 (micro)g/kg dry of aroclor-1260. Radionuclide and inorganic element concentrations in soils collected along a transect from Area G to the

  2. Dose rates as a function of time due to postulated radionuclide releases from the U.S. Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Dade W.; Sun, Lin-Shen C.; Cherry, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain repository, which is located in a remote area in the State of Nevada, is being constructed for the long-term care and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and vitrified high-level radioactive waste. In accordance with U.S. law, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) promulgated Standards that limit the dose rates to members of the public due to the consumption of ground water, alone, and the consumption of ground water plus agricultural products irrigated with the contaminated ground water, and other exposures, such as those from external sources and the inhalation of airborne radioactive materials. As part of this exercise, the USEPA identified eight specific radionuclides to which their Standards are to apply. These are: 14 C, 99 Tc, 129 I, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 237 Np, 239 Pu, and 241 Am. For purposes of the associated dose rate estimates, a range of conservative assumptions have been applied, all of which are designed to assure that the estimated dose rates are well above what might be expected under 'real-world' conditions. As a first step, it was assumed that: (1) at 10 4 year after repository closure, a fractional release of 10 -5 of the entire repository radionuclide inventory occurred; (2) the only prior reduction in the inventory was that due to radioactive decay; and (3) the sole path of exposure to neighboring population groups was through the consumption of 2 L d -1 of contaminated ground water. The accompanying analyses revealed that, of the eight radionuclides, only 226 Ra, 237 Np, and 239 Pu, will represent a significant source of dose at that time. To provide perspective and insights, the next step was to estimate the committed effective dose rates for all eight radionuclides based on an assumed fractional release each year of 10 -5 of the inventory from the time of repository closure up through the 10 6 year. For purposes of providing perspective, it was assumed that each dose rate estimate was independent, that is, no releases

  3. Radionuclide concentrations in ground-level air from 1984 to mid 1986 in North Germany and North Norway; influence of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, W.

    1986-09-01

    The activity concentration of various fission products and some other radionuclides (e.g. Be-7, Na-22, K-40 and Pb-210) contained in surface air were determined by gamma-ray spectroscopy. The mean monthly activity concentrations of up to 30 radionuclides measured from 1984 to mid 1986 in Brunswick, Berlin and Skibotn (North Norway) are tabulated. Early in 1984 the ground level air at all three stations still contained some fission and activation products resulting from the latest nuclear test carried out at a high altitude by the People's Republic of China. By the end of 1984 only Cs-137 was still detectable with activity concentrations of less than 1 μBq/m 3 . The occasional appearance of some activation products in 1984 and 1985 is commented on and compared with similar findings of several Scandinavian institutes. Fresh fission products from the Chernobyl accident arrived in late April 1986 in Brunswick, Berlin and Skibotn. The mean Cs-137 concentration in May estimated for Brunswick was 28 mBq/m 3 (i.e. 15 times higher than the hitherto recorded maximum in June 1964). It had decreased by July 1986 down to 0.13 mBq/m 3 . The effective dose equivalent due to inhalation of fission products is estimated for all three sites and compared with the Pb-210 inhalation dose. (orig.) [de

  4. Quality control in low-level radionuclide analysis. Results of recent intercomparisons and programme for 1979/80 of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suschny, O; Dybczynski, R; Tugsavul, A

    1979-05-01

    Several summary reports on the IAEA's analytical quality control programme have been issued in the past. A report mapping out areas of common interest with the ICRM has been presented to the Paris meeting of ICRM's low-level measurement techniques group in 1976 and subsequently published in environment international. General descriptions of the programme as it has developed in the past 15 years can be found in these publications, in addition detailed results of intercomparisons have been published in IAEA reports and in the open literature (about 30 publications), they are too numerous for citation here. This paper presents discussion of the results of recent intercomparisons of low level radionuclide determinations followed by a presentation of our schedule of distribution of intercomparison and reference materials for 1979 and 80.

  5. Performance study and influence of radiation emission energy and soil contamination level on γ-radiation shielding of stabilised/solidified radionuclide-polluted soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falciglia, Pietro P.; Puccio, Valentina; Romano, Stefano; Vagliasindi, Federico G.A.

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on the stabilisation/solidification (S/S) of radionuclide-polluted soils at different 232 Th levels using Portland cement alone and with barite aggregates. The potential of S/S was assessed applying a full testing protocol and calculating γ-radiation shielding (γRS) index, that included the measurement of soil radioactivity before and after the S/S as a function of the emission energy and soil contamination level. The results indicate that setting processes are strongly dependent on the contaminant concentration, and for contamination level higher than 5%, setting time values longer than 72 h. The addition of barite aggregates to the cement gout leads to a slight improvement of the S/S performance in terms of durability and contaminant leaching but reduces the mechanical resistance of the treated soils samples. Barite addition also causes an increase in the γ-rays shielding properties of the S/S treatment up to about 20%. Gamma-ray measurements show that γRS strongly depends on the energy, and that the radioactivity with the contamination level was governed by a linear trend, while, γRS index does not depend on the radionuclide concentration. Results allow the calculated γRS values and those available from other experiments to be applied to hazard radioactive soil contaminations. - Highlights: • We assess the effects of 232 Th contamination on performance of S/S treated soil. • We assess the γ-radiation shielding of the S/S materials as a function of energy. • We report a full testing protocol for assessing S/S resistance performance. • Emission energy influences the γ radiation shielding of the S/S. • Barite gives high γ-radiation shielding and low contaminant leaching

  6. Radionuclide radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarsbrook, A.F.; Graham, R.N.J.; Perriss, R.W.; Bradley, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of short reviews of internet-based radiological educational resources, and will focus on radionuclide radiology and nuclear medicine. What follows is a list of carefully selected websites to save time in searching them out. Most of the sites cater for trainee or non-specialist radiologists, but may also be of interest to specialists for use in teaching. This article may be particularly useful to radiologists interested in the rapidly expanding field of positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT). Hyperlinks are available in the electronic version of this article and were all active at the time of going to press (February 2006)

  7. Radionuclides in Canada goose eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Sweany, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    Low levels of radionuclides were measured in Canada goose eggs taken from deserted nests from Columbia River islands on the Energy Research and Development Administration's Hanford Reservation. Potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, was the most abundant radionuclide measured in egg contents and egg shell. Strontium-90 was incorporated into egg shells and cesium-137 into inner egg contents. Manganese-54, cobalt-60, and zinc-65 were more abundant in inner egg contents than in egg shell. Cerium-144 was detected in egg shell but not in inner shell

  8. Studies on separation, conversion and transmutation of long-living radionuclides. A contribution to advanced disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modolo, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The future role and acceptance of nuclear energy will be decisively determined by the safe operation of existing and future facilities and by convincing solutions for nuclear waste management. With respect to the long half-lives of some radionuclides (actinides and fission products) and the related question as to whether the release of radionuclides from a repository can be prevented over very long periods of time, alternatives to the direct disposal of spent nuclear fuels are discussed internationally. As a potential complementary solution, the technological option with partitioning and transmutation (P and T) is considered. This method separates and converts the long-lived radionuclides into stable, short-lived nuclides via neutron reactions in dedicated facilities. Against this background, the first main chapter of the present work looks at the chemical separation of actinides from high-level reprocessing wastes. In order to achieve a better understanding of the processes at the molecular level, basic investigations were also performed on separating actinides(III) via liquid-liquid or liquid-solid extraction. At the same time, reversible processes were developed and tested on the laboratory scale with the aid of mixer-settlers and centrifugal extractors. The subsequent chapter focuses on separating the long-lived fission product iodine-129 from radioactive wastes as well as from process effluents arising from reprocessing. As part of this work, different simple chemical and physical techniques were developed for complete recovery with respect to transmutation or conditioning in host matrices that are sufficiently stable for final storage. Its high mobility and radiological properties make iodine-129 relevant for the long-term safety assessment of final repositories. In addition, transmutation experiments on iodine-127/129 targets were performed using high-energy protons (145-2600 MeV). Due to the expected low cross sections (<100 mb), transmutation with protons

  9. Feasibility of disposal of high-level radioactive waste into the seabed. volume 7: Review of laboratory investigations of radionuclide migration through deep-sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brush, L.H.

    1988-01-01

    One of the options suggested for disposal of high-level radioactive waste resulting from the generation of nuclear power is burial beneath the deep ocean floor in geologically stable sediment formations which have no economic value. The 8-volume series provides an assessment of the technical feasibility and radiological safety of this disposal concept based on the results obtained by ten years of co-operation and information exchange among the Member countries participating in the NEA Seabed Working Group. This volume contains a review of the laboratory investigations of radionuclide migration through deep-sea sediments. In addition, it discusses the data selected for the radiological assessment, on the basis of both field and laboratory studies

  10. Radionuclide transport calculations from high-level long-lived radioactive waste disposal in deep clayey geologic formation toward adjacent aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genty, A.; Le Potier, C.

    2007-01-01

    In the context of high-level nuclear waste repository safety calculations, the modeling of radionuclide migration is of first importance. Three dimensional radionuclide transport calculations in geological repository need to describe objects of the meter scale embedded in geologic layer formations of kilometer extension. A complete and refined spatial description would end up with at least meshes of hundreds of millions to billions elements. The resolution of this kind of problem is today not reachable with classical computers due to resources limitations. Although parallelized computation appears as potential tool to handle multi-scale calculations, to our knowledge no attempt have been yet performed. One emerging solution for repository safety calculations on very large cells meshes consists in using a domain decomposition approach linked to massive parallelized computer calculation. In this approach, the repository domain is divided in small elementary domains and transport calculation are performed independently on different processor for each elementary domain. Before to develop this possible solution, we performed some preliminary test in order to access the order of magnitude of cells needed to perform converged calculation on one elementary disposal domain and to check if Finite Volume (FV) based on Multi Point Flux Approximation (MPFA) spatial scheme or more classical Mixed Hybrid Finite Element (MHFE) spatial scheme were adapted for those calculations in highly heterogeneous porous media. Our preliminary results point out that MHFE and VF schemes applied on non-parallelepiped hexahedral cells for flow and transport calculations in highly heterogeneous media gave satisfactory results. Nevertheless further investigations and additional calculations are needed in order to exhibit the mesh discretization level needed to perform converged calculations. (authors)

  11. Radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2008-01-01

    The sources of the presence of radionuclides in food are presented: natural radiation and artificial radiation. The transfer of radionuclides through food chains, intakes of radionuclides to the body with its partners effective doses and typical consumption of basic foods of a rural adult population are exposed as main topics. Also the radiation doses from natural sources and exposure to man by ingestion of contaminated food with radionuclides of artificial origin are shown. The contribution of the food ingestion to the man exposure depends on: characteristics of radionuclide, natural conditions, farming practices and eating habits of the population. The principal international organizations in charge of setting guide levels for radionuclides in food are mentioned: standards, rules and the monitoring. It establishes that a guide is necessary for the food monitoring; the alone CODEX ALIMENTARIUS is applicable to emergency situations and the generic action levels proposed by the CODEX not satisfy all needs (no guiding international levels for planned or existing situations such as NORM). There are handled mainly socio-economic and political aspects. Among the actions to be taken are: to assure a public comprehensive information over the risk evaluation in food; to reinforce the collaboration among the different international organizations (WHO, IAEA, ICRP, EC) in relation with the food of set; to give follow-up to the control of the drinkable water and NORM's presence in the food. In addition, it is possible to create the necessary mechanisms to reduce the number of irrelevant measures and bureaucratic useless steps (certificates); to promote the exchange between the different institutions involved in the topic of the food, with relation to the acquired experiences and learned lessons. Likewise, it might examine the possibility of a multidisciplinary approximation (radioactive and not radioactive pollutants); to elaborate a technical guide to assure the

  12. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  13. A study on gallbladder empty of patients with functional dyspepsia by radionuclide imaging and on assessment of plasma levels of gastrointestinal hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Juan; Sun Xiaoning; Liu Baojun; Zhang Li

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the role of gallbladder kinetics and plasma levels of gastrointestinal hormones in the mechanism of functional dyspepsia. Methods: Gallbladder ejection fractions (GBEF) were determined with 99 Tc m radionuclide imaging, and plasma levels of motilin (MTL), cholecystokinin (CCK), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and somatostatin (SS) were measured with radioimmunoassay. Thirty-two patients with functional dyspepsia of dyskinetic type (FD group) and 20 normal volunteers in control group were studied. Results: The preprandial and postprandial gallbladder ejection fractions (GBEF) and MTL levels were both obviously lower in FD group (P preprandial = 0.82, P postprandial 0.94, P 0.05), while the levels of postprandial CCK were significantly decreased in FD group (P preprandial -0.81, P postprandial = - 0.47, P 0.05). Conclusions: Patients with FD of dyskinetic type might have a significant decrease of preprandial and postprandial gallbladder emptying. The decrease of plasma levels of gastrointestinal hormones. MTL, CCK and the elevation of VIP might be the cause of slow gallbladder emptying and part of the basic pathophysiology in FD

  14. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Prouty

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  15. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  16. Radiation-Induced Defects in Kaolinite as Tracers of Past Occurrence of Radionuclides in a Natural Analogue of High Level Nuclear Waste Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, T.; Fourdrin, C.; Calas, G.

    2007-05-01

    Understanding the processes controlling migrations of radioelements at the Earth's surface is an important issue for the long-term safety assessment of high level nuclear waste repositories (HLNWR). Evidence of past occurrence and transfer of radionuclides can be found using radiation-induced defects in minerals. Clay minerals are particularly relevant because of their widespread occurrence at the Earth's surface and their finely divided nature which provides high contact area with radioactive fluids. Owing to its sensitivity to radiations, kaolinite can be used as natural, in situ dosimeter. Kaolinite is known to contain radiation-induced defects which are detected by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance. They are differentiated by their nature, their production kinetics and their thermal stability. One of these defects is stable at the scale of geological periods and provides a record of past radionuclide occurrence. Based on artificial irradiations, a methodology has been subsequently proposed to determine paleodose cumulated by kaolinite since its formation. The paleodose can be used to derive equivalent radioelement concentrations, provided that the age of kaolinite formation can be constrained. This allows quantitative reconstruction of past transfers of radioelements in natural systems. An example is given for the Nopal I U-deposit (Chihuahua, Mexico), hosted in hydrothermally altered volcanic tufs and considered as analogue of the Yucca Mountain site. The paleodoses experienced by kaolinites were determined from the concentration of defects and dosimetry parameters of experimental irradiations. Using few geochemical assumption, a equivalent U-content responsible for defects in kaolinite was calculated from the paleodose, a dose rate balance and model ages of kaolinites constrained by tectonic phases. In a former study, the ages were assumptions derived from regional tectonic events. In thepresent study, ages of mineralization events are measured from U

  17. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  18. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Miller

    2004-09-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement

  19. Radionuclide accumulation peculiarities demonstrated by vegetable varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruk, A.V.; Goncharenko, G.G.; Kilchevsky, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    This study focused on ecological and genetic aspects of radionuclide accumulation demonstrated by a number of vegetable varieties. The researches resulted in determining the cabbage varieties which were characterised by the minimal level of radionuclide accumulation. It was shown that the above varieties manifested the relation between radionuclide accumulation and morphobiological characteristics such as vegetation period duration and yield criteria. The study specified the genotypes with high ecological stability as regards to radionuclide accumulation: 'Beloruskaya 85' cabbage and 'Dokhodny' tomato showed the best response to Cs 137, while 'Beloruskaya 85', 'Rusinovka', 'Amager 611' cabbage varieties and 'Sprint' tomato showed the minimal level of Sr 90 accumulation. (authors)

  20. (Review Draft) Radiation Site Cleanup Regulations: Technical Support Document For The Development Of Radionuclide Cleanup Levels For Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes parts of the technical analysis being undertaken in support of standards that ensure certain sites are cleaned up to a level that is protective of human health and the environment before they are released for public use.

  1. Phytoremediation of radionuclides: an emerging alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Shraddha

    2013-01-01

    Proliferation of nuclear power industry, nuclear weapon testing, dismantling of existing nuclear weapons and occasional accidents have contributed to an enhancement in the level of radionuclides in the environment. The radionuclides due to their long half life and transfer through the food chain effect adversely to normal biological systems. Hence, it is essential to effectively remove the radionuclides from contaminated soils and solutions. Phytoremediation - the use of plants for remediation of toxic metals and radionuclides has been recognized as an aesthetically pleasing, low cost and environment friendly in situ method. Phytoremediation is an umbrella term which covers several plant based approaches. Plants have shown the potential of remediation of these radionuclides from spiked solutions, low level nuclear waste and soil. Various aspects of phytoremediation as well as potential of various plants for remediation of radionuclides will be discussed here. (author)

  2. Equilibration-Based Preconcentrating Minicolumn Sensors for Trace Level Monitoring of Radionuclides and Metal Ions in Water without Consumable Reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, Oleg B.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Grate, Jay W.

    2006-01-01

    A sensor technique is described that captures analyte species on a preconcentrating minicolumn containing a selective solid phase sorbent. In this approach, the sample is pumped through the column until the sorbent phase is fully equilibrated with the sample concentration, and the exit concentration equals the inlet concentration. On-column detection of the captured analytes using radiometric and spectroscopic methods are demonstrated. In trace level detection applications, this sensor provides a steady state signal that is proportional to sample analyte concentration and is reversible. The method is demonstrated for the detection of Tc-99 using anion exchange beads mixed with scintillating beads and light detection; Sr-90 using SuperLig 620 beads mixed with scintillating beads and light detection; and hexavalent chromium detection using anion exchange beads with spectroscopic detection. Theory has been developed to describe the signal at equilibration, and to describe analyte uptake as a function of volume and concentration, using parameters and concepts from frontal chromatography. It is shown that experimental sensor behavior closely matches theoretical predictions and that effective sensors can be prepared using low plate number columns. This sensor modality has many desirable characteristics for in situ sensors for trace-level contaminant long-term monitoring where the use of consumable reagents for sensor regeneration would be undesirable. Initial experiments in groundwater matrixes demonstrated the detection of Tc-99 at drinking water level standards (activity of 0.033 Bq/mL) and detection of hexavalent chromium to levels below drinking water standards of 50 ppb

  3. Measurements for modeling radionuclide transfer in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, B.

    1976-01-01

    Analytical methods for measuring radionuclides in the aquatic environment are discussed for samples of fresh water and seawater, fish and shellfish, biota such as algae, plankton, seaweed, and aquatic plants, and sediment. Consideration is given to radionuclide collection and concentration, sample preservation, radiochemical and instrumental analysis, and quality assurance. Major problems are the very low environmental levels of the radionuclides of interest, simultaneous occurrence of radionuclides in several chemical and physical forms and the numerous factors that affect radionuclide levels in and transfers among media. Some radionuclides of importance in liquid effluents from nuclear power stations are listed, and sources of radiochemical analytical methods are recommended

  4. Practical experience in and improvements to aerosol sampling for trace analysis of airborne radionuclides in ground level air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, D.; Jagielak, J.; Kolb, W.; Pietruszewski, A.; Wershofen, H.; Zarucki, R.

    1994-01-01

    In November 1989 the Polish government and the German government signed a bilateral agreement for scientific and technological co-operation. In the framework of this co-operation the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection (CLRP), Warsaw, and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig, conducted a co-operation project in the field of monitoring the airborne radioactivity in ground level air. This progress report deals with the history of the project covering the period from July 1990 to December 1992, the scientific activities and their results. A proposal for future co-operation, which is planned for the near future, is made. (orig.)

  5. Safe disposal of radionuclides in low-level radioactive-waste repository sites; Low-level radioactive-waste disposal workshop, U.S. Geological Survey, July 11-16, 1987, Big Bear Lake, Calif., Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, Marion S.; Stevens, Peter R.

    1990-01-01

    In the United States, low-level radioactive waste is disposed by shallow-land burial. Low-level radioactive waste generated by non-Federal facilities has been buried at six commercially operated sites; low-level radioactive waste generated by Federal facilities has been buried at eight major and several minor Federally operated sites (fig. 1). Generally, low-level radioactive waste is somewhat imprecisely defined as waste that does not fit the definition of high-level radioactive waste and does not exceed 100 nCi/g in the concentration of transuranic elements. Most low-level radioactive waste generated by non-Federal facilities is generated at nuclear powerplants; the remainder is generated primarily at research laboratories, hospitals, industrial facilities, and universities. On the basis of half lives and concentrations of radionuclides in low-level radioactive waste, the hazard associated with burial of such waste generally lasts for about 500 years. Studies made at several of the commercially and Federally operated low-level radioactive-waste repository sites indicate that some of these sites have not provided containment of waste nor the expected protection of the environment.

  6. Estimation of skeletal plutonium levels based on DTPA-induced radionuclide excretion in feces: possible application to man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, M H; Guilmette, R A; Peterson, D P; Chao, F C; Lindinbaum, A [Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)

    1978-06-01

    A new approach to the estimation of plutonium (Pu) levels in the skeleton based on measurements of Pu excretion in the feces following treatment with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DPTA) is presented. The estimation method was tested in groups of mice receiving either 0.5 or 5 ..mu.. Ci/kg of /sup 239/Pu(IV) citrate, and treated with Na/sub 3/(CaDTPA) starting either at 1 hr or 24 hr after Pu administration. In the case of DTPA treatment begun at 1 hr, the ratio of skeletal Pu content at 1 hr, S, to DTPA-induced fecal excretion of Pu, F, was 1.08 +- 0.03. When DTPA treatment was begun at 24 hr, the corresponding S/F ratio was 1.68 +- 0.08 and was independent of Pu injection level. In the mouse, therefore, a reasonable estimate of skeletal Pu content just prior to treatment can be determined from the amount of Pu measured in the feces following DTPA therapy. Application of this method to species other than the mouse is examined, with anticipation that the method might be applicable to cases of human exposure.

  7. Natural Radionuclides in Private Wells | RadTown USA | US ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    About 15 percent of Americans use private wells as their main source of drinking water. Those who use private wells should remember: Test for radionuclides every three years. Take appropriate steps if radionuclide levels are higher than EPA's limits.

  8. Chemical speciation of radionuclides migrating in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.; Schilk, A.; Abel, K.; Lepel, E.; Thomas, C.; Pratt, S.; Cooper, E.; Hartwig, P.; Killey, R.

    1994-04-01

    In order to more accurately predict the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration from low-level waste disposal facilities via groundwater transport, ongoing studies are being conducted at field sites at Chalk River Laboratories to identify and characterize the chemical speciation of mobile, long-lived radionuclides migrating in groundwaters. Large-volume water sampling techniques are being utilized to separate and concentrate radionuclides into particular, cationic, anionic, and nonionic chemical forms. Most radionuclides are migrating as soluble, anionic species that appear to be predominantly organoradionuclide complexes. Laboratory studies utilizing anion exchange chromatography have separated several anionically complexed radionuclides, e.g., 60 Co and 106 Ru, into a number of specific compounds or groups of compounds. Further identification of the anionic organoradionuclide complexes is planned utilizing high resolution mass spectrometry. Large-volume ultra-filtration experiments are characterizing the particulate forms of radionuclides being transported in these groundwaters

  9. Effect of organic complexants on the mobility of low-level waste radionuclides in soils: status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, J.L.

    1981-09-01

    The effects of some organic complexants on the sorption by soil of some elements typical of those present in low-level wastes are being evaluated and procedures are being developed to efficiently obtain valid sorption data. Data have been obtained with Hanford soil and the elements europium, nickel, cobalt, cesium, and strontium. Complexants studied to date include ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and humic acid. The sorption of cesium and strontium has been found to be affected very little by EDTA or DTPA, as expected. However, these complexants have been found to greatly reduce the sorption of europium, nickel, or cobalt by the soil. The Eu/EDTA system was found to be well behaved, and the effect of the complexant on the sorption by soil was quantified. With nickel and cobalt, however, kinetic problems have been encountered, and the effects of complexants on the sorption by soil have not yet been quantified. The problems encountered in the nickel and cobalt systems have further emphasized the need for the development of methods to assure the general validity of the data obtained in the experiments. Series of experimental results that looked very good within themselves were found by additional procedures to be artifacts of the conditions used. One procedure that has been of great value in identifying invalid data is that of contacting the equilibrated solution from a soil contact with a second batch of soil. Unless the sorption coefficient in the second contact is equivalent to that in the first contact, the data are likely invalid. Efforts are continuing to develop procedures that will allow generally valid data to be obtained in an efficient manner and to employ such procedures to obtain data in a variety of systems pertinent to low-level waste disposal

  10. Deep ground water microbiology in Swedish granite rock and it's relevance for radio-nuclide migration from a Swedish high level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    1989-03-01

    Data on numbers, species and activity of deep ground water microbial populations in Swedish granite rock have been collected. Specific studies are performed on radio-nuclid uptake on bacteria judge to be probable inhabitants in Swedish nuclear waste repositories. An integrated mobile field laboratory was used for water sampling and for the immediate counting and inoculation of the samples from boreholes at levels between 129 and 860 m. A sampler adapted for the collection of undisturbed samples for gas analysis was used to collect samples for bacterial enumerations and enrichments. The sampler can be opened and closed from the surface at the actual sampling depth. The samples can subsequently be brought to the surface without contact with air and with the pressure at the actual sampling depth. The number of bacteria were determined in samples from the gas sampler when this was possible. Else numbers are determined in the water that is pumped up to the field lab. The average total number of bacteria is 3 x 10 5 bacterial ml -1 . The number of bacteria possible to recover with plate count arrays from 0.10 to 21.9%. (author)

  11. Determination of the activity concentration levels of the artificial radionuclide137Cs in soil samples collected from Qatar using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Nasir, Tabassum; Al Mugren, K. S.; Alkhomashi, N.; Al-Dahan, N.; Al-Dosari, M.; Bradley, D. A.; Bukhari, S.; Regan, P. H.; Santawamaitre, T.; Malain, D.; Habib, A.; Al-Dosari, Hanan; Daar, Eman

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this study was to establish the first baseline measurements for radioactivity concentration of the artificial radionuclide 137Cs in soil samples collected from the Qatarian peninsula. The work focused on the determination of the activity concentrations levels of man-made radiation in 129 soil samples collected across the landscape of the State of Qatar. All the samples were collected before the most recent accident in Japan, “the 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident”. The activity concentrations have been measured via high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry using a hyper-pure germanium detector situated in a low-background environment with a copper inner-plated passive lead shield. A radiological map showing the activity concentrations of 137Cs is presented in this work. The concentration wasfound to range from 0.21 to 15.41 Bq/kg. The highest activity concentration of 137Cs was observed in sample no. 26 in North of Qatar. The mean value was found to be around 2.15 ± 0.27 Bq/kg. These values lie within the expected range relative to the countries in the region. It is expected that this contamination is mainly due to the Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986, but this conclusion cannot be confirmed because of the lack of data before this accident.

  12. Beta emitter radionuclides (90Sr contamination in animal feed: validation and application of a radiochemical method by ultra low level liquid scintillation counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Iammarino

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available 90Sr is considered as a dangerous contaminant of agri-food supply chains due to its chemical affinity with Calcium, which makes its absorption in bones easy. 90Sr accumulation in raw materials and then in final products is particularly significant in relationship to its ability to transfer into animal source products. The radionuclides transfer (137Cs and 90Sr from environment to forages and then to products of animal origin (milk, cow and pork meats was studied and evaluated in different studies, which were carried out in contaminated areas, from Chernobyl disaster until today. In the present work, the development and validation of a radiochemical method for the detection of 90Sr in different types of animal feed, and the application of this technique for routinely control activities, are presented. Liquid scintillation counting was the employed analytical technique, since it is able to determine very low activity concentrations of 90Sr (<0.01 Bq kg–1. All samples analysed showed a 90Sr contamination much higher than method detection limit (0.008 Bq kg–1. In particular, the highest mean activity concentration was registered in hay samples (2.93 Bq kg–1, followed by silage samples (2.07 Bq kg–1 and animal feeds (0.77 Bq kg–1. In fact, all samples were characterized by 90Sr activity concentrations much lower than reference limits. This notwithstanding, the necessity to monitor these levels was confirmed, especially considering that 90Sr is a possible carcinogen for human.

  13. Technological study about a disposal measures of low-level radioactive waste including uranium and long-half-life radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugaya, Toshikatsu; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Sakai, Akihiro; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Sasaki, Toshihisa; Nakamura, Yasuo

    2017-02-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) performed the technical studies contributed for the disposal measures of uranium-bearing waste with low concentration and intermediate depth disposal-based waste occurring from the process of the nuclear fuel cycle. (1) Study of the trench disposal of uranium-bearing waste. As a part of the study of disposal measures of the uranium-bearing waste, we carried out the safety assessment (exposure dose assessment) and derived the upper limit of radioactivity concentration of uranium which was allowed to be included in radioactive waste for trench disposal. (2) Preliminary study for the expansion of material applied to clearance in uranium-bearing waste. Currently, the clearance level of uranium handling facilities was derived from the radioactivity concentration of uranium corresponding to dose criterion about the exposure pathways of the reuse and recycle of metal. Therefore, we preliminarily evaluated whether metal and concrete were able to be applied to clearance by the method of the undergrounding disposal. (3) Study of the concentration limitation scenarios for the intermediate depth disposal-based waste. We carried out dose assessment of intermediate depth disposal of radioactive waste generated from JAEA about radioactive concentration limitation scenarios of which the concept was shown by the study team in Nuclear Regulation Authority. Based on the results, we discussed whether the waste was applied to radioactive waste conforming to concept of intermediate depth disposal. (author)

  14. Inverse problem in radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.

    1988-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste must comply with the performance objectives set forth in 10 CFR 61 for low-level waste (LLW) and 10 CFR 60 for high-level waste (HLW). To determine probable compliance, the proposed disposal system can be modeled to predict its performance. One of the difficulties encountered in such a study is modeling the migration of radionuclides through a complex geologic medium for the long term. Although many radionuclide transport models exist in the literature, the accuracy of the model prediction is highly dependent on the model parameters used. The problem of using known parameters in a radionuclide transport model to predict radionuclide concentrations is a direct problem (DP); whereas the reverse of DP, i.e., the parameter identification problem of determining model parameters from known radionuclide concentrations, is called the inverse problem (IP). In this study, a procedure to solve IP is tested, using the regression technique. Several nonlinear regression programs are examined, and the best one is recommended. 13 refs., 1 tab

  15. Radionuclide injury to the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Sanders, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequently observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. 88 references

  16. Pre-Fukushima levels of artificial radionuclides activities in maritime samples from King George Island (South Shetlands, Antarctica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobiech-Matura, K. [European Commision DG-JRC Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, Geel (Belgium); Institute of Botany, Zdzislaw Czeppe Department of Polar Research and Documentation, Jagiellonian University, Kopernika 27, Krakow (Poland); Mietelski, J.W. [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, W.E. Radzikowskiego 152, Krakow (Poland); Olech, M.A. [Institute of Botany, Zdzislaw Czeppe Department of Polar Research and Documentation, Jagiellonian University, Kopernika 27, Krakow (Poland); Department of Antarctic Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Ustrzycka 10/12, Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-07-01

    Different maritime samples were collected at King George Island during Polish scientific expeditions in years 2005/2006 and 2006/2007. They originated mainly from Admiralty Bay region. Activities of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238,239+240}Pu, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 241}Am were measured using γ-, β- and α-spectrometry. Our measurements allow estimating the state of radioactive pollution of Antarctic environment directly before the Fukushima accident. Examined samples included different elements of Antarctic marine environment: macro-algae (e.g. Cystosphaera jacquinotii, Ascoseira mirabilis), fishes(e.g. Notothenia coriiceps, Chaenocephalus aceratus), birds (e.g. Pygoscelis adeliae, P. papua), and crustaceans (e.g. Euphausia superba, Waldeckia obesa). Activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs vary from <0.3 to 21.8 ± 2.1 Bq/kg d.w. In comparison with results obtained for samples of animals and macro-algae previously [1,2] our results are similar or lower. Activity concentrations of {sup 239+240}Pu range from <0.2 to 455 ± 56 mBq/kg d.w. and comparing to previous results [1,2] they were similar or lower. For maritime animals from Terra Nova Bay [3] results are also similar or lower than obtained in present project. Activity concentrations of {sup 238}Pu in samples varied from <0.2 to 79 ± 22 mBq/kg d.w. In comparison to results presented in [1,2,3] our values are similar or higher. Activity concentrations obtained for {sup 90}Sr varied from <1.5 to 73 ± 24 Bq/kg d.w. and are similar or lower then values given in [2,3]. Activity concentrations of {sup 241}Am varied from <9.4 to 29.8 ± 9.3 mBq/kg d.w. and they are similar or higher than values obtained in [3] and similar to that from [1]. Obtained results show that levels of radioactive contamination were very low and in many cases lower than the detection limit. Planned further investigation will allow estimating the environmental condition after the Fukushima accident. (authors)

  17. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for loW--level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of the short ranges of beta and alpha particle s in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector. Automated microfluidics is used for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field and in situ measurements

  18. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.E.; Horrill, A.D.; Howard, B.J.; Lowe, V.P.W.; Parkinson, J.A.

    1983-07-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: concentration and spatial distribution of radionuclides in grazed and ungrazed saltmarshes; incorporation of radionuclides by sheep grazing on an estuarine saltmarsh; inland transfer of radionuclides by birds feeding in the estuaries and saltmarshes at Ravenglass; radionuclides in contrasting types of coastal pastures and taken up by individual plant species found in west Cumbria; procedures developed and used for the measurement of alpha and gamma emitters in environmental materials. (U.K.)

  19. Knowledge gaps in relation to radionuclide levels and transfer to wild plants and animals, in the context of environmental impact assessments, and a strategy to fill them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.E. (ed.); Gjelsvik, R. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)); Saxen, R.; Mattila, J. (STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland))

    2009-01-15

    International activities with regards the development of methods for assessing impacts on the environment from ionising radiation have been substantial in recent years. In developing these methods, there are requirements (i) to determine the transfer of radionuclides within ecosystems and (ii) to determine background dose-rates arising from the presence of naturally occurring radionuclides, in a satisfactory manner. It has quickly become evident that fulfilling these 2 requirements is not entirely straightforward reflecting a lack of data in many cases. This report specifies exactly where these data-gaps lie through analyses of data generated from the most recent studies conducted internationally on this topic. It is evident that information is limited for numerous radionuclides from U-238 and Th-232 decay series and notably, in view of its importance as a contributor to dose-rates in plants and animals, Po-210. The simple way to rectify these data deficiencies is to organise target field campaigns focusing on particular species and radionuclides where information is lacking. To this end, field sampling has been conducted in a semi-natural mountain ecosystem in Norway and freshwater aquatic systems in Finland. It is envisaged that the data derived from the studies briefly described in this report will provide fundamental information for our understanding of the behaviour and fate of natural decay series radionuclides in terrestrial and aquatic systems and provide the basis for more robust way. (au)

  20. Knowledge gaps in relation to radionuclide levels and transfer to wild plants and animals, in the context of environmental impact assessments, and a strategy to fill them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.E.; Saxen, R.; Mattila, J.

    2009-01-01

    International activities with regards the development of methods for assessing impacts on the environment from ionising radiation have been substantial in recent years. In developing these methods, there are requirements (i) to determine the transfer of radionuclides within ecosystems and (ii) to determine background dose-rates arising from the presence of naturally occurring radionuclides, in a satisfactory manner. It has quickly become evident that fulfilling these 2 requirements is not entirely straightforward reflecting a lack of data in many cases. This report specifies exactly where these data-gaps lie through analyses of data generated from the most recent studies conducted internationally on this topic. It is evident that information is limited for numerous radionuclides from U-238 and Th-232 decay series and notably, in view of its importance as a contributor to dose-rates in plants and animals, Po-210. The simple way to rectify these data deficiencies is to organise target field campaigns focusing on particular species and radionuclides where information is lacking. To this end, field sampling has been conducted in a semi-natural mountain ecosystem in Norway and freshwater aquatic systems in Finland. It is envisaged that the data derived from the studies briefly described in this report will provide fundamental information for our understanding of the behaviour and fate of natural decay series radionuclides in terrestrial and aquatic systems and provide the basis for more robust way. (au)

  1. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport

  2. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  3. Radionuclide Therapy. Chapter 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flux, G.; Du, Yong [Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Cancer has been treated with radiopharmaceuticals since the 1940s. The radionuclides originally used, including 131I and 32P, are still in use. The role of the physicist in radionuclide therapy encompasses radiation protection, imaging and dosimetry. Radiation protection is of particular importance given the high activities of the unsealed sources that are often administered, and must take into account medical staff, comforters and carers, and, as patients are discharged while still retaining activity, members of the public. Regulations concerning acceptable levels of exposure vary from country to country. If the administered radiopharmaceutical is a γ emitter, then imaging can be performed which may be either qualitative or quantitative. While a regular system of quality control must be in place to prevent misinterpretation of image data, qualitative imaging does not usually rely on the image corrections necessary to determine the absolute levels of activity that are localized in the patient. Accurate quantitative imaging is dependent on these corrections and can permit the distribution of absorbed doses delivered to the patient to be determined with sufficient accuracy to be clinically beneficial.

  4. Geochemical behaviour study of radionuclides and their radiogenic daughters in the vicinity of Oklo 10 and 13 natural nuclear reactors (Gabon) - Application to high-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menet-Dressayre, Catherine

    1992-01-01

    Since 1981, the discovery of new and almost unaltered natural nuclear reactors in the uranium mine of Oklo (Gabon) renewed the interest of scientific community. Indeed, due to their specific features, these reactors could be extensively investigated as natural analogues to better understand the geochemical processes which may occur in a high level nuclear waste repository. The aim of this PhD thesis is to determine the present distribution of a few radionuclides or their radiogenic daughters initially formed within the reaction zones and to infer their geochemical behaviour, subsequently to the stopping of nuclear reactions. Our study was focused on reactors 10 and 13 and their immediate sandstone surroundings in order to decipher the fate of U, Y and light rare earth elements which are assumed to be chemical analogues of actinides and fission products. Mineralogical observations, chemical and isotopic analyses on bulk rocks, led us to conclude that a part of radionuclides, as well as their daughters, remained confined within the reactions zones, in association with secondary mineral phases, whereas another part migrated towards tbe reactor rims. The radionuclides were concentrated at the reactor border or migrated within the first few metres of the surrounding sandstone, according to the intensity of nuclear reactors and the presence of the so-called 'facies argile de pile' which constitutes an intermediate facies between that of reactor cores and that of the surrounding sandstone. In the latter, long range elemental transfers occurred via fissures. Some of them, contemporaneous to the nuclear reactions drained radionuclides-rich fluids at temperatures of about 150-170 deg. C. More recent fissures, observed only in the environment of reactor 13, have allowed the transport of hotter hydrothermal fluids (about 310 deg. C), likely related to the nearby intrusion of dolerite dyke. The principal implications of this work for the disposal of nuclear wastes

  5. Sensors and Automated Analyzers for Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.

    2003-01-01

    The production of nuclear weapons materials has generated large quantities of nuclear waste and significant environmental contamination. We have developed new, rapid, automated methods for determination of radionuclides using sequential injection methodologies to automate extraction chromatographic separations, with on-line flow-through scintillation counting for real time detection. This work has progressed in two main areas: radionuclide sensors for water monitoring and automated radiochemical analyzers for monitoring nuclear waste processing operations. Radionuclide sensors have been developed that collect and concentrate radionuclides in preconcentrating minicolumns with dual functionality: chemical selectivity for radionuclide capture and scintillation for signal output. These sensors can detect pertechnetate to below regulatory levels and have been engineered into a prototype for field testing. A fully automated process monitor has been developed for total technetium in nuclear waste streams. This instrument performs sample acidification, speciation adjustment, separation and detection in fifteen minutes or less

  6. Speciation analysis of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Naturally occurring and artificially produced radionuclides in the environment can be present in different physico-chemical forms (i. e. radionuclide species) varying in size (nominal molecular mass), charge properties and valence, oxidation state, structure and morphology, density, complexing ability etc. Low molecular mass (LMM) species are believed to be mobile and potentially bioavailable, while high molecular mass (HMM) species such as colloids, polymers, pseudocolloids and particles are considered inert. Due to time dependent transformation processes such as mobilization of radionuclide species from solid phases or interactions of mobile and reactive radionuclide species with components in soils and sediments, however, the original distribution of radionuclides deposited in ecosystems will change over time and influence the ecosystem behaviour. To assess the environmental impact from radionuclide contamination, information on radionuclide species deposited, interactions within affected ecosystems and the time-dependent distribution of radionuclide species influencing mobility and biological uptake is essential. The development of speciation techniques to characterize radionuclide species in waters, soils and sediments should therefore be essential for improving the prediction power of impact and risk assessment models. The present paper reviews fractionation techniques which should be utilised for radionuclide speciation purposes. (author)

  7. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  8. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal.

  9. Application of radionuclides in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.

    1983-07-01

    Four main applications of radionuclides in nuclear technology are presented which are level-, density- and thickness gauging and moisture determination. Each method is surveyed for its general principle, various designs, accuracy, errors and practical designs. (Author)

  10. Radiological impact on the UK population of industries which use or produce materials containing enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides. Part II: the steel production industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crockett, G.M.; Smith, K.R.; Oatway, W.B.; Mobbs, S.F.

    2003-01-01

    This report contains an assessment of the radiological impact on the UK population of the steel production industry within the UK. The radiological impact of the primary industry, the waste streams produced and the use of by-product slag have been considered. Individual doses from atmospheric releases from ail currently operating integrated steel plants in the UK are less than 10 μSv y -1 for all age groups. The per caput dose rate in the UK population from 500 years of continuous steel production at the current levels is estimated to be 0.1 μSv y -1 . Estimated maximum doses to workers at the steel production plant, landfill workers, and workers manufacturing and using building materials containing slag were generally less than 20 μSv y -1 . The estimated radon concentrations in buildings constructed from concrete containing slag depend upon the radon emanation fraction assumed for the material. Experimental data in this area is sparse, and thus a range was considered. The estimated radon concentrations in buildings constructed from concrete containing slag ranged between 7.0 and 10.8 Bq m -3 , compared with 9.9 Bq m -3 when slag-free concrete is assumed. The estimated dose from radon exposure ranges between 363 μSv y -1 and 559 μSv y -1 , compared with 510 μSv y -1 when slag-free concrete is used. The estimated external dose to an individual in a house constructed using concrete containing slag is 790 μSv y -1 compared with 758 μSv y -1 for slag-free concrete. The overall effect of the use of the slag in building materials therefore ranges between a reduction in dose of 115 μSv y -1 and an increase of 81 μSv y -1 . Other scenarios involving exposure of members of the public to slag resulted in doses of less than 5 μSv y -1 . The estimated peak individual risk from landfill disposal of steel industry waste is less than approximately 1 10 -8 y -1 . Currently, radiological controls on the operation of steel production sites are confined to the

  11. Quantitative radionuclide angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, P.M.; Rerych, S.K.; Moran, J.F.; Newman, G.E.; Douglas, J.M.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.; Jones, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    This study introduces a new method for calculating actual left ventricular volumes and cardiac output from data recorded during a single transit of a radionuclide bolus through the heart, and describes in detail current radionuclide angiocardiography methodology. A group of 64 healthy adults with a wide age range were studied to define the normal range of hemodynamic parameters determined by the technique. Radionuclide angiocardiograms were performed in patients undergoing cardiac catherization to validate the measurements. In 33 patients studied by both techniques on the same day, a close correlation was documented for measurement of ejection fraction and end-diastolic volume. To validate the method of volumetric cardiac output calcuation, 33 simultaneous radionuclide and indocyanine green dye determinations of cardiac output were performed in 18 normal young adults. These independent comparisons of radionuclide measurements with two separate methods document that initial transit radionuclide angiocardiography accurately assesses left ventricular function

  12. Development of a general model to predict the rate of radionuclide release (source term) from a low-level waste shallow land burial facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.M.; Kempf, C.R.; Suen, C.J.; Mughabghab, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Federal Code of Regulations 10 CFR 61 requires that any near surface disposal site be capable of being characterized, analyzed, and modeled. The objective of this program is to assist NRC in developing the ability to model a disposal site that conforms to these regulations. In particular, a general computer model capable of predicting the quantity and rate of radionuclide release from a shallow land burial trench, i.e., the source term, is being developed. The framework for this general model has been developed and consists of four basic compartments that represent the major processes that influence release. These compartments are: water flow, container degradation, release from the waste packages, and radionuclide transport. Models for water flow and radionuclide transport rely on the use of the computer codes FEMWATER and FEMWASTE. These codes are generally regarded as being state-of-the-art and required little modification for their application to this project. Models for container degradation and release from waste packages have been specifically developed for this project. This paper provides a brief description of the models being used in the source term project and examples of their use over a range of potential conditions. 13 refs

  13. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  14. Marine biogeochemistry of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    Radionuclides entering the ocean from runoff, fallout, or deliberate release rapidly become involved in marine biogeochemical cycles. Sources, sinks and transport of radionuclides and analogue elements are discussed with emphasis placed on how these elements interact with marine organisms. Water, food and sediments are the source terms from which marine biota acquire radionuclides. Uptake from water occurs by surface adsorption, absorption across body surfaces, or a combination of both. Radionuclides ingested with food are either assimilated into tissue or excreted. The relative importance of the food and water pathway in uptake varies with the radionuclide and the conditions under which exposure occurs. Evidence suggests that, compared to the water and food pathways, bioavailability of sediment-bound radionuclides is low. Bioaccumulation processes are controlled by many environmental and intrinsic factors including exposure time, physical-chemical form of the radionuclide, salinity, temperature, competitive effects with other elements, organism size, physiology, life cycle and feeding habits. Once accumulated, radionuclides are transported actively by vertical and horizontal movements of organisms and passively by release of biogenic products, e.g., soluble excreta, feces, molts and eggs. Through feeding activities, particles containing radionuclides are ''packaged'' into larger aggregates which are redistributed upon release. Most radionuclides are not irreversibly bound to such particles but are remineralized as they sink and/or decompose. In the pelagic zones, sinking aggregates can further scavenge particle-reactive elements thus removing them from the surface layers and transporting them to depth. Evidence from both radiotracer experiments and in situ sediment trap studies is presented which illustrates the importance of biological scavenging in controlling the distribution of radionuclides in the water column. (author)

  15. Study on the serum levels of relevant cytokines IL-β, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor markers CEA, CA15-3, PRL in breast cancer patients with bone metastatic lesions shown on SPECT radio-nuclide bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Bao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the correlationship between SPECT radionuclide bone scan and serum levels of three tumor markers as well as three cytokines in patients with breast cancer. Methods: Serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, CEA, CA15-3(with RIA) and PRL(with CLIA) were determined in 1)20 breast cancer patients with definite bone metastatic lesions shown on radio-nuclide bone scan 2) 20 breast cancer patients without bone metastasis 3) 30 patients with benign breast disorders and 4) 35 controls. Results: The serum tumor markers levels in patients osseous metastasis were significantly higher than those in the other three groups (P 0.05). The serum levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β in patients with osseous metastasis were also significantly higher than those in other groups(P<0.05). Conclusion: Over expression of CEA, CA15-3 and PRL as well as IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β were related with osseous metastasis from breast cancer. Determination of the levels of these six parameters would be helpful for dynamic monitoring of the extent of metastasis. (authors)

  16. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocock, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the distribution and movement of radionuclides in semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems in north-west England with particular emphasis on inputs to, and outputs from ecosystems; on plant and soil aspects; and on radionuclides in fallout and in discharges by the nuclear industry. (author)

  17. Status report on radionuclide transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    At the suggestion of the Federal Minstry of the Interior, in June 1978, a group of scientists from several institutions who are active in the field of radionuclide transfer or are interested in these problems got together. During the discussions of the work team, especially the transfer soil/plants was emphasized. Then the work team set up a status report on the transfer of the radionuclides relevant in the sense of the radiation protection act. The nuclides H 3 and C14, the isotopes of the Sr, J, and Cs, Tc99, the so-called corrosion nuclides Mn54, Fe59, co-isotopes and Zn65, and isotopes of Pu, Am, and Cm were regarded as important for a possible radiation exposition. Recent investigations revealed that also the natural radionuclides Ra226, Po210, and Pb210 should be covered by the investigations. The goal of this status report is to present the level of knowledge on the transfer of these radionuclides to man in a brief form, giving hints at the most important literature. It was requested by the Federal Ministry of the Interior, as fas as possible, to indicate transfer factors which are necessary for the radio-occology act to be decreed according to Para. 45 of the radiation protection act. Another goal of the report was to show the gap in the knowledge on the radio nuclide transfer. This was thought to help to create a basis for the decisions of the Federal Ministry concerning the support of other investigation projects in the field of transfer of radionuclides. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Radionuclide transfer in terrestrial animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGregorio, D.; Kitchings, T.; Van Voris, P.

    1978-01-01

    The analysis of dispersion of radionuclides in terrestrial food chains, generally, is a series of equations identifying the fractional input and outflow rates from trophic level to trophic level. Data that are prerequisite inputs for these food chain transport models include: (1) identification of specific transport pathway, (2) assimilation at each pathway link, and (3) the turnover rate or retention function by successive receptor species in the appropriate food chain. In this report, assimilation coefficients, biological half-lives, and excretion rates for a wide variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species and radionuclides have been compiled from an extensive search of the available literature. Using the information accumulated from the literature, correlations of nuclide metabolism and body weight are also discussed. (author)

  19. Human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.

    2009-01-01

    Forest soil, understorey vegetation and trees are all sources of radionuclides and human radiation doses after contaminating atmospheric deposition. People are exposed to radiation externally from sources outside the body and internally via ingestion and inhalation of radionuclides. Understorey vegetation contributes to ingestion doses through berries, herbs, wild honey, mushrooms and game meat; also trees provide feed to terrestrial birds and big game. During stay in forests people are subject to external radiation from forest floor and overstorey, and they may inhale airborne radioactive aerosol or gaseous radionuclides in ground level air. In the early phase of contamination also resuspended radionuclides may add to the internal dose of people via inhalation. People in Nordic countries are most exposed to radiation via ingestion of radionuclides in wild foods. The distribution of radionuclides in forests is changed by environmental processes, and thereby also the significance of various dose pathways to humans will change with time. External exposure is received in living environment from contaminated stemwood used as building timber and for manufacturing of furniture and other wood products. The aim of this paper is to outline the significance of various human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests considering the public and workers in forestry and production of bioenergy. Examples on effective doses are given based on two historical events, atmospheric nuclear weapon tests (mostly in 1950's and in 1960's) and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. (au)

  20. Radionuclides in air, water, and biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, A.H.; Nelson, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    Air, water, and biological samples collected before and after the 1965, 1969, and 1971 underground nuclear detonations at Amchitka Island were analyzed for natural and fallout radionuclides by gamma spectrometry. Selected samples were also analyzed for tritium, 55 Fe, and 90 Sr. The objectives were to search for and identify radionuclides of Amchitka origin in the samples and to contribute to the general knowledge of the distribution of radionuclides in the environment. The studies showed that there has been no escape of radionuclides from the underground sites of the three nuclear detonations at Amchitka Island except for trace quantities of radionuclides, principally tritium, in water and soil gas samples from the immediate vicinity of the surface ground zero for the 1965 event. Two naturally occurring radionuclides, 40 K and 7 Be, were the most abundant radionuclides in the samples, usually by a factor of 10 or more, except for 137 Cs in lichen samples. All levels were well below applicable Radiation Protction Guides, often being near the statistical limit of detection

  1. Radionuclide dispersion in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Neto, C. de; Amorim, E.S. do; Panetta, J.

    1979-05-01

    The instantaneous liberation of radionuclides in the atmosphere is studied in three dimensions, according to the formalism of the diffusion theory. The analytical solution, expose to gravitational and an atmospherical effects, is combined with the discretization of space and time in the calculation of levels of exposure. A typical inventory (for a PWR) was considered in the calculation of immersion doses, and the results permitted a comparative analysis among the different existing models. (Author) [pt

  2. Process for encapsulating radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, L.E.; Isaacson, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclides are immobilized in virtually an insoluble form by reacting at a temperature of at least 90 0 C as an aqueous alkaline mixture having a solution pH of at least 10, containing a source of silicon, the radionuclide waste, and a metal cation. The molar ratio of silicon to the metal cation is on the order of unity to produce a gel from which complex metalosilicates crystallize to entrap the radionuclides within the resultant condensed crystal lattice. The product is a silicious stone-like material which is virtually insoluble and nonleachable in alkaline or neutral environment. One embodiment provides for the formation of the complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by gel formation with subsequent calcination to the solid product; another embodiment utilizes a hydrothermal process, either above ground or deep within basalt caverns, at greater than atmospheric pressures and a temperature between 90 and 500 0 C to form complex metalo-silicates, such as strontium aluminosilicate. Another embodiment provides for the formation of complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by slurrying an alkaline mixture of bentonite or kaolinite with a source of silicon and the radionuclide waste in salt form. In each of the embodiments a mobile system is achieved whereby the metalo-silicate constituents reorient into a condensed crystal lattice forming a cage structure with the condensed metalo-silicate lattice which completely surrounds the radionuclide and traps the radionuclide therein; thus rendering the radionuclide virtually insoluble

  3. Layout level design for testability strategy applied to a CMOS cell library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, F.C.; Oliver, J.; Rullan, M.; Ferrer, C.

    1993-01-01

    The layout level design for testability (LLDFT) rules used here allow to avoid some hard to detect faults or even undetectable faults on a cell library by modifying the cell layout without changing their behavior and achieving a good level of reliability. These rules avoid some open faults or reduce

  4. Foodstuffs, radionuclides, monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisikov, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination of water and food stuffs as a result of the Chernobyl accident and permissible contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs are considered in brief. A method of radiation monitoring of food stuffs and water for the radionuclides mentioned is suggested. The method permits employment of the simplest and cheapest radiometric equipment for analysis, whole the high degree of radionuclide concentration using fiber sorbents permits using the instrumentation without expensive shields against external radiation. A description of ion-exchange unit for radiation monitoring of liquid samples of food stuffs or water, is provided [ru

  5. Generator for radionuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisner, P.S.; Forrest, T.R.F.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides a radionuclide generator of the kind in which a parent radionuclide, adsorbed on a column of particulate material, generates a daughter radionuclide which is periodically removed from the column. This invention is particularly concerned with technetium generators using single collection vials. The generator comprises a column, a first reservoir for the eluent, a second reservoir to contain the volume of eluent required for a single elution, and means connecting the first reservoir to the second reservoir and the second reservoir to the column. Such a generator is particularly suitable for operation by vacuum elution

  6. Radionuclide cinematography of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.E.; Sigel, H.; Geffers, H.; Bitter, F.; Meyer, G.; Kampmann, H.; Stauch, M.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclide cinematography is described as a procedure making use of radiation-level variations above the heart after equipartitioning of sup(99m)Tc-labelled human serum albumin in the blood pool. Regional ventricular and vestibular variations are phase-shifted. This procedure permits delineation of aneurysmas with interphasic course, cicatrization of the cardiac wall not producing any cyclical variation. The study included normal subjects and 16 patients with full course infarction. Characteristic disturbances of motility distribution were found in all cases of scarred or aneurysmic alterations in the frontal and side walls of the left ventricle. The procedure was unable to detect two small infarction scars on the rear wall. The possibility of using radionuclide cinematography to prove coronary insufficiency as well as a comparison with other methods are discussed

  7. Transfer of radionuclides into human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, M.; Wirth, E.

    1998-01-01

    Up until now the potential radiation exposure to breast-fed babies due to contaminated human milk has not been taken into account, when deriving international limit values and reference levels for radionuclides in foodstuffs, in air at monitored work places or for exposures in the medical field. It was the aim of the research project 'Transfer of radionuclides into human milk' to quantify the transfer of incorporated radionuclides into mother's milk, and develop simple models to estimate the radiation exposure of babies through the ingestion of human milk. The study focused on considerations of the radiation exposure due to the ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs by the mother, the inhalation of radionuclides at monitored work places, and the administration of radiopharmaceuticals to breast-feeding mothers. The blocking of infant thyroid glands by stable iodine in the case of accidental releases of radioiodine was considered as well. (orig.) [de

  8. Sandstone uranium deposits of Meghalaya: natural analogues for radionuclide migration and backfill material in geological repository for high level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajpai, R.K.; Narayan, P.K.

    2008-01-01

    Sandstone uranium deposits serve as potential natural analogue to demonstrate safety offered by geological media against possible release of nuclear waste from their confinement and migration towards biosphere. In this study, available database on geochemical aspects of Domisiat uranium deposit of Meghalaya has been evaluated to highlight the behavior of radionuclides of concern over long term in a geological repository. Constituents like actinides (U and Th), fission products and RE elements are adequately retained in clays and organic matters associated with these sandstone deposits. The study also highlights the possibility of utilization of lean ore discarded during mining and milling as backfill material in far field areas and optimizing near field buffers/backfills in a geological repository located in granitic rocks in depth range of 400-500m. (author)

  9. Contamination level of natural 238U and 232Th radionuclides in offshore of coal power plant (assessment at offshore of Panjang Island and Lada Bay, Banten)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabam Parsaoran Situmorang; Harpasis Selamet Sanusi; June Mellawati

    2011-01-01

    This study had been carried out by collecting sample of the surficial sediments, sea water, seaweeds, anchovies (Stolephorus and Anchoa) and mussels (Codakia) from 4 locations in waters of Pulau Panjang and coastal of Lada Bay (as control/comparison site), Banten in June - July 2010. Natural radionuclides (Th) concentration in samples was measured using neutron activation analysis (NAA) method. The results showed that the total radionuclides concentration in sediment ( 238 U: 18.6160 - 35.0013 Bq/kg; 232 Th: 11.2020 - 35.6685 Bq/kg), seawater ( 238 U: undetected; 232 Th: 0.0790 - 0.1299 Bq/l), cultivation seaweeds ( 238 U: undetected; 232 Th: 3.6735 - 4.8345 Bq/kg), natural seaweeds ( 238 U: 3.6851 - 48.0430 Bq/kg; 232 Th: 3.9941 - 9.0788 Bq/kg), Stolephorus ( 238 U: undetected; 232 Th: 3.3078 Bq/kg) and Codakia ( 238 U: 6.8903 Bq/kg; 232 Th: 3.6023 Bq/kg) in Pulau Panjang, Banten around Suralaya coal power plant higher than control site that were around the Labuan coal power plant, namely in sediments ( 238 U: 10.4253 Bq/kg; 232 Th: 16.5952 Bq/kg), seawater( 238 U: undetected; 232 Th: 0.0671 Bq/l), cultivation seaweeds ( 238 U: undetected; 232 Th: 2.3005 Bq/kg), natural seaweeds ( 238 U: 19.5367 Bq/kg; 232 Th: 2.6729 Bq/kg) and Anchoa ( 238 U: undetected; 232 Th: 2.0603 Bq/kg). (author)

  10. Radionuclides in analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tousset, J.

    1984-01-01

    Applications of radionuclides in analytical chemistry are reviewed in this article: tracers, radioactive sources and activation analysis. Examples are given in all these fields and it is concluded that these methods should be used more widely [fr

  11. Radionuclide Basics: Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Radiation Protection Contact Us Share Radionuclide Basics: Iodine Iodine (chemical symbol I) is a chemical element. ... in the environment Iodine sources Iodine and health Iodine in the Environment All 37 isotopes of iodine ...

  12. Abscess detection with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclide studies may aid in the diagnosis and localization of intra-abdominal infections. Despite the introduction of new radiographic and ultrasound methods, there are several clinical situations in which radionuclide scans have proved useful. Those include detection of postoperative intra-abdominal abscess, evaluation of liver abscess, differentiation between pancreatic pseudocyst or abscess, evaluation of fever of unknown origin, and evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease. Each clinical situation is discussed separately here

  13. Natural and Synthetic Barriers to Immobilize Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Um, W.

    2011-01-01

    solution conditions. Particularly for temperature extremes, the backfill material should be able to withstand elevated temperatures resulting from the heat generating high-radiation fluxes of solidified high-level nuclear wastes. The barrier materials are most commonly synthetic or natural inorganic materials that selectively adsorb radionuclide and metallic contaminants. In here, both natural and synthetic barrier materials are discussed to increase our understanding of potential retardation of radionuclide transport in the repository

  14. Radionuclide fixation mechanisms in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, S.

    1991-01-01

    In the safety evaluation of the radioactive waste disposal in geological environment, the mass balance equation for radionuclide migration is given. The sorption of radionuclides by geological formations is conventionally represented by the retardation of the radionuclides as compared with water movement. In order to quantify the sorption of radionuclides by rocks and sediments, the distribution ratio is used. In order to study quantitatively the long term behavior of waste radionuclides in geological environment, besides the distribution ratio concept in short term, slower radionuclide retention reaction involving mineral transformation should be considered. The development of microspectroscopic method for long term reaction path modeling, the behavior of iron during granite and water interaction, the reduction precipitation of radionuclides, radionuclide migration pathways, and the representative scheme of radionuclide migration and fixation in rocks are discussed. (K.I.)

  15. Automation of sample processing for ICP-MS determination of 90Sr radionuclide at ppq level for nuclear technology and environmental purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołacińska, Kamila; Chajduk, Ewelina; Dudek, Jakub; Samczyński, Zbigniew; Łokas, Edyta; Bojanowska-Czajka, Anna; Trojanowicz, Marek

    2017-07-01

    90 Sr is a widely determined radionuclide for environmental purposes, nuclear waste control, and can be also monitored in coolants in nuclear reactor plants. In the developed method, the ICP-MS detection was employed together with sample processing in sequential injection analysis (SIA) setup, equipped with a lab-on-valve with mechanized renewal of sorbent bed for solid-phase extraction. The optimized conditions of determination included preconcentration of 90 Sr on cation-exchange column and removal of different type of interferences using extraction Sr-resin. The limit of detection of the developed procedure depends essentially on the configuration of the employed ICP-MS spectrometer and on the available volume of the sample to be analyzed. For 1L initial sample volume, the method detection limit (MDL) value was evaluated as 2.9ppq (14.5BqL -1 ). The developed method was applied to analyze spiked river water samples, water reference materials, and also simulated and real samples of the nuclear reactor coolant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Report on the intercomparison run IAEA-156 radionuclides in clover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachnov, V.; Valkovic, V.; Dekner, R.

    1991-01-01

    This report contains the results of the intercomparison IAEA-156 on the determination of radionuclides in clover. Initially participants were requested to determine the levels of 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 40 K, 90 Sr and invited to provide data for other radionuclides. The participants included 46 laboratories located in 25 countries, and statistical evaluation of their data yield recommended values for these four radionuclides. Additional radionuclides reported were 210 Pb, 239 Pu and 125 Sb; however, insufficient data exists to statistically determine recommended values for these radionuclides. The following are the recommended values, with confidence intervals, for the most frequently measured radionuclides (reference date: 1 August 1986): 134 Cs 132.1 Bq/kg (126.4-137.7); 137 Cs 264 Bq/kg (254-274); 40 K 657 Bq/kg (637-676); 90 Sr 14.8 Bq/kg (13.4-16.3). Figs and tabs

  17. Concentration of some radionuclides in some popular sudanese medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagiroun, M. I. A.

    2012-10-01

    In this study was measured concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 2 38U , 2 32T h and 4 0K in samples of sudanese medicinal plants. The radionuclide activity concentrations in samples analyzed ranged from 4.09 to 41.07 Bq kg -1 for 2 38T h and from 353.14 to 2270.21 Bq kg -1 for 4 0k . No trace of artificial radionuclide was determined in all the samples. The effective dose due to the presence of these radionuclides was estimated and found to be 0.524 mSv/year which is well below the permissible levels. (Author)

  18. Migration of heavy natural radionuclides in a humid climatic zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titaeva, N.A.; Alexakhin, R.M.; Taskaev, A.I.; Maslov, V.I.

    1980-01-01

    Regularities and biochemical peculiarities of the migrations of heavy natural radionuclides in the environment are examined, with special reference to two regions in a humid climatic zone representing natural patterns of radionuclide distribution and to four plots artificially contaminated with high levels of natural radioactivity more than 20 years previously. It was determined that the migration of thorium, uranium, and radium isotopes through the rock-water-soil-plant system is dependent on many physiochemical properties of these radionuclides, their compounds, and the local environment. Isotopic activity ratios provide a useful tool for studying the direction of radionuclide migration and its influence on observed distribution patterns

  19. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Park, Hyun Soo

    2003-04-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. This project is composed of 6 subjects such as data production required for safety assessments, sorption properties and mechanisms, nuclide migration in the fractured rock, colloid formation and migration, nuclide speciation in deep geological environments, and total evaluation of geochemical behaviors considering multi-factors. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  20. Radionuclides in house dust

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Hammond, D J

    1985-01-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, alt...

  1. Radionuclide transfer to meadow vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharova, N.; Matsko, N.; Zhebrakova, I.; Montik, T.

    1999-01-01

    In the paper results of radioecological monitoring of natural plant populations in the 30 km zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (Polesky State Radioecological Reserve) during the period from 1987 to 1998 are presented. The level of radiation background in experimental areas varied from 0.1 to 30 mR/h that correspond to the total soil activity of 300-24000 kBq/m 2 (for May 1997). Monitoring was carried out including the radionuclide migration in natural plant complexes and transfer of 137 Cs between some plant organs. Refs. 3 (author)

  2. Dietary intake of natural radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Briggs, J L; Bradley, E J [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (UK)

    1984-09-01

    The levels of the natural radionuclides, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 were measured in food samples collected for a National Food Survey, thus reflecting current consumption patterns in the UK. Daily intakes of radium-226, lead-210 and inferred values of polonium-210 were calculated for 20 food groups. From these data, the annual effective dose equivalents from radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in the UK diet were estimated to be 3..mu..Sv, 41..mu..Sv and 13..mu..Sv respectively.

  3. Dietary intake of natural radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith-Briggs, J.L.; Bradley, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    The levels of the natural radionuclides, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 were measured in food samples collected for a National Food Survey, thus reflecting current consumption patterns in the UK. Daily intakes of radium-226, lead-210 and inferred values of polonium-210 were calculated for 20 food groups. From these data, the annual effective dose equivalents from radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in the UK diet were estimated to be 3μSv, 41μSv and 13μSv respectively. (U.K.)

  4. Project Opalinus Clay: Radionuclide Concentration Limits in the Near-Field of a Repository for Spent Fuel and Vitrified High-Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, U

    2002-10-01

    The disposal feasibility study currently performed by Nagra includes a succession of quantitative models, aiming at describing the fate of radionuclides potentially escaping from the repository system. In this chain of models the present report provides the so called 'solubility limits' (maximum expected concentrations) for safety relevant radionuclides from SF/HLW wastes, disposed of in a reducing clay (Opalinus Clay, bentonite) environment. Solubility and speciation calculations in bentonite pore waters were performed using the very recently updated Nagra/PSI Chemical Thermodynamic Data Base (TDB) for the majority of the 37 elements addressed as potentially relevant. Particularly for the most relevant actinides, the straightforward applications with this updated TDB yielded results in contradiction to chemical analogy considerations. This was a consequence of incomplete data and called for problem specific TDB extensions, which were evaluated in a separate study. However, a summary of these problem specific extensions is provided in section 4.1. The results presented in this report solely depend on geochemical model calculations. Thus, it is of utmost importance that the underlying data and assumptions are made clear to the reader. In order to ensure traceability, all thermodynamic data not included in the Nagra/PSI TDB are explicitly specified in the report, in order to provide complete documentation for quality assurance and for comprehensibility. In order to clearly distinguish between results derived from data carefully reviewed in the Nagra/PSI TDB and those calculated from 'other' data, the summary of expected maximum concentrations provided in Table 1 includes two columns. The heading CALCULATED provides maximum concentrations based on data fully documented in the updated TDB, whereas maximum concentrations, which include additional problem specific data and/or data from other sources, are given under the heading RECOMMENDED. The

  5. Project Opalinus Clay: Radionuclide Concentration Limits in the Near-Field of a Repository for Spent Fuel and Vitrified High-Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berner, U.

    2002-10-01

    The disposal feasibility study currently performed by Nagra includes a succession of quantitative models, aiming at describing the fate of radionuclides potentially escaping from the repository system. In this chain of models the present report provides the so called 'solubility limits' (maximum expected concentrations) for safety relevant radionuclides from SF/HLW wastes, disposed of in a reducing clay (Opalinus Clay, bentonite) environment. Solubility and speciation calculations in bentonite pore waters were performed using the very recently updated Nagra/PSI Chemical Thermodynamic Data Base (TDB) for the majority of the 37 elements addressed as potentially relevant. Particularly for the most relevant actinides, the straightforward applications with this updated TDB yielded results in contradiction to chemical analogy considerations. This was a consequence of incomplete data and called for problem specific TDB extensions, which were evaluated in a separate study. However, a summary of these problem specific extensions is provided in section 4.1. The results presented in this report solely depend on geochemical model calculations. Thus, it is of utmost importance that the underlying data and assumptions are made clear to the reader. In order to ensure traceability, all thermodynamic data not included in the Nagra/PSI TDB are explicitly specified in the report, in order to provide complete documentation for quality assurance and for comprehensibility. In order to clearly distinguish between results derived from data carefully reviewed in the Nagra/PSI TDB and those calculated from 'other' data, the summary of expected maximum concentrations provided in Table 1 includes two columns. The heading CALCULATED provides maximum concentrations based on data fully documented in the updated TDB, whereas maximum concentrations, which include additional problem specific data and/or data from other sources, are given under the heading RECOMMENDED. The present study also pays

  6. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms - FY13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Michelle MV; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lapierre, Robert; Dage, Denomy C.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2013-10-15

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  7. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  8. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersahin, Devrim, E-mail: devrimersahin@yahoo.com; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Yale University, 333 Cedar St., New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2011-10-11

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  9. Radionuclide deposition control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for controlling the deposition, on to the surfaces of reactor components, of the radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from a liquid stream containing the radionuclides. The method consists of disposing a getter material (nickel) in the liquid stream, and a non-getter material (tantalum, tungsten or molybdenum) as a coating on the surfaces where deposition is not desired. The process is described with special reference to its use in the coolant circuit in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors. (U.K.)

  10. Radionuclide examination in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streda, A.; Kolar, J.; Valesova, M.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of twenty years of experience with the use of radionuclides in bone and articular rheumatic diseases indications for such examinations are summed up. The main advantage of the use of radionuclide methods is that they bring forward early diagnosis of tissue reconstruction which can thus be detected at the stage of microstructural changes. They also provide earlier and more reliable detection of the degree of the pathological process than is provided by X-ray examination. In some cases scintiscan may also be found useful as a method for following up the results of treatment of rheumatic diseases. (author)

  11. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersahin, Devrim; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David

    2011-01-01

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose

  12. Determination of radionuclides in discharged water from gold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of radionuclides concentrations in discharged water from gold processing into the environment of Bogoso (Ghana) were determined using radioanalytical techniques. Radioactivity screening was first carried out to identify physical and chemical processing stages that might be concentrating the radionuclides.

  13. Radionuclide transfer onto ground surface in surface water flow, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Masayuki; Takebe, Shinichi; Komiya, Tomokazu; Kamiyama, Hideo

    1991-07-01

    Radionuclides migration in ground surface water flow is considered to be one of the important path way in the scenario for environmental migration of radionuclides leaked from low level radioactive waste repository. Simulating the slightly sloped surface on which contaminated solution is flowing downward, testing for radionuclide migration on ground surface had been started. As it's first step, an experiment was carried out under the condition of restricted infiltration in order to elucidate the adsorption behavior of radionuclides onto the loamy soil surface in related with hydraulic conditions. Radionuclides concentration change in effluent solution with time and a concentration distribution of radionuclides adsorbed on the ground surface were obtained from several experimental conditions combining the rate and the duration time of the water flow. The radionuclides concentration in the effluent solution was nearly constant during each experimental period, and was reduced under the condition of lower flow rate. The surface distribution of radionuclides concentration showed two distinctive regions. The one was near the inlet vessel where the concentration was promptly reducing, and the other was following the former where the concentration was nearly constant. The characteristic surface distribution of radionuclides concentration can be explained by a two dimensional diffusion model with a first order adsorption reaction, based on the advection of flow rate distribution in perpendicular direction. (author)

  14. Radionuclides in the oceans inputs and inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guegueniat, P.; Germain, P.; Metivier, H.

    1996-01-01

    Ten years after Chernobyl, following the decision by France to end nuclear weapon testing in the Pacific ocean, after the end of the OECD-NEA Coordinated Research and Environmental Surveillance programme related to low-level waste dumping in the deep ocean, and one hundred years after the discovery of radioactivity, the IPSN wanted to compile and review the available information on artificial radioactivity levels in seas and oceans. International experts have been invited to present data on inputs and inventories of radionuclides in the marine environment, and to describe the evolution of radioactivity levels in water, sediments and living organisms. Different sources of radionuclides present in the aquatic environment are described: atmospheric fallout before and after Chernobyl, industrial wastes, dumped wastes and ships, nuclear ship accidents, river inputs, earth-sea atmospheric transfers and experimental sites for nuclear testing. Radioactivity levels due to these sources are dealt with at ocean (Atlantic, Pacific and Indian) and sea level (Channel, North Sea, Irish Sea, Mediterranean, Baltic, Black Sea and Arctic seas). These data collected in the present book give an up-to-date assessment of radionuclide distributions which will be very useful to address scientific and wider public concerns about radionuclides found in the aquatic environment. It gives many references useful to those who want to deepen their understanding of particular aspects of marine radioecology. (authors)

  15. Taking radionuclides to heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleynhans, P.H.T.; Lotter, M.G.; Van Aswegen, A.; Minnaar, P.C.; Iturralde, M.; Herbst, C.P.; Marx, D.

    1980-01-01

    Ischaemic heart disease is a main cause of death in South Africa. Non-invasive ECG gated radionuclide bloodpool imaging plays an increasingly useful role in the evalution of the function of the heart as a pump, and the extent of heart muscle perfusion defects is further pinpointed by invasive krypton-81m studies to improve patient management

  16. Radionuclides deposition over Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourchet, M.; Magand, O.; Frezzotti, M.; Ekaykin, A.; Winther, J.-G.

    2003-01-01

    A detailed and comprehensive map of the distribution patterns for both natural and artificial radionuclides over Antarctica has been established. This work integrates the results of several decades of international programs focusing on the analysis of natural and artificial radionuclides in snow and ice cores from this polar region. The mean value (37±20 Bq m -2 ) of 241 Pu total deposition over 28 stations is determined from the gamma emissions of its daughter 241 Am, presenting a long half-life (432.7 yrs). Detailed profiles and distributions of 241 Pu in ice cores make it possible to clearly distinguish between the atmospheric thermonuclear tests of the fifties and sixties. Strong relationships are also found between radionuclide data ( 137 Cs with respect to 241 Pu and 210 Pb with respect to 137 Cs), make it possible to estimate the total deposition or natural fluxes of these radionuclides. Total deposition of 137 Cs over Antarctica is estimated at 760 TBq, based on results from the 90-180 deg. East sector. Given the irregular distribution of sampling sites, more ice cores and snow samples must be analyzed in other sectors of Antarctica to check the validity of this figure

  17. Soil burden by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, W.E.H.; Wenzel, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    Natural radioactivity - half-lifes and radiation type of man-made nuclides, radionuclide behaviour in soils, effects on soil condition and soil functions are described. The only mode of decontamination is by decay and thus primarily dependent on the half-life of nuclides

  18. Radionuclides in house dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Dodd, N J; Hammond, D J

    1985-04-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate authorising Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, although radionuclides originating rom the BNFL site can be detected in house dust, this source of contamination is a negligible route of exposure for members of the public in West Cumbria. This report presents the results of the Board's study of house dust in twenty homes in Cumbria during the spring and summer of 1984. A more intensive investigation is being carried out by Imperial College. (author)

  19. Radionuclide body function imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1983-01-01

    A transverse radionuclide scan field imaging apparatus is claimed. It comprises: a plurality of highly focused closely laterally adjacent collimators arranged inwardly focused in an array which surrounds a scan field, each collimator being moveable relative to its adjacent collimator; means for rotating the array about the scan field and means for imparting travel to the collimators

  20. Development of monitoring system for studying of radionuclide and chemical contamination level in trans boundary river basins of Caspian and Kara Seas at Russian Federation territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valyaev, A.N.; Stepanets, O.V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Intensive and insufficiently controlled human industrial activities, ignoring regional geological and geochemical processes, resulted in considerable chemical pollution and radioactive contamination of these river's basins, where some large nuclear power plants, uranium and chemical enterprises, oil and gas productions are also located. This epidemiological and environmental situation aggravated further after USSR collapse and the establishment of new independent states due to lack of the appropriate environmental monitoring in those countries and on their near-border areas in particular, that contributed to further aggravation of the political tension and economic destabilization between transboundary countries. The environmental situation here is one of most unfavorable among world water ecosystems. In recent years different pollutants (radionuclides, toxins, organic substances and heavy metals) activate reduction processes in bottom sediments, that lead to changes in sulfur and carbon cycles, the oxygen deficit in water, to eutrophication of water reservoirs and their biological degradation. Today the development of total environmental monitoring systems is clearly necessary for operative current control, ensuring preparedness and prediction of any potential emergencies of global and local scales and their long-term effects. The objectives for presented monitoring systems are to: (1)study sources and mechanisms of chemical pollution and radioactive contamination of water basins of Volga (the largest river in Europe and Russia), Terek and Ural rivers flowed into Caspian Sea, and Ob, Irtysh and Tom ones, flowed into Kara Sea in Arctic Ocean within RF territory; (2) develop the well-ground database (DB) on contamination; (3) the using of the obtained results for the operative current trans boundary control, monitoring and protection of freshwater resources; (4) modeling of pollutant's migration. There is no way to provide solution of environmental

  1. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2010-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. The information presented in the report provides data that 1) quantify radionuclide retention within concrete waste form materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG); 2) measure the effect of concrete waste form properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and 3) quantify the stability of uranium-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

  2. Idaho radionuclide exposure study: Literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, E.G.; Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.

    1987-10-01

    Phosphate ores contain elevated levels of natural radioactivity, some of which is released to the environment during processing or use of solid byproducts. The effect of radionuclides from Idaho phosphate processing operations on the local communities has been the subject of much research and study. The literature is reviewed in this report. Two primary radionuclide pathways to the environment have been studied in detail: (1) airborne release of volatile radionuclides, primarily 210 Po, from calciner stacks at the two elemental phosphorus plants; and (2) use of byproduct slag as an aggregate for construction in Soda Springs and Pocatello. Despite the research, there is still no clear understanding of the population dose from radionuclide emissions, effluents, and solid wastes from phosphate processing plants. Two other potential radionuclide pathways to the environment have been identified: radon exhalation from phosphogypsum and ore piles and contamination of surface and ground waters. Recommendations on further study needed to develop a data base for a complete risk assssment are given in the report

  3. Instant detection of incorporated radio-nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgirev, E.I.; Porozov, N.V.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described for rapid estimation of radionuclides both in the whole human body and in individual human organs beginning from levels equal to 0.1-0.01 of the maxium permissible value of annual absorption by personnel. In post-accident radiation exposure surveys, the whole-body content of gamma-emitting nuclides is monitored by measuring the flow of gamma quanta by use of a gas-discharge counter cassette placed at a distance of 0.5 m from the subject. Relationships for determining radionuclides in the human body are presented

  4. Radionuclide Geomicrobiology of the Deep Biosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Craig; Johnsson, Anna; Moll, Henry

    2011-01-01

    aerobic bacterial metabolism, microbial proliferation, biofilm development, and iron oxide formation. In these environments, the stalk-forming bacterium Gallionella may act as a scaffold for iron oxide precipitation on biological material. In situ work in the Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory tunnel indicated......This review summarizes research into interactions between microorganisms and radionuclides under conditions typical of a repository for high-level radioactive waste in deep hard rock environments at a depth of approximately 500 m. The cell-radionuclide interactions of strains of two bacterial...

  5. Radionuclide migration in groundwater. Annual progress report for 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.E.; Toste, A.P.; Abel, K.H.; Brodzinski, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    Research has continued at a low-level waste disposal facility to characterize the physicochemical species of radionuclides migrating in groundwater. This facility consists of an unlined basin and connecting trench which receives effluent water containing low levels of a wide variety of fission and activation products and trace amounts of transuranic radionuclides. The effluent water percolates through the soil and a small fraction of it emerges at seepage springs located some 260 meters from the trench. The disposal basin and trench are very efficient in retaining most of the radionuclides, but trace amounts of a number of radionuclides existing in mobile chemical forms migrate in the groundwater from the trench to the springs. This facility provides the opportunity for characterizing the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration in groundwaters, identifying retardation processes, and validating geochemical models. 13 references, 25 figures, 23 tables

  6. Production of radionuclides with generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khujaev, S.; Egamediev, S.Kh.

    2004-01-01

    (75-85%) independently of the 99 Mo activity (250 - 1000 mCi) at the beginning and the end (up to 15 days) of the period of use. 188 W- 188 Re generator. 188 Re (T 1/2 =16.9 hours, β - m ax=2.12 MeV; γ=155 keV, 15%) is currently attractive radionuclide for radiotherapeutic applications. Rhenium-188 is produced by decay of tungsten-188 (T 1/2 =69.4 d) which can be produced by double neutron capture on enriched 188 W targets with high neutron flux. The specific activity of 188 W is reached up to 2 Ci/g. The optimal conditions for separation of 188 Re from the parent nuclide 188 W are studied. It is shown that the optimal separation condition is using acid-treated aluminium-oxide column to adsorb 188 W as isopolytungstate at pH solution of 2-4. 188 Re is eluted with 0.9% NaCl solution. The characteristics of the sodium perrhenate obtained from our generator are: radiochemical purity is 99.8%; pH 4.0-6.0; yield of 188 Re is 70-75%; breakthrough of 188 W is less than 10 -3 %. 68 Ge- 68 Ga generator. The nuclide 68 Ga (T 1/2 =68.3 min) produced by the electron capture decay of 68 Ge (T 1/2 =288 d) is useful for calibrating positron emission tomography (PET) systems. The 68 Ge is normally produced by both 66 Zn(α,2n) 68 Ge and 69 Ga(p,2n) 68 Ge nuclear reactions. The separation of daughter 68 Ga from parent 68 Ge on both aluminium oxide and tin dioxide are studied. In case of tin dioxide the optimal separation of daughter 68 Ga from parent 68 Ge can be achieved by using 1 M HCl as the eluent. It is shown that the tin dioxide - 1 M HCl generator system provides high yields of 68 Ga (75-80%) with low levels of breakthrough of 68 Ge (2 · 10 -4 %). However, the obtained final product - 68 Ga eluate in 1 M HCl can not be used for direct preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. In case of aluminium oxide we have found that preliminary annealing of aluminium oxide at 1000 deg C provides the best conditions for separation of 68 Ge- 68 Ga radionuclide chain in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid

  7. Radionuclide cardiography in medical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strangfeld, D.; Mohnike, W.; Schmidt, J.; Heine, H.; Correns, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    This publication is a compendium on all aspects of radionuclide diagnostics concerning cardiovascular system diseases. Starting with introductory remarks on the control of cardiovascular diseases the contribution of radionuclide cardiology to functional cardiovascular diagnostics as well as pathophysiological and pathobiochemical aspects of radiocardiography are outlined. Radiopharmaceuticals used in radiocardiography, physical and technical problems in application of radionuclides and their measuring techniques are discussed. In individual chapters radionuclide ventriculography, myocardial scintiscanning, circulatory diagnostics, radionuclide diagnostics of arterial hypertension, of thrombosis and in vitro diagnostics of thrombophilia are treated in the framework of clinical medicine

  8. Low-level radioactive river sediment particles originating from the Chalk river nuclear site carry a mixture of radionuclides and metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Ole Christian; Cagno, Simone; Salbu, Brit [Norwegian University of Life Sciences - NMBU, Center of Excellence in Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Falkenberg, Gerald [Photon science, DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Janssens, Koen; Nuyts, Gert; Vanmeert, Frederik [AXIL, Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerpen (Belgium); Jaroszewicz, Jakub [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Priest, Nicholas D.; Audet, Marc [Nuclear Science Division, AECL Chalk River Laboratories (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    , Zr, Mo, Hf, Hg, Pb and Th in addition to U. Solid state speciation by means of micro-XRF/XRD tomography showed that the low-density sediment matrix was composed of kaolinite (A₂Si₂O₅(OH)₄), anatase / rutile (TiO₂) and calcite (CaCO₃). Metal species in the inclusions identified by micro-XRF/XRD tomography included molybdenite (MoS₂), meta-cinnabar (β-HgS) and UO₂. However, the white line of the U L3micro-XANES profiles was slightly shifted to the left compared to the UO₂ standard indicating that some U may be present in an inter-metallic form. To conclude, we have successfully isolated and characterised particles containing radionuclides and a suite of toxic metals from the Ottawa River utilizing state-of-the-art X-ray techniques. (authors)

  9. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Kincaid, C.T.; Skaggs, R.L.; Walters, W.H.

    1982-12-01

    SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239 240 Pu, and 3 H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay

  10. Sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Qinhong; Weng Jianqing; Wang Jinsheng

    2010-01-01

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview on sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment, as well as a brief discussion of salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current developments that have lead, or could potentially contribute, to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) uranium mining and milling; (5) commercial fuel reprocessing; (6) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes that include radionuclides might be released in the future, and (7) nuclear accidents. Then, we briefly summarize the inventory of radionuclides 99 Tc and 129 I, as well as geochemical behavior for radionuclides 99 Tc, 129 I, and 237 Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment; biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  11. Exchange of certain radionuclides between environment and freshwater algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchyulenene, E. D.P.

    1978-01-01

    Data on the dynamics and levels of accumulation of strontium, cesium, cerium and ruthenium radionuclides by Charophyta and Cladophora fresh-water algae are presented. An attempt has been made to investigate some processes that accompany the accumulation of radionuclides by plants. Under experimental conditions, the intensity and levels of radionuclide accumulation can be presented in the following order: 144 Ce> 106 Ru> 90 Sr> 137 Cs. The dynamics of radionuclide accumulation varied greatly with the radionuclide and the algae species studied. The 144 Ce accumulation coefficients (AC) in the course of experiment (from 3 hours to 16 days) increased 8-, 9-, 23.4-, 27-, 14.3- and 20.4-fold for Cladophora glomerata, Nitella syncarpa, Nitellopsis obtusa, Chara vulgaris, Ch. rudis, and Ch. aspera, respectively. In the case of 106 Ru, AC for C.glomerata, N. syncarapa, Ch. vulgaris and Ch. rudis increased 34-, 18-,24- and 23-fold, respectively. In all algae species studied the equilibrium of radionuclide accumulation was attained after 2-4 days of experiment. Levels of accumulated 90 Sr and 137 Cs in most species depended on the season while that of 144 Cs and 106 Ru remained constant throughout the vegetation period. The levels of radionuclide elimination, like the accumulation levels, are shown to depend on both isotopes and algae species

  12. Sedimentary Processes. Quantification Using Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, J.; Lerche, I.

    2003-01-01

    The advent of radionuclide methods in geochronology has revolutionized our understanding of modern sedimentary processes in aquatic systems. This book examines the principles of the method and its use as a quantitative tool in marine geology, with emphasis on the Pb-210 method. The assumptions and consequences of models and their behaviour are described providing the necessary background to assess the advantages and trade-offs involved when choosing a particular model for application. One of the purposes of this volume is to disentangle the influences of complicating factors, such as sediment flux variations, post-depositional diffusion of radionuclides, and bio-irrigation of sediments, to arrive at sediment ages and to properly assess the attendant data uncertainty. Environmental impacts of chemical, nuclear, or other waste material are of concern in a variety of areas around the world today. A number of relevant examples are included, demonstrating how dating models are useful for determining sources of contaminants and interpreting their influence on the environment. The book is set at a level so that an able student or professional should have no difficulty in following the procedures and methods developed. Each chapter includes case histories showing the strengths and weaknesses of a given procedure with respect to a data example. Included with this volume is the computer source code of a new generation of modelling tools based on inverse numerical analysis techniques. This first generation of the modelling tool is included, along with detailed instructions and examples for its use, in an appendix

  13. An overview of BORIS: Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamponnet, C.; Martin-Garin, A.; Gonze, M.-A.; Parekh, N.; Vallejo, R.; Sauras-Yera, T.; Casadesus, J.; Plassard, C.; Staunton, S.; Norden, M.; Avila, R.; Shaw, G.

    2008-01-01

    The ability to predict the consequences of an accidental release of radionuclides relies mainly on the level of understanding of the mechanisms involved in radionuclide interactions with different components of agricultural and natural ecosystems and their formalisation into predictive models. Numerous studies and databases on contaminated agricultural and natural areas have been obtained, but their use to enhance our prediction ability has been largely limited by their unresolved variability. Such variability seems to stem from incomplete knowledge about radionuclide interactions with the soil matrix, soil moisture, and biological elements in the soil and additional pollutants, which may be found in such soils. In the 5th European Framework Programme entitled Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils (BORIS), we investigated the role of the abiotic (soil components and soil structure) and biological elements (organic compounds, plants, mycorrhiza, and microbes) in radionuclide sorption/desorption in soils and radionuclide uptake/release by plants. Because of the importance of their radioisotopes, the bioavailability of three elements, caesium, strontium, and technetium has been followed. The role of one additional non-radioactive pollutant (copper) has been scrutinised in some cases. Role of microorganisms (e.g., K d for caesium and strontium in organic soils is much greater in the presence of microorganisms than in their absence), plant physiology (e.g., changes in plant physiology affect radionuclide uptake by plants), and the presence of mycorrhizal fungi (e.g., interferes with the uptake of radionuclides by plants) have been demonstrated. Knowledge acquired from these experiments has been incorporated into two mechanistic models CHEMFAST and BIORUR, specifically modelling radionuclide sorption/desorption from soil matrices and radionuclide uptake by/release from plants. These mechanistic models have been incorporated into an assessment model to enhance its

  14. An overview of BORIS: Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamponnet, C. [Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, DEI/SECRE, CADARACHE, B.P. 1, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, Cedex (France)], E-mail: christian.tamponnet@irsn.fr; Martin-Garin, A.; Gonze, M.-A. [Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, DEI/SECRE, CADARACHE, B.P. 1, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, Cedex (France); Parekh, N. [Center for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Vallejo, R.; Sauras-Yera, T.; Casadesus, J. [Department of Plant Biology, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Plassard, C.; Staunton, S. [INRA, UMR Rhizosphere and Symbiosis, Place Viala, 34060 Montpellier (France); Norden, M. [Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, 171 16 Stockholm (Sweden); Avila, R. [Facilia AB, Valsgaerdevaegen 12, 168 53 Bromma, Stockholm (Sweden); Shaw, G. [Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    The ability to predict the consequences of an accidental release of radionuclides relies mainly on the level of understanding of the mechanisms involved in radionuclide interactions with different components of agricultural and natural ecosystems and their formalisation into predictive models. Numerous studies and databases on contaminated agricultural and natural areas have been obtained, but their use to enhance our prediction ability has been largely limited by their unresolved variability. Such variability seems to stem from incomplete knowledge about radionuclide interactions with the soil matrix, soil moisture, and biological elements in the soil and additional pollutants, which may be found in such soils. In the 5th European Framework Programme entitled Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils (BORIS), we investigated the role of the abiotic (soil components and soil structure) and biological elements (organic compounds, plants, mycorrhiza, and microbes) in radionuclide sorption/desorption in soils and radionuclide uptake/release by plants. Because of the importance of their radioisotopes, the bioavailability of three elements, caesium, strontium, and technetium has been followed. The role of one additional non-radioactive pollutant (copper) has been scrutinised in some cases. Role of microorganisms (e.g., K{sub d} for caesium and strontium in organic soils is much greater in the presence of microorganisms than in their absence), plant physiology (e.g., changes in plant physiology affect radionuclide uptake by plants), and the presence of mycorrhizal fungi (e.g., interferes with the uptake of radionuclides by plants) have been demonstrated. Knowledge acquired from these experiments has been incorporated into two mechanistic models CHEMFAST and BIORUR, specifically modelling radionuclide sorption/desorption from soil matrices and radionuclide uptake by/release from plants. These mechanistic models have been incorporated into an assessment model to enhance

  15. Fukushima Daiichi Radionuclide Inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoni, Jeffrey N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jankovsky, Zachary Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Radionuclide inventories are generated to permit detailed analyses of the Fukushima Daiichi meltdowns. This is necessary information for severe accident calculations, dose calculations, and source term and consequence analyses. Inventories are calculated using SCALE6 and compared to values predicted by international researchers supporting the OECD/NEA's Benchmark Study on the Accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (BSAF). Both sets of inventory information are acceptable for best-estimate analyses of the Fukushima reactors. Consistent nuclear information for severe accident codes, including radionuclide class masses and core decay powers, are also derived from the SCALE6 analyses. Key nuclide activity ratios are calculated as functions of burnup and nuclear data in order to explore the utility for nuclear forensics and support future decommissioning efforts.

  16. Radionuclide table. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, Jean; Perolat, J.-P.; Lagoutine, Frederic; Le Gallic, Yves.

    The evaluation of the following 29 radionuclides is presented: 22 Na, 24 Na, sup(24m)Na, 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 57 Co, 58 Co, sup(58m)Co, 60 Co, sup(60m)Co, 75 Se, 103 Ru, sup(103m)Rh, sup(110m)Ag- 110 Ag, 109 Cd, 125 Sb, sup(125mTe), 125 I, 133 Xe, sup(133m)Xe, 131 Cs, 134 Cs, sup(134m)Cs, 139 Ce, 144 Ce- 144 Pr, 144 Pr, 169 Er, 186 Re, 203 Hg. The introduction contains a brief description of radioactive processes and the evaluation rules followed. The best values and associated uncertainties are given for each radionuclide for the major parameters of the decay scheme and the radiation intensities emitted, together with a decay table. Gamma, X-rays and sometimes conversion electron spectra are also provided [fr

  17. Evolution of chemical conditions and estimated solubility controls on radionuclides in the residual waste layer during post-closure aging of high-level waste tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denham, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Millings, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2012-08-28

    This document provides information specific to H-Area waste tanks that enables a flow and transport model with limited chemical capabilities to account for varying waste release from the tanks through time. The basis for varying waste release is solubilities of radionuclides that change as pore fluids passing through the waste change in composition. Pore fluid compositions in various stages were generated by simulations of tank grout degradation. The first part of the document describes simulations of the degradation of the reducing grout in post-closure tanks. These simulations assume flow is predominantly through a water saturated porous medium. The infiltrating fluid that reacts with the grout is assumed to be fluid that has passed through the closure cap and into the tank. The results are three stages of degradation referred to as Reduced Region II, Oxidized Region II, and Oxidized Region III. A reaction path model was used so that the transitions between each stage are noted by numbers of pore volumes of infiltrating fluid reacted. The number of pore volumes to each transition can then be converted to time within a flow and transport model. The bottoms of some tanks in H-Area are below the water table requiring a different conceptual model for grout degradation. For these simulations the reacting fluid was assumed to be 10% infiltrate through the closure cap and 90% groundwater. These simulations produce an additional four pore fluid compositions referred to as Conditions A through D and were intended to simulate varying degrees of groundwater influence. The most probable degradation path for the submerged tanks is Condition C to Condition D to Oxidized Region III and eventually to Condition A. Solubilities for Condition A are estimated in the text for use in sensitivity analyses if needed. However, the grout degradation simulations did not include sufficient pore volumes of infiltrating fluid for the grout to evolve to Condition A. Solubility controls for use

  18. Radionuclide co-precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, J.; Sandino, A.

    1987-12-01

    The thermodynamic and kinetic behaviour of the minor components of the spent fuel matrix has been theoretically and experimentally investigated. Two different situations have been studied: Part I, the near field scenario, where the release and migration of the minor components is dependent on the solubility behaviour of UO 2 (s); Part II, the far field, where the solubility and transport of the radionuclides is related to the major geochemical processes occurring. (orig.)

  19. Radionuclide fate and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The studies reported here deal with the full range of contaminant behavior and fate, from the initial physicochemical factors that govern radionuclide availability in terrestrial and aquatic environments to studies of contaminant transport by biological means. By design, we focus more on the biologically and chemically mediated transport processes and food-chain pathways than on the purely physical forms of contaminant transport, such as transport by wind and water

  20. Geochemistry and radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isherwood, D.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretically, the geochemical barrier can provide a major line of defense in protecting the biosphere from the hazards of nuclear waste. The most likely processes involved are easily identified. Preliminary investigations using computer modeling techniques suggest that retardation is an effective control on radionuclide concentrations. Ion exchange reactions slow radionuclide migration and allow more time for radioactive decay and dispersion. For some radionuclides, solubility alone may limit concentrations to less than the maximum permissible now considered acceptable by the Federal Government. The effectiveness of the geochemical barrier is ultimately related to the repository site characteristics. Theory alone tells us that geochemical controls will be most efficient in an environment that provides for maximum ion exchange and the precipitation of insoluble compounds. In site selection, consideration should be given to rock barriers with high ion exchange capacity that might also act as semi-permeable membranes. Also important in evaluating the site's potential for effective geochemical controls are the oxidation potentials, pH and salinity of the groundwater

  1. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.; Kennedy, V.H.; Nelson, A.

    1983-06-01

    A bibliographical database has been developed to provide quick access to research and background literature in the field of radioecology. This is a development of an earlier database described by Nelson (Bocock 1981). ITE's particular fields of interest have led to a subject bias in the bibliography towards studies in Cumbria, especially those concerned with radionuclides originating from the reprocessing plant at Sellafield, and towards ecological research studies that are complementary to radionuclide studies. Other subjects covered, include the chemistry of radionuclides, budgets and transfers within ecosystems and techniques for the analysis of environmental samples. ITE's research objectives have led to the establishment of a specialized database which is intended to complement rather than compete with the large international databases made available by suppliers such as IRS-DIALTECH or DIALOG. Currently the database holds about 1900 references which are stored on a 2 1/2 megabyte hard disk on a Digital PDP11/34 computer operating under a time shared system. The references follow a standard format. (author)

  2. Radionuclides in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Teruyuki

    2001-01-01

    The concentration and accumulation of radionuclides in marine organisms were explained in this paper. Secular change of the radioactivity concentration of 137 Cs in seaweed in coastal area of Japan showed more than 5Bq/kg-fresh in the first half of 1960, but decreased less than 1 Bq/kg-fresh after then and attained to less than 0.1 Bq/kg-fresh in 1990s. However, the value increased a while in 1986, which indicated the effect of Chernobyl accident. The accident increased 137 Cs of shellfish near Japan. The concentration of 239+240 Pu was the lowest value in muscles of fish, but increased from 1.7 to 42.3 mBq/kg wet wt in seaweed in 1999. 99 Tc concentration of seaweed showed from 100 to 1000 times as much as that of seawater. Radionuclides in the Irish Sea are originated from Sellafield reprocessing plant. The concentration factors of macro-algae and surface water fish (IAEA,1985) were shown. Analytical results of U in 61 kinds of marine organs showed that the concentration was different in the part of organ. The higher concentration of U was observed in hard tissue of fish. The concentration factor was different between chemical substances with the same radionuclides. (S.Y.)

  3. Proficiency testing for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faanhof, A.; Kotze, O.; Louw, I.

    2010-01-01

    Proficiency testing in general is only useful when it suites a certain purpose. With regards to radionuclides basically three fields of interest can be identified: (I)Foodstuffs-Introduced in the early 1960's to monitor the fall-out of nuclear tests and eventually the pathway to foodstuffs fit for human consumption. The demand for analysis increased substantially after the Chernobyl accident. (II) Natural radioactivity-Associated with mining and mineral processing of uranium and thorium baring mineral resources throughout the world where the radionuclides from the natural uranium and thorium decay series are found to pose concern for professional and public exposure. (III) Artificial radioactivity-This category covers mostly the long-lived nuclides generated by nuclear fission of the fuel used in nuclear power plants, research reactors and nuclear bomb tests. All three categories require a specific approach for laboratories to test their ability to analyze specific radio nuclides of interest in a variety of matrices. In this lecture I will give a compiled overview of the required radioanalytical skills, analysis sensitivity needed and radionuclides of interest, with more specific emphasis on QAQC of water sources and the recommended monitoring approach. And provide information on available reference materials and organizations/institutes that provide regular exercises for participating laboratories. I will also briefly communicate on the advantages and disadvantages of ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation for test laboratories, which is these days a prerequisite in national and international trade especially where foodstuffs and mineral products are concerned.

  4. Radionuclides in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadev, V.

    1980-01-01

    The three main areas of application of radionuclides in thyroid disease will be reviewed. Firstly thyroid radionuclide imaging in thyroid swellings, in relationship to lumps in the neck and ectopic thyroid tissue such as retrosternal goitre, and lingual goitre will be described. Future developments in the field including tomographic scanning, using the coded aperture method, and fluorescent scans and ultrasound are reviewed. The second area of application is the assessment and evaluation of thyroid function and the therapy of Grave's Disease and Plummer's Disease using radioiodine. The importance of careful collection of the line of treatment, results of treatment locally and the follow-up of patients after radioiodine therapy will be described. The third area of application is in the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid cancer. Investigation of thyroid swelling, and the diagnosis of functioning metastases are reported. The therapeutic iodine scan as the sole evidence of functioning metastatic involvement is recorded. Histological thyroid cancer appears to be increasingly encountered in clinical practice and the plan of management in relation to choice of cases for therapeutic scanning is discussed with case reports. Lastly the role of whole body scanning in relationship to biochemical markers is compared. In the changing field of nuclear medicine radionuclide applications in thyroid disease have remained pre-eminent and this is an attempt to reassess its role in the light of newer developments and local experience in the Institute of Radiotherapy, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  5. Radionuclide concentrations in soils and vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during the 1998 growing season (with a cumulative summary of 3H and 239Pu over time)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Ebinger, M.H.; Wechsler, R.J.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Soils and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation were collected at eight locations within and around Area G, a disposal facility for low-level, radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The samples were analyzed for 3 H, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 90 Sr, 241 Am, 137 Cs, tot U. Most of the radionuclide concentrations in soils and vegetation were within the upper 95% level of background concentrations except for 3 H and 239 Pu. Tritium concentrations in vegetation from most sites were greater than background concentrations of about 2 pCi mL -1 . The concentrations of 239 Pu in soils and understory vegetation were largest in samples collected several meters north of the transuranic waste pad area and were consistent with previous results. Based on 3 H and 239 Pu data through 1998, it was shown that concentrations were (1) significantly greater than background concentrations (p < 0.05) in soils and vegetation collected from most locations at Area G, and (2) there was no systematic increase or decrease in concentrations with time apparent in the data

  6. Radionuclide concentrations in soils and vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during the 1998 growing season (with a cumulative summary of {sup 3}H and {sup 239}Pu over time)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. R. Fresquez; M. H. Ebinger; R. J. Wechsler; L. Naranjo, Jr.

    1999-11-01

    Soils and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation were collected at eight locations within and around Area G, a disposal facility for low-level, radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The samples were analyzed for {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am, {sup 137}Cs, {sup tot}U. Most of the radionuclide concentrations in soils and vegetation were within the upper 95% level of background concentrations except for {sup 3}H and {sup 239}Pu. Tritium concentrations in vegetation from most sites were greater than background concentrations of about 2 pCi mL{sup {minus}1}. The concentrations of {sup 239}Pu in soils and understory vegetation were largest in samples collected several meters north of the transuranic waste pad area and were consistent with previous results. Based on {sup 3}H and {sup 239}Pu data through 1998, it was shown that concentrations were (1) significantly greater than background concentrations (p < 0.05) in soils and vegetation collected from most locations at Area G, and (2) there was no systematic increase or decrease in concentrations with time apparent in the data.

  7. Consequence ranking of radionuclides in Hanford tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmittroth, F.A.; De Lorenzo, T.H.

    1995-09-01

    Radionuclides in the Hanford tank waste are ranked relative to their consequences for the Low-Level Tank Waste program. The ranking identifies key radionuclides where further study is merited. In addition to potential consequences for intrude and drinking-water scenarios supporting low-level waste activities, a ranking based on shielding criteria is provided. The radionuclide production inventories are based on a new and independent ORIGEN2 calculation representing the operation of all Hanford single-pass reactors and the N Reactor

  8. The comparative uptake and interaction of several radionuclides in the trophic levels surrounding the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) waste water ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, G.H. Jr.

    1989-08-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the uptake, distribution, and interaction of five activation products (Co-57, Be-7, Cs-134, Rb-83, and Mn-54) within the biotic and abiotic components surrounding the waste treatment lagoons of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The study attempted to ascertain where, and what specific interactions were taking place among the isotopes and the biotic/abiotic components. A statistical approach, utilizing Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA), was conducted testing the radioisotopic concentrations by (1) the trophic levels (TROPLVL) in each position sampled on the grid, (2) where sampled on the grid (TRAN), (3) where sampled with-in each grid line (PLOT), and (4) the side with which sampled (SIDE). This provided both the dependent and independent variables that would be tested. The Null Hypothesis (Ho) tested the difference in the mean values of the isotopes within/between each of the four independent variables. The Rb-83 statistic indicated an accumulation within the TRAN and PLOT variables within the sampled area. The Co-57 test statistic provided a value which indicated that accumulation of this isotope within TROPLVL was taking place. Mn-54 test values indicated that accumulation was also taking place at the higher trophic levels within the PLOT, TRAN, and SIDE positions. Cs-134 was found to accumulate to third level in this trophic level structure (TROPLVL-(vegetation)), and then decrease from there. The Be-7 component provided no variance from known compartmental transfers. 210 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. The comparative uptake and interaction of several radionuclides in the trophic levels surrounding the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) waste water ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, G.H. Jr.

    1989-08-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the uptake, distribution, and interaction of five activation products (Co-57, Be-7, Cs-134, Rb-83, and Mn-54) within the biotic and abiotic components surrounding the waste treatment lagoons of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The study attempted to ascertain where, and what specific interactions were taking place among the isotopes and the biotic/abiotic components. A statistical approach, utilizing Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA), was conducted testing the radioisotopic concentrations by (1) the trophic levels (TROPLVL) in each position sampled on the grid, (2) where sampled on the grid (TRAN), (3) where sampled with-in each grid line (PLOT), and (4) the side with which sampled (SIDE). This provided both the dependent and independent variables that would be tested. The Null Hypothesis (Ho) tested the difference in the mean values of the isotopes within/between each of the four independent variables. The Rb-83 statistic indicated an accumulation within the TRAN and PLOT variables within the sampled area. The Co-57 test statistic provided a value which indicated that accumulation of this isotope within TROPLVL was taking place. Mn-54 test values indicated that accumulation was also taking place at the higher trophic levels within the PLOT, TRAN, and SIDE positions. Cs-134 was found to accumulate to third level in this trophic level structure [TROPLVL-(vegetation)], and then decrease from there. The Be-7 component provided no variance from known compartmental transfers. 210 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Stochastic analysis of radionuclide migration in saturated-unsaturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanishi, Moto

    1988-01-01

    In Japan, LLRW (low level radioactive wastes) generated from nuclear power plants shall be started to store concentrically in the Shimokita site from 1990, and those could be transformed into land disposal if the positive safety is confirmed. Therefore, it is hoped that the safety assessment method shall be successed for the land disposal of LLRW. In this study, a stochastic model to analyze the radionuclide migration in saturated-unsaturated soils was constructed. The principal results are summarized as follows. 1) We presented a generalized idea for the modeling of the radionuclide migration in saturated-unsaturated soils as an advective-dispersion phenomena followed by the decay of radionuclides and those adsorption/desorption in soils. 2) Based on the radionuclide migration model mentioned above, we developed a stochastic analysis model on radionuclide migration in saturated-unsaturated soils. 3) From the comparison between the simulated results and the exact solution on a few simple one-dimensional advective-dispersion problems of radionuclides, the good validity of this model was confirmed. 4) From the comparison between the simulated results by this model and the experimental results of radionuclide migration in a one-dimensional unsaturated soil column with rainfall, the good applicability was shown. 5) As the stochastic model such as this has several advantages that it is easily able to represent the image of physical phenomena and has basically no numerical dissipation, this model should be more applicable to the analysis of the complicated radionuclide migration in saturated-unsaturated soils. (author)

  11. Natural radionuclides concentration in underground mine materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, T.O.; Rocha, Z.; Taveira, N.F.; Takahashi, L.C.; Pineiro, M.M., E-mail: talitaolsantos@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br, E-mail: mayarapinheiroduarte@gmail.com, E-mail: lauratakahashi@hotmail.com, E-mail: natyfontaveira@hotmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Borges, P.F.; Cruz, P.; Gouvea, V.A.; Siqueira, J.B., E-mail: vgouvea@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: flavia.borges@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: pcruz@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jbsiquei@cnen.gov.br [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Natural Radionuclides are present in earth's environment since its origin. The main radionuclides present are {sup 40}K, as well as, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th with their decay products. These radionuclides occur in minerals in different activity concentration associated with geological and geochemical conditions, appearing at different levels from point to point in the world. Underground mines may present a high natural background radiation which is due to the presence of these radiogenic heavy minerals. To address this concern, this work outlines on the characterization of the natural radionuclides presence in underground mines in Brazil which are located in many cases on higher radiation levels bed rocks. The radon concentration was measured by using E-PERM Electrets Ion Chamber, AlphaGUARD and CR-39 track etch detectors. The radon progeny was determined by using DOSEman detector. Radon concentration measurement in groundwater was performed by using RAD7 detector. The {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th activity concentration in ore and soil samples were determined by using Neutron Activation Analysis using TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 Reactor. Gamma spectrometry was used to determine {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K activity concentrations. The results show that the natural radioactivity varies considerably from mine to mine and that there are not risks of radiological damage for exposed workers in these cases. Based on these data, recommendations for Brazilian regulatory standards are presented. (author)

  12. Natural radionuclides concentration in underground mine materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, T.O.; Rocha, Z.; Taveira, N.F.; Takahashi, L.C.; Pineiro, M.M.; Borges, P.F.; Cruz, P.; Gouvea, V.A.; Siqueira, J.B.

    2017-01-01

    Natural Radionuclides are present in earth's environment since its origin. The main radionuclides present are 40 K, as well as, 238 U and 232 Th with their decay products. These radionuclides occur in minerals in different activity concentration associated with geological and geochemical conditions, appearing at different levels from point to point in the world. Underground mines may present a high natural background radiation which is due to the presence of these radiogenic heavy minerals. To address this concern, this work outlines on the characterization of the natural radionuclides presence in underground mines in Brazil which are located in many cases on higher radiation levels bed rocks. The radon concentration was measured by using E-PERM Electrets Ion Chamber, AlphaGUARD and CR-39 track etch detectors. The radon progeny was determined by using DOSEman detector. Radon concentration measurement in groundwater was performed by using RAD7 detector. The 238 U and 232 Th activity concentration in ore and soil samples were determined by using Neutron Activation Analysis using TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 Reactor. Gamma spectrometry was used to determine 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K activity concentrations. The results show that the natural radioactivity varies considerably from mine to mine and that there are not risks of radiological damage for exposed workers in these cases. Based on these data, recommendations for Brazilian regulatory standards are presented. (author)

  13. The Content of 137Cs in SUILLUS LUTEUS in the Territories with Different Levels of Radionuclides Pollution of Soils (Kiev Region)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarubina, N.E.; Teletskaya, S.V.; Golovach, A.I.

    2006-01-01

    Accumulation of 137 Cs by Suillus luteus passed in two stages. Since 1986 up to the middle of 90-th the annual increase in levels of specific activity of radiocesium was marked; at the second stage (from the middle of 90-th on present time) there is a gradual decrease in the contents of 137 Cs in S. luteus. In the tests selected in the autumn of 1986 on ranges of Kiev region, the content of 137 Cs varied within the limits of 80-800 Bq/kg of fresh weight. In 10 years after accident the disorder of specific activity values of 137 Cs in 'dirty' and rather 'pure' territories has increased up to 2000 times. At the second stage speed of decrease in the contents of 137 Cs in S. luteus is differed for the territories with various level of soil pollution

  14. Modeling for speciation of radionuclides in waste packages with high-level radioactive wastes; Modellierung zur Speziation von Radionukliden in Abfallgebinden mit hoch radioaktiven Abfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyand, Torben; Bracke, Guido; Seher, Holger

    2016-10-15

    Based on a literature search on radioactive waste inventories adequate thermodynamic data for model inventories were derived for geochemical model calculations using PHREEQC in order to determine the solid phase composition of high-level radioactive wastes in different containers. The calculations were performed for different model inventories (PWR-MOX, PWR-UO2, BWR-MOX, BMR-UO2) assuming intact containers under reduction conditions. The effect of a defect in the container on the solid phase composition was considered in variation calculations assuming air contact induced oxidation.

  15. Quality assurance in radionuclide laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, R.; Voelkle, H.; Wershofen, H.; Wilhelm, C.

    2003-01-01

    The authors are members of an ad-hoc working group preparing a contribution to the procedures manual (''Loseblattsammlung'') dealing with quality assurance and quality control in radionuclide laboratories. The Loseblattsammlung is edited by the working group ''Environmental Monitoring'' of the German-Swiss Radiological Protection Association. The intention of the manual under preparation is not to give a procedure on how to establish a quality management system allowing for an accreditation in accordance with the international standard DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025:2000 04 (''ISO 17025'') [1] but to compile routine quality control procedures necessary for reliable measurements and to give tips to the practitioner on how to keep both the extent and the frequency of procedures on a reasonable level. A short version of the Loseblatt is presented here. (orig.)

  16. Chapter 2. Radionuclides in the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with role of radionuclides in the biosphere. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Natural radionuclides in biosphere; (2) Man-made radionuclides in the biosphere; (3) Ecologically important radionuclides; (4) Natural background; (5) Radiotoxicity and (6) Paths of transfer of radionuclides from the source to human

  17. Radionuclide diagnosis of emergency states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishmukhametov, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    Solution of emergency state radionuclide diagnostics from the technical point of view is provided by the application of the mobile quick-operating equipment in combination with computers, by the use of radionuclides with acceptable for emergency medicine characteristics and by development of radionuclide investigation data propcessing express-method. Medical developments include the study of acute disease and injury radioisotope semiotics, different indication diagnostic value determining, comparison of the results, obtained during radionuclide investigation, with clinicolaboratory and instrumental data, separation of methodical complex series

  18. History of medical radionuclide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ice, R D

    1995-11-01

    Radionuclide production for medical use originally was incidental to isotope discoveries by physicists and chemists. Once the available radionuclides were identified they were evaluated for potential medical use. Hevesy first used 32P in 1935 to study phosphorous metabolism in rats. Since that time, the development of cyclotrons, linear accelerators, and nuclear reactors have produced hundreds of radionuclides for potential medical use. The history of medical radionuclide production represents an evolutionary, interdisciplinary development of applied nuclear technology. Today the technology is represented by a mature industry and provides medical benefits to millions of patients annually.

  19. Radionuclides accumulation in milk and its products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmuleva, N.I.; Barinov, E.Y.; Petukhov, V.L.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of radioactive pollution is extremely urgent in Russia in connection with presence of territories polluted by radionuclides on places of nuclear tests, in zones around the enterprises on production, processing and storage of radioactive materials, and also in areas of emergency pollution (Barakhtin, 2001). The aim of our investigation was a determination of the levels of the main radioactive elements - 137 Cs and 90 Sr in diary products. 363 samples of milk, dry milk, butter, cheese and yogurt from Novosibirsk region were examined. 137 Cs level was 3.7 to 9.2 times higher than 90 Sr one in milk, cheese and yogurt. At the same time the level of these radio-nuclides in butter was identical (8.03 Bk/kg). (authors)

  20. Radionuclides accumulation in milk and its products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmuleva, N.I.; Barinov, E.Y.; Petukhov, V.L. [Novosibirsk State Agrarian University (Russian Federation)

    2003-05-01

    The problem of radioactive pollution is extremely urgent in Russia in connection with presence of territories polluted by radionuclides on places of nuclear tests, in zones around the enterprises on production, processing and storage of radioactive materials, and also in areas of emergency pollution (Barakhtin, 2001). The aim of our investigation was a determination of the levels of the main radioactive elements - {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in diary products. 363 samples of milk, dry milk, butter, cheese and yogurt from Novosibirsk region were examined. {sup 137}Cs level was 3.7 to 9.2 times higher than {sup 90}Sr one in milk, cheese and yogurt. At the same time the level of these radio-nuclides in butter was identical (8.03 Bk/kg). (authors)

  1. Uptake of radionuclides by vegetation at a High Arctic location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdall, M.; Gwynn, J.P.; Moran, C.; O'Dea, J.; Davids, C.; Lind, B.

    2005-01-01

    Radionuclide levels in vegetation from a High Arctic location were studied and compared to in situ soil concentrations. Levels of the anthropogenic radionuclide 137 Cs and the natural radionuclides 40 K, 238 U, 226 Ra and 232 Th are discussed and transfer factor (TF) values and aggregated transfer (Tag) values are calculated for vascular plants. Levels of 137 Cs in vegetation generally followed the order mosses > lichen > vascular plants. The uptake of 137 Cs in vascular plants showed an inverse relationship with the uptake of 40 K, with 137 Cs TF and Tag values generally higher than 40 K TF and Tag values. 40 K activity concentrations in all vegetation showed little correlation to associated soil concentrations, while the uptake of 238 U, 226 Ra and 232 Th by vascular and non-vascular plants was generally low. - Uptake of the anthropogenic radionuclide 137 Cs is highest for moss species

  2. Osteopetrosis: Radiological & Radionuclide Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sit, Cherry; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Fogelman, Ignac; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited bone disease where bones harden and become abnormally dense. While the diagnosis is clinical, it also greatly relies on appearance of the skeleton radiographically. X-ray, radionuclide bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging have been reported to identify characteristics of osteopetrosis. We present an interesting case of a 59-year-old man with a history of bilateral hip fractures. He underwent 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate whole body scan supplemented with single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography of spine, which showed increased uptake in the humeri, tibiae and femora, which were in keeping with osteopetrosis

  3. Modifying radionuclide effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasser, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    This project involves a study of the relationship of physiological and environmental factors to the metabolism and effects of radionuclides. We have studied placental transfer and suckling as pathways of americium entry into the newborn or juvenile rat. Rats were injected intravenously with 5 μCi of 241 Am while nulliparous (30 days prior to mating), pregnant (day 19 of gestation), or lactating (1 day after parturition), and subsequent litters were killed to determine 241 Am retention. A deficit in reproductive performance was observed in the group injected before mating, as evidenced by reduced number and weight of offspring

  4. Radionuclides in the sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-07-01

    Water covers a little more than two-thirds of the earth's surface. What is thrown into the sea from a ship may be washed up on a shore thousands of miles away; wastes discharged into the seas or into rivers flowing into them can affect marine life and possibly also the health of man. The study, prevention and control of pollution of the seas and oceans by radionuclides introduced as by-products of man's use of nuclear energy is thus of global interest. (author)

  5. Sherlock Holmes for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitzer, C.

    2002-01-01

    At the end of 2001 ARC Seibersdorf research has taken the management of the first worldwide certified laboratory to control the realization of the international Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Altogether there will be 16 CTBT certified laboratories worldwide; therefore a global network of radionuclides measurements stations and test laboratories as well as seismic, radiation and hydroacustic measurements stations is necessary . In the future air samples will be taken from these stations and analyzed in one of these certified laboratories, when appears the suspicion that an atomic test was carried out. (nevyjel)

  6. RADIONUCLIDES DISTRIBUTION NEAR FORMER URANIUM MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Zaredinov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows, that radionuclides from the stony rocks of uranium mines can be leached by atmospheric precipitations. In acid conditions, a degree of leaching is greater.Goal. The aim of this investigation was to study the distribution of radionuclides in uranium minings and their impact on the environmental contamination.Materials and methods. The study was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, a blade of rock was mixed with distilled water in proportions of 0,3 kg of gravel and 1 liter of water. After thirty days of soaking, water was sent to the gamma-spectrometric analysis to Canberra’s spectrometer (USA with a high-purity germanium detector. In the second stage, we carried out the similar experiment with water, wich was acidified to pH = 3. Contamination levels of areas near the in-situ leaching mine were determined. Intervention levels were used to estimate risk and possible water consumption by the population. Estimations were carried out taking into account the combined presence of several radionuclides in the water.Results. The results of these studies have shown that the distribution of radionuclides from the source of the contamination is about 360 meters during the 30 y period. The stream, along which samples of soil were collected and studied, was formed by the miner waters that flow along small ruts towards a village, thereby increasing the likelihood of water use by the public.Conclusions. The uranium mines are the source of radioactive contamination. Radionuclides are distributed due to the erosion of rocks and leached out of the stony rock by precipitations. The extent of leaching is significantly increased in an acidic environment, which takes place near the in-situ leaching mines.

  7. Radionuclide transport in a single fissure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, T.E.

    1988-12-01

    The study of radionuclide migration through rock is currently of great interest due to its relevance to the possible escape paths into the biosphere of radionuclides released from high level radioactive wastes burried in deep geological repositories. While water will provide the vehicle for transportation, interaction with geological material may greatly influence the radionuclide movement relative that of water. A flow system for laboratory studies of radionuclide transport in natural fissures in granitic rock under reducing conditions is described. The system based on the use of synthetic ground water equilibrated with granitic rock in a well sealed system, allow experiments to be carried out at -240 mV reduction potential. In flow experiments with technetium the retardation was found to be dependent on the method used for reducing TcO 4 - . The preparation of the tracer solutions is crucial, as some of the redox-reactions may be very slow. The dynamics of the Tc(VII) reduction and also speciation need to be carried out in separate experiments. (4 illustrations, 5 tables)

  8. Study of monitoring protection of radionuclides contamination in organism by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Kang Baoan; He Guangren

    1987-01-01

    In view of the exceptionally important role of the medical radiation protection in human health, the authors try to study on the monitoring of internal contamination of radionuclides in organism by different autoradiographic methods, such as: monitoring of the body retention of isolated or combined radionuclides by freezing microautoradiography; monitoring of blood, bone marrow and excreta radioactive samples by smear autoradiography; differentiation of two radionuclides contamination by double radionuclide autoradiography; especially, monitoring of low level of radionuclides contamination by fluorescence sensitization autoradiography. The sensitivity of autoradiographic formation was increased by the scintillator by 10 times

  9. Progress in evaluation of radionuclide geochemical information developed by DOE high-level nuclear waste repository site projects: Report for April 1986--September 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; Blencoe, J.G.; O'Kelley, G.D.; Land, J.F.

    1988-07-01

    During this report period, all experiments were conducted with tuff from the proposed high-level nuclear waste site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Batch sorption ratio determinations were conducted for strontium, cesium, uranium, and technetium onto samples of tuff using real and synthetic groundwater J-13. There were no significant differences in sorption ratios in experiments with real and synthetic groundwater. Columns were tested by determination of elution curves in J-13 containing tritium and technetium as the TcO 4 /sup /minus// ion. For strontium and cesium, fairly good correlation between values of the sorption ratio obtained by the two methods was observed. Little technetium sorption was observed with either method. The elution peaks obtained with neptunium and uranium were asymmetrical and the shapes were often complex, observations which suggest irreversibilities in the sorption reaction. Synthetic groundwater J-13 was slowly dripped onto a slab of tuff maintained at 95--100/degree/C, and the result was a thin encrustation of solids on the slab as the water evaporated. Fresh J-13 groundwater was then allowed to contact the encrustation in a vessel maintained at 90/degree/C. The principal result of the experiment was a significant loss of calcium and magnesium from the fresh J-13 groundwater. 13 refs. 25 figs., 9 tabs

  10. Radionuclide release from solidified high level waste Task 3 Characterization of radioactive waste forms a series of final reports (1985-89) No 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boult, K.A.; Dalton, J.T.; Hough, A.; Marples, J.A.C.; Robertson, G.P.; Wilkins, R.I.

    1991-01-01

    Samples of glass were made up containing a full inactive simulant of the high-level waste. These were doped with isotopes of the four radioelements Am, Pu, Np, Tc and after crushing were mixed with possible components of the repository and with water and loaded into capsules. The capsules were held in an oven at, normally, 60 0 C for periods of up to a year before they were opened and the water overlying the solids sampled and analyzed. After a series of similar such experiments, the following conclusions were obtained: (a) In the presence of a backfill containing ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and under reducing conditions, the steady-state concentrations of Tc and the actinides Np and Am, measured using doped glasses, were respectively ca. 0.3, 1 and 5 times the limiting concentration. (b) Under the same conditions, the steady-state concentration of Pu increased from 0.03 times the limiting concentration to 15 times it when the Pu concentration in the glass was increased from 6 X 10 -5 wt% to 0.12 wt%. (c) Bentonite did not absorb Np and Am as efficiently as the cements. (d) Under oxidizing conditions, Tc was quite soluble, the steady-state concentration being about 1 000 times the limiting concentration. Further results concerning steady-state concentrations of Np, Pu, Am and Tc under varying conditions as well as with various barrier materials and leachants are discussed in this report

  11. Progress in evaluation of radionuclide geochemical information developed by DOE high-level nuclear waste repository site projects: Report for April 1986-September 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; Blencoe, J.G.; O'Kelley, G.D.; Land, J.F.

    1988-02-01

    Experiments were conducted with tuff from the proposed high-level nuclear waste site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Batch sorption ratio determinations were conducted for strontium, cesium, uranium, and technetium onto samples of tuff using real and synthetic groundwater J-13. There were no significant differences in sorption ratios in experiments with real and synthetic groundwater. Columns 1 cm in diameter and about 5 cm long were constructed, and experiments were conducted with the objective of correlating the results of batch and the column experiments. The characteristics of the columns were tested by determination of elution curves in J-13 containing tritium and technetium as the TcO 4 - ion. For strontium and cesium, fairly good correlation between values of the sorption ratio obtained by the two methods was observed. Little or no technetium sorption was observed with either method. The elution peaks obtained with neptunium and uranium were asymmetrical and the shapes were often complex, observations which suggest irreversibilities in the sorption reaction. An experiment was performed to provide information on the compositions of the first groundwaters that will contact waste canisters in a tuff-hosted repository after very near field temperatures have cooled to below 100/degree/C. Synthetic groundwater J-13 was slowly dripped onto a slab of tuff maintained at 95-100/degree/C, and the result was a thin encrustation of solids on the slab as the water evaporated. Fresh J-13 groundwater was then allowed to contact the encrustation in a vessel maintained at 90/degree/C. The principal result of the experiment was a significant loss of calcium and magnesium from the fresh J-13 groundwater

  12. One-dimensional radionuclide transport under time-varying conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelbard, F.; Olague, N.E.; Longsine, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses new analytical and numerical solutions presented for one-dimensional radionuclide transport under time-varying fluid-flow conditions including radioactive decay. The analytical solution assumes that all radionuclides have identical retardation factors, and is limited to instantaneous releases. The numerical solution does not have these limitations, but is tested against the limiting case given for the analytical solution. Reasonable agreement between the two solutions was found. Examples are given for the transport of a three-member radionuclide chain transported over distances and flow rates comparable to those reported for Yucca Mountain, the proposed disposal site for high-level nuclear waste

  13. User's guide to the radionuclide inventory and hazard code INVENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nancarrow, D.J.; Thorne, M.C.

    1986-05-01

    This report constitutes the user's guide to the radionuclide inventory and hazard index code INVENT and provides an explanation of the mathematical basis of the code, the database used and operation of the code. INVENT was designed to facilitate the post-closure radiological assessment of land-based repositories for low and intermediate-level wastes. For those radionuclides identified to be of potential significance, it allows the calculation of time-dependent radionuclide activities, hazard indices for both inhalation and ingestion of activity, and photon spectra. (author)

  14. Intervention procedures for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelstein, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    As in the case of smoking and lung cancer, for large radionuclide releases, an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. On the other hand, we feel compelled to do something sensible after an accident even if the principal benefit of intervention may be to comfort the population at risk. Of course, for populations near the site of an accident, evacuation should be considered, but it is unreasonable to apply this measure to distant populations, e.g., large segments of the European community could not be moved about as we observe the shifting of a radioactive cloud in response to changing winds. If the radionuclides are delivered as particulates, bringing people indoors and employing primitive air filters can temporarily reduce exposures, but these stratagems are not very effective against gaseous or volatile elements. What, then, can be done for populations downwind of a radioactive release whose air, water, and/or food supply are, or are about to become contaminated? 5 refs

  15. The vertical distribution of radionuclides in a Ribble Estuary saltmarsh: transport and deposition of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.E.; McDonald, P.; Parker, A.; Rae, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Routine discharges of low-level liquid radioactive waste by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) at Sellafield and Springfields have resulted in enhanced levels of radionuclides in sediments of the Ribble Estuary, NW England, UK. Variations in radionuclide concentrations ( 137 Cs, 230 Th, and 239240 Pu) with depth in a mature saltmarsh core were analysed in order to investigate historical discharge trends and waste-dispersal mechanisms. Core samples from Longton/Hutton Marsh were analysed by gamma-spectrometry and α-spectrometry for radionuclides and by laser granulometry to establish grain-size variations with depth. Distinct subsurface maxima were present for 137 Cs and 239240 Pu with activities as high as 4500 Bq kg -1 for 137 Cs and 600 Bq kg -1 for 239240 Pu. Thorium-230 exhibited complex activity profiles with depth, specific activities ranging between 200 and 2400 Bq kg -1 . The vertical distributions of Sellafield-derived radionuclides ( 137 Cs and 239240 Pu) in mature saltmarsh deposits reflect the time-integrated discharge pattern from Sellafield, implying a transport mechanism that has involved the mixing of sediment labelled with radioactivity from recent discharges and sediment labelled from historical discharge events before deposition. A mechanism involving the transport of contaminated silt therefore seems to dominate. The vertical distribution of Springfields-derived 230 Th in the same areas reflects the annual gross-α discharge pattern from BNFL Springfields. In contrast to the Sellafield-derived radionuclides, a fairly rapid transport mechanism from source to sink is implied, with little or no time for mixing with radionuclides discharged years earlier. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  16. Determination of scaling factors to estimate the radionuclide inventory in waste with low and intermediate-level activity from the IEA-R1 reactor; Determinacao de fatores de escala para estimativa do inventario de radionuclideos em rejeitos de media e baixa atividades do reator IEA-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo

    2013-07-01

    Regulations regarding transfer and final disposal of radioactive waste require that the inventory of radionuclides for each container enclosing such waste must be estimated and declared. The regulatory limits are established as a function of the annual radiation doses that members of the public could be exposed to from the radioactive waste repository, which mainly depend on the activity concentration of radionuclides, given in Bq/g, found in each waste container. Most of the radionuclides that emit gamma-rays can have their activity concentrations determined straightforwardly by measurements carried out externally to the containers. However, radionuclides that emit exclusively alpha or beta particles, as well as gamma-rays or X-rays with low energy and low absolute emission intensity, or whose activity is very low among the radioactive waste, are generically designated as Difficult to Measure Nuclides (DTMs). The activity concentrations of these DTMs are determined by means of complex radiochemical procedures that involve isolating the chemical species being studied from the interference in the waste matrix. Moreover, samples must be collected from each container in order to perform the analyses inherent to the radiochemical procedures, which exposes operators to high levels of radiation and is very costly because of the large number of radioactive waste containers that need to be characterized at a nuclear facility. An alternative methodology to approach this problem consists in obtaining empirical correlations between some radionuclides that can be measured directly – such as {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs, therefore designated as Key Nuclides (KNs) – and the DTMs. This methodology, denominated Scaling Factor, was applied in the scope of the present work in order to obtain Scaling Factors or Correlation Functions for the most important radioactive wastes with low and intermediate-activity level from the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. (author)

  17. Some parameters of radionuclide kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokof'ev, O.N.; Smirnov, V.A.; Belen'kij, E.I.

    1978-01-01

    Numerical values of the rates of radionuclide absorption into, and elimination from, bovine organs were determined. Kinetic rate constants of radionuclides such as 89 Sr, 99 Mo, 131 I, 132 Tl, and 140 Be were calculated. The calculations were done for muscle, liver, and kidney

  18. Radionuclide - Soil Organic Matter Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars

    1985-01-01

    Interactions between soil organic matter, i.e. humic and fulvic acids, and radionuclides of primary interest to shallow land burial of low activity solid waste have been reviewed and to some extent studied experimentally. The radionuclides considered in the present study comprise cesium, strontium...

  19. Chapter 13. Radionuclides in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with problems connected with using of radionuclides in medicine. Methods of treatment with using of radionuclides are reviewed. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Remotion of thyroid gland; (2) Treatment of cerebrally tumour in nuclear reactor; (3) Artificial heart

  20. Mass spectrometry of long-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Johanna Sabine.

    2003-01-01

    The capability of determining element concentrations at the trace and ultratrace level and isotope ratios is a main feature of inorganic mass spectrometry. The precise and accurate determination of isotope ratios of long-lived natural and artificial radionuclides is required, e.g. for their environmental monitoring and health control, for studying radionuclide migration, for age dating, for determining isotope ratios of radiogenic elements in the nuclear industry, for quality assurance and determination of the burn-up of fuel material in a nuclear power plant, for reprocessing plants, nuclear material accounting and radioactive waste control. Inorganic mass spectrometry, especially inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as the most important inorganic mass spectrometric technique today, possesses excellent sensitivity, precision and good accuracy for isotope ratio measurements and practically no restriction with respect to the ionization potential of the element investigated--therefore, thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), which has been used as the dominant analytical technique for precise isotope ratio measurements of long-lived radionuclides for many decades, is being replaced increasingly by ICP-MS. In the last few years instrumental progress in improving figures of merit for the determination of isotope ratio measurements of long-lived radionuclides in ICP-MS has been achieved by the application of a multiple ion collector device (MC-ICP-MS) and the introduction of the collision cell interface in order to dissociate disturbing argon-based molecular ions, to reduce the kinetic energy of ions and neutralize the disturbing noble gas ions (e.g. of 129 Xe + for the determination of 129 I). The review describes the state of the art and the progress of different inorganic mass spectrometric techniques such as ICP-MS, laser ablation ICP-MS vs. TIMS, glow discharge mass spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, resonance ionization mass

  1. 2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David P. Fuehne

    2007-06-30

    This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

  2. Scaling model for prediction of radionuclide activity in cooling water using a regression triplet technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvia Dulanska; Lubomir Matel; Milan Meloun

    2010-01-01

    The decommissioning of the nuclear power plant (NPP) A1 Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia) is a complicated set of problems that is highly demanding both technically and financially. The basic goal of the decommissioning process is the total elimination of radioactive materials from the nuclear power plant area, and radwaste treatment to a form suitable for its safe disposal. The initial conditions of decommissioning also include elimination of the operational events, preparation and transport of the fuel from the plant territory, radiochemical and physical-chemical characterization of the radioactive wastes. One of the problems was and still is the processing of the liquid radioactive wastes. Such media is also the cooling water of the long-term storage of spent fuel. A suitable scaling model for predicting the activity of hard-to-detect radionuclides 239,240 Pu, 90 Sr and summary beta in cooling water using a regression triplet technique has been built using the regression triplet analysis and regression diagnostics. (author)

  3. Human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests; Forests ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantavaara, A. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Research and Environmental Surveillance, Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-06-15

    Forest soil, understorey vegetation and trees are all sources of radionuclides and human radiation doses after contaminating atmospheric deposition. People are exposed to radiation externally from sources outside the body and internally via ingestion and inhalation of radionuclides. Understorey vegetation contributes to ingestion doses through berries, herbs, wild honey, mushrooms and game meat; also trees provide feed to terrestrial birds and big game. During stay in forests people are subject to external radiation from forest floor and overstorey, and they may inhale airborne radioactive aerosol or gaseous radionuclides in ground level air. In the early phase of contamination also resuspended radionuclides may add to the internal dose of people via inhalation. People in Nordic countries are most exposed to radiation via ingestion of radionuclides in wild foods. The distribution of radionuclides in forests is changed by environmental processes, and thereby also the significance of various dose pathways to humans will change with time. External exposure is received in living environment from contaminated stemwood used as building timber and for manufacturing of furniture and other wood products. The aim of this paper is to outline the significance of various human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests considering the public and workers in forestry and production of bioenergy. Examples on effective doses are given based on two historical events, atmospheric nuclear weapon tests (mostly in 1950's and in 1960's) and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. (au)

  4. Underground radionuclide migration at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimz, G.J.; Thompson, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This document reviews results from a number of studies concerning underground migration of radionuclides from nuclear test cavities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Discussed are all cases known to the Department of Energy's Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program where radionuclides have been detected outside of the immediate vicinity of nuclear test cavities that are identifiable as the-source of the nuclides, as well as cases where radionuclides might have been expected and were intentionally sought but not fixed. There are nine locations where source-identifiable radionuclide migration has been detected, one where migration was purposely induced by pumping, and three where migration might be expected but was not found. In five of the nine cases of non-induced migration, the inferred migration mechanism is prompt fracture injection during detonation. In the other four cases, the inferred migration mechanism is water movement. In only a few of the reviewed cases can the actual migration mechanism be stated with confidence, and the attempt has been made to indicate the level of confidence for each case. References are cited where more information may be obtained. As an aid to future study, this document concludes with a brief discussion of the aspects of radionuclide migration that, as the present review indicates, are not yet understood. A course of action is suggested that would produce a better understanding of the phenomenon of radionuclide migration

  5. Verification and improvement of predictive algorithms for radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnahan, C.L.; Miller, C.W.; Remer, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    This research investigated the adequacy of current numerical codes in simulating geochemical interactions affecting radionuclide migration, the level of complexity required in chemical algorithms of transport models, and the validity of the constant-k/sub D/ concept in chemical transport modeling. An initial survey of the literature led to the conclusion that existing numerical codes did not encompass the full range of chemical and physical phenomena influential in radionuclide migration

  6. Determination of radionuclide concentrations in animal feedstuffs for use following a nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, W. T.; Ser, K. S.; Kim, E. H.; Choi, Y. K.; Han, M. H.; Choi, Y. H.

    2001-01-01

    The optimized derived intervention levels for animal products were evaluated based on cost-benefit analysis. From these results, the radionuclide concentrations in animal feedstuffs for use were derived. It was shown that radionuclide concentrations in animal feedstuffs for use depend strongly on animal products, radionuclides and feeding period. In case of the contaminated feedstuffs with long-lived radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr), the feedstuffs with lower contamination should be supplied to animals with increase of feeding period due to the accumulation of radionuclides in animal products. While, in case of the contaminated feedstuffs with short-lived radionuclides ( 131 I), the feeding of higher contaminated feedstuffs was possible with increase of feeding period due to radionuclide decay. It was shown that 137 Cs concentration was lower than 90 Sr concentration in animal feedstuffs for use. It is primarily due to the higher feed-animal products transfer factor of 137 Cs

  7. Radionuclide transverse section imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1980-01-01

    A radioisotope scanning apparatus for use in nuclear medicine is described in detail. The apparatus enables the quantification and spatial location of the radioactivity in a body section of a patient to be determined with high sensitivity. It consists of an array of highly focussed collimators arranged such that adjacent collimators move in the same circumferential but opposite radial directions. The explicit movements of the gantry are described in detail and may be controlled by a general purpose computer. The use of highly focussed collimators allows both a reasonable solid angle of acceptance and also high target to background images; additionally, dual radionuclide pharmaceutical studies can be performed simultaneously. It is claimed that the high sensitivity of the system permits the early diagnosis of pathological changes and the images obtained show accurately the location and shape of physiological abnormalities. (UK)

  8. Radioactivity, radionuclides, radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Magill, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    RADIOACTIVITY – RADIONUCLIDES – RADIATION is suitable for a general audience interested in topical environmental and human health radiological issues such as radiation exposure in aircraft, food sterilisation, nuclear medicine, radon gas, radiation dispersion devices ("dirty bombs")… It leads the interested reader through the three Rs of nuclear science, to the forefront of research and developments in the field. The book is also suitable for students and professionals in the related disciplines of nuclear and radiochemistry, health physics, environmental sciences, nuclear and astrophysics. Recent developments in the areas of exotic decay modes (bound beta decay of ‘bare’ or fully ionized nuclei), laser transmutation, nuclear forensics, radiation hormesis and the LNT hypothesis are covered. Atomic mass data for over 3000 nuclides from the most recent (2003) evaluation are included.

  9. Deep sea radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanisch, G.; Vobach, M.

    1993-01-01

    Every year since 1979, either in sping or in summer, the fishing research vessel 'Walther Herwig' goes to the North Atlantic disposal areas of solid radioactive wastes, and, for comparative purposes, to other areas, in order to collect water samples, plankton and nekton, and, from the deep sea bed, sediment samples and benthos organisms. In addition to data on the radionuclide contents of various media, information about the plankton, nekton and benthos organisms living in those areas and about their biomasses could be gathered. The investigations are aimed at acquiring scientifically founded knowledge of the uptake of radioactive substances by microorganisms, and their migration from the sea bottom to the areas used by man. (orig.) [de

  10. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jung Joon

    2004-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of non-invasive imaging technologies continues to strengthen the role of molecular imaging biological research. These tools have been validated recently in variety of research models, and have been shown to provide continuous quantitative monitoring of the location(s), magnitude, and time-variation of gene expression. This article reviews the principles, characteristics, categories and the use of radionuclide reporter gene imaging technologies as they have been used in imaging cell trafficking, imaging gene therapy, imaging endogenous gene expression and imaging molecular interactions. The studies published to date demonstrate that reporter gene imaging technologies will help to accelerate model validation as well as allow for clinical monitoring of human diseases

  11. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jung Joon [School of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    Recent progress in the development of non-invasive imaging technologies continues to strengthen the role of molecular imaging biological research. These tools have been validated recently in variety of research models, and have been shown to provide continuous quantitative monitoring of the location(s), magnitude, and time-variation of gene expression. This article reviews the principles, characteristics, categories and the use of radionuclide reporter gene imaging technologies as they have been used in imaging cell trafficking, imaging gene therapy, imaging endogenous gene expression and imaging molecular interactions. The studies published to date demonstrate that reporter gene imaging technologies will help to accelerate model validation as well as allow for clinical monitoring of human diseases.

  12. Natural radionuclides in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laul, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The U-234 and Th-230 radionuclides are highly retarded by factors of 10 4 to 10 5 in basalt groundwater (Hanford) and briny groundwaters from Texas and geothermal brine from the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). In basalt groundwaters (low ionic strength), Ra is highly sorbed, while in brines (high ionic strength), Ra is soluble. This is probably because the sorption sites are saturated with Na + and Cl - ions and RaCl 2 is soluble in brines. Pb-210 is soluble in SSGF brine, probably as a chloride complex. The U-234/Th-230 ratios in basalt groundwaters and brines from Texas and SSGF are nearly unity, indicating that U is in the +4 state, suggesting a reducing environment for these aquifers. 19 refs., 3 figs

  13. Natural radionuclides in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laul, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The 234 U and 230 Th radionuclides are highly retarded by factors of 10 4 to 10 5 in basalt groundwater (Hanford) and briny groundwaters from Texas, and geothermal brine form the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). In basalt groundwaters (low ionic strength), Ra is highly sorbed, while in brines (high ionic strength), Ra is soluble. This is probably because the sorption sites are saturated with Na + and Cl - ions, and RaCl 2 is soluble in brines. 210 Pb is soluble in SSGF brine, probably as a chloride complex. The 234 U/ 230 Th ratios in basalt groundwaters and brines from Texas and SSGF are nearly unity, indicating that U is in the +4 state, suggesting a reducing environment for these aquifers. (author) 19 refs.; 3 figs

  14. Radionuclide calibrators performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Ramirez, E.; Zeledon Fonseca, P.; Jimenez Cordero, M.

    2008-01-01

    Radionuclide calibrators are used to estimate accurately activity prior to administration to a patient, so it is very important that this equipment meets its performance requirements. The purpose of this paper is to compare the commercially available 'Calicheck' (Calcorp. Inc), used to assess linearity, versus the well-known source decay method, and also to show our results after performing several recommended quality control tests. The parameters that we wanted to evaluate were carried on using the Capintec CRC-15R and CRC-15 β radionuclide calibrators. The evaluated tests were: high voltage, display, zero adjust, background, reproducibility, source constancy, accuracy, precision and linearity. The first six tests were evaluated on the daily practice, here we analyzed the 2007 recorded data; and the last three were evaluated once a year. During the daily evaluation both calibrators performance were satisfactory comparing with the manufacture's requirements. The accuracy test show result within the ± 10% allowed for a field instrument. Precision performance is within the ± 1 % allowed. On the other hand, the linearity test shows that using the source decay method the relative coefficient is 0.9998, for both equipment and using the Calicheck the relative coefficient is 0.997. However, looking the percentage of error, during the 'Calicheck' test, its range goes from 0.0 % up to -25.35%, and using the source decay method, the range goes from 0.0 % up to -31.05 %, taking into account both instruments. Checking the 'Calicheck' results we can see that the results varying randomly, but using the source decay method the percentage of error increase as the source activity decrease. We conclude that both devices meet its manufactures requirements, in the case of the linearity using the decay method, decreasing the activity source, increasing the percentage of error, this may happen because of the equipment age. (author)

  15. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quine, T.A.; Walling, D.

    1998-01-01

    Geomorphologists have shown increasing interest in environmental radionuclides since pioneering studies by Ritchie and McHenry in the USA and Campbell, Longmore and Loughran in Australia. Environmental radionuclides have attracted this interest because they provide geomorphologists with the means to trace sediment movement within the landscape. They, therefore, facilitate investigation of subjects at the core of geomorphology, namely the rates and patterns of landscape change. Most attention has been focussed on the artificial radionuclide caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) but more recently potential applications of the natural radionuclides lead-210 ( 210 Pb) and beryllium-7( 7 Be) have been investigated (Walling et al., 1995; Wallbrink and Murray, 1996a, 1996b). The origin, characteristics and applications of these radionuclides are summarised. These radionuclides are of value as sediment tracers because of three important characteristics: a strong affinity for sediment; a global distribution and the possibility of measurement at low concentration. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides provide unique access to detailed qualitative data concerning landscape change over a range of timescales

  16. Radionuclide migration in water reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionova, L.F.

    1983-01-01

    Toxicity degree and radiation effect of different radionuclides depend on multiple factors, whose interaction can strengthen or weaken the effects through the mechanism of nuclide accumulation by hydrobiontes. Stage of development of an aquatic organism, its age, mass and sex as well as lifetime and residence time of the organism in the given medium are of importance. The radionuclide build up depends on illumination, locale of the bioobject residence, on the residence nature. The concentration of radionuclides in aquatic organisms and bionts survival depend on a season, temperature of the residence medium, as well as salinity and mineral composition of water influence

  17. Concentration of radionuclides by marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Ryoichi

    1995-01-01

    The Japanese, who have ever been confronted with atomic bombs, are said to be very sensitive to the nuclear power, radioactivity and so on. However, the peaceful uses of the nuclear power are closely related to our daily lives. Consequently, we should recognize correctly the nuclear power, radioactivity and so on, without refusing emotion-ally or admitting uncritically. Many marine organisms have abilities to accumulate radionuclides to very high concentrations. But, the levels of man-made radioactivity of marine organisms in the sea around Japan have been decreased in recent years compared with those in the past. So, the annual internal dose equivalent for Japanese from seafood (marine organisms) are originated mainly from the natural radionuclides like 210 Po, 210 Pb and 40 K. Nevertheless, study on the marine radioecology must be progressed against the inadvertent radioactive contamination of the surrounding sea, due to the increase of nuclear facilities and nuclear weapons. (author)

  18. The ENSDF based radionuclide source for MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlizov, A.N.; Tryshyn, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    A utility for generating source code of the Source subroutine of MCNP (a general Monte Carlo NxParticle transport code) on the basis of ENSDF (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File) is described. The generated code performs statistical simulation of processes, accompanying radioactive decay of a chosen radionuclide through a specified decay branch, providing characteristics of emitted correlated particles on its output. At modeling the following processes are taken into account: emission of continuum energy electrons at beta - -decay to different exited levels of a daughter nucleus; annihilation photon emission accompanying beta + -decay; gamma-ray emission; emission of discrete energy electrons resulted from internal conversion process on atomic K- and L I,II,III -shells; K and LX-ray emission at single and double fluorescence, accompanying electron capture and internal conversion processes. Number of emitted particles, their types, energies and emission times are sampled according to characteristics of a decay scheme of a particular radionuclide as well as characteristics of atomic shells of mother and daughter nuclei. Angular correlations, calculated for a particular combination of nuclear level spins, mixing ratios and gamma-ray multipolarities, are taken into account at sampling of directional cosines of emitted gamma-rays. The paper contains examples of spectrometry system response simulation at measurements with real radionuclide sources. (authors)

  19. Radionuclide content of Las Vegas wash sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudin, M.J.; Meyers, A.M.; Johnson, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    The Las Vegas Wash is an excavated waterway channel which drains all surface water and effluent discharge from sewage-treatment facilities from the greater Las Vegas Metropolitan Area to Lake Mead. Runoff and erosion processes are expected to transport man-made radioactivity that was deposited over the past several decades in the Las Vegas Valley. Additionally, radionuclides disposed of via the city's sanitary system are expected to accumulate in the Wash sediments. Fine and coarse sediment samples were collected at 100 m intervals and analyzed to determine the distribution of alpha- and gamma-emitting radionuclides in the lower 5,500 in of the Las Vegas Wash. Results indicate little accumulation of long-lived fission products in upstream Wash sediments. However, trace amounts of fission products measured in downstream sediments suggest the resuspension and transport of radioactive particulate matter within the Wash. Levels of naturally-occurring radionuclides found in Wash sediments were found to be consistent with levels typically found in southeast Nevada soils

  20. BLT-EC (Breach, Leach Transport, and Equilibrium Chemistry), a finite-element model for assessing the release of radionuclides from low-level waste disposal units: Background, theory, and model description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, R.J.; Sullivan, T.M.; Simonson, S.A.; Suen, C.J.

    1995-08-01

    Performance assessment models typically account for the processes of sorption and dissolution-precipitation by using an empirical distribution coefficient, commonly referred to as K d that combines the effects of all chemical reactions between solid and aqueous phases. In recent years, however, there has been an increasing awareness that performance assessments based solely on empirically based K d models may be incomplete, particularly for applications involving radionuclides having sorption and solubility properties that are sensitive to variations in the in-situ chemical environment. To accommodate variations in the in-situ chemical environment, and to assess its impact on radionuclide mobility, it is necessary to model radionuclide release, transport, and chemical processes in a coupled fashion. This modeling has been done and incorporated into the two-dimensional, finite-element, computer code BLT-EC (Breach, Leach, Transport, Equilibrium Chemistry). BLT-EC is capable of predicting container degradation, waste-form leaching, and advective-dispersive, multispecies, solute transport. BLT-EC accounts for retardation directly by modeling the chemical processes of complexation, sorption, dissolution-precipitation, ion-exchange, and oxidation-reduction reactions. In this report we: (1) present a detailed description of the various physical and chemical processes that control the release and migration of radionuclides from shallow land LLW disposal facilities; (2) formulate the mathematical models that represent these processes; (3) outline how these models are incorporated and implemented in BLT-EC; and (4) demonstrate the application of BLT-EC on a set of example problems

  1. Sedimentation studies relevant to low-level radioactive effluent dispersal in the Irish Sea. Part III. An evaluation of possible mechanisms for the incorporation of radionuclides into marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, R.; Parker, W.R.; Pentreath, R.J.; Lovett, M.B.

    1983-01-01

    Based on circumstantial evidence the Cumbrian mud area was previously interpreted as accretionary. There are no measurements confirming that riverborne sediment reaches the mud area and the postulated subtidal sources appear to be sealed by a lag gravel. In contrast, fine sediment deposited in Liverpool Bay is known to return to the Ribble, Mersey and Dee. Similarly 'hot' particles originating in the Sellafield outfall are implied to travel, perhaps accompanied by natural fine sediment, into the Ravenglass Estuary and elsewhere. The likely interpretation is that fine sediment accumulating in the coastal zone of the eastern Irish Sea is partly derived from seawards. Possible sources are coast erosion and the unconsolidated mud areas themselves. Radionuclide profiles from the Cumbrian mud area have previously been interpreted as confirming the accretionary hypothesis. In fact three principal types of radionuclide profiles occur, which are interpreted here to indicate progressively more efficient bioturbation. Burrowing animals may also supply uncontaminated sediment to the bed, where it absorbs radionuclides before, in part, being redeposited locally. This implies that no large external sediment source is necessary to explain the radionuclide profiles encountered. We thus interpret the area as a relatively stable sedimentary regime dominated by biological processes. (author)

  2. Assessment of the important radionuclides in nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1985-10-01

    The relative importance of the various radionuclides contained in nuclear waste has been assessed by consideration of (1) the quantity of each radionuclide present, (2) the Environmental Protection Agency's release limits for radionuclides, (3) how retardation processes such as solubility and sorption affect radionuclie transport, and (4) the physical and chemical forms of radionuclides in the waste. Three types of waste were reviewed: spent fuel, high-level waste, and defense high-level waste. Conditions specific to the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations project potential site at Yucca Mountain were used to describe radionuclide transport. The actinides Am, Pu, Np, and U were identified as the waste elements for which solubility and sorption data were most urgently needed. Other important waste elements were identified as Sr, Cs, C, Ni, Zr, Tc, Th, Ra, and Sn. Under some conditions, radionuclides of three elements (C, Tc, and I) may have high solubility and negligible sorption. The potential for transport of some waste elements (C and I) in the gas phase must also be evaluated for the Yucca Mountain Site. 12 refs., 17 tabs

  3. Naturally occurring radionuclides in agricultural products: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    Low levels of naturally occurring radionuclides exist in phosphatic clays, a by-product of phosphatic mining and beneficiation processes. Concerns about these radionuclides entering the human food chain were an immediate research priority before the phosphate clays could be reclaimed for intensive agricultural purposes. Efforts included the assembly of a large body of data from both sons and plants, part of which were produced by the Polk County (Florida) Mined Lands Agricultural Research/Demonstration Project MLAR/DP. Additional detailed studies involving dairy and beef cattle (Bos taurus) were conducted by researchers working with the MLAR/DP. A national symposium was conducted in which data concerning the MLAR/DP work and other research projects also dealing with naturally occurring radionuclides in agriculture could be discussed. The symposium included invited review papers dealing with the identification of radionuclide geological origins, the geochemistry and movement of radionuclides within the environment, mechanisms of plant uptake, entry points into the food chain, and evaluation of dose and risk assessment to the consumer of low levels of radionuclides. The risk to human health of an individual obtaining 0.1 of his or her dietary intake from crops produced on phosphatic clays increased by 1 in 5 x 10 6 /yr above a control individual consuming no food grown on phosphatic clays. Leaf tissues were found to be generally higher than fruit, grain, or root tissues. The natural range in radionuclide content among various food types was greater than the difference in radionuclides content between the same food produced on phosphatic clays vs. natural soils. 19 refs

  4. Artificial radionuclides in soil, flora and fauna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Sources and ways of soil contamination by radionuclides, as well as the main regularities of radionuclide behaviour in soils, are discussed. Ways of radionuclide uptake by plants are discussed in detail, since radionuclide contamination of vegetation, and agricultural plants and pastures in particular, is one of the main factors, determining sanitary value of environmental contamination by radioactive substances

  5. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations in the New Zealand diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Andrew J; Gaw, Sally; Hermanspahn, Nikolaus; Glover, Chris N

    2016-01-01

    To support New Zealand's food safety monitoring regime, a survey was undertaken to establish radionuclide activity concentrations across the New Zealand diet. This survey was undertaken to better understand the radioactivity content of the modern diet and also to assess the suitability of the current use of milk as a sentinel for dietary radionuclide trends. Thirteen radionuclides were analysed in 40 common food commodities, including animal products, fruits, vegetables, cereal grains and seafood. Activity was detected for (137)Caesium, (90)Strontium and (131)Iodine. No other anthropogenic radionuclides were detected. Activity concentrations of the three natural radionuclides of Uranium and the daughter radionuclide (210)Polonium were detected in the majority of food sampled, with a large variation in magnitude. The maximum activity concentrations were detected in shellfish for all these radionuclides. Based on the established activity concentrations and ranges, the New Zealand diet contains activity concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides far below the Codex Alimentarius guideline levels. Activity concentrations obtained for milk support its continued use as a sentinel for monitoring fallout radionuclides in terrestrial agriculture. The significant levels of natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations detected in finfish and molluscs support undertaking further research to identify a suitable sentinel for New Zealand seafood monitoring. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Criteria for Radionuclide Activity Concentrations for Food and Drinking Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-04-01

    Requirements for the protection of people from the harmful consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation, for the safety of radiation sources and for the protection of the environment are established in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 3, Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards. GSR Part 3 requires that the regulatory body or other relevant authority establish specific reference levels for exposure due to radionuclides in commodities, including food and drinking water. The reference level is based on an annual effective dose to the representative person that generally does not exceed a value of about 1 mSv. International standards have been developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Codex Alimentarius Commission for levels of radionuclides contained in food traded internationally that contains, or could potentially contain, radioactive substances as a consequence of a nuclear or radiological emergency. International standards have also been developed by the WHO for radionuclides contained in drinking water, other than in a nuclear or radiological emergency. These international standards provide guidance and criteria in terms of levels of individual radiation dose, levels of activity concentration of specific radionuclides, or both. The criteria derived in terms of levels of activity concentration in the various international standards differ owing to a number of factors and assumptions underlying the common objective of protecting public health in different circumstances. This publication considers the various international standards to be applied at the national level for the assessment of levels of radionuclides in food and in drinking water in different circumstances for the purposes of control, other than in a nuclear or radiological emergency. It collates and provides an overview of the different criteria used in assessing and

  7. Radionuclide methods in pediatric cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, O.; Ruth, C.; Samanek, M.

    1990-01-01

    The use of radionuclide methods in pediatric cardiology is discussed for non-invasive evaluation of myocardial function and perfusion, regional lung perfusion and ventilation, and for measuring central and peripheral hemodynamics. (H.W.). 16 refs

  8. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  9. Radionuclides in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, J.H.; Schmidt, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclides in the Food Chain reviews past experience in meeting the challenge of radionuclide contamination of foodstuffs and water sources and, in the wake of the reactor accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island, presents current concepts and programs relating to measurement, surveillance, effects, risk management, evaluation guidelines, and control and regulatory activities. This volume, based on a symposium sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute in association with the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, which brought together both radiation experts and food industry policymakers, examines such vital topics as structural problems in large-scale crisis-managment systems; dose assessment from man-made sources; international recommendations on radiation protection; airborne contamination, as well as aquatic and soilborne radionuclides; food-chain contamination from testing nuclear devices; long-term health effects of radionuclides in food and water supplies; and use of mathematical models in risk assessment and management. (orig.)

  10. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houseworth, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the

  11. Surface diffusion of sorbed radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.A.; Bond, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Surface diffusion has in the past been invoked to explain rates of radionuclide migration which were greater than those predicted. Results were generally open to interpretation but the possible existence of surface diffusion, whereby sorbed radionuclides could potentially migrate at much enhanced rates, necessitated investigation. In this work through-diffusion experiments have shown that although surface diffusion does exist for some nuclides, the magnitude of the phenomenon is not sufficient to affect repository safety assessment modelling. (author)

  12. Radionuclide generators for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, R.D.; Molinski, V.J.; Hupf, H.B.; Kramer, H.

    1983-10-01

    This document reviews the chemical literature of those radionuclide generators that have gained or appear to possess utility in medical imaging. The text represents a conscientious effort to peruse the scientific literature through 1980. The intent of this work is to provide a reference point for the investigator who is interested in the development of a particular generator system and the refinements which have been reported. Moreover, the incorporation of the particular daughter radionuclide into a suitable radiodiagnostic agent is presented

  13. Radionuclide migration in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demir, M [Ingenieurgesellschaft Bonnenberg und Drescher, Juelich (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-01-01

    Unplanned releases from a nuclear installation - e.g., leakage from a storage tank or other incident - can result in the escape of contaminants such as U, Pu, Cs, Sr, T etc. Nuclide transport through the ground is governed by characteristics of the subsurface hydrology and the specific nuclides under consideration. Unsaturated soil layers result in a transport rate so low as to negligible. Radionuclides reaching the ground water are assumed to endanger human life because of potential uncontrolled ingestion. The most dangerous nuclides are long-lived and not absorbed, or very poorly absorbed, in the soil. During migration of nuclides through saturated soil layers, the concentration can be reduced by dilution. Preliminary results indicate that tritium is spread with ground water velocity. Its concentration can be reduced only by diffusion, dispersion and radioactive decay. Alpha-emitters are strongly retained velocities of alpha-emitters are approximately one thousandth (10/sup -3/) that of T. Transport velocities of Cs and Sr are approximately one hundreth (10/sup -2/) and one tenth (10/sup -1/) that of T respectively.

  14. Radionuclide migration in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, M.

    1979-01-01

    Unplanned releases from a nuclear installation - e.g., leakage from a storage tank or other incident - can result in the escape of contaminants such as U, Pu, Cs, Sr, T etc. Nuclide transport through the ground is governed by characteristics of the subsurface hydrology and the specific nuclides under consideration. Unsaturated soil layers result in a transport rate so low as to negligible. Radionuclides reaching the ground water are assumed to endanger human life because of potential uncontrolled ingestion. The most dangerous nuclides are long-lived and not absorbed, or very poorly absorbed, in the soil. During migration of nuclides through saturated soil layers, the concentration can be reduced by dilution. Preliminary results indicate that tritium is spread with ground water velocity. Its concentration can be reduced only by diffusion, dispersion and radioactive decay. Alpha-emitters are strongly retained velocities of alpha-emitters are approximately one thousandth (10 -3 ) that of T. Transport velocities of Cs and Sr are approximately one hundreth (10 -2 ) and one tenth (10 -1 ) that of T respectively. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  16. Radionuclide brain scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Dayem, H.

    1992-01-01

    At one stage of medical imaging development, radionuclide brain scanning was the only technique available for imaging of the brain. Advent of CT and MRI pushed it to the background. It regained some of the grounds lost to ''allied advances'' with the introduction of brain perfusion radiopharmaceuticals. Positron emission tomography is a promising functional imaging modality that at present will remain as a research tool in special centres in developed countries. However, clinically useful developments will gradually percolate from PET to SPECT. The non-nuclear imaging methods are totally instrument dependent; they are somewhat like escalators, which can go that far and no further. Nuclear imaging has an unlimited scope for advance because of the new developments in radiopharmaceuticals. As the introduction of a radiopharmaceutical is less costly than buying new instruments, the recent advances in nuclear imaging are gradually perfusing through the developing countries also. Therefore, it is essential to follow very closely PET developments because what is research today might become routine tomorrow

  17. Radionuclides migration or isolation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toulhoat, P.; Grambow, B.; Simoni, E.

    2005-01-01

    After 20 years of research, the chemical behaviour of actinides and fission products in nuclear waste disposal environments is much better understood. Consistent thermodynamic data have been gathered and allow much more accurate previsions. Through the considerable development of analytical spectroscopy, including time resolved laser fluorescence and X ray absorption, a better understanding of the chemical reactivity (complexation, sorption) of actinides and fission products at a molecular scale has been possible. Chemically reducing conditions are found in most selected disposal host rock formations, generally chosen for their high sorption capacity (clays); such conditions favour the chemical confinement of most radionuclides through precipitation or sorption. Low permeability host rocks participate to this confinement, as convective fluxes are lower than diffusive fluxes. The most recent performance assessment exercises have taken into account the recent progress of knowledge in the chemical evolution of the near field. They show that the dose rates at the outlet are far lower than existing recommendations for normal and most altered evolution scenarios. (authors)

  18. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-01-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific

  19. Radionuclide brain scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Dayem, H

    1993-12-31

    At one stage of medical imaging development, radionuclide brain scanning was the only technique available for imaging of the brain. Advent of CT and MRI pushed it to the background. It regained some of the grounds lost to ``allied advances`` with the introduction of brain perfusion radiopharmaceuticals. Positron emission tomography is a promising functional imaging modality that at present will remain as a research tool in special centres in developed countries. However, clinically useful developments will gradually percolate from PET to SPECT. The non-nuclear imaging methods are totally instrument dependent; they are somewhat like escalators, which can go that far and no further. Nuclear imaging has an unlimited scope for advance because of the new developments in radiopharmaceuticals. As the introduction of a radiopharmaceutical is less costly than buying new instruments, the recent advances in nuclear imaging are gradually perfusing through the developing countries also. Therefore, it is essential to follow very closely PET developments because what is research today might become routine tomorrow

  20. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations in the New Zealand diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, Andrew J.; Gaw, Sally; Hermanspahn, Nikolaus; Glover, Chris N.

    2016-01-01

    To support New Zealand's food safety monitoring regime, a survey was undertaken to establish radionuclide activity concentrations across the New Zealand diet. This survey was undertaken to better understand the radioactivity content of the modern diet and also to assess the suitability of the current use of milk as a sentinel for dietary radionuclide trends. Thirteen radionuclides were analysed in 40 common food commodities, including animal products, fruits, vegetables, cereal grains and seafood. Activity was detected for 137 Caesium, 90 Strontium and 131 Iodine. No other anthropogenic radionuclides were detected. Activity concentrations of the three natural radionuclides of Uranium and the daughter radionuclide 210 Polonium were detected in the majority of food sampled, with a large variation in magnitude. The maximum activity concentrations were detected in shellfish for all these radionuclides. Based on the established activity concentrations and ranges, the New Zealand diet contains activity concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides far below the Codex Alimentarius guideline levels. Activity concentrations obtained for milk support its continued use as a sentinel for monitoring fallout radionuclides in terrestrial agriculture. The significant levels of natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations detected in finfish and molluscs support undertaking further research to identify a suitable sentinel for New Zealand seafood monitoring. - Highlights: • A radionuclide monitoring program was undertaken across the New Zealand food supply. • 40 food types were analysed for 13 radionuclides. • 137 Cs was present in 15% of foods (range: 0.05–0.44Bq/kg). • Anthropogenic radionuclides displayed compliance with international limits. • 210 Po, 234 U and 238 U were present in most foods with large ranges of activities.

  1. Gut-related radionuclide studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.F.

    1982-01-01

    This project is concerned with the behavior of radioactive materials that may be ingested as a consequence of a reactor accident, unavoidable occupational exposure, or after release to the environment and incorporation into the food chain. Current emphasis is directed toward evaluating hazards from ingested actinides as a function of animal age, species, nutrition, and diet, or chemicophysical state of the actinide. Recent observations indicate that the influence of chemical form on plutonium absorption observed at high mass levels does not occur at low mass concentrations. For example, at doses of 0.6 μg/kg there was no difference between absorption of the carbonate, citrate or nitrate forms of plutonium. However, at 1.5 mg/kg, the citrate was absorbed in quantities 30 times higher than the nitrate. The opposite effect occurred for neptunium GI absorption. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that materials such as citrus fruit juices and calcium, as well as drugs that affect GI function (such as aspirin and DTPA), markedly influence GI absorption of plutonium. Such studies provide evidence that diet and nutritional state should be considered in establishing safe limits for radionuclides that may be ingested

  2. Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-12-31

    This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.

  3. Movement of radionuclides through unsaturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Sousa, F.N.C.

    1985-01-01

    The advantages of the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes in the unsaturated zone above the fluctuations of the water table have been recognized for some time. However, most the numerical models used to simulate the environmental impact of a shallow land burial site assume that the soils surrounding the waste forms are saturated; this assumption may lead, in many cases, to unrealistic large leach and water flow rates. The main purpose of this study was the development of a procedure which could give a reliable prediction on the movement of radionuclides from shallow land burial sites located in the unsaturated zone. In order to accomplish this objective three different soils having different sand, silt, and clay fractions were selected and characterized. These soils were then used to fill a number of flow columns that were used in tests designed to provide input data for the flow and transport models. A one-dimensional finite element model was developed in order to simulate the water flow and radionuclide transport through unsaturated soils. The results obtained showed that the model accurately described the transport of radionuclides through saturated-unsaturated soils. Simulations were done, for all three soils, involving different degrees of soil saturation, and the results showed that assuming the soils are always saturated may lead to nuclide transport times which are orders of magnitude larger than the real ones, depending on the clay percentage present in the soil

  4. Dynamics of radionuclides in forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, M.

    2004-01-01

    The unique physiology and the layered structure of forest ecosystems result in dynamic transport and transfer processes which greatly differ from those in agricultural ecosystems. Radionuclides are retained in the upper organic horizons of forest soil for several decades and remain highly available for uptake by fungi and green plants. Contamination levels of mushrooms and game may therefore by far exceed those of agricultural produce. The efficient cycling of nutrients and radionuclides, which is characteristic for ecosystems poor in nutrients, can largely be attributed to forest soil with its complex and multi-layered structure and fungal activity. Fungi directly affect dynamic processes, playing a key role in the mobilization, uptake and translocation of nutrients and radionuclides. Fungal fruit bodies may be highly contaminated foodstuff and fodder. They are most likely the cause of the surprising trend of increasing contamination of wild boar which has been observed in the last few years in Germany. This paper is intended to give a qualitative survey of dynamic transport processes in forests and their relevance for radiation exposure to man. (orig.)

  5. Radionuclides at the Hudson Canyon disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schell, W.R.; Nevissi, A.E.

    1983-01-01

    A sampling and analytical program was initiated in June 1978 to measure radionuclides in water, sediments, and biota collected at the deepwater (4000 m) radioactive waste disposal site at the mouth of the Hudson Canyon 350km off New York Harbor in the western Atlantic Ocean. Plutonium, americium, cesium, strontium, and uranium series isotopes were measured in selected samples; the /sup 210/Pb data were used to give sedimentation and mixing rates in the upper sediment layers. The results showed that /sup 137/Cs, /sup 239,240/Pu, and /sup 238/Pu were found at low concentrations in the skin, viscera, and stomach contents for some of the fish collected. Significant concentrations of /sup 241/Am were found in tissues of the common rattail Coryphaenoides (Macrouridae) collected at the disposal site, suggesting a local source for this radionuclide and biological accumulation. The edible muscle of this fish contained less than 2.6 x 10/sup -5/ Bq g/sup -1/ (dry wt) of /sup 239,240/Pu. Radionuclides measured in sediment-core profiles showed that mixing occurred to depths of 16 cm and that variable sedimentation or mixing rates, or both, exist at 4000 m deep. Radionuclide deposition near the canisters was not found to be significantly higher than the expected fallout levels at 4000 m deep. At the mouth of the Hudson Canyon variable sedimentation and mixing rates were found using the natural unsupported /sup 210/Pb tracer values; these variable rates were attributed to sediment transport by the currents and to bioturbation

  6. Effect of different combining patterns of radionuclides in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Nakamura, R.; Nakahara, M.

    1981-01-01

    Information on the environmental factors (level of radioactivity in sea water, salinity, temperature, etc.), the biological factors (growth stage, species of organism, etc.), and the metabolism of radionuclides in marine organisms should be taken into account so as to understand the mechanism of radioactive contamination of marine organisms. From this viewpoint, the combining of radionuclides with constituents in marine organisms was studied, indicating the differences as follows: (a) Different appearances of radioactive cobalt in the liver of the abalone due to chemical forms: From the gel filtration profiles on Sephadex it was observed that 57 Co accumulated in the liver of the abalone from sea water labelled by complexed 57 Co combines with a constituent in the liver that has a molecular weight of about 40,000. However, 60 Co taken up from sea water containing ionic 60 Co combines with other constituents in the liver. (b) Appearance of radionuclides in fish due to pathways (sea water and food): In fish liver, most 137 Cs from both sea water and food combines with only one constituent substance; the molecular weight of this substance was estimated at 1100-1300. Cobalt-60 from both sea water and food associates with two different molecular weight constituents, but 65 Zn made a considerable difference in the gel filtration profiles between sea water and food. These results indicate that the metabolism of radionuclides in marine organisms may possibly be varied by the chemical forms of radionuclides in sea water and the pathways of radionuclides. (author)

  7. Removal of radionuclides from liquid streams by reverse osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, U.A.; Ramachandhran, V.; Misra, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    Separation of radionuclides in trace concentrations by cellulose acetate membranes has been under investigation in this laboratory, and the behaviour of some important radionuclides such as 137 Cs and 90 Sr under reverse osmosis has been reported earlier. The present work deals with a few other typical radionuclides such as 60 Co, 103 Ru and 131 I which are not fully amenable to conventional methods for their removal. Separation of these radionuclides from liquid streams by the reverse osmosis process was studied using a small reverse osmosis test cell. Various parameters like membrane porosity, applied pressure and feed activity levels were investigated. Cellulose acetate membranes offer reasonable separation of 60 Co, 103 Ru and 131 I radionuclides, indicating the potential of reverse osmosis for treatment of effluents containing these radioisotopes. The percent separation is found to be in the order of Co > Ru > I. The percent radioactive separation improves with increases in feed activity. The performance data are explained in terms of solution-diffusion mechanism. It appears that the separation of radionuclides is not governed by diffusion alone, but by the interaction of solutes with the membranes. (author)

  8. Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program, 1985--1986 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buddemeier, R.W.

    1988-09-01

    This report presents results from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's participation in the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program (formerly the Radionuclide Migration Project) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during fiscal years 1985 and 1986. The report discusses studies of the partitioning and movement of dissolved and colloidal radionuclides at the Cheshire (U20n) site; tracer studies of shallow recharge and of plant-water uptake at the Cambric-site ditch carrying the effluent water pumped from well RNM-2; development of a rapid and sensitive assay for 99 Tc in groundwater and its application to a survey of technetium activities at a variety of test wells; and a series of methodological studies directed toward calibration, understanding, and improving our low-level radionuclide determinations. Groundwater sampled from the Cheshire cavity and from adjacent aquifers contains substantial concentrations (mg/L) of colloids that appear to consist primarily of natural minerals. These colloids were found to contain detectable amounts of strongly sorbed radionuclides, leading to the hypothesis that radionuclides are being transported by the groundwater in colloidal form. The RNM ditch at the Cambric site has provided a unique tritium-labeled, irrigated test plot in the desert. One study at this site continued earlier investigations of water and tritium migration in the shallow vadose (unsaturated-soil) zone adjacent to the ditch and extended that study to include using a tracer to determine the velocity of vertical water flow in the recharge zone directly below the ditch. 57 refs., 15 figs., 23 tabs

  9. Extreme radionuclide accumulation on alpine glaciers in cryoconites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettner, H.; Wilflinger, T.; Hubmer, A.K.; Bossew, P.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Under environmental conditions when radionuclide fallout will not be diluted by media like soil or water, radionuclides deposited may accumulate to unusual high activities. On glacier surfaces conditions as such exist for aerosols and airborne dust deposited with anthropogenic and natural radionuclides attached on their surfaces. In the course of agglomeration processes initiated by melting and redistribution, these particles may concentrate in small depressions, ice pockets, ablation edges etc. and form substances called cryoconites ('ice dust'). As there is no other matrix than the original aerosol particles, cryoconites are a sink for radionuclides and airborne pollutants and their activity levels are among the highest produced by natural processes observed in environmental media. 137 Cs activities found on glaciers in the Austrian alps are between 255 and 136.000 Bq/kg and predominantly derived from Chernobyl, but also from global fallout. Further anthropogenic radionuclides detected are 134 Cs, 90 Sr, 238,239+240 Pu, 241 Am, 125 Sb, 154 Eu, 60 Co and 207 Bi. In combination with the naturally occurring radionuclides 7 Be and 210 Pb and isotopic ratios such as 134 Cs/ 137 Cs, identification and discrimination of the sources, the nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl fallout, can be carried out. (author)

  10. Dosimetry in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccabona, G.

    2001-01-01

    While it is known that therapeutic effects of radionuclides are due to absorbed radiation dose and to radiosensitivity, individual dosimetry in 'Gy' is practiced rarely in clinical Nuclear Medicine but 'doses' are described in 'mCi' or 'MBq', which is only indirectly related to 'Gy' in the target. To estimate 'Gy', the volume of the target, maximum concentration of the radiopharmaceutical in it and residence time should be assessed individually. These parameters can be obtained usually only with difficulty, involving possibly also quantitative SPET or PET, modern imaging techniques (sonography, CT, MRT), substitution of y- or positron emitting radiotracers for β - emitting radiopharmaceuticals as well as whole-body distribution studies. Residence time can be estimated by obtaining data on biological half-life of a comparable tracer and transfer of these data in the physical characteristics of the therapeutic agent. With all these possibilities for gross dosimetry the establishment of a dose-response-relation should be possible. As distribution of the radiopharmaceutical in lesions is frequently inhomogenous and microdosimetric conditions are difficult to assess in vivo as yet, it could be observed since decades that empirically set, sometimes 'fixed' doses (mCi or MBq) can also be successful in many diseases. Detailed dosimetric studies, however, are work- and cost-intensive. Nevertheless, one should be aware at a time when more sophisticated therapeutic possibilities in Nuclear Medicine arise, that we should try to estimate radiation dose (Gy) in our new methods even as differences in individual radiosensitivity cannot be assessed yet and studies to define individual radiosensitivity in lesions should be encouraged. (author)

  11. Sediment-associated transport and redistribution of Chernobyl fallout radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walling, D.E.; Rowan, J.S.; Bradley, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    Fallout of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides over the United Kingdom evidenced marked spatial variation. Relatively high levels were recorded in central Wales, but they declined rapidly to the east. As a result the headwaters of the River Severn received significant inputs of fallout, whereas only low levels were recorded over the middle and lower reaches. Measurements of the caesium-137 content of suspended sediment transported by the River Severn and of channel and floodplain sediments collected from various locations within the basin have been used to assess the importance of fluvial transport and redistribution of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides. High concentrations of caesium-137 (up to 1450 mBqg -1 ) were recorded in suspended sediment collected from the lower reaches of the river shortly after the Chernobyl incident and substantial accumulations of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides have been detected in floodplain and channel sediments collected from areas which received only low levels of fallout directly. (author)

  12. Removal of dissolved heavy metals and radionuclides by microbial spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revis, N.W.; Hadden, C.T.; Edenborn, H.

    1997-01-01

    Microbial systems have been shown to remove specific heavy metals from contaminated aqueous waste to levels acceptable to EPA for environmental release. However, systems capable of removing a variety of heavy metals from aqueous waste to environmentally acceptable levels remain to be reported. The present studies were performed to determine the specificity of spores of the bacterium Bacillus megaterium for the adsorption of dissolved metals and radionuclides from aqueous waste. The spores effectively adsorbed eight heavy metals from a prepared metal mix and from a plating rinse waste to EPA acceptable levels for waste water. These results suggest that spores have multiple binding sites for the adsorption of heavy metals. Spores were also effective in adsorbing the radionuclides 85 strontium and 197 cesium. The presence of multiple sites in spores for the adsorption of heavy metals and radionuclides makes this biosorbent a good candidate for the treatment of aqueous wastes associated with the plating and nuclear industries. 17 refs., 4 tabs

  13. Willow wood production on radionuclide polluted areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodkin Oleg I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: One of the key environmental problems in Belarus is effective use of agricultural lands contaminated by radionuclide due to the Chernobyl disaster. The alternative method to traditional agricultural crops is fast growing willow cultivation. It is possible to use biomass of willow as renewable energy source. The goal of our investigation was the estimation of environmental aspects of willow wood production on polluted areas. The field study experiments (2007-2010 were conducted at Krichev district of Mogilev region in eastern Belarus. This region characterized by high level of Cs-137 contamination as well as high level of heavy metals pollution. In the first stage of experiments, the concentration of cesium-137 in different parts of willow biomass had been measured and transfer factor calculated. The measuring had been done for leaves, roots, and wood. To control cesium-137 accumulation in willow biomass we apply different types (nitrogen N, phosphorus P and potassium K and dose of fertilizer. The experiments show that potassium mineral fertilizer is the key factor for radionuclide accumulation control. The optimal dose of potassium is 90 kg per hectare. On the base of experimental results the model of cesium-137 accumulation in the wood for a 21 year has been developed. In accordance with calculation to the end of willow cultivation (21 year concentration of cesium-137 in wood will not be higher than permitted even with the level of cesium-137 contamination in the soil 1480 kBq/m2 (maximum 140 kqB/m2 with permitted level for firewood is 740 Bq/kg.. The concentration of cesium-137 in the roots increases gradually and get maximum in 21 year (3000 kqB/m2. Our results confirm that in the sum about 0.8 million hectares of radionuclide polluted arable lands partly excluded from agricultural practice in Belarus could be used for willow biomass production.

  14. The behavior of radionuclides in the soils of Rocky Flats, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litaor, M I [Tel-Hai Rodman Coll., Upper Galilee (Israel); Barth, G; Zika, E M; Litus, G; Moffitt, J; Daniels, H [Colorado Univ., Civil and Environmental Engineering Dept., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Radionuclide contamination of soils in Rocky Flats, Colorado, resulted from leaking drums of Pu-contaminated oil stored at an outdoor area. To evaluated the mechanisms of radionuclide transport from the contaminated soils to groundwater, an advanced monitoring system was installed across a toposequence. The impact of natural rain, snowmelt, and large-scale rain simulations on the mobility and distribution of the radionuclides in soil interstitial water was studied. The distribution of radionuclides during the monitoring period from 1993 to 1995 suggested that Pu-239 + 240 and Am-241 are largely immobile in semi-arid soils. Fractionation of Pu-239 + 240 and Am-241 to different particle sizes in the soil interstitial water suggested that most of the radionuclides (83-97%) were associated with suspended particles, whereas the level of radionuclides associated with colloidal (0.45 {mu}m > X > 1 nm) and nonfilterable (< 1 nm) fractions ranged from 1.5 to 15%. (author).

  15. Activity measurement and effective dose modelling of natural radionuclides in building material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maringer, F.J.; Baumgartner, A.; Rechberger, F.; Seidel, C.; Stietka, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the assessment of natural radionuclides' activity concentration in building materials, calibration requirements and related indoor exposure dose models is presented. Particular attention is turned to specific improvements in low-level gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the activity concentration of necessary natural radionuclides in building materials with adequate measurement uncertainties. Different approaches for the modelling of the effective dose indoor due to external radiation resulted from natural radionuclides in building material and results of actual building material assessments are shown. - Highlights: • Dose models for indoor radiation exposure due to natural radionuclides in building materials. • Strategies and methods in radionuclide metrology, activity measurement and dose modelling. • Selection of appropriate parameters in radiation protection standards for building materials. • Scientific-based limitations of indoor exposure due to natural radionuclides in building materials

  16. Report on the intercomparison run IAEA-321 radionuclides in milk powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachnov, V.; Burns, K.; Dekner, R.

    1990-01-01

    This report contains the results of the intercomparison IAEA-321 on the determination of radionuclides in milk powder. Initially participants were requested to determine the levels of 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 40 K, 90 Sr and invited to provide data for other radionuclides. The participants included 61 laboratories located in 29 countries, and statistical evaluation of their data yield recommended values for these four radionuclides. Additional radionuclides reported were 226 Ra and 232 Th, however insufficient data exists to statistically determine recommended values for these radionuclides. The recommended values for radionuclide determination are: 134 Cs: 15.5 Bq/kg; 137 Cs: 72.6 Bq/Kg; 40 K: 552 Bq/kg; 90 Sr: 3.3 Bq/kg. Tabs

  17. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  18. Discussion on monitoring items of radionuclides in influents from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanxia; Li Jin; Liu Jiacheng; Han Shanbiao; Yu Zhengwei

    2014-01-01

    For the radionuclide monitoring items of effluents from nuclear power plant, this paper makes some comparisons and analysis from three aspects of the international atomic energy general requirements, the routine radionuclide measurement items of China's nuclear power plant and effluents low level radionuclide experimental research results. Finally, it summarizes the necessary items and recommended items of the radionuclide monitoring of effluents from nuclear power plant, which can provide references for the radioactivity monitoring activities of nuclear power plant effluent and the supervisions of regulatory departments. (authors)

  19. Purification of radionuclides for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H.

    2002-01-01

    Novel systems for the rapid separation of 67 Cu, 90 Y, 188 Re, 212 Bi, 213 Bi, and 223 Ra are described. To achieve the high levels of decontamination required of radionuclides used in radioimmunotherapy, we have utilised combinations of ion exchange (IX) and novel extraction chromatographic (EXC) resins. The objective of each separation system is to remove by many orders of magnitude the parent isotopes and to reduce the concentrations of stable, sometimes adventitious impurities, to low levels. The latter objective is particularly important to achieve a high degree of bonding of radionuclide onto a monoclonal antibody. The purification of 212 Bi (60.6 min half-life) furnishes a good example of the level of purity that we have achieved using tandem combinations of EXC and IX resins. Bismuth-212 was separated from its daughters, 212 Pb, 224 Ra, 228 Th and 232 U at the 50 mCi level. The resultant 212 Bi decayed to background in a few days indicative of high purity. Another example of extraordinary removal of parent nuclide from daughter nuclide and subsequent purification of daughter from stable elements is the preparation of 90 Y. Strontium-90 was removed from 90 Y by > 10 9 . The purified 90 Y uptake by monoclonal antibodies was close to 100%

  20. Method of preparing radionuclide doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuperus, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described of preparing aliquot dosea of a tracer material useful in diagnostic nuclear medicine comprising: storing discrete quantities of a lyophilized radionuclide carrier in separate tubular containers from which air and moisture is excluded, selecting from the tubular containers a container in which is stored a carrier appropriate for a nuclear diagnostic test to be performed, interposing the selected container between the needle and the barrel of a hypodermic syringe, and drawing a predetermined amount of a liquid containing a radionuclide tracer in known concentration into the hypodermic syringe barrel through the hypodermic needle and through the selected container to dissolve the discrete quantity of lyophilized carrier therein to combine the carrier with the radionuclide tracer to form an aliquot dose of nuclear diagnostic tracer material, as needed

  1. Radionuclides in corals of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loria M, L.G.; Banichevich, A.; Cortes, T.

    1998-01-01

    Using Low Level Spectrometry they have evaluated the activity (Kq/kg) of 40 K, the gamma emisor daugther of 238 U and 232 Th and the presence of arificial isotopes due to anthropogenic contamination. The probes used are coral as biodynamic captors. The results show a presence between low and mittel of natural isotopes compared to other accumulation processes like sedimentation in soil and agricultural production. The Caribbean side show a higher activity than the Pacific for 40 K and a similar for 226 Ra. Results show low activity for artificial radionuclides with short lif ( 137 Cs). (author) [es

  2. Optimization of monitoring sewage with radionuclide contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, V.N.

    1991-01-01

    Recommendations on optimization of monitoring contaminated sewage aimed at enviromental protection agxinst radioactive contamination at minimum cost are presented. The way of selecting water sampling technique depends on water composition stability and flow rate. Depending on the type of radionuclide distribution in the sewage one can estimate minimum frequency of sampling or number of samples sufficient for assuring reliability of the conclusion on the excess or non-excess of permissible radioactive contamination levels, as well as analysis assigned accuracy. By irregular contaminated sewage-discharge and possibility of short-term releases of different form and duration, sampling should be accomplished through automatic devices of continuons or periodic operation

  3. German radionuclide exports and imports 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The statistics compiled by the German Federal Office for Trade and Industry (Bundesamt fuer Wirtschaft) for the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Conservation of Nature, and Reactor Protection of imports and exports of radionuclides, irradiation samples and sealed emitters above 1850 GBq show a slight decline by 11.8%, on the basis of activity, in imports and a somewhat higher rise by 21.6% in exports in 1990. Imports returned to the level of 1988 after having experienced an extraordinary rise in 1989. Exports were slightly better than in the previous year, but still considerably below the average of the past five years. (orig.) [de

  4. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of 223 Ra and 225 Ac, from a radionuclide ''cow'' of 227 Ac or 229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of (a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide ''cow'' forming an ingrown mixture; (b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; (c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the ''cow'' from at least one radionuclide daughter; (d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; (e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and (f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the ''cow''. In one embodiment the radionuclide ''cow'' is the 227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a 227 Th and the product radionuclide is the 223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the 227 Ac and retains the 227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide ''cow'' is the 229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a 225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the 225 Ac and the 225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the 229 Th and passes the 225 Ra/Ac. 8 figs

  5. A model for radionuclide transport in the Cooling Water System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahook, S.D.

    1992-08-01

    A radionuclide transport model developed to assess radiological levels in the K-reactor Cooling Water System (CWS) in the event of an inadvertent process water (PW) leakage to the cooling water (CW) in the heat exchangers (HX) is described. During and following a process water leak, the radionuclide transport model determines the time-dependent release rates of radionuclide from the cooling water system to the environment via evaporation to the atmosphere and blow-down to the Savannah River. The developed model allows for delay times associated with the transport of the cooling water radioactivity through cooling water system components. Additionally, this model simulates the time-dependent behavior of radionuclides levels in various CWS components. The developed model is incorporated into the K-reactor Cooling Tower Activity (KCTA) code. KCTA allows the accident (heat exchanger leak rate) and the cooling tower blow-down and evaporation rates to be described as time-dependent functions. Thus, the postulated leak and the consequence of the assumed leak can be modelled realistically. This model is the first of three models to be ultimately assembled to form a comprehensive Liquid Pathway Activity System (LPAS). LPAS will offer integrated formation, transport, deposition, and release estimates for radionuclides formed in a SRS facility. Process water and river water modules are forthcoming as input and downstream components, respectively, for KCTA

  6. The contamination of the oceans by anthropogenic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Cunha, Ieda I.L.

    1998-01-01

    Several hundreds of artificial of artificial radionuclides are produced as the result of human activities, such as the applications of nuclear reactors and particle accelerators, testing of nuclear weapons and nuclear accidents. Many of these radionuclides are short-lived and decay quickly after their production, but some of them are longer-lived and are released into the environment. From the radiological point of view the most important radionuclides are cesium-137, strontium-90 and plutonium-239, due to their chemical and nuclear characteristics. The two first radioisotopes present long half life (30 and 28 years), high fission yields and chemical behaviour similar to potassium and calcium, respectively. No stable element exists for plutonium-239, that presents high radiotoxity, longh half-life (24000 years) and some marine organisms accumulate plutonium at high levels. The radionuclides introduced into marine environment undergo various physical, chemical and biological processes taking place in the sea. These processes may be due to physical, dispersion or complicated chemical and biological interactions of the radionuclides with inorganic and organic suspend matter, variety of living organism, bottom sediments, etc. The behaviour of radionuclides in the sea depends primarily on their chemical properties, but it may also be influenced by properties of interacting matrices and other environmental factors. The major route of radiation exposure of man to artificial radionuclides occuring in the marine environment is through ingestion of radiologically contamined marine organisms. This paper summarizes the main sources of contamination in the marine environment and presents an overview covering the oceanic distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides in the FAO regions. A great number of measurements of artificial radioclides have been carried out on various marine environmental samples in different oceans over the world, being cesium-137 the most widely measured

  7. Producing new radionuclides for medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Arronax cyclotron, a new particle accelerator dedicated to the production of radionuclides for medicine and research has been commissioned in Nantes (France). Because of its unique features: an energy of 70 MeV and an intensity of 750 μA, Arronax will produce radionuclides that can not be produce in present cyclotrons. Among others it will produce Strontium-82 and Germanium-68 that are the precursors for Rubidium-82 and Gallium-68 respectively. 20 per cent of the research works will be dedicated to other domains like radioactive wastes, the radiation biological damage and the radiation damage on electronic devices. (A.C.)

  8. Radionuclide migration in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbreau, A.; Heremans, R.; Skytte Jensen, B.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive waste disposal into geological formation is based on the capacity of rocks to confine radioactivity for a long period of time. Radionuclide migration from the repository to the environment depends on different mechanisms and phenomena whose two main ones are groundwater flow and the retention and ion-exchange property of rocks. Many studies are underway presently in EEC countries concerning hydrodynamic characteristics of deep geological formations as well as in radionuclide retention capacity and modelling. Important results have already been achieved which show the complexity of some phenomena and further studies shall principally be developed taking into account real conditions of the repository and its environment

  9. Automatic alignment of radionuclide images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    The variability of the position, dimensions and orientation of a radionuclide image within the field of view of a gamma camera hampers attempts to analyse the image numerically. This paper describes a method of using a set of training images of a particular type, in this case right lateral brain images, to define the likely variations in the position, dimensions and orientation for that type of image and to provide alignment data for a program that automatically aligns new images of the specified type to a standard position, size and orientation. Examples are given of the use of this method on three types of radionuclide image. (author)

  10. Radionuclide techniques for brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, R.J.; Moody, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Over the past decade, many of the prime indications for radionuclide brain scanning have become instead indications for CCT, and nuclear medicine studies of the brain have assumed more of a complementary, supportive role. However, there is great promise for improvement in central nervous system radionuclide applications with advances anticipated in both radiopharmaceuticals and instrumentation. Nuclear medicine is continuing to function as a powerful research tool and, in the relatively near future, may regain its role as a major clinical test of the central nervous system

  11. Hydrology and radionuclide migration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, K.V.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents results from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's participation in the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during fiscal year 1988. The report discusses studies at a new well 100 m down the hydrologic gradient from the previous sampling point at the Cheshire site; laboratory investigations of the mineralogical composition of NTS colloids; the strength of colloidal deposits and parameters affecting their formation and release; accelerator mass spectrometric measurements of 129 I in water from the Cheshire stie; 222 Rn concentrations in water from several pumped wells at the NTS; and a description of a new well (PM3) drilled off the NTS near Area 20. Further studies on groundwater sampled show that both technetium and iodine are quite mobile; both closely track the trend of the decreasing tritium concentration with increasing distance. Antimony and cesium concentrations decrease much more rapidly than tritium, and europium was not detected at all in the new well. Colloidal particles found in water collected from the Cheshire cavity are in size range of 0.050 to 0.003 μm and are dominated by quartz and (Ca, K) feldspars. A new well was drilled on US Air Force land adjacent to the NTS Area 20. Static water level measurements and geochemical data from this well will help to determine the extent to which Pahute Mesa base flow infiltrates Oasis Valley. Preliminary results indicate tritium concentrations in water samples from this well to be in the range of 0.1 to 0.4 pCi/ml as measured under field conditions

  12. Natural radionuclides in select matrices of terrestrial food chain around Kudankulam nuclear power station, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, E.M.; Wesley, S.G.

    2016-01-01

    Natural radionuclides entering the food chain are mostly derived from the soil. There is a variation in soil radionuclide content in different geographic regions. Uptake of radionuclides by plants also varies from species to species and depends on many factors. Human food and animal feed derived from such regions may have varying levels of radionuclides. Intake of food/feed will be reflected in the next consumer level of the food chain. Such studies are essential around a nuclear power plant where there can be exposure from natural as well as artificial radionuclides. In this study an effort was taken to study the intake and excretion of 40 K, 226 Ra and 228 Ra levels along the soil-grass-cow pathway

  13. Radionuclide accumulation in green and brown macroalgae at the Bulgarian Black Sea coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strezov, A.; Nonova, T.

    2005-01-01

    The concentration of technogenic and natural radionuclides were measured in brown and green macroalgae from the Bulgarian Black Sea coast for the period 1996 and 2003 using low-level gamma spectroscopy. Mean values and concentration range for the studied species enables the comparison of the nuclide content in macroalgae showing that brown algae accumulate the studied radionuclides to a higher extent. (author)

  14. Investigation and assessment of natural radionuclides in groundwater and geothermal fluid of Tianjin city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiao; Duan Xigui; Gao Liang; Yang Yuxin

    2012-01-01

    Investigation on the specific activities of natural radionuclides in the groundwater and geothermal fluids of Tianjin city were conducted. Based on the investigation, internal dose level posed by drinking the water and fluid to local public was evaluated. Results show the specific activities of natural radionuclides in the groundwater and geothermal fluid of Tianjin city is under control, no abnormal radioactivity discovered. (authors)

  15. Natural radionuclides in the UK marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollo, S F.N.; Camplin, W C; Allington, D J; Young, A K [Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Lowestoft (United Kingdom). Fisheries Radiobiological Lab.

    1992-01-01

    The importance of natural radionuclides giving rise to radiation exposure of man from marine consumption pathways has been known for some time. However, the extent of surveys of levels in marine biota has been limited. This paper presents new data on concentrations of natural radionuclides in fish, shellfish and seaweeds taken from coastal sampling locations in the U.K. Sampling included areas where levels due to natural sources would be predominant, but efforts were made to study potential sources of technologically enhanced discharges to seas and rivers, particularly the phosphogypsum plant at Whitehaven in Cumbria. The highest concentrations (up to 371 Bq.kg[sup -1] (wet) [sup 210]Po) were observed in winkles near Whitehaven. The general levels at sites remote from known sources were much lower. Monthly concentrations in molluscs at a single location were elevated by approximately a factor of 2 during the summer months. An assessment of the expected doses to members of the public from marine consumption pathways is made. (author).

  16. High resolution simultaneous measurements of airborne radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Komura, K.

    2006-01-01

    High resolution (2-3 hrs) simultaneous measurements of airborne radionuclides, 212 Pb, 210 Pb and 7 Be, have been performed by using extremely low background Ge detectors at Ogoya Underground Laboratory. We have measured above radionuclides at three monitoring points viz, 1) Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory (LLRL) Kanazawa University, 2) Shishiku Plateau (640 m MSL) located about 8 km from LLRL to investigate vertical difference of activity levels, and 3) Hegura Island (10 m MSL) located about 50 km from Noto Peninsula in the Sea of Japan to evaluate the influences of Asian continent or mainland of Japan on the variation to the activity levels. Variations of short-lived 212 Pb concentration showed noticeable time lags between at LLRL and at Shishiku Plateau. These time lags might be caused by change of height of a planetary boundary layer. On the contrary, variations of long-lived 210 Pb and 7 Be showed simultaneity at three locations because of homogeneity of these concentrations all over the area. (author)

  17. Radionuclide arthrogram to evaluate knee prostheses loosening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, U.

    2009-01-01

    Full text:This case is about a 78 year old lady who had 3TKRs on her left knee. The 2nd revision surgery was performed due to infection. After 6 weeks long procedure, that patient was discharged with satisfactory movement without sign of infection. 15 months after the surgery, the orthopaedic surgeon found that some pressure wave effects and pain with walking. There was no sign of infection clinically. Once X-ray could not confirm any micro-loosening, the surgeon wanted to investigate with radionuclide arthrogram for this difficult case. 40 MBq in 2mls of Calcium phytate colloid (from RADPHARM Australia) was injected into the knee joint space. 30 minutes static views revealed the tracer started to travel below the tibial component. 4 hours statics views clearly indicate the tibial component loosening also there was leakage of tracer through anterior tibial osteotomy screws into the level of ankle subcutaneously. Cobalt57 flood images provided the anatomical localisation. While the surgeon was planning new component for the 3rd revision surgery, the patient's pain disappeared with time. No more revision was considered with satisfactory level of movement. This was the first and only case of radio arthogram to our department, although we perform many bone scans with same reason. On published articles, overall sensitivity and specificity are variable from 85% to 100%. When we take look at other clinical experience, there are a number of reasons in the high accuracy and reliability of radionuclide arthrogram especially for knee prosthesis loosening. Therefore I want to emphasise the benefit of radionuclide arthrogram for both patient and surgeon as a reliable diagnosis with minimum discomfort.

  18. The influence of temperature on migration of radionuclides in deep-sea sediments: Simulation experiments concerning sorption and heat flow related to deep-sea disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geldermalsen, L.A. van

    1985-02-01

    This report presents the results of a study on the effects of temperatures up to 90 0 C on the migration of the radionuclides plutonium, neptunium and americium through marine sediments in the near field of a canister with radioactive waste. Topics entered were; (i) the influence of temperature on the distribution coefficients of the transuranics plutonium, americium and neptunium, (ii) the effect of temperature on the composition and characteristics of interstitial water and (iii) the effects of a point heat source on the temperature distributions and flow velocities in interstitial water of sediments. (Auth.)

  19. Determination of alpha radionuclides in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, L.; Matel, L.; Rosskopfova, O.

    2001-01-01

    In atmospheric water, external water and undercurrent the occurrence of radionuclides is usual. It is an important factor of quality of the environment. Plants ingest radionuclides from water and with they everyone. And it arises radioactivity infest food-chain. Radiotoxicity of this radionuclides is very deer sometimes. The sensitive radiochemical procedures for their determination are necessarily important. The poster presents the combined procedure used at our laboratory for determination of alpha radionuclides in biological samples. (authors)

  20. Naturally occurring radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djujic, I.

    1995-01-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclides are the major source of radiation exposure to humans. The principal way of natural radiation exposure is the inhalation of 222 Rn decay products (about 85% of the total). The remainder is equally divided between internally deposited radionuclides, cosmic and terrestrial sources. In the present study, the content of 40 K, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 230 Th, 232 Th and 238 U in representative food samples (milk, pork, beef, potatoes, wheat and corn flour) and samples of different food items that do not represent entire national production but provide interesting additional data for approximative calculation of naturally occurring radionuclide intake is presented. Daily weight of food eaten, participation of food groups, as well as daily intake by food of mentioned naturally occurring radionuclides in the Serbian diet was obtained on the base of house hold budget surveys. The result obtained for daily intake estimates in mBq for Serbian population are 78.1 ( 40 K), 38.2( 210 Pb), 52.3( 226 Ra), 2.0( 230 Th) and 12.5( 238 U). (author)

  1. 100 Years of radionuclide metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judge, S.M.; Arnold, D.; Chauvenet, B.; Collé, R.; De Felice, P.; García-Toraño, E.; Wätjen, U.

    2014-01-01

    The discipline of radionuclide metrology at national standards institutes started in 1913 with the certification by Curie, Rutherford and Meyer of the first primary standards of radium. In early years, radium was a valuable commodity and the aim of the standards was largely to facilitate trade. The focus later changed to providing standards for the new wide range of radionuclides, so that radioactivity could be used for healthcare and industrial applications while minimising the risk to patients, workers and the environment. National measurement institutes responded to the changing demands by developing new techniques for realising primary standards of radioactivity. Looking ahead, there are likely to be demands for standards for new radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, an expansion of the scope of the field into quantitative imaging to facilitate accurate patient dosimetry for nuclear medicine, and an increasing need for accurate standards for radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics. - Highlights: • The driving forces for the development of radionuclide metrology. • Radium standards to facilitate trade of this valuable commodity in the early years. • After 1950, focus changes to healthcare and industrial applications. • National Measurement Institutes develop new techniques, standards, and disseminate the best practice in measurement. • Challenges in nuclear medicine, radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics

  2. Chemistry and analysis of radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Lehto, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    Written by chemists for chemists, this is a comprehensive guide to the important radionuclides as well as techniques for their separation and analysis. It introduces readers to the important laboratory techniques and methodologies in the field, providing practical instructions on how to handle nuclear waste and radioactivity in the environment.

  3. Radionuclide migration studies in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marumo, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    In this work a brief description about retention and migration parameters of radionuclides in soil, including main methods to determine the distribution coefficient (K) are given. Some of several factors that can act on the migration are also mentioned. (author) [pt

  4. Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Perkins, R.W.; Rieck, H.G.; Wogman, N.A.

    1984-09-12

    A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

  5. Radio-sensitivity and 40K, 3H, 14C levels in dark-striped field mice, apodemus agrarius coreae, as a potential biological monitor for enviro-radiation and radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Sun; Song, Seung Yeon; Kim, Eun Joo; Choi, Hoon; Shin, Suk Chul; Kim, Chong Soon; Nishimura, Y.

    2006-01-01

    To understand how environmental effects of radiation and radionuclides from radiation facilities relate to human beings, the development of an unmanned monitoring system is required. For the reasons of that, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) suggests a method to evaluate the effects of radiation emitted from radiation facilities on marine water, freshwater, and habitats for land animals and plants on its Technical Report Series 190, 288, and 332. Recently, International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication No. 91 (2003) was consecutively published to protect non-human animals and plants from environmental radiation and radioactive materials. This study examined the potential usefulness of dark-striped field mice as a biological indicator of enviro-radiation and radionuclides around nuclear power plants and radioactive waste storage facilities. For the purpose, dark-striped mice were collected in regions of Korea where there are no radiation facilities. Their external morphological characters and isoenzyme patterns were observed. As a result, the most dark-striped mice scattered in Korea are Apodemus agrarius coreae

  6. Radionuclides retention in C-S-H, main phases of cement matrices for low and intermediate-level wastes; Retencion de radionuclidos en C-S-H, principales fases de matrices de cemento para desechos de bajo y medio nivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badillo A, V. E.; Lopez R, C.; Vidal M, J. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Gutierrez B, O., E-mail: veronica.badillo@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Tecnologico s/n, Exrancho La Virgen, Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    Knowing that the behavior of cementitious materials based on hydraulic binder called cement is essentially determined by the physicochemical evolution of the cement paste (water + cement) which constitutes it, the evolution of the cement paste in contact with different aqueous solutions is studied since one of the main risks in safety of systems is composed of surface and groundwater, which contribute to the alteration of the different barriers and represent the main way of radionuclides transport. The calcium silicates CSH are the main phases that compose the systems based on Portland cement. The hydrates calcium silicates possess a high degree of structural complexity which includes crystalline, partially crystalline and amorphous phases. In this study the microstructures of the CSH phases as well as the retention of radionuclide Sr (II) are studied through the {sup 87m}Sr in formulations of water/cement w/c = 0.55; experimental values of K d low around 20 ml g{sup -1} are obtained in function of hydration time of the cement paste in equilibrium with aqueous solutions. (Author)

  7. Dosimetry techniques for applications of incorporated radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, R.W.; Rao, D.V.; Haydock, C.

    1989-01-01

    Beta particle emitters are attracting attention as the radiolabels of choice for therapeutic radiopharmaceutical. Their use in cancer therapy has drawn attention to a variety of problems in estimating the absorbed dose to primary tumors and metastases from incorporated Β-emitters. Experimental evidence indicates that the distribution of radiopharmaceutical, such as radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, is highly nonuniform in tumor tissue. Three levels of nonuniformity may be noted: (1) inhomogeneity at the macroscopic level due to poor penetration of the radiopharmaceutical into the tumor, (2) microscopic inhomogeneity due to large variations in the number of binding sites on the tumor cells, and (3) nonuniformity at the subcellular level. Conventional application of the MIRD Schema for calculating absorbed doses from incorporated radionuclides may be inadequate under these circumstances since this approach assumes that the, distribution of radioactivity in the organ is uniform. The conventional dosimetry may be modified to handle inhomogeneous activity distributions by dividing the tumor into a number of subregions. At the macroscopic level a spherical tumor may be broken up into a group of concentric annular regions of tissue. At the microscopic level the tumor or metastasis may be considered as a multicellular cluster which in essence divides the tumor into many subtumors of cellular dimensions. Finally, at the subcellular level, a cancer cell may be viewed as consisting of several compartments: the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus. In each case absorbed fractions, and therefore the total absorbed doses, may be calculated for the various subregions of the tumor using standard MIRD procedures. Using macroscopic and multicellular dosimetry models, the relative importance of these various levels of inhomogeneity in radionuclide distribution is examined. A dosimetry model which accounts for the possible time dependence of the tumor mass is formulated

  8. Radionuclides from past uranium mining in rivers of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fernando P; Oliveira, João M; Lopes, Irene; Batista, Aleluia

    2007-01-01

    During several decades and until a few years ago, uranium mines were exploited in the Centre of Portugal and wastewaters from uranium ore milling facilities were discharged into river basins. To investigate enhancement of radioactivity in freshwater ecosystems, radionuclides of uranium and thorium series were measured in water, sediments, suspended matter, and fish samples from the rivers Vouga, Dão, Távora and Mondego. The results show that these rivers carry sediments with relatively high naturally occurring radioactivity, and display relatively high concentrations of radon dissolved in water, which is typical of a uranium rich region. Riverbed sediments show enhanced concentrations of radionuclides in the mid-section of the Mondego River, a sign of past wastewater discharges from mining and milling works at Urgeiriça confirmed by the enhanced values of (238)U/(232)Th radionuclide ratios in sediments. Radionuclide concentrations in water, suspended matter and freshwater fish from that section of Mondego are also enhanced in comparison with concentrations measured in other rivers. Based on current radionuclide concentrations in fish, regular consumption of freshwater species by local populations would add 0.032 mSv a(-1) of dose equivalent (1%) to the average background radiation dose. Therefore, it is concluded that current levels of enhanced radioactivity do not pose a significant radiological risk either to aquatic fauna or to freshwater fish consumers.

  9. Training in radionuclide methodology and applications in biomedical area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoretta, C.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Training in the field of radionuclide methodology and applications in biomedical area is important to assure that radionuclide should duly be used without risk for patients or for technicians manipulating them. The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) from its creation is giving training courses of different technical levels to those working in science and technology. The Course on Radionuclide Methodology and application is the most continuous, varied and requested within CNEA. This is a basic course mainly given to Biochemistry and Medicine. Its goal is to give both theoretical and practical knowledge for use and application of radionuclides bearing in mind radiological safety regulations. Personnel from CNEA and Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) carry out teaching. On the other hand, a course for Technicians in Nuclear Medicine is giving supplying knowledge in this field, as well as expertise and practice to attend a responsible Medical Doctor. These curses comprise radionuclide methodology, anatomy, physiology, instrumentation and practical applications in Nuclear Medicine. Statistics concerning these course are giving. (author) [es

  10. Natural radionuclides in soils from Sao Paulo State cerrado forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Marcia V.F.E.S.; Farias, Emerson E.G. de; Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Franca, Elvis J. de

    2015-01-01

    Considering the long life history, forests should be preferentially evaluated for the monitoring of radionuclides, mainly artificial radioisotopes. However, little is known about nuclides from Uranium and Thorium series, as well as, K-40, in soils from the Sao Paulo State forests. Soils are the main reservoir of natural radionuclides for vegetation, thereby deserving attention. Taking into account the advantages of High-Resolution Gamma-ray Spectrometry (HRGS), diverse radionuclides can be quantified simultaneously. In this work natural radionuclides in soils from the Estacao Ecologica de Assis were evaluated by HRGS. Samples of 0-10 cm depth were collected under crown projection of most abundant tree species of long-term plots installed within the Estacao Ecologica de Assis, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. After drying and milling until 0.5 mm particle size, test portions of 30 g were transferred to polypropylene vials, sealed with silicone and kept under controlled conditions until 30 days to achieve secular equilibrium. A group of gamma-ray spectrometers was used to analyze about 27 samples by 80,000 seconds. Activity concentrations of Pb-214, Ac-228 and K-40 and their respective expanded analytical uncertainties at the 95% confidence level were calculated by Genie software from Canberra. Abnormal values were not detected for radionuclides in soils samples, however K-40 activity concentrations changed considerably due to the mineral cycling, in which K and, consequently K-40, is mainly stocked in vegetation in spite of soils. (author)

  11. Barriers to migration of radionuclides from radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanova, I.

    1999-01-01

    Natural inorganic sorbents are known as effective barriers that reduce the migration of radionuclides from radioactive waste repositories and contaminated sites. They could be used as buffer, backfill and sealing materials in the repository and their presence in the host rock and the surrounding geological formations increases the retention properties of the strata. Natural occurring minerals from local origin are used in the study - zeolites (clinoptilolite and mordenite), celadonite and loess. Sorption of wide range of radionuclides is studies. Batch capacity is determined. Sorption of radionuclides from simulated natural solution is studied. Distribution coefficients are calculated from sorption isotherms. Desorption in presence of different natural solutions is studied. Sorption properties are compared. It is shown that clinoptilolite acts as effective barrier against migration of radionuclides from repositories. The presence of celadonite in the clinoptilolite rock increases the retention of polyvalent ions. The retention of radionuclides on loess samples fulfils the requirements for host media for repository for low and intermediate level waste. A method for construction of additional barrier to the existing in the country disposal vault for spent sealed sources is proposed

  12. Natural radionuclides in soils from Sao Paulo State cerrado forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Marcia V.F.E.S.; Farias, Emerson E.G. de; Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Franca, Elvis J. de, E-mail: mvaleria@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: rebecanuclear@gmail.com, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Considering the long life history, forests should be preferentially evaluated for the monitoring of radionuclides, mainly artificial radioisotopes. However, little is known about nuclides from Uranium and Thorium series, as well as, K-40, in soils from the Sao Paulo State forests. Soils are the main reservoir of natural radionuclides for vegetation, thereby deserving attention. Taking into account the advantages of High-Resolution Gamma-ray Spectrometry (HRGS), diverse radionuclides can be quantified simultaneously. In this work natural radionuclides in soils from the Estacao Ecologica de Assis were evaluated by HRGS. Samples of 0-10 cm depth were collected under crown projection of most abundant tree species of long-term plots installed within the Estacao Ecologica de Assis, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. After drying and milling until 0.5 mm particle size, test portions of 30 g were transferred to polypropylene vials, sealed with silicone and kept under controlled conditions until 30 days to achieve secular equilibrium. A group of gamma-ray spectrometers was used to analyze about 27 samples by 80,000 seconds. Activity concentrations of Pb-214, Ac-228 and K-40 and their respective expanded analytical uncertainties at the 95% confidence level were calculated by Genie software from Canberra. Abnormal values were not detected for radionuclides in soils samples, however K-40 activity concentrations changed considerably due to the mineral cycling, in which K and, consequently K-40, is mainly stocked in vegetation in spite of soils. (author)

  13. Reliability of Current Biokinetic and Dosimetric Models for Radionuclides: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Meck, Robert A. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    2008-10-01

    This report describes the results of a pilot study of the reliability of the biokinetic and dosimetric models currently used by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as predictors of dose per unit internal or external exposure to radionuclides. The study examines the feasibility of critically evaluating the accuracy of these models for a comprehensive set of radionuclides of concern to the NRC. Each critical evaluation would include: identification of discrepancies between the models and current databases; characterization of uncertainties in model predictions of dose per unit intake or unit external exposure; characterization of variability in dose per unit intake or unit external exposure; and evaluation of prospects for development of more accurate models. Uncertainty refers here to the level of knowledge of a central value for a population, and variability refers to quantitative differences between different members of a population. This pilot study provides a critical assessment of models for selected radionuclides representing different levels of knowledge of dose per unit exposure. The main conclusions of this study are as follows: (1) To optimize the use of available NRC resources, the full study should focus on radionuclides most frequently encountered in the workplace or environment. A list of 50 radionuclides is proposed. (2) The reliability of a dose coefficient for inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide (i.e., an estimate of dose per unit intake) may depend strongly on the specific application. Multiple characterizations of the uncertainty in a dose coefficient for inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide may be needed for different forms of the radionuclide and different levels of information of that form available to the dose analyst. (3) A meaningful characterization of variability in dose per unit intake of a radionuclide requires detailed information on the biokinetics of the radionuclide and hence is not feasible for many infrequently

  14. Radionuclide therapy for true polycythemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanasieva, N.I.; Grushka, G.V.; Vasiliev, L.Ya.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: True polycythemia (Vaquez' disease) is the disease of the hemopoietic system of an unknown origin accompanied by increase of erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood with absolute and relative increase in the mass of circulating erythrocytes. True polycythemia is treated with bloodletting and myelosuppressing drugs. This treatment is not always effective. A special place among myelo-depressants is occupied by P-32. Its main therapeutic effect is mediated by the participation in the metabolic processes. Besides DNA damage with beta-radiation, P-32 incorporation by DNA followed by decay and transformation to a stable sulphur isotope (S-32) results in the damage of the structure of nucleic acids, which is main mechanism of cellular proliferation inhibition. Therefore, P-32 is considered a powerful myelosuppressive agent. The indication to P-32 administration is true polycythemia, which, in contrast to secondary polycythemia accompanying numerous diseases, requires special cytostatic treatment. The study involved 152 patients with true polycythemia (76 men and 76 women aged 48) treated with P-32. The treatment was administered in case when bloodletting proved to be ineffective and hematocrit level exceeded 75%. P-32 was administered orally in 100 ml of 10% glucose solution on an empty stomach at a dose of 37-111 MBq with a 4-10-day intervals (mean 6 days). The blood count was checked for 12 weeks. If the number of thrombocytes and leukocytes decreased less than by 25% and the level of hematocrit did not normalize, repeated P-32 treatments were performed. In 13 (8.6%) patients, haematocrit parameters became normal after a single P-32 administration, in 15 (9.9%) patients two treatments with P-32 were necessary to normalize the blood count. In 134 (88.1%) cases P-32 treatment was administered more then two times (maximum 10 treatments). Total P-32 activity ranged from 37 to 740 MBq. Of all the patients who were administered P- 32 treatment, hematological

  15. Plant rhizosphere processes influencing the mobility of radionuclides in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, C.E.; Cataldo, D.A.; McFadden, K.M.; Garland, T.R.; Wildung, R.E.

    1988-06-01

    Native vegetation associated with commercial low-level waste disposal sites has the potential for modifying the soil chemical environment over the long term and, consequently, affecting radionuclide mobility. These changes were assessed for coniferous and deciduous trees grown in lysimeter systems by examining their influence on soil solution chemistry using advanced analytical and geochemical modeling techniques. Our studies demonstrated the formation of highly mobile anionic radionuclide complexes with amino acids, peptides and organic acids originating from plant leaf litter and roots. The production of complexing agents was related to season and tree species, suggesting that vegetation management or exclusion may be appropriate after a site is closed

  16. Preliminary report on retardation factors and radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isherwood, D.

    1977-01-01

    Available data on distribution coefficients for the biologically important radionuclides present in high-level waste were used to estimate retardation factors (K/sub f/) for a mass transport hydrologic model. The radionuclides were divided into 3 groups: fission products with no sorption (K/sub f/ = 1), fission products with sorption (K/sub f/ = 10 2 ), and the actinides and their daughter products (K/sub f/ = 10 4 ). Minimum and maximum values were assigned the latter two groups. Uncertainties as a function of time were estimated at +- an order of magnitude. 39 references, 5 tables

  17. Nopal I uranium deposit: A study of radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, V.; Anthony, E.; Goodell, P.

    1996-01-01

    This summary reports on activities of naturally-occurring radionuclides for the Nopal I uranium deposit located in the Pena Blanca Uranium District, Chihuahua, Mexico. Activities were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. In addition, data reduction procedures and sample preparation (for Rn retention) will be discussed here. Nopal I uranium deposit has been identified as one of the most promising sites for analogue studies to the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The objective of this research is to study the potential for radionuclide migration by testing whether any portion of the deposit is in secular equilibrium

  18. RADIONUCLIDE DISPERSION RATES BY AEOLIAN, FLUVIAL, AND POROUS MEDIA TRANSPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, J.; Goodell, P.; Brashears, C.; French, D.; Kelts, A.

    2005-01-01

    Radionuclide transport was measured from high grade uranium ore boulders near the Nopal I Site, Chihuahua, Mexico. High grade uranium ore boulders were left behind after removal of a uranium ore stockpile at the Prior High Grade Stockpile (PHGS). During the 25 years when the boulder was present, radionuclides were released and transported by sheetflow during precipitation events, wind blown resuspension, and infiltration into the unsaturated zone. In this study, one of the boulders was removed, followed by grid sampling of the surrounding area. Measured gamma radiation levels in three dimensions were used to derive separate dispersion rates by the three transport mechanisms

  19. RADIONUCLIDE DISPERSION RATES BY AEOLIAN, FLUVIAL, AND POROUS MEDIA TRANSPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Walton; P. Goodell; C. Brashears; D. French; A. Kelts

    2005-07-11

    Radionuclide transport was measured from high grade uranium ore boulders near the Nopal I Site, Chihuahua, Mexico. High grade uranium ore boulders were left behind after removal of a uranium ore stockpile at the Prior High Grade Stockpile (PHGS). During the 25 years when the boulder was present, radionuclides were released and transported by sheetflow during precipitation events, wind blown resuspension, and infiltration into the unsaturated zone. In this study, one of the boulders was removed, followed by grid sampling of the surrounding area. Measured gamma radiation levels in three dimensions were used to derive separate dispersion rates by the three transport mechanisms.

  20. Nopal I uranium deposit: A study of radionuclide migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, V.; Anthony, E.; Goodell, P. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    1996-12-01

    This summary reports on activities of naturally-occurring radionuclides for the Nopal I uranium deposit located in the Pena Blanca Uranium District, Chihuahua, Mexico. Activities were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. In addition, data reduction procedures and sample preparation (for Rn retention) will be discussed here. Nopal I uranium deposit has been identified as one of the most promising sites for analogue studies to the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The objective of this research is to study the potential for radionuclide migration by testing whether any portion of the deposit is in secular equilibrium.

  1. Radionuclides in the ecological system of the Boka Kotorska Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martic, M.; Ajdacic, N.

    1988-01-01

    In order to determine radioactive contamination in the South Adriatic region after May, 1986, activities of 21 radionuclides of natural and artificial origin were determined by gamma-spectrometry in the samples of sea water, sediments and several characteristic types of organisms collected on several locations in the Boka Kotorska Bay and open sea. Quantitative data on radionuclide contents are presented. Change of activity levels with respect to the 'zero state' determined for this region during previous years is also discussed. (author) 6 refs.; 4 tabs

  2. Radionuclide Generator ^{111}In\\to^{111m}Cd

    CERN Document Server

    Filossofov, D V; Lebedev, N A; Starodub, G Ya; Novgorodov, A F

    2001-01-01

    Radionuclide generator ^{111}In\\to^{111m}Cd with chemical yield > 95 % and contamination of the ^{111m}Cd by parent isotope (^{111}In) less than 0.6 % (of ^{111m}Cd activity) is developed. Extraction chromatography with di-2-ethylhexyl-phosphoric acid as an extragent is used for the radiochemical separation of the parent and the daughter radionuclides. Probability of the electron capture on the isomeric level 396 keV (^{111m}Cd) in the ^{111}In decay process is determinated to be (6.01\\pm 0.14_{stat}\\pm0.18_{syst})\\cdot10^{-5}.

  3. Intercomparison of radionuclide measurements in marine sediment sample IAEA-367

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, S.; Lopez, J.J.; Gastaud, J.; Vas, D.; Noshkin, V.

    1991-08-01

    The results of an intercomparison exercise on a Pacific Ocean sediment sample, IAEA-367, designed for the determination of artificial and natural radionuclides levels, are reported. The data from 81 laboratories representing 37 countries have been evaluated. The following are the recommended values, with confidence intervals, for 60 Co, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 239+240 Pu (Reference date: 1 January 1990). Information values for 155 Eu, 238 Pu, 241 Am, and 241 Pu are reported. Information values for the following natural radionuclides 40 K, 226 Ra, 228 Th, 230 Th, 234 U, 235 U and 238 U are also reported. (author)

  4. Honey bees as indicators of radionuclide contamination: exploring colony variability and temporal contaminant accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haarmann, T.K.

    1997-01-01

    Two aspects of using honey bees, Apis mellifera, as indicators of environmental radionuclide contamination were investigated: colony variability and temporal contaminant accumulation. Two separate field experiments were conducted in areas with bioavailable radionuclide contamination. Bees were collected from colonies, analysed for concentrations of radionuclides, and the results were compared using graphical and statistical methods. The first experiment indicates that generally a low variability exists between samples collected within the same colony. A higher variability exists between samples collected from adjacent colonies. Levels of tritium and sodium-22 found in samples taken from similar colonies were inconsistent, while levels of cobalt-57, cobalt-60 and manganese-54 were consistent. A second experiment investigated the accumulation of radionuclides over time by comparing colonies that had been in the study area for different periods of time. This experiment demonstrated that there is indeed a significant accumulation of radionuclides within colonies

  5. Radionuclides in sporocarps of medicinaly important fungi of Fruska Gora hill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaman, M.; Matavulj, M.; Čonkić, L.

    2002-01-01

    The content of radionuclides in six lignicolous saprophytic and parasitic fungal species was analyzed. Samples were collected in 1999 autumn at two sites of the Fruska Gora Hill. Since fungi absorb radionuclides mostly from the substrate, soil and tree samples were also collected and analyzed. Certain characteristics of fungal species play an important role in the process of radionuclide absorption. On the other hand, the degree of radionuclide accumulation is very important for the fungi of potential pharmaceutical significance. The results on the radioactivity concentration in the analyzed fungi could be used both for the bioindication investigations, soil and substrate contamination in particular, and for estimation of the forest ecological status. The activity concentration level of most critical radionuclide 137Cs was about ten times lower in these species then in Pholiota squarrosa, characterized by the highest activity concentration level of 55(4) Bq/kg (d.m.) [sr

  6. A meshless approach to radionuclide transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perko, J.; Sarler, B.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past thirty years numerical modelling has emerged as an interdisciplinary scientific discipline which has a significant impact in engineering and design. In the field of numerical modelling of transport phenomena in porous media, many commercial codes exist, based on different numerical methods. Some of them are widely used for performance assessment and safety analysis of radioactive waste repositories and groundwater modelling. Although they proved to be an accurate and reliable tool, they have certain limitations and drawbacks. Realistic problems often involve complex geometry which is difficult and time consuming to discretize. In recent years, meshless methods have attracted much attention due to their flexibility in solving engineering and scientific problems. In meshless methods the cumbersome polygonization of calculation domain is not necessary. By this the discretization time is reduced. In addition, the simulation is not as discretization density dependent as in traditional methods because of the lack of polygon interfaces. In this work fully meshless Diffuse Approximate Method (DAM) is used for calculation of radionuclide transport. Two cases are considered; First 1D comparison of 226 Ra transport and decay solved by the commercial Finite Volume Method (FVM) and Finite Element Method (FEM) based packages and DAM. This case shows the level of discretization density dependence. And second realistic 2D case of near-field modelling of radionuclide transport from the radioactive waste repository. Comparison is made again between FVM based code and DAM simulation for two radionuclides: Long-lived 14 C and short-lived 3 H. Comparisons indicate great capability of meshless methods to simulate complex transport problems and show that they should be seriously considered in future commercial simulation tools. (author)

  7. Plant rhizosphere processes influencing radionuclide mobility in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Cowan, C.E.; McFadden, K.M.; Garland, T.R.; Wildung, R.E.

    1987-10-01

    Native vegetation associated with commercial low-level waste disposal sites has the potential for modifying the soil chemical environment over the long term and, consequently, the mobility of radionuclides. These effects were assessed for coniferous and hardwood tree species by using plants grown in lysimeter systems and examining their influence on soil solution chemistry using advanced analytical and geochemical modeling techniques. The study demonstrated formation of highly mobile anionic radionuclide complexes with amino acids, peptides, and organic acids originating from plant leaf litter and roots. The production of complexing agents was related to season and tree species, suggesting that vegetation management and exclusion may be appropriate after a site is closed. This research provides a basis for focusing on key complexing agents in future studies to measure critical affinity constants and to incorporate this information into mathematical models describing biological effects on radionuclide mobility. 26 refs., 5 figs., 23 tabs

  8. Long-lived radionuclides in the marine environment of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahapanyawong, S.; Sonsuk, M.; Polphong, P.; Milintawisamai, M.; Panyatipsakul, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Natural and artificial radionuclides in the environment of the Gulf of Thailand were studied during 1989-1991. In the study, surface water, sediment at 5 locations between latitudes 9 0 28' N and 13 0 15' N longitudes 100 0 35' E. and 5 species of marine biota were collected in 1989. In 1990 and 1991, 9 and 7 species of marine biota were collected from the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea respectively. These samples were prepared and analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides as well as some beta and alpha-emitting radionuclides such as C 14 , Sr 90 , Pu 239,240 , Po 210 etc. The results indicate the present status of radioactivity level of the environment of the gulf and the sea

  9. Confinement and migration of radionuclides in deep geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, Ch.

    2007-07-01

    Disposing high level nuclear waste in deep disposal repository requires to understand and to model the evolution of the different repository components as well as radionuclides migration on time-frame which are well beyond the time accessible to experiments. In particular, robust and predictive models are a key element to assess the long term safety and their reliability must rely on a accurate description of the actual processes. Within this framework, this report synthesizes the work performed by Ch. Poinssot and has been prepared for the defense of his HDR (French university degree to Manage Research). These works are focused on two main areas which are (i) the long term evolution of spent nuclear fuel and the development of radionuclide source terms models, and (ii) the migration of radionuclides in natural environment. (author)

  10. Long-lived radionuclides in the marine environment of Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapanyawong, S; Sonsuk, M; Polphong, P; Milintawisamai, M; Panyatipsakul, Y

    1993-12-31

    Natural and artificial radionuclides in the environment of the Gulf of Thailand were studied during 1989-1991. In the study, surface water, sediment at 5 locations between latitudes 9 degree 28 minute N and 13 degree 15 minute N longitudes 100 degree 35 minute E. and 5 species of marine biota were collected in 1989. In 1990 and 1991, 9 and 7 species of marine biota were collected from the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea respectively. These samples were prepared and analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides as well as some beta and alpha-emitting radionuclides such as C-14, Sr-90, Pu-239,240, Po-210 etc. The results indicate the present status of radioactivity level of the environment of the gulf and the sea

  11. Long-lived radionuclides in the marine environment of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahapanyawong, S.; Sonsuk, M.; Polphong, P.; Milintawisamai, M.; Panyatipsakul, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Natural and artificial radionuclides in the environment of the Gulf of Thailand were studied during 1989-1991. In the study, surface water, sediment at 5 locations between latitudes 9 degree 28 minute N and 13 degree 15 minute N longitudes 100 degree 35 minute E. and 5 species of marine biota were collected in 1989. In 1990 and 1991, 9 and 7 species of marine biota were collected from the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea respectively. These samples were prepared and analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides as well as some beta and alpha-emitting radionuclides such as C-14, Sr-90, Pu-239,240, Po-210 etc. The results indicate the present status of radioactivity level of the environment of the gulf and the sea

  12. Adsorption of trace elements of radionuclides on hydrous iron oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, S.; Ristic, M.

    1988-01-01

    Factors that influence the adsorption of trace elements or radionuclides on hydrous iron oxides were investigated. The adsorption of monovalent cations (Cs + , Rb + ) on hydrous iron oxides is not strongly pH-dependent and it can be regarded as nonspecific. On the other hand, the adsorption of Ag + , divalent cations (Zn 2+ , Cd 2+ , Mn 2+ , Sr 2+ ) or trivalent cations (Cr 3+ , La 3+ , Ce 3+ , Eu 3+ , Gd 3+ , Er 3+ , Yb 3+ ) is strongly pH-dependent. The regularities of the adsorption of these cations on hydrous iron oxides are discussed. The differences in the adsorption behaviour of some divalent and trivalent cations are also explained. Freshly precipitated iron(III) hydroxide can be used for the decontamination of radionuclides from low-level waste solutions. However, the efficacy of decontamination depends on the oxidation state and the chemical properties of radionuclides. (author) 40 refs.; 9 figs

  13. The biological transport of radionuclides in grassland and freshwater ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudge, S.A.

    1989-12-01

    This thesis examines the biological transport of radionuclides through terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, with particular reference to radiocaesium. The semi-natural grassland habitat was located at Drigg, W. Cumbria, contaminated primarily by radioactive fallout, from several sources over the past decade. Advantage was made of the deposition of radionuclides from the Chernobyl reactor incident, which occurred during the early stages of the investigation. The study examined the distribution of radiocaesium for the major components of the grassland ecosystem, within the soil-plant-invertebrate-small mammal food chain. Data concerning temporal fluctuation of radionuclide transfer factors between food chain components are presented. The final section examines the spatial distribution of radiocaesium in sediment and the freshwater eel (Anguilla anguilla) in a small stream contaminated by radioactive effluent. The relationship between activity levels in eels and the sediments in which they rest and forage was investigated. Factors influencing uptake of radiocaesium in freshwater fish were also examined. (author)

  14. Long-lived radionuclides in the marine environment of Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapanyawong, S; Sonsuk, M; Polphong, P; Milintawisamai, M; Panyatipsakul, Y

    1993-12-31

    Natural and artificial radionuclides in the environment of the Gulf of Thailand were studied during 1989-1991. In the study, surface water, sediment at 5 locations between latitudes 9{sup 0} 28` N and 13{sup 0} 15` N longitudes 100{sup 0} 35` E. and 5 species of marine biota were collected in 1989. In 1990 and 1991, 9 and 7 species of marine biota were collected from the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea respectively. These samples were prepared and analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides as well as some beta and alpha-emitting radionuclides such as C{sup 14}, Sr{sup 90}, Pu{sup 239,240}, Po{sup 210} etc. The results indicate the present status of radioactivity level of the environment of the gulf and the sea.

  15. Radionuclide analyses of Saskatchewan caribou, 1995. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Lichens, the main winter forage for caribou, adsorb radionuclides from air more efficiently than other plants. Caribou, in turn, are the main dietary staple for northern Saskatchewan residents. Uranium mining in the Wollaston Lake area of northern Saskatchewan has prompted a need to assess environmental impacts on both human and non-human biota in the area. The presence of caribou in the Wollaston Lake area in early 1995 allowed measurement of uranium and its decay products in these animals while on winter range relatively close to uranium mines. This report presents results of analyses of radionuclide levels in a variety of tissues from 18 caribou collected from the area in March 1995. Data are used to describe food chain transfer from rumen contents to caribou, and are compared with previous data on caribou in the Northwest Territories. The radionuclides investigated included uranium, radium-226, polonium-210, lead-210, and gamma emitters

  16. Metrology of trace radionuclides in environment. Standardization and traceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmet, D.

    1999-01-01

    Widespread concern over radioactive substances in the environment regularly requires environmental and public health assessments. The credibility of an assessment will depend on the quality and reliability on measurement results that often are of paramount significance in the environmental domain. Those man made radionuclides present in the various environmental components of the French territory are however found at trace, even ultra-trace levels. This article gives an overview of standardization work and required reference materials and rules for measuring radionuclides in environmental matrices as well as the international and national systems to manage standardization and traceability. Some achievements as well as the many difficulties that the metrologist must overcome when using nuclear techniques to measure trace quantities of radionuclides are presented. (author)

  17. The flow of radionuclides through the Canadian archipelago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, K.; Smith, J.N.

    1999-01-01

    The transport of contaminants to the Canadian Arctic by air and in water and their concentration through the marine food web has lead to enhanced levels of contaminants in several foods of Canadian northern inhabitants. Artificial radionuclides in the marine water can be used to determine water circulation and to trace contaminant transport through the Canadian Archipelago

  18. Radionuclide analysis of drinking water in selected secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radionuclide analysis of drinking water in selected secondary schools of Epe ... obtained were in the ranges of (38.3 – 292.8) Bq/L with mean value of 13.4 + 10.8 ... and within the tolerance level indicating minimal radiological health burden.

  19. Safety of systems for the retention of wastes containing radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    Information and minimal requirements demanded by CNEN for the emission of the Approval Certificate of the Safety Analysis Report related to system for the retention of wastes containing radionuclide, are established, aiming to assure low radioactivity levels to the environment. (E.G.) [pt

  20. Improved methods to determine radionuclidic purity of F-18 compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas; Micheelsen, Mille Ankerstjerne; Jensen, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Current revisions of monographs for F-18 pharmaceuticals in the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) (Ph. Eur., 2011) call for a radionuclidic purity (RNP) of or better than 99.9%. However, the current method is not sufficient nor effective for testing this required RNP level. We present a theoretical...

  1. Conditions and processes affecting radionuclide transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Neymark, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Characteristics of host rocks, secondary minerals, and fluids would affect the transport of radionuclides from a previously proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Minerals in the Yucca Mountain tuffs that are important for retarding radionuclides include clinoptilolite and mordenite (zeolites), clay minerals, and iron and manganese oxides and hydroxides. Water compositions along flow paths beneath Yucca Mountain are controlled by dissolution reactions, silica and calcite precipitation, and ion-exchange reactions. Radionuclide concentrations along flow paths from a repository could be limited by (1) low waste-form dissolution rates, (2) low radionuclide solubility, and (3) radionuclide sorption onto geological media.

  2. SPECIFICITY OF ACCUMULATION OF VARIOUS RADIONUCLIDES (137Cs и 90Sr IN SPINACH (Spinacia oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Soldatenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the specificity of accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr by plants and limits of accumulation by plant fruits plays a key role at breeding of vegetable crops, which make demand for ecological safety of the product. The article is concerned with the study of varietal sources of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. aimed at development of ecological safety product on the territory polluted by radionuclides.The specificity of accumulation of radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr was studied in 54 varieties of spinach at industrial contaminated and polluted lands. Experimental tests were conducted in the Moscow and Bryansk regions in 2012 and 2014. The absolute value of radionuclide 90Sr was higher than absolute value of radionuclide 137Cs in all studied zones. It was found that the hazard rate of 90Sr is higher because the level of pollution of product reaches up to 76% from maximum permissible concentration (MPC, while the level of product pollution by 137Cs is 26,4% from MPC. The spinach genotype differentiation for 90Sr in the most environments is lower than differentiation for 137Cs. The histograms of distribution 90Sr and 137Cs showed that samples amount in the groups of accumulation for both radionuclides are equal. Statistically significant data for radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr in spinach were not obtained. The evaluation of spinach for low content of radionuclides should be conducted separately for each radionuclide on various backgrounds.

  3. Analysis of the processes defining radionuclide migration from deep geological repositories in porous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazauskaite, A.; Poskas, P.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the danger of exposure arising from long-lived radionuclides to humans and environment, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high level waste (HLW) are not allowed to be disposed of in near surface repositories. There exists an international consensus that such high level and long-lived radioactive wastes are best disposed of in geological repositories using a system of engineered and natural barriers. At present, the geological repository of SNF and HLW has not been realized yet in any country but there is a lot of experience in the assessment of radionuclide migration from deep repositories, investigations of different processes related to the safety of a disposal system. The aim of this study was to analyze the processes related to the radionuclide migration from deep geological repositories in porous medium such as SNF matrix dissolution, release mechanism of radionuclides from SNF matrix, radionuclide solubility, sorption, diffusive, advective transport of radionuclides from the canister and through the engineered and natural barriers. It has been indicated that SNF matrix dissolution, radionuclide solubility and sorption are sensitive to ambient conditions prevailing in the repository. The approaches that could be used for modeling the radionuclide migration from deep repositories in porous medium are also presented. (author)

  4. Correlation between meteorological conditions and the concentration of radionuclides in the ground layer of atmospheric air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajny, E.; Osrodka, L.; Wojtylak, M.; Michalik, B.; Skowronek, J.

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of this work was to find correlation between the concentrations of radionuclides in outdoor air and the meteorological conditions like: atmospheric pressure, wind velocity and amount of precipitation. Because the sampling period of radionuclides concentrations in air was relatively long (7 days), the average levels of meteorological parameters have been calculated within the same time. Data of radionuclide concentrations and meteorological data have been analyzed in order to find statistical correlation. The regression analysis and one of AI methods, known as neural network, were applied. In general, analysis of the gathered data does not show any strong correlation between the meteorological conditions and the concentrations of the radionuclides in air. A slightly stronger correlation we found for radionuclides with relatively short half-lives. The only positive correlation has been found between the 7 Be concentration and air temperature (at the significance level α = 0.05). In our opinion, the lack of correlation was caused by a too long sampling time in measurements of radionuclides in outdoor air (a whole week). Results of analysis received by means of the artificial neuron network are better. We were able to find certain groups of meteorological conditions, related with the corresponding concentrations of particular radionuclides in air. Preliminary measurements of radon progeny concentration support the thesis that the link between changes of meteorological parameters and concentrations of radionuclides in ambient air must exist. (author)

  5. Radionuclide transfer from mother to embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toader, M.; Vasilache, R.A.; Scridon, R.; Toader, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    The transfer of radionuclides from mother to embryo is still a matter of high interest. Therefore, the relation was investigated between the amount of radionuclides in the embryo and the dietary intake of the mother, this for two scenarios: a recurrent intake of variable amounts of radionuclides, and a long-term intake of a relatively constant amount of radionuclides, the radionuclide being 137 Cs. In the first case, the amount of radionuclides present in the embryo increases with the age of the embryo and with the intake of the mother. In the second case, no correlation could be found between the age of the embryo and its radioactive content; only the correlation between the intake of the mother and the radionuclide content of the embryo remained. (A.K.)

  6. Radionuclide sources in the Barents and Kara Seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.N.; Ellis, K.M.; Forman, S.; Polyak, L.; Ivanov, G.; Matishov, D.; Kilius, L.

    1995-01-01

    A study of radionuclide distributions in the Barents Sea sediments was carried out in 1992. The conclusions of the study are as follows: 1) Elevated levels of artificial radionuclides as great as 15,000 Bq/kg for 239,240 Pu, 250 Bq/kg for 137 Cs and 100 Bq/kg for 60 Co were measured in sediments in Chermaya Bay which have been contaminated by several nuclear tests conducted in the 1950s. 2) Sediment-depth distributions of 239,240 Pu and other artificial radionuclides are consistent with results from biodiffusion models that are constrained by 210 Pb sediment-depth distributions. These results indicate that sedimentation rates in Chernaya Bay are low ( 249 Pu/ 239 Pu and 241 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios of 0.030 and 0.0012, respectively and a 241 Am/ 239,240 Pu activity ratio of 0.05 (compared to 0.3 in fallout) which provides a method for tracking its dispersion over distances of 100 km into the Barents Sea. 4) Artificial radionuclide levels in sediments and seawater near a sunken barge loaded with radioactive wastes in the Novaya Zemlya trough are similar to background fallout levels in the Kara Sea and provide little evidence for the release of radioactive contaminants from the dumpsite. 7 refs., 4 figs

  7. Differences in the regulation of chemicals and radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.

    1993-12-01

    Government regulations limiting public exposure to radionuclides and chemicals have historically been developed by regulatory agencies using different approaches with the result that levels of protection vary for the two classes of contaminants. These differences create difficulties in determining equitable regulatory measures when both radionuclides and chemical pollutants are involved. Generally, radiation exposure is not regulated as stringently as chemical exposure (Travis et al, 1989). The International commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommends limiting excess environmental radiation exposure to the general public to 100 millirem per year (mrem/yr) (ICRP, 1991), a lifetime cancer risk of about 3.5E-3. An acceptable level of risk for chemical exposures is generally considered to be below 1E-6. Differences in regulatory approach for radionuclides and chemicals evoke debate over why they are different and which regulation strategy is better. Because these pollutants often coexist (mixed waste sites, contaminated metals and facilities, etc.), it is important to analyze inconsistencies in the regulation of chemicals and radionuclides and establish a more consistent approach to defining an acceptable level of exposure for these contaminants

  8. Migration of radionuclides following shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlet, J.; Golchert, N.W.

    1980-01-01

    A study of radionuclide migration was conducted at a facility used from 1944 to 1949 for the shallow land burial of radwaste produced during operations with two reactors and related nuclear research. It is situated in glacial drift 45 m thick. Underlying the drift is a generally level Silurian dolomite bedrock 60 m thick. The thickness of the drift decreases as the surface slopes downhill (north) until the dolomite reaches the surface and forms the bed of a river, 700 m to the north. This study was begun after tritiated water was detected in two picnic wells north of the facility, between the burial plot and the river. Surface and subsurface measurements indicate that tritium is migrating out of the burial site, but no other radionuclides have left the plot. The tritium concentrations decrease with distance from the plot. Tritium was found in the subsoil at all depths sampled, so the ground beneath and immediately around the plot contains tritium down to the dolomite aquifer. Time of travel of water from the burial plot to the nearest well is estimated to be 54 months. This would imply the peak concentration would reach the dolomite in about 35 years. By this time, 86% of the tritium would have disappeared by radioactive decay. The cyclical nature of the tritium content in the two wells implies that tritiated water is carried from the burial site by the spring rains when they recharge the groundwater supply

  9. Radionuclides containment in nuclear glasses. An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gin, Stephane; Jollivet, Patrick; Tribet, Magaly; Peuget, Sylvain; Schuller, Sophie [CEA Marcoule, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France). DE2D SEVT

    2017-07-01

    Radioactive waste vitrification has been carried out industrially in several countries for nearly 40 years. Research into the formulation and long term behavior of high and intermediate level waste glasses, mainly borosilicate compositions, is still continuing in order to (i) safely condition new types of wastes and (ii) design and demonstrate the safety of the disposal of these long-lived waste forms in a deep geological repository. This article presents a summary of current knowledge on the formulation, irradiation resistance and the chemical durability of these conditioning materials, with a special focus on the fate of radionuclides during glass processing and aging. It is shown that, apart from the situation for certain elements with very low incorporation rate in glass matrices, vitrification in borosilicate glass can enable waste loadings of up to ∝20 wt% while maintaining the glass homogeneity for geological time scales and guaranteeing a high stability level in spite of irradiation and water contact.

  10. Choice of radionuclides for radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNardo, S.J.; Jungerman, J.A.; DeNardo, G.L.; Lagunas-Solar, M.C.; Cole, W.C.; Meares, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    Innumerable questions need to be answered and obstacles overcome before radioimmunotherapy can be generally successful in cancer patients. Major developments have greatly enhanced the likelihood of success. The important development of appropriate radionuclides and radiochemistry for this therapy must be intimately linked with the biological and biochemical realities. All aspects must be considered, such as the specific nature of the antigenic target, the pharmacokinetics of the antibody fragment carrier, the capability of in vivo quantitation of tumor uptake and turnover time, as well as total body kinetics. With this knowledge, then, practical radiochemistry methods can be integrated with the suitable radionuclide choices, and production methods can be developed which will deliver effective and dependable products for patient therapy

  11. Applications of radionuclides in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, P.

    1955-01-01

    After a brief recall of a few concepts (mass number, charge and beams properties) and the description of used detectors (ionization chamber, Geiger-Mueller counter, scintillation counters), some radionuclides applications are described. In a first part, the well-developed applications are presented in three distinct groups: continuous applications such as β and γ gauges (determination hydrogen content of an hydrocarbon and content of an emulsion; discharge of static electricity), discontinuous applications such as radiography and autoradiography, wear or manufacture problems (distribution of a fungicide on tobacco) and finally, applications in research laboratories such as diffusion, exchange and solubility. It also describes the applications which are still in development such as the action of beams on matter (reticulation and degradation of polymers, monomers polymerisation, cold sterilization). In conclusion, few advices on the opportunity of such applications and the choice of the radionuclides are given. (M.P.)

  12. Radionuclide imaging of musculoskeletal infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palestr, Christopher J.; North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY; Love, Charito

    2007-01-01

    Radionuclide imaging studies are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Three-phase bone imaging is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and very accurate in the setting of otherwise normal bone. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of 'complicating osteomyelitis' such as prosthetic joint infection. This test also is useful in clinically unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis as well as in the neuropathic joint. It is often necessary, however, to perform complementary bone marrow imaging, to maximize the accuracy of labeled leukocyte imaging. In contrast to other regions in the skeleton, labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. At the moment, gallium is the preferred radionuclide procedure for this condition and is a useful adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging. FDG-PET likely will play an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infection, especially spinal osteomyelitis, and may replace gallium imaging for this purpose. (author)

  13. Radionuclide imaging of musculoskeletal infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palestr, Christopher J. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; E-mail: palestro@lij.edu; Love, Charito [North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2007-09-15

    Radionuclide imaging studies are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Three-phase bone imaging is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and very accurate in the setting of otherwise normal bone. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of 'complicating osteomyelitis' such as prosthetic joint infection. This test also is useful in clinically unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis as well as in the neuropathic joint. It is often necessary, however, to perform complementary bone marrow imaging, to maximize the accuracy of labeled leukocyte imaging. In contrast to other regions in the skeleton, labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. At the moment, gallium is the preferred radionuclide procedure for this condition and is a useful adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging. FDG-PET likely will play an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infection, especially spinal osteomyelitis, and may replace gallium imaging for this purpose. (author)

  14. Terrestrial pathways of radionuclide particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boone, F.W.; Ng, Y.C.

    1981-01-01

    Formulations are developed for computing potential human intake of 13 radionuclides via the terrestrial food chains. The formulations are an extension of the NRC methodology. Specific regional crop and livestock transfer and fractional distribution data from the southern part of the U.S.A. are provided and used in the computation of comparative values with those computed by means of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109 formulations. In the development of the model, emphasis was also placed on identifying the various time-delay compartments of the food chains and accounting for all of the activity initially deposited. For all radionuclides considered, except 137 Cs, the new formulations predict lower potential intakes from the total of all food chains combined than do the comparable Regulatory Guide formulations by as much as a factor of 40. For 137 Cs the new formulations predict 10% higher potential intakes. (author)

  15. Radionuclide 252Cf neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolevatov, Yu.I.; Trykov, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    Characteristics of radionuclide neutron sourses of 252 Cf base with the activity from 10 6 to 10 9 n/s have been investigated. Energetic distributions of neutrons and gamma-radiation have been presented. The results obtained have been compared with other data available. The hardness parameter of the neutron spectrum for the energy range from 3 to 15 MeV is 1.4 +- 0.02 MeV

  16. Radionuclide diagnosis of Meckel's diverticulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, J.J.; Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL

    1980-01-01

    Meckel's diverticulum can be detected with a high degree of accuracy by radionuclide scintigraphy using technetium-99m pertechnetate. The technique is without risk and should precede roentgenographic studies when the diagnosis is suspected. The method is described and the causes for false positive and false negative examinations are discussed. False negatives are rare and false positives are usually secondary to other surgical entities. Overall accuracy is 85 to 90%. (orig.) [de

  17. Radionuclides for therapy: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesler, H.; Noelpp, U.; Triller, K.J.; Steffen, R.

    1986-01-01

    Progress in angiographic techniques has been a gradual evolutionary development which now permits the selective and superselective access to a tumor's vascular bed. A diagnostic angiographic procedure can be supplemented by a one-step, quick application of embolizing radioactive material. This endoarterial radionuclide embolizing tumor therapy has the maximum selectivity among radiotherapeutic methods, with the highest radiation doses to the tumor and neglectible exposure of normal tissue. Spread of radioactivity by diffusion or leaching can be prevented

  18. Radiation protection in radionuclide investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction; radiation and radioactivity; alpha particles; beta particles; neutrons; electromagnetic radiation; units of radioactivity and radiation; biological effects of radiation; the philosophy of radiation protection (ALARA principle); practical aspects of radiation protection; work with unsealed radiation sources; radionuclide studies in experimental animals; radiation safety during clinical investigations; legislative control of radiation work; radioactive waste disposal; emergency procedures; conclusion. (U.K.)

  19. Radionuclide evaluation of renal transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hong; Zhao Deshan

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclide renal imaging and plasma clearance methods can quickly quantitate renal blood flow and function in renal transplants. They can diagnose acute tubular necrosis and rejection, renal scar, surgical complications such as urine leaks, obstruction and renal artery stenosis after renal transplants. At the same time they can assess the therapy effect of renal transplant complications and can also predict renal transplant survival from early post-operative function studies

  20. Radionuclide behavior in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs

  1. Radionuclides in forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strebl, F.; Bossew, P.; Kienzl, K.; Hiesel, E.

    2000-01-01

    Some regions within Austria were highly contaminated (> 50 kBq m -2 ) with radiocaesium by the deposition event following the Chernobyl reactor accident in 1986. Monitoring carried out by several Austrian institutions showed that in contrast to agricultural products radiocaesium levels in wild berries, mushrooms and game meat from forest ecosystems remained considerably higher over the years. To find reasons for this contrasting radioecological behavior and for the derivation of model input parameters, an extended study about the distribution of 137 Cs within three Austrian forest stands was carried out between 1987 and 1997. Results of this and subsequent studies are summarized and include the following ecosystem compartments: forest soils, litter, trees, bilberry, mushrooms, mosses, ferns, lichen, other vegetation, insects, small mammals, game animals and surface water. Besides the investigation of radioecological behavior an estimation of pool sizes and transfer rates as well as radioecological residence half times for 137 Cs in different forest species was used to compile a radiocaesium balance for the years 1988 and 1996. Soil proved to be an effective sink for radiocaesium contamination, but in long-term perspective it can act as a source for the contamination of vegetation and higher levels of the food-chain as well. Due to the high standing biomass trees represent the largest 'living' radiocaesium pool within the investigated forest stand. Dose estimations based on average consume habits gave no significant increase (less than 0.4 %) of the annual average population radiation dose due to the ingestion of forest products from the investigated forest stands. (author)

  2. The sources and fate of radionuclides emitted to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandalls, J.

    2001-01-01

    The thesis represents an account of the sources and fate of radionuclides entering the atmosphere, and indicates where the candidate, through his own work, has contributed to the overall picture. The sources of the natural and man-made radionuclides found in the atmosphere are identified. New data on emissions from UK coal-fired power stations and UK steel works are reported. Radionuclides produced in nuclear fission and released to the atmosphere in the detonation of nuclear weapons, in nuclear accidents, and through routine discharges from nuclear sites have added to the atmospheric burden of radioactive materials; both acute and chronic low-level emissions are discussed. The various natural processes which remove radionuclides from the atmosphere are described. Soon after release, many radioactive materials become attached to the atmospheric aerosol, but others undergo gas-phase reactions. Some gases are sufficiently long-lived in the troposphere as to find their way into the stratosphere where their fate may be determined by the short-wave radiation from the sun. The nature of the particles of fuel emitted to the atmosphere in the explosion and fire at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 are discussed, together with the associated environmental problems. The ground is the major sink for radionuclides leaving the atmosphere, and the behaviour of the more radiologically important radionuclides following deposition is described with special reference to: (i) fallout in both the urban and living environments; (ii) the pathways which may lead to contamination of the food chain; (iii) how the fuel particle fallout from Chernobyl was unique in nuclear accidents; (iv) soil-to-plant transfer of radioelements and (v) how radiation exposure of man can be mitigated in both the contaminated urban and rural environments. (author)

  3. Fate of major radionuclides in the liquid wastes released to coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, I.S.; Verma, P.C.; Iyer, R.S.; Chandramouli, S.

    1980-01-01

    131 I, 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 60 Co have been reported as the major radionuclides in the low level liquid wastes released to coastal waters from atomic power stations. Silt absorption and desorption of the radionuclides were investigated. The exchangeability of the silt absorbed radionuclides and its dependence on particle size were also studied. More than 80% instantaneous absorpt;.on of 60 Co by suspended silt and less than 5% exchangeability of absorbed 60 Co were observed. Biological uptake of the radionuclides by the marine organisms present in sea waters was studied to evaluate radiation exposure pathways. A few benthic and crustacean organisms wnich are consumed by coastal population as fresh sea food, were observed to concentrate the radionuclides to a greater extent than other organisms. (H.K.)

  4. Quantitative assessment of accumulation of radionuclides in fish organism in dependence on water temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katkov, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Eperimentally studied are the changes of levels of several indices of radionuclide metabolism in fishes in dependence on water temperature at its absorption directly from water and at introduction into the digestive tract. Presented are the coefficients of radionuclide storage by the fish tissues in the dependence on temperature (scales and fins, gills, head, intestines, skin, muscles, axial skeleton) and the coefficients of radionuclide retention in the whole fish. It is shown that the connection between the coefficient of radionuclide storage in the fish organism and water temperature is described by the logarithmic dependence. At the systematic entering of radionuclides into the digestive tract the retention coefficient of them in the organism expressed in the form of the ratio of residual quantity in the fish to the quantity in day dose is constant

  5. Radionuclide daughter inventory generator code: DIG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Sharp, R.D.

    1985-09-01

    The Daughter Inventory Generator (DIG) code accepts a tabulation of radionuclide initially present in a waste stream, specified as amounts present either by mass or by activity, and produces a tabulation of radionuclides present after a user-specified elapsed time. This resultant radionuclide inventory characterizes wastes that have undergone daughter ingrowth during subsequent processes, such as leaching and transport, and includes daughter radionuclides that should be considered in these subsequent processes or for inclusion in a pollutant source term. Output of the DIG code also summarizes radionuclide decay constants. The DIG code was developed specifically to assist the user of the PRESTO-II methodology and code in preparing data sets and accounting for possible daughter ingrowth in wastes buried in shallow-land disposal areas. The DIG code is also useful in preparing data sets for the PRESTO-EPA code. Daughter ingrowth in buried radionuclides and in radionuclides that have been leached from the wastes and are undergoing hydrologic transport are considered, and the quantities of daughter radionuclide are calculated. Radionuclide decay constants generated by DIG and included in the DIG output are required in the PRESTO-II code input data set. The DIG accesses some subroutines written for use with the CRRIS system and accesses files containing radionuclide data compiled by D.C. Kocher. 11 refs

  6. Radionuclide migration test using undisturbed aerated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Ohtsuka, Yoshiro; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1988-01-01

    As one of the most important part of safety assessment on the shallow land disposal of lowlevel radioactive waste, the radionuclide migration was studied using undisturbed soil samples, in order to evaluate an exact radionuclide migration in an aerated soil layer. Soil samples used in the migration test were coastal sand and loamy soil which form typical surface soil layers in Japan. The aqueous solution containing 60 CoCl 2 , 85 SrCl 2 and 137 CsCl was fed into the soil column and concentration of each radionuclide both in effluent and in soil was measured. Large amount of radionuclides was adsorbed on the surface of soil column and small amount of radionuclides moved deep into the soil column. Difference in the radionuclide profile was observed in the low concentration portion particularly. It is that some fractions of 60 Co and 137 Cs are stable in non-ionic form and move downward through the soil column together with water. The radionuclide distribution in the surface of soil column can be fairly predicted with a conventional migration equation for ionic radionuclides. As a result of radionuclide adsorption, both aerated soil layers of coastal sand and loamy soil have large barrier ability on the radionuclide migration through the ground. (author)

  7. Metabolism of radionuclides in domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, E.; Leising, C.

    1986-01-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl has shown that shortly after the contamination of the environment radionuclides can be found in animal products. The main contamination pathways of domestic animas are: uptake of radionuclides by foodstuffs; uptake of radionuclides by contaminated drinking water; uptake of radionuclides by inhalation; uptake of radionuclides through skin; uptake of radionuclides by ingestion of soil particles. Generally the uptake of radionuclides by food is the dominant exposure pathway. In rare cases the inhalation of radionuclides or the uptake by drinking water may be of importance. The metabolism of incorporated radionuclides is comparable to the respective metabolism of essential mass or trace elements or heavy metals. Radioisotopes of essential elements are for instance iron 55, manganese 54, cobalt 58 and cobalt 60. Other elements are typical antagonists to essential elements, e.g. strontium 90 is an antagonist to calcium or cesium 137 to potassium. Lead 210 and plutonium 239 behave similarly as heavy metals. Generally the knowledge of the metabolism of trace and mass elements, of antagonistic and synergistic elements and heavy metals can be applied to these radionuclides

  8. Experimental and modelling studies of radionuclide migration from contaminated groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tompkins, J. A.; Butler, A. P.; Wheater, H. S.; Shaw, G.; Wadey, P.; Bell, J. N. B.

    1994-01-01

    Lysimeter-based studies of radionuclide uptake by winter wheat are being undertaken to investigate soil-to-plant transfer processes. A five year multi-disciplinary research project has concentrated on the upward migration of contaminants from near surface water-tables and their subsequent uptake by a winter wheat crop. A weighted transfer factor approach and a physically based modelling methodology, for the simulation and prediction of radionuclide uptake, have been developed which offer alternatives to the traditional transfer factor approach. Integrated hydrological and solute transport models are used to simulate contaminant movement and subsequent root uptake. This approach enables prediction of radionuclide transport for a wide range of soil, plant and radionuclide types. This paper presents simulated results of 22 Na plant uptake and soil activity profiles, which are verified with respect to lysimeter data. The results demonstrate that a simple modelling approach can describe the variability in radioactivity in both the harvested crop and the soil profile, without recourse to a large number of empirical parameters. The proposed modelling technique should be readily applicable to a range of scales and conditions, since it embodies an understanding of the underlying physical processes of the system. This work constitutes part of an ongoing research programme being undertaken by UK Nirex Ltd., to assess the long term safety of a deep level repository for low and intermediate level nuclear waste. (author)

  9. Radionuclides in plankton from the South Pacific Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation has been initiated of the utility of marine plankton as bioconcentrating samplers of low-level marine radioactivity in the southern hemisphere. A literature review has shown that both freshwater and marine plankton have trace element and radionuclide concentration factors (relative to water) of up to 10 4 . In 1956 and 1958 considerable work was done on the accumulation and distribution of a variety of fission and activation products produced by nuclear tests in the Marshall Islands. Since then, studies, have largely been confined to a few radionuclides, and most of the work in the last twenty years has been done in the northern hemisphere. The authors participated in Operations Deepfreeze 1981 and 1982, collecting a total of 48 plankton samples from the USCGC Glacier on its Antarctic cruises. Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories sampled air, water, rain, and fallout. The authors were able to measure concentrations in plankton of the naturally-occurring radionuclides 7 Be, 40 K, and the U and Th series, and they believe that they have detected low levels of 144 Ce and 95 Nb in seven samples ranging as far south as 68 0 . Biological identification of the plankton suggests a possible correlation between radionuclide concentration and the protozoa content of the samples. 7 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  10. Method of measuring the disintegration rate of a beta-emitting radionuclide in a liquid sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    A novel liquid scintillation counting method of measuring the disintegration rate of a beta-emitting radionuclide is described which involves counting the sample at at least two different quench levels. (UK)

  11. Research on the assessment technology of the radionuclide inventory for the radioactive waste disposal(I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. J.; Hong, D. S.; Hwang, G. H.; Shin, J. J.; Yuk, D. S. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Characteristics and states of management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in site : state of management for each type of wastes, characteristics of low and intermediate level solid radioactive waste, stage of management of low and intermediate level solid radioactive waste. Survey of state of management and characteristics of low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility in foreign countries : state of management of disposal facilities, classification criteria and target radionuclides for assessment in foreign disposal facilities. Survey of the assessment methods of the radionuclides inventory and establishing the direction of requirement : assessment methods of the radionuclides inventory, analysis of radionuclides assay system in KORI site, establishment the direction of requirement in the assessment methods.

  12. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Lane A.; Ryan, Jack L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of .sup.223 Ra and .sup.225 Ac, from a radionuclide "cow" of .sup.227 Ac or .sup.229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide "cow" forming an ingrown mixture; b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the "cow" from at least one radionuclide daughter; d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the "cow". In one embodiment the radionuclide "cow" is the .sup.227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.227 Th and the product radionuclide is the .sup.223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the .sup.227 Ac and retains the .sup.227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide "cow"is the .sup.229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the .sup.225 Ac and the .sup.225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the .sup.229 Th and passes the .sup.225 Ra/Ac.

  13. Colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport: a regulatory perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, W. L.; Pickett, D. A.; Codell, R. B.; Nicholson, T. J.

    2001-12-01

    What hydrogeologic-geochemical-microbial conditions and processes affect migration of radionuclides sorbed onto microparticles or native colloid-sized radionuclide particles? The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is responsible for protecting public health, safety, and the environment at numerous nuclear facilities including a potential high-level nuclear waste disposal site. To fulfill these obligations, NRC needs to understand the mechanisms controlling radionuclide release and transport and their importance to performance. The current focus of NRC staff reviews and technical interactions dealing with colloid-facilitated transport relates to the potential nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. NRC staff performed bounding calculations to quantify radionuclide releases available for ground-water transport to potential receptors from a Yucca Mountain repository. Preliminary analyses suggest insignificant doses of plutonium and americium colloids could be derived from spent nuclear fuel. Using surface complexation models, NRC staff found that colloids can potentially lower actinide retardation factors by up to several orders of magnitude. Performance assessment calculations, in which colloidal transport of plutonium and americium was simulated by assuming no sorption or matrix diffusion, indicated no effect of colloids on human dose within the 10,000 year compliance period due largely to long waste-package lifetimes. NRC staff have identified information gaps and developed technical agreements with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to ensure sufficient information will be presented in any potential future Yucca Mountain license application. DOE has agreed to identify which radionuclides could be transported via colloids, incorporate uncertainties in colloid formation, release and transport parameters, and conceptual models, and address the applicability of field data using synthetic microspheres as colloid analogs. NRC is currently

  14. Radionuclide transport processes in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, F.W.

    1983-01-01

    Some major principles and the status of knowledge concerning the transport of radionuclides through terrestrial ecosystems are reviewed. Fundamental processes which control the flow of radionuclides between ecosystem components such as air, soil, plants, and animals are described, with emphasis on deposition, resuspension, plant uptake, ingestion, and assimilation. Properties of radionuclides, organisms, and ecosystems are examined in relation to their influence on the accumulation of radioactive materials by plants and animals. The effects of the physicochemical nature of the radionuclide; morphology, physiology, and behavior of the organism; and soil, nutrient, and trophic characteristics of the ecosystem are highlighted. Observations in natural ecosystems on radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 131 I, 3 H, and 239 Pu are used to illustrate current concepts. An assessment of the degree to which the processes controlling radionuclide behavior are understood and of our ability to simulate and predict such behavior with computerized models is offered. Finally, brief comments are made on research needs

  15. Radionuclides in the study of marine processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kershaw, P.J.; Woodhead, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    For many years, the radioactive properties of the naturally occurring radionuclides have been used to determine their distributions in the marine environment and, more generally, to gain an understanding of the dynamic processes which control their behaviour in attaining these distributions. More recently the inputs from human activities of both natural and artificial (i.e. man-made) radionuclides have provided additional opportunities for the study of marine processes on local, regional and global scales. The primary objective of the symposium is to provide a forum for an open discussion of the insights concerning processes in the marine environment which can be gained from studies of radionuclide behaviour. Papers have been grouped within the following principal themes; the uses of radionuclides as tracers of water transport; scavenging and particulate transport processes in the oceans as deduced from radionuclide behaviour; processes in the seabed and radionuclides in biological systems. (Author)

  16. Radionuclide Activity Concentrations in Spas of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnoni, G.; Czerniczyniec, M.; Palacios, M.

    2011-01-01

    Geothermal waters have been used on a large scale for bathing, drinking and medical purposes. These waters often have a very high mineral content because solubility increases with temperature. Ground waters are in close contact with soil and rocks containing radium. Once formed by decay from radium, radon gas (Rn-222) may diffuse through rocks pores and geological discontinuities and may dissolve in these waters. Radon and other natural radionuclides are transported to the surface where radon can easily diffuse into the atmosphere. Then it may be possible to find out significant radon levels at places like geothermal spas. In this work the most important natural radionuclide activity concentrations in different thermal spas of Argentina were measured to characterize waters and to evaluate the exposure of workers and members of the public. Three passive methods were used to measure radon in air. One of them is an screening method based on the radon adsorption on activated charcoal. The other two methods are time integrated ones, CR-39 or Makrofol tracks detectors, which can be exposed between two and three months. To characterize waters other natural radionuclides have been also measured. Uranium concentration was measured by fluorimetry. Ra-226 and Pb-210 measurements were performed by radiochemical methods and liquid scintillation. The results obtained were compared with the guidelines values recommended by WHO and EPA for drinking waters and, in the case of radon in air, the results were compared with values established by BSS-115. In order to assess worker doses, the higher value measured for radon in air and real scenario data were taken into account. Moreover, in situ dose rate measurements were also performed and then compared with natural background values. In relation with water characterization, almost all values obtained for the geothermal waters analyzed were below the corresponding guidance levels. Taking into account the highest value measured of radon

  17. Radionuclide solubility control by solid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, F.; Klinkenberg, M.; Rozov, K.; Bosbach, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. of Energy and Climate Research - Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety (IEK-6); Vinograd, V. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geosciences

    2015-07-01

    The migration of radionuclides in the geosphere is to a large extend controlled by sorption processes onto minerals and colloids. On a molecular level, sorption phenomena involve surface complexation, ion exchange as well as solid solution formation. The formation of solid solutions leads to the structural incorporation of radionuclides in a host structure. Such solid solutions are ubiquitous in natural systems - most minerals in nature are atomistic mixtures of elements rather than pure compounds because their formation leads to a thermodynamically more stable situation compared to the formation of pure compounds. However, due to a lack of reliable data for the expected scenario at close-to equilibrium conditions, solid solution systems have so far not been considered in long-term safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories. In recent years, various solid-solution aqueous solution systems have been studied. Here we present state-of-the art results regarding the formation of (Ra,Ba)SO{sub 4} solid solutions. In some scenarios describing a waste repository system for spent nuclear fuel in crystalline rocks {sup 226}Ra dominates the radiological impact to the environment associated with the potential release of radionuclides from the repository in the future. The solubility of Ra in equilibrium with (Ra,Ba)SO{sub 4} is much lower than the one calculated with RaSO{sub 4} as solubility limiting phase. Especially, the available literature data for the interaction parameter W{sub BaRa}, which describes the non-ideality of the solid solution, vary by about one order of magnitude (Zhu, 2004; Curti et al., 2010). The final {sup 226}Ra concentration in this system is extremely sensitive to the amount of barite, the difference in the solubility products of the end-member phases, and the degree of non-ideality of the solid solution phase. Here, we have enhanced the fundamental understanding regarding (1) the thermodynamics of (Ra,Ba)SO{sub 4} solid solutions and (2) the

  18. DKPRO: A radionuclide decay and reprocessing code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootan, D.; Schmittroth, F.A.

    1997-01-01

    The DKPRO code solves the general problem of modeling complex nuclear wastes streams using ORIGEN2 radionuclide production files. There is a continuing need for estimates of Hanford radionuclides. Physical measurements are one basis; calculational estimates, the approach represented here, are another. Given a known nuclear fuel history, it is relatively straightforward to calculate radionuclide inventories with codes such as the widely-used Oak Ridge National Laboratory code ORIGEN2

  19. Radionuclide usage survey 1979-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, M.J.

    1980-08-01

    Details of a survey by the Life Sciences Working Group of the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology (ICRM) on radionuclide usage by medical physicists in 11 countries are presented. The results indicate that the radionuclide which will be of most significance in the future will be F-18, Fe-52, Ga-67, Ga-68, Kr-81m, Tc-99m, In-111, I-123, Xe-127 and Tl-201, (U.K.)

  20. Preparation of porous materials for radionuclides capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajzikova, Anna; Smrcek, Stanislav; Kozempel, Jan; Vlk, Martin; Barta, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Porous materials showing promise for radionuclide capture from water at contaminated sites were prepared. Nanoporous materials (size of pores 1-100 nm) and some polymers are well suited to this purpose owing their affinity for selected radionuclides. Nanoporous metal oxides and silica gel with styrene-divinylbenzene-TODGA-modified surface were prepared, characterized and tested for radionuclide ( 227 Ac, 227 Th, 223 Ra) capture efficiency. (orig.)