WorldWideScience

Sample records for hard x radiation

  1. Study of fast electrons from hard-X radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslanbekov, R.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is the study of fast electron dynamics by means of the hard X-ray diagnosis installed in TORE SUPRA and numerical simulations. Fast electrons are generated in the plasma in the presence of the injected lower hybrid (LH) waves. Two aspects are studied in detail: the lower hybrid wave propagation and absorption in a periodically perturbed media and 2-D Fokker-Planck modelling of the fast electron dynamics in the presence of the LH power. Ripple effects on lower hybrid wave propagation and absorption are investigated using the ray tracing technique. A cylindrical equilibrium is first studied and a strong modification of the ray dynamics is predicted. Calculations are carried out in a real toroidal geometry corresponding to TORE SUPRA. It is shown that the lack of toroidal axisymmetry of the magnetic field may result in a modification of the ray evolution even if the global ray evolution is governed by the larger poloidal inhomogeneity. Simulation of LH experiments are performed for TORE SUPRA tokamak which has a large magnetic ripple (7% at the plasma edge). By considering ripple perturbation in LH current drive simulations, a better agreement is found with experimental results, in particular with the hard-X spectra and the current density profiles. In the second part of the thesis, a 2-D modeling of the fast electron dynamics in the velocity phase space is considered, based on the 2-D relativistic electron Fokker-Planck equation. Electron distribution functions obtained are used to calculate non-thermal Bremsstrahlung emission for different TORE SUPRA shots in a wide range of experimental conditions. (J.S.). 168 refs., 93 figs., 1 tab., 3 appendix

  2. Study of hard braking x-ray radiation on the radiation-beam complex ''TEMP''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batrakov, A.B.; Glushko, E.G.; Egorov, A.M.; Zinchenko, A.A.; Litvinenko, V.V.; Lonin, Yu.F.; Ponomarev, A.G.; Rybka, A.V.; Fedotov, S.I.; Uvarov, V.T.

    2015-01-01

    A calculation over of basic parameters of the hard brake x-rayed radiation for the microsecond accelerating of relativistic electronic beam T EMP . Optimization of converters is conducted for these aims. Maximal doses are experimentally got brake x-rayed radiation on beam-radiation complex T EMP . The diagrams of orientation of the brake x-rayed radiation are taken off depending on energies of bunches and forms of electrodes.

  3. Comptonization of low-frequency radiation in accretion disks Angular distribution and polarization of hard X-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suniaev, R.A.; Titarchuk, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    Analytical consideration is given to the comptonization of photons and its effects on the radiation emitted from accretion disks of compact X-ray sources, such as black holes and neutron stars. Attention is given to the photon distribution during escape from the disk, the angular distribution of hard radiation from the disk, the polarization of hard radiation and the electron temperature distribution over the optical depth. It is shown that the hard radiation spectrum is independent of the low-frequency photon source distribution. The angular distribution and polarization of the outgoing X-rays are a function of the optical depth. A Thomson approximation is used to estimate the angular distribution of the hard radiation and the polarization over the disk. The polarization results are compared with OSO-8 satellite data for Cyg X-1 and show good agreement at several energy levels. 17 references

  4. Transition radiation in metal-metal multilayer nanostructures as a medical source of hard x-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokrovsky, A. L.; Kaplan, A. E.; Shkolnikov, P. L.

    2006-01-01

    We show that a periodic metal-metal multilayer nanostructure can serve as an efficient source of hard x-ray transition radiation. Our research effort is aimed at developing an x-ray source for medical applications, which is based on using low-energy relativistic electrons. The approach toward choosing radiator-spacer couples for the generation of hard x-ray resonant transition radiation by few-MeV electrons traversing solid multilayer structures for the energies of interest to medicine (30-50 keV) changes dramatically compared with that for soft x-ray radiation. We show that one of the main factors in achieving the required resonant line is the absence of the contrast of the refractive indices between the spacer and the radiator at the far wings of the radiation line; for that purpose, the optimal spacer, as a rule, should have a higher atomic number than the radiator. Having experimental goals in mind, we have considered also the unwanted effects due to bremsstrahlung radiation, absorption and scattering of radiated photons, detector-related issues, and inhibited coherence of transition radiation due to random deviation of spacing between the layers. Choosing as a model example a Mo-Ag radiator-spacer pair of materials, we demonstrate that the x-ray transition radiation line can be well resolved with the use of spatial and frequency filtering

  5. Study of runaway electrons using dosimetry of hard x-ray radiations in Damavand tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasouli, C.; Pourshahab, B.; Rasouli, H. [Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini Pooya, S. M.; Orouji, T. [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this work several studies have been conducted on hard x-ray emissions of Damavand tokamak based on radiation dosimetry using the Thermoluminescence method. The goal was to understand interactions of runaway electrons with plasma particles, vessel wall, and plasma facing components. Total of 354 GR-200 (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) crystals have been placed on 118 points – three TLDs per point – to map hard x-ray radiation doses on the exterior of the vacuum vessel. Results show two distinctive levels of x-ray radiations doses on the exterior of the vessel. The low-dose area on which measured dose is about 0.5 mSv/shot. In the low-dose area there is no particular component inside the vessel. On the contrary, on high-dose area of the vessel, x-ray radiations dose exceeds 30 mSv/shot. The high-dose area coincides with the position of limiters, magnetic probe ducts, and vacuum vessel intersections. Among the high-dose areas, the highest level of dose is measured in the position of the limiter, which could be due to its direct contact with the plasma column and with runaway electrons. Direct collisions of runaway electrons with the vessel wall and plasma facing components make a major contribution for production of hard x-ray photons in Damavand tokamak.

  6. Hard synchrotron radiation scattering from a nonideal surface grating from multilayer X-ray mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punegov, V.I.; Nesterets, Ya.I.; Mytnichenko, S.V.; Kovalenko, N.V.; Chernov, V.A.

    2003-01-01

    The hard synchrotron radiation scattering from a multilayer surface grating is theoretically and experimentally investigated. The numerical calculations of angular distribution of scattering intensity from X-ray mirror Ni/C are executed with use of recurrence formulae and statistical dynamical theory of diffraction. It is shown, that the essential role in formation of a diffraction pattern plays a diffuse scattering caused by structure imperfection of a multilayer grating [ru

  7. Uncooled Radiation Hard Large Area SiC X-ray and EUV Detectors and 2D Arrays, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project seeks to design, fabricate, characterize and commercialize large area, uncooled and radiative hard 4H-SiC EUV ? soft X-ray detectors capable of ultra...

  8. Design of a radiation hard silicon pixel sensor for X-ray science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwandt, Joern

    2014-06-15

    At DESY Hamburg the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (EuXFEL) is presently under construction. The EuXFEL has unique properties with respect to X-ray energy, instantaneous intensity, pulse length, coherence and number of pulses/sec. These properties of the EuXFEL pose very demanding requirements for imaging detectors. One of the detector systems which is currently under development to meet these challenges is the Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector, AGIPD. It is a hybrid pixel-detector system with 1024 x 1024 p{sup +} pixels of dimensions 200 μm x 200 μm, made of 16 p{sup +}nn{sup +}- silicon sensors, each with 10.52 cm x 2.56 cm sensitive area and 500 μm thickness. The particular requirements for the AGIPD are a separation between noise and single photons down to energies of 5 keV, more than 10{sup 4} photons per pixel for a pulse duration of less than 100 fs, negligible pile-up at the EuXFEL repetition rate of 4.5 MHz, operation for X-ray doses up to 1 GGy, good efficiency for X-rays with energies between 5 and 20 keV, and minimal inactive regions at the edges. The main challenge in the sensor design is the required radiation tolerance and high operational voltage, which is required to reduce the so-called plasma effect. This requires a specially optimized sensor. The X-ray radiation damage results in a build-up of oxide charges and interface traps which lead to a reduction of the breakdown voltage, increased leakage current, increased interpixel capacitances and charge losses. Extensive TCAD simulations have been performed to understand the impact of X-ray radiation damage on the detector performance and optimize the sensor design. To take radiation damage into account in the simulation, radiation damage parameters have been determined on MOS capacitors and gate-controlled diodes as function of dose. The optimized sensor design was fabricated by SINTEF. Irradiation tests on test structures and sensors show that the sensor design is radiation hard and

  9. Time-resolved hard x-ray studies using third-generation synchrotron radiation sources (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The third-generation, high-brilliance, synchrotron radiation sources currently under construction will usher in a new era of x-ray research in the physical, chemical, and biological sciences. One of the most exciting areas of experimentation will be the extension of static x-ray scattering and diffraction techniques to the study of transient or time-evolving systems. The high repetition rate, short-pulse duration, high-brilliance, variable spectral bandwidth, and large particle beam energies of these sources make them ideal for hard x-ray, time-resolved studies. The primary focus of this presentation will be on the novel instrumentation required for time-resolved studies such as optics which can increase the flux on the sample or disperse the x-ray beam, detectors and electronics for parallel data collection, and methods for altering the natural time structure of the radiation. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, BES-Materials Science, under Contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38

  10. Dense plasma focus PACO as a hard X-ray emitter: a study on the radiation source

    OpenAIRE

    Supán, L.; Guichón, S.; Milanese, Maria Magdalena; Niedbalski, Jorge Julio; Moroso, Roberto Luis; Acuña, H.; Malamud, Florencia

    2016-01-01

    The radiation in the X-ray range detected outside the vacuum chamber of the dense plasma focus (DPF) PACO, are produced on the anode zone. The zone of emission is studied in a shot-to-shot analysis, using pure deuterium as filling gas. We present a diagnostic method to determine the place and size of the hard X-ray source by image analysis of high density radiography plates. Fil: Supán, L.. Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas. Insti...

  11. Parallel beam microradiography of dental hard tissue using synchrotron radiation and X-ray image magnification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, S.; Chow, L.C.; Brown, W.E.; Dobbyn, R.C.; Kuriyama, M.

    1984-01-01

    A novel technique utilizing a highly parallel beam of monochromatic synchrotron radiation combined with X-ray image magnification has been used to obtain microradiographs of caries lesions in relatively thick tooth sections. Preliminary results reveal structural features not previously reported. This technique holds the promise of allowing one to follow the structural changes accompanying the formation, destruction and chemical repair of mineralized tissue in real time. (orig.)

  12. Study of fast electrons from hard-X radiation; Etude des electrons rapides a partir du rayonnement X-dur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslanbekov, R.

    1995-12-19

    The goal of this thesis is the study of fast electron dynamics by means of the hard X-ray diagnosis installed in TORE SUPRA and numerical simulations. Fast electrons are generated in the plasma in the presence of the injected lower hybrid (LH) waves. Two aspects are studied in detail: the lower hybrid wave propagation and absorption in a periodically perturbed media and 2-D Fokker-Planck modelling of the fast electron dynamics in the presence of the LH power. Ripple effects on lower hybrid wave propagation and absorption are investigated using the ray tracing technique. A cylindrical equilibrium is first studied and a strong modification of the ray dynamics is predicted. Calculations are carried out in a real toroidal geometry corresponding to TORE SUPRA. It is shown that the lack of toroidal axisymmetry of the magnetic field may result in a modification of the ray evolution even if the global ray evolution is governed by the larger poloidal inhomogeneity. Simulation of LH experiments are performed for TORE SUPRA tokamak which has a large magnetic ripple (7% at the plasma edge). By considering ripple perturbation in LH current drive simulations, a better agreement is found with experimental results, in particular with the hard-X spectra and the current density profiles. In the second part of the thesis, a 2-D modeling of the fast electron dynamics in the velocity phase space is considered, based on the 2-D relativistic electron Fokker-Planck equation. Electron distribution functions obtained are used to calculate non-thermal Bremsstrahlung emission for different TORE SUPRA shots in a wide range of experimental conditions. (J.S.). 168 refs., 93 figs., 1 tab., 3 appendix.

  13. Recent Progress in Synchrotron Radiation Photoemission Spectroscopy of Solids : Applications of VUV, Soft and Hard X-Ray Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center is a common facility for both research and education in the field of synchrotron radiation science. The operation of the light source was started from March 1998. The storage ring can be operated at 700 MeV with a critical energy of 873 eV. The machine has a racetrack shape with a circumference of 22 m, and has 14 photon beam ports. The maximum operational current is 300 mA, and the beam lifetime is longer than 6 h at 200 mA. Of total 13 beamlines introduced so far, three beamlines are dedicated to photoemission spectroscopy (PES). An available photon-energy range is hν=26-300 eV. A hemispherical photoelectron analyzer is equipped at the end station. Total energy resolution has been achieved to ∼ 15 meV at hν=100 eV. The photon-energy range is hν=4-40 eV and total energy resolution is ∼ 4.5 meV at hν=7 eV. Although total energy resolution has been achieved to ∼25 meV at hν=80 eV, we usually carry out the PES experiments. The PES spectra taken at hν∼7 eV provide information on the conduction band electrons. In order to investigate the bulk-originated electronic structure we started the hard x-ray PES experiments with a total energy resolution of ∼ 270 meV. Thus, we promote the research project with use of light in a wide energy-range (7 eV-6 keV). 1) Unusual energy gap formation in the Kondo semiconductor CeRhAs has attracted much interest for its unusual energy gap formation or metal-to-insulator transition as temperature decreases. The energy gap is assumed to be formed by the temperature dependence of the c-f hybridization. By means of resonant PES, we could observe a energy-gap structure in the Ce 4f states. In order to observe As 4p state and Rh 4d state, we have measured the PES spectra at hν=7.9 eV, 40 eV and 6 keV, respectively, due to the photon-energy dependence of photoionization cross-section. From the spectra at hν=7.9 eV, we could see that the density of states (DOS) near E F decreases with

  14. Evaluation of radiation tolerance of FETs used for Astro-E2 hard X-ray detector (HXD-II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Takeshi; Niko, Hisako; Kokubun, Motohide; Makishima, Kazuo; Kawaharada, Madoka; Takahashi, Isao; Miyasaka, Hiromasa

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the radiation tolerance of three types of metal-can MOS Field Effect Transistors (FETs). They are candidates for flight electronics of the Hard X-ray Detector (HXD-II) experiment which is onboard the cosmic X-ray satellite Astro-E2 scheduled for launch in 2005. We irradiated FETs with a Co60γ-ray source under several different experimental conditions, and measured changes in their I-V characteristic curves. After a 10krad irradiation during which the gate voltage is set at 0V, all types showed a decrease in the switching voltage by ∼0.2-0.4V. In addition, the gate conductance increased under some irradiation conditions. These experimental results may be explained in terms of trapped charges and boundary levels in the oxide layer beneath the gate electrode. We have confirmed that at least two types of FETs can be used in our satellite-borne experiment, one as relay-driving FETs and the other in TTL-ECL conversion circuits

  15. High resolution hard X-ray photoemission using synchrotron radiation as an essential tool for characterization of thin solid films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.J.; Ikenaga, E.; Kobata, M.; Takeuchi, A.; Awaji, M.; Makino, H.; Chen, P.P.; Yamamoto, A.; Matsuoka, T.; Miwa, D.; Nishino, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Yao, T.; Kobayashi, K.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, we have shown that hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy using undulator X-rays at SPring-8 is quite feasible with both high resolution and high throughput. Here we report an application of hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy to the characterization of electronic and chemical states of thin solid films, for which conventional PES is not applicable. As a typical example, we focus on the problem of the scatter in the reported band-gap values for InN. We show that oxygen incorporation into the InN film strongly modifies the valence and plays a crucial role in the band gap problem. The present results demonstrate the powerful applicability of high resolution photoemission spectroscopy with hard X-rays from a synchrotron source

  16. Hard X-ray studies on the Castor tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlynar, J.

    1990-04-01

    The electron runaway processes in tokamaks are discussed with regard to hard X radiation measurements. The origin and confinement of runaway electrons, their bremsstrahlung spectra and the influence of lower hybrid current drive on the distribution of high-energy electrons are analyzed for the case of the Castor tokamak. The hard X-ray spectrometer designed for the Castor tokamak is also described and preliminary qualitative results of hard X-ray measurements are presented. The first series of integral measurements made it possible to map the azimuthal dependence of the hard X radiation

  17. CMOS optimization for radiation hardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbenwick, G.F.; Fossum, J.G.

    1975-01-01

    Several approaches to the attainment of radiation-hardened MOS circuits have been investigated in the last few years. These have included implanting the SiO 2 gate insulator with aluminum, using chrome-aluminum layered gate metallization, using Al 2 O 3 as the gate insulator, and optimizing the MOS fabrication process. Earlier process optimization studies were restricted primarily to p-channel devices operating with negative gate biases. Since knowledge of the hardness dependence upon processing and design parameters is essential in producing hardened integrated circuits, a comprehensive investigation of the effects of both process and design optimization on radiation-hardened CMOS integrated circuits was undertaken. The goals are to define and establish a radiation-hardened processing sequence for CMOS integrated circuits and to formulate quantitative relationships between process and design parameters and the radiation hardness. Using these equations, the basic CMOS design can then be optimized for radiation hardness and some understanding of the basic physics responsible for the radiation damage can be gained. Results are presented

  18. Microfabrication of hard x-ray lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stöhr, Frederik

    This thesis deals with the development of silicon compound refractive lenses (Si-CRLs) for shaping hard x-ray beams. The CRLs are to be fabricated using state of the art microfabrication techniques. The primary goal of the thesis work is to produce Si-CRLs with considerably increased structure...... and characterized with respect to their shape. Their optical performances were tested at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). Two 1D-focusing Si-CRLs suitable as condensers in hard-XRM were developed utilizing the aforementioned two different strategies. The first Si-condenser showed focusing of a 56...... of space for sample surroundings and ensure low-divergent and wide x-ray beams with narrow waists. Both results are substantial improvements to what was available at the start of this thesis work. The challenge of making x-ray objectives in silicon by interdigitation of lenslets alternately focusing...

  19. Impact of aging on radiation hardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Fleetwood, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    Burn-in effects are used to demonstrate the potential impact of thermally activated aging effects on functional and parametric radiation hardness. These results have implications on hardness assurance testing. Techniques for characterizing aging effects are proposed

  20. Development of radiation hard scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markley, F.; Woods, D.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Foster, G.; Blackburn, R.

    1992-05-01

    Substantial improvements have been made in the radiation hardness of plastic scintillators. Cylinders of scintillating materials 2.2 cm in diameter and 1 cm thick have been exposed to 10 Mrads of gamma rays at a dose rate of 1 Mrad/h in a nitrogen atmosphere. One of the formulations tested showed an immediate decrease in pulse height of only 4% and has remained stable for 12 days while annealing in air. By comparison a commercial PVT scintillator showed an immediate decrease of 58% and after 43 days of annealing in air it improved to a 14% loss. The formulated sample consisted of 70 parts by weight of Dow polystyrene, 30 pbw of pentaphenyltrimethyltrisiloxane (Dow Corning DC 705 oil), 2 pbw of p-terphenyl, 0.2 pbw of tetraphenylbutadiene, and 0.5 pbw of UVASIL299LM from Ferro

  1. Hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Keisuke

    2009-01-01

    Except in the very early stage of the development of X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) by Kai Siegbahn and his coworkers, the excitation sources for XPS studies have predominantly been the Al Kα and Mg Kα emission lines. The advent of synchrotron radiation sources opened up the possibility of tuning the excitation photon energy with much higher throughputs for photoemission spectroscopy, however the excitation energy range was limited to the vacuum ultra violet and soft X-ray regions. Over the past 5-6 years, bulk-sensitive hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy using high-brilliance high-flux X-rays from third generation synchrotron radiation facilities has been developed. This article reviews the history of HXPES covering the period from Kai Siegbahn and his coworkers' pioneering works to the present, and describes the fundamental aspects, instrumentation, applications to solid state physics, applied physics, materials science, and industrial applications of HXPES. Finally, several challenging new developments which have been conducted at SPring-8 by collaborations among several groups are introduced.

  2. The spectral and temporal behavior of the variable X-ray binary star Cyg X-1 in the hard region of X-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinle, H.

    1981-01-01

    In the present work the measurements of the X-ray spectrum of Cyg X-1 in the energy range 15 to 160 keV in the years 1975, 1976, 1977 are investigated. The measurements are of such a good quality, that a simple power spectrum as the best fit of a model to the data of Cyg X-1 can be excluded because the spectrum breaks off in the range 70-100 keV. The model of Sunyaev and Titarchuk which describes the comptonizing of protons will low energy in a hot plasma is used first time for filling to the Cyg X-1 spectra and it is seen, that the shape of the spectrum is represented in an excellent manner. From the parameters of the best fit to the spectrum from 1977 an electron temperature of 3.4 x 10 8 K and an optical depth tau = 5 for the plasma in which the photons are scattered are found. (orig./WB) [de

  3. Radiation-Hard Quartz Cerenkov Calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akgun, U.; Onel, Y.

    2006-01-01

    New generation hadron colliders are going to reach unprecedented energies and radiation levels. Quartz has been identified as a radiation-hard material that can be used for Cerenkov calorimeters of the future experiments. We report from the radiation hardness tests performed on quartz fibers, as well as the characteristics of the quartz fiber and plate Cerenkov calorimeters that have been built, designed, and proposed for the CMS experiment

  4. Radiation hardness of CMS pixel barrel modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohe, T.; Bean, A.; Erdmann, W.; Kaestli, H.-C.; Khalatyan, S.; Meier, B.; Radicci, V.; Sibille, J.

    2010-01-01

    Pixel detectors are used in the innermost part of the multi purpose experiments at the LHC and are therefore exposed to the highest fluences of ionising radiation, which in this part of the detectors consists mainly of charged pions. The radiation hardness of all detector components has been thoroughly tested up to the fluences expected at the LHC. In case of an LHC upgrade, the fluence will be much higher and it is not yet clear how long the present pixel modules will stay operative in such a harsh environment. The aim of this study was to establish such a limit as a benchmark for other possible detector concepts considered for the upgrade. As the sensors and the readout chip are the parts most sensitive to radiation damage, samples consisting of a small pixel sensor bump-bonded to a CMS-readout chip (PSI46V2.1) have been irradiated with positive 200 MeV pions at PSI up to 6x10 14 n eq /cm 2 and with 21 GeV protons at CERN up to 5x10 15 n eq /cm 2 . After irradiation the response of the system to beta particles from a 90 Sr source was measured to characterise the charge collection efficiency of the sensor. Radiation induced changes in the readout chip were also measured. The results show that the present pixel modules can be expected to be still operational after a fluence of 2.8x10 15 n eq /cm 2 . Samples irradiated up to 5x10 15 n eq /cm 2 still see the beta particles. However, further tests are needed to confirm whether a stable operation with high particle detection efficiency is possible after such a high fluence.

  5. Hard X-ray Photoelectric Polarimeter

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our objective is to determine the gas mixtures and pressures that would enable a sensitive, hard X-ray polarimeter using existing flight components with the goal of...

  6. Hard X-ray techniques suitable for polymer experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bras, W; Goossens, H; Goderis, B, E-mail: Wim.Bras@esrf.fr [Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) (Netherlands); DUBBLE-ESRF, BP 220, F38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Molecular and Nanomaterials, Chemistry Department, Catholic University of Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200F (Belgium)

    2010-11-15

    Polymers have been studied since 1979 with 8-12 keV synchrotron radiation X-ray scattering methods and the number and sophistication of the experiments have rapidly grown ever since. More recently, new experimental techniques have been developed that use softer or harder X-rays in less conventional ways. This article provides a brief overview of the possibilities of hard X-ray techniques and indicates some areas that might gain from further developments.

  7. Hard X-ray techniques suitable for polymer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bras, W; Goossens, H; Goderis, B

    2010-01-01

    Polymers have been studied since 1979 with 8-12 keV synchrotron radiation X-ray scattering methods and the number and sophistication of the experiments have rapidly grown ever since. More recently, new experimental techniques have been developed that use softer or harder X-rays in less conventional ways. This article provides a brief overview of the possibilities of hard X-ray techniques and indicates some areas that might gain from further developments.

  8. CdTe Timepix detectors for single-photon spectroscopy and linear polarimetry of high-flux hard x-ray radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, C; Weber, G; Märtin, R; Höfer, S; Kämpfer, T; Stöhlker, Th

    2016-04-01

    Single-photon spectroscopy of pulsed, high-intensity sources of hard X-rays - such as laser-generated plasmas - is often hampered by the pileup of several photons absorbed by the unsegmented, large-volume sensors routinely used for the detection of high-energy radiation. Detectors based on the Timepix chip, with a segmentation pitch of 55 μm and the possibility to be equipped with high-Z sensor chips, constitute an attractive alternative to commonly used passive solutions such as image plates. In this report, we present energy calibration and characterization measurements of such devices. The achievable energy resolution is comparable to that of scintillators for γ spectroscopy. Moreover, we also introduce a simple two-detector Compton polarimeter setup with a polarimeter quality of (98 ± 1)%. Finally, a proof-of-principle polarimetry experiment is discussed, where we studied the linear polarization of bremsstrahlung emitted by a laser-driven plasma and found an indication of the X-ray polarization direction depending on the polarization state of the incident laser pulse.

  9. Radiation hard memory cell and array thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunckel, T.L. II; Rovell, A.; Nielsen, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    A memory cell configuration that is implemented to be relatively hard to the adverse effects of a nuclear event is discussed. The presently disclosed memory cell can be interconnected with other like memory cells to form a high speed radiation hard register file. Information is selectively written into and read out of a memory cell comprising the register file, which memory cell preserves previously stored data without alteration in the event of exposure to high levels of nuclear radiation

  10. Radiation hardness of undoped BGO crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.K.; Peng, K.C.; Huang, H.C.; Wang, C.H.; Chang, Y.H.; Hou, W.S.; Ueno, K.; Chou, F.I.; Wei, Y.Y.

    1997-01-01

    We measured the radiation hardness of undoped BGO crystals from two different manufacturers. Such crystals are proposed to be used in a small-angle calorimeter of the BELLE detector of the KEK B-factory. Transparency and scintillation light output of the crystals were monitored to see the effect of radiation damage. The crystals show considerable radiation hardness up to 10.2 Mrad equivalent dose, which is much higher than the maximum expected dosage of 500 krad per year of running at BELLE. (orig.)

  11. Radiation hard cryogenic silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casagrande, L.; Abreu, M.C.; Bell, W.H.; Berglund, P.; Boer, W. de; Borchi, E.; Borer, K.; Bruzzi, M.; Buontempo, S.; Chapuy, S.; Cindro, V.; Collins, P.; D'Ambrosio, N.; Da Via, C.; Devine, S.; Dezillie, B.; Dimcovski, Z.; Eremin, V.; Esposito, A.; Granata, V.; Grigoriev, E.; Hauler, F.; Heijne, E.; Heising, S.; Janos, S.; Jungermann, L.; Konorov, I.; Li, Z.; Lourenco, C.; Mikuz, M.; Niinikoski, T.O.; O'Shea, V.; Pagano, S.; Palmieuri, V.G.; Paul, S.; Pirollo, S.; Pretzl, K.; Rato, P.; Ruggiero, G.; Smith, K.; Sonderegger, P.; Sousa, P.; Verbitskaya, E.; Watts, S.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently observed that heavily irradiated silicon detectors, no longer functional at room temperature, 'resuscitate' when operated at temperatures below 130 K. This is often referred to as the 'Lazarus effect'. The results presented here show that cryogenic operation represents a new and reliable solution to the problem of radiation tolerance of silicon detectors

  12. Hard x-ray telescope mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorenstein, P.; Worrall, D.; Joensen, K.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Hard X-Ray Telescope was selected for study as a possible new intermediate size mission for the early 21st century. Its principal attributes are: (1) multiwavelength observing with a system of focussing telescopes that collectively observe from the UV to over 1 MeV, (2) much higher sensitivity...

  13. Radiation hardness assurances categories for COTS technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hash, G.L.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Sexton, F.W.; Winokur, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    A comparison of the radiation tolerance of three commercial, and one radiation hardened SRAM is presented for four radiation environments. This work has shown the difficulty associated with strictly categorizing a device based solely on its radiation response, since its category depends on the specific radiation environment considered. For example, the 3.3-V Paradigm SRAM could be considered a radiation-tolerant device except for its SEU response. A more useful classification depends on the methods the manufacturer uses to ensure radiation hardness, i.e. whether specific design and process techniques have been used to harden the device. Finally, this work has shown that burned-in devices may fail functionally as much as 50% lower in total dose environments than non-burned-in devices. No burn-in effect was seen in dose-rate upset, latchup, or SEE environments. The user must ensure that total dose lot acceptance testing was performed on burned-in devices

  14. Hard X-ray observation of HER X-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; La Padula, C.; Polcaro, V.F.; Vialetto, G. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Frascati (Italy). Lab. di Astrofisica Spaziale); Manchanda, R.K. (Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India))

    1981-01-01

    A hard X-rays (15-170 KeV) measurement of the spectrum of Her X-1, during a mid turn-on is presented. The presence of an emission line at about 53 KeV during the mid-on state is confirmed by the present measure.

  15. Hard X-ray observation of HER X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; La Padula, C.; Polcaro, V.F.; Vialetto, G.

    1981-01-01

    A hard X-rays (15-170 KeV) measurement of the spectrum of Her X-1, during a mid turn-on is presented. The presence of an emission line at about 53 KeV during the mid-on state is confirmed by the present measure. (orig.)

  16. Hard X-ray Microscopic Imaging Of Human Breast Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung H.; Kim, Hong T.; Kim, Jong K.; Jheon, Sang H.; Youn, Hwa S.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray microscopy with synchrotron radiation will be a useful tool for innovation of x-ray imaging in clinical and laboratory settings. It helps us observe detailed internal structure of material samples non-invasively in air. And, it also has the potential to solve some tough problems of conventional breast imaging if it could evaluate various conditions of breast tissue effectively. A new hard x-ray microscope with a spatial resolution better than 100 nm was installed at Pohang Light Source, a third generation synchrotron radiation facility in Pohang, Korea. The x-ray energy was set at 6.95 keV, and the x-ray beam was monochromatized by W/B4C monochromator. Condenser and objective zone plates were used as x-ray lenses. Zernike phase plate next to condenser zone plate was introduced for improved contrast imaging. The image of a sample was magnified 30 times by objective zone plate and 20 times by microscope objective, respectively. After additional 10 times digital magnification, the total magnifying power was up to 6000 times in the end. Phase contrast synchrotron images of 10-μm-thick female breast tissue of the normal, fibroadenoma, fibrocystic change and carcinoma cases were obtained. By phase contrast imaging, hard x-rays enable us to observe many structures of breast tissue without sample preparations such as staining or fixation.

  17. Hard X-ray Microscopic Imaging Of Human Breast Tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung H.; Kim, Hong T.; Kim, Jong K.; Jheon, Sang H.; Youn, Hwa S.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray microscopy with synchrotron radiation will be a useful tool for innovation of x-ray imaging in clinical and laboratory settings. It helps us observe detailed internal structure of material samples non-invasively in air. And, it also has the potential to solve some tough problems of conventional breast imaging if it could evaluate various conditions of breast tissue effectively. A new hard x-ray microscope with a spatial resolution better than 100 nm was installed at Pohang Light Source, a third generation synchrotron radiation facility in Pohang, Korea. The x-ray energy was set at 6.95 keV, and the x-ray beam was monochromatized by W/B4C monochromator. Condenser and objective zone plates were used as x-ray lenses. Zernike phase plate next to condenser zone plate was introduced for improved contrast imaging. The image of a sample was magnified 30 times by objective zone plate and 20 times by microscope objective, respectively. After additional 10 times digital magnification, the total magnifying power was up to 6000 times in the end. Phase contrast synchrotron images of 10-μm-thick female breast tissue of the normal, fibroadenoma, fibrocystic change and carcinoma cases were obtained. By phase contrast imaging, hard x-rays enable us to observe many structures of breast tissue without sample preparations such as staining or fixation

  18. Coherent hard x-ray focusing optics and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, W.B.; Viccaro, P.J.; Chrzas, J.; Lai, B.

    1991-01-01

    Coherent hard x-ray beams with a flux exceeding 10{sup 9} photons/second with a bandwidth of 0.1% will be provided by the undulator at the third generation synchrotron radiation sources such as APS, ESRF, and Spring-8. The availability of such high flux coherent x-ray beams offers excellent opportunities for extending the coherence-based techniques developed in the visible and soft x-ray part of the electromagnetic spectrum to the hard x-rays. These x-ray techniques (e.g., diffraction limited microfocusing, holography, interferometry, phase contrast imaging and signal enhancement), may offer substantial advantages over non-coherence-based x-ray techniques currently used. For example, the signal enhancement technique may be used to enhance an anomalous x-ray or magnetic x-ray scattering signal by several orders of magnitude. Coherent x-rays can be focused to a very small (diffraction-limited) spot size, thus allowing high spatial resolution microprobes to be constructed. The paper will discuss the feasibility of the extension of some coherence-based techniques to the hard x-ray range and the significant progress that has been made in the development of diffraction-limited focusing optics. Specific experimental results for a transmission Fresnel phase zone plate that can focus 8.2 keV x-rays to a spot size of about 2 microns will be briefly discussed. The comparison of measured focusing efficiency of the zone plate with that calculated will be made. Some specific applications of zone plates as coherent x-ray optics will be discussed. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Hard diffraction and small-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    In the United States, phrases such as ''small-x evolution'', ''the BFKL Pomeron'', ''deep-inelastic rapiditygap events'' and ''hard-diffraction'' do not generate the same intensity of discussion amongst high-energy physicists that they do in Europe. However, for three days in the fall such discussion filled the air at Fermilab. The ''2nd Workshop on Small-x and Diffractive Physics at the Tevatron'' was a review of the rapid theoretical and experimental progress taking place in this field. Although Quantum Chromo-dynamics (QCD) has been established as the theory of strong interactions for twenty years, as yet neither perturbative high-energy calculations nor low-energy non-perturbative techniques have been successfully extended to the mixture of high energy and low transverse momenta which characterize traditional ''soft'' diffractive processes. The simplest soft diffractive process is elastic scattering. In this case it is easiest to accept that there is an exchanged ''pomeron'', which can be pictured as a virtual entity with no electric charge or strong charge (colour), perhaps like an excitation of the vacuum. The same pomeron is expected to appear in all diffractive processes. Understanding the pomeron in QCD is a fundamental theoretical and experimental challenge. In the last two or three years the ''frontier'' in this challenging area of QCD has been pushed back significantly in both theory and experiment. Progress has been achieved by studying the evolution of hard collisions to relatively smaller constituent momenta (small x) and by studying ''hard'' diffractive collisions containing simultaneous signatures of diffraction and hard perturbative processes. The hard processes have included high transverse momentum jet production, deep inelastic lepton scattering, and (most recently) W

  20. Optical fiber composition and radiation hardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, J.A.; Loretz, T.J.

    1982-01-01

    Germanium phosphosilicate and germanium borosilicate fibers doped with cerium were fabricated and tested for their responses to steady-state Co-60 radiation at -55 C, +20 C and +125 C. A fiber with germanium, boron and phosphorous in the silicate core and doped with antimony in the core and clad was similarly tested. All of the fibers showed significant improvements in radiation hardness at 20 C compared to undoped fibers of the same base composition. At -55 C, however, all except the cerium doped germanium phosphosilicate were very radiation sensitive and also showed increases in the rate of induced loss at +125 C. The cerium doped germanium phosphosilicate fiber showed virtually no change in radiation sensitivity at the temperature extremes and could prove useful in applications requiring relatively short lengths of fiber

  1. Blazars in Hard X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisellini, Gabriele

    2009-05-01

    Although blazars are thought to emit most of their luminosity in the γ-ray band, there are subclasses of them very prominent in hard X-rays. These are the best candidates to be studied by Simbol-X. They are at the extremes of the blazar sequence, having very small or very high jet powers. The former are the class of TeV emitting BL Lacs, whose synchrotron emission often peaks at tens of keV or more. The latter are the blazars with the most powerful jets, have high black hole masses accreting at high (i.e. close to Eddington) rates. These sources are predicted to have their high energy peak even below the MeV band, and therefore are very promising candidates to be studied with Simbol-X.

  2. Hard X-ray spectrum of Her X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; La Padula, C.D.; Polcaro, V.F.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a balloon borne hard X-ray observation of Her X-1 is presented. The experiment, released from the base of Hyderabad (India) the 19th April 1980, was a collaboration between the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale (Italy) and the TIFR (India). The data obtained are compatible with a thermal emission at low energy with a strong emission line overimposed on the continuum around 50-60 keV

  3. Possibility of coherent hard x-ray production by pumping with synchrotron radiation and low energy photons. Period covered: November 17, 1976--August 16, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csonka, P.L.

    1977-01-01

    Coherent x-rays in the keV range could be produced by pumping a suitable gas with synchrotron radiation in combination with low energy photon beams in the presence of appropriately arranged mirrors. With a wiggler magnet placed in the low beta section of the PEP machine to be constructed at Stanford, 1020 eV coherent photons could be produced from Ne. Appropriate synchrotron radiation will produce a highly ionized cool gas. Low energy photons modify the outer electron structure of ions to enhance lasing: they modify the lifetime of the inverted state, counterbalance unwanted collisionally induced transitions, reduce Stark line broadening

  4. Hard X-ray Sources for the Mexican Synchrotron Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Herrera, Juan

    2016-01-01

    One of the principal tasks for the design of the Mexican synchrotron was to define the storage ring energy. The main criteria for choosing the energy come from studying the electromagnetic spectrum that can be obtained from the synchrotron, because the energy range of the spectrum that can be obtained will determine the applications available to the users of the future light source. Since there is a public demand of hard X-rays for the experiments in the synchrotron community users from Mexico, in this work we studied the emission spectra from some hard X-ray sources which could be the best options for the parameters of the present Mexican synchrotron design. The calculations of the flux and the brightness for one Bending Magnet and four Insertion Devices are presented; specifically, for a Superconducting Bending Magnet (SBM), a Superconducting Wiggler (SCW), an In Vacuum Short Period Undulator (IV-SPU), a Superconducting Undulator (SCU) and for a Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Undulator (CPMU). Two commonly available synchrotron radiation programs were used for the computation (XOP and SRW). From the results, it can be concluded that the particle beam energy from the current design is enough to have one or more sources of hard X-rays. Furthermore, a wide range of hard X-ray region can be covered by the analyzed sources, and the choice of each type should be based on the specific characteristics of the X-ray beam to perform the experiments at the involved beamline. This work was done within the project Fomix Conacyt-Morelos ”Plan Estrategico para la construccion y operación de un Sincrotron en Morelos” (224392). (paper)

  5. Hard X-ray Sources for the Mexican Synchrotron Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Herrera, Juan

    2016-10-01

    One of the principal tasks for the design of the Mexican synchrotron was to define the storage ring energy. The main criteria for choosing the energy come from studying the electromagnetic spectrum that can be obtained from the synchrotron, because the energy range of the spectrum that can be obtained will determine the applications available to the users of the future light source. Since there is a public demand of hard X-rays for the experiments in the synchrotron community users from Mexico, in this work we studied the emission spectra from some hard X-ray sources which could be the best options for the parameters of the present Mexican synchrotron design. The calculations of the flux and the brightness for one Bending Magnet and four Insertion Devices are presented; specifically, for a Superconducting Bending Magnet (SBM), a Superconducting Wiggler (SCW), an In Vacuum Short Period Undulator (IV-SPU), a Superconducting Undulator (SCU) and for a Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Undulator (CPMU). Two commonly available synchrotron radiation programs were used for the computation (XOP and SRW). From the results, it can be concluded that the particle beam energy from the current design is enough to have one or more sources of hard X-rays. Furthermore, a wide range of hard X-ray region can be covered by the analyzed sources, and the choice of each type should be based on the specific characteristics of the X-ray beam to perform the experiments at the involved beamline. This work was done within the project Fomix Conacyt-Morelos ”Plan Estrategico para la construccion y operación de un Sincrotron en Morelos” (224392).

  6. Hard X-ray mirrors for Nuclear Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descalle, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brejnholt, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hill, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Decker, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Alameda, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Soufli, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pivovaroff, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pardini, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-07

    Research performed under this LDRD aimed to demonstrate the ability to detect and measure hard X-ray emissions using multilayer X-ray reflective optics above 400 keV, to enable the development of inexpensive and high-accuracy mirror substrates, and to investigate applications of hard X-ray mirrors of interest to the nuclear security community. Experiments conducted at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility demonstrated hard X-ray mirror reflectivity up to 650 keV for the first time. Hard X-ray optics substrates must have surface roughness under 3 to 4 Angstrom rms, and three materials were evaluated as potential substrates: polycarbonates, thin Schott glass and a new type of flexible glass called Willow Glass®. Chemical smoothing and thermal heating of the surface of polycarbonate samples, which are inexpensive but have poor intrinsic surface characteristics, did not yield acceptable surface roughness. D263 Schott glass was used for the focusing optics of the NASA NuSTAR telescope. The required specialized hardware and process were costly and motivated experiments with a modified non-contact slumping technique. The surface roughness of the glass was preserved and the process yielded cylindrical shells with good net shape pointing to the potential advantage of this technique. Finally, measured surface roughness of 200 and 130 μm thick Willow Glass sheets was between 2 and 2.5 A rms. Additional results of flexibility tests and multilayer deposition campaigns indicated it is a promising substrate for hard X-ray optics. The detection of U and Pu characteristics X-ray lines and gamma emission lines in a high background environment was identified as an area for which X-ray mirrors could have an impact and where focusing optics could help reduce signal to noise ratio by focusing signal onto a smaller detector. Hence the first one twelvetant of a Wolter I focusing optics for the 90 to 140 keV energy range based on aperiodic multilayer coating was designed. Finally

  7. Hard X ray lines from neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polcaro, V.F.; Bazzano, A.; La Padula, C.; Ubertini, P.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental evidence is presented and evaluated concerning the features of the hard X-ray spectra detected in a number of cosmic X-ray sources which contain a neutron star. The strong emission line at cyclotron resonance detected in the spectrum of Her XI at an energy of 58 keV is evaluated and the implications of this finding are discussed. Also examined is the presence of spectral features in the energy range 20-80 keV found in the spectra of gamma-ray bursts, which have been interpreted as cyclotron resonance from interstellar-gas-accreting neutron stars. The less understood finding of a variable emission line at approximately 70 keV in the spectrum of the Crab Pulsar is considered. It is determined that several features varying with time are present in the spectra of cosmic X-ray sources associated with neutron stars. If these features are due to cyclotron resonance, it is suggested that they provide a direct measurement of neutron star magnetic fields on the order of 10 to the 11th-10 to the 13th Gauss. However, the physical condition of the emitting region and its geometry are still quite obscure.

  8. Studies in useful hard x-ray induced chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravica, Michael; Bai, Ligang; Sneed, Daniel; Park, Changyong

    2013-06-01

    The observed rapid decomposition of potassium chlorate (via 2KClO3 + h ν --> 2KCl +3O2) via synchrotron hard x-ray irradiation (>10 keV) has enabled experiments that are developing novel and useful hard x-ray chemistry. We have observed a number of radiation-induced in situ decomposition reactions in various substances which release O2, H2, N2, NH3, and H2O in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) at ambient and high pressures. These novel acatalytic and isothermal reactions represent a highly controllable, penetrating, and focused method to initiate chemistry (including x-ray induced combustion) in sealed and/or isolated chambers which maintain matter under extreme conditions. During our studies, we have typically observed a slowing of decomposition with pressure including phase dependent decomposition of KClO3. Energy dependent studies have observed an apparent resonance near 15 keV at which the decomposition rate is maximized. This may enable use of much lower flux and portable x-ray sources (e.g. x-ray tubes) in larger scale experiments. These developments support novel means to load DACs and control chemical reactions providing novel routes of synthesis of novel materials under extreme conditions.

  9. A HARD X-RAY POWER-LAW SPECTRAL CUTOFF IN CENTAURUS X-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarty, Deepto; Nowak, Michael A. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Tomsick, John A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Grefenstette, Brian W.; Fürst, Felix; Harrison, Fiona A.; Rana, Vikram [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Psaltis, Dimitrios [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier [Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Christensen, Finn E. [Division of Astrophysics, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Kaspi, Victoria M. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, PQ H3A 2T8 (Canada); Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wik, Daniel R.; Zhang, William W. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Wilms, Jörn, E-mail: deepto@mit.edu [Dr. Karl-Remeis-Sternwarte and Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, D-96049 Bamberg (Germany)

    2014-12-20

    The low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Cen X-4 is the brightest and closest (<1.2 kpc) quiescent neutron star transient. Previous 0.5-10 keV X-ray observations of Cen X-4 in quiescence identified two spectral components: soft thermal emission from the neutron star atmosphere and a hard power-law tail of unknown origin. We report here on a simultaneous observation of Cen X-4 with NuSTAR (3-79 keV) and XMM-Newton (0.3-10 keV) in 2013 January, providing the first sensitive hard X-ray spectrum of a quiescent neutron star transient. The 0.3-79 keV luminosity was 1.1×10{sup 33} D{sub kpc}{sup 2} erg s{sup –1}, with ≅60% in the thermal component. We clearly detect a cutoff of the hard spectral tail above 10 keV, the first time such a feature has been detected in this source class. We show that thermal Comptonization and synchrotron shock origins for the hard X-ray emission are ruled out on physical grounds. However, the hard X-ray spectrum is well fit by a thermal bremsstrahlung model with kT{sub e} = 18 keV, which can be understood as arising either in a hot layer above the neutron star atmosphere or in a radiatively inefficient accretion flow. The power-law cutoff energy may be set by the degree of Compton cooling of the bremsstrahlung electrons by thermal seed photons from the neutron star surface. Lower thermal luminosities should lead to higher (possibly undetectable) cutoff energies. We compare Cen X-4's behavior with PSR J1023+0038, IGR J18245–2452, and XSS J12270–4859, which have shown transitions between LMXB and radio pulsar modes at a similar X-ray luminosity.

  10. Hard X-ray imaging with a slat collimated telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhuguo; Kotov, Yu.D.; Suslov, A.Yu.

    1995-01-01

    Imaging experiments with a slat collimated hard X-ray telescope are described in this paper demonstrating the feasibility of the direct demodulation imaging method used in hard X-ray scanning modulation experiments. On 25 September 1993 an X-ray raster scan observation of Cyg X-1 was performed in a balloon flight with the hard X-ray telescope HAPI-4. An experiment to image radioactive X-ray sources was performed in the laboratory before. In both experiments the expected X-ray images were obtained, confirming the imaging capability of this method. (orig.)

  11. Radiation hardness of CMS pixel barrel modules

    CERN Document Server

    Rohe, T; Erdmann, W; Kästli, H C; Khalatyan, S; Meier, B; Radicci, V; Sibille, J

    2010-01-01

    Pixel detectors are used in the innermost part of the multi purpose experiments at LHC and are therefore exposed to the highest fluences of ionising radiation, which in this part of the detectors consists mainly of charged pions. The radiation hardness of all detector components has thoroughly been tested up to the fluences expected at the LHC. In case of an LHC upgrade, the fluence will be much higher and it is not yet clear how long the present pixel modules will stay operative in such a harsh environment. The aim of this study was to establish such a limit as a benchmark for other possible detector concepts considered for the upgrade. As the sensors and the readout chip are the parts most sensitive to radiation damage, samples consisting of a small pixel sensor bump-bonded to a CMS-readout chip (PSI46V2.1) have been irradiated with positive 200 MeV pions at PSI up to 6E14 Neq and with 21 GeV protons at CERN up to 5E15 Neq. After irradiation the response of the system to beta particles from a Sr-90 source w...

  12. Hard X-ray bursts and DD microfusion neutrons from complex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    explosive destruction of micrograins is accompanied by X-ray radiation (during hydrody- ... makes it possible to produce lasing in hard X-rays due to the effects of multiple scattering ... portant, information on the X-ray random media, including some indirect diagnostics. In ... stages of ionization in the total flux of particles.

  13. Deducing Electron Properties from Hard X-Ray Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, E. P.; Brown, J. C.; Emslie, A. G.; Hajdas, W.; Holman, G. D.; Hurford, G. J.; Kasparova, J.; Mallik, P. C. V.; Massone, A. M.; McConnell, M. L.; hide

    2011-01-01

    X-radiation from energetic electrons is the prime diagnostic of flare-accelerated electrons. The observed X-ray flux (and polarization state) is fundamentally a convolution of the cross-section for the hard X-ray emission process(es) in question with the electron distribution function, which is in turn a function of energy, direction, spatial location and time. To address the problems of particle propagation and acceleration one needs to infer as much information as possible on this electron distribution function, through a deconvolution of this fundamental relationship. This review presents recent progress toward this goal using spectroscopic, imaging and polarization measurements, primarily from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). Previous conclusions regarding the energy, angular (pitch angle) and spatial distributions of energetic electrons in solar flares are critically reviewed. We discuss the role and the observational evidence of several radiation processes: free-free electron-ion, free-free electron-electron, free-bound electron-ion, photoelectric absorption and Compton backscatter (albedo), using both spectroscopic and imaging techniques. This unprecedented quality of data allows for the first time inference of the angular distributions of the X-ray-emitting electrons and improved model-independent inference of electron energy spectra and emission measures of thermal plasma. Moreover, imaging spectroscopy has revealed hitherto unknown details of solar flare morphology and detailed spectroscopy of coronal, footpoint and extended sources in flaring regions. Additional attempts to measure hard X-ray polarization were not sufficient to put constraints on the degree of anisotropy of electrons, but point to the importance of obtaining good quality polarization data in the future.

  14. Hard X-ray sources from miniature plasma focus devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raspa, V.; Silva, P.; Moreno, J.; Zambra, M.; Soto, L.

    2004-01-01

    As first stage of a program to design a repetitive pulsed radiation generator for industrial applications, two miniature plasma foci have been designed and constructed at the Chilean commission of nuclear energy. The devices operate at an energy level of the order of tens of joules (PF-50 J, 160 nF capacitor bank, 20-35 kV, 32-100 J, ∼ 150 ns time to peak current) and hundred of joules (PF-400 J, 880 nF, 20-35 kV, 176-539 J, ∼ 300 ns time to peak current). Hard X-rays are being studied in these devices operating with hydrogen. Images of metallic plates with different thickness were obtained on commercial radiographic film, Agfa Curix ST-G2, in order to characterize the energy of the hard X-ray outside of the discharge chamber of PF-400 J. An effective energy of the order of 90 keV was measured under those conditions. X ray images of different metallic objects also have been obtained. (authors)

  15. Hard X-ray sources from miniature plasma focus devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raspa, V. [Buenos Aires Univ., PLADEMA, CONICET and INFIP (Argentina); Silva, P.; Moreno, J.; Zambra, M.; Soto, L. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile)

    2004-07-01

    As first stage of a program to design a repetitive pulsed radiation generator for industrial applications, two miniature plasma foci have been designed and constructed at the Chilean commission of nuclear energy. The devices operate at an energy level of the order of tens of joules (PF-50 J, 160 nF capacitor bank, 20-35 kV, 32-100 J, {approx} 150 ns time to peak current) and hundred of joules (PF-400 J, 880 nF, 20-35 kV, 176-539 J, {approx} 300 ns time to peak current). Hard X-rays are being studied in these devices operating with hydrogen. Images of metallic plates with different thickness were obtained on commercial radiographic film, Agfa Curix ST-G2, in order to characterize the energy of the hard X-ray outside of the discharge chamber of PF-400 J. An effective energy of the order of 90 keV was measured under those conditions. X ray images of different metallic objects also have been obtained. (authors)

  16. Application of thermoluminescence dosimeter on the measurement of hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Zhaohui; Wang Baohui; Wang Kuilu; Hei Dongwei; Sun Fengrong; Li Gang

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the application of thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) which composed by TLD-3500 reader and GR-100 M chips on the measurement of hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum. The idea using Filter Fluorescence Method (FFM) and TLD to measure hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum (from 10 keV to 100 keV) is discussed in details. Considering all the factors of the measuring surrounding, the measurement system of hard X-ray pulse has been devised. The calibration technique of absolute energy response of TLD is established. This method has been applied successfully on the radiation parameters measurement of the huge pulse radiation device-high-power pulser I. Hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum data of the pulser are acquired

  17. The application of thermoluminescence dosimeter on the measurement of hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Zhaohui; Wang Baohui; Wang Kuilu; Hei Dongwei; Sun Fengrong; Li Gang

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduce the application of thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) which composed by TLD-3500 Reader and TLD-100M chips on the measurement of hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum. The idea, using Filter Fluorescence Method (FFM) and TLD to measure hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum (from 10 keV to 100 keV), is discussed in details. Considering all the factors of the measuring surroundings, the measurement system of hard X-ray pulse has been devised. The calibration technique of absolute energy response of TLD is established. This method has been applied successfully on the radiation parameters measurement of the huge pulse radiation device -high-power pulser I. Hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum data of the pulser are acquired

  18. Prototype for a Radiation Hard Upgrade to the ATLAS ZDC

    CERN Document Server

    Phipps, Michael William; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Increases in luminosity and collision energy at the LHC challenge the radiation hardness of detectors located along the beamline. This problem is especially acute for the Zero Degree Calorimeters (ZDCs) in ATLAS, which are exposed to around 10^{10} rad/yr, rendering the current version of the detector inviable during p+p running. To address this shortcoming and allow for important triggers and potential access to low-x physics, we designed a prototype detector that replaces quartz radiator material with a circulating, liquid hydrocarbon. It also features a dual-stage wavelength shifting scheme to transport light to silicon photo-multipliers, as well as both transverse and longitudinal segmentation to study the shower development in two dimensions. Design considerations, results from an SPS beam test and comparisons to GEANT simulation will be presented.

  19. Subgroup report on hard x-ray microprobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice, G.E.; Barbee, T.; Bionta, R.; Howells, M.; Thompson, A.C.; Yun, W.

    1994-01-01

    The increasing availability of synchrotron x-ray sources has stimulated the development of advanced hard x-ray (E≥5 keV) microprobes. New x-ray optics have been demonstrated which show promise for achieving intense submicron hard x-ray probes. These probes will be used for extraordinary elemental detection by x-ray fluorescence/absorption and for microdiffraction to identify phase and strain. The inherent elemental and crystallographic sensitivity of an x-ray microprobe and its inherently nondestructive and penetrating nature makes the development of an advanced hard x-ray microprobe an important national goal. In this workshop state-of-the-art hard x-ray microprobe optics were described and future directions were discussed. Gene Ice, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), presented an overview of the current status of hard x-ray microprobe optics and described the use of crystal spectrometers to improve minimum detectable limits in fluorescent microprobe experiments. Al Thompson, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), described work at the Center for X-ray Optics to develop a hard x-ray microprobe based on Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) optics. Al Thompson also showed the results of some experimental measurements with their KB optics. Malcolm Howells presented a method for bending elliptical mirrors and Troy Barbee commented on the use of graded d spacings to achieve highest efficiency in KB multilayer microfocusing. Richard Bionta, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), described the development of the first hard x-ray zone plates and future promise of so called open-quotes jelly rollclose quotes or sputter slice zone plates. Wenbing Yun, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), described characterization of jelly roll and lithographically produced zone plates and described the application of zone plates to focus extremely narrow bandwidths by nuclear resonance. This report summarizes the presentations of the workshop subgroup on hard x-ray microprobes

  20. Hard X-ray Emission and Efficient Particle Acceleration by Supernova Remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vink, Jacco

    2009-01-01

    I discuss the non-thermal X-ray emission from young supernova remnants. Over the last decade it has become clear from both X-ray and γ-ray observations that young supernovae accelerate particles up to 100 TeV. In soft X-rays the accelerated >10 TeV electrons produce synchrotron radiation, coming from narrow filaments located at the shock fronts. The width of these filaments shows that the magnetic fields are relatively high, thus providing evidence for magnetic field amplification.The synchrotron radiation of several remnants is known to extend into the hard X-ray regime. In particular Cas A, has a spectrum that appears as a power law up to almost 100 TeV. This is very surprising, as a steepening is expected going from the soft to the hard X-ray band. The spectrum is likely a result of many superimposed individual spectra, each steepening at different energies. This implies considerable spatial variation in hard X-rays, an obvious target for Simbol-X. The variations will be important to infer local shock acceleration properties, but also magnetic field fluctuations may cause spatial and temporal variations.Finally, I draw the attention to super bubbles and supernovae as sources of cosmic rays. As such they may be sources of hard X-ray emission. In particular, supernovae exploding inside the dense red supergiants winds of their progenitors ares promising candidates for hard X-ray emission.

  1. Hard X-ray Emission and Efficient Particle Acceleration by Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Jacco

    2009-05-01

    I discuss the non-thermal X-ray emission from young supernova remnants. Over the last decade it has become clear from both X-ray and γ-ray observations that young supernovae accelerate particles up to 100 TeV. In soft X-rays the accelerated >10 TeV electrons produce synchrotron radiation, coming from narrow filaments located at the shock fronts. The width of these filaments shows that the magnetic fields are relatively high, thus providing evidence for magnetic field amplification. The synchrotron radiation of several remnants is known to extend into the hard X-ray regime. In particular Cas A, has a spectrum that appears as a power law up to almost 100 TeV. This is very surprising, as a steepening is expected going from the soft to the hard X-ray band. The spectrum is likely a result of many superimposed individual spectra, each steepening at different energies. This implies considerable spatial variation in hard X-rays, an obvious target for Simbol-X. The variations will be important to infer local shock acceleration properties, but also magnetic field fluctuations may cause spatial and temporal variations. Finally, I draw the attention to super bubbles and supernovae as sources of cosmic rays. As such they may be sources of hard X-ray emission. In particular, supernovae exploding inside the dense red supergiants winds of their progenitors ares promising candidates for hard X-ray emission.

  2. On hard X-ray spectra of accreting neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheleznyakov, V.V.

    1982-01-01

    Formation of the spectra of X-ray pulsars and gamma bursters is investigated. Interpretation of a hard X-ray spectrum of pulsars containing cyclotron lines is feasible on the basis of an isothermal model of a polar spot heated due to acccretion to a neutron star. It has been ascertained that in the regions responsible for the formation of continuum radiation and lines the mode polarization is determined by a magnetized vacuum rather than by a plasma. Bearing this in mind, the influence of the magnetic field of a star on the wide wings of the cyclotron line and on its depth is discussed. The part played by the accreting column in the case of strong accretion (approx. equal to 10 19 el cm -3 ) needed for long sustaining of the high level of X-rays from a neutron star-pulsar is studied. There occur the gaps in spectrum at frequencies close to the electron gyro-frequency and its harmonics due to the screening of the hot spot by the opaque gyro-resonant layer located within the accreting column. These gaps ensure the formation of cyclotron lines in absorption irrespective of the presence of such lines in the X-ray spectrum of a polar hot spot. (orig./WL)

  3. Prepulse dependence in hard x-ray generation from microdroplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, M.; Kahaly, S.; Kumar, G. Ravindra; Sandhu, A. S.; Gibbon, P.; Krishnamurthy, M.

    2006-01-01

    We report on experiments which show that liquid microdroplets are very efficient in hard x-ray generation. We make a comparative study of hard x-ray emission from 15 μm methanol microdroplets and a plain slab target of similar atomic composition at similar laser intensities. The hard X-ray yield from droplet plasmas is about 35 times more than that obtained from solid plasmas. A prepulse that is about 10ns and at least 2% in intensity of the main pulse is essential for hard x-ray generation from the droplets at about 1015 W cm-2. A hot electron temperature of 36 keV is measured from the droplets at 8 x 1014 W cm-2; three times higher intensity is needed to obtain similar hot electron temperature from solid plasmas that have similar atomic composition. We use 1D-PIC simulation to obtain qualitative correlation to the experimental observations

  4. Cryogenic radiometry in the hard X-ray range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlach, M.; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Muller, P.; Rabus, H.; Ulm, G.

    2008-01-01

    For many applications in radiometry, spectroscopy or astrophysics, absolute measurement of radiant power with low uncertainty is essential. Cryogenic electrical substitution radiometers (ESRs) are regarded as the highest-accuracy primary standard detector in radiometry, from the infrared to the ultraviolet region; in combination with tuneable monochromatized synchrotron radiation from electron storage rings, their range of operation has been extended to the soft x-ray region. ESRs are absolute thermal detectors, based on the equivalence of electrical power and radiant power that can be traced back to electrical SI units and be measured with low uncertainties. Their core piece is a cavity absorber, which is typically made of copper to achieve a short response time suitable for use with synchrotron radiation. At higher photon energies, the use of copper prevents the operation of ESRs due to increasing transmittance. A new absorber design for hard x-rays has been developed at the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the electron storage ring BESSY II. The Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4 was applied to optimize its absorptance for photon energies of up to 60 keV, resulting in a cavity absorber with a gold base and a cylindrical shell made of copper, in combination with a thermal sensitivity of around 150 mK μW -1 and a time constant of less than 3 min, which is short compared with the lifetime of many hours for the storage ring current. The measurement of the radiant power of monochromatized synchrotron radiation was achieved with relative standard uncertainties of less than 0.2%, covering the entire photon energy range of three beamlines from 50 eV to 60 keV. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity was used to calibrate silicon photodiodes against the ESR for photon energies up to 60 keV with relative standard uncertainties below 0.3%. (authors)

  5. Cryogenic radiometry in the hard X-ray range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, M.; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Muller, P.; Rabus, H.; Ulm, G. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig and Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    For many applications in radiometry, spectroscopy or astrophysics, absolute measurement of radiant power with low uncertainty is essential. Cryogenic electrical substitution radiometers (ESRs) are regarded as the highest-accuracy primary standard detector in radiometry, from the infrared to the ultraviolet region; in combination with tuneable monochromatized synchrotron radiation from electron storage rings, their range of operation has been extended to the soft x-ray region. ESRs are absolute thermal detectors, based on the equivalence of electrical power and radiant power that can be traced back to electrical SI units and be measured with low uncertainties. Their core piece is a cavity absorber, which is typically made of copper to achieve a short response time suitable for use with synchrotron radiation. At higher photon energies, the use of copper prevents the operation of ESRs due to increasing transmittance. A new absorber design for hard x-rays has been developed at the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the electron storage ring BESSY II. The Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4 was applied to optimize its absorptance for photon energies of up to 60 keV, resulting in a cavity absorber with a gold base and a cylindrical shell made of copper, in combination with a thermal sensitivity of around 150 mK {mu}W{sup -1} and a time constant of less than 3 min, which is short compared with the lifetime of many hours for the storage ring current. The measurement of the radiant power of monochromatized synchrotron radiation was achieved with relative standard uncertainties of less than 0.2%, covering the entire photon energy range of three beamlines from 50 eV to 60 keV. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity was used to calibrate silicon photodiodes against the ESR for photon energies up to 60 keV with relative standard uncertainties below 0.3%. (authors)

  6. Cryogenic radiometry in the hard x-ray range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, M.; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Müller, P.; Rabus, H.; Ulm, G.

    2008-10-01

    For many applications in radiometry, spectroscopy or astrophysics, absolute measurement of radiant power with low uncertainty is essential. Cryogenic electrical substitution radiometers (ESRs) are regarded as the highest-accuracy primary standard detector in radiometry, from the infrared to the ultraviolet region; in combination with tuneable monochromatized synchrotron radiation from electron storage rings, their range of operation has been extended to the soft x-ray region. ESRs are absolute thermal detectors, based on the equivalence of electrical power and radiant power that can be traced back to electrical SI units and be measured with low uncertainties. Their core piece is a cavity absorber, which is typically made of copper to achieve a short response time suitable for use with synchrotron radiation. At higher photon energies, the use of copper prevents the operation of ESRs due to increasing transmittance. A new absorber design for hard x-rays has been developed at the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the electron storage ring BESSY II. The Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4 was applied to optimize its absorptance for photon energies of up to 60 keV, resulting in a cavity absorber with a gold base and a cylindrical shell made of copper, in combination with a thermal sensitivity of around 150 mK µW-1 and a time constant of less than 3 min, which is short compared with the lifetime of many hours for the storage ring current. The measurement of the radiant power of monochromatized synchrotron radiation was achieved with relative standard uncertainties of less than 0.2%, covering the entire photon energy range of three beamlines from 50 eV to 60 keV. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity was used to calibrate silicon photodiodes against the ESR for photon energies up to 60 keV with relative standard uncertainties below 0.3%.

  7. Non-thermal Hard X-Ray Emission from Coma and Several Abell Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, C

    2004-01-01

    We report results of hard X-Ray observations of the clusters Coma, Abell 496, Abell754, Abell 1060, Abell 1367, Abell2256 and Abell3558 using RXTE data from the NASA HEASARC public archive. Specifically we searched for clusters with hard x-ray emission that can be fitted by a power law because this would indicate that the cluster is a source of non-thermal emission. We are assuming the emission mechanism proposed by Vahk Petrosian where the inter cluster space contains clouds of relativistic electrons that by themselves create a magnetic field and emit radio synchrotron radiation. These relativistic electrons Inverse-Compton scatter Microwave Background photons up to hard x-ray energies. The clusters that were found to be sources of non-thermal hard x-rays are Coma, Abell496, Abell754 and Abell 1060

  8. Prospects for supermirrors in hard x-ray spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Karsten D.; Gorenstein, Paul; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1994-01-01

    . The measured x-ray reflectivities are well accounted for by the standard dynamical theories of multilayer reflection. Hard x ray applications that could benefit from x-ray supermirror coatings include focusing and imaging instrumentation for astrophysics, collimating and focusing devices for synchrotron...

  9. Radiation hard solar cell and array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, R.L.

    1975-01-01

    A power generating solar cell for a spacecraft solar array is hardened against transient response to nuclear radiation while permitting normal operation of the cell in a solar radiation environment by shunting the cell with a second solar cell whose contacts are reversed relative to the power cell to form a cell module, exposing the power cell only to the solar radiation in a solar radiation environment to produce an electrical output at the module terminals, and exposing both cells to the nuclear radiation in a nuclear radiation environment so that the radiation induced currents generated by the cells suppress one another

  10. The Hard X-ray Sky: Recent Observational Progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.

    2009-01-01

    The last fifty years have witnessed the birth, development, and maturation to full potential of hard X-ray astrophysics. The primary force driving the history of the field has been the development of space-based instrumentation optimized for getting the maximum science out of observations of high-energy photons from astrophysical sources. Hard X-ray telescopes are leading research in areas such as galactic diffuse emission, galactic transients, and active galactic nuclei.

  11. Radiation hardness of new Kuraray double cladded optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedeschi, F.; Menzione, A.; Budagov, Yu.; Chirikov-Zorin, I.; Solov'ev, A.; Turchanovich, L.; Vasil'chenko, V.

    1996-01-01

    The radiation hardness of the new plastic scintillating and clear fibers irradiated by 137 Cs γ-flux and by pulsed reactor fast neutrons were investigated. All the studied fibers were of S-type (with S=70) and had a double cladding. Optical fibers degradation study after irradiation shows that the level of radiation hardness lower that what is expected from results of previous studies. 9 refs., 6 figs

  12. Radiation hard silicon microstrip detectors for Tevatron experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korjenevski, Sergey

    2004-01-01

    The Silicon Microstrip Tracking detectors at the CDF and D0 experiments have now been operating for almost three years at Fermilab. These detectors were designed originally for an integrated luminosity of 2fb -1 . As the expected luminosity for Run IIb at the Tevatron collider was initially envisioned to reach 15fb -1 , radiation tolerances of both devices were revisited, culminating in proposals for new systems. With reduced expectations for total luminosity at ∼6fb -1 , the full detector-replacement projects were terminated. The CDF detector is expected nevertheless to cope efficiently with the lower anticipated dose, however, the D0 experiment is planning a smaller-scale project: a Layer-0 (L0) upgrade of the silicon tracker (D0SMT). The new device will fit between the beam line and the inner layer of the current Tracker. Built of single-sided sensors, this upgrade is expected to perform well in the harsh radiation environment, and be able to withstand an integrated luminosity of 15fb -1 . Prototypes of Run IIb sensors were irradiated using 10MeV protons at the tandem Van de Graaff at the James R. McDonald Laboratory at Kansas State University. A fit to the 10MeV proton data yields a damage parameter αp=11x10-17Acm. This is consistent with results from RD48 (αp=9.9x10-17Acm). The scaling of damage to 1MeV neutron fluence uses a hardness factor (κ) derived from the non-ionizing components of the energy loss (NEIL). NEIL predicts a hardness factor of 3.87 for 10MeV protons. We obtained an experimental value of this factor of 2.54, or 34% smaller than scaling predictions from NEIL

  13. Broad-band hard X-ray reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K.D.; Gorenstein, P.; Hoghoj, P.

    1997-01-01

    Interest in optics for hard X-ray broad-band application is growing. In this paper, we compare the hard X-ray (20-100 keV) reflectivity obtained with an energy-dispersive reflectometer, of a standard commercial gold thin-film with that of a 600 bilayer W/Si X-ray supermirror. The reflectivity...... of the multilayer is found to agree extraordinarily well with theory (assuming an interface roughness of 4.5 Angstrom), while the agreement for the gold film is less, The overall performance of the supermirror is superior to that of gold, extending the band of reflection at least a factor of 2.8 beyond...... that of the gold, Various other design options are discussed, and we conclude that continued interest in the X-ray supermirror for broad-band hard X-ray applications is warranted....

  14. The over-the-limb hard X-ray events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, H. S.

    Over-the-limb hard X-ray events offer a uniquely direct view of the hard X-ray emission from the solar corona during a major flare. Limb occultation at angles greater than about 10 deg (an arbitrary definition of this class of events) excludes any confusion with brighter chromospheric sources. Published observations of seven over-the-limb events, beginning with the prototype flare of March 30, 1969, are reviewed. The hard X-ray spectra appear to fall into two classes: hard events, with power-law index of about 2.0; and soft events, with power-law index about 5.4. This tendency towards bimodality is only significant at the 90-percent confidence level due to the smallness of the number of events observed to date. If borne out by future data, the bimodality would suggest the existence of two different acceleration mechanisms.

  15. Test of radiation hardness of pcCVD detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlemme, Steffen [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Enders, Joachim [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Figuera, P.; Salamone, S. [LNS-INFN Catania (Italy); Fruehauf, J.; Kis, Mladen; Kratz, A.; Kurz, N.; Loechner, S.; Nociforo, Chiara; Schirru, Fabio; Szczepanczyk, B.; Traeger, M.; Visinka, R. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Musumarra, A. [LNS-INFN Catania (Italy); University of Catania (Italy)

    2016-07-01

    The new in-flight separator Super-FRS is under construction at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR, Darmstadt). Ion rates up to 3 x 10{sup 11} {sup 238}U/spill demand an adaption of detectors to a high radiation environment. A test experiment to investigate the radiation hardness of polycrystalline diamond detectors (pcCVD) was performed at the LNS-INFN in Catania using a {sup 12}C beam at 62 MeV/u and intensities of up to 1.5 pnA. The setup consisted of pcCVD strip detectors to measure the beam profile, a single crystal diamond detector to calibrate the ionisation chamber working in current mode as a beam intensity monitor and a pcCVD sample to be irradiated. The IC used was designed for FAIR and showed a stable counting rate allowing us to calibrate and perform beam intensity measurements with it. The total measured counts on the sample were 8.25 x 10{sup 11} counts/mm{sup 2} over a period of 60 hours. Digital waveforms of the pcCVD signals were taken with an oscilloscope and analysed. The results showed no change of the pcCVD signal properties during the entire irradiation.

  16. Radiation hard diamond sensors for future tracking applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Boer, W. de; Borchi, E.

    2006-01-01

    Progress in experimental particle physics in the coming decade depends crucially upon the ability to carry out experiments in high-radiation areas. In order to perform these complex and expensive experiments, new radiation hard technologies must be developed. This paper discusses the use of diamond detectors in future tracking applications and their survivability in the highest radiation environments. We present results of devices constructed with the newest polycrystalline and single crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond and their tolerance to radiation

  17. A cryogenic electrical substitution radiometer for hard X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlach, M.; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Mueller, P.; Ulm, G.

    2007-01-01

    Cryogenic electrical substitution radiometers (ESR) are well established in radiometry to determine radiant power with low uncertainties from the infrared to the soft X-ray region. The absorbers are made of copper to achieve a small time constant. At higher photon energies, the use of copper prevents the operation of ESR due to increasing transmittance. A new absorber design for hard X-rays has been developed at the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at BESSY II. In the first place, extensive simulations were performed for a variety of materials and absorber geometries using the Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4. The accuracy of the simulations was verified comparing them to scattering experiments performed at a 7 T wavelength shifter beamline at BESSY II. It was shown that Geant4 describes the photo-effect, including fluorescence as well as Compton- and Rayleigh scattering, with high accuracy. The simulations and experiments resulted in an absorber with a gold base 500 μm in thickness, inclined by 30 deg., and a cylindrical shell made of copper 80 μm in thickness to reduce losses caused mainly by fluorescence. The absorber was manufactured at PTB by means of electroforming and was implemented into an existing ESR. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity was used to calibrate silicon photodiodes against the ESR for photon energies up to 60 keV with relative uncertainties below 1%

  18. A cryogenic electrical substitution radiometer for hard X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, M. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: Martin.Gerlach@ptb.de; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Mueller, P.; Ulm, G. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2007-09-21

    Cryogenic electrical substitution radiometers (ESR) are well established in radiometry to determine radiant power with low uncertainties from the infrared to the soft X-ray region. The absorbers are made of copper to achieve a small time constant. At higher photon energies, the use of copper prevents the operation of ESR due to increasing transmittance. A new absorber design for hard X-rays has been developed at the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at BESSY II. In the first place, extensive simulations were performed for a variety of materials and absorber geometries using the Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4. The accuracy of the simulations was verified comparing them to scattering experiments performed at a 7 T wavelength shifter beamline at BESSY II. It was shown that Geant4 describes the photo-effect, including fluorescence as well as Compton- and Rayleigh scattering, with high accuracy. The simulations and experiments resulted in an absorber with a gold base 500 {mu}m in thickness, inclined by 30 deg., and a cylindrical shell made of copper 80 {mu}m in thickness to reduce losses caused mainly by fluorescence. The absorber was manufactured at PTB by means of electroforming and was implemented into an existing ESR. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity was used to calibrate silicon photodiodes against the ESR for photon energies up to 60 keV with relative uncertainties below 1%.

  19. A cryogenic electrical substitution radiometer for hard X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, M.; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Müller, P.; Ulm, G.

    2007-09-01

    Cryogenic electrical substitution radiometers (ESR) are well established in radiometry to determine radiant power with low uncertainties from the infrared to the soft X-ray region. The absorbers are made of copper to achieve a small time constant. At higher photon energies, the use of copper prevents the operation of ESR due to increasing transmittance. A new absorber design for hard X-rays has been developed at the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at BESSY II. In the first place, extensive simulations were performed for a variety of materials and absorber geometries using the Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4. The accuracy of the simulations was verified comparing them to scattering experiments performed at a 7 T wavelength shifter beamline at BESSY II. It was shown that Geant4 describes the photo-effect, including fluorescence as well as Compton- and Rayleigh scattering, with high accuracy. The simulations and experiments resulted in an absorber with a gold base 500 μm in thickness, inclined by 30°, and a cylindrical shell made of copper 80 μm in thickness to reduce losses caused mainly by fluorescence. The absorber was manufactured at PTB by means of electroforming and was implemented into an existing ESR. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity was used to calibrate silicon photodiodes against the ESR for photon energies up to 60 keV with relative uncertainties below 1%.

  20. Quantitative Phase Imaging Using Hard X Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugent, K.A.; Gureyev, T.E.; Cookson, D.J.; Paganin, D.; Barnea, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The quantitative imaging of a phase object using 16keV xrays is reported. The theoretical basis of the techniques is presented along with its implementation using a synchrotron x-ray source. We find that our phase image is in quantitative agreement with independent measurements of the object. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  1. Atomic physics with hard X-rays from high brilliance synchrotron light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, S.; Gemmell, D.

    1996-08-01

    A century after the discovery of x rays, the experimental capability for studying atomic structure and dynamics with hard, bright synchrotron radiation is increasing remarkably. Tempting opportunities arise for experiments on many-body effects, aspects of fundamental photon-atom interaction processes, and relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic phenomena. Some of these possibilities are surveyed in general terms

  2. Development of thermally formed glass optics for astronomical hard X-ray telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craig, W.W.; Hailey, C.J.; Jimenez-Garate, M.

    2000-01-01

    The next major observational advance in hard X-ray/soft gamma-ray astrophysics will come with the implementation of telescopes capable of focusing 10-200 keV radiation. Focusing allows high signal-to-noise imaging and spectroscopic observations of many sources in this band for the first time...

  3. Hard X-ray Spectrum of Mkn 421 during the Active Phase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging Solutions)

    Spectral measurement of Mkn 421 were made in the hard X-ray energy band of ... In the canonical models for blazars, the observed radiation in radio, UV and low ... defined by a slat collimator specially designed with a sandwiched material of.

  4. Atomic physics with hard X-rays from high brilliance synchrotron light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, S.; Gemmell, D.

    1996-08-01

    A century after the discovery of x rays, the experimental capability for studying atomic structure and dynamics with hard, bright synchrotron radiation is increasing remarkably. Tempting opportunities arise for experiments on many-body effects, aspects of fundamental photon-atom interaction processes, and relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic phenomena. Some of these possibilities are surveyed in general terms.

  5. Model independent method to deconvolve hard X-ray spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polcaro, V.F.; Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, P.; La Padula, C. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Frascati (Italy). Lab. di Astrofisica Spaziale); Manchanda, R.K. (Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India))

    1984-07-01

    A general purpose method to deconvolve the energy spectra detected by means of the use of a hard X-ray telescope is described. The procedure does not assume any form of input spectrum and the observed energy loss spectrum is directly deconvolved into the incident photon spectrum, the form of which can be determined independently of physical interpretation of the data. Deconvolution of the hard X-ray spectrum of Her X-1, detected during the HXR 81M experiment, by the method independent method is presented.

  6. Sustainably Sourced, Thermally Resistant, Radiation Hard Biopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugel, Diane

    2011-01-01

    This material represents a breakthrough in the production, manufacturing, and application of thermal protection system (TPS) materials and radiation shielding, as this represents the first effort to develop a non-metallic, non-ceramic, biomaterial-based, sustainable TPS with the capability to also act as radiation shielding. Until now, the standing philosophy for radiation shielding involved carrying the shielding at liftoff or utilizing onboard water sources. This shielding material could be grown onboard and applied as needed prior to different radiation landscapes (commonly seen during missions involving gravitational assists). The material is a bioplastic material. Bioplastics are any combination of a biopolymer and a plasticizer. In this case, the biopolymer is a starch-based material and a commonly accessible plasticizer. Starch molecules are composed of two major polymers: amylase and amylopectin. The biopolymer phenolic compounds are common to the ablative thermal protection system family of materials. With similar constituents come similar chemical ablation processes, with the potential to have comparable, if not better, ablation characteristics. It can also be used as a flame-resistant barrier for commercial applications in buildings, homes, cars, and heater firewall material. The biopolymer is observed to undergo chemical transformations (oxidative and structural degradation) at radiation doses that are 1,000 times the maximum dose of an unmanned mission (10-25 Mrad), indicating that it would be a viable candidate for robust radiation shielding. As a comparison, the total integrated radiation dose for a three-year manned mission to Mars is 0.1 krad, far below the radiation limit at which starch molecules degrade. For electron radiation, the biopolymer starches show minimal deterioration when exposed to energies greater than 180 keV. This flame-resistant, thermal-insulating material is non-hazardous and may be sustainably sourced. It poses no hazardous

  7. Development of radiation hardness components for ITER remote maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obara, Kenjiro; Kakudate, Satoshi; Oka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Yagi, Toshiaki; Morita, Yousuke

    1998-04-01

    In the ITER, in-vessel remote handling is required to assemble and maintain in-vessel components in DT operations. Since in-vessel remote handling systems must operate under intense gamma ray radiation exceeding 30 kGy/h, their components must have sufficiently high radiation hardness to allow maintenance long enough in ITER in-vessel environments. Thus, extensive radiation tests and quality improvement, including optimization of material compositions, have been conducted through the ITER R and D program to develop radiation hardness components that meet radiation doses from 10 to 100 MGy at 10 kGy/h. This paper presents the latest on radiation hardness component development conducted by the Japan Home Team as a contribution to the ITER. The remote handling components tested are categorized for use in robotic or viewing systems, or as common components. Radiation tests have been conducted on commercially available products for screening, on modified products, and on new products to improve the radiation hardness. (author)

  8. Development of radiation hardness components for ITER remote maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Kenjiro; Kakudate, Satoshi; Oka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Akira; Yagi, Toshiaki; Morita, Yousuke

    1998-01-01

    In the ITER, in-vessel remote handling is required to assemble and maintain in-vessel components in DT operations. Since in-vessel remote handling systems must operate under intense gamma ray radiation exceeding 30 kGy/h, their components must have sufficiently high radiation hardness to allow maintenance long enough in ITER in-vessel environments. Thus, extensive radiation tests and quality improvement, including optimization of material compositions, have been conducted through the ITER R and D program to develop radiation hardness components that meet radiation doses from 10 to 100 MGy at 10 kGy/h. This paper presents the latest on radiation hardness component development conducted by the Japan Home Team as a contribution to the ITER. The remote handling components tested are categorized for use in robotic or viewing systems, or as common components. Radiation tests have been conducted on commercially available products for screening, on modified products, and on new products to improve the radiation hardness. (author)

  9. Testing the radiation hardness of lead tungstate scintillating crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, M; Li Chuan; Chen, H; Xu, Z Z; Wang, Z M

    2000-01-01

    Large Hadron Collider operation will produce a high radiation background. PbWO/sub 4/ crystals are selected as scintillators for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter. To reach the precise requirement for energy measurements, a strict requirement for the radiation hardness is needed. In this paper, we present a method for evaluating the radiation hardness and its measurement. Results for several full size (23 cm length) lead tungstate crystals under Co/sup 60/ gamma - ray irradiation are given, investigating the light yield loss and its longitudinal uniformity. (8 refs).

  10. Reconstruction of surface morphology from coherent scattering of ''white'' synchrotron radiation in hard X-ray regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sant, Tushar

    2009-07-01

    Energy Dispersive Reflectometry (EDR) beamline at BESSY II provides ''white'' X-rays in the useful energy range of 5

  11. HARD X-RAY AND MICROWAVE EMISSIONS FROM SOLAR FLARES WITH HARD SPECTRAL INDICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawate, T. [Kwasan and Hida Observatory, Kitashirakawa-oiwakecho, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Nishizuka, N. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Oi, A. [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Ohyama, M. [Faculty of Education, Shiga University, 2-5-1 Hiratsu, Otsu, Shiga 1-1, Baba Hikone city, Siga 522-8522 (Japan); Nakajima, H., E-mail: kawate@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Nobeyama Solar Radio Observatory, NAOJ, Nobeyama, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan)

    2012-03-10

    We analyze 10 flare events that radiate intense hard X-ray (HXR) emission with significant photons over 300 keV to verify that the electrons that have a common origin of acceleration mechanism and energy power-law distribution with solar flares emit HXRs and microwaves. Most of these events have the following characteristics. HXRs emanate from the footpoints of flare loops, while microwaves emanate from the tops of flare loops. The time profiles of the microwave emission show delays of peak with respect to those of the corresponding HXR emission. The spectral indices of microwave emissions show gradual hardening in all events, while the spectral indices of the corresponding HXR emissions are roughly constant in most of the events, though rather rapid hardening is simultaneously observed in some for both indices during the onset time and the peak time. These characteristics suggest that the microwave emission emanates from the trapped electrons. Then, taking into account the role of the trapping of electrons for the microwave emission, we compare the observed microwave spectra with the model spectra calculated by a gyrosynchrotron code. As a result, we successfully reproduce the eight microwave spectra. From this result, we conclude that the electrons that have a common acceleration and a common energy distribution with solar flares emit both HXR and microwave emissions in the eight events, though microwave emission is contributed to by electrons with much higher energy than HXR emission.

  12. Recent applications of hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Conan; Woicik, Joseph C., E-mail: Joseph.Woicik@NIST.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Rumaiz, Abdul K. [National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Pianetta, Piero [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Recent applications of hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) demonstrate its many capabilities in addition to several of its limitations. Examples are given, including measurement of buried interfaces and materials under in situ or in operando conditions, as well as measurements under x-ray standing-wave and resonant excitation. Physical considerations that differentiate HAXPES from photoemission measurements utilizing soft x-ray and ultraviolet photon sources are also presented.

  13. Hard x- and gamma-rays from supernova 1987A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, S.; Shigeyama, T.; Nomoto, K.; Nishmura, J.; Itoh, M.

    1988-01-01

    The x-ray light curve and spectrum from SN 1987A due to Compton degradation of γ-rays from the 56 Co decay are calculated and compared with the Ginga and Kvant observations. If mixing of 56 Co into outer layers has taken place, the x-rays emerge much earlier than in the case without mixing and the resulting hard x-rays are in reasonable agreement with observations

  14. Applications of Hard X-ray Full-Field Transmission X-ray Microscopy at SSRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Andrews, J. C.; Mehta, A.; Pianetta, P.; Meirer, F.; Gil, S. Carrasco; Sciau, P.; Mester, Z.

    2011-01-01

    State-of-the-art hard x-ray full-field transmission x-ray microscopy (TXM) at beamline 6-2C of Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource has been applied to various research fields including biological, environmental, and material studies. With the capability of imaging a 32-micron field-of-view at 30-nm resolution using both absorption mode and Zernike phase contrast, the 3D morphology of yeast cells grown in gold-rich media was investigated. Quantitative evaluation of the absorption coefficient was performed for mercury nanoparticles in alfalfa roots exposed to mercury. Combining XANES and TXM, we also performed XANES-imaging on an ancient pottery sample from the Roman pottery workshop at LaGraufesenque (Aveyron).

  15. Applications of Hard X-ray Full-Field Transmission X-ray Microscopy at SSRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Andrews, J. C.; Meirer, F.; Mehta, A.; Gil, S. Carrasco; Sciau, P.; Mester, Z.; Pianetta, P.

    2011-09-01

    State-of-the-art hard x-ray full-field transmission x-ray microscopy (TXM) at beamline 6-2C of Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource has been applied to various research fields including biological, environmental, and material studies. With the capability of imaging a 32-micron field-of-view at 30-nm resolution using both absorption mode and Zernike phase contrast, the 3D morphology of yeast cells grown in gold-rich media was investigated. Quantitative evaluation of the absorption coefficient was performed for mercury nanoparticles in alfalfa roots exposed to mercury. Combining XANES and TXM, we also performed XANES-imaging on an ancient pottery sample from the Roman pottery workshop at LaGraufesenque (Aveyron).

  16. Effective high voltage at X-ray tube in hard X-ray chest imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.

    1987-01-01

    The FRG standard TGL 36 661 (March 1980) for synoptical chest pictures of large size in adults specifies the 120 kV voltage at the X-ray tube together with maximal, 100% use of the capacity of the tube (hard picture, short exposure time). By means of circular recording and by measuring the high voltage at the X-ray tube it was quantitatively shown that the effective voltage during exposure is (according to the exposure time and the attenuation phase of the generator) always lower than the set-up voltage of 120 kV. This phenomenon is the more marked the shorter the actual exposure time in comparison with the attenuation phase of the generator. The typical characteristic of a hard X-ray chest picture is thus not given only by the setting-up of voltage. The impact of the reduction in voltage is thus quantitatively shown also from the aspect of the radiation burden for the patient. (author). 7 figs., 8 refs

  17. A hard X-ray laboratory for monochromator characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelin, B [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Since their installation at ILL during the 1970`s the ILL {gamma}-ray diffractometers have been intensively used in the development of neutron monochromators. However, the ageing of the sources and new developments in hard X-ray diffractometry lead to a decision at the end of 1995 to replace the existing {gamma}-ray laboratory with a hard X-ray laboratory, based on a 420 keV generator, making available in the long term several beam-lines for rapid characterisation of monochromator crystals. The facility is now installed and its characteristics and advantages are outlined. (author). 2 refs.

  18. A hard X-ray nanoprobe beamline for nanoscale microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winarski, Robert P., E-mail: winarski@anl.gov; Holt, Martin V. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60441 (United States); Rose, Volker [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60441 (United States); Fuesz, Peter; Carbaugh, Dean; Benson, Christa; Shu, Deming; Kline, David; Stephenson, G. Brian; McNulty, Ian [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60441 (United States); Maser, Jörg [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60441 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Beamline is a precision platform for scanning probe and full-field microscopy with 3–30 keV X-rays. A combination of high-stability X-ray optics and precision motion sensing and control enables detailed studies of the internal features of samples with resolutions approaching 30 nm. The Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Beamline (or Nanoprobe Beamline) is an X-ray microscopy facility incorporating diffraction, fluorescence and full-field imaging capabilities designed and operated by the Center for Nanoscale Materials and the Advanced Photon Source at Sector 26 of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. This facility was constructed to probe the nanoscale structure of biological, environmental and material sciences samples. The beamline provides intense focused X-rays to the Hard X-ray Nanoprobe (or Nanoprobe) which incorporates Fresnel zone plate optics and a precision laser sensing and control system. The beamline operates over X-ray energies from 3 to 30 keV, enabling studies of most elements in the periodic table, with a particular emphasis on imaging transition metals.

  19. Hard facts for radiation curing of elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyall, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is covered under the headings: introduction; outline of chemistry (differences between conventional and radiation curing); compounding; green strength; response of rubbers to electron beam treatment; electron beam cured applications:(a) wire and cable applications;(b) rubber tyre components;(c) heat shrinkable materials;(d) roofing materials. (U.K.)

  20. Development of radiation hard components for remote maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Obara, Kenjiro; Kakudate, Satoshi; Tominaga, Ryuichiro; Akada, Tamio; Morita, Hirosuke.

    1997-01-01

    In International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), in-vessel remote-handling is inevitably required to assemble and maintain activated in-vessel components due to D-T operation. The components of the in-vessel remote-handling system must have sufficient radiation hardness to allow for operation under an intense gamma-ray radiation of over 30 kGy/h for periods up to more than 1,000 hours. To this end, extensive irradiation tests and quality improvements including the optimization of material composition have been conducted through the ITER R and D program in order to develop radiation hard components which satisfy radiation doses from 10 MGy to 100 MGy at the dose rate of 10 kGy/h. This paper outlines the latest status of the radiation hard component development that has been conducted as the Japan Home Team's contribution to ITER. The remote-handling components tested are categorized into either robotics, viewing systems or common components. The irradiation tests include commercial base products for screening both modified and newly developed products to improve their radiation hardness. (author)

  1. Backscatter, anisotropy, and polarization of solar hard X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, T.; Ramaty, R.

    1978-01-01

    Hard X-rays incident upon the photosphere with energies > or approx. =15 keV have high probabilities of backscatter due to Compton collisions with electrons. This effect has a strong influence on the spectrum, intensity, and polarization of solar hard X-rays - especially for anisotropic models in which the primary X-rays are emitted predominantly toward the photosphere. We have carried out a detailed study of X-ray backscatter, and we have investigated the interrelated problems of anisotropy, polarization, center-to-limb variation of the X-ray spectrum, and Compton backscatter in a coherent fashion. The results of this study are compared with observational data. Because of the large contribution from backscatter, for an anisotropic primary X-ray source which is due to bremsstrahlung of accelerated electrons moving predominantly down toward the photosphere, the observed X-ray flux around 30 keV does not depend significantly on the position of flare on the Sun. For such an anisotropic source, the X-ray spectrum observed in the 15-50 keV range becomes steeper with the increasing heliocentric angle of the flare. These results are compatible with the data. The degree of polarization of the sum of the primary and reflected X-rays with energies between about 15 and 30 keV can be very large for anisotropic primary X-ray sources, but it is less than about 4% for isotropic sources. We also discuss the characteristics of the brightness distribution of the X-ray albedo patch created by the Compton backscatter. The height and anisotropy of the primary hard X-ray source might be inferred from the study of the albedo patch

  2. BaYb2F8, a new radiation hard Cherenkov radiator for electromagnetic calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aseev, A.A.; Devitsin, E.G.; Komar, A.A.; Kozlov, V.A.; Hovsepyan, Yu.I.; Potashov, S.Yu.; Sokolovsky, K.A.; Uvarova, T.V.; Vasilchenko, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation hardness and optical properties of a new Cherenkov radiator, heavy fluoride BaYb 2 F 8 doped with various elements, have been studied. The above mentioned crystal has the density of 7 g/cm 3 , the radiation length is 1.28 cm and the Moliere radius 2.44 cm. High radiation hardness has been demonstrated for BaYb 2 F 8 doped with Tm, Pr, Tb. (orig.)

  3. The transient radiation effects and hardness of programmed device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Chuanhua; Xu Xianguo; Zhao Hailin

    2014-01-01

    A review and summary of research and development in the investigation of transient ionizing radiation effects in device and cirviut is presented. The transient ionizing radiation effects in two type of programmed device, that's 32 bit Microcontroller and antifuse FPGA, were studied. The expeiment test data indicate: The transient ionizing radiation effects of 32 bit Microcontroller manifested self-motion restart and Latchup, the Latchup threshold was 5 × 10"7 Gy (Si)/s. The transient ionizing radiation effects of FPGA was reset, no Latchup. The relationship of circuit effects to physical mechanisms was analized. A new method of hardness in circiut design was put forward. (authors)

  4. Crab Nebula Variations in Hard X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2012-01-01

    The Crab Nebula was surprisingly variable from 2001-2010, with less variability before 2001 and since mid-2010. We presented evidence for spectral softening from RXTE, Swift/BAT, and Fermi GBM during the mid-2008-2010 flux decline. We see no clear connections between the hard X-ray variations and the GeV flares

  5. New hard X-ray sources at 380 declination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; La Padula, C.; Polcaro, V.F.

    1981-01-01

    We report the detection of three new hard X-rays sources emitting in the range 15-150 KeV. Their observation was carried out by means of a balloon borne payload, consisting of two large area high spectral resolution Multiwire Spectroscopic Proportional Counters. (orig.)

  6. The Ferrara hard X-ray facility for testing/calibrating hard X-ray focusing telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffredo, Gianluca; Frontera, Filippo; Pellicciotta, Damiano; Pisa, Alessandro; Carassiti, Vito; Chiozzi, Stefano; Evangelisti, Federico; Landi, Luca; Melchiorri, Michele; Squerzanti, Stefano

    2005-12-01

    We will report on the current configuration of the X-ray facility of the University of Ferrara recently used to perform reflectivity tests of mosaic crystals and to calibrate the experiment JEM X aboard Integral. The facility is now located in the technological campus of the University of Ferrara in a new building (named LARIX laboratory= LARge Italian X-ray facility) that includes a tunnel 100 m long with, on the sides, two large experimental rooms. The facility is being improved for determining the optical axis of mosaic crystals in Laue configuration, for calibrating Laue lenses and hard X-ray mirror prototypes.

  7. Bonded Multilayer Laue Lens for focusing hard X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chian; Conley, R.; Qian, J.; Kewish, C.M.; Macrander, A.T.; Maser, J.; Kang, H.C.; Yan, H.; Stephenson, G.B.

    2007-01-01

    We have fabricated partial Multilayer Laue Lens (MLL) linear zone plate structures with thousands of alternating WSi 2 and Si layers and various outermost zone widths according to the Fresnel zone plate formula. Using partial MLL structures, we were able to focus hard X-rays to line foci with a width of 30 nm and below. Here, we describe challenges and approaches used to bond these multilayers to achieve line and point focusing. Bonding was done by coating two multilayers with AuSn and heating in a vacuum oven at 280-300 o C. X-ray reflectivity measurements confirmed that there was no change in the multilayers after heating to 350 o C. A bonded MLL was polished to a 5-25 μm wedge without cracking. SEM image analyses found well-positioned multilayers after bonding. These results demonstrate the feasibility of a bonded full MLL for focusing hard X-rays

  8. Capillary discharge sources of hard UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachoncinlle, C; Dussart, R; Robert, E; Goetze, S; Pons, J; Mohanty, S R; Viladrosa, R; Fleurier, C; Pouvesle, J M

    2002-01-01

    We developed and studied three different extreme ultraviolet (EUV) capillary discharge sources either dedicated to the generation of coherent or incoherent EUV radiation. The CAPELLA source has been developed especially as an EUV source for the metrology at 13.4 nm. With one of these sources, we were able to produce gain on the Balmer-Hα (18.22 nm) and Hβ (13.46 nm) spectral lines in carbon plasma. By injecting 70 GW cm -3 we measured gain-length products up to 1.62 and 3.02 for the Hα and Hβ, respectively optimization of the EUV capillary source CAPELLA led to the development of an EUV lamp which emits 2 mJ in the bandwidth of the MoSi mirror, per joule stored, per shot and in full solid angle. The wall-plug efficiency is 0.2%. Stability of this lamp is better than 4% and the lamp can operate at repetition rate of 50 Hz

  9. Extended hard-X-ray emission in the inner few parsecs of the Galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Kerstin; Hailey, Charles J.; Bauer, Franz E.

    2015-01-01

    of objects emitting soft X-rays (less than 10 kiloelectronvolts) within the surrounding hundreds of parsecs, as well as the population responsible for unresolved X-ray emission extending along the Galactic plane, is dominated by accreting white dwarf systems. Observations of diffuse hard-X-ray (more than 10...... kiloelectronvolts) emission in the inner 10 parsecs, however, have been hampered by the limited spatial resolution of previous instruments. Here we report the presence of a distinct hard-X-ray component within the central 4 × 8 parsecs, as revealed by subarcminute-resolution images in the 20-40 kiloelectronvolt...... outflows interacting with the surrounding radiation field, dense molecular material or magnetic fields. However, all these interpretations pose significant challenges to our understanding of stellar evolution, binary formation, and cosmic-ray production in the Galactic Centre....

  10. Hard X-ray observation of cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendziorra, E.; Staubert, R.; Reppin, C.; Pietsch, W.; Truemper, J.; Voges, W.

    1979-05-01

    During a balloon observation on October 18, 1977 the high energy X-ray spectrum (20 - 90 keV) of Cyg X-3 has been measured with high statistical accuracy. It is found to be consistent with a thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum with kT = 17.5 +3.1/-2.6 keV or a power law Esup(γ) of the differential photon flux spectrum with γ=3.6 +-0.3. The extrapolation of the observed spectrum to approximately 100 MeV yields a gamma ray intensity which is at least three orders of magnitude below the intensity found by SAS-2 (Lamb et al. 1977). This indicates that the overall spectral behaviour of Cygnus X-3 is much different from that of the Crab- and Vela-pulsar. (orig.) [de

  11. Radiation hardness of diamond and silicon sensors compared

    CERN Document Server

    de Boer, Wim; Furgeri, Alexander; Mueller, Steffen; Sander, Christian; Berdermann, Eleni; Pomorski, Michal; Huhtinen, Mika

    2007-01-01

    The radiation hardness of silicon charged particle sensors is compared with single crystal and polycrystalline diamond sensors, both experimentally and theoretically. It is shown that for Si- and C-sensors, the NIEL hypothesis, which states that the signal loss is proportional to the Non-Ionizing Energy Loss, is a good approximation to the present data. At incident proton and neutron energies well above 0.1 GeV the radiation damage is dominated by the inelastic cross section, while at non-relativistic energies the elastic cross section prevails. The smaller inelastic nucleon-Carbon cross section and the light nuclear fragments imply that at high energies diamond is an order of magnitude more radiation hard than silicon, while at energies below 0.1 GeV the difference becomes significantly smaller.

  12. Radiation hardness of Ce-doped sol-gel silica fibers for high energy physics applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cova, Francesca; Moretti, Federico; Fasoli, Mauro; Chiodini, Norberto; Pauwels, Kristof; Auffray, Etiennette; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Baccaro, Stefania; Cemmi, Alessia; Bártová, Hana; Vedda, Anna

    2018-02-15

    The results of irradiation tests on Ce-doped sol-gel silica using x- and γ-rays up to 10 kGy are reported in order to investigate the radiation hardness of this material for high-energy physics applications. Sol-gel silica fibers with Ce concentrations of 0.0125 and 0.05 mol. % are characterized by means of optical absorption and attenuation length measurements before and after irradiation. The two different techniques give comparable results, evidencing the formation of a main broad radiation-induced absorption band, peaking at about 2.2 eV, related to radiation-induced color centers. The results are compared with those obtained on bulk silica. This study reveals that an improvement of the radiation hardness of Ce-doped silica fibers can be achieved by reducing Ce content inside the fiber core, paving the way for further material development.

  13. Hard X-ray Emission from Galaxy Clusters Observed with INTEGRAL and Prospects for Simbol-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, D.; Paltani, S.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.

    2009-05-01

    Some galaxy clusters are known to contain a large population of relativistic electrons, which produce radio emission through synchrotron radiation. Therefore, it is expected that inverse-Compton scattering of the relativistic electrons with the CMB produce non-thermal emission which should be observable in the hard X-ray domain. Here we focus on the recent results by INTEGRAL, which shed a new light on the non-thermal emission thanks to its angular resolution and sensitivity in the hard X-ray range. We also present the exciting prospects in this field for Simbol-X, which will allow us to detect the non-thermal emission in a number of clusters and map the magnetic field throughout the intra-cluster medium.

  14. A NICER Look at the Aql X-1 Hard State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bult, Peter; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Cackett, Edward M.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Gendreau, Keith C.; Guillot, Sebastien; Homan, Jeroen; Jaisawal, Gaurava K.; Keek, Laurens; Kenyon, Steve; Lamb, Frederick K.; Ludlam, Renee; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Markwardt, Craig; Miller, Jon M.; Prigozhin, Gregory; Soong, Yang; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Uttley, Phil

    2018-05-01

    We report on a spectral-timing analysis of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Aql X-1 with the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) on the International Space Station (ISS). Aql X-1 was observed with NICER during a dim outburst in 2017 July, collecting approximately 50 ks of good exposure. The spectral and timing properties of the source correspond to that of a (hard) extreme island state in the atoll classification. We find that the fractional amplitude of the low-frequency (soft thermal emission and the power-law emission. Additionally, we measure hard time lags, indicating the thermal emission at 0.5 keV leads the power-law emission at 10 keV on a timescale of ∼100 ms at 0.3 Hz to ∼10 ms at 3 Hz. Our results demonstrate that the thermal emission in the hard state is intrinsically variable, and is driving the modulation of the higher energy power-law. Interpreting the thermal spectrum as disk emission, we find that our results are consistent with the disk propagation model proposed for accretion onto black holes.

  15. Full Multilayer Laue Lens for Focusing Hard X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chian; Shi, B.; Qian, J.; Conley, R.; Yan, H.; Wieczorek, M.; Macrander, A. T.; Maser, J.; Stephenson, G. B.

    2010-01-01

    Multilayer Laue Lenses (MLLs) were developed by us using dynamic diffraction effects to efficiently focus hard x-rays to very small spots. Using a partial MLL we were able to focus 19.5-keV hard x-rays to a line focus of 16 nm with an efficiency of 31%. A full MLL is a complete linear MLL structure. It can be fabricated by bonding two partial MLL wafers, or by growing the full structure using magnetron sputtering without bonding. A 40-μm full MLL, with a total of 5166 layers of WSi 2 and Si, has been successfully grown by sputter deposition. The layer thicknesses gradually vary from 4 nm to ∼400 nm and then back to 4 nm. Two coating runs were used to grow the full structure, one for each half. It took over 56 h for each run. A 100-μm nearly-full MLL was constructed by bonding. Each 50-μm half-structure has 1788 WSi 2 and Si layers with 12-nm to ∼32-nm thicknesses and ∼32-μm total thickness, followed by a thick WSi 2 layer of ∼17 μm, and an AuSn layer of ∼1 μm. Both full MLL structures survived dicing and polishing. The primary results demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a full MLL with a doubled numerical aperture and large beam acceptance for hard x-rays.

  16. Bulk sensitive hard x-ray photoemission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patt, M., E-mail: m.patt@fz-juelich.de; Wiemann, C. [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-6) and JARA-FIT, Research Center Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Weber, N.; Escher, M.; Merkel, M. [Focus GmbH, Neukirchner Str. 2, D-65510 Hünstetten (Germany); Gloskovskii, A.; Drube, W. [DESY Photon Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Schneider, C. M. [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-6) and JARA-FIT, Research Center Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Fakultät f. Physik and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) has now matured into a well-established technique as a bulk sensitive probe of the electronic structure due to the larger escape depth of the highly energetic electrons. In order to enable HAXPES studies with high lateral resolution, we have set up a dedicated energy-filtered hard x-ray photoemission electron microscope (HAXPEEM) working with electron kinetic energies up to 10 keV. It is based on the NanoESCA design and also preserves the performance of the instrument in the low and medium energy range. In this way, spectromicroscopy can be performed from threshold to hard x-ray photoemission. The high potential of the HAXPEEM approach for the investigation of buried layers and structures has been shown already on a layered and structured SrTiO{sub 3} sample. Here, we present results of experiments with test structures to elaborate the imaging and spectroscopic performance of the instrument and show the capabilities of the method to image bulk properties. Additionally, we introduce a method to determine the effective attenuation length of photoelectrons in a direct photoemission experiment.

  17. Monitoring the Galactic - Search for Hard X-Ray Transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Francis

    Hard X-ray transients with fluxs from ~1 to ~30 mCrab are a common feature of the galactic plane with apparent concentrations in specific regions of the plane. Concentrations in the Scutum and Carina fields probably indicate an enhancement of Be X-ray binaries along the tangent direction of two spiral arms. The frequency of outbursts suggest that at any one time 1 or 2 transients are active in the Scutum field alone. We propose weekly scans of the galactic plane to understand this population of sources. The scans will also monitor about 50 already known sources with better spectral information than available with the ASM.

  18. Young Stellar Objects from Soft to Hard X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güdel, Manuel

    2009-05-01

    Magnetically active stars are the sites of efficient particle acceleration and plasma heating, processes that have been studied in detail in the solar corona. Investigation of such processes in young stellar objects is much more challenging due to various absorption processes. There is, however, evidence for violent magnetic energy release in very young stellar objects. The impact on young stellar environments (e.g., circumstellar disk heating and ionization, operation of chemical networks, photoevaporation) may be substantial. Hard X-ray devices like those carried on Simbol-X will establish a basis for detailed studies of these processes.

  19. Men and x-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, J.

    1996-01-01

    On the occasion of the centennial of the discovery of X-radiation some of its historical aspects are outlined. After a brief historical overview of the scientific development, the views of different groups (professionals and laymen) regarding the limitation of radiation are discussed. 1 fig., 1 ills., 4 tabs., 13 refs

  20. Development and characterization of a laser-based hard x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillman, C.

    1996-11-01

    A laser-produced plasma was generated by focusing 100 fs laser pulses, with an energy of 150 mJ, onto metal targets. The laser intensity was expected to reach 10 17 W/cm -2 . Radiation was emitted from the created plasma, with photon energies up to the MeV region. The laser-based X-ray source was optimized, with the purpose of making it a realistic source of hard X-rays (>10 keV). Dedicated equipment was developed for efficient generation and utilization of the hard X-rays. The X-ray source was characterized with respect to its spatial extent and the X-ray yield. Measurements were made of the spectral distribution, by the use of single-photon-counting detectors in different geometries, crystal spectrometers and dose measurements in combination with absorption filters. Ablation of the target material in the laser produced plasma was investigated. Imaging applications have been demonstrated, including ultrafast (picosecond) X-ray imaging, magnification imaging of up to x80, differential imaging in the spectral domain, and imaging of various biological and technical objects. The biological response of ultra-intense X-ray pulses was assessed in cell-culture exposures. The results indicate that the biological response from ultra-intense X-ray exposures is similar to the response with conventional X-ray tubes. 82 refs., 14 figs

  1. Development and characterization of a laser-based hard x-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillman, C.

    1996-11-01

    A laser-produced plasma was generated by focusing 100 fs laser pulses, with an energy of 150 mJ, onto metal targets. The laser intensity was expected to reach 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup -2}. Radiation was emitted from the created plasma, with photon energies up to the MeV region. The laser-based X-ray source was optimized, with the purpose of making it a realistic source of hard X-rays (>10 keV). Dedicated equipment was developed for efficient generation and utilization of the hard X-rays. The X-ray source was characterized with respect to its spatial extent and the X-ray yield. Measurements were made of the spectral distribution, by the use of single-photon-counting detectors in different geometries, crystal spectrometers and dose measurements in combination with absorption filters. Ablation of the target material in the laser produced plasma was investigated. Imaging applications have been demonstrated, including ultrafast (picosecond) X-ray imaging, magnification imaging of up to x80, differential imaging in the spectral domain, and imaging of various biological and technical objects. The biological response of ultra-intense X-ray pulses was assessed in cell-culture exposures. The results indicate that the biological response from ultra-intense X-ray exposures is similar to the response with conventional X-ray tubes. 82 refs., 14 figs.

  2. Hard x-ray measurements of the hot-electron rings in EBT-S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillis, D.L.

    1982-06-01

    A thorough understanding of the hot electron rings in ELMO Bumpy Torus-Scale (EBT-S) is essential to the bumpy torus concept of plasma production, since the rings provide bulk plasma stability. The hot electrons are produced via electron cyclotron resonant heating using a 28-GHz cw gyrotron, which has operated up to power levels of 200 kW. The parameters of the energetic electron rings are studied via hard x-ray measurement techniques and with diamagnetic pickup coils. The hard x-ray measurements have used collimated NaI(Tl) detectors to determine the electron temperature T/sub e/ and electron density n/sub e/ for the hot electron annulus. Typical values of T/sub e/ are 400 to 500 keV and of n/sub e/ 2 to 5 x 10 11 cm -3 . The total stored energy of a single energetic electron ring as measured by diamagnetic pickup loops approaches approx. 40 J and is in good agreement with that deduced from hard x-ray measurements. By combining the experimental measurements from hard x-rays and the diamagnetic loops, an estimate can be obtained for the volume of a single hot electron ring. The ring volume is determined to be approx. 2.2 litres, and this volume remains approximately constant over the T-mode operating regime. Finally, the power in the electrons scattered out of the ring is measured indirectly by measuring the x-ray radiation produced when those electrons strike the chamber walls. The variation of this radiation with increasing microwave power levels is found to be consistent with classical scattering estimates

  3. UV radiation hardness of silicon inversion layer solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hezel, R.

    1990-01-01

    For full utilization of the high spectral response of inversion layer solar cells in the very-short-wavelength range of the solar spectrum sufficient ultraviolet-radiation hardness is required. In addition to the charge-induced passivation achieved by cesium incorporation into the silicon nitride AR coating, in this paper the following means for further drastic reduction of UV light-induced effects in inversion layer solar cells without encapsulation are introduced and interpretations are given: increasing the nitride deposition temperature, silicon surface oxidation at low temperatures, and texture etching and using higher substrate resistivities. High UV radiation tolerance and improvement of the cell efficiency could be obtained simultaneously

  4. RD50 Collaboration overview: Development of new radiation hard detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, S., E-mail: susanne.kuehn@cern.ch

    2016-07-11

    Silicon sensors are widely used as tracking detectors in high energy physics experiments. This results in several specific requirements like radiation hardness and granularity. Therefore research for highly performing silicon detectors is required. The RD50 Collaboration is a CERN R&D collaboration dedicated to the development of radiation hard silicon devices for application in high luminosity collider experiments. Extensive research is ongoing in different fields since 2001. The collaboration investigates both defect and material characterization, detector characterization, the development of new structures and full detector systems. The report gives selected results of the collaboration and places an emphasis on the development of new structures, namely 3D devices, CMOS sensors in HV technology and low gain avalanche detectors. - Highlights: • The RD50 Collaboration is a CERN R&D collaboration dedicated to the development of radiation hard silicon devices for high luminosity collider experiments. • The collaboration investigates defect, material and detector characterization, the development of new structures and full detector systems. • Results of measured data of n-in-p type sensors allow recommendations for silicon tracking detectors at the HL-LHC. • The charge multiplication effect was investigated to allow its exploitation and resulted in new structures like LGAD sensors. • New sensor types like slim and active edge sensors, 3D detectors, and lately HVCMOS devices were developed in the active collaboration.

  5. Synchrotron X-radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabler, M.N.; Nagel, D.J.; Skelton, E.F.

    1990-05-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has been involved in the exploitation of X rays since the 1920s. The report gives a brief description of the generation and characteristics of synchrotron radiation, and review highlights of current research. Research examples include soft-X-ray optics, semiconductor surface passivation, surface electron dynamics, space-charge dynamics on silicon, photochemistry on GaAs, local atomic structure, crystal structures from X-ray diffraction. The report then discusses emerging research opportunities

  6. Scintillation properties and X-ray irradiation hardness of Ce3+-doped Gd2O3-based scintillation glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Liwan; Shao, Chongyun; Zhang, Yu; Liao, Xili; Yang, Qiuhong; Hu, Lili; Chen, Danping

    2016-01-01

    Ce 3+ -doped Gd 2 O 3 -based scintillation glasses are prepared within an air or CO atmosphere. The effects of fluorine, lutetium, barium, and the melting atmosphere on the optical properties, scintillation properties and irradiation hardness are studied. Absorption spectra, luminescence spectra under UV and X-ray excitation, and the X-ray radiation-induced spectra are presented. The results show that the density can be increased by doping with fluorine, lutetium and barium. The luminescence intensity decreases after X-ray irradiation. Because of charge transfer quenching, fluorine and lutetium enhance the UV-excited and X-ray excited luminescence intensity, but barium decreases. Moreover, fluorine and lutetium are advantageous to irradiation hardness while barium is not. In addition, a non-reducing atmosphere provides a higher irradiation hardness than a reducing atmosphere. Fluorine-doped glass is promising to enhance luminescence intensity, promote irradiation hardness, and increase the density.

  7. Silicon Photo-Multiplier Radiation Hardness Tests with a White Neutron Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montanari, A.; Tosi, N.; Pietropaolo, A.; Andreotti, M.; Baldini, W.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Luppi, E.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Malaguti, R.; Santoro, V.; Tellarini, G.; Tomassetti, L.; De Donato, C.; Reali, E.

    2013-06-01

    We report radiation hardness tests performed, with a white neutron beam, at the Geel Electron Linear Accelerator in Belgium on silicon Photo-Multipliers. These are semiconductor photon detectors made of a square matrix of Geiger-Mode Avalanche photo-diodes on a silicon substrate. Several samples from different manufacturers have been irradiated integrating up to about 6.2 x 10 9 1-MeV-equivalent neutrons per cm 2 . (authors)

  8. Development of ITER diagnostics: Neutronic analysis and radiation hardness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukolov, Konstantin, E-mail: vukolov_KY@nrcki.ru; Borisov, Andrey; Deryabina, Natalya; Orlovskiy, Ilya

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Problems of ITER diagnostics caused by neutron radiation from hot DT plasma considered. • Careful neutronic analysis is necessary for ITER diagnostics development. • Effective nuclear shielding for ITER diagnostics in the 11th equatorial port plug proposed. • Requirements for study of radiation hardness of diagnostic elements defined. • Results of optical glasses irradiation tests in a fission reactor given. - Abstract: The paper is dedicated to the problems of ITER diagnostics caused by effects of radiation from hot DT plasma. An effective nuclear shielding must be arranged in diagnostic port plugs to meet the nuclear safety requirements and to provide reliable operation of the diagnostics. This task can be solved with the help of neutronic analysis of the diagnostics environment within the port plugs at the design stage. Problems of neutronic calculations are demonstrated for the 11th equatorial port plug. The numerical simulation includes the calculations of neutron fluxes in the port-plug and in the interspace. Options for nuclear shielding, such as tungsten collimator, boron carbide and water moderators, stainless steel and lead screens are considered. Data on neutron fluxes along diagnostic labyrinths allow to define radiation hardness requirements for the diagnostic components and to specify their materials. Options for windows and lenses materials for optical diagnostics are described. The results of irradiation of flint and silica glasses in nuclear reactor have shown that silica KU-1 and KS-4V retain transparency in visible range after neutron fluence of 10{sup 17} cm{sup −2}. Flints required for achromatic objectives have much less radiation hardness about 5 × 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}.

  9. Signatures of Synchrotron: Low-cutoff X-ray emission and the hard X-ray spectrum of Cas A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stage, Michael D.; Fedor, Emily Elizabeth; Martina-Hood, Hyourin

    2018-06-01

    In soft X-rays, bright, young Galactic remnants (Cas A, Kepler, Tycho, etc.) present thermal line emission and bremsstrahlung from ejecta, and synchrotron radiation from the shocks. Their hard X-ray spectra tend to be dominated by power-law sources. However, it can be non-trivial to discriminate between contributions from processes such as synchrotron and bremsstrahlung from nonthermally accelerated electrons, even though the energies of the electrons producing this radiation may be very different. Spatially-resolved spectroscopic analysis of 0.5-10 keV observations with, e.g., Chandracan provide leverage in identifying the processes and their locations. Previously, Stage & Allen (2006), Allen & Stage (2007) and Stage & Allen (2011) identified regions characterized by high-cutoff synchrotron radiation. Extrapolating synchrotron model fits to the emission in the Chandra band, they estimated the synchrotron contribution to the hard X-ray spectrum at about one-third the observed flux, fitting the balance with nonthermal bremsstrahlung emission produced by nonthermal electrons in the ejecta. Although it is unlikely this analysis missed regions of the highest-cutoff synchrotron emission, which supplies the bulk of the synchrotron above 15 keV, it may have missed regions of lower-cutoff emission, especially if they are near bright ejecta and the reverse shock. These regions cannot explain the emission at the highest energies (~50 keV), but may make significant contributions to the hard spectrum at lower energies (~10 keV). Using the technique described in Fedor, Martina-Hood & Stage (this meeting), we revisit the analysis to include regions that may be dominated by low-cutoff synchrotron, located in the interior of the remnant, and/or correlated with the reverse shock. Identifying X-ray emission from accelerated electrons associated with the reverse-shock would have important implications for synchrotron and non-thermal bremsstrahlung radiation above the 10 keV.

  10. NuSTAR Hard X-ray Survey of the Galactic Center Region. I. Hard X-ray Morphology and Spectroscopy of the Diffuse Emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Kaya; Hailey, Charles J.; Krivonos, Roman

    2015-01-01

    We present the first sub-arcminute images of the Galactic Center above 10 keV, obtained with NuSTAR. NuSTAR resolves the hard X-ray source IGR J17456-2901 into non-thermal X-ray filaments, molecular clouds, point sources, and a previously unknown central component of hard X-ray emission (CHXE). Nu...

  11. A novel probe of intrinsic electronic structure: hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takata, Y.; Tamasaku, K.; Nishino, Y.; Miwa, D.; Yabashi, M.; Ikenaga, E.; Horiba, K.; Arita, M.; Shimada, K.; Namatame, H.; Nohira, H.; Hattori, T.; Soedergren, S.; Wannberg, B.; Taniguchi, M.; Shin, S.; Ishikawa, T.; Kobayashi, K.

    2005-01-01

    We have realized hard X-ray (HX) photoemission spectroscopy (PES) with high throughput and high-energy resolution for core level and valence band studies using high-energy and high-brilliance synchrotron radiation at SPring-8. This is a brand new method because large escape depth of high-energy photoelectrons enables us to probe intrinsic bulk states free from surface condition. By use of a newly developed electron energy analyzer and well-focused X-rays, high-energy resolution of 75 meV (E/ΔE 79,000) was realized for 5.95 keV photoelectrons

  12. Hard X-ray irradiation of cosmic silicate analogs: structural evolution and astrophysical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilan, L.; Jäger, C.; Simionovici, A.; Lemaire, J. L.; Sabri, T.; Foy, E.; Yagoubi, S.; Henning, T.; Salomon, D.; Martinez-Criado, G.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Protoplanetary disks, interstellar clouds, and active galactic nuclei contain X-ray-dominated regions. X-rays interact with the dust and gas present in such environments. While a few laboratory X-ray irradiation experiments have been performed on ices, X-ray irradiation experiments on bare cosmic dust analogs have been scarce up to now. Aims: Our goal is to study the effects of hard X-rays on cosmic dust analogs via in situ X-ray diffraction. By using a hard X-ray synchrotron nanobeam, we seek to simulate cumulative X-ray exposure on dust grains during their lifetime in these astrophysical environments and provide an upper limit on the effect of hard X-rays on dust grain structure. Methods: We prepared enstatite (MgSiO3) nanograins, which are analogs to cosmic silicates, via the melting-quenching technique. These amorphous grains were then annealed to obtain polycrystalline grains. These were characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) before irradiation. Powder samples were prepared in X-ray transparent substrates and were irradiated with hard X-rays nanobeams (29.4 keV) provided by beamline ID16B of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (Grenoble). X-ray diffraction images were recorded in transmission mode, and the ensuing diffractograms were analyzed as a function of the total X-ray exposure time. Results: We detected the amorphization of polycrystalline silicates embedded in an organic matrix after an accumulated X-ray exposure of 6.4 × 1027 eV cm-2. Pure crystalline silicate grains (without resin) do not exhibit amorphization. None of the amorphous silicate samples (pure and embedded in resin) underwent crystallization. We analyze the evolution of the polycrystalline sample embedded in an organic matrix as a function of X-ray exposure. Conclusions: Loss of diffraction peak intensity, peak broadening, and the disappearance of discrete spots and arcs reveal the amorphization

  13. MODELING THE THERMAL DIFFUSE SOFT AND HARD X-RAY EMISSION IN M17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velázquez, P. F.; Rodríguez-González, A.; Esquivel, A.; Rosado, M.; Reyes-Iturbide, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present numerical models of very young wind driven superbubbles. The parameters chosen for the simulations correspond to the particular case of the M17 nebula, but are appropriate for any young superbubble in which the wind sources have not completely dispersed their parental cloud. From the simulations, we computed the diffuse emission in the soft ([0.5-1.5] keV) and hard ([1.5-5] keV) X-ray bands. The total luminosity in our simulations agrees with the observations of Hyodo et al., about two orders of magnitude below the prediction of the standard model of Weaver et al.. The difference with respect to the standard (adiabatic) model is the inclusion of radiative cooling, which is still important in such young bubbles. We show that for this type of object the diffuse hard X-ray luminosity is significant compared to that of soft X-rays, contributing as much as 10% of the total luminosity, in contrast with more evolved bubbles where the hard X-ray emission is indeed negligible, being at least four orders of magnitude lower than the soft X-ray emission.

  14. Investigation of biomedical inner microstructures with hard X-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu Hang [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, 100049 Beijing (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100864 Beijing (China); Zhu Peiping [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, 100049 Beijing (China); Chen Bo [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Liu Bo; Yin Hongxia [Capital University of Medical Sciences, 100054 Beijing (China); Li Enrong [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, 100049 Beijing (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100864 Beijing (China); Liu Yijin [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Wang Junyue [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, 100049 Beijing (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100864 Beijing (China); Yuan Qingxi; Huang Wanxia; Fang Shouxian [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, 100049 Beijing (China); Wu Ziyu [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, 100049 Beijing (China); National Center for NanoScience and Technology, 100080 Beijing (China)], E-mail: wuzy@ihep.ac.cn

    2007-09-21

    Hard X-ray Phase-Contrast Imaging (HX-PCI) is a new and valuable method that may provide information of the inner parts of an opaque object. Previous reports demonstrated its applicability in soft and hard tissue imaging. Here we provide further evidence for improved image quality and the effective capability to distinguish inner microstructures in real biomedical systems such as cochlea. Experiments performed both at the 4W1A beamline of the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) and at the Taiwan National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC) clearly show details of samples' inner microstructure with a resolution of a few microns. The improved spatial resolution is a relevant achievement for future improved understanding and clinical trials.

  15. Extragalactic Hard X-ray Surveys: From INTEGRAL to Simbol-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltani, S.; Dwelly, T.; Walter, R.; McHardy, I. M.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.

    2009-05-01

    We present some results of the deepest extragalactic survey performed by the INTEGRAL satellite. The fraction of very absorbed AGN is quite large. The sharp decrease in the absorption fraction with X-ray luminosity observed at lower-energy X-rays is not observed. The current lack of truly Compton-thick objects, with an upper limit of 14% to the size of this population, is just compatible with recent modeling of the cosmic X-ray background. We also study the prospects for a future hard X-ray serendipitous survey with Simbol-X. We show that Simbol-X will easily detect a large number of serendipitous AGN, allowing us to study the evolution of AGN up to redshifts about 2, opening the door to the cosmological study of hard X-ray selected AGN, which is barely possible with existing satellites like Swift and INTEGRAL.

  16. Imaging escape gated MPWC for hard X-ray astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; Boccaccini, L.; La Padula, C.; Mastropietro, M.; Patriarca, R.; Polcaro, V.F.; Barbareschi, L.; Perotti, F.; Villa, G.

    1983-11-15

    A scientific forward step in the hard X-ray and soft gamma-ray astronomy will only be possible with the use of a new generation of space borne instruments. Their main characteristics have to be the two-dimensional imaging capability over a large collecting area and the fine spectral resolution in order to discriminate between the weak signal coming from cosmic sources to be detected and the strong background induced by cosmic rays, in the space environment, on the detector. To reach this goal we have developed a new hard X-ray position sensitive proportional counter operating with the escape gate technique in the range 15-150 keV, to be used together with a pseudo-random coded mask in order to obtain sky images. The detector is a high pressure (5 bar) xenon-argon-isobutane filled chamber with a spatial resolution of 30x2 mm and a spectral resolution of 5% at 60 keV on the sensitive area of 3000 cm/sup 2/.

  17. Submicron hard X-ray fluorescence imaging of synthetic elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P; Aryal, Baikuntha P; Gorman-Lewis, Drew; Paunesku, Tatjana; Lai, Barry; Vogt, Stefan; Woloschak, Gayle E

    2012-04-13

    Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) using hard X-rays focused into sub-micron spots is a powerful technique for elemental quantification and mapping, as well as microspectroscopic measurements such as μ-XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure). We have used XFM to image and simultaneously quantify the transuranic element plutonium at the L(3) or L(2)-edge as well as Th and lighter biologically essential elements in individual rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells after exposure to the long-lived plutonium isotope (242)Pu. Elemental maps demonstrate that plutonium localizes principally in the cytoplasm of the cells and avoids the cell nucleus, which is marked by the highest concentrations of phosphorus and zinc, under the conditions of our experiments. The minimum detection limit under typical acquisition conditions with an incident X-ray energy of 18 keV for an average 202 μm(2) cell is 1.4 fg Pu or 2.9×10(-20) moles Pu μm(-2), which is similar to the detection limit of K-edge XFM of transition metals at 10 keV. Copper electron microscopy grids were used to avoid interference from gold X-ray emissions, but traces of strontium present in naturally occurring calcium can still interfere with plutonium detection using its L(α) X-ray emission. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The hard x-ray imager onboard IXO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Limousin, Olivier; Kokubun, Motohide; Watanabe, Shin; Laurent, Philippe; Arnaud, Monique; Tajima, Hiroyasu

    2010-07-01

    The Hard X-ray Imager (HXI) is one of the instruments onboard International X-ray Observatory (IXO), to be launched into orbit in 2020s. It covers the energy band of 10-40 keV, providing imaging-spectroscopy with a field of view of 8 x 8 arcmin2. The HXI is attached beneath the Wide Field Imager (WFI) covering 0.1-15 keV. Combined with the super-mirror coating on the mirror assembly, this configuration provides observation of X-ray source in wide energy band (0.1-40.0 keV) simultaneously, which is especially important for varying sources. The HXI sensor part consists of the semiconductor imaging spectrometer, using Si in the medium energy detector and CdTe in the high energy detector as its material, and an active shield covering its back to reduce background in orbit. The HXI technology is based on those of the Japanese-lead new generation X-ray observatory ASTRO-H, and partly from those developed for Simbol-X. Therefore, the technological development is in good progress. In the IXO mission, HXI will provide a major assets to identify the nature of the object by penetrating into thick absorbing materials and determined the inherent spectral shape in the energy band well above the structure around Fe-K lines and edges.

  19. NuSTAR Hard X-ray Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koglin, Jason E.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Craig, William W.

    2005-01-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is a small explorer (SMEX) mission currently under an extended Phase A study by NASA. NuSTAR will be the first satellite mission to employ focusing optics in the hard X-ray band (8- 80 keV). Its design eliminates high detector backgrounds, allows...... and production process. We also describe the progress of several components of our independent optics development program that are beginning to reach maturity and could possibly be incorporated into the NuSTAR production scheme. We then present environmental test results that are being conducted in preparation...... of full space qualification of the NuSTAR optics....

  20. Probing deeper by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risterucci, P.; Renault, O., E-mail: olivier.renault@cea.fr; Martinez, E.; Delaye, V. [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Detlefs, B. [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Zegenhagen, J. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Gaumer, C. [STMicroelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Crolles (France); Grenet, G. [Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon (INL), UMR CNRS 5270, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36, avenue Guy de Collongue 69 134 Ecully Cedex (France); Tougaard, S. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2014-02-03

    We report an hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy method combining high excitation energy (15 keV) and improved modelling of the core-level energy loss features. It provides depth distribution of deeply buried layers with very high sensitivity. We show that a conventional approach relying on intensities of the core-level peaks is unreliable due to intense plasmon losses. We reliably determine the depth distribution of 1 ML La in a high-κ/metal gate stack capped with 50 nm a-Si. The method extends the sensitivity of photoelectron spectroscopy to depths beyond 50 nm.

  1. Polarization and spectral features of the hard x-ray continuum from non-thermal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, M.; Platz, P.

    1989-12-01

    Starting from the cross-sections for the free-free radiation obtained within the relativistic Born-Elwert theory, we calculate the spectral and polarization properties of the hard X-ray continuum (hν > 50 KeV) for plasmas containing fast electrons with an anisotropic velocity distribution. The physical and geometrical quantities of our model are oriented towards the future lower-hybrid current drive (LHCD) experiments on Tore-Supra. Our parameter space covers parallel and perpendicular temperatures, the nuclear charge of the ions (mainly Z = 14 and 28), the cut-off energy of the electrons, the radial current profile and the viewing angle. Extensive calculations open on the optimum conditions for polarization measurements and also give guide-lines for the quantitative interpretation of data under real plasma conditions. A second part of this report will treat with the operational principles and expected performances of hard X-ray polarimeters

  2. Extreme Radiation Hardness and Space Qualification of AlGaN Optoelectronic Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ke-Xun; MacNeil, Lawrence; Balakrishnan, Kathik; Hultgren, Eric; Goebel, John; Bilenko, Yuri; Yang, Jinwei; Sun, Wenhong; Shatalov, Max; Hu, Xuhong; Gaska, Remis

    2010-01-01

    Unprecedented radiation hardness and environment robustness are required in the new generation of high energy density physics (HEDP) experiments and deep space exploration. National Ignition Facility (NIF) break-even shots will have a neutron yield of 10 15 or higher. The Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) mission instruments will be irradiated with a total fluence of 10 12 protons/cm 2 during the space journey. In addition, large temperature variations and mechanical shocks are expected in these applications under extreme conditions. Hefty radiation and thermal shields are required for Si and GaAs based electronics and optoelectronics devices. However, for direct illumination and imaging applications, shielding is not a viable option. It is an urgent task to search for new semiconductor technologies and to develop radiation hard and environmentally robust optoelectronic devices. We will report on our latest systematic experimental studies on radiation hardness and space qualifications of AlGaN optoelectronic devices: Deep UV Light Emitting Diodes (DUV LEDs) and solarblind UV Photodiodes (PDs). For custom designed AlGaN DUV LEDs with a central emission wavelength of 255 nm, we have demonstrated its extreme radiation hardness up to 2 x 10 12 protons/cm 2 with 63.9 MeV proton beams. We have demonstrated an operation lifetime of over 26,000 hours in a nitrogen rich environment, and 23,000 hours of operation in vacuum without significant power drop and spectral shift. The DUV LEDs with multiple packaging styles have passed stringent space qualifications with 14 g random vibrations, and 21 cycles of 100K temperature cycles. The driving voltage, current, emission spectra and optical power (V-I-P) operation characteristics exhibited no significant changes after the space environmental tests. The DUV LEDs will be used for photoelectric charge management in space flights. For custom designed AlGaN UV photodiodes with a central response wavelength of 255 nm, we have

  3. Radiation hardness of superconducting magnet insulation materials for FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidl, Tim

    2013-03-01

    This thesis focuses on radiation degradation studies of polyimide, polyepoxy/glass-fiber composites and other technical components used, for example, in the superconducting magnets of new ion accelerators such as the planned International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at the GSI Helmholtz Center of Heavy Ion Research (GSI) in Darmstadt. As accelerators are becoming more powerful, i.e., providing larger energies and beam intensities, the potential risk of radiation damage to the components increases. Reliable data of the radiation hardness of accelerator materials and components concerning electrical, thermal and other technical relevant properties are of great interest also for other facilities such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of CERN. Dependent on the position of the different components, induced radiation due to beam losses consists of a cocktail of gammas, neutrons, protons, and heavier particles. Although the number of heavy fragments of the initial projectiles is small compared to neutrons, protons, or light fragments (e.g. ? particles), their large energy deposition can induce extensive damage at rather low fluences (dose calculations show that the contribution of heavy ions to the total accumulated dose can reach 80 %). For this reason, defined radiation experiments were conducted using different energetic ion beams (from protons to uranium) and gamma radiation from a Co-60 source. The induced changes were analyzed by means of in-situ and ex-situ analytical methods, e.g. ultraviolet-visible and infrared spectroscopy, residual gas analysis, thermal gravimetric analysis, dielectric strength measurements, measurements of low temperature thermal properties, and performance tests. In all cases, the radiation induces a change in molecular structure as well as loss of functional material properties. The amount of radiation damage is found to be sensitive to the used type of ionizing radiation and the long term stability of the materials is

  4. Development and application of cryogenic radiometry with hard X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlach, Martin

    2008-01-01

    To establish cryogenic radiometry with hard X-ray radiation for photon energies of up to 60 keV, a novel type of cavity absorber had to be developed for the cryogenic radiometer SYRES I, which is deployed by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) as primary standard detector at the electron storage ring BESSY II. This new type of cavity absorber allows for the complete absorption of hard X-ray radiation in combination with an appropriate sensitivity and an adequate time constant for the measurement of synchrotron radiation at BESSY II. As the process of fabrication of different types of absorbers is very time-consuming, the interaction of hard X-ray radiation with different absorber materials and geometries was studied intensively by using the Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4. The accuracy of the simulations was verified comparing them to scattering experiments performed at a wavelength shifter beamline at BESSY II with a calibrated energy dispersive detector. It was shown that Geant4 describes the photo-effect, including fluorescence as well as Compton- and Rayleigh scattering, with high accuracy. The simulations and experiments resulted in a cavity absorber with a gold base 550 μm in thickness and a cylindrical shell made of copper 90 μm in thickness to reduce losses caused by fluorescence and scattered radiation. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity was then used to calibrate semiconductor photodiodes, which can be used as compact and inexpensive secondary standard detectors, against a cryogenic radiometer, covering the entire photon energy range of three beamlines from 50 eV to 60 keV with relative uncertainties of less than 0.5 %. Furthermore the spatial homogeneity of the spectral responsivity, the transmittance and the linearity of the photodiodes was investigated. Through a direct comparison of the free-air ionization chamber PK100, a primary detector standard of PTB used in dosimetry, and the cryogenic radiometer SYRES

  5. Hard X-ray Microscopy with Elemental, Chemical and Structural Contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, C.G.; Boye, P.; Feldkamp, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    We review hard X-ray microscopy techniques with a focus on scanning microscopy with synchrotron radiation. Its strength compared to other microscopies is the large penetration depth of hard x rays in matter that allows one to investigate the interior of an object without destructive sample preparation. In combination with tomography, local information from inside of a specimen can be obtained, even from inside special non-ambient sample environments. Different X-ray analytical techniques can be used to produce contrast, such as X-ray absorption, fluorescence, and diffraction, to yield chemical, elemental, and structural information about the sample, respectively. This makes X-ray microscopy attractive to many fields of science, ranging from physics and chemistry to materials, geo-, and environmental science, biomedicine, and nanotechnology. Our scanning microscope based on nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses has a routine spatial resolution of about 100 nm and supports the contrast mechanisms mentioned above. In combination with coherent X-ray diffraction imaging, the spatial resolution can be improved to the 10 nm range. The current state-of-the-art of this technique is illustrated by several examples, and future prospects of the technique are given. (author)

  6. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detectors: Material parameters; radiation hardness; charge collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, S.

    1991-01-01

    Properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n diodes relevant to radiation detection applications were studied. The interest in using this material for radiation detection applications in physics and medicine was motivated by its high radiation hardness and the fact that it can be deposited over large area at relatively low cost. Thick, fully depleted a-Si:H diodes are required for sufficient energy deposition by a charged particle and better signal to noise ratio. A sizeable electric field is essential for charge collection in a -Si:H diodes. The large density of ionized defects that exist in the i layer when the diode is under DC bias causes the electric field to be uniform. Material parameters, namely carrier mobility and lifetime and the ionized defect density in thick a-Si:H p-i-n diodes were studied by the transient photoconductivity method. The increase in diode leakage current with reverse bias over the operating bias was consistent with the Poole-Frenkel effect, involving excitation of carriers from neutral defects. The diode noise over the operating voltage range was completely explained in terms of the shot noise component for CR-(RC) 4 (pseudo-Gaussian) shaping at 3 μs shaping time and the noise component at 0 V bias (delta and thermal noise) added in quadrature. Irradiation with 1 Mev neutrons produced no significant degradation in leakage current and noise at fluences exceeding 4 x 10 14 cm -2 . Irradiation with 1.4 Mev proton fluence of 1 x 10 14 cm -2 decreased carrier lifetime by a factor of ∼4. Degradation in leakage current and noise became significant at proton fluence of ∼10 13 cm -2

  7. Radiation-hard/high-speed parallel optical links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, K.K., E-mail: gan@mps.ohio-state.edu [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Buchholz, P.; Heidbrink, S. [Fachbereich Physik, Universität Siegen, Siegen (Germany); Kagan, H.P.; Kass, R.D.; Moore, J.; Smith, D.S. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Vogt, M.; Ziolkowski, M. [Fachbereich Physik, Universität Siegen, Siegen (Germany)

    2016-09-21

    We have designed and fabricated a compact parallel optical engine for transmitting data at 5 Gb/s. The device consists of a 4-channel ASIC driving a VCSEL (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser) array in an optical package. The ASIC is designed using only core transistors in a 65 nm CMOS process to enhance the radiation-hardness. The ASIC contains an 8-bit DAC to control the bias and modulation currents of the individual channels in the VCSEL array. The performance of the optical engine up at 5 Gb/s is satisfactory.

  8. Radiation hardness of WLS fibres for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    David, M; Maio, A

    2007-01-01

    In this document we present the data obtained in the irradiation in a Co-60 source of WLS fibers for the TileCal calorimeter. The optical, mechanical and radiation hardness properties of these fibers were developed in close contact with three producers: Bicron, Kuraray and Pol.Hi.Tech. The results on the degradation of the light output and attenuation length from five irradiations are presented. The fibers were irradiated with a total dose at least 3 times higher than the dose predicted for 10 years of operation of LHC at nominal luminosity.

  9. A Hard X-Ray Power-Law Spectral Cutoff in Centaurus X-4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarty, Deepto; Tomsick, John A.; Grefenstette, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    The low-mass X-ray binary Cen X-4 is the brightest and closest (<1.2 kpc) quiescent neutron star transient. Previous 0.5-10 keV X-ray observations of Cen X-4 in quiescence identified two spectral components: soft thermal emission from the neutron star atmosphere and a hard power-law tail of unkno...... behavior with PSR J1023+0038, IGR J18245-2452, and XSS J12270-4859, which have shown transitions between LMXB and radio pulsar modes at a similar X-ray luminosity....

  10. Comparing natural and artificial carious lesions in human crowns by means of conventional hard x-ray micro-tomography and two-dimensional x-ray scattering with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Lea Maria; White, Shane N.; Deyhle, Hans; Dziadowiec, Iwona; Schulz, Georg; Thalmann, Peter; Müller, Bert

    2016-10-01

    Dental caries, one of the most prevalent infectious bacterial diseases in the world, is caused by specific types of acid-producing bacteria. Caries is a disease continuum resulting from the earliest loss of ions from apatite crystals through gross cavitation. Enamel dissolution starts when the pH-value drops below 5.5. Neutralizing the pH-value in the oral cavity opposes the process of demineralization, and so caries lesions occur in a dynamic cyclic de-mineralizing/remineralizing environment. Unfortunately, biomimetic regeneration of cavitated enamel is not yet possible, although remineralization of small carious lesions occurs under optimal conditions. Therefore, the development of methods that can regenerate carious lesions, and subsequently recover and retain teeth, is highly desirable. For the present proceedings we analyzed one naturally occurring sub-surface and one artificially produced lesion. For the characterization of artificial and natural lesions micro computed tomography is the method of choice when looking to determine three-dimensional mineral distribution and to quantify the degree of mineralization. In this pilot study we elucidate that the de-mineralized enamel in natural and artificially induced lesions shows comparable X-ray attenuation behavior, thereby implying that the study protocol employed herein seems to be appropriate. Once we know that the lesions are comparable, a series of well-reproducible in vitro experiments on enamel regeneration could be performed. In order to quantify further lesion morphology, the anisotropy of the enamel's nanostructure can be characterized by using spatially resolved, small-angle X-ray scattering. We wanted to demonstrate that the artificially induced defect fittingly resembles the natural carious lesion.

  11. Sub-100 nm hard X-ray microbeam generation with Fresnel zone plate optics

    CERN Document Server

    Takano, H; Takeuchi, A

    2003-01-01

    A hard X-ray focusing test of a Fresnel zone plate has been performed with a synchrotron radiation source at the undulator beamline 20XU of SPring-8. Fresnel zone plate with a radius of 150 mu m, and an outermost zone width of 100 nm was used for the X-ray focusing device. The 248-m-long beamline provides fully coherent illumination for the focusing device. The focused beam evaluated by the knife-edge-scan method and scanning microscope test using test charts. Nearly diffraction- limited focusing with a size of 120 nm was achieved for the first-order diffraction at 10 keV X-ray. Evaluation for the third order diffraction was also performed at 8 keV X-ray, and a focal size of 50 m has been obtained. (author)

  12. The hard X-ray spectrum of Cyg X-1 during the transition in November 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, M.; Maurus, H.; Urbach, R.

    1976-01-01

    Some observations are reported of the hard X-ray spectrum of Cyg X-1 during a transition to the high state in November 1975, made with a balloon-borne X-ray detector. The range covered was 25 to 150 keV. The data obtained appeared to confirm the characteristic spectral time variation, and suggested a single power law spectrum from 3 to 80 keV, with an increasing spectral index during the upward transition to the high state. A power spectrum is expected if it is assumed that the universe Compton effect is the basic mechanism that produces the hard X-ray tail of Cyg X-1. Spectral time variation may be caused by a varying intensity of an inner soft photon source within a stable hot cloud. (U.K.)

  13. THE SWIFT/BAT HARD X-RAY TRANSIENT MONITOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krimm, H. A.; Holland, S. T.; Corbet, R. H. D.; Pearlman, A. B.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Cummings, J. R.; Romano, P.; Kennea, J. A.; Bloom, J. S.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Gehrels, N.; Lien, A. Y.; Markwardt, C. B.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Palmer, D. M.; Sakamoto, T.; Stamatikos, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) hard X-ray transient monitor provides near real-time coverage of the X-ray sky in the energy range 15-50 keV. The BAT observes 88% of the sky each day with a detection sensitivity of 5.3 mCrab for a full-day observation and a time resolution as fine as 64 s. The three main purposes of the monitor are (1) the discovery of new transient X-ray sources, (2) the detection of outbursts or other changes in the flux of known X-ray sources, and (3) the generation of light curves of more than 900 sources spanning over eight years. The primary interface for the BAT transient monitor is a public Web site. Between 2005 February 12 and 2013 April 30, 245 sources have been detected in the monitor, 146 of them persistent and 99 detected only in outburst. Among these sources, 17 were previously unknown and were discovered in the transient monitor. In this paper, we discuss the methodology and the data processing and filtering for the BAT transient monitor and review its sensitivity and exposure. We provide a summary of the source detections and classify them according to the variability of their light curves. Finally, we review all new BAT monitor discoveries. For the new sources that are previously unpublished, we present basic data analysis and interpretations

  14. THE SWIFT/BAT HARD X-RAY TRANSIENT MONITOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krimm, H. A.; Holland, S. T.; Corbet, R. H. D.; Pearlman, A. B.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Cummings, J. R. [Center for Research and Exploration in Space Science and Technology (CRESST) and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Romano, P. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, Via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Kennea, J. A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Bloom, J. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Barthelmy, S. D.; Gehrels, N.; Lien, A. Y.; Markwardt, C. B.; Ukwatta, T. N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Palmer, D. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, B244, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Sakamoto, T. [Department of Physics and Mathematics, College of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara-shi, Kanagawa 252-5258 (Japan); Stamatikos, M. [Department of Physics and Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) hard X-ray transient monitor provides near real-time coverage of the X-ray sky in the energy range 15-50 keV. The BAT observes 88% of the sky each day with a detection sensitivity of 5.3 mCrab for a full-day observation and a time resolution as fine as 64 s. The three main purposes of the monitor are (1) the discovery of new transient X-ray sources, (2) the detection of outbursts or other changes in the flux of known X-ray sources, and (3) the generation of light curves of more than 900 sources spanning over eight years. The primary interface for the BAT transient monitor is a public Web site. Between 2005 February 12 and 2013 April 30, 245 sources have been detected in the monitor, 146 of them persistent and 99 detected only in outburst. Among these sources, 17 were previously unknown and were discovered in the transient monitor. In this paper, we discuss the methodology and the data processing and filtering for the BAT transient monitor and review its sensitivity and exposure. We provide a summary of the source detections and classify them according to the variability of their light curves. Finally, we review all new BAT monitor discoveries. For the new sources that are previously unpublished, we present basic data analysis and interpretations.

  15. The Swift/BAT Hard X-ray Transient Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimm, H. A.; Holland, S. T.; Corbet, R.H.D.; Pearlman, A. B.; Romano, P.; Kennea, J. A.; Bloom, J. S.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Cummings, J. R.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) hard X-ray transient monitor provides near real-time coverage of the X-ray sky in the energy range 15-50 keV. The BAT observes 88% of the sky each day with a detection sensitivity of 5.3 mCrab for a full-day observation and a time resolution as ne as 64 seconds. The three main purposes of the monitor are (1) the discovery of new transient X-ray sources, (2) the detection of outbursts or other changes in the ux of known X-ray sources, and (3) the generation of light curves of more than 900 sources spanning over eight years. The primary interface for the BAT transient monitor is a public web page. Since 2005 February, 242 sources have been detected in the monitor, 149 of them persistent and 93 detected only in outburst. Among these sources, 16 were previously unknown and discovered in the transient monitor. In this paper, we discuss the methodology and the data processing and ltering for the BAT transient monitor and review its sensitivity and exposure. We provide a summary of the source detections and classify them according to the variability of their light curves. Finally, we review all new BAT monitor discoveries and present basic data analysis and interpretations for those sources with previously unpublished results.

  16. The Swift-BAT Hard X-Ray Transient Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimm, H. A.; Holland, S. T.; Corbet, R. H. D.; Pearlman, A. B.; Romano, P.; Kennea, J. A.; Bloom, J. S.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Cummings, J. R.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) hard X-ray transient monitor provides near real-time coverage of the X-ray sky in the energy range 15-50 keV. The BAT observes 88% of the sky each day with a detection sensitivity of 5.3 mCrab for a full-day observation and a time resolution as fine as 64 s. The three main purposes of the monitor are (1) the discovery of new transient X-ray sources, (2) the detection of outbursts or other changes in the flux of known X-ray sources, and (3) the generation of light curves of more than 900 sources spanning over eight years. The primary interface for the BAT transient monitor is a public Web site. Between 2005 February 12 and 2013 April 30, 245 sources have been detected in the monitor, 146 of them persistent and 99 detected only in outburst. Among these sources, 17 were previously unknown and were discovered in the transient monitor. In this paper, we discuss the methodology and the data processing and filtering for the BAT transient monitor and review its sensitivity and exposure.We provide a summary of the source detections and classify them according to the variability of their light curves. Finally, we review all new BAT monitor discoveries. For the new sources that are previously unpublished, we present basic data analysis and interpretations.

  17. Study of the Radiation-Hardness of VCSEL and PIN

    CERN Document Server

    Gan, K K; Fernando, W; Kagan, H P; Kass, R D; Lebbai, M R M; Merritt, H; Moore, J R; Nagarkar, A; Rizatdinova, F; Skubic, P L; Smith, D S; Strang, M

    2009-01-01

    The silicon trackers of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva) use optical links for data transmission. An upgrade of the trackers is planned for the Super LHC (SLHC), an upgraded LHC with ten times higher luminosity. We study the radiation-hardness of VCSELs (Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser) and GaAs and silicon PINs using 24 GeV/c protons at CERN for possible application in the data transmission upgrade. The optical power of VCSEL arrays decreases significantly after the irradiation but can be partially annealed with high drive currents. The responsivities of the PIN diodes also decrease significantly after irradiation, but can be recovered by operating at higher bias voltage. This provides a simple mechanism to recover from the radiation damage.

  18. Time-Resolved Hard X-Ray Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenneth Moya; Ian McKennaa; Thomas Keenana; Michael Cuneob

    2007-01-01

    Wired array studies are being conducted at the SNL Z accelerator to maximize the x-ray generation for inertial confinement fusion targets and high energy density physics experiments. An integral component of these studies is the characterization of the time-resolved spectral content of the x-rays. Due to potential spatial anisotropy in the emitted radiation, it is also critical to diagnose the time-evolved spectral content in a space-resolved manner. To accomplish these two measurement goals, we developed an x-ray spectrometer using a set of high-speed detectors (silicon PIN diodes) with a collimated field-of-view that converged on a 1-cm-diameter spot at the pinch axis. Spectral discrimination is achieved by placing high Z absorbers in front of these detectors. We built two spectrometers to permit simultaneous different angular views of the emitted radiation. Spectral data have been acquired from recent Z shots for the radial and polar views. UNSPEC1 has been adapted to analyze and unfold the measured data to reconstruct the x-ray spectrum. The unfold operator code, UFO2, is being adapted for a more comprehensive spectral unfolding treatment

  19. Guiding hard x rays with glass polycapillary fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Q.F.; Ponomarev, I.Y.; Kolomitsev, A.I.; Gibson, D.M.; Dilmanian, F.A.; Nachaliel, E.

    1993-01-01

    X rays can be guided through a polycapillary fiber by multiple total reflections from the smooth channel walls of the fiber. Using monochromatic Synchrotron Radiation at energies of 22 and 44 keV, we measured the efficiency of transmission of x rays through polycapillary fibers with channel diameters of about 13 μm. Efficiencies of 57.3% and 54.5% for 22 keV and 44 keV x rays, respectively, were obtained with a 120-mm-long straight polycapillary fiber aligned with the incident beam. These values are close to the open fraction of the fiber, which is about 60%. In addition, transmission efficiency was measured as a function of the tilt angle between the incident beam and the axis of the fiber. We also measured the transmission efficiency as a function of the deflection angle for a 114-mm-long curved polycapillary fiber. The measurements are compared with a ray-tracing simulation

  20. A new hard X-ray transient discovered by INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibaud, L.; Bazzano, A.; Bozzo, E.

    2011-01-01

    INTEGRAL discovered a new hard X-ray transient, IGR J17498-2921, during the observations performed from 2011-08-11 22:45 to 2011-08-12 05:54 UTC. The source is detected in the IBIS/ISGRI mosaic at a preliminary significance level of 11 and 9 sigma in the 20-40 keV and 40-80 keV energy bands......, respectively. The corresponding fluxes are 19+/-2 and 23+/-3 mCrab (68% c.l., only statistical). The best determined source position is at RA=17:49:49; DEC=-29:21:14 (J2000) with a 90% confinement radius of 2.3 arcmin. The IBIS/ISGRI spectrum (exposure time 15.9 ks) can be well described by a a power...

  1. Long duration hard X-ray transatlantic payload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Padula, C.D.; Bazzano, A.; Boccaccini, L.; Mastropietro, M.; Patriarca, R.; Polcaro, V.F.; Ubertini, P.

    1981-01-01

    The HXR80M large-area hard X-ray experiment, to be flown aboard a transatlantic balloon, is described. The detectors are two multiwire spectroscopic proportional counters (MWSPC) with a 2700-sq-cm sensitive area each. The two detectors are filled with an extremely pure xenon-isobutane mixture at high pressure (3-6 atm) in order to obtain good spectral resolution and high efficiency. The onboard data handling is performed by microprocessor-controlled electronics. The scientific aim of the experiment is the survey of the sky belt around the 38th parallel and in particular the observation of faint galactic objects and galactic binary systems in the 15-200 keV range

  2. Radiation hardness studies for DEPFETs in Belle II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The study of CP violation requires dedicated detectors and accelerators. At KEK, the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization located in Tsukuba, Japan, an upgrade of the present accelerator KEKB and its detector is in progress. For this new Belle II detector, a new vertex system will be installed, consisting of a silicon strip detector (SVD) and a pixel detector (PXD). The PXD exhibits eight million pixels, each of them made of Depleted p-channel Field Effect Transistors (DEPFETs). During the operation of Belle II various machine- as well as luminosity-related background processes affect the device performance of the DEPFET through radiation damage. As a Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) device, the DEPFET is affected by ionizing radiation damage as well as by damages to the silicon bulk itself. The major part of the radiation damage has its origin in the creation of electrons and positrons near the interaction point. Therefore, the hardness factor of electrons of relevant energy was investigated in this work. With this quantity the damage by electrons could be compared to the damage inflicted by neutrons. Neutron irradiations were performed with DEPFETs and related silicon material. The effects of leakage current increase and type inversion were studied. As the electron hardness investigation indicates, the bulk damage done to the DEPFET is small in comparison to the impact on the silicon dioxide layer of the device. Ionizing radiation results in a build-up of oxide charge, thus changing the device characteristics. Especially the threshold voltage of the DEPFET is shifted to more negative values. This shift has to be compensated during the operation of Belle II and is limited by device and system constraints, thus an overall small shift is desired. The changes in the device characteristics were investigated for the two gate electrodes of the DEPFET with respect to their biasing and production related issues. With an additional layer of silicon nitride and a

  3. Hard x-ray phase contrastmicroscopy - techniques and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzner, Christian

    In 1918, Einstein provided the first description of the nature of the refractive index for X-rays, showing that phase contrast effects are significant. A century later, most x-ray microscopy and nearly all medical imaging remains based on absorption contrast, even though phase contrast offers orders of magnitude improvements in contrast and reduced radiation exposure at multi-keV x-ray energies. The work presented is concerned with developing practical and quantitative methods of phase contrast for x-ray microscopy. A theoretical framework for imaging in phase contrast is put forward; this is used to obtain quantitative images in a scanning microscope using a segmented detector, and to correct for artifacts in a commercial phase contrast x-ray nano-tomography system. The principle of reciprocity between scanning and full-field microscopes is then used to arrive at a novel solution: Zernike contrast in a scanning microscope. These approaches are compared on a theoretical and experimental basis in direct connection with applications using multi-keV x-ray microscopes at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. Phase contrast provides the best means to image mass and ultrastructure of light elements that mainly constitute biological matter, while stimulated x-ray fluorescence provides high sensitivity for studies of the distribution of heavier trace elements, such as metals. These approaches are combined in a complementary way to yield quantitative maps of elemental concentration from 2D images, with elements placed in their ultrastructural context. The combination of x-ray fluorescence and phase contrast poses an ideal match for routine, high resolution tomographic imaging of biological samples in the future. The presented techniques and demonstration experiments will help pave the way for this development.

  4. Design and Tests of the Hard X-ray Polarimeter X-Calibur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Beilicke

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available X-ray polarimetry promises to give qualitatively new information bout high-energy astrophysical sources, such as binary black hole  systems, micro-quasars, active galactic nuclei, and gamma-ray bursts. We designed, built and tested ahard X-ray polarimeter, X-Calibur, to be used in the focal plane of the InFOCuS grazing incidence hard X-ray telescope.X-Calibur combines a low-Z Compton scatterer with a CZT detector assembly to measure the polarization of 20−60 keV X-rays making use of the fact that polarized photons Compton scatter preferentially perpendicular to the electric field orientation; in principal, a similar space-borne experiment could be operated in the 5−100 keV regime. X-Calibur achieves a high detection efficiency of order unity.

  5. Characterisation and application of a laser-based hard x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graetz, M.

    1998-11-01

    Hard X-rays are generated by focusing 110 fs laser pulses with intensities of about 1017 W/cm 2 onto solid metal targets. Characteristic properties of this X-ray source are the small source size, the short pulse duration and the high peak flux. The aim of the present work was to characterise this X-ray source and to demonstrate possible applications. A comparison with other X-ray sources and conventional imaging techniques is made. Characterising measurements were performed, including source size, emission spectrum, temporal behaviour, source stability and the influence of various laser parameters. The emission spectrum was measured using both energy-dispersive solid-state detectors and wavelength-dispersive crystal spectroscopy. The conversion efficiency from laser light to X-ray radiation was measured for different target materials. The laser ablation from different targets was studied. The feasibility of special imaging techniques, e.g. differential imaging and time-gated imaging, was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Differential imaging allows for selective imaging of contrast agents, while time-gated imaging can reduce the influence of scattered radiation in X-ray imaging. Time-gated imaging was demonstrated in different imaging geometries, both for planar imaging and computed tomography imaging. Reasonable agreement between theoretically calculated values and experimental results was obtained

  6. Characterisation and application of a laser-based hard x-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graetz, M

    1998-11-01

    Hard X-rays are generated by focusing 110 fs laser pulses with intensities of about 1017 W/cm{sup 2} onto solid metal targets. Characteristic properties of this X-ray source are the small source size, the short pulse duration and the high peak flux. The aim of the present work was to characterise this X-ray source and to demonstrate possible applications. A comparison with other X-ray sources and conventional imaging techniques is made. Characterising measurements were performed, including source size, emission spectrum, temporal behaviour, source stability and the influence of various laser parameters. The emission spectrum was measured using both energy-dispersive solid-state detectors and wavelength-dispersive crystal spectroscopy. The conversion efficiency from laser light to X-ray radiation was measured for different target materials. The laser ablation from different targets was studied. The feasibility of special imaging techniques, e.g. differential imaging and time-gated imaging, was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Differential imaging allows for selective imaging of contrast agents, while time-gated imaging can reduce the influence of scattered radiation in X-ray imaging. Time-gated imaging was demonstrated in different imaging geometries, both for planar imaging and computed tomography imaging. Reasonable agreement between theoretically calculated values and experimental results was obtained 120 refs, figs, tabs

  7. Hard X-ray synchrotron light source for industrial and materials research applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehr, H.; Ehrfeld, W.; Moser, H.O.; Schmidt, M.; Herminghaus, H.

    1992-01-01

    The requirements for industrial production or for an industry-related analytical environment is demonstrated for the case of the proposed hard X-ray synchrotron light source. The source is intended to provide radiation mainly for deep X-ray lithography as part of the LIGA-process in microfabrication, and for analytical and diagnostic purposes in materials research and microtechnology. It offers up to 48 bending magnet beamlines with a characteristic wavelength of 2 A. An electron energy of 2.5 GeV and normal conducting magnets will be used. A FODO lattice with a beam emittance of 3x10 -7 m rad and four dispersion-free straight sections to accommodate insertion devices, injection elements and RF structures has been designed. (R.P.) 5 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  8. Femtosecond response of polyatomic molecules to ultra-intense hard X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, A; Inhester, L; Hanasaki, K; Li, X; Robatjazi, S J; Erk, B; Boll, R; Toyota, K; Hao, Y; Vendrell, O; Bomme, C; Savelyev, E; Rudek, B; Foucar, L; Southworth, S H; Lehmann, C S; Kraessig, B; Marchenko, T; Simon, M; Ueda, K; Ferguson, K R; Bucher, M; Gorkhover, T; Carron, S; Alonso-Mori, R; Koglin, J E; Correa, J; Williams, G J; Boutet, S; Young, L; Bostedt, C; Son, S-K; Santra, R; Rolles, D

    2017-06-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers enable the investigation of the structure and dynamics of diverse systems, including atoms, molecules, nanocrystals and single bioparticles, under extreme conditions. Many imaging applications that target biological systems and complex materials use hard X-ray pulses with extremely high peak intensities (exceeding 10 20 watts per square centimetre). However, fundamental investigations have focused mainly on the individual response of atoms and small molecules using soft X-rays with much lower intensities. Studies with intense X-ray pulses have shown that irradiated atoms reach a very high degree of ionization, owing to multiphoton absorption, which in a heteronuclear molecular system occurs predominantly locally on a heavy atom (provided that the absorption cross-section of the heavy atom is considerably larger than those of its neighbours) and is followed by efficient redistribution of the induced charge. In serial femtosecond crystallography of biological objects-an application of X-ray free-electron lasers that greatly enhances our ability to determine protein structure-the ionization of heavy atoms increases the local radiation damage that is seen in the diffraction patterns of these objects and has been suggested as a way of phasing the diffraction data. On the basis of experiments using either soft or less-intense hard X-rays, it is thought that the induced charge and associated radiation damage of atoms in polyatomic molecules can be inferred from the charge that is induced in an isolated atom under otherwise comparable irradiation conditions. Here we show that the femtosecond response of small polyatomic molecules that contain one heavy atom to ultra-intense (with intensities approaching 10 20 watts per square centimetre), hard (with photon energies of 8.3 kiloelectronvolts) X-ray pulses is qualitatively different: our experimental and modelling results establish that, under these conditions, the ionization of a molecule is

  9. Characteristics of hard X-ray double sources in impulsive solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakao, T.; Kosugi, T.; Masuda, S.; Yaji, K.; Inda-Koide, M.; Makishima, K.

    1996-01-01

    Imaging observations of solar flare hard X-ray sources with the Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT) aboard the Yohkoh satellite have revealed that hard X-ray emissions (greater than 30 ke V) originate most frequently from double sources. The double sources are located on both sides of the magnetic neutral line, suggesting that the bulk of hard X-rays is emitted from footpoints of flaring magnetic loops. We also found that hard X-rays from the double sources are emitted simultaneously within a fraction of second and that the weaker source tends to be located in the stronger magnetic field region, showing a softer spectrum. Physcial implications on the observed characteristics of the hard X-ray double sources are discussed.

  10. Hard X-ray balloon observations of compact galactic and extragalactic X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staubert, R.; Kendziorra, E.; Pietsch, W.; Proctor, R.J.; Reppin, C.; Steinle, H.; Truemper, J.; Voges, W.

    1981-01-01

    A balloon program in hard X-ray astronomy (20-200 keV) is jointly pursued by the Astronomisches Institut der Universitaet Tuebingen (AIT) and the Max Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik in Garching (MPE). Since 1973 nine succussful balloon flights have been performed from Texas and Australia. Here results on Centaurus A and on several galactic binary X-ray sources are summarized. In particular the high energy photon spectrum of Hercules X-1 and the evidence for the cyclotron line feature which was discovered by us in 1976 is reviewed. (orig.)

  11. Observation of hard X-rays line emission from Her X-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polcaro, V.F.; Bazzano, A.; la Padula, C.; Ubertini, P.; Vialetto, G.; Manchanda, R.K.; Damle, S.V.

    1982-04-01

    We present the results of a hard X-ray measurement of the binary source Her X-1, carried out with a balloon borne X-ray telescope consisting of two Multiwire Proportional Counters, having 900 cm/sup 2/ sensitive area each and spectral resolution of 15% and 24% FWHM respectively at 60 keV. The source was observed during the 'Mid-on' state. Our data confirm the previously reported high energy emission line overimposed on the low energy thermal spectrum.

  12. Discovery of Diffuse Hard X-ray Emission associated with Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoe, Y.; Miyoshi, Y.; Ishikawa, K.; Ohashi, T.; Terada, N.; Uchiyama, Y.; Negoro, H.

    2009-12-01

    Our discovery of diffuse hard (1-5 keV) X-ray emission around Jupiter is reported. Recent Chandra and XMM-Newton observations revealed several types of X-rays in the vicinity of Jupiter such as auroral and disk emission from Jupiter and faint diffuse X-rays from the Io Plasma Torus (see Bhardwaj et al. 2007 for review). To investigate possible diffuse hard X-ray emission around Jupiter with the highest sensitivity, we conducted data analysis of Suzaku XIS observations of Jupiter on Feb 2006. After removing satellite and planetary orbital motions, we detected a significant diffuse X-ray emission extending to ~6 x 3 arcmin with the 1-5 keV X-ray luminosity of ~3e15 erg/s. The emitting region very well coincided with the Jupiter's radiation belts. The 1-5 keV X-ray spectrum was represented by a simple power law model with a photon index of 1.4. Such a flat continuum strongly suggests non-thermal origin. Although such an emission can be originated from multiple background point sources, its possibility is quite low. We hence examined three mechanisms, assuming that the emission is truly diffuse: bremsstrahlung by keV electrons, synchrotron emission by TeV electrons, and inverse Compton scattering of solar photons by MeV electrons. The former two can be rejected because of the X-ray spectral shape and implausible existence of TeV electrons around Jupiter, respectively. The last possibility was found to be possible because tens MeV electrons, which have been confirmed in inner radiation belts (Bolton et al. 2002), can kick solar photons to the keV energy range and provide a simple power-law continuum. We estimated an average electron density from the X-ray luminosity assuming the oblate spheroid shaped emitting region with 8 x 8 x 4 Jovian radii. The necessary density was 0.02 1/cm3 for 50 MeV electrons. Hence, our results may suggest a new particle acceleration phenomenon around Jupiter.

  13. Systems for detecting and recording hard corpuscular and electromagnetic radiations using a superconducting element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drukier, A.K.; Valette, Claude; Waysand, Georges.

    1975-01-01

    The invention relates to systems for detecting hard X ray or gamma radiations above 5 keV in energy, intended, for example, for gammagraphy by emission in the biological, anatomic and medical fields. It describes systems of the above type which directly give the image of a radiation distribution, that is to say without intermediate processing. Another purpose of the invention is to provide the devices with main memory measuring the radiation distribution, in other words systems that display the said data for as long as the operator deems necessary and that can be reset, that is to say returned to measuring conditions, immediately. The invention makes use of the properties of type I superconductors [fr

  14. Silicon photo-multiplier radiation hardness tests with a beam controlled neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelone, M.; Pillon, M.; Faccini, R.; Pinci, D.; Baldini, W.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Malaguti, R.; Pozzati, M.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation hardness tests were performed at the Frascati Neutron Generator on silicon Photo-Multipliers that were made of semiconductor photon detectors built from a square matrix of avalanche photo-diodes on a silicon substrate. Several samples from different manufacturers have been irradiated, integrating up to 7x10 10 1-MeV-equivalent neutrons per cm 2 . Detector performance was recorded during the neutron irradiation, and a gradual deterioration of their properties began after an integrated fluence of the order of 10 8 1-MeV-equivalent neutrons per cm 2 was reached.

  15. Development of Radiation Hard Radiation Detectors, Differences between Czochralski Silicon and Float Zone Silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Tuominen, Eija

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop radiation hard silicon detectors. Radiation detectors made ofsilicon are cost effective and have excellent position resolution. Therefore, they are widely used fortrack finding and particle analysis in large high-energy physics experiments. Silicon detectors willalso be used in the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiment that is being built at the LHC (LargeHadron Collider) accelerator at CERN (European Organisation for Nuclear Research). This work wasdone in the CMS programme of Helsinki Institute of Physics (HIP).Exposure of the silicon material to particle radiation causes irreversible defects that deteriorate theperformance of the silicon detectors. In HIP CMS Programme, our approach was to improve theradiation hardness of the silicon material with increased oxygen concentration in silicon material. Westudied two different methods: diffusion oxygenation of Float Zone silicon and use of high resistivityCzochralski silicon.We processed, characterised, tested in a parti...

  16. Radiation hard silicon sensors for the CMS tracker upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Pohlsen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    At an instantaneous luminosity of $5 \\times 10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, the high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) is expected to deliver a total of $3\\,000$ fb$^{-1}$ of collisions, hereby increasing the discovery potential of the LHC experiments significantly. However, the radiation dose of the tracking systems will be severe, requiring new radiation hard sensors for the CMS tracker. The CMS tracker collaboration has initiated a large material investigation and irradiation campaign to identify the silicon material and design that fulfils all requirements for detectors for the HL-LHC. Focussing on the upgrade of the outer tracker region, pad sensors as well as fully functional strip sensors have been implemented on silicon wafers with different material properties and thicknesses. The samples were irradiated with a mixture of neutrons and protons corresponding to fluences as expected for the positions of detector layers in the future tracker. Different proton energies were used for irr...

  17. Development of high temperature, radiation hard detectors based on diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalfe, Alex, E-mail: Alex.Metcalfe@brunel.ac.uk [Wolfson Centre for Materials Processing, Brunel University London, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Fern, George R. [Wolfson Centre for Materials Processing, Brunel University London, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Hobson, Peter R. [Centre for Sensors & Instrumentation, College of Engineering, Design and Physical Sciences, Brunel University London, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Ireland, Terry; Salimian, Ali; Silver, Jack [Wolfson Centre for Materials Processing, Brunel University London, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Smith, David R. [Centre for Sensors & Instrumentation, College of Engineering, Design and Physical Sciences, Brunel University London, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Lefeuvre, Gwenaelle [Micron Semiconductor Ltd., Lancing BN15 8 SJ (United Kingdom); Saenger, Richard [Schlumberger Limited, 91240 Clamart (France)

    2017-02-11

    Single crystal CVD diamond has many desirable properties compared to current, well developed, detector materials; exceptional radiation, chemical and physical hardness, chemical inertness, low Z (close to human tissue, good for dosimetry), wide bandgap and an intrinsic pathway to fast neutron detection through the {sup 12}C(n,α){sup 9}Be reaction. However effective exploitation of these properties requires development of a suitable metallisation scheme to give stable contacts for high temperature applications. To best utilise available processing techniques to optimise sensor response through geometry and conversion media configurations, a reliable model is required. This must assess the performance in terms of spectral response and overall efficiency as a function of detector and converter geometry. The same is also required for proper interpretation of experimental data. Sensors have been fabricated with varying metallisation schemes indented to permit high temperature operation; Present test results indicate that viable fabrication schemes for high temperature contacts have been developed and present modelling results, supported by preliminary data from partners indicate simulations provide a useful representation of response. - Highlights: • Radiation sensors using diamond as the sensitive volume have been constructed. • Functionality of these sensors with minimal degradation has been confirmed at 100 °C. • Sensitisation to thermal neutrons by addition of conversion layers has been modelled. • Modelling suggests 4× efficiency improvements from 3d converter-substrate interfaces.

  18. Radiation-hard semiconductor detectors for SuperLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bruzzi, Mara; Al-Ajili, A A; Alexandrov, P; Alfieri, G; Allport, Philip P; Andreazza, A; Artuso, M; Assouak, S; Avset, B S; Barabash, L; Baranova, E; Barcz, A; Basile, A; Bates, R; Belova, N; Betta, G F D; Biagi, S F; Bilei, G M; Bisello, D; Blue, A; Blumenau, A; Boisvert, V; Bölla, G; Bondarenko, G B; Borchi, E; Borrello, L; Bortoletto, D; Boscardin, M; Bosisio, L; Bowcock, T J V; Brodbeck, T J; Broz, J; Brukhanov, A; Brzozowski, A; Buda, M; Buhmann, P; Buttar, C; Campabadal, F; Campbell, D; Candelori, A; Casse, G; Cavallini, A; Chilingarov, A G; Chren, D; Cindro, V; Citterio, M; Collins, P; Coluccia, R; Contarato, D; Coutinho, J; Creanza, D; Cunningham, W; Cvetkov, V; Davies, G; Dawson, I; De Palma, M; Demina, R; Dervan, P; Dierlamm, A; Dittongo, S; Dobrzanski, L; Dolezal, Z; Dolgolenko, A; Eberlein, T; Eremin, V; Fall, C; Fasolo, F; Ferbel, T; Fizzotti, F; Fleta, C; Focardi, E; Forton, E; Franchenko, S; Fretwurst, E; Gamaz, F; García-Navarro, J E; García, C; Gaubas, E; Genest, M H; Gill, K A; Giolo, K; Glaser, M; Gössling, C; Golovine, V; Gorelov, I; Goss, J; Gouldwell, A; Grégoire, G; Gregori, P; Grigoriev, E; Grigson, C; Grillo, A; Groza, A; Guskov, J; Haddad, L; Harding, R; Härkönen, J; Hauler, F; Hayama, S; Hoeferkamp, M; Honniger, F; Horazdovsky, T; Horisberger, R P; Horn, M; Houdayer, A; Hourahine, B; Hruban, A; Hughes, G; Ilyashenko, Yu S; Irmscher, K; Ivanov, A; Jarasiunas, K; Jin, T; Jones, B K; Jones, R; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kalinina, E; Kaminski, P; Karpenko, A; Karpov, A; Kazlauskiene, V; Kazukauskas, V; Khivrich, V; Khomenkov, V P; Kierstead, J A; Klaiber Lodewigs, J M; Kleverman, M; Klingenberg, R; Kodys, P; Kohout, Z; Korjenevski, S; Kowalik, A; Kozlowski, R; Kozodaev, M; Kramberger, G; Krasel, O; Kuznetsov, A; Kwan, S; Lagomarsino, S; Lari, T; Lassila-Perini, K M; Lastovetsky, V F; Latino, G; Latushkin, S T; Lazanu, I; Lazanu, S; Lebel, C; Leinonen, K; Leroy, C; Li, Z; Lindström, G; Lindström, L; Linhart, V; Litovchenko, A P; Litovchenko, P G; Litvinov, V; Lo Giudice, A; Lozano, M; Luczynski, Z; Luukka, Panja; Macchiolo, A; Mainwood, A; Makarenko, L F; Mandic, I; Manfredotti, C; Martí i García, S; Marunko, S; Mathieson, K; Melone, J; Menichelli, D; Meroni, C; Messineo, A; Miglio, S; Mikuz, M; Miyamoto, J; Moll, M; Monakhov, E; Moscatelli, F; Mozzanti, A; Murin, L; Naoumov, D; Nava, F; Nossarzhevska, E; Nummela, S; Nysten, J; Olivero, P; O'Shea, V; Palviainen, T; Paolini, C; Parkes, C; Passeri, D; Pein, U; Pellegrini, G; Perera, L; Petasecca, M; Piatkowski, B; Piemonte, C; Pignatel, G U; Pinho, N; Pintilie, I; Pintilie, L; Polivtsev, L; Polozov, P; Popa, A I; Popule, J; Pospísil, S; Pucker, G; Radicci, V; Rafí, J M; Ragusa, F; Rahman, M; Rando, R; Röder, R; Rohe, T; Ronchin, S; Rott, C; Roy, A; Roy, P; Ruzin, A; Ryazanov, A; Sadrozinski, H F W; Sakalauskas, S; Scaringella, M; Schiavulli, L; Schnetzer, S; Schumm, B; Sciortino, S; Scorzoni, A; Segneri, G; Seidel, S; Seiden, A; Sellberg, G; Sellin, P J; Sentenac, D; Sevilla, S G; Shipsey, I; Sícho, P; Sloan, T; Solar, M; Son, S; Sopko, B; Spencer, N; Stahl, J; Stavitski, I; Stolze, D; Stone, R; Storasta, J; Strokan, N; Strupinski, W; Sudzius, M; Surma, B; Suuronen, J; Suvorov, A; Svensson, B G; Tipton, P; Tomasek, M; Troncon, C; Tsvetkov, A; Tuominen, E; Tuovinen, E; Tuuva, T; Tylchin, M; Uebersee, H; Uher, J; Ullán, M; Vaitkus, J V; Vanni, P; Velthuis, J; Verbitskaya, E; Verzellesi, G; Vrba, V; Wagner, G; Wilhelm, I; Worm, S; Wright, V; Wunstorf, R; Zabierowski, P; Zaluzhny, A; Zavrtanik, M; Zen, M; Zhukov, V; Zorzi, N; de Boer, Wim

    2005-01-01

    An option of increasing the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN to 10/sup 35/ cm-/sup 2/s-/sup 1/ has been envisaged to extend the physics reach of the machine. An efficient tracking down to a few centimetres from the interaction point will be required to exploit the physics potential of the upgraded LHC. As a consequence, the semiconductor detectors close to the interaction region will receive severe doses of fast hadron irradiation and the inner tracker detectors will need to survive fast hadron fluences of up to above 10 /sup 16/ cm-/sup 2/. The CERN-RD50 project "Development of Radiation Hard Semiconductor Devices for Very High Luminosity Colliders" has been established in 2002 to explore detector materials and technologies that will allow to operate devices up to, or beyond, this limit. The strategies followed by RD50 to enhance the radiation tolerance include the development of new or defect engineered detector materials (SiC, GaN, Czochralski and epitaxial silicon, oxygen enriched Flo...

  19. Diamond detectors for synchrotron radiation X-ray applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Sio, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Universita di Firenze, L.go E. Fermi 2, 50125 Firenze (Italy)], E-mail: desio@arcetri.astro.it; Pace, E. [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Universita di Firenze, L.go E. Fermi 2, 50125 Firenze (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Firenze, v. G. Sansone 1, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Cinque, G.; Marcelli, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Achard, J.; Tallaire, A. [LIMHP-CNRS, University of Paris XIII, 99 Avenue JB Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2007-07-15

    Due to its unique physical properties, diamond is a very appealing material for the development of electronic devices and sensors. Its wide band gap (5.5 eV) endows diamond based devices with low thermal noise, low dark current levels and, in the case of radiation detectors, high visible-to-X-ray signal discrimination (visible blindness) as well as high sensitivity to energies greater than the band gap. Furthermore, due to its radiation hardness diamond is very interesting for applications in extreme environments, or as monitor of high fluency radiation beams. In this work the use of diamond based detectors for X-ray sensing is discussed. On purpose, some photo-conductors based on different diamond types have been tested at the DAFNE-L synchrotron radiation laboratory at Frascati. X-ray sensitivity spectra, linearity and stability of the response of these diamond devices have been measured in order to evidence the promising performance of such devices.

  20. Diamond detectors for synchrotron radiation X-ray applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Sio, A.; Pace, E.; Cinque, G.; Marcelli, A.; Achard, J.; Tallaire, A.

    2007-01-01

    Due to its unique physical properties, diamond is a very appealing material for the development of electronic devices and sensors. Its wide band gap (5.5 eV) endows diamond based devices with low thermal noise, low dark current levels and, in the case of radiation detectors, high visible-to-X-ray signal discrimination (visible blindness) as well as high sensitivity to energies greater than the band gap. Furthermore, due to its radiation hardness diamond is very interesting for applications in extreme environments, or as monitor of high fluency radiation beams. In this work the use of diamond based detectors for X-ray sensing is discussed. On purpose, some photo-conductors based on different diamond types have been tested at the DAFNE-L synchrotron radiation laboratory at Frascati. X-ray sensitivity spectra, linearity and stability of the response of these diamond devices have been measured in order to evidence the promising performance of such devices

  1. A Fabry-Perot interferometer for hard X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caticha, A.; Caticha-Ellis, S.

    1990-01-01

    Reflection and transmission coefficients are calculated of a sequence of N thin parallel crystals diffracting close to normal incidence and separated by thin non-diffracting gaps. From the study of the particular case N=2 a new Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) is proposed for hard X-rays (wavelengths of the order of Angstroms). It is found that the FPI plates do not need to be carved from a single perfect crystal block but may be grown or cleaved by other methods. This interesting possibility is suggested by two facts. First, it is known that for incidence close to normal various features of dynamical diffraction are much less sensitive to crystal defects and crystal orientation. Second, the existence of a mismatch between the lattices of the two FPI plates may affect but does not qualitatively alter the performance of the FPI. It is shown that the optimal thickness of the plates is of the order of a few microns or less. The plates may be built from a wide variety of materials. The transmission of X-rays is studied as a function of the energy and direction of the incident photons for various values of the plate thickness, of the gap, of the lattice mismatch, and also for different materials in the gap. The transmission profile exhibits a peak which is spectrally very sharp (about 10 -3 eV for low order reflections and even less for higher ones) and which can be easily tuned by changing either the lattice mismatch or the temperature. FPI plates built of materials with low absorption such as graphite seem to be particularly convenient. Several possible applications are suggested. (author)

  2. Hard X-ray Microscopy with sub 30 nm Spatial Resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, M.-T.; Song, Y.-F.; Yin, G.-C.; Chen, J.-H.; Chen, Y.-M.; Liang, Keng S.; Chen, F.-R.; Duewer, F.; Yun Wenbing

    2007-01-01

    A transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) has been installed at the BL01B beamline at National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center in Taiwan. This state-of-the-art TXM operational in a range 8-11 keV provides 2D images and 3D tomography with spatial resolution 60 nm, and with the Zernike-phase contrast mode for imaging light materials such as biological specimens. A spatial resolution of the TXM better than 30 nm, apparently the best result in hard X-ray microscopy, has been achieved by employing the third diffraction order of the objective zone plate. The TXM has been applied in diverse research fields, including analysis of failure mechanisms in microelectronic devices, tomographic structures of naturally grown photonic specimens, and the internal structure of fault zone gouges from an earthquake core. Here we discuss the scope and prospects of the project, and the progress of the TXM in NSRRC

  3. Radiation-hard silicon gate bulk CMOS cell family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbon, C.F.; Habing, D.H.; Flores, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    A radiation-hardened bulk silicon gate CMOS technology and a topologically simple, high-performance dual-port cell family utilizing this process have been demonstrated. Additional circuits, including a random logic circuit containing 4800 transistors on a 236 x 236 mil die, are presently being designed and processed. Finally, a joint design-process effort is underway to redesign the cell family in reduced design rules; this results in a factor of 2.5 cell size reduction and a factor of 3 decrease in chip interconnect area. Cell performance is correspondingly improved

  4. Providing Bright-Hard X-ray Beams from a Lower Energy Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, David

    2002-04-01

    At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) there had been an increasing demand for more high brightness harder X-ray sources in the 7 to 40 KeV range. In response to that demand, the ALS storage ring was modified in August 2001. Three 1.3 Tesla normal conducting bending magnets were removed and replaced with three 5 Tesla superconducting magnets (Superbends). The radiation produced by these Superbends is an order of magnitude higher in photon brightness and flux at 12 keV than the 1.3 Tesla bends, making them excellent sources of harder x-rays for protein crystallography and other harder x-ray applications. At the same time the Superbends do not compromise the performance of the facility in the UV and Soft X-ray regions of the spectrum. The Superbends will eventually feed 12 new x-ray beam lines greatly enhancing the facility's capacity in the hard x-ray region. The Superbend project is the biggest upgrade to the ALS storage ring since the ring was commissioned in 1993. In this paper we present, a history of the project, details of the magnet, installation, commissioning, and resulting performance of the ALS with Superbends.

  5. Identification of Hard X-ray Sources in Galactic Globular Clusters: Simbol-X Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servillat, M.

    2009-05-01

    Globular clusters harbour an excess of X-ray sources compared to the number of X-ray sources in the Galactic plane. It has been proposed that many of these X-ray sources are cataclysmic variables that have an intermediate magnetic field, i.e. intermediate polars, which remains to be confirmed and understood. We present here several methods to identify intermediate polars in globular clusters from multiwavelength analysis. First, we report on XMM-Newton, Chandra and HST observations of the very dense Galactic globular cluster NGC 2808. By comparing UV and X-ray properties of the cataclysmic variable candidates, the fraction of intermediate polars in this cluster can be estimated. We also present the optical spectra of two cataclysmic variables in the globular cluster M 22. The HeII (4868 Å) emission line in these spectra could be related to the presence of a magnetic field in these objects. Simulations of Simbol-X observations indicate that the angular resolution is sufficient to study X-ray sources in the core of close, less dense globular clusters, such as M 22. The sensitivity of Simbol-X in an extended energy band up to 80 keV will allow us to discriminate between hard X-ray sources (such as magnetic cataclysmic variables) and soft X-ray sources (such as chromospherically active binaries).

  6. Exploring the Hard and Soft X-ray Emission of Magnetic Cataclysmic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Martino, D.; Anzolin, G.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J.-M.; Falanga, M.; Matt, G.; Mouchet, M.; Mukai, K.; Masetti, N.

    2009-05-01

    A non-negligible fraction of galactic hard (>20 keV) X-ray sources were identified as CVs of the magnetic Intermediate Polar type in INTEGRAL, SWIFT and RXTE surveys, that suggests a still hidden but potentially important population of faint hard X-ray sources. Simbol-X has the unique potential to simultaneously characterize their variable and complex soft and hard X-ray emission thus allowing to understand their putative role in galactic populations of X-ray sources.

  7. Hard X-ray-induced optical luminescence via biomolecule-directed metal clusters†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratx, Guillem; Sun, Conroy; Sakamoto, Masanori; Ahmad, Moiz; Volotskova, Olga; Ong, Qunxiang; Teranishi, Toshiharu; Harada, Yoshie

    2014-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that biomolecule-directed metal clusters are applicable in the study of hard X-ray excited optical luminescence, promising a new direction in the development of novel X-ray-activated imaging probes. PMID:24463467

  8. Detectability of rotation-powered pulsars in future hard X-ray surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei

    2009-01-01

    Recent INTEGRAL/IBIS hard X-ray surveys have detected about 10 young pulsars. We show hard X-ray properties of these 10 young pulsars, which have a luminosity of 10 33 -10 37 erg s -1 and a photon index of 1.6-2.1 in the energy range of 20-100 keV. The correlation between X-ray luminosity and spin-down power of L X ∝ L sd 1.31 suggests that the hard X-ray emission in rotation-powered pulsars is dominated by the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) component. Assuming spectral properties are similar in 20-100 keV and 2-10 keV for both the pulsar and PWN components, the hard X-ray luminosity and flux of 39 known young X-ray pulsars and 8 millisecond pulsars are obtained, and a correlation of L X ∝ L sd 1.5 is derived. About 20 known young X-ray pulsars and 1 millisecond pulsars could be detected with future INTEGRAL and HXMT surveys. We also carry out Monte Carlo simulations of hard X-ray pulsars in the Galaxy and the Gould Belt, assuming values for the pulsar birth rate, initial position, proper motion velocity, period, and magnetic field distribution and evolution based on observational statistics and the L X - L sd relations: L X ∝ L sd 1.31 and L X ∝ L sd 1.5 . More than 40 young pulsars (mostly in the Galactic plane) could be detected after ten years of INTEGRAL surveys and the launch of HXMT. So, the young pulsars would be a significant part of the hard X-ray source population in the sky, and will contribute to unidentified hard X-ray sources in present and future hard X-ray surveys by INTEGRAL and HXMT.

  9. Bragg concentrators for hard (> 10 keV) X-ray astronomy: Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareschi, G.; Pasqualini, G. [Ferrara, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Frontera, F. [CNR, Bologna (Italy). Istituto di TESRE]|[Ferrara, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica

    1997-09-01

    The use of focusing telescopes in hard X-ray (E > 10 keV) astronomy will provide better flux sensitivity and imaging performances with respect to the direct-viewing detectors, utilized until now. They present recent results obtained from their group regarding the possible use of Bragg-diffraction technique to design hard X-ray focusing telescopes.

  10. Bragg concentrators for hard (> 10 keV) X-ray astronomy: Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareschi, G.; Pasqualini, G.; Frontera, F.; Ferrara, Univ.

    1997-01-01

    The use of focusing telescopes in hard X-ray (E > 10 keV) astronomy will provide better flux sensitivity and imaging performances with respect to the direct-viewing detectors, utilized until now. They present recent results obtained from their group regarding the possible use of Bragg-diffraction technique to design hard X-ray focusing telescopes

  11. Shutdown and degradation: Space computers for nuclear application, verification of radiation hardness. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhorn, E.; Gerber, V.; Schreyer, P.

    1995-01-01

    (1) Employment of those radiation hard electronics which are already known in military and space applications. (2) The experience in space-flight shall be used to investigate nuclear technology areas, for example, by using space electronics to prove the range of applications in nuclear radiating environments. (3) Reproduction of a computer developed for telecommunication satellites; proof of radiation hardness by radiation tests. (4) At 328 Krad (Si) first failure of radiation tolerant devices with 100 Krad (Si) hardness guaranteed. (5) Using radiation hard devices of the same type you can expect applications at doses of greater than 1 Mrad (Si). Electronic systems applicable for radiation categories D, C and lower part of B for manipulators, vehicles, underwater robotics. (orig.) [de

  12. Modeling Flare Hard X-ray Emission from Electrons in Contracting Magnetic Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidoni, Silvina E.; Allred, Joel C.; Alaoui, Meriem; Holman, Gordon D.; DeVore, C. Richard; Karpen, Judith T.

    2016-05-01

    The mechanism that accelerates particles to the energies required to produce the observed impulsive hard X-ray emission in solar flares is not well understood. It is generally accepted that this emission is produced by a non-thermal beam of electrons that collides with the ambient ions as the beam propagates from the top of a flare loop to its footpoints. Most current models that investigate this transport assume an injected beam with an initial energy spectrum inferred from observed hard X-ray spectra, usually a power law with a low-energy cutoff. In our previous work (Guidoni et al. 2016), we proposed an analytical method to estimate particle energy gain in contracting, large-scale, 2.5-dimensional magnetic islands, based on a kinetic model by Drake et al. (2010). We applied this method to sunward-moving islands formed high in the corona during fast reconnection in a simulated eruptive flare. The overarching purpose of the present work is to test this proposed acceleration model by estimating the hard X-ray flux resulting from its predicted accelerated-particle distribution functions. To do so, we have coupled our model to a unified computational framework that simulates the propagation of an injected beam as it deposits energy and momentum along its way (Allred et al. 2015). This framework includes the effects of radiative transfer and return currents, necessary to estimate flare emission that can be compared directly to observations. We will present preliminary results of the coupling between these models.

  13. Radiation-hard/high-speed parallel optical links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, K.K.; Buchholz, P.; Kagan, H.P.; Kass, R.D.; Moore, J.; Smith, D.S.; Wiese, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2014-01-01

    We have designed an ASIC for use in a parallel optical engine for a new layer of the ATLAS pixel detector in the initial phase of the LHC luminosity upgrade. The ASIC is a 12-channel VCSEL (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser) array driver capable of operating up to 5 Gb/s per channel. The ASIC is designed using a 130 nm CMOS process to enhance the radiation-hardness. A scheme for redundancy has also been implemented to allow bypassing of a broken VCSEL. The ASIC also contains a power-on reset circuit that sets the ASIC to a default configuration with no signal steering. In addition, the bias and modulation currents of the individual channels are programmable. The performance of the first prototype ASIC up to 5 Gb/s is satisfactory. Furthermore, we are able to program the bias and modulation currents and to bypass a broken VCSEL channel. We are currently upgrading our design to allow operation at 10 Gb/s per channel yielding an aggregated bandwidth of 120 Gb/s. Some preliminary results of the design will be presented

  14. Simbol-X: Imaging The Hard X-ray Sky with Unprecedented Spatial Resolution and Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Simbol-X Joint Scientific Mission Group

    2009-01-01

    Simbol-X is a hard X-ray mission, with imaging capability in the 0.5-80 keV range. It is based on a collaboration between the French and Italian space agencies with participation of German laboratories. The launch is foreseen in late 2014. It relies on a formation flight concept, with two satellites carrying one the mirror module and the other one the focal plane detectors. The mirrors will have a 20 m focal length, while the two focal plane detectors will be put one on top of the other one. This combination will provide over two orders of magnitude improvement in angular resolution and sensitivity in the hard X-ray range with respect to non-focusing techniques. The Simbol-X revolutionary instrumental capabilities will allow us to elucidate outstanding questions in high energy astrophysics such as those related to black-holes accretion physics and census, and to particle acceleration mechanisms. We will give an overall description of the mission characteristics, performances and scientific objectives.

  15. Short term variation of Cyg X-1 in the hard x-ray region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, Kosei [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. of Space and Aeronautical Science

    1978-08-01

    Cyg X-1 is a peculiar celestial body considered to be a close binary system of a black hole and a blue super-giant star. It is presently known that the time fluctuation of Cyg X-1 is considerably complex, ranging from seconds to days or months. Of these variation, attention has been paid to the short time variation in relation to the black hole theory. Observations of fluctuations in the order of second have been limited to soft X-ray (20 keV or more) so far, because great technical difficulties are involved due to the low intensity of hard X-ray. The present investigation is based on the fluctuations in the order of second in hard X-ray, and was conducted by employing an unprecedented large area X-ray telescope. The text describes on the brief history of the short time fluctuation, explains the experimental plan, X-ray detecting system, flight of a balloon and the analyses and discussions of fluctuation factor by variation function method, and gives the analysis data and conclusion. The observations resulted in the fact that the fluctuations in the order of second were small at 20 to 30 keV, but become large when energy is higher or lower than this value. The most natural explanation available for this result may be that it is essentially spectrum fluctuation, being inverse correlation in higher and lower energies. Physical meaning of such spectrum fluctuation is considered in connection with precipitating disk model around a black hole.

  16. Short term variation of Cyg X-1 in the hard x-ray region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Kosei

    1978-01-01

    Cyg X-1 is a peculiar celestial body considered to be a close binary system of a black hole and a blue super-giant star. It is presently known that the time fluctuation of Cyg X-1 is considerably complex, ranging from seconds to days or months. Of these variation, attention has been paid to the short time variation in relation to the black hole theory. Observations of fluctuations in the order of second have been limited to soft X-ray (20 keV or more) so far, because great technical difficulties are involved due to the low intensity of hard X-ray. The present investigation is based on the fluctuations in the order of second in hard X-ray, and was conducted by employing an unprecedented large area X-ray telescope. The text describes on the brief history of the short time fluctuation, explains the experimental plan, X-ray detecting system, flight of a balloon and the analyses and discussions of fluctuation factor by variation function method, and gives the analysis data and conclusion. The observations resulted in the fact that the fluctuations in the order of second were small at 20 to 30 keV, but become large when energy is higher or lower than this value. The most natural explanation available for this result may be that it is essentially spectrum fluctuation, being inverse correlation in higher and lower energies. Physical meaning of such spectrum fluctuation is considered in connection with precipitating disk model around a black hole. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  17. Chronic radiation effects on dental hard tissue (''radiation carries''). Classification and therapeutic strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groetz, K.A.; Brahm, R.; Al-Nawas, B.; Wagner, W.; Riesenbeck, D.; Willich, N.; Seegenschmiedt, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: Since the first description of rapid destruction of dental hard tissues following head and neck radiotherapy 80 years ago, 'radiation caries' is an established clinical finding. The internationally accepted clinical evaluation score RTOG/EORTC however is lacking a classification of this frequent radiogenic alteration. Material and Methods: Medical records, data and images of radiation effects on the teeth of more than 1,500 patients, who underwent periradiotherapeutic care, were analyzed. Macroscopic alterations regarding the grade of late lesions of tooth crowns were used for a classification into 4 grades according to the RTOG/EORTC guidelines. Results: No early radiation effects were found by macroscopic inspection. In the first 90 days following radiotherapy 1/3 of the patients complained of reversible hypersensitivity, which may be related to a temporary hyperemia of the pulp. It was possible to classify radiation caries as a late radiation effect on a graded scale as known from RTOG/EORTC for other organ systems. This is a prerequisite for the integration of radiation caries into the international nomenclature of the RTOG/EORTC classification. Conclusions: The documentation of early radiation effects on dental hard tissues seems to be neglectable. On the other hand the documentation of late radiation effects has a high clinical impact. The identification of an initial lesion at the high-risk areas of the neck and incisal part of the tooth can lead to a successful therapy as a major prerequisite for orofacial rehabilitation. An internationally standardized documentation is a basis for the evaluation of the side effects of radiooncotic therapy as well as the effectiveness of protective and supportive procedures. (orig.) [de

  18. Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, Michael E.; Chapman, David J.; White, Thomas G.; Drakopoulos, Michael; Rack, Alexander; Eakins, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Scintillator performance in time-resolved, hard, indirect detection X-ray studies on the sub-microsecond timescale at synchrotron light sources is reviewed, modelled and examined experimentally. LYSO:Ce is found to be the only commercially available crystal suitable for these experiments. The short pulse duration, small effective source size and high flux of synchrotron radiation is ideally suited for probing a wide range of transient deformation processes in materials under extreme conditions. In this paper, the challenges of high-resolution time-resolved indirect X-ray detection are reviewed in the context of dynamic synchrotron experiments. In particular, the discussion is targeted at two-dimensional integrating detector methods, such as those focused on dynamic radiography and diffraction experiments. The response of a scintillator to periodic synchrotron X-ray excitation is modelled and validated against experimental data collected at the Diamond Light Source (DLS) and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). An upper bound on the dynamic range accessible in a time-resolved experiment for a given bunch separation is calculated for a range of scintillators. New bunch structures are suggested for DLS and ESRF using the highest-performing commercially available crystal LYSO:Ce, allowing time-resolved experiments with an interframe time of 189 ns and a maximum dynamic range of 98 (6.6 bits)

  19. Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, Michael E.; Chapman, David J.; White, Thomas G. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Drakopoulos, Michael [Diamond Light Source, I12 Joint Engineering, Environmental, Processing (JEEP) Beamline, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Rack, Alexander [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Eakins, Daniel E., E-mail: d.eakins@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-24

    Scintillator performance in time-resolved, hard, indirect detection X-ray studies on the sub-microsecond timescale at synchrotron light sources is reviewed, modelled and examined experimentally. LYSO:Ce is found to be the only commercially available crystal suitable for these experiments. The short pulse duration, small effective source size and high flux of synchrotron radiation is ideally suited for probing a wide range of transient deformation processes in materials under extreme conditions. In this paper, the challenges of high-resolution time-resolved indirect X-ray detection are reviewed in the context of dynamic synchrotron experiments. In particular, the discussion is targeted at two-dimensional integrating detector methods, such as those focused on dynamic radiography and diffraction experiments. The response of a scintillator to periodic synchrotron X-ray excitation is modelled and validated against experimental data collected at the Diamond Light Source (DLS) and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). An upper bound on the dynamic range accessible in a time-resolved experiment for a given bunch separation is calculated for a range of scintillators. New bunch structures are suggested for DLS and ESRF using the highest-performing commercially available crystal LYSO:Ce, allowing time-resolved experiments with an interframe time of 189 ns and a maximum dynamic range of 98 (6.6 bits)

  20. Black hole and neutron star soft X-ray transients: a hard X-ray view of their outbursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, W.

    2004-01-01

    The RXTE public observations of the outbursts of black hole soft X-ray transients XTE J1550-564, XTE J1859+226, 4U 1630-47, XTE J1118+480, XTE J1650-500, and the neutron star soft X-ray transients 4U 1608-52, Aquila X-1, including a variable 'persistent' neutron star low mass X-ray binary 4U 1705-44, are summarized in this paper. The hard X-ray view of those outbursts, which is quite different from that of the soft X-ray band, suggests that there are several types of outbursts which result in different hard X-ray outburst profile - the outburst profiles are energy dependent. One type is the low/hard state outbursts, the other type is the outburst showing transitions from the low/hard state to the high/soft state, or to the intermediate or to the very high state. The later has an initial low/hard state, introducing the phenomena that the hard X-ray precedes the soft X-ray in the outburst rise. Such outbursts in XTE J1550-564, Aql X-1 and 4U 1705-44 support a two-accretion-flow model which involves one Keplerian disk flow and one sub-Keplerian flow for the initial outburst rise

  1. Hard X-ray submicrometer tomography of human brain tissue at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimchenko, A.; Bikis, C.; Schulz, G.; Zdora, M.-C.; Zanette, I.; Vila-Comamala, J.; Schweighauser, G.; Hench, J.; Hieber, S. E.; Deyhle, H.; Thalmann, P.; Müller, B.

    2017-06-01

    There is a lack of the necessary methodology for three-dimensional (3D) investigation of soft tissues with cellular resolution without staining or tissue transformation. Synchrotron radiation based hard X-ray in-line phase contrast tomography using single-distance phase reconstruction (SDPR) provides high spatial resolution and density contrast for the visualization of individual cells using a standard specimen preparation and data reconstruction. In this study, we demonstrate the 3D characterization of a formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human cerebellum specimen by SDPR at the Diamond-Manchester Imaging Branchline I13-2 (Diamond Light Source, UK) at pixel sizes down to 0.45 μm. The approach enables visualization of cerebellar layers (Stratum moleculare and Stratum granulosum), the 3D characterization of individual cells (Purkinje, stellate and granule cells) and can even resolve some subcellular structures (nucleus and nucleolus of Purkinje cells). The tomographic results are qualitatively compared to hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained histological sections. We demonstrate the potential benefits of hard X-ray microtomography for the investigations of biological tissues in comparison to conventional histology.

  2. Hard X-ray submicrometer tomography of human brain tissue at Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khimchenko, A; Bikis, C; Schulz, G; Hieber, S E; Deyhle, H; Thalmann, P; Müller, B; Zdora, M-C; Zanette, I; Vila-Comamala, J; Schweighauser, G; Hench, J

    2017-01-01

    There is a lack of the necessary methodology for three-dimensional (3D) investigation of soft tissues with cellular resolution without staining or tissue transformation. Synchrotron radiation based hard X-ray in-line phase contrast tomography using single-distance phase reconstruction (SDPR) provides high spatial resolution and density contrast for the visualization of individual cells using a standard specimen preparation and data reconstruction. In this study, we demonstrate the 3D characterization of a formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human cerebellum specimen by SDPR at the Diamond-Manchester Imaging Branchline I13-2 (Diamond Light Source, UK) at pixel sizes down to 0.45 μm. The approach enables visualization of cerebellar layers ( Stratum moleculare and Stratum granulosum ), the 3D characterization of individual cells (Purkinje, stellate and granule cells) and can even resolve some subcellular structures (nucleus and nucleolus of Purkinje cells). The tomographic results are qualitatively compared to hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stained histological sections. We demonstrate the potential benefits of hard X-ray microtomography for the investigations of biological tissues in comparison to conventional histology. (paper)

  3. Current status of the hard x-ray nanoprobe beamline at the SSRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Aiguo; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Zhaohong; He, Yan; Zhao, Gaofeng; Shu, Deming

    2017-09-01

    The hard X-ray nanoprobe beamline (HXN) designed at the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation facility (SSRF) will be of capability to realize a focal spot size of 10 nm for hard X-rays to satisfy requirements in biology, environmental, material sciences and etc.. The beamline includes two modes of operation, high energy resolution mode and high flux mode respectively. High flux mode utilizes the multilayer KB system to obtain high-flux diffraction-limited focusing of 10nm. An ultra-high-precision figure fabrication for diffraction-limited focusing is required to meet the Rayleigh Criterion. An idea to overcome this problem is to introduce a phase compensator upstream of the KB system to compensate the wavefront errors in the beamline. At wavelength speckle-based method will be used to measure the wavefront error in the beamline and feedback to the phase compensator. Vibration measurements have been carried out at the secondary source and endstation hutch. The flexure hinge mechanisms and high-precision actuators ensure the KB system and sample manipulator working with high stability. The building of HXN has been designed and is under construction at present.

  4. The Emerging Population of Pulsar Wind Nebulae in Hard X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattana, F.; Götz, D.; Terrier, R.; Renaud, M.; Falanga, M.

    2009-05-01

    The hard X-ray synchrotron emission from Pulsar Wind Nebulae probes energetic particles, closely related to the pulsar injection power at the present time. INTEGRAL has disclosed the yet poorly known population of hard X-ray pulsar/PWN systems. We summarize the properties of the class, with emphasys on the first hard X-ray bow-shock (CTB 80 powered by PSR B1951+32), and highlight some prospects for the study of Pulsar Wind Nebulae with the Simbol-X mission.

  5. Theoretical modeling of Comptonized X-ray spectra of super-Eddington accretion flow: Origin of hard excess in ultraluminous X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaki, Takaaki; Mineshige, Shin; Ohsuga, Ken; Kawashima, Tomohisa

    2017-12-01

    X-ray continuum spectra of super-Eddington accretion flow are studied by means of Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations based on the radiation hydrodynamic simulation data, in which both thermal- and bulk-Compton scatterings are taken into account. We compare the calculated spectra of accretion flow around black holes with masses of MBH = 10, 102, 103, and 104 M⊙ for a fixed mass injection rate (from the computational boundary at 103 rs) of 103 LEdd/c2 (with rs, LEdd, and c being the Schwarzschild radius, the Eddington luminosity, and the speed of light, respectively). The soft X-ray spectra exhibit mass dependence in accordance with the standard-disk relation; the maximum surface temperature is scaled as T ∝ M_{ BH}^{ -1/4}. The spectra in the hard X-ray band, by contrast with soft X-ray, look to be quite similar among different models, if we normalize the radiation luminosity by MBH. This reflects that the hard component is created by thermal- and bulk-Compton scatterings of soft photons originating from an accretion flow in the overheated and/or funnel regions, the temperatures of which have no dependence on mass. The hard X-ray spectra can be reproduced by a Wien spectrum with the temperature of T ˜ 3 keV accompanied by a hard excess at photon energy above several keV. The excess spectrum can be fitted well with a power law with a photon index of Γ ˜ 3. This feature is in good agreement with that of the recent NuSTAR observations of ULXs (ultra-luminous X-ray sources).

  6. Modelling properties of hard x-rays generated by the interaction between relativistic electrons and very intense laser beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, Alexandru

    2009-01-01

    In a previous paper we presented a calculation model for high harmonic generation by relativistic Thomson scattering of the electromagnetic radiation by free electrons. In this paper we present a similar model for the calculation of the energies of hard x-rays (20- 200 keV) resulted from the interaction between relativistic electrons (20-100 MeV) and very intense laser beams. Starting from the relativistic equations of motion of an electron in the electromagnetic field we show that the Lienard-Wiechert equation leads to electromagnetic waves whose frequencies are in the domain of hard x-rays. When the relativistic parameter of the laser beam is greater than unity, the model predicts the existence of harmonics of the above frequencies. Our theoretical values are in good agreement with experimental values of the x-ray energies from the literature and predict accurately their angular distribution.

  7. Hard X-ray diffraction enhanced imaging only using two crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gang; WANG Nan; WU Ziyu

    2004-01-01

    Different configurations for the monochromator crystals and the analyzer crystals have been used in hard X-ray diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) methods to overcome the complex task to adjust each of them to the ideal position. Here we present a very compact DEI configuration, and preliminary results of experiments performed at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) using only two crystals: the first one acting as monochromator and the second one as analyzer in the Bragg geometry. Refraction contrast images characterized by high contrast and spatial resolution are obtained and compared with absorption images. Differences among these images will be outlined and discussed emphasizing the potential capabilities of this very simple layout that guarantees a high transmission efficiency.

  8. Nanometer Linear Focusing of Hard X Rays by a Multilayer Laue Lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, H.C.; Stephenson, G.B.; Maser, J.; Liu, C.; Conley, R.; Macrander, A.T.; Vogt, S.

    2006-01-01

    We report on a type of linear zone plate for nanometer-scale focusing of hard x rays, a multilayer Laue lens (MLL), produced by sectioning a multilayer and illuminating it in Laue diffraction geometry. Because of its large optical depth, a MLL spans the diffraction regimes applicable to a thin Fresnel zone plate and a crystal. Coupled wave theory calculations indicate that focusing to 5 nm or smaller with high efficiency should be possible. Partial MLL structures with outermost zone widths as small as 10 nm have been fabricated and tested with 19.5 keV synchrotron radiation. Focal sizes as small as 30 nm with efficiencies up to 44% are measured

  9. Suprathermal electron studies in the TCV tokamak: Design of a tomographic hard-x-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnesin, S.; Coda, S.; Decker, J.; Peysson, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance heating and electron cyclotron current drive, disruptive events, and sawtooth activity are all known to produce suprathermal electrons in fusion devices, motivating increasingly detailed studies of the generation and dynamics of this suprathermal population. Measurements have been performed in the past years in the tokamak a configuration variable (TCV) tokamak using a single pinhole hard-x-ray (HXR) camera and electron-cyclotron-emission radiometers, leading, in particular, to the identification of the crucial role of spatial transport in the physics of ECCD. The observation of a poloidal asymmetry in the emitted suprathermal bremsstrahlung radiation motivates the design of a proposed new tomographic HXR spectrometer reported in this paper. The design, which is based on a compact modified Soller collimator concept, is being aided by simulations of tomographic reconstruction. Quantitative criteria have been developed to optimize the design for the greatly variable shapes and positions of TCV plasmas.

  10. Modeling of finite systems irradiated by intense ultrashort hard X-ray pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurek, Zoltan [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Ziaja, Beata [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Santra, Robin [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Hamburg, Jungiusstrasse 9, 20355 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Large number of experiments have already been carried out at the existing hard X-Ray Free-Electron Laser facilities (LCLS, SACLA) during the recent years. Their great success generates even higher anticipation for the forthcoming X-ray sources (European XFEL). Single molecule imaging and nanoplasma formation are the challenging projects with XFELs that investigate the interaction of finite, small objects, e.g. single molecules, atomic clusters with intense X-ray radiation. Accurate modelling of the time evolution of such irradiated systems is required in order to understand the current experiments and to inspire new directions of experimental investigation. In this presentation we report on our theoretical molecular-dynamics tool able to follow non-equilibrium dynamics within finite systems irradiated by intense X-ray pulses. We introduce the relevant physical processes, present computational methods used, discuss their limitations and also the specific constraints on calculations imposed by experimental conditions. Finally, we conclude with a few simulation examples.

  11. Polymer Compund Refractive Lenses for Hard X-ray Nanofocusing

    OpenAIRE

    Krywka, Christina; Last, Arndt; Marschall, Felix; Markus, Otto; Georgi, Sebastian; Mueller, Martin; Mohr, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Compound refractive lenses fabricated out of SU-8 negative photoresist have been used to generate a nanofocused, i.e. sub-μm sized X-ray focal spot at an X-ray nanodiffraction setup. X-ray microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques have conceptually different demands on nanofocusing optical elements and so with the application of X-ray nanodiffraction in mind, this paper presents the results of an initial characterization of polymer lenses used as primary focusin...

  12. Investigation of the hard x-ray background in backlit pinhole imagers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fein, J. R., E-mail: jrfein@umich.edu; Holloway, J. P. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2143 (United States); Peebles, J. L. [Center for Energy Research, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Keiter, P. A.; Klein, S. R.; Kuranz, C. C.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Drake, R. P. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2143 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Hard x-rays from laser-produced hot electrons (>10 keV) in backlit pinhole imagers can give rise to a background signal that decreases signal dynamic range in radiographs. Consequently, significant uncertainties are introduced to the measured optical depth of imaged plasmas. Past experiments have demonstrated that hard x-rays are produced when hot electrons interact with the high-Z pinhole substrate used to collimate the softer He-α x-ray source. Results are presented from recent experiments performed on the OMEGA-60 laser to further study the production of hard x-rays in the pinhole substrate and how these x-rays contribute to the background signal in radiographs. Radiographic image plates measured hard x-rays from pinhole imagers with Mo, Sn, and Ta pinhole substrates. The variation in background signal between pinhole substrates provides evidence that much of this background comes from x-rays produced in the pinhole substrate itself. A Monte Carlo electron transport code was used to model x-ray production from hot electrons interacting in the pinhole substrate, as well as to model measurements of x-rays from the irradiated side of the targets, recorded by a bremsstrahlung x-ray spectrometer. Inconsistencies in inferred hot electron distributions between the different pinhole substrate materials demonstrate that additional sources of hot electrons beyond those modeled may produce hard x-rays in the pinhole substrate.

  13. Effect of gamma radiation on micromechanical hardness of lead-free solder joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, Wilfred [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 43600 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahman, Irman Abdul; Jalar, Azman; Kamil, Insan; Bakar, Maria Abu [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 43600 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Yusoff, Wan Yusmawati Wan [Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia, Kem Sg. Besi, 57000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Lead-free solders are important material in nano and microelectronic surface mounting technology for various applications in bio medicine, environmental monitoring, spacecraft and satellite instrumentation. Nevertheless solder joint in radiation environment needs higher reliability and resistance to any damage caused by ionizing radiations. In this study a lead-free 99.0Sn0.3Ag0.7Cu wt.% (SAC) solder joint was developed and subjected to various doses of gamma radiation to investigate the effects of the ionizing radiation to micromechanical hardness of the solder. Averaged hardness of the SAC joint was obtained from nanoindentation test. The results show a relationship between hardness values of indentations and the increment of radiation dose. Highest mean hardness, 0.2290 ± 0.0270 GPa was calculated on solder joint which was exposed to 5 Gray dose of gamma radiation. This value indicates possible radiation hardening effect on irradiated solder. The hardness gradually decreased to 0.1933 ± 0.0210 GPa and 0.1631 ± 0.0173 GPa when exposed to doses 50 and 500 gray respectively. These values are also lower than the hardness of non irradiated sample which was calculated as 0.2084 ± 0.0.3633 GPa indicating possible radiation damage and needs further related atomic dislocation study.

  14. Distributed seeding for narrow-line width hard x-ray free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Anisimov, Petr Mikhaylovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Buechler, Cynthia Eileen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lewellen, IV, John W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Marksteiner, Quinn R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-09

    We describe a new FEL line-narrowing technique called distributed seeding (DS), using Si(111) Bragg crystal monochromators to enhance the spectral brightness of the MaRIE hard X-ray freeelectron laser. DS differs from self-seeding in three important aspects. First, DS relies on spectral filtering of the radiation at multiple locations along the undulator, with a monochromator located every few power gain lengths. Second, DS performs filtering early in the exponential gain region before SASE spikes start to appear in the radiation longitudinal profile. Third, DS provides the option to select a wavelength longer than the peak of the SASE gain curve, which leads to improved spectral contrast of the seeded FEL over the SASE background. Timedependent Genesis simulations show the power-vs-z growth curves for DS exhibit behaviors of a seeded FEL amplifier, such as exponential growth region immediately after the filters. Of the seeding approaches considered, the two-stage DS spectra produce the highest contrast of seeded FEL over the SASE background and that the three-stage DS provides the narrowest linewidth with a relative spectral FWHM of 8 X 10-5 .

  15. Recurrent pulse trains in the solar hard X-ray flare of 1980 June 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiplinger, A.L.; Dennis, B.R.; Frost, K.J.; Orwig, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    This study presents a detailed examination of the solar hard X-ray and γ-ray flare of 1980 June 7 as seen by the Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer on SMM. The hard X-ray profile is most unusual in that it is characterized by an initial pulse train of seven intense hard X-ray spikes. However, the event is unique among the 6300 events observed by HXRBS in that the temporal signature of this pulse train recurs twice during the flare. Such signatures of temporal stability in impulsive solar flares have not been observed before. Examinations of the hard X-ray data in conjunction with radio and γ-ray observations show that the 28--480 keV X-ray emission is simultaneous with the 17 GHz microwave fluxes within 128 ms and that the 3.5--6.5 MeV prompt γ-ray line emission is coincident with secondary maxima of the microwave and X-ray fluxes. Studies of the temporal and spectral properties of the pulses indicate that the pulses are not produced by purely reversible processes, and that if the source is oscillatory, it is not a high quality oscillator. Although the absence of spatially resolved hard X-ray observations leaves other possibilities open, a parameterization of the event as a set of seven sequentially firing loops is presented that offers many satisfying explanations of the observations

  16. Pulse X-radiation in flaw detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavilov, S.P.; Gorbunov, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    Principles of physical and engineering application of pulse X-radiation (PXR) of micro- and nanosecond duration for nondestructive testing of processes, materials and devices are given. Methods and devices, aimed at generating X-ray pulses, as well as their radiation and flow detection characteristics, and testing methods by means of PXR are considered

  17. Towards Radiation Hard Sensor Materials for the CMS Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Steinbrueck, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Many measurements are described in literature, performed on a variety of silicon materials and technologies, but they are often hard to compare, because they were done under different conditions. To systematically compare the prope...

  18. On the theory of X-ray pulsar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheleznyakov, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    The origin of hard X-ray spectrum (continuum and cyclotron lines) of pulsars in binary systems is discussed. A model of the polar region of a neutron star consisting of a hot spot in a dense plasma atmosphere with a quasi-homogeneous magnetic field and an extended accreting column in an inhomogeneous dipolar field is investigated. In the hot spot bremsstrahlung and Thomson scattering form continuum radiation, while bremsstrahlung and cyclotron scattering produce the absorption cyclotron lines. By the observed continuum intensity one can estimate the maximum distances to pulsars. Cyclotron scattering in gyro-resonant layers localized in the accreting column leads to a general attenuation of the radiation of a hot spot, but is unable to ensure the formation of cyclotron lines. For strong accretion the hot spot radiation becomes insignificant, the lines disappear and the pulsating component of an X-ray pulsar is produced by the accreting column bremsstrahlung transformed by Thomson scattering. (orig.)

  19. Influence of variable tungsten valency on optical transmittance and radiation hardness of lead tungstate (PWO) scintillation crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Burachas, S; Makov, I; Saveliev, Yu; Ippolitov, M S; Man'ko, V; Nikulin, S P; Nyanin, A; Vasilev, A; Apanasenko, A; Tamulaitis, G

    2003-01-01

    A new approach to interpret the radiation hardness of PbWO//4 (PWO) scintillators is developed by revealing importance of the inclusions of tungsten oxides WO//3//-//x with variable valency. It is demonstrated that the influence of the ionizing radiation on PWO is, in many aspects, similar to the effect of the high-temperature annealing in oxygenless ambient. In both cases, a valency change of the tungsten oxides is initiated and results in induced absorption and, consequently, in crystal coloration. In the PWO crystals doped with L//2O//3 (L = Y, La, Gd), the radiation hardness and the optical properties are mainly affected by inclusions of W//1//-//yL//yO//3//- //x (0 less than x less than 0.3) instead of inclusions of WO//3//- //x prevailing in the undoped samples. It is demonstrated that the radiation-induced bleaching and the photochromic effect of PWO are caused by phase transitions in the inclusions of tungsten oxide. Thermodynamic conditions for the phase transitions are discussed and the optimal oxid...

  20. Radiation safety in X-ray facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-09-01

    The guide specifies the radiation safety requirements for structural shielding and other safety arrangements used in X-ray facilities in medical and veterinary X-ray activities and in industry, research and education. The guide is also applicable to premises in which X-ray equipment intended for radiation therapy and operating at a voltage of less than 25 kV is used. The guide applies to new X-ray facilities in which X-ray equipment that has been used elsewhere is transferred. The radiation safety requirements for radiation therapy X-ray devices operating at a voltage exceeding 25 kV, and for the premices in which such devices are used, are set out in Guide ST 2.2

  1. Radiation safety in X-ray facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    The guide specifies the radiation safety requirements for structural shielding and other safety arrangements used in X-ray facilities in medical and veterinary X-ray activities and in industry, research and education. The guide is also applicable to premises in which X-ray equipment intended for radiation therapy and operating at a voltage of less than 25 kV is used. The guide applies to new X-ray facilities in which X-ray equipment that has been used elsewhere is transferred. The radiation safety requirements for radiation therapy X-ray devices operating at a voltage exceeding 25 kV, and for the premices in which such devices are used, are set out in Guide ST 2.2.

  2. Hard X-ray intensity reduction during lower hybrid current drive experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlynar, J.; Stoeckel, J.; Magula, P.

    1993-01-01

    A strong hard X-ray intensity reduction during a standard LHCD at the CASTOR tokamak was studied. From discussion it followed that the magnetic fluctuations level decrease is likely to be responsible for this effect beside the loop voltage decrease. To verify this idea, the connection between the magnetic fluctuation level and the hard X-ray intensity was studied in a nonstandard LHCD regime with a zero loop voltage reduction. These measurements strongly supported the concept that magnetic fluctuations level substantially influences the runaway electrons cross-field transport. Though, more data and a good code for modelling the anomalous transport and hard X-rays production would be of high value. Similar measurements especially for higher RF power should be carried out soon. Besides, the reduction of hard X-rays was observed in the experiments with edge plasma polarization lately; therefore, the magnetic fluctuations level in these experiments should be studied soon. (author) 6 figs., 6 refs

  3. Adaptive Lobster-Eye Hard X-Ray Telescope, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA needs for hard X-ray telescopes for starlight detection and wavefront analysis, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop an Adjustable...

  4. Uncooled Radiation Hard SiC Schottky VUV Detectors Capable of Single Photon Sensing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project seeks to design, fabricate, characterize and commercialize very large area, uncooled and radiative hard 4H-SiC VUV detectors capable of near single...

  5. Radiation hardness qualification of PbWO4 scintillation crystals for the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adzic, P.; Andelin, D.; Anicin, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Arcidiacono, R.; Arenton, M.W.; Auffray, E.; Argiro, S.; Askew, A.; Baccaro, S.; Baffioni, S.; Balazs, M.; Bandurin, D.; Barney, D.; Barone, L.M.; Bartoloni, A.; Baty, C.; Beauceron, S.; Bell, K.W.; Bernet, C.; Besancon, M.; Betev, B.; Beuselinck, R.; Biino, C.; Blaha, J.; Bloch, P.; Borisevitch, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bourotte, J.; Brown, R.M.; Buehler, M.; Busson, P.; Camanzi, B.; Camporesi, T.; Cartiglia, N.; Cavallari, F.; Cecilia, A.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y.H.; Charlot, C.; Chen, E.A.; Chen, W.T.; Chen, Z.; Chipaux, R.; Choudhary, B.C.; Choudhury, R.K.; Cockerill, D.J.A.; Conetti, S.; Cooper, S.I.; Cossutti, F.; Cox, B.; Cussans, D.G.; Dafinei, I.; Da Silva Di Calafiori, D.R.; Daskalakis, G.; David, A.; Deiters, K.; Dejardin, M.; De Benedetti, A.; Della Ricca, G.; Del Re, D.; Denegri, D.; Depasse, P.; Descamps, J.; Diemoz, M.; Di Marco, E.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Djambazov, L.; Djordjevic, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Dolgopolov, A.; Drndarevic, S.; Drobychev, G.; Dutta, D.; Dzelalija, M.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Evangelou, I.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J.L.; Fay, J.; Fedorov, A.; Ferri, F.; Franci, D.; Franzoni, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Funk, W.; Ganjour, S.; Gascon, S.; Gataullin, M.; Gentit, F.X.; Ghezzi, A.; Givernaud, A.; Gninenko, S.; Go, A.; Gobbo, B.; Godinovic, N.; Golubev, N.; Govoni, P.; Grant, N.; Gras, P.; Haguenauer, M.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Hansen, M.; Haupt, J.; Heath, H.F.; Heltsley, B.; Cornell U., LNS.; Hintz, W.; Hirosky, R.; Hobson, P.R.; Honma, A.; Hou, G.W.S.; Hsiung, Y.; Huhtinen, M.; Ille, B.; Ingram, Q.; Inyakin, A.; Jarry, P.; Jessop, C.; Jovanovic, D.; Kaadze, K.; Kachanov, V.; Kailas, S.; Kataria, S.K.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kokkas, P.; Kolberg, T.; Korjik, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Krpic, D.; Kubota, Y.; Kuo, C.M.; Kyberd, P.; Kyriakis, A.; Lebeau, M.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Ledovskoy, A.; Lethuillier, M.; Lin, S.W.; Lin, W.; Litvine, V.; Locci, E.; Longo, E.; Loukas, D.; Luckey, P.D.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, Y.; Malberti, M.; Malcles, J.; Maletic, D.; Manthos, N.; Maravin, Y.; Marchica, C.; Marinelli, N.; Markou, A.; Markou, C.; Marone, M.; Matveev, V.; Mavrommatis, C.; Meridiani, P.; Milenovic, P.; Mine, P.; Missevitch, O.; Mohanty, A.K.; Moortgat, F.; Musella, P.; Musienko, Y.; Nardulli, A.; Nash, J.; Nedelec, P.; Negri, P.; Newman, H.B.; Nikitenko, A.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Obertino, M.M.; Organtini, G.; Orimoto, T.; Paganoni, M.; Paganini, P.; Palma, A.; Pant, L.; Papadakis, A.; Papadakis, I.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paramatti, R.; Parracho, P.; Pastrone, N.; Patterson, J.R.; Pauss, F.; Peigneux, J.P.; Petrakou, E.; Phillips, D.G.; Piroue, P.; Ptochos, F.; Puljak, I.; Pullia, A.; Punz, T.; Puzovic, J.; Ragazzi, S.; Rahatlou, S.; Rander, J.; Razis, P.A.; Redaelli, N.; Renker, D.; Reucroft, S.; Ribeiro, P.; Rogan, C.; Ronquest, M.; Rosowsky, A.; Rovelli, C.; Rumerio, P.; Rusack, R.; Rusakov, S.V.; Ryan, M.J.; Sala, L.; Salerno, R.; Schneegans, M.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Shiu, J.G.; Shivpuri, R.K.; Shukla, P.; Siamitros, C.; Sillou, D.; Silva, J.; Silva, P.; Singovsky, A.; Sirois, Y.; Sirunyan, A.; Smith, V.J.; Stockli, F.; Swain, J.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Takahashi, M.; Tancini, V.; Teller, O.; Theofilatos, K.; Thiebaux, C.; Timciuc, V.; Timlin, C.; Titov, Maxim P.; Topkar, A.; Triantis, F.A.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Ueno, K.; Uzunian, A.; Varela, J.; Verrecchia, P.; Veverka, J.; Virdee, T.; Wang, M.; Wardrope, D.; Weber, M.; Weng, J.; Williams, J.H.; Yang, Y.; Yaselli, I.; Yohay, R.; Zabi, A.; Zelepoukine, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, R.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Ensuring the radiation hardness of PbWO4 crystals was one of the main priorities during the construction of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS experiment at CERN. The production on an industrial scale of radiation hard crystals and their certification over a period of several years represented a difficult challenge both for CMS and for the crystal suppliers. The present article reviews the related scientific and technological problems encountered.

  6. Development of radiation hard components for ITER blanket remote handling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Makiko, E-mail: saito.makiko@jaea.go.jp; Anzai, Katsunori; Maruyama, Takahito; Noguchi, Yuto; Ueno, Kenichi; Takeda, Nobukazu; Kakudate, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Clarify the components that will degrade by gamma ray irradiation. • Perform the irradiation tests to BRHS components. • Optimize the materials to increase the radiation hardness. - Abstract: The ITER blanket remote handling system (BRHS) will be operated in a high radiation environment (250 Gy/h max.) and must stably handle the blanket modules, which weigh 4.5 t and are more than 1.5 m in length, with a high degree of position and posture accuracy. The reliability of the system can be improved by reviewing the failure events of the system caused by high radiation. A failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) identified failure modes and determined that lubricants, O-rings, and electric insulation cables were the dominant components affecting radiation hardness. Accordingly, we tried to optimize the lubricants and cables of the AC servo motors by using polyphenyl ether (PPE)-based grease and polyether ether ketone (PEEK), respectively. Materials containing radiation protective agents were also selected for the cable sheaths and O-rings to improve radiation hardness. Gamma ray irradiation tests were performed on these components and as a result, a radiation hardness of 8 MGy was achieved for the AC servo motors. On the other hand, to develop the radiation hardness and BRHS compatibility furthermore, the improvement of materials of cable and O ring were performed.

  7. Investigation of pulse shape analyzers for phoswich detectors in space-borne hard X-ray experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleeker, J A.M.; Overtoom, J M [Huygens Lab., Leiden (Netherlands). Cosmic Ray Working Group

    1979-12-01

    A low-background telescope for hard X-ray astronomy (15-250 keV), comprising arrays of NaI(Tl)/CsI(Na) phoswiches as photon collectors, was recently developed. The background rejection efficiency of such a telescope, and hence the minimum source in a given time, critically depends on the performance of the phoswich pulse shape analyzer (PSA) in a space radiation environment. Results from theoretical and experimental work on analyzer configurations based on zero-crossing detection are presented. This led to the selection of an optimum configuration for space application. The in-situ performance of this analyzer was evaluated in a balloon-borne hard X-ray experiment, showing excellent discrimination efficiency throughout the entire energy regime.

  8. Radiation-hard silicon photonics for high energy physics and beyond

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Silicon photonics (SiPh) is currently being investigated as a promising technology for future radiation hard optical links. The possibility of integrating SiPh devices with electronics and/or silicon particle sensors as well as an expected very high resistance against radiation damage make this technology particularly interesting for potential use close to the interaction points in future in high energy physics experiments and other radiation-sensitive applications. The presentation will summarize the outcomes of the research on radiation hard SiPh conducted within the ICE-DIP projected.

  9. Hard X-ray Vela supernova observation on rocket experiment WRX-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehlikova, V.; Urban, M.; Nentvich, O.; Daniel, V.; Sieger, L.; Tutt, J.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a hard X-ray telescope for the Vela nebula observation during a sounding rocket flight. The Water Recovery X-ray Rocket (WRX-R) experiment is organised by the Pennsylvania State University (PSU), USA with a primary payload of a soft X-ray spectroscope. The Czech team developed a hard X-ray Lobster-eye telescope as a secondary payload. The Czech experiment’s astrophysical object of study is the Vela pulsar in the centre of the Vela nebula.

  10. Hard X-ray Optics Technology Development for Astronomy at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Ramsey, Brian; Kilaru, Kiranmayee

    2009-01-01

    Grazing-incidence telescopes based on Wolter 1 geometry have delivered impressive advances in astrophysics at soft-x-ray wavelengths, while the hard xray region remains relatively unexplored at fine angular resolution and high sensitivities. The ability to perform ground-breaking science in the hard-x-ray energy range had been the motivation for technology developments aimed at fabricating low-cost, light-weight, high-quality x-ray mirrors. Grazing-incidence x-ray optics for high-energy astrophysical applications is being developed at MSFC using the electroform-nickel replication process.

  11. Development and application of cryogenic radiometry with hard X-rays; Entwicklung und Anwendung der Kryoradiometrie mit harter Roentgenstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, Martin

    2008-06-06

    To establish cryogenic radiometry with hard X-ray radiation for photon energies of up to 60 keV, a novel type of cavity absorber had to be developed for the cryogenic radiometer SYRES I, which is deployed by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) as primary standard detector at the electron storage ring BESSY II. This new type of cavity absorber allows for the complete absorption of hard X-ray radiation in combination with an appropriate sensitivity and an adequate time constant for the measurement of synchrotron radiation at BESSY II. As the process of fabrication of different types of absorbers is very time-consuming, the interaction of hard X-ray radiation with different absorber materials and geometries was studied intensively by using the Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4. The accuracy of the simulations was verified comparing them to scattering experiments performed at a wavelength shifter beamline at BESSY II with a calibrated energy dispersive detector. It was shown that Geant4 describes the photo-effect, including fluorescence as well as Compton- and Rayleigh scattering, with high accuracy. The simulations and experiments resulted in a cavity absorber with a gold base 550 {mu}m in thickness and a cylindrical shell made of copper 90 {mu}m in thickness to reduce losses caused by fluorescence and scattered radiation. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity was then used to calibrate semiconductor photodiodes, which can be used as compact and inexpensive secondary standard detectors, against a cryogenic radiometer, covering the entire photon energy range of three beamlines from 50 eV to 60 keV with relative uncertainties of less than 0.5 %. Furthermore the spatial homogeneity of the spectral responsivity, the transmittance and the linearity of the photodiodes was investigated. Through a direct comparison of the free-air ionization chamber PK100, a primary detector standard of PTB used in dosimetry, and the cryogenic radiometer

  12. Hardness measurements of silicon rubber and polyurethane rubber cured by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basfar, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This work investigates the hardness of both silicon rubber and polyurethane rubber cured by ionizing radiation. Shore A Hardness is used to characterize the subject elastomers in relation to the crosslinking process. Various formulations of both materials have been investigated in order to achieve the optimum cure conditions desired. A small amount of the curing agent has been incorporated in some formulations in order to reduce the required dose to achieve full cure conditions. Silicon rubber has shown improvements in hardness as absorbed dose is increased, whereas hardness remained constant over a range of absorbed doses for polyurethane rubber

  13. Radiation Hard and High Light Yield Scintillator Search for CMS Phase II Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Tiras, Emrah

    2015-01-01

    The CMS detector at the LHC requires a major upgrade to cope with the higher instantaneous luminosity and the elevated radiation levels. The active media of the forward backing hadron calorimeters is projected to be radiation-hard, high light yield scintillation materials or similar alternatives. In this context, we have studied various radiation-hard scintillating materials such as Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), Polyethylene Naphthalate (PEN), High Efficiency Mirror (HEM) and quartz plates with various coatings. The quartz plates are pure Cerenkov radiators and their radiation hardness has been confirmed. In order to increase the light output, we considered organic and inorganic coating materials such as p-Terphenyl (pTp), Anthracene and Gallium-doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO Ga) that are applied as thin layers on the surface of the quartz plates. Here, we present the results of the related test beam activities, laboratory measurements and recent developments.

  14. Integration of Radiation-Hard Magnetic Random Access Memory with CMOS ICs

    CERN Document Server

    Cerjan, C J

    2000-01-01

    The research undertaken in this LDRD-funded project addressed the joint development of magnetic material-based nonvolatile, radiation-hard memory cells with Sandia National Laboratory. Specifically, the goal of this project was to demonstrate the intrinsic radiation-hardness of Giant Magneto-Resistive (GMR) materials by depositing representative alloy combinations upon radiation-hardened silicon-based integrated circuits. All of the stated goals of the project were achieved successfully. The necessary films were successfully deposited upon typical integrated circuits; the materials retained their magnetic field response at the highest radiation doses; and a patterning approach was developed that did not degrade the as-fabricated properties of the underlying circuitry. These results establish the feasibility of building radiation-hard magnetic memory cells.

  15. Multi-spacecraft observations of solar hard X-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, S.R.

    1981-01-01

    The role of multi-spacecraft observations in solar flare research is examined from the point of view of solar hard X-ray bursts and their implications with respect to models of the impulsive phase. Multi-spacecraft measurements provide a stereoscopic view of the flare region, and hence represent the only direct method of measuring directivity of X-rays. In absence of hard X-ray imaging instruments with high spatial and temporal resolution, multi-spacecraft measurements provide the only means of determining the radial (vertical) structure of the hard X-ray source. This potential of the multi-spacecraft observations is illustrated with an analysis of the presently available observations of solar hard X-ray bursts made simultaneously by two or more of the following spacecraft: International Sun Earth Explorer-3 (ISEE-3), Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO), Helios-B and High Energy Astrophysical Observatory-A (HEAO-A). In particular, some conclusions have been drawn about the spatial structure and directivity of 50-100 keV X-rays from impulsive flares. Desirable features of future multi-spacecraft missions are briefly discussed followed by a short description of the hard X-ray experiment on the International Solar Polar Mission which has been planned specifically for multi-spacecraft observations of the Sun. (orig.)

  16. Correlation of electron beams and hard x-ray emissions in ISTTOK Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakubowski, L.; Malinowski, K.; Sadowski, M.J.; Zebrowski, J.; Rabinski, M.; Jakubowski, M.J. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), Otwock (Poland); Plyusnin, V.V.; Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Duarte, P. [Association Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-11-15

    The paper reports on experimental studies of electron beams in the ISTTOK tokamak, those were performed by means of an improved four-channel detector. The Cherenkov-type detector measuring head was equipped with four radiators made of two types of alumina-nitrate (AlN) poly-crystals: machinable and translucent ones, both of 10 mm in diameter and 2.5 mm in thickness. The movable support that enabled the whole detectors to be placed inside the tokamak vacuum chamber, at chosen positions along the ISTTOK minor radius. Since the electron energy distribution is one of the most important characteristics of tokamak plasmas, the main aim of the study was to perform estimations of an energy spectrum of the recorded electrons. For this purpose the radiators were coated with molybdenum (Mo) layers of different thickness. The technique based on the use of Cherenkov-type detectors enabled the detection of fast electrons (of energy above 66 keV) and determination of their spatial and temporal characteristics in the ISTTOK experiment. Measurements of hard X-rays (HXR), which were emitted during ISTTOK discharges, have also been performed. Particular attention was paid to the correlation measurements of HXR pulses with run-away electron beams. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Hard X-ray quantum optics in thin films nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, Johann Friedrich Albert

    2017-05-01

    This thesis describes quantum optical experiments with X-rays with the aim of reaching the strong-coupling regime of light and matter. We make use of the interaction which arises between resonant matter and X-rays in specially designed thin-film nanostructures which form X-ray cavities. Here, the resonant matter are Tantalum atoms and the Iron isotope "5"7Fe. Both limit the number of modes available to the resonant atoms for interaction, and enhances the interaction strength. Thus we have managed to observe a number of phenomena well-known in quantum optics, which are the building blocks for sophisticated applications in e.g. metrology. Among these are the strong coupling of light and matter and the concurrent exchange of virtual photons, often called Rabi oscillations. Furthermore we have designed and tested a type of cavity hitherto unused in X-ray optics. Finally, we develop a new method for synchrotron Moessbauer spectroscopy, which not only promises to yield high-resolution spectra, but also enables the retrieval of the phase of the scattered light. The results open new avenues for quantum optical experiments with X-rays, particularly with regards to the ongoing development of high-brilliance X-ray free-electron lasers.

  18. Hard X-ray quantum optics in thin films nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, Johann Friedrich Albert

    2017-05-15

    This thesis describes quantum optical experiments with X-rays with the aim of reaching the strong-coupling regime of light and matter. We make use of the interaction which arises between resonant matter and X-rays in specially designed thin-film nanostructures which form X-ray cavities. Here, the resonant matter are Tantalum atoms and the Iron isotope {sup 57}Fe. Both limit the number of modes available to the resonant atoms for interaction, and enhances the interaction strength. Thus we have managed to observe a number of phenomena well-known in quantum optics, which are the building blocks for sophisticated applications in e.g. metrology. Among these are the strong coupling of light and matter and the concurrent exchange of virtual photons, often called Rabi oscillations. Furthermore we have designed and tested a type of cavity hitherto unused in X-ray optics. Finally, we develop a new method for synchrotron Moessbauer spectroscopy, which not only promises to yield high-resolution spectra, but also enables the retrieval of the phase of the scattered light. The results open new avenues for quantum optical experiments with X-rays, particularly with regards to the ongoing development of high-brilliance X-ray free-electron lasers.

  19. Injection molded polymeric hard X-ray lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stöhr, Frederik; Simons, Hugh; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen

    2015-01-01

    of the etching profile and were removed after DRIE. By electroplating, an inverse nickel sample was obtained, which was used as a mold insert in a commercial polymer injection molding machine. A prototype lens made of polyethylene with a focal length of 350 mm was tested using synchrotron radiation at photon...

  20. NuSTAR HARD X-RAY SURVEY OF THE GALACTIC CENTER REGION. I. HARD X-RAY MORPHOLOGY AND SPECTROSCOPY OF THE DIFFUSE EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Kaya; Hailey, Charles J.; Perez, Kerstin; Nynka, Melania; Zhang, Shuo; Canipe, Alicia M. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Krivonos, Roman; Tomsick, John A.; Barrière, Nicolas; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hong, Jaesub [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ponti, Gabriele [Max-Planck-Institut f. extraterrestrische Physik, HEG, Garching (Germany); Bauer, Franz [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Alexander, David M. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Baganoff, Frederick K. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusets Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Barret, Didier [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space—National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Forster, Karl [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Giommi, Paolo, E-mail: kaya@astro.columbia.edu [ASI Science Data Center, Via del Politecnico snc I-00133, Roma (Italy); and others

    2015-12-01

    We present the first sub-arcminute images of the Galactic Center above 10 keV, obtained with NuSTAR. NuSTAR resolves the hard X-ray source IGR J17456–2901 into non-thermal X-ray filaments, molecular clouds, point sources, and a previously unknown central component of hard X-ray emission (CHXE). NuSTAR detects four non-thermal X-ray filaments, extending the detection of their power-law spectra with Γ ∼ 1.3–2.3 up to ∼50 keV. A morphological and spectral study of the filaments suggests that their origin may be heterogeneous, where previous studies suggested a common origin in young pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). NuSTAR detects non-thermal X-ray continuum emission spatially correlated with the 6.4 keV Fe Kα fluorescence line emission associated with two Sgr A molecular clouds: MC1 and the Bridge. Broadband X-ray spectral analysis with a Monte-Carlo based X-ray reflection model self-consistently determined their intrinsic column density (∼10{sup 23} cm{sup −2}), primary X-ray spectra (power-laws with Γ ∼ 2) and set a lower limit of the X-ray luminosity of Sgr A* flare illuminating the Sgr A clouds to L{sub X} ≳ 10{sup 38} erg s{sup −1}. Above ∼20 keV, hard X-ray emission in the central 10 pc region around Sgr A* consists of the candidate PWN G359.95–0.04 and the CHXE, possibly resulting from an unresolved population of massive CVs with white dwarf masses M{sub WD} ∼ 0.9 M{sub ⊙}. Spectral energy distribution analysis suggests that G359.95–0.04 is likely the hard X-ray counterpart of the ultra-high gamma-ray source HESS J1745–290, strongly favoring a leptonic origin of the GC TeV emission.

  1. Spectral and temporal properties of the X-ray pulsar SMC X-1 at hard X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, M.; Gruber, D. E.; Kendziorra, E .; Kretschmar, P.; Maisack, M.; Mony, B.; Staubert, R.; Doebereiner, S.; Englhauser, J.; Pietsch, W.

    1993-01-01

    The binary X-ray pulsar SMC X- 1 has been observed at hard X-rays with the High Energy X-Ray Experiment (HEXE) on nine occasions between Nov. 1987 and March 1989. A thin thermal bremsstrahlung fit to the phase averaged spectrum yields a plasma temperature (14.4 +/- 1.3) keV and a luminosity above (1.1 +/- 0.1) x 10 exp 38 erg/s in the 20-80 keV band. Pulse period values have been established for three observations, confirming the remarkably stable spin-up trend of SMC X-1. In one of the three observations the pulse profile was seen to deviate from a dominant double pulsation, while at the same time the pulsed fraction was unusually large. For one observation we determined for the first time the pulsed fraction in narrow energy bands. It increases with photon energy from about 20 percent up to over 60 percent in the energy range from 20 to 80 keV.

  2. Solar flare hard and soft x ray relationship determined from SMM HXRBS and BCS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toot, G. David

    1989-01-01

    The exact nature of the solar flare process is still somewhat a mystery. A key element to understanding flares if the relationship between the hard x rays emitted by the most energetic portions of the flare and the soft x rays from other areas and times. This relationship was studied by comparing hard x ray light curved from the Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer (HXRBS) with the soft x ray light curve and its derivation from the Bent Crystal Spectrometer (BCS) which is part of the X-Ray Polychrometer (XRP), these instruments being on the Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft (SMM). Data sample was taken from flares observed with the above instruments during 1980, the peak of the previous maximum of solar activity. Flares were chosen based on complete coverage of the event by several instruments. The HXRBS data covers the x ray spectrum from about 25 keV to about 440 keV in 15 spectral channels, while the BCS data used covers a region of the Spectrum around 3 angstroms including emission from the Ca XIX ion. Both sets of data were summed over their spectral ranges and plotted against time at a maximum time resolution of around 3 seconds. The most popular theory of flares holds that a beam of electrons produces the hard x rays by bremsstrahlung while the soft x rays are the thermal response to this energy deposition. The question is whether the rate of change of soft x ray emission might reflect the variability of the electron beam and hence the variability of the hard x rays. To address this, we took the time derivative of the soft x ray light curve and compared it to the hard flares, 12 of them showed very closed agreement between the soft x ray derivative and the hard x ray light curve. The other five did not show this behavior but were similar to each other in general soft x ray behavior. Efforts to determine basic differences between the two kinds of flares continue. In addition the behavior of soft x ray temperature of flares was examined.

  3. Thin-film-based scintillators for hard x-ray microimaging detectors: the ScinTAX Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rack, A.; Cecilia, A.; Douissard, P.-A.; Dupré, K.; Wesemann, V.; Baumbach, T.; Couchaud, M.; Rochet, X.; Riesemeier, H.; Radtke, M.; Martin, T.

    2014-09-01

    The project ScinTAX developed novel thin scintillating films for the application in high performance X-ray imaging and subsequent introduced new X-ray detectors to the market. To achieve this aim lutetium orthosilicate (LSO) scintillators doped with different activators were grown successfully by liquid phase epitaxy. The high density of LSO (7.4 g/cm3), the effective atomic number (65.2) and the high light yield make this scintillator highly applicable for indirect X-ray detection in which the ionizing radiation is converted into visible light and then registered by a digital detector. A modular indirect detection system has been developed to fully exploit the potential of this thin film scintillator for radiographic and tomographic imaging. The system is compatible for high-resolution imaging with moderate dose as well as adaptable to intense high-dose applications where radiation hard microimaging detectors are required. This proceedings article shall review the achieved performances and technical details on this high-resolution detector system which is now available. A selected example application demonstrates the great potential of the optimized detector system for hard X-ray microimaging, i.e. either to improve image contrast due to the availability of efficient thin crystal films or to reduce the dose to the sample.

  4. A hard X-ray scanning microprobe for fluorescence imaging and microdiffraction at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, L.; Lai, B.; Yun, W.; Ilinski, P.; Legnini, D.; Maser, J.; Rodrigues, W.

    1999-01-01

    A hard x-ray scanning microprobe based on zone plate optics and undulator radiation, in the energy region from 6 to 20 keV, has reached a focal spot size (FWHM) of 0.15 microm (v) x 0.6 microm (h), and a photon flux of 4 x 10 9 photons/sec/0.01%BW. Using a slit 44 meters upstream to create a virtual source, a circular beam spot of 0.15 microm in diameter can be obtained with a photon flux of one order of magnitude less. During fluorescence mapping of trace elements in a single human ovarian cell, the microprobe exhibited an imaging sensitivity for Pt (L a line) of 80 attograms/microm 2 for a count rate of 10 counts per second. The x-ray microprobe has been used to map crystallographic strain and multiquantum well thickness in micro-optoelectronic devices produced with the selective area growth technique

  5. Inclusion of Radiation Environment Variability in Total Dose Hardness Assurance Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, M. A.; Stauffer, C.; Phan, A.; McClure, S. S.; Ladbury, R. L.; Pellish, J. A.; Campola, M. J.; LaBel, K. A.

    2016-01-01

    Variability of the space radiation environment is investigated with regard to parts categorization for total dose hardness assurance methods. It is shown that it can have a significant impact. A modified approach is developed that uses current environment models more consistently and replaces the radiation design margin concept with one of failure probability during a mission.

  6. CeF3(Ba) radiation hard scintillator for electromagnetic calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aseev, A.A.; Devitsin, E.G.; Kozlov, V.A.; Hovepyan, Yu.I.; Potashov, S.Yu.; Sokolovsky, K.A.; Uvarova, T.V.; Vasilchenko, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of divalent fluoride dopants BaF 2 , CaF 2 , SrF 2 on radiation and luminescent properties of CeF 3 crystal is studied. A high radiation hardness (>10 8 rad) has been obtained for CeF 3 crystals doped with BaF 2 . (orig.)

  7. Hard X-ray Flux from Low-Mass Stars in the Cygnus OB2 Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramazza, M.; Drake, J. J.; Micela, G.; Flaccomio, E.

    2009-05-01

    We investigate the X-ray emission in the 20-40 keV band expected from the flaring low-mass stellar population in Cygnus OB2 assuming that the observed soft X-ray emission is due to a superposition of flares and that the ratio of hard X-ray to soft X-ray emission is described by a scaling found for solar flares by Isola and co-workers. We estimate a low-mass stellar hard X-ray flux in the 20-40 keV band in the range ~7×1031-7×1033 erg/s and speculate the limit of this values. Hard X-ray emission could lie at a level not much below the current observed flux upper limits for Cygnus OB2. Simbol-X, with its broad energy band (10-100 keV) and its sensitivity should be able to detect this emission and would provide insights into the hard X-ray production of flares on pre-main sequence stars.

  8. Relationship between type III-V radio and hard X-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, R.T.

    1978-01-01

    Type III-V radio bursts are found to be closely associated with impulsive hard X-ray bursts. Probably 0.1% to 1% of the fast electrons in the X-ray source region escape to heights >0.1 solar radii in the corona and excite the type III-V burst. (Auth.)

  9. Hard X-ray brightening of Ginga 1843+009 seen by INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyder, J.-C.; Chenevez, Jérôme; Fiocchi, M.T.

    2005-01-01

    The transient X-ray pulsar, Ginga 1843+009, appears to be undergoing a hard X-ray outburst brighter than the one reported in May 2003 (ATEL #159). The source has been observed during ISWT observations of the Scutum Arm region with INTEGRAL and was first detected when the source was in the field o...

  10. A model independent method to deconvolve hard X-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polcaro, V.F.; Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, P.; La Padula, C.

    1984-01-01

    A general purpose method to deconvolve the energy spectra detected by means of the use of a hard X-ray telescope is described. The procedure does not assume any form of input spectrum and the observed energy loss spectrum is directly deconvolved into the incident photon spectrum, the form of which can be determined independently of physical interpretation of the data. Deconvolution of the hard X-ray spectrum of Her X-1, detected during the HXR 81M experiment, by the method independent method is presented. (orig.)

  11. Design of grazing-incidence multilayer supermirrors for hard-X-ray reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K. D.; Voutov, P.; Szentgyorgyi, A.

    1995-01-01

    Extremely broadband grazing-incidence multilayers for hard-X-ray reflection can be obtained by a gradual change of the layer thicknesses down through the structure. Existing approaches for designing similar neutron optics, called supermirrors, are shown to provide respectable performance when...... applied to X-ray multilayers. However, none of these approaches consider the effects of imperfect layer interfaces and absorption in the overlying layers. Adaptations of neutron designs that take these effects into account are presented, and a thorough analysis of two specific applications (a single hard......-X-ray reflector and a hard-X-ray telescope) shows that an improved performance can be obtained. A multilayer whose bilayer thicknesses are given by a power law expression is found to provide the best solution; however, it is only slightly better than some of the adapted neutron designs...

  12. The Elusive Soft Emission from Hard X-ray Symbiotic System RT Cru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karovska, Margarita

    2014-09-01

    RT Cru is a fascinating member of a new class of hard X-ray emitting symbiotic binaries showing X-ray emission extending to over 50keV. While its hard X-ray emission has been studied in detail, the soft component of the spectrum, including flares, remains elusive, since previous observations have focused on the high-energy regime. We propose Chandra HRC-S/LETG observations to determine the spatial, spectral, and temporal characteristics of the source of the soft X-ray emission with a goal to establish the origin of the soft component, and determine whether and how it is tied to the hard component. Determining the origin of the soft emission is a crucial piece of the puzzle to understanding the geometry, energetics, and the environment of WD accretion in this class of symbiotic systems.

  13. Dealloying of Cu{sub x}Au studied by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajput, Parasmani, E-mail: parasmani.rajput@northwestern.edu [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Gupta, Ajay [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452 017 (India); Detlefs, Blanka [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Kolb, Dieter M. [Institute for Electrochemistry, University of Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Potdar, Satish [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452 017 (India); Zegenhagen, Jörg [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, F-38043 Grenoble (France)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► The shift in binding energy of Cu and Au lines in CuAu alloys is opposite to expected from the nobility of the elements. ► The magnitude of the chemical shifts of the metal lines in CuAu alloys is strongly influenced by finite size effects and disorder. ► Cu 3s and/or Au 4f cross-sections are not well described by theory (Scofield). The Cu 3s photoabsorption cross-section seems to be strongly overestimated. ► We find/confirm that (CuAu) dealloying proceeds into depth like a spinodal decomposition. -- Abstract: We studied pristine and leached ultra-thin Cu{sub x}Au (x ≈ 4) films by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The Au 4f and Cu 3s core levels show a shift in binding energy which is opposite to expected from the nobility of the elements, which is explained by charge transfer involving differently screening s and d valence levels of the elements [W. Eberhardt, S.C. Wu, R. Garrett, D. Sondericker, F. Jona, Phys. Rev. B 31 (1985) 8285]. The magnitude of the chemical shifts of the metal lines is strongly influenced by the finite size and disorder of the films. Angular dependent photoelectron emission allowed to assess the alloy composition as a function of depth larger than 5 nm. The potential controlled dealloying proceeds into depth like a spinodal decomposition with Cu going into solution and the remaining Au accumulating in the surface region. The compositional gradient did not lead to a significant broadening of the metal photoelectron lines suggesting a non-local screening mechanism.

  14. Simbol-X Hard X-ray Focusing Mirrors: Results Obtained During the Phase A Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagliaferri, G.; Basso, S.; Civitani, M.; Conconi, P.; Cotroneo, V.; Pareschi, G.; Spiga, D.; Borghi, G.; Garoli, D.; Mattarello, V.; Orlandi, A.; Valsecchi, G.; Vernani, D.; Burkert, W.; Freyberg, M.; Hartner, G.; Citterio, O.; Gorenstein, P.; Romaine, S.

    2009-01-01

    Simbol-X will push grazing incidence imaging up to 80 keV, providing a strong improvement both in sensitivity and angular resolution compared to all instruments that have operated so far above 10 keV. The superb hard X-ray imaging capability will be guaranteed by a mirror module of 100 electroformed Nickel shells with a multilayer reflecting coating. Here we will describe the technogical development and solutions adopted for the fabrication of the mirror module, that must guarantee an Half Energy Width (HEW) better than 20 arcsec from 0.5 up to 30 keV and a goal of 40 arcsec at 60 keV. During the phase A, terminated at the end of 2008, we have developed three engineering models with two, two and three shells, respectively. The most critical aspects in the development of the Simbol-X mirrors are i) the production of the 100 mandrels with very good surface quality within the timeline of the mission, ii) the replication of shells that must be very thin (a factor of 2 thinner than those of XMM-Newton) and still have very good image quality up to 80 keV, iii) the development of an integration process that allows us to integrate these very thin mirrors maintaining their intrinsic good image quality. The Phase A study has shown that we can fabricate the mandrels with the needed quality and that we have developed a valid integration process. The shells that we have produced so far have a quite good image quality, e.g. HEW < or approx. 30 arcsec at 30 keV, and effective area. However, we still need to make some improvements to reach the requirements. We will briefly present these results and discuss the possible improvements that we will investigate during phase B.

  15. Simbol-X Hard X-ray Focusing Mirrors: Results Obtained During the Phase A Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaferri, G.; Basso, S.; Borghi, G.; Burkert, W.; Citterio, O.; Civitani, M.; Conconi, P.; Cotroneo, V.; Freyberg, M.; Garoli, D.; Gorenstein, P.; Hartner, G.; Mattarello, V.; Orlandi, A.; Pareschi, G.; Romaine, S.; Spiga, D.; Valsecchi, G.; Vernani, D.

    2009-05-01

    Simbol-X will push grazing incidence imaging up to 80 keV, providing a strong improvement both in sensitivity and angular resolution compared to all instruments that have operated so far above 10 keV. The superb hard X-ray imaging capability will be guaranteed by a mirror module of 100 electroformed Nickel shells with a multilayer reflecting coating. Here we will describe the technogical development and solutions adopted for the fabrication of the mirror module, that must guarantee an Half Energy Width (HEW) better than 20 arcsec from 0.5 up to 30 keV and a goal of 40 arcsec at 60 keV. During the phase A, terminated at the end of 2008, we have developed three engineering models with two, two and three shells, respectively. The most critical aspects in the development of the Simbol-X mirrors are i) the production of the 100 mandrels with very good surface quality within the timeline of the mission, ii) the replication of shells that must be very thin (a factor of 2 thinner than those of XMM-Newton) and still have very good image quality up to 80 keV, iii) the development of an integration process that allows us to integrate these very thin mirrors maintaining their intrinsic good image quality. The Phase A study has shown that we can fabricate the mandrels with the needed quality and that we have developed a valid integration process. The shells that we have produced so far have a quite good image quality, e.g. HEW <~30 arcsec at 30 keV, and effective area. However, we still need to make some improvements to reach the requirements. We will briefly present these results and discuss the possible improvements that we will investigate during phase B.

  16. Hard X-ray emission spectroscopy with pink beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvashnina, Kristina O.; Rossberg, Andre; Exner, Joerg; Scheinost, Andreas C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Molecular Structures

    2017-06-01

    Valence-band X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) with a ''pink beam'', i.e. a beam with large energy bandwidth produced by a double-multilayer monochromator, is introduced here to overcome the weak count rate of monochromatic beams produced by conventional double-crystal monochromators. Our results demonstrate that - in spite of the large bandwidth in the order of 100 eV - the high spectral resolution of the Johann-type spectrometer is maintained, while the two orders of magnitude higher flux greatly reduces the required counting time. The short working distance Johann-type X-ray emission spectrometer and multilayer monochromator is available at ROBL.

  17. Fluence thresholds for grazing incidence hard x-ray mirrors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aquila, A.; Sobierajski, R.; Ozkan, C.; Hájková, Věra; Burian, Tomáš; Chalupský, Jaromír; Juha, Libor; Störmer, M.; Bajt, S.; Klepka, M.T.; Dlužewski, P.; Morawiec, K.; Ohashi, H.; Koyama, T.; Tono, K.; Inubushi, Y.; Yabashi, M.; Sinn, H.; Tschentscher, T.; Mancuso, A.P.; Gaudin, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 24 (2015), "241905-1"-"241905-5" ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-29772S Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101221 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : XFEL * Free Electron Laser * damage threshold * X-ray optics Subject RIV: BH - Optics , Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.142, year: 2015

  18. Radiation-hard Silicon Photonics for Future High Energy Physics Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2089774; Troska, Jan

    Collisions of proton beams in the Large Hadron Collider at CERN produce very high radiation levels in the innermost parts of the particle detectors and enormous amounts of measurement data. Thousands of radiation-hard optical links based on directly-modulated laser diodes are thus installed in the particle detectors to transmit the measurement data to the processing electronics. The radiation levels in the innermost regions of future particle detectors will be much higher than they are now. Alternative solutions to laser-based radiation-hard optical links have to be found since the performance of laser diodes decreases beyond the operation margin of the system when irradiated to sufficiently high radiation levels. Silicon Photonics (SiPh) is currently being investigated as a promising alternative technology. First tests have indeed shown that SiPh Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZMs) are relatively insensitive to a high neutron fluence. However, they showed a strong degradation when exposed to ionizing radiation. ...

  19. Radiation hardness on very front-end for SPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano, Xavier; Graciani, Ricardo; Gascon, David; Garrido, Lluis; Bota, Sebastia; Herms, Atila; Comerma, Albert; Riera, Jordi

    2005-01-01

    The calorimeter front-end electronics of the LHCb experiment will be located in a region, which is not protected from radiation. Therefore, all the electronics must be qualified to stand some defined radiation levels. The procedure, measurements and results of an irradiation test for every component of the very front-end SPD detector, which is part of the LHCb calorimeter are presented here. All the tested components, except a custom made ASIC, are commercially available

  20. Scheme for generation of fully-coherent, TW power level hard X-ray pulses from baseline undulators at the European X-ray FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2010-07-01

    The most promising way to increase the output power of an X-ray FEL (XFEL) is by tapering the magnetic field of the undulator. Also, significant increase in power is achievable by starting the FEL process from a monochromatic seed rather than from noise. This report proposes to make use of a cascade self-seeding scheme with wake monochromators in a tunable-gap baseline undulator at the European XFEL to create a source capable of delivering coherent radiation of unprecedented characteristics at hard X-ray wavelengths. Compared with SASE X-ray FEL parameters, the radiation from the new source has three truly unique aspects: complete longitudinal and transverse coherence, and a peak brightness three orders of magnitude higher than what is presently available at LCLS. Additionally, the new source will generate hard X-ray beam at extraordinary peak (TW) and average (kW) power level. The proposed source can thus revolutionize fields like single biomolecule imaging, inelastic scattering and nuclear resonant scattering. The self-seeding scheme with the wake monochromator is extremely compact, and takes almost no cost and time to be implemented. The upgrade proposed in this paper could take place during the commissioning stage of the European XFEL, opening a vast new range of applications from the very beginning of operations.We present feasibility study and examplifications for the SASE2 line of the European XFEL. (orig.)

  1. The 105-Month Swift-BAT All-Sky Hard X-Ray Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyuseok; Koss, Michael; Markwardt, Craig B.; Schawinski, Kevin; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Gehrels, Neil; Mushotzky, Richard; Petulante, Abigail; hide

    2018-01-01

    We present a catalog of hard X-ray sources detected in the first 105 months of observations with the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) coded-mask imager on board the Swift observatory. The 105-month Swift-BAT survey is a uniform hard X-ray all-sky survey with a sensitivity of 8.40 x 10(exp -12) erg s(exp -1) cm(exp -2) over 90% of the sky and 7.24 x 10(exp -12) erg s(exp -1) cm(exp -2) over 50% of the sky in the 14-195 keV band. The Swift-BAT 105-month catalog provides 1632 (422 new detections) hard X-ray sources in the 14-195 keV band above the 4.8 sigma significance level. Adding to the previously known hard X-ray sources, 34% (144/422) of the new detections are identified as Seyfert active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in nearby galaxies (z < 0.2). The majority of the remaining identified sources are X-ray binaries (7%, 31) and blazars/BL Lac objects (10%, 43). As part of this new edition of the Swift-BAT catalog, we release eight-channel spectra and monthly sampled light curves for each object in the online journal and at the Swift-BAT 105-month website.

  2. Hard X-Ray PHA System on the HT-7 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Shiyao; Shi Yuejiang; Wan Baonian; Chen Zhongyong; Hu Liqun

    2006-01-01

    A new hard X-ray pulse-height analysis (PHA) system has been established on HT-7 tokamak for long pulse steady-state operation. This PHA system consists of hard X-ray diagnostics and multi-channel analysers (MCA). The hard X-ray diagnostics consists of a vertical X-ray detector array (CdTe) and a horizontal X-ray detector array (NaI). The hard X-ray diagnostics can provide the profile of power deposition and the distribution function of fast electron during radio frequency (RF) current drive. The MCA system is the electronic part of the PHA system, which has been modularized and linked to PC through LAN. Each module of MCA can connect with 8 X-ray detectors. The embedded Ethernet adapter in the MCA module makes the data communication between PC and MCA very convenient. A computer can control several modules of MCA through certain software and a hub. The RAM in MCA can store 1024 or more spectra for each detector and therefore the PHA system can be applied in the long pulse discharge of several minutes

  3. Measured reflectance of graded multilayer mirrors designed for astronomical hard X-ray telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Craig, W.W.; Windt, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    Future astronomical X-ray telescopes, including the balloon-borne High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT) and the Constellation-X Hard X-ray Telescope (Con-X HXT) plan to incorporate depth-graded multilayer coatings in order to extend sensitivity into the hard X-ray (10 less than or similar to E less......-graded W/Si multilayers optimized for broadband performance up to 69.5 keV (WK-edge). These designs are ideal for both the HEFT and Con-X HXT applications. We compare the measurements to model calculations to demonstrate that the reflectivity can be well described by the intended power law distribution...

  4. A hard x-ray prototype production exposure station at NSLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.D.; Milne, J.C.

    1997-07-01

    Exposures conducted at the NSLS R and D beamline (X-27B) for High Aspect Ratio Precision Manufacture have proven sufficiently successful that the authors are constructing a dedicated hard x-ray exposure beamline. The new beamline (X-14B) provides an exposure field ∼ 120 mm wide, three times larger than that of X-27B. The scanner is based on the hydraulic system from the X-27B program. It is optimized for planar exposures and takes advantage of the full 525 mm stroke available. Exposures of multiple substrates and masks will be possible, with the fixturing supporting mounting of substrate holders from other groups (ALS, APS, CAMD, and UW). The function of this beamline is to establish a hard x-ray exposure station where manufacturing scale protocols can be developed and ultimately exploited for production runs

  5. Performance of a hard x-ray undulator at CHESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilderback, D.H.; Batterman, B.W.; Bedzyk, M.J.; Finkelstein, K.; Henderson, C.; Merlini, A.; Schildkamp, W.; Shen, Q.; White, J.; Blum, E.B.; Viccaro, P.J.; Mills, D.M.; Kim, S.; Shenoy, G.K.; Robinson, K.E.; James, F.E.; Slater, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    A 3.3-cm period Nd-Fe-B hybrid undulator has been designed and successfully operated in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR). This 2-m-long, 123-pole insertion device is a prototype of one of the undulators planned for the Advanced Photon Source. In dedicated operation, the undulator produced the expected brightness at 5.437 GeV with the fundamental x-ray energy ranging from 4.3 to 7.9 keV corresponding to a change in gap from 1.5 to 2.8 cm

  6. Non-stoichiometry defects and radiation hardness of lead tungstate crystals PbWO sub 4

    CERN Document Server

    Devitsin, E G; Potashov, S Yu; Terkulov, A R; Nefedov, V A; Polyansky, E V; Zadneprovski, B I; Kjellberg, P; Korbel, V

    2002-01-01

    It has been stated many times that the formation of radiation infringements in PbWO sub 4 is to a big extent stipulated by the non-stoichiometry defects of the crystals, arising in the process of their growth and annealing. To refine the idea of characteristics of the non-stoichiometry defects and their effect on the radiation hardness of PbWO sub 4 , the current study is aimed at the melt composition infringements during its evaporation and at optical transmission of crystals obtained in these conditions after their irradiation ( sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs source). In the optical transmission measurements along with traditional techniques a method 'in situ' was used, which provided the measurements in fixed points of the spectrum (380, 470 and 535 nm) directly in the process of the irradiation. X-ray phase and fluorescence analysis of condensation products of vapours over PbWO sub 4 melt has found PbWO sub 4 phase in their content as well as compounds rich in lead PbO, Pb sub 2 WO sub 5 with overall ratio Pb/W (3....

  7. Non-stoichiometry Defects and Radiation Hardness of Lead Tungstate Crystals PbWO4

    CERN Document Server

    Devitsin, E G; Kozlov, V A; Nefedov, L; Polyansky, E V; Potashov, S Yu; Terkulov, A R; Zadneprovski, B I

    2001-01-01

    It has been stated many times that the formation of radiation infringements in PbWO4 is to big extent stipulated by non-stoichiometry defects of the crystals, arising in the process of their growth and annealing. To refine the idea of characteristics of non-stoichiometry defects and their effect on the radiation hardness of PbWO4 the current study is aimed at the melt composition infringements during its evaporation and at optical transmission of crystals obtained in these conditions after their irradiation (137Cs source). In the optical transmission measurements along with traditional techniques a method "in situ" was used, which provided the measurements in fixed points of the spectrum (380, 470 and 535 nm) directly in the process of the irradiation. X-ray phase and fluorescence analysis of condensation products of vapours over PbWO4 melt has found PbWO4 phase in their content as well as compounds rich in lead, PbO, Pb2WO5, with overall ratio Pb/W = 3.2. Correspondingly the lack of lead and variations in th...

  8. First tests of a novel radiation hard CMOS sensor process for Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernegger, H.; Bates, R.; Buttar, C.; Dalla, M.; van Hoorne, J. W.; Kugathasan, T.; Maneuski, D.; Musa, L.; Riedler, P.; Riegel, C.; Sbarra, C.; Schaefer, D.; Schioppa, E. J.; Snoeys, W.

    2017-06-01

    The upgrade of the ATLAS [1] tracking detector for the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN requires novel radiation hard silicon sensor technologies. Significant effort has been put into the development of monolithic CMOS sensors but it has been a challenge to combine a low capacitance of the sensing node with full depletion of the sensitive layer. Low capacitance brings low analog power. Depletion of the sensitive layer causes the signal charge to be collected by drift sufficiently fast to separate hits from consecutive bunch crossings (25 ns at the LHC) and to avoid losing the charge by trapping. This paper focuses on the characterization of charge collection properties and detection efficiency of prototype sensors originally designed in the framework of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS) upgrade [2]. The prototypes are fabricated both in the standard TowerJazz 180nm CMOS imager process [3] and in an innovative modification of this process developed in collaboration with the foundry, aimed to fully deplete the sensitive epitaxial layer and enhance the tolerance to non-ionizing energy loss. Sensors fabricated in standard and modified process variants were characterized using radioactive sources, focused X-ray beam and test beams before and after irradiation. Contrary to sensors manufactured in the standard process, sensors from the modified process remain fully functional even after a dose of 1015neq/cm2, which is the the expected NIEL radiation fluence for the outer pixel layers in the future ATLAS Inner Tracker (ITk) [4].

  9. Radiation Hardness tests with neutron flux on different Silicon photomultiplier devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, P. W.; Cervi, T.; Menegolli, A.; Oddone, M.; Prata, M.; Prata, M. C.; Rossella, M.

    2017-07-01

    Radiation hardness is an important requirement for solid state readout devices operating in high radiation environments common in particle physics experiments. The MEG II experiment, at PSI, Switzerland, investigates the forbidden decay μ+ → e+ γ. Exploiting the most intense muon beam of the world. A significant flux of non-thermal neutrons (kinetic energy Ek>= 0.5 MeV) is present in the experimental hall produced along the beam-line and in the hall itself. We present the effects of neutron fluxes comparable to the MEG II expected doses on several Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPMs). The tested models are: AdvanSiD ASD-NUV3S-P50 (used in MEG II experiment), AdvanSiD ASD-NUV3S-P40, AdvanSiD ASD-RGB3S-P40, Hamamatsu and Excelitas C30742-33-050-X. The neutron source is the thermal Sub-critical Multiplication complex (SM1) moderated with water, located at the University of Pavia (Italy). We report the change of SiPMs most important electric parameters: dark current, dark pulse frequency, gain, direct bias resistance, as a function of the integrated neutron fluency.

  10. Hard x-ray to low energy gamma ray spectrum of the Crab Nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, G.V.

    1986-01-01

    The spectrum of the Crab Nebula has been determined in the energy range 10 keV to 5 MeV from the data of the UCSD/MIT Hard-X-ray and Low Energy Gamma Ray Experiment on the first High Energy Astronomy Observatory, HEAO-1. The x-ray to γ-ray portion of the continuous emission from the Crab is indicative of the electron spectrum, its transport through the nebula, and the physical conditions near the shocked interface between the nebular region and the wind which is the physical link between the nebula and the pulsar, NP0532. The power-law dependence of the spectrum found in the lower-energy decade of this observation (10 to 100 keV) is not continued without modification to higher energies. Evidence for this has been accumulating from previous observations in the γ-ray ranges of 1-10 MeV and above 35 MeV. The observations on which this dissertation is based further characterize the spectral change in the 100 keV to 1 MeV region. These observations provide a crucial connection between the x-ray and γ-ray spectrum of the non-pulsed emission of the Crab Nebula. The continuity of this spectrum suggests that the emission mechanism responsible for the non-pulsed γ-rays observed above 35 MeV is of the same origin as the emission at lower energies, i.e. that of synchrotron radiation in the magnetic field of the nebula

  11. Electronic structure of YbNiX{sub 3} (X =Si, Ge) studied by hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Hitoshi; Shimada, Kenya; Namatame, Hirofumi [Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 2-313, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan); Utsumi, Yuki [Max-Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Kodama, Junichi; Nagata, Heisuke [Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Avila, Marcos A.; Ribeiro, Raquel A. [Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo Andre - SP, 09210-580 (Brazil); Umeo, Kazunori [Cryogenics and Instrumental Analysis Division, N-BARD, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Takabatake, Toshiro [Department of Quantum Matter, AdSM, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Institute for Advanced Materials Research, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Mimura, Kojiro; Motonami, Satoru; Anzai, Hiroaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Ueda, Shigenori [Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8, National Institute for Materials Science, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Taniguchi, Masaki [Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 2-313, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan); Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    lectronic structure of the Kondo lattices YbNiX{sub 3} (X =Si, Ge) has been investigated by means of hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HAXPES) with hν = 5.95 keV. From the Yb 3d HAXPES spectra, the Yb valence in YbNiSi{sub 3} is estimated to be ∝ 2.92, which is almost temperature-independent. On the other hand, the valence in YbNiGe{sub 3} is estimated to be 2.48 at 300 K, showing significant valence fluctuation, and gradually decreases to 2.41 at 20 K on cooling. The Ni 2p{sub 3/2} and Yb{sup 3+} 4f peaks exhibit opposite energy shifts amounting to ∝ 0.6 eV between YbNiSi{sub 3} and YbNiGe{sub 3}. We propose a simple model for the electronic structure of YbNiX{sub 3} based on the HAXPES results. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. 3D visualization of subcellular structures of Schizosaccharomyces pombe by hard X-ray tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Li, W; Liu, G; Zhang, X; Chen, J; Wu, W; Guan, Y; Xiong, Y; Tian, Y; Wu, Z

    2010-10-01

    Cellular structures of the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, were examined by using hard X-ray tomography. Since cells are nearly transparent to hard X-rays, Zernike phase contrast and heavy metal staining were introduced to improve image contrast. Through using such methods, images taken at 8 keV displayed sufficient contrast for observing cellular structures. The cell wall, the intracellular organelles and the entire structural organization of the whole cells were visualized in three-dimensional at a resolution better than 100 nm. Comparison between phase contrast and absorption contrast was also made, indicating the obvious advantage of phase contrast for cellular imaging at this energy. Our results demonstrate that hard X-ray tomography with Zernike phase contrast is suitable for cellular imaging. Its unique abilities make it have potential to become a useful tool for revealing structural information from cells, especially thick eukaryotic cells. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 The Royal Microscopical Society.

  13. CORRELATION OF HARD X-RAY AND WHITE LIGHT EMISSION IN SOLAR FLARES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhar, Matej; Krucker, Säm; Battaglia, Marina; Kleint, Lucia; Casadei, Diego [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Bahnhofstrasse 6, 5210 Windisch (Switzerland); Oliveros, Juan Carlos Martinez; Hudson, Hugh S. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A statistical study of the correlation between hard X-ray and white light emission in solar flares is performed in order to search for a link between flare-accelerated electrons and white light formation. We analyze 43 flares spanning GOES classes M and X using observations from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager. We calculate X-ray fluxes at 30 keV and white light fluxes at 6173 Å summed over the hard X-ray flare ribbons with an integration time of 45 s around the peak hard-X ray time. We find a good correlation between hard X-ray fluxes and excess white light fluxes, with a highest correlation coefficient of 0.68 for photons with energy of 30 keV. Assuming the thick target model, a similar correlation is found between the deposited power by flare-accelerated electrons and the white light fluxes. The correlation coefficient is found to be largest for energy deposition by electrons above ∼50 keV. At higher electron energies the correlation decreases gradually while a rapid decrease is seen if the energy provided by low-energy electrons is added. This suggests that flare-accelerated electrons of energy ∼50 keV are the main source for white light production.

  14. High spectral resolution measurements of a solar flare hard X-ray burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, R.P.; Schwartz, R.A.; NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD)

    1987-01-01

    Observations are reported of an intense solar flare hard X-ray burst on June 27, 1980, made with a balloon-borne array of liquid nitrogen-cooled Ge detector which provided unprecedented spectral resolution (no more than 1 keV FWHM). The hard X-ray spectra throughout the impulsive phase burst fitted well to a double power-law form, and emission from an isothermal 0.1-1 billion K plasma can be specifically excluded. The temporal variations of the spectrum indicate that the hard X-ray burst is made up of two superposed components: individual spikes lasting about 3-15 sec, which have a hard spectrum and a break energy of 30-65 keV; and a slowly varying component characterized by a soft spectrum with a constant low-energy slope and a break energy which increases from 25 kev to at least 100 keV through the event. The double power-law shape indicates that DC electric field acceleration, similar to that occurring in the earth's auroral zone, may be the source of the energetic electrons which produce the hard X-ray emission. 39 references

  15. Characterisation of weldment hardness, impact energy and microstructure in API X65 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemi, S.H.; Mohammadyani, D.

    2012-01-01

    The variation of microstructure and mechanical properties in various sub-zones of double submerged arc welded line pipe steel of grade API X65 was investigated. Instrumented Charpy V-notch tests and Vickers hardness experiments were conducted on the fusion zone, base metal and heat affected zone of the weld joint in 14.3 mm thick, 1219 mm outside diameter spiral pipeline. The lowest impact energy and the highest hardness level (160J and 218 HV, respectively) were recorded in the fusion zone. The low energy and high hardness characteristics of the seam weld can be attributed to its cast microstructure and the presence of grain boundary phases (such as proeutectoid ferrite), confirmed by standard metallographic observation. Despite this, service requirements set by the API 5L industry code (minimum impact energy of 73J, maximum hard spots of 350 HV) were fulfilled by the tested steel. Highlights: ► Experimental study of API X65 steel microstructure. ► Analysis of the relationship between X65 steel microstructure and hardness. ► Analysis of the relationship between X65 steel microstructure and impact energy. ► Presentation of detailed technical information on DSA welding in spiral pipes.

  16. Radiation-hard Optoelectronics for LHC detector upgrades.

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00375195; Newbold, Dave

    A series of upgrades foreseen for the LHC over the next decade will allow the proton-proton collisions to reach the design center of mass energy of 14 TeV and increase the luminosity to five times (High Luminosity-LHC) the design luminosity by 2027. Radiation-tolerant high-speed optical data transmission links will continue to play an important role in the infrastructure of particle physics experiments over the next decade. A new generation of optoelectronics that meet the increased performance and radiation tolerance limits imposed by the increase in the intensity of the collisions at the interaction points are currently being developed. This thesis focuses on the development of a general purpose bi-directional 5 Gb/s radiation tolerant optical transceiver, the Versatile Transceiver (VTRx), for use by the LHC experiments over the next five years, and on exploring the radiation-tolerance of state-of-the art silicon photonics modulators for HL-LHC data transmission applications. The compliance of the VTRx ...

  17. Building memristive and radiation hardness TiO{sub 2}-based junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghenzi, N., E-mail: n.ghenzi@gmail.com [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina); Rubi, D. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina); ECyT, UNSAM, Martín de Irigoyen 3100, 1650 San Martín, Bs As (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Mangano, E.; Gimenez, G. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Industrial (INTI) (Argentina); Lell, J. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina); Zelcer, A. [Gerencia Química, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina); ECyT, UNSAM, Martín de Irigoyen 3100, 1650 San Martín, Bs As (Argentina); Stoliar, P. [ECyT, UNSAM, Martín de Irigoyen 3100, 1650 San Martín, Bs As (Argentina); IMN, Université de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes (France); and others

    2014-01-01

    We study micro-scale TiO{sub 2} junctions that are suitable to be used as resistive random-access memory nonvolatile devices with radiation hardness memristive properties. The fabrication and structural and electrical characterization of the junctions are presented. We obtained a retentivity of 10{sup 5} s, an endurance of 10{sup 4} cycles and reliable switching with short electrical pulses (time-width below 10 ns). Additionally, the devices were exposed to 25 MeV oxygen ions. Then, we performed electrical measurements comparing pristine and irradiated devices in order to check the feasibility of using these junctions as memory elements with memristive and radiation hardness properties. - Highlights: • We fabricated radiation hardness memristive metal insulator metal junctions. • We characterized the structural properties of the devices. • We showed the feasibility of the junctions as a non-volatile memory.

  18. Room Temperature Hard Radiation Detectors Based on Solid State Compound Semiconductors: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Ali; Huh, Jeung-Soo; Kim, Sang Sub; Kim, Hyoun Woo

    2018-05-01

    Si and Ge single crystals are the most common semiconductor radiation detectors. However, they need to work at cryogenic temperatures to decrease their noise levels. In contrast, compound semiconductors can be operated at room temperature due to their ability to grow compound materials with tunable densities, band gaps and atomic numbers. Highly efficient room temperature hard radiation detectors can be utilized in biomedical diagnostics, nuclear safety and homeland security applications. In this review, we discuss room temperature compound semiconductors. Since the field of radiation detection is broad and a discussion of all compound materials for radiation sensing is impossible, we discuss the most important materials for the detection of hard radiation with a focus on binary heavy metal semiconductors and ternary and quaternary chalcogenide compounds.

  19. Room Temperature Hard Radiation Detectors Based on Solid State Compound Semiconductors: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Ali; Huh, Jeung-Soo; Kim, Sang Sub; Kim, Hyoun Woo

    2018-03-01

    Si and Ge single crystals are the most common semiconductor radiation detectors. However, they need to work at cryogenic temperatures to decrease their noise levels. In contrast, compound semiconductors can be operated at room temperature due to their ability to grow compound materials with tunable densities, band gaps and atomic numbers. Highly efficient room temperature hard radiation detectors can be utilized in biomedical diagnostics, nuclear safety and homeland security applications. In this review, we discuss room temperature compound semiconductors. Since the field of radiation detection is broad and a discussion of all compound materials for radiation sensing is impossible, we discuss the most important materials for the detection of hard radiation with a focus on binary heavy metal semiconductors and ternary and quaternary chalcogenide compounds.

  20. Electronic properties of Nd2−xCexCuO4+δ: A hard X-ray photoemission investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarino, A.; Panaccione, G.; Offi, F.; Monaco, G.; Fondacaro, A.; Torelli, P.; Fittipaldi, R.; Vecchione, A.; Pace, S.; Nigro, A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We grow and characterize Nd 2−x Ce x CuO 4+δ samples as thin film and single crystal. • We study the Cu 2p levels of our samples by hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. • We investigate bulk features of the Nd 2−x Ce x CuO 4+δ samples. • Signature of the bulk response is correlated with the crystallinity of the samples. - Abstract: Cu 2p core levels spectra measured by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy of selected as-grown Nd 2−x Ce x CuO 4+δ samples are presented and discussed. The presence of a satellite peak in the 2p core level of Nd 2−x Ce x CuO 4+δ single crystal by hard X-ray photoemission is confirmed in all non-superconducting samples, films and single crystals investigated in this work. The comparison of the spectral features of the different samples suggests that the presence and the intensity of this satellite peak is not related to the electric transport properties, but to the texture characteristics.

  1. Work Hard / Play Hard

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, J.; Johnson, V.; Henckel, D.

    2016-01-01

    Work Hard / Play Hard was a participatory performance/workshop or CPD experience hosted by interdisciplinary arts atelier WeAreCodeX, in association with AntiUniversity.org. As a socially/economically engaged arts practice, Work Hard / Play Hard challenged employees/players to get playful, or go to work. 'The game changes you, you never change the game'. Employee PLAYER A 'The faster the better.' Employer PLAYER B

  2. Hard X-ray full field microscopy and magnifying microtomography using compound refractive lenses

    CERN Document Server

    Schrör, C; Benner, B; Kuhlmann, M; Tümmler, J; Lengeler, B; Rau, C; Weitkamp, T; Snigirev, A; Snigireva, I

    2001-01-01

    For hard X-rays, parabolic compound refractive lenses (PCRLs) are genuine imaging devices like glass lenses for visible light. Based on these new lenses, a hard X-ray full field microscope has been constructed that is ideally suited to image the interior of opaque samples with a minimum of sample preparation. As a result of a large depth of field, CRL micrographs are sharp projection images of most samples. To obtain 3D information about a sample, tomographic techniques are combined with magnified imaging.

  3. Hard X-ray full field microscopy and magnifying microtomography using compound refractive lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroer, Christian G.; Günzler, Til Florian; Benner, Boris; Kuhlmann, Marion; Tümmler, Johannes; Lengeler, Bruno; Rau, Christoph; Weitkamp, Timm; Snigirev, Anatoly; Snigireva, Irina

    2001-07-01

    For hard X-rays, parabolic compound refractive lenses (PCRLs) are genuine imaging devices like glass lenses for visible light. Based on these new lenses, a hard X-ray full field microscope has been constructed that is ideally suited to image the interior of opaque samples with a minimum of sample preparation. As a result of a large depth of field, CRL micrographs are sharp projection images of most samples. To obtain 3D information about a sample, tomographic techniques are combined with magnified imaging.

  4. Hard X-ray full field microscopy and magnifying microtomography using compound refractive lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, Christian G.; Guenzler, Til Florian; Benner, Boris; Kuhlmann, Marion; Tuemmler, Johannes; Lengeler, Bruno; Rau, Christoph; Weitkamp, Timm; Snigirev, Anatoly; Snigireva, Irina

    2001-01-01

    For hard X-rays, parabolic compound refractive lenses (PCRLs) are genuine imaging devices like glass lenses for visible light. Based on these new lenses, a hard X-ray full field microscope has been constructed that is ideally suited to image the interior of opaque samples with a minimum of sample preparation. As a result of a large depth of field, CRL micrographs are sharp projection images of most samples. To obtain 3D information about a sample, tomographic techniques are combined with magnified imaging

  5. Bragg concentrators for hard (> 10keV) x-ray astronomy: Status report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareschi, G.; Frontera, F.; Pasqualini, G.

    1997-01-01

    The use of focusing telescopes in hard X-ray (E > 10 keV) astronomy will provide better flux sensitivity and imaging performances with respect to the direct-viewing detectors, utilized until now. We present recent results obtained from our group regarding the possible use of Bragg-diffraction tec......The use of focusing telescopes in hard X-ray (E > 10 keV) astronomy will provide better flux sensitivity and imaging performances with respect to the direct-viewing detectors, utilized until now. We present recent results obtained from our group regarding the possible use of Bragg...

  6. Thick and large area PIN diodes for hard X-ray astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Ota, N; Sugizaki, M; Kaneda, M; Tamura, T; Ozawa, H; Kamae, T; Makishima, K; Takahashi, T; Tashiro, M; Fukazawa, Y; Kataoka, J; Yamaoka, K; Kubo, S; Tanihata, C; Uchiyama, Y; Matsuzaki, K; Iyomoto, N; Kokubun, M; Nakazawa, T; Kubota, A; Mizuno, T; Matsumoto, Y; Isobe, N; Terada, Y; Sugiho, M; Onishi, T; Kubo, H; Ikeda, H; Nomachi, M; Ohsugi, T; Muramatsu, M; Akahori, H

    1999-01-01

    Thick and large area PIN diodes for the hard X-ray astronomy in the 10-60 keV range are developed. To cover this energy range in a room temperature and in a low background environment, Si PIN junction diodes of 2 mm in thickness with 2.5 cm sup 2 in effective area were developed, and will be used in the bottom of the Phoswich Hard X-ray Detector (HXD), on-board the ASTRO-E satellite. Problems related to a high purity Si and a thick depletion layer during our development and performance of the PIN diodes are presented in detail.

  7. Quantitative hard x-ray phase contrast imaging of micropipes in SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohn, V. G.; Argunova, T. S.; Je, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Peculiarities of quantitative hard x-ray phase contrast imaging of micropipes in SiC are discussed. The micropipe is assumed as a hollow cylinder with an elliptical cross section. The major and minor diameters can be restored using the least square fitting procedure by comparing the experimental data, i.e. the profile across the micropipe axis, with those calculated based on phase contrast theory. It is shown that one projection image gives an information which does not allow a complete determination of the elliptical cross section, if an orientation of micropipe is not known. Another problem is a weak accuracy in estimating the diameters, partly because of using pink synchrotron radiation, which is necessary because a monochromatic beam intensity is not sufficient to reveal the weak contrast from a very small object. The general problems of accuracy in estimating the two diameters using the least square procedure are discussed. Two experimental examples are considered to demonstrate small as well as modest accuracies in estimating the diameters

  8. GaN-Based High Temperature and Radiation-Hard Electronics for Harsh Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kyung-ah; Liao, Anna; Lung, Gerald; Gallegos, Manuel; Hatakeh, Toshiro; Harris, Richard D.; Scheick, Leif Z.; Smythe, William D.

    2010-01-01

    We develop novel GaN-based high temperature and radiation-hard electronics to realize data acquisition electronics and transmitters suitable for operations in harsh planetary environments. In this paper, we discuss our research on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors that are targeted for 500 (sup o)C operation and >2 Mrad radiation hardness. For the target device performance, we develop Schottky-free AlGaN/GaN MOS transistors, where a gate electrode is processed in a MOS layout using an Al2O3 gate dielectric layer....

  9. Radiation Hardness Study of CsI(Tl) Crystals for Belle II Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Matvienko, D V; Sedov, E V; Shwartz, B A

    2017-01-01

    The Belle II calorimeter (at least, its barrel part) consists of CsI(Tl) scintillation crystals which have been used at the Belle experiment. We perform the radiation hardness study of some typical Belle crystals and conclude their light output reductions are acceptable for Belle II experiment where the absorption dose can reach 10 krad during the detector operation. CsI(Tl) crystals have high stablity and low maintenance cost and are considered as possible option for the calorimeter of the future Super-Charm-Tau factory (SCT) in Novosibirsk. Our study demonstrates sufficiently high radiation hardness of CsI(Tl) crystals for SCT conditions.

  10. Hard x ray imaging and the relative contribution of thermal and nonthermal emission in flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    The question of whether the impulsive 25 to 100 keV x ray emission from solar flares is thermal or nonthermal has been a long-standing controversy. Both thermal and nonthermal (beam) models have been developed and applied to the hard x ray data. It now seems likely that both thermal and nonthermal emission have been observed at hard x ray energies. The Hinotori classification scheme, for example, is an attempt to associate the thermal-nonthermal characteristics of flare hard x ray emission with other flare properties. From a theoretical point of view, it is difficult to generate energetic, nonthermal electrons without dumping an equal or greater amount of energy into plasma heating. On the other hand, any impulsive heating process will invariably generate at least some nonthermal particles. Hence, strictly speaking, although thermal or nonthermal emission may dominate the hard x ray emission in a given energy range for a given flare, there is no such thing as a purely thermal or nonthermal flare mechanism

  11. Great microwave bursts and hard X-rays from solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiehl, H.J.; Batchelor, D.A.; Crannell, C.J.; Dennis, B.R.; Price, P.N.

    1983-06-01

    The microwave and hard X-ray charateristics of 13 solar flares that produced microwave fluxes greater than 500 Solar Flux Units were analyzed. These Great Microwave Bursts were observed in the frequency range from 3 to 35 GHz at Berne, and simultaneous hard X-ray observations were made in the energy range from 30 to 500 keV with the Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft. The principal aim of this analysis is to determine whether or not the same distribution of energetic electrons can explain both emissions. Correlations were found between respective temporal characteristics and, for the first time, between microwave and hard X-ray spectral characteristics. A single-temperature and a multi-temperature model from the literature were tested for consistency with the coincident X-ray and microwave spectra at microwave burst maximum. Four events are inconsistent with both of the models tested, and neither of the models attempts to explain the high-frequency part of the microwave spectrum. A model in which the emissions above and below the peak frequency originate in two different parts of a diverging magnetic loop is proposed. With this model the entire microwave spectrum of all but one of the events is explained

  12. The Relationship Between Solar Radio and Hard X-Ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S. M.; Benz, A. O.; Christe, S.; Farnik, F.; Kundu, M. R.; Mann, G.; Ning, Z.; Raulin, J.-P.; Silva-Valio, A. V. R.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; hide

    2011-01-01

    This review discusses the complementary relationship between radio and hard Xray observations of the Sun using primarily results from the era of the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager satellite. A primary focus of joint radio and hard X-ray studies of solar flares uses observations of nonthermal gyrosynchrotron emission at radio wavelengths and bremsstrahlung hard X-rays to study the properties of electrons accelerated in the main flare site, since it is well established that these two emissions show very similar temporal behavior. A quantitative prescription is given for comparing the electron energy distributions derived separately from the two wavelength ranges: this is an important application with the potential for measuring the magnetic field strength in the flaring region, and reveals significant differences between the electrons in different energy ranges. Examples of the use of simultaneous data from the two wavelength ranges to derive physical conditions are then discussed, including the case of microflares, and the comparison of images at radio and hard X-ray wavelengths is presented. There have been puzzling results obtained from observations of solar flares at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths, and the comparison of these results with corresponding hard X-ray data is presented. Finally, the review discusses the association of hard X-ray releases with radio emission at decimeter and meter wavelengths, which is dominated by plasma emission (at lower frequencies) and electron cyclotron maser emission (at higher frequencies), both coherent emission mechanisms that require small numbers of energetic electrons. These comparisons show broad general associations but detailed correspondence remains more elusive.

  13. Analysis of the 1980 November 18 limb flare observed by the hard X-ray imaging spectrometer (HXIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyng, P.; Haug, E.; Elwert, G.

    1984-01-01

    X-ray images of the 18 November 1980 limb flare taken by the HXIS instrument aboard SMM were analysed. The hard X-rays originated from three spots on the SW limb of the solar disk with different altitudes and time evolution. The locations of the brightest spots in hard and soft X-rays are compared

  14. Structure of the Circumnuclear Region of Seyfert 2 Galaxies Revealed by RXTE Hard X-Ray Observations of NGC 4945

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madejski, G.; Zycki, P.; Done, C.; Valinia, A.; Blanco, P.; Rothschild, R.; Turek, B.

    2000-01-01

    NGC 4945 is one of the brightest Se.yfert galaxies on the sky at 100 keV, but is completely absorbed below 10 keV, implying an optical depth of the absorber to electron scattering of a few; its absorption column is probably the largest which still allows a direct view of the nucleus at hard X-ray energies. Our observations of it with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) satellite confirm the large absorption, which for a simple phenomenological fit using an absorber with Solar abundances implies a column of 4.5(sup 0.4, sub -0.4) x 10(exp 24) /sq cm. Using a a more realistic scenario (requiring Monte Carlo modeling of the scattering), we infer the optical depth to Thomson scattering of approximately 2.4. If such a scattering medium were to subtend a large solid angle from the nucleus, it should smear out any intrinsic hard X-ray variability on time scales shorter than the light travel time through it. The rapid (with a time scale of approximately a day) hard X-ray variability of NGC 4945 we observed with the RXTE implies that the bulk of the extreme absorption in this object does not originate in a parsec-size, geometrically thick molecular torus. Limits on the amount of scattered flux require that the optically thick material on parsec scales must be rather geometrically thin, subtending a half-angle < 10 deg. This is only marginally consistent with the recent determinations of the obscuring column in hard X-rays, where only a quarter of Seyfert 2s have columns which are optically thick, and presents a problem in accounting for the Cosmic X-ray Background primarily with AGN possessing the geometry as that inferred by us. The small solid angle of the obscuring material, together with the black hole mass (of approximately 1.4 x 10(exp 6) solar mass) from megamaser measurements. allows a robust determination of the source luminosity, which in turn implies that the source radiates at approximately 10% of the Eddington limit.

  15. Radiation hardness of LuAG:Ce and LuAG:Pr scintillator crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Derdzyan, M V; Belsky, A; Dujardin, C; Lecoq, P; Lucchini, M; Ovanesyan, K L; Pauwels, K; Pedrini, C; Petrosyan, A G

    2012-01-01

    Single crystals of LuAG:Ce, LuAG:Pr and un-doped LuAG were grown by the vertical Bridgman method and studied for radiation hardness under gamma-rays with doses in the range 10-10(5) Gy (Co-60). A wide absorption band peaking at around 600 nm springs up in all three types of crystals after the irradiations. The second band peaking at around 375 nm appears in both LuAG:Pr and un-doped LuAG. Compositional variations have been done to reveal the spectral behavior of induced color centers in more detail and to understand their origin. Similarities in behavior of Yb2+ centers in as-grown garnets are found, indicating that radiation induced color centers can be associated with residual trace amounts of Yb present in the raw materials. Un-doped LuAG and LuAG:Ce demonstrate moderate radiation hardness (the induced absorption coefficients being equal to 0.05-0.08 cm(-1) for accumulated doses of 10(3)-10(4) Gy), while LuAG:Pr is less radiation hard. The ways to improve the radiation hardness are discussed.

  16. X-ray beam splitting design for concurrent imaging at hard X-ray FELs and synchrotron facilities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oberta, Peter; Mokso, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 729, NOV (2013), s. 85-89 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/412 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : diffractive-refractive optics * hard X-ray FEL * X-ray imaging Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.316, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168900213009613

  17. Fabrication of 200 nanometer period centimeter area hard x-ray absorption gratings by multilayer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, S K; Liu, C; Morgan, N Y; Xiao, X; Gomella, A A; Mazilu, D; Bennett, E E; Assoufid, L; de Carlo, F; Wen, H

    2012-01-01

    We describe the design and fabrication trials of x-ray absorption gratings of 200 nm period and up to 100:1 depth-to-period ratios for full-field hard x-ray imaging applications. Hard x-ray phase-contrast imaging relies on gratings of ultra-small periods and sufficient depth to achieve high sensitivity. Current grating designs utilize lithographic processes to produce periodic vertical structures, where grating periods below 2.0 μm are difficult due to the extreme aspect ratios of the structures. In our design, multiple bilayers of x-ray transparent and opaque materials are deposited on a staircase substrate, and mostly on the floor surfaces of the steps only. When illuminated by an x-ray beam horizontally, the multilayer stack on each step functions as a micro-grating whose grating period is the thickness of a bilayer. The array of micro-gratings over the length of the staircase works as a single grating over a large area when continuity conditions are met. Since the layers can be nanometers thick and many microns wide, this design allows sub-micron grating periods and sufficient grating depth to modulate hard x-rays. We present the details of the fabrication process and diffraction profiles and contact radiography images showing successful intensity modulation of a 25 keV x-ray beam. PMID:23066175

  18. Axial ion-electron emission microscopy of IC radiation hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, B. L.; Vizkelethy, G.; Walsh, D. S.; Swenson, D.

    2002-05-01

    A new system for performing radiation effects microscopy (REM) has been developed at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque. This system combines two entirely new concepts in accelerator physics and nuclear microscopy. A radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac is used to boost the energy of ions accelerated by a conventional Tandem Van de Graaff-Pelletron to velocities of 1.9 MeV/amu. The electronic stopping power for heavy ions is near a maximum at this velocity, and their range is ˜20 μm in Si. These ions therefore represent the most ionizing form of radiation in nature, and are nearly ideal for performing single event effects testing of integrated circuits. Unfortunately, the energy definition of the RFQ-boosted ions is rather poor (˜ a few %), which makes problematic the focussing of such ions to the submicron spots required for REM. To circumvent this problem, we have invented ion electron emission microscopy (IEEM). One can perform REM with the IEEM system without focussing or scanning the ion beam. This is because the position on the sample where each ion strikes is determined by projecting ion-induced secondary electrons at high magnification onto a single electron position sensitive detector. This position signal is then correlated with each REM event. The IEEM system is now mounted along the beam line in an axial geometry so that the ions pass right through the electron detector (which is annular), and all of the electrostatic lenses used for projection. The beam then strikes the sample at normal incidence which results in maximum ion penetration and removes a parallax problem experienced in an earlier system. Details of both the RFQ-booster and the new axial IEEM system are given together with some of the initial results of performing REM on Sandia-manufactured radiation hardened integrated circuits.

  19. Registration of intensive hard X-rays and soft gamma-rays from the thunderstorm clouds at Tien-Shan installation Adron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonova, V.P.; Kryukov, S.V.; Vil'danova, L.I.; Gurevich, A.V.; Zybin, K.P.; Kokobaev, M.M.; Nesterova, N.M.; Piskal', V.V.; Ptitsyn, M.O.; Chubenko, A.P.; Shchepetov, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    The Adron installation mounted at the Tien-Shan station is intended for studying the extensive air showers. The Adron installation consists of a neutron supermonitor charged particles detector, muon detector and detector for registering the hard X-ray and soft gamma-radiation from the thunderstorm clouds accomplished on the basis of the Geiger-Mueller counters with sensitivity area of 16-17 m 2 . The intensive fluxes of the hard X-ray and soft gamma-radiation from the thunderstorm clouds passing over the Adron installation at the height below 1 km are registered using this installation. The short-time radiation flares of 1-5 min duration are separated at the background of the intensity slow change. This testifies to the benefit of existence of the runaway electron effect in the thunderstorm clouds [ru

  20. Hard X-ray variability of V404 Cygni during the 2015 outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fernández, C.; Kajava, J. J. E.; Motta, S. E.; Kuulkers, E.

    2017-06-01

    Aims: Hard X-ray spectra of black hole binaries (BHB) are produced by Comptonization of soft seed photons by hot electrons near the black hole. The slope of the resulting energy spectra is governed by two main parameters: the electron temperature (Te) and optical depth (τ) of the emitting plasma. Given the extreme brightness of V404 Cyg during the 2015 outburst, we aim to constrain the source spectral properties using an unprecedented time resolution in hard X-rays, and to monitor the evolution of Te and τ over the outburst. Methods: We have extracted and analysed 602 X-ray spectra of V404 Cyg obtained by the IBIS/ISGRI instrument on-board INTEGRAL during the 2015 June outburst, using effective integration times ranging between 8 and 176 000 s. We fitted the resulting spectra in the 20-200 keV energy range. Results: We find that while the light curve and soft X-ray spectra of V404 Cyg are remarkably different from those of other BHBs, the spectral evolution of V404 Cyg in hard X-rays and the relations between the spectral parameters are consistent with those observed in other BHBs. We identify a hard branch in which the Te is anti-correlated with the hard X-ray flux, and a soft flaring branch in which the relation reverses. In addition, we find that during long X-ray plateaus detected at intermediate fluxes, the thermal Comptonization models fail to describe the spectra. However, the statistics improve if we allow NH to vary freely in the fits to these spectra. Conclusions: We conclude that the hard branch in V404 Cyg is analogous to the canonical hard state of BHBs. V404 Cyg never seems to enter the canonical soft state, although the soft flaring branch bears resemblance to the BHB intermediate state and ultra-luminous state. The X-ray plateaus are likely the result of absorption by a Compton-thick outflow (NH ≳ 1024 cm-2) which reduces the observed flux by a factor of about 10. Variable covering of the central source by this Compton-thick material may be the

  1. Radiation-hard optoelectronic data transfer for the CMS tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troska, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    An introduction to the physics prospects of future experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be given, along with the rather stringent requirements placed on their detectors by the LHC environment. Emphasis will be placed upon the particle tracking detectors, and the particular problem of their readout systems. The novel analogue optical readout scheme chosen by the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the LHC will provide the basis for the thesis. The reasons for preferring analogue optical data transmission in CMS will be given, leading to a description of a generic optical readout scheme and its components. The particular scheme chosen by CMS makes as wide as possible use of commercially available components. These will be given greatest importance, with descriptions of component operation and characteristics pertinent to successful readout of the CMS tracker within the constraints of the LHC environment. Of particular concern is the effect of the LHC's harsh radiation environment on the operational characteristics of the readout system and its components. Work on radiation effects in components of the CMS tracker optical readout system will be described. This work includes the effects of ionising (gamma photon) and particle (neutron, proton, pion) irradiation on the operational characteristics and reliability of laser diodes, photodiodes, and optical fibres. System integration issues are discussed in the context of the long-term operation of the full CMS tracker readout system under laboratory conditions. It will be shown that system stability can be maintained even under widely varying ambient conditions. (author)

  2. Achieving few-femtosecond time-sorting at hard X-ray free-electron lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmand, M.; Coffee, R.; Bionta, M. R.; Chollet, M.; French, D.; Zhu, D.; Fritz, D. M.; Lemke, H. T.; Medvedev, N.; Ziaja, B.; Toleikis, S.; Cammarata, M.

    2013-03-01

    Recently, few-femtosecond pulses have become available at hard X-ray free-electron lasers. Coupled with the available sub-10 fs optical pulses, investigations into few-femtosecond dynamics are not far off. However, achieving sufficient synchronization between optical lasers and X-ray pulses continues to be challenging. We report a `measure-and-sort' approach, which achieves sub-10 fs root-mean-squared (r.m.s.) error measurement at hard X-ray FELs, far beyond the 100-200 fs r.m.s. jitter limitations. This timing diagnostic, now routinely available at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), is based on ultrafast free-carrier generation in optically transparent materials. Correlation between two independent measurements enables unambiguous demonstration of ~6 fs r.m.s. error in reporting the optical/X-ray delay, with single shot error suggesting the possibility of reaching few-femtosecond resolution.

  3. eHXI: a permanently installed, hard x-ray imager for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Döppner, T.; Bachmann, B.; Albert, F.; Bell, P.; Burns, S.; Celeste, J.; Chow, R.; Divol, L.; Dewald, E.L.; Huntington, C.M.; Izumi, N.; LaCaille, G.; Landen, O.L.; Palmer, N.; Park, H.-S.; Thomas, C.A.; Hohenberger, M.

    2016-01-01

    We have designed and built a multi-pinhole imaging system for high energy x-rays (≥ 50 keV) that is permanently installed in the equatorial plane outside of the target chamber at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). It records absolutely-calibrated, time-integrated x-ray images with the same line-of-sight as the multi-channel, spatially integrating hard x-ray detector FFLEX [McDonald et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75 (2004) 3753], having a side view of indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosion targets. The equatorial hard x-ray imager (eHXI) has recorded images on the majority of ICF implosion experiments since May 2011. eHXI provides valuable information on hot electron distribution in hohlraum experiments, target alignment, potential hohlraum drive asymmetries and serves as a long term reference for the FFLEX diagnostics.

  4. AN OSCILLATOR CONFIGURATION FOR FULL REALIZATION OF HARD X-RAY FREE ELECTRON LASER*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.-J.; Kolodziej, T.; Lindberg, R. R.; Shu, D.; Shvyd' ko, Y.; Stoupin, S.; Maxwell, T.J.; Ding, Y.; Fawley, W. M.; Hastings, J.; Huang, Z; Krzywinski, J.; Marcus, G.; Qin, Weilun; Medvedev, N.; Zemella, J.; Blank, V.; Terentyev, S.

    2017-06-01

    An x-ray free electron laser oscillator (XFELO) is feasible by employing an X-ray cavity with Bragg mirrors such as diamond crystals. An XFELO at the 5th harmonic frequency may be implemented at the LCLS II using its 4 GeV superconducting linac, producing stable, fully coherent, high-spectral-purity hard x-rays. In addition, its output can be a coherent seed to the LCLS amplifier for stable, high-power, femto-second x-ray pulses. We summarize the recent progress in various R&D efforts addressing critical issues for realizing an XFELO at LCLS II.

  5. Self-standing quasi-mosaic crystals for focusing hard X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camattari, Riccardo; Guidi, Vincenzo; Bellucci, Valerio; Neri, Ilaria; Frontera, Filippo; Jentschel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A quasi mosaic bent crystal for high-resolution diffraction of X and γ rays has been realized. A net curvature was imprinted to the crystal thanks to a series of superficial grooves to keep the curvature without external devices. The crystal highlights very high diffraction efficiency due to quasi mosaic curvature. Quasi mosaic crystals of this kind are proposed for the realization of a high-resolution focusing Laue lens for hard X-rays.

  6. INTEGRAL detection of a hard X-ray transient in NGC 6440

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuulkers, E.; Bozzo, E.; Bazzano, A.

    2015-01-01

    Referred to by ATel #: 7106, 7136, 7183 Tweet During INTEGRAL Galactic bulge monitoring (e.g., ATel #438) observations performed on UT 2015 February 17 at 12.53-16:45, IBIS/ISGRI detected renewed activity at hard X-rays from a transient within the Globular Cluster NGC 6440. The best determined...

  7. Development of a CZT spectroscopic 3D imager prototype for hard X ray astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auricchio, N.; Caroli, E.; Basili, A.

    2013-01-01

    The development of focusing optics based on wide band Laue lenses operating from ∼60 keV up to several hundreds of keV is particularly challenging. This type of hard X-ray or gamma ray optics requires a high performance focal plane detector in order to exploit to the best its intrinsic capabiliti...

  8. Experimental study of hard X-rays emitted from meter-scale positive discharges in air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.O. Kochkin (Pavlo); C.V. Nguyen; A. van Deursen (Arie); U. M. Ebert (Ute)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate structure and evolution of long positive spark breakdown; and we study at which stage pulses of hard x-rays are emitted. Positive high-voltage pulses of standardized lightning impulse wave form of about 1 MV were applied to about 1 m of ambient air. The discharge evolution

  9. New hard X-ray sources at 38/sup 0/ declination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; La Padula, C.; Polcaro, V.F. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Frascati (Italy). Lab. di Astrofisica Spaziale)

    1981-01-01

    We report the detection of three new hard X-rays sources emitting in the range 15-150 KeV. Their observation was carried out by means of a balloon borne payload, consisting of two large area high spectral resolution Multiwire Spectroscopic Proportional Counters.

  10. Multilayer coating facility for the HEFT hard x-ray telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Chen, Hubert

    2001-01-01

    A planar magnetron sputtering facility has been established at the Danish Space Research Institute (DSRI) for the production coating of depth graded multilayers on the thermally slumped glass segments which form the basis for the hard X-ray telescope on the HEFT balloon project. The facility...

  11. The 105-Month Swift-BAT All-sky Hard X-Ray Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyuseok; Koss, Michael; Markwardt, Craig B.; Schawinski, Kevin; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Gehrels, Neil; Mushotzky, Richard; Petulante, Abigail; Ricci, Claudio; Lien, Amy; Trakhtenbrot, Benny

    2018-03-01

    We present a catalog of hard X-ray sources detected in the first 105 months of observations with the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) coded-mask imager on board the Swift observatory. The 105-month Swift-BAT survey is a uniform hard X-ray all-sky survey with a sensitivity of 8.40× {10}-12 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 {cm}}-2 over 90% of the sky and 7.24× {10}-12 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 {cm}}-2 over 50% of the sky in the 14–195 keV band. The Swift-BAT 105-month catalog provides 1632 (422 new detections) hard X-ray sources in the 14–195 keV band above the 4.8σ significance level. Adding to the previously known hard X-ray sources, 34% (144/422) of the new detections are identified as Seyfert active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in nearby galaxies (zBAT catalog, we release eight-channel spectra and monthly sampled light curves for each object in the online journal and at the Swift-BAT 105-month website.

  12. X-Ray pictures of the developmental anomalis of the hard dental tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecetkova, A.; Ondrasovicova, J.

    2008-01-01

    Dental anomalies are rare lessions of the hard dental tissue. They are as symptoms varies of the syndromes. They are as follow: hyperdoncia, hypodoncia, oligodoncia, anodoncia, mesiodens, macrodoncia and microdoncia. All of the above anomalis are detected by X-ray diagnostics ( intraoral and extra-oral radiography ). (authors)

  13. Improved hardness of laser alloyed X12CrNiMo martensitic stainless steel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adebiyi, DI

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The improvement in hardness of X12CrNiMo martensitic stainless steel laser alloyed with 99.9% pure titanium carbide, stellite 6 and two cases of premixed ratio of titanium carbide and stellite 6 [TiC (30 wt.%)- stellite 6 (70 wt.%) and TiC (70 wt...

  14. Hard X-ray/soft gamma-ray telescope designs for future astrophysics missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland; Pivovaroff, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    We present several concept designs of hard X-ray/soft λ-ray focusing telescopes for future astrophysics missions. The designs are based on depth graded multilayer coatings. These have been successfully employed on the NuSTAR mission for energies up to 80 keV. Recent advances in demonstrating...

  15. LHCb: Radiation hard programmable delay line for LHCb Calorimeter Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Mauricio Ferre, J; Vilasís Cardona, X; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Machefert, F; Lefrançois, J; Duarte, O

    2013-01-01

    This poster describes the implementation of a SPI-programmable clock delay chip based on a Delay Locked Loop (DLL) in order to shift the phase of the LHC clock (25 ns) in steps of 1ns, with a 4ps jitter and 18ps of DNL. The delay lines will be integrated into ICECAL, the LHCb calorimeter front-end ASIC in the near future. The stringent noise requirements on the ASIC imply minimizing the noise contribution of digital components. This is accomplished by implementing the DLL in differential mode. To achieve the required radiation tolerance several techniques are applied: double guard rings between PMOS and NMOS transistors as well as glitch suppressors and TMR Registers. This 5.7 mm2 chip has been implemented in CMOS 0.35um technology.

  16. Recent results on the development of radiation-hard diamond detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Conway, J S; Bauer, C; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Dabrowski, W; Da Graca, J; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Jamieson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Palmieri, V G; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Plano, R; Polesello, P; Prawer, S; Pretzl, Klaus P; Procario, M; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Schnetzer, S; Sciortino, S; Somalwar, S V; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R; Thomson, G B; Trawick, M; Trischuk, W; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; White, C; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M

    1999-01-01

    Charged particle detectors made from chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond have radiation hardness greatly exceeding that of silicon- based detectors. The CERN-based RD42 Collaboration has developed and tested CVD diamond microstrip and pixel detectors with an eye to their application in the intense radiation environment near the interaction region of hadron colliders. This paper presents recent results from tests of these detectors. (4 refs).

  17. Radiation hard silicon detectors - developments by the RD48(ROSE) collaboration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lindström, G.; Kohout, Z.; Pospíšil, S.; Šícho, Petr; Sopko, B.; Vrba, Václav; Wilhelm, I.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 466, č. 2 (2001), s. 308-326 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010920 Keywords : silicon detectors * radiation hardness * defect engineering * non ionizing energy los Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.026, year: 2001

  18. Radiation hardness properties of full-3D active edge silicon sensors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Da Via, C.; Hasi, J.; Kenney, C.; Linhart, V.; Parker, S.; Slavíček, T.; Watts, S. J.; Bém, Pavel; Horažďovský, T.; Pospíšil, S.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 587, 2-3 (2008), s. 243-249 ISSN 0168-9002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : silicon detectors * radiation hardness * 3D Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.019, year: 2008

  19. RD50 Status Report 2008 - Radiation hard semiconductor devices for very high luminosity colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Balbuena, Juan Pablo; Campabadal, Francesca; Díez, Sergio; Fleta, Celeste; Lozano, Manuel; Pellegrini, Giulio; Rafí, Joan Marc; Ullán, Miguel; Creanza, Donato; De Palma, Mauro; Fedele, Francesca; Manna, Norman; Kierstead, Jim; Li, Zheng; Buda, Manuela; Lazanu, Sorina; Pintilie, Lucian; Pintilie, Ioana; Popa, Andreia-Ioana; Lazanu, Ionel; Collins, Paula; Fahrer, Manuel; Glaser, Maurice; Joram, Christian; Kaska, Katharina; La Rosa, Alessandro; Mekki, Julien; Moll, Michael; Pacifico, Nicola; Pernegger, Heinz; Goessling, Claus; Klingenberg, Reiner; Weber, Jens; Wunstorf, Renate; Roeder, Ralf; Stolze, Dieter; Uebersee, Hartmut; Cihangir, Selcuk; Kwan, Simon; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Bruzzi, Mara; Focardi, Ettore; Menichelli, David; Scaringella, Monica; Breindl, Michael; Eckert, Simon; Köhler, Michael; Kuehn, Susanne; Parzefall, Ulrich; Wiik, Liv; Bates, Richard; Blue, Andrew; Buttar, Craig; Doherty, Freddie; Eklund, Lars; Bates, Alison G; Haddad, Lina; Houston, Sarah; James, Grant; Mathieson, Keith; Melone, J; OShea, Val; Parkes, Chris; Pennicard, David; Buhmann, Peter; Eckstein, Doris; Fretwurst, Eckhart; Hönniger, Frank; Khomenkov, Vladimir; Klanner, Robert; Lindström, Gunnar; Pein, Uwe; Srivastava, Ajay; Härkönen, Jaakko; Lassila-Perini, Katri; Luukka, Panja; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuovinen, Esa; Eremin, Vladimir; Ilyashenko, Igor; Ivanov, Alexandr; Kalinina, Evgenia; Lebedev, Alexander; Strokan, Nikita; Verbitskaya, Elena; Barcz, Adam; Brzozowski, Andrzej; Kaminski, Pawel; Kozlowski, Roman; Kozubal, Michal; Luczynski, Zygmunt; Pawlowski, Marius; Surma, Barbara; Zelazko, Jaroslaw; de Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Frey, Martin; Hartmann, Frank; Zhukov, Valery; Barabash, L; Dolgolenko, A; Groza, A; Karpenko, A; Khivrich, V; Lastovetsky, V; Litovchenko, P; Polivtsev, L; Campbell, Duncan; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Fox, Harald; Hughes, Gareth; Jones, Brian Keith; Sloan, Terence; Samadashvili, Nino; Tuuva, Tuure; Affolder, Anthony; Allport, Phillip; Bowcock, Themis; Casse, Gianluigi; Vossebeld, Joost; Cindro, Vladimir; Dolenc, Irena; Kramberger, Gregor; Mandic, Igor; Mikuž, Marko; Zavrtanik, Marko; Zontar, Dejan; Gil, Eduardo Cortina; Grégoire, Ghislain; Lemaitre, Vincent; Militaru, Otilia; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Kazuchits, Nikolai; Makarenko, Leonid; Charron, Sébastien; Genest, Marie-Helene; Houdayer, Alain; Lebel, Celine; Leroy, Claude; Aleev, Andrey; Golubev, Alexander; Grigoriev, Eugene; Karpov, Aleksey; Martemianov, Alxander; Rogozhkin, Sergey; Zaluzhny, Alexandre; Andricek, Ladislav; Beimforde, Michael; Macchiolo, Anna; Moser, Hans-Günther; Nisius, Richard; Richter, Rainer; Gorelov, Igor; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Metcalfe, Jessica; Seidel, Sally; Toms, Konstantin; Hartjes, Fred; Koffeman, Els; van der Graaf, Harry; Visschers, Jan; Kuznetsov, Andrej; Sundnes Løvlie, Lars; Monakhov, Edouard; Svensson, Bengt G; Bisello, Dario; Candelori, Andrea; Litovchenko, Alexei; Pantano, Devis; Rando, Riccardo; Bilei, Gian Mario; Passeri, Daniele; Petasecca, Marco; Pignatel, Giorgio Umberto; Bernardini, Jacopo; Borrello, Laura; Dutta, Suchandra; Fiori, Francesco; Messineo, Alberto; Bohm, Jan; Mikestikova, Marcela; Popule, Jiri; Sicho, Petr; Tomasek, Michal; Vrba, Vaclav; Broz, Jan; Dolezal, Zdenek; Kodys, Peter; Tsvetkov, Alexej; Wilhelm, Ivan; Chren, Dominik; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Kohout, Zdenek; Pospisil, Stanislav; Solar, Michael; Sopko, Vít; Sopko, Bruno; Uher, Josef; Horisberger, Roland; Radicci, Valeria; Rohe, Tilman; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; Giolo, Kim; Miyamoto, Jun; Rott, Carsten; Roy, Amitava; Shipsey, Ian; Son, SeungHee; Demina, Regina; Korjenevski, Sergey; Grillo, Alexander; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Schumm, Bruce; Seiden, Abraham; Spence, Ned; Hansen, Thor-Erik; Artuso, Marina; Borgia, Alessandra; Lefeuvre, Gwenaelle; Guskov, J; Marunko, Sergey; Ruzin, Arie; Tylchin, Tamir; Boscardin, Maurizio; Dalla Betta, Gian - Franco; Gregori, Paolo; Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina; Zen, Mario; Zorzi, Nicola; Garcia, Carmen; Lacasta, Carlos; Marco, Ricardo; Marti i Garcia, Salvador; Minano, Mercedes; Soldevila-Serrano, Urmila; Gaubas, Eugenijus; Kadys, Arunas; Kazukauskas, Vaidotas; Sakalauskas, Stanislavas; Storasta, Jurgis; Vidmantis Vaitkus, Juozas; CERN. Geneva. The LHC experiments Committee; LHCC

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the CERN RD50 Collaboration is the development of radiation hard semiconductor detectors for very high luminosity colliders, particularly to face the requirements of a possible upgrade scenario of the LHC.This document reports the status of research and main results obtained after the sixth year of activity of the collaboration.

  20. The chemistry of two-component fluoride crystalline optical media for heavy, fast, radiation hard scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, B.P.; Krivandina, E.A.; Fedorov, P.P.; Vasilchenko, V.G.

    1994-01-01

    Prospects for preparation of two-component dense optical materials for scintillators are shown, using data on phase diagrams of about 300 MF m - RF n (m, n ≤ 4) type systems, formed by metal fluorides. Primary characteristics (decay time and light output of luminescence, radiation hardness, etc.) of some multicomponent crystals are reported

  1. RD50 Status Report 2009/2010 - Radiation hard semiconductor devices for very high luminosity colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Moll, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the CERN RD50 Collaboration is the development of radiation hard semiconductor detectors for very high luminosity colliders, particularly to face the requirements for the upgrade of the LHC detectors. This document reports on the status of research and main results obtained in the years 2009 and 2010.

  2. Modelling hard and soft states of Cygnus X-1 with propagating mass accretion rate fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, S.; Ingram, A.; van der Klis, M.

    2017-12-01

    We present a timing analysis of three Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer observations of the black hole binary Cygnus X-1 with the propagating mass accretion rate fluctuations model PROPFLUC. The model simultaneously predicts power spectra, time lags and coherence of the variability as a function of energy. The observations cover the soft and hard states of the source, and the transition between the two. We find good agreement between model predictions and data in the hard and soft states. Our analysis suggests that in the soft state the fluctuations propagate in an optically thin hot flow extending up to large radii above and below a stable optically thick disc. In the hard state, our results are consistent with a truncated disc geometry, where the hot flow extends radially inside the inner radius of the disc. In the transition from soft to hard state, the characteristics of the rapid variability are too complex to be successfully described with PROPFLUC. The surface density profile of the hot flow predicted by our model and the lack of quasi-periodic oscillations in the soft and hard states suggest that the spin of the black hole is aligned with the inner accretion disc and therefore probably with the rotational axis of the binary system.

  3. A study on image quality and exposure dose of hard radiation radiography of the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Taro; Ishida, Yuji; Maeda, Mika; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Kim, Chung Woon; Hwang, Jong Sun

    1991-01-01

    Experiment was conducted on the image quality and exposure dose following replacement of CaWO 4 system screen BH - III and BX - III which have so far been used for high - voltage hard - radiation quality radiography, with rare earth system screen KO750, combined with high contrast film SRH, while additional filter was altered, Cu 0.8 mm + Al 1.4 mm(HVL : AI 8.8 mm), Cu 1.3 mm + AI 1.0mm(HVL: AI 10.6mm) and Cu 1.8mm + AI 1.5mm(HVL: AI 11.4mm). AS a result, visual evaluation did not detect extreme changes in image quality under the respective condition (HVL : Al 8.8 mm ∼ AI 11.4 mm). It was noted, however, that surface exposure dose declined with an increase in the thickness of the additional filter, as it was 18.9 μGy at HVL Al 8.8 mm, 17.5 μGy at Al 10.6 mm and 15.7 μGy at Al 11.4 mm. Considering the limited rating of X-ray equipment and wear of machinery, however, the range of Cu 1.3 mm ∼ l.8 mm + AI 1.0 mm ∼ 1.5 mm(1/16 VL ∼ 1/32 VL) seemed to be a limit

  4. TRACING THE REVERBERATION LAG IN THE HARD STATE OF BLACK HOLE X-RAY BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marco, B.; Ponti, G.; Nandra, K.; Muñoz-Darias, T.

    2015-01-01

    We report results obtained from a systematic analysis of X-ray lags in a sample of black hole X-ray binaries, with the aim of assessing the presence of reverberation lags and studying their evolution during outburst. We used XMM-Newton and simultaneous Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations to obtain broadband energy coverage of both the disk and the hard X-ray Comptonization components. In most cases the detection of reverberation lags is hampered by low levels of variability-power signal-to-noise ratio (typically when the source is in a soft state) and/or short exposure times. The most detailed study was possible for GX 339-4 in the hard state, which allowed us to characterize the evolution of X-ray lags as a function of luminosity in a single source. Over all the sampled frequencies (∼0.05–9 Hz), we observe the hard lags intrinsic to the power-law component, already well known from previous RXTE studies. The XMM-Newton soft X-ray response allows us to detail the disk variability. At low frequencies (long timescales) the disk component always leads the power-law component. On the other hand, a soft reverberation lag (ascribable to thermal reprocessing) is always detected at high frequencies (short timescales). The intrinsic amplitude of the reverberation lag decreases as the source luminosity and the disk fraction increase. This suggests that the distance between the X-ray source and the region of the optically thick disk where reprocessing occurs gradually decreases as GX 339-4 rises in luminosity through the hard state, possibly as a consequence of reduced disk truncation

  5. X radiation sources based on accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couprie, M.E.; Filhol, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Light sources based on accelerators aim at producing very high brilliance coherent radiation, tunable from the infrared to X-ray range, with picosecond or femtosecond light pulses. The first synchrotron light sources were built around storage rings in which a large number of relativistic electrons produce 'synchrotron radiation' when their trajectory is subjected to a magnetic field, either in bending magnets or in specific insertion devices (undulators), made of an alternating series of magnets, allowing the number of curvatures to be increased and the radiation to be reinforced. These 'synchrotron radiation' storage rings are now used worldwide (there are more than thirty), and they simultaneously distribute their radiation to several tens of users around the storage ring. The most effective installations in term of brilliance are the so-called third generation synchrotron radiation light sources. The radiation produced presents pulse durations of the order of a few tens of ps, at a high rate (of the order of MHz); it is tunable over a large range, depending on the magnetic field and the electron beam energy and its polarisation is adjustable (in the V-UV-soft-X range). Generally, a very precise spectral selection is made by the users with a monochromator. The single pass linear accelerators can produce very short electron bunches (around 100 fs). The beam of very high electronic density is sent into successive undulator modules, reinforcing the radiation's longitudinal coherence, produced according to a Free Electron Laser (FEL) scheme by the interaction between the electron bunch and a light wave. The very high peak brilliance justifies their designation as fourth generation sources. The number of users is smaller because an electron pulse produces a radiation burst towards only one beamline. Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) let the beam pass several times in the accelerator structures either to recover the energy or to accelerate the electrons during several turns

  6. Intelligent optimization models based on hard-ridge penalty and RBF for forecasting global solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, He; Dong, Yao; Wang, Jianzhou; Li, Yuqin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CS-hard-ridge-RBF and DE-hard-ridge-RBF are proposed to forecast solar radiation. • Pearson and Apriori algorithm are used to analyze correlations between the data. • Hard-ridge penalty is added to reduce the number of nodes in the hidden layer. • CS algorithm and DE algorithm are used to determine the optimal parameters. • Proposed two models have higher forecasting accuracy than RBF and hard-ridge-RBF. - Abstract: Due to the scarcity of equipment and the high costs of maintenance, far fewer observations of solar radiation are made than observations of temperature, precipitation and other weather factors. Therefore, it is increasingly important to study several relevant meteorological factors to accurately forecast solar radiation. For this research, monthly average global solar radiation and 12 meteorological parameters from 1998 to 2010 at four sites in the United States were collected. Pearson correlation coefficients and Apriori association rules were successfully used to analyze correlations between the data, which provided a basis for these relative parameters as input variables. Two effective and innovative methods were developed to forecast monthly average global solar radiation by converting a RBF neural network into a multiple linear regression problem, adding a hard-ridge penalty to reduce the number of nodes in the hidden layer, and applying intelligent optimization algorithms, such as the cuckoo search algorithm (CS) and differential evolution (DE), to determine the optimal center and scale parameters. The experimental results show that the proposed models produce much more accurate forecasts than other models

  7. Hardness enhancement and oxidation resistance of nanocrystalline TiN/Mo xC multilayer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Q.; Wang, X.P.; Liang, F.J.; Wang, J.X.; Fang, Q.F.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the influence of the layer's microstructure on the hardness enhancement in multilayer nanocrystalline films and the oxidation resistance are studied. The TiN/Mo x C multilayer films at different modulation period, and Mo x C and TiN monolayer films were deposited on the (0 0 1) silicon wafers and molybdenum sheets by rf and dc magnetron sputtering. The monolayer TiN films with a thickness of about 2 μm are of pure face-center cubic TiN phase, while the monolayer Mo x C films consist of two phases, one of which is body-center cubic Mo and the other is hexagonal Mo 2 C as determined by XRD. The coarse columnar grains of about 200 nm in the monolayer TiN films become much smaller or disappear in the multilayer films. The hardness enhancement of the multilayer films takes place at the modulation period of 320 nm, which can reach to 26 GPa and is much higher than the values of Mo x C and TiN monolayer films. This enhancement in hardness can be explained as the decrease in the size and/or disappearance of columnar grains in the TiN layer. The Young's modulus in the temperature range from 100 to 400 deg. C increases with decreasing modulation period. It is found that about 100 nm thick TiN films can increase largely the oxidation resistance of Mo x C films

  8. RAPID SPECTRAL CHANGES OF CYGNUS X-1 IN THE LOW/HARD STATE WITH SUZAKU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, S.; Makishima, K. [Cosmic Radiation Laboratory, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Negoro, H. [Department of Physics, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Torii, S.; Noda, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Mineshige, S. [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2013-04-20

    Rapid spectral changes in the hard X-ray on a timescale down to {approx}0.1 s are studied by applying a ''shot analysis'' technique to the Suzaku observations of the black hole binary Cygnus X-1, performed on 2008 April 18 during the low/hard state. We successfully obtained the shot profiles, covering 10-200 keV with the Suzaku HXD-PIN and HXD-GSO detector. It is notable that the 100-200 keV shot profile is acquired for the first time owing to the HXD-GSO detector. The intensity changes in a time-symmetric way, though the hardness changes in a time-asymmetric way. When the shot-phase-resolved spectra are quantified with the Compton model, the Compton y-parameter and the electron temperature are found to decrease gradually through the rising phase of the shot, while the optical depth appears to increase. All the parameters return to their time-averaged values immediately within 0.1 s past the shot peak. We have not only confirmed this feature previously found in energies below {approx}60 keV, but also found that the spectral change is more prominent in energies above {approx}100 keV, implying the existence of some instant mechanism for direct entropy production. We discuss possible interpretations of the rapid spectral changes in the hard X-ray band.

  9. First tests of a novel radiation hard CMOS sensor process for Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernegger, H.; Hoorne, J.W. van; Kugathasan, T.; Musa, L.; Riedler, P.; Riegel, C.; Schaefer, D.; Schioppa, E.J.; Snoeys, W.; Bates, R.; Buttar, C.; Maneuski, D.; Dalla, M.; Sbarra, C.

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the ATLAS [1] tracking detector for the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN requires novel radiation hard silicon sensor technologies. Significant effort has been put into the development of monolithic CMOS sensors but it has been a challenge to combine a low capacitance of the sensing node with full depletion of the sensitive layer. Low capacitance brings low analog power. Depletion of the sensitive layer causes the signal charge to be collected by drift sufficiently fast to separate hits from consecutive bunch crossings (25 ns at the LHC) and to avoid losing the charge by trapping. This paper focuses on the characterization of charge collection properties and detection efficiency of prototype sensors originally designed in the framework of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS) upgrade [2]. The prototypes are fabricated both in the standard TowerJazz 180nm CMOS imager process [3] and in an innovative modification of this process developed in collaboration with the foundry, aimed to fully deplete the sensitive epitaxial layer and enhance the tolerance to non-ionizing energy loss. Sensors fabricated in standard and modified process variants were characterized using radioactive sources, focused X-ray beam and test beams before and after irradiation. Contrary to sensors manufactured in the standard process, sensors from the modified process remain fully functional even after a dose of 10"1"5 n _e_q/cm"2, which is the the expected NIEL radiation fluence for the outer pixel layers in the future ATLAS Inner Tracker (ITk) [4].

  10. Recent advances in synchrotron-based hard x-ray phase contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Nelson, J.; Holzner, C.; Andrews, J. C.; Pianetta, P.

    2013-12-01

    Ever since the first demonstration of phase contrast imaging (PCI) in the 1930s by Frits Zernike, people have realized the significant advantage of phase contrast over conventional absorption-based imaging in terms of sensitivity to ‘transparent’ features within specimens. Thus, x-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) holds great potential in studies of soft biological tissues, typically containing low Z elements such as C, H, O and N. Particularly when synchrotron hard x-rays are employed, the favourable brightness, energy tunability, monochromatic characteristics and penetration depth have dramatically enhanced the quality and variety of XPCI methods, which permit detection of the phase shift associated with 3D geometry of relatively large samples in a non-destructive manner. In this paper, we review recent advances in several synchrotron-based hard x-ray XPCI methods. Challenges and key factors in methodological development are discussed, and biological and medical applications are presented.

  11. Recent advances in synchrotron-based hard x-ray phase contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y; Nelson, J; Andrews, J C; Pianetta, P; Holzner, C

    2013-01-01

    Ever since the first demonstration of phase contrast imaging (PCI) in the 1930s by Frits Zernike, people have realized the significant advantage of phase contrast over conventional absorption-based imaging in terms of sensitivity to ‘transparent’ features within specimens. Thus, x-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) holds great potential in studies of soft biological tissues, typically containing low Z elements such as C, H, O and N. Particularly when synchrotron hard x-rays are employed, the favourable brightness, energy tunability, monochromatic characteristics and penetration depth have dramatically enhanced the quality and variety of XPCI methods, which permit detection of the phase shift associated with 3D geometry of relatively large samples in a non-destructive manner. In this paper, we review recent advances in several synchrotron-based hard x-ray XPCI methods. Challenges and key factors in methodological development are discussed, and biological and medical applications are presented. (paper)

  12. Hard x-ray nanoprobe of beamline P06 at PETRA III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroer, C. G., E-mail: christian.schroer@desy.de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Department Physik, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Baumbach, C. [Institute of Optics and Photonics of Condensed Matter, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Döhrmann, R.; Kahnt, M.; Reinhardt, J.; Scholz, M.; Schropp, A.; Seyrich, M.; Wittwer, F.; Falkenberg, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Klare, S.; Hoppe, R.; Patommel, J.; Ritter, S.; Samberg, D.; Seiboth, F. [Institut für Strukturphysik, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-07-27

    The hard x-ray scanning microscope at beamline P06 of PETRA III at DESY in Hamburg serves a large user community, from physics, chemistry, and nanotechnology to the bio-medical, materials, environmental, and geosciences. It has been in user operation since 2012, and is mainly based on nanofocusing refractive x-ray lenses. Using refractive optics, nearly gaussian-limited nanobeams in the range from 50 to 100 nm can be generated in the hard x-ray energy range from 8 to 30 keV. The degree of coherence can be traded off against the flux in the nanobeam by a two-stage focusing scheme. We give a brief overview on published results from this instrument and describe its most important components and parameters.

  13. The Correlation between Hard X-Ray Peak Flux and Soft X-Ray Peak Flux in the Outburst Rise of Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, W.; van der Klis, M.; Fender, R.P.

    2004-01-01

    We have analyzed Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer pointed observations of the outbursts of black hole and neutron star soft X-ray transients in which an initial low/hard state, or ``island'' state, followed by a transition to a softer state was observed. In three sources-the black hole transient XTE

  14. Monitoring system for testing the radiation hardness of a KINTEX-7 FPGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cojocariu, L. N., E-mail: lucian.cojocariu@cern.ch [Horia Hulubei National Institute for R& D in Physics and Nuclear Engineering (Reactorului 30, MG, Romania) (Romania); Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava (Universitatii 13, Suceava, Romania) (Romania); Placinta, V. M., E-mail: vlad-mihai.placinta@cern.ch [Horia Hulubei National Institute for R& D in Physics and Nuclear Engineering (Reactorului 30, MG, Romania) (Romania); University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest (Splaiul Independentei 313, Bucharest, Romania) (Romania); Dumitru, L., E-mail: dlaur@nipne.ro [Horia Hulubei National Institute for R& D in Physics and Nuclear Engineering (Reactorului 30, MG, Romania) (Romania)

    2016-03-25

    A much more efficient Ring Imaging Cherenkov sub-detector system will be rebuilt in the second long shutdown of Large Hadron Collider for the LHCb experiment. Radiation-hard electronic components together with Commercial Off-The-Shelf ones will be used in the new Cherenkov photon detection system architecture. An irradiation program was foreseen to determine the radiation tolerance for the new electronic devices, including a Field Programmable Gate Array from KINTEX-7 family of XILINX. An automated test bench for online monitoring of the XC7K70T KINTEX-7 device operation in radiation conditions was designed and implemented by the LHCb Romanian group.

  15. Process and devices of detection of hard electromagnetic or particle radiations using a superconducting element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drukier, A.K.; Valette, Claude; Waysand, Georges.

    1975-01-01

    The invention relates to processes and systems for the detection of hard electromagnetic or particle radiations and the sensors fitted to these systems. 'Hard radiations' means those whose energy is greater than a variable threshold, depending on the applications, but always more than 5 keV. The use of these sensors and the associated systems can therefore be envisaged in radiography and also in emission gammagraphy in the biological, anatomic and medical fields. In these processes, in order to detect a photon or a radiation particle, use is made of the transition phenomenon of a homogeneous grain of superconducting material of the first kind, from the metastable superconducting state to the normal state, under the effect of a photoelectron ejected by the impact of the photon or of the particle on the grain of superconducting material [fr

  16. Performance And Radiation Hardness Of The Atlas/sct Detector Module

    CERN Document Server

    Eklund, L

    2003-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is a general purpose experiment being constructed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at FERN, Geneva. ATLAS is designed to exploit the full physics potential of LHC, in particular to study topics concerning the Higgs mechanism, Super-symmetry and CP violation. The cross sections for the processes under study are extremely small, requiring very high luminosity colliding beams. The Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) is an essential part of the Inner Detector tracking system of ATLAS. The active elements of the SCT is 4088 detector modules, tiled on four barrel cylinders and eighteen endcap disks. As a consequence of the high luminosity, the detector modules will operate in a harsh radiation environment. This thesis describes work concerning radiation hardness, beam test performance and methods for production testing of detector modules. The radiation hardness studies have been focused on the electrical performance of the front-end ASIC and the detector module. The results have identified features ...

  17. Effects of plasma-deposited silicon nitride passivation on the radiation hardness of CMOS integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    The use of plasma-deposited silicon nitride as a final passivation over metal-gate CMOS integrated circuits degrades the radiation hardness of these devices. The hardness degradation is manifested by increased radiation-induced threshold voltage shifts caused principally by the charging of new interface states and, to a lesser extent, by the trapping of holes created upon exposure to ionizing radiation. The threshold voltage shifts are a strong function of the deposition temperature, and show very little dependence on thickness for films deposited at 300 0 C. There is some correlation between the threshold voltage shifts and the hydrogen content of the PECVD silicon nitride films used as the final passivation layer as a function of deposition temperature. The mechanism by which the hydrogen contained in these films may react with the Si/SiO 2 interface is not clear at this point

  18. R and D on Radiation Hard Active Media Based on Quartz Plates

    CERN Document Server

    Onel, Yasar

    2014-01-01

    The need for radiation-hard active media in particle detectors is prominently dictated by the future colliders and the future operations of the Large Hadron Collider. The areas of implementation range from calorimetry to beamline instrumentation to specialized forward detectors e.g. luminosity monitors. In this context, we developed the idea of utilizing quartz plates with various surface coating properties as the active medium for such detectors. Plain quartz is a pure Cerenkov radiator which has quite limited photostatistics. In order to improve the efficiency of the photodetection, various methods were investigated including radiation hard wavelength shifters, p-terphenyl or 4pct gallium doped zinc oxide. The readout options include direct coupling of the photodetector to the quartz plate, or fibers. We have studied various geometries and readout options and constructed calorimeter prototypes. Here we report on the results of the previous tests, and the recent developments, which enable several factors of ...

  19. The Variable Crab Nebula: Evidence for a Connection Between GeV Flares and Hard X-ray Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E. A.; Cherry, M. L.; Case, G. L.; Finger, M. H.; Jenke, P.; Zhang, X.

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, hard X-ray variations (Wilson-Hodge et al. 2011) and GeV flares (Tavani et al 2011, Abdo et al. 2011) from the Crab Nebula were discovered. Connections between these two phenomena were unclear, in part because the timescales were quite different, with yearly variations in hard X-rays and hourly to daily variations in the GeV flares. The hard X-ray flux from the Crab Nebula has again declined since 2014, much like it did in 2008-2010. During both hard X-ray decline periods, the Fermi LAT detected no GeV flares, suggesting that injection of particles from the GeV flares produces the much slower and weaker hard X-ray variations. The timescale for the particles emitting the GeV flares to lose enough energy to emit synchrotron photons in hard X-rays is consistent with the yearly variations observed in hard X-rays and with the expectation that the timescale for variations slowly increases with decreasing energy. This hypothesis also predicts even slower and weaker variations below 10 keV, consistent with the non-detection of counterparts to the GeV flares by Chandra (Weisskopf et al 2013). We will present a comparison of the observed hard X-ray variations and a simple model of the decay of particles from the GeV flares to test our hypothesis.

  20. Radiation risks for patients having X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, J.; Thomas, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    In addition to radiation from naturally occurring radioactive materials and cosmic rays, individuals in developed countries receive radiation doses to bone marrow and gonads from the medical diagnostic use of X rays. A brief discussion of radiation epidemiology shows that deleterious effects are low even when doses are high. The concept of acceptable risk is introduced to help evaluate the small, but still existent, risks of radiation dose. Examples of bone marrow and gonadal doses for representative X-ray examinations are presented along with the current best estimates, per unit of X-ray dose, of the induction of leukemia or of genetic harm. The risk to the patient from an examination can then be compared with the normal risk of mortality from leukemia or of the occurrence of genetic defects. The risk increase is found to be very low. The risks to unborn children from radiographic examinations are also discussed. The benefit to the patient from information obtained from the examination must be balanced against the small risks

  1. THE HEIGHT OF A WHITE-LIGHT FLARE AND ITS HARD X-RAY SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Oliveros, Juan-Carlos; Hudson, Hugh S.; Hurford, Gordon J.; Krucker, Saem; Lin, R. P. [Space Sciences Laboratory, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lindsey, Charles [North West Research Associates, CORA Division, Boulder, CO (United States); Couvidat, Sebastien; Schou, Jesper [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Thompson, W. T. [Adnet Systems, Inc., NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, code 671, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2012-07-10

    We describe observations of a white-light (WL) flare (SOL2011-02-24T07:35:00, M3.5) close to the limb of the Sun, from which we obtain estimates of the heights of the optical continuum sources and those of the associated hard X-ray (HXR) sources. For this purpose, we use HXR images from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager and optical images at 6173 A from the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We find that the centroids of the impulsive-phase emissions in WL and HXRs (30-80 keV) match closely in central distance (angular displacement from Sun center), within uncertainties of order 0.''2. This directly implies a common source height for these radiations, strengthening the connection between visible flare continuum formation and the accelerated electrons. We also estimate the absolute heights of these emissions as vertical distances from Sun center. Such a direct estimation has not been done previously, to our knowledge. Using a simultaneous 195 Angstrom-Sign image from the Solar-Terrestrial RElations Observatory spacecraft to identify the heliographic coordinates of the flare footpoints, we determine mean heights above the photosphere (as normally defined; {tau} = 1 at 5000 A) of 305 {+-} 170 km and 195 {+-} 70 km, respectively, for the centroids of the HXR and WL footpoint sources of the flare. These heights are unexpectedly low in the atmosphere, and are consistent with the expected locations of {tau} = 1 for the 6173 Angstrom-Sign and the {approx}40 keV photons observed, respectively.

  2. The Height of a White-Light Flare and its Hard X-Ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, Juan-Carlos Martinez; Hudson, Hugh S.; Hurford, Gordon J.; Kriucker, Saem; Lin, R. P.; Lindsey, Charles; Couvidat, Sebastien; Schou, Jesper; Thompson, W. T.

    2012-01-01

    We describe observations of a white-light (WL) flare (SOL2011-02-24T07:35:00, M3.5) close to the limb of the Sun, from which we obtain estimates of the heights of the optical continuum sources and those of the associated hard X-ray (HXR) sources. For this purpose, we use HXR images from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager and optical images at 6173 Ang. from the Solar Dynamics Observatory.We find that the centroids of the impulsive-phase emissions in WL and HXRs (30 -80 keV) match closely in central distance (angular displacement from Sun center), within uncertainties of order 0".2. This directly implies a common source height for these radiations, strengthening the connection between visible flare continuum formation and the accelerated electrons. We also estimate the absolute heights of these emissions as vertical distances from Sun center. Such a direct estimation has not been done previously, to our knowledge. Using a simultaneous 195 Ang. image from the Solar-Terrestrial RElations Observatory spacecraft to identify the heliographic coordinates of the flare footpoints, we determine mean heights above the photosphere (as normally defined; tau = 1 at 5000 Ang.) of 305 +/- 170 km and 195 +/- 70 km, respectively, for the centroids of the HXR and WL footpoint sources of the flare. These heights are unexpectedly low in the atmosphere, and are consistent with the expected locations of tau = 1 for the 6173 Ang and the approx 40 keV photons observed, respectively.

  3. Impact of a Vertically Polarized Undulator on LCLS Hard X-ray Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, David [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2014-11-14

    The LCLS-II project will install two variable gap, horizontally polarized undulators into the LCLS undulator hall. One undulator is designed to produce soft x-rays spanning an energy range of 200-1250 eV (SXU) while the other is designed for the hard spectral range of 1-25 keV (HXU). The hard x-ray LCLS instruments (X-ray Pump- Probe [XPP], X-ray correlation Spectroscopy [XCS], Coherent X-ray Imaging [CXI], Matter in Extreme Conditions [MEC]) will be repurposed to operate on the HXU line while two new soft x-ray beamlines will be created for the SXU line. An alternate HXU undulator design is being considered that could provide advantages over the present design choice. In particular, the project team is collaborating with Argonne National Laboratory to develop a vertically polarized undulator (VPU). A 1-m prototype VPU device was successfully constructed this year and a full size prototype is in process. A decision to alter the project baseline, which is the construction of a horizontally polarized device, must be made in the coming weeks to not impact the present project schedule. Please note that a change to the soft x-ray undulator is not under discussion at the moment.

  4. Plasma x-ray radiation source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkov, N F; Kargin, V I; Ryaslov, E A; Pikar', A S

    1995-01-01

    This paper gives the results of studies on a plasma x-ray source, which enables one to obtain a 2.5-krad radiation dose per pulse over an area of 100 cm2 in the quantum energy range from 20 to 500 keV. Pulse duration is 100 ns. Spectral radiation distributions from a diode under various operation conditions of a plasma are obtained. A Marx generator served as an initial energy source of 120 kJ with a discharge time of T/4 = 10-6 s. A short electromagnetic pulse (10-7 s) was shaped using plasma erosion opening switches.

  5. SWIFT OBSERVATIONS OF HARD X-RAY EMITTING WHITE DWARFS IN SYMBIOTIC STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennea, J. A.; Burrows, D. N.; Mukai, K.; Markwardt, C. B.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Luna, G. J. M.; Tueller, J.

    2009-01-01

    The X-ray emission from most accreting white dwarfs (WDs) in symbiotic binary stars is quite soft. Several symbiotic WDs, however, produce strong X-ray emission at energies greater than ∼20 keV. The Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) instrument has detected hard X-ray emission from four such accreting WDs in symbiotic stars: RT Cru, T CrB, CD -57 3057, and CH Cyg. In one case (RT Cru), Swift detected X-rays out to greater than 50 keV at >5σ confidence level. Combining data from the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and BAT detectors, we find that the 0.3-150 keV spectra of RT Cru, T CrB, and CD -57 3057 are well described by emission from a single-temperature, optically thin thermal plasma, plus an unresolved 6.4-6.9 keV Fe line complex. The X-ray spectrum of CH Cyg contains an additional bright soft component. For all four systems, the spectra suffer high levels of absorption from material that both fully and partially covers the source of hard X-rays. The XRT data did not show any of the rapid, periodic variations that one would expect if the X-ray emission were due to accretion onto a rotating, highly magnetized WD. The X-rays were thus more likely from the accretion-disk boundary layer around a massive, non-magnetic WD in each binary. The X-ray emission from RT Cru varied on timescales of a few days. This variability is consistent with being due to changes in the absorber that partially covers the source, suggesting localized absorption from a clumpy medium moving into the line of sight. The X-ray emission from CD -57 3057 and T CrB also varied during the nine months of Swift observations, in a manner that was also consistent with variable absorption.

  6. Development and application of sub-nanosecond pulse-repeatable hard X-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan Lin; Fan Yajun; Tu Jing

    2013-01-01

    A multipurpose X-ray source was developed to meet the needs of multitask application such as radiation detection, radiation imaging and so on. The multipurpose X-ray source has characteristic of adjustable width and energy, pulse-repetition operation, ultra-short pulse and fine stability. Its rising time is close to 98.6 ps, the operation voltage reaches 425 kV, and the peak fluence rate exceeds 2.07 × 10 18 cm -2 · s -1 at 10 cm, which provides an ideal radiation environment for relevant application. (authors)

  7. Resolving the hard X-ray emission of GX 5-1 with INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paizis, A.; Ebisawa, K.; Tikkanen, T.

    2005-01-01

    We present the study of one year of INTEGRAL data on the neutron star low mass X-ray binary GX 5-1. Thanks to the excellent angular resolution and sensitivity of INTEGRAL, we are able to obtain a high quality spectrum of GX 5-1 from similar to 5keV to similar to 100 keV, for the first time without...... contamination from the nearby black hole candidate GRS 1758-258 above 20 keV. During our observations, GX 5-1 was mostly found in the horizontal and normal branch of its hardness intensity diagram. A clear hard X-ray emission is observed above similar to 30 keV which exceeds the exponential cut-off spectrum...... expected from lower energies. This spectral flattening may have the same origin of the hard components observed in other Z sources as it shares the property of being characteristic to the horizontal branch. The hard excess is explained by introducing Compton up-scattering of soft photons from the neutron...

  8. Imaging characters of the lung cancer phantoms under the simulative clinical condition performed with hard X-ray in-line holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J; Chen, Y; Li, G; Jiang, X

    2013-01-01

    The simulative lung cancer tissues under the approximate clinical condition were imaged using in-line holography method with 35 keV synchrotron radiation hard X-ray. The millimeter scale simulative cancer phantoms showed adequate contrast to lung tissues in our experiment. It demonstrates that in-line holography method with synchrotron radiation hard X-ray promises to be a potential sensitive method for the early detection of lung cancer. The image contrast, standard deviation (SD) and normalized standard deviation (NSD) of different areas were calculated. It shows that the traditional method of contrast calculation does not always give a convincible result in image judgment; a standard deviation map of image taken with a proper distance of sample to detector (DSD) will correspond well to the projecting image and supply effective assistance in diagnostic judgment.

  9. Radial profiles of hard X-ray emission during steady state current drive in the TRIAM-1M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Takabatake, Y.; Jotaki, E.; Moriyama, S.; Nagao, A.; Nakamura, K.; Hiraki, N.; Itoh, S.

    1990-01-01

    The hard X-ray emission from the TRIAM-1M tokamak plasma during steady state lower hybrid current drive with a discharge duration of a few minutes was measured with sodium iodide scintillation spectrometers. The radial profiles of the X-ray emission were also measured and indicate that, in the low density regime (n e =(1-3)x10 12 cm -3 ), the current carrying high energy electrons are mainly in the inner region of the plasma column and their radial profile remains unchanged during current drive. On the other hand, high density discharges (n e =(3-6)x10 12 cm -3 ) are always accompanied by an abrupt drop of the plasma current, and the X-ray emission profile changes from peaked to broad. This change can be attributed to the conditions of wave accessibility. As the electron density increases, the accessibility of the plasma to lower hybrid waves with low values of the parallel wave number n parallel is significantly reduced and high energy electrons resonating with the waves are produced at the plasma periphery. Interaction of these electrons with the limiters causes an increase of the electron density in this region; waves with low n parallel then become completely excluded from the inner part of the plasma column. This interpretation is supported by measurements of the density profile and impurity radiation, and has been confirmed in an investigation of discharges with additional gas puffing. (author). 17 refs, 21 figs

  10. Polarized vacuum ultraviolet and X-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, J.A.R.

    1978-01-01

    The most intense source of polarized vacuum UV and X-radiation is synchrotron radiation, which exhibits a degree of partially polarized light between about 80-100%. However, the radiation transmitted by vacuum UV monochromators can also be highly polarized. The Seya-Namioka type of monochromator can produce partially polarized radiation between 50-80%. For certain experiments it is necessary to know the degree of polarisation of the radiation being used. Also, when synchrotron radiation and a monochromator are combined the polarization characteristic of both should be known in order to make full use of these polarization properties. The polarizing effect on monochromators (i.e. diffraction gratings) have been measured at the Seya angle and at grazing angles for various spectral orders. The author presents the first experimental evidence that the reciprocity law holds for polarization by reflection where the angle of incidence and diffraction are unequal. These results are reviewed along with the techniques for measuring the degree of polarization. (Auth.)

  11. Machine learning from hard x-ray surveys: applications to magnetic cataclysmic variable studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaringi, Simone

    2009-11-01

    Within this thesis are discussed two main topics of contemporary astrophysics. The first is that of machine learning algorithms for astronomy whilst the second is that of magnetic cataclysmic variables (mCVs). To begin, an overview is given of ISINA: INTEGRAL Scouce Identifiction Network Algorithm. This machine learning algorithm, using random forests, is applied to the IBIS/ISGRI data set in order to ease the production of unbiased future soft gamma-ray source catalogues. The feature extraction process on an initial candidate list is described together with feature merging. Three trainng and testing sets are created in order to deal with the diverse time-scales encountered when dealing with the gamma-ray sky: one dealing with faint persistent source recognition, one dealing with strong persistent sources and a final one dealing with transients. For the latter, a new transient detection technique is introduced and described: the transient matrix. Finally the performance of the network is assessed and discussed using the testing set and some illustrative source examples. ISINA is also compared to the more conventional approach of visual inspection. Next mCVs are discussed, and in particular the properties arising from a hard X-ray selected sample which has proven remarkably efficient in detecting intermediate polars and asynchronous polars, two of the rarest type of cataclysmic variables (CVs). This thesis focuses particularly on the link between hard X-ray properties and spin/orbital periods. To this end, a new sample of these objects is constructed by cross-corelating candidate sources detected in INTEGRAL/IBIS observations against catalogues of known CVs. Also included in the analysis are hard X-ray Observations from Swift/BAT and SUZAKU/HXD in order to make the study more complete. It is found that most hard X-ray detected mCVs have Pspin/Porb<0.1 above the period gap. In this respect, attention is given to the very low number of detected systems in any ban

  12. Study of hard X-ray dose enhancement effects for some kinds of semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Guo Hong Xia; Chen Yu Sheng; Zhou Hui; He Chao Hui; Xie Ya Ning; Huang Yu Ying; He Wei; Hu Tian Dou

    2002-01-01

    Experimental results of X-ray dose enhancement effects are given for CMOS4069 and floating gate ROMs irradiated in Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility and in cobalt source. Shift of threshold voltage vs. total dose for CMOS4069 and the errors vs. total dose for 28f256 and 29c256 have been tested on line and the equivalent relation of total dose damage under the same accumulated dose is provided comparing the response of devices irradiated by X-ray and gamma-ray source. These results can be provided for X-ray radiation hardening technology as an effective evaluation data

  13. Radiation-shielded double crystal X-ray monochromator for JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnsley, R.; Morsi, H.W.; Rupprecht, G.; Kaellne, E.

    1989-01-01

    A double crystal X-ray monochromator for absolute wavelength and intensity measurements with very effective shielding of its detector against neutrons and hard X-rays was brought into operation at JET. Fast wavelength scans were taken of impurity line radiation in the wavelength region from about 0.1 nm to 2.3 nm, and monochromatic as well as spectral line scans, for different operational modes of JET. (author) 5 refs., 4 figs

  14. Magnified hard x-ray microtomography: toward tomography with submicron resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroer, Christian G.; Benner, Boris; Guenzler, Til F.; Kuhlmann, Marion; Lengeler, Bruno; Rau, Christoph; Weitkamp, Timm; Snigirev, Anatoly A.; Snigireva, Irina

    2002-01-01

    Parabolic compound refractive lenses (PCRLs) are high quality imaging optics for hard x-rays that can be used as an objective lens in a new type of hard x-ray full field microscope. Using an aluminium PCRL, this new type of microscope has been shown to have a resolution of 350 nm. Further improvement of the resolution down to 50 nm can be expected using beryllium as a lens material. The large depth of field (several mm) of the microscope results in sharp projection images for samples that fit into the field of view of about 300 micrometers. This allows to combine magnified imaging with tomographic techniques. First results of magnified microtomography are shown. Contrast formation in the microscope and the consequences for tomographic reconstruction are discussed. An outlook on further developments is given.

  15. Design parameters of transmission curved crystal spectrometer for hard X-ray diagnoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Feng; Cao Leifeng; Zhou Weimin; Zhao Zongqing; Gu Yuqiu; Yan Yonghong; Wei Lai; Xiao Shali

    2013-01-01

    The high resolving measurement of hard X-ray spectra generated in laser-produced plasma is usually performed using a cylindrically curved crystal spectrometer. In this paper, theoretical analysis and numerical simulation are performed to investigate the dependence of the energy range and resolving power on various design parameters, including crystal bending radius, source to crystal standoff distance, source size, location of the detector, etc. The investigation provides a means to design and develop cylindrically transmission curved crystal spectrometer which is used in hard X-ray diagnostics. The results show that crystal bending radius has a great influence on energy range of spectra and resolving power, and the separation between the spectral lines increases with the distance behind the focal circle faster than the line width, resulting in increased resolving power with distance. (authors)

  16. Reconnection, Particle Acceleration, and Hard X-ray Emission in Eruptive Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Petrus C.

    1998-11-01

    The frequent occurrence of Hard X-ray emission from the top of flaring loops was one of the discoveries by the Hard X-ray telescope on board the Japanese Yohkoh satellite. I will show how the combined effect of magnetic field convergence and pitch- angle scattering of non-thermal electrons injected at the top of the loop results in the generation of looptop sources with properties akin to those observed by Yohkoh. In addition it is shown that the injection of proton beams in the loop legs, expected from theory, reproduces the observed high temperature ``ridges" in the loop legs by mirroring and energy loss through collisions. I will interpret these numerical results as supporting the now widely accepted model of an erupting magnetic flux tube generating a reconnecting current sheet in its wake, where most of the energy release takes place. The strong similarity with the reconnection observed in the MRX experiment in Princeton will be analyzed in detail.

  17. Quantitative 3D imaging of yeast by hard X-ray tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ting; Li, Wenjie; Guan, Yong; Song, Xiangxia; Xiong, Ying; Liu, Gang; Tian, Yangchao

    2012-05-01

    Full-field hard X-ray tomography could be used to obtain three-dimensional (3D) nanoscale structures of biological samples. The image of the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, was clearly visualized based on Zernike phase contrast imaging technique and heavy metal staining method at a spatial resolution better than 50 nm at the energy of 8 keV. The distributions and shapes of the organelles during the cell cycle were clearly visualized and two types of organelle were distinguished. The results for cells during various phases were compared and the ratios of organelle volume to cell volume can be analyzed quantitatively. It showed that the ratios remained constant between growth and division phase and increased strongly in stationary phase, following the shape and size of two types of organelles changes. Our results demonstrated that hard X-ray microscopy was a complementary method for imaging and revealing structural information for biological samples. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Extending synchrotron-based atomic physics experiments into the hard X-ray region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBrun, T.

    1996-01-01

    The high-brightness, hard x-ray beams available from third-generation synchrotron sources are opening new opportunities to study the deepest inner shells of atoms, an area where little work has been done and phenomena not observed in less tightly bound inner-shells are manifested. In addition scattering processes which are weak at lower energies become important, providing another tool to investigate atomic structure as well as an opportunity to study photon/atom interactions beyond photoabsorption. In this contribution the authors discuss some of the issues related to extending synchrotron-based atomic physics experiments into the hard x-ray region from the physical and the experimental point of view. They close with a discussion of a technique, resonant Raman scattering, that may prove invaluable in determining the spectra of the very highly-excited states resulting from the excitation of deep inner shells

  19. Hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy of transition-metal oxide thin films and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadati, H.; Fujimori, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Photoemission spectroscopy is a powerful technique to study the electronic structures of transition-metal oxides. •Hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HXPES) is a new type of photoemission spectroscopy which can probe bulk states. •HXPES is very suitable for studying oxide thin films such as the composition dependence and the film thickness dependence. -- Abstract: Photoemission spectroscopy is a powerful experimental technique to study the electronic structures of solids, especially of transition-metal oxides. Recently, hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HXPES) has emerged as a more relevant experimental technique to obtain clear information about bulk states. Here, we describe how HXPES can be conveniently applied to study the interesting subjects on oxide thin films such as the composition dependence and the film thickness dependence of the electronic structures and the interfacial electronic structure of multilayers

  20. Searches for hard X-ray gamma-ray burst afterglows with the BAT on Swift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krimm, Hans A.; Ozawa, Hideki; Weidenspointner, Georg; Barbier, Louis M.; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Gehrels, Neil; Parsons, Ann M.; Tueller, Jack; Eftekharzadeh, Ardeshir; Hullinger, Derek D.; Markwardt, Craig; Fenimore, Edward E.; Palmer, David M.

    2003-01-01

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on the Swift gamma ray burst mission will continue to observe the fields of all detected gamma-ray bursts for several days after the prompt emission has faded. Utilizing first event-by-event data, then one minute and later five minute survey accumulations, the BAT will be extremely sensitive to the hard X-ray afterglow known to be associated with many bursts. This data will cover the crucial transition of the afterglow from rapid variability to the smoothly decaying power law in time and will extend observations of the tails of individual bursts to longer time scales than have been achievable so far. Since Swift is sensitive to short duration GRBs, we will also be able to determine whether hard X-ray afterglows are associated with short GRBs. The BAT will provide high resolution spectra of burst afterglows, allowing us to study in detail the time evolution of GRB spectra

  1. Studies of radiation hardness of MOS devices for application in a linear collider vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Qingyu

    2008-10-17

    The proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) together with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN serve as a combined tool to explore the mysteries of the universe: the former is a precision machine and the latter can be considered as a finding machine. The key component of the ILC is the vertex detector that should be placed as close as possible to the Interaction Point (IP) and has better radiation tolerance against the dominant electron-positron pair production background from beam-beam interactions. A new generation of MOS-type Depleted-Field-Effect Transistor (MOSDEPFET) active pixel detectors has been proposed and developed by Semiconductor Labor Munich for Physics and for extraterrestrial Physics in order to meet the requirements of the vertex detector at the ILC. Since all MOS devices are susceptible to ionizing radiation, the main topic is focused on the radiation hardness of detectors, by which a series of physical processes are analyzed: e.g. surface damage due to ionizing radiation as well as damage mechanisms and their associated radiation effects. As a consequence, the main part of this thesis consists of a large number of irradiation experiments and the corresponding discussions. Finally, radiation hardness of the detectors should be improved through a set of concluded experiences that are based on a series of analysis of the characteristic parameters using different measurement techniques. The feasibility of the MOSDEPFET-based vertex detector is, therefore, predicted at ILC. (orig.)

  2. Studies of radiation hardness of MOS devices for application in a linear collider vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Qingyu

    2008-01-01

    The proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) together with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN serve as a combined tool to explore the mysteries of the universe: the former is a precision machine and the latter can be considered as a finding machine. The key component of the ILC is the vertex detector that should be placed as close as possible to the Interaction Point (IP) and has better radiation tolerance against the dominant electron-positron pair production background from beam-beam interactions. A new generation of MOS-type Depleted-Field-Effect Transistor (MOSDEPFET) active pixel detectors has been proposed and developed by Semiconductor Labor Munich for Physics and for extraterrestrial Physics in order to meet the requirements of the vertex detector at the ILC. Since all MOS devices are susceptible to ionizing radiation, the main topic is focused on the radiation hardness of detectors, by which a series of physical processes are analyzed: e.g. surface damage due to ionizing radiation as well as damage mechanisms and their associated radiation effects. As a consequence, the main part of this thesis consists of a large number of irradiation experiments and the corresponding discussions. Finally, radiation hardness of the detectors should be improved through a set of concluded experiences that are based on a series of analysis of the characteristic parameters using different measurement techniques. The feasibility of the MOSDEPFET-based vertex detector is, therefore, predicted at ILC. (orig.)

  3. Optimization of a multilayer Laue lens system for a hard x-ray nanoprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Hui; Wang, Hua; Mao, Chengwen; Li, Aiguo; He, Yan; Dong, Zhaohui; Zheng, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Detailed designs of a multilayer Laue lens system for a hard x-ray nanoprobe, including flat and wedged types, are presented, to realize nanoscale point focus and high diffraction efficiency simultaneously. The difficulty of movement and alignment for lens, aperture and sample are considered in the optimization process. Considering the practical requirements of future experiments, the features of the beamline and the structural imperfections, the working energy range, the beam vibration and structural errors are estimated and discussed. (paper)

  4. HARD X-RAY TAIL DISCOVERED IN THE CLOCKED BURSTER GS 1826–238

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodi, J.; Jourdain, E.; Roques, J. P., E-mail: jrodi@irap.omp.eu [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France)

    2016-02-01

    The low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) neutron star (NS) GS 1826–238 was discovered by Ginga in 1988 September. Due to the presence of quasi-periodicity in the type I X-ray burst rate, the source has been a frequent target of X-ray observations for almost 30 years. Though the bursts were too soft to be detected by INTEGRAL/SPI, the persistent emission from GS 1826–238 was detected over 150 keV during the ∼10 years of observations. Spectral analysis found a significant high-energy excess above a Comptonization model that is well fit by a power law, indicating an additional spectral component. Most previously reported spectra with hard tails in LMXB NS have had an electron temperature of a few keV and a hard tail dominating above ∼50 keV with an index of Γ ∼ 2–3. GS 1826–238 was found to have a markedly different spectrum with kT{sub e} ∼ 20 keV and a hard tail dominating above ∼150 keV with an index of Γ ∼ 1.8, more similar to black hole X-ray binaries. We report on our search for long-term spectral variability over the 25–370 keV energy range and on a comparison of the GS 1826–238 average spectrum to the spectra of other LMXB NSs with hard tails.

  5. A SUZAKU SEARCH FOR NONTHERMAL EMISSION AT HARD X-RAY ENERGIES IN THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wik, Daniel R.; Sarazin, Craig L.; Finoguenov, Alexis; Matsushita, Kyoko; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Clarke, Tracy E.

    2009-01-01

    The brightest cluster radio halo known resides in the Coma cluster of galaxies. The relativistic electrons producing this diffuse synchrotron emission should also produce inverse Compton emission that becomes competitive with thermal emission from the intracluster medium (ICM) at hard X-ray energies. Thus far, claimed detections of this emission in Coma are controversial. We present a Suzaku HXD-PIN observation of the Coma cluster in order to nail down its nonthermal hard X-ray content. The contribution of thermal emission to the HXD-PIN spectrum is constrained by simultaneously fitting thermal and nonthermal models to it and a spatially equivalent spectrum derived from an XMM-Newton mosaic of the Coma field. We fail to find statistically significant evidence for nonthermal emission in the spectra which are better described by only a single- or multitemperature model for the ICM. Including systematic uncertainties, we derive a 90% upper limit on the flux of nonthermal emission of 6.0 x 10 -12 erg s -1 cm -2 (20-80 keV, for Γ = 2.0), which implies a lower limit on the cluster-averaged magnetic field of B>0.15 μG. Our flux upper limit is 2.5 times lower than the detected nonthermal flux from RXTE and BeppoSAX. However, if the nonthermal hard X-ray emission in Coma is more spatially extended than the observed radio halo, the Suzaku HXD-PIN may miss some fraction of the emission. A detailed investigation indicates that ∼50%-67% of the emission might go undetected, which could make our limit consistent with that of Rephaeli and Gruber and Fusco-Femiano et al. The thermal interpretation of the hard Coma spectrum is consistent with recent analyses of INTEGRAL and Swift data.

  6. Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyon Chol; Yan Hanfei; Winarski, Robert P.; Holt, Martin V.; Maser, Joerg; Liu Chian; Conley, Ray; Vogt, Stefan; Macrander, Albert T.; Stephenson, G. Brian

    2008-01-01

    We report improved results for hard x-ray focusing using a multilayer Laue lens (MLL). We have measured a line focus of 16 nm width with an efficiency of 31% at a wavelength λ=0.064 nm (19.5 keV) using a partial MLL structure with an outermost zone width of 5 nm. The results are in good agreement with the theoretically predicted performance

  7. The NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Survey of the Norma Arm Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fornasini, Francesca M.; Tomsick, John A.; Hong, JaeSub

    2017-01-01

    We present a catalog of hard X-ray sources in a square-degree region surveyed by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) in the direction of the Norma spiral arm. This survey has a total exposure time of 1.7 Ms, and the typical and maximum exposure depths are 50 ks and 1 Ms, respectively...... model with kT ≈ 15 keV, as observed for the CV candidates....

  8. THE 22 MONTH SWIFT-BAT ALL-SKY HARD X-RAY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tueller, J.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Markwardt, C. B.; Skinner, G. K.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Barthelmy, S.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Holland, S.; Ajello, M.; Beardmore, A.; Evans, P.; Godet, O.; Brandt, W. N.; Burrows, D.; Grupe, D.; Chincarini, G.; Campana, S.; Cusumano, G.; Fenimore, E.

    2010-01-01

    We present the catalog of sources detected in the first 22 months of data from the hard X-ray survey (14-195 keV) conducted with the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) coded mask imager on the Swift satellite. The catalog contains 461 sources detected above the 4.8σ level with BAT. High angular resolution X-ray data for every source from Swift-XRT or archival data have allowed associations to be made with known counterparts in other wavelength bands for over 97% of the detections, including the discovery of ∼30 galaxies previously unknown as active galactic nuclei and several new Galactic sources. A total of 266 of the sources are associated with Seyfert galaxies (median redshift z ∼ 0.03) or blazars, with the majority of the remaining sources associated with X-ray binaries in our Galaxy. This ongoing survey is the first uniform all-sky hard X-ray survey since HEAO-1 in 1977. Since the publication of the nine-month BAT survey we have increased the number of energy channels from four to eight and have substantially increased the number of sources with accurate average spectra. The BAT 22 month catalog is the product of the most sensitive all-sky survey in the hard X-ray band, with a detection sensitivity (4.8σ) of 2.2 x 10 -11 erg cm -2 s -1 (1 mCrab) over most of the sky in the 14-195 keV band.

  9. THE 70 MONTH SWIFT-BAT ALL-SKY HARD X-RAY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, W. H.; Tueller, J.; Markwardt, C. B.; Skinner, G. K.; Barthelmy, S.; Gehrels, N.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Evans, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    We present the catalog of sources detected in 70 months of observations with the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) hard X-ray detector on the Swift gamma-ray burst observatory. The Swift-BAT 70 month survey has detected 1171 hard X-ray sources (more than twice as many sources as the previous 22 month survey) in the 14-195 keV band down to a significance level of 4.8σ, associated with 1210 counterparts. The 70 month Swift-BAT survey is the most sensitive and uniform hard X-ray all-sky survey and reaches a flux level of 1.03 × 10 –11 erg s –1 cm –2 over 50% of the sky and 1.34 × 10 –11 erg s –1 cm –2 over 90% of the sky. The majority of new sources in the 70 month survey continue to be active galactic nuclei, with over 700 in the catalog. As part of this new edition of the Swift-BAT catalog, we also make available eight-channel spectra and monthly sampled light curves for each object detected in the survey in the online journal and at the Swift-BAT 70 month Web site

  10. THE 70 MONTH SWIFT-BAT ALL-SKY HARD X-RAY SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, W. H.; Tueller, J.; Markwardt, C. B.; Skinner, G. K.; Barthelmy, S.; Gehrels, N. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Science Division, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Mushotzky, R. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Evans, P. A., E-mail: whbaumga@alum.mit.edu [X-Ray and Observational Astronomy Group/Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    We present the catalog of sources detected in 70 months of observations with the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) hard X-ray detector on the Swift gamma-ray burst observatory. The Swift-BAT 70 month survey has detected 1171 hard X-ray sources (more than twice as many sources as the previous 22 month survey) in the 14-195 keV band down to a significance level of 4.8{sigma}, associated with 1210 counterparts. The 70 month Swift-BAT survey is the most sensitive and uniform hard X-ray all-sky survey and reaches a flux level of 1.03 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} over 50% of the sky and 1.34 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} over 90% of the sky. The majority of new sources in the 70 month survey continue to be active galactic nuclei, with over 700 in the catalog. As part of this new edition of the Swift-BAT catalog, we also make available eight-channel spectra and monthly sampled light curves for each object detected in the survey in the online journal and at the Swift-BAT 70 month Web site.

  11. SENSITIVITY OF STACKED IMAGING DETECTORS TO HARD X-RAY POLARIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muleri, Fabio; Campana, Riccardo, E-mail: fabio.muleri@iaps.inaf.it [INAF-IAPS, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy)

    2012-06-01

    The development of multi-layer optics which allow to focus photons up to 100 keV and more promises an enormous jump in sensitivity in the hard X-ray energy band. This technology is already planned to be exploited by future missions dedicated to spectroscopy and imaging at energies >10 keV, e.g., Astro-H and NuSTAR. Nevertheless, our understanding of the hard X-ray sky would greatly benefit from carrying out contemporaneous polarimetric measurements, because the study of hard spectral tails and of polarized emission are often two complementary diagnostics of the same non-thermal and acceleration processes. At energies above a few tens of keV, the preferred technique to detect polarization involves the determination of photon directions after a Compton scattering. Many authors have asserted that stacked detectors with imaging capabilities can be exploited for this purpose. If it is possible to discriminate those events which initially interact in the first detector by Compton scattering and are subsequently absorbed by the second layer, then the direction of scattering is singled out from the hit pixels in the two detectors. In this paper, we give the first detailed discussion of the sensitivity of such a generic design to the X-ray polarization. The efficiency and the modulation factor are calculated analytically from the geometry of the instruments and then compared with the performance as derived by means of Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations.

  12. Design of a scattering polarimeter for hard X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, E.; Cinti, M.N.; Feroci, M.; Matt, G.; Rapisarda, M.

    1995-01-01

    The design of a new hard X-ray Compton scattering polarimeter based on scintillating fibre technology is presented and studied in detail by means of Monte Carlo calculations. Several different configurations and materials have been tested in order to optimise the sensitivity in the medium/high energy X-ray band. A high sensitivity over the energy band 20-200 keV is obtained for a two material configuration. The advantages deriving from employing a new scintillating material, the YAP (YAlO 3 ), are also discussed. (orig.)

  13. Status of the Nanoscopium Scanning Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Beamline of Synchrotron Soleil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, A.; Kewish, C. M.; Ribbens, M.; Moreno, T.; Polack, F.; Baranton, G.; Desjardins, K.; Samama, J. P.

    2013-10-01

    The Nanoscopium 155 m-long scanning hard X-ray nanoprobe beamline of Synchrotron Soleil (St Aubin, France) is dedicated to quantitative multi-modal 2D/3D imaging. The beamline aims to reach down to 30 nm spatial resolution in the 5-20 keV energy range. Two experimental stations working in consecutive operation mode will be dedicated to coherent diffractive imaging and scanning X-ray nanoprobe techniques. The beamline is in the construction phase, the first user experiments are expected in 2014. The main characteristics of the beamline and an overview of its status are given in this paper.

  14. Status of the Nanoscopium Scanning Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Beamline of Synchrotron Soleil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, A; Kewish, C M; Ribbens, M; Moreno, T; Polack, F; Baranton, G; Desjardins, K; Samama, J P

    2013-01-01

    The Nanoscopium 155 m-long scanning hard X-ray nanoprobe beamline of Synchrotron Soleil (St Aubin, France) is dedicated to quantitative multi-modal 2D/3D imaging. The beamline aims to reach down to 30 nm spatial resolution in the 5–20 keV energy range. Two experimental stations working in consecutive operation mode will be dedicated to coherent diffractive imaging and scanning X-ray nanoprobe techniques. The beamline is in the construction phase, the first user experiments are expected in 2014. The main characteristics of the beamline and an overview of its status are given in this paper

  15. Techniques for materials research with synchrotron radiation x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    A brief introductory survey is presented of the properties and generation of synchrotron radiation and the main techniques developed so far for its application to materials problems. Headings are:synchrotron radiation; X-ray techniques in synchrotron radiation (powder diffraction; X-ray scattering; EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure); X-ray fluorescent analysis; microradiography; white radiation topography; double crystal topography); future developments. (U.K.)

  16. RD50 recent results: Development of radiation hard sensors for SLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Macchiolo, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The need for radiation hard semiconductor detectors for the tracker regions in high energy physics experiments at a future high luminosity hadron collider, like the proposed LHC upgrade, has led to the formation of the CERN RD50 collaboration. The R&D directions of RD50 follow two paths: the optimization of radiation hard bulk materials (Material Engineering) and the development of new detector designs (Device Engineering) as 3D sensors, thin sensors and n-in-p sensors. Some of the RD50 most recent results about silicon detectors are reported in this paper, with special reference to: (i) identification of defects responsible for long term annealing, (ii) charge collection efficiency of irradiated planar devices, in particular n-in-p microstrip detectors and epitaxial diodes, (iii) charge collection efficiency of double-type column 3D detectors, (iv) comparison of the performances of FZ and MCZ structures under mixed irradiation.

  17. Development and Studies of Novel Microfabricated Radiation Hard Scintillation Detectors With High Spatial Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Mapelli, A; Haguenauer, M; Jiguet, S; Renaud, P; Vico Triviño, N

    2011-01-01

    A new type of scintillation detector is being developed with standard microfabrication techniques. It consists of a dense array of scintillating waveguides obtained by coupling microfluidic channels filled with a liquid scintillator to photodetectors. Easy manipulation of liquid scintillators inside microfluidic devices allow their flushing, renewal, and exchange making the active medium intrinsically radiation hard. Prototype detectors have been fabricated by photostructuration of a radiation hard epoxy resin (SU-8) deposited on silicon wafers and coupled to a multi-anode photomultiplier tube (MAPMT) to read-out the scintillation light. They have been characterized by exciting the liquid scintillator in the 200 micrometers thick microchannels with electrons from a 90Sr yielding approximately 1 photoelectron per impinging Minimum Ionizing Particle (MIP). These promising results demonstrate the concept of microfluidic scintillating detection and are very encouraging for future developments.

  18. Decimetric type III radio bursts and associated hard X-ray spikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, B. R.; Benz, A. O.; Ranieri, M.; Simnett, G. M.

    1984-01-01

    For a relatively weak solar flare on August 6, 1981, at 10:32 UT, a detailed comparison is made between hard X-ray spikes and decimetric type III radio bursts. The hard X-ray observations are made at energies above 30 keV, and the radio data are obtained in the frequency range from 100 to 1000 MHz. The time resolution for all the data sets is approximately 0.1 s or better. The dynamic radio spectrum exhibits many fast drift type III radio bursts with both normal and reverse slope, whereas the X-ray time profile contains many well resolved short spikes with durations less than or equal to 1 s. Some of the X-ray spikes are seen to be associated in time with reverse-slope bursts, indicating either that the electron beams producing the radio burst contain two or three orders of magnitude more fast electrons than has previously been assumed or that the electron beams can induce the acceleration of additional electrons or occur in coincidence with this acceleration. A case is presented in which a normal slope radio burst at approximately 600 MHz occurs in coincidence with the peak of an X-ray spike to within 0.1 s.

  19. Femtosecond X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy at a Hard X-ray Free Electron Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemke, Henrik T.; Bressler, Christian; Chen, Lin X.

    2013-01-01

    X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) deliver short (current (SASE based) XFELs, they can be used for measuring high......-quality X-ray absorption data and we report femtosecond time-resolved X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) measurements of a spin-crossover system, iron(II) tris(2,2'-bipyridine) in water. The data indicate that the low-spin to high-spin transition can be modeled by single-exponential kinetics...

  20. SuperAGILE: The Hard X-ray Imager of AGILE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feroci, M.; Costa, E.; Barbanera, L.; Del Monte, E.; Di Persio, G.; Frutti, M.; Lapshov, I.; Lazzarotto, F.; Pacciani, L.; Porrovecchio, G.; Preger, B.; Rapisarda, M.; Rubini, A.; Soffitta, P.; Tavani, M.; Mastropietro, M.; Morelli, E.; Argan, A.; Ghirlanda, G.; Mereghetti, S.

    2004-01-01

    SuperAGILE is the hard X-ray (10-40 keV) imager for the gamma-ray mission AGILE, currently scheduled for launch in mid-2005. It is based on 4 Si-microstrip detectors, with a total geometric area of 1444 cm 2 (max effective about 300 cm 2 ), equipped with one-dimensional coded masks. The 4 detectors are perpendicularly oriented, in order to provide pairs of orthogonal one-dimensional images of the X-ray sky. The field of view of each 1-D detector is 107 deg. x 68 deg., at zero response, with an overlap in the central 68 deg. x 68 deg. area. The angular resolution on axis is 6 arcmin (pixel size). We present here the current status of the hardware development and the scientific potential for GRBs, for which an onboard trigger and imaging system will allow distributing locations through a fast communication telemetry link from AGILE to the ground

  1. Cosmological evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers unveiled by hard X-ray observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    We review the current understanding of the cosmological evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers elucidated by X-ray surveys of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Hard X-ray observations at energies above 2 keV are the most efficient and complete tools to find "obscured" AGNs, which are dominant populations among all AGNs. Combinations of surveys with various flux limits and survey area have enabled us to determine the space number density and obscuration properties of AGNs as a function of luminosity and redshift. The results have essentially solved the origin of the X-ray background in the energy band below ∼10 keV. The downsizing (or anti-hierarchical) evolution that more luminous AGNs have the space-density peak at higher redshifts has been discovered, challenging theories of galaxy and black hole formation. Finally, we summarize unresolved issues on AGN evolution and prospects for future X-ray missions.

  2. A Radiation-Hard Analog Memory In The AVLSI-RA Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, C.L. Jr.; Wintenberg, A.L.; Read, K.F.; Simpson, M.L.; Young, G.R.; Clonts, L.G.; Kennedy, E.J.; Smith, R.S.; Swann, B.K.; Musser, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    A radiation hardened analog memory for an Interpolating Pad Camber has been designed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and fabricated by Harris Semiconductor in the AVLSI-RA CMOS process. The goal was to develop a rad-hard analog pipeline that would deliver approximately 9-bit performance, a readout settling time of 500ns following read enable, an input and output dynamic range of +/-2.25V, a corrected rms pedestal of approximately 5mV or less, and a power dissipation of less than 10mW/channel. The pre- and post-radiation measurements to 5MRad are presented

  3. System tests of radiation hard optical links for the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, D.G.; Dowell, J.D.; Homer, R.J.; Jovanovic, P.; Kenyon, I.R.; Mahout, G.; Shaylor, H.R.; Wilson, J.A.; Rudge, A.; Fopma, J.; Mandic, I.; Nickerson, R.B.; Shield, P.; Wastie, R.; Weidberg, A.R.; Eek, L.-O.; Go, A.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Pearce, M.; Soederqvist, J.; Morrissey, M.; White, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    A prototype optical data and Timing, Trigger and Control transmission system based on LEDs and PIN-diodes has been constructed. The system would be suitable in terms of radiation hardness and radiation length for use in the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker. Bit error rate measurements were performed for the data links and for the links distributing the Timing, Trigger and Control data from the counting room to the front-end modules. The effects of cross-talk between the emitters and receivers were investigated. The advantages of using Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) instead of LEDs are discussed

  4. Electronic properties of Nd{sub 2−x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4+δ}: A hard X-ray photoemission investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarino, A., E-mail: guarino@sa.infn.it [CNR-SPIN-Salerno, Fisciano, SA (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica “E. R. Caianiello” Università di Salerno, Fisciano, SA (Italy); Panaccione, G. [CNR-IOM Laboratorio TASC, AREA Science Park, 34012 Basovizza, TS (Italy); Offi, F. [CNISM and Dipartimento di Scienze, Università Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Monaco, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trento, Trento (Italy); Fondacaro, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Torelli, P. [CNR-IOM Laboratorio TASC, AREA Science Park, 34012 Basovizza, TS (Italy); Fittipaldi, R.; Vecchione, A. [CNR-SPIN-Salerno, Fisciano, SA (Italy); Pace, S.; Nigro, A. [CNR-SPIN-Salerno, Fisciano, SA (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica “E. R. Caianiello” Università di Salerno, Fisciano, SA (Italy)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • We grow and characterize Nd{sub 2−x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4+δ} samples as thin film and single crystal. • We study the Cu 2p levels of our samples by hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. • We investigate bulk features of the Nd{sub 2−x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4+δ} samples. • Signature of the bulk response is correlated with the crystallinity of the samples. - Abstract: Cu 2p core levels spectra measured by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy of selected as-grown Nd{sub 2−x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4+δ} samples are presented and discussed. The presence of a satellite peak in the 2p core level of Nd{sub 2−x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4+δ} single crystal by hard X-ray photoemission is confirmed in all non-superconducting samples, films and single crystals investigated in this work. The comparison of the spectral features of the different samples suggests that the presence and the intensity of this satellite peak is not related to the electric transport properties, but to the texture characteristics.

  5. Radiation hard silicon particle detectors for HL-LHC—RD50 status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terzo, S., E-mail: Stefano.Terzo@mpp.mpg.de

    2017-02-11

    It is foreseen to significantly increase the luminosity of the LHC by upgrading towards the HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC). The Phase-II-Upgrade scheduled for 2024 will mean unprecedented radiation levels, way beyond the limits of the silicon trackers currently employed. All-silicon central trackers are being studied in ATLAS, CMS and LHCb, with extremely radiation hard silicon sensors to be employed on the innermost layers. Within the RD50 Collaboration, a massive R&D program is underway across experimental boundaries to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation tolerance. We will present results of several detector technologies and silicon materials at radiation levels corresponding to HL-LHC fluences. Based on these results, we will give recommendations for the silicon detectors to be used at the different radii of tracking systems in the LHC detector upgrades. In order to complement the measurements, we also perform detailed simulation studies of the sensors. - Highlights: • The RD50 collaboration investigates the radiation hardness of silicon sensors. • Different approaches to simulate the detector response after irradiation are shown. • HV-CMOS are cost-effective solution for the outer pixel layers at HL-LHC. • 3D and thin planar sensors with slim edges are solutions for innermost layers at HL-LHC. • Sensors with intrinsic gain are investigated to develop ultra-fast silicon detectors.

  6. Comparison of proton microbeam and gamma irradiation for the radiation hardness testing of silicon PIN diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakšić, M.; Grilj, V.; Skukan, N.; Majer, M.; Jung, H. K.; Kim, J. Y.; Lee, N. H.

    2013-09-01

    Simple and cost-effective solutions using Si PIN diodes as detectors are presently utilized in various radiation-related applications in which excessive exposure to radiation degrades their charge transport properties. One of the conventional methods for the radiation hardness testing of such devices is time-consuming irradiation with electron beam or gamma-ray irradiation facilities, high-energy proton accelerators, or with neutrons from research reactors. Recently, for the purpose of radiation hardness testing, a much faster nuclear microprobe based approach utilizing proton irradiation has been developed. To compare the two different irradiation techniques, silicon PIN diodes have been irradiated with a Co-60 gamma radiation source and with a 6 MeV proton microbeam. The signal degradation in the silicon PIN diodes for both irradiation conditions has been probed by the IBIC (ion beam induced charge) technique, which can precisely monitor changes in charge collection efficiency. The results presented are reviewed on the basis of displacement damage calculations and NIEL (non-ionizing energy loss) concept.

  7. Time Delays Between Decimetric Type-Iii Bursts and Associated Hard X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, H. S.; Lattari, C. J. B.; Benz, A. O.; Dennis, B. R.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. En julio de 1987, se efectuaron radio observaciones en 1.6 CHz usando la antena de 13.7-m de Itapetinga con un tiempo de resoluci5n de 3 ms. Las observaciones en rayos-X fueron obtenidas del HXRBS en SMM. Comparaciones de observaciones de 1.6 CHz con espectro dinamico en el intervalo de (1000 - 100) MHz y rayos-X duros muestran los siguientes resultados: I) en 12 casos, identificamos la continuaci6n de brotes de tipo Ill-RD hasta 1.6 GHz. ii) Por primera vez, hemos identificadopicos de rayos-X demorados en comparaci6n con el brote decimetrico tipolll-RD. Estos retardos son mas largos - 1 5 - que lo esperado ( " 100 ms) y han sido interpretados suponiendo que la emisi6n decimetrica es la 2a. ar- m6nica y esta causada por el borde delantero del excitador, mientras que los picos de los rayos-X han sido atribuidos a la entrada completa del excitador dentro de la regi6n que produce los rayos-X. ABSTRACT. In July, 1985 radio observations were made at 1.6 GHz using 13.7 m Itapetinga antenna with time resolution of 3 ms. The hard X-ray observations were obtained from HXRBS on SMM. Comparison of 1.6 GHz observations with dynamic spectra in the frequency range of (1000 - 100) MHz and hard X-rays shows the following results: i) In 12 cases, we identify continuation of type Ill-RD bursts up to 1.6 GHz suggesting presence of type Ill-RD bursts at 1.6 GHz. ii) For the first time, we have idetified hard X-ray peaks delayed in comparison to decimetric type Ill-RD bursts. These dalays are longer - 1 5 - than expected ( 100 ms) and have been interpreted assuming that the decimetric emission is at 2 nd harmonic and caused by the leading edge of the exciter, whereas peaks of X-rays have been attributed to entire entry of the exciter into the X-ray producing region. Keq : SUN BURSTS - SUN-

  8. A Hard X-Ray Study of the Normal Star-Forming Galaxy M83 with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yukita, M.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Lehmer, B. D.

    2016-01-01

    We present the results from sensitive, multi-epoch NuSTAR observations of the late-type star-forming galaxy M83 (d = 4.6 Mpc). This is the first investigation to spatially resolve the hard (E > 10 keV) X-ray emission of this galaxy. The nuclear region and similar to 20 off-nuclear point sources......, including a previously discovered ultraluminous X-ray source, are detected in our NuSTAR observations. The X-ray hardnesses and luminosities of the majority of the point sources are consistent with hard X-ray sources resolved in the starburst galaxy NGC 253. We infer that the hard X-ray emission is most...

  9. Interplay of hard and soft physics in small x deep inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.

    1995-01-01

    Coherence phenomena, the increase with energy of coherence length and the nonuniversality of parton structure of the effective pomeron are explained. New hard phenomena directly calculable in QCD such as diffractive electroproduction of states with M 2 2 and the color transparency phenomenon as well as new options to measure the light-cone wave functions of various hadrons are considered. An analogue of Bjorken scaling is predicted for the diffractive electroproduction of ρ mesons at large momentum transfers and for the production of large rapidity gap events, as observed at HERA. A phenomenological QCD evolution equation is suggested to calculate the basic characteristics of the large rapidity gap events. The increase of parton densities at small x as well as new means to disentangle experimentally soft and hard physics are considered. We discuss constraints on the increase of deep inelastic amplitudes with Q 2 derived from the inconsistency of QCD predictions for inclusive and exclusive processes and from unitarity of the S matrix for collisions of wave packets. New ways to probe QCD physics of hard processes at large longitudinal distances and to answer the long standing problems on the origin of the pomeron are suggested. Unresolved problems and perspectives of small x physics are also outlined. (orig.)

  10. Hard-x-ray phase-difference microscopy with a low-brilliance laboratory x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwabara, Hiroaki; Yashiro, Wataru; Harasse, Sebastien; Momose, Atsushi; Mizutani, Haruo

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a hard-X-ray phase-imaging microscopy method using a low-brilliance X-ray source. The microscope consists of a sample, a Fresnel zone plate, a transmission grating, and a source grating creating an array of mutually incoherent X-ray sources. The microscope generates an image exhibiting twin features of the sample with opposite signs separated by a distance, which is processed to generate a phase image. The method is quantitative even for non-weak-phase objects that are difficult to be quantitatively examined by the widely used Zernike phase-contrast microscopy, and it has potentially broad applications in the material and biological science fields. (author)

  11. Multilayer on-chip stacked Fresnel zone plates: Hard x-ray fabrication and soft x-ray simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kenan; Wojcik, Michael J.; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Divan, Ralu; Jacobsen, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Fresnel zone plates are widely used as x-ray nanofocusing optics. To achieve high spatial resolution combined with good focusing efficiency, high aspect ratio nanolithography is required, and one way to achieve that is through multiple e-beam lithography writing steps to achieve on-chip stacking. A two-step writing process producing 50 nm finest zone width at a zone thickness of 1.14 µm for possible hard x-ray applications is shown here. The authors also consider in simulations the case of soft x-ray focusing where the zone thickness might exceed the depth of focus. In this case, the authors compare on-chip stacking with, and without, adjustment of zone positions and show that the offset zones lead to improved focusing efficiency. The simulations were carried out using a multislice propagation method employing Hankel transforms.

  12. Resummations in QCD hard-scattering at large and small x

    CERN Document Server

    Kidonakis, Nikolaos; Stephens, Philip

    2008-01-01

    We discuss different resummations of large logarithms that arise in hard-scattering cross sections of quarks and gluons in regions of large and small x. The large-x logarithms are typically dominant near threshold for the production of a specified final state. These soft and collinear gluon corrections produce large enhancements of the cross section for many processes, notably top quark and Higgs production, and typically the higher-order corrections reduce the factorization and renormalization scale dependence of the cross section. The small-x logarithms are dominant in the regime where the momentum transfer of the hard sub-process is much smaller than the total collision energy. These logarithms are important to describe multijet final states in deep inelastic scattering and hadron colliders, and in the study of parton distribution functions. The resummations at small and large x are linked by the eikonal approximation and are dominated by soft gluon anomalous dimensions. We will review their role in both c...

  13. Design and development of the multilayer optics for the new hard x-ray mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareschi, G.; Basso, S.; Citterio, O.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Civitani, M.; Raimondi, L.; Sironi, G.; Cotroneo, V.; Negri, B.; Parodi, Giancarlo; Martelli, F.; Borghi, G.; Orlandi, A.; Vernani, D.; Valsecchi, G.; Binda, R.; Romaine, S.; Gorenstein, P.; Attinà, P.

    2017-11-01

    The New Hard X-ray Mission (NHXM) project will be operated by 2017 and is currently undergoing a Phase B study, under the coordination of the Italian Space Agency (ASI). The project is being proposed by an international team in the context of the ESA Call CV M3 as a Small Mission program, with a large Italian participation. It is based on 4 hard X-ray optics modules, each formed by 60 evenly spaced multilayer coated Wolter I mirror shells. An extensible bench is used to reach the 10 m focal length. The Wolter I monolithic substrates with multilayer coating are produced in NiCo by electroforming replication. Three of the mirror modules will host in the focal plane a hybrid a detector system (a soft X-ray Si DEPFET array plus a high energy CdTe detector). The detector of the fourth telescope will be a photoelectric polarimeter with imaging capabilities, operating from 2 up to 35 keV. The total on axis effective area of the three telescopes at 1 keV and 30 kev is of 1500 cm2 and 350 cm2 respectively, with an angular resolution of 20 arcsec HEW at 30 keV. In this paper we report on the design and development of the multilayer coated X-ray mirrors based on NiCo shells.

  14. Hard X-ray dosimetry of a plasma focus suitable for industrial radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblauch, P.; Raspa, V.; Di Lorenzo, F.; Clausse, A.; Moreno, C.

    2018-04-01

    Dosimetric measurements of the hard X-ray emission by a small-chamber 4.7 kJ Mather-type plasma focus device capable of producing neat radiographs of metallic objects, were carried out with a set of thermoluminescent detectors TLD 700 (LiF:Mg,Ti). Measurements of the hard X-ray dose dependence with the angular position relative to the electrodes axis, are presented. The source-detector distance was changed in the range from 50 to 100 cm, and the angular positions were explored between ± 70°, relative to the symmetry axis of the electrodes. On-axis measurements show that the X-ray intensity is uniform within a half aperture angle of 6°, in which the source delivers an average dose of (1.5 ± 0.1) mGy/sr per shot. Monte Carlo calculations suggest that the energy of the electron beam responsible for the X-ray emission ranges 100-600 keV.

  15. HOST GALAXY PROPERTIES OF THE SWIFT BAT ULTRA HARD X-RAY SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koss, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Winter, Lisa M.; Baumgartner, Wayne; Tueller, Jack; Gehrels, Neil; Valencic, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    We have assembled the largest sample of ultra hard X-ray selected (14-195 keV) active galactic nucleus (AGN) with host galaxy optical data to date, with 185 nearby (z * >10.5) have a 5-10 times higher rate of spiral morphologies than in SDSS AGNs or inactive galaxies. We also see enhanced far-infrared emission in BAT AGN suggestive of higher levels of star formation compared to the comparison samples. BAT AGNs are preferentially found in the most massive host galaxies with high concentration indexes indicative of large bulge-to-disk ratios and large supermassive black holes. The narrow-line (NL) BAT AGNs have similar intrinsic luminosities as the SDSS NL Seyferts based on measurements of [O III] λ5007. There is also a correlation between the stellar mass and X-ray emission. The BAT AGNs in mergers have bluer colors and greater ultra hard X-ray emission compared to the BAT sample as a whole. In agreement with the unified model of AGNs, and the relatively unbiased nature of the BAT sources, the host galaxy colors and morphologies are independent of measures of obscuration such as X-ray column density or Seyfert type. The high fraction of massive spiral galaxies and galaxy mergers in BAT AGNs suggest that host galaxy morphology is related to the activation and fueling of local AGN.

  16. A novel synthesis of polymeric CO via useful hard X-ray photochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pravica

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on the synchrotron hard X-ray-induced decomposition of strontium oxalate (SrC2O4 pressurized to 7 GPa inside a diamond anvil cell (DAC. After some 4 h of irradiation in a white X-ray synchrotron beam, a dark reddish/brown region formed in the area of irradiation which was surrounded by a yellowish brown remainder in the rest of the sample. Upon depressurization of the sample to ambient conditions, the reacted/decomposed sample was recoverable as a dark brown/red and yellow waxy solid. Synchrotron infrared spectroscopy confirmed the strong presence of CO2 even under ambient conditions with the sample exposed to air and other strongly absorbing regions, suggesting that the sample may likely be polymerized CO (in part with dispersed CO2 and SrO trapped within the polymer. These results will have significant implications in the ability to readily produce and trap CO2 in situ via irradiation of a simple powder for useful hard X-ray photochemistry and in the ability to easily manufacture polymeric CO (via loading of powders in a DAC or high volume press without the need for the dangerous and complex loading of toxic CO. A novel means of X-ray-induced polymerization under extreme conditions has also been demonstrated.

  17. Hard X-ray observations of the Her X-1 line feature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manchanda, R.K.; Vialetto, G.; Bazzano, A.; La Padula, C.; Polcaro, V.F.; Ubertini, P.

    1982-01-01

    We have carried out two observations separated by a year in 1980 and 1981 during the mid-on phase of Her X-1, by using xenon filled multi-wire proportional chambers. This paper presents the time-averaged spectral results of Her X-1 in the 15-150 keV energy range. The possible case of the line centroid variability seen during 1980 experiment is also discussed. (orig./WL)

  18. From Storage Rings to Free Electron Lasers for Hard X-Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuhn, H

    2004-01-01

    The intensity of X-ray sources has increased at a rapid rate since the late 1960s by 10 orders of magnitude and more through the use of synchrotron radiation produced by bending magnets, wigglers and undulators. Three generations of radiation sources have been identified depending on amplitude and quality of the radiation provided. While user facilities of the third generation were being constructed a new concept of radiation generating devices was being developed that offers an even larger increase in peak and average brightness than had been achieved till then. The new concept of the X-ray Free Electron Laser based on the principle of Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission will be the basis of fourth generation X-ray source user facilities of this century. The paper will start with a brief history of the development of x-ray sources, discuss some of the differences between storage ring and free electron laser based approaches, and close with an update of the present development of x-ray free electron laser user facilities

  19. From Storage Rings to Free Electron Lasers for Hard X-Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuhn, H

    2004-01-09

    The intensity of X-ray sources has increased at a rapid rate since the late 1960s by 10 orders of magnitude and more through the use of synchrotron radiation produced by bending magnets, wigglers and undulators. Three generations of radiation sources have been identified depending on amplitude and quality of the radiation provided. While user facilities of the third generation were being constructed a new concept of radiation generating devices was being developed that offers an even larger increase in peak and average brightness than had been achieved till then. The new concept of the X-ray Free Electron Laser based on the principle of Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission will be the basis of fourth generation X-ray source user facilities of this century. The paper will start with a brief history of the development of x-ray sources, discuss some of the differences between storage ring and free electron laser based approaches, and close with an update of the present development of x-ray free electron laser user facilities.

  20. From storage rings to free electron lasers for hard x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter

    2004-01-01

    The intensity of x-ray sources has increased at a rapid rate since the late 1960s by ten orders of magnitude and more through the use of synchrotron radiation produced by bending magnets, wigglers and undulators. Three generations of radiation sources have been identified depending on amplitude and quality of the radiation provided. While user facilities of the third generation were being constructed, a new concept of radiation generating devices was being developed that offers an even larger increase in peak and average brightness than had been achieved till then. The new concept of the x-ray free electron laser based on the principle of self-amplified spontaneous emission will be the basis of fourth generation x-ray source user facilities of this century. The paper will start with a brief history of the development of x-ray sources, it will then discuss some of the differences between storage ring and free electron laser based approaches, and will close with an update of the present development of x-ray free electron laser user facilities

  1. High-resolution, hard x-ray photoemission investigation of BaFe2As2: Moderate influence of the surface and evidence for a low degree of Fe 3d-As 4p hybridization of electronic states near the Fermi energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, S.; Huang, Y.; Huisman, R.; Massee, F.; Thirupathaiah, R.; Gorgoi, M.; Schaefers, F.; Follath, F.; Goedkoop, J.B.; Golden, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    Photoemission data taken with hard x-ray radiation on cleaved single crystals of the barium parent compound of the MFe2As2 pnictide high-temperature superconductor family are presented. Making use of the increased bulk sensitivity upon hard x-ray excitation, and comparing the results to data taken

  2. Sub-500  nm hard x ray focusing by compound long kinoform lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Keliang; Liu, Jing; Liang, Hao; Wu, Xuehui; Zhang, Kai; Yuan, Qingxi; Yi, Futing; Sheng, Weifan

    2016-01-01

    The focusing performance of polymethyl methacrylate compound long kinoform lenses with 70 μm aperture and 19.5 mm focal length was characterized with 8 keV x rays using the knife-edge scan method at the 4W1A transmission x-ray microscope beamline of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The experiment result shows a best FWHM focus size of 440 nm with 31% diffraction efficiency.

  3. CO-ANALYSIS OF SOLAR MICROWAVE AND HARD X-RAY SPECTRAL EVOLUTIONS. I. IN TWO FREQUENCY OR ENERGY RANGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Qiwu; Huang Guangli; Nakajima, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Solar microwave and hard X-ray spectral evolutions are co-analyzed in the 2000 June 10 and 2002 April 10 flares, and are simultaneously observed by the Owens-Valley Solar Array in the microwave band and by Yohkoh/Hard X-ray Telescope or RHESSI in the hard X-ray band, with multiple subpeaks in their light curves. The microwave and hard X-ray spectra are fitted by a power law in two frequency ranges of the optical thin part and two photon energy ranges, respectively. Similar to an earlier event in Shao and Huang, the well-known soft-hard-soft pattern of the lower energy range changed to the hard-soft-hard (HSH) pattern of the higher energy range during the spectral evolution of each subpeak in both hard X-ray flares. This energy dependence is actually supported by a positive correlation between the overall light curves and spectral evolution in the lower energy range, while it becomes an anti-correlation in the higher energy range. Regarding microwave data, the HSH pattern appears in the spectral evolution of each subpeak in the lower frequency range, which is somewhat similar to Huang and Nakajima. However, it returns back to the well-known pattern of soft-hard-harder for the overall spectral evolution in the higher frequency range of both events. This frequency dependence is confirmed by an anti-correlation between the overall light curves and spectral evolution in the lower frequency range, but it becomes a positive correlation in the higher frequency range. The possible mechanisms are discussed, respectively, for reasons why hard X-ray and microwave spectral evolutions have different patterns in different energy and frequency intervals.

  4. Design and development of the SIMBOL-X hard x-ray optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareschi, G.; Attinà, P.; Basso, S.; Borghi, G.; Burkert, W.; Buzzi, R.; Citterio, O.; Civitani, M.; Conconi, P.; Cotroneo, V.; Cusumano, G.; Dell'Orto, E.; Freyberg, M.; Hartner, G. D.; Gorenstein, P.; Mattaini, E.; Mazzoleni, F.; Parodi, G.; Romaine, S.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Valtolina, R.; Valsecchi, G.; Vernani, D.

    2008-07-01

    The SIMBOL-X formation-flight X-ray mission will be operated by ASI and CNES in 2014, with a large participation of the French and Italian high energy astrophysics scientific community. Also German and US Institutions are contributing in the implementation of the scientific payload. Thanks to the formation-flight architecture, it will be possible to operate a long (20 m) focal length grazing incidence mirror module, formed by 100 confocal multilayer-coated Wolter I shells. This system will allow us to focus X-rays over a very broad energy band, from 0.5 keV up to 80 keV and beyond, with more than two orders of magnitude improvement in angular resolution (20 arcsec HEW) and sensitivity (0.5 µCrab on axis @30 keV) compared to non focusing detectors used so far. The X-ray mirrors will be realized by Ni electroforming replication, already successfully used for BeppoSAX, XMM-Newton, and JET-X/SWIFT; the thickness trend will be about two times less than for XMM, in order to save mass. Multilayer reflecting coatings will be implemented, in order to improve the reflectivity beyond 10 keV and to increase the field of view 812 arcmin at 30 keV). In this paper, the SIMBOL-X optics design, technology and implementation challenges will be discussed; it will be also reported on recent results obtained in the context of the SIMBOL-X optics development activities.

  5. Reflections on hard X-ray photon-in/photon-out spectroscopy for electronic structure studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatzel, Pieter, E-mail: glatzel@esrf.fr [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble (France); Weng, Tsu-Chien; Kvashnina, Kristina; Swarbrick, Janine; Sikora, Marcin [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble (France); Gallo, Erik [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble (France); Department of Inorganic, Physical and Materials Chemistry, INSTM Reference Center and NIS Centre of Excellence, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Smolentsev, Nikolay [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble (France); Research Center for Nanoscale Structure of Matter, Southern Federal University, str. Zorge 5, 344090 Rostov-on-Don (Russian Federation); Mori, Roberto Alonso [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble (France)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► Overview of some recent developments in hard X-ray RXES/RIXS. ► Evaluation of spectral line broadening in RXES/RIXS. ► Modelling of RXES/RIXS by ground state DFT calculations. ► Discussion on when HERFD provides a good approximation to XAS. -- Abstract: An increasing community of researchers in various fields of natural sciences is combining X-ray absorption with X-ray emission spectroscopy (XAS–XES) to study electronic structure. With the applications becoming more diverse, the objectives and the requirements in photon-in/photon-out spectroscopy are becoming broader. It is desirable to find simple experimental protocols, robust data reduction and theoretical tools that help the experimentalist to understand their data and learn about the electronic structure. This article presents a collection of considerations on non-resonant and resonant XES with the aim to guide the experimentalist to make good use of this technique.

  6. The Swift BAT Hard X-ray Survey - A New Window on the Local AGN Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The Swift Burst and Transient telescope (BAT) has surveyed the entire sky for the last 3.5 years obtaining the first sensitive all sky survey of the 14-195 keV sky. At high galactic latitudes the vast majority of the detected sources are AGN. Since hard x-rays penetrate all but Compton thick obscuring material (Column densities of 1.6E24 atms/cm2) this survey is unbiased with respect to obscuration, host galaxy type, optical , radio or IR properties. We will present results on the broad band x-ray properties, the nature of the host galaxies, the luminosity function and will discuss a few of the optical, IR and x-ray results in detail.

  7. Hard X-ray nano-focusing with Montel mirror optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Wenjun, E-mail: wjliu@anl.gov [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Ice, Gene E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Assoufid, Lahsen; Liu Chian; Shi Bing; Zschack, Paul [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Tischler, Jon [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Qian Jun; Khachartryan, Ruben; Shu Deming [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors in the Montel (or nested) configuration were tested for hard X-ray nanoscale focusing at a third generation synchrotron beamline. In this scheme, two mirrors, mounted side-by-side and perpendicular to each other, provide for a more compact focusing system and a much higher demagnification and flux than the traditional sequential K-B mirror arrangement. They can accept up to a 120 {mu}mx120 {mu}m incident X-ray beam with a long working distance of 40 mm and broad-bandpass of energies up to {approx}30 keV. Initial test demonstrated a focal spot of about 150 nm in both horizontal and vertical directions with either polychromatic or monochromatic beam. Montel mirror optics is important and very appealing for achromatic X-ray nanoscale focusing in conventional non-extra-long synchrotron beamlines.

  8. Valence change detection in memristive oxide based heterostructure cells by hard X-ray photoelectron emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindsmüller, A.; Schmitz, C.; Wiemann, C.; Skaja, K.; Wouters, D. J.; Waser, R.; Schneider, C. M.; Dittmann, R.

    2018-04-01

    The switching mechanism of valence change resistive memory devices is widely accepted to be an ionic movement of oxygen vacancies resulting in a valence change of the metal cations. However, direct experimental proofs of valence changes in memristive devices are scarce. In this work, we have employed hard X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM) to probe local valence changes in Pt/ZrOx/Ta memristive devices. The use of hard X-ray radiation increases the information depth, thus providing chemical information from buried layers. By extracting X-ray photoelectron spectra from different locations in the PEEM images, we show that zirconia in the active device area is reduced compared to a neighbouring region, confirming the valence change in the ZrOx film during electroforming. Furthermore, we succeeded in measuring the Ta 4f spectrum for two different resistance states on the same device. In both states, as well as outside the device region, the Ta electrode is composed of different suboxides without any metallic contribution, hinting to the formation of TaOx during the deposition of the Ta thin film. We observed a reduction of the Ta oxidation state in the low resistance state with respect to the high resistive state. This observation is contradictory to the established model, as the internal redistribution of oxygen between ZrOx and the Ta electrode during switching would lead to an oxidation of the Ta layer in the low resistance state. Instead, we have to conclude that the Ta electrode takes an active part in the switching process in our devices and that oxygen is released and reincorporated in the ZrOx/TaOx bilayer during switching. This is confirmed by the degradation of the high resistance state during endurance measurements under vacuum.

  9. Hard state neutron star and black hole X-ray binaries in the radio:X-ray luminosity plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Elena; Degenaar, Nathalie; van den Eijnden, Jakob

    2018-05-01

    Motivated by the large body of literature around the phenomenological properties of accreting black hole (BH) and neutron star (NS) X-ray binaries in the radio:X-ray luminosity plane, we carry out a comparative regression analysis on 36 BHs and 41 NSs in hard X-ray states, with data over 7 dex in X-ray luminosity for both. The BHs follow a radio to X-ray (logarithmic) luminosity relation with slope β = 0.59 ± 0.02, consistent with the NSs' slope (β =0.44^{+0.05}_{-0.04}) within 2.5σ. The best-fitting intercept for the BHs significantly exceeds that for the NSs, cementing BHs as more radio loud, by a factor ˜22. This discrepancy can not be fully accounted for by the mass or bolometric correction gap, nor by the NS boundary layer contribution to the X-rays, and is likely to reflect physical differences in the accretion flow efficiency, or the jet powering mechanism. Once importance sampling is implemented to account for the different luminosity distributions, the slopes of the non-pulsating and pulsating NS subsamples are formally inconsistent (>3σ), unless the transitional millisecond pulsars (whose incoherent radio emission mechanism is not firmly established) are excluded from the analysis. We confirm the lack of a robust partitioning of the BH data set into separate luminosity tracks.

  10. Possibilities and Challenges of Scanning Hard X-ray Spectro-microscopy Techniques in Material Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Somogyi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Scanning hard X-ray spectro-microscopic imaging opens unprecedented possibilities in the study of inhomogeneous samples at different length-scales. It gives insight into the spatial variation of the major and minor components, impurities and dopants of the sample, and their chemical and electronic states at micro- and nano-meter scales. Measuring, modelling and understanding novel properties of laterally confined structures are now attainable. The large penetration depth of hard X-rays (several keV to several 10 keV beam energy makes the study of layered and buried structures possible also in in situ and in operando conditions. The combination of different X-ray analytical techniques complementary to scanning spectro-microscopy, such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray excited optical luminescence, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS and nano-SIMS, provides access to optical characteristics and strain and stress distributions. Complex sample environments (temperature, pressure, controlled atmosphere/vacuum, chemical environment are also possible and were demonstrated, and allow as well the combination with other analysis techniques (Raman spectroscopy, infrared imaging, mechanical tensile devices, etc. on precisely the very same area of the sample. The use of the coherence properties of X-rays from synchrotron sources is triggering emerging experimental imaging approaches with nanometer lateral resolution. New fast analytical possibilities pave the way towards statistically significant studies at multi- length-scales and three dimensional tomographic investigations. This paper gives an overview of these techniques and their recent achievements in the field of material sciences.

  11. Extension of self-seeding to hard X-rays >10 keV as a way to increase user access at the European XFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2011-11-01

    We propose to use the self-seeding scheme with single crystal monochromator at the European X-ray FEL to produce monochromatic, high-power radiation at 16 keV. Based on start to end simulations we show that the FEL power of the transform-limited pulses can reach about 100 GW by exploiting tapering in the tunable-gap baseline undulator. The combination of high photon energy, high peak power, and very narrow bandwidth opens a vast new range of applications, and includes the possibility to considerably increase the user capacity and fully exploit the high repetition rate of the European XFEL. In fact, dealing with monochromatic hard X-ray radiation one may use crystals as deflectors with minimum beam loss. To this end, a photon beam distribution system based on the use of crystals in the Bragg reflection geometry is proposed for future study and possible extension of the baseline facility. They can be repeated a number of times to forman almost complete (one meter scale) ring with an angle of 20 degrees between two neighboring lines. The reflectivity of crystal deflectors can be switched fast enough by flipping the crystals with piezo-electric devices similar to those for X-ray phase retarders at synchrotron radiation facilities. It is then possible to distribute monochromatic hard X-rays among 10 independent instruments, thereby enabling 10 users to work in parallel. The unmatched repetition rate of the European XFEL would be therefore fully exploited. (orig.)

  12. Extension of self-seeding to hard X-rays >10 keV as a way to increase user access at the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    We propose to use the self-seeding scheme with single crystal monochromator at the European X-ray FEL to produce monochromatic, high-power radiation at 16 keV. Based on start to end simulations we show that the FEL power of the transform-limited pulses can reach about 100 GW by exploiting tapering in the tunable-gap baseline undulator. The combination of high photon energy, high peak power, and very narrow bandwidth opens a vast new range of applications, and includes the possibility to considerably increase the user capacity and fully exploit the high repetition rate of the European XFEL. In fact, dealing with monochromatic hard X-ray radiation one may use crystals as deflectors with minimum beam loss. To this end, a photon beam distribution system based on the use of crystals in the Bragg reflection geometry is proposed for future study and possible extension of the baseline facility. They can be repeated a number of times to forman almost complete (one meter scale) ring with an angle of 20 degrees between two neighboring lines. The reflectivity of crystal deflectors can be switched fast enough by flipping the crystals with piezo-electric devices similar to those for X-ray phase retarders at synchrotron radiation facilities. It is then possible to distribute monochromatic hard X-rays among 10 independent instruments, thereby enabling 10 users to work in parallel. The unmatched repetition rate of the European XFEL would be therefore fully exploited. (orig.)

  13. kHz femtosecond laser-plasma hard X-ray and fast ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoss, A.; Korn, G.; Stiel, H.; Voigt, U.; Elsaesser, T.; Richardson, M.C.; Siders, C.W.; Faubel, M.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the first demonstration of a new stable, kHz femtosecond laser-plasma source of hard x-ray continuum and K α emission using a thin liquid metallic jet target. kHz femtosecond x-ray sources will find many applications in time-resolved x-ray diffraction and microscopy studies. As high intensity lasers become more compact and operate at increasingly high repetition-rates, they require a target configuration that is both repeatable from shot-to-shot and is debris-free. We have solved this requirement with the use of a fine (10-30 μm diameter) liquid metal jet target that provides a pristine, unperturbed filament surface at rates >100 kHz. A number of liquid metal targets are considered. We will show hard x-ray spectra recorded from liquid Ga targets that show the generation of the 9.3 keV and 10.3 keV, K α and K β lines superimposed on a multi-keV Bremsstrahlung continuum. This source was generated by a 50fs duration, 1 kHz, 2W, high intensity Ti:Sapphire laser. We will discuss the extension of this source to higher powers and higher repetition rates, providing harder x-ray emission, with the incorporation of pulse-shaping and other techniques to enhance the x-ray conversion efficiency. Using the same liquid target technology, we have also demonstrated the generation of forward-going sub-MeV protons from a 10 μm liquid water target at 1 kHz repetition rates. kHz sources of high energy ions will find many applications in time-resolved particle interaction studies, as well as lead to the efficient generation of short-lived isotopes for use in nuclear medicine and other applications. The protons were detected with CR-39 track detectors both in the forward and backward directions up to energies of ∼500 keV. As the intensity of compact high repetition-rate lasers sources increase, we can expect improvements in the energy, conversion efficiency and directionality to occur. The impact of these developments on a number of fields will be discussed. As compact

  14. Electrical properties and radiation hardness of SOI systems with multilayer buried dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barchuk, I.P.; Kilchitskaya, V.I.; Lysenko, V.S.

    1997-01-01

    In this work SOI structures with buried SiO 2 -Si 3 N 4 -SiO 2 layers have been fabricated by the ZMR-technique with the aim of improving the total dose radiation hardness of the buried dielectric layer. To optimize the fabrication process, buried layers were investigated by secondary ion mass spectrometry before and after the ZMR process, and the obtained results were compared with electrical measurements. It is shown that optimization of the preparation processes of the initial buried dielectric layers provides ZMR SOI structures with multilayer buried isolation, which are of high quality for both Si film interfaces. Particular attention is paid to the investigation of radiation-induced charge trapping in buried insulators. Buried isolation structures with a nitride layer exhibit significant reduction of radiation-induced positive charge as compared to classical buried SiO 2 layers produced by either the ZMR or the SIMOX technique

  15. Radiation hardness tests of SiPMs for the JLab Hall D Barrel calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Yi; Zorn, Carl; Barbosa, Fernando; Smith, Elton

    2013-01-01

    We report on the measurement of the neutron radiation hardness of silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) manufactured by Hamamatsu Corporation in Japan and SensL in Ireland. Samples from both companies were irradiated by neutrons created by a 1 GeV electron beam hitting a thin lead target at Jefferson Lab Hall A. More tests regarding the temperature dependence of the neutron radiation damage and self-annealing were performed on Hamamatsu SiPMs using a calibrated Am–Be neutron source from the Jefferson Lab Radiation Control group. As the result of irradiation both dark current and dark rate increase linearly as a function of the 1 MeV equivalent neutron fluence and a temperature dependent self-annealing effect is observed.

  16. Nustar Detection of Hard X-Ray Phase Lags from the Accreting Pulsar GS 0834-430

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Bachetti, Matteo; Harrison, Fiona A.

    2013-01-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array hard X-ray telescope observed the transient Be/X-ray binary GS 0834-430 during its 2012 outburst-the first active state of this system observed in the past 19 yr. We performed timing and spectral analysis and measured the X-ray spectrum between 3-79 keV w...

  17. The inner-relationship of hard X-ray and EUV bursts during solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emslie, A.G.; Brown, J.C.; Donnelly, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison is made between the flux-versus-time profile in the EUV band and the thick target electron flux profile as inferred from hard X-rays for a number of moderately large solar flares. This complements Kane and Donnelly's (1971) study of small flares. The hard X-ray data are from ESRO TD-1A and the EUV inferred from SFD observations. Use of a chi 2 minimising method shows that the best overall fit between the profile fine structures obtains for synchronism to < approximately 5 s which is within the timing accuracy. This suggests that neither conduction nor convection is fast enough as the primary mechanism of energy transport into the EUV flare and rather favours heating by the electrons themselves or by some MHD wave process much faster than acoustic waves. The electron power deposited, for a thick target model, is however far greater than the EUV luminosity for any reasonable assumptions about the area and depth over which EUV is emitted. This means that either most of the power deposited is conducted away to the optical flare or that only a fraction < approximately 1-10% of the X-ray emitting electrons are injected downwards. Recent work on Hα flare heating strongly favours the latter alternative - i.e. that electrons are mostly confined in the corona. (Auth.)

  18. Observation of cosmic hard x-ray by L-3H-9 rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Sachio; Makino, Fumiyoshi; Matsui, Yutaka; Fukada, Yutaka.

    1978-01-01

    It has been considered that the isotropic constituents of cosmic hard X-ray have their origins outside the galactic system. As the spectra are uncertain, the generation mechanism of X-ray has not been clearly known yet. It was attempted to make more reliable observation by shutter method and the technique removing charged particles, using the L-3H-8 rocket. The equipment consists of NaI scintillation counter, a front counter, a Xenon counter, a UV sensor, a collimator, a shutter and a shutter-driving device. The L-3H-9 rocket was launched on August 16, 1977, and reached height of 310 km in about 300 seconds. Then the observation was started, but it was not able to observe the isotropic constituents of hard X-ray which were aimed at, as the shutter didn't work normally. It is expected to make another observation with the K-9M-64 rocket in August, 1978, after investigating the action of the shutter and employing and improved driving device. (Kobatake, H.)

  19. CdTe Based Hard X-ray Imager Technology For Space Borne Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limousin, Olivier; Delagnes, E.; Laurent, P.; Lugiez, F.; Gevin, O.; Meuris, A.

    2009-01-01

    CEA Saclay has recently developed an innovative technology for CdTe based Pixelated Hard X-Ray Imagers with high spectral performance and high timing resolution for efficient background rejection when the camera is coupled to an active veto shield. This development has been done in a R&D program supported by CNES (French National Space Agency) and has been optimized towards the Simbol-X mission requirements. In the latter telescope, the hard X-Ray imager is 64 cm² and is equipped with 625µm pitch pixels (16384 independent channels) operating at -40°C in the range of 4 to 80 keV. The camera we demonstrate in this paper consists of a mosaic of 64 independent cameras, divided in 8 independent sectors. Each elementary detection unit, called Caliste, is the hybridization of a 256-pixel Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) detector with full custom front-end electronics into a unique 1 cm² component, juxtaposable on its four sides. Recently, promising results have been obtained from the first micro-camera prototypes called Caliste 64 and will be presented to illustrate the capabilities of the device as well as the expected performance of an instrument based on it. The modular design of Caliste enables to consider extended developments toward IXO type mission, according to its specific scientific requirements.

  20. An imaging escape gated MPWC for hard X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; Boccaccini, L.; La Padula, C.; Mastropietro, M.; Patriarca, R.; Polcaro, V.F.; Barbareschi, L.; Perotti, F.; Villa, G.; Butler, R.C.; Di Cocco, G.; Spada, G.; Charalambous, P.; Dean, A.J.; Stephen, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    A scientific forward step in the hard X-ray and soft gamma-ray astronomy will only be possible with the use of a new generation of space borne instruments. Their main characteristics have to be the two-dimensional imaging capability over a large collecting area and the fine spectral resolution in order to discriminate between the weak signal coming from cosmic sources to be detected and the strong background induced by cosmic rays, in the space environment, on the detector. To reach this goal we have developed a new hard X-ray position sensitive proportional counter operating with the escape gate technique in the range 15-150 keV, to be used together with a pseudo-random coded mask in order to obtain sky images. The detector is a high pressure (5 bar) xenon-argon-isobutane filled chamber with a spatial resolution of 30x2 mm and a spectral resolution of 5% at 60 keV on the sensitive area of 3000 cm 2 . (orig.)

  1. Hard X-ray bremsstrahlung production in solar flares by high-energy proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, A. G.; Brown, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    The possibility that solar hard X-ray bremsstrahlung is produced by acceleration of stationary electrons by fast-moving protons, rather than vice versa, as commonly assumed, was investigated. It was found that a beam of protons which involves 1836 times fewer particles, each having an energy 1836 times greater than that of the electrons in the equivalent electron beam model, has exactly the same bremsstrahlung yield for a given target, i.e., the mechanism has an energetic efficiency equal to that of conventional bremsstrahlung models. Allowance for the different degrees of target ionization appropriate to the two models (for conventional flare geometries) makes the proton beam model more efficient than the electron beam model, by a factor of order three. The model places less stringent constraints than a conventional electron beam model on the flare energy release mechanism. It is also consistent with observed X-ray burst spectra, intensities, and directivities. The altitude distribution of hard X-rays predicted by the model agrees with observations only if nonvertical injection of the protons is assumed. The model is inconsistent with gamma-ray data in terms of conventional modeling.

  2. Weak hard X-ray emission from broad absorption line quasars: evidence for intrinsic X-ray weakness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Scott, A. E.; Alexander, D. M.; Gandhi, P.; Stern, D.; Teng, S. H.; Arévalo, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Farrah, D.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Koss, M.; Ogle, P.; Puccetti, S.; Saez, C.

    2014-01-01

    We report NuSTAR observations of a sample of six X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. These targets, at z = 0.148-1.223, are among the optically brightest and most luminous BAL quasars known at z < 1.3. However, their rest-frame ≈2 keV luminosities are 14 to >330 times weaker than expected for typical quasars. Our results from a pilot NuSTAR study of two low-redshift BAL quasars, a Chandra stacking analysis of a sample of high-redshift BAL quasars, and a NuSTAR spectral analysis of the local BAL quasar Mrk 231 have already suggested the existence of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars, i.e., quasars not emitting X-rays at the level expected from their optical/UV emission. The aim of the current program is to extend the search for such extraordinary objects. Three of the six new targets are weakly detected by NuSTAR with ≲ 45 counts in the 3-24 keV band, and the other three are not detected. The hard X-ray (8-24 keV) weakness observed by NuSTAR requires Compton-thick absorption if these objects have nominal underlying X-ray emission. However, a soft stacked effective photon index (Γ eff ≈ 1.8) for this sample disfavors Compton-thick absorption in general. The uniform hard X-ray weakness observed by NuSTAR for this and the pilot samples selected with <10 keV weakness also suggests that the X-ray weakness is intrinsic in at least some of the targets. We conclude that the NuSTAR observations have likely discovered a significant population (≳ 33%) of intrinsically X-ray weak objects among the BAL quasars with significantly weak <10 keV emission. We suggest that intrinsically X-ray weak quasars might be preferentially observed as BAL quasars.

  3. Radiation hardness of GaAs sensors against gamma-rays, neutrons and electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šagátová, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.sagatova@stuba.sk [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); University Centre of Electron Accelerators, Slovak Medical University, Ku kyselke 497, 911 06 Trenčín (Slovakia); Zaťko, Bohumír; Dubecký, František [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Ly Anh, Tu [Faculty of Applied Science, University of Technology VNU HCM, 268 Ly Thuong Kiet Street, District 10, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Nečas, Vladimír; Sedlačková, Katarína; Pavlovič, Márius [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); Fülöp, Marko [University Centre of Electron Accelerators, Slovak Medical University, Ku kyselke 497, 911 06 Trenčín (Slovakia)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Radiation hardness of SI GaAs detectors against gamma-rays, neutrons and electrons was compared. • Good agreement was achieved between the experimental results and displacement damage factor of different types of radiation. • CCE and FWHM first slightly improved (by 1–8%) and just then degraded with the cumulative dose. • An increase of detection efficiency with cumulative dose was observed. - Abstract: Radiation hardness of semi-insulating GaAs detectors against {sup 60}Co gamma-rays, fast neutrons and 5 MeV electrons was compared. Slight improvements in charge collection efficiency (CCE) and energy resolution in FWHM (Full Width at Half Maximum) were observed at low doses with all kinds of radiation followed by their degradation. The effect occurred at a dose of about 10 Gy of neutrons (CCE improved by 1%, FWHM by 5% on average), at 1 kGy of electrons (FWHM decreased by 3% on average) and at 10 kGy of gamma-rays (CCE raised by 5% and FWHM dropped by 8% on average), which is in agreement with the relative displacement damage of the used types of radiation. Gamma-rays of MeV energies are 1000-times less damaging than similar neutrons and electrons about 10-times more damaging than photons. On irradiating the detectors with neutrons and electrons, we observed a global increase in their detection efficiency, which was caused probably by enlargement of the active detector area as a consequence of created radiation defects in the base material. Detectors were still functional after a dose of 1140 kGy of ∼1 MeV photons, 104 kGy of 5 MeV electrons but only up to 0.576 kGy of fast (∼2 to 30 MeV) neutrons.

  4. The Relationship Between Solar Radio and Hard X-ray Emission

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    White, S.M.; Benz, A. O.; Christe, S.; Fárník, František; Kundu, M.R.; Mann, G.; Ning, Z.; Raulin, J.-P.; Silva-Valio, A.V.R.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Vilmer, N.; Warmuth, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 159, 1-4 (2011), s. 225-261 ISSN 0038-6308 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun * radio radiation * X-rays Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.611, year: 2011

  5. Impulsive behavior in solar soft X-radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, H. S.; Strong, K. T.; Dennis, B. R.; Zarro, D.; Inda, M.; Kosugi, T.; Sakao, T.

    1994-01-01

    The Yohkoh soft X-ray telescope has observed impulsive, thermal, soft X-ray emission at the footpoints of magnetic loops during solar flares. The soft X-ray (thermal) time profiles at the footpoints closely match the hard X-ray (nonthermal) time profiles, directly demonstrating the heating of the lower solar atmosphere on short timescales during the interval of nonthermal energy release. This phenomenon is the rule, rather than the exception, occurring in the majority of flares that we have examined with the Yohkoh data. We illustrate the impulsive behavior with data from the major flare of 1992 January 26. For this flare, the soft X-ray peak times matched the hard X-ray peak times within the time resolution of the soft X-ray measurements (about 10 s), and the soft and hard X-ray locations match within the resolution of the hard X-ray imager. The impulsive soft X-ray emission clearly has a thermal spectral signature, but not at the high temperature of a 'superhot' source. We conclude that the impulsive soft X-ray emission comes from material heated by precipitating electrons at loop footpoints and evaporating from the deeper atmosphere into the flaring flux tube.

  6. The background counting rates in a balloon borne hard X-ray telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, A.J.; Dipper, N.A.; Lewis, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    A detailed Monte Carlo model of a hard (20-300 keV) X-ray astronomical telescope has been developed in order to calculate the energy loss distribution of the unwanted background noise events in the prime detection elements. The spectral distributions of the background rates measured at balloon altitudes over Palestine, Texas are compared to the predictions of the theoretical model. Good agreement has been found in terms of both the overall intensity level as well as the spectral distribution. (orig.)

  7. The variable hard x-ray emission of NGC 4945 as observed by NUSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puccetti, Simonetta; Comastri, Andrea; Fiore, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    We present a broadband (~0.5-79 keV) spectral and temporal analysis of multiple NuSTAR observations combined with archival Suzaku and Chandra data of NGC 4945, the brightest extragalactic source at 100 keV. We observe hard X-ray (>10 keV) flux and spectral variability, with flux variations of a f...... of a factor of two on timescales of 20 ks. A variable primary continuum dominates the high-energy spectrum (>10 keV) in all states, while the reflected/scattered flux that dominates at E...

  8. Phase-matched generation of coherent soft and hard X-rays using IR lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popmintchev, Tenio V.; Chen, Ming-Chang; Bahabad, Alon; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.

    2013-06-11

    Phase-matched high-order harmonic generation of soft and hard X-rays is accomplished using infrared driving lasers in a high-pressure non-linear medium. The pressure of the non-linear medium is increased to multi-atmospheres and a mid-IR (or higher) laser device provides the driving pulse. Based on this scaling, also a general method for global optimization of the flux of phase-matched high-order harmonic generation at a desired wavelength is designed.

  9. The one square meter hard X-ray (15-200 KeV) sky survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; La Padula, C.D.; Polcaro, V.F.

    1981-01-01

    A long term program was started at I.A.S. since 1979 to perform a survey of the hard X-ray sky using multiwire high pressure Xenon filled Spectroscopic Proportional Counters (SPC). The first payload consisting of two very large area SPC (2,700 cm 2 each) was flown during summer 1980 from the Milo Base (Sicily, Italy). The instrument duplicated to reach 10,800 cm 2 geometric area is expected to fly from northern (1981), southern (1982) and equatorial (1983) bases to perform a deep sky survey

  10. Hard X-ray nanoimaging method using local diffraction from metal wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, Hidekazu, E-mail: htakano@sci.u-hyogo.ac.jp; Konishi, Shigeki; Shimomura, Sho; Azuma, Hiroaki; Tsusaka, Yoshiyuki; Kagoshima, Yasushi [Center for Novel Material Science under Multi-Extreme Conditions, Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan)

    2014-01-13

    A simple hard X-ray imaging method achieving a high spatial resolution is proposed. Images are obtained by scanning a metal wire through the wave field to be measured and rotating the sample to collect data for back projection calculations; the local diffraction occurring at the edges of the metal wire operates as a narrow line probe. In-line holograms of a test sample were obtained with a spatial resolution of better than 100 nm. The potential high spatial resolution of this method is shown by calculations using diffraction theory.

  11. The influence of parotid gland sparing on radiation damages of dental hard tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Jeremias; Seidel, Johannes; Schweyen, Ramona; Paelecke-Habermann, Yvonne; Vordermark, Dirk; Gernhardt, Christian; Kuhnt, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether radiation damage on dental hard tissue depends on the mean irradiation dose the spared parotid gland is subjected to or on stimulated whole salivary flow rate. Between June 2002 and October 2008, 70 patients with neck and cancer curatively irradiated were included in this study. All patients underwent dental treatment referring to the guidelines and recommendations of the German Society of Dental, Oral and Craniomandibular Sciences prior, during, and after radiotherapy (RT). During the follow-up period of 24 months, damages on dental hard tissues were classified according to the RTOG/EORTC guidelines. The mean doses (D(mean)) during spared parotid gland RT were determined. Stimulated whole saliva secretion flow rates (SFR) were measured before RT and 1, 6, 12, 24 months after RT. Thirty patients showed no carious lesions (group A), 18 patients developed sporadic carious lesions (group B), and 22 patients developed general carious lesions (group C). Group A patients received a D mean of 21.2 ± 11.04 Gy. Group B patients received a D(mean) of 26.5 ± 11.59 Gy and group C patients received a D(mean) of 33.9 ± 9.93 Gy, respectively. The D(mean) of group A was significantly lower than the D(mean) of group C (p dental hard tissue correlates with increased mean irradiation doses as well as decreased salivary flow rates. Parotid gland sparing resulting in a dose below 20 Gy reduces radiation damage on dental hard tissues, and therefore, the dose may act as a predictor for the damage to be expected.

  12. Hard magnetic off-stoichiometric (Fe,Sb){sub 2+x}Hf{sub 1-x} intermetallic phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goll, D.; Gross, T.; Loeffler, R.; Pflanz, U.; Vogel, T.; Kopp, A.; Grubesa, T.; Schneider, G. [Aalen University, Materials Research Institute (Germany)

    2017-09-15

    By high-throughput screening the ternary Fe-Hf-Sb system, off-stoichiometric (Fe,Sb){sub 2+x}Hf{sub 1-x} with a composition of Fe60.0-Hf26.5-Sb13.5 with high potential as hard magnetic phase is discovered. By quantitative domain structure analysis, promising intrinsic properties of J{sub s} ∝ 1 T, K{sub 1} ∝ 1.5 MJ m{sup -3} are found at room temperature. By magnetometry, bulk intrinsic properties of J{sub s} ∝ 0.7 T, K{sub 1} ∝ 1.4 MJ m{sup -3} are found. Alloying elements like Co or Mn turns out to be an effective adjusting screw on the crystal structure and ferromagnetic behavior. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. 44Ti Nucleosynthesis Lines and Hard X-ray Continuum in Young SNRs: from INTEGRAL to Simbol-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, M.; Terrier, R.; Trap, G.; Lebrun, F.; Decourchelle, A.; Vink, J.

    2009-05-01

    Supemovae and their remnants are the main Galactic nucleosynthesis sites and the privileged sources of Galactic cosmic rays. The youngest of such remnants can be studied through two distinct observational features: 44Ti γ-ray lines and the hard X-ray nonthermal continuum emission. The former gives unique information on the nucleosynthesis conditions occuring during the first stages of the explosion, while the latter provides clues on acceleration processes at supernova remnant shocks. In this contribution, we present new INTEGRAL results on Tycho, the remnant of a historical supernova, and on G1.9+0.3, which has been recently unveiled as the youngest Galactic supernova remnant. Expectations with Simbol-X are also addressed.

  14. 44Ti Nucleosynthesis Lines and Hard X-ray Continuum in Young SNRs: from INTEGRAL to Simbol-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, M.; Terrier, R.; Lebrun, F.; Trap, G.; Decourchelle, A.; Vink, J.

    2009-01-01

    Supemovae and their remnants are the main Galactic nucleosynthesis sites and the privileged sources of Galactic cosmic rays. The youngest of such remnants can be studied through two distinct observational features: 44 Tiγ-ray lines and the hard X-ray nonthermal continuum emission. The former gives unique information on the nucleosynthesis conditions occuring during the first stages of the explosion, while the latter provides clues on acceleration processes at supernova remnant shocks. In this contribution, we present new INTEGRAL results on Tycho, the remnant of a historical supernova, and on G1.9+0.3, which has been recently unveiled as the youngest Galactic supernova remnant. Expectations with Simbol-X are also addressed.

  15. Microhardness of the YbxY1-xInCu4 alloy system: the of electronic structure on hardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocko, M; Sarrao, J L; Stubicar, N; Aviani, I; Simek, Z; Stubicar, M

    2003-01-01

    We show that the Vickers microhardness, measured on flux grown single crystals of the Yb x Y 1-x InCu 4 alloy system, although sample dependent, exhibits clear concentration dependence; it increases with decreasing x. Such a dependence is not expected because the cubic lattice parameter increases with decreasing x and one expects then a decrease of hardness with decreasing x. Also, such a concentration dependence is in accordance with neither the Mott-Nabarro theory nor other known experimental results. We ascribe the observed dependence to the change of the electronic structure of the Yb x Y 1-x InCu 4 alloy system with x

  16. Development of radiation-hard optical links for the CMS tracker at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasey, F.; Arbet-Engels, V.; Cervelli, G.; Gill, K.; Grabit, R.; Mommaert, C.; Stefanini, G.

    1998-01-01

    A radiation-hard optical link is under development for readout and control of the tracking detector in the future CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The authors present the optical system architecture based on edge-emitting InGaAsP laser-diode transmitters operating at a wavelength of 1.3 microm, single mode fiber ribbons, multi-way connectors and InGaAsP in photodiode receivers. They report on radiation hardness tests of lasers, photodiodes, fibers and connectors. Increases of laser threshold and pin leakage currents with hadron fluence have been observed together with decreases in laser slope-efficiency and photodiode responsivity. Short lengths of single-mode optical fiber and multi-way connectors have been found to be little affected by radiation damage. They analyze the analog and digital performance of prototype optical links transmitting data generated at a 40 MSample/s rate. Distortion, settling time, bandwidth, noise, dynamic range and bit-error-rate results are discussed

  17. A Demonstrator Analog Signal Processing Circuit in a Radiation Hard SOI-CMOS Technology

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD-9 A Demonstrator Analog Signal Processing Circuit in a Radiation Hard SOI-CMOS Technology \\\\ \\\\Radiation hardened SOI-CMOS (Silicon-On-Insulator, Complementary Metal-Oxide- \\linebreak Semiconductor planar microelectronic circuit technology) was a likely candidate technology for mixed analog-digital signal processing electronics in experiments at the future high luminosity hadron colliders. We have studied the analog characteristics of circuit designs realized in the Thomson TCS radiation hard technologies HSOI3-HD. The feature size of this technology was 1.2 $\\mu$m. We have irradiated several devices up to 25~Mrad and 3.10$^{14}$ neutrons cm$^{-2}$. Gain, noise characteristics and speed have been measured. Irradiation introduces a degradation which in the interesting bandwidth of 0.01~MHz~-~1~MHz is less than 40\\%. \\\\ \\\\Some specific SOI phenomena have been studied in detail, like the influence on the noise spectrum of series resistence in the thin silicon film that constitutes the body of the transistor...

  18. Microstructure and mechanical properties of hard zone in friction stir welded X80 pipeline steel relative to different heat input

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Hakan, E-mail: hakanay@uludag.edu.tr [Engineering and Architecture Faculty, Mechanical Engineering Department, Uludag University, 16059 Gorukle-Bursa (Turkey); Nelson, Tracy W. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Brigham Young University, 435 CTB, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the microstructure and mechanical properties of the hard zone in friction stir welded X80 pipeline steel at different heat inputs. Microstructural analysis of the welds was carried out using optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and microhardness. Heat input during friction stir welding process had a significant influence on the microstructure and mechanical properties in the hard zone along the advancing side of the weld nugget. Based on the results, the linear relationships between heat input and post-weld microstructures and mechanical properties in the hard zone of friction stir welded X80 steels were established. It can be concluded that with decrease in heat input the bainitic structure in the hard zone becomes finer and so hard zone strength increases.

  19. Microstructure and mechanical properties of hard zone in friction stir welded X80 pipeline steel relative to different heat input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, Hakan; Nelson, Tracy W.

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the microstructure and mechanical properties of the hard zone in friction stir welded X80 pipeline steel at different heat inputs. Microstructural analysis of the welds was carried out using optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and microhardness. Heat input during friction stir welding process had a significant influence on the microstructure and mechanical properties in the hard zone along the advancing side of the weld nugget. Based on the results, the linear relationships between heat input and post-weld microstructures and mechanical properties in the hard zone of friction stir welded X80 steels were established. It can be concluded that with decrease in heat input the bainitic structure in the hard zone becomes finer and so hard zone strength increases

  20. Radiation hazards of X-ray mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailar, J.C. III

    1978-01-01

    X-ray mammography delivers significant amounts of ionizing radiation to the breast, and the female breast is more susceptible to radiation carcinogenesis than any other human organ. On the other hand, breast cancer is least likely to cause serious illness and death when it is detected at a very early stage. The risks and benefits of mammography can be estimated. This paper summarizes current risk estimates, then proceeds to a comparison of risks and benefits. As for breast cancer mortality, the addition of mammography to a programme of annual breast examinations of average U.S. women is of questionable value for women under age 50 but it is probably beneficial for older women. However, the break-even point is closely related to the average radiation exposure of breast tissue, and would be earlier in a few centres now using optimum techniques and equipment. For women with below-average risks of breast cancer, the age would be higher, and for a few women with a high probability of developing breast cancer it would be lower. Breast cancer screening programmes have been improved significantly since criticisms were first publicized in mid-1975. Partial improvements include reduction in radiation exposure (at least in some centres), guidelines from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the American Cancer Society (ACS) for restricting the screening of women under age 50, and changes in the patient consent form signed by participants in the NCI-ACS programme. Professional and public awareness of the need to balance the benefits of screening with its risks and costs has rapidly and markedly increased. Future improvements should further define the optimum design and application of breast cancer screening programmes

  1. Diagnostics of underwater electrical wire explosion through a time- and space-resolved hard x-ray source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheftman, D; Shafer, D; Efimov, S; Gruzinsky, K; Gleizer, S; Krasik, Ya E

    2012-10-01

    A time- and space-resolved hard x-ray source was developed as a diagnostic tool for imaging underwater exploding wires. A ~4 ns width pulse of hard x-rays with energies of up to 100 keV was obtained from the discharge in a vacuum diode consisting of point-shaped tungsten electrodes. To improve contrast and image quality, an external pulsed magnetic field produced by Helmholtz coils was used. High resolution x-ray images of an underwater exploding wire were obtained using a sensitive x-ray CCD detector, and were compared to optical fast framing images. Future developments and application of this diagnostic technique are discussed.

  2. Radiation hardness and lifetime studies of LEDs and VCSELs for the optical readout of the ATLAS SCT

    CERN Document Server

    Beringer, J; Mommsen, R K; Nickerson, R B; Weidberg, A R; Monnier, E; Hou, H Q; Lear, K L

    1999-01-01

    We study the radiation hardness and the lifetime of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser diodes (VCSELs) in the context of the development of the optical readout for the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) at LHC. About 170 LEDs from two different manufacturers and about 130 VCSELs were irradiated with neutron and proton fluences equivalent to (and in some cases more than twice as high as) the combined neutral and charged particle fluence of about 5x10 sup 1 sup 4 n (1 MeV eq. in GaAs)/cm sup 2 expected in the ATLAS inner detector. We report on the radiation damage and the conditions required for its partial annealing under forward bias, we calculate radiation damage constants, and we present post-irradiation failure rates for LEDs and VCSELs. The lifetime after irradiation was investigated by operating the diodes at an elevated temperature of 50 degree sign C for several months, resulting in operating times corresponding to up to 70 years of operation in the ATLAS SCT. From o...

  3. NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Survey of the Galactic Center Region. II. X-Ray Point Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, JaeSub; Mori, Kaya; Hailey, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    persistent luminous X-ray binaries (XBs) and the likely run-away pulsar called the Cannonball. New source-detection significance maps reveal a cluster of hard (>10 keV) X-ray sources near the Sgr. A diffuse complex with no clear soft X-ray counterparts. The severe extinction observed in the Chandra spectra...

  4. Hard X-ray polarimetry with position sensitve germanium detectors. Studies of the recombination transitions into highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashenov, Stanislav

    2005-07-01

    In this work a first study of the photon polarization for the process of radiative recombination has been performed. This was done at the ESR storage ring at GSI for uranium ions colliding with N2 at various collision energies. For this measurement a high purity Ge Pixel Detector with a 4 x 4 segmentation matrix was applied. The investigation was performed at the Gas-jet target of the ESR. The detector was placed at 60 and 90 observation angles. The sensitivity of the Compton scattering effect to the linear polarization of the X-Ray radiation was employed for the polarization measurement. Detailed investigations of the scattering and geometrical effects inside the detector were performed in order to develop a method to interpret the experimental data and extract the degree of the linear polarization in the hard X-Ray regime with a high precision. A special emphasis was given to the geometry of the detector and it's influence on the measured pixel-to-pixel Compton scattering intensities. The developed method enabled to achieve a precision of the order of 10% with the Pixel Detector which is dominated by the statistical uncertainties. The obtained results show a good agreement with the theoretical values derived from the exact relativistic calculations. For the case of the linear polarization of the K-REC photons, the measured data con rm the theoretical prediction that strong depolarization effects occur for high projectile charges in the forward hemisphere. The latter is in disagreement with the nonrelativistic theory which predicts a 100 % polarization regardless of the emission angle. (orig.)

  5. Hard X-ray polarimetry with position sensitve germanium detectors. Studies of the recombination transitions into highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashenov, Stanislav

    2005-01-01

    In this work a first study of the photon polarization for the process of radiative recombination has been performed. This was done at the ESR storage ring at GSI for uranium ions colliding with N2 at various collision energies. For this measurement a high purity Ge Pixel Detector with a 4 x 4 segmentation matrix was applied. The investigation was performed at the Gas-jet target of the ESR. The detector was placed at 60 and 90 observation angles. The sensitivity of the Compton scattering effect to the linear polarization of the X-Ray radiation was employed for the polarization measurement. Detailed investigations of the scattering and geometrical effects inside the detector were performed in order to develop a method to interpret the experimental data and extract the degree of the linear polarization in the hard X-Ray regime with a high precision. A special emphasis was given to the geometry of the detector and it's influence on the measured pixel-to-pixel Compton scattering intensities. The developed method enabled to achieve a precision of the order of 10% with the Pixel Detector which is dominated by the statistical uncertainties. The obtained results show a good agreement with the theoretical values derived from the exact relativistic calculations. For the case of the linear polarization of the K-REC photons, the measured data con rm the theoretical prediction that strong depolarization effects occur for high projectile charges in the forward hemisphere. The latter is in disagreement with the nonrelativistic theory which predicts a 100 % polarization regardless of the emission angle. (orig.)

  6. SMM hard X-ray observations of the soft gamma-ray repeater 1806-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, C.; Norris, J. P.; Cline, T. L.; Dennis, B. R.; Desai, U. D.; Orwig, L. E.

    1987-01-01

    Six bursts from the soft gamma-ray repeater (SGR) 1806-20 have been recorded with the SMM Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer during a highly active phase in 1983. Rise and decay times of less than 5 ns have been detected. Time profiles of these events indicate low-level emission prior to and after the main peaks. The results suggest that SGRs are distinguished from classical gamma-ray bursts by repetition, softer nonvarying spectra, short durations, simple temporal profiles, and a tendency for source locations to correlate with Population I objects. SGR characteristics differ from those of type I X-ray bursts, but they appear to have similarities with the type II bursts from the Rapid Burster.

  7. SMM hard X-ray observations of the soft gamma-ray repeater 1806-20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouveliotou, C.; Norris, J.P.; Cline, T.L.; Dennis, B.R.; Desai, U.D.; Orwig, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Six bursts from the soft gamma-ray repeater (SGR) 1806-20 have been recorded with the SMM Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer during a highly active phase in 1983. Rise and decay times of less than 5 ns have been detected. Time profiles of these events indicate low-level emission prior to and after the main peaks. The results suggest that SGRs are distinguished from classical gamma-ray bursts by repetition, softer nonvarying spectra, short durations, simple temporal profiles, and a tendency for source locations to correlate with Population I objects. SGR characteristics differ from those of type I X-ray bursts, but they appear to have similarities with the type II bursts from the Rapid Burster. 19 references

  8. SuperAGILE: The hard X-ray imager for the AGILE space mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feroci, M.; Costa, E.; Soffitta, P.; Del Monte, E.; Di Persio, G.; Donnarumma, I.; Evangelista, Y.; Frutti, M.; Lapshov, I.; Lazzarotto, F.; Mastropietro, M.; Morelli, E.; Pacciani, L.; Porrovecchio, G.; Rapisarda, M.; Rubini, A.; Tavani, M.; Argan, A.

    2007-01-01

    SuperAGILE is a coded mask experiment based on silicon microstrip detectors. It operates in the 15-45 keV nominal energy range, providing crossed one-dimensional images of the X-ray sky with an on-axis angular resolution of 6 arcmin, over a field of view in excess of 1 sr. It was designed as the hard X-ray monitor of the AGILE space mission, a small satellite of the Italian Space Agency devoted to image the gamma-ray sky in the 30 MeV-50 GeV energy band. The AGILE mission was launched in a low-earth orbit on 23rd April 2007. In this paper we describe the SuperAGILE experiment, its construction and test processes, and its performance before flight, based on the on-ground test and calibrations

  9. Upgrading multilayer zone plate technology for hard x-ray focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirotomo, Toshiki; Konishi, Shigeki [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); SPring-8 Service Co., Ltd (Japan); Takano, Hidekazu, E-mail: htakano@sci.u-hyogo.ac.jp; Sumida, Kazuhiro; Tsusaka, Yoshiyuki; Kagoshima, Yasushi [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Koyama, Takahisa [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI/SPring-8) (Japan); Ichimaru, Satoshi; Ohchi, Tadayuki [NTT Advanced Technology Corporation (Japan); Takenaka, Hisataka [NTT Advanced Technology Corporation (Japan); TOYAMA Corporation (Japan)

    2016-01-28

    Multilayer zone plate (MZP) technology for hard X-ray focusing was upgraded and its focusing performance was evaluated using 20-keV X-rays at the synchrotron beamline (BL24XU) of SPring-8. The MZP consists of MoSi{sub 2} and Si layers alternately deposited on a glass fiber by magnetron sputtering so that all zone boundaries satisfy the Fresnel zone configuration. The focused beam was evaluated using knife-edge scanning in which the measured intensity distribution is identical to the line spread function (LSF) in the focal plane. The focused beamsize of about 30 nm was estimated by oscillation peaks observed in the measured LSF according to Rayleigh’s criterion.

  10. Hard X-ray emission from accretion shocks around galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Doron; Waxman, Eli

    2010-02-01

    We show that the hard X-ray (HXR) emission observed from several galaxy clusters is consistent with a simple model, in which the nonthermal emission is produced by inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons by electrons accelerated in cluster accretion shocks: The dependence of HXR surface brightness on cluster temperature is consistent with that predicted by the model, and the observed HXR luminosity is consistent with the fraction of shock thermal energy deposited in relativistic electrons being lesssim0.1. Alternative models, where the HXR emission is predicted to be correlated with the cluster thermal emission, are disfavored by the data. The implications of our predictions to future HXR observations (e.g. by NuStar, Simbol-X) and to (space/ground based) γ-ray observations (e.g. by Fermi, HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) are discussed.

  11. Hard X-ray emission from accretion shocks around galaxy clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushnir, Doron; Waxman, Eli, E-mail: doron.kushnir@weizmann.ac.il, E-mail: eli.waxman@weizmann.ac.il [Physics Faculty, Weizmann Institute of Science, PO Box 26, Rehovot (Israel)

    2010-02-01

    We show that the hard X-ray (HXR) emission observed from several galaxy clusters is consistent with a simple model, in which the nonthermal emission is produced by inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons by electrons accelerated in cluster accretion shocks: The dependence of HXR surface brightness on cluster temperature is consistent with that predicted by the model, and the observed HXR luminosity is consistent with the fraction of shock thermal energy deposited in relativistic electrons being ∼<0.1. Alternative models, where the HXR emission is predicted to be correlated with the cluster thermal emission, are disfavored by the data. The implications of our predictions to future HXR observations (e.g. by NuStar, Simbol-X) and to (space/ground based) γ-ray observations (e.g. by Fermi, HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) are discussed.

  12. Hard X-ray emission from accretion shocks around galaxy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushnir, Doron; Waxman, Eli

    2010-01-01

    We show that the hard X-ray (HXR) emission observed from several galaxy clusters is consistent with a simple model, in which the nonthermal emission is produced by inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons by electrons accelerated in cluster accretion shocks: The dependence of HXR surface brightness on cluster temperature is consistent with that predicted by the model, and the observed HXR luminosity is consistent with the fraction of shock thermal energy deposited in relativistic electrons being ∼<0.1. Alternative models, where the HXR emission is predicted to be correlated with the cluster thermal emission, are disfavored by the data. The implications of our predictions to future HXR observations (e.g. by NuStar, Simbol-X) and to (space/ground based) γ-ray observations (e.g. by Fermi, HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) are discussed

  13. The size of coronal hard X-ray sources in solar flares: How big are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effenberger, F.; Krucker, S.; Rubio da Costa, F.

    2017-12-01

    Coronal hard X-ray sources are considered to be one of the key signatures of non-thermal particle acceleration and heating during the energy release in solar flares. In some cases, X-ray observations reveal multiple components spatially located near and above the loop top and even further up in the corona. Here, we combine a detailed RHESSI imaging analysis of near-limb solar flares with occulted footpoints and a multi-wavelength study of the flare loop evolution in SDO/AIA. We connect our findings to different current sheet formation and magnetic break-out scenarios and relate it to particle acceleration theory. We find that the upper and usually fainter emission regions can be underestimated in their size due to the majority of flux originating from the lower loops.

  14. Pollen structure visualization using high-resolution laboratory-based hard X-ray tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiong; Gluch, Jürgen; Krüger, Peter; Gall, Martin; Neinhuis, Christoph; Zschech, Ehrenfried

    2016-10-14

    A laboratory-based X-ray microscope is used to investigate the 3D structure of unstained whole pollen grains. For the first time, high-resolution laboratory-based hard X-ray microscopy is applied to study pollen grains. Based on the efficient acquisition of statistically relevant information-rich images using Zernike phase contrast, both surface- and internal structures of pine pollen - including exine, intine and cellular structures - are clearly visualized. The specific volumes of these structures are calculated from the tomographic data. The systematic three-dimensional study of pollen grains provides morphological and structural information about taxonomic characters that are essential in palynology. Such studies have a direct impact on disciplines such as forestry, agriculture, horticulture, plant breeding and biodiversity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. DUAL-STAGE RECONNECTION DURING SOLAR FLARES OBSERVED IN HARD X-RAY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yan; Jing Ju; Wang Haimin; Cao Wenda

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, we present hard X-ray (HXR) observation by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager of the 2003 October 29 X10 flare. Two pairs of HXR conjugate footpoints have been identified during the early impulsive phase. This geometric configuration is very much in the manner predicted by the 'tether-cutting' scenario first proposed by Moore and Roumeliotis. The HXR light curves show that the outer pair of footpoints disappeared much faster than the other pair. This temporal behavior further confirms that this event is a good example of the 'tether-cutting' model. In addition, we reconstructed a three-dimensional magnetic field based on the nonlinear force-free extrapolation and found that each pair of HXR footpoints were indeed linked by corresponding magnetic field lines.

  16. Development of a hard x-ray wavefront sensor for the EuXFEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berujon, Sebastien; Ziegler, Eric; Cojocaru, Ruxandra; Martin, Thierry

    2017-05-01

    We present developments on a hard X-ray wavefront sensing instrument for characterizing and monitoring the beam of the European X-ray Free Electron Lasers (EuXFEL). The pulsed nature of the intense X-ray beam delivered by this new class of facility gives rise to strong challenges for the optics and their diagnostic. In the frame of the EUCALL project Work Package 7, we are developing a sensor able to observe the beam in the X-ray energy range [8-40] keV without altering it. The sensor is based on the speckle tracking principle and employs two semi-transparent optics optimized such that their X-ray absorption is reduced. Furthermore, this instrument requires a scattering object with small random features placed in the beam and two cameras to record images of the beam at two different propagation distances. The analysis of the speckle pattern and its distortion from one image to the other allows absolute or differential wavefront recovery from pulse to pulse. Herein, we introduce the stakes and challenges of wavefront sensing at an XFEL source and explain the strategies adopted to fulfil the high requirements set by such a source.

  17. Sub-micron Hard X-ray Fluorescence Imaging of Synthetic Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P.; Aryal, Baikuntha P.; Gorman-Lewis, Drew; Paunesku, Tatjana; Lai, Barry; Vogt, Stefan; Woloschak, Gayle E.

    2013-01-01

    Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy (SXFM) using hard X-rays focused into sub-micron spots is a powerful technique for elemental quantification and mapping, as well as microspectroscopic measurement such as μ-XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure). We have used SXFM to image and simultaneously quantify the transuranic element plutonium at the L3 or L2 edge as well as lighter biologically essential elements in individual rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells after exposure to the long-lived plutonium isotope 242Pu. Elemental maps reveal that plutonium localizes principally in the cytoplasm of the cells and avoids the cell nucleus, which is marked by the highest concentrations of phosphorus and zinc, under the conditions of our experiments. The minimum detection limit under typical acquisition conditions for an average 202 μm2 cell is 1.4 fg Pu/cell or 2.9 × 10−20 moles Pu/μm2, which is similar to the detection limit of K-edge SXFM of transition metals at 10 keV. Copper electron microscopy grids were used to avoid interference from gold X-ray emissions, but traces of strontium present in naturally occurring calcium can still interfere with plutonium detection using its Lα X-ray emission. PMID:22444530

  18. Hybrid setup for micro- and nano-computed tomography in the hard X-ray range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fella, Christian; Balles, Andreas; Hanke, Randolf; Last, Arndt; Zabler, Simon

    2017-12-01

    With increasing miniaturization in industry and medical technology, non-destructive testing techniques are an area of ever-increasing importance. In this framework, X-ray microscopy offers an efficient tool for the analysis, understanding, and quality assurance of microscopic samples, in particular as it allows reconstructing three-dimensional data sets of the whole sample's volume via computed tomography (CT). The following article describes a compact X-ray microscope in the hard X-ray regime around 9 keV, based on a highly brilliant liquid-metal-jet source. In comparison to commercially available instruments, it is a hybrid that works in two different modes. The first one is a micro-CT mode without optics, which uses a high-resolution detector to allow scans of samples in the millimeter range with a resolution of 1 μm. The second mode is a microscope, which contains an X-ray optical element to magnify the sample and allows resolving 150 nm features. Changing between the modes is possible without moving the sample. Thus, the instrument represents an important step towards establishing high-resolution laboratory-based multi-mode X-ray microscopy as a standard investigation method.

  19. Communication: The electronic structure of matter probed with a single femtosecond hard x-ray pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szlachetko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical, biological, and chemical transformations are initiated by changes in the electronic configuration of the species involved. These electronic changes occur on the timescales of attoseconds (10−18 s to femtoseconds (10−15 s and drive all subsequent electronic reorganization as the system moves to a new equilibrium or quasi-equilibrium state. The ability to detect the dynamics of these electronic changes is crucial for understanding the potential energy surfaces upon which chemical and biological reactions take place. Here, we report on the determination of the electronic structure of matter using a single self-seeded femtosecond x-ray pulse from the Linac Coherent Light Source hard x-ray free electron laser. By measuring the high energy resolution off-resonant spectrum (HEROS, we were able to obtain information about the electronic density of states with a single femtosecond x-ray pulse. We show that the unoccupied electronic states of the scattering atom may be determined on a shot-to-shot basis and that the measured spectral shape is independent of the large intensity fluctuations of the incoming x-ray beam. Moreover, we demonstrate the chemical sensitivity and single-shot capability and limitations of HEROS, which enables the technique to track the electronic structural dynamics in matter on femtosecond time scales, making it an ideal probe technique for time-resolved X-ray experiments.

  20. Fast solar hard X-ray bursts and large scale coronal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simnett, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    The conditions at the Sun at the times corresponding to a selected set 22 fast impulsive hard X-ray bursts reported by Crannell et al. are examined. It is suggested that one of the bursts must arise from a precipitating beam of subrelativistic electrons; the source of the electrons is postulated to be in a region very remote from the X-ray site on the basis of type III and other radio data. The connection is via a coronal magnetic loop extending to approx.3 R/sub sun/ above the photosphere. The energy in the electron beam is estimated at 3 x 10 27 ergs. Intense soft X-ray and/or microwave radio storms at times corresponding to many of the impulsive X-ray bursts lead the conclusion that 14, and possibly 18, of the 22 bursts could have the same interpretation. The energy in such an electron beam could be important when considering the trigger phase of some flares

  1. Radiation hardness of a single crystal CVD diamond detector for MeV energy protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yuki, E-mail: y.sato@riken.jp [The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Shimaoka, Takehiro; Kaneko, Junichi H. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W8, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Murakami, Hiroyuki [The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Isobe, Mitsutaka; Osakabe, Masaki [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6, Oroshi-cho Toki-city, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Tsubota, Masakatsu [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W8, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Ochiai, Kentaro [Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Umezawa, Hitoshi; Shikata, Shinichi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan)

    2015-06-01

    We have fabricated a particle detector using single crystal diamond grown by chemical vapor deposition. The irradiation dose dependence of the output pulse height from the diamond detector was measured using 3 MeV protons. The pulse height of the output signals from the diamond detector decreases as the amount of irradiation increases at count rates of 1.6–8.9 kcps because of polarization effects inside the diamond crystal. The polarization effect can be cancelled by applying a reverse bias voltage, which restores the pulse heights. Additionally, the radiation hardness performance for MeV energy protons was compared with that of a silicon surface barrier detector.

  2. Radiation hardness of silicon detectors manufactured on wafers from various sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezillie, B.; Bates, S.; Glaser, M.; Lemeilleur, F.; Leroy, C.

    1997-01-01

    Impurity concentrations in the initial silicon material are expected to play an important role for the radiation hardness of silicon detectors, during their irradiation and for their evolution with time after irradiation. This work reports on the experimental results obtained with detectors manufactured using various float-zone (FZ) and epitaxial-grown material. Preliminary results comparing the changes in leakage current and full depletion voltage of FZ and epitaxial detectors as a function of fluence and of time after 10 14 cm -2 proton irradiation are given. The measurement of charge collection efficiency for epitaxial detectors is also presented. (orig.)

  3. Cryogenic and radiation-hard asic for interfacing large format NIR/SWIR detector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Dupont, Benoit; Dierickx, Bart; Müller, Eric; Verbruggen, Geert; Gielis, Stijn; Valvekens, Ramses

    2017-11-01

    For scientific and earth observation space missions, weight and power consumption is usually a critical factor. In order to obtain better vehicle integration, efficiency and controllability for large format NIR/SWIR detector arrays, a prototype ASIC is designed. It performs multiple detector array interfacing, power regulation and data acquisition operations inside the cryogenic chambers. Both operation commands and imaging data are communicated via the SpaceWire interface which will significantly reduce the number of wire goes in and out the cryogenic chamber. This "ASIC" prototype is realized in 0.18um CMOS technology and is designed for radiation hardness.

  4. X-ray characterization of curved crystals for hard x-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffagni, Elisa; Bonnini, Elisa; Ferrari, Claudio; Virgilli, Enrico; Frontera, Filippo

    2015-05-01

    Among the methods to focus photons the diffraction in crystals results as one of the most effective for high energy photons. An assembling of properly oriented crystals can form a lens able to focus x-rays at high energy via Laue diffraction in transmission geometry; this is a Laue lens. The x-ray diffraction theory provides that the maximum diffraction efficiency is achieved in ideal mosaic crystals, but real mosaic crystals show diffraction efficiencies several times lower than the ideal case due to technological problems. An alternative and convenient approach is the use of curved crystals. We have recently optimized an efficient method based on the surface damage of crystals to produce self-standing uniformly curved Si, GaAs and Ge tiles of thickness up to 2-3 mm and curvature radii R down to a few meters. We show that, for curved diffracting planes, such crystals have a diffraction efficiency nearly forty times higher than the diffraction efficiency of perfect similar flat crystals, thus very close to that of ideal mosaic crystals. Moreover, in an alternative configuration where the diffracting planes are perpendicular to the curved ones, a focusing effect occurs and will be shown. These results were obtained for several energies between 17 and 120 keV with lab sources or at high energy facilities such as LARIX at Ferrara (Italy), ESRF at Grenoble (France), and ANKA at Karlsruhe (Germany).

  5. CO-ANALYSIS OF SOLAR MICROWAVE AND HARD X-RAY SPECTRAL EVOLUTIONS. II. IN THREE SOURCES OF A FLARING LOOP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Guangli; Li Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Based on the spatially resolvable data of the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and Nobeyama Radio Heliograph (NoRH), co-analysis of solar hard X-ray and microwave spectral evolution is performed in three separate sources located in one looptop (LT) and two footpoints (FPs) of a huge flaring loop in the 2003 October 24 flare. The RHESSI image spectral evolution in 10-100 keV is always fitted by the well-known soft-hard-soft (SHS) pattern in the three sources. When the total energy is divided into four intervals similar to the Yohkoh/Hard X-ray Telescope, i.e., 12.5-32.5 keV, 32.5-52.5 keV, 52.5-72.5 keV, and 72.5-97.5 keV, the SHS pattern in lower energies is converted gradually to the hard-soft-hard (HSH) pattern in higher energies in all three sources. However, the break energy in the LT and the northeast FP (∼32.5 keV) is evidently smaller than that in the southwest FP (∼72.5 keV). Regarding microwave spectral evolution of the NoRH data, the well-known soft-hard-harder pattern appeared in the southwest FP, while the HSH pattern coexisted in the LT and the northeast FP. The different features of the hard X-ray and microwave spectral evolutions in the three sources may be explained by the loop-loop interaction with another huge loop in the LT and with a compact loop in the northeast FP, where the trapping effect is much stronger than that in the southwest FP. The comparison between the LT and FP spectral indices suggests that the radiation mechanism of X-rays may be quite different in different energy intervals and sources. The calculated electron spectral indices from the predicted mechanisms of X-rays gradually become closer to those from the microwave data with increasing X-ray energies.

  6. Host Galaxy Properties of the Swift BAT Ultra Hard X-Ray Selected AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Winter, Lisa M.; Baumgartner, Wayne; Tueller, Jack; Gehrels, Neil; Valencic, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    We have assembled the largest sample of ultra hard X-ray selected (14-195 keV) AGN with host galaxy optical data to date, with 185 nearby (zBAT) sample. The BAT AGN host galaxies have intermediate optical colors (u -- r and g -- r) that are bluer than a comparison sample of inactive galaxies and optically selected AGN from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) which are chosen to have the same stellar mass. Based on morphological classifications from the RC3 and the Galaxy Zoo, the bluer colors of BAT AGN are mainly due to a higher fraction of mergers and massive spirals than in the comparison samples. BAT AGN in massive galaxies (log Stellar Mass >10.5) have a 5 to 10 times higher rate of spiral morphologies than in SDSS AGN or inactive galaxies. We also see enhanced far-IR emission in BAT AGN suggestive of higher levels of star formation compared to the comparison samples. BAT AGN are preferentially found in the most massive host galaxies with high concentration indexes indicative of large bulge-to-disk ratios and large supermassive black holes. The narrow-line (NL) BAT AGN have similar intrinsic luminosities as the SDSS NL Seyferts based on measurements of [O III] Lambda 5007. There is also a correlation between the stellar mass and X-ray emission. The BAT AGN in mergers have bluer colors and greater ultra hard X-ray emission compared to the BAT sample as whole. In agreement with the Unified Model of AGN, and the relatively unbiased nature of the BAT sources, the host galaxy colors and morphologies are independent of measures of obscuration such as X-ray column density or Seyfert type. The high fraction of massive spiral galaxies and galaxy mergers in BAT AGN suggest that host galaxy morphology is related to the activation and fueling of local AGN.

  7. Solar Coronal Events with Extended Hard X-ray and Gamma-ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, H. S.

    2017-12-01

    A characteristic pattern of solar hard X-ray emission, first identified in SOL1969-03-31 by Frost & Dennis (1971) now has been linked to prolonged high-energy gamma-ray emission detected by the Fermi/LAT experiment, for example in SOL2014-09-01. The distinctive features of these events include flat hard X-ray spectra extending well above 100 keV, a characteristic pattern of time development, low-frequency gyrosynchrotron peaks, CME association, and gamma-rays identifiable with pion decay originating in GeV ions. The identification of these events with otherwise known solar structures nevertheless remains elusive, in spite of the wealth of imagery available from AIA. The quandary is that these events have a clear association with CMEs in the high corona, and yet the gamma-ray production implicates the photosphere itself. The vanishingly small loss cone in the nominal acceleration region makes this extremely difficult. I propose direct inward advection of a part of the SEP particle population, as created on closed field structures, as a possible resolution of this puzzle, and note that this requires retracting magnetic structures on long time scales following the flare itself.

  8. Mechanical design of thin-film diamond crystal mounting apparatus for coherence preservation hard x-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Deming; Shvyd’ko, Yuri V.; Stoupin, Stanislav; Kim, Kwang-Je

    2016-01-01

    A new thin-film diamond crystal mounting apparatus has been designed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) for coherence preservation hard x-ray optics with optimized thermal contact and minimized crystal strain. This novel mechanical design can be applied to new development in the field of: x-ray optics cavities for hard x-ray free-electron laser oscillators (XFELOs), self-seeding monochromators for hard x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) with high average thermal loading, high heat load diamond crystal monochromators and beam-sharing/beam-split-and-delay devices for XFEL facilities and future upgraded high-brightness coherent x-ray source in the MBA lattice configuration at the APS.

  9. Mechanical design of thin-film diamond crystal mounting apparatus for coherence preservation hard x-ray optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Deming, E-mail: shu@aps.anl.gov; Shvyd’ko, Yuri V.; Stoupin, Stanislav; Kim, Kwang-Je [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, U.S.A (United States)

    2016-07-27

    A new thin-film diamond crystal mounting apparatus has been designed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) for coherence preservation hard x-ray optics with optimized thermal contact and minimized crystal strain. This novel mechanical design can be applied to new development in the field of: x-ray optics cavities for hard x-ray free-electron laser oscillators (XFELOs), self-seeding monochromators for hard x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) with high average thermal loading, high heat load diamond crystal monochromators and beam-sharing/beam-split-and-delay devices for XFEL facilities and future upgraded high-brightness coherent x-ray source in the MBA lattice configuration at the APS.

  10. A MODEL FOR THE CORRELATION OF HARD X-RAY INDEX WITH EDDINGTON RATIO IN BLACK HOLE X-RAY BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Erlin; Liu, B. F.

    2013-01-01

    Observations show that there is a positive correlation between the Eddington ratio λ and hard X-ray index Γ for λ ∼> 0.01, and there is an anti-correlation between λ and Γ for λ ∼ bol /L Edd ). In this work, we theoretically investigate the correlation between Γ and λ within the framework of a disk-corona model. We improve the model by taking into account all cooling processes, including synchrotron and self-Compton radiations in the corona, Comptonization of the soft photons from the underlying accretion disk, and the bremsstrahlung radiations. Presuming that the coronal flow above the disk can reach up to the 0.1 Eddington rate at the outer region, we calculate the structure of the two-phase accretion flows and the emergent spectra for accretion rates from 0.003 to 0.1. We find that at accretion rates larger than bsim0.01 Eddington rate, a fraction of coronal gas condenses into the disk and an inner disk can be sustained by condensation. In this case, the X-ray emission is dominated by the scattering of the soft photon from the underlying disk in the corona. The emission from the inner disk and corona can produce the positive correlation between λ and Γ. While at accretion rates lower than bsim0.01 Eddington accretion rate, the inner disk vanishes completely by evaporation, and the accretion is dominated by advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs), in which the X-ray emission is produced by the Comptonization of the synchrotron and bremsstrahlung photons of ADAF itself. The emission from ADAFs can produce the anti-correlation between λ and Γ. We show that our model can roughly explain the observed evolution of Γ 3-25keV with L 0.5-25keV /L Edd for the black hole X-ray transient H1743–322 in the decay of 2003 from the thermal-dominated state to low/hard state.

  11. Study of Radiation Hardness of Gd2SiO5 scintillator for Heavy Ion Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Kawade, K; Itow, Y; Masuda, K; Murakami, T; Sako,T; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, T; Taki, K

    2011-01-01

    Gd2SiO5 (GSO) scintillator has very excellent radiation resistance, a fast decay time and a large light yield. Because of these features, GSO scintillator is a suitable material for high radiation environment experiments such as those encountered at high energy accelerators. The radiation hardness of GSO has been measured with Carbon ion beams at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). During two nights of irradiation the GSO received a total radiation dose of 7 × 10$^5$ Gy and no decrease of light yield was observed. On the other hand an increase of light yield by 25% was observed. The increase is proportional to the total dose, increasing at a rate of 0.025%/Gy and saturating at around 1 kGy. Recovery to the initial light yield was also observed during the day between two nights of radiation exposure. The recovery was observed to have a slow exponential time constant of approximately 1.5 × 10$^4$ seconds together with a faster component. In case of the LHCf experiment, a very forward region ex...

  12. The application of synchrotron radiation to X-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiller, E.; Eastman, D.E.; Feder, R.; Grobman, W.D.; Gudat, W.; Topalian, J.

    1976-06-01

    Synchrotron radiation from the German electron synchrotron DESY in Hamburg has been used for X-ray lithograpgy. Replications of different master patterns (for magnetic bubble devices, fresnel zone plates, etc.) were made using various wavelengths and exposures. High quality lines down to 500 A wide have been reproduced using very soft X-rays. The sensitivities of X-ray resists have been evaluated over a wide range of exposures. Various critical factors (heating, radiation damage, etc.) involved with X-ray lithography using synchrotron radiation have been studied. General considerations of storage ring sources designed as radiation sources for X-ray lithography are discussed, together with a comparison with X-ray tube sources. The general conclusion is that X-ray lithography using synchrotron radiation offers considerable promise as a process for forming high quality sub-micron images with exposure times as short as a few seconds. (orig.) [de

  13. Calibration of the hard x-ray detectors for the FOXSI solar sounding rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athiray, P. S.; Buitrago-Casas, Juan Camilo; Bergstedt, Kendra; Vievering, Juliana; Musset, Sophie; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Glesener, Lindsay; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Watanabe, Shin; Courtade, Sasha; Christe, Steven; Krucker, Säm.; Goetz, Keith; Monson, Steven

    2017-08-01

    The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) sounding rocket experiment conducts direct imaging and spectral observation of the Sun in hard X-rays, in the energy range 4 to 20 keV. These high-sensitivity observations are used to study particle acceleration and coronal heating. FOXSI is designed with seven grazing incidence optics modules that focus X-rays onto seven focal plane detectors kept at a 2m distance. FOXSI-1 was flown with seven Double-sided Si Strip Detectors (DSSD), and two of them were replaced with CdTe detectors for FOXSI-2. The upcoming FOXSI-3 flight will carry DSSD and CdTe detectors with upgraded optics for enhanced sensitivity. The detectors are calibrated using various radioactive sources. The detector's spectral response matrix was constructed with diagonal elements using a Gaussian approximation with a spread (sigma) that accounts for the energy resolution of the detector. Spectroscopic studies of past FOXSI flight data suggest that the inclusion of lower energy X-rays could better constrain the spectral modeling to yield a more precise temperature estimation of the hot plasma. This motivates us to carry out an improved calibration to better understand the finer-order effects on the spectral response, especially at lower energies. Here we report our improved calibration of FOXSI detectors using experiments and Monte-Carlo simulations.

  14. Measurements of hard cosmic X-rays with special reference to burst phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, J.S.

    1978-06-01

    The bulk of this work is concerned with the development and subsequent flights of two balloon-borne gamma-burst detectors. The first was a 1 m 2 device which accumulated a total of 13 1/2 hours flying time at a latitude of 40 0 . The second was a large 7 m 2 detector which was flown from Alice Springs, N. Australia. Both detectors were sensitive to 50 keV to 2 MeV X-rays. The results of these flights are discussed with particular reference to the origin of gamma-bursts. The nature of X-ray bursts is also discussed, together with the results of observations by Experiment F on Ariel V, of the region of the sky centred on the rapid burster MXB1730-335. The last chapter is concerned with the development of a large area hard X-ray detector. This device is designed to be built in modular form and have a total collecting area up to 1 m 2 . It is sensitive to X-rays in the range 20 to 200 keV and is collimated by a tantalum honeycomb which has a field of view of 2 0 FWHM. A small version of this detector was flown on the same platform as the large burst detector. (author)

  15. A hard x-ray spectrometer for high angular resolution observations of cosmic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hailey, C.J.; Ziock, K.P.; Harrison, F.; Kahn, S.M.; Liedahl, D.; Lubin, P.M.; Seiffert, M.

    1988-01-01

    LAXRIS (large area x-ray imaging spectrometer) is an experimental, balloon-borne, hard x-ray telescope that consists of a coaligned array of x-ray imaging spectrometer modules capable of obtaining high angular resolution (1--3 arcminutes) with moderate energy resolution in the 20- to 300-keV region. Each spectrometer module consists of a CsI(Na) crystal coupled to a position-sensitive phototube with a crossed-wire, resistive readout. Imaging is provided by a coded aperture mask with a 4-m focal length. The high angular resolution is coupled with rather large area (/approximately/800 cm 2 ) to provide good sensitivity. Results are presented on performance and overall design. Sensitivity estimates are derived from a Monte-Carlo code developed to model the LAXRIS response to background encountered at balloon altitudes. We discuss a variety of observations made feasible by high angular resolution. For instance, spatially resolving the nonthermal x-ray emission from clusters of galaxies is suggested as an ideal program for LAXRIS. 15 refs., 5 figs

  16. Optimising hard X-ray generation from laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindheimer, C.

    1995-04-01

    The aim of this work is to increase the X-ray yield for a laser produced plasma by optimising the focusing conditions and temporal shape of the laser pulses. The focusing conditions are improved by introducing a control system that secures the laser target surface to exact focus within a range of a few micrometers, allowing continuously high laser intensity for plasma generation. The temporal shape of the laser pulses is changed by introducing a saturable absorber in the laser beam. The laser produces a substantial pre-pulse that heats and expands the target material prior to main pulse arrival. The saturable absorber can increase the main pulse/pre-pulse ratio of the laser pulse up to four orders of magnitude and consequently reduce expansion of the target material before the main pulse. The belief is that an increase in target density at the time of main pulse arrival will change the energy distribution of the X-rays, towards a more efficient X-ray production in the hard X-ray region. This report and the work connected to it, includes the preliminary measurements and results for these improvements. 17 refs

  17. Hard X-Ray Emission from Partially Occulted Solar Flares: RHESSI Observations in Two Solar Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Effenberger, Frederic; Costa, Fatima Rubio da; Petrosian, Vahé [Department of Physics and KIPAC, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Oka, Mitsuo; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Krucker, Säm [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Liu, Wei [Bay Area Environmental Research Institute, 625 2nd Street, Suite 209, Petaluma, CA 94952 (United States); Glesener, Lindsay, E-mail: feffen@stanford.edu, E-mail: frubio@stanford.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Flares close to the solar limb, where the footpoints are occulted, can reveal the spectrum and structure of the coronal looptop source in X-rays. We aim at studying the properties of the corresponding energetic electrons near their acceleration site, without footpoint contamination. To this end, a statistical study of partially occulted flares observed with Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager is presented here, covering a large part of solar cycles 23 and 24. We perform detailed spectra, imaging, and light curve analyses for 116 flares and include contextual observations from SDO and STEREO when available, providing further insights into flare emission that were previously not accessible. We find that most spectra are fitted well with a thermal component plus a broken power-law, non-thermal component. A thin-target kappa distribution model gives satisfactory fits after the addition of a thermal component. X-ray imaging reveals small spatial separation between the thermal and non-thermal components, except for a few flares with a richer coronal source structure. A comprehensive light curve analysis shows a very good correlation between the derivative of the soft X-ray flux (from GOES ) and the hard X-rays for a substantial number of flares, indicative of the Neupert effect. The results confirm that non-thermal particles are accelerated in the corona and estimated timescales support the validity of a thin-target scenario with similar magnitudes of thermal and non-thermal energy fluxes.

  18. In-flight PSF calibration of the NuSTAR hard X-ray optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Hongjun; Madsen, Kristin K.; Westergaard, Niels J.

    2014-01-01

    We present results of the point spread function (PSF) calibration of the hard X-ray optics of the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). Immediately post-launch, NuSTAR has observed bright point sources such as Cyg X-1, Vela X-1, and Her X-1 for the PSF calibration. We use the point source...... observations taken at several off-axis angles together with a ray-trace model to characterize the in-orbit angular response, and find that the ray-trace model alone does not fit the observed event distributions and applying empirical corrections to the ray-trace model improves the fit significantly. We...... describe the corrections applied to the ray-trace model and show that the uncertainties in the enclosed energy fraction (EEF) of the new PSF model is less than or similar to 3 for extraction apertures of R greater than or similar to 60" with no significant energy dependence. We also show that the PSF...

  19. The radiation hardness of silica optical fiber used in the LED-fiber monitor of BLM and BESIII EMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Zhen; Hu Tao; Fang Jian; Xu Zizong; Wang Xiaolian; Lü Junguang; Zhou Li; Cai Xiao; Yu Boxiang; Wang Zhigang; Sun Lijun; Sun Xilei; Zhang Aiwu

    2012-01-01

    LED-fiber system has been used to monitor BLM and BESIII EMC. A radiation hard silica optical fiber is essential for its stability and reliability. Three types of silica optical fibers, silicone-clad silica optical fiber with high OH - content (SeCS), silica-clad silica optical fiber with low OH - content (SCSL) and silica-clad silica opical fiber with high OH - content (SCSH) were studied. In the experiment, 12 groups of fiber samples were irradiated by 60 Co and 3 groups of fiber samples were irradiated by BEPCII background radiation. Radiation hardness: the radiation hardness of SCSH is best and meets the radiation hardness requirement for LED-fiber monitor of BLM and BESIII EMC. The transmission of SeCS and SCSH decreased to around 80% under the 60 Co-irradiation of 5 Gy and 10 Gy, respectively. The radiation hardness of SeCS is worst because of its silicone cladding. Recovery characteristics: 60 Co-irradiated by the same doses, there were both more annealable and more permanent color centers formed in SeCS than SCSL, and for the same kind of fibers, as long as the irradiated doses are under a certain amount (for example, less than 5 Gy for SeCS), the higher the doses, both the more annealable and the more permanent color centers are formed.

  20. Radiation-Hard Complementary Integrated Circuits Based on Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorrow, Julian J; Cress, Cory D; Gaviria Rojas, William A; Geier, Michael L; Marks, Tobin J; Hersam, Mark C

    2017-03-28

    Increasingly complex demonstrations of integrated circuit elements based on semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) mark the maturation of this technology for use in next-generation electronics. In particular, organic materials have recently been leveraged as dopant and encapsulation layers to enable stable SWCNT-based rail-to-rail, low-power complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) logic circuits. To explore the limits of this technology in extreme environments, here we study total ionizing dose (TID) effects in enhancement-mode SWCNT-CMOS inverters that employ organic doping and encapsulation layers. Details of the evolution of the device transport properties are revealed by in situ and in operando measurements, identifying n-type transistors as the more TID-sensitive component of the CMOS system with over an order of magnitude larger degradation of the static power dissipation. To further improve device stability, radiation-hardening approaches are explored, resulting in the observation that SWNCT-CMOS circuits are TID-hard under dynamic bias operation. Overall, this work reveals conditions under which SWCNTs can be employed for radiation-hard integrated circuits, thus presenting significant potential for next-generation satellite and space applications.

  1. Effects of device scaling and geometry on MOS radiation hardness assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Winokur, P.S.; Schwank, J.R.; Meisenheimer, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    In this work the authors investigate the effects of transistor scaling and geometry on radiation hardness. The total dose response is shown to depend strongly on transistor channel length. Specifically, transistors with shorter gate lengths tend to show more negative threshold-voltage shifts during irradiation than transistors with longer gate lengths. Similarly, transistors with longer gate lengths tend to show more positive threshold-voltage shifts during post-irradiation annealing than transistors with shorter gate lengths. These differences in radiation response, caused by differences in transistor size and geometry, will be important to factor into test-structure-to-IC correlations necessary to support cost-effective Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) hardness assurance. Transistors with minimum gate length (more negative ΔV th ) will have a larger effect on standby power supply current for an IC at high dose rates, such as in a weapon environment, where worst-case response is associated with negative threshold-voltage shifts during irradiation. On the other hand, transistors with maximum gate length (more positive ΔV th ) will have a larger effect on the timing parameters of an IC at low dose rates, such as in a space environment, where worst-case response is represented by positive threshold-voltage shifts after postirradiation anneal. The channel size and geometry effects they observe cannot be predicted from simple scaling models, but occur because of real differences in oxide-, interface-, and border-trap charge densities among devices of different sizes

  2. Achromatic nested Kirkpatrick–Baez mirror optics for hard X-ray nanofocusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wenjun; Ice, Gene E.; Assoufid, Lahsen; Liu, Chian; Shi, Bing; Khachatryan, Ruben; Qian, Jun; Zschack, Paul; Tischler, Jonathan Z.; Choi, J.-Y.

    2011-01-01

    A nested Kirkpatrick–Baez mirror pair has been designed, fabricated and tested for achromatic nanofocusing synchrotron hard X-rays. The prototype system achieved a FWHM focal spot of about 150 nm in both horizontal and vertical directions. The first test of nanoscale-focusing Kirkpatrick–Baez (KB) mirrors in the nested (or Montel) configuration used at a hard X-ray synchrotron beamline is reported. The two mirrors are both 40 mm long and coated with Pt to produce a focal length of 60 mm at 3 mrad incident angle, and collect up to a 120 µm by 120 µm incident X-ray beam with maximum angular acceptance of 2 mrad and a broad bandwidth of energies up to 30 keV. In an initial test a focal spot of about 150 nm in both horizontal and vertical directions was achieved with either polychromatic or monochromatic beam. The nested mirror geometry, with two mirrors mounted side-by-side and perpendicular to each other, is significantly more compact and provides higher demagnification than the traditional sequential KB mirror arrangement. Ultimately, nested mirrors can focus larger divergence to improve the diffraction limit of achromatic optics. A major challenge with the fabrication of the required mirrors is the need for near-perfect mirror surfaces near the edge of at least one of the mirrors. Special polishing procedures and surface profile coating were used to preserve the mirror surface quality at the reflecting edge. Further developments aimed at achieving diffraction-limited focusing below 50 nm are underway

  3. Ordinance on the Protection against X-Radiation Hazards (X-Ray Ordinance)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The ordinance refers to X-ray equipment and to stray radiation sources which generate X-radiation of at least 5 keV by means of accelerated electrons, and for this purpose apply an acceleration energy not exceeding 3 MeV. The ordinance does not apply to stray radiation sources which are used for the generation of ionizing particle radiation and thus are subject to the provisions of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (orig./PW) [de

  4. Radiation hardness of silicon detectors manufactured on epitaxial material and FZ bulk enriched with oxygen, carbon, tin and platinum

    CERN Document Server

    Ruzin, A; Glaser, M; Lemeilleur, F; Talamonti, R; Watts, S; Zanet, A

    1999-01-01

    Recent results on the radiation hardness of silicon detectors fabricated on epitaxial and float zone bulk silicon enriched by various impurities, such as carbon, oxygen, tin and platinum are reported. A new methodology of measurements of electrical properties of the devices has been utilized in the experiment. It has been shown that in the case of irradiation by protons, oxygen enriched silicon has better radiation hardness than standard float zone silicon. The carbon enriched silicon detectors, on the other hand, exhibited significantly inferior radiation hardness compared to standard detectors. This study shows for the first time, a violation of the widely used normalization technique of the various particle irradiations by NIEL coefficients. The study has been carried out in the framework of the RD48 (ROSE) collaboration, which studies the radiation hardening of silicon detectors. (5 refs).

  5. A FOCUSED, HARD X-RAY LOOK AT ARP 299 WITH NuSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ptak, A.; Hornschemeier, A.; Lehmer, B.; Yukita, M.; Wik, D.; Tatum, M. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Zezas, A. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, Herakleion (Greece); Antoniou, V. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Argo, M. K. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Ballo, L.; Della Ceca, R. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera (INAF), via Brera 28, I-20121 Milano (Italy); Bechtol, K. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Boggs, S.; Craig, W. W.; Krivonos, R. [U.C. Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Christensen, F. E. [National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Harrison, F. A. [Caltech Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, Pasadena, CA (United States); Maccarone, T. J. [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); and others

    2015-02-20

    We report on simultaneous observations of the local starburst system Arp 299 with NuSTAR and Chandra, which provides the first resolved images of this galaxy up to energies of ∼45 keV. Fitting the 3-40 keV spectrum reveals a column density of N {sub H} ∼ 4 × 10{sup 24} cm{sup –2}, characteristic of a Compton-thick active galactic nucleus (AGN), and a 10-30 keV luminosity of 1.2 × 10{sup 43} erg s{sup –1}. The hard X-rays detected by NuSTAR above 10 keV are centered on the western nucleus, Arp 299-B, which previous X-ray observations have shown to be the primary source of neutral Fe-K emission. Other X-ray sources, including Arp 299-A, the eastern nucleus also thought to harbor an AGN, as well as X-ray binaries, contribute ≲ 10% to the 10-20 keV emission from the Arp 299 system. The lack of significant emission above 10 keV other than that attributed to Arp 299-B suggests that: (1) any AGN in Arp 299-A must be heavily obscured (N {sub H} > 10{sup 24} cm{sup –2}) or have a much lower luminosity than Arp 299-B and (2) the extranuclear X-ray binaries have spectra that cut-off above ∼10 keV. Such soft spectra are characteristic of ultraluminous X-ray sources observed to date by NuSTAR.

  6. Accretion flow diagnostics with X-ray spectral timing: the hard state of SWIFT J1753.5-0127

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassatella, P.; Uttley, P.; Maccarone, T.

    2012-01-01

    Recent XMM-Newton studies of X-ray variability in the hard states of black hole X-ray binaries (BHXRBs) indicate that the variability is generated in the ‘standard’ optically thick accretion disc that is responsible for the multi-colour blackbody emission. The variability originates in the disc as

  7. X-ray beam splitting design for concurrent imaging at hard X-ray FELs and synchrotron facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberta, P., E-mail: peter.oberta@rigaku.com [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Na Slovance 2, Praha 8, CZ-18221 (Czech Republic); Rigaku, Novodvorská 994, Praha 4, CZ-14221 (Czech Republic); Mokso, R. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2013-11-21

    A new configuration of diffractive–refractive optics for beam splitting is investigated. The set-up can be applied to perform imaging with two beams simultaneously. It brings advantages toward dynamic studies using image guided diffraction or fluorescence spectroscopy. The optimal energy range of operation for the beam-splitter is between 7 keV and 24 keV, reaching best efficiency at an energy of 10 keV. Due to the long focusing distances (several tens of meters) created by the diffractive–refractive optics and the higher refraction efficiency in the softer energy range, the presented set-ups are ideal for hard X-ray FEL sources.

  8. Analysis of hard X-ray emission from selected very high energy {gamma}-ray sources observed with INTEGRAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Agnes Irene Dorothee

    2009-11-13

    A few years ago, the era of very high energy {gamma}-ray astronomy started, when the latest generation of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACT) like H.E.S.S. began to operate and to resolve the sources of TeV emission. Identifications via multi-wavelength studies reveal that the detected sources are supernova remnants and active galactic nuclei, but also pulsar wind nebulae and a few binaries. One widely discussed open question is, how these sources are able to accelerate particles to such high energies. The understanding of the underlying particle distribution, the acceleration processes taking place, and the knowledge of the radiation processes which produce the observed emission, is, therefore, of crucial interest. Observations in the hard X-ray domain can be a key to get information on these particle distributions and processes. Important for this thesis are the TeV and the hard X-ray range. The two instruments, H.E.S.S. and INTEGRAL, whose data were used, are, therefore, described in detail. The main part of this thesis is focused on the X-ray binary system LS 5039/RX J1826.2-1450. It was observed in several energy ranges. The nature of the compact object is still not known, and it was proposed either to be a microquasar system or a non-accreting pulsar system. The observed TeV emission is modulated with the orbital cycle. Several explanations for this variability have been discussed in recent years. The observations with INTEGRAL presented in this thesis have provided new information to solve this question. Therefore, a search for a detection in the hard X-ray range and for its orbital dependence was worthwhile. Since LS 5039 is a faint source and the sky region where it is located is crowded, a very careful, non-standard handling of the INTEGRAL data was necessary, and a cross-checking with other analysis methods was essential to provide reliable results. We found that LS 5039 is emitting in the hard X-ray energy range. A flux rate and an upper

  9. Analysis of hard X-ray emission from selected very high energy γ-ray sources observed with INTEGRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Agnes Irene Dorothee

    2009-01-01

    A few years ago, the era of very high energy γ-ray astronomy started, when the latest generation of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACT) like H.E.S.S. began to operate and to resolve the sources of TeV emission. Identifications via multi-wavelength studies reveal that the detected sources are supernova remnants and active galactic nuclei, but also pulsar wind nebulae and a few binaries. One widely discussed open question is, how these sources are able to accelerate particles to such high energies. The understanding of the underlying particle distribution, the acceleration processes taking place, and the knowledge of the radiation processes which produce the observed emission, is, therefore, of crucial interest. Observations in the hard X-ray domain can be a key to get information on these particle distributions and processes. Important for this thesis are the TeV and the hard X-ray range. The two instruments, H.E.S.S. and INTEGRAL, whose data were used, are, therefore, described in detail. The main part of this thesis is focused on the X-ray binary system LS 5039/RX J1826.2-1450. It was observed in several energy ranges. The nature of the compact object is still not known, and it was proposed either to be a microquasar system or a non-accreting pulsar system. The observed TeV emission is modulated with the orbital cycle. Several explanations for this variability have been discussed in recent years. The observations with INTEGRAL presented in this thesis have provided new information to solve this question. Therefore, a search for a detection in the hard X-ray range and for its orbital dependence was worthwhile. Since LS 5039 is a faint source and the sky region where it is located is crowded, a very careful, non-standard handling of the INTEGRAL data was necessary, and a cross-checking with other analysis methods was essential to provide reliable results. We found that LS 5039 is emitting in the hard X-ray energy range. A flux rate and an upper flux

  10. Caliste 64, an innovative CdTe hard X-ray micro-camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meuris, A.; Limousin, O.; Pinsard, F.; Le Mer, I.; Lugiez, F.; Gevin, O.; Delagnes, E.; Vassal, M.C.; Soufflet, F.; Bocage, R.

    2008-01-01

    A prototype 64 pixel miniature camera has been designed and tested for the Simbol-X hard X-ray observatory to be flown on the joint CNES-ASI space mission in 2014. This device is called Caliste 64. It is a high performance spectro-imager with event time-tagging capability, able to detect photons between 2 keV and 250 keV. Caliste 64 is the assembly of a 1 or 2 min thick CdTe detector mounted on top of a readout module. CdTe detectors equipped with Aluminum Schottky barrier contacts are used because of their very low dark current and excellent spectroscopic performance. Front-end electronics is a stack of four IDeF-X V1.1 ASICs, arranged perpendicular to the detection plane, to read out each pixel independently. The whole camera fits in a 10 * 10 * 20 mm 3 volume and is juxtaposable on its four sides. This allows the device to be used as an elementary unit in a larger array of Caliste 64 cameras. Noise performance resulted in an ENC better than 60 electrons rms in average. The first prototype camera is tested at -10 degrees C with a bias of -400 V. The spectrum summed across the 64 pixels results in a resolution of 697 eV FWHM at 13.9 keV and 808 eV FWFM at 59.54 keV. (authors)

  11. Micro Hard-X Ray Camera: From Caliste 64 to Caliste 256

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meuris, A.; Limousin, O.; Le Mer, I.; Pinsard, F.; Blondel, C.; Daly, F.; Lugiez, F.; Gevin, O.; Delagnes, E.; Chavassieux, M.; Vassal, M.C.; Bocage, R.; Soufflet, F.

    2009-01-01

    Caliste project aims at hybridizing 1 cm 2 Cd(Zn)Te detectors with low noise front-end electronics, in a single component standing in a 1 * 1 * 2 cm 3 volume. The micro-camera is a spectroscopic imager for X and gamma rays detection, with time-tagging capability. Hybridization consists in stacking full custom ASICs perpendicular to the detection surface. The first prototype Caliste 64 integrates a detector of 8 * 8 pixels of 1 mm pitch. Fabrication and characterizations of nine cameras units validate the design and the hybridization concept. Spectroscopic tests result in a mean energy resolution of ∼0.7 keV FWHM at 14 keV and ∼0.85 keV FWHM at 60 keV using 1 mm-thick Al Schottky CdTe detectors biased at -400 V and cooled down to 15 degrees C. The new prototype called Caliste 256 integrates 16 * 16 pixels of 580 m pitch in the same volume as Caliste 64. Electrical tests with the first sample fabricated without detector result in a mean equivalent noise charge of 64e - rms (9.6 μs, no leakage current). Caliste devices are 4-side buttable and can be used as elementary detection units of a large hard X-ray focal plane, as for the 64 cm 2 high energy detector of the Simbol-X astronomical space mission. (authors)

  12. Caliste 64, an innovative CdTe hard X-ray micro-camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meuris, A.; Limousin, O.; Pinsard, F.; Le Mer, I. [CEA Saclay, DSM, DAPNIA, Serv. Astrophys., F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Lugiez, F.; Gevin, O.; Delagnes, E. [CEA Saclay, DSM, DAPNIA, Serv. Electron., F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Vassal, M.C.; Soufflet, F.; Bocage, R. [3D-plus Company, F-78532 Buc (France)

    2008-07-01

    A prototype 64 pixel miniature camera has been designed and tested for the Simbol-X hard X-ray observatory to be flown on the joint CNES-ASI space mission in 2014. This device is called Caliste 64. It is a high performance spectro-imager with event time-tagging capability, able to detect photons between 2 keV and 250 keV. Caliste 64 is the assembly of a 1 or 2 min thick CdTe detector mounted on top of a readout module. CdTe detectors equipped with Aluminum Schottky barrier contacts are used because of their very low dark current and excellent spectroscopic performance. Front-end electronics is a stack of four IDeF-X V1.1 ASICs, arranged perpendicular to the detection plane, to read out each pixel independently. The whole camera fits in a 10 * 10 * 20 mm{sup 3} volume and is juxtaposable on its four sides. This allows the device to be used as an elementary unit in a larger array of Caliste 64 cameras. Noise performance resulted in an ENC better than 60 electrons rms in average. The first prototype camera is tested at -10 degrees C with a bias of -400 V. The spectrum summed across the 64 pixels results in a resolution of 697 eV FWHM at 13.9 keV and 808 eV FWFM at 59.54 keV. (authors)

  13. First NuSTAR Limits on Quiet Sun Hard X-Ray Transient Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Andrew J.; Smith, David M.; Glesener, Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    We present the first results of a search for transient hard X-ray (HXR) emission in the quiet solar corona with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) satellite. While NuSTAR was designed as an astrophysics mission, it can observe the Sun above 2 keV with unprecedented sensitivity due...... to its pioneering use of focusing optics. NuSTAR first observed quiet-Sun regions on 2014 November 1, although out-of-view active regions contributed a notable amount of background in the form of single-bounce (unfocused) X-rays. We conducted a search for quiet-Sun transient brightenings on timescales...... as model-independent photon fluxes. The limits in both bands are well below previous HXR microflare detections, though not low enough to detect events of equivalent T and EM as quiet-Sun brightenings seen in soft X-ray observations. We expect future observations during solar minimum to increase the Nu...

  14. Confinement of hot, hard x-ray producing electrons in solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.F.; Lilliequist, C.G.

    1979-01-01

    Possible thermal models for solar, hard X-ray emission, consisting of small volumes in which the electrons are rapidly heated to 4 x 10 8 K, are examined to determine under what conditions such models can be more efficient than nonthermal models. The primary energy-loss mechanism in these models is source expansion due to heat conduction which deviates from its classical value by mechanisms which are reviewed and systematized. One such mechanism is saturation of the heat flux at its maximum possible value, corresponding to direct convection by electrons. Another mechanism is anomalous limitation of the heat flux due to instability of the return current which must compensate the electron current carrying the heat. A simple, one-dimensional model in which a section of the flux tube of constant density is heated to 4 x 10 8 K is analyzed. A conduction front, determined by the above collisionless process, moves along the flux tube at the head of the expanding source. A more realistic, one-dimensional, one-fluid, two-temperature model with a spatially and temporally varying energy source which delivers energy to the electrons at a finite rate is formulated and solved numerically. This results in some ion heating and mass motions which, by themselves, represent only a small energy loss. However, because of changes in the anomalous limitation of the heat flux with higher ion temperature, the expansion losses increase considerably

  15. Comparison of hard X-ray spectra obtained by spectrometers on Hinotori and SMM and detection of 'superhot' component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Nariaki

    1988-01-01

    Hard X-ray spectra in solar flares obtained by the broadband spectrometers aboard Hinotori and SMM are compared. Within the uncertainty brought about by assuming the typical energy of the background X-rays, spectra by the Hinotori spectrometer are usually consistent with those by the SMM spectrometer for flares in 1981. On the contrary, flares in 1982 persistently show 20-50-percent higher flux by Hinotori than by SMM. If this discrepancy is entirely attributable to errors in the calibration of energy ranges, the errors would be about 10 percent. Despite such a discrepancy in absolute flux, in the the decay phase of one flare, spectra revealed a hard X-ray component (probably a 'superhot' component) that could be explained neither by emission from a plasma at about 2 x 10 to the 7th K nor by a nonthermal power-law component. Imaging observations during this period show hard X-ray emission nearly cospatial with soft X-ray emission, in contrast with earlier times at which hard and soft X-rays come from different places.

  16. Neutron and hard x-ray measurements during pellet deposition in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidbrink, W.W.; Milora, S.L.; Schmidt, G.L.; Schneider, W.; Ramsey, A.

    1986-06-01

    Measurements of neutrons and hard x rays are made with a pair of plastic scintillators during injection of deuterium pellets into deuterium TFTR plasmas. Three cases are investigated. During ohmic heating in plasmas with few runaway electrons, the neutron emission does not increase when a pellet is injected, indicating that strong acceleration of the pellet ions does not occur. In ohmic plasmas with low but detectable levels of runaway electrons, an x-ray burst is observed on a detector near the pellet injector as the pellet ablates, while a detector displaced 126/sup 0/ toroidally from the injector does not measure a synchronous burst. Reduced pellet penetration correlates with the presence of x-ray emission, suggesting that the origin of the burst is bremsstrahlung from runaway electrons that strike the solid pellet. In deuterium beam-heated discharges, an increase in the d-d neutron emission is observed when the pellet ablates. In this case, the increase is due to fusion reactions between beam ions and the high density neutral and plasma cloud produced by ablation of the pellet; this localized density perturbation equilibrates in about 700 ..mu..sec. Analysis of the data indicates that the density propagates without forming a sharp shock front with a rapid initial propagation velocity (greater than or equal to 2 x 10/sup 7/ cm/sec) that subsequently decreases to around 3 x 10/sup 6/ cm/sec. Modelling suggests that the electron heat flux into the pellet cloud is much less than the classical Spitzer value.

  17. Polarization and dipole effects in hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, M. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Metrologie Nucleaire (CP 165/84), 50 av. F. D. Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Pauly, N., E-mail: nipauly@ulb.ac.be [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Metrologie Nucleaire (CP 165/84), 50 av. F. D. Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Dubus, A. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Metrologie Nucleaire (CP 165/84), 50 av. F. D. Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-rays are unpolarized or linearly polarized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A difference of polarization implies a variation in path travelled by the photoelectrons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show the influence of the polarization on the partial intensity distributions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We also point out the influence of the dipole approximation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use Monte Carlo simulations. - Abstract: Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HXPS) using X-rays in the 1.5-15 keV energy range generated by synchrotron sources becomes an increasingly important analysis technique due to its potential for bulk sensitive measurements. However, besides their high energy, another characteristic of photons generated by synchrotron sources is their linear polarization while X-rays from Al K{alpha} or Mg K{alpha} for instance are unpolarized. This difference implies a possible variation in total path travelled by the photoelectrons generated by the X-rays inside the medium and consequently a modification of the resulting spectrum shape. We show the influence of the polarization on the partial intensity distributions, namely the number of electrons escaping after n inelastic scattering events, for photoelectron with energies of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 keV and originating from Si 1s{sub 1/2}, Cu 1s{sub 1/2}, Cu 2p{sub 3/2}, Au 4d{sub 3/2} and Au 4f{sub 7/2} subshells. Moreover, we point out the influence of the dipole approximation leading to an underestimation of the partial intensity distributions due to the neglect of the forward-backward asymmetry of the angular photoelectron distribution.

  18. Radiation-hard Active Pixel Sensors for HL-LHC Detector Upgrades based on HV-CMOS Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miucci, A; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; Ferrere, D; Iacobucci, G; Rosa, A La; Muenstermann, D; Gonella, L; Hemperek, T; Hügging, F; Krüger, H; Obermann, T; Wermes, N; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Backhaus, M; Capeans, M; Feigl, S; Nessi, M; Pernegger, H; Ristic, B; George, M

    2014-01-01

    Luminosity upgrades are discussed for the LHC (HL-LHC) which would make updates to the detectors necessary, requiring in particular new, even more radiation-hard and granular, sensors for the inner detector region. A proposal for the next generation of inner detectors is based on HV-CMOS: a new family of silicon sensors based on commercial high-voltage CMOS technology, which enables the fabrication of part of the pixel electronics inside the silicon substrate itself. The main advantages of this technology with respect to the standard silicon sensor technology are: low material budget, fast charge collection time, high radiation tolerance, low cost and operation at room temperature. A traditional readout chip is still needed to receive and organize the data from the active sensor and to handle high-level functionality such as trigger management. HV-CMOS has been designed to be compatible with both pixel and strip readout. In this paper an overview of HV2FEI4, a HV-CMOS prototype in 180 nm AMS technology, will be given. Preliminary results after neutron and X-ray irradiation are shown

  19. Study of adsorption states for lubricant molecule using hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikenaga, E.; Kobata, M.; Kim, J.J.; Wakabayashi, A.; Nishino, Y.; Tamasaku, K.; Sakane, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Komiya, S.; Kobayashi, K.

    2007-01-01

    The adsorption states for lubricant molecules have been investigated using hard X-ray (hν = 7.95 keV) photoemission spectroscopy (HX-PES). This method has the advantage for the organic molecules to be able to measure damage few. Being aware of the fact that P atoms exist only in cyclotriphosphazene base, we measured the take-off angle dependence of the P1s spectra. Each spectrum consists from two peaks, that is, substrate NiP peak and cyclotriphosphazene P peak. The cyclotriphosphazene P peak rapidly disappears with increasing take-off angle. We have also measured C1s spectra. Combining these experimental results, we have found that the adsorption state of cyclotriphosphazene end group is undergoing

  20. Depth-resolved X-ray residual stress analysis in PVD (Ti, Cr) N hard coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Genzel, C

    2003-01-01

    Physical vapour deposition (PVD) of thin hard coatings on TiN basis is usually performed at rather low temperatures (T sub D < 500 C) far from thermal equilibrium, which leads to high intrinsic residual stresses in the growing film. In contrast to the extrinsic thermal residual stresses which can easily be estimated from the difference of the coefficients of thermal expansion between the substrate and the coating, a theoretical prediction of the intrinsic residual stresses is difficult, because their amount as well as their distribution within the film depend in a very complex way on the deposition kinetics. By the example of strongly fibre-textured PVD (Ti, Cr)N coatings which have been prepared under defined variation of the deposition parameters in order to adjust the residual stress distribution within the coatings, the paper compares different X-ray diffraction techniques with respect to their applicability for detecting residual stresses which are non-uniform over the coating thickness. (orig.)