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Sample records for hard silicon microstrip

  1. Radiation hard silicon microstrip detectors for Tevatron experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korjenevski, Sergey

    2004-01-01

    The Silicon Microstrip Tracking detectors at the CDF and D0 experiments have now been operating for almost three years at Fermilab. These detectors were designed originally for an integrated luminosity of 2fb -1 . As the expected luminosity for Run IIb at the Tevatron collider was initially envisioned to reach 15fb -1 , radiation tolerances of both devices were revisited, culminating in proposals for new systems. With reduced expectations for total luminosity at ∼6fb -1 , the full detector-replacement projects were terminated. The CDF detector is expected nevertheless to cope efficiently with the lower anticipated dose, however, the D0 experiment is planning a smaller-scale project: a Layer-0 (L0) upgrade of the silicon tracker (D0SMT). The new device will fit between the beam line and the inner layer of the current Tracker. Built of single-sided sensors, this upgrade is expected to perform well in the harsh radiation environment, and be able to withstand an integrated luminosity of 15fb -1 . Prototypes of Run IIb sensors were irradiated using 10MeV protons at the tandem Van de Graaff at the James R. McDonald Laboratory at Kansas State University. A fit to the 10MeV proton data yields a damage parameter αp=11x10-17Acm. This is consistent with results from RD48 (αp=9.9x10-17Acm). The scaling of damage to 1MeV neutron fluence uses a hardness factor (κ) derived from the non-ionizing components of the energy loss (NEIL). NEIL predicts a hardness factor of 3.87 for 10MeV protons. We obtained an experimental value of this factor of 2.54, or 34% smaller than scaling predictions from NEIL

  2. Radiation hard silicon microstrip detectors for use in ATLAS at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Lars Gimmestad

    2005-07-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) will accelerate protons in colliding beams to a center of mass energy of 14 TeV at very high luminosities. The ATLAS detector is being built to explore the physics in this unprecedented energy range. Tracking of charged particles in high-energy physics (HEP) experiments requires a high spatial resolution and fast signal readout, all with as little material as possible. Silicon microstrip detectors meet these requirements well and have been chosen for the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) which is part of the inner tracking system of ATLAS and has a total area of 61 m2. During the 10 years of operation at LHC, the total fluence received by the detectors is sufficiently large that they will suffer a severe degradation from radiation induced damage. The damage affects both the physics performance of the detectors as well as their operability and a great challenge has been to develop radiation hard detectors for this environment. An extensive irradiation programme has been carried out where detectors of various designs, including defect engineering by oxygen enriched silicon, have been irradiated to the expected fluence. A subsequent thermal annealing period is included to account for a realistic annual maintenance schedule at room temperature, during which the radiation induced defects alter the detector properties significantly. This thesis presents work that has been carried out in the Bergen ATLAS group with results both from the irradiation programme and from detector testing during the module production. (Author)

  3. Radiation hard silicon microstrip detectors for use in ATLAS at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Lars Gimmestad

    2005-06-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) will accelerate protons in colliding beams to a center of mass energy of 14 TeV at very high luminosities. The ATLAS detector is being built to explore the physics in this unprecedented energy range. Tracking of charged particles in high-energy physics (HEP) experiments requires a high spatial resolution and fast signal readout, all with as little material as possible. Silicon microstrip detectors meet these requirements well and have been chosen for the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) which is part of the inner tracking system of ATLAS and has a total area of 61 m2. During the 10 years of operation at LHC, the total fluence received by the detectors is sufficiently large that they will suffer a severe degradation from radiation induced damage. The damage affects both the physics performance of the detectors as well as their operability and a great challenge has been to develop radiation hard detectors for this environment. An extensive irradiation programme has been carried out where detectors of various designs, including defect engineering by oxygen enriched silicon, have been irradiated to the expected fluence. A subsequent thermal annealing period is included to account for a realistic annual maintenance schedule at room temperature, during which the radiation induced defects alter the detector properties significantly. This thesis presents work that has been carried out in the Bergen ATLAS group with results both from the irradiation programme and from detector testing during the module production. (Author)

  4. Development of radiation hard microstrip detectors for the CBM silicon tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterji, Sudeep [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Radiation damage in Silicon microstrip detectors is of the one main concerns for the development of the Silicon Tracking System (STS) in the planned Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR. The STS will consist of Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSD) having pitch around 60 {mu}m, width 20 {mu}m, stereo angle of {+-}7.5{sup 0} on n and p sides with double metallization on either side making it challenging to fabricate.We are using 3-dimensional TCAD simulation tools from SYNOPSYS to carry out process (using Sentaurus Process) and device (using Sentaurus Device) simulations.We have simulated the impact of radiation damage in DSSDs by changing the effective carrier concentration (N{sub eff}) with fluence using the Hamburg model. The change in minority carrier life time has been taken into account using the Kraners model and the Perugia trap model has been used to simulate the traps. We have also extracted macroscopic parameters like Coupling Capacitance, Interstrip Capacitance (both DC and AC), Interstrip Resistance of DSSDs using Mixed Mode simulation (using SPICE with Sentaurus Device) and studied the variation of these parameters with fluence. The simulation results have been compared to the experimental results. We also simulated transients by passing a Heavy Ion through a DSSD and studied the charge collection performance.

  5. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Haefner, Petra; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT), made up from silicon micro-strip detectors is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, one of the experiments at CERN LHC. The completed SCT is in very good shape: 99.3% of the SCT strips are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications. In the talk the current status of the SCT will be reviewed. We will report on the operation of the detector and observed problems, with stress on the sensor and electronics performance. TWEPP Summary In December 2009 the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) recorded the first proton- proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV and this was followed by the unprecedented energy of 7 TeV in March 2010. The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made up from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signal from the strips is processed in the front-end ASICS ABCD3TA, working in the binary readout mode. Data i...

  6. Aleph silicon microstrip vertex detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    This microstrip vertex locator was located at the heart of the ALEPH experiment, one of the four experiments at the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider. In the experiments at CERN's LEP, which ran from 1989 to 2000, modern silicon microvertex detectors, such as those used at ALEPH, monitored the production of short-lived particles close to the beam pipe.

  7. Cryogenic Silicon Microstrip Detector Modules for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Perea-Solano, B

    2004-01-01

    CERN is presently constructing the LHC, which will produce collisions of 7 TeV protons in 4 interaction points at a design luminosity of 1034 cm-2 s-1. The radiation dose resulting from the operation at high luminosity will cause a serious deterioration of the silicon tracker performance. The state-of-art silicon microstrip detectors can tolerate a fluence of about 3 1014 cm-2 of hadrons or charged leptons. This is insufficient, however, for long-term operation in the central parts of the LHC trackers, in particular after the possible luminosity upgrade of the LHC. By operating the detectors at cryogenic temperatures the radiation hardness can be improved by a factor 10. This work proposes a cryogenic microstrip detector module concept which has the features required for the microstrip trackers of the upgraded LHC experiments at CERN. The module can hold an edgeless sensor, being a good candidate for improved luminosity and total cross-section measurements in the ATLAS, CMS and TOTEM experiments. The design o...

  8. The ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Haefner, Petra

    2010-01-01

    In December 2009 the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) recorded the first proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV. This was followed by collisions at the unprecedented energy of 7 TeV in March 2010. The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is a precision tracking device in ATLAS made up from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signal from the strips is processed in the front-end ASICs working in binary readout mode. Data is transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibers. The completed SCT has been installed inside the ATLAS experiment. Since then the detector was operated for two years under realistic conditions. Calibration data has been taken and analysed to determine the performance of the system. In addition, extensive commissioning with cosmic ray events has been performed both with and without magnetic field. The sensor behaviour in magnetic field was studied by measurements of the Lorentz angle. After ...

  9. Performance of irradiated silicon microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catacchini, E.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Lenzi, M.; Meschini, M.; Parrini, G.; Pieri, M.

    1999-01-01

    Silicon microstrip devices to be installed in Large Hadron Collider (LHC) tracking detectors will have to operate in a high radiation environment. We report on performance studies of silicon microstrip detectors irradiated with neutrons or protons, up to fluences comparable to the first ten years of running at LHC. Obtained results show that irradiated detectors can still be operated with satisfactory signal-to-noise ratio,and in the case of inhomogeneously type inverted detector a very good position resolution is achieved regardless of the zone crossed by the particle

  10. Silicon microstrip detectors for the ATLAS SCT

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Robinson, D.; Allport, P.; Andricek, L.; Böhm, Jan; Buttar, C.; Carter, J. R.; Chilingarov, A.; Clark, A. G.; Feriere, D.; Fuster, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 485, 1-2 (2002), s. 84-88 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MPO RP-4210/69 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010920 Keywords : ATLAS SCT * silicon microstrip detectors * irradiation * quality control Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2002

  11. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Rosendahl, P L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon microstrip detector part of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Together with the rest for the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) it provides vital precision tracking information of charged particles. In this paper the performance and operational status of the SCT in the last two years of ATLAS data taking are reviewed.

  12. Integrated double-sided silicon microstrip detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perevertailo V. L.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The problems of design, technology and manufacturing double-sided silicon microstrip detectors using standard equipment production line in mass production of silicon integrated circuits are considered. The design of prototype high-energy particles detector for experiment ALICE (CERN is presented. The parameters of fabricated detectors are comparable with those of similar foreign detectors, but they are distinguished by lesser cost.

  13. ATLAS silicon microstrip detector system (SCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unno, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The S CT together with the pixel and the transition radiation tracker systems and with a central solenoid forms the central tracking system of the ATLAS detector at LHC. Series production of SCT Silicon microstrip sensors is near completion. The sensors have been shown to be robust against high voltage operation to the 500 V required after fluences of 3x10 14 protons/cm 2 . SCT barrel modules are in series production. A low-noise CCD camera has been used to debug the onset of leakage currents

  14. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT), comprising of silicon micro-strip detectors is one of the key precision tracking devices in the ATLAS Inner Detector. ATLAS is one of the experiments at CERN LHC. The completed SCT is in very good shapes with 99.3% of the SCT’s 4088 modules (a total of 6.3 million strips) are operational. The noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications. In the talk the current status of the SCT will be reviewed. We will report on the operation of the detector, its performance and observed problems, with stress on the sensor and electronics performance.

  15. Systematic characterization and quality assurance of silicon micro-strip sensors for the Silicon Tracking System of the CBM experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, P.

    2014-07-01

    The Silicon Tracking System (STS) is the central detector of the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at future Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt. The task of the STS is to reconstruct trajectories of charged particles originating at relatively high multiplicities from the high rate beam-target interactions. The tracker comprises of 300 μm thick silicon double-sided micro-strip sensors. These sensors should be radiation hard in order to reconstruct charged particles up to a maximum radiation dose of 1 × 1014neqcm-2. Systematic characterization allows us to investigate the sensor response and perform quality assurance (QA) tests. In this paper, systematic characterization of prototype double-sided silicon micro-strip sensors will be discussed. This procedure includes visual, passive electrical, and radiation hardness test. Presented results include tests on three different prototypes of silicon micro-strip sensors.

  16. Systematic characterization and quality assurance of silicon micro-strip sensors for the Silicon Tracking System of the CBM experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, P

    2014-01-01

    The Silicon Tracking System (STS) is the central detector of the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at future Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt. The task of the STS is to reconstruct trajectories of charged particles originating at relatively high multiplicities from the high rate beam-target interactions. The tracker comprises of 300 μm thick silicon double-sided micro-strip sensors. These sensors should be radiation hard in order to reconstruct charged particles up to a maximum radiation dose of 1 × 10 14 n eq cm −2 . Systematic characterization allows us to investigate the sensor response and perform quality assurance (QA) tests. In this paper, systematic characterization of prototype double-sided silicon micro-strip sensors will be discussed. This procedure includes visual, passive electrical, and radiation hardness test. Presented results include tests on three different prototypes of silicon micro-strip sensors

  17. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT), comprising of silicon micro-strip detectors is one of the key precision tracking devices in the ATLAS Inner Detector. ATLAS is one of the experiments at CERN LHC. The completed SCT is in very good shapes with 99.3% of the SCT’s 4088 modules (a total of 6.3 million strips) are operational. The noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications. In the talk the current status of the SCT will be reviewed. We will report on the operation of the detector, its performance and observed problems, with stress on the sensor and electronics performance. In December 2009 the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) recorded the first proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV and this was followed by the unprecedented energy of 7 TeV in March 2010. The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the strip...

  18. A data acquisition system for silicon microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adriani, O.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Meschini, M.; Pieri, M.; Castellini, G.

    1998-01-01

    Following initial work on the readout of the L3 silicon microvertex detector, the authors have developed a complete data acquisition system for silicon microstrip detectors for use both in their home institute and at the various test beam facilities at the CERN laboratory. The system uses extensive decoupling schemes allowing a fully floating connection to the detector. This feature has many advantages especially in the readout of the latest double-sided silicon microstrip detectors

  19. Development of Microstrip Silicon Detectors for Star and ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, L; Coffin, J P; Guillaume, G; Guthneck, L; Higueret, S; Hundt, F; Kühn, C E; Lutz, Jean Robert; Pozdniakov, S; Rami, F; Tarchini, A; Boucham, A; Bouvier, S; Erazmus, B; Germain, M; Giliberto, S; Martin, L; Le Moal, C; Roy, C; Colledani, C; Dulinski, W; Turchetta, R

    1998-01-01

    The physics program of STAR and ALICE at ultra-relativistic heavy ion colliders, RHIC and LHC respectively, requires very good tracking capabilities. Some specific quark gluon plasma signatures, based on strange matter measurements implies quite a good secondary vertex reconstruction.For this purpose, the inner trackers of both experiments are composed of high-granularity silicon detectors. The current status of the development of double-sided silicon microstrip detectors is presented in this work.The global performance for tracking purpose adn particle identification are first reviewed. Then tests of the detectors and of the associated readout electronics are described. In-beam measurements of noise, spatial resolution, efficiency and charge matching capability, as well as radiation hardness, are examined.

  20. ATLAS silicon microstrip Semiconductor Tracker (SCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unno, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Silicon microstrip semiconductor tracking system (SCT) will be in operation in the ATLAS detector in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Challenging issues in the SCT are the radiation tolerance to the fluence of 2x10 14 1-MeV-neutron-equivalent particles/cm 2 at the designed luminosity of 1x10 34 cm -2 /s of the proton-proton collisions and the speed of the electronics to identify the crossing bunches at 25 ns. The developments and the status of the SCT are presented from the point of view of these issues. Series production of the SCT will start in the year 2001 and the SCT will be installed into the ATLAS detector during 2003-2004

  1. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Chalupkova, I; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon strip detector and one of the key precision tracking devices in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. The SCT is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel (4 cylinders) and two end-cap systems (9 disks on each end of the barrel). The SCT silicon micro-strip sensors are processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the strips are processed in the front-end ASICS ABCD3TA, working in the binary readout mode. Data is transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibers. The completed SCT has been installed inside the ATLAS experimental cavern since 2007 and has been operational since then. Calibration data has been taken regularly and analyzed to determine the noise performance of the ...

  2. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    NAGAI, K; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon strip detector and one of the key precision tracking devices in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. The SCT is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel (4 cylinders) and two end-cap systems (9 disks on each end of the barrel). The SCT silicon micro-strip sensors are processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the strips are processed in the front-end ASICS ABCD3TA, working in the binary readout mode. Data is transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibres. The completed SCT has been installed inside the ATLAS experimental cavern since 2007 and has been operational since then. Calibration data has been taken regularly and analysed to determine the noise performance of the ...

  3. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Chalupkova, I; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon strip detector and one of the key precision tracking devices in the Inner Detector (ID) of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. The SCT is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules with a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel (4 cylinders) and two end-cap systems (9 disks on each side of the barrel). The SCT silicon microstrip sensors are processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the strips are processed in the front-end ASICs ABCD3TA, working in the binary readout mode. Data is transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibres. SCT has been installed inside the ATLAS experimental cavern since 2007 and has been operational ever since. Calibration data has been taken regularly and analysed to determine the noise performance of the system. ...

  4. Silicon microstrip detectors on 6'' technology

    CERN Document Server

    Bölla, G; Günther, M; Martignon, G; Bacchetta, N; Bisello, D; Leonardi, G L; Lucas, T; Wilburn, C

    1999-01-01

    The fabrication of microstrip detectors on 4'' high-resistivity wafers that allow for a maximum workable area of about 42 cm sup 2 has been well established. Using 6'' wafers the workable area increases up to 100 cm sup 2 (more than twice the area of a 4'' wafer) allowing a larger number of detectors to be processed at the same time on the same wafer resulting in a sizable reduction of cost. After a prototyping stage, the CDF silicon tracker upgrade is now receiving final production sensors from Micron Semiconductor Ltd. The performance of double-sided single-metal small stereo angle sensors for the CDF SVXII and ISL detectors has been studied. Results include probe station measurements and test beam results. The problems encountered from prototyping to the final devices are described. A brief overview of the response of the sensors to irradiation with gamma-rays and p sup + up to a dose of 0.5 Mrad (well above the doses expected during Run II of the Tevatron) is included. (author)

  5. The silicon microstrip sensors of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ahmad, A.; Albrechtskirchinger, Z.; Allport, P.; Böhm, Jan; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Šťastný, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 578, - (2007), s. 98-118 ISSN 0168-9002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : ATLAS * SCT * silicon * microstrip * module * LHC Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.114, year: 2007

  6. Dismantling the silicon microstrip detector on L3

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    The silicon microstrip detector is located at the heart of the detector and must be kept cool to prevent thermal noise. The work shown here is the removal of the cooling system. L3 was dismantled as part of the closure of the entire LEP accelerator in 2000 to make way for the new LHC.

  7. Characterization procedures for double-sided silicon microstrip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruner, N.L. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). New Mexico Center for Particle Phys.; Frautschi, M.A. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). New Mexico Center for Particle Phys.; Hoeferkamp, M.R. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). New Mexico Center for Particle Phys.; Seidel, S.C. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). New Mexico Center for Particle Phys.

    1995-08-15

    Since double-sided silicon microstrip detectors are still evolving technologically and are not yet commercially available, they require extensive electrical evaluation by the user to ensure they were manufactured to specifications. In addition, measurements must be performed to determine detector operating conditions. Procedures for measuring the following quantities are described: - Leakage current, - Depletion voltage, - Bias resistance, - Interstrip resistance, - Coupling capacitance, - Coupling capacitor breakdown voltage. (orig.).

  8. Characterization procedures for double-sided silicon microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, N.L.; Frautschi, M.A.; Hoeferkamp, M.R.; Seidel, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    Since double-sided silicon microstrip detectors are still evolving technologically and are not yet commercially available, they require extensive electrical evaluation by the user to ensure they were manufactured to specifications. In addition, measurements must be performed to determine detector operating conditions. Procedures for measuring the following quantities are described: - Leakage current, - Depletion voltage, - Bias resistance, - Interstrip resistance, - Coupling capacitance, - Coupling capacitor breakdown voltage. (orig.)

  9. Spatial resolution of wedge shaped silicon microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anticic, T.; Barnett, B.; Blumenfeld, B.; Chien, C.Y.; Fisher, P.; Gougas, A.; Krizmanic, J.; Madansky, L.; Newman, D.; Orndorff, J.; Pevsner, A.; Spangler, J.

    1995-01-01

    Several wedge-shaped silicon microstrip detectors with pitches from 30 to 100 μm have been designed by our group and beam tested at the CERN SPS. We find the spatial resolution σ becomes larger at the rate of 0.21 μm per 1 μm increase in pitch, but the number of strips per cluster remains about the same as the pitch varies from 30 to 100 μm. (orig.)

  10. A portable readout system for silicon microstrip sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco-Hernandez, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    This system can measure the collected charge in one or two microstrip silicon sensors by reading out all the channels of the sensor(s), up to 256. The system is able to operate with different types (p- and n-type) and different sizes (up to 3 cm 2 ) of microstrip silicon sensors, both irradiated and non-irradiated. Heavily irradiated sensors will be used at the Super Large Hadron Collider, so this system can be used to research the performance of microstrip silicon sensors in conditions as similar as possible to the Super Large Hadron Collider operating conditions. The system has two main parts: a hardware part and a software part. The hardware part acquires the sensor signals either from external trigger inputs, in case of a radioactive source setup is used, or from a synchronised trigger output generated by the system, if a laser setup is used. The software controls the system and processes the data acquired from the sensors in order to store it in an adequate format. The main characteristics of the system are described. Results of measurements acquired with n- and p-type detectors using both the laser and the radioactive source setup are also presented and discussed.

  11. Thermal Properties of the Silicon Microstrip Endcap Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Feld, Lutz; Hammarström, R

    1998-01-01

    Irradiated silicon detectors must be cooled in order to guarantee stable short and long term operation. Using the SiF1 milestone prototype we have performed a detailed analysis of the thermal properties of the silicon microstrip endcap detector. The strongest constraint on the cooling system is shown to be set by the need to avoid thermal runaway of the silicon detectors. We show that, taking into account the radiation damage to the silicon after 10 years of LHC operation and including some safety margin, the detector will need a cooling fluid temperature of around -20 C. The highest temperature on the silicon will then be in the range -15 C to -10 C. This sets an upper limit on the ambient temperature in the tracker volume.

  12. Silicon microstrip detectors with SVX chip readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, W.; Dropmann, F.; Godbersen, M.; Konorov, I.; Koenigsmann, K.; Masciocchi, S.; Newsom, C.; Paul, S.; Povh, B.; Russ, J.S.; Timm, S.; Vorwalter, K.; Werding, R.

    1995-01-01

    A new silicon strip detector has been designed for the fixed target experiment WA89 at CERN. The system of about 30 000 channels is equipped with SVX chips and read out via a double buffer into a FASTBUS memory. The detector provides a fast readout by offering zero-suppressed data extraction on the chip. The silicon counters are the largest detectors built on a monocrystal so far in order to achieve good transversal acceptance. Construction and performance during the 1993 data taking run are discussed. ((orig.))

  13. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Nagai, K; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is one of the key precision tracking devices in the ATLAS experiment at CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The SCT was constructed of 4088 modules for a total of 6.3 million silicon strips and was installed into the ATLAS experiment in 2007. The SCT has been fully operational since then, and achieves a good tracking performance from the startup of the LHC operation.

  14. A counting silicon microstrip detector for precision compton polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Doll, D W; Hillert, W; Krüger, H; Stammschroer, K; Wermes, N

    2002-01-01

    A detector for the detection of laser photons backscattered off an incident high-energy electron beam for precision Compton polarimetry in the 3.5 GeV electron stretcher ring ELSA at Bonn University has been developed using individual photon counting. The photon counting detector is based on a silicon microstrip detector system using dedicated ASIC chips. The produced hits by the pair converted Compton photons are accumulated rather than individually read out. A transverse profile displacement can be measured with mu m accuracy rendering a polarization measurement of the order of 1% on the time scale of 10-15 min possible.

  15. Gas microstrip detectors on polymer, silicon and glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barasch, E.F.; Demroff, H.P.; Drew, M.M.; Elliott, T.S.; Gaedke, R.M.; Goss, L.T.; Kasprowicz, T.B.; Lee, B.; Mazumdar, T.K.; McIntyre, P.M.; Pang, Y.; Smith, D.D.; Trost, H.J.; Vanstraelen, G.; Wahl, J.

    1993-01-01

    We present results on the performance of Gas Microstrip Detectors on various substrates. These include a 300 μm anode-anode pitch pattern on Tempax borosilicate glass and ABS/copolyether, a 200 μm pattern on Upilex ''S'' polyimide, Texin 4215, Tedlar, ion-implanted Kapton, orientation-dependent etched flat-topped silicon (''knife-edge chamber''), and iron-vanadium glass, and a 100 μm pitch pattern on Upilex ''S'' and ion-implanted Kapton. (orig.)

  16. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Barone, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon strip detector and one of the key precision tracking devices in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. The SCT is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel (4 cylinders) and two end-cap systems (9 disks on each end of the barrel). In the talk the current results from the successful operation of the SCT Detector at the LHC and its status after three years of operation will be presented. We will report on the operation of the detector including an overview of the issues we encountered and the observation of significant increases in leakage currents (as expected) from bulk damage due to non-ionising radiation. The main emphasis will be given to the tracking performance of the SCT and the data quality during the >2 ye...

  17. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Barone, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon strip detector and one of the key precision tracking devices of the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. The SCT is constructed of $4088$ silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million channels. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel ($4$ cylinders) and two end-cap systems (9 disks on each). The current results from the successful operation of the SCT Detector at the LHC and its status after three years of operation will be presented. The operation of the detector including an overview of the main issues encountered is reported. The main emphasis is be given to the tracking performance of the SCT and the data quality during the $>2$ years of data taking of proton-proton collision data at $7$ TeV (and short periods of heavy ion collisions). The SCT has been fully operational throughout a...

  18. Strip defect recognition in electrical tests of silicon microstrip sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentan, Manfred, E-mail: valentan@mpp.mpg.de

    2017-02-11

    This contribution describes the measurement procedure and data analysis of AC-coupled double-sided silicon microstrip sensors with polysilicon resistor biasing. The most thorough test of a strip sensor is an electrical measurement of all strips of the sensor; the measured observables include e.g. the strip's current and the coupling capacitance. These measurements are performed to find defective strips, e.g. broken capacitors (pinholes) or implant shorts between two adjacent strips. When a strip has a defect, its observables will show a deviation from the “typical value”. To recognize and quantify certain defects, it is necessary to determine these typical values, i.e. the values the observables would have without the defect. As a novel approach, local least-median-of-squares linear fits are applied to determine these “would-be” values of the observables. A least-median-of-squares fit is robust against outliers, i.e. it ignores the observable values of defective strips. Knowing the typical values allows to recognize, distinguish and quantify a whole range of strip defects. This contribution explains how the various defects appear in the data and in which order the defects can be recognized. The method has been used to find strip defects on 30 double-sided trapezoidal microstrip sensors for the Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector, which have been measured at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Vienna (Austria).

  19. New results on silicon microstrip detectors of CMS tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaria, N.; Albergo, S.; Angarano, M.; Azzi, P.; Babucci, E.; Bacchetta, N.; Bader, A.; Bagliesi, G.; Basti, A.; Biggeri, U.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Boemi, D.; Bolla, G.; Bosi, F.; Borrello, L.; Bortoletto, D.; Bozzi, C.; Braibant, S.; Breuker, H.; Bruzzi, M.; Buffini, A.; Busoni, S.; Candelori, A.; Caner, A.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Catacchini, E.; Checcucci, B.; Ciampolini, P.; Civinini, C.; Creanza, D.; D'Alessandro, R.; Da Rold, M.; De Palma, M.; Dell'Orso, R.; Marina, R. Della; Dutta, S.; Eklund, C.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Favro, G.; Feld, L.; Fiore, L.; Focardi, E.; French, M.; Freudenreich, K.; Fuertjes, A.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M.; Giraldo, A.; Glessing, B.; Gu, W.H.; Hall, G.; Hammerstrom, R.; Hebbeker, T.; Hrubec, J.; Huhtinen, M.; Kaminsky, A.; Karimaki, V.; Koenig, St.; Krammer, M.; Lariccia, P.; Lenzi, M.; Loreti, M.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Lustermann, W.; Maettig, P.; Maggi, G.; Mannelli, M.; Mantovani, G.; Marchioro, A.; Mariotti, C.; Martignon, G.; Evoy, B. Mc; Meschini, M.; Messineo, A.; Migliore, E.; My, S.; Paccagnella, A.; Palla, F.; Pandoulas, D.; Papi, A.; Parrini, G.; Passeri, D.; Pieri, M.; Piperov, S.; Potenza, R.; Radicci, V.; Raffaelli, F.; Raymond, M.; Santocchia, A.; Schmitt, B.; Selvaggi, G.; Servoli, L.; Sguazzoni, G.; Siedling, R.; Silvestris, L.; Skog, K.; Starodumov, A.; Stavitski, I.; Stefanini, G.; Tempesta, P.; Tonelli, G.; Tricomi, A.; Tuuva, T.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Viertel, G.; Xie, Z.; Li Yahong; Watts, S.; Wittmer, B.

    2000-01-01

    Interstrip and backplane capacitances on silicon microstrip detectors with p + strip on n substrate of 320 μm thickness were measured for pitches between 60 and 240 μm and width over pitch ratios between 0.13 and 0.5. Parametrisations of capacitance w.r.t. pitch and width were compared with data. The detectors were measured before and after being irradiated to a fluence of 4x10 14 protons/cm 2 of 24 GeV/c momentum. The effect of the crystal orientation of the silicon has been found to have a relevant influence on the surface radiation damage, favouring the choice of a substrate. Working at high bias (up to 500 V in CMS) might be critical for the stability of detector, for a small width over pitch ratio. The influence found to enhance the stability

  20. Accelerated life test of an ONO stacked insulator film for a silicon micro-strip detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Shoji; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Saitoh, Yutaka

    1996-01-01

    We have used to acquire the signal through an integrated capacitor for a silicon micro-strip detector. When we have been using a double-sided silicon micro-strip detector, we have required a long-term stability and a high feasibility for the integrated capacitor. An oxide-nitride-oxide (ONO) insulator film was theoretically expected to have a superior nature in terms of long term reliability. In order to test long term reliability for integrated capacitor of a silicon micro-strip detector, we made a multi-channel measuring system for capacitors

  1. Micro-discharge noise and radiation damage of silicon microstrip sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsugi, T.; Iwata, Y.; Ohyama, H.; Ohmoto, T.; Yoshikawa, M.; Handa, T.; Kurino, K.; Fujita, K.; Kitabayashi, H.; Tamura, N.; Hatakenaka, T.; Maeohmichi, M.; Takahata, M.; Nakao, M.; Iwasaki, H.; Kohriki, T.; Terada, S.; Unno, Y.; Takashima, R.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamura, K.

    1996-01-01

    We have examined experimentally some existing ideas for improving the radiation hardness of silicon microstrip sensors. We confirm that the extended electrode and the deep implant-strip proposed on the basis of simulation studies works effectively to suppress micro-discharge as well as junction breakdown of the bias or guard ring. For an integrated coupling capacitor a double layer structure of SiO 2 and Si 3 N 4 provides better radiation hardness than that of single SiO 2 coupling in our design conditions. The onset voltage of the micro-discharge on the bias/guard ring has been studied for an extended electrode and a floating guard ring. (orig.)

  2. The charge collection in single side silicon microstrip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Eremin, V V; Roe, S; Ruggiero, G; Weilhammer, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The transient current technique has been used to investigate signal formation in unirradiated silicon microstrip detectors, which are similar in geometry to those developed for the ATLAS experiment at LHC. Nanosecond pulsed infrared and red lasers were used to induce the signals under study. Two peculiarities in the detector performance were observed: an unexpectedly slow rise to the signal induced in a given strip when signals are injected opposite to the strip, and a long duration of the induced signal in comparison with the calculated drift time of charge carriers through the detector thickness - with a significant fraction of the charge being induced after charge carrier arrival. These major effects and details of the detector response for different positions of charge injection are discussed in the context of Ramo's theorem and compared with predictions arising from the more commonly studied phenomenon of signal formation in planar pad detectors.

  3. The silicon microstrip sensors of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ATLAS SCT Collaboration; Spieler, Helmuth G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the AC-coupled, single-sided, p-in-n silicon microstrip sensors used in the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The sensor requirements, specifications and designs are discussed, together with the qualification and quality assurance procedures adopted for their production. The measured sensor performance is presented, both initially and after irradiation to the fluence anticipated after 10 years of LHC operation. The sensors are now successfully assembled within the detecting modules of the SCT, and the SCT tracker is completed and integrated within the ATLAS Inner Detector. Hamamatsu Photonics Ltd. supplied 92.2percent of the 15,392 installed sensors, with the remainder supplied by CiS

  4. The silicon microstrip sensors of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ATLAS SCT Collaboration; Spieler, Helmuth G.

    2007-04-13

    This paper describes the AC-coupled, single-sided, p-in-n silicon microstrip sensors used in the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The sensor requirements, specifications and designs are discussed, together with the qualification and quality assurance procedures adopted for their production. The measured sensor performance is presented, both initially and after irradiation to the fluence anticipated after 10 years of LHC operation. The sensors are now successfully assembled within the detecting modules of the SCT, and the SCT tracker is completed and integrated within the ATLAS Inner Detector. Hamamatsu Photonics Ltd. supplied 92.2percent of the 15,392 installed sensors, with the remainder supplied by CiS.

  5. Assembly and validation of the SSD silicon microstrip detector of ALICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, A.P.; Kuijer, P.G.; Nooren, G.J.L.; Oskamp, C.J.; Sokolov, A.N.; van den Brink, A.

    2006-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) forms the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of ALICE. The SSD detector consists of 1698 double-sided silicon microstrip modules. The electrical connection between silicon sensor and front-end electronics is made via TAB-bonded

  6. Commissioning and first data with the ATLAS silicon microstrip tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohne, Ole Myren

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the CERN large hadron collider (LHC) has started taking data this autumn with the inauguration of the LHC. The semiconductor tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made up from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The completed SCT has recently been installed inside the ATLAS experimental hall. Quick tests were performed last year to verify the connectivity of the electrical and optical services. Problems observed with the heaters for the evaporative cooling system have been resolved. This has enabled extended operation of the full detector under realistic conditions. Calibration data has been taken and analysed to determine the noise performance of the system. In addition, extensive commissioning with cosmic ray events has been performed. The cosmic muon data has been used to align the detector, to check the timing of the front-end electronics as well as to measure the hit efficiency of modules. The current status of the SCT will be reviewed, including results from the latest data-taking periods in autumn 2008, and from the detector alignment. We will report on the commissioning of the detector, including overviews on services, connectivity and observed problems. Particular emphasis will also be placed on the SCT data taken in the latest running period with the entire ATLAS detector participating. The SCT commissioning and running experience will then be used to extract valuable lessons for future silicon strip detector projects.

  7. The silicon tracking system of the CBM experiment at FAIR. Development of microstrip sensors and signal transmission lines for a low-mass, low-noise system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singla, Minni

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, different physical and electrical aspects of silicon microstrip sensors and low-mass multi-line readout cables have been investigated. These silicon microstrip sensors and readout cables will be used in the Silicon Tracking System (STS) of the fixed-target heavy-ion Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment which is under development at the upcoming Facility for Antiproton and ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany. The highly segmented low-mass tracking system is a central CBM detector system to resolve the high tracking densities of charged particles originating from beam-target interactions. Considering the low material budget requirement the double-sided silicon microstrip detectors have been used in several planar tracking stations. The readout electronics is planned to be installed at the periphery of the tracking stations along with the cooling system. Low-mass multi-line readout cables shall bridge the distance between the microstrip sensors and the readout electronics. The CBM running operational scenario suggests that some parts of the tracking stations are expected to be exposed to a total integrated particle fluence of the order of 1 x 10 14 n eq /cm 2 . After 1 x 10 14 n eq /cm 2 the damaged modules in the tracking stations will be replaced. Thus radiation hard sensor is an important requirement for the sensors. Moreover, to cope with the high reaction rates, free-streaming (triggerless) readout electronics with online event reconstruction must be used which require high signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio (i.e., high signal efficiency, low noise contributions). Therefore, reduction in noise is a major goal of the sensor and cable development. For better insight into the different aspects of the silicon microstrip sensors and multi-line readout cables, the simulation study has been performed using SYNOPSYS TCAD tools. 3D models of the silicon microstrip sensors and the readout cables were implemented which is motivated by the stereoscopic

  8. Study of silicon microstrips detector quantum efficiency using mathematical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyva Pernia, Diana; Cabal Rodriguez, Ana Ester; Pinnera Hernandez, Ibrahin; Fabelo, Antonio Leyva; Abreu Alfonso, Yamiel; Cruz Inclan, Carlos M.

    2011-01-01

    The paper shows the results from the application of mathematical simulation to study the quantum efficiency of a microstrips crystalline silicon detector, intended for medical imaging and the development of other applications such as authentication and dating of cultural heritage. The effects on the quantum efficiency of some parameters of the system, such as the detector-source geometry, X rays energy and detector dead zone thickness, were evaluated. The simulation results were compared with the theoretical prediction and experimental available data, resulting in a proper correspondence. It was concluded that the use of frontal configuration for incident energies lower than 17 keV is more efficient, however the use of the edge-on configuration for applications requiring the detection of energy above this value is recommended. It was also found that the reduction of the detector dead zone led to a considerable increase in quantum efficiency for any energy value in the interval from 5 to 100 keV.(author)

  9. Study of Silicon Microstrip Detector Properties for the LHCb Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Lois-Gómez, C; Vázquez-Regueiro, P

    2006-01-01

    The LHCb experiment, at present under construction at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, has been designed to perform high-precision measurements of CP violating phenomena and rare decays in the B meson systems. The need of a good tracking performance and the high density of particles close to the beam pipe lead to the use of silicon microstrip detectors in a significant part of the LHCb tracking system. The Silicon Tracker (ST) will be built using p-on-n silicon detectors with strip pitches of approximately 200 $\\mu$m and readout strips up to 38 cm in length. This thesis describes the tests carried out on silicon microstrip detectors for the ST, starting from the characterization of different prototypes up to the final tests on the detectors that are being installed at CERN. The results can be divided in three main blocks. The first part comprises an exhaustive characterization of several prototype sensors selected as suitable candidates for the detector and was performed in order to decide some design param...

  10. Performance characteristics and radiation damage results from the Fermilab E706 silicon microstrip detector system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, E Jr; Mani, S; Orris, D; Shepard, P F; Weerasundara, P D; Choudhary, B C; Joshi, U; Kapoor, V; Shivpuri, R; Baker, W

    1989-07-01

    A charged particle spectrometer containing a 7120-channel silicon microstrip detector system, one component of Fermilab experiment E706 to study direct photon production in hadron-hadron collisions, was utilized in a run in which 6 million events were recorded. We describe the silicon system, provide early results of track and vertex reconstruction, and present data on the radiation damage to the silicon wafers resulting from the narrow high intensity beam. (orig.).

  11. Enabling technologies for silicon microstrip tracking detectors at the HL-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.

    2016-04-01

    While the tracking detectors of the ATLAS and CMS experiments have shown excellent performance in Run 1 of LHC data taking, and are expected to continue to do so during LHC operation at design luminosity, both experiments will have to exchange their tracking systems when the LHC is upgraded to the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) around the year 2024. The new tracking systems need to operate in an environment in which both the hit densities and the radiation damage will be about an order of magnitude higher than today. In addition, the new trackers need to contribute to the first level trigger in order to maintain a high data-taking efficiency for the interesting processes. Novel detector technologies have to be developed to meet these very challenging goals. The German groups active in the upgrades of the ATLAS and CMS tracking systems have formed a collaborative ''Project on Enabling Technologies for Silicon Microstrip Tracking Detectors at the HL-LHC'' (PETTL), which was supported by the Helmholtz Alliance ''Physics at the Terascale'' during the years 2013 and 2014. The aim of the project was to share experience and to work together on key areas of mutual interest during the R and D phase of these upgrades. The project concentrated on five areas, namely exchange of experience, radiation hardness of silicon sensors, low mass system design, automated precision assembly procedures, and irradiations. This report summarizes the main achievements.

  12. Enabling technologies for silicon microstrip tracking detectors at the HL-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Institut B; Collaboration: The PETTL Collaboration; and others

    2016-04-15

    While the tracking detectors of the ATLAS and CMS experiments have shown excellent performance in Run 1 of LHC data taking, and are expected to continue to do so during LHC operation at design luminosity, both experiments will have to exchange their tracking systems when the LHC is upgraded to the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) around the year 2024. The new tracking systems need to operate in an environment in which both the hit densities and the radiation damage will be about an order of magnitude higher than today. In addition, the new trackers need to contribute to the first level trigger in order to maintain a high data-taking efficiency for the interesting processes. Novel detector technologies have to be developed to meet these very challenging goals. The German groups active in the upgrades of the ATLAS and CMS tracking systems have formed a collaborative ''Project on Enabling Technologies for Silicon Microstrip Tracking Detectors at the HL-LHC'' (PETTL), which was supported by the Helmholtz Alliance ''Physics at the Terascale'' during the years 2013 and 2014. The aim of the project was to share experience and to work together on key areas of mutual interest during the R and D phase of these upgrades. The project concentrated on five areas, namely exchange of experience, radiation hardness of silicon sensors, low mass system design, automated precision assembly procedures, and irradiations. This report summarizes the main achievements.

  13. Cross-talk studies on FPCB of double-sided silicon micro-strip detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Lei; Li, Zhankui; Li, Haixia; Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Zhusheng; Chen, Cuihong; Liu, Fengqiong; Li, Ronghua; Wang, Xiuhua; Li, Chunyan; Zu, Kailing

    2014-01-01

    Double-sided silicon micro-strip detector's parameters and a test method and the results of cross-talk of FPCB are given in this abstract. In addition, the value of our detector's readout signal has little relation to FPCB's cross-talk.

  14. Performance of a silicon microstrip detector in a high radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, C.S.; Brown, C.N.; Kapustinsky, J.; Leitch, M.J.; McGaughey, P.L.; Peng, J.C.; Sailor, W.; Holzscheiter, K.; Sadler, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the performance of a silicon microstrip detector that has been studied in a high rate environment using electron, pion, and proton beams. The pulse height, time response, and leakage current have been studied as a function of particle fluence up to a total integrated flus of about 4 x 10 14 protons/cm 2

  15. Development of a fabrication technology for double-sided AC-coupled silicon microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Rachevskaia, I.; Zen, M.; Zorzi, N.

    2001-01-01

    We report on the development of a fabrication technology for double-sided, AC-coupled silicon microstrip detectors for tracking applications. Two batches of detectors with good electrical figures and a low defect rate were successfully manufactured at IRST Laboratory. The processing techniques and the experimental results obtained from these detector prototypes are presented and discussed

  16. The bipolar silicon microstrip detector: A proposal for a novel precision tracking device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horisberger, R.

    1990-01-01

    It is proposed to combine the technology of fully depleted microstrip detectors fabricated on n doped high resistivity silicon with the concept of the bipolar transistor. This is done by adding a n ++ doped region inside the normal p + implanted region of the reverse biased p + n diode. The resulting structure has amplifying properties and is referred to as bipaolar pixel transistor. The simplest readout scheme of a bipolar pixel array by an aluminium strip bus leads to the bipolar microstrip detector. The bipolar pixel structure is expected to give a better signal-to-noise performance for the detection of minimum ionizing charged particle tracks than the normal silicon diode strip detector and therefore should allow in future the fabrication of thinner silicon detectors for precision tracking. (orig.)

  17. Use of silicon microstrip detectors in medical diagnostic x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabal Rodriguez, Ana Ester

    2004-11-01

    This work presents the development and characterization of a single photon counting system based on silicon microstrip detectors, used in High Energy Physics experiments, and on low noise multichannel readout electronics. The thesis evaluates the feasibility of dual energy X-ray imaging with silicon microstrip detectors to be applied on medical diagnosis. Dual energy mammographic and angiographic experimental tests have been performed using the developed counting systems proto types, properly phantoms and quasi-monochromatic X ray beams, obtained on a compact dichromatic source based on a conventional X-ray tube and a mosaic crystal. A Monte Carlo simulation of the performance of the experimental setup for dual X-ray imaging has also been carried out using MCNP-4C transport code. We obtained good agreement between MCNP results and the experimental data. (Author)

  18. Design, fabrication and characterization of the first AC-coupled silicon microstrip sensors in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, T; Chendvankar, S R; Mohanty, G B; Patil, M R; Rao, K K; Rani, Y R; Rao, Y P P; Behnamian, H; Mersi, S; Naseri, M

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the design, fabrication and characterization of single-sided silicon microstrip sensors with integrated biasing resistors and coupling capacitors, produced for the first time in India. We have first developed a prototype sensor on a four-inch wafer. After finding suitable test procedures for characterizing these AC coupled sensors, we fine-tuned various process parameters in order to produce sensors of the desired specifications

  19. Quality assurance of the silicon microstrip sensors for the CBM experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panasenko, Iaroslav [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Institute for Nuclear Research, Kiev (Ukraine); Larionov, Pavel [University of Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The CBM experiment at FAIR will investigate the properties of nuclear matter at extreme conditions created in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. Its core detector - the Silicon Tracking System (STS) - will determine the momentum of charged particles from beam-target interactions. The track multiplicity will reach up to 700 within the detector aperture covering the polar angle 2.5 and 25 . High track density as well as stringent requirements to the momentum resolution (∝1%) require a system with high channel granularity and low material budget. The STS will be constructed of about 1200 double-sided silicon microstrip sensors with 58 μm pitch and a total area of ∝4 m{sup 2} with all together 2.1 million channels will be read out. In this talk the quality assurance of double-sided silicon microstrip sensors is discussed. This includes both visual and electrical characterization. For this purpose dedicated equipment has been set up in the clean rooms of the GSI Detector Laboratory and at Tuebingen University. Results of the electrical characterization of prototype microstrip sensors CBM06 are presented.

  20. Design optimization of a breast imaging system based on silicon microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stres, S.; Mikuz, M.

    2000-01-01

    A mammographic imaging set-up using silicon microstrip detectors in edge-on geometry was simulated using the GEANT package. Deposited energy in tissue of various thicknesses was evaluated and shown to agree to within 10% with reference calculations. Optimal energies as well as spectra for mammography with silicon detectors were determined by maximizing the figure of merit of a realistic imaging set-up. The scattered to primary radiation ratio was studied for various detector geometries. It was found that fan-shaped detectors are needed to maintain the image quality for divergent photon beams. (author)

  1. Technology development of p-type microstrip detectors with radiation hard p-spray isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrini, G.; Fleta, C.; Campabadal, F.; Diez, S.; Lozano, M.; Rafi, J.M.; Ullan, M.

    2006-01-01

    A technology for the fabrication of p-type microstrip silicon radiation detectors using p-spray implant isolation has been developed at CNM-IMB. The p-spray isolation has been optimized in order to withstand a gamma irradiation dose up to 50 Mrad (Si), which represents the ionization radiation dose expected in the middle region of the SCT-Atlas detector of the future Super-LHC during 10 years of operation. The best technological options for the p-spray implant were found by using a simulation software package and dedicated calibration runs. Using the optimized technology, detectors have been fabricated in the Clean Room facility of CNM-IMB, and characterized by reverse current and capacitance measurements before and after irradiation. The average full depletion voltage measured on the non-irradiated detectors was V FD =41±3 V, while the leakage current density for the microstrip devices at V FD +20 V was 400 nA/cm 2

  2. Signal generation in highly irradiated silicon microstrip detectors for the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Gennaro

    2003-01-01

    Silicon detectors are the most diffused tracking devices in High Energy Physics (HEP). The reason of such success can be found in the characteristics of the material together with the existing advanced technology for the fabrication of these devices. Nevertheless in many modem HEP experiments the observation of vary rare events require data taking at high luminosity with a consequent extremely intense hadron radiation field that damages the silicon and degrades the performance of these devices. In this thesis work a detailed study of the signal generation in microstrip detectors has been produced with a special care for the ATLAS semiconductor tracker geometry. This has required a development of an appropriate setup to perform measurements with Transient Current/ Charge Technique. This has allowed studying the evolution of the signal in several microstrips detector samples irradiated at fluences covering the range expected in the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker. For a better understanding of these measurements a powerful software package that simulates the signal generation in these devices has been developed. Moreover in this thesis it has been also shown that the degradation due to radiation in silicon detectors can be strongly reduced if the data taking is done with detectors operated at 130 K. This makes low temperature operation that benefits of the recovery of the charge collection efficiency in highly irradiated silicon detectors (also known as Lazarus effect) an optimal option for future high luminosity experiments. (author)

  3. Radiation hard cryogenic silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casagrande, L.; Abreu, M.C.; Bell, W.H.; Berglund, P.; Boer, W. de; Borchi, E.; Borer, K.; Bruzzi, M.; Buontempo, S.; Chapuy, S.; Cindro, V.; Collins, P.; D'Ambrosio, N.; Da Via, C.; Devine, S.; Dezillie, B.; Dimcovski, Z.; Eremin, V.; Esposito, A.; Granata, V.; Grigoriev, E.; Hauler, F.; Heijne, E.; Heising, S.; Janos, S.; Jungermann, L.; Konorov, I.; Li, Z.; Lourenco, C.; Mikuz, M.; Niinikoski, T.O.; O'Shea, V.; Pagano, S.; Palmieuri, V.G.; Paul, S.; Pirollo, S.; Pretzl, K.; Rato, P.; Ruggiero, G.; Smith, K.; Sonderegger, P.; Sousa, P.; Verbitskaya, E.; Watts, S.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently observed that heavily irradiated silicon detectors, no longer functional at room temperature, 'resuscitate' when operated at temperatures below 130 K. This is often referred to as the 'Lazarus effect'. The results presented here show that cryogenic operation represents a new and reliable solution to the problem of radiation tolerance of silicon detectors

  4. Production and test of the LHCf microstrip silicon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonechi, L.; Adriani, O.; Bongi, M.; Castellini, G.; D'Alessandro, R.; Faus, A.; Haguenauer, M.; Itow, Y.; Kasahara, K.; Macina, D.; Mase, T.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Matsumoto, H.; Menjo, H.; Mizuishi, M.; Muraki, Y.; Papini, P.; Perrot, A.L.; Ricciarini, S.

    2008-01-01

    After a preliminary installation test, successfully performed in 2007, both the detectors of the LHCf experiment are now ready to be installed at the CERN LHC accelerator for the first physics run. A beam test at SPS in September 2007 allowed to verify the performance of the apparata. Production and test of the silicon tracker developed for one of them are shortly discussed in this work.

  5. Electrical production testing of the D0 Silicon microstrip tracker detector modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D0, SMT Production Testing Group; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    The D0 Silicon Microstrip Tracker (SMT) is the innermost system of the D0 detector in Run 2. It consists of 912 detector units, corresponding to 5 different types of assemblies, which add up to a system with 792,576 readout channels. The task entrusted to the Production Testing group was to thoroughly debug, test and grade each detector module before its installation in the tracker. This note describes the production testing sequence and the procedures by which the detector modules were electrically tested and characterized at the various stages of their assembly.

  6. Performance of the ALIBAVA portable readout system with irradiated and non-irradiated microstrip silicon sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco-Hernadez, R.

    2009-01-01

    A readout system for microstrip silicon sensors has been developed as a result of collaboration among the University of Liverpool, the CNM of Barcelona and the IFIC of Valencia. The name of this collaboration is ALIBAVA and it is integrated in the RD50 Collaboration. This system is able to measure the collected charge in one or two microstrip silicon sensors by reading out all the channels of the sensor(s), up to 256, as an analogue measurement. The system uses two Beetle chips to read out the detector(s). The Beetle chip is an analogue pipelined readout chip used in the LHCb experiment. The system can operate either with non-irradiated and irradiated sensors as well as with n-type and p-type microstrip silicon sensors. Heavily irradiated sensors will be used at the SLHC, so this system is being to research the performance of microstrip silicon sensors in conditions as similar as possible to the SLHC operating conditions. The system has two main parts: a hardware part and a software part. The hardware part acquires the sensor signals either from external trigger inputs, in case of a radioactive source setup is used, or from a synchronised trigger output generated by the system, if a laser setup is used. This acquired data is sent by USB to be stored in a PC for a further processing. The hardware is a dual board based system. The daughterboard is a small board intended for containing two Beetle readout chips as well as fan-ins and detector support to interface the sensors. The motherboard is intended to process the data, to control the whole hardware and to communicate with the software by USB. The software controls the system and processes the data acquired from the sensors in order to store it in an adequate format file. The main characteristics of the system will be described. Results of measurements acquired with n-type and p-type irradiated and non-irradiated detectors using both the laser and the radioactive source setup will be also presented and discussed

  7. Microstrip silicon detectors of the monitoring and triggering systems in the E-161 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogolyubskij, M.Yu.; Kurchaninov, L.L.; Moiseev, A.M.; Semenov, P.A.; Leflat, A.K.; Sekhniaidze, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    A monitoring and triggering system based on microstrip silicon detectors (MSD) and fast-response low-noise electronics with the number of the readout channels equal to 896, is described. The PMS noise is ENC=25x10 3 e - with the signal integration time of 50 ns. The probability of registering a noise pulse by one channel during data readout cycle is not more than 2.5x10 -6 . The time resolution (FWHM) is (16±3) ns. 17 refs.; 7 figs

  8. Design, fabrication and characterization of the first AC-coupled silicon microstrip sensors in India

    CERN Document Server

    Aziz, T; Mohanty, G.B.; Patil, M.R.; Rao, K.K.; Rani, Y.R.; Rao, Y.P.P.; Behnamian, H.; Mersi, S.; Naseri, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the design, fabrication and characterization of single-sided silicon microstrip sensors with integrated biasing resistors and coupling capacitors, produced for the first time in India. We have first developed a prototype sensor with different width and pitch combinations on a single 4-inch wafer. After finding test procedures for characterizing these AC coupled sensors, we have chosen an optimal width-pitch combination and also fine-tuned various process parameters in order to produce sensors with the desired specifications.

  9. An X-ray imager based on silicon microstrip detector and coded mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Monte, E.; Costa, E.; Di Persio, G.; Donnarumma, I.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Frutti, M.; Lapshov, I.; Lazzarotto, F.; Mastropietro, M.; Morelli, E.; Pacciani, L.; Porrovecchio, G.; Rapisarda, M.; Rubini, A.; Soffitta, P.; Tavani, M.; Argan, A.

    2007-01-01

    SuperAGILE is the X-ray monitor of AGILE, a satellite mission for gamma-ray astronomy, and it is the first X-ray imaging instrument based on the technology of the silicon microstrip detectors combined with a coded aperture imaging technique. The SuperAGILE detection plane is composed of four 1-D silicon microstrip detector modules, mechanically coupled to tungsten coded mask units. The detector strips are separately and individually connected to the input analogue channels of the front-end electronics, composed of low-noise and low-power consumption VLSI ASIC chips. SuperAGILE can produce 1-D images with 6 arcmin angular resolution and ∼2-3 arcmin localisation capability, for intense sources, in a field of view composed of two orthogonal areas of 107 deg. x 68 deg. The time resolution is 2 μs, the overall dead time is ∼5 μs and the electronic noise is ∼7.5 keV full-width at half-maximum. The resulting instrument is very compact (40x40x14 cm 3 ), light (10 kg) and has low power consumption (12 W). AGILE is a mission of the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana and its launch is planned in 2007 in a low equatorial Earth orbit. In this contribution we present SuperAGILE and discuss its performance and scientific objectives

  10. Design, characterization and beam test performance of different silicon microstrip detector geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catacchini, E.; Ciampolini, L.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Lenzi, M.; Meschini, M.; Parrini, G.; Pieri, M.

    1998-01-01

    During the last few years a large number of silicon microstrip detectors has been especially designed and tested in order to study and optimize the performances of the tracking devices to be used in the forward-backward part of the CMS (technical proposal, CERN/LHCC 94-38 LHCC/Pl, 15 December 1994) experiment. Both single and double sided silicon detectors of a trapezoidal ('wedge') shape and with different strip configurations, including prototypes produced with double metal technology, were characterized in the laboratory and tested using high-energy beams. Furthermore, due to the high-radiation environment where the detectors should operate, particular care was devoted to the study of the characteristics of heavily irradiated detectors. The main results of detector performances (charge response, signal-to-noise ratio, spatial resolution etc.) will be reviewed and discussed. (author)

  11. ATLAS irradiation studies of n-in-n and p-in-n silicon microstrip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Allport, P P; Buttar, C M; Carter, J; Drage, L M; Ferrère, D; Morgan, D; Riedler, P; Robinson, D

    1999-01-01

    Prior to the module production of the ATLAS silicon microstrip tracker for the barrel and the forward wheels, the characterisation of full-size prototype silicon detectors after radiation to fluences corresponding to 10 years of ATLAS operation is required. The behaviour of p-in-n and n-in-n detectors produced by several manufacturers before and after irradiation to a fluence of 3*10/sup 14/ protons/cm/sup 2/ at the CERN PS facility is discussed. This article summarises some recent results from the ATLAS SCT collaboration. The measurements of leakage current, full depletion voltage, signal-to-noise ratio and charge collection efficiency are presented. Despite the better efficiency performance of n-in-n detectors below depletion, the collaboration chose the p-in-n technology due to its simpler and less costly production since good charge collection efficiencies were achieved at the desired maximum bias voltage. (14 refs).

  12. A possible role for silicon microstrip detectors in nuclear medicine Compton imaging of positron emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Scannavini, M G; Royle, G J; Cullum, I; Raymond, M; Hall, G; Iles, G

    2002-01-01

    Collimation of gamma-rays based on Compton scatter could provide in principle high resolution and high sensitivity, thus becoming an advantageous method for the imaging of radioisotopes of clinical interest. A small laboratory prototype of a Compton camera is being constructed in order to initiate studies aimed at assessing the feasibility of Compton imaging of positron emitters. The design of the camera is based on the use of a silicon collimator consisting of a stack of double-sided, AC-coupled microstrip detectors (area 6x6 cm sup 2 , 500 mu m thickness, 128 channels/side). Two APV6 chips are employed for signal readout on opposite planes of each detector. This work presents the first results on the noise performance of the silicon strip detectors. Measurements of the electrical characteristics of the detector are also reported. On the basis of the measured noise, an angular resolution of approximately 5 deg. is predicted for the Compton collimator.

  13. Build-up of the silicon micro-strip detector array in ETF of HIRFL-CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pengfei; Li Zhankui; Li Haixia

    2014-01-01

    Silicon micro-strip detectors have been widely used in the world-famous nuclear physics laboratories due to their better position resolution and energy resolution. Double-sided silicon micro-strip detectors with a position resolution of 0.5 mm × 0.5 mm, have been fabricated in the IMP (Institute of Modern Physics, CAS) by using microelectronics technology. These detectors have been used in the ETF (External Target Facility) of HIRFL-CSR, as ΔE detectors of the ΔE-E telescope system and the track detectors. With the help of flexibility printed circuit board (FPCB) and the integrated ASIC chips, a compact multi-channel front-end electronic board has been designed to fulfill the acquisition of the energy and position information of the Silicon micro-strip detectors. It is described in this paper that the build-up of the Silicon micro-strip detector array in ETF of HIRFL-CSR, the determination of the energy resolution of the detector units, and the energy resolution of approximately 1% obtained for 5∼9 MeV α particles in vacuum. (authors)

  14. A silicon microstrip detector in a magnetic spectrometer for high-resolution electron scattering experiments at the S-DALINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenhardt, A.W.; Bonnes, U.; Burda, O.; Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Platz, M.; Richter, A.; Watzlawik, S.

    2006-01-01

    A silicon microstrip detector was developed as focal plane detector of the 169.7 deg. magic angle double-focussing spectrometer at the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator (S-DALINAC). It allows experiments with minimum ionizing electrons at data rates up to 100 kHz, utilizing the maximum resolution of the spectrometer achievable in dispersion-matching mode

  15. Quality assurance of double-sided silicon microstrip sensors for the silicon tracking system in the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larionov, Pavel [Goethe Universitaet, Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Silicon Tracking System (STS) is the core tracking detector of the CBM experiment at FAIR. The system's task is to reconstruct the trajectories of the charged particles produced in the beam-target interactions, provide their momentum determination, and enable the detection of decay topologies. The STS will comprise 1220 double-sided silicon microstrip sensors. After production each sensor will go through a number of Quality Assurance procedures to verify their validity for performance in the STS and also to confirm the manufacturer's data. In this talk, results of the quality assurance procedures that are being applied to the latest STS prototype sensors, including detailed tests of the quality of each single strip, long-term stability and preparations for volume tests during series production, are presented.

  16. A radiographic imaging system based upon a 2-D silicon microstrip sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Papanestis, A; Corrin, E; Raymond, M; Hall, G; Triantis, F A; Manthos, N; Evagelou, I; Van den Stelt, P; Tarrant, T; Speller, R D; Royle, G F

    2000-01-01

    A high resolution, direct-digital detector system based upon a 2-D silicon microstrip sensor has been designed, built and is undergoing evaluation for applications in dentistry and mammography. The sensor parameters and image requirements were selected using Monte Carlo simulations. Sensors selected for evaluation have a strip pitch of 50mum on the p-side and 80mum on the n-side. Front-end electronics and data acquisition are based on the APV6 chip and were adapted from systems used at CERN for high-energy physics experiments. The APV6 chip is not self-triggering so data acquisition is done at a fixed trigger rate. This paper describes the mammographic evaluation of the double sided microstrip sensor. Raw data correction procedures were implemented to remove the effects of dead strips and non-uniform response. Standard test objects (TORMAX) were used to determine limiting spatial resolution and detectability. MTFs were determined using the edge response. The results indicate that the spatial resolution of the...

  17. Scientific performances of the XAA1.2 front-end chip for silicon microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Monte, Ettore; Soffitta, Paolo; Morelli, Ennio; Pacciani, Luigi; Porrovecchio, Geiland; Rubini, Alda; Uberti, Olga; Costa, Enrico; Di Persio, Giuseppe; Donnarumma, Immacolata; Evangelista, Yuri; Feroci, Marco; Lazzarotto, Francesco; Mastropietro, Marcello; Rapisarda, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    The XAA1.2 is a custom ASIC chip for silicon microstrip detectors adapted by Ideas for the SuperAGILE instrument on board the AGILE space mission. The chip is equipped with 128 input channels, each one containing a charge preamplifier, shaper, peak detector and stretcher. The most important features of the ASIC are the extended linearity, low noise and low power consumption. The XAA1.2 underwent extensive laboratory testing in order to study its commandability and functionality and evaluate its scientific performances. In this paper we describe the XAA1.2 features, report the laboratory measurements and discuss the results emphasizing the scientific performances in the context of the SuperAGILE front-end electronics

  18. Beam splash effects on ATLAS silicon microstrip detectors evaluated using 1-w Nd YAG laser

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, K; Kohriki, T; Kuwano, T; Moorhead, G F; Terada, S; Unno, Y

    2005-01-01

    On an incident of accelerator beam loss, the tracking detector located close to the beam line is subjected to receive intensive radiation in a short period. We used a 1-W focused Nd: YAG laser and simulated the effects on the ATLAS microstrip detector. The laser corresponds to intensity of up to 1 multiplied by 109mips/pulse with a pulse width of about 10 ns. We observed breaks on Al strips on extreme conditions, depending on the laser intensity and bias voltage applied to the silicon sensor. The break can be interpreted as the oxide breakdown due to a large voltage locally created across the oxide by the intensive signal charges. The robustness of the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) module including readout ASICs is also evaluated.

  19. The Silicon Microstrip Sensors of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, A; Allport, P P; Alonso, J; Andricek, L; Apsimon, R J; Barr, A J; Bates, R L; Beck, G A; Bell, P J; Belymam, A; Benes, J; Berg, C M; Bernabeu, J; Bethke, S; Bingefors, N; Bizzell, J P; Bohm, J; Brenner, R; Brodbeck, T J; Bruckman De Renstrom, P; Buttar, C M; Campbell, D; Carpentieri, C; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Charlton, D G; Casse, G-L; Chilingarov, A; Cindro, V; Ciocio, A; Civera, J V; Clark, A G; Colijn, A-P; Costa, M J; Dabrowski, W; Danielsen, K M; Dawson, I; Demirkoz, B; Dervan, P; Dolezal, Z; Dorholt, O; Duerdoth, I P; Dwuznik, M; Eckert, S; Ekelöf, T; Eklund, L; Escobar, C; Fasching, D; Feld, L; Ferguson, D P S; Ferrere, D; Fortin, R; Foster, J M; Fox, H; French, R; Fromant, B P; Fujita, K; Fuster, J; Gadomski, S; Gallop, B J; Garcia, C; Garcia-Navarro, J E; Gibson, M D; Gonzalez, S; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; Goodrick, M J; Gornicki, E; Green, C; Greenall, A; Grigson, C; Grillo, A A; Grosse-Knetter, J; Haber, C; Handa, T; Hara, K; Harper, R S; Hartjes, F G; Hashizaki, T; Hauff, D; Hessey, N P; Hill, J C; Hollins, T I; Holt, S; Horazdovsky, T; Hornung, M; Hovland, K M; Hughes, G; Huse, T; Ikegami, Y; Iwata, Y; Jackson, J N; Jakobs, K; Jared, R C; Johansen, L G; Jones, R W L; Jones, T J; de Jong, P; Joseph, J; Jovanovic, P; Kaplon, J; Kato, Y; Ketterer, C; Kindervaag, I M; Kodys, P; Koffeman, E; Kohriki, T; Kohout, Z; Kondo, T; Koperny, S; van der Kraaij, E; Kral, V; Kramberger, G; Kudlaty, J; Lacasta, C; Limper, M; Linhart, V; Llosa, G; Lozano, M; Ludwig, I; Ludwig, J; Lutz, G; Macpherson, A; McMahon, S J; Macina, D; Magrath, C A; Malecki, P; Mandic, I; Marti-Garcia, S; Matsuo, T; Meinhardt, J; Mellado, B; Mercer, I J; Mikestikova, M; Mikuz, M; Minano, M; Mistry, J; Mitsou, V; Modesto, P; Mohn, B; Molloy, S D; Moorhead, G; Moraes, A; Morgan, D; Morone, M C; Morris, J; Moser, H-G; Moszczynski, A; Muijs, A J M; Nagai, K; Nakamura, Y; Nakano, I; Nicholson, R; Niinikoski, T; Nisius, R; Ohsugi, T; O'Shea, V; Oye, O K; Parzefall, U; Pater, J R; Pernegger, H; Phillips, P W; Posisil, S; Ratoff, P N; Reznicek, P; Richardson, J D; Richter, R H; Robinson, D; Roe, S; Ruggiero, G; Runge, K; Sadrozinski, H F W; Sandaker, H; Schieck, J; Seiden, A; Shinma, S; Siegrist, J; Sloan, T; Smith, N A; Snow, S W; Solar, M; Solberg, A; Sopko, B; Sospedra, L; Spieler, H; Stanecka, E; Stapnes, S; Stastny, J; Stelzer, F; Stradling, A; Stugu, B; Takashima, R; Tanaka, R; Taylor, G; Terada, S; Thompson, R J; Titov, M; Tomeda, Y; Tovey, D R; Turala, M; Turner, P R; Tyndel, M; Ullan, M; Unno, Y; Vickey, T; Vos, M; Wallny, R; Weilhammer, P; Wells, P S; Wilson, J A; Wolter, M; Wormald, M; Wu, S L; Yamashita, T; Zontar, D; Zsenei, A

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the AC-coupled, single-sided, p-in-n silicon microstrip sensors used in the SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The sensor requirements, specifications and designs are discussed, together with the qualification and quality assurance procedures adopted for their production. The measured sensor performance is presented, both initially and after irradiation to the fluence anticipated after 10 years of LHC operation. The sensors are now successfully assembled within the detecting modules of the SCT, and the SCT tracker is completed and integrated within the ATLAS Inner Detector. Hamamatsu Photonics Ltd supplied 92.2% of the 15,392 installed sensors, with the remainder supplied by CiS.

  20. A VLSI front-end circuit for microstrip silicon detectors for medical imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beccherle, R.; Cisternino, A.; Guerra, A. Del; Folli, M.; Marchesini, R.; Bisogni, M.G.; Ceccopieri, A.; Rosso, V.; Stefanini, A.; Tripiccione, R.; Kipnis, I.

    1999-01-01

    An analog CMOS-Integrated Circuit has been developed as Front-End for a double-sided microstrip silicon detector. The IC processes and discriminates signals in the 5-30 keV energy range. Main features are low noise and precise timing information. Low noise is achieved by optimizing the cascoded integrator with the 8 pF detector capacitance and by using an inherently low noise 1.2 μm CMOS technology. Timing information is provided by a double discriminator architecture. The output of the circuit is a digital pulse. The leading edge is determined by a fixed threshold discriminator, while the trailing edge is provided by a zero crossing discriminator. In this paper we first describe the architecture of the Front-End chip. We then present the performance of the chip prototype in terms of noise, minimum discrimination threshold and time resolution

  1. Test of the CMS microstrip silicon tracker readout and control system

    CERN Document Server

    Zghiche, A

    2001-01-01

    The Microstrip Silicon tracker of the CMS detector is designed to provide robust particle tracking and vertex reconstruction within a strong magnetic field in the high luminosity environment of the LHC. The Tracker readout system employs Front-End Driver cards to digitize and buffer the analogue data arriving via optical links from on detector pipeline chips. The control chain of the front-end electronic is built to operate via optical fibers in order to shield the communications from the outside noise. Components close to the final design have been assembled to be tested in the X5 beam area at CERN where a dedicated 25 ns temporal structure beam has been made available by the SPS. This paper describes the hardware and the software developed for readout and control of data acquired by the front-end electronics operating at 40 MHz, Some preliminary results of the tests performed in the 25 ns beam are also given. (8 refs).

  2. Construction of the new silicon microstrips tracker for the Phase-II ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Zhijun; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The inner detector of the present ATLAS detector has been designed and developed to function in the environment of the present Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At the next-generation tracking detector proposed for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the so-called ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade, the particle densities and radiation levels will be higher by as much as a factor of ten. The new detectors must be faster, they need to be more highly segmented, and covering more area. They also need to be more resistant to radiation, and they require much greater power delivery to the front-end systems. For those reasons, the inner tracker of the ATLAS detector must be redesigned and rebuilt completely. The design of the ATLAS Upgrade inner tracker (ITk) has already been defined. It consists of several layers of silicon particle detectors. The innermost layers will be composed of silicon pixel sensors, and the outer layers will consist of silicon microstrip sensors. This paper will focus on the latest research and development act...

  3. Signals from fluorescent materials on the surface of silicon micro-strip sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Sperlich, Dennis; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    For the High-Luminosity Upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced with a new, all-silicon tracker. In order to minimise the amount of material in the detector, circuit boards with readout electronics will be glued on to the active area of the sensor. Several adhesives investigated to be used for the construction of detector modules were found to become fluorescent when exposed to UV light. These adhesives could become a light source in the high-radiation environment of the ATLAS detector. The effect of fluorescent material covering the sensor surface in a high- radiation environment has been studied for a silicon micro-strip sensor using a micro-focused X-ray beam. By pointing the beam both inside the sensor and parallel to the sensor surface, the sensor responses from direct hits and fluorescence can be compared with high precision. This contribution presents a setup to study the susceptibility of silicon strip sensors to light contamination from fluorescent mate...

  4. Signals from fluorescent materials on the surface of silicon micro-strip sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Sperlich, Dennis; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    For the High-Luminosity Upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced with a new, all-silicon tracker (ITk). In order to minimise the amount of material in the ITk, circuit boards with readout electronics will be glued onto the active area of the sensor. Several adhesives, investigated to be used for the construction of detector modules, were found to become fluorescent when exposed to UV light. These adhesives could become a light source in the high-radiation environment of the ATLAS detector. The effect of fluorescent material covering the sensor surface in a high-radiation environment has been studied for a silicon micro-strip sensor using a micro-focused X-ray beam. By positioning the beam parallel to the sensor surfave and pointing it both inside the sensor and above the sensor surface inside the deposited glue, the sensor responses from direct hits and fluorescence can be compared with high precision. This contribution presents a setup to study the susceptibilit...

  5. Silicon microstrip detector development in the Institute for High Energy Physics Zeuthen, GDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, W.; Nowak, W.D.; Truetzschler, K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that in regard of the growing interest to study short living particles demanding for high resolution vertex detectors the authors started to build Si microstrip detectors. The first detector generation was characterized by a small area of silicon and a readout via printed circuit board fan out. Now they can assemble detectors with larger areas and VLSI readout. A special cleanroom has been built. Equipment and tools necessary are available. Silicon wafers and thick film hybrid circuits are fabricated under collaboration by the GDR industry. Applications of their detectors were several test-runs at CERN to calibrate the L3 time expansion chamber (TEC) and the L3 muon chambers. A 10-layer telescope is designed now and it is planned to calibrate a high resolution scintillation fiber target. Future applications will be high resolution vertex detectors, e.g. L3 upgrading (LEP, CERN) or KEDR (VEPP-5, Novosibirsk). Further investigations will concern AC coupled strip detectors (single and double sided) and pixel and/or pad detectors

  6. Enabling Technologies for Silicon Microstrip Tracking Detectors at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, C; Bloch, I.; Bögelspacher, F.; de Boer, W.; Daniels, M.; Dierlamm, A.; Eber, R.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Erfle, J.; Feld, L.; Garutti, E.; Gregor, I. -M.; Guthoff, M.; Hartmann, F.; Hauser, M.; Husemann, U.; Jakobs, K.; Junkes, A.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.; Kuehn, S.; Lacker, H.; Mahboubi, K.; Müller, Th.; Mussgiller, A.; Nürnberg, A.; Parzefall, U.; Poehlsen, T.; Poley, L.; Preuten, M.; Rehnisch, L.; Sammet, J.; Schleper, P.; Schuwalow, S.; Sperlich, D.; Stanitzki, M.; Steinbrück, G.; Wlochal, M.

    2016-01-01

    While the tracking detectors of the ATLAS and CMS experiments have shown excellent performance in Run 1 of LHC data taking, and are expected to continue to do so during LHC operation at design luminosity, both experiments will have to exchange their tracking systems when the LHC is upgraded to the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) around the year 2024. The new tracking systems need to operate in an environment in which both the hit densities and the radiation damage will be about an order of magnitude higher than today. In addition, the new trackers need to contribute to the first level trigger in order to maintain a high data-taking efficiency for the interesting processes. Novel detector technologies have to be developed to meet these very challenging goals. The German groups active in the upgrades of the ATLAS and CMS tracking systems have formed a collaborative "Project on Enabling Technologies for Silicon Microstrip Tracking Detectors at the HL-LHC" (PETTL), which was supported by the Helmholtz Alliance "Phys...

  7. Microstrip silicon detectors in a bent crystal based collimation system: The UA9 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolognini, D.

    2010-01-01

    In a hadron accelerator like Lhc, a collimation system needs to be developed to protect the accelerator itself from the beam loss damage, increasing the beam luminosity. At present, a classical robust multi-stage collimation system (based on amorphous jaws) allows to protect Lhc, but limits the luminosity to the 40% of the nominal value. In order to solve this problem, a series of low-impedance collimation systems is being developed for the second Lhc collimation phase: among these, a key role could be played by bent crystals. In a bent crystal, in fact, charged particles can be deviated in a given direction with a high efficiency, reducing the impedance and increasing the luminosity. After the satisfactory results on extracted beams, it was decided to test bent crystals on a circular accelerator (the Super Proton Synchrotron Sps at CERN): the UA9 experiment was born. In order to qualify the crystal behavior, a tracking system has been developed: the system is based on microstrip silicon detectors readout by self-triggering ASICs with a spatial resolution of the order of 5 μm; the system, completely remotely controlled and based on the optical fiber transmission, would be able to measure the beam halo phase space x - x 1 . This paper, after a brief introduction of the UA9 experiment, will describe the tracking system and the first results obtained in the commissioning phase and data takings with a detector prototype.

  8. The depletion properties of silicon microstrip detectors with variable strip pitch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krizmanic, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the depletion properties of trapezoidal shaped silicon microstrip detectors which have variable strip pitch. Four types of detectors were examined: three detectors have constant strip width and a fourth has a varying strip width. The detectors are single sided with readout performed via p + strips. The depletion properties of the devices were measured using two different methods. The first used capacitance versus voltage measurements, while the second used a 1060 nm wavelength laser coupled to a single mode fiber with a mode field diameter less than 10 μm. The small laser spot size allowed for the depletion depth to be measured in a localized area of the detector. The laser induced charge on an electrode was measured as a function of reverse bias voltage using a sensitive charge preamplifier. The depletion voltages of the detectors demonstrate a strong dependence upon the ratio of strip width to strip pitch. Moreover, these measurements show that a large value of this ratio yields a lower depletion voltage and vice versa. (orig.)

  9. Development of a Test System for the Quality Assurance of Silicon Microstrip Detectors for the Inner Tracking System of the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Axer, Markus

    2003-01-01

    The inner tracking system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which is being built at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) will be equipped with two different technologies of silicon detectors. While the innermost tracker will be composed of silicon pixel detectors, silicon microstrip detectors are envisaged for the outer tracker architecture. The silicon microstrip tracker will house about 15,000 single detector modules each composed of a set of silicon sensors, the readout electronics (front end hybrid), and a support frame. It will provide a total active area of 198 m2 and ten million analogue channels read out at the collider frequency of 40 MHz. This large number of modules to be produced and integrated into the tracking system is an unprecedented challenge involving industrial companies and various research institutes from many different countries. This thesis deals with the physics of silicon sensors and the preparation of ...

  10. Non-invasive characterization and quality assurance of silicon micro-strip detectors using pulsed infrared laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR is composed of 8 tracking stations consisting of roughly 1300 double sided silicon micro-strip detectors of 3 different dimensions. For the quality assurance of prototype micro-strip detectors a non-invasive detector charaterization is developed. The test system is using a pulsed infrared laser for charge injection and characterization, called Laser Test System (LTS). The system is aimed to develop a set of characterization procedures which are non-invasive (non-destructive) in nature and could be used for quality assurances of several silicon micro-strip detectors in an efficient, reliable and reproducible way. The procedures developed (as reported here) uses the LTS to scan sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser driven by step motor to determine the charge sharing in-between strips and to measure qualitative uniformity of the sensor response over the whole active area. The prototype detector modules which are tested with the LTS so far have 1024 strips with a pitch of 58 μm on each side. They are read-out using a self-triggering prototype read-out electronic ASIC called n-XYTER. The LTS is designed to measure sensor response in an automatized procedure at several thousand positions across the sensor with focused infra-red laser light (spot size ≈ 12 μm, wavelength = 1060 nm). The pulse with a duration of ≈ 10 ns and power ≈ 5 mW of the laser pulse is selected such, that the absorption of the laser light in the 300 μm thick silicon sensor produces ≈ 24000 electrons, which is similar to the charge created by minimum ionizing particles (MIP) in these sensors. The laser scans different prototype sensors and various non-invasive techniques to determine characteristics of the detector modules for the quality assurance is reported.

  11. Charge-partitioning study of a wide-pitch silicon micro-strip detector with a 64-channel CMOS preamplifier array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, H.; Tsuboyama, T.; Okuno, S.; Saitoh, Y.; Akamine, T.; Satoh, K.; Inoue, M.; Yamanaka, J.; Mandai, M.; Takeuchi, H.; Kitta, T.; Miyahara, S.; Kamiya, M.

    1996-01-01

    The wider pitch readout operation of a 50 μm-pitch double-sided silicon micro-strip detector has been studied specifically concerning its ohmic side. Every second readout and ganged configuration was examined by employing a newly developed 64-channel preamplifier array. The observed charge responses for collimated IR light were compared with a numerical model. (orig.)

  12. Characterization and spice simulation of a single-sided, p+ on n silicon microstrip detector before and after low-energy photon irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiaguo; Klanner, Robert; Fretwurst, Eckhart [Institute for Experimental Physics, Detector Laboratory, University of Hamburg, Hamburg 22761 (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    As preparation for the development of silicon detectors for the harsh radiation environment at the European XFEL (up to 1 GGY 12 keV X-rays) p{sup +} on n silicon microstrip detectors were characterized as function of dose. The measurements, which include dark current, coupling capacitance, interstrip capacitance and interstrip resistance, are compared to a detailed SPICE model, so that the performance for particle detection can be estimated.

  13. Silicon microstrip detectors in 3D technology for the sLHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzefall, Ulrich [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne; Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris; Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2009-08-01

    The projected luminosity upgrade of the large hadron collider (LHC), the sLHC, will constitute a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors. Massive improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. In the layout for the new ATLAS tracker, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSDs will be exposed to fluences up to 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, hence radiation resistance is the major concern. It is advantageous to fuse the superior radiation hardness of the 3D design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the well-known planar technology for strip detectors. This is achieved by ganging rows of 3D columns together to form strips. Several prototype sLHC detector modules using 3D SSD with short strips, processed on p-type silicon, and LHC-speed front-end electronics from the present ATLAS semi-conductor tracker (SCT) were built. The modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5{mu}m spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency (CCE), a Sr{sup 90}{beta}-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particles (MIPs), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of the performance of these 3D modules, and draws conclusions about options for using 3D strip sensors as tracking detectors at the sLHC.

  14. Silicon microstrip detectors in 3D technology for the sLHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzefall, Ulrich; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Eckert, Simon; Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste; Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne; Pahn, Gregor; Parkes, Chris; Pennicard, David; Ronchin, Sabina; Zoboli, Andrea; Zorzi, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    The projected luminosity upgrade of the large hadron collider (LHC), the sLHC, will constitute a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors. Massive improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. In the layout for the new ATLAS tracker, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSDs will be exposed to fluences up to 10 15 N eq /cm 2 , hence radiation resistance is the major concern. It is advantageous to fuse the superior radiation hardness of the 3D design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the well-known planar technology for strip detectors. This is achieved by ganging rows of 3D columns together to form strips. Several prototype sLHC detector modules using 3D SSD with short strips, processed on p-type silicon, and LHC-speed front-end electronics from the present ATLAS semi-conductor tracker (SCT) were built. The modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10 15 N eq /cm 2 . The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5μm spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency (CCE), a Sr 90 β-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particles (MIPs), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of the performance of these 3D modules, and draws conclusions about options for using 3D strip sensors as tracking detectors at the sLHC.

  15. Short p-type silicon microstrip detectors in 3D-stc technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, S. [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder Strasse 3b, D-79104 Freiburg i. Br. (Germany)], E-mail: simon.eckert@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Jakobs, K.; Kuehn, S.; Parzefall, U. [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder Strasse 3b, D-79104 Freiburg i. Br. (Germany); Dalla-Betta, G.-F.; Zoboli, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita degli Studi di Trento, via Sommarive 14, I-38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Pozza, A.; Zorzi, N. [FBK-irst Trento, Microsystems Division, via Sommarive 18, I-38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2008-10-21

    The luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the sLHC, will constitute an extremely challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are needed to cope with the increased radiation dose, requiring new tracking detectors. In the upgraded ATLAS detector the region from 20 to 50 cm distance to the beam will be covered by silicon strip detectors (SSD) with short strips. These will have to withstand a 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence of about 1x10{sup 15}n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, hence extreme radiation resistance is necessary. For the short strips, we propose to use SSD realised in the radiation tolerant 3D technology, where rows of columns-etched into the silicon bulk-are joined together to form strips. To demonstrate the feasibility of 3D SSD for the sLHC, we have built prototype modules using 3D-single-type-column (stc) SSD with short strips and front-end electronics from the present ATLAS SCT. The modules were read out with the SCT Data Acquisition system and tested with an IR-laser. We report on the performance of these 3D modules, in particular the noise at 40 MHz which constitutes a measurement of the effective detector capacitance. Conclusions about options for using 3D SSD detectors for tracking at the sLHC are drawn.

  16. Towards Gotthard-II: development of a silicon microstrip detector for the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Andrä, M.; Barten, R.; Bergamaschi, A.; Brückner, M.; Dinapoli, R.; Fröjdh, E.; Greiffenberg, D.; Lopez-Cuenca, C.; Mezza, D.; Mozzanica, A.; Ramilli, M.; Redford, S.; Ruat, M.; Ruder, C.; Schmitt, B.; Shi, X.; Thattil, D.; Tinti, G.; Turcato, M.; Vetter, S.

    2018-01-01

    Gotthard-II is a 1-D microstrip detector specifically developed for the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser. It will not only be used in energy dispersive experiments but also as a beam diagnostic tool with additional logic to generate veto signals for the other 2-D detectors. Gotthard-II makes use of a silicon microstrip sensor with a pitch of either 50 μm or 25 μm and with 1280 or 2560 channels wire-bonded to adaptive gain switching readout chips. Built-in analog-to-digital converters and digital memories will be implemented in the readout chip for a continuous conversion and storage of frames for all bunches in the bunch train. The performance of analogue front-end prototypes of Gotthard has been investigated in this work. The results in terms of noise, conversion gain, dynamic range, obtained by means of infrared laser and X-rays, will be shown. In particular, the effects of the strip-to-strip coupling are studied in detail and it is found that the reduction of the coupling effects is one of the key factors for the development of the analogue front-end of Gotthard-II.

  17. Development of Radiation Hard Radiation Detectors, Differences between Czochralski Silicon and Float Zone Silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Tuominen, Eija

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop radiation hard silicon detectors. Radiation detectors made ofsilicon are cost effective and have excellent position resolution. Therefore, they are widely used fortrack finding and particle analysis in large high-energy physics experiments. Silicon detectors willalso be used in the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiment that is being built at the LHC (LargeHadron Collider) accelerator at CERN (European Organisation for Nuclear Research). This work wasdone in the CMS programme of Helsinki Institute of Physics (HIP).Exposure of the silicon material to particle radiation causes irreversible defects that deteriorate theperformance of the silicon detectors. In HIP CMS Programme, our approach was to improve theradiation hardness of the silicon material with increased oxygen concentration in silicon material. Westudied two different methods: diffusion oxygenation of Float Zone silicon and use of high resistivityCzochralski silicon.We processed, characterised, tested in a parti...

  18. Degradation of silicon AC-coupled microstrip detectors induced by radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Canali, C.; Fuochi, P. G.; Gotra, Y.; Paccagnella, A.; Verzellesi, G.

    1993-12-01

    Results are presented showing the radiation response of AC-coupled FOXFET biased microstrip detectors and related test patterns to be used in the microvertex detector of the CDF experiment at Fermi National Laboratory. Radiation tolerance of detectors to gamma and proton irradiation has been tested, and the radiation-induced variations of the DC electrical parameters have been analyzed. The long-term postirradiation behavior of detector characteristics has been studied, and the relevant room-temperature annealing phenomena have been examined. The main radiation damage effects after gamma or proton irradiation of FOXFET biased microstrip detectors consist of an increase in the total leakage current, while both the detector dynamic resistance and FOXFET switching voltage decrease.

  19. Characterization of silicon microstrip sensors with a pulsed infrared laser system for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Pradeep [Goethe Univ., Frankfurt (Germany); GSI (Germany); Eschke, Juergen [GSI (Germany); FAIR (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The Silicon Tracking System (STS) for the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR will comprise more than 1200 double-sided silicon microstrip sensors. For the quality assurance of the prototype sensors a laser test system has been built up. The aim of the sensor scans with the pulsed infrared laser system is to determine the charge sharing between strips and to measure the uniformity of the sensor response over the whole active area. The laser system measures the sensor response in an automatized procedure at several thousand positions across the sensor with focused infrared laser light (σ∼15 μm, λ=1060 nm). The duration (5 ns) and power (few mW) of the laser pulses are selected such, that the absorption of the laser light in the 300 μm thick silicon sensors produces a number of about 24k electrons, which is similar to the charge created by minimum ionizing particles in these sensors. Results from the characterization of monolithic active pixel sensors, to understand the spot-size of the laser, and laser scans for different sensors are presented.

  20. Performance of a beam telescope using double sided silicon microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, P.; Menke, S.; Wermes, N.

    1995-04-01

    A beam telescope consisting of four double sided, DC coupled microstrip detectors with VLSI readout electronics has been built and tested in a 70 GeV μ - beam at CERN. A signal to noise ratio of 53:1 and a spatial resolution of 2.7 μm (junction side) and 4.8 μm (ohmic side) have been observed on the best detectors. A telescope performance for a particle track of σ xy =2-3 μm and σ slope =2-3 μrad on the front face of a test object was achieved. (orig.)

  1. Gas microstrip chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, P.M.; Barasch, E.F.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Demroff, H.P.; Elliott, S.M.; Howe, M.R.; Lee, B.; Mazumdar, T.K.; Pang, Y.; Smith, D.D.; Wahl, J.; Wu, Y.; Yue, W.K.; Gaedke, R.M.; Vanstraelen, G.

    1992-01-01

    The gas microstrip chamber has been developed from concept to experimental system during the past three years. A pattern of anode and grid lines are microfabricated onto a dielectric substrate and configured as a high-resolution MWPC. Four recent developments are described: Suitable plastic substrates and lithography techniques for large-area chambers; non-planar silicon-based chambers for 20 μm resolution; integrated on-board synchronous front-end electronics and data buffering; and a porous silicon active cathode for enhanced efficiency and time response. The microstrip chamber appears to be a promising technology for applications in microvertex, tracking spectrometer, muon spectrometer, and transition radiation detection. (orig.)

  2. Hardness and thermal stability of cubic silicon nitride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Kragh, Flemming; Frost, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    The hardness and thermal stability of cubic spinel silicon nitride (c-Si3N4), synthesized under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions, have been studied by microindentation measurements, and x-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively The phase at ambient...

  3. Characterization of silicon microstrip sensors, front-end electronics, and prototype tracking detectors for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokin, Iurii

    2013-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment will explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter in the region of high net baryonic densities. The matter at the extreme conditions will be studied in collisions of a heavy ion beam with a fixed heavy element target. The present work is devoted to the development of the main component of the CBM experiment - the Silicon Tracking System (STS). The STS has to enable reconstruction of up to 1000 charged particle tracks per nucleus-nucleus interaction at the rate of up to 10 MHz, provide a momentum resolution Δp/p of 1 %, and withstand the radiation load of up to 10 14 n eq /cm 2 (n eq -neutron equivalent). The STS will be based on double-sided silicon microstrip sensors, that will be arranged in 8 planes in the aperture of the dipole magnet. Selftriggering readout electronics will be located on the periphery of the detecting planes, and connected to the sensors with low mass microcables. In the stage of R and D, as well as in the stages of pre-series and series production, characterization of the sensors, of the front-end electronics, and of the complete detector modules has to be performed. In the present work the required techniques were developed, and the performance of the latest detector prototypes was evaluated. A particular attention is paid to evaluation of the signal amplitude, as it is one of the most important detector characteristics. Techniques for measuring the passive electrical characteristics of the sensors were developed. These include: the coupling and the interstrip capacitances, the interstrip resistance, the bias resistance, the strip leakage current, the bulk capacitance, and the bulk leakage current. The techniques will be applied for the quality assurance of the sensors during the pre-series and the series production. Extensive characterization of the prototype readout chip, n-XYTER, was performed. The register settings were optimized, and the dependence of the amplitude response on

  4. Characterization of silicon microstrip sensors, front-end electronics, and prototype tracking detectors for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorokin, Iurii

    2013-07-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment will explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter in the region of high net baryonic densities. The matter at the extreme conditions will be studied in collisions of a heavy ion beam with a fixed heavy element target. The present work is devoted to the development of the main component of the CBM experiment - the Silicon Tracking System (STS). The STS has to enable reconstruction of up to 1000 charged particle tracks per nucleus-nucleus interaction at the rate of up to 10 MHz, provide a momentum resolution Δp/p of 1 %, and withstand the radiation load of up to 10{sup 14} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} (n{sub eq}-neutron equivalent). The STS will be based on double-sided silicon microstrip sensors, that will be arranged in 8 planes in the aperture of the dipole magnet. Selftriggering readout electronics will be located on the periphery of the detecting planes, and connected to the sensors with low mass microcables. In the stage of R and D, as well as in the stages of pre-series and series production, characterization of the sensors, of the front-end electronics, and of the complete detector modules has to be performed. In the present work the required techniques were developed, and the performance of the latest detector prototypes was evaluated. A particular attention is paid to evaluation of the signal amplitude, as it is one of the most important detector characteristics. Techniques for measuring the passive electrical characteristics of the sensors were developed. These include: the coupling and the interstrip capacitances, the interstrip resistance, the bias resistance, the strip leakage current, the bulk capacitance, and the bulk leakage current. The techniques will be applied for the quality assurance of the sensors during the pre-series and the series production. Extensive characterization of the prototype readout chip, n-XYTER, was performed. The register settings were optimized, and the dependence of the

  5. Development of Technique for Testing the Long-Term Stability of Silicon Microstrip Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosinov, A.V.; Maslov, N.I.; Naumov, S.V.; Ovchinnik, V.D.; Starodubtsev, A.F.; Vasiliev, G.P.; Yalovenko, V.I.; Bosisio, L.

    2006-01-01

    An automatic multi-channel set-up prototype for simultaneous testing of the Long-Term Stability (LTS) of more than ten detectors is described. The Inner Tracking System of the ALICE experiment will include about two thousand Double-sided Microstrip Detectors (DSMD). Efficient automatic measurement techniques are crucial for the LTS test, because the corresponding test procedure should be performed on each detector and requires long time, at least two days. By using special adapters for supporting and connecting the bare DSMDs, failing detectors can be screened out before module assembly, thus minimizing the cost. Automated probe stations developed for a special purpose or for microelectronics industry are used for measuring physical static DSMD characteristics and check good-to-bad elements ratio for DSMD. However, automated (or semi-automatic)test benches for studying LTS or testing DSMD long-term stability before developing a detecting module are absent

  6. Microstrip detector for the ALICE experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1996-01-01

    This photo shows a close up of one of the silicon microstrip detectors that will be installed on the ALICE experiment at the LHC. 1698 double-sided modules of these silicon microstrips will be installed in the two outermost layers of the ALICE inner tracking system. The microstrips have to be specially designed to withstand the high resolution levels at the heart of the detector.

  7. UV radiation hardness of silicon inversion layer solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hezel, R.

    1990-01-01

    For full utilization of the high spectral response of inversion layer solar cells in the very-short-wavelength range of the solar spectrum sufficient ultraviolet-radiation hardness is required. In addition to the charge-induced passivation achieved by cesium incorporation into the silicon nitride AR coating, in this paper the following means for further drastic reduction of UV light-induced effects in inversion layer solar cells without encapsulation are introduced and interpretations are given: increasing the nitride deposition temperature, silicon surface oxidation at low temperatures, and texture etching and using higher substrate resistivities. High UV radiation tolerance and improvement of the cell efficiency could be obtained simultaneously

  8. Design and development of a vertex reconstruction for the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) data. Study of gaseous and silicon micro-strips detectors (MSGC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, St.

    2002-12-01

    The work presented in this thesis has contributed to the development of the Compact Muon Solenoid detector (CMS) that will be installed at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which will start running in summer 2007. This report is organised in three parts: the study of gaseous detectors and silicon micro-strips detectors, and a development of a software for the reconstruction and analysis of CMS data in the framework of ORCA. First, the micro-strips gaseous detectors (MSGC) study was on the ultimate critical irradiation test before their substitution in the CMS tracker. This test showed a really small number of lost anodes and a stable signal to noise ratio. This test proved that the described MSGC fulfill all the requirements to be integrated in the CMS tracker. The following contribution described a study of silicon micro-strips detectors and its electronics exposed to a 40 MHz bunched LHC like beam. These tests indicated a good behaviour of the data acquisition and control system. The signal to noise ratio, the bunch crossing identification and the cluster finding efficiency had also be analysed. The last study concern the design and the development of an ORCA algorithm dedicates to secondary vertex reconstruction. This iterative algorithm aims to be use for b tagging. This part analyse also primary vertex reconstruction in events without and with pile up. (author)

  9. Charge collection efficiency and resolution of an irradiated double-sided silicon microstrip detector operated at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borer, K.; Janos, S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Buytaert, J.; Chabaud, V.; Chochula, P.; Collins, P.; Dijkstra, H.; Niinikoski, T.O.; Lourenco, C.; Parkes, C.; Saladino, S.; Ruf, T.; Granata, V.; Pagano, S.; Vitobello, F.; Bell, W.; Bartalini, P.; Dormond, O.; Frei, R.; Casagrande, L.; Bowcock, T.; Barnett, I.B.M.; Da Via, C.; Konorov, I.; Paul, S.; Schmitt, L.; Ruggiero, G.; Stavitski, I.; Esposito, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents results on the measurement of the cluster shapes, resolution and charge collection efficiency of a double-sided silicon microstrip detector after irradiation with 24 GeV protons to a fluence of 3.5x10 14 p/cm 2 and operated at cryogenic temperatures. An empirical model is presented which describes the expected cluster shapes as a function of depletion depth, and is shown to agree with the data. It is observed that the clusters on the p-side broaden if the detector is under-depleted, leading to a degradation of resolution and efficiency. The model is used to make predictions for detector types envisaged for the LHC experiments. The results also show that at cryogenic temperature the charge collection efficiency varies depending on the operating conditions of the detector and can reach values of 100% at unexpectedly low bias voltage. By analysing the cluster shapes it is shown that these variations are due to changes in depletion depth. This phenomenon, known as the 'Lazarus effect', can be related to similar recent observations on diode behaviour

  10. Radiation hardness of diamond and silicon sensors compared

    CERN Document Server

    de Boer, Wim; Furgeri, Alexander; Mueller, Steffen; Sander, Christian; Berdermann, Eleni; Pomorski, Michal; Huhtinen, Mika

    2007-01-01

    The radiation hardness of silicon charged particle sensors is compared with single crystal and polycrystalline diamond sensors, both experimentally and theoretically. It is shown that for Si- and C-sensors, the NIEL hypothesis, which states that the signal loss is proportional to the Non-Ionizing Energy Loss, is a good approximation to the present data. At incident proton and neutron energies well above 0.1 GeV the radiation damage is dominated by the inelastic cross section, while at non-relativistic energies the elastic cross section prevails. The smaller inelastic nucleon-Carbon cross section and the light nuclear fragments imply that at high energies diamond is an order of magnitude more radiation hard than silicon, while at energies below 0.1 GeV the difference becomes significantly smaller.

  11. The front-end amplifier for the silicon microstrip sensors of the PANDA MVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Pietro, Valentino; Brinkmann, Kai-Thomas; Riccardi, Alberto [II. Physikalisches Institut, JLU Giessen (Germany); Rivetti, Angelo; Rolo, Manuel [INFN Sezione di Torino (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    The most common readout systems designed for the nuclear physics detectors are based on amplitude measurements. The information that needs to be preserved is the charge delivered by a particle hitting the sensor. The electronic chain employed in these cases is made from two main building blocks: front-end amplifier and ADC. One of the issues associated with the implementation of such an architecture in scaled CMOS technologies is the dynamic range, because the charge information is extrapolated through the sampling of the peak of the front-end output signal. It is therefore interesting to explore the possibility of using time-based architectures offering better performances from that point of view. In fact, in these topologies the linearity between the charge and the signal duration can be maintained even if some building blocks in the chain saturate. The main drawback is the loss in resolution since a duration measurement involves the difference between two time measurements. This work will present the design of a front-end optimized for fast Time-over-Threshold applications. The circuit has been developed for the microstrip detectors of the PANDA experiment. The key features of the front-end amplifier are illustrated and both schematic level, and post-layout simulations are discussed.

  12. Development and Evaluation of Test Stations for the Quality Assurance of the Silicon Micro-Strip Detector Modules for the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Pöttgens, Michael

    2007-01-01

    CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) is one of four large-scale detectors which will be operated at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN). For the search for new physics the reconstruction of the collision products and their properties is essential. In the innermost part of the CMS detector the traces of ionizing particles are measured utilizing a silicon tracker. A large fraction of this detector is equipped with silicon micro-strip modules which provide a precise space resolution in 1-dimension. A module consists of a sensor for detection of particles, the corresponding read-out electronics (hybrid) and a mechanical support structure. Since the 15,148 modules, which will be installed in the silicon micro-strip detector, have a total sensitive surface area of about 198 m2, the inner tracker of CMS is the largest silicon tracking detector, which has ever been built. While the sensors and hybrids are produced in industry, the construction of the modules and the control o...

  13. Development of the microstrip silicon detector for imaging of fast processes at a synchrotron radiation beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulchenko, V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russian Federtion (Russian Federation); Pruuel, E. [Lavrentiev Institute of Hydrodynamics, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russian Federtion (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russian Federtion (Russian Federation); Shekhtman, L. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russian Federtion (Russian Federation); Ten, K. [Lavrentiev Institute of Hydrodynamics, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russian Federtion (Russian Federation); Tolochko, B. [Institute of Solid State chemistry and Mechanochemistry, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russian Federtion (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russian Federtion (Russian Federation); Zhulanov, V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russian Federtion (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-11

    In situ imaging of explosions allows to study material properties under very high pressures and temperatures. Synchrotron radiation (SR) is a powerful tool for such studies because of its unique time structure. Flashes of X-rays from individual bunches in a storage ring are so short that an object under study does not move more than 1–10 μm during exposure. If a detector is able to store images synchronously with bunches of an SR source the time resolution of such method will be determined by the duration of SR flash from individual bunch. New beam line at the VEPP-4M storage ring will allow to get X-Ray flux from each bunch close to 10{sup 6} photons/channel where channel area is 0.05×0.5 mm{sup 2} and average beam energy is about 30 keV. Bunches in the machine can be grouped into trains with 20 ns time gap. In order to meet these requirements a new detector development was started based on Si microstrip technology. The detector with a new dedicated front-end chip will be able to record images with maximum signal equivalent to 10{sup 6} photons/channel, with signal to noise ratio of ∼10{sup 3}, spatial resolution of 50 μm and maximum frame rate of 50 MHz. The detector has to drive very high peak and average currents without affecting the front-end chip, therefore a specific design of Si sensor should be developed. The front-end chip has to provide signal measurements with the dynamic range of about 10{sup 4} or more and recording of the signal to an analogue memory with the rate of 50 MHz. The concept of such detector is discussed in the paper. The results of the simulations of the main detector parameters and the results of the first measurements with the prototype sensors are presented.

  14. Improvement in breakdown characteristics with multiguard structures in microstrip silicon detectors for CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Candelori, A.; Rold, M. Da; Descovich, M.; Kaminski, A.; Messineo, A.; Rizzo, F.; Verzellesi, G.

    2001-01-01

    To obtain full charge collection the CMS silicon detectors should be able to operate at high bias voltage. We observed that multiguard structures enhance the breakdown performance of the devices on several tens of baby detectors designed for CMS. The beneficial effects of the multiguard structures still remains after the strong neutron irradiation performed to simulate the operation at the LHC

  15. Improvement in breakdown characteristics with multiguard structures in microstrip silicon detectors for CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bacchetta, N; Candelori, A; Da Rold, M; Descovich, M; Kaminski, A; Messineo, A; Rizzo, F; Verzellesi, G

    2001-01-01

    To obtain full charge collection the CMS silicon detectors should be able to operate at high bias voltage. We observed that multiguard structures enhance the breakdown performance of the devices on several tens of baby detectors designed for CMS. The beneficial effects of the multiguard structures still remains after the strong neutron irradiation performed to simulate the operation at the LHC. (3 refs).

  16. Development and evaluation of test stations for the quality assurance of the silicon micro-strip detector modules for the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poettgens, M.

    2007-01-01

    CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) is one of four large-scale detectors which will be operated at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN). For the search for new physics the reconstruction of the collision products and their properties is essential. In the innermost part of the CMS detector the traces of ionizing particles are measured utilizing a silicon tracker. A large fraction of this detector is equipped with silicon micro-strip modules which provide a precise space resolution in 1-dimension. A module consists of a sensor for detection of particles, the corresponding read-out electronics (hybrid) and a mechanical support structure. Since the 15,148 modules, which will be installed in the silicon micro-strip detector, have a total sensitive surface area of about 198 m 2 , the inner tracker of CMS is the largest silicon tracking detector, which has ever been built. While the sensors and hybrids are produced in industry, the construction of the modules and the control of the quality is done by the members of the 21 participating institutes. Since the access to the silicon micro-strip tracker will be very limited after the installation in the CMS detector the installed modules must be of high quality. For this reason the modules are thoroughly tested and the test results are uploaded to a central database. By the development of a read-out system and the corresponding software the III. Physikalisches Institut made an important contribution for the electrical and functional quality control of hybrids and modules. The read-out system provides all features for the operation and test of hybrids and modules and stands out due to high reliability and simple handling. Because a very user-friedly and highly automated software it became the official test tool and was integrated in various test stands. The test stands, in which the read-out system is integrated in, are described and the tests which are implemented in the corresponding

  17. Characterisation of micro-strip and pixel silicon detectors before and after hadron irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Allport, P.P

    2012-01-01

    The use of segmented silicon detectors for tracking and vertexing in particle physics has grown substantially since their introduction in 1980. It is now anticipated that roughly 50,000 six inch wafers of high resistivity silicon will need to be processed into sensors to be deployed in the upgraded experiments in the future high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) at CERN. These detectors will also face an extremely severe radiation environment, varying with distance from the interaction point. The volume of required sensors is large and their delivery is required during a relatively short time, demanding a high throughput from the chosen suppliers. The current situation internationally, in this highly specialist market, means that security of supply for large orders can therefore be an issue and bringing additional potential vendors into the field can only be an advantage. Semiconductor companies that could include planar sensors suitable for particle physics in their product lines will, however, need to prove their pro...

  18. Tuning of the silicon microstrip detector (SCT) digitization parameters at ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishwakarma, Akanksha [Humboldt University, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The increased luminosity of LHC in RUN-2 causes high radiation exposure of the ATLAS detector. This might bring about changes in the detector responses, especially of the pixel and the silicon strip detector. To study this, several digitization parameters are varied in the simulation and are analysed by comparing with data. In particular, the impact on the reconstructed cluster and track is considered. This investigation is used to optimize data-Monte Carlo agreement.

  19. Thick silicon microstrip detectors simulation for PACT: Pair and Compton Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, M.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Tatischeff, V.; Dolgorouky, Y.; Bertoli, W.; Breelle, E.

    2016-11-01

    PACT is a space borne Pair and Compton Telescope that aims to make a sensitive survey of the gamma-ray sky between 100 keV and 100 MeV. It is based upon two main components: a silicon-based gamma-ray tracker and a crystal-based calorimeter. In this paper we will explain the imaging technique of PACT as a Multi-layered Compton telescope (0.1-10 MeV) and its major improvements over its predecessor COMPTEL. Then we will present a simulation study to optimize the silicon tracker of PACT. This tracker is formed of thousands of identical silicon double sided strip detectors (DSSDs). We have developed a simulation model (using SILVACO) to simulate the DSSD performance while varying its thickness, impurity concentration of the bulk material, electrode pitch, and electrode width. We will present a comprehensive overview of the impact of each varied parameter on the DSSD performance, in view of the application to PACT. The considered DSSD parameters are its depletion voltage, capacitance, and leakage current. After the selection of the PACT DSSD, we will present a simulation of the performance of the PACT telescope in the 0.1-10 MeV range.

  20. Thick silicon microstrip detectors simulation for PACT: Pair and Compton Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, M.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Tatischeff, V.; Dolgorouky, Y.; Bertoli, W.; Breelle, E.

    2016-01-01

    PACT is a space borne Pair and Compton Telescope that aims to make a sensitive survey of the gamma-ray sky between 100 keV and 100 MeV. It is based upon two main components: a silicon-based gamma-ray tracker and a crystal-based calorimeter. In this paper we will explain the imaging technique of PACT as a Multi-layered Compton telescope (0.1–10 MeV) and its major improvements over its predecessor COMPTEL. Then we will present a simulation study to optimize the silicon tracker of PACT. This tracker is formed of thousands of identical silicon double sided strip detectors (DSSDs). We have developed a simulation model (using SILVACO) to simulate the DSSD performance while varying its thickness, impurity concentration of the bulk material, electrode pitch, and electrode width. We will present a comprehensive overview of the impact of each varied parameter on the DSSD performance, in view of the application to PACT. The considered DSSD parameters are its depletion voltage, capacitance, and leakage current. After the selection of the PACT DSSD, we will present a simulation of the performance of the PACT telescope in the 0.1–10 MeV range.

  1. Thick silicon microstrip detectors simulation for PACT: Pair and Compton Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, M., E-mail: khalilmohammad@hotmail.com [APC Laboratory, 10rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F. [APC Laboratory, 10rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); CEA, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Tatischeff, V. [CSNSM, IN2P3/CNRSand Paris-Sud University, 91405 Orsay Campus (France); Dolgorouky, Y.; Bertoli, W.; Breelle, E. [APC Laboratory, 10rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2016-11-01

    PACT is a space borne Pair and Compton Telescope that aims to make a sensitive survey of the gamma-ray sky between 100 keV and 100 MeV. It is based upon two main components: a silicon-based gamma-ray tracker and a crystal-based calorimeter. In this paper we will explain the imaging technique of PACT as a Multi-layered Compton telescope (0.1–10 MeV) and its major improvements over its predecessor COMPTEL. Then we will present a simulation study to optimize the silicon tracker of PACT. This tracker is formed of thousands of identical silicon double sided strip detectors (DSSDs). We have developed a simulation model (using SILVACO) to simulate the DSSD performance while varying its thickness, impurity concentration of the bulk material, electrode pitch, and electrode width. We will present a comprehensive overview of the impact of each varied parameter on the DSSD performance, in view of the application to PACT. The considered DSSD parameters are its depletion voltage, capacitance, and leakage current. After the selection of the PACT DSSD, we will present a simulation of the performance of the PACT telescope in the 0.1–10 MeV range.

  2. Testbeam studies of silicon microstrip sensor architectures modified to facilitate detector module mass production

    CERN Document Server

    Poley, Anne-luise; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    For the High Luminosity Upgrade of the LHC, the Inner Detector of the ATLAS detector will be replaced by an all-silicon tracker, consisting of pixel and strip sensor detector modules. Silicon strip sensors are being developed to meet both the tracking requirements in a high particle density environment and constraints imposed by the construction process. Several thousand wire bonds per module, connecting sensor strips and readout channels, need to be produced with high reliability and speed, requiring wire bond pads of sufficient size on each sensor strip. These sensor bond pads change the local sensor architecture and the resulting electric field and thus alter the sensor performance. These sensor regions with bond pads, which account for up to 10 % of a silicon strip sensor, were studied using both an electron beam at DESY and a micro-focused X-ray beam at the Diamond Light Source. This contribution presents measurements of the effective strip width in sensor regions where the structure of standard parallel...

  3. Development of a silicon microstrip detector with single photon sensitivity for fast dynamic diffraction experiments at a synchrotron radiation beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakcheev, A.; Aulchenko, V.; Kudashkin, D.; Shekhtman, L.; Tolochko, B.; Zhulanov, V.

    2017-06-01

    Time-resolved experiments on the diffraction of synchrotron radiation (SR) from crystalline materials provide information on the evolution of a material structure after a heat, electron beam or plasma interaction with a sample under study. Changes in the material structure happen within a microsecond scale and a detector with corresponding parameters is needed. The SR channel 8 of the VEPP-4M storage ring provides radiation from the 7-pole wiggler that allows to reach several tens photons within one μs from a tungsten crystal for the most intensive diffraction peak. In order to perform experiments that allow to measure the evolution of tungsten crystalline structure under the impact of powerful laser beam, a new detector is developed, that can provide information about the distribution of a scattered SR flux in space and its evolution in time at a microsecond scale. The detector is based on the silicon p-in-n microstrip sensor with DC-coupled metal strips. The sensor contains 1024 30 mm long strips with a 50 μm pitch. 64 strips are bonded to the front-end electronics based on APC128 ASICs. The APC128 ASIC contains 128 channels that consist of a low noise integrator with 32 analogue memory cells each. The integrator equivalent noise charge is about 2000 electrons and thus the signal from individual photons with energy above 40 keV can be observed. The signal can be stored at the analogue memory with 10 MHz rate. The first measurements with the beam scattered from a tungsten crystal with energy near 60 keV demonstrated the capability of this prototype to observe the spatial distribution of the photon flux with the intensity from below one photon per channel up to 0~10 photons per channel with a frame rate from 10 kHz up to 1 MHz.

  4. Mechanical studies towards a silicon micro-strip super module for the ATLAS inner detector upgrade at the high luminosity LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, G; Cadoux, F; Clark, A; Favre, Y; Ferrere, D; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; Iacobucci, G; Marra, D La; Perrin, E; Seez, W; Endo, M; Hanagaki, K; Hara, K; Ikegami, Y; Nakamura, K; Takubo, Y; Terada, S; Jinnouchi, O; Nishimura, R; Takashima, R

    2014-01-01

    It is expected that after several years of data-taking, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) physics programme will be extended to the so-called High-Luminosity LHC, where the instantaneous luminosity will be increased up to 5 × 10 34  cm −2  s −1 . For the general-purpose ATLAS experiment at the LHC, a complete replacement of its internal tracking detector will be necessary, as the existing detector will not provide the required performance due to the cumulated radiation damage and the increase in the detector occupancy. The baseline layout for the new ATLAS tracker is an all-silicon-based detector, with pixel sensors in the inner layers and silicon micro-strip detectors at intermediate and outer radii. The super-module (SM) is an integration concept proposed for the barrel strip region of the future ATLAS tracker, where double-sided stereo silicon micro-strip modules (DSM) are assembled into a low-mass local support (LS) structure. Mechanical aspects of the proposed LS structure are described

  5. Amorphous silicon based particle detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Wyrsch, N.; Franco, A.; Riesen, Y.; Despeisse, M.; Dunand, S.; Powolny, F.; Jarron, P.; Ballif, C.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation hard monolithic particle sensors can be fabricated by a vertical integration of amorphous silicon particle sensors on top of CMOS readout chip. Two types of such particle sensors are presented here using either thick diodes or microchannel plates. The first type based on amorphous silicon diodes exhibits high spatial resolution due to the short lateral carrier collection. Combination of an amorphous silicon thick diode with microstrip detector geometries permits to achieve micromete...

  6. Development and operation of a novel PC-based high speed beam telescope for particle tracking using double sided silicon microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treis, J.

    2002-08-01

    A PC based high speed silicon microstrip beam telescope consisting of several independent modules is presented. Every module contains an AC-coupled double sided silicon microstrip sensor and a complete set of analog and digital signal processing electronics. A digital bus connects the modules with the DAQ PC. A trigger logic unit coordinates the operation of all modules of the telescope. The system architecture allows easy integration of any kind of device under test into the data acquisition chain. Signal digitization, pedestal correction, hit detection and zero suppression are done by hardware inside the modules, so that the amount of data per event is reduced by a factor of 80 compared to conventional readout systems. In combination with a two level data acquisition scheme, this allows event rates up to 7.6 kHz. This is a factor of 40 faster than conventional VME based beam telescopes while comparable analog performance is maintained achieving signal to noise ratios of up to 70:1. The telescope has been tested in the SPS testbeam at CERN. It has been adopted as the reference instrument for testbeam studies for the ATLAS pixel detector development. (orig.)

  7. Initial investigations of the performance of a microstrip gas-avalanche chamber fabricated on a thin silicon-dioxide substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagi, S.F.; Jackson, J.N.; Jones, T.J.; Taylor, S.

    1992-01-01

    We report on the construction of a micro-strip gas-avalanche chamber, designed such that the effective thickness of the insulating dielectric is ≅ 3 μm. Experimental results are presented on the initial observation of pulses from the chamber originating from the energy depositions of X-rays from an Fe 55 source. (orig.)

  8. Radiation hard silicon sensors for the CMS tracker upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Pohlsen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    At an instantaneous luminosity of $5 \\times 10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, the high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) is expected to deliver a total of $3\\,000$ fb$^{-1}$ of collisions, hereby increasing the discovery potential of the LHC experiments significantly. However, the radiation dose of the tracking systems will be severe, requiring new radiation hard sensors for the CMS tracker. The CMS tracker collaboration has initiated a large material investigation and irradiation campaign to identify the silicon material and design that fulfils all requirements for detectors for the HL-LHC. Focussing on the upgrade of the outer tracker region, pad sensors as well as fully functional strip sensors have been implemented on silicon wafers with different material properties and thicknesses. The samples were irradiated with a mixture of neutrons and protons corresponding to fluences as expected for the positions of detector layers in the future tracker. Different proton energies were used for irr...

  9. Development and evaluation of test stations for the quality assurance of the silicon micro-strip detector modules for the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poettgens, M.

    2007-11-22

    CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) is one of four large-scale detectors which will be operated at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN). For the search for new physics the reconstruction of the collision products and their properties is essential. In the innermost part of the CMS detector the traces of ionizing particles are measured utilizing a silicon tracker. A large fraction of this detector is equipped with silicon micro-strip modules which provide a precise space resolution in 1-dimension. A module consists of a sensor for detection of particles, the corresponding read-out electronics (hybrid) and a mechanical support structure. Since the 15,148 modules, which will be installed in the silicon micro-strip detector, have a total sensitive surface area of about 198 m{sup 2}, the inner tracker of CMS is the largest silicon tracking detector, which has ever been built. While the sensors and hybrids are produced in industry, the construction of the modules and the control of the quality is done by the members of the 21 participating institutes. Since the access to the silicon micro-strip tracker will be very limited after the installation in the CMS detector the installed modules must be of high quality. For this reason the modules are thoroughly tested and the test results are uploaded to a central database. By the development of a read-out system and the corresponding software the III. Physikalisches Institut made an important contribution for the electrical and functional quality control of hybrids and modules. The read-out system provides all features for the operation and test of hybrids and modules and stands out due to high reliability and simple handling. Because a very user-friedly and highly automated software it became the official test tool and was integrated in various test stands. The test stands, in which the read-out system is integrated in, are described and the tests which are implemented in the

  10. Design,construction and commissioning of a cylinder of double-sided silicon micro-strips detectors for the Star experiment at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedon, M.

    2005-05-01

    This study has been performed in the frame of quark gluon plasma physics research in the STAR experiment at RHIC. It deals with the design, the construction and the commissioning of a barrel of silicon-strip detectors (SSD). Added to the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) of the STAR detector, it extends the capabilities of track reconstruction for charged particles emitted in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. It also contributes to the general study of the quark-gluon plasma production undertaken at STAR. The SSD is a cylinder of 1 m long and of 23 cm radius, and it is composed of 320 compact identical modules. Each module includes one double-sided silicon micro-strip detector, 12 readout chips ALICE 128C, 12 TAB ribbons, 2 COSTAR control chips and 2 hybrids supporting all the components. The document explains why the SSD is an important and relevant element, and justifies the technological choices as well as their validation by in-beam characterization. All component functionalities, characteristics and test procedures are presented. The data and test results are stored in a database for tracing purpose. Component and module production is described. Two parallel studies have been performed, analysed and described. One on the temperature dependence of the module performances and the other one on the optimal adjustments of the analogue blocks inside the ALICE 128C chip. The SSD installation on the RHIC site as well as the commissioning are presented together with the first data takings. (author)

  11. Characterization of silicon micro-strip sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser system for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Pradeep [Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Eschke, Juergen [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research, GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Silicon Tracking System (STS) of the CBM experiment at FAIR is composed of 8 tracking stations comprising of 1292 double-sided silicon micro-strip sensors. A Laser Test System (LTS) has been developed for the quality assurance of prototype sensors. The aim is to scan sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser driven by step motor to determine the charge sharing in-between strips and to measure qualitative uniformity of the sensor response over the whole active area. Several prototype sensors with strip pitch of 50 and 58 μm have been tested, as well as a prototype module with realistic mechanical arrangement of sensor and read-out cables. The LTS is designed to measure sensor response in an automatized procedure across the sensor with focused laser beam (spot-size ∼ 12 μm, wavelength = 1060 nm). The pulse with duration (∼ 10 ns) and power (∼ 5 mW) of the laser pulses is selected such, that the absorption of the laser light in the 300 μm thick silicon sensors produces a number of about 24000 electrons, which is similar to the charge created by minimum ionizing particles (MIP) in these sensors. Results from laser scans of prototype sensors and detector module are reported.

  12. Hardness measurements of silicon rubber and polyurethane rubber cured by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basfar, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This work investigates the hardness of both silicon rubber and polyurethane rubber cured by ionizing radiation. Shore A Hardness is used to characterize the subject elastomers in relation to the crosslinking process. Various formulations of both materials have been investigated in order to achieve the optimum cure conditions desired. A small amount of the curing agent has been incorporated in some formulations in order to reduce the required dose to achieve full cure conditions. Silicon rubber has shown improvements in hardness as absorbed dose is increased, whereas hardness remained constant over a range of absorbed doses for polyurethane rubber

  13. Characterization of silicon micro-strip sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser system for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, P.

    2015-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR is composed of 8 tracking stations consisting of 1292 double sided silicon micro-strip sensors. For the quality assurance of produced prototype sensors a laser test system (LTS) has been developed. The aim of the LTS is to scan sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser driven by step motor to determine the charge sharing in-between strips and to measure qualitative uniformity of the sensor response over the whole active area. The prototype sensors which are tested with the LTS so far have 256 strips with a pitch of 50 μm on each side. They are read-out using a self-triggering prototype read-out electronic ASIC called n-XYTER. The LTS is designed to measure sensor response in an automatized procedure at several thousand positions across the sensor with focused infra-red laser light (spot size ≈ 12 μm , wavelength = 1060 nm). The pulse with duration (≈ 10 ns) and power (≈ 5 mW) of the laser pulses is selected such, that the absorption of the laser light in the 300 μm thick silicon sensors produces a number of about 24000 electrons, which is similar to the charge created by minimum ionizing particles (MIP) in these sensors. Laser scans different prototype sensors is reported

  14. Development and Evaluation of a Test System for the Quality Assurance during the Mass Production of Silicon Microstrip Detector Modules for the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Franke, Torsten

    2005-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of four large-scale experiments that is going to be installed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN). For CMS an inner tracking system entirely equipped with silicon microstrip detectors was chosen. With an active area of about 198 m2 it will be the largest tracking device of the world that was ever constructed using silicon sensors. The basic components in the construction of the tracking system are approximately 16,000 so-called modules, which are pre-assembled units consisting of the sensors, the readout electronics and a support structure. The module production is carried out by a cooperation of number of institutes and industrial companies. To ensure the operation of the modules within the harsh radiation environment extensive tests have to be performed on all components. An important contribution to the quality assurance of the modules is made by a test system of which all components were developed in Aachen. In ad...

  15. Parameters optimization, microstructure and micro-hardness of silicon carbide laser deposited on titanium alloy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adebiyia, DI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Silicon carbide (SiC), has excellent mechanical properties such as high hardness and good wear resistance, and would have been a suitable laser-coating material for titanium alloy to enhance the poor surface hardness of the alloy. However, SiC has...

  16. Radiation hardness of silicon detectors for collider experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golutvin, I.; Cheremukhin, A.; Fefelova, E.

    1995-01-01

    The silicon planar detectors before and after fast neutron irradiation ( n o> = 1.35 MeV) at room temperature have been investigated. Maximal neutron fluence has been 8 · 10 13 cm -2 . The detectors have been manufactured of the high resistivity (1 : 10 k Ohm · cm) n-type float-zone silicon (FZ-Si) with the orientation supplied by two different producers: WACKER CHEMITRONIC and Zaporojie Titanium-Magnesium Factory (ZTMF). The influence of fast neutron irradiation of the main parameters of the starting silicon before the technological high temperature treatment has been investigated as well. 30 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Measurement of the Inclusive $b$-jet cross section in $p\\bar{p}$ collisions at CDF RunII and Development of silicon microstrip detectors for the ATLAS silicon tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Onofrio, Monica [Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland)

    2005-01-01

    In the past twenty years, the study of events with bottom quark has led to many important Tevatron results- as the discovery of the top quark- and it will be as well crucial at the LHC for the search of new physics phenomena. This analysis exploits the good tracking capabilities of the detector and relies on b-jet identification made by secondary vertex reconstruction. The study of the Inner Tracker system performance and in particular the Semi conductor Tracker (SCT), can be considered one of the fundamental issues in the construction of the apparatus. The second part of this thesis work reports some of the crucial tests performed during the development of the silicon microstrip detectors composing the SCT.

  18. Development of n+-in-p large-area silicon microstrip sensors for very high radiation environments – ATLAS12 design and initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unno, Y.; Edwards, S.O.; Pyatt, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Wilson, J.A.; Kierstead, J.; Lynn, D.; Carter, J.R.; Hommels, L.B.A.; Robinson, D.; Bloch, I.; Gregor, I.M.; Tackmann, K.; Betancourt, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kuehn, S.; Mori, R.; Parzefall, U.; Wiik-Fucks, L.; Clark, A.

    2014-01-01

    We have been developing a novel radiation-tolerant n + -in-p silicon microstrip sensor for very high radiation environments, aiming for application in the high luminosity large hadron collider. The sensors are fabricated in 6 in., p-type, float-zone wafers, where large-area strip sensor designs are laid out together with a number of miniature sensors. Radiation tolerance has been studied with ATLAS07 sensors and with independent structures. The ATLAS07 design was developed into new ATLAS12 designs. The ATLAS12A large-area sensor is made towards an axial strip sensor and the ATLAS12M towards a stereo strip sensor. New features to the ATLAS12 sensors are two dicing lines: standard edge space of 910 μm and slim edge space of 450 μm, a gated punch-through protection structure, and connection of orphan strips in a triangular corner of stereo strips. We report the design of the ATLAS12 layouts and initial measurements of the leakage current after dicing and the resistivity of the wafers

  19. Radiation hard silicon particle detectors for HL-LHC—RD50 status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terzo, S., E-mail: Stefano.Terzo@mpp.mpg.de

    2017-02-11

    It is foreseen to significantly increase the luminosity of the LHC by upgrading towards the HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC). The Phase-II-Upgrade scheduled for 2024 will mean unprecedented radiation levels, way beyond the limits of the silicon trackers currently employed. All-silicon central trackers are being studied in ATLAS, CMS and LHCb, with extremely radiation hard silicon sensors to be employed on the innermost layers. Within the RD50 Collaboration, a massive R&D program is underway across experimental boundaries to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation tolerance. We will present results of several detector technologies and silicon materials at radiation levels corresponding to HL-LHC fluences. Based on these results, we will give recommendations for the silicon detectors to be used at the different radii of tracking systems in the LHC detector upgrades. In order to complement the measurements, we also perform detailed simulation studies of the sensors. - Highlights: • The RD50 collaboration investigates the radiation hardness of silicon sensors. • Different approaches to simulate the detector response after irradiation are shown. • HV-CMOS are cost-effective solution for the outer pixel layers at HL-LHC. • 3D and thin planar sensors with slim edges are solutions for innermost layers at HL-LHC. • Sensors with intrinsic gain are investigated to develop ultra-fast silicon detectors.

  20. Silicon Photo-Multiplier Radiation Hardness Tests with a White Neutron Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montanari, A.; Tosi, N.; Pietropaolo, A.; Andreotti, M.; Baldini, W.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Luppi, E.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Malaguti, R.; Santoro, V.; Tellarini, G.; Tomassetti, L.; De Donato, C.; Reali, E.

    2013-06-01

    We report radiation hardness tests performed, with a white neutron beam, at the Geel Electron Linear Accelerator in Belgium on silicon Photo-Multipliers. These are semiconductor photon detectors made of a square matrix of Geiger-Mode Avalanche photo-diodes on a silicon substrate. Several samples from different manufacturers have been irradiated integrating up to about 6.2 x 10 9 1-MeV-equivalent neutrons per cm 2 . (authors)

  1. Radiation-hard silicon photonics for high energy physics and beyond

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Silicon photonics (SiPh) is currently being investigated as a promising technology for future radiation hard optical links. The possibility of integrating SiPh devices with electronics and/or silicon particle sensors as well as an expected very high resistance against radiation damage make this technology particularly interesting for potential use close to the interaction points in future in high energy physics experiments and other radiation-sensitive applications. The presentation will summarize the outcomes of the research on radiation hard SiPh conducted within the ICE-DIP projected.

  2. Leakage current-induced effects in the silicon microstrip and gas electron multiplier readout chain and their compensation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycka, W.; Kasinski, K.

    2018-04-01

    Leakage current flowing into the charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) is a common issue in many radiation detection systems as it can increase overall system noise, shift a DC baseline or even lead a recording channel to instability. The commonly known leakage current contributor is a detector, however other system components like wires or an input protection circuit may become a serious problem. Compensation of the leakage current resulting from the electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection circuit by properly sizing its components is possible only for a narrow temperature range. Moreover, the leakage current from external sources can be significantly larger. Many applications, especially High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments, require a fast baseline restoration for high input hit rates by applying either a low-value feedback resistor or a high feedback resistance combined with a pulsed reset circuit. Leakage current flowing in the feedback in conjunction with a large feedback resistance supplied with a pulsed reset results in a significant voltage offset between the CSA input and output which can cause problems (e.g. fake hits or instability). This paper shows an issue referred to the leakage current of the ESD protection circuit flowing into the input amplifier. The following analysis and proposed solution is a result of the time and energy readout ASIC project realization for the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) in Darmstadt, Germany. This chip is purposed to work with microstrip and gaseous detectors, with high average input pulses frequencies (250 kHit/s per channel) and the possibility to process input charge of both polarities. We present measurements of the test structure fabricated in UMC 180 nm technology and propose a solution addressing leakage current related issues. This work combines the leakage current compensation capabilities at the CSA level with high, controllable value of the amplifier

  3. Radiation-hard silicon gate bulk CMOS cell family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbon, C.F.; Habing, D.H.; Flores, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    A radiation-hardened bulk silicon gate CMOS technology and a topologically simple, high-performance dual-port cell family utilizing this process have been demonstrated. Additional circuits, including a random logic circuit containing 4800 transistors on a 236 x 236 mil die, are presently being designed and processed. Finally, a joint design-process effort is underway to redesign the cell family in reduced design rules; this results in a factor of 2.5 cell size reduction and a factor of 3 decrease in chip interconnect area. Cell performance is correspondingly improved

  4. Radiation hard silicon detectors - developments by the RD48(ROSE) collaboration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lindström, G.; Kohout, Z.; Pospíšil, S.; Šícho, Petr; Sopko, B.; Vrba, Václav; Wilhelm, I.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 466, č. 2 (2001), s. 308-326 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010920 Keywords : silicon detectors * radiation hardness * defect engineering * non ionizing energy los Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.026, year: 2001

  5. Radiation hardness properties of full-3D active edge silicon sensors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Da Via, C.; Hasi, J.; Kenney, C.; Linhart, V.; Parker, S.; Slavíček, T.; Watts, S. J.; Bém, Pavel; Horažďovský, T.; Pospíšil, S.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 587, 2-3 (2008), s. 243-249 ISSN 0168-9002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : silicon detectors * radiation hardness * 3D Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.019, year: 2008

  6. Test beam demonstration of silicon microstrip modules with transverse momentum discrimination for the future CMS tracking detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Hoch, M.; Hrubec, J.; König, A.; Steininger, H.; Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Alderweireldt, S.; Beaumont, W.; Janssen, X.; Lauwers, J.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Beghin, D.; Brun, H.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Delannoy, H.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Goldouzian, R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Luetic, J.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Postiau, N.; Randle-Conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vanlaer, P.; Vannerom, D.; Yonamine, R.; Wang, Q.; Yang, Y.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; De Bruyn, I.; De Clercq, J.; D'Hondt, J.; Deroover, K.; Lowette, S.; Moortgat, S.; Moreels, L.; Python, Q.; Skovpen, K.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Parijs, I.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Delaere, C.; Delcourt, M.; De Visscher, S.; Francois, B.; Giammanco, A.; Jafari, A.; Cabrera Jamoulle, J.; De Favereau De Jeneret, J.; Komm, M.; Krintiras, G.; Lemaitre, V.; Magitteri, A.; Mertens, A.; Michotte, D.; Musich, M.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Quertenmont, L.; Szilasi, N.; Vidal Marono, M.; Wertz, S.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Härkönen, J.; Lampén, T.; Luukka, P.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuovinen, E.; Eerola, P.; Baulieu, G.; Boudoul, G.; Caponetto, L.; Combaret, C.; Contardo, D.; Dupasquier, T.; Gallbit, G.; Lumb, N.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Vander Donckt, M.; Viret, S.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bonnin, C.; Brom, J.-M.; Chabert, E.; Chanon, N.; Charles, L.; Conte, E.; Fontaine, J.-Ch.; Gross, L.; Hosselet, J.; Jansova, M.; Tromson, D.; Autermann, C.; Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Kiesel, K. M.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Pierschel, G.; Preuten, M.; Rauch, M.; Schael, S.; Schomakers, C.; Schulz, J.; Schwering, G.; Wlochal, M.; Zhukov, V.; Pistone, C.; Fluegge, G.; Kuensken, A.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya, M.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Beernaert, K.; Bertsche, D.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Gallo, E.; Garay Garcia, J.; Hansen, K.; Haranko, M.; Harb, A.; Hauk, J.; Keaveney, J.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Kleinwort, C.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Maser, H.; Mittag, G.; Muhl, C.; Mussgiller, A.; Pitzl, D.; Reichelt, O.; Savitskyi, M.; Schuetze, P.; Walsh, R.; Zuber, A.; Biskop, H.; Buhmann, P.; Centis-Vignali, M.; Garutti, E.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Klanner, R.; Matysek, M.; Perieanu, A.; Scharf, Ch.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schwandt, J.; Sonneveld, J.; Steinbrück, G.; Vormwald, B.; Wellhausen, J.; Abbas, M.; Amstutz, C.; Barvich, T.; Barth, Ch.; Boegelspacher, F.; De Boer, W.; Butz, E.; Casele, M.; Colombo, F.; Dierlamm, A.; Freund, B.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S.; Husemann, U.; Kornmeyer, A.; Kudella, S.; Muller, Th.; Printz, M.; Simonis, H. J.; Steck, P.; Weber, M.; Weiler, Th.; Anagnostou, G.; Asenov, P.; Assiouras, P.; Daskalakis, G.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Paspalaki, L.; Siklér, F.; Veszprémi, V.; Bhardwaj, A.; Dalal, R.; Jain, G.; Ranjan, K.; Dutta, S.; Chowdhury, S. Roy; Bakhshiansohl, H.; Behnamian, H.; Khakzad, M.; Naseri, M.; Cariola, P.; Creanza, D.; De Palma, M.; De Robertis, G.; Fiore, L.; Franco, M.; Loddo, F.; Sala, G.; Silvestris, L.; Maggi, G.; My, S.; Selvaggi, G.; Albergo, S.; Costa, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Saizu, M. A.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Brianzi, M.; Ciaranfi, R.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Latino, G.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Russo, L.; Scarlini, E.; Sguazzoni, G.; Strom, D.; Viliani, L.; Ferro, F.; Lo Vetere, M.; Robutti, E.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Pedrini, D.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Dall'Osso, M.; Pozzobon, N.; Tosi, M.; De Canio, F.; Gaioni, L.; Manghisoni, M.; Nodari, B.; Riceputi, E.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Comotti, D.; Ratti, L.; Alunni Solestizi, L.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Cecchi, C.; Checcucci, B.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Gentsos, C.; Ionica, M.; Leonardi, R.; Manoni, E.; Mantovani, G.; Marconi, S.; Mariani, V.; Menichelli, M.; Modak, A.; Morozzi, A.; Moscatelli, F.; Passeri, D.; Placidi, P.; Postolache, V.; Rossi, A.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Storchi, L.; Spiga, D.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Arezzini, S.; Bagliesi, G.; Basti, A.; Boccali, T.; Borrello, L.; Bosi, F.; Castaldi, R.; Ciampa, A.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Magazzu, G.; Martini, L.; Mazzoni, E.; Messineo, A.; Moggi, A.; Morsani, F.; Palla, F.; Palmonari, F.; Raffaelli, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Bellan, R.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Da Rocha Rolo, M.; Demaria, N.; Rivetti, A.; Dellacasa, G.; Mazza, G.; Migliore, E.; Monteil, E.; Pacher, L.; Ravera, F.; Solano, A.; Fernandez, M.; Gomez, G.; Jaramillo Echeverria, R.; Moya, D.; Gonzalez Sanchez, F. J.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.; Abbaneo, D.; Ahmed, I.; Albert, E.; Auzinger, G.; Berruti, G.; Bianchi, G.; Blanchot, G.; Bonnaud, J.; Caratelli, A.; Ceresa, D.; Christiansen, J.; Cichy, K.; Daguin, J.; D'Auria, A.; Detraz, S.; Deyrail, D.; Dondelewski, O.; Faccio, F.; Frank, N.; Gadek, T.; Gill, K.; Honma, A.; Hugo, G.; Jara Casas, L. M.; Kaplon, J.; Kornmayer, A.; Kottelat, L.; Kovacs, M.; Krammer, M.; Lenoir, P.; Mannelli, M.; Marchioro, A.; Marconi, S.; Mersi, S.; Martina, S.; Michelis, S.; Moll, M.; Onnela, A.; Orfanelli, S.; Pavis, S.; Peisert, A.; Pernot, J.-F.; Petagna, P.; Petrucciani, G.; Postema, H.; Rose, P.; Tropea, P.; Troska, J.; Tsirou, A.; Vasey, F.; Vichoudis, P.; Verlaat, B.; Zwalinski, L.; Bachmair, F.; Becker, R.; di Calafiori, D.; Casal, B.; Berger, P.; Djambazov, L.; Donega, M.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Kasieczka, G.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marionneau, M.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Masciovecchio, M.; Meinhard, M.; Perozzi, L.; Roeser, U.; Starodumov, A.; Tavolaro, V.; Wallny, R.; Zhu, D.; Amsler, C.; Bösiger, K.; Caminada, L.; Canelli, F.; Chiochia, V.; de Cosa, A.; Galloni, C.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Lange, C.; Maier, R.; Ngadiuba, J.; Pinna, D.; Robmann, P.; Taroni, S.; Yang, Y.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Kaestli, H.-C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Meier, B.; Rohe, T.; Streuli, S.; Chen, P.-H.; Dietz, C.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W.-S.; Lu, R.-S.; Moya, M.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Jacob, J.; Seif El Nasr-Storey, S.; Cole, J.; Hoad, C.; Hobson, P.; Morton, A.; Reid, I. D.; Auzinger, G.; Bainbridge, R.; Dauncey, P.; Fulcher, J.; Hall, G.; James, T.; Magnan, A.-M.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Uchida, K.; Braga, D.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Jones, L.; Ilic, J.; Murray, P.; Prydderch, M.; Tomalin, I. R.; Garabedian, A.; Heintz, U.; Narain, M.; Nelson, J.; Sagir, S.; Speer, T.; Swanson, J.; Tersegno, D.; Watson-Daniels, J.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Flores, C.; Lander, R.; Pellett, D.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Squires, M.; Thomson, J.; Yohay, R.; Burt, K.; Ellison, J.; Hanson, G.; Olmedo, M.; Si, W.; Yates, B. R.; Gerosa, R.; Sharma, V.; Vartak, A.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Dutta, V.; Gouskos, L.; Incandela, J.; Kyre, S.; Mullin, S.; Qu, H.; White, D.; Dominguez, A.; Bartek, R.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Leontsinis, S.; Mulholland, T.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Apresyan, A.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chramowicz, J.; Christian, D.; Cooper, W. E.; Deptuch, G.; Derylo, G.; Gingu, C.; Grünendahl, S.; Hasegawa, S.; Hoff, J.; Howell, J.; Hrycyk, M.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Kahlid, F.; Lei, C. M.; Lipton, R.; Lopes De Sá, R.; Liu, T.; Los, S.; Matulik, M.; Merkel, P.; Nahn, S.; Prosser, A.; Rivera, R.; Schneider, B.; Sellberg, G.; Shenai, A.; Spiegel, L.; Tran, N.; Uplegger, L.; Voirin, E.; Berry, D. R.; Chen, X.; Ennesser, L.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, O.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Makauda, S.; Mills, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Alimena, J.; Antonelli, L. J.; Francis, B.; Hart, A.; Hill, C. S.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Bortoletto, D.; Bubna, M.; Hinton, N.; Jones, M.; Miller, D. H.; Shi, X.; Tan, P.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Khalil, S.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Majumder, D.; Wilson, G.; Ivanov, A.; Mendis, R.; Mitchell, T.; Skhirtladze, N.; Taylor, R.; Anderson, I.; Fehling, D.; Gritsan, A.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Nash, K.; Osherson, M.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Acosta, J. G.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Oliveros, S.; Perera, L.; Summers, D.; Bloom, K.; Claes, D. R.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Monroy, J.; Siado, J.; Hahn, K.; Sevova, S.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Bartz, E.; Gershtein, Y.; Halkiadakis, E.; Kyriacou, S.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Osherson, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Stone, R.; Walker, M.; Malik, S.; Norberg, S.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kharchilava, A.; Nguyen, D.; Parker, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alexander, J.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; McDermott, K.; Mirman, N.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Tao, Z.; Thom, J.; Tucker, J.; Zientek, M.; Akgün, B.; Ecklund, K. M.; Kilpatrick, M.; Nussbaum, T.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Covarelli, R.; Demina, R.; Hindrichs, O.; Petrillo, G.; Eusebi, R.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Delannoy, A. G.; D'Angelo, P.; Johns, W.

    2018-03-01

    A new CMS Tracker is under development for operation at the High Luminosity LHC from 2026 onwards. It includes an outer tracker based on dedicated modules that will reconstruct short track segments, called stubs, using spatially coincident clusters in two closely spaced silicon sensor layers. These modules allow the rejection of low transverse momentum track hits and reduce the data volume before transmission to the first level trigger. The inclusion of tracking information in the trigger decision is essential to limit the first level trigger accept rate. A customized front-end readout chip, the CMS Binary Chip (CBC), containing stub finding logic has been designed for this purpose. A prototype module, equipped with the CBC chip, has been constructed and operated for the first time in a 4 GeemVem/emc positron beam at DESY. The behaviour of the stub finding was studied for different angles of beam incidence on a module, which allows an estimate of the sensitivity to transverse momentum within the future CMS detector. A sharp transverse momentum threshold around 2 emVem/emc was demonstrated, which meets the requirement to reject a large fraction of low momentum tracks present in the LHC environment on-detector. This is the first realistic demonstration of a silicon tracking module that is able to select data, based on the particle's transverse momentum, for use in a first level trigger at the LHC . The results from this test are described here.

  7. Hyperon production in proton-nucleus collisions at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s{sub NN}) = 41.6 GeV at HERA-B and design of silicon microstrip detectors for tracking at LHCb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agari, Michaela

    2006-07-01

    The topics of this thesis are the measurements of hyperon production in protonnucleus collisions at {radical}(s)=41.6 GeV with the Hera-B detector located at DESY, Hamburg (Germany), and the design of silicon microstrip sensors for the LHCb experiment at CERN, Geneva (Switzerland). {lambda}, {xi} and {omega} hyperons and their antiparticles were reconstructed from 113.5 . 10{sup 6} inelastic collisions of protons with fixed carbon, titanium and tungsten targets. With these samples, antiparticle-to-particle ratios, cross sections integrated for the accessible kinematic region of Hera-B and single differential cross sections as function of transverse momentum, d{sigma}/dp{sub T}{sup 2} (for {lambda} and {xi}) and rapidity, d{sigma}/dy (for {lambda} only), have been been measured as well as the dependence of these quantities on the atomic number of the target nucleus, as parameterized using the Glauber model. The obtained ratios follow the same trend as found for the energy dependence of measurements from nucleus-nucleus collisions. Silicon microstrip sensors have been designed for the tracking system of the LHCb detector. Evaluating the performance in beam tests at CERN, the strip geometry and sensor thickness were varied optimizing for a large signal-to-noise ratio, a small number of read-out channels and a low occupancy. The detector is currently being built to be operational for first proton-proton collisions in autumn 2007. (orig.)

  8. Hyperon production in proton-nucleus collisions at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt(S_NN)=41.6 GeV$ at HERA-B and design of silicon microstrip detectors for tracking at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Agari, M

    2006-01-01

    The topics of this thesis are the measurements of hyperon production in protonnucleus collisions at ps = 41.6 GeV with the Hera-B detector located at DESY, Hamburg (Germany), and the design of silicon microstrip sensors for the LHCb experiment at CERN, Geneva (Switzerland), and hyperons and their antiparticles were reconstructed from 113.5A.106 inelastic collisions of protons with fixed carbon, titanium and tungsten targets. With these samples, antiparticle-to-particle ratios, cross sections integrated for the accessible kinematic region of Hera-B and single differential cross sections as function of transverse momentum, $d\\sigma /dp^{2}_{T}$ (for and) and rapidity, $d\\sigma /dy$ (for only), have been been measured as well as the dependence of these quantities on the atomic number of the target nucleus, as parameterized using the Glauber model. The obtained ratios follow the same trend as found for the energy dependence of measurements from nucleus-nucleus collisions. Silicon microstrip sensors have been desi...

  9. Hyperon production in proton-nucleus collisions at a center-of-mass energy of √(sNN) = 41.6 GeV at HERA-B and design of silicon microstrip detectors for tracking at LHCb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agari, Michaela

    2006-01-01

    The topics of this thesis are the measurements of hyperon production in protonnucleus collisions at √(s)=41.6 GeV with the Hera-B detector located at DESY, Hamburg (Germany), and the design of silicon microstrip sensors for the LHCb experiment at CERN, Geneva (Switzerland). Λ, Ξ and Ω hyperons and their antiparticles were reconstructed from 113.5 . 10 6 inelastic collisions of protons with fixed carbon, titanium and tungsten targets. With these samples, antiparticle-to-particle ratios, cross sections integrated for the accessible kinematic region of Hera-B and single differential cross sections as function of transverse momentum, dσ/dp T 2 (for Λ and Ξ) and rapidity, dσ/dy (for Λ only), have been been measured as well as the dependence of these quantities on the atomic number of the target nucleus, as parameterized using the Glauber model. The obtained ratios follow the same trend as found for the energy dependence of measurements from nucleus-nucleus collisions. Silicon microstrip sensors have been designed for the tracking system of the LHCb detector. Evaluating the performance in beam tests at CERN, the strip geometry and sensor thickness were varied optimizing for a large signal-to-noise ratio, a small number of read-out channels and a low occupancy. The detector is currently being built to be operational for first proton-proton collisions in autumn 2007. (orig.)

  10. Radiation hardness of silicon detectors manufactured on epitaxial material and FZ bulk enriched with oxygen, carbon, tin and platinum

    CERN Document Server

    Ruzin, A; Glaser, M; Lemeilleur, F; Talamonti, R; Watts, S; Zanet, A

    1999-01-01

    Recent results on the radiation hardness of silicon detectors fabricated on epitaxial and float zone bulk silicon enriched by various impurities, such as carbon, oxygen, tin and platinum are reported. A new methodology of measurements of electrical properties of the devices has been utilized in the experiment. It has been shown that in the case of irradiation by protons, oxygen enriched silicon has better radiation hardness than standard float zone silicon. The carbon enriched silicon detectors, on the other hand, exhibited significantly inferior radiation hardness compared to standard detectors. This study shows for the first time, a violation of the widely used normalization technique of the various particle irradiations by NIEL coefficients. The study has been carried out in the framework of the RD48 (ROSE) collaboration, which studies the radiation hardening of silicon detectors. (5 refs).

  11. Silicon photo-multiplier radiation hardness tests with a beam controlled neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelone, M.; Pillon, M.; Faccini, R.; Pinci, D.; Baldini, W.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Malaguti, R.; Pozzati, M.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation hardness tests were performed at the Frascati Neutron Generator on silicon Photo-Multipliers that were made of semiconductor photon detectors built from a square matrix of avalanche photo-diodes on a silicon substrate. Several samples from different manufacturers have been irradiated, integrating up to 7x10 10 1-MeV-equivalent neutrons per cm 2 . Detector performance was recorded during the neutron irradiation, and a gradual deterioration of their properties began after an integrated fluence of the order of 10 8 1-MeV-equivalent neutrons per cm 2 was reached.

  12. Radiation hardness of silicon detectors manufactured on wafers from various sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezillie, B.; Bates, S.; Glaser, M.; Lemeilleur, F.; Leroy, C.

    1997-01-01

    Impurity concentrations in the initial silicon material are expected to play an important role for the radiation hardness of silicon detectors, during their irradiation and for their evolution with time after irradiation. This work reports on the experimental results obtained with detectors manufactured using various float-zone (FZ) and epitaxial-grown material. Preliminary results comparing the changes in leakage current and full depletion voltage of FZ and epitaxial detectors as a function of fluence and of time after 10 14 cm -2 proton irradiation are given. The measurement of charge collection efficiency for epitaxial detectors is also presented. (orig.)

  13. FILTRES: a 128 channels VLSI mixed front-end readout electronic development for microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anstotz, F.; Hu, Y.; Michel, J.; Sohler, J.L.; Lachartre, D.

    1998-01-01

    We present a VLSI digital-analog readout electronic chain for silicon microstrip detectors. The characteristics of this circuit have been optimized for the high resolution tracker of the CERN CMS experiment. This chip consists of 128 channels at 50 μm pitch. Each channel is composed by a charge amplifier, a CR-RC shaper, an analog memory, an analog processor, an output FIFO read out serially by a multiplexer. This chip has been processed in the radiation hard technology DMILL. This paper describes the architecture of the circuit and presents test results of the 128 channel full chain chip. (orig.)

  14. Collected charge and Lorentz angle measurement on non-irradiated ATLAS silicon micro-strip sensors for the HL-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildirim, Eda

    2017-02-15

    In this thesis, the collected charge and the Lorentz angle on non-irradiated and the irradiated miniature of the current test silicon micro-strip sensors (ATLAS12) of the future ATLAS inner tracker are measured. The samples are irradiated up to 5 x 10{sup 15} 1 MeV n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} and some of them also measured after short-term annealing (80 min at 60 C). The measurements are performed at the DESY II test beam, which provides the advantage of tracking to suppress noise hits. The collected charge is measured at various bias voltages for each sample. The results are compared with the measurements performed using a Sr{sup 90} radioactive source. It is shown that the measurements with beam and radioactive source are consistent with each other, and the advantage of tracking at the beam measurements provides the measurement of collected charge on highly irradiated sensors at lower bias voltages. The Lorentz angle is measured for each sample at different magnetic field strengths between 0 T and 1 T, the results are extrapolated to 2 T, which is the magnetic field in the inner tracker of the ATLAS detector. Most of the measurements are performed at -500 V bias voltage, which is the planned operation bias voltage of the future strip tracker. Some samples are also measured at different bias voltages to observe the effect of bias voltage on the Lorentz angle. The signal reconstruction of the strip sensors are performed using the lowest possible signal-to-noise thresholds. For non-irradiated samples, the measured Lorentz angle agrees with the prediction of the BFK model. On the irradiated samples, the results suggest that the Lorentz angle decreases with increasing bias voltage due to the increasing electric field in the sensor. The Lorentz angle decreases with increasing irradiation level; however, if the sample is under-depleted, the effect of electric field dominates and the Lorentz angle increases. Once the irradiation level becomes too high, hence the collected charge

  15. Effects of plasma-deposited silicon nitride passivation on the radiation hardness of CMOS integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    The use of plasma-deposited silicon nitride as a final passivation over metal-gate CMOS integrated circuits degrades the radiation hardness of these devices. The hardness degradation is manifested by increased radiation-induced threshold voltage shifts caused principally by the charging of new interface states and, to a lesser extent, by the trapping of holes created upon exposure to ionizing radiation. The threshold voltage shifts are a strong function of the deposition temperature, and show very little dependence on thickness for films deposited at 300 0 C. There is some correlation between the threshold voltage shifts and the hydrogen content of the PECVD silicon nitride films used as the final passivation layer as a function of deposition temperature. The mechanism by which the hydrogen contained in these films may react with the Si/SiO 2 interface is not clear at this point

  16. Design,construction and commissioning of a cylinder of double-sided silicon micro-strips detectors for the Star experiment at RHIC; Developpement et mise en oeuvre de detecteurs silicium a micropistes pour l'experience star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedon, M

    2005-05-15

    This study has been performed in the frame of quark gluon plasma physics research in the STAR experiment at RHIC. It deals with the design, the construction and the commissioning of a barrel of silicon-strip detectors (SSD). Added to the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) of the STAR detector, it extends the capabilities of track reconstruction for charged particles emitted in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. It also contributes to the general study of the quark-gluon plasma production undertaken at STAR. The SSD is a cylinder of 1 m long and of 23 cm radius, and it is composed of 320 compact identical modules. Each module includes one double-sided silicon micro-strip detector, 12 readout chips ALICE 128C, 12 TAB ribbons, 2 COSTAR control chips and 2 hybrids supporting all the components. The document explains why the SSD is an important and relevant element, and justifies the technological choices as well as their validation by in-beam characterization. All component functionalities, characteristics and test procedures are presented. The data and test results are stored in a database for tracing purpose. Component and module production is described. Two parallel studies have been performed, analysed and described. One on the temperature dependence of the module performances and the other one on the optimal adjustments of the analogue blocks inside the ALICE 128C chip. The SSD installation on the RHIC site as well as the commissioning are presented together with the first data takings. (author)

  17. Design,construction and commissioning of a cylinder of double-sided silicon micro-strips detectors for the Star experiment at RHIC; Developpement et mise en oeuvre de detecteurs silicium a micropistes pour l'experience star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedon, M

    2005-05-15

    This study has been performed in the frame of quark gluon plasma physics research in the STAR experiment at RHIC. It deals with the design, the construction and the commissioning of a barrel of silicon-strip detectors (SSD). Added to the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) of the STAR detector, it extends the capabilities of track reconstruction for charged particles emitted in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. It also contributes to the general study of the quark-gluon plasma production undertaken at STAR. The SSD is a cylinder of 1 m long and of 23 cm radius, and it is composed of 320 compact identical modules. Each module includes one double-sided silicon micro-strip detector, 12 readout chips ALICE 128C, 12 TAB ribbons, 2 COSTAR control chips and 2 hybrids supporting all the components. The document explains why the SSD is an important and relevant element, and justifies the technological choices as well as their validation by in-beam characterization. All component functionalities, characteristics and test procedures are presented. The data and test results are stored in a database for tracing purpose. Component and module production is described. Two parallel studies have been performed, analysed and described. One on the temperature dependence of the module performances and the other one on the optimal adjustments of the analogue blocks inside the ALICE 128C chip. The SSD installation on the RHIC site as well as the commissioning are presented together with the first data takings. (author)

  18. Radiation-hard Silicon Photonics for Future High Energy Physics Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2089774; Troska, Jan

    Collisions of proton beams in the Large Hadron Collider at CERN produce very high radiation levels in the innermost parts of the particle detectors and enormous amounts of measurement data. Thousands of radiation-hard optical links based on directly-modulated laser diodes are thus installed in the particle detectors to transmit the measurement data to the processing electronics. The radiation levels in the innermost regions of future particle detectors will be much higher than they are now. Alternative solutions to laser-based radiation-hard optical links have to be found since the performance of laser diodes decreases beyond the operation margin of the system when irradiated to sufficiently high radiation levels. Silicon Photonics (SiPh) is currently being investigated as a promising alternative technology. First tests have indeed shown that SiPh Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZMs) are relatively insensitive to a high neutron fluence. However, they showed a strong degradation when exposed to ionizing radiation. ...

  19. Silicon-on-insulator field effect transistor with improved body ties for rad-hard applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwank, James R.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Draper, Bruce L.; Dodd, Paul E.

    2001-01-01

    A silicon-on-insulator (SOI) field-effect transistor (FET) and a method for making the same are disclosed. The SOI FET is characterized by a source which extends only partially (e.g. about half-way) through the active layer wherein the transistor is formed. Additionally, a minimal-area body tie contact is provided with a short-circuit electrical connection to the source for reducing floating body effects. The body tie contact improves the electrical characteristics of the transistor and also provides an improved single-event-upset (SEU) radiation hardness of the device for terrestrial and space applications. The SOI FET also provides an improvement in total-dose radiation hardness as compared to conventional SOI transistors fabricated without a specially prepared hardened buried oxide layer. Complementary n-channel and p-channel SOI FETs can be fabricated according to the present invention to form integrated circuits (ICs) for commercial and military applications.

  20. Comparison of proton microbeam and gamma irradiation for the radiation hardness testing of silicon PIN diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakšić, M.; Grilj, V.; Skukan, N.; Majer, M.; Jung, H. K.; Kim, J. Y.; Lee, N. H.

    2013-09-01

    Simple and cost-effective solutions using Si PIN diodes as detectors are presently utilized in various radiation-related applications in which excessive exposure to radiation degrades their charge transport properties. One of the conventional methods for the radiation hardness testing of such devices is time-consuming irradiation with electron beam or gamma-ray irradiation facilities, high-energy proton accelerators, or with neutrons from research reactors. Recently, for the purpose of radiation hardness testing, a much faster nuclear microprobe based approach utilizing proton irradiation has been developed. To compare the two different irradiation techniques, silicon PIN diodes have been irradiated with a Co-60 gamma radiation source and with a 6 MeV proton microbeam. The signal degradation in the silicon PIN diodes for both irradiation conditions has been probed by the IBIC (ion beam induced charge) technique, which can precisely monitor changes in charge collection efficiency. The results presented are reviewed on the basis of displacement damage calculations and NIEL (non-ionizing energy loss) concept.

  1. The rad-hard readout system of the BaBar silicon vertex tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, V.; DeWitt, J.; Dow, S.; Frey, A.; Johnson, R. P.; Kroeger, W.; Kipnis, I.; Leona, A.; Luo, L.; Mandelli, E.; Manfredi, P. F.; Nyman, M.; Pedrali-Noy, M.; Poplevin, P.; Perazzo, A.; Roe, N.; Spencer, N.

    1998-02-01

    This paper discusses the behaviour of a prototype rad-hard version of the chip developed for the readout of the BaBar silicon vertex tracker. A previous version of the chip, implemented in the 0.8 μm HP rad-soft version has been thoroughly tested in the recent times. It featured outstanding noise characteristics and showed that the specifications assumed as target for the tracker readout were met to a very good extent. The next step was the realization of a chip prototype in the rad-hard process that will be employed in the actual chip production. Such a prototype is structurally and functionally identical to its rad-soft predecessor. However, the process parameters being different, and not fully mastered at the time of design, some deviations in the behaviour were to be expected. The reasons for such deviations have been identified and some of them were removed by acting on the points that were left accessible on the chip. Other required small circuit modifications that will not affect the production schedule. The tests done so far on the rad-hard chip have shown that the noise behaviour is very close to that of the rad-soft version, that is fully adequate for the vertex detector readout.

  2. Recent results on the development of radiation-hard diamond detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Conway, J S; Bauer, C; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Dabrowski, W; Da Graca, J; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Jamieson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Palmieri, V G; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Plano, R; Polesello, P; Prawer, S; Pretzl, Klaus P; Procario, M; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Schnetzer, S; Sciortino, S; Somalwar, S V; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R; Thomson, G B; Trawick, M; Trischuk, W; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; White, C; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M

    1999-01-01

    Charged particle detectors made from chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond have radiation hardness greatly exceeding that of silicon- based detectors. The CERN-based RD42 Collaboration has developed and tested CVD diamond microstrip and pixel detectors with an eye to their application in the intense radiation environment near the interaction region of hadron colliders. This paper presents recent results from tests of these detectors. (4 refs).

  3. Fabrication of triangular nanobeam waveguide networks in bulk diamond using single-crystal silicon hard masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayn, I.; Mouradian, S.; Li, L.; Goldstein, J. A.; Schröder, T.; Zheng, J.; Chen, E. H.; Gaathon, O.; Englund, Dirk; Lu, M.; Stein, A.; Ruggiero, C. A.; Salzman, J.; Kalish, R.

    2014-01-01

    A scalable approach for integrated photonic networks in single-crystal diamond using triangular etching of bulk samples is presented. We describe designs of high quality factor (Q = 2.51 × 10 6 ) photonic crystal cavities with low mode volume (V m  = 1.062 × (λ/n) 3 ), which are connected via waveguides supported by suspension structures with predicted transmission loss of only 0.05 dB. We demonstrate the fabrication of these structures using transferred single-crystal silicon hard masks and angular dry etching, yielding photonic crystal cavities in the visible spectrum with measured quality factors in excess of Q = 3 × 10 3

  4. Silicon Hard-Stop Mesas for 3D Integration of Superconducting Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, David; Rosenberg, Danna; Osadchy, Brenda; Calusine, Greg; Das, Rabindra; Melville, Alexander; Yoder, Jonilyn; Yost, Donna-Ruth; Racz, Livia; Oliver, William

    As quantum computing with superconducting qubits advances past the few-qubit stage, implementing 3D packaging/integration to route readout/control lines will become increasingly important. One approach is to bond chips that perform different functions using indium bump bonds. Because indium is malleable, however, achieving the desired spacing and tilt between two chips can be challenging. We present an approach based on etching several microns into the silicon substrate to produce hard stop silicon posts. Since this process involves etching into a pristine substrate, it is essential to evaluate its impact on qubit performance. We report the etched surface's effect on the resonator quality factor and qubit coherence time, as well as the improvement in planarity and tilt. This research was funded in part by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) and by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research & Engineering under Air Force Contract No. FA8721-05-C-0002. The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of ODNI, IARPA, or the US Government.

  5. Effect of different types of disinfection solution and aging on the hardness and colour stability of maxillofacial silicone elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, Pinar; Yildirim-Bicer, Arzu Z

    2017-11-09

    Understanding the effect of aging and different disinfecting agents on the physical properties of pigmented maxillofacial silicones may help eliminate the current uncertainty as to the best follow-up suggestions for the patients treated with silicone prostheses. One hundred fifty specimens (14 × 2 mm) were evaluated for colour and 75 specimens (30 × 10 mm) for hardness (total, 225 specimens). Five specimens were used for hardness testing in each disinfecting solution while 10 silicone specimens were used for colour evaluation. The samples were separated into 5 groups and the initial hardness and colour evaluations were performed and placed in disinfectant solution (neutral soap, effervescent tablet, 0.2% chlorhexidine, 4% chlorhexidine, sodium hypochlorite). A second set of colour and hardness measurements was taken after 48 hours of disinfection and 1,008 hours of artificial aging in a QUV-accelerated weathering tester. Two-way and 1-way analysis of variance with Tukey tests and paired t-test were used for statistical analysis (α = 0.05). Before artificial aging, the hardness value of the red pigment group was found to be significantly lower than that of the brown pigment group. After aging, the lowest Shore A value was seen in the neutral soap group, while the highest was seen in the effervescent tablet. Based on the results of this study, chlorohexidine 0.2% was found to be most suitable agent for disinfection of the prostheses. Washing with neutral soap caused loss of pigment from the surface of the silicones. Sodium hypochlorite was found to have a colour-fading effect on silicone specimens.

  6. Design and development of a vertex reconstruction for the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) data. Study of gaseous and silicon micro-strips detectors (MSGC); Conception d'un algorithme de reconstruction de vertex pour les donnees de CMS. Etude de detecteurs gazeux (MSGC) et silicium a micropistes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, St

    2002-12-01

    The work presented in this thesis has contributed to the development of the Compact Muon Solenoid detector (CMS) that will be installed at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which will start running in summer 2007. This report is organised in three parts: the study of gaseous detectors and silicon micro-strips detectors, and a development of a software for the reconstruction and analysis of CMS data in the framework of ORCA. First, the micro-strips gaseous detectors (MSGC) study was on the ultimate critical irradiation test before their substitution in the CMS tracker. This test showed a really small number of lost anodes and a stable signal to noise ratio. This test proved that the described MSGC fulfill all the requirements to be integrated in the CMS tracker. The following contribution described a study of silicon micro-strips detectors and its electronics exposed to a 40 MHz bunched LHC like beam. These tests indicated a good behaviour of the data acquisition and control system. The signal to noise ratio, the bunch crossing identification and the cluster finding efficiency had also be analysed. The last study concern the design and the development of an ORCA algorithm dedicates to secondary vertex reconstruction. This iterative algorithm aims to be use for b tagging. This part analyse also primary vertex reconstruction in events without and with pile up. (author)

  7. An Uncoventional Approach for a Straw Tube-Microstrip Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Basile, E.; Bellucci, F.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Caponero, M. A.; Colonna, D.; Di Falco, F.; Fabbri, F. L.; Felli, F.; Giardoni, M.; La Monaca, A.; Mensitieri, G.; Ortenzi, B.; Pallotta, M.

    2004-01-01

    We report on a novel concept of silicon microstrips and straw tubes detector, where integration is accomplished by a straw module with straws not subjected to mechanical tension in a Rohacell lattice and carbon fiber reinforced plastic shell. Results on mechanical and test beam performances are reported on as well.

  8. Radiation damage studies for the D0 silicon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, F.

    2004-01-01

    We report on irradiation studies performed on spare production silicon detector modules for the current D0 silicon detector. The lifetime expectations due to radiation damage effects of the existing silicon detector are reviewed. A new upgrade project was started with the goal of a complete replacement of the existing silicon detector. In that context, several investigations on the radiation hardness of new prototype silicon microstrip detectors were carried out. The irradiation on different detector types was performed with 10 MeV protons up to fluences of 10 14 p/cm 2 at the J.R. Mcdonald Laboratory at Kansas State University. The flux calibration was carefully checked using different normalization techniques. As a result, we observe roughly 40-50% less radiation damage in silicon for 10 MeV p exposure than it is expected by the predicted NIEL scaling

  9. Radiation damage studies for the DOe silicon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, Frank

    2004-01-01

    We report on irradiation studies performed on spare production silicon detector modules for the current DOe silicon detector. The lifetime expectations due to radiation damage effects of the existing silicon detector are reviewed. A new upgrade project was started with the goal of a complete replacement of the existing silicon detector. In that context, several investigations on the radiation hardness of new prototype silicon microstrip detectors were carried out. The irradiation on different detector types was performed with 10 MeV protons up to fluences of 10 14 p/cm 2 at the J.R. Mcdonald Laboratory at Kansas State University. The flux calibration was carefully checked using different normalisation techniques. As a result, we observe roughly 40-50% less radiation damage in silicon for 10 MeV p exposure than it is expected by the predicted NIEL scaling

  10. Radiation hardness and charge collection efficiency of lithium irradiated thin silicon diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Boscardin, Maurizio; Bruzzi, Mara; Candelori, Andrea; Focardi, Ettore; Khomenkov, Volodymyr P; Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, S; Tosi, C; Zorzi, N

    2005-01-01

    Due to their low depletion voltage, even after high particle fluences, improved tracking precision and momentum resolution, and reduced material budget, thin substrates are one of the possible choices to provide radiation hard detectors for future high energy physics experiments. In the framework of the CERN RD50 Collaboration, we have developed PIN diode detectors on membranes obtained by locally thinning the silicon substrate by means of TMAH etching from the wafer backside. Diodes of different shapes and sizes have been fabricated on 50- mu m and 100- mu m thick membranes and tested, showing a low leakage current (of 300 nA/cm/sup 3/) and a very low depletion voltage (in the order of 1 V for the 50 mu m membrane) before irradiation. Radiation damage tests have been performed with 58 MeV lithium (Li) ions up to the fluence of 10/sup 14/ Li/cm/sup 2/ in order to determine the depletion voltage and leakage current density increase after irradiation. Charge collection efficiency tests carried out with a beta /...

  11. Radiation Hardness tests with neutron flux on different Silicon photomultiplier devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, P. W.; Cervi, T.; Menegolli, A.; Oddone, M.; Prata, M.; Prata, M. C.; Rossella, M.

    2017-07-01

    Radiation hardness is an important requirement for solid state readout devices operating in high radiation environments common in particle physics experiments. The MEG II experiment, at PSI, Switzerland, investigates the forbidden decay μ+ → e+ γ. Exploiting the most intense muon beam of the world. A significant flux of non-thermal neutrons (kinetic energy Ek>= 0.5 MeV) is present in the experimental hall produced along the beam-line and in the hall itself. We present the effects of neutron fluxes comparable to the MEG II expected doses on several Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPMs). The tested models are: AdvanSiD ASD-NUV3S-P50 (used in MEG II experiment), AdvanSiD ASD-NUV3S-P40, AdvanSiD ASD-RGB3S-P40, Hamamatsu and Excelitas C30742-33-050-X. The neutron source is the thermal Sub-critical Multiplication complex (SM1) moderated with water, located at the University of Pavia (Italy). We report the change of SiPMs most important electric parameters: dark current, dark pulse frequency, gain, direct bias resistance, as a function of the integrated neutron fluency.

  12. Optically controlled photonic bandgap structures for microstrip circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadman, Darren Arthur

    2003-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the optical control of microwave photonic bandgap circuits using high resistivity silicon. Photoconducting processes that occur within silicon are investigated. The influence of excess carrier density on carrier mobility and lifetime is examined. In addition, electron-hole pair recombination mechanisms (Shockley-Read-Hall, Auger, radiative and surface) are investigated. The microwave properties of silicon are examined, in particular the variation of silicon reflectivity with excess carrier density. Filtering properties of microstrip photonic bandgap structures and how they may be controlled optically are studied. A proof-of-concept microstrip photonic bandgap structure with optical control is designed, simulated and measured. With no optical illumination incident upon the silicon, the microstrip photonic bandgap structure's filtering properties are well-defined; a 3dB stopband width of 2.6GHz, a 6dB bandwidth of 2GHz and stopband depth of -11.6dB at the centre frequency of 9.9GHz. When the silicon is illuminated, the structure's filtering properties are suppressed. Under illumination the experimental results display an increase in S 21 of 6.5dB and a reduction in S 11 of more than 10dB at 9.9GHz. A comparison of measured and simulated results reveal that the photogenerated excess carrier density is between 4 x 10 15 cm -3 and 1.1 x 10 16 cm -3 . (author)

  13. Development of n.sup.+./sup.-in-p large-area silicon microstrip sensors for very high radiation environments – ATLAS12 design and initial results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Unno, Y.; Edwards, S.O.; Pyatt, S.; Böhm, Jan; Mikeštíková, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 765, Nov (2014), s. 80-90 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13009 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : silicon strip * n + -in-p * P-type * Radiation-tolerant * HL- LHC * PTP Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.216, year: 2014

  14. Studying signal collection in the punch-through protection area of a silicon micro-strip sensor using a micro-focused X-ray beam

    CERN Document Server

    Poley, Anne-luise; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    For the Phase-II Upgrade of the ATLAS detector, a new, all-silicon tracker will be constructed in order to cope with the increased track density and radiation level of the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider. While silicon strip sensors are designed to minimise the fraction of dead material and maximise the active area of a sensor, concessions must be made to the requirements of operating a sensor in a particle physics detector. Sensor geometry features like the punch-through protection deviate from the standard sensor architecture and thereby affect the charge collection in that area. In order to study the signal collection of silicon strip sensors over their punch-through-protection area, ATLAS silicon strip sensors were scanned with a micro-focused X-ray beam at the Diamond Light Source. Due to the highly focused X-ray beam ($\\unit[2\\times3]{\\upmu\\text{m}}^2$) and the short average path length of an electron after interaction with an X-ray photon ($\\unit[\\leq2]{\\upmu\\text{m}}$), local signal collection i...

  15. Design of a radiation hard silicon pixel sensor for X-ray science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwandt, Joern

    2014-06-15

    At DESY Hamburg the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (EuXFEL) is presently under construction. The EuXFEL has unique properties with respect to X-ray energy, instantaneous intensity, pulse length, coherence and number of pulses/sec. These properties of the EuXFEL pose very demanding requirements for imaging detectors. One of the detector systems which is currently under development to meet these challenges is the Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector, AGIPD. It is a hybrid pixel-detector system with 1024 x 1024 p{sup +} pixels of dimensions 200 μm x 200 μm, made of 16 p{sup +}nn{sup +}- silicon sensors, each with 10.52 cm x 2.56 cm sensitive area and 500 μm thickness. The particular requirements for the AGIPD are a separation between noise and single photons down to energies of 5 keV, more than 10{sup 4} photons per pixel for a pulse duration of less than 100 fs, negligible pile-up at the EuXFEL repetition rate of 4.5 MHz, operation for X-ray doses up to 1 GGy, good efficiency for X-rays with energies between 5 and 20 keV, and minimal inactive regions at the edges. The main challenge in the sensor design is the required radiation tolerance and high operational voltage, which is required to reduce the so-called plasma effect. This requires a specially optimized sensor. The X-ray radiation damage results in a build-up of oxide charges and interface traps which lead to a reduction of the breakdown voltage, increased leakage current, increased interpixel capacitances and charge losses. Extensive TCAD simulations have been performed to understand the impact of X-ray radiation damage on the detector performance and optimize the sensor design. To take radiation damage into account in the simulation, radiation damage parameters have been determined on MOS capacitors and gate-controlled diodes as function of dose. The optimized sensor design was fabricated by SINTEF. Irradiation tests on test structures and sensors show that the sensor design is radiation hard and

  16. Investigations into the impact of bond pads and p-stop implants on the detection efficiency of silicon micro-strip sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poley, Luise; Lohwasser, Kristin; Blue, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    The High Luminosity Upgrade of the LHC will require the replacement of the Inner Detector of ATLAS with the Inner Tracker (ITk) in order to cope with higher radiation levels and higher track densities. Prototype silicon strip detector modules are currently developed and their performance is studied in both particle test beams and X-ray beams. In previous test beam studies of prototype modules, silicon sensor strips were found to respond in regions varying from the strip pitch of 74.5 μm. The variations have been linked to local features of the sensor architecture. This paper presents results of detailed sensor measurements in both X-ray and particle beams investigating the impact of sensor features (metal pads and p-stops) on the responding area of a sensor strip.

  17. Investigations into the impact of bond pads and p-stop implants on the detection efficiency of silicon micro-strip sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poley, Luise; Lohwasser, Kristin [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Blue, Andrew [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy; and others

    2016-11-15

    The High Luminosity Upgrade of the LHC will require the replacement of the Inner Detector of ATLAS with the Inner Tracker (ITk) in order to cope with higher radiation levels and higher track densities. Prototype silicon strip detector modules are currently developed and their performance is studied in both particle test beams and X-ray beams. In previous test beam studies of prototype modules, silicon sensor strips were found to respond in regions varying from the strip pitch of 74.5 μm. The variations have been linked to local features of the sensor architecture. This paper presents results of detailed sensor measurements in both X-ray and particle beams investigating the impact of sensor features (metal pads and p-stops) on the responding area of a sensor strip.

  18. A comparison between rad-hard float zone silicon diodes as gamma dosimeter in radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Fábio de; Gonçalves, Josemary A.C.; Bueno, Carmen C.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we report on the results obtained with rad-hard Standard Float Zone (STFZ) and Diffused Oxygenated Float Zone (DOFZ) silicon diodes in radiation processing dosimetry. The dosimetric probes were designed to operate in the direct current mode, as on-line radiation dosimeter. The irradiation of the samples was performed using a 60 Co source with a dose rate of almost 2.4 kGy/h. The current response of each diode was measured as a function of the exposure time in steps from 5 kGy up to 50 kGy to achieve a total absorbed dose of 275 kGy. In this dose range it is observed a significant decrease in the photocurrent generated in both devices due to gamma radiation defects produced in their active volumes. To mitigate this effect, the samples were pre-irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays at 700 kGy. Despite of being less sensitive, these devices presented stable and reproducible current signals with a relative sensitivity decrease of about 19% within the whole range of dose studied. The dose-response curves of the pre-irradiated diodes showed quadratic behavior with correlation coefficient higher than 0.9999 for total absorbed dose up to 275 kGy. The comparison of the FZ and DOFZ responses evidenced that the latter was slightly superior to the first. However, it is important to note that all pre-irradiated diodes can be used as gamma dosimeters in radiation processing applications. (author)

  19. Development of dosimeters with rad-hard silicon diodes for high dose dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Fabio de

    2009-01-01

    In this work we report on results obtained with rad-hard Standard Float Zone (FZ), Diffusion Oxygenated Float Zone (DOFZ) and Magnetic Czochralski (MCz) silicon diodes in gamma radiation processing dosimetry. These p ± n-n + junction devices were manufactured by Okmetic Oyj. (Vantaa, Finland) and processed by the Microelectronics Center of Helsinki University of Technology in the framework of the CERN RD50 Collaboration. The dosimetric probes, based on FZ, DOFZ and M Cz devices, were designed to operate without bias voltage in the direct current mode as on-line radiation dosimeter. The irradiations were performed in the Radiation Technology Center (CTR) at IPEN-CNEN/SP using a 60 Co source (Gamma cell 220 - Nordion) with a dose rate around of 2.4 kGy/h. The current response of each diode was measured as a function of the exposure time in steps from 5 kGy up to 50 kGy to achieve a total absorbed dose of 275 kGy. The results obtained showed a significant decrease in the photocurrent generated in all devices for total absorbed doses higher than approximately 25 kGy. To reduce this effect, the samples were pre-irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays at 700 kGy in order to saturate the trap production in the diode's sensitive volume. After pre-irradiation, despite of being less sensitive, all devices exhibited more stable photocurrent signals, even for total absorbed doses of 275 kGy. To monitor possible gamma radiation damage effects produced on the diodes, their dynamic leakage current and capacitance were measured as a function of the absorbed dose. (author)

  20. A comparison between rad-hard float zone silicon diodes as gamma dosimeter in radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, Fábio de [Amazônia Azul Tecnologias de Defesa S.A. (AMAZUL), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gonçalves, Josemary A.C.; Bueno, Carmen C., E-mail: dcamargo@gmail.com, E-mail: ccbueno@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we report on the results obtained with rad-hard Standard Float Zone (STFZ) and Diffused Oxygenated Float Zone (DOFZ) silicon diodes in radiation processing dosimetry. The dosimetric probes were designed to operate in the direct current mode, as on-line radiation dosimeter. The irradiation of the samples was performed using a {sup 60}Co source with a dose rate of almost 2.4 kGy/h. The current response of each diode was measured as a function of the exposure time in steps from 5 kGy up to 50 kGy to achieve a total absorbed dose of 275 kGy. In this dose range it is observed a significant decrease in the photocurrent generated in both devices due to gamma radiation defects produced in their active volumes. To mitigate this effect, the samples were pre-irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays at 700 kGy. Despite of being less sensitive, these devices presented stable and reproducible current signals with a relative sensitivity decrease of about 19% within the whole range of dose studied. The dose-response curves of the pre-irradiated diodes showed quadratic behavior with correlation coefficient higher than 0.9999 for total absorbed dose up to 275 kGy. The comparison of the FZ and DOFZ responses evidenced that the latter was slightly superior to the first. However, it is important to note that all pre-irradiated diodes can be used as gamma dosimeters in radiation processing applications. (author)

  1. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detectors: Material parameters; radiation hardness; charge collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, S.

    1991-01-01

    Properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n diodes relevant to radiation detection applications were studied. The interest in using this material for radiation detection applications in physics and medicine was motivated by its high radiation hardness and the fact that it can be deposited over large area at relatively low cost. Thick, fully depleted a-Si:H diodes are required for sufficient energy deposition by a charged particle and better signal to noise ratio. A sizeable electric field is essential for charge collection in a -Si:H diodes. The large density of ionized defects that exist in the i layer when the diode is under DC bias causes the electric field to be uniform. Material parameters, namely carrier mobility and lifetime and the ionized defect density in thick a-Si:H p-i-n diodes were studied by the transient photoconductivity method. The increase in diode leakage current with reverse bias over the operating bias was consistent with the Poole-Frenkel effect, involving excitation of carriers from neutral defects. The diode noise over the operating voltage range was completely explained in terms of the shot noise component for CR-(RC) 4 (pseudo-Gaussian) shaping at 3 μs shaping time and the noise component at 0 V bias (delta and thermal noise) added in quadrature. Irradiation with 1 Mev neutrons produced no significant degradation in leakage current and noise at fluences exceeding 4 x 10 14 cm -2 . Irradiation with 1.4 Mev proton fluence of 1 x 10 14 cm -2 decreased carrier lifetime by a factor of ∼4. Degradation in leakage current and noise became significant at proton fluence of ∼10 13 cm -2

  2. Characterisation of silicon microstrip detectors for the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poley, Luise; Blue, Andrew; Bates, Richard

    2016-03-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential through a sizable increase in the luminosity, totalling 1 x 10 35 cm -2 s -1 after 10 years of operation. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at 3000 fb -1 , requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over 1 x 10 16 1 MeV neutrons per cm 2 . With the addition of increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk). Two proposed detectors for the ATLAS strip tracker region of the ITk were characterized at the Diamond Light Source with a 3 μm FWHM 15 keV micro focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were a 320 μm thick silicon stereo (Barrel) ATLAS12 strip mini sensor wire bonded to a 130 nm CMOS binary readout chip (ABC130) and a 320 μm thick full size radial (Endcap) strip sensor - utilizing bi-metal readout layers - wire bonded to 250 nm CMOS binary readout chips (ABCN-25). Sub-strip resolution of the 74.5 μm strips was achieved for both detectors. Investigation of the p-stop diffusion layers between strips is shown in detail for the wire bond pad regions. Inter strip charge collection measurements indicate that the effective width of the strip on the silicon sensors is determined by p-stops regions between the strips rather than the strip pitch. The collected signal allowed for the identification of operating thresholds for both devices, making it possible to compare signal response between different versions of silicon strip detector modules.

  3. Characterisation of silicon microstrip detectors for the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poley, Luise [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Blue, Andrew; Bates, Richard [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy; and others

    2016-03-15

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential through a sizable increase in the luminosity, totalling 1 x 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} after 10 years of operation. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at 3000 fb{sup -1}, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over 1 x 10{sup 16} 1 MeV neutrons per cm{sup 2}. With the addition of increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk). Two proposed detectors for the ATLAS strip tracker region of the ITk were characterized at the Diamond Light Source with a 3 μm FWHM 15 keV micro focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were a 320 μm thick silicon stereo (Barrel) ATLAS12 strip mini sensor wire bonded to a 130 nm CMOS binary readout chip (ABC130) and a 320 μm thick full size radial (Endcap) strip sensor - utilizing bi-metal readout layers - wire bonded to 250 nm CMOS binary readout chips (ABCN-25). Sub-strip resolution of the 74.5 μm strips was achieved for both detectors. Investigation of the p-stop diffusion layers between strips is shown in detail for the wire bond pad regions. Inter strip charge collection measurements indicate that the effective width of the strip on the silicon sensors is determined by p-stops regions between the strips rather than the strip pitch. The collected signal allowed for the identification of operating thresholds for both devices, making it possible to compare signal response between different versions of silicon strip detector modules.

  4. Production of ALICE microstrip detectors at ITC-irst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregori, Paolo; Bellutti, Pierluigi; Boscardin, Maurizio; Collini, Amos; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Pucker, Georg; Zorzi, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    We report on the results from the production of 600 double-sided silicon microstrip detectors for the ALICE experiment. We present the fabrication process and some selected results from the electrical characterization of detectors and test structures. The large amount of experimental data allowed a statistically relevant analysis to be performed. The main technological aspects related to production yield optimization will also be addressed

  5. Foundations for microstrip circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Building on the success of the previous three editions, Foundations for Microstrip Circuit Design offers extensive new, updated and revised material based upon the latest research. Strongly design-oriented, this fourth edition provides the reader with a fundamental understanding of this fast expanding field making it a definitive source for professional engineers and researchers and an indispensable reference for senior students in electronic engineering. Topics new to this edition: microwave substrates, multilayer transmission line structures, modern EM tools and techniques, microstrip and planar transmision line design, transmission line theory, substrates for planar transmission lines, Vias, wirebonds, 3D integrated interposer structures, computer-aided design, microstrip and power-dependent effects, circuit models, microwave network analysis, microstrip passive elements, and slotline design fundamentals.

  6. Frequency scanning microstrip antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Magnus; Jørgensen, Rolf

    1979-01-01

    The principles of using radiating microstrip resonators as elements in a frequency scanning antenna array are described. The resonators are cascade-coupled. This gives a scan of the main lobe due to the phase-shift in the resonator in addition to that created by the transmission line phase......-shift. Experimental results inX-band, in good agreement with the theory, show that it is possible to scan the main lobe an angle ofpm30degby a variation of the frequencypm300MHz, and where the 3 dB beamwidth is less than10deg. The directivity was 14.7 dB, while the gain was 8.1 dB. The efficiency might be improved...

  7. Radiation hardness of silicon detectors - a challenge from high-energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lindström, G; Fretwurst, E

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the radiation-damage-induced problems connected with the application of silicon particle detectors in future high-energy physics experiments is given. Problems arising from the expected hadron fluences are summarized and the use of the nonionizing energy loss for normalization of bulk damage is explained. The present knowledge on the deterioration effects caused by irradiation is described leading to an appropriate modeling. Examples are given for a correlation between the change in the macroscopic performance parameters and effects to be seen on the microscopic level by defect analysis. Finally possible ways are out-lined for improving the radiation tolerance of silicon detectors either by operational conditions, process technology or defect engineering.

  8. Evaluation of stiffness feedback for hard nodule identification on a phantom silicone model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Konstantinova, Jelizaveta; Xu, Guanghua; He, Bo; Aminzadeh, Vahid; Xie, Jun; Wurdemann, Helge; Althoefer, Kaspar

    2017-01-01

    Haptic information in robotic surgery can significantly improve clinical outcomes and help detect hard soft-tissue inclusions that indicate potential abnormalities. Visual representation of tissue stiffness information is a cost-effective technique. Meanwhile, direct force feedback, although considerably more expensive than visual representation, is an intuitive method of conveying information regarding tissue stiffness to surgeons. In this study, real-time visual stiffness feedback by sliding indentation palpation is proposed, validated, and compared with force feedback involving human subjects. In an experimental tele-manipulation environment, a dynamically updated color map depicting the stiffness of probed soft tissue is presented via a graphical interface. The force feedback is provided, aided by a master haptic device. The haptic device uses data acquired from an F/T sensor attached to the end-effector of a tele-manipulated robot. Hard nodule detection performance is evaluated for 2 modes (force feedback and visual stiffness feedback) of stiffness feedback on an artificial organ containing buried stiff nodules. From this artificial organ, a virtual-environment tissue model is generated based on sliding indentation measurements. Employing this virtual-environment tissue model, we compare the performance of human participants in distinguishing differently sized hard nodules by force feedback and visual stiffness feedback. Results indicate that the proposed distributed visual representation of tissue stiffness can be used effectively for hard nodule identification. The representation can also be used as a sufficient substitute for force feedback in tissue palpation.

  9. Evaluation of stiffness feedback for hard nodule identification on a phantom silicone model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    Full Text Available Haptic information in robotic surgery can significantly improve clinical outcomes and help detect hard soft-tissue inclusions that indicate potential abnormalities. Visual representation of tissue stiffness information is a cost-effective technique. Meanwhile, direct force feedback, although considerably more expensive than visual representation, is an intuitive method of conveying information regarding tissue stiffness to surgeons. In this study, real-time visual stiffness feedback by sliding indentation palpation is proposed, validated, and compared with force feedback involving human subjects. In an experimental tele-manipulation environment, a dynamically updated color map depicting the stiffness of probed soft tissue is presented via a graphical interface. The force feedback is provided, aided by a master haptic device. The haptic device uses data acquired from an F/T sensor attached to the end-effector of a tele-manipulated robot. Hard nodule detection performance is evaluated for 2 modes (force feedback and visual stiffness feedback of stiffness feedback on an artificial organ containing buried stiff nodules. From this artificial organ, a virtual-environment tissue model is generated based on sliding indentation measurements. Employing this virtual-environment tissue model, we compare the performance of human participants in distinguishing differently sized hard nodules by force feedback and visual stiffness feedback. Results indicate that the proposed distributed visual representation of tissue stiffness can be used effectively for hard nodule identification. The representation can also be used as a sufficient substitute for force feedback in tissue palpation.

  10. Investigation on the improved radiation hardness of silicon detectors with high oxygen concentration

    CERN Document Server

    Moll, Michael; Lindström, G

    2000-01-01

    We present an investigation on the influence of the oxygen concentration on radiation-induced changes in the effective doping concentration of silicon detectors. Diodes fabricated from silicon with interstitial oxygen content ranging from below 2*10/sup 14/ to 9*10/sup 17/ cm/sup -3/ have been irradiated with fast neutrons up to a fluence of 2*10/sup 15/ cm/sup -2/. Our main interest focused on the so-called stable damage component in the change of the effective doping concentration being of prime importance for the application of silicon detectors in high-energy physics experiments. We demonstrate, that with a high oxygen enrichment the donor removal is appreciably reduced, reaching a value of only 10601130f the initial doping concentration for [O/sub i/]=9*10/sup 17/ cm/sup -3/, while for normal detector grade material with [O/sub i/] below 5*10/sup 16/ cm /sup -3/ that value is 60-90Furthermore, we show that the fluence proportional introduction of stable acceptors is independent of the oxygen concentratio...

  11. Evaluation of stiffness feedback for hard nodule identification on a phantom silicone model

    OpenAIRE

    Li, M.; Konstantinova, J.; Xu, G.; He, B.; Aminzadeh, V.; Xie, J.; Wurdemann, H.; Althoefer, K.

    2017-01-01

    Haptic information in robotic surgery can significantly improve clinical outcomes and help detect hard soft-tissue inclusions that indicate potential abnormalities. Visual representation of tissue stiffness information is a cost-effective technique. Meanwhile, direct force feedback, although considerably more expensive than visual representation, is an intuitive method of conveying information regarding tissue stiffness to surgeons. In this study, real-time visual stiffness feedback by slidin...

  12. Investigation on the improved radiation hardness of silicon detectors with high oxygen concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moll, M.; Fretwurst, E.; Lindstroem, G.

    2000-01-01

    We present an investigation on the influence of the oxygen concentration on radiation-induced changes in the effective doping concentration of silicon detectors. Diodes fabricated from silicon with interstitial oxygen content ranging from below 2x10 14 to 9x10 17 cm -3 have been irradiated with fast neutrons up to a fluence of 2x10 15 cm -2 . Our main interest focused on the so-called stable damage component in the change of the effective doping concentration being of prime importance for the application of silicon detectors in high-energy physics experiments. We demonstrate, that with a high oxygen enrichment the donor removal is appreciably reduced, reaching a value of only 10% of the initial doping concentration for [O i ]=9x10 17 cm -3 , while for normal detector grade material with [O i ] below 5x10 16 cm -3 that value is 60-90%. Furthermore, we show that the fluence proportional introduction of stable acceptors is independent of the oxygen concentration with an averaged introduction rate of (1.49±0.03)x10 -2 cm -1 . Only one material was found exhibiting a significantly smaller value of about 0.6x10 -2 cm -1 and thus indicating the possibility to suppress the radiation-induced acceptor creation by material modification. Finally, we show that the experimental findings disagree in several important aspects with predictions made by microscopic defect kinetics models, leaving the physical background of some of the measured data as an open question

  13. Determination of adhesion between thermoplastic and liquid silicone rubbers in hard-soft-combinations via mechanical peeling test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühr, C.; Spörrer, A.; Altstädt, V.

    2014-05-01

    The production of hard-soft-combinations via multi injection molding gained more and more importance in the last years. This is attributed to different factors. One principle reason is that the use of two-component injection molding technique has many advantages such as cancelling subsequent and complex steps and shortening the process chain. Furthermore this technique allows the combination of the properties of the single components like the high stiffness of the hard component and the elastic properties of the soft component. Because of the incompatibility of some polymers the adhesion on the interface has to be determined. Thereby adhesion is not only influenced by the applied polymers, but also by the injection molding parameters and the characteristics of the mold. Besides already known combinations of thermoplastics with thermoplastic elastomers (TPE), there consists the possibility to apply liquid silicone rubber (LSR) as soft component. A thermoplastic/LSR combination gains in importance due to the specific advantages of LSR to TPE. The faintly adhesion between LSR and thermoplastics is currently one of the key challenges when dealing with those combinations. So it is coercively necessary to improve adhesion between the two components by adding an adhesion promoter. To determine the promoters influence, it is necessary to develop a suitable testing method to investigate e.g. the peel resistance. The current German standard "VDI Richtlinie 2019', which is actually only employed for thermoplastic/TPE combinations, can serve as a model to determine the adhesion of thermoplastic/LSR combinations.

  14. Effect of Silicon Nitride Incorporation on Microstructure and Hardness of Ni-Co Metal Matrix Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ni-Co-Si3N4 nanocomposite coatings were prepared by electrodeposition technique. The deposition was performed at 50 mA cm-2 on copper substrate. The working temperature of electrodepostion was constant at 500C in an acidic environment of pH 4. The effects of silicon in the nickel-cobalt metal matrix composite were investigated. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used to determine the composition. The Co content in the coatings is in the range 27-49 at.%. The phase present in the Ni-Co-Si3N4 were examined with an X-ray diffraction analysis. All the reflection patterns indicate that the coatings are having face-centered cubic (fcc structure. The microhardness of the Ni-Co-Si3N4 nanocomposite coating increases with increasing silicon content. The microhardness of the Ni-Co-Si3N4 nanocomposite coating increased from 549 HV for Nickel-cobalt alloy coating to 641 HV for Ni-Co-Si3N4 nanocomposite coating with 5.47 at.% Si.

  15. Comparison between rad-hard standard float zone (FZ) and magnetic Czochralski (MCZ) silicon diodes in radiotherapy electron beam dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, T.C. dos; Goncalves, J.A.C.; Vasques, M.M.; Tobias, C.C.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes; Neves-Junior, W.F.P.; Haddad, C.M.K. [Hospital Sirio Libanes, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Sociedade Beneficente de Senhoras; Harkonen, J. [Helsinki University of Technology (Denmark). Helsinki Inst. of Physics

    2010-07-01

    Full text. The use of semiconductor detectors has increased in radiotherapy practice since 1980s due to mainly their fast processing time, small sensitive volume and high relative sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Other major advantages of Si devices are excellent repeatability, good mechanical stability, high spatial resolution and the energy independence of mass collision stopping powers ratios (between silicon and water for electron beams with energy from 4 up to 20 MeV). However, ordinary silicon devices are very prone to radiation damage effects. In the last years, the development of radiation tolerant silicon detectors for High Energy Physics experiments has overcome this drawback. In this work we present the preliminary results obtained with a rad-hard epitaxial silicon diode as on-line clinical electron beam dosimeter. The diodes with 25 mm{sup 2} active area, were housed in a PMMA probe and connected, in a photovoltaic mode, to a Keithley 6517B electrometer. During all measurements, the diodes were held between PMMA plates, placed at Zref and centered in a radiation field of 10 cm x 10 cm, with the SSD kept at 100 cm. The devices dosimetric response was evaluated for 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 e 21 MeV electron beams from a Siemens KD 2 Radiotherapy Linear Accelerator, located at Sirio-Libanes Hospital. The radiation induced current in the diodes was registered as a function of the exposure time during 60 s for a fixed 300 MU. To study the short term repeatability, current signals were registered for the same radiation dose, for all energies. The dose-response of the diodes was achieved through the integration of the current signals as a function of the exposure time. The results obtained in the energy range of 6 up to 21 MeV evidenced that, for the same average dose rate of 5.0 cGy/s, the current signals are very stable and repeatable in both cases. For all energies, data shows good instantaneous repeatability with a percentage variation coefficient better than 2

  16. Effect of cutting temperature on hardness of SiC and diamond in the nano-cutting process of monocrystalline silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiachun; Li, Yuntao; Liu, Xiaoxuan; Lv, Maoqiang

    2016-10-01

    In the process of cutting silicon by natural diamond tools, groove wear happens on the flank face of cutting tool frequently.Scholars believe that one of the wear reasons is mechanical scratching effect by hard particles like SiC. To reveal the mechanical scratching mechanism, it is essential to study changes in the mechanical properties of hard particles and diamond, especially the effect of cutting temperature on hardness of diamond and hard particles. Molecular dynamics (MD) model that contact-zone temperature between tool and workpiece was calculated by dividing zone while nano-cutting monocrystalline silicon was established, cutting temperature values in different regions were computed as the simulation was carried out.On this basis, the models of molecular dynamics simulation of SiC and diamond were established separately with setting the initial temperature to room temperature. The laws of length change of C-C bond and Si-C bond varing with increase of simulation temperature were studied. And drawing on predecessors' research on theoretical calculation of hardness of covalent crystals and the relationship between crystal valence electron density and bond length, the curves that the hardness of diamond and SiC varing with bond length were obtained. The effect of temperature on the hardness was calculated. Results show that, local cutting temperature can reach 1300K.The rise in cutting temperature leaded to a decrease in the diamond local atomic clusters hardness,SiC local atomic clusters hardness increased. As the cutting temperature was more than 1100K,diamond began to soften, the local clusters hardness was less than that of SiC.

  17. Radiation hardness and precision timing study of silicon detectors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter (HGC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currás, Esteban, E-mail: ecurrasr@cern.ch [CERN, Organisation europnne pour la recherche nucleaire, CH-1211 Genéve 23 (Switzerland); Instituto de Física de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Avda. los Castros s/n, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Fernández, Marcos [Instituto de Física de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Avda. los Castros s/n, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Gallrapp, Christian [CERN, Organisation europnne pour la recherche nucleaire, CH-1211 Genéve 23 (Switzerland); Gray, Lindsey [Fermilab, Wilson Street and Kirk Road, Batavia, IL 60510-5011, Illinois (United States); Mannelli, Marcello [CERN, Organisation europnne pour la recherche nucleaire, CH-1211 Genéve 23 (Switzerland); Meridiani, Paolo [Istituto Nazionale Di Fisica Nucleare – Sezione di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Moll, Michael [CERN, Organisation europnne pour la recherche nucleaire, CH-1211 Genéve 23 (Switzerland); Nourbakhsh, Shervin [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Scharf, Christian [Hamburg University, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Silva, Pedro [CERN, Organisation europnne pour la recherche nucleaire, CH-1211 Genéve 23 (Switzerland); Steinbrueck, Georg [Hamburg University, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Fatis, Tommaso Tabarelli de [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare – Sezione di Milano-Bicocca Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); Vila, Iván [Instituto de Física de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Avda. los Castros s/n, E-39005 Santander (Spain)

    2017-02-11

    The high luminosity upgraded LHC or Phase-II is expected to increase the instantaneous luminosity by a factor of 10 beyond the LHC's design value, expecting to deliver 250 fb{sup −1} per year for a further 10 years of operation. Under these conditions the performance degradation due to integrated radiation dose will need to be addressed. The CMS collaboration is planning to upgrade the forward calorimeters. The replacement is called the High Granularity Calorimeter (HGC) and it will be realized as a sampling calorimeter with layers of silicon detectors interleaved. The sensors will be realized as pad detectors with sizes of less that ∼1.0 cm{sup 2} and an active thickness between 100 and 300 μm depending on the position, respectively, the expected radiation levels. For an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb{sup −1}, the electromagnetic calorimetry will sustain integrated doses of 1.5 MGy (150 Mrads) and neutron fluences up to 10{sup 16} neq/cm{sup 2}. A radiation tolerance study after neutron irradiation of 300, 200, and 100 μm n-on-p and p-on-n silicon pads irradiated to fluences up to 1.6×10{sup 16} neq/cm{sup 2} is presented. The properties of these diodes studied before and after irradiation were leakage current, capacitance, charge collection efficiency, annealing effects and timing capability. The results of these measurements validate these sensors as candidates for the HGC system.

  18. Microstrip microwave band gap structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The periodic lattice of PTFE–air combination has the dielectric contrast (defined as the ratio between the dielectric constant of the substrate to that of the background, air) of 2.08. At both ends of the microstrip. MBG, two sub-miniature adapter (SMA) coaxial connectors were placed. The measurements as well as theoretical ...

  19. A Novel Approach for an Integrated Straw Tube-Microstrip Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, E.; Bellucci, F.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Caponero, M. A.; Colonna, D.; Di Falco, F.; Fabbri, F. L.; Felli, F.; Giardoni, M.; La Monaca, A.; Mensitieri, G.; Ortenzi, B.; Pallotta, M.; Paolozzi, A.; Passamonti, L.; Pierluigi, D.; Pucci, C.; Russo, A.; Saviano, G.; Casali, F.; Bettuzzi, M.; Bianconi, D.; Baruffaldi, F.; Perilli, E.; Massa, F.

    2006-06-01

    We report on a novel concept of silicon microstrips and straw tubes detector, where integration is accomplished by a straw module with straws not subjected to mechanical tension in a Rohacell/spl reg/ lattice and carbon fiber reinforced plastic shell. Results on mechanical and test beam performances are reported as well.

  20. A Novel Approach for an Integrated Straw tube-Microstrip Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Basile, E.; Bellucci, F.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Caponero, M. A.; Colonna, D.; Di Falco, F.; Fabbri, F. L.; Felli, F.; Giardoni, M.; La Monaca, A.; Mensitieri, G.; Ortenzi, B.; Pallotta, M.

    2005-01-01

    We report on a novel concept of silicon microstrips and straw tubes detector, where integration is accomplished by a straw module with straws not subjected to mechanical tension in a Rohacell $^{\\circledR}$ lattice and carbon fiber reinforced plastic shell. Results on mechanical and test beam performances are reported on as well.

  1. Silicon sensor probing and radiation studies for the LHCb silicon tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lois, Cristina

    2006-01-01

    The LHCb Silicon Tracker (ST) will be built using silicon micro-strip technology. A total of 1400 sensors, with strip pitches of approximately 200μm and three different substrate thicknesses, will be used to cover the sensitive area with readout strips up to 38cm in length. We present the quality assurance program followed by the ST group together with the results obtained for the first batches of sensors from the main production. In addition, we report on an investigation of the radiation hardness of the sensors. Prototype sensors were irradiated with 24GeV/c protons up to fluences equivalent to 20 years of LHCb operation. The damage coefficient for the leakage current was studied, and full depletion voltages were determined

  2. Radiation hardness and precision timing study of Silicon detectors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter (HGC)

    CERN Document Server

    Curras, E; Gallrapp, C; Gray, L; Mannelli, M; Meridiani, P; Moll, M; Nourbakhsh, S; Scharf, C; Silva, P; Steinbrueck, G; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Vila, I

    2017-01-01

    The high luminosity upgraded LHC or Phase-II is expected to increase the instantaneous luminosity by a factor of 10 beyond the LHC's design value, expecting to deliver 250 fb^−1 per year for a further 10 years of operation. Under these conditions the performance degradation due to integrated radiation dose will need to be addressed. The CMS collaboration is planning to upgrade the forward calorimeters. The replacement is called the High Granularity Calorimeter (HGC) and it will be realized as a sampling calorimeter with layers of silicon detectors interleaved. The sensors will be realized as pad detectors with sizes of less that ∼1.0 cm^2 and an active thickness between 100 and 300 μm depending on the position, respectively, the expected radiation levels. For an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb^−1, the electromagnetic calorimetry will sustain integrated doses of 1.5 MGy (150 Mrads) and neutron fluences up to 10^16 neq/cm^2. A radiation tolerance study after neutron irradiation of 300, 200, and 100 μ...

  3. Radiation hardness and precision timing study of Silicon Detectors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL)

    CERN Document Server

    Curras Rivera, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    The high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC or Phase-II) is expected to increase the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC by a factor of about five, delivering about 250 fba-1 per year between 2025 and 2035. Under these conditions the performance degradation of detectors due to integrated radiation dose/fluence will need to be addressed. The CMS collaboration is planning to upgrade many components, including the forward calorimeters. The replacement for the existing endcap preshower, electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters is called the High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL) and it will be realized as a sampling calorimeter, including 30 layers of silicon detectors totalling 600m^2. The sensors will be realized as pad detectors with cell sizes of between 0.5-1.0 cm^2 and an active thickness between 100 um and 300 um depending on their location in the endcaps the thinner sensors will be used in the highest radiation environment. For an integrated luminosity of 3000 fba-1, the electromagnetic calorimetry will sustain integ...

  4. Effect of SiO$_{2}$ passivating layer in segmented silicon planar detectors on the detector response

    CERN Document Server

    Verbitskaya, Elena; Eremin, Vladimir; Golubkov, S; Konkov, K; Roe, Shaun; Ruggiero, G; Sidorov, A; Weilhammer, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Silicon detectors with a fine segmentation (micropixel and microstrip) are the main type of detectors used in the inner trackers of LHC experiments. Due to the high luminosity of the LHC machines they are required to have a fast response to fit the short shaping time of 25 ns and to be radiation hard. Evaluation of silicon microstrip detectors developed for the ATLAS silicon tracker and carried out under collaboration of CERN and PTI has shown the reversal of the pulse polarity in the detector response to short- range radiation. Since the negative signal is of about 30% of the normal positive one, the effect strongly reduces the charge collection efficiency in irradiated detectors. The investigation presents the consideration on the origin of a negative response in Si microstrip detectors and the experimental proof of the model. The study of the effect has been carried out using "baby" strip detectors with a special design: each strip has a window in a metallization, which covers the p/sup +/ implant. The sca...

  5. P-spray implant optimization for the fabrication of n-in-p microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleta, Celeste; Lozano, Manuel; Pellegrini, Giulio; Campabadal, Francesca; Rafi, Joan Marc; Ullan, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    This work reports on an optimization study of the p-spray profile for the fabrication of n-in-p microstrip silicon detectors. A thorough simulation process of the expected electrical performance of different p-spray technologies was carried out. The best technological options for the p-spray implantation were chosen for the fabrication of miniature n-in-p microstrip detectors on high resistivity FZ wafers at the IMB-CNM clean room. The main conclusions derived from the simulations, and the electrical performance of a sample of the fabricated devices is presented

  6. Standard Practice for Minimizing Dosimetry Errors in Radiation Hardness Testing of Silicon Electronic Devices Using Co-60 Sources

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers recommended procedures for the use of dosimeters, such as thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's), to determine the absorbed dose in a region of interest within an electronic device irradiated using a Co-60 source. Co-60 sources are commonly used for the absorbed dose testing of silicon electronic devices. Note 1—This absorbed-dose testing is sometimes called “total dose testing” to distinguish it from “dose rate testing.” Note 2—The effects of ionizing radiation on some types of electronic devices may depend on both the absorbed dose and the absorbed dose rate; that is, the effects may be different if the device is irradiated to the same absorbed-dose level at different absorbed-dose rates. Absorbed-dose rate effects are not covered in this practice but should be considered in radiation hardness testing. 1.2 The principal potential error for the measurement of absorbed dose in electronic devices arises from non-equilibrium energy deposition effects in the vicinity o...

  7. The CMS silicon strip tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focardi, E.; Albergo, S.; Angarano, M.; Azzi, P.; Babucci, E.; Bacchetta, N.; Bader, A.; Bagliesi, G.; Bartalini, P.; Basti, A.; Biggeri, U.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Boemi, D.; Bosi, F.; Borrello, L.; Bozzi, C.; Braibant, S.; Breuker, H.; Bruzzi, M.; Candelori, A.; Caner, A.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Catacchini, E.; Checcucci, B.; Ciampolini, P.; Civinini, C.; Creanza, D.; D'Alessandro, R.; Da Rold, M.; Demaria, N.; De Palma, M.; Dell'Orso, R.; Marina, R. Della; Dutta, S.; Eklund, C.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Feld, L.; Fiore, L.; French, M.; Freudenreich, K.; Fuertjes, A.; Giassi, A.; Giraldo, A.; Glessing, B.; Gu, W.H.; Hall, G.; Hammerstrom, R.; Hebbeker, T.; Hrubec, J.; Huhtinen, M.; Kaminsky, A.; Karimaki, V.; Koenig, St.; Krammer, M.; Lariccia, P.; Lenzi, M.; Loreti, M.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Lustermann, W.; Maettig, P.; Maggi, G.; Mannelli, M.; Mantovani, G.; Marchioro, A.; Mariotti, C.; Martignon, G.; Evoy, B. Mc; Meschini, M.; Messineo, A.; My, S.; Paccagnella, A.; Palla, F.; Pandoulas, D.; Parrini, G.; Passeri, D.; Pieri, M.; Piperov, S.; Potenza, R.; Raffaelli, F.; Raso, G.; Raymond, M.; Santocchia, A.; Schmitt, B.; Selvaggi, G.; Servoli, L.; Sguazzoni, G.; Siedling, R.; Silvestris, L.; Skog, K.; Starodumov, A.; Stavitski, I.; Stefanini, G.; Tempesta, P.; Tonelli, G.; Tricomi, A.; Tuuva, T.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Viertel, G.; Xie, Z.; Wang, Y.; Watts, S.; Wittmer, B.

    1999-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) is the intermediate part of the CMS Central Tracker System. SST is based on microstrip silicon devices and in combination with pixel detectors and the Microstrip Gas Chambers aims at performing pattern recognition, track reconstruction and momentum measurements for all tracks with p T ≥2 GeV/c originating from high luminosity interactions at √s=14 TeV at LHC. We aim at exploiting the advantages and the physics potential of the precise tracking performance provided by the microstrip silicon detectors on a large scale apparatus and in a much more difficult environment than ever. In this paper we describe the actual SST layout and the readout system. (author)

  8. Study on Silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervino, G.; Boero, M.; Manfredotti, C.; Icardi, M.; Gabutti, A.; Bagnolatti, E.; Monticone, E.

    1990-01-01

    Prototypes of Silicon microstrip detectors and Silicon large area detectors (3x2 cm 2 ), realized directly by our group, either by ion implantation or by diffusion are presented. The physical detector characteristics and their performances determined by exposing them to different radioactive sources and the results of extensive tests on passivation, where new technological ways have been investigated, are discussed. The calculation of the different terms contributing to the total dark current is reported

  9. RD50 recent results: Development of radiation hard sensors for SLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Macchiolo, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The need for radiation hard semiconductor detectors for the tracker regions in high energy physics experiments at a future high luminosity hadron collider, like the proposed LHC upgrade, has led to the formation of the CERN RD50 collaboration. The R&D directions of RD50 follow two paths: the optimization of radiation hard bulk materials (Material Engineering) and the development of new detector designs (Device Engineering) as 3D sensors, thin sensors and n-in-p sensors. Some of the RD50 most recent results about silicon detectors are reported in this paper, with special reference to: (i) identification of defects responsible for long term annealing, (ii) charge collection efficiency of irradiated planar devices, in particular n-in-p microstrip detectors and epitaxial diodes, (iii) charge collection efficiency of double-type column 3D detectors, (iv) comparison of the performances of FZ and MCZ structures under mixed irradiation.

  10. The LHCb Silicon Tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, Mark, E-mail: Mark.Tobin@epfl.ch

    2016-09-21

    The LHCb experiment is dedicated to the study of heavy flavour physics at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The primary goal of the experiment is to search for indirect evidence of new physics via measurements of CP violation and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. The LHCb detector has a large-area silicon micro-strip detector located upstream of a dipole magnet, and three tracking stations with silicon micro-strip detectors in the innermost region downstream of the magnet. These two sub-detectors form the LHCb Silicon Tracker (ST). This paper gives an overview of the performance and operation of the ST during LHC Run 1. Measurements of the observed radiation damage are shown and compared to the expectation from simulation.

  11. Design and characterization of integrated front-end transistors in a micro-strip detector technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simi, G.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bondioli, M.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Dittongo, S.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M.; Gregori, P.; Manghisoni, M.; Morganti, M.; U. Pignatel, G.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Rizzo, G.; Speziali, V.; Zorzi, N.

    2002-01-01

    We present the developments in a research program aimed at the realization of silicon micro-strip detectors with front-end electronics integrated in a high resistivity substrate to be used in high-energy physics, space and medical/industrial imaging applications. We report on the fabrication process developed at IRST (Trento, Italy), the characterization of the basic wafer parameters and measurements of the relevant working characteristics of the integrated transistors and related test structures

  12. Some Recent Developments of Microstrip Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the microstrip antenna has been extensively studied in the past few decades as one of the standard planar antennas, it still has a huge potential for further developments. The paper suggests three areas for further research based on our previous works on microstrip antenna elements and arrays. One is exploring the variety of microstrip antenna topologies to meet the desired requirement such as ultrawide band (UWB, high gain, miniaturization, circular polarization, multipolarized, and so on. Another is to apply microstrip antenna to form composite antenna which is more potent than the individual antenna. The last is growing towards highly integration of antenna/array and feeding network or operating at relatively high frequencies, like sub-millimeter wave or terahertz (THz wave regime, by using the advanced machining techniques. To support our points of view, some examples of antennas developed in our group are presented and discussed.

  13. Radiation Hard Silicon Photonics Mach-Zehnder Modulator for HEP applications: all-Synopsys Sentaurus™ Pre-Irradiation Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Cammarata, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Silicon Photonics may well provide the opportunity for new levels of integration between detectors and their readout electronics. This technology is thus being evaluated at CERN in order to assess its suitability for use in particle physics experiments. In order to check the agreement with measurements and the validity of previous device simulations, a pure Synopsys Sentaurus™ simulation of an un-irradiated Mach-Zehnder silicon modulator has been carried out during the Summer Student project.

  14. Microstrip Patch Sensor for Salinity Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kibae; Hassan, Arshad; Lee, Chong Hyun; Bae, Jinho

    2017-12-18

    In this paper, a compact microstrip feed inset patch sensor is proposed for measuring the salinities in seawater. The working principle of the proposed sensor depends on the fact that different salinities in liquid have different relative permittivities and cause different resonance frequencies. The proposed sensor can obtain better sensitivity to salinity changes than common sensors using conductivity change, since the relative permittivity change to salinity is 2.5 times more sensitive than the conductivity change. The patch and ground plane of the proposed sensor are fabricated by conductive copper spray coating on the masks made by 3D printer. The fabricated patch and the ground plane are bonded to a commercial silicon substrate and then attached to 5 mm-high chamber made by 3D printer so that it contains only 1 mL seawater. For easy fabrication and testing, the maximum resonance frequency was selected under 3 GHz and to cover salinities in real seawater, it was assumed that the salinity changes from 20 to 35 ppt. The sensor was designed by the finite element method-based ANSYS high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS), and it can detect the salinity with 0.01 ppt resolution. The designed sensor has a resonance frequency separation of 37.9 kHz and reflection coefficients under -20 dB at the resonant frequencies. The fabricated sensor showed better performance with average frequency separation of 48 kHz and maximum reflection coefficient of -35 dB. By comparing with the existing sensors, the proposed compact and low-cost sensor showed a better detection capability. Therefore, the proposed patch sensor can be utilized in radio frequency (RF) tunable sensors for salinity determination.

  15. Microstrip Patch Sensor for Salinity Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kibae Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a compact microstrip feed inset patch sensor is proposed for measuring the salinities in seawater. The working principle of the proposed sensor depends on the fact that different salinities in liquid have different relative permittivities and cause different resonance frequencies. The proposed sensor can obtain better sensitivity to salinity changes than common sensors using conductivity change, since the relative permittivity change to salinity is 2.5 times more sensitive than the conductivity change. The patch and ground plane of the proposed sensor are fabricated by conductive copper spray coating on the masks made by 3D printer. The fabricated patch and the ground plane are bonded to a commercial silicon substrate and then attached to 5 mm-high chamber made by 3D printer so that it contains only 1 mL seawater. For easy fabrication and testing, the maximum resonance frequency was selected under 3 GHz and to cover salinities in real seawater, it was assumed that the salinity changes from 20 to 35 ppt. The sensor was designed by the finite element method-based ANSYS high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS, and it can detect the salinity with 0.01 ppt resolution. The designed sensor has a resonance frequency separation of 37.9 kHz and reflection coefficients under −20 dB at the resonant frequencies. The fabricated sensor showed better performance with average frequency separation of 48 kHz and maximum reflection coefficient of −35 dB. By comparing with the existing sensors, the proposed compact and low-cost sensor showed a better detection capability. Therefore, the proposed patch sensor can be utilized in radio frequency (RF tunable sensors for salinity determination.

  16. Microstrip monopulse antenna for land mobile communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Q.; Martin, C.; Delvalle, J. C.; Jongejans, A.; Rinous, P.; Travers, M. N.

    1993-01-01

    Low cost is one of the main requirements in a communication system suitable for mass production, as it is the case for satellite land mobile communications. Microstrip technology fulfills this requirement which must be supported by a low cost tracking system design. The tradeoff led us to a prototype antenna composed of microstrip patches based on electromechanical closed-loop principle; the design and the results obtained are described.

  17. Silicon Tracker Design for the ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, T.; SLAC

    2005-01-01

    The task of tracking charged particles in energy frontier collider experiments has been largely taken over by solid-state detectors. While silicon microstrip trackers offer many advantages in this environment, large silicon trackers are generally much more massive than their gaseous counterparts. Because of the properties of the machine itself, much of the material that comprises a typical silicon microstrip tracker can be eliminated from a design for the ILC. This realization is the inspiration for a tracker design using lightweight, short, mass-producible modules to tile closed, nested cylinders with silicon microstrips. This design relies upon a few key technologies to provide excellent performance with low cost and complexity. The details of this concept are discussed, along with the performance and status of the design effort

  18. Radiation hard detectors from silicon enriched with both oxygen and thermal donors improvements in donor removal and long-term stability with regard to neutron irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Z; Eremin, V; Dezillie, B; Chen, W; Bruzzi, M

    2002-01-01

    Detectors made on the silicon wafers with high concentration of thermal donors (TD), which were introduced during the high temperature long time (HTLT) oxygenation procedure, have been investigated in the study of radiation hardness with regard to neutron irradiation and donor removal problems in irradiated high resistivity Si detectors. Two facts have been established as the evidence of radiation hardness improvement of HTLT(TD) Si detectors irradiated below approx 10 sup 1 sup 4 n/cm sup 2 compared to detectors made on standard silicon wafers: the increase of space charge sign inversion fluence (of 1 MeV neutrons) due to lower initial Si resistivity dominated by TD, and the gain in the reverse annealing time constant tau favourable for this material. Coupled with extremely high radiation tolerance to protons observed earlier ('beta zero' behaviour in a wide range of fluence), detectors from HTLT(TD) Si may be unique for application in the experiments with multiple radiations. The changes in the effective sp...

  19. CBC2: A CMS microstrip readout ASIC with logic for track-trigger modules at HL-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, G., E-mail: g.hall@imperial.ac.uk [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, M. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Braga, D.; Jones, L.; Murray, P.; Prydderch, M. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 OQX (United Kingdom); Abbaneo, D.; Blanchot, G.; Honma, A.; Kovacs, M.; Vasey, F. [CERN, CH-1211, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-11-21

    The CBC2 is the latest version of the CMS Binary Chip ASIC for readout of the upgraded CMS Tracker at the High Luminosity LHC. It is designed in 130 nm CMOS with 254 input channels and will be bump-bonded to a substrate to which sensors will be wire-bonded. The CBC2 is designed to instrument double layer modules, consisting of two overlaid silicon microstrip sensors with aligned microstrips, in the outer tracker. It incorporates logic to identify L1 trigger primitives in the form of “stubs”: high transverse-momentum track candidates which are identified within the low momentum background by selecting correlated hits between two closely separated microstrip sensors. The first prototype modules have been assembled. The performance of the chip in recent laboratory tests is briefly reported and the status of module construction described.

  20. The ARGUS silicon vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, E.; Ball, S.; Ehret, K.; Geyer, C.; Hesselbarth, J.; Hoelscher, A.; Hofmann, W.; Holzer, B.; Huepper, A.; Khan, S.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Seeger, M.; Spengler, J.; Brogle, M.; Horisberger, R.

    1994-01-01

    A silicon microstrip vertex detector has been built as an upgrade to the ARGUS detector for increased precision and efficiency in the reconstruction of decay vertices. This paper discusses the mechanical and electronic design of this device and presents first results from its successful test operation yielding an impact parameter resolution of about 18 μm. ((orig.))

  1. The effects of microalloying with silicon and germanium on microstructure and hardness of a commercial aluminum alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VESNA MAKSIMOVIC

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of small additions of Si and Ge on the microstructure and hardness was investigated during aging of a commercial 2219 aluminum alloy. It was found that for the same level of microalloying in alloy 2219SG (containing Si and Ge, a maximum hardness was achieved 3 times faster than in alloy 2219S (without Ge. The accelerated precipitation kinetics is a consequence of the presence of fine Si–Ge particles, serving as heterogeneous precipitation sites for q” strengthening particles.

  2. Silicon Strip Detectors for ATLAS at the HL-LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, K; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    present ATLAS silicon strip tracker (SCT) and transition radiation tracker(TRT) are to be replaced with new silicon strip detectors as part of the Inner Tracker System (ITK) for the Phase-II upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider, HL-LHC. We have carried out intensive R&D programs based on n+-on-p microstrip detectors to fabricate improved radiation hard strip detectors that can survive the radiation levels corresponding to the integrated luminosity of up to 3000 fb−1. We describe the main specifications for this year’s sensor fabrication and the related R&D results, followed by a description of the candidate schema for module integration.

  3. Signal integrity analysis on discontinuous microstrip line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Qingyang; Dai, Yawen; Chen, Zipeng

    2013-01-01

    In high speed PCB design, microstirp lines were used to control the impedance, however, the discontinuous microstrip line can cause signal integrity problems. In this paper, we use the transmission line theory to study the characteristics of microstrip lines. Research results indicate that the discontinuity such as truncation, gap and size change result in the problems such as radiation, reflection, delay and ground bounce. We change the discontinuities to distributed parameter circuits, analysed the steady-state response and transient response and the phase delay. The transient response cause radiation and voltage jump.

  4. Laboratory course on silicon sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Crescio, E; Roe, S; Rudge, A

    2003-01-01

    The laboratory course consisted of four different mini sessions, in order to give the student some hands-on experience on various aspects of silicon sensors and related integrated electronics. The four experiments were. 1. Characterisation of silicon diodes for particle detection 2. Study of noise performance of the Viking readout circuit 3. Study of the position resolution of a silicon microstrip sensor 4. Study of charge transport in silicon with a fast amplifier The data in the following were obtained during the ICFA school by the students.

  5. SuperAGILE: The hard X-ray imager for the AGILE space mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feroci, M.; Costa, E.; Soffitta, P.; Del Monte, E.; Di Persio, G.; Donnarumma, I.; Evangelista, Y.; Frutti, M.; Lapshov, I.; Lazzarotto, F.; Mastropietro, M.; Morelli, E.; Pacciani, L.; Porrovecchio, G.; Rapisarda, M.; Rubini, A.; Tavani, M.; Argan, A.

    2007-01-01

    SuperAGILE is a coded mask experiment based on silicon microstrip detectors. It operates in the 15-45 keV nominal energy range, providing crossed one-dimensional images of the X-ray sky with an on-axis angular resolution of 6 arcmin, over a field of view in excess of 1 sr. It was designed as the hard X-ray monitor of the AGILE space mission, a small satellite of the Italian Space Agency devoted to image the gamma-ray sky in the 30 MeV-50 GeV energy band. The AGILE mission was launched in a low-earth orbit on 23rd April 2007. In this paper we describe the SuperAGILE experiment, its construction and test processes, and its performance before flight, based on the on-ground test and calibrations

  6. Hard times; Schwere Zeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Markus

    2012-10-02

    The prices of silicon and solar wafers keep dropping. According to market research specialist IMS research, this is the result of weak traditional solar markets and global overcapacities. While many manufacturers are facing hard times, big producers of silicon are continuing to expand.

  7. Development of ALICE microstrip detectors at IRST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Gregori, P.; Rachevskaia, I.; Zorzi, N.

    2001-01-01

    We report on the development of double-sided, AC-coupled, microstrip detectors oriented to the A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE). The main design and processing issues are presented, together with some selected results from the electrical characterization of detectors and related test structures

  8. Two-dimensional microstrip detector for neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oed, A [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Because of their robust design, gas microstrip detectors, which were developed at ILL, can be assembled relatively quickly, provided the prefabricated components are available. At the beginning of 1996, orders were received for the construction of three two-dimensional neutron detectors. These detectors have been completed. The detectors are outlined below. (author). 2 refs.

  9. Radiation Hard GaNFET High Voltage Multiplexing (HV Mux) for the ATLAS Upgrade Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Lynn, David; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The outer radii of the inner tracker (ITk) for the Phase-II Upgrade of the ATLAS experiment will consist of groups of silicon strip sensors mounted on common support structures. Lack of space creates a need to remotely disable a failing sensor from the common HV bus. We have developed circuitry consisting of a GaNFET transistor and a HV Multiplier circuit to disable a failed sensor. We will present two variants of the HV Mux circuitry and show irradiation results on individual components with an emphasis on the GaNFET results. We will also discuss the reliability of the HV Mux circuitry and show plans to ensure reliability during production.

  10. CMS silicon tracker developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civinini, C.; Albergo, S.; Angarano, M.; Azzi, P.; Babucci, E.; Bacchetta, N.; Bader, A.; Bagliesi, G.; Basti, A.; Biggeri, U.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Boemi, D.; Bosi, F.; Borrello, L.; Bozzi, C.; Braibant, S.; Breuker, H.; Bruzzi, M.; Buffini, A.; Busoni, S.; Candelori, A.; Caner, A.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Catacchini, E.; Checcucci, B.; Ciampolini, P.; Creanza, D.; D'Alessandro, R.; Da Rold, M.; Demaria, N.; De Palma, M.; Dell'Orso, R.; Della Marina, R.D.R.; Dutta, S.; Eklund, C.; Feld, L.; Fiore, L.; Focardi, E.; French, M.; Freudenreich, K.; Frey, A.; Fuertjes, A.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M.; Giraldo, A.; Glessing, B.; Gu, W.H.; Hall, G.; Hammarstrom, R.; Hebbeker, T.; Honma, A.; Hrubec, J.; Huhtinen, M.; Kaminsky, A.; Karimaki, V.; Koenig, St.; Krammer, M.; Lariccia, P.; Lenzi, M.; Loreti, M.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Lustermann, W.; Maettig, P.; Maggi, G.; Mannelli, M.; Mantovani, G.; Marchioro, A.; Mariotti, C.; Martignon, G.; Evoy, B. Mc; Meschini, M.; Messineo, A.; Migliore, E.; My, S.; Paccagnella, A.; Palla, F.; Pandoulas, D.; Papi, A.; Parrini, G.; Passeri, D.; Pieri, M.; Piperov, S.; Potenza, R.; Radicci, V.; Raffaelli, F.; Raymond, M.; Santocchia, A.; Schmitt, B.; Selvaggi, G.; Servoli, L.; Sguazzoni, G.; Siedling, R.; Silvestris, L.; Starodumov, A.; Stavitski, I.; Stefanini, G.; Surrow, B.; Tempesta, P.; Tonelli, G.; Tricomi, A.; Tuuva, T.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Viertel, G.; Xie, Z.; Yahong, Li; Watts, S.; Wittmer, B.

    2002-01-01

    The CMS Silicon tracker consists of 70 m 2 of microstrip sensors which design will be finalized at the end of 1999 on the basis of systematic studies of device characteristics as function of the most important parameters. A fundamental constraint comes from the fact that the detector has to be operated in a very hostile radiation environment with full efficiency. We present an overview of the current results and prospects for converging on a final set of parameters for the silicon tracker sensors

  11. Developments for radiation hard silicon detectors by defect engineering - results by the CERN RD48 (ROSE) Collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstroem, G.; Ahmed, M.; Albergo, S.; Allport, P.; Anderson, D.; Andricek, L.; Angarano, M.M.; Augelli, V.; Bacchetta, N.; Bartalini, P.; Bates, R.; Biggeri, U.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Boemi, D.; Borchi, E.; Botila, T.; Brodbeck, T.J.; Bruzzi, M.; Budzynski, T.; Burger, P.; Campabadal, F.; Casse, G.; Catacchini, E.; Chilingarov, A.; Ciampolini, P.; Cindro, V.; Costa, M.J.; Creanza, D.; Clauws, P.; Da Via, C.; Davies, G.; De Boer, W.; Dell'Orso, R.; De Palma, M.; Dezillie, B.; Eremin, V.; Evrard, O.; Fallica, G.; Fanourakis, G.; Feick, H.; Focardi, E.; Fonseca, L.; Fretwurst, E.; Fuster, J.; Gabathuler, K.; Glaser, M.; Grabiec, P.; Grigoriev, E.; Hall, G.; Hanlon, M.; Hauler, F.; Heising, S.; Holmes-Siedle, A.; Horisberger, R.; Hughes, G.; Huhtinen, M.; Ilyashenko, I.; Ivanov, A.; Jones, B.K.; Jungermann, L.; Kaminsky, A.; Kohout, Z.; Kramberger, G.; Kuhnke, M.; Kwan, S.; Lemeilleur, F.; Leroy, C.; Letheren, M.; Li, Z.; Ligonzo, T.; Linhart, V.; Litovchenko, P.; Loukas, D.; Lozano, M.; Luczynski, Z.; Lutz, G.; MacEvoy, B.; Manolopoulos, S.; Markou, A.; Martinez, C.; Messineo, A.; Miku, M.; Moll, M.; Nossarzewska, E.; Ottaviani, G.; Oshea, V.; Parrini, G.; Passeri, D.; Petre, D.; Pickford, A.; Pintilie, I.; Pintilie, L.; Pospisil, S.; Potenza, R.; Radicci, V.; Raine, C.; Rafi, J.M.; Ratoff, P.N.; Richter, R.H.; Riedler, P.; Roe, S.; Roy, P.; Ruzin, A.; Ryazanov, A.I.; Santocchia, A.; Schiavulli, L.; Sicho, P.; Siotis, I.; Sloan, T.; Slysz, W.; Smith, K.; Solanky, M.; Sopko, B.; Stolze, K.; Sundby Avset, B.; Svensson, B.; Tivarus, C.; Tonelli, G.; Tricomi, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Valvo, G.; Vasilescu, A.; Vayaki, A.; Verbitskaya, E.; Verdini, P.; Vrba, V.; Watts, S.; Weber, E.R.; Wegrzecki, M.; Wegrzecka, I.; Weilhammer, P.; Wheadon, R.; Wilburn, C.; Wilhelm, I.; Wunstorf, R.; Wuestenfeld, J.; Wyss, J.; Zankel, K.; Zabierowski, P.; Zontar, D.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarises the final results obtained by the RD48 collaboration. The emphasis is on the more practical aspects directly relevant for LHC applications. The report is based on the comprehensive survey given in the 1999 status report (RD48 3rd Status Report, CERN/LHCC 2000-009, December 1999), a recent conference report (Lindstroem et al. (RD48), and some latest experimental results. Additional data have been reported in the last ROSE workshop (5th ROSE workshop, CERN, CERN/LEB 2000-005). A compilation of all RD48 internal reports and a full publication list can be found on the RD48 homepage (http://cern.ch/RD48/). The success of the oxygen enrichment of FZ-silicon as a highly powerful defect engineering technique and its optimisation with various commercial manufacturers are reported. The focus is on the changes of the effective doping concentration (depletion voltage). The RD48 model for the dependence of radiation effects on fluence, temperature and operational time is verified; projections to operational scenarios for main LHC experiments demonstrate vital benefits. Progress in the microscopic understanding of damage effects as well as the application of defect kinetics models and device modelling for the prediction of the macroscopic behaviour has also been achieved but will not be covered in detail

  12. The results of the irradiations of microstrip detectors for the ATLAS tracker (SCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dervan, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) of ATLAS will operate in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which will reach luminosities of 10 34 cm 2 s -1 . Silicon single-sided microstrip detectors will be used for particle tracking. Due to the proximity to the beam, the silicon detectors need to withstand damage from ionising radiation (10 Mrad total dose) and from non-ionising radiation such as neutrons (2x10 14 1 MeV equivalent neutrons/cm 2 total fluence). The final characteristics of the silicon SCT detectors which are needed to operate under LHC conditions and the conclusions reached after various years of test irradiation studies will be reported. The integration and performance of these detectors in complete SCT modules is also discussed

  13. Experience with the silicon strip detector of ALICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooren, G.J.L.

    2009-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) forms the two outermost layers of the ALICE Inner Track- ing System (ITS), connecting the TPC with the inner layers of the ITS. The SSD consists of 1698 double-sided silicon microstrip modules, 95 μm pitch, distributed in two cylindrical bar- rels, whose radii are

  14. Radiation hardness test of un-doped CsI crystals and Silicon Photomultipliers for the Mu2e calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccaro, S.; Cemmi, A.; Cordelli, M.; Diociaiuti, E.; Donghia, R.; Giovannella, S.; Loreti, S.; Miscetti, S.; Pillon, M.; Sarra, I.

    2017-11-01

    The Mu2e calorimeter is composed by 1400 un-doped CsI crystals coupled to large area UV extended Silicon Photomultipliers arranged in two annular disks. This calorimeter has to provide precise information on energy, timing and position. It should also be fast enough to handle the high rate background and it must operate and survive in a high radiation environment. Simulation studies estimated that, in the hottest regions, each crystal will absorb a dose of 300 Gy and will be exposed to a neutron fluency of 6 × 1011 n/cm2 in 3 years of running. Test of un-doped CsI crystals irradiated up to 900 Gy and to a neutron fluency up to 9 × 1011 n/cm2 have been performed at CALLIOPE and FNG ENEA facilities in Italy. We present our study on the variation of light yield (LY) and longitudinal response uniformity (LRU) of these crystals after irradiation. The ionization dose does not modify LRU while a 20% reduction in LY is observed at 900 Gy. Similarly, the neutron flux causes an acceptable LY deterioration (≤ 15%). A neutron irradiation test on different types of SIPMs (two different array models from Hamamatsu and one from FBK) have also been carried out by measuring the variation of the leakage current and the charge response to an ultraviolet led. We concluded that, in the experiment, we will need to cool down the SIPMs to 0 °C reduce the leakage current to an acceptable level.

  15. 5G MIMO Conformal Microstrip Antenna Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of wireless communication technology, 5G will develop into a new generation of wireless mobile communication systems. MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output technology is expected to be one of the key technologies in the field of 5G wireless communications. In this paper, 4 pairs of microstrip MIMO conformal antennas of 35 GHz have been designed. Eight-element microstrip Taylor antenna array with series-feeding not only achieves the deviation of the main lobe of the pattern but also increases the bandwidth of the antenna array and reduces sidelobe. MIMO antennas have been fabricated and measured. Measurement results match the simulation results well. The return loss of the antenna at 35 GHz is better than 20 dB, the first sidelobe level is −16 dB, and the angle between the main lobe and the plane of array is 60°.

  16. Work Hard / Play Hard

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, J.; Johnson, V.; Henckel, D.

    2016-01-01

    Work Hard / Play Hard was a participatory performance/workshop or CPD experience hosted by interdisciplinary arts atelier WeAreCodeX, in association with AntiUniversity.org. As a socially/economically engaged arts practice, Work Hard / Play Hard challenged employees/players to get playful, or go to work. 'The game changes you, you never change the game'. Employee PLAYER A 'The faster the better.' Employer PLAYER B

  17. Construction and performance of the ATLAS silicon microstrip barrel modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, T.; Apsimon, R.; Beck, G.A.; Bell, P.; Brenner, R.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Charlton, D.; Dabrowski, W.; Dorholt, O.; Ekelof, T.; Eklund, L.; Gibson, M.; Gadomski, S.; Grillo, A.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Haber, C.; Hara, K.; Hill, J.C.; Ikegami, Y.; Iwata, Y.; Johansen, L.G.; Kohriki, T.; Macpherson, A.; McMahon, S.; Moorhead, G.; Morin, J.; Morris, J.; Morrissey, M.; Nagai, K.; Nakano, I.; Pater, J.; Pernegger, H.; Perrin, E.; Phillips, P.; Robinson, D.; Skubic, B.; Spencer, N.; Stapnes, S.; Stugu, B.; Takashima, R.; Terada, S.; Tyndel, M.; Ujiie, N.; Unno, Y.; Vos, M.

    2002-01-01

    The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) consists of four barrel cylinders and 18 end-cap disks. This paper describes the SCT modules of the barrel region, of which more than 2000 are about to be constructed. The module design is fixed. Its design concept is given together with the electrical, thermal and mechanical specifications. The pre-series production of the barrel modules is underway using mass-production procedures and jigs. The pre-series modules have given satisfactory performances on noise, noise occupancy, electrical as well as mechanical and thermal properties. In addition, irradiated modules were demonstrated to work successfully. Also first results from a 10-module system test are given

  18. Studies of double-sided silicon microstrip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, S.C. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Particle Phys.; Bruner, N.L. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Particle Phys.; Frautschi, M.A. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Particle Phys.; Hoeferkamp, M.R. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Particle Phys.; Patton, A. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Particle Phys.

    1996-12-01

    The electrical characteristics of detectors manufactured by SINTEF/SI with a variety of geometrical and processing options have been investigated. The detectors` leakage current, depletion voltage, bias resistance, interstrip and coupling capacitance, and coupling capacitor breakdown voltage were studied. (orig.).

  19. Studies of double-sided silicon microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, S.C.; Bruner, N.L.; Frautschi, M.A.; Hoeferkamp, M.R.; Patton, A.

    1996-01-01

    The electrical characteristics of detectors manufactured by SINTEF/SI with a variety of geometrical and processing options have been investigated. The detectors' leakage current, depletion voltage, bias resistance, interstrip and coupling capacitance, and coupling capacitor breakdown voltage were studied. (orig.)

  20. The LHCb Silicon Tracker, first operational results

    CERN Document Server

    Esperante, D; Adeva, B; Gallas, A; Pérez Trigo, E; Rodríguez Pérez, P; Pazos Álvarez, A; Saborido, J; Vàzquez, P; Bay, A; Bettler, M O; Blanc, F; Bressieux, J; Conti, G; Dupertuis, F; Fave, V; Frei, R; Gauvin, N; Haefeli, G; Keune, A; Luisier, J; Muresan, R; Nakada, T; Needham, M; Nicolas, L; Knecht, M; Potterat, C; Schneider, O; Tran, M; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Bauer, C; Britsch, M; Hofmann, W; Maciuc, F; Schmelling, M; Voss, H; Anderson, J; Buechler, A; Bursche, A; Chiapolini, N; de Cian, M; Elsaesser, C; Hangartner, V; Salzmann, C; Steiner, S; Steinkamp, O; Straumann, U; van Tilburg, J; Tobin, M; Vollhardt, A; Iakovenko, V; Okhrimenko, O; Pugatch, V

    2010-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider beauty (LHCb) experiment at CERN (Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire) is designed to perform precision measurements of b quark decays. The LHCb Silicon Tracker consists of two sub-detectors, the Tracker Turicensis and the Inner Tracker, which are built from silicon micro-strip technology. First performance results of both detectors using data from Large Hadron Collider synchronization tests are presented.

  1. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D. E-mail: dirk.meier@cern.ch; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M

    2000-10-11

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition, we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation.

  2. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD Diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Bergonzo, P; Bertuccio, G; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Koeth, T W; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Perera, L P; Pirollo, S; Procario, M; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rousseau, L; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetstein, M; White, C; Zeuner, W; Zoeller, M M

    2000-01-01

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation.

  3. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    2000-01-01

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition, we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation

  4. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L. S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A. M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.; RD42 Collaboration

    2000-10-01

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition, we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation.

  5. Fabrication and impact performance of three-dimensionally integrated microstrip antennas with microstrip and coaxial feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Lan; Wang, Xin; Xu, Fujun; Zhao, Da; Jiang, Muwen; Qiu, Yiping

    2009-01-01

    A conformal load-bearing antenna structure (CLAS) combines the antenna into a composite structure such that it can carry the designed load while functioning as an antenna. In this paper, two types of new 3D integrated microstrip antennas (3DIMAs) with different feeding methods are designed to work at the radar L-band. Different from the conventional CLAS, the radiating patch and the ground plane of the 3DIMA are both composed of woven conductive wires and are bonded into the 3D composite physically by Z-yarns, greatly improving the damage tolerance of the antenna. The return loss of the coaxial-fed antenna is −13.15 dB with a resonant frequency of 1.872 GHz, while that of the microstrip-fed antenna is −31.50 dB with a resonant frequency of 1.33 GHz. Both of the 3DIMAs have similar radiation patterns to that of the traditionally designed microstrip antenna. In addition, an experimental investigation of the impact response of the coaxial-fed 3DIMA was carried out and the results showed the radiation pattern had almost no change even when the antenna received an impact energy of 15 J, exhibiting superior impact resistance to that of a conventional microstrip antenna

  6. Silicon micropattern detector: a dream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijne, E H.M.; Jarron, P; Olsen, A; Redaelli, N

    1988-12-15

    The present use of silicon microstrip detectors in elementary particle physics experiments is described and future needs are evaluated. Possibilities and problems to be encountered in the development of a true two-dimensional detector with intelligent data collection are discussed. This paper serves as an introduction to various other contributions to the conference proceedings, either dealing with futuristic device designs or with cautious steps on the road of technology development.

  7. CBC3: a CMS microstrip readout ASIC with logic for track-trigger modules at HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Prydderch, Mark Lyndon; Bell, Stephen Jean-marc; Key-Charriere, M; Jones, Lawrence; Auzinger, Georg; Borg, Johan; Hall, Geoffrey; Pesaresi, Mark Franco; Raymond, David Mark; Uchida, Kirika; Goldstein, Joel; Seif El Nasr, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    The CBC3 is the latest version of the CMS Binary Chip ASIC for readout of the outer radial region of the upgraded CMS Tracker at HL-LHC. This 254-channel, 130nm CMOS ASIC is designed to be bump-bonded to a substrate to which sensors will be wire-bonded. It will instrument double-layer 2S-modules, consisting of two overlaid silicon microstrip sensors with aligned microstrips. On-chip logic identifies first level trigger primitives from high transverse-momentum tracks by selecting correlated hits in the two sensors. Delivered in late 2016, the CBC3 has been under test for several months, including X-ray irradiations and SEU testing. Results and performance are reported.

  8. 2D position sensitive microstrip sensors with charge division along the strip Studies on the position measurement error

    CERN Document Server

    Bassignana, D; Fernandez, M; Jaramillo, R; Lozano, M; Munoz, F.J; Pellegrini, G; Quirion, D; Vila, I; Vitorero, F

    2013-01-01

    Position sensitivity in semiconductor detectors of ionizing radiation is usually achieved by the segmentation of the sensing diode junction in many small sensing elements read out separately as in the case of conventional microstrips and pixel detectors. Alternatively, position sensitivity can be obtained by splitting the ionization signal collected by one single electrode amongst more than one readout channel with the ratio of the collected charges depending on the position where the signal was primary generated. Following this later approach, we implemented the charge division method in a conventional microstrip detector to obtain position sensitivity along the strip. We manufactured a proofof-concept demonstrator where the conventional aluminum electrodes were replaced by slightly resistive electrodes made of strongly doped poly-crystalline silicon and being readout at both strip ends. Here, we partially summarize the laser characterization of this first proof-of-concept demonstrator with special emphasis ...

  9. Beam tests with microstrip gas counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landry, M.R.; Birchall, J.; Crow, K.; Davis, C.A.; Faszer, W.; Gan, L.; Lee, L.; van Oers, W.T.H.; Page, S.A.; Ramsay, W.D.; Salomon, M.

    1994-10-01

    We have measured the efficiency, timing and pulse heights in several types of microstrip Gas Chambers with plastic substrates passivated with a thin Nickel layer. We used as active gas mixtures Argon/Isobutane and CF 4 /Isobutane. We placed the detectors in a secondary beam at TRIUMF tuned to a momentum of 100 MeV/c of pions, muons and electrons. Preliminary results indicate good efficiency for minimum ionizing particles in Argon/Isobutane mixtures but lesser efficiency in CF 4 based gases indicating the importance of high quality preamplifiers to increase the signal to noise ratio. (author). 20 refs., 6 figs

  10. Microstrip Antenna Design for Femtocell Coverage Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaz Uddin Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A mircostrip antenna is designed for multielement antenna coverage optimization in femtocell network. Interference is the foremost concern for the cellular operator in vast commercial deployments of femtocell. Many techniques in physical, data link and network-layer are analysed and developed to settle down the interference issues. A multielement technique with self-configuration features is analyzed here for coverage optimization of femtocell. It also focuses on the execution of microstrip antenna for multielement configuration. The antenna is designed for LTE Band 7 by using standard FR4 dielectric substrate. The performance of the proposed antenna in the femtocell application is discussed along with results.

  11. Gas microstrip detectors on resistive plastic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, M.S.; Oakham, F.G.; Armitage, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Plastics are desirable as substrates for gas microstrip detectors (GMDs) because of their flexibility, low density and long radiation length. GMDs have been fabricated on white Tedlar which has bulk electrical conductivity and ion-implanted Upilex which has a thin electrically conductive layer on the surface of an insulator. The effect of back plane voltage on the gain of such GMDs is investigated. Three 200 μm pitch, ion-implanted Upilex GMDs were recently tested in a high intensity beam at CERN. The anode signals were read out using fast, low noise, high gain amplifiers. Preliminary results of the test are presented

  12. Tracking with heavily irradiated silicon detectors operated at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casagrande, L.; Barnett, B.M.; Bartalina, P.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, the authors show that a heavily irradiated double-sided silicon microstrip detector recovers its performance when operated at cryogenic temperatures. A DELPHI microstrip detector, irradiated to a fluence of ∼4 x 10 14 p/cm 2 , no longer operational at room temperature, cannot be distinguished from a non-irradiated one when operated at T < 120 K. Besides confirming the previously observed Lazarus effect in single diodes, these results establish, for the first time, the possibility of using standard silicon detectors for tracking applications in extremely demanding radiation environments

  13. High Performance Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondyopadhyay, Probir K. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A microstrip antenna for radiating circularly polarized electromagnetic waves comprising a cluster array of at least four microstrip radiator elements, each of which is provided with dual orthogonal coplanar feeds in phase quadrature relation achieved by connection to an asymmetric T-junction power divider impedance notched at resonance. The dual fed circularly polarized reference element is positioned with its axis at a 45 deg angle with respect to the unit cell axis. The other three dual fed elements in the unit cell are positioned and fed with a coplanar feed structure with sequential rotation and phasing to enhance the axial ratio and impedance matching performance over a wide bandwidth. The centers of the radiator elements are disposed at the corners of a square with each side of a length d in the range of 0.7 to 0.9 times the free space wavelength of the antenna radiation and the radiator elements reside in a square unit cell area of sides equal to 2d and thereby permit the array to be used as a phased array antenna for electronic scanning and is realizable in a high temperature superconducting thin film material for high efficiency.

  14. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. Wideband RCS Reduction of Microstrip Array Antenna Based on Absorptive Frequency Selective Surface and Microstrip Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Xue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach for wideband radar cross section (RCS reduction of a microstrip array antenna is presented and discussed. The scheme is based on the microstrip resonators and absorptive frequency selective surface (AFSS with a wideband absorptive property over the low band 1.9–7.5 GHz and a transmission characteristic at high frequency 11.05 GHz. The AFSS is designed to realize the out-of-band RCS reduction and preserve the radiation performance simultaneously, and it is placed above the antenna with the operating frequency of 11.05 GHz. Moreover, the microstrip resonators are loaded to obtain the in-band RCS reduction. As a result, a significant RCS reduction from 1.5 GHz to 13 GHz for both types of polarization has been accomplished. Compared with the reference antenna, the simulated results exhibit that the monostatic RCS of the proposed array antenna in x- and y-polarization can be reduced as much as 17.6 dB and 21.5 dB, respectively. And the measured results agree well with the simulated ones.

  16. Radiation Hard Silicon Photonics Mach-Zehnder Modulator for HEP applications: all-Synopsys SentaurusTM Pre-Irradiation Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Cammarata, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Silicon Photonics may well provide the opportunity for new levels of integration between detectors and their readout electronics. This technology is thus being evaluated at CERN in order to assess its suitability for use in particle physics experiments. In order to check the agreement with measurements and the validity of previous device simulations, a pure Synopsys SentaurusTM simulation of an un-irradiated Mach-Zehnder silicon modulator has been carried out during the Summer Student project. Index Terms—Silicon Photonics, Mach-Zehnder modulator, electro-optic simulation, Synopsys SentaurusTM, electro-optic measurement, HEP.

  17. Analysis of Microstrip Line Fed Patch Antenna for Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ashish

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, theoretical analysis of microstrip line fed rectangular patch antenna loaded with parasitic element and split-ring resonator is presented. The proposed antenna shows that the dualband operation depends on gap between parasitic element, split-ring resonator, length and width of microstrip line. It is found that antenna resonates at two distinct resonating modes i.e., 0.9 GHz and 1.8 GHz for lower and upper resonance frequencies respectively. The antenna shows dual frequency nature with frequency ratio 2.0. The characteristics of microstrip line fed rectangular patch antenna loaded with parasitic element and split-ring resonator antenna is compared with other prototype microstrip line fed antennas. Further, the theoretical results are compared with simulated and reported experimental results, they are in close agreement.

  18. Superconducting microstrip antennas: An experimental comparison of two feeding methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, M.A.; Claspy, P.C.; Bhasin, K.B.

    1993-01-01

    The recent discovery of high-temperature superconductors (HTS's) has generated a substantial amount of interest in microstrip antenna applications. However, the high permittivity of substrates compatible with HTS causes difficulty in feeding such antennas because of the high patch edge impedance. In this paper, two methods for feeding HTS microstrip antennas at K and Ka-band are examined. Superconducting microstrip antennas that are directly coupled and gap-coupled to a microstrip transmission line have been designed and fabricated on lanthanum aluminate substrates using Y-Ba-Cu-O superconducting thin films. Measurements from these antennas, including input impedance, bandwidth, efficiency, and patterns, are presented and compared with published models. The measured results demonstrate that usable antennas can be constructed using either of these architectures, although the antennas suffer from narrow bandwidths. In each case, the HTS antenna shows a substantial improvement over an identical antenna made with normal metals

  19. Silicon tracker for the compressed baryonic matter experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Borysova

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Design of STS and module prototype of silicon micro-strip detector for particle momenta measurements with a resolution of around Δp/p ≈ 1 % are presented. Very high radiation level and inhomogeneous track distribution result in modular construction of the detector stations. The micro-strip detectors are planned to be read out with the help of СВМ-XYTER chip. The system requirements include radiation tolerant sensors with high spatial resolution and a fast readout compatible with high-level-only triggers. Concept of the silicon detection system and the R&D on micro-strip sensors as well as front-end electronics for the building blocks of the detector stations are discussed.

  20. Control and data acquisition electronics for the CDF Silicon Vertex Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, K.J.; Nelson, C.A.; Shaw, T.M.; Wesson, T.R.

    1991-11-01

    A control and data acquisition system has been designed for the CDF Silicon Vertex Detector (SVX) at Fermilab. The system controls the operation of the SVX Rev D integrated circuit (SVX IC) that is used to instrument a 46,000 microstrip silicon detector. The system consists of a Fastbus Sequencer, a Crate Controller and Digitizer modules. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Control and data acquisition electronics for the CDF silicon vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    urner, K.J.; Nelson, C.A.; Shaw, T.M.; Wesson, T.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a control and data acquisition system that has been designed for the CDF Silicon Vertex Detector (SVX) at Fermilab. The system controls the operation of the SVX Rev D integrated circuit (SVX IC) that is used to instrument a 46,000 microstrip silicon detector. The system consists of a Fastbus Sequencer, a Crate Controller and Digitizer modules

  2. Control and data acquisition electronics for the CDF Silicon Vertex Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, K.J.; Nelson, C.A.; Shaw, T.M.; Wesson, T.R.

    1991-11-01

    A control and data acquisition system has been designed for the CDF Silicon Vertex Detector (SVX) at Fermilab. The system controls the operation of the SVX Rev D integrated circuit (SVX IC) that is used to instrument a 46,000 microstrip silicon detector. The system consists of a Fastbus Sequencer, a Crate Controller and Digitizer modules. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Metamaterial Embedded Wearable Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Joshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an indigenous low-cost metamaterial embedded wearable rectangular microstrip patch antenna using polyester substrate for IEEE 802.11a WLAN applications. The proposed antenna resonates at 5.10 GHz with a bandwidth and gain of 97 MHz and 4.92 dBi, respectively. The electrical size of this antenna is 0.254λ×0.5λ. The slots are cut in rectangular patch to reduce the bending effect. This leads to mismatch the impedance at WLAN frequency band; hence, a metamaterial square SRR is embedded inside the slot. A prototype antenna has been fabricated and tested, and the measured results are presented in this paper. The simulated and measured results of the proposed antenna are found to be in good agreement. The bending effect on the performance of this antenna is experimentally verified.

  4. Gas microstrip detectors based on flexible printed circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, M.; Crowe, K.; Faszer, W.; Lindsay, P.; Curran Maier, J.M.

    1995-09-01

    Microstrip Gas Detectors (MSGC's) were introduced some years ago as position sensitive detectors capable of operating at very high rates. The authors have studied the properties of a new type of Gas Microstrip Counter built using flexible printed circuit technology. They describe the manufacturing procedures, the assembly of the device, as well as its operation under a variety of conditions, gases and types of radiation. They also describe two new passivation materials, tantalum and niobium, which produce effective surfaces

  5. Microstrip natural wave spectrum mathematical model using partial inversion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogarsky, S.A.; Litvinenko, L.N.; Prosvirnin, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    It is generally agreed that both microstrip lines itself and different discontinuities based on microstrips are the most difficult problem for accurate electrodynamic analysis. Over the last years much has been published about principles and accurate (or full wave) methods of microstrip lines investigations. The growing interest for this problem may be explained by the microstrip application in the millimeter-wave range for purpose of realizing interconnects and a variety of passive components. At these higher operating rating frequencies accurate component modeling becomes more critical. A creation, examination and experimental verification of the accurate method for planar electrodynamical structures natural wave spectrum investigations are the objects of this manuscript. The moment method with partial inversion operator method using may be considered as a basical way for solving this problem. This method is outlook for accurate analysis of different planar discontinuities in microstrip: such as step discontinuities, microstrip turns, Y- and X-junctions and etc., substrate space steps dielectric constants and other anisotropy types

  6. Silicon Strip detectors for the ATLAS End-Cap Tracker at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00232570

    Inside physics programme of the LHC different experiment upgrades are foreseen. After the phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS detector the luminosity will be increased up to 5-7.5x10E34 cm-2s-1. This will mean a considerable increase in the radiation levels, above 10E16 neq/cm2 in the inner regions. This thesis is focused on the development of silicon microstrip detectors enough radiation hard to cope with the particle fluence expected at the ATLAS detector during HL-LHC experiment. In particular on the electrical characterization of silicon sensors for the ATLAS End-Caps. Different mechanical and thermal tests are shown using a Petal core as well as the electrical characterization of the silicon sensors that will be used with the Petal structure. Charge collection efficiency studies are carried out on sensors with different irradiation fluences using the ALiBaVa system and two kinds of strips connection are also analized (DC and AC ganging) with a laser system. The Petalet project is presented and the electrical c...

  7. The CMS silicon tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focardi, E.; Albergo, S.; Angarano, M.; Azzi, P.; Babucci, E.; Bacchetta, N.; Bader, A.; Bagliesi, G.; Basti, A.; Biggeri, U.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Boemi, D.; Bosi, F.; Borrello, L.; Bozzi, C.; Braibant, S.; Breuker, H.; Bruzzi, M.; Buffini, A.; Busoni, S.; Candelori, A.; Caner, A.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Catacchini, E.; Checcucci, B; Ciampolini, P.; Civinini, C.; Creanza, D.; D'Alessandro, R.; Da Rold, M.; Demaria, N.; De Palma, M.; Dell'Orso, R.; Della Marina, R.; Dutta, S.; Eklund, C.; Feld, L.; Fiore, L.; French, M.; Freudenreich, K.; Frey, A.; Fuertjes, A.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M.; Giraldo, A.; Glessing, B.; Gu, W.H.; Hall, G.; Hammarstrom, R.; Hebbeker, T.; Honma, A.; Hrubec, J.; Huhtinen, M.; Kaminsky, A.; Karimaki, V.; Koenig, St.; Krammer, M.; Lariccia, P.; Lenzi, M.; Loreti, M.; Leubelsmeyer, K.; Lustermann, W.; Maettig, P.; Maggi, G.; Mannelli, M.; Mantovani, G.; Marchioro, A.; Mariotti, C.; Martignon, G.; Evoy, B.Mc; Meschini, M.; Messineo, A.; Migliore, E.; My, S.; Paccagnella, A.; Palla, F.; Pandoulas, D.; Papi, A.; Parrini, G.; Passeri, D.; Pieri, M.; Piperov, S.; Potenza, R.; Radicci, V.; Raffaelli, F.; Raymond, M.; Rizzo, F.; Santocchia, A.; Schmitt, B.; Selvaggi, G.; Servoli, L.; Sguazzoni, G.; Siedling, R.; Silvestris, L.; Starodumov, A.; Stavitski, I.; Stefanini, G.; Surrow, B.; Tempesta, P.; Tonelli, G.; Tricomi, A.; Tuuva, T.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Viertel, G.; Xie, Z.; Yahong, Li; Watts, S.; Wittmer, B.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the Silicon microstrip Tracker of the CMS experiment at LHC. It consists of a barrel part with 5 layers and two endcaps with 10 disks each. About 10 000 single-sided equivalent modules have to be built, each one carrying two daisy-chained silicon detectors and their front-end electronics. Back-to-back modules are used to read-out the radial coordinate. The tracker will be operated in an environment kept at a temperature of T=-10 deg. C to minimize the Si sensors radiation damage. Heavily irradiated detectors will be safely operated due to the high-voltage capability of the sensors. Full-size mechanical prototypes have been built to check the system aspects before starting the construction

  8. Undepleted silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancoita, P.G.; Seidman, A.

    1985-01-01

    Large-size silicon detectors employing relatively low resistivity material can be used in electromagnetic calorimetry. They can operate in strong magnetic fields, under geometric constraints and with microstrip detectors a high resolution can be achieved. Low noise large capacitance oriented electronics was developed to enable good signal-to-noise ratio for single relativistic particles traversing large area detectors. In undepleted silicon detectors, the charge migration from the field-free region has been investigated by comparing the expected peak position (from the depleted layer only) of the energy-loss of relativistic electrons with the measured one. Furthermore, the undepleted detectors have been employed in a prototype of Si/W electromagnetic colorimeter. The sensitive layer was found to be systematically larger than the depleted one

  9. Beam tests of ATLAS SCT silicon strip detector modules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Campabadal, F.; Fleta, C.; Key, M.; Böhm, Jan; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Šťastný, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 538, - (2005), s. 384-407 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P04LA212 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : ATLAS * silicon * micro-strip * beam * test Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.224, year: 2005

  10. ΔOSI: a prototype microstrip dosimeter for characterization of medical radiotherapy and radiosurgery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo-Fernandez, I.; Buttar, C.; Walsh, S.; Manolopoulos, S.; Homer, J.M.; Young, S.; Conway, J.

    2006-01-01

    As the technology for medical radiotherapy and radiosurgery evolves, there is a growing need for dosimeters capable of measuring dose distributions on-line with submillimeter spatial resolution, both for facility commissioning and patient-related quality assurance. We have designed and built a high spatial resolution dosimeter based on silicon micro-strip technology for characterization of small radiotherapy and radiosurgery fields. The aim is to provide relative dosimetry measurement with film-like spatial resolution and to be able to resolve the temporal evolution. Following the description of the prototypes, first beam test results of a 250 μm pitch, 128 channels prototype with X-rays in a clinical 6 MV accelerator are presented. The device demonstrated good dosimetric capabilities when compared to reference measurements made with ionization chambers and agrees with radiographic film in the steep dose gradient region produced by the collimator edge

  11. Developing a fast simulator for irradiated silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Diez Gonzalez-Pardo, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Simulation software for irradiated silicon detectors has been developed on the basis of an already existing C++ simulation software called TRACS[1]. This software has been already proven useful in understanding non-irradiated silicon diodes and microstrips. In addition a wide variety of user-focus features has been implemented to improve on TRACS flexibility. Such features include an interface to allow any program to leverage TRACS functionalities, a configuration file and improved documentation.

  12. 3D, Flash, Induced Current Readout for Silicon Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Sherwood I. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2014-06-07

    A new method for silicon microstrip and pixel detector readout using (1) 65 nm-technology current amplifers which can, for the first time with silicon microstrop and pixel detectors, have response times far shorter than the charge collection time (2) 3D trench electrodes large enough to subtend a reasonable solid angle at most track locations and so have adequate sensitivity over a substantial volume of pixel, (3) induced signals in addition to, or in place of, collected charge

  13. Radiation damage in silicon. Defect analysis and detector properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenniger, F.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon microstrip and pixel detectors are vital sensor-components as particle tracking detectors for present as well as future high-energy physics (HEP) experiments. All experiments at the large Hadron Collider (LHC) are equipped with such detectors. Also for experiments after the upgrade of the LHC (the so-called Super-LHC), with its ten times higher luminosity, or the planned International Linear Collider (ILC) silicon tracking detectors are forseen. Close to the interaction region these detectors have to face harsh radiation fields with intensities above the presently tolerable level. defect engineering of the used material, e. g. oxygen enrichment of high resistivity float zone silicon and growing of thin low resistivityepitaxial layers on Czochralski silicon substrates has been established to improve the radiation hardness of silicon sensors. This thesis focuses mainly on the investigation of radiation induced defects and their differences observed in various kinds of epitaxial silicon material. Comparisons with other materials like float zone or Czochralski silicon are added. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) and Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) measurements have been performed after γ-, electron-, proton- and neutron-irradiation. The differenced in the formation of vacancy and interstitial related defects as well as so-called clustered regions were investigated for various types of irradiation. In addition to the well known defects VO i , C i O i , C i C s , VP or V 2 several other defect complexes have been found and investigated. Also the material dependence of the defect introduction rates and the defect annealing behavior has been studied by isothermal and isochronal annealing experiments. Especially the IO 2 defect which is an indicator for the oxygen-dimer content of the material has been investigated in detail. On the basis of radiation induced defects like the bistable donor (BD) defect and a deep acceptor, a model has been introduced to

  14. Radiation damage in silicon. Defect analysis and detector properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenniger, F.

    2008-01-15

    Silicon microstrip and pixel detectors are vital sensor-components as particle tracking detectors for present as well as future high-energy physics (HEP) experiments. All experiments at the large Hadron Collider (LHC) are equipped with such detectors. Also for experiments after the upgrade of the LHC (the so-called Super-LHC), with its ten times higher luminosity, or the planned International Linear Collider (ILC) silicon tracking detectors are forseen. Close to the interaction region these detectors have to face harsh radiation fields with intensities above the presently tolerable level. defect engineering of the used material, e. g. oxygen enrichment of high resistivity float zone silicon and growing of thin low resistivityepitaxial layers on Czochralski silicon substrates has been established to improve the radiation hardness of silicon sensors. This thesis focuses mainly on the investigation of radiation induced defects and their differences observed in various kinds of epitaxial silicon material. Comparisons with other materials like float zone or Czochralski silicon are added. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) and Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) measurements have been performed after {gamma}-, electron-, proton- and neutron-irradiation. The differenced in the formation of vacancy and interstitial related defects as well as so-called clustered regions were investigated for various types of irradiation. In addition to the well known defects VO{sub i}, C{sub i}O{sub i}, C{sub i}C{sub s}, VP or V{sub 2} several other defect complexes have been found and investigated. Also the material dependence of the defect introduction rates and the defect annealing behavior has been studied by isothermal and isochronal annealing experiments. Especially the IO{sub 2} defect which is an indicator for the oxygen-dimer content of the material has been investigated in detail. On the basis of radiation induced defects like the bistable donor (BD) defect and a deep

  15. A New Defected Ground Structure for Different Microstrip Circuit Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Das

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a microstrip transmission line combined with a new U-headed dumb-bell defected ground structure (DGS is investigated. The proposed DGS of two U-shape slots connected by a thin transverse slot is placed in the ground plane of a microstrip line. A finite cutoff frequency and attenuation pole is observed and thus, the equivalent circuit of the DGS unit can be represented by a parallel LC resonant circuit in series with the transmission line. A two-cell DGS microstrip line yields a better lowpass filtering characteristics. The simulation is carried out by the MoM based IE3D software and in the experimental measurements a vector network analyzer is used. The effects of the transverse slot width and the distance between arms of the U-slot on the filter response curve are studied. This DGS is utilized for different microstrip circuit applications. The DGS is placed in the ground of a capacitive loaded microstrip line and a very low cutoff frequency is obtained. The DGS is adopted under the coupled lines of a parallel line coupler and an improvement in coupling coefficient is noticed. The proposed DGS is also incorporated in the ground plane under the feed lines and the coupled lines of a bandpass filter to improve separately the stopband and passband performances.

  16. Ultra-compact microwave filters using kinetic inductance microstrip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pond, J.M.; Carroll, K.R.; Cukauskas, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on multi-pole microwave filters designed and fabricated using microstrip transmission line sections which consist of two very thin films of sputtered niobium nitride (NbN) separated by another very thin film of sputtered Si. Since the thicknesses of all three films are much less than the superconducting penetration depth, the kinetic inductance is significantly greater than the magnetic inductance. As a result, the phase velocity of a microstrip transmission line is much less than the free space speed of light. Since resonant structures are reduced in size proportionately, the size and weight of microstrip circuits can be greatly reduced. Prototype filters consisting of four open circuit half-wavelength microstrip stubs separated by full-wavelength microstrip sections have been measured. The circuits are connected to 34 mil diameter coaxial cable via an intermediate coplanar waveguide section. Passbands of 4 GHz separated by 3 GHz reject bands have been measured in a structure which occupies less than 0.5 cm 2 including the coplanar waveguide transitions. Higher-order passbands, although possessing an increased insertion loss, maintain filter passband characteristics through 20.0 GHz

  17. Voltage-carrying states in superconducting microstrips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuivinga, M.E.C.

    1983-01-01

    When the critical current is exceeded in a superconducting microstrip, voltage-carrying states with a resistance significantly below the normal state resistance can occur. Phase-slip centers (PSC) appear at about the critical temperature. These are successive local voltage units which manifest themselves as strip-like increments in voltage in the I-V characteristic. For temperatures off the critical temperature the PSC regime degenerates into a region of normal material, a so-called hot spot. These two phenomena, PSC and hot spots, form the subject of this thesis. To gain a better understanding of the phase-slip center process, an experiment was designed to measure local values of the quasi-particle and pair potential. The results of local potential and gap measurements at a PSC in aluminium are presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to pair-breaking interactions which can shorten the relaxation time. A non-linear differential equation is derived which describes the development of a PSC into a normal hot spot under the influence of Joule heating. It incorporates the temperature rise due to the dissipative processes occurring in the charge imbalance tails. Numerical solutions are presented for a set of parameters, including those for aluminium and tin. Subsequently, they are compared with experiments. (Auth.)

  18. Microstrip resonators for electron paramagnetic resonance experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrezan, A. C.; Mayer Alegre, T. P.; Medeiros-Ribeiro, G.

    2009-07-01

    In this article we evaluate the performance of an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) setup using a microstrip resonator (MR). The design and characterization of the resonator are described and parameters of importance to EPR and spin manipulation are examined, including cavity quality factor, filling factor, and microwave magnetic field in the sample region. Simulated microwave electric and magnetic field distributions in the resonator are also presented and compared with qualitative measurements of the field distribution obtained by a perturbation technique. Based on EPR experiments carried out with a standard marker at room temperature and a MR resonating at 8.17 GHz, the minimum detectable number of spins was found to be 5×1010 spins/GHz1/2 despite the low MR unloaded quality factor Q0=60. The functionality of the EPR setup was further evaluated at low temperature, where the spin resonance of Cr dopants present in a GaAs wafer was detected at 2.3 K. The design and characterization of a more versatile MR targeting an improved EPR sensitivity and featuring an integrated biasing circuit for the study of samples that require an electrical contact are also discussed.

  19. Microstrip resonators for electron paramagnetic resonance experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrezan, A C; Mayer Alegre, T P; Medeiros-Ribeiro, G

    2009-07-01

    In this article we evaluate the performance of an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) setup using a microstrip resonator (MR). The design and characterization of the resonator are described and parameters of importance to EPR and spin manipulation are examined, including cavity quality factor, filling factor, and microwave magnetic field in the sample region. Simulated microwave electric and magnetic field distributions in the resonator are also presented and compared with qualitative measurements of the field distribution obtained by a perturbation technique. Based on EPR experiments carried out with a standard marker at room temperature and a MR resonating at 8.17 GHz, the minimum detectable number of spins was found to be 5 x 10(10) spins/GHz(1/2) despite the low MR unloaded quality factor Q0=60. The functionality of the EPR setup was further evaluated at low temperature, where the spin resonance of Cr dopants present in a GaAs wafer was detected at 2.3 K. The design and characterization of a more versatile MR targeting an improved EPR sensitivity and featuring an integrated biasing circuit for the study of samples that require an electrical contact are also discussed.

  20. Operation of high rate microstrip gas chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, A J; Bouclier, Roger; Capéans-Garrido, M; Dominik, Wojciech; Manzin, G; Million, Gilbert; Hoch, M; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Sharma, A

    1996-01-01

    We describe recent measurements carried out in well controlled and reproducible conditions to help understanding the factors affecting the short and long term behaviour of Microstrip Gas Chambers. Special care has been taken concerning the gas purity and choice of materials used in the system and for the detectors construction. Detectors built on glasses with surface resistivity in the range $10^{13}-10^{15} \\Omega/\\Box$ have shown satisfactory performance as they do not show charging-up process at high rate and stand the large doses required for the future high luminosity experiments (~10 mC·cm-1·yr-1). Concerning the lifetime measurements, it has been observed that chambers manufactured on high-resistivity glass are far more susceptible of suffering ageing than detectors made on low resistivity, electron-conducting supports, independently of the metal used for the artwork (chromium or gold) at least in clean gas conditions. The successfully operation in the laboratory of detectors manufactured on diamond-...

  1. A multiplicity jump trigger using silicon planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexopoulos, T.; Erwin, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    Since silicon tracking planes are already present in a B decay experiment, it is an attractive idea to use these as part of a multiplicity jump detector. Two average B decays would produce a multiplicity jump of around 10 in the final state. Such a trigger has been tried for a fixed target Charm experiment with disappointing success. The failure was attributed to the difficulty in adequately controlling the gains of a large number of microstrip amplifies

  2. Hybrid Design, Procurement and Testing for the LHCb Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Bay, A; Frei, R; Jiménez-Otero, S; Perrin, A; Tran, MT; Van Hunen, J J; Vervink, K; Vollhardt, A; Agari, M; Bauer, C; Blouw, J; Hofmann, W; Knöpfle, K T; Löchner, S; Schmelling, M; Schwingenheuer, B; Smale, N J; Adeva, B; Esperante-Pereira, D; Lois, C; Vázquez, P; Lehner, F; Bernhard, R P; Bernet, R; Gassner, J; Köstner, S; Needham, M; Steinkamp, O; Straumann, U; Volyanskyy, D; Voss, H; Wenger, A

    2005-01-01

    The Silicon Tracker of the LHCb experiment consists of four silicon detector stations positioned along the beam line of the experiment. The detector modules of each station are constructed from wide pitch silicon microstrip sensors. Located at the module's end, a polyimide hybrid is housing the front-end electronics. The assembly of the more than 600 hybrids has been outsourced to industry. We will report on the design and production status of the hybrids for the LHCb Silicon Tracker and describe the quality assurance tests. Particular emphasis is laid on the vendor qualifying and its impact on our hybrid design that we experienced during the prototyping phase.

  3. Feasibility studies of microelectrode silicon detectors with integrated electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Carpinelli, M.; Dittongo, S.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M.; Gregori, P.; Lusiani, A.; Manghisoni, M.; Pignatel, G.U.; Rama, M.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Sandrelli, F.; Speziali, V.; Svelto, F.; Zorzi, N.

    2002-01-01

    We describe our experience on design and fabrication, on high-resistivity silicon substrates, of microstrip detectors and integrated electronics, devoted to high-energy physics experiments and medical/industrial imaging applications. We report on the full program of our collaboration, with particular regards to the tuning of a new fabrication process, allowing for the production of good quality transistors, while keeping under control the basic detector parameters, such as leakage current. Experimental results on JFET and bipolar transistors are presented, and a microstrip detector with an integrated JFET in source-follower configuration is introduced

  4. A proposal to use microstrip gas counters in a LHC tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geijsberts, M.; Hartjes, F.G.; Pannekoek, J.G.; Schmitz, J.; Udo, F.

    1991-06-01

    The paper presents an LHC tracker constructed from microstrip gas counters, occupying a cylinder around the beam r=400 mm and r=900 mm. The instrument measures 12 points on track with an accuracy of 30μm. Due to fine granularity and the short charge collection time, the occupancy is below 1 percent at a luminosity of L=10 34 cm -2 . Operating at high magnetic fields and a fast charge collection process are possible using Xe/DME/CO 2 mixtures and reducing the gap width between substrate and drift cathode to 1.6 mm. Hits from low energetic tracks are largely suppressed and hard tracks stand out, which greatly facilitates pattern recognition. By introducing a small stereo angle, the (r,z) coordinate can be measured with an accuracy of 1 mm. A calculation of the collected charge per strip shows that the tracker can withstand the LHC radiation for many years. (author). 9 refs.; 7 figs

  5. Perturbation approach to design of circularly polarised microstrip antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Y. T.; Richards, W. F.

    1981-05-01

    One of the most interesting applications of microstrip antennas is its use for transmitting or receiving circularly polarized (CP) waves. A description is given of a simple but accurate method to determine the critical dimensions needed to produce circular polarization for nearly square and nearly circular microstrip antennas. Shen (1981) in connection with the determination of the proper dimensions of an elliptical patch CP microstrip antenna first expressed the modal field in terms of Mathieu functions. To avoid the complicated numerical computation of the Mathieu functions, he approximated these functions in terms of Bessel functions. It is pointed out that the computation of Mathieu functions, or their approximate expressions can be avoided altogether if a perturbation method is applied to find the resonant frequencies of the two orthogonal modes. The implementation of this approach is demonstrated.

  6. The design and simulation of UHF RFID microstrip antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangqun; Huang, Rui; Shen, Liman; Liu, Liping; Xiong, Dezhi; Xiao, Xiangqi; Liu, Mouhai; Renheng, Xu

    2018-02-01

    At present, China has delineated UHF RFID communicating frequency range which is 840 ∼ 845 MHz and 920 ∼ 925 MHz, but most UHF microstrip antenna don’t carry out this standard, that leads to radio frequency pollution. In order to solve the problems above, a method combining theory and simulation is adopted. Combining with a new ceramic material, a 925.5 MHz RFID microstrip antenna is designed, which is optimized and simulated by HFSS software. The results show that the VSWR of this RFID microstrip antenna is relatively small in the vicinity of 922.5 MHz, the gain is 2.1 dBi, which can be widely used in China’s UHF RFID communicating equipments.

  7. Wireless OAM transmission system based on elliptical microstrip patch antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia Jia; Lu, Qian Nan; Dong, Fei Fei; Yang, Jing Jing; Huang, Ming

    2016-05-30

    The multiplexing transmission has always been a focus of attention for communication technology. In this paper, the radiation characteristics of circular microstrip patch antenna was firstly analyzed based on cavity model theory, and then spiral beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) were generated, using elliptical microstrip patch antenna, with a single feed probe instead of a standard circular patch with two feedpoints. Moreover, by combining the proposed elliptic microstrip patch antenna with Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP), a wireless OAM transmission system was established and the real-time transmission of text, image and video in a real channel environment was realized. Since the wireless OAM transmission has the advantage of good safety and high spectrum utilization efficiency, this work has theoretical significance and potential application.

  8. Excitation of propagating magnetization waves by microstrip antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, V. F.; Kalinikos, B. A.

    1988-11-01

    We discuss the self-consistent theory of excitation of dipole-exchange magnetization waves by microstrip antennas in a metal-dielectric-ferrite-dielectric-metal stratified structure, magnetized under an arbitrary angle to the surface. Spin-wave Green's functions are derived, describing the response of the spin-system to a spatially inhomogeneous varying magnetic field. The radiative resistance of microstrip antenna is calculated. In this case the distribution of surface current density in the antenna is found on the basis of the analytic solution of a singular integral equation. The nature of the effect of metallic screens and redistributed surface current densities in the antenna on the frequency dependence of the resistive radiation is investigated. Approximate relations are obtained, convenient for practical calculations of radiative resistance of microstrip antennas both in a free and in a screened ferromagnetic film. The theoretical calculations are verified by data of experiments carried out on monocrystalline films of iron-yttrium garnet.

  9. A 1024 pad silicon detector to solve tracking ambiguities in high multiplicity events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simone, S.; Catanesi, M.G.; Di Bari, D.; Didonna, V.; Elia, D.; Ghidini, B.; Lenti, V.; Manzari, V.; Nappi, E.

    1996-01-01

    Silicon detectors with two-dimensional pad readout have been designed and constructed for the WA97 experiment at CERN, in order to solve ambiguities for track reconstruction in a silicon microstrip telescope. A high density fanouts has been developed on a glass support to allow the electrical contacts between the detector and the front end electronics. Silicon pad detectors have been successfully operated both during the proton-Pb and Pb-Pb runs of the WA97 experiment. (orig.)

  10. Belle II silicon vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczyk, K. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Angelini, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Aziz, T.; Babu, V. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bacher, S. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Bahinipati, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, Satya Nagar (India); Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, Ti.; Baroncelli, To. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Basith, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Batignani, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bauer, A. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Behera, P.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Bergauer, T. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Bettarini, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bhuyan, B. [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam 781039 (India); Bilka, T. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, 121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Bosi, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bosisio, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); INFN Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); and others

    2016-09-21

    The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Japan is designed to indirectly probe new physics using approximately 50 times the data recorded by its predecessor. An accurate determination of the decay-point position of subatomic particles such as beauty and charm hadrons as well as a precise measurement of low-momentum charged particles will play a key role in this pursuit. These will be accomplished by an inner tracking device comprising two layers of pixelated silicon detector and four layers of silicon vertex detector based on double-sided microstrip sensors. We describe herein the design, prototyping and construction efforts of the Belle-II silicon vertex detector.

  11. Analysis of superconducting microstrip resonator at various microwave power levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, G.P.; Jacob, M.V.; Jayakumar, M.; Bhatnagar, P.K.; Kataria, N.D.

    1997-01-01

    The real and imaginary parts of the surface impedance of YBCO superconductors have been studied at different microwave power levels. Using the relations for the critical current density and the grain boundary resistance, a relation for calculating the power dependence of the surface resistance has been obtained. Also, a relation to find the resonant frequency of a superconducting microstrip resonator at various input power levels has been derived. Measurements have been carried out on various microstrip resonators to study the variation of surface resistance and resonant frequency at different rf power levels. The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical results. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  12. Construction of the CDF silicon vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarha, J.; Barnett, B.; Boswell, C.; Snider, F.; Spies, A.; Tseng, J.; Vejcik, S.; Carter, H.; Flaugher, B.; Gonzales, B.; Hrycyk, M.; Nelson, C.; Segler, S.; Shaw, T.; Tkaczyk, S.; Turner, K.; Wesson, T.; Carithers, W.; Ely, R.; Haber, C.; Holland, S.; Kleinfelder, S.; Merrick, T.; Schneider, O.; Wester, W.; Wong, M.; Amidei, D.; Derwent, P.; Gold, M.; Matthews, J.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Busetto, G.; Castro, A.; Loreti, M.; Pescara, L.; Bedeschi, F.; Bolognesi, V.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Galeotti, S.; Mariotti, M.; Menzione, A.; Punzi, G.; Raffaelli, F.; Risotri, L.; Tartarelli, F.; Turini, N.; Wenzel, H.; Zetti, F.; Bailey, M.; Garfinkel, A.; Shaw, N.; Tipton, P.; Watts, G.

    1992-04-01

    Technical details and methods used in constructing the CDF silicon vertex detector are presented. This description includes a discussion of the foam-carbon fiber composite structure used to silicon microstrip detectors and the procedure for achievement of 5 μm detector alignment. The construction of the beryllium barrel structure, which houses the detector assemblies, is also described. In addition, the 10 μm placement accuracy of the detectors in the barrel structure is discussed and the detector cooling and mounting systems are described. 12 refs

  13. Patterning of diamond like carbon films for sensor applications using silicon containing thermoplastic resist (SiPol) as a hard mask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virganavičius, D. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Kaunas University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science, 51423 Kaunas (Lithuania); Cadarso, V.J.; Kirchner, R. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Stankevičius, L.; Tamulevičius, T.; Tamulevičius, S. [Kaunas University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science, 51423 Kaunas (Lithuania); Schift, H., E-mail: helmut.schift@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Nanopatterning of thin diamond-like carbon (DLC) films and silver containing DLC composites. • Nanoimprint lithography with thermoplastic silicon containing resist. • Zero-residual layer imprinting and pattern transfer by reactive ion etching. • Robust leaky waveguide sensors with sensitivity up to 319 nm/RIU. - Abstract: Patterning of diamond-like carbon (DLC) and DLC:metal nanocomposites is of interest for an increasing number of applications. We demonstrate a nanoimprint lithography process based on silicon containing thermoplastic resist combined with plasma etching for straightforward patterning of such films. A variety of different structures with few hundred nanometer feature size and moderate aspect ratios were successfully realized. The quality of produced patterns was directly investigated by the means of optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Such structures were further assessed by employing them in the development of gratings for guided mode resonance (GMR) effect. Optical characterization of such leaky waveguide was compared with numerical simulations based on rigorous coupled wave analysis method with good agreement. The use of such structures as refractive index variation sensors is demonstrated with sensitivity up to 319 nm/RIU, achieving an improvement close to 450% in sensitivity compared to previously reported similar sensors. This pronounced GMR signal fully validates the employed DLC material, the technology to pattern it and the possibility to develop DLC based gratings as corrosion and wear resistant refractometry sensors that are able to operate under harsh conditions providing great value and versatility.

  14. Analysis of Rectangular Microstrip Antennas with Air Substrates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an analysis of rectangular microstrip antennas with air substrates. The effect of the substrate thickness on the bandwidth and the efficiency are examined. An additional thin layer supporting the dielectric material is added to the air substrate in order to make the antenna mechanically rigid and easy to ...

  15. Gas microstrip detectors based on flexible printed circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, M.; Crowe, K.; Faszer, W.; Lindsay, P.; Curran Maier, J.M.

    1995-09-01

    We have studied the properties of a new type of Gas Microstrip Counter built using flexible printed circuit technology. We describe the manufacturing procedures, the assembly of the device, as well as its operation under a variety of conditions, gases and types of radiation. We also describe two new passivation materials, Tantalum and Niobium, which produce effective surfaces. (author)

  16. Wearable Inset-Fed FR4 Microstrip Patch Antenna Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, S. R. Mohd; Rani, K. N. Abdul

    2018-03-01

    This project proposes the design of a wireless body area network (WBAN) microstrip patch antenna covered by the jeans fabric as the outer layer operating at the center frequency, fc of 2.40 GHz. Precisely, the microstrip patch antenna with the inset-fed edge technique is designed and simulated systematically by using the Keysight Advanced Design System (ADS) software where the FR4 board with the dielectric constant, ɛr of 4.70, dissipation factor or loss tangent, tan δ of 0.02 and height, h of 1.60 mm is the chosen dielectric substrate. The wearable microstrip patch antenna design is then fabricated using the FR4 printed circuit board (PCB) material, hidden inside the jeans fabric, and attached to clothing, such as a jacket accordingly. Simulation and fabrication measurement results show that the designed microstrip patch antenna characteristics can be applied significantly within the industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) radio band, which is at fc = 2.40 GHz.

  17. Simply folded band chaos in a VHF microstrip oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, Jonathan N. [US Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command, AMSRD-AMR-WS-ST, Redstone Arsenal, AL 35898 (United States)]. E-mail: jonathan.blakely@us.army.mil; Holder, J. Darryl [US Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command, AMSRD-AMR-WS-ST, Redstone Arsenal, AL 35898 (United States); Corron, Ned J. [US Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command, AMSRD-AMR-WS-ST, Redstone Arsenal, AL 35898 (United States); Pethel, Shawn D. [US Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command, AMSRD-AMR-WS-ST, Redstone Arsenal, AL 35898 (United States)

    2005-10-10

    We present experimental observations of a microstrip circuit that produces Roessler-like chaos with center frequency of 175 MHz. A simply folded band chaotic attractor is created through a period doubling route. The circuit provides an experimental realization of a chaotic neutral delay differential equation, a largely unexplored type of nonlinear dynamical system.

  18. A time projection chamber with microstrip read-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bootsma, T.M.V.; Van den Brink, A.; De Haas, A.P.; Kamermans, R.; Kuijer, P.G.; De Laat, C.T.A.M.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.J.; Ostendorf, R.; Snellings, R.J.M.; Twenhoefel, C.J.W.; Peghaire, A.

    1994-01-01

    The design and testing of a novel detector for heavy-ion physics in the intermediate-energy regime is described. This detector consists of a large drift chamber with microstrip read-out in combination with thick plastic scintillators. With this system particle identification and energy determination with high spatial resolution and multiple hit capacity is achieved. ((orig.))

  19. Geometrical optimization of microstripe arrays for microbead magnetophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anders Dahl; Rozlosnik, Noemi; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2015-01-01

    Manipulation of magnetic beads plays an increasingly important role in molecular diagnostics. Magnetophoresis is a promising technique for selective transportation of magnetic beads in lab-on-a-chip systems. We investigate periodic arrays of exchange-biased permalloy microstripes fabricated using...

  20. Testbeam evaluation of silicon strip modules for ATLAS Phase - II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Blue, Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration; Ai, Xiaocong; Allport, Phillip; Arling, Jan-Hendrik; Atkin, Ryan Justin; Bruni, Lucrezia Stella; Carli, Ina; Casse, Gianluigi; Chen, Liejian; Chisholm, Andrew; Cormier, Kyle James Read; Cunningham, William Reilly; Dervan, Paul; Diez Cornell, Sergio; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dopke, Jens; Dreyer, Etienne; Dreyling-Eschweiler, Jan Linus Roderik; Escobar, Carlos; Fabiani, Veronica; Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Fernandez Tejero, Javier; Fleta Corral, Maria Celeste; Gallop, Bruce; Garcia-Argos, Carlos; Greenall, Ashley; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Greig, Graham George; Guescini, Francesco; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hauser, Marc Manuel; Huang, Yanping; Hunter, Robert Francis Holub; Keller, John; Klein, Christoph; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Kotek, Zdenek; Kroll, Jiri; Kuehn, Susanne; Lee, Steven Juhyung; Liu, Yi; Lohwasser, Kristin; Meszarosova, Lucia; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mi\\~nano Moya, Mercedes; Mori, Riccardo; Moser, Brian; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Peschke, Richard; Pezzullo, Giuseppe; Phillips, Peter William; Poley, Anne-luise; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Ravotti, Federico; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC with 10 years of operation at instantaneous luminosities of \\mbox{$7.5\\times10^{34}\\;\\mathrm{cm}^{-2}\\mathrm{s}^{-1}$}. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over $1x10^{15}$ 1 MeV neutron equivalent per $cm^{2}$ in the ATLAS Strips system. The silicon strip tracker exploits the concept of modularity. Fast readout electronics, deploying 130nm CMOS front-end electronics are glued on top of a silicon sensor to make a module. The radiation hard n-in-p micro-strip sensors used have been developed by the ATLAS ITk Strip Sensor collaboration and produced by Hamamatsu Photonics. A series of tests were performed at the DESY-II test beam facility to investigate the detailed performance of a strip module with both 2.5cm and 5cm length strips before irradiation. The DURANTA telescope was used to obtain a pointing...

  1. Characterisation of an inhomogeneously irradiated microstrip detector using a fine spot infrared laser

    CERN Document Server

    Casse, G; Bowcock, T J V; Greenall, A; Phillips, JP; Turner, PR; Wright, V

    2001-01-01

    A prototype silicon microstrip detector for the LHCb vertex locator (VELO) has been partially irradiated using a 24 GeV/c proton beam at the CERN-PS accelerator. The detector possesses a radial strip geometry designed to measure the azimuthal coordinate (Phi) of tracks within the VELO. The peak fluence received by the detector was measured to be 4.6×10 14 p/cm 2 though the non-uniform nature of the exposure left part of the detector unirradiated. The inhomogeneous irradiation introduced a damage profile in the detector approximating to that expected in the VELO. High irradiation gradients are important to study as they can modify the electric field within the silicon. Of special interest are changes in the component of the electric field parallel to the strip plane but perpendicular to the strips which lead to systematic shifts in the reconstructed cluster position. If these (flux and position dependent) shifts are sufficiently large they could contribute to a degraded spatial resolution of the detector. In ...

  2. BI-ground microstrip array coil vs. conventional microstrip array coil for mouse imaging at 7 tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Ricardo; Terrones, M. A. López; Jakob, P. M.

    2012-10-01

    At high field strengths, the need for more efficient high frequency coils has grown. Since the radiation losses and the interaction between coil and sample increase proportionally to field strength, the quality factor (Q) and the sensitivity of the coil decrease as consequence of these negative effects. Since Zhang et al proposed in 2001 a new surface coil based on the microstrip transmission line for high frequency, different Tx-Rx phased arrays based on this concept have been already introduced in animal and whole body systems at high field strengths, each of them with different modifications in order to get better field homogeneity, SNR or isolation between coil elements in the array. All these arrays for animals systems have been built for rat imaging. One of these modifications is called BI-Ground Microstrip Array Coil (BIGMAC). The implementation of a smaller two-channel BIGMAC design for mouse imaging is studied and its performance compared to a two-channel conventional Microstrip array at 7 Tesla, the higher isolation by using BIGMAC elements in comparison with conventional Microstrip elements is shown in this work.

  3. Radiation emission phenomena in bent silicon crystals: Theoretical and experimental studies with 120 GeV/c positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lietti, D.; Bagli, E.; Baricordi, S.; Berra, A.; Bolognini, D.; Chirkov, P.N.; Dalpiaz, P.; Della Mea, G.; De Salvador, D.; Hasan, S.; Guidi, V.; Maisheev, V.A.

    2012-01-01

    The radiation emission phenomena in bent silicon crystals have been thoroughly investigated at the CERN SPS-H4 beamline. The incoming and outgoing trajectories of charged particles impinging on a silicon strip crystal have been reconstructed by high precision silicon microstrip detectors. A spectrometer method has been exploited to measure the radiation emission spectra both in volume reflection and in channeling. The theoretical method used to evaluate the photon spectra is presented and compared with the experimental results.

  4. Resonance of Superconducting Microstrip Antenna with Aperture in the Ground Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Benkouda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rigorous full-wave analysis of a high Tc superconducting rectangular microstrip antenna with a rectangular aperture in the ground plane. To include the effect of the superconductivity of the microstrip patch in the full-wave analysis, a complex surface impedance is considered. The proposed approach is validated by comparing the computed results with previously published data. Results showing the effect of the aperture on the resonance of the superconducting microstrip antenna are given.

  5. Evaluation of silicon micro strip detectors with large read-out pitch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senyo, K.; Yamamura, K.; Tsuboyama, T.; Avrillon, S.; Asano, Y.; Bozek, A.; Natkaniec, Z.; Palka, H.; Rozanska, M.; Rybicki, K.

    1996-01-01

    For the development of the silicon micro-strip detector with the pitch of the readout strips as large as 250 μm on the ohmic side, we made samples with different structures. Charge collection was evaluated to optimize the width of implant strips, aluminum read-out strips, and/or the read-out scheme among strips. (orig.)

  6. Ultra-low power high temperature and radiation hard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) voltage reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufouss, El Hafed; Francis, Laurent A; Kilchytska, Valeriya; Gérard, Pierre; Simon, Pascal; Flandre, Denis

    2013-12-13

    This paper presents an ultra-low power CMOS voltage reference circuit which is robust under biomedical extreme conditions, such as high temperature and high total ionized dose (TID) radiation. To achieve such performances, the voltage reference is designed in a suitable 130 nm Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) industrial technology and is optimized to work in the subthreshold regime of the transistors. The design simulations have been performed over the temperature range of -40-200 °C and for different process corners. Robustness to radiation was simulated using custom model parameters including TID effects, such as mobilities and threshold voltages degradation. The proposed circuit has been tested up to high total radiation dose, i.e., 1 Mrad (Si) performed at three different temperatures (room temperature, 100 °C and 200 °C). The maximum drift of the reference voltage V(REF) depends on the considered temperature and on radiation dose; however, it remains lower than 10% of the mean value of 1.5 V. The typical power dissipation at 2.5 V supply voltage is about 20 μW at room temperature and only 75 μW at a high temperature of 200 °C. To understand the effects caused by the combination of high total ionizing dose and temperature on such voltage reference, the threshold voltages of the used SOI MOSFETs were extracted under different conditions. The evolution of V(REF) and power consumption with temperature and radiation dose can then be explained in terms of the different balance between fixed oxide charge and interface states build-up. The total occupied area including pad-ring is less than 0.09 mm2.

  7. Slotted Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna for RFID Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A single layer coaxial fed rectangular microstrip slotted antenna for circular polarization (CP is proposed for radio frequency identification (RFID application. Two triangular shaped slots and one rectangular slot along the diagonal axis of a square patch have been embedded. Due to slotted structure along the diagonal axis and less surface area, good quality of circular polarization has been obtained with the reduction in the size of microstrip antenna by 4.04 %. Circular polarization radiation performance has been studied by size and angle variation of diagonally slotted structures. The experimental result found for 10-dB return loss is 44 MHz with 10MHz of 3dB Axial Ratio (AR bandwidth respectively at the resonant frequency 910 MHz. The overall proposed antenna size including the ground plane is 80 mm x 80 mm x 4.572 mm.

  8. Design of microstrip patch antennas using knowledge insertion through retraining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakar, T. V. S.; Sudhakar, A.

    2018-04-01

    The traditional way of analyzing/designing neural network is to collect experimental data and train neural network. Then, the trained neural network acts as global approximate function. The network is then used to calculate parameters for unknown configurations. The main drawback of this method is one does not have enough experimental data, cost of prototypes being a major factor [1-4]. Therefore, in this method the author collected training data from available approximate formulas with in full design range and trained the network with it. After successful training, the network is retrained with available measured results. This simple way inserts experimental knowledge into the network [5]. This method is tested for rectangular microstrip antenna and circular microstrip antenna.

  9. The solenoidal detector collaboration silicon detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziock, H.J.; Gamble, M.T.; Miller, W.O.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Thompson, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    Silicon tracking systems (STS) will be fundamental components of the tracking systems for both planned major SSC experiments. The STS is physically a small part of the central tracking system and the calorimeter of the detector being proposed by the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC). Despite its seemingly small size, it occupies a volume of more than 5 meters in length and 1 meter in diameter and is an order of magnitude larger than any silicon detector system previously built. The STS will consist of silicon microstrip detectors and possibly silicon pixel detectors. The other two components are an outer barrel tracker, which will consist of straw tubes or scintillating fibers; and an outer intermediate angle tracker, which will consist of gas microstrips. The components are designed to work as an integrated system. Each componenet has specific strengths, but is individually incapable of providing the overall performance required by the physics goals of the SSC. The large particle fluxes, the short times between beam crossing, the high channel count, and the required very high position measurement accuracy pose challenging problems that must be solved. Furthermore, to avoid degrading the measurements, the solutions must be achieved using only a minimal amount of material. An additional constraint is that only low-Z materials are allowed. If that were not difficlut enough, the solutions must also be affordable

  10. A microstrip gas avalanche chamber with two-dimensional readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, F.; Bellazzini, R.; Brez, A.; Massai, M.M.; Spandre, G.; Torquati, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    A microstrip gas avalanche chamber with a 200 μm anode pitch has been built and successfully tested in our laboratory. A gas gain of 10 4 and an energy resolution of 18% (FWHM) at 6 keV have been measured using a gas mixture of argon-CO 2 at atmospheric pressure. A preliminary measurement of the positional sensitivity indicates that a spatial resolution of 50 μm can be obtained. (orig.)

  11. Substrate-induced instability in gas microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.; Connolly, J.F.

    1992-12-01

    The results of a programme of research into substrate-induced gain instability in gas microstrip detectors are reported. Information has been collected on a wide range of substrates including many commonly available glasses and ceramics. A theoretical model of the gain instability is proposed. While we have not yet found an acceptable substrate for the construction of high flux detectors our experience points to electronically conductive glasses as the most promising source of a stable substrate. (Author)

  12. Factors influencing the performances of micro-strips gas chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, V.; Brom, J.M.; Fang, R.; Fontaine, J.C.; Huss, D.; Kachelhoffer, T.; Kettunen, H.; Levy, J.M.; Pallares, A.; Bergdolt, A.M.; Cailleret, J.; Christophel, E.; Coffin, J.; Eberle, H.; Osswald, F.; Sigward, M.H.

    1995-01-01

    Damages to MSGCs (Micro-Strips Gas Chambers) induced by discharges have been investigated. Optimization of electrode shapes and/or deposition of a protective coating allows the potential difference between anode and cathode, thus increasing the gain. For prototypes of MSGCs made at the Centre de Recherches Nucleaires, each step of the manufacturing processes was carefully controlled. Results are presented on the influence of cleaning processes on the surface resistance of glass substrates. (author). 21 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Radial microstrip slotline feed network for circular mobile communications array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Kelly, Eron S.; Lee, Richard Q.; Taub, Susan R.

    1994-01-01

    In mobile and satellite communications there is a need for low cost and low profile antennas which have a toroidal pattern. Antennas that have been developed for mobile communications include a L-Band electronically steered stripline phased array, a Ka-Band mechanically steered elliptical reflector antenna and a Ka-Band printed dipole. In addition, a L-Band mechanically steered microstrip array, a L-Band microstrip phased array tracking antenna for mounting on a car roof and an X-Band radial line slotted waveguide antenna have been demonstrated. In the above electronically scanned printed arrays, the individual element radiates normally to the plane of the array and hence require a phase shifter to scan the beam towards the horizon. Scanning in the azimuth is by mechanical or electronic steering. An alternate approach is to mount microstrip patch radiators on the surface of a cone to achieve the required elevation angle. The array then scans in the azimuth by beam switching.

  14. Standard Test Method for Application of Ionization Chambers to Assess the Low Energy Gamma Component of Cobalt-60 Irradiators Used in Radiation-Hardness Testing of Silicon Electronic Devices

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 Low energy components in the photon energy spectrum of Co-60 irradiators lead to absorbed dose enhancement effects in the radiation-hardness testing of silicon electronic devices. These low energy components may lead to errors in determining the absorbed dose in a specific device under test. This method covers procedures for the use of a specialized ionization chamber to determine a figure of merit for the relative importance of such effects. It also gives the design and instructions for assembling this chamber. 1.2 This method is applicable to measurements in Co-60 radiation fields where the range of exposure rates is 7 × 10 −6 to 3 × 10−2 C kg −1 s−1 (approximately 100 R/h to 100 R/s). For guidance in applying this method to radiation fields where the exposure rate is >100 R/s, see Appendix X1. Note 1—See Terminology E170 for definition of exposure and its units. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information onl...

  15. Test-beam evaluation of heavily irradiated silicon strip modules for ATLAS Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Blue, Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC with 10 years of operation at instantaneous luminosities of 7.5x1034cm−2s−1. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over 1x1015 1 MeV neutron equivalent per cm2 in the ATLAS Strips system. The silicon strip tracker exploits the concept of modularity. Fast readout electronics, deploying 130nm CMOS front-end electronics are glued on top of a silicon sensor to make a module. The radiation hard n-in-p micro-strip sensors used have been developed by the ATLAS ITk Strip Sensor collaboration and produced by Hamamatsu Photonics. A series of tests were performed at the DESY-II and CERN SPS test beam facilities to investigate the detailed performance of a strip module with both 2.5cm and 5cm length strips before and after irradiation with 8x1014neqcm−2 protons and a total ionising dose of 37.2MRad. The DURA...

  16. Evaluation of the x-ray response of a position-sensitive microstrip detector with an integrated readout chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossington, C.; Jaklevic, J.; Haber, C.; Spieler, H.; Reid, J.

    1990-08-01

    The performance of an SVX silicon microstrip detector and its compatible integrated readout chip have been evaluated in response to Rh Kα x-rays (average energy 20.5 keV). The energy and spatial discrimination capabilities, efficient data management and fast readout rates make it an attractive alternative to the CCD and PDA detectors now being offered for x-ray position sensitive diffraction and EXAFS work. The SVX system was designed for high energy physics applications and thus further development of the existing system is required to optimize it for use in practical x-ray experiments. For optimum energy resolution the system noise must be decreased to its previously demonstrated low levels of 2 keV FWHM at 60 keV or less, and the data handling rate of the computer must be increased. New readout chips are now available that offer the potential of better performance. 15 refs., 7 figs

  17. SVX II a silicon vertex detector for run II of the tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortoletto, D.

    1994-11-01

    A microstrip silicon detector SVX II has been proposed for the upgrade of the vertex detector of the CDF experiment to be installed for run II of the Tevatron in 1998. Three barrels of four layers of double sided detectors will cover the interaction region. The requirement of the silicon tracker and the specification of the sensors are discussed together with the proposed R ampersand D to verify the performance of the prototypes detectors produced by Sintef, Micron and Hamamatsu

  18. The BaBar silicon vertex tracker, performance and running experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Re, V.; Borean, C.; Bozzi, C.; Carassiti, V.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Piemontese, L.; Breon, A.B.; Brown, D.; Clark, A.R.; Goozen, F.; Hernikl, C.; Kerth, L.T.; Gritsan, A.; Lynch, G.; Perazzo, A.; Roe, N.A.; Zizka, G.; Roberts, D.; Schieck, J.; Brenna, E.; Citterio, M.; Lanni, F.; Palombo, F.; Ratti, L.; Manfredi, P.F.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bondioli, M.; Bosi, F.; Bucci, F.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ceccanti, M.; Forti, F.; Gagliardi, D.; Giorgi, M.A.; Lusiani, A.; Mammini, P.; Morganti, M.; Morsani, F.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Profeti, A.; Rama, M.; Rizzo, G.; Sandrelli, F.; Simi, G.; Triggiani, G.; Walsh, J.; Burchat, P.; Cheng, C.; Kirkby, D.; Meyer, T.I.; Roat, C.; Bona, M.; Bianchi, F.; Gamba, D.; Trapani, P.; Bosisio, L.; Della Ricca, G.; Dittongo, S.; Lanceri, L.; Pompili, A.; Poropat, P.; Rashevskaia, I.; Vuagnin, G.; Burke, S.; Callahan, D.; Campagnari, C.; Dahmes, B.; Hale, D.; Hart, P.; Kuznetsova, N.; Kyre, S.; Levy, S.; Long, O.; May, J.; Mazur, M.; Richman, J.; Verkerke, W.; Witherell, M.; Beringer, J.; Eisner, A.M.; Frey, A.; Grillo, A.A.; Grothe, M.; Johnson, R.P.; Kroeger, W.; Lockman, W.S.; Pulliam, T.; Rowe, W.; Schmitz, R.E.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E.N.; Turri, M.; Walkowiak, W.; Wilder, M.; Wilson, M.; Charles, E.; Elmer, P.; Nielsen, J.; Orejudos, W.; Scott, I.; Zobernig, H.

    2002-01-01

    The Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) of the BaBar experiment at the PEP-II asymmetric B factory is a five-layer double-sided, AC-coupled silicon microstrip detector. It represents the crucial element to precisely measure the decay position of B mesons and extract time-dependent CP asymmetries. The SVT architecture is shown and its performance is described, with emphasis on hit resolutions and efficiencies

  19. Design and Tests of the Silicon Sensors for the ZEUS Micro Vertex Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Dannheim, D.; Koetz, U.; Coldewey, C.; Fretwurst, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Klanner, R.; Martens, J.; Koffeman, E.; Tiecke, H.; Carlin, R.

    2002-01-01

    To fully exploit the HERA-II upgrade,the ZEUS experiment has installed a Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) using n-type, single-sided, silicon micro-strip sensors with capacitive charge division. The sensors have a readout pitch of 120 micrometers, with five intermediate strips (20 micrometer strip pitch). The designs of the silicon sensors and of the test structures used to verify the technological parameters, are presented. Results on the electrical measurements are discussed. A total of 1123 sen...

  20. The BaBar silicon vertex tracker, performance and running experience

    CERN Document Server

    Re, V; Bozzi, C; Carassiti, V; Cotta-Ramusino, A; Piemontese, L; Breon, A B; Brown, D; Clark, A R; Goozen, F; Hernikl, C; Kerth, L T; Gritsan, A; Lynch, G; Perazzo, A; Roe, N A; Zizka, G; Roberts, D; Schieck, J; Brenna, E; Citterio, M; Lanni, F; Palombo, F; Ratti, L; Manfredi, P F; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bosi, F; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ceccanti, M; Forti, F; Gagliardi, D J; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Mammini, P; Morganti, M; Morsani, F; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Profeti, A; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Simi, G; Triggiani, G; Walsh, J; Burchat, Patricia R; Cheng, C; Kirkby, D; Meyer, T I; Roat, C; Bóna, M; Bianchi, F; Gamba, D; Trapani, P; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Lanceri, L; Pompili, A; Poropat, P; Rashevskaia, I; Vuagnin, G; Burke, S; Callahan, D; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Hale, D; Hart, P; Kuznetsova, N; Kyre, S; Levy, S; Long, O; May, J; Mazur, M; Richman, J; Verkerke, W; Witherell, M; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Frey, A; Grillo, A A; Grothe, M; Johnson, R P; Kröger, W; Lockman, W S; Pulliam, T; Rowe, W; Schmitz, R E; Seiden, A; Spencer, E N; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Wilder, M; Wilson, M; Charles, E; Elmer, P; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Scott, I; Zobernig, H

    2002-01-01

    The Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) of the BaBar experiment at the PEP-II asymmetric B factory is a five-layer double-sided, AC-coupled silicon microstrip detector. It represents the crucial element to precisely measure the decay position of B mesons and extract time-dependent CP asymmetries. The SVT architecture is shown and its performance is described, with emphasis on hit resolutions and efficiencies.

  1. Radiation Hardening of Silicon Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Leroy, C; Glaser, M

    2002-01-01

    %RD48 %title\\\\ \\\\Silicon detectors will be widely used in experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider where high radiation levels will cause significant bulk damage. In addition to increased leakage current and charge collection losses worsening the signal to noise, the induced radiation damage changes the effective doping concentration and represents the limiting factor to long term operation of silicon detectors. The objectives are to develop radiation hard silicon detectors that can operate beyond the limits of the present devices and that ensure guaranteed operation for the whole lifetime of the LHC experimental programme. Radiation induced defect modelling and experimental results show that the silicon radiation hardness depends on the atomic impurities present in the initial monocrystalline material.\\\\ \\\\ Float zone (FZ) silicon materials with addition of oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, germanium and tin were produced as well as epitaxial silicon materials with epilayers up to 200 $\\mu$m thickness. Their im...

  2. Silicon position sensitive detectors for the Helios (NA 34) experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, E Jr; Mani, S; Manns, T; Plants, D; Shepard, P F; Thompson, J A; Tosh, R; Chand, T; Shivpuri, R; Baker, W

    1987-01-15

    The design construction and testing of X-Y tracking modules for a silicon microstrip vertex detector for use in Fermilab experiment E706 is discussed. A successful adaptation of various technologies, essential for instrumenting this class of detectors at a university laboratory is described. Emphasis is placed on considerable cost reduction, design flexibiity and more rapid turnover with a view toward large detectors for the future.

  3. Radiation damage status of the ATLAS silicon strip detectors (SCT)

    CERN Document Server

    Kondo, Takahiko; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Silicon microstrip detector system (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at LHC has been working well for about 7 years since 2010. The innermost layer has already received a few times of 10**13 1-MeV neutron-equivalent fluences/cm2. The evolutions of the radiation damage effects on strip sensors such as leakage current and full depletion voltages will be presented.

  4. Characterization of Czochralski Silicon Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Luukka, Panja-Riina; Haerkoenen, Jaakko

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes the characterization of irradiated and non-irradiated segmenteddetectors made of high-resistivity (>1 kΩcm) magnetic Czochralski (MCZ) silicon. It isshown that the radiation hardness (RH) of the protons of these detectors is higher thanthat of devices made of traditional materials such as Float Zone (FZ) silicon or DiffusionOxygenated Float Zone (DOFZ) silicon due to the presence of intrinsic oxygen (> 5 x1017 cm-3). The MCZ devices therefore present an interesting alter...

  5. A new micro-strip tracker for the new generation of experiments at hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinardo, Mauro E.; Milan U.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis concerns the development and characterization of a prototype Silicon micro-strip detector that can be used in the forward (high rapidity) region of a hadron collider. These detectors must operate in a high radiation environment without any important degradation of their performance. The innovative feature of these detectors is the readout electronics, which, being completely data-driven, allows for the direct use of the detector information at the lowest level of the trigger. All the particle hits on the detector can be readout in real-time without any external trigger and any particular limitation due to dead-time. In this way, all the detector information is available to elaborate a very selective trigger decision based on a fast reconstruction of tracks and vertex topology. These detectors, together with the new approach to the trigger, have been developed in the context of the BTeV RandD program; our aim was to define the features and the design parameters of an optimal experiment for heavy flavour physics at hadron colliders

  6. Development of microstrip gas chamber and application to imaging gamma-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimori, T.; Minami, S.; Nagae, T.; Takahashi, T.; Miyagi, T.

    1992-07-01

    We have developed Microstrip Gas Chamber (MSGC) by using Multi-Chip technology which enables high-density assembly of bare LSI chips on a silicon board. Our MSGC was operated steadily with ∼ 10 3 gain more than one week. An energy resolution of 15% (FWHM) for 5.9 keV X-ray of 55 Fe was obtained. With very thin polyimide substrate of 16 μm thickness, two interesting phenomena were observed; one is a strong dependence of gains on the back plane potential, and the other is little time variation of gains. New type of MSGC with a guarding mask of a thin polyimide layer on the cathode edges has been examined to reduce incidental electrical discharges between anode and cathode strips. Furthermore, new approach to reduce the resistivity of the substrate has been examined. By these approaches, the stability of the high gain operation of ∼ 10 4 has been drastically improved. In addition, we discuss the possibility of the application of MSGC to the coded mask X-ray imaging detector for astrophysics. (author)

  7. Photon counting microstrip X-ray detectors with GaAs sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruat, M.; Andrä, M.; Bergamaschi, A.; Barten, R.; Brückner, M.; Dinapoli, R.; Fröjdh, E.; Greiffenberg, D.; Lopez-Cuenca, C.; Lozinskaya, A. D.; Mezza, D.; Mozzanica, A.; Novikov, V. A.; Ramilli, M.; Redford, S.; Ruder, C.; Schmitt, B.; Shi, X.; Thattil, D.; Tinti, G.; Tolbanov, O. P.; Tyazhev, A.; Vetter, S.; Zarubin, A. N.; Zhang, J.

    2018-01-01

    High-Z sensors are increasingly used to overcome the poor efficiency of Si sensors above 15 keV, and further extend the energy range of synchrotron and FEL experiments. Detector-grade GaAs sensors of 500 μm thickness offer 98% absorption efficiency at 30 keV and 50% at 50 keV . In this work we assess the usability of GaAs sensors in combination with the MYTHEN photon-counting microstrip readout chip developed at PSI. Different strip length and pitch are compared, and the detector performance is evaluated in regard of the sensor material properties. Despite increased leakage current and noise, photon-counting strips mounted with GaAs sensors can be used with photons of energy as low as 5 keV, and exhibit excellent linearity with energy. The charge sharing is doubled as compared to silicon strips, due to the high diffusion coefficient of electrons in GaAs.

  8. Double-sided FoxFET biased microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allport, P.P.; Carter, J.R.; Dunwoody, U.C.; Gibson, V.; Goodrick, M.J.; Beck, G.A.; Carter, A.A.; Martin, A.J.; Pritchard, T.W.; Bullough, M.A.; Greenwood, N.M.; Lucas, A.D.; Wilburn, C.D.

    1994-01-01

    The use of the field effect transistor, integrated onto AC-coupled silicon detectors, as a novel technique for biasing the implanted p + strips [P.P. Allport et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 310 (1991) 155], was first employed for the OPAL microvertex detector. The detector has proved very successful, with ladders of three single-sided detectors showing signal/noise of 22 : 1 with MX5 readout electronics [P.P. Allport et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 324 (1993) 34; Nucl. Phys. B (Proc. Suppl.) 32 (1993) 208]. This technique has been extended to bias also the n + strips and p strips on the ohmic side of a double-sided detector [P.P. Allport et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A, to be submitted]. Full-size detectors with orthogonal readout have been fabricated by Micron and tested with MX7 readout on both sides. Both the junction and ohmic sides of these detectors have similar signal/noise values to those for single-sided wafers [P.P. Allport et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A, to be submitted]. Test structures have been irradiated with beta particles to study the radiation hardness of the devices, and probe station electrical measurements of the detectors and test structures are presented. ((orig.))

  9. Silicon germanium mask for deep silicon etching

    KAUST Repository

    Serry, Mohamed

    2014-07-29

    Polycrystalline silicon germanium (SiGe) can offer excellent etch selectivity to silicon during cryogenic deep reactive ion etching in an SF.sub.6/O.sub.2 plasma. Etch selectivity of over 800:1 (Si:SiGe) may be achieved at etch temperatures from -80 degrees Celsius to -140 degrees Celsius. High aspect ratio structures with high resolution may be patterned into Si substrates using SiGe as a hard mask layer for construction of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and semiconductor devices.

  10. Silicon germanium mask for deep silicon etching

    KAUST Repository

    Serry, Mohamed; Rubin, Andrew; Refaat, Mohamed; Sedky, Sherif; Abdo, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Polycrystalline silicon germanium (SiGe) can offer excellent etch selectivity to silicon during cryogenic deep reactive ion etching in an SF.sub.6/O.sub.2 plasma. Etch selectivity of over 800:1 (Si:SiGe) may be achieved at etch temperatures from -80 degrees Celsius to -140 degrees Celsius. High aspect ratio structures with high resolution may be patterned into Si substrates using SiGe as a hard mask layer for construction of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and semiconductor devices.

  11. Coherent quantum cascade laser micro-stripe arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. de Naurois

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We have fabricated InP-based coherent quantum cascade laser micro-stripe arrays. Phase-locking is provided by evanescent coupling between adjacent stripes. Stripes are buried into semi-insulating iron doped InP. Lasing at room temperature is obtained at 8.4μm for stripe arrays comprising up to 16 emitters. Pure supermode emission is demonstrated via farfield measurements and simulations. The farfield pattern shows a dual-lobe emission, corroborating the predicted phase-locked antisymmetric supermode emission.

  12. Modelado de secciones curvas con tecnología microstrip

    OpenAIRE

    Aires Casas, Fco. Manuel

    2008-01-01

    El fin de algunos dispositivos electrónicos es ocupar el menor espacio posible, sin que la calidad de su función se devalúe apreciablemente, y para conseguirlo es necesario utilizar técnicas de miniaturización. Así, el objetivo principal del proyecto es analizar el efecto que tienen diferentes tipos de curvas en estructuras microstrip (líneas de transmisión constituidas por una franja conductora y un plano de tierra separados por un medio dieléctrico). El proceso se ha efectuado m...

  13. Gas microstrip detectors for X-ray tomographic flow imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Key, M J; Luggar, R D; Kundu, A

    2003-01-01

    A investigation into the suitability of gas microstrip detector technology for a high-speed industrial X-ray tomography system is reported. X-ray energies in the region 20-30 keV are well suited to the application, which involves imaging two-dimensional slices through gas/liquid multiphase pipeline flows for quantitative component fraction measurement. Stable operation over a period representing several hundred individual tomographic scans at gas gains of 500 is demonstrated using a Penning gas mixture of krypton/propylene.

  14. Snaps to Connect Coaxial and Microstrip Lines in Wearable Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiti Kellomäki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial snaps (clothing fasteners can be used to connect a coaxial cable to a microstrip line. This is useful in the context of wearable antennas, especially in consumer applications and disposable connections. The measured S-parameters of the transition are presented, and an equivalent circuit and approximate equations are derived for system design purposes. The proposed connection is usable up to 1.5 GHz (10 dB return loss condition, and the frequency range can be extended to 2 GHz if a thinner, more flexible coaxial cable is used.

  15. Microstripes for transport and separation of magnetic particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donolato, Marco; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple technique for creating an on-chip magnetic particle conveyor based on exchange-biased permalloy microstripes. The particle transportation relies on an array of stripes with a spacing smaller than their width in conjunction with a periodic sequence of four different externally...... applied magnetic fields. We demonstrate the controlled transportation of a large population of particles over several millimeters of distance as well as the spatial separation of two populations of magnetic particles with different magnetophoretic mobilities. The technique can be used for the controlled...... selective manipulation and separation of magnetically labelled species. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics....

  16. Model analysis and experimental characterization of a microstrip vertex detector for a e+e- collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, C.P.

    1989-09-01

    This thesis is constituted by several topics, apparently weakly correlated, but that are all addressed to improve the performances of the ALEPH microvertex detector both in the present version and in the upgraded one with JFET-CMOS electronics. A wide program of computer simulations about the upgraded JFET-CMOS version of the read-out electronics have been carried out to test its working principle and radiation hardness measurements have been performed on the prototypes of the same electronics to test its capability to stand the radiation environment foreseen in ALEPH. Extensive calculations of the capacitances in a microstrip detector are presented and their influence on the detector, both from the point of view of its noise performances and of the capacitive charge division method, has been analyzed theoretically, both through analytic calculations and numerical simulations; experimental measurements on the same relevant capacitances are discussed. Strictly connected to this point a computer code simulating the interaction of a minimum ionizing particle with the detector has been written and algorithms to determine the interaction point have been studied. This code has been later inserted in the Monte Carlo program of ALEPH. A point not strictly connected to ALEPH and still treated here is the analysis of the noise of two JFET devices, that is however interesting not as much for the results themselves, as for the analysis technique used that brought to identify noise sources that are usually difficult to detect and neglected. (orig.)

  17. Radiation damage of silicon structures with electrons of 900 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Rachevskaia, I; Bosisio, L; Dittongo, S; Quai, E; Rizzo, G

    2002-01-01

    We present first results on the irradiation of double-sided silicon microstrip detectors and test structures performed at the Elettra synchrotron radiation facility at Trieste, Italy. The devices were irradiated with 900 MeV electrons. The test structures we used for studying bulk, surface and oxide irradiation damage were guard ring diodes, gated diodes and MOS capacitors. The test structures and the double-sided microstrip detectors were produced by Micron Semiconductor Ltd. (England) and IRST (Trento, Italy). For the first time, bulk-type inversion is observed to occur after high-energy electron irradiation. Current and inter-strip resistance measurements performed on the microstrip detectors show that the devices are still usable after type inversion.

  18. Surface Effects in Segmented Silicon Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Kopsalis, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Silicon detectors in Photon Science and Particle Physics require silicon sensors with very demanding specifications. New accelerators like the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (EuXFEL) and the High Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), pose new challenges for silicon sensors, especially with respect to radiation hardness. High radiation doses and fluences damage the silicon crystal and the SiO2 layers at the surface, thus changing the sensor properties and limiting their...

  19. MULTIOBJECTIVE EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHMS APPLIED TO MICROSTRIP ANTENNAS DESIGN ALGORITMOS EVOLUTIVOS MULTIOBJETIVO APLICADOS A LOS PROYECTOS DE ANTENAS MICROSTRIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Rodrigues Brianeze

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents three of the main evolutionary algorithms: Genetic Algorithm, Evolution Strategy and Evolutionary Programming, applied to microstrip antennas design. Efficiency tests were performed, considering the analysis of key physical and geometrical parameters, evolution type, numerical random generators effects, evolution operators and selection criteria. These algorithms were validated through design of microstrip antennas based on the Resonant Cavity Method, and allow multiobjective optimizations, considering bandwidth, standing wave ratio and relative material permittivity. The optimal results obtained with these optimization processes, were confirmed by CST Microwave Studio commercial package.Este trabajo presenta tres de los principales algoritmos evolutivos: Algoritmo Genético, Estrategia Evolutiva y Programación Evolutiva, aplicados al diseño de antenas de microlíneas (microstrip. Se realizaron pruebas de eficiencia de los algoritmos, considerando el análisis de los parámetros físicos y geométricos, tipo de evolución, efecto de generación de números aleatorios, operadores evolutivos y los criterios de selección. Estos algoritmos fueron validados a través del diseño de antenas de microlíneas basado en el Método de Cavidades Resonantes y permiten optimizaciones multiobjetivo, considerando ancho de banda, razón de onda estacionaria y permitividad relativa del dieléctrico. Los resultados óptimos obtenidos fueron confirmados a través del software comercial CST Microwave Studio.

  20. Experimental Correlation Between Silicon Carbide And Hardness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fe/SiC particulate composites have been investigated. 5-25% SiC additions were used for the production of different grades of Al-Si-Fe/SiC particulate composites. The composites samples were solution heat-treated at 500oC for 3hours and ...

  1. Performance of microstrip and microgap gas detectors at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraga, F.A.F.; Fraga, M.M.F.R.; Marques, R.F.; Margato, L.M.S.; Goncalo, J.R.; Policarpo, A.J.P.L.

    1997-01-01

    A study of the operation of microstrip and microgap detectors at various gas pressures up to 6 bar with Kr-CO 2 , Xe-CO 2 and Xe-CH 4 is presented. The data were collected with a microstrip (1000 μm pitch) and a microgap (200 μm pitch) detector using a clean chamber and gas system. It is shown that maximum gain is strongly dependent on pressure and gains as high as 9 x 10 3 were obtained with Kr-CO 2 at 6 bar with a MSGC. With the smaller-pitch MGC we could get a gain of 180 with Xe-CH 4 at 6 bar; the typical energy resolution at 22 keV being about 15%. From the present work one can conclude that microstructures can operate at high pressure and that their application in high-efficiency, low-granularity X-ray detectors with an energy range up to a few tens of keV can be seriously considered. (orig.)

  2. Full Ka Band Waveguide-to-Microstrip Inline Transition Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianxing; Li, Lei; Qiao, Yu; Chen, Juan; Chen, Jianzhong; Zhang, Anxue

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a compact and broadband inline waveguide-to-microstrip transition is proposed to cover the full Ka band. The transition can be segmented from the electric point of view into three building blocks, comprising a microstrip line to rectangular coaxial line, a wedged rectangular coaxial line to ridged waveguide, and a final tapered ridged waveguide impedance transformer to standard waveguide. Both good electrical performance and simple modular assembly without any soldering have been simultaneously obtained. The validation of the design concept has been conducted by numerical simulations and experimental measurements. The experimental results of a fabricated back-to-back transition prototype coincide with the simulated results. It shows that the proposed transition achieves good return loss of lower than 15.5 dB and low insertion loss with a fluctuation between 0.23 to 0.60 dB across the entire Ka band. Details of design considerations and operation mechanism as well as simulation and measurement results are presented.

  3. Silicone metalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

    2008-12-09

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  4. Theoretical and experimental study of microstrip-to-slot line uniplanar transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yook, Jong-Gwan; Dib, Nihad I.; Katehi, Linda P. B.; Simons, Rainee N.; Taub, Susan R.

    1994-05-01

    Recent advances in MMCI technology make it possible to construct transitions from CPW-to-microstrip with via hole, microstrip-to-slot line and microshield line-to-CPW all of which have potential applications in the feed network of antennas. In this study we investigate the characteristics of the microstrip-to-slot line uniplanar transition using the finite element methods (FEM) and finite difference time domain (FDTD) techniques, and compared the theoretical results with the measurements. In both cases, the results agree with the measurements within a few percent.

  5. Standard hardness conversion tables for metals relationship among brinell hardness, vickers hardness, rockwell hardness, superficial hardness, knoop hardness, and scleroscope hardness

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 Conversion Table 1 presents data in the Rockwell C hardness range on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, Knoop hardness, and Scleroscope hardness of non-austenitic steels including carbon, alloy, and tool steels in the as-forged, annealed, normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions provided that they are homogeneous. 1.2 Conversion Table 2 presents data in the Rockwell B hardness range on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, Knoop hardness, and Scleroscope hardness of non-austenitic steels including carbon, alloy, and tool steels in the as-forged, annealed, normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions provided that they are homogeneous. 1.3 Conversion Table 3 presents data on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, and Knoop hardness of nickel and high-nickel alloys (nickel content o...

  6. Hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, J.P.; Boving, H.J.; Hintermann, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    Hard, wear resistant and low friction coatings are presently produced on a world-wide basis, by different processes such as electrochemical or electroless methods, spray technologies, thermochemical, CVD and PVD. Some of the most advanced processes, especially those dedicated to thin film depositions, basically belong to CVD or PVD technologies, and will be looked at in more detail. The hard coatings mainly consist of oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides or carbon. Over the years, many processes have been developed which are variations and/or combinations of the basic CVD and PVD methods. The main difference between these two families of deposition techniques is that the CVD is an elevated temperature process (≥ 700 C), while the PVD on the contrary, is rather a low temperature process (≤ 500 C); this of course influences the choice of substrates and properties of the coating/substrate systems. Fundamental aspects of the vapor phase deposition techniques and some of their influences on coating properties will be discussed, as well as the very important interactions between deposit and substrate: diffusions, internal stress, etc. Advantages and limitations of CVD and PVD respectively will briefly be reviewed and examples of applications of the layers will be given. Parallel to the development and permanent updating of surface modification technologies, an effort was made to create novel characterisation methods. A close look will be given to the coating adherence control by means of the scratch test, at the coating hardness measurement by means of nanoindentation, at the coating wear resistance by means of a pin-on-disc tribometer, and at the surface quality evaluation by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finally, main important trends will be highlighted. (orig.)

  7. The assembly of the silicon tracker for the GLAST beam test engineering model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allport, P.; Atwood, E.; Atwood, W.; Beck, G.; Bhatnager, B.; Bloom, E.; Broeder, J.; Chen, V.; Clark, J.; Cotton, N.; Couto e Silva, E. do; Feerick, B.; Giebels, G.; Godfrey, G.; Handa, T.; Hernando, J.A.; Hirayama, M.; Johnson, R.P.; Kamae, T.; Kashiguine, S.; Kroeger, W.; Milbury, C.; Miller, W.; Millican, O.; Nikolaou, M.; Nordby, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Paliaga, G.; Ponslet, E.; Rowe, W.; Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.; Spencer, E.; Stromberg, S.; Swensen, E.; Takayuki, M.; Tournear, D.; Webster, A.; Winkler, G.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamura, K.; Yoshida, S.

    2001-01-01

    The silicon tracker for the engineering model of the GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) to date represents the largest surface of silicon microstrip detectors assembled in a tracker (2.7 m 2 ). It demonstrates the feasibility of employing this technology for satellite based experiments, in which large effective areas and high reliability are required. This note gives an overview of the assembly of this silicon tracker and discusses in detail studies performed to track quality assurance: leakage current, mechanical alignment and production yields

  8. The development of two ASIC's for a fast silicon strip detector readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christain, D.; Haldeman, M.; Yarema, R.; Zimmerman, T.; Newcomer, F.M.; VanBerg, R.

    1989-01-01

    A high speed, low noise readout system for silicon strip detectors is being developed for Fermilab E771, which will begin taking data in 1989. E771 is a fixed target experiment designed to study the production of B hadrons by an 800 GeV/c proton beam. The experimental apparatus consists of an open geometry magnetic spectrometer featuring good muon and electron identification and a 16000 channel silicon microstrip vertex detector. This paper reviews the design and prototyping of two application specific integrated circuits (ASIC's) an amplifier and a discriminator, which are being produced for the silicon strip detector readout system

  9. The DAMPE silicon tungsten tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Gallo, Valentina; Asfandiyarov, R; Azzarello, P; Bernardini, P; Bertucci, B; Bolognini, A; Cadoux, F; Caprai, M; Domenjoz, M; Dong, Y; Duranti, M; Fan, R; Franco, M; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gong, K; Guo, D; Husi, C; Ionica, M; Lacalamita, N; Loparco, F; Marsella, G; Mazziotta, M N; Mongelli, M; Nardinocchi, A; Nicola, L; Pelleriti, G; Peng, W; Pohl, M; Postolache, V; Qiao, R; Surdo, A; Tykhonov, A; Vitillo, S; Wang, H; Weber, M; Wu, D; Wu, X; Zhang, F; De Mitri, I; La Marra, D

    2017-01-01

    The DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) satellite has been successfully launched on the 17th December 2015. It is a powerful space detector designed for the identification of possible Dark Matter signatures thanks to its capability to detect electrons and photons with an unprecedented energy resolution in an energy range going from few GeV up to 10 TeV. Moreover, the DAMPE satellite will contribute to a better understanding of the propagation mechanisms of high energy cosmic rays measuring the nuclei flux up to 100 TeV. DAMPE is composed of four sub-detectors: a plastic strip scintillator, a silicon-tungsten tracker-converter (STK), a BGO imaging calorimeter and a neutron detector. The STK is made of twelve layers of single-sided AC-coupled silicon micro-strip detectors for a total silicon area of about 7 $m^2$ . To promote the conversion of incident photons into electron-positron pairs, tungsten foils are inserted into the supporting structure. In this document, a detailed description of the STK constructi...

  10. A Quarter Ellipse Microstrip Resonator for Filters in Microwave Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Á. Jaramillo-Flórez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the results of computational simulations and construction of quadrant elliptical resonators excited by coplanar slot line waveguide for designing microwave filters in RF communications systems. By means of the equation of optics, are explained the fundamentals of these geometry of resonators proposed. Are described the construction of quadrant elliptical resonators, one of microstrip and other two of cavity, of size different, and an array of four quadrant elliptical resonators in cascade. The results of the measures and the computational calculus of scattering S11 and S21 of elliptical resonators is made for to identify the resonant frequencies of the resonators studied, proving that these have performance in frequency as complete ellipses by the image effect due to their two mirror in both semiaxis, occupying less area, and the possible applications are discussed.

  11. Frequency selective surfaces based high performance microstrip antenna

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, Shiv; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on performance enhancement of printed antennas using frequency selective surfaces (FSS) technology. The growing demand of stealth technology in strategic areas requires high-performance low-RCS (radar cross section) antennas. Such requirements may be accomplished by incorporating FSS into the antenna structure either in its ground plane or as the superstrate, due to the filter characteristics of FSS structure. In view of this, a novel approach based on FSS technology is presented in this book to enhance the performance of printed antennas including out-of-band structural RCS reduction. In this endeavor, the EM design of microstrip patch antennas (MPA) loaded with FSS-based (i) high impedance surface (HIS) ground plane, and (ii) the superstrates are discussed in detail. The EM analysis of proposed FSS-based antenna structures have been carried out using transmission line analogy, in combination with the reciprocity theorem. Further, various types of novel FSS structures are considered in desi...

  12. The construction of a microstrip gas tracker for Hermes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, J. van den

    1994-01-01

    To measure the spin structure of the nucleon, the HERMES experiment is planned at the HERA electron beam using a polarised internal gas target. A tracker is being built to reconstruct the vertex of the exciting particles. It consists of two drift chambers and two microstrip gas counter (MSGC) systems. The MSGC systems are housed into two gas gatight containers surrounding the beam pipe and located immediately after the exit flange of the target housing. The active area of the upper MSGC system covers an angular range of 40 mrad≤θ v ≤ 140 mrad by -170 mrad≤θ h ≤170 mrad. Below the beam pipe a second system is situated with the same acceptance. Each track within the acceptance is measured by two stations of three MSCGs having a strip orientation, of 0 , and +30 and -30 respectively with respect to the vertical axis. (HSI)

  13. Microstrip Cross-coupled Interdigital SIR Based Bandpass Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Maharjan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple and compact 4.9 GHz bandpass filter for C-band applications is proposed. This paper presents a novel microstrip cross-coupled interdigital half-wavelength stepped impedance resonator (SIR based bandpass filter (BPF.The designed structure is similar to that of a combination of two parallel interdigital capacitors. The scattering parameters of the structure are measured using vector network analyzer (VNA. The self generated capacitive and inductive reactances within the interdigital resonators exhibited in a resonance frequency of 4.9 GHz. The resonant frequency and bandwidth of the capacitive cross-coupled resonator is directly optimized from the physical arrangement of the resonators. The measured insertion loss (S21 and return loss (S11 were 0.3 dB and 28 dB, respectively, at resonance frequency which were almost close to the simulation results.

  14. Towards Radiation Hard Sensor Materials for the CMS Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Steinbrueck, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Many measurements are described in literature, performed on a variety of silicon materials and technologies, but they are often hard to compare, because they were done under different conditions. To systematically compare the prope...

  15. A gas microstrip X-ray detector for soft energy fluorescence EXAFS

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, A D; Derbyshire, G E; Duxbury, D M; Lipp, J; Spill, E J; Stephenson, R

    2001-01-01

    Gas microstrip detectors have been previously developed by the particle physics community, where their robustness, compactness and high counting speed have been recognised. These features are particularly attractive to synchrotron radiation use. In this paper, we describe a gas microstrip detector employing multi-element readout and specifically developed for high count rate fluorescence EXAFS at soft X-ray energies below 4 keV.

  16. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Burger, W J

    1999-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is designed as a independent module for installation on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) in the year 2002 for an operational period of three years. The principal scientific objectives are the searches for antimatter and dark matter in cosmic rays. The AMS uses 5.5 m sup 2 of silicon microstrip sensors to reconstruct charged particle trajectories in the field of a permanent magnet. The detector design and construction covered a 3 yr period which terminated with a test flight on the NASA space shuttle Discovery during June 2-12, 1988. In this contribution, we describe the shuttle version of the AMS silicon tracker, including preliminary results of the tracker performance during the flight. (author)

  17. Silicon Alloying On Aluminium Based Alloy Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanto

    2002-01-01

    Silicon alloying on surface of aluminium based alloy was carried out using electron beam. This is performed in order to enhance tribological properties of the alloy. Silicon is considered most important alloying element in aluminium alloy, particularly for tribological components. Prior to silicon alloying. aluminium substrate were painted with binder and silicon powder and dried in a furnace. Silicon alloying were carried out in a vacuum chamber. The Silicon alloyed materials were assessed using some techniques. The results show that silicon alloying formed a composite metal-non metal system in which silicon particles are dispersed in the alloyed layer. Silicon content in the alloyed layer is about 40% while in other place is only 10.5 %. The hardness of layer changes significantly. The wear properties of the alloying alloys increase. Silicon surface alloying also reduced the coefficient of friction for sliding against a hardened steel counter face, which could otherwise be higher because of the strong adhesion of aluminium to steel. The hardness of the silicon surface alloyed material dropped when it underwent a heating cycle similar to the ion coating process. Hence, silicon alloying is not a suitable choice for use as an intermediate layer for duplex treatment

  18. Characterization of Czochralski silicon detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Luukka, Panja-Riina

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes the characterization of irradiated and non-irradiated segmented detectors made of high-resistivity (>1 kΩcm) magnetic Czochralski (MCZ) silicon. It is shown that the radiation hardness (RH) of the protons of these detectors is higher than that of devices made of traditional materials such as Float Zone (FZ) silicon or Diffusion Oxygenated Float Zone (DOFZ) silicon due to the presence of intrinsic oxygen (> 5 × 1017 cm−3). The MCZ devices therefore present an interesting ...

  19. Silicon position-sensitive detectors for the Helios (NA 34) experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, E Jr; Mani, S; Manns, T; Plants, D; Shepard, P F; Thompson, J A; Tosh, R; Chand, T; Shivpuri, R; Baker, W

    1987-01-15

    The design construction and testing of X-Y tracking modules for a silicon microstrip vertex detector for use in Fermilab experiment E706 is discussed. A successful adaptation of various technologies, essential for instrumenting this class of detectors at a university laboratory is described. Emphasis is placed on considerable cost reduction, design flexibiity and more rapid turnover with a view toward large detectors for the future.

  20. Characterization of silicon oxynitride films prepared by the simultaneous implantation of oxygen and nitrogen ions into silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hezel, R.; Streb, W.

    1985-01-01

    Silicon oxynitride films about 5 nm in thickness were prepared by simultaneously implanting 5 keV oxygen and nitrogen ions into silicon at room temperature up to saturation. These films with concentrations ranging from pure silicon oxide to silicon nitride were characterized using Auger electron spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and depth-concentration profiling. The different behaviour of the silicon oxynitride films compared with those of silicon oxide and silicon nitride with regard to thermal stability and hardness against electron and argon ion irradiation is pointed out. (Auth.)

  1. Silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klanner, R.

    1984-08-01

    The status and recent progress of silicon detectors for high energy physics is reviewed. Emphasis is put on detectors with high spatial resolution and the use of silicon detectors in calorimeters. (orig.)

  2. The DOe Silicon Track Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbrueck, Georg

    2003-01-01

    We describe a trigger preprocessor to be used by the DOe experiment for selecting events with tracks from the decay of long-lived particles. This Level 2 impact parameter trigger utilizes information from the Silicon Microstrip Tracker to reconstruct tracks with improved spatial and momentum resolutions compared to those obtained by the Level 1 tracking trigger. It is constructed of VME boards with much of the logic existing in programmable processors. A common motherboard provides the I/O infrastructure and three different daughter boards perform the tasks of identifying the roads from the tracking trigger data, finding the clusters in the roads in the silicon detector, and fitting tracks to the clusters. This approach provides flexibility for the design, testing and maintenance phases of the project. The track parameters are provided to the trigger framework in 25 μs. The effective impact parameter resolution for high-momentum tracks is 35 μm, dominated by the size of the Tevatron beam

  3. LHCb: Installation and operation of the LHCb Silicon Tracker detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Esperante Pereira, D

    2009-01-01

    The LHCb experiment has been designed to perform high-precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of B hadrons. The construction and installation phases of the Silicon Tracker (ST) of the experiment were completed by early summer 2008. The LHCb Silicon Tracker sums up to a total sensitive area of about 12 m^2 using silicon micro-strip technology and withstands charged particle fluxes of up to 5 x 10^5cm^−2s^−1. We will report on the preparation of the detectors for the first LHC beams. Selected results from the commissioning in LHCb are shown, including the first beam-related events accumulated during LHC injection tests in September 2008. Lessons are drawn from the experience gathered during the installation and commissioning.

  4. Commissioning and Performance of the LHCb Silicon Tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    van Tilburg, J; Buechler, A; Bursche , A; Chiapolini, N; Elsaesser, C; Hangartner, V; Salzmann, C; Steiner, S; Steinkamp, O; Staumann, U; Tobin, M; Vollhardt, A; Bay, A; Bettler, M O; Blanc, F; Bressieux, J; Conti, G; Fave, V; Frei, R; Gauvin, N; Gonzalez, R; Haefeli, G; Hicheur, A; Keune, A; Luisier, J; Muresan, R; Nakada, T; Needham, M; Nicolas, L; Knecht, M; Perrin, A; Potterat, C; Schneider, O; Tran, M; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Bauer, C; Britsch, M; Hofmann, W; Maciuc, F; Schmelling, M; Voss, H; Adeva, B; Esperante, D; Fungueiriño Pazos, J; Gallas, A; Pazos-Alvarez, A; Pérez-Trigo, E; Pló Casasús, M; Rogríguez Pérez, P; Saborido, J; Vázquez, P; Iakovenko, V; Okhrimenko, O; Pugatch, V

    2010-01-01

    The LHCb Silicon Tracker is a silicon micro-strip detector with a sensitive area of 12 m$^2$ and a total of 272k readout channels. The Silicon Tracker consists of two parts that use different detector modules. The detector installation was completed by early summer 2008 and the commissioning without beam has reached its finals stage, successfully overcoming most of the encountered problems. Currently, the detector has more than 99% of the channels fully functioning. Commissioning with particles has started using beam-induced events from the LHC injection tests in 2008 and 2009. These events allowed initial studies of the detector performance. Especially, the detector modules could be aligned with an accuracy of about 20 $\\mu$m. Furthermore, with the first beam collisions that took place end of 2009 we could further study the performance and improve the alignment of the detector.

  5. A SPICE model of double-sided Si microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelori, A.; Paccagnella, A.; Bonin, F.

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a SPICE model for the ohmic side of AC-coupled Si microstrip detectors with interstrip isolation via field plates. The interstrip isolation has been measured in various conditions by varying the field plate voltage. Simulations have been compared with experimental data in order to determine the values of the model parameters for different voltages applied to the field plates. The model is able to predict correctly the frequency dependence of the coupling between adjacent strips. Furthermore, we have used such model for the study of the signal propagation along the detector when a current signal is injected in a strip. Only electrical coupling is considered here, without any contribution due to charge sharing derived from carrier diffusion. For this purpose, the AC pads of the strips have been connected to a read-out electronics and the current signal has been injected into a DC pad. Good agreement between measurements and simulations has been reached for the central strip and the first neighbors. Experimental tests and computer simulations have been performed for four different strip and field plate layouts, in order to investigate how the detector geometry affects the parameters of the SPICE model and the signal propagation

  6. A DOUBLE E SHAPED MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA FOR MULTIBAND APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pristin K Mathew

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dual band Compact double E shaped Microstrip Patch antenna with enhanced gain for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WI-MAX, Universal Mobile Telecommunication Systems (UMTS and Satellite applications. The modified E shaped patch antenna is designed using CADFEKO and the results of return loss, Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR, gain of the proposed antenna are compared with a conventional E shaped patch antenna. The results show that the double E shaped wideband patch antenna has an impedance bandwidth of 10.7 % with a return loss of -13.6dB, -12.4 dB, -12.1dB and -14.2dB at resonant frequencies of 1.96 GHz, 3.62 GHz, 5.76 GHz and 6.82 GHz, whereas a conventional E shaped patch antenna operates at 2.5 GHz, 3.4 GHz and 5.5 GHz with a return loss of -16 dB each and impedance bandwidth of 10.6 %. Both the antennas uses Coaxial Probe feeding technique and Flame Retardant 4 (FR-4 as the substrate material with a thickness of 2.87 mm. A parametric study has been done so as to understand the effect of each parameter to obtain a better performance and optimised results.

  7. Novel trimming technique for tunable HTS microstrip filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiya, N. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yamanashi University, Nakagawa-Sekiya Laboratory, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan)], E-mail: nsekiya@yamanashi.ac.jp; Nakagawa, Y. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yamanashi University, Nakagawa-Sekiya Laboratory, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan); Saito, A.; Ohshima, S. [Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Johnan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan)

    2008-09-15

    We have developed a method using additional electric pads for trimming tunable high-temperature superconducting (HTS) microstrip filters. These filters are generally tuned by adjusting the gap between a dielectric floating plate above the filter. When the floating plate approached the filter, the center frequency was shifted to a lower frequency. However, the insertion loss increases due to variation in the external quality factors varying from the design parameter. The external quality factors are usually controlled by adjusting the length of the input/output (I/O) coupled-line elements and the gap between the elements and the resonator. In our method, additional electric pads are distributed at the open-end of the I/O coupled-line elements of a 3-pole hairpin bandpass filter to enable adjustment of the external quality factors so as to reduce insertion loss. The electric pads consist of line-and-space patterns. They are eclectically connected to the coupled-line elements to adjust the line length and gap width and thereby control the external quality factors. An electromagnetic simulator was used for the design and analysis. The simulation results showed that the additional electric pads are effective in improving the insertion loss of the HTS bandpass filter after tuning.

  8. Novel trimming technique for tunable HTS microstrip filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiya, N.; Nakagawa, Y.; Saito, A.; Ohshima, S.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a method using additional electric pads for trimming tunable high-temperature superconducting (HTS) microstrip filters. These filters are generally tuned by adjusting the gap between a dielectric floating plate above the filter. When the floating plate approached the filter, the center frequency was shifted to a lower frequency. However, the insertion loss increases due to variation in the external quality factors varying from the design parameter. The external quality factors are usually controlled by adjusting the length of the input/output (I/O) coupled-line elements and the gap between the elements and the resonator. In our method, additional electric pads are distributed at the open-end of the I/O coupled-line elements of a 3-pole hairpin bandpass filter to enable adjustment of the external quality factors so as to reduce insertion loss. The electric pads consist of line-and-space patterns. They are eclectically connected to the coupled-line elements to adjust the line length and gap width and thereby control the external quality factors. An electromagnetic simulator was used for the design and analysis. The simulation results showed that the additional electric pads are effective in improving the insertion loss of the HTS bandpass filter after tuning

  9. Operation of sealed microstrip gas chambers at the ILL

    CERN Document Server

    Clergeau, J F; Feltin, D; Fischer, H E; Guérard, B; Hansen, T; Manzin, G; Oed, A; Palleau, P

    2001-01-01

    Microstrip Gas Counters (MSGCs) were introduced at the ILL as a response to the problem of fabricating the large area neutron detector of the D20 neutron powder diffractometer. This banana-like detector consists of 48 MSGCs, each comprising 32 counting cells. It was in operation during 18 months before being stopped due to the progressive deterioration of the anode strips. In order to increase its lifetime, significant modifications were introduced in the recently assembled new version. Another instrument, D4C, was recently equipped with a modular detector made of nine MSGCs, each of them in an individual gas vessel. Besides the unidimensional individual readout MSGC of D20 and D4C, the ILL has developed bidimensional MSGCs with a charge division readout. All these detectors employ sealed vessels containing a gas mixture at a pressure which can be as high as 15 bar, necessitating very clean conditions. This paper describes the experience acquired at the ILL in the fabrication and operation of these detectors.

  10. A Compact Annular Ring Microstrip Antenna for WSN Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daihua Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A compact annular ring microstrip antenna was proposed for a wireless sensor network (WSN application in the 2.4 GHz band. In this paper the major considerations of the conformal antenna design were the compact size and the impact on antenna’s performance of a steel installation base. By using a chip resistor of large resistance (120 Ω the antenna size was reduced to 38% of that a conventional annular ring patch antenna. With the addition of the steel installation base the resonant frequency of the antenna increases about 4.2% and the bandwidth reduces from 17.5% to 11.7% by adjusting the load resistance simultaneously. Several key parameters were discussed and optimized, and the antenna was fabricated and its performance measured. The antenna is well matched at 2.4 GHz with 34.2 dB return loss and –2.5 dBi peak gain. Meanwhile, it exhibits excellent radiation patterns with very low cross-polarization levels.

  11. Microstrip Butler matrix design and realization for 7 T MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanbakhsh, Pedram; Solbach, Klaus

    2011-07-01

    This article presents the design and realization of 8 × 8 and 16 × 16 Butler matrices for 7 T MRI systems. With the focus on low insertion loss and high amplitude/phase accuracy, the microstrip line integration technology (microwave-integrated circuit) was chosen for the realization. Laminate material of high permittivity (ε(r) = 11) and large thickness (h = 3.2 mm) is shown to allow the best trade-off of circuit board size versus insertion loss, saving circuit area by extensive folding of branch-line coupler topology and meandering phase shifter and connecting strip lines and reducing mutual coupling of neighboring strip lines by shield structures between strip lines. With this approach, 8 × 8 Butler matrices were produced in single boards of 310 mm × 530 mm, whereas the 16 × 16 Butler matrices combined two submatrices of 8 × 8 with two smaller boards. Insertion loss was found at 0.73 and 1.1 dB for an 8 × 8 matrix and 16 × 16 matrix, respectively. Measured amplitude and phase errors are shown to represent highly pure mode excitation with unwanted modes suppressed by 40 and 35 dB, respectively. Both types of matrices were implemented with a 7 T MRI system and 8- and 16-element coil arrays for RF mode shimming experiments and operated successfully with 8 kW of RF power. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Breakdown of coupling dielectrics for Si microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelori, A.; Paccagnella, A.; Padova Univ.; Saglimbeni, G.

    1999-01-01

    Double-layer coupling dielectrics for AC-coupled Si microstrip detectors have been electrically characterized in order to determine their performance in a radiation-harsh environment, with a focus on the dielectric breakdown. Two different dielectric technologies have been investigated: SiO 2 /TEOS and SiO 2 /Si 3 N 4 . Dielectrics have been tested by using a negative gate voltage ramp of 0.2 MV/(cm·s). The metal/insulator/Si I-V characteristics show different behaviours depending on the technology. The extrapolated values of the breakdown field for unirradiated devices are significantly higher for SiO 2 /Si 3 N 4 dielectrics, but the data dispersion is lower for SiO 2 /TEOS devices. No significant variation of the breakdown field has been measured after a 10 Mrad (Si) γ irradiation for SiO 2 /Si 3 N 4 dielectrics. Finally, the SiO 2 /Si 3 N 4 DC conduction is enhanced if a positive gate voltage ramp is applied with respect to the negative one, due to the asymmetric conduction of the double-layer dielectric

  13. An improved broadband E patch microstrip antenna for wireless communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzeih, Amer; Chahine, Soubhi Abou; Kabalan, Karim Y.; El-Hajj, Ali; Chehab, Ali

    2007-12-01

    A broadband probe-fed microstrip antenna with E-shaped patch on a single-layer air substrate is investigated. Bandwidth enhancement of the antenna is achieved by inserting two parallel slots into its radiating patch. The effects of the antenna parameters are analyzed, and their optimal values for broadband operation are obtained. The design parameters are formulated as a function of the center frequency, and the empirical equations are validated by simulation. A 51.5% enhanced E patch antenna for modern wireless communications (Personal Communications Service, Digital Cellular System, Universal Mobile Telecommunications System, Wireless Local Area Network 802.11 b/g, and Bluetooth) is designed, simulated, fabricated, and measured. A comparison between simulated and measured results is presented, and it showed satisfactory agreement. Moreover, the effect of incorporating more parallel slots into the radiating patch is investigated. The antenna is designed and simulated for different scenarios (four slots, six slots, and eight slots), where a bandwidth of 57% is achieved in the eight-slot design.

  14. Towards long lived tunable transmon qubit in microstrip geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braumueller, Jochen; Radtke, Lucas; Rotzinger, Hannes; Weides, Martin; Ustinov, Alexey V. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Physikalisches Institut, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Qubits constitute the main building blocks of a prospective quantum computer. One main challenge is given by short decoherence times. In this work we investigate a transmon qubit based on a superconducting charge qubit with reduced sensitivity to charge noise. This is achieved by operating the qubit at a Josephson to charging energy ratio of about 100. At the same time, a sufficiently large anharmonicity of the energy levels is preserved. The qubit is realized in a 2D geometry based on large capacitor pads being connected by two Josephson junctions in parallel. This split Josephson junction allows the qubit to be tunable in Josephson energy and therefore in resonance frequency. The large area capacitor pads mainly coupled through the substrate and a backside metalization reduce the surface loss contribution. Manipulation and readout of the qubit is mediated by a microstrip resonator coupled to a feedline. We present resonator and qubit designs together with respective microwave simulations. Preliminary results on circuit fabrication and low temperature measurements are also discussed.

  15. Electrodynamic modeling applied to micro-strip gas chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, R.

    1998-01-01

    Gas gain variations as functions of time, counting rate and substrate resistivity have been observed with Micro-Strip Gas Chambers (MSGC). Such a chamber is here treated as a system of 2 dielectrics, gas and substrate, with finite resistivities. Electric charging between their interface results in variations of the electric field and the gas gain. The electrodynamic equations (including time dependence) for such a system are proposed. A Rule of Charge Accumulation (RCA) is then derived which allows to determine the quantity and sign of charges accumulated on the surface at equilibrium. In order to apply the equations and the rule to MSGCs, a model of gas conductance induced by ionizing radiation is proposed, and a differential equation and some formulae are derived to calculate the rms dispersion and the spatial distribution of electrons (ions) in inhomogeneous electric fields. RCA coupled with a precise simulation of the electric fields gives the first quantitative explanation of gas gain variations of MSGCs. Finally an electrodynamic simulation program is made to reproduce the dynamic process of gain variation due to surface charging with an uncertainty of at most 15% relative to experimental data. As a consequence, the methods for stabilizing operation of MSGCs are proposed. (author)

  16. Design of a C- Band Circular Polarization Microstrip Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohandri; Jumiah, Yusna; Tetuko Sri Sumantyo, Josaphat

    2018-04-01

    The development of circularly polarized microstrip antenna is an interesting topic in current research, due to its superiority in various applications. In this work, the design of a circular polarization antenna that will be operated in the C-band range will be described. The developed antenna is intended to be used for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) applications. Through this application, various targets or areas on the surface of the earth, such as buildings, soil and land can be observed. To get the ideal antenna characteristic, in this research the various parameters in antenna design will be simulated. A software CST Studio will be operated in this simulation. Based on the simulation results, the optimum parameters are obtained in term of reflection coefficient, VSWR, axial ratio, and gain. The reflection coefficient of the antenna (S11) is obtained at -19.75 dB and VSWR of 1.23. Meanwhile, the axial ratio and gain of the antenna were obtained at 2.66 dB and 2.1 dBi, respectively. Based on this simulated results, antenna design is potential to be developed and fabricated for SAR sensor applications.

  17. Development of microstrip gas chambers on substrata with electronic conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouclier, R.; Garabatos, C.; Manzin, G.; Sauli, F.; Shekhtman, L.; Temmel, T.; Della Mea, G.; Maggioni, G.; Rigato, V.; Logachenko, I.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes several recent developments on Microstrip Gas Chambers (MSGCs). The authors have studied the operating behavior of the detectors in different gas mixtures; maximum stable gains have been achieved in mixtures of argon and dimethyl-ether (DME) in almost equal proportions. Using detectors manufactured on semi-conducting glass substrates, capable of withstanding very high rates (above 10 6 mm -2 s -1 ), they have demonstrated extended lifetime without gain modifications up to a collected charge of 130 mC cm -1 in clean laboratory operating conditions. They have also verified that relaxing the requirements on cleanness conditions, either in the gas mixing system or in the detector construction, may result in fast aging of the devices under irradiation. As an alternative to the semi-conducting glass, they have developed a novel technique to coat regular glass with a thin lead silicate layer having electron conductivity; a new development consisting in coating already manufactured MSGCs with the thin semi-conducting layer is also described. The preliminary results show an excellent rate capability of this kind of devices, intrinsically simpler to manufacture

  18. Radiography imaging by 64 and 128 micro-strips crystalline detectors at different X-ray energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyva, A.; Cabal, A.; Montano, L. M.; Fontaine, M.; Mora, R. de la; Padilla, F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes some results obtained in the evaluation of the performance of position sensitive detectors in track reconstruction in particle physics experiments. Crystalline silicon micro-strips detectors with 64 and 128 channels and 100 μm pitch were used to obtain radiographic digital images of different objects. The more relevant figures for spectrometry applications were measured and reported. Two-dimensional images were obtained by scanning the object with a collimated beam using different source-target-detector positioning and three sources of X-rays (8.04, 18.55 and 22.16 keV). The counts acquired by each strip correspond to a particular collimator position during the scan, thus serving to reconstruct the image of the exposed to X-ray object and to reveal its internal structure. The use of some techniques for image processing allow the further improvement of the radiography quality. The preliminary results obtained using in-house made and accreditation mammography phantoms allow to infer that such detectors can be successfully introduced in the digital mammography practice. (Author)

  19. Study of New Silicon Sensors for Experiments at Future Particle Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Muñoz Sánchez, Francisca Javiela

    In this work, two new technologies for future tracker detectors at future colliders are studied. In addition, the characterization techniques are described and the obtained results are presented. On one side, we studied two-dimensional position-sensitive microstrip sensors. This sensors use a resistive material as electrode instead of the standard metallic one. In this way, using a single sensor we can get information about two coordinates of a particle hit. On the other side, we studied double-sided double-type 3D pixel sensors. This sensors are manufactured in 3D technology instead of in the planar technology. They show more radiation hardness and require less energy to be efficiently operated than sensors manufactured in planar technology. With this work, we demonstrate the resistive microstrip sensors functionality as particle detector and the radiation hardness of 3D pixel detectors has been evaluated.

  20. ATLAS silicon module assembly and qualification tests at IFIC Valencia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabeu, J; Civera, J V; Costa, M J; Escobar, C; Fuster, J; Garcia, C; Garcia-Navarro, J E; Gonzalez, F; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; Lacasta, C; Llosa, G; Marti-Garcia, S; Minano, M; Mitsou, V A; Modesto, P; Nacher, J; Rodriguez-Oliete, R; Sanchez, F J; Sospedra, L; Strachko, V

    2007-01-01

    ATLAS experiment, designed to probe the interactions of particles emerging out of proton proton collisions at energies of up to 14 TeV, will assume operation at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in 2007. This paper discusses the assembly and the quality control tests of forward detector modules for the ATLAS silicon microstrip detector assembled at the Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (IFIC) in Valencia. The construction and testing procedures are outlined and the laboratory equipment is briefly described. Emphasis is given on the module quality achieved in terms of mechanical and electrical stability

  1. Antihydrogen annihilation reconstruction with the ALPHA silicon detector

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, G B; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D.R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Hayano, R S; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jonsell, S; Jorgensen, L V; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Sarid, E; Seif el Nasr, S; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Yamazaki, Y

    2012-01-01

    The ALPHA experiment has succeeded in trapping antihydrogen, a major milestone on the road to spectroscopic comparisons of antihydrogen with hydrogen. An annihilation vertex detector, which determines the time and position of antiproton annihilations, has been central to this achievement. This detector, an array of double-sided silicon microstrip detector modules arranged in three concentric cylindrical tiers, is sensitive to the passage of charged particles resulting from antiproton annihilation. This article describes the method used to reconstruct the annihilation location and to distinguish the annihilation signal from the cosmic ray background. Recent experimental results using this detector are outlined.

  2. Antihydrogen annihilation reconstruction with the ALPHA silicon detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, G.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ashkezari, M.D. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada V5A 1S6 (Canada); Bertsche, W. [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Bowe, P.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Butler, E. [European Laboratory for Particle Physics, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Cesar, C.L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S. [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Fajans, J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Friesen, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 1N4 (Canada); Fujiwara, M.C. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 1N4 (Canada); Gill, D.R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Gutierrez, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hangst, J.S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Hardy, W.N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hayden, M.E. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada V5A 1S6 (Canada); Hayano, R.S. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Humphries, A.J. [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-08-21

    The ALPHA experiment has succeeded in trapping antihydrogen, a major milestone on the road to spectroscopic comparisons of antihydrogen with hydrogen. An annihilation vertex detector, which determines the time and position of antiproton annihilations, has been central to this achievement. This detector, an array of double-sided silicon microstrip detector modules arranged in three concentric cylindrical tiers, is sensitive to the passage of charged particles resulting from antiproton annihilation. This article describes the method used to reconstruct the annihilation location and to distinguish the annihilation signal from the cosmic ray background. Recent experimental results using this detector are outlined.

  3. Bandwidth enhancement of a microstrip patch antenna for ultra-wideband applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anum, Khanda; Singh, Milind Saurabh; Mishra, Rajan; Tripathi, G. S.

    2018-04-01

    The microstrip antennas are used where size, weight, cost, and performance are constraints. Microstrip antennas (MSA) are being used in many government and commercial applications among which it is mostly used in wireless communication. The proposed antenna is designed for Ultra-wideband (UWB), it is designed on FR4 substrate material with ɛr = 4.3 and 0.0025 loss tangent. The shape and size of patch in microstrip patch antenna plays an important role in its performance. In the proposed antenna design the respective changes have been introduced which includes slotting the feedline,adding a curved slot in patch and change in patch shape itself to improve the bandwidth of the conventional antenna. The simulated results of proposed antenna shows impedance bandwidth (defined by 10 dB return loss) of 2-11.1GHz, VSWRcommunication at 7.25-8.395 GHz.

  4. Design and Analysis of a Triple Stop-band Filter Using Ratioed Periodical Defected Microstrip Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Wang, Yanyan; Li, Yingsong

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a triple stop-band filter with a ratioed periodical defected microstrip structure is proposed for wireless communication applications. The proposed ratioed periodical defected microstrip structures are spiral slots, which are embedded into a 50 Ω microstrip line to obtain multiple stop-bands. The performance of the proposed triple stop-band filter is investigated numerically and experimentally. Moreover, the equivalent circuit model of the proposed filter is also established and discussed. The results are given to verify that the proposed triple stop-band filter has three stop bands at 3.3 GHz, 5.2 GHz, 6.8 GHz to reject the unwanted signals, which is promising for integrating into UWB communication systems to efficiently prevent the potential interferences from unexpected narrowband signals such as WiMAX, WLAN and RFID communication systems.

  5. Quality assurance tests of the CBM silicon tracking system sensors with an infrared laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teklishyn, Maksym [FAIR GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); KINR, Kyiv (Ukraine); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Double-sided 300 μm thick silicon microstrip sensors are planned to be used in the Silicon Tracking System (STS) of the future CBM experiment. Different tools, including an infrared laser, are used to induce charge in the sensor medium to study the sensor response. We use present installation to develop a procedure for the sensor quality assurance during mass production. The precise positioning of the laser spot allows to make a clear judgment about the sensor interstrip gap response which provides information about the charge distribution inside the sensor medium. Results are compared with the model estimations.

  6. Silicon Strip Detectors for ATLAS at the HL-LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, K; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The present ATLAS silicon strip (SCT) and transition radiation (TRT) trackers will be replaced with new silicon strip detectors, as part of the Inner Tracker System (ITK), for the Phase-2 upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider, HL-LHC. We have carried out intensive R&D programs to establish radiation harder strip detectors that can survive in a radiation level up to 3000 fb-1 of integrated luminosity based on n+-on-p microstrip detector. We describe main specifications for this year’s sensor fabrication, followed by a description of possible module integration schema

  7. The AMS silicon tracker readout, performance results with minimum ionizing particles

    CERN Document Server

    Alpat, B; Battiston, R; Bourquin, Maurice; Burger, W J; Extermann, Pierre; Chang, Y H; Hou, S R; Pauluzzi, M; Produit, N; Qiu, S; Rapin, D; Ribordy, R; Toker, O; Wu, S X

    2000-01-01

    First results for the AMS silicon tracker readout performance are presented. Small 20.0*20.0*0.300 mm/sup 3/ silicon microstrip detectors were installed in a 50 GeV electron beam at CERN. The detector readout consisted of prototypes of the tracker data reduction card equipped with a 12-bit ADC and the tracker frontend hybrid with VA_hdr readout chips. The system performance is assessed in terms of signal-to-noise, position resolution, and efficiency. (13 refs).

  8. Noise and signal processing in a microstrip detector with a time variant readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattaneo, P.W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper treats the noise and signal processing by a time variant filter in a microstrip detector. In particular, the noise sources in the detector-electronics chain and the signal losses that cause a substantial decrease of the original signal are thoroughly analyzed. This work has been motivated by the analysis of the data of the microstrip detectors designed for the ALEPH minivertex detector. Hence, even if the discussion will be kept as general as possible, concrete examples will be presented referring to the specific ALEPH design. (orig.)

  9. Note: Electrical detection and quantification of spin rectification effect enabled by shorted microstrip transmission line technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soh, Wee Tee; Ong, C. K.; Peng, Bin; Chai, Guozhi

    2014-01-01

    We describe a shorted microstrip method for the sensitive quantification of Spin Rectification Effect (SRE). SRE for a Permalloy (Ni 80 Fe 20 ) thin film strip sputtered onto SiO 2 substrate is demonstrated. Our method obviates the need for simultaneous lithographic patterning of the sample and transmission line, therefore greatly simplifying the SRE measurement process. Such a shorted microstrip method can allow different contributions to SRE (anisotropic magnetoresistance, Hall effect, and anomalous Hall effect) to be simultaneously determined. Furthermore, SRE signals from unpatterned 50 nm thick Permalloy films of area dimensions 5 mm × 10 mm can even be detected

  10. Design, simulation and analysis a microstrip antenna using PU-EFB substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, S. N. S.; Jusoh, M. A.; Jasim, S. E.; Zamani, A. H.; Abdullah, M. H.

    2018-04-01

    A low cost, light weight and easy to fabricate are the most important factor for future antennas. Microstrip patch antennas offer these advantages and suitable for communication and sensor application. This paper presents a design of simple microstrip patch antenna working on operating frequency of 2.4 GHz. The designed process has been carried out using MATLAB and HFSS software by entering 2.3 for the dielectric constant of PU-EFB. The results showed that high return loss, low bandwidth and good antenna radiation efficiency of which are -21.98 dB, 0.28 dB and 97.33%, respectively.

  11. Testing of bulk radiation damage of n-in-p silicon sensors for very high radiation environments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hara, K.; Affolder, A.A.; Allport, P.P.; Bates, R.; Betancourt, C.; Böhm, Jan; Brown, H.; Buttar, C.; Carter, J. R.; Casse, G.; Mikeštíková, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 636, č. 1 (2011), "S83"-"S89" ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : p-bulk silicon * microstrip * charge collection * radiation damage Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2010.04.090

  12. Microfabrication of hard x-ray lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stöhr, Frederik

    This thesis deals with the development of silicon compound refractive lenses (Si-CRLs) for shaping hard x-ray beams. The CRLs are to be fabricated using state of the art microfabrication techniques. The primary goal of the thesis work is to produce Si-CRLs with considerably increased structure...... and characterized with respect to their shape. Their optical performances were tested at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). Two 1D-focusing Si-CRLs suitable as condensers in hard-XRM were developed utilizing the aforementioned two different strategies. The first Si-condenser showed focusing of a 56...... of space for sample surroundings and ensure low-divergent and wide x-ray beams with narrow waists. Both results are substantial improvements to what was available at the start of this thesis work. The challenge of making x-ray objectives in silicon by interdigitation of lenslets alternately focusing...

  13. Dual-Frequency, Dual-Polarization Microstrip Antenna Development for High-Resolution, Airborne SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granholm, Johan; Skou, N.

    2000-01-01

    synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system. The dual-frequency array concept adopted relies on the use of probe-fed perforated, stacked patches for L-band (1.2-1.3 GHz). Inside these perforations probe-fed, wideband stacked microstrip patches for C-band (4.9-5.7 GHz) are placed. Measured impedance and radiation...

  14. Observation of electron multiplication in liquid xenon with a microstrip plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policarpo, A.P.L.; Geltenbort, P.; Ferreira Marques, R.; Araujo, H.; Fraga, F.; Alves, M.A.; Fonte, P.; Lima, E.P.; Fraga, M.M.; Salete Leite, M.; Silander, K.; Onofre, A.; Pinhao, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    We report here on the observation of electron multiplication in liquid xenon in a microstrip chamber with an amplification factor of the order of 10. The measurements were carried out at a temperature between 208 and 215 K (liquid density of about 2.7 g/cm 3 ). (orig.)

  15. Automated testing of microstrip detectors readout system for dual x-ray dual energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolanos, L.; Cabal, A. E.; Diaz, A.; Swientek, K.; Giubellino, P.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Prino, F.; Ramello, L.

    2008-01-01

    Circuits that carry out the signal acquisition and processing by multiple channels are required in digital radiography. These circuits should be tested in order to characterize their performance. This paper describes an automated system to control (by a software, from a personal computer) the characterization of a system based on RX64DTH specific integrated circuits with microstrip detectors. The results are shown. (Author)

  16. Open-Circuit End Effect of Microstrip Line Configuration in Plasma Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Bhushan Mital

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The extension in length for open microstrip configuration in plasma media is determined using spectral domain technique under quasi static approach [1, 2]. The results were verified by modifying Hammerstad equation for plasma media. Good agreement is found between the two results.

  17. Performance of microstrip proportional counters for x-ray astronomy on spectrum-roentgen-gamma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; BAHNSEN, A; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1991-01-01

    DSRI will provide a set of four imaging proportional counters for the Danish-Soviet X-ray telescopes XSPECT/SODART. The sensor principle is based on the novel micro-strip proportional counter (MSPC), where the strip electrodes are deposited by photolithography onto a rigid substrate. The MSPC off...

  18. Modelling of bow-tie microstrip antennas using modified locally conformal FDTD method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, J.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of bow-tie microstrip antennas is presented based on the use of the modified locally conformal finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. This approach enables the number of cells along the antenna length and width to be chosen independently of the antenna central width, which helps to

  19. Temperature dependence of dynamical permeability characterization of magnetic thin films using shorted microstrip line probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiling; Li, Chengyi; Chai, Guozhi

    2017-01-01

    A temperature dependence microwave permeability characterization system of magnetic thin film up to 10 GHz is designed and fabricated. This system can be used at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 200 °C, and is based on a shorted microstrip probe, which is made by microwave printed circuit board. Without contacting the magnetic thin films to the probe, the microwave permeability of the film can be detected without any limitations of sample size and with almost the same accuracy, as shown by comparison with the results obtained from a shorted microstrip transmission-line fixture. The complex permeability can be deduced by an analytical approach from the measured reflection coefficient of a strip line ( S 11 ) with and without a ferromagnetic film material on it. The procedures are the same with the shorted microstrip transmission-line method. The microwave permeability of an oblique deposited CoZr thin film was investigated with this probe. The results show that the room temperature dynamic permeability of the CoZr film is in good agreement with the results obtained from the established short-circuited microstrip perturbation method. The temperature dependence permeability results fit well with the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation. Development of the temperature-dependent measurement of the magnetic properties of magnetic thin film may be useful for the high-frequency application of magnetic devices at high temperatures. (paper)

  20. Problem-Matched Basis Functions for Microstrip Coupled Slot Antennas based on Transmission Line Greens Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruni, S.; Llombart Juan, N.; Neto, A.; Gerini, G.; Maci, S.

    2004-01-01

    A general algorithm for the analysis of microstrip coupled leaky wave slot antennas was discussed. The method was based on the construction of physically appealing entire domain Methods of Moments (MoM) basis function that allowed a consistent reduction of the number of unknowns and of total

  1. Linearity discontinuities in Xe-filled X-ray microstrip detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zavattini, G.; Feroci, M.; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl

    1997-01-01

    A prototype Xe + 10% CH4 microstrip detector was used to study the K-edge discontinuity in the pulse-height distribution as a function of the energy of incident X-rays. The electronics used was such that a pulse-shape rejection could be made of K-fluorescence reabsorption in the detector. The mea...

  2. Analysis and design of broadband U-slot cut rectangular microstrip ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AMIT A DESHMUKH

    2017-07-15

    Jul 15, 2017 ... Abstract. Broadband microstrip antenna using variations of U-slot has been widely reported. However, in most of the reported work, an in-depth explanation about the mode introduced by U-slot and procedure to design. U-slot cut antennas at any given frequency is not explained. In this paper, first an ...

  3. Microstrip Resonator for High Field MRI with Capacitor-Segmented Strip and Ground Plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Boer, Vincent; Petersen, Esben Thade

    2017-01-01

    ) segmenting stripe and ground plane of the resonator with series capacitors. The design equations for capacitors providing symmetric current distribution are derived. The performance of two types of segmented resonators are investigated experimentally. To authors’ knowledge, a microstrip resonator, where both......, strip and ground plane are capacitor-segmented, is shown here for the first time....

  4. Performance of microstrip gas chambers passivated by thin semiconducting glass and plastic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishai, M.R.; Gerndt, E.K.E.; Shipsey, I.P.J.; Wang, P.N.; Bagulya, A.V.; Grishin, V.M.; Negodaev, M.A.; Geltenbort, P.

    1995-01-01

    Patterned microstrip gas chamber substrates have been covered with ion-beam sputtered glass with electronic conductivity or a polymer which was subsequently irradiated with an ion-beam. The sputtering procedure is described in detail. The performance of several detectors is reported. (orig.)

  5. The silicon tracking system of the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singla, Minni [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment, one of the major scientific pillars at FAIR, will explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter at the highest net-baryon densities in nucleus-nucleus collisions with interaction rates up to 10 MHz. The Silicon Tracking System is the central detector system of the CBM experiment. Its task is to perform track reconstruction and momentum determination for all charged particles created in beam-target collisions at SIS 100 and SIS 300 beam energies. The technical challenges to meet are a high granularity matching the high track densities, a fast self-triggering read-out coping with high interaction rates, and a low mass to yield high momentum resolution of Δp/p=1%. The detector system acceptance covers polar angles between 2.5 and 25 degrees and will be operated in the 1 T field of a superconducting dipole magnet. We introduce the concept of the STS, being comprised of eight tracking stations employing ∝1300 double-sided silicon microstrip sensors on modular structures that keep the read-out electronics outside the physics aperture. Ultra-thin-multiline micro-cables will be used to bridge the distance between the microstrip sensors and the readout electronics. Infrastructure such as power lines and cooling plates will be placed at the periphery of the stations. The status of the STS development is summarized in the presentation, including an overview on sensors, read-out electronics, prototypes, and system integration.

  6. A silicon track trigger for the DOe experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narain, Meenakshi

    2000-01-01

    The design of a processor to trigger on long-lived particles (e.g. b-quarks) for the DOe experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron is presented. This device reconstructs the trajectory of the charged particles in the DOe tracking system, which consists of a central fiber tracker and a silicon microstrip tracker. The r-phi impact parameter resolution of the fitted tracks is about 40 μm. This enables the identification of the long-lived b-quarks produced in the decays of various particles, e.g. the top quarks, Higgs Boson, techni-particles and other exotic particles produced in pp-bar collisions at the Tevatron. In this report we describe the design of the architecture and algorithms for the Silicon Track Trigger

  7. A silicon track trigger for the DOe experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Narain, M

    2000-01-01

    The design of a processor to trigger on long-lived particles (e.g. b-quarks) for the DOe experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron is presented. This device reconstructs the trajectory of the charged particles in the DOe tracking system, which consists of a central fiber tracker and a silicon microstrip tracker. The r-phi impact parameter resolution of the fitted tracks is about 40 mu m. This enables the identification of the long-lived b-quarks produced in the decays of various particles, e.g. the top quarks, Higgs Boson, techni-particles and other exotic particles produced in pp-bar collisions at the Tevatron. In this report we describe the design of the architecture and algorithms for the Silicon Track Trigger.

  8. Quality assurance database for the CBM silicon tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lymanets, Anton [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Silicon Tracking System is a main tracking device of the CBM Experiment at FAIR. Its construction includes production, quality assurance and assembly of large number of components, e.g., 106 carbon fiber support structures, 1300 silicon microstrip sensors, 16.6k readout chips, analog microcables, etc. Detector construction is distributed over several production and assembly sites and calls for a database that would be extensible and allow tracing the components, integrating the test data, monitoring the component statuses and data flow. A possible implementation of the above-mentioned requirements is being developed at GSI (Darmstadt) based on the FAIR DB Virtual Database Library that provides connectivity to common SQL-Database engines (PostgreSQL, Oracle, etc.). Data structure, database architecture as well as status of implementation are discussed.

  9. Planar edgeless silicon detectors for the TOTEM experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggiero, G; Noschis, E

    2007-01-01

    Recently the first prototype of microstrip edgeless silicon detector for the TOTEM experiment has been successfully produced and tested. This detector is fabricated with standard planar technology, reach sensitivity 50 μm from the cut edge and can operate with high bias at room temperature. These almost edgeless detectors employ a newly conceived terminating structure, which, although being reduced with respect to the conventional ones, still controls the electric field at the device periphery and prevents leakage current breakdown for high bias. Detectors with the new terminating structure are being produced now and will be installed at LHC in the Roman Pots, a special beam insertion, to allow the TOTEM experiment to detect leading protons at 10 σ from the beam. This paper will describe this new terminating structure for planar silicon detectors, how it applies to big size devices and the experimental tests proving their functionality.

  10. Computer-Aided Design of Microstrip GaAs Mesfet Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Ole

    1976-01-01

    Results on computer-aided design of broadband GaAs MESFET amplifiers in microstrip is presented. The analysis of an amplifier is based on measured scattering parameters and a model of the microstrip structure, which includes parasitics and junction effects. The optimized performance of one stage...... amplifiers with lossless distributed matching elements is presented. Realized amplifiers are in good agreement with the theory. One stage amplifiers with a 1 ¿m FET in chip form exhibit 5.8 dB of gain in the range 8-12 GHz, while a gain of 4.5 dB from 4-8 GHz has been obtained with a packaged 1 ¿m FET....

  11. The application of a microstrip gas counter to energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, J.F.C.A.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Conde, C.A.N.

    1996-01-01

    Performance characteristics of a microstrip gas counter operated as a x-ray fluorescence spectrometer are reported. Gas amplification as a function of microstrip anode-cathode voltage was measured, and the breakdown threshold voltage was determined in pure xenon. The detector temporal stability and the effect of gas purity were assessed. Energy resolution and linearity, detection efficiency, and uniformity of spatial response in the 2- to 60-keV x-ray energy range were determined from the pulse-height distributions of the fluorescence x-ray spectra induced in a variety of single- and multi-element sample materials. Energy resolution similar to conventional proportional counters was achieved at 6 keV

  12. Quality Factor Effect on the Wireless Range of Microstrip Patch Antenna Strain Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daliri, Ali; Galehdar, Amir; Rowe, Wayne S. T.; John, Sabu; Wang, Chun H.; Ghorbani, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    Recently introduced passive wireless strain sensors based on microstrip patch antennas have shown great potential for reliable health and usage monitoring in aerospace and civil industries. However, the wireless interrogation range of these sensors is limited to few centimeters, which restricts their practical application. This paper presents an investigation on the effect of circular microstrip patch antenna (CMPA) design on the quality factor and the maximum practical wireless reading range of the sensor. The results reveal that by using appropriate substrate materials the interrogation distance of the CMPA sensor can be increased four-fold, from the previously reported 5 to 20 cm, thus improving considerably the viability of this type of wireless sensors for strain measurement and damage detection. PMID:24451457

  13. Microstrip linear phase low pass filter based on defected ground structures for partial response modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cimoli, Bruno; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Olmos, Juan Jose Vegas

    2018-01-01

    We report a high performance linear phase low pass filter (LPF) designed for partial response (PR) modulations. For the implementation, we adopted microstrip technology and a variant of the standard stepped‐impedance technique. Defected ground structures (DGS) are used for increasing the characte......We report a high performance linear phase low pass filter (LPF) designed for partial response (PR) modulations. For the implementation, we adopted microstrip technology and a variant of the standard stepped‐impedance technique. Defected ground structures (DGS) are used for increasing...... the characteristic impedance of transmission lines. Experimental results prove that the proposed filter can successfully modulate a non‐return‐to‐zero (NRZ) signal into a five levels PR one....

  14. Analysis and optimal design of Si microstrip detector with overhanging metal electrode

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjan, Kirti; Chatterji, S; Srivastava-Ajay, K; Shivpuri, R K

    2001-01-01

    The harsh radiation environment to be encountered at LHC (large hadron collider) and RHIC (relativistic heavy ion collider) poses a challenging task for the fabrication of Si microstrip detectors. Due to high luminosities, detectors are required to sustain very high voltage operation well exceeding the bias voltage needed to fully deplete them. The "overhanging" metal contact is now a well established technique for improving the breakdown performance of the Si microstrip detector. Based on computer simulation, the influence of various physical and geometrical parameters on the electrical breakdown of the Si detectors equipped with metal overhangs is extensively analysed. Furthermore, optimization of design parameters is performed to achieve breakdown voltages close to maximum realizable values. The simulation results are found to be in good agreement with experimental data. (17 refs).

  15. Full-Wave Analysis of Microstrip Antennas in Three-Layered Spherical Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of three-layered spherical microstrip antenna has been analyzed based on Rao-Wilton-Glisson (RWG triangular basis functions using mixed potential integral equation (MPIE. Firstly, the model of antenna and the dyadic Green’s function in spherical microstrip antennas are given at the beginning of this paper. Then, due to the infinite series convergence problem, asymptotic extraction approach is presented to accelerate the Green’s functions convergence speed when source and field points are located in the same layer and different layers. The convergence speed can be accelerated observably by using this method. Finally, in order to simplify impedance matrix elements calculation at the junction of the probe and patch, a novel division fashion of pair of triangles is adopted in this paper. The input impedance result obtained shows the validity and effectiveness of the analysis method comparing with published data.

  16. Quality Factor Effect on the Wireless Range of Microstrip Patch Antenna Strain Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Daliri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently introduced passive wireless strain sensors based on microstrip patch antennas have shown great potential for reliable health and usage monitoring in aerospace and civil industries. However, the wireless interrogation range of these sensors is limited to few centimeters, which restricts their practical application. This paper presents an investigation on the effect of circular microstrip patch antenna (CMPA design on the quality factor and the maximum practical wireless reading range of the sensor. The results reveal that by using appropriate substrate materials the interrogation distance of the CMPA sensor can be increased four-fold, from the previously reported 5 to 20 cm, thus improving considerably the viability of this type of wireless sensors for strain measurement and damage detection.

  17. Singularity Processing Method of Microstrip Line Edge Based on LOD-FDTD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of the accuracy and efficiency for analyzing the microstrip structure, a singularity processing method is proposed theoretically and experimentally based on the fundamental locally one-dimensional finite difference time domain (LOD-FDTD with second-order temporal accuracy (denoted as FLOD2-FDTD. The proposed method can highly improve the performance of the FLOD2-FDTD even when the conductor is embedded into more than half of the cell by the coordinate transformation. The experimental results showed that the proposed method can achieve higher accuracy when the time step size is less than or equal to 5 times of that the Courant-Friedrich-Levy (CFL condition allowed. In comparison with the previously reported methods, the proposed method for calculating electromagnetic field near microstrip line edge not only improves the efficiency, but also can provide a higher accuracy.

  18. Simplified microstrip discontinuity modeling using the transmission line matrix method interfaced to microwave CAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, James H.; Apel, Thomas R.

    1990-07-01

    A technique for modeling microstrip discontinuities is presented which is derived from the transmission line matrix method of solving three-dimensional electromagnetic problems. In this technique the microstrip patch under investigation is divided into an integer number of square and half-square (triangle) subsections. An equivalent lumped-element model is calculated for each subsection. These individual models are then interconnected as dictated by the geometry of the patch. The matrix of lumped elements is then solved using either of two microwave CAD software interfaces with each port properly defined. Closed-form expressions for the lumped-element representation of the individual subsections is presented and experimentally verified through the X-band frequency range. A model demonstrating the use of symmetry and block construction of a circuit element is discussed, along with computer program development and CAD software interface.

  19. Development of gas micro-strip chambers for high rate radiation detection and tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Bouclier, Roger; Gaudaen, J; Florent, J J; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Bondar, A E; Groshev, V R; Minakov, G D; Onuchin, A P; Pestov, Yu N; Shekhtman, L I; Sidorov, V A; Dixit, M S; Oakham, G K; Møller, S; Sørensen, G; Uggerhøj, Erik; Brons, S; Brückner, W; Godbersen, M; Heidrich, M; Paul, S; Trombini, A; Werding, R; Armitage, J A; Karlen, D A; Stewart, G; Barasch, E F; McIntyre, P; Pang, Y; Trost, H J; Salomon, M; Breskin, Amos; Chechik, R; Pansky, A; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1992-01-01

    Gas Micro-Strip Chambers (GMSC) are a promising high-rate, high resolution position detector suited for use in high luminosity hadron collider experiments, as general purpose tracker or to improve the performances of pre-shower counters, transition radiation and inner muon detectors. Large GMSC arrays have been included in proposed LHC and SSC experimental setups. The operating characteristics of GMSC make their use very attractive also for detectors at tau/charm/beauty factories, as well as for synchrotron radiation facilities and for medical applications. At the present state of the art, some problems limiting the usefulness of microstrip chambers are the observed gain changes due to charging up of the support, possible long-term degradation due to ageing, limited sizes imposed by fabrication technologies and unavailability of dedicated high-speed, high-density readout electronics. Limited experience exists of operation of GMSC in real experimental conditions, and little if anything is known about performan...

  20. Dual-polarization, wideband microstrip antenna array for airborne C-band SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granholm, Johan; Skou, Niels

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes the development of a C-band, dual linear polarization wideband antenna array, for use in the next-generation of the Danish airborne polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system. The array is made of probe-fed, stacked microstrip patches. The design and performance of the...... of the basic stacked patch element, operating from 4.9 GHz to 5.7 GHz, and a 2×2 element test array of these, are described.......The paper describes the development of a C-band, dual linear polarization wideband antenna array, for use in the next-generation of the Danish airborne polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system. The array is made of probe-fed, stacked microstrip patches. The design and performance...

  1. Development of Gas Micro-Strip Chambers for Radiation Detection and Tracking at High Rates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD28 \\\\ \\\\ Micro-Strip Gas Chambers (GMSC) are a promising high rate, high resolution position detector suited for use in high luminosity hadron collider experiments, as general purpose tracker or to improve the performances of preshower counters, transition radiation and inner muon detectors. Large GMSC arrays have been included in proposed LHC and SSC experimental setups. The operating characteristics of GMSC make their use very attractive also for detectors at tau/beauty/charm factories, as well as for synchrotron radiation facilities and medical applications. At the present state of the art, some problems limiting the usefulness of microstrip chambers are the observed gain changes due to charging up of the support, possible long-term degradation due to ageing, limited sizes imposed by fabrication technologies and unavailability of dedicated high-speed, high-density readout electronics. Limited experience exists of operation of GMSC in real experimental conditions, and little if anything is known about p...

  2. Energy resolution in X-ray detecting micro-strip gas counters

    CERN Document Server

    Bateman, J E; Derbyshire, G E; Duxbury, D M; Mir, J A; Spill, E J; Stephenson, R

    2002-01-01

    Systematic measurements of the energy resolution available from a Micro-Strip Gas Counter (MSGC) are presented. The effect of factors such as bias potential, gas filling and strip geometry on the energy resolution are examined in detail and related to a simple model. The geometry of the MSGC is adapted to permit 'wall-less' detection of X-rays and this results in useful improvements in the pulse height spectra.

  3. High flux operation of microstrip gas chambers on glass and plastic supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouclier, R.; Florent, J.J.; Gaudaen, J.; Millon, G.; Pasta, A.; Ropelewski, L.; Sauli, F.; Shekhtman, L.I.

    1992-01-01

    Recent observations on microstrip gas chambers realized on various glass and plastic supports are presented in this paper. Short term measurements indicate a rate capability up to and above 5x10 5 counts/s mm 2 . A long term exposure to radiation shows however gain modifications, dependent on the resistivity of the chamber substrate; a choice of low resistivity supports minimizes this effect. (orig.)

  4. Passivation of gas microstrip detectors and stability of long-term operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, M.; Armitage, J.; Chapman, G.; Dixit, M.; Dubeau, J.; Faszer, W.; Hamel, L.A.; Oakham, G.

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the long-term operation of gas microstrip detectors which have been passivated with a layer of nickel oxide. We have used as the active gas CF 4 /isobutane (80 : 20) and three different types of substrates: Tedlar, glass and Upilex. In all three cases we found that the detectors are stable after passivation and can operate for a month without changes in gain at rates of MHz. The total accumulated charge was approximately 100 mC. ((orig.))

  5. A micro-strip gas counter test with the RD20 front-end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clergeau, J.F.; Contardo, D.; Haroutunian, R.; Smadja, G.

    1994-05-01

    A Micro-Strip Gas Counter equipped with the VLSI preamplifier of the RD20 chip has been tested with minimum ionizing particles. The measured pulse shape and the signal to noise ratio are presented. The time resolution of the detector is compared for the Ar/DME and DME/CO 2 gas mixtures. Three methods for the bunch crossing identification at LHC are discussed. (authors). 5 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  6. High gain gas microstrip detectors for soft x-ray detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.; Barlow, R.; Derbyshire, G.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes development work in which systematic changes in the pitch of the electrode pattern of a Gas Microstrip Detector are explored in the search for higher avalanche gains and enhanced stability. With the cathode width set to half of the pitch, gas gains of >50 000 are comfortably attainable with low detector noise so that x-rays can potentially be detected down to the limit of a single x-ray-produced photoelectron. (author)

  7. A Study on the RF-DC Conversion Efficiency of Microstrip Patch Rectenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yang Ha; Youn, Dong Gi; Kim, Kwan Ho [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea); Rhee, Young Chul [Kyungnam University (Korea)

    2000-07-01

    We designed and manufactured microstrip patch antenna mainly used in the rectenna and then analysed RF-DC conversion efficiency of wireless power transmission system. We analyse conversion efficiency of load, direction of linear and dual polization rectenna. We found that the maximum efficiency would be about 70% of load and direction in patch type. In conclusion, we found that total conversion efficiency is 64% - 71% in patch Rectenna. (author). 5 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Radiation tolerance of the FOXFET biasing scheme for AC-coupled Si microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacchetta, N.; Gotra, Yu.; Bisello, D.; Da Ros, R.; Giraldo, A.; Fusaro, G.; Paccagnella, A.; Univ. di Cagliari; Verzellesi, G.; Univ. di Padova

    1993-01-01

    The radiation response of FOXFETs has been studied for proton, gamma and neutron exposures. The punch-through behavior, which represents the normal FET operating conditions in Si microstrip detectors, has been found to be much less sensitive to radiation damage than threshold voltage. The device performance has been elucidated by means of two-dimensional simulations. The main radiation effects have been also taken into account in the numerical analysis and separately examined

  9. Circularly Polarized Transparent Microstrip Patch Reflectarray Integrated with Solar Cell for Satellite Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Zainud-Deen, S. H.; El-Shalaby, N. A.; Gaber, S. M.; Malhat, H. A.

    2016-01-01

    Circularly polarized (CP) transparent microstrip reflectarray antenna is integrated with solar cell for small satellite applications at 10 GHz. The reflectarray unit cell consists of a perfect electric conductor (PEC) square patch printed on an optically transparent substrate with the PEC ground plane. A comparison between using transparent conducting polymers and using the PEC in unit-cell construction has been introduced. The waveguide simulator is used to calculate the required compensatio...

  10. Simulation study of signal formation in position sensitive planar p-on-n silicon detectors after short range charge injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltola, T.; Eremin, V.; Verbitskaya, E.; Härkönen, J.

    2017-01-01

    Segmented silicon detectors (micropixel and microstrip) are the main type of detectors used in the inner trackers of Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments at CERN. Due to the high luminosity and eventual high fluence of energetic particles, detectors with fast response to fit the short shaping time of 20–25 ns and sufficient radiation hardness are required. Charge collection measurements carried out at the Ioffe Institute have shown a reversal of the pulse polarity in the detector response to short-range charge injection. Since the measured negative signal is about 30–60% of the peak positive signal, the effect strongly reduces the CCE even in non-irradiated detectors. For further investigation of the phenomenon the measurements have been reproduced by TCAD simulations. As for the measurements, the simulation study was applied for the p-on-n strip detectors similar in geometry to those developed for the ATLAS experiment and for the Ioffe Institute designed p-on-n strip detectors with each strip having a window in the metallization covering the p + implant, allowing the generation of electron-hole pairs under the strip implant. Red laser scans across the strips and the interstrip gap with varying laser diameters and Si-SiO 2 interface charge densities ( Q f ) were carried out. The results verify the experimentally observed negative response along the scan in the interstrip gap. When the laser spot is positioned on the strip p + implant the negative response vanishes and the collected charge at the active strip increases respectively. The simulation results offer a further insight and understanding of the influence of the oxide charge density in the signal formation. The main result of the study is that a threshold value of Q f , that enables negligible losses of collected charges, is defined. The observed effects and details of the detector response for different charge injection positions are discussed in the context of Ramo's theorem.

  11. Simulation study of signal formation in position sensitive planar p-on-n silicon detectors after short range charge injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltola, T.; Eremin, V.; Verbitskaya, E.; Härkönen, J.

    2017-09-01

    Segmented silicon detectors (micropixel and microstrip) are the main type of detectors used in the inner trackers of Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments at CERN. Due to the high luminosity and eventual high fluence of energetic particles, detectors with fast response to fit the short shaping time of 20-25 ns and sufficient radiation hardness are required. Charge collection measurements carried out at the Ioffe Institute have shown a reversal of the pulse polarity in the detector response to short-range charge injection. Since the measured negative signal is about 30-60% of the peak positive signal, the effect strongly reduces the CCE even in non-irradiated detectors. For further investigation of the phenomenon the measurements have been reproduced by TCAD simulations. As for the measurements, the simulation study was applied for the p-on-n strip detectors similar in geometry to those developed for the ATLAS experiment and for the Ioffe Institute designed p-on-n strip detectors with each strip having a window in the metallization covering the p+ implant, allowing the generation of electron-hole pairs under the strip implant. Red laser scans across the strips and the interstrip gap with varying laser diameters and Si-SiO2 interface charge densities (Qf) were carried out. The results verify the experimentally observed negative response along the scan in the interstrip gap. When the laser spot is positioned on the strip p+ implant the negative response vanishes and the collected charge at the active strip increases respectively. The simulation results offer a further insight and understanding of the influence of the oxide charge density in the signal formation. The main result of the study is that a threshold value of Qf, that enables negligible losses of collected charges, is defined. The observed effects and details of the detector response for different charge injection positions are discussed in the context of Ramo's theorem.

  12. Evaluation of the bulk and strip characteristics of large area n-in-p silicon sensors intended for a very high radiation environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Böhm, Jan; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Affolder, A.A.; Allport, P.P.; Bates, R.; Betancourt, C.; Brown, H.; Buttar, C.; Carter, J. R.; Casse, G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 636, č. 1 (2011), "S104"-"S110" ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : silicon * micro-strip * ATLAS ID upgrade * SLHC * leakage current * depletion voltage * electrical characteristics * coupling capacitance Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2010.04.093

  13. An UWB LNA Design with PSO Using Support Vector Microstrip Line Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Demirel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A rigorous and novel design procedure is constituted for an ultra-wideband (UWB low noise amplifier (LNA by exploiting the 3D electromagnetic simulator based support vector regression machine (SVRM microstrip line model. First of all, in order to design input and output matching circuits (IMC-OMC, source ZS and load ZL termination impedance of matching circuit, which are necessary to obtain required input VSWR (Vireq, noise (Freq, and gain (GTreq, are determined using performance characterisation of employed transistor, NE3512S02, between 3 and 8 GHz frequencies. After the determination of the termination impedance, to provide this impedance with IMC and OMC, dimensions of microstrip lines are obtained with simple, derivative-free, easily implemented algorithm Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. In the optimization of matching circuits, highly accurate and fast SVRM model of microstrip line is used instead of analytical formulations. ADCH-80a is used to provide ultra-wideband RF choking in DC bias. During the design process, it is aimed that Vireq = 1.85, Freq = Fmin, and GTreq = GTmax all over operating frequency band. Measurements taken from the realized LNA demonstrate the success of this approximation over the band.

  14. A Design of a Terahertz Microstrip Bandstop Filter with Defected Ground Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A planar microstrip terahertz (THz bandstop filter has been proposed with defected ground structure with high insertion loss (S21 in a stopband of −25.8 dB at 1.436 THz. The parameters of the circuit model have been extracted from the EM simulation results. A dielectric substrate of Benzocyclobutene (BCB is used to realize a compact bandstop filter using modified hexagonal dumbbell-shape defected ground structure (DB-DGS. In this paper, a defected ground structure topology is used in a λ/4, 50 Ω microstrip line at THz frequency range for compactness. No article has been reported on the microstrip line at terahertz frequency regime using DGS topology. The proposed filter can be used for sensing and detection in biomedical instruments in DNA testing. All the simulations/cosimulations are carried out using a full-wave EM simulator CST V.9 Microwave Studio, HFSS V.10, and Agilent Design Suite (ADS.

  15. Signal of microstrip scanning near-field optical microscope in far- and near-field zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Yevhenii M; Lapchuk, Anatoliy S

    2016-05-01

    An analytical model of interference between an electromagnetic field of fundamental quasi-TM(EH)00-mode and an electromagnetic field of background radiation at the apex of a near-field probe based on an optical plasmon microstrip line (microstrip probe) has been proposed. The condition of the occurrence of electromagnetic energy reverse flux at the apex of the microstrip probe was obtained. It has been shown that the nature of the interference depends on the length of the probe. Numerical simulation of the sample scanning process was conducted in illumination-reflection and illumination-collection modes. Results of numerical simulation have shown that interference affects the scanning signal in both modes. However, in illumination-collection mode (pure near-field mode), the signal shape and its polarity are practically insensible to probe length change; only signal amplitude (contrast) is slightly changed. However, changing the probe length strongly affects the signal amplitude and shape in the illumination-reflection mode (the signal formed in the far-field zone). Thus, we can conclude that even small background radiation can significantly influence the signal in the far-field zone and has practically no influence on a pure near-field signal.

  16. Ka-Band Slot-Microstrip-Covered and Waveguide-Cavity-Backed Monopulse Antenna Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ming Si

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A slot-microstrip-covered and waveguide-cavity-backed monopulse antenna array is proposed for high-resolution tracking applications at Ka-band. The monopulse antenna array is designed with a microstrip with 2×32 slots, a waveguide cavity, and a waveguide monopulse comparator, to make the structure simple, reduce the feeding network loss, and increase the frequency bandwidth. The 2×32 slot-microstrip elements are formed by a metal clad dielectric substrate and slots etched in the metal using the standard printed circuit board (PCB process with dimensions of 230 mm  ×  10 mm. The proposed monopulse antenna array not only maintains the advantages of the traditional waveguide slot antenna array, but also has the characteristics of wide bandwidth, high consistence, easy of fabrication, and low cost. From the measured results, it exhibits good monopulse characteristics, including the following: the maximum gains of sum pattern are greater than 24 dB, the 3 dB beamwidth of sum pattern is about 2.2 degrees, the sidelobe levels of the sum pattern are less than −18 dB, and the null depths of the difference pattern are less than −25 dB within the operating bandwidth between 33.65 GHz and 34.35 GHz for VSWR ≤ 2.

  17. Design of Miniaturized Dual-Band Microstrip Antenna for WLAN Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiachen; Wang, Huanling; Lv, Zhihan; Wang, Huihui

    2016-01-01

    Wireless local area network (WLAN) is a technology that combines computer network with wireless communication technology. The 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz frequency bands in the Industrial Scientific Medical (ISM) band can be used in the WLAN environment. Because of the development of wireless communication technology and the use of the frequency bands without the need for authorization, the application of WLAN is becoming more and more extensive. As the key part of the WLAN system, the antenna must also be adapted to the development of WLAN communication technology. This paper designs two new dual-frequency microstrip antennas with the use of electromagnetic simulation software—High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS). The two antennas adopt ordinary FR4 material as a dielectric substrate, with the advantages of low cost and small size. The first antenna adopts microstrip line feeding, and the antenna radiation patch is composed of a folded T-shaped radiating dipole which reduces the antenna size, and two symmetrical rectangular patches located on both sides of the T-shaped radiating patch. The second antenna is a microstrip patch antenna fed by coaxial line, and the size of the antenna is diminished by opening a stepped groove on the two edges of the patch and a folded slot inside the patch. Simulation experiments prove that the two designed antennas have a higher gain and a favourable transmission characteristic in the working frequency range, which is in accordance with the requirements of WLAN communication. PMID:27355954

  18. RD50 Collaboration overview: Development of new radiation hard detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, S., E-mail: susanne.kuehn@cern.ch

    2016-07-11

    Silicon sensors are widely used as tracking detectors in high energy physics experiments. This results in several specific requirements like radiation hardness and granularity. Therefore research for highly performing silicon detectors is required. The RD50 Collaboration is a CERN R&D collaboration dedicated to the development of radiation hard silicon devices for application in high luminosity collider experiments. Extensive research is ongoing in different fields since 2001. The collaboration investigates both defect and material characterization, detector characterization, the development of new structures and full detector systems. The report gives selected results of the collaboration and places an emphasis on the development of new structures, namely 3D devices, CMOS sensors in HV technology and low gain avalanche detectors. - Highlights: • The RD50 Collaboration is a CERN R&D collaboration dedicated to the development of radiation hard silicon devices for high luminosity collider experiments. • The collaboration investigates defect, material and detector characterization, the development of new structures and full detector systems. • Results of measured data of n-in-p type sensors allow recommendations for silicon tracking detectors at the HL-LHC. • The charge multiplication effect was investigated to allow its exploitation and resulted in new structures like LGAD sensors. • New sensor types like slim and active edge sensors, 3D detectors, and lately HVCMOS devices were developed in the active collaboration.

  19. Cabling for an SSC silicon tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziock, H.; Boissevain, J.; Cooke, B.; Miller, W.

    1990-01-01

    As part of the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) funded silicon tracking subsystem R ampersand D program, we examine the problems associated with cabling such a system. Different options for the cabling plant are discussed. A silicon microstrip tracking detector for an SSC experiment is an extremely complex system. The system consists of approximately 10 7 detector channels, each of which requires a communication link with the outside world and connections to the detector bias voltage supply, to a DC power supply for the onboard electronics, and to an adjustable discrimination level. The large number of channels and the short time between beam interactions (16 nanoseconds) dictates the need for high speed and large bandwidth communication channels, and a power distribution system that can handle the high current draw of the electronics including the large AC component due to their switching. At the same time the constraints imposed by the physics measurements require that the cable plant have absolutely minimal mass and radiation length. 4 refs., 2 figs

  20. The GLAST silicon-strip tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Robert P.

    2000-01-01

    The GLAST instrument concept is a gamma-ray pair conversion telescope that uses silicon microstrip detector technology to track the electron-positron pairs resulting from gamma-ray conversions in thin lead foils. A cesium iodide calorimeter following the tracker is used to measure the gamma-ray energy. Silicon strip technology is mature and robust, with an excellent heritage in space science and particle physics. It has many characteristics important for optimal performance of a pair conversion telescope, including high efficiency in thin detector planes, low noise, and excellent resolution and two-track separation. The large size of GLAST and high channel count in the tracker puts demands on the readout technology to operate at very low power, yet with sufficiently low noise occupancy to allow self triggering. A prototype system employing custom-designed ASIC's has been built and tested that meets the design goal of approximately 200 W per channel power consumption with a noise occupancy of less than one hit per trigger per 10,000 channels. Detailed design of the full-scale tracker is well advanced, with non-flight prototypes built for all components, and a complete 50,000 channel engineering demonstration tower module is currently under construction and will be tested in particle beams in late 1999. The flight-instrument conceptual design is for a 4x4 array of tower modules with an aperture of 2.9 m2 and an effective area of greater than 8000 cm2

  1. The GLAST Silicon-Strip Tracking System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R

    2004-01-01

    The GLAST instrument concept is a gamma-ray pair conversion telescope that uses silicon microstrip detector technology to track the electron-positron pairs resulting from gamma ray conversions in thin lead foils. A cesium iodide calorimeter following the tracker is used to measure the gamma-ray energy. Silicon strip technology is mature and robust, with an excellent heritage in space science and particle physics. It has many characteristics important for optimal performance of a pair conversion telescope, including high efficiency in thin detector planes, low noise, and excellent resolution and two-track separation. The large size of GLAST and high channel count in the tracker puts demands on the readout technology to operate at very low power, yet with sufficiently low noise occupancy to allow self triggering. A prototype system employing custom-designed ASIC's has been built and tested that meets the design goal of approximately 200 (micro)W per channel power consumption with a noise occupancy of less than one hit per trigger per 10,000 channels. Detailed design of the full-scale tracker is well advanced, with non-flight prototypes built for all components, and a complete 50,000 channel engineering demonstration tower module is currently under construction and will be tested in particle beams in late 1999. The flight-instrument conceptual design is for a 4 x 4 array of tower modules with an aperture of 2.9 m 2 and an effective area of greater than 8000 cm 2

  2. Silicon Qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladd, Thaddeus D. [HRL Laboratories, LLC, Malibu, CA (United States); Carroll, Malcolm S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-28

    Silicon is a promising material candidate for qubits due to the combination of worldwide infrastructure in silicon microelectronics fabrication and the capability to drastically reduce decohering noise channels via chemical purification and isotopic enhancement. However, a variety of challenges in fabrication, control, and measurement leaves unclear the best strategy for fully realizing this material’s future potential. In this article, we survey three basic qubit types: those based on substitutional donors, on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures, and on Si/SiGe heterostructures. We also discuss the multiple schema used to define and control Si qubits, which may exploit the manipulation and detection of a single electron charge, the state of a single electron spin, or the collective states of multiple spins. Far from being comprehensive, this article provides a brief orientation to the rapidly evolving field of silicon qubit technology and is intended as an approachable entry point for a researcher new to this field.

  3. New technologies of silicon position-sensitive detectors for future tracker systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bassignana, Daniela; Lozano, M

    In view of the new generation of high luminosity colliders, HL-LHC and ILC, a farther investigation of silicon radiation detectors design and technology is demanded, in order to satisfy the stringent requirements of the experiments at such sophisticated machines. In this thesis, innovative technologies of silicon radiation detectors for future tracking systems are proposed. Three dierent devices have been studied and designed with the help of dierent tools for computer simulations. They have been manufactured in the IMB-CNM clean room facilities in Barcelona and characterized with proper experimental set-ups in order to test the detectors capabilities and the quality and suitability of the technologies used for their fabrication. The rst technology deals with the upgrade of dedicated sensors for laser alignment systems in future tracker detectors. The design and technology of common single-sided silicon microstrip detectors have been slightly modied in order to improve IR light transmittance of the devices. T...

  4. Comprehensive hard materials

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive Hard Materials deals with the production, uses and properties of the carbides, nitrides and borides of these metals and those of titanium, as well as tools of ceramics, the superhard boron nitrides and diamond and related compounds. Articles include the technologies of powder production (including their precursor materials), milling, granulation, cold and hot compaction, sintering, hot isostatic pressing, hot-pressing, injection moulding, as well as on the coating technologies for refractory metals, hard metals and hard materials. The characterization, testing, quality assurance and applications are also covered. Comprehensive Hard Materials provides meaningful insights on materials at the leading edge of technology. It aids continued research and development of these materials and as such it is a critical information resource to academics and industry professionals facing the technological challenges of the future. Hard materials operate at the leading edge of technology, and continued res...

  5. Microstructure and mechanical properties of silicon nitride structural ceramics of silicon nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohaecker, T.R.; Nobrega, M.C.S.

    1989-01-01

    The utilization of direct evaluation technic of tenacity for fracturing by hardness impact in silicon nitride ceramics is described. The microstructure were analysied, by Scanning Electron Microscopy, equiped with a microanalysis acessory by X ray energy dispersion. The difference between the values of K IC measure for two silicon nitride ceramics is discussed, in function of the microstructures and the fracture surfaces of the samples studied. (C.G.C.) [pt

  6. Microbial biofilms on silicone facial prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariani, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Facial disfigurements can result from oncologic surgery, trauma and congenital deformities. These disfigurements can be rehabilitated with facial prostheses. Facial prostheses are usually made of silicones. A problem of facial prostheses is that microorganisms can colonize their surface. It is hard

  7. In-flight operations and status of the AMS-02 silicon tracker

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosi, G.; Azzarello, P.; Battiston, R.; Bertucci, B.; Choumilov, E.; Choutko, V.; Crispoltoni, M.; Delgado, C.; Duranti, M.; Donnini, F.; D'Urso, D.; Fiandrini, E.; Formato, V.; Graziani, M.; Habiby, M.

    2016-01-01

    The AMS-02 detector is a large acceptance magnetic spectrometer operating on the International Space Station since May 2011. More than 60 billion events have been collected by the instrument as of today. One of the key subdetectors of AMS-02 is the microstrip silicon Tracker, designed to precisely measure the trajectory and absolute charge of cosmic rays in the GeV-TeV energy range. In addition, with the magnetic field, is also measuring the particle magnetic rigidity, defined as R = pc/Ze, a...

  8. arXiv Signal coupling to embedded pitch adapters in silicon sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Artuso, M.; Bezshyiko, I.; Blusk, S.; Bruendler, R.; Bugiel, S.; Dasgupta, R.; Dendek, A.; Dey, B.; Ely, S.; Lionetto, F.; Petruzzo, M.; Polyakov, I.; Rudolph, M.; Schindler, H.; Steinkamp, O.; Stone, S.

    2018-01-01

    We have examined the effects of embedded pitch adapters on signal formation in n-substrate silicon microstrip sensors with data from beam tests and simulation. According to simulation, the presence of the pitch adapter metal layer changes the electric field inside the sensor, resulting in slowed signal formation on the nearby strips and a pick-up effect on the pitch adapter. This can result in an inefficiency to detect particles passing through the pitch adapter region. All these effects have been observed in the beam test data.

  9. Developing very hard nanostructured bainitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amel-Farzad, H., E-mail: hh_amel@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Engineering and Metallurgy, Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faridi, H.R., E-mail: faridihr@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Engineering and Metallurgy, Hamedan University of Technology, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rajabpour, F.; Abolhasani, A.; Kazemi, Sh.; Khaledzadeh, Y. [Department of Materials Engineering and Metallurgy, Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-01

    Novel nanostructured high carbon high silicon, carbide-free bainitic steels with very high strength and good ductility have been developed in the recent decade. In this work, an alloy with a high carbon content and no manganese was designed and cast. The prepared samples were heat treated through an austempering process in the range 200-350 Degree-Sign C. Optical and scanning electron microscopes and XRD were used to analyze the microstructures precisely. Bainitic ferrite plates of just a few tens of nanometer thickness were obtained with the hardness of 697{+-}6 HV. It is reasonable to say that the unprecedented hardness values obtained in this work are mostly caused by the extraordinary carbon content of the alloy.

  10. Performance tests of developed silicon strip detector by using a 150 GeV electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Hyojung; Jung, Sunwoo; Kah, Dongha; Kang, Heedong; Kim, Hongjoo; Park, Hwanbae

    2008-01-01

    We manufactured and characterized a silicon micro-strip detector to be used in a beam tracker. A silicon detector features a DC-coupled silicon strip sensor with VA1 Prime2 analog readout chips. The silicon strip sensors have been fabricated on 5-in. wafers at Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (Daejeon, Korea). The silicon strip sensor is single-sided and has 32 channels with a 1 mm pitch, and its active area is 3.2 by 3.2 cm 2 with 380 μm thickness. The readout electronics consists of VA hybrid, VA Interface, and FlashADC and Control boards. Analog signals from the silicon strip sensor were being processed by the analog readout chips on the VA hybrid board. Analog signals were then changed into digital signals by a 12 bit 25 MHz FlashADC. The digital signals were read out by the Linux-operating PC through the FlashADC-USB2 interface. The DAQ system and analysis programs were written in the framework of ROOT package. The beam test with the silicon detector had been performed at CERN beam facility. We used a 150 GeV electron beam out of the SPS(Super Proton Synchrotron) H2 beam line. We present beam test setup and measurement result of signal-to-noise ratio of each strip channel. (author)

  11. Performances of the Si microstrip detector of the STAR experiment at RHIC; Performances du detecteur en silicium a micropistes de l'experience STAR a RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchet, J

    2007-10-15

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) is the fourth layer of detector using a double-sided microstrip technology of the STAR experiment at RHIC, completing STAR's inner tracking device. The goal of STAR is to study heavy ions collisions in order to probe the existence of the quark gluon plasma (QGP), a deconfined state of nuclear matter. Strangeness enhancement, such as {kappa}{sub S}{sup 0}, {lambda}, {xi} and {omega}, for particles production, has been proposed to sign the formation of QGP. Then precise measurement of secondary vertices is needed. The SSD will also permit an attempt to use the inner tracking device to measure charm and beauty with direct topological identification. It was proposed to enhance the STAR tracking capabilities by providing a better connection between reconstructed tracks in the main tracking device (TPC) and the initial vertex detector (SVT). In this thesis, we will present the intrinsic performances of the SSD and its impact on the inner tracking system performances by studying Cu-Cu collisions occurred at RHIC in 2005. We show that the SSD detector has excellent performances in terms of resolution: (945 {+-} 18) {mu}m in azimuth and (1021 {+-} 13) {mu}m along the beam axis. For the final result when SSD is associated to the SVT the resolutions are (281 {+-} 1) {mu}m and (213 {+-} 0.8) {mu}m in azimuth and along the beam axis respectively. The resolution reached by the addition of the Silicon Vertex detectors of STAR will allow the search for rare particles like charm and beauty, which have a decay-length of the order of hundred microns.

  12. Induced spherococcoid hard wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, Sh.

    1981-01-01

    A mutant has been obtained - a spheroccocoid line -through irradiation of hard wheat seed with fast neutrons. It is distinguished by semispherical glumes and smaller grain; the plants have low stem with erect leaves but with shorter spikes and with lesser number of spikelets than those of the initial cultivar. Good productive tillering and resistance to lodging contributed to 23.5% higher yield. The line was superior to the standard and the initial cultivars by 14.2% as regards protein content, and by up to 22.8% - as to flour gluten. It has been successfully used in hybridization producing high-yielding hard wheat lines resistant to lodging, with good technological and other indicators. The possibility stated is of obtaining a spherococcoid mutant in tetraploid (hard) wheat out of the D-genome as well as its being suited to hard wheat breeding to enhance protein content, resistance to lodging, etc. (author)

  13. Hard probes 2006 Asilomar

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "The second international conference on hard and electromagnetic probes of high-energy nuclear collisions was held June 9 to 16, 2006 at the Asilomar Conference grounds in Pacific Grove, California" (photo and 1/2 page)

  14. The silicon vertex tracker for star and future applications of silicon drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellwied, Rene

    2001-01-01

    The Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) for the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory has recently been completed and installed. First data were taken in July 2001. The SVT is based on a novel semi-conductor technology called Silicon Drift Detectors. 216 large area (6 by 6 cm) Silicon wafers were employed to build a three barrel device capable of vertexing and tracking in a high occupancy environment. Its intrinsic radiation hardness, its operation at room temperature and its excellent position resolution (better than 20 micron) in two dimensions with a one dimensional detector readout, make this technology very robust and inexpensive and thus a viable alternative to CCD, Silicon pixel and Silicon strip detectors in a variety of applications from fundamental research in high-energy and nuclear physics to astrophysics to medical imaging. I will describe the development that led to the STAR-SVT, its performance and possible applications for the near future

  15. Graphitized silicon carbide microbeams: wafer-level, self-aligned graphene on silicon wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunning, Benjamin V; Ahmed, Mohsin; Mishra, Neeraj; Kermany, Atieh Ranjbar; Iacopi, Francesca; Wood, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Currently proven methods that are used to obtain devices with high-quality graphene on silicon wafers involve the transfer of graphene flakes from a growth substrate, resulting in fundamental limitations for large-scale device fabrication. Moreover, the complex three-dimensional structures of interest for microelectromechanical and nanoelectromechanical systems are hardly compatible with such transfer processes. Here, we introduce a methodology for obtaining thousands of microbeams, made of graphitized silicon carbide on silicon, through a site-selective and wafer-scale approach. A Ni-Cu alloy catalyst mediates a self-aligned graphitization on prepatterned SiC microstructures at a temperature that is compatible with silicon technologies. The graphene nanocoating leads to a dramatically enhanced electrical conductivity, which elevates this approach to an ideal method for the replacement of conductive metal films in silicon carbide-based MEMS and NEMS devices. (paper)

  16. Millimeter-Wave Microstrip Antenna Array Design and an Adaptive Algorithm for Future 5G Wireless Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Nan Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a high gain millimeter-wave (mmW low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC microstrip antenna array with a compact, simple, and low-profile structure. Incorporating minimum mean square error (MMSE adaptive algorithms with the proposed 64-element microstrip antenna array, the numerical investigation reveals substantial improvements in interference reduction. A prototype is presented with a simple design for mass production. As an experiment, HFSS was used to simulate an antenna with a width of 1 mm and a length of 1.23 mm, resonating at 38 GHz. Two identical mmW LTCC microstrip antenna arrays were built for measurement, and the center element was excited. The results demonstrated a return loss better than 15 dB and a peak gain higher than 6.5 dBi at frequencies of interest, which verified the feasibility of the design concept.

  17. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V., Herne (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The year 2012 benefited from a growth of the consumption of hard coal at the national level as well as at the international level. Worldwide, the hard coal still is the number one energy source for power generation. This leads to an increasing demand for power plant coal. In this year, the conversion of hard coal into electricity also increases in this year. In contrast to this, the demand for coking coal as well as for coke of the steel industry is still declining depending on the market conditions. The enhanced utilization of coal for the domestic power generation is due to the reduction of the nuclear power from a relatively bad year for wind power as well as reduced import prices and low CO{sub 2} prices. Both justify a significant price advantage for coal in comparison to the utilisation of natural gas in power plants. This was mainly due to the price erosion of the inexpensive US coal which partly was replaced by the expansion of shale gas on the domestic market. As a result of this, the inexpensive US coal looked for an outlet for sales in Europe. The domestic hard coal has continued the process of adaptation and phase-out as scheduled. Two further hard coal mines were decommissioned in the year 2012. RAG Aktiengesellschaft (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) running the hard coal mining in this country begins with the preparations for the activities after the time of mining.

  18. A Thick Film Microstrip Butler Matrix for the Frequency Range 1.5-1.7 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    The 1800 hybrid coupler II 4.1.5 The broadside coupler 11 4.1.6 The Podell coupler 12 4.2 Phase shifters 12 4.2.1 The dielectrically loaded line phase...The Podell coupler The Podell coupler8 of Fig 9b overcomes even and odd mode velocity disper- sion by using a sawtooth design on the inner edge. This...8 A. Podell A high directivity microstrip coupler technique. IEEE G-MTT International Microwave Symposium, 33-36 (1970) 9 B. Easter The equivalent

  19. Spiral Slotted Microstrip Antenna Design for 700 MHz Band Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Meneses González

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the design and implementation of spiral slotted microstrip antenna. Recently, just like other countries, in Mexico, terrestrial digital television has been implemented (analogic shutdown; as a consequence, the 700 MHz UFH Band (698–806 MHz has been opened to new telecommunications services, particularly wireless mobile communication. This technological advance represents a radio mobile antenna design challenge because it is necessary to design an antenna whose dimensions must be small enough, which satisfies gain, resonance frequency, and bandwidth requirements and is of low cost.

  20. Prototype Si microstrip sensors for the CDF-II ISL detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, K; Kanao, K; Kim, S; Ogasawara, M; Ohsugi, T; Shimojima, M; Takikawa, K

    1999-01-01

    Prototype Si microstrip sensors for the CDF-II ISL were fabricated by Hamamatsu Photonics and SEIKO Instruments using 4'' technology. The sensor is AC coupled and double-sided forming a stereo angle of 1.207 degree sign . The strip pitch is 112 mu m on both sides. The main differences between the two manufacturers lie on the technologies of passivation and the structure of coupling capacitors. We describe the design of the sensor and evaluation results of the performance. The evaluations include the total and individual strip currents and interstrip capacitance measured before and after sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma irradiation. (author)

  1. Optimising the design of gas microstrip detectors for soft x-ray detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.; Barlow, R.; Derbyshire, G.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes development work in which systematic changes in the electrode pattern of a Gas Microstrip Detector are explored in the search for higher avalanche gains and enhanced stability. It is found that the width of the cathode structure is the main determinant of the detector stability. With the correct cathode width, gas gains of >50 000 are comfortably attainable with low detector noise so that x-rays can potentially be detected down to the limit of a single x-ray-produced photoelectron. (author)

  2. Neutron beam test of multi-grid-type microstrip gas chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, K.; Takahashi, H.; Siritiprussamee, P.; Niko, H.; Kai, M.; Nakazawa, M.; Ino, T.; Sato, S.; Yokoo, T.; Furusaka, M.; Kanazawa, M.

    2006-01-01

    Multi-grid-type microstrip gas chambers (M-MSGCs) are being developed for the next-generation pulsed neutron source. Two new concepts, a global-local-grouping (GLG) method and a graded cathode pattern readout method, were applied to the M-MSGC design for realizing higher counting rate than traditional 3 He proportional counters. One-dimensional detectors with 700 mm-long test plates were fabricated and tested with X-ray and neutron beams, which demonstrated position detection capability based on these concepts

  3. Fine-Tuning on the Effective Patch Radius Expression of the Circular Microstrip Patch Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Yilmaz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effective patch radius expression for the circular microstrip antennas is improved by means of several manipulations. Departing from previously proposed equations in the literature, one of the most accurate equations is picked up, and this equation is fine-tuned by means of Particle Swarm Optimization technique. Throughout the study, impacts of other parameters (such as the definition of the fitness/objective function, the degree-of-freedom in the proposed effective patch radius expression, the number of measured resonant frequency values are observed in a controlled manner. Finally, about 3% additional improvement is achieved over a very accurate formula, which was proposed earlier.

  4. Mechanically Reconfigurable Microstrip Lines Loaded with Stepped Impedance Resonators and Potential Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Naqui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on exploring the possibilities and potential applications of microstrip transmission lines loaded with stepped impedance resonators (SIRs etched on top of the signal strip, in a separated substrate. It is shown that if the symmetry plane of the line (a magnetic wall is perfectly aligned with the electric wall of the SIR at the fundamental resonance, the line is transparent. However, if symmetry is somehow ruptured, a notch in the transmission coefficient appears. The notch frequency and depth can thus be mechanically controlled, and this property can be of interest for the implementation of sensors and barcodes, as it is discussed.

  5. A design concept for an MMIC (Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit) microstrip phased array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard Q.; Smetana, Jerry; Acosta, Roberto

    1987-01-01

    A conceptual design for a microstrip phased array with monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplitude and phase controls is described. The MMIC devices used are 20 GHz variable power amplifiers and variable phase shifters recently developed by NASA contractors for applications in future Ka proposed design, which concept is for a general NxN element array of rectangular lattice geometry. Subarray excitation is incorporated in the MMIC phased array design to reduce the complexity of the beam forming network and the number of MMIC components required.

  6. Rapid X-ray crystal structure analysis in few second measurements using microstrip gas chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Ochi, A; Tanimori, T; Ohashi, Y; Toyokawa, H; Nishi, Y; Nishi, Y; Nagayoshi, T; Koishi, S

    2001-01-01

    X-ray crystal structure analysis using microstrip gas chamber was successfully carried out in a measurement time within a few seconds. The continuous rotation photograph method, in which most of the diffraction peaks can be obtained within one continuous rotation of the sample crystal (without stopping or oscillation), was applied for this measurement. As an example, the structure of a single crystal of ammonium bitartrate (r=1 mm, spherical) was measured. Diffraction spots from the sample, which were sufficient to obtain crystal structure, were successfully obtained by taking only 2 s measurements with a commercially available laboratory X-ray source.

  7. Computer simulation and implementation of defected ground structure on a microstrip antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, H.; Rambe, A. H.; Suherman

    2018-03-01

    Defected Ground Structure (DGS) is a method reducing etching area on antenna ground to form desirable antenna’s ground field. This paper reports the method impact on microstrip antennas working on 1800 and 2400 MHz. These frequencies are important as many radio network applications such mobile phones and wireless devices working on these channels. The assessments were performed by simulating and fabricating the evaluated antennas. Both simulation data and implementation measurements show that DGS successfully improves antenna performances by increasing bandwidth up to 19%, reducing return loss up to 109% and increasing gain up to 33%.

  8. Beam-Steerable Microstrip-Fed Bow-Tie Antenna Array for Fifth Generation Cellular Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojaroudiparchin, Naser; Shen, Ming; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2016-01-01

    The design and performance of mm-wave phased array antenna for 5G mobile broadband communication systems has been provided in this manuscript. The antenna is designed on a N9000 PTFE substrate with 0.787 mm thickness and 2.2 dielectric constant and 65×130 mm2 overall dimension. Eight elements...... of bow-tie antennas have been used at the top-edge region of mobile phone PCB. The antenna elements fed by microstrip lines are designed to operate at 17 GHz. The simulated results give good performances in terms of different antenna parameters. In addition, an investigation on the distance between...

  9. Performance of a micro-strip gas chamber in solution X-ray scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Toyokawa, H; Inoko, Y; Nagayoshi, T; Nishi, Y; Nishikawa, Y; Ochi, A; Suzuki, M; Tanimori, T

    2001-01-01

    The performance of a Micro-Strip Gas Chamber in solution X-ray scattering was studied at the RIKEN structural biology beamline I of the SPring-8 facility. The practical dynamic range was confirmed to be approx 1,000,000 : 1 by measuring S sup - sup 4 decay from a polystyrene latex solution. Steep troughs of scattering profile from an apoferritin solution were clearly obtained without smearing. An unfolding process of a pH jump of cytochrome c was measured. A time resolution of 500 mu s was achieved.

  10. Study of micro-strip gas ionisation chambers substrates for CMS experiment at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallares, A.

    1996-01-01

    High luminosity, expected interaction and dose rates of the future LHC collider require the development of micro-strips gas chambers. In addition to optimization of this new detector, this work is concerned with understanding of gain loss phenomena. Influence of the gas substrate is carefully analysed, as well as theoretical concepts concerning glasses and their behaviour under polarization and irradiation, and the consequence on detection operations.Electron spin resonance is used to study, in standard glass, creation of radiation induced defects which may be charged. (D.L.)

  11. Ion beam figuring of silicon aspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmler, Marcel; Zeuner, Michael; Luca, Alfonz; Dunger, Thoralf; Rost, Dirk; Kiontke, Sven; Krüger, Marcus

    2011-03-01

    Silicon lenses are widely used for infrared applications. Especially for portable devices the size and weight of the optical system are very important factors. The use of aspherical silicon lenses instead of spherical silicon lenses results in a significant reduction of weight and size. The manufacture of silicon lenses is more challenging than the manufacture of standard glass lenses. Typically conventional methods like diamond turning, grinding and polishing are used. However, due to the high hardness of silicon, diamond turning is very difficult and requires a lot of experience. To achieve surfaces of a high quality a polishing step is mandatory within the manufacturing process. Nevertheless, the required surface form accuracy cannot be achieved through the use of conventional polishing methods because of the unpredictable behavior of the polishing tools, which leads to an unstable removal rate. To overcome these disadvantages a method called Ion Beam Figuring can be used to manufacture silicon lenses with high surface form accuracies. The general advantage of the Ion Beam Figuring technology is a contactless polishing process without any aging effects of the tool. Due to this an excellent stability of the removal rate without any mechanical surface damage is achieved. The related physical process - called sputtering - can be applied to any material and is therefore also applicable to materials of high hardness like Silicon (SiC, WC). The process is realized through the commercially available ion beam figuring system IonScan 3D. During the process, the substrate is moved in front of a focused broad ion beam. The local milling rate is controlled via a modulated velocity profile, which is calculated specifically for each surface topology in order to mill the material at the associated positions to the target geometry. The authors will present aspherical silicon lenses with very high surface form accuracies compared to conventionally manufactured lenses.

  12. Development and performance of double sided silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batignani, G.; Forti, F.; Moneta, L.; Triggiani, G.; Bosisio, L.; Focardi, E.; Giorgi, M.A.; Parrini, G.; Tonelli, G.

    1991-01-01

    Microstrip silicon detectors with orthogonal readout on opposite sides have been designed and fabricated. The active area of each device is 25 cm 2 and the strip pitch is 25 μm on the junction side and 50 μm on the opposite ohmic side. A space resolution of 15 μm on the junction side (100 μm readout pitch) and 24 μm on the ohmic side (200 μm readout pitch) has been measured. We also report on AC-coupling chips, designed and fabricated in order to allow AC connection of the strips to the amplifiers. These chips are 6.4x5.0 mm 2 and have 100 μm pitch. Both AC-couplers and detectors have been installed as part of the ALEPH minivertex. (orig.)

  13. A fast ADC system for silicon μstrips readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inzani, P.; Pedrini, D.; Sala, S.

    1986-01-01

    A new fast ADC module has been designed. It is part of a large readout system for a high resolution vertex detector consisting of 12 silicon microstrip planes with more than 8000 channels. The module employs a set of monolithic gated integrators on input (LeCroy MIQ 401) multiplexed on a single 8 bit FADC (Thompson EFX8308). A built-in preprocessing, performed through look up tables, accomplishes equalization and reduction of the data and makes high level trigger feasible. As an additional feature, fast histogramming of all the channels in parallel has been made possible with an internal memory. Special care has been paid to realize a low cost and low power consumption system

  14. SVX/silicon detector studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagby, L.; Johnson, M.; Lipton, R.; Gu, W.

    1995-11-01

    AC coupled silicon detectors, being used for the DO upgrade, may have substantial voltage across the coupling capacitor. Failed capacitors can present ∼50 V to the input of the SVX, Silicon Vertex, device. We measured the effects that failed detector coupling capacitors have on the SVXD (rad soft 3μm), SVXH (rad hard 1.2μm), and SVXIIb (rad soft 1.2μm) amplifier / readout devices. The test results show that neighboring channels saturate when an excessive voltage is applied directly to a SVX channel. We believe that the effects are due to current diffusion within the SVX substrate rather than surface currents on the detectors. This paper discusses the magnitude of the saturation and a possible solution to the problem

  15. A new silicon tracker for proton imaging and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.T., E-mail: jtaylor@hep.ph.liv.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Waltham, C. [Laboratory of Vision Engineering, School of Computer Science, University of Lincoln, Lincoln LN6 7TS (United Kingdom); Price, T. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B25 2TT (United Kingdom); Allinson, N.M. [Laboratory of Vision Engineering, School of Computer Science, University of Lincoln, Lincoln LN6 7TS (United Kingdom); Allport, P.P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B25 2TT (United Kingdom); Casse, G.L. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Kacperek, A. [Douglas Cyclotron, The Clatterbridge Cancer Centre NHS Foundation Trust, Clatterbridge Road, Bebington, Wirral CH63 4JY (United Kingdom); Manger, S. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Smith, N.A.; Tsurin, I. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-21

    For many years, silicon micro-strip detectors have been successfully used as tracking detectors for particle and nuclear physics experiments. A new application of this technology is to the field of particle therapy where radiotherapy is carried out by use of charged particles such as protons or carbon ions. Such a treatment has been shown to have advantages over standard x-ray radiotherapy and as a result of this, many new centres offering particle therapy are currently under construction around the world today. The Proton Radiotherapy, Verification and Dosimetry Applications (PRaVDA) consortium are developing instrumentation for particle therapy based upon technology from high-energy physics. The characteristics of a new silicon micro-strip tracker for particle therapy will be presented. The array uses specifically designed, large area sensors with technology choices that follow closely those taken for the ATLAS experiment at the HL-LHC. These detectors will be arranged into four units each with three layers in an x–u–v configuration to be suitable for fast proton tracking with minimal ambiguities. The sensors will form a tracker capable of tracing the path of ~200 MeV protons entering and exiting a patient allowing a new mode of imaging known as proton computed tomography (pCT). This will aid the accurate delivery of treatment doses and in addition, the tracker will also be used to monitor the beam profile and total dose delivered during the high fluences used for treatment. We present here details of the design, construction and assembly of one of the four units that will make up the complete tracker along with its characterisation using radiation tests carried out using a {sup 90}Sr source in the laboratory and a 60 MeV proton beam at the Clatterbridge Cancer Centre.

  16. Study of lead free ferroelectrics using overlay technique on thick film microstrip ring resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shridhar N. Mathad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The lead free ferroelectrics, strontium barium niobates, were synthesized via the low cost solid state reaction method and their fritless thick films were fabricated by screen printing technique on alumina substrate. The X band response (complex permittivity at very high frequencies of Ag thick film microstrip ring resonator perturbed with strontium barium niobates (SrxBa1-xNb2O6 in form of bulk and thick film was measured. A new approach for determination of complex permittivity (ε′ and ε′′ in the frequency range 8–12 GHz, using perturbation of Ag thick film microstrip ring resonator (MSRR, was applied for both bulk and thick film of strontium barium niobates (SrxBa1-xNb2O6. The microwave conductivity of the bulk and thick film lie in the range from 1.779 S/cm to 2.874 S/cm and 1.364 S/cm to 2.296 S/cm, respectively. The penetration depth of microwave in strontium barium niobates is also reported.

  17. Design of a Microstrip Bowtie Antenna for Indoor Radio-Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraga-Rosales Hector

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a microstrip bowtie patch antenna (MBPA for wireless indoor communications is carried out. Here, a microstrip transmission-line feed network was designed in order to match the MBPA. The proposed antenna uses a ground plane with the aim of narrowing down the back lobes in comparison with bowtie sheet antennas, which radiation pattern is omni-directional. The far-field pattern of the antenna was simulated using a finite-element numerical algorithm and obtained by interpolation employing near-field equipment. The experimental results are described in detail intending to agree well with the simulated predictions. The antenna was designed, measured and built and its far field performance was evaluated with a 2.11 GHz resonant frequency. The azimuth and elevation antenna patterns, antenna gain and, the matching frequency were the main parameters obtained to analyze the antenna behaviour. The antenna has a gain approximately equal to 8.77 dBi and its beam-widths are higher than 100° in E plane.

  18. Conduction noise absorption by ITO thin films attached to microstrip line utilizing Ohmic loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun-Hong; Kim, Sung-Soo

    2010-01-01

    For the aim of wide-band noise absorbers with a special design for low frequency performance, this study proposes conductive indium-tin oxide (ITO) thin films as the absorbent materials in microstrip line. ITO thin films were deposited on the polyimide film substrates by rf magnetron cosputtering of In 2 O 3 and Sn targets. The deposited ITO films show a typical value of electrical resistivity (∼10 -4 Ω m) and sheet resistance can be controlled in the range of 20-230 Ω by variation in film thickness. Microstrip line with characteristic impedance of 50 Ω was used for determining their noise absorbing properties. It is found that there is an optimum sheet resistance of ITO films for the maximum power absorption. Reflection parameter (S 11 ) is increased with decrease in sheet resistance due to impedance mismatch. On the while, transmission parameter (S 21 ) is decreased with decrease in sheet resistance due to larger Ohmic loss of the ITO films. Experimental results and computational prediction show that the optimum sheet resistance is about 100 Ω. For this film, greater power absorption is predicted in the lower frequency region than ferrite thin films of high magnetic loss, which indicates that Ohmic loss is the predominant loss parameter for power absorption in the low frequency range.

  19. PENGEMBANGAN VARIATIF RANCANGAN ANTENA PANEL MICROSTRIP TAPERED PATCH DALAM SISTEM KOMUNIKASI WI-FI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Artawan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pada penelitian ini dilakukan pengembangan rancangan antena microstrip tapered patch untuk dilakukan pengukuran parameternya sebagai karakteristik dari antena Microstrip. Penelitian ini sebagai pengembangan variatif rancangan untuk memperoleh hasil yang lebih optimal. Metode eksperiment dilakukan dalam penelitian ini. Tahap pengerjaanya yaitu membuat desain rancangan antena sesuai persamaan yang ada yang kemudian dirancang dengan metode UV Photoresist laminate. Hasil rancangan antena diukur untuk mendapatkan karakteristik sebagai parameter antena meliputi frekuensi (bandwidth, SWR, VSWR, koofesien refleksi, pola radiasi dan penguatan (gain serta nilai HPBW. Nilai-nilai tersebut mencerminkan karakter dari sebuah antena sebagai parameter antena yang layak diimplementasikan dalam sistem komunikasi internet dengan sistem wi-fi. Hasil penelitian ini meliputi: nilai lebar pita (bandwidth = 0.21 GHz, VSWR = 1,23, SWR = 1,79,  return loss = -20,00 dB, koofesien refleksi = 0,10 dan grafik pola radiasi dengan penguatan (gain = 17 dB (polarisasi vertikal, 20 dB (polarisasi horizontal. Nilai Half Power Beamwidth (HPBW 820 untuk pola radiasi vertikal dan pola radiasi horizontal. Kesalahan (error hasil pengukuran 0,12% dengan keseksamaan 99,88%. Hasil ini memberikan indikasi sebagai rancangan antena yang layak untuk sistem komunikasi wi-fi. Penelitian ini sebagai salah satu aplikasi ilmu Fisika dalam dunia teknologi informasi dan diharapkan dapat bermanfaat sebagai dinamika wahana salah satu produk penerapan ilmu Fisika dalam bidang Teknologi Informasi.

  20. Investigation of DC current injection effect on the microwave characteristics of HTS YBCO microstrip resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurgaliev, T., E-mail: timur@ie.bas.bg [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Chausse, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Blagoev, B.; Mateev, E.; Neshkov, L. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Chausse, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Strbik, V. [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Uspenskaya, L. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nedkov, I. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Chausse, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Chromik, Š. [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • Current (spin) injection effect in LSMO/YBCO was studied by impedance measurements. • Complex impedance of YBCO increases at current injection from LSMO to YBCO at 77 K. • This increase is due to an increase of the quasiparticle conductivity of YBCO. • Injection does not significantly affect the relaxation time of the quasiparticles. - Abstract: The DC current injection effect from a ferromagnetic (FM) La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) to a high temperature superconducting (HTS) Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−x} (YBCO) thin film was investigated by the microwave surface impedance measurements in a FM/HTS structure, formed as a microstrip resonator for improving the sensitivity of the experiments. The quality factor and the resonance frequency of this structure were found to strongly depend on the current strength, injected from the LSMO electrode into the HTS microstrip electrode. The magnetic penetration depth and the quasiparticle conductivity of the HTS component were determined to increase under DC current injection process, which in all probability stimulated breaking of Cooper pairs and led to a decrease of the superfluid concentration and an increase of the normal fluid concentration without significantly affecting the relaxation time of the quasiparticles.

  1. Ultrahigh frequency tunability of aperture-coupled microstrip antenna via electric-field tunable BST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hong-Lei; Xue, Qian; Gao, Xiao-Yang; Yao, Feng-Rui; Lu, Shi-Yang; Wang, Ye-Long; Liu, Chun-Heng; Zhang, Yong-Cheng; Lü, Yue-Guang; Li, Shan-Dong

    2015-12-01

    A composite ceramic with nominal composition of 45.0 wt%(Ba0.5Sr0.5)TiO3-55.0 wt%MgO (acronym is BST-MgO) is sintered for fabricating a frequency reconfigurable aperture-coupled microstrip antenna. The calcined BST-MgO composite ceramic exhibits good microwave dielectric properties at X-band with appropriate dielectric constant ɛr around 85, lower dielectric loss tan δ about 0.01, and higher permittivity tunability 14.8% at 8.33 kV/cm. An ultrahigh E-field tunability of working frequency up to 11.0% (i.e., from 9.1 GHz to 10.1 GHz with a large frequency shift of 1000 MHz) at a DC bias field from 0 to 8.33 kV/cm and a considerably large center gain over 7.5 dB are obtained in the designed frequency reconfigurable microstrip antenna. These results demonstrate that BST materials are promising for the frequency reconfigurable antenna. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11074040) and the Key Project of Shandong Provincial Department of Science and Technology, China (Grant No. ZR2012FZ006).

  2. Gain Enhancement of a Microstrip Patch Antenna Using a Reflecting Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwer Sabah Mekki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A low profile, unidirectional, dual layer, and narrow bandwidth microstrip patch antenna is designed to resonate at 2.45 GHz. The proposed antenna is suitable for specific applications, such as security and military systems, which require a narrow bandwidth and a small antenna size. This work is mainly focused on increasing the gain as well as reducing the size of the unidirectional patch antenna. The proposed antenna is simulated and measured. According to the simulated and measured results, it is shown that the unidirectional antenna has a higher gain and a higher front to back ratio (F/B than the bidirectional one. This is achieved by using a second flame retardant layer (FR-4, coated with an annealed copper of 0.035 mm at both sides, with an air gap of 0.04λ0 as a reflector. A gain of 5.2 dB with directivity of 7.6 dBi, F/B of 9.5 dB, and −18 dB return losses (S11 are achieved through the use of a dual substrate layer of FR-4 with a relative permittivity of 4.3 and a thickness of 1.6 mm. The proposed dual layer microstrip patch antenna has an impedance bandwidth of 2% and the designed antenna shows very low complexity during fabrication.

  3. A Multiband Proximity-Coupled-Fed Flexible Microstrip Antenna for Wireless Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Andrea Casula

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiband printed microstrip antenna for wireless communications is presented. The antenna is fed by a proximity-coupled microstrip line, and it is printed on a flexible substrate. The antenna has been designed using a general-purpose 3D computer-aided design software (CAD, CST Microwave Studio, and then realized. The comparison between simulated and measured results shows that the proposed antenna can be used for wireless communications for WLAN systems, covering both the WLAN S-band (2.45 GHz and C-band (5.2 GHz, and the Wi-Max 3.5 GHz band, with satisfactory input matching and broadside radiation pattern. Moreover, it has a compact size, is very easy to realize, and presents a discrete out-of-band rejection, without requiring the use of stop-band filters. The proposed structure can be used also as a conformal antenna, and its frequency response and radiated field are satisfactory for curvatures up to 65°.

  4. A new design of a miniature filter on microstrip resonators with an interdigital structure of conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, B. A.; Serzhantov, A. M.; Bal'va, Ya. F.; Leksikov, An. A.; Galeev, R. G.

    2015-05-01

    A microstrip bandpass filter of new design based on original resonators with an interdigital structure of conductors has been studied. The proposed filters of third to sixth order are distinguished for their high frequency-selective properties and much smaller size than analogs. It is established that a broad stop band, extending up to a sixfold central bandpass frequency, is determined by low unloaded Q of higher resonance mode and weak coupling of resonators in the pass band. It is shown for the first time that, as the spacing of interdigital stripe conductors decreases, the Q of higher resonance mode monotonically drops, while the Q value for the first operating mode remains high. A prototype fourth-order filter with a central frequency of 0.9 GHz manufactured on a ceramic substrate with dielectric permittivity ɛ = 80 has microstrip topology dimensions of 9.5 × 4.6 × 1 mm3. The electrodynamic 3D model simulations of the filter characteristics agree well with the results of measurements.

  5. Method and apparatus for magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy using microstrip transmission line coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Ugurbil, Kamil; Chen, Wei

    2006-04-04

    Apparatus and method for MRI imaging using a coil constructed of microstrip transmission line (MTL coil) are disclosed. In one method, a target is positioned to be imaged within the field of a main magnetic field of a magnet resonance imaging (MRI) system, a MTL coil is positioned proximate the target, and a MRI image is obtained using the main magnet and the MTL coil. In another embodiment, the MRI coil is used for spectroscopy. MRI imaging and spectroscopy coils are formed using microstrip transmission line. These MTL coils have the advantageous property of good performance while occupying a relatively small space, thus allowing MTL coils to be used inside restricted areas more easily than some other prior art coils. In addition, the MTL coils are relatively simple to construct of inexpensive components and thus relatively inexpensive compared to other designs. Further, the MTL coils of the present invention can be readily formed in a wide variety of coil configurations, and used in a wide variety of ways. Further, while the MTL coils of the present invention work well at high field strengths and frequencies, they also work at low frequencies and in low field strengths as well.

  6. Design and development of a unit element microstrip antenna for aircraft collision avoidance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Debajit; Sahu, Prasanna Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Aircraft/traffic alert and collision avoidance system (ACAS/TCAS) is an airborne system which is designed to provide the service as a last defense equipment for avoiding mid-air collisions between the aircraft. In the existing system, four monopole stub-elements are used as ACAS directional antenna and one blade type element is used as ACAS omnidirectional antenna. The existing ACAS antenna has some drawbacks such as low gain, large beamwidth, frequency and beam tuning/scanning issues etc. Antenna issues like unwanted signals reception may create difficulties to identify the possible threats. In this paper, the focus is on the design and development of a unit element microstrip antenna which can be used for ACAS application and to overcome the possible limitations associated with the existing techniques. Two proposed antenna models are presented here, which are single feed and dual feed microstrip dual patch slotted antenna. These are designed and simulated in CST Microwave Studio tool. The performance and other antenna characteristics have been explored from the simulation results followed by the antenna fabrication and measurement. A good reflection coefficient, Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR), narrow beamwidth, perfect directional radiation pattern, high gain and directivity make this proposed antenna a good candidate for this application.

  7. Investigation of New Microstrip Bandpass Filter Based on Patch Resonator with Geometrical Fractal Slot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqeen S Mezaal

    Full Text Available A compact dual-mode microstrip bandpass filter using geometrical slot is presented in this paper. The adopted geometrical slot is based on first iteration of Cantor square fractal curve. This filter has the benefits of possessing narrower and sharper frequency responses as compared to microstrip filters that use single mode resonators and traditional dual-mode square patch resonators. The filter has been modeled and demonstrated by Microwave Office EM simulator designed at a resonant frequency of 2 GHz using a substrate of εr = 10.8 and thickness of h = 1.27 mm. The output simulated results of the proposed filter exhibit 22 dB return loss, 0.1678 dB insertion loss and 12 MHz bandwidth in the passband region. In addition to the narrow band gained, miniaturization properties as well as weakened spurious frequency responses and blocked second harmonic frequency in out of band regions have been acquired. Filter parameters including insertion loss, return loss, bandwidth, coupling coefficient and external quality factor have been compared with different values of perturbation dimension (d. Also, a full comparative study of this filter as compared with traditional square patch filter has been considered.

  8. Bandwidth enhancement of a dual band planar monopole antenna using meandered microstrip feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, M R; Islam, M T; Habib Ullah, M; Misran, N

    2014-01-01

    A meandered-microstrip fed circular shaped monopole antenna loaded with vertical slots on a high dielectric material substrate (ε r = 15) is proposed in this paper. The performance criteria of the proposed antenna have been experimentally verified by fabricating a printed prototype. The experimental results show that the proposed antenna has achieved wider bandwidth with satisfactory gain by introducing meandered-microstrip feeding in assistant of partial ground plane. It is observed that, the -10 dB impedance bandwidth of the proposed antenna at lower band is 44.4% (600 MHz-1 GHz) and at upper band is 28% (2.25 GHz-2.95 GHz). The measured maximum gains of -1.18 dBi and 4.87 dBi with maximum radiation efficiencies have been observed at lower band and upper band, respectively. The antenna configuration and parametric study have been carried out with the help of commercially available computer-aided EM simulator, and a good accordance is perceived in between the simulated and measured results. The analysis of performance criteria and almost consistent radiation pattern make the proposed antenna a suitable candidate for UHF RFID, WiMAX, and WLAN applications.

  9. Soft and hard pomerons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maor, Uri; Tel Aviv Univ.

    1995-09-01

    The role of s-channel unitarity screening corrections, calculated in the eikonal approximation, is investigated for soft Pomeron exchange responsible for elastic and diffractive hadron scattering in the high energy limit. We examine the differences between our results and those obtained from the supercritical Pomeron-Regge model with no such corrections. It is shown that screening saturation is attained at different scales for different channels. We then proceed to discuss the new HERA data on hard (PQCD) Pomeron diffractive channels and discuss the relationship between the soft and hard Pomerons and the relevance of our analysis to this problem. (author). 18 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  10. Hard exclusive QCD processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, W.

    2007-01-15

    Hard exclusive processes in high energy electron proton scattering offer the opportunity to get access to a new generation of parton distributions, the so-called generalized parton distributions (GPDs). This functions provide more detailed informations about the structure of the nucleon than the usual PDFs obtained from DIS. In this work we present a detailed analysis of exclusive processes, especially of hard exclusive meson production. We investigated the influence of exclusive produced mesons on the semi-inclusive production of mesons at fixed target experiments like HERMES. Further we give a detailed analysis of higher order corrections (NLO) for the exclusive production of mesons in a very broad range of kinematics. (orig.)

  11. Hard-hat day

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    CERN will be organizing a special information day on Friday, 27th June, designed to promote the wearing of hard hats and ensure that they are worn correctly. A new prevention campaign will also be launched.The event will take place in the hall of the Main Building from 11.30 a.m. to 2.00 p.m., when you will be able to come and try on various models of hard hat, including some of the very latest innovative designs, ask questions and pass on any comments and suggestions.

  12. Geochemistry of silicon isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Tiping; Li, Yanhe; Gao, Jianfei; Hu, Bin [Chinese Academy of Geological Science, Beijing (China). Inst. of Mineral Resources; Jiang, Shaoyong [China Univ. of Geosciences, Wuhan (China).

    2018-04-01

    Silicon is one of the most abundant elements in the Earth and silicon isotope geochemistry is important in identifying the silicon source for various geological bodies and in studying the behavior of silicon in different geological processes. This book starts with an introduction on the development of silicon isotope geochemistry. Various analytical methods are described and compared with each other in detail. The mechanisms of silicon isotope fractionation are discussed, and silicon isotope distributions in various extraterrestrial and terrestrial reservoirs are updated. Besides, the applications of silicon isotopes in several important fields are presented.

  13. Performance of Radiation Hard Pixel Sensors for the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Dorokhov, Andrei

    2005-01-01

    Position sensitive detectors in particle physics experiments are used for the detection of the particles trajectory produced in high energy collisions. To study physics phenomena at high energies the high particle interaction rate is unavoidable, as the number of interesting events falls with the energy and the total number of events is dominated by the soft processes. The position resolution of vertex detectors has to be of few microns in order to distinguish between particle tracks produced in b-quark or tau-decays, because of the short flight path before the decay. The high spatial position resolution and the ability to detect a large number of superimposed track are the key features for tracking detectors. Modern silicon microstrip and pixel detectors with high resolution are currently most suitable devices for the tracking systems of high energy physics experiments. In this work the performance of the sensors designed for the CMS pixel detector are studied and the position resolution is estimated. In the...

  14. Development of radiation hard readout electronics for LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Sexauer, Edgar; Lindenstruth, Volker

    2001-01-01

    The experiment LHCb is under development at CERN and aims to measure CP-violation in the B-Meson system at very high precision. The experiment makes use of a vertex detector that is equipped with silicon microstrip detectors. A chip suitable for the readout of this detector has been developed in a working group at the ASIC-laboratory Heidelberg. This readout chip 'Beetle-1.0' contains 128 analog input stages of a charge sensitive preamplifier, a pulse shaper and a buffer. The analog signal is fed into a comparator, from which a fast trigger signal can be derived. The following pipeline, realized as an array of gate capacitances, can be used to either store the analog output of the input amplifiers or to store the digital comparator output. External trigger signals mark events that have to be read out and the according pipeline location is stored in a derandomizing buffer. Pending events are read out from the pipeline via a charge-sensitive, resetable amplifier and an analog multiplexer, which serializes the s...

  15. Test beam results of a low-pressure micro-strip gas chamber with a secondary-electron emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, S.; Anderson, D.F.; Zimmerman, J.; Sbarra, C.; Salomon, M.

    1994-10-01

    We present recent results, from a beam test, on the angular dependence of the efficiency and the distribution of the signals on the anode strips of a low-pressure microstrip gas chamber with a thick CsI layer as a secondary-electron emitter. New results of CVD diamond films as secondary-electron emitters are discussed

  16. Low-Loss, Low-Noise, Crystalline Silicon Dielectric for Superconducting Microstrip and Kinetic Inductance Detector Capacitors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of technology to use crystalline dielectrics in superconducting spectroscopic sensors operating in the infrared/sub-millimeter wavelength range. The...

  17. EMC Diagnosis and Corrective Actions for Silicon Strip Tracker Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteche, F.; /CERN /Imperial Coll., London; Rivetta, C.; /SLAC

    2006-06-06

    The tracker sub-system is one of the five sub-detectors of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment under construction at CERN for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator. The tracker subdetector is designed to reconstruct tracks of charged sub-atomic particles generated after collisions. The tracker system processes analogue signals from 10 million channels distributed across 14000 silicon micro-strip detectors. It is designed to process signals of a few nA and digitize them at 40 MHz. The overall sub-detector is embedded in a high particle radiation environment and a magnetic field of 4 Tesla. The evaluation of the electromagnetic immunity of the system is very important to optimize the performance of the tracker sub-detector and the whole CMS experiment. This paper presents the EMC diagnosis of the CMS silicon tracker sub-detector. Immunity tests were performed using the final prototype of the Silicon Tracker End-Caps (TEC) system to estimate the sensitivity of the system to conducted noise, evaluate the weakest areas of the system and take corrective actions before the integration of the overall detector. This paper shows the results of one of those tests, that is the measurement and analysis of the immunity to CM external conducted noise perturbations.

  18. Hardness of Clustering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Hardness of Clustering. Both k-means and k-medians intractable (when n and d are both inputs even for k =2). The best known deterministic algorithms. are based on Voronoi partitioning that. takes about time. Need for approximation – “close” to optimal.

  19. Rock-hard coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has signed an agreement with a number of parties to investigate this material further.

  20. Rock-hard coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has