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Sample records for hard silicon microstrip

  1. Investigation of design parameters for radiation hard silicon microstrip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Braibant, S; Feld, L; Frey, A; Fürtjes, A; Glessing, W D; Hammarström, R; Honma, A; Mannelli, M; Mariotti, C; Mättig, P; Migliore, E; Piperov, S; Runólfsson, O; Schmitt, B; Söldner-Rembold, S; Surrow, B

    2002-01-01

    In the context of the development of radiation hard silicon microstrip detectors for the CMS Tracker, we have investigated the dependence of interstrip and backplane capacitance as well as depletion and breakdown voltage on the design parameters and substrate characteristics of the devices. Measurements have been made for strip pitches between 60 and 240 mu m and various strip implants and metal widths, using multi-geometry devices, fabricated on wafers of either or crystal orientation, of resistivities between 1 and 6 k Omega cm and of thicknesses between 300 and 410 mu m. The effect of irradiation on properties of devices has been studied with 24 GeV/c protons up to a fluence of 4.3*10/sup 14/ cm /sup -2/. (15 refs).

  2. Radiation hard silicon microstrip detectors for use in ATLAS at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Lars Gimmestad

    2005-07-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) will accelerate protons in colliding beams to a center of mass energy of 14 TeV at very high luminosities. The ATLAS detector is being built to explore the physics in this unprecedented energy range. Tracking of charged particles in high-energy physics (HEP) experiments requires a high spatial resolution and fast signal readout, all with as little material as possible. Silicon microstrip detectors meet these requirements well and have been chosen for the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) which is part of the inner tracking system of ATLAS and has a total area of 61 m2. During the 10 years of operation at LHC, the total fluence received by the detectors is sufficiently large that they will suffer a severe degradation from radiation induced damage. The damage affects both the physics performance of the detectors as well as their operability and a great challenge has been to develop radiation hard detectors for this environment. An extensive irradiation programme has been carried out where detectors of various designs, including defect engineering by oxygen enriched silicon, have been irradiated to the expected fluence. A subsequent thermal annealing period is included to account for a realistic annual maintenance schedule at room temperature, during which the radiation induced defects alter the detector properties significantly. This thesis presents work that has been carried out in the Bergen ATLAS group with results both from the irradiation programme and from detector testing during the module production. (Author)

  3. Aleph silicon microstrip vertex detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    This microstrip vertex locator was located at the heart of the ALEPH experiment, one of the four experiments at the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider. In the experiments at CERN's LEP, which ran from 1989 to 2000, modern silicon microvertex detectors, such as those used at ALEPH, monitored the production of short-lived particles close to the beam pipe.

  4. A silicon microstrip gas chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Marel, J. (Radiation Technology Group, Faculty of Applied Physics, Delft Univ. of Tech. (Netherlands)); Van den Bogaard, A. (Delft Inst. of Microelectronics and Submicrotechnology, Delft Univ. of Tech. (Netherlands)); Van Eijk, C.W.E. (Radiation Technology Group, Faculty of Applied Physics, Delft Univ. of Tech. (Netherlands)); Hollander, R.W. (Radiation Technology Group, Faculty of Applied Physics, Delft Univ. of Tech. (Netherlands)); Okx, W.J.C. (Radiation Technology Group, Faculty of Applied Physics, Delft Univ. of Tech. (Netherlands)); Sarro, P.M. (Delft Inst. of Microelectronics and Submicrotechnology, Delft Univ. of Tech. (Netherlands))

    1994-09-01

    We are manufacturing microstrip gas chambers (MSGC) on silicon with an insulating SiO[sub 2] layer. To study the effect of the sheet resistance of the SiO[sub 2] on the operation of the detector several processes to modify the SiO[sub 2] layer have been investigated: ion implantation, boron and phosphorus diffusion, phosphosilicate glass evaporation and polycrystalline silicon deposition. The dependence of the gas gain on the potentials of the different electrodes and the long term stability have been studied. ((orig.))

  5. Cryogenic Silicon Microstrip Detector Modules for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Perea-Solano, B

    2004-01-01

    CERN is presently constructing the LHC, which will produce collisions of 7 TeV protons in 4 interaction points at a design luminosity of 1034 cm-2 s-1. The radiation dose resulting from the operation at high luminosity will cause a serious deterioration of the silicon tracker performance. The state-of-art silicon microstrip detectors can tolerate a fluence of about 3 1014 cm-2 of hadrons or charged leptons. This is insufficient, however, for long-term operation in the central parts of the LHC trackers, in particular after the possible luminosity upgrade of the LHC. By operating the detectors at cryogenic temperatures the radiation hardness can be improved by a factor 10. This work proposes a cryogenic microstrip detector module concept which has the features required for the microstrip trackers of the upgraded LHC experiments at CERN. The module can hold an edgeless sensor, being a good candidate for improved luminosity and total cross-section measurements in the ATLAS, CMS and TOTEM experiments. The design o...

  6. Integrated double-sided silicon microstrip detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perevertailo V. L.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The problems of design, technology and manufacturing double-sided silicon microstrip detectors using standard equipment production line in mass production of silicon integrated circuits are considered. The design of prototype high-energy particles detector for experiment ALICE (CERN is presented. The parameters of fabricated detectors are comparable with those of similar foreign detectors, but they are distinguished by lesser cost.

  7. Development of Microstrip Silicon Detectors for Star and ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, L; Coffin, J P; Guillaume, G; Guthneck, L; Higueret, S; Hundt, F; Kühn, C E; Lutz, Jean Robert; Pozdniakov, S; Rami, F; Tarchini, A; Boucham, A; Bouvier, S; Erazmus, B; Germain, M; Giliberto, S; Martin, L; Le Moal, C; Roy, C; Colledani, C; Dulinski, W; Turchetta, R

    1998-01-01

    The physics program of STAR and ALICE at ultra-relativistic heavy ion colliders, RHIC and LHC respectively, requires very good tracking capabilities. Some specific quark gluon plasma signatures, based on strange matter measurements implies quite a good secondary vertex reconstruction.For this purpose, the inner trackers of both experiments are composed of high-granularity silicon detectors. The current status of the development of double-sided silicon microstrip detectors is presented in this work.The global performance for tracking purpose adn particle identification are first reviewed. Then tests of the detectors and of the associated readout electronics are described. In-beam measurements of noise, spatial resolution, efficiency and charge matching capability, as well as radiation hardness, are examined.

  8. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Chalupkova, I; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon strip detector and one of the key precision tracking devices in the Inner Detector (ID) of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. The SCT is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules with a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel (4 cylinders) and two end-cap systems (9 disks on each side of the barrel). The SCT silicon microstrip sensors are processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the strips are processed in the front-end ASICs ABCD3TA, working in the binary readout mode. Data is transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibres. SCT has been installed inside the ATLAS experimental cavern since 2007 and has been operational ever since. Calibration data has been taken regularly and analysed to determine the noise performance of the system. ...

  9. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Johansson, Per; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon strip detector and one of the key precision tracking devices in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. The SCT is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel (4 cylinders) and two end-cap systems (9 disks on each end of the barrel). The SCT silicon micro-strip sensors are processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the strips are processed in the front-end ASICS ABCD3TA, working in the binary readout mode. Data is transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibers. The completed SCT has been installed inside the ATLAS experimental cavern since 2007 and has been operational since then. Calibration data has been taken regularly and analyzed to determine the noise performance of the ...

  10. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    NAGAI, K; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon strip detector and one of the key precision tracking devices in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. The SCT is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel (4 cylinders) and two end-cap systems (9 disks on each end of the barrel). The SCT silicon micro-strip sensors are processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the strips are processed in the front-end ASICS ABCD3TA, working in the binary readout mode. Data is transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibres. The completed SCT has been installed inside the ATLAS experimental cavern since 2007 and has been operational since then. Calibration data has been taken regularly and analysed to determine the noise performance of the ...

  11. First test of cold edgeless silicon microstrip detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avati, V.; Boccone, V.; Borer, K.; Bozzo, M.; Capra, R.; Casagrande, L.; Eggert, K.; Heijne, E.; Klauke, S.; Li, Z.; Mäki, T.; Morelli, A.; Oljemark, F.; Palmieri, V. G.; Perea-Solano, B.; Tapprogge, S.

    2004-02-01

    Silicon microstrip detectors will provide the forward tracking in the TOTEM experiment at the LHC. To allow efficient tracking closest to the beam (≈1 mm) these detectors should be sensitive up to their physical edge (i.e. edgeless). Edgeless (without guard rings) microstrip planar detectors can be operated at cryogenic temperatures (about 130° K) where leakage currents due to the active edge are drastically reduced. A silicon microstrip prototype, cut perpendicular to the strips, has been tested with a pion beam at CERN to study its efficiency close to the edge by using reference tracks from a simple silicon telescope. Results indicate that the detector measures tracks with good efficiency up to the physical edge of the silicon.

  12. First test of cold edgeless silicon microstrip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Avati, V; Borer, K; Bozzo, M; Capra, R; Casagrande, L; Eggert, Karsten; Heijne, Erik H M; Klauke, S; Li, Z; Mäki, T; Morelli, A; Oljemark, F; Palmieri, V G; Perea-Solano, B; Tapprogge, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Silicon microstrip detectors will provide the forward tracking in the TOTEM experiment at the LHC. To allow efficient tracking closest to the beam ( approximately equals 1 mm) these detectors should be sensitive up to their physical edge (i.e. edgeless). Edgeless (without guard rings) microstrip planar detectors can be operated at cryogenic temperatures (about 130 degree K) where leakage currents due to the active edge are drastically reduced. A silicon microstrip prototype, cut perpendicular to the strips, has been tested with a pion beam at CERN to study its efficiency close to the edge by using reference tracks from a simple silicon telescope. Results indicate that the detector measures tracks with good efficiency up to the physical edge of the silicon.

  13. First test of cold edgeless silicon microstrip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avati, V.; Boccone, V.; Borer, K.; Bozzo, M. E-mail: marco.bozzo@cern.ch; Capra, R.; Casagrande, L.; Eggert, K.; Heijne, E.; Klauke, S.; Li, Z.; Maeki, T.; Morelli, A.; Oljemark, F.; Palmieri, V.G.; Perea-Solano, B.; Tapprogge, S

    2004-02-01

    Silicon microstrip detectors will provide the forward tracking in the TOTEM experiment at the LHC. To allow efficient tracking closest to the beam ({approx}1 mm) these detectors should be sensitive up to their physical edge (i.e. edgeless). Edgeless (without guard rings) microstrip planar detectors can be operated at cryogenic temperatures (about 130 deg. K) where leakage currents due to the active edge are drastically reduced. A silicon microstrip prototype, cut perpendicular to the strips, has been tested with a pion beam at CERN to study its efficiency close to the edge by using reference tracks from a simple silicon telescope. Results indicate that the detector measures tracks with good efficiency up to the physical edge of the silicon.

  14. Radiation damage studies of silicon microstrip sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Nakayama, T; Hara, K; Shimojima, M; Ikegami, Y; Iwata, Y; Johansen, L G; Kobayashi, H; Kohriki, T; Kondo, T; Nakano, I; Ohsugi, T; Riedler, P; Roe, S; Stapnes, Steinar; Stugu, B; Takashima, R; Tanizaki, K; Terada, S; Unno, Y; Yamamoto, K; Yamamura, K

    2000-01-01

    Various types of large area silicon microstrip detectors were fabricated for the development of radiation-tolerant detectors that will operate in the LHC ATLAS SCT. The detectors were irradiated with 12-GeV protons at KEK to fluences of 1.7*10/sup 14/ and 4.2*10/sup 14 / protons/cm/sup 2/. Irradiated samples included n-on-n detectors with 4 k Omega cm bulk resistivity and p-on-n detectors with 1 k Omega cm and 4 k Omega cm bulk resistivities. Four patterns of p-stop structures are configured in the n-on-n detectors. Although Hamamatsu fabricated most of the detectors, p-on-n detectors by SINTEF are also included, as well as those fabricated in a modified process by Hamamatsu. The detector performances after irradiation that are compared are the probability of creation of faulty coupling capacitors, C-V characteristics, charge curves, and total leakage current. The p-on-n are similar to the n-on-n detectors in these performances, and will remain operational in the ATLAS radiation environment. (12 refs).

  15. Automated assembly in the construction of silicon microstrip detector modules

    CERN Document Server

    Eckert, S; Meinhardt, J; Runge, K; Benes, J

    2002-01-01

    The paper concerns silicon microstrip trackers for future experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It describes a system for the automated assembly of the trackers. The aim is uniform quality and a mechanical precision of better than 5 mu m. It has been implemented based on an industrial gantry robot. The gantry is equipped with a complex vacuum system which dispenses glue, and places the mechanical parts and the ASICS and the four silicon sensors with the required precision. The modules are double sided and 18 cm * 6 cm in dimension. (5 refs).

  16. Charge collection efficiency of standard and oxygenated silicon microstrip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Stavitski, I; Bisello, D; Bacchetta, N; Candelori, A; Kaminski, A; Wyss, J

    2002-01-01

    Two silicon microstrip detectors, one fabricated from a standard and the second from a highly oxygenated substrate, were non-uniformly irradiated by 24 GeV protons to fluences ranging between 2.3 and 6.3 * 10/sup 14/ cm/sup -2/. Charge collection efficiency measurements, performed by pulsing the detectors with a 1060 mu m wavelength laser, show that the beneficial effect of the oxygenation remains, although reduced with respect to that observed by C-V measurements on diodes fabricated with the detectors. (10 refs).

  17. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Barone, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon strip detector and one of the key precision tracking devices of the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. The SCT is constructed of $4088$ silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million channels. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel ($4$ cylinders) and two end-cap systems (9 disks on each). The current results from the successful operation of the SCT Detector at the LHC and its status after three years of operation will be presented. The operation of the detector including an overview of the main issues encountered is reported. The main emphasis is be given to the tracking performance of the SCT and the data quality during the $>2$ years of data taking of proton-proton collision data at $7$ TeV (and short periods of heavy ion collisions). The SCT has been fully operational throughout a...

  18. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Barone, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon strip detector and one of the key precision tracking devices in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. The SCT is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel (4 cylinders) and two end-cap systems (9 disks on each end of the barrel). In the talk the current results from the successful operation of the SCT Detector at the LHC and its status after three years of operation will be presented. We will report on the operation of the detector including an overview of the issues we encountered and the observation of significant increases in leakage currents (as expected) from bulk damage due to non-ionising radiation. The main emphasis will be given to the tracking performance of the SCT and the data quality during the >2 ye...

  19. Strip defect recognition in electrical tests of silicon microstrip sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentan, Manfred, E-mail: valentan@mpp.mpg.de

    2017-02-11

    This contribution describes the measurement procedure and data analysis of AC-coupled double-sided silicon microstrip sensors with polysilicon resistor biasing. The most thorough test of a strip sensor is an electrical measurement of all strips of the sensor; the measured observables include e.g. the strip's current and the coupling capacitance. These measurements are performed to find defective strips, e.g. broken capacitors (pinholes) or implant shorts between two adjacent strips. When a strip has a defect, its observables will show a deviation from the “typical value”. To recognize and quantify certain defects, it is necessary to determine these typical values, i.e. the values the observables would have without the defect. As a novel approach, local least-median-of-squares linear fits are applied to determine these “would-be” values of the observables. A least-median-of-squares fit is robust against outliers, i.e. it ignores the observable values of defective strips. Knowing the typical values allows to recognize, distinguish and quantify a whole range of strip defects. This contribution explains how the various defects appear in the data and in which order the defects can be recognized. The method has been used to find strip defects on 30 double-sided trapezoidal microstrip sensors for the Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector, which have been measured at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Vienna (Austria).

  20. The silicon microstrip sensors of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ATLAS SCT Collaboration; Spieler, Helmuth G.

    2007-04-13

    This paper describes the AC-coupled, single-sided, p-in-n silicon microstrip sensors used in the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The sensor requirements, specifications and designs are discussed, together with the qualification and quality assurance procedures adopted for their production. The measured sensor performance is presented, both initially and after irradiation to the fluence anticipated after 10 years of LHC operation. The sensors are now successfully assembled within the detecting modules of the SCT, and the SCT tracker is completed and integrated within the ATLAS Inner Detector. Hamamatsu Photonics Ltd. supplied 92.2percent of the 15,392 installed sensors, with the remainder supplied by CiS.

  1. Assembly and validation of the SSD silicon microstrip detector of ALICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, A.P.; Kuijer, P.G.; Nooren, G.J.L.; Oskamp, C.J.; Sokolov, A.N.; van den Brink, A.

    2006-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) forms the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of ALICE. The SSD detector consists of 1698 double-sided silicon microstrip modules. The electrical connection between silicon sensor and front-end electronics is made via TAB-bonded

  2. The silicon tracking system of the CBM experiment at FAIR. Development of microstrip sensors and signal transmission lines for a low-mass, low-noise system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singla, Minni

    2014-01-29

    In this thesis, different physical and electrical aspects of silicon microstrip sensors and low-mass multi-line readout cables have been investigated. These silicon microstrip sensors and readout cables will be used in the Silicon Tracking System (STS) of the fixed-target heavy-ion Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment which is under development at the upcoming Facility for Antiproton and ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany. The highly segmented low-mass tracking system is a central CBM detector system to resolve the high tracking densities of charged particles originating from beam-target interactions. Considering the low material budget requirement the double-sided silicon microstrip detectors have been used in several planar tracking stations. The readout electronics is planned to be installed at the periphery of the tracking stations along with the cooling system. Low-mass multi-line readout cables shall bridge the distance between the microstrip sensors and the readout electronics. The CBM running operational scenario suggests that some parts of the tracking stations are expected to be exposed to a total integrated particle fluence of the order of 1 x 10{sup 14} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. After 1 x 10{sup 14} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} the damaged modules in the tracking stations will be replaced. Thus radiation hard sensor is an important requirement for the sensors. Moreover, to cope with the high reaction rates, free-streaming (triggerless) readout electronics with online event reconstruction must be used which require high signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio (i.e., high signal efficiency, low noise contributions). Therefore, reduction in noise is a major goal of the sensor and cable development. For better insight into the different aspects of the silicon microstrip sensors and multi-line readout cables, the simulation study has been performed using SYNOPSYS TCAD tools. 3D models of the silicon microstrip sensors and the readout cables were implemented which is

  3. Use of silicon microstrip detectors for precise measurement of high momenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, T.A.; Beusch, W.; French, B.R.; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Y.; Jacholkowski, A.; Quercigh, E.; Redaelli, N.; Rossi, L.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Carney, J.N.

    1989-01-01

    The WA76 experiment performed at the facility at CERN required a high precision measurement of the forward produced particle whose momentum was close to 300 GeV/c. A telescope made of 12 silicon microstrip detectors has been built and operated for such a purpose.

  4. Production Testing and Quality Assurance of CMS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Readout Chips

    CERN Document Server

    Barrillon, Pierre; Hall, Geoffrey; Leaver, James; Noah, E; Raymond, M; Bisello, Dario; Candelori, Andrea; Kaminski, A; Stefanuti, L; Tessaro, Mario; French, Marcus

    2004-01-01

    The APV25 is the 128 channel CMOS chip developed for readout of the silicon microstrip tracker in the CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The detector is now under construction and will be the largest silicon microstrip system ever built, with ~200m^2 of silicon sensors. Around 10^5 chips are required to instrument the system, which must operate for about 10 years in a high radiation environment with little or no possibility of microstrip system ever built, with ~200m^2 of silicon sensors. Around 10^5 chips are required to instrument the system, which must operate for about 10 years in a high radiation environment with little or no possibility of assurance of long term performance of the readout electronics, especially verification of radiation tolerance, is highly desirable. This has been achieved by means of automated probe testing of every chip on the silicon wafers from the foundry, followed by studies of sample die to evaluate in more detail properties of the chips which cannot easily be ex...

  5. Spatial Resolution of Double-Sided Silicon Microstrip Detectors for the PAMELA Apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    Straulino, S; Bonechi, L; Bongi, M; Bottai, S; Castellini, G; Fedele, D; Grandi, M; Papini, P; Ricciarini, S B; Spillantini, P; Taccetti, F; Taddei, E; Vannuccini, E

    2006-01-01

    The PAMELA apparatus has been assembled and it is ready to be launched in a satellite mission to study mainly the antiparticle component of cosmic rays. In this paper the performances obtained for the silicon microstrip detectors used in the magnetic spectrometer are presented. This subdetector reconstructs the curvature of a charged particle in the magnetic field produced by a permanent magnet and consequently determines momentum and charge sign, thanks to a very good accuracy in the position measurements (better than 3 um in the bending coordinate). A complete simulation of the silicon microstrip detectors has been developed in order to investigate in great detail the sensor's characteristics. Simulated events have been then compared with data gathered from minimum ionizing particle (MIP) beams during the last years in order to tune free parameters of the simulation. Finally some either widely used or original position finding algorithms, designed for such kind of detectors, have been applied to events with...

  6. Electrical production testing of the D0 Silicon microstrip tracker detector modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D0, SMT Production Testing Group; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    The D0 Silicon Microstrip Tracker (SMT) is the innermost system of the D0 detector in Run 2. It consists of 912 detector units, corresponding to 5 different types of assemblies, which add up to a system with 792,576 readout channels. The task entrusted to the Production Testing group was to thoroughly debug, test and grade each detector module before its installation in the tracker. This note describes the production testing sequence and the procedures by which the detector modules were electrically tested and characterized at the various stages of their assembly.

  7. A possible role for silicon microstrip detectors in nuclear medicine Compton imaging of positron emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Scannavini, M G; Royle, G J; Cullum, I; Raymond, M; Hall, G; Iles, G

    2002-01-01

    Collimation of gamma-rays based on Compton scatter could provide in principle high resolution and high sensitivity, thus becoming an advantageous method for the imaging of radioisotopes of clinical interest. A small laboratory prototype of a Compton camera is being constructed in order to initiate studies aimed at assessing the feasibility of Compton imaging of positron emitters. The design of the camera is based on the use of a silicon collimator consisting of a stack of double-sided, AC-coupled microstrip detectors (area 6x6 cm sup 2 , 500 mu m thickness, 128 channels/side). Two APV6 chips are employed for signal readout on opposite planes of each detector. This work presents the first results on the noise performance of the silicon strip detectors. Measurements of the electrical characteristics of the detector are also reported. On the basis of the measured noise, an angular resolution of approximately 5 deg. is predicted for the Compton collimator.

  8. A radiographic imaging system based upon a 2-D silicon microstrip sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Papanestis, A; Corrin, E; Raymond, M; Hall, G; Triantis, F A; Manthos, N; Evagelou, I; Van den Stelt, P; Tarrant, T; Speller, R D; Royle, G F

    2000-01-01

    A high resolution, direct-digital detector system based upon a 2-D silicon microstrip sensor has been designed, built and is undergoing evaluation for applications in dentistry and mammography. The sensor parameters and image requirements were selected using Monte Carlo simulations. Sensors selected for evaluation have a strip pitch of 50mum on the p-side and 80mum on the n-side. Front-end electronics and data acquisition are based on the APV6 chip and were adapted from systems used at CERN for high-energy physics experiments. The APV6 chip is not self-triggering so data acquisition is done at a fixed trigger rate. This paper describes the mammographic evaluation of the double sided microstrip sensor. Raw data correction procedures were implemented to remove the effects of dead strips and non-uniform response. Standard test objects (TORMAX) were used to determine limiting spatial resolution and detectability. MTFs were determined using the edge response. The results indicate that the spatial resolution of the...

  9. The Silicon Microstrip Sensors of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, A; Allport, P P; Alonso, J; Andricek, L; Apsimon, R J; Barr, A J; Bates, R L; Beck, G A; Bell, P J; Belymam, A; Benes, J; Berg, C M; Bernabeu, J; Bethke, S; Bingefors, N; Bizzell, J P; Bohm, J; Brenner, R; Brodbeck, T J; Bruckman De Renstrom, P; Buttar, C M; Campbell, D; Carpentieri, C; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Charlton, D G; Casse, G-L; Chilingarov, A; Cindro, V; Ciocio, A; Civera, J V; Clark, A G; Colijn, A-P; Costa, M J; Dabrowski, W; Danielsen, K M; Dawson, I; Demirkoz, B; Dervan, P; Dolezal, Z; Dorholt, O; Duerdoth, I P; Dwuznik, M; Eckert, S; Ekelöf, T; Eklund, L; Escobar, C; Fasching, D; Feld, L; Ferguson, D P S; Ferrere, D; Fortin, R; Foster, J M; Fox, H; French, R; Fromant, B P; Fujita, K; Fuster, J; Gadomski, S; Gallop, B J; Garcia, C; Garcia-Navarro, J E; Gibson, M D; Gonzalez, S; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; Goodrick, M J; Gornicki, E; Green, C; Greenall, A; Grigson, C; Grillo, A A; Grosse-Knetter, J; Haber, C; Handa, T; Hara, K; Harper, R S; Hartjes, F G; Hashizaki, T; Hauff, D; Hessey, N P; Hill, J C; Hollins, T I; Holt, S; Horazdovsky, T; Hornung, M; Hovland, K M; Hughes, G; Huse, T; Ikegami, Y; Iwata, Y; Jackson, J N; Jakobs, K; Jared, R C; Johansen, L G; Jones, R W L; Jones, T J; de Jong, P; Joseph, J; Jovanovic, P; Kaplon, J; Kato, Y; Ketterer, C; Kindervaag, I M; Kodys, P; Koffeman, E; Kohriki, T; Kohout, Z; Kondo, T; Koperny, S; van der Kraaij, E; Kral, V; Kramberger, G; Kudlaty, J; Lacasta, C; Limper, M; Linhart, V; Llosa, G; Lozano, M; Ludwig, I; Ludwig, J; Lutz, G; Macpherson, A; McMahon, S J; Macina, D; Magrath, C A; Malecki, P; Mandic, I; Marti-Garcia, S; Matsuo, T; Meinhardt, J; Mellado, B; Mercer, I J; Mikestikova, M; Mikuz, M; Minano, M; Mistry, J; Mitsou, V; Modesto, P; Mohn, B; Molloy, S D; Moorhead, G; Moraes, A; Morgan, D; Morone, M C; Morris, J; Moser, H-G; Moszczynski, A; Muijs, A J M; Nagai, K; Nakamura, Y; Nakano, I; Nicholson, R; Niinikoski, T; Nisius, R; Ohsugi, T; O'Shea, V; Oye, O K; Parzefall, U; Pater, J R; Pernegger, H; Phillips, P W; Posisil, S; Ratoff, P N; Reznicek, P; Richardson, J D; Richter, R H; Robinson, D; Roe, S; Ruggiero, G; Runge, K; Sadrozinski, H F W; Sandaker, H; Schieck, J; Seiden, A; Shinma, S; Siegrist, J; Sloan, T; Smith, N A; Snow, S W; Solar, M; Solberg, A; Sopko, B; Sospedra, L; Spieler, H; Stanecka, E; Stapnes, S; Stastny, J; Stelzer, F; Stradling, A; Stugu, B; Takashima, R; Tanaka, R; Taylor, G; Terada, S; Thompson, R J; Titov, M; Tomeda, Y; Tovey, D R; Turala, M; Turner, P R; Tyndel, M; Ullan, M; Unno, Y; Vickey, T; Vos, M; Wallny, R; Weilhammer, P; Wells, P S; Wilson, J A; Wolter, M; Wormald, M; Wu, S L; Yamashita, T; Zontar, D; Zsenei, A

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the AC-coupled, single-sided, p-in-n silicon microstrip sensors used in the SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The sensor requirements, specifications and designs are discussed, together with the qualification and quality assurance procedures adopted for their production. The measured sensor performance is presented, both initially and after irradiation to the fluence anticipated after 10 years of LHC operation. The sensors are now successfully assembled within the detecting modules of the SCT, and the SCT tracker is completed and integrated within the ATLAS Inner Detector. Hamamatsu Photonics Ltd supplied 92.2% of the 15,392 installed sensors, with the remainder supplied by CiS.

  10. Silicon microstrip detectors for digital mammography - evaluation and spatial resolution study

    CERN Document Server

    Mali, T; Mikuz, M

    2001-01-01

    Silicon microstrip detectors were used to build an experimental X-ray imaging setup. The detectors were used in an 'edge-on' geometry, with the photons hitting the detector from the side. Efficiencies up to 90% at 20 keV photon energy could be achieved. The system was tested using a standard mammographic phantom. Images of modeled microcalcifications with various diameters down to 200 mu m and images of modeled tumors were made. Spatial resolution of the system was studied on an X-ray test pattern with frequency of line-pairs between 1 and 10l p/mm. An appropriate scanning step combined with knowledge of the system's line spread function was used to deconvolve the measured image and increase the spatial resolution. In this way the effective pixel size was reduced as much as for a factor of approx 3.

  11. Silicon microstrip detectors and the measurement of lifetimes of charmed hadrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masciocchi, Silvia [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany)

    1996-10-16

    WA89 is a fixed target experiment with a 340 GeV/c hyperon beam at the SPS at CERN. One of the main topics of its physics program is the study of the properties of charmed baryons. For the measurement of their lifetimes, silicon microstrip detectors are an essential tool to measure with the required resolution the production and the decay point of short living particles. The development and the test of a system with double sided counters and zero suppression readout has been presented. The device is now installed at the “next generation” hyperon beam experiment SELEX at Fermilab, downstream of the vertex area. The success of the project supports the possibility of including double sided detectors close to the vertex area to limit the amount of scattering material and improve pattern recognition.

  12. Beam splash effects on ATLAS silicon microstrip detectors evaluated using 1-w Nd YAG laser

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, K; Kohriki, T; Kuwano, T; Moorhead, G F; Terada, S; Unno, Y

    2005-01-01

    On an incident of accelerator beam loss, the tracking detector located close to the beam line is subjected to receive intensive radiation in a short period. We used a 1-W focused Nd: YAG laser and simulated the effects on the ATLAS microstrip detector. The laser corresponds to intensity of up to 1 multiplied by 109mips/pulse with a pulse width of about 10 ns. We observed breaks on Al strips on extreme conditions, depending on the laser intensity and bias voltage applied to the silicon sensor. The break can be interpreted as the oxide breakdown due to a large voltage locally created across the oxide by the intensive signal charges. The robustness of the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) module including readout ASICs is also evaluated.

  13. Signals from fluorescent materials on the surface of silicon micro-strip sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Sperlich, Dennis; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    For the High-Luminosity Upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced with a new, all-silicon tracker. In order to minimise the amount of material in the detector, circuit boards with readout electronics will be glued on to the active area of the sensor. Several adhesives investigated to be used for the construction of detector modules were found to become fluorescent when exposed to UV light. These adhesives could become a light source in the high-radiation environment of the ATLAS detector. The effect of fluorescent material covering the sensor surface in a high- radiation environment has been studied for a silicon micro-strip sensor using a micro-focused X-ray beam. By pointing the beam both inside the sensor and parallel to the sensor surface, the sensor responses from direct hits and fluorescence can be compared with high precision. This contribution presents a setup to study the susceptibility of silicon strip sensors to light contamination from fluorescent mate...

  14. Construction of the new silicon microstrips tracker for the Phase-II ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Zhijun; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The inner detector of the present ATLAS detector has been designed and developed to function in the environment of the present Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At the next-generation tracking detector proposed for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the so-called ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade, the particle densities and radiation levels will be higher by as much as a factor of ten. The new detectors must be faster, they need to be more highly segmented, and covering more area. They also need to be more resistant to radiation, and they require much greater power delivery to the front-end systems. For those reasons, the inner tracker of the ATLAS detector must be redesigned and rebuilt completely. The design of the ATLAS Upgrade inner tracker (ITk) has already been defined. It consists of several layers of silicon particle detectors. The innermost layers will be composed of silicon pixel sensors, and the outer layers will consist of silicon microstrip sensors. This paper will focus on the latest research and development act...

  15. Signals from fluorescent materials on the surface of silicon micro-strip sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Sperlich, Dennis; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    For the High-Luminosity Upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced with a new, all-silicon tracker (ITk). In order to minimise the amount of material in the ITk, circuit boards with readout electronics will be glued onto the active area of the sensor. Several adhesives, investigated to be used for the construction of detector modules, were found to become fluorescent when exposed to UV light. These adhesives could become a light source in the high-radiation environment of the ATLAS detector. The effect of fluorescent material covering the sensor surface in a high-radiation environment has been studied for a silicon micro-strip sensor using a micro-focused X-ray beam. By positioning the beam parallel to the sensor surfave and pointing it both inside the sensor and above the sensor surface inside the deposited glue, the sensor responses from direct hits and fluorescence can be compared with high precision. This contribution presents a setup to study the susceptibilit...

  16. Enabling Technologies for Silicon Microstrip Tracking Detectors at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, C; Bloch, I.; Bögelspacher, F.; de Boer, W.; Daniels, M.; Dierlamm, A.; Eber, R.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Erfle, J.; Feld, L.; Garutti, E.; Gregor, I. -M.; Guthoff, M.; Hartmann, F.; Hauser, M.; Husemann, U.; Jakobs, K.; Junkes, A.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.; Kuehn, S.; Lacker, H.; Mahboubi, K.; Müller, Th.; Mussgiller, A.; Nürnberg, A.; Parzefall, U.; Poehlsen, T.; Poley, L.; Preuten, M.; Rehnisch, L.; Sammet, J.; Schleper, P.; Schuwalow, S.; Sperlich, D.; Stanitzki, M.; Steinbrück, G.; Wlochal, M.

    2016-01-01

    While the tracking detectors of the ATLAS and CMS experiments have shown excellent performance in Run 1 of LHC data taking, and are expected to continue to do so during LHC operation at design luminosity, both experiments will have to exchange their tracking systems when the LHC is upgraded to the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) around the year 2024. The new tracking systems need to operate in an environment in which both the hit densities and the radiation damage will be about an order of magnitude higher than today. In addition, the new trackers need to contribute to the first level trigger in order to maintain a high data-taking efficiency for the interesting processes. Novel detector technologies have to be developed to meet these very challenging goals. The German groups active in the upgrades of the ATLAS and CMS tracking systems have formed a collaborative "Project on Enabling Technologies for Silicon Microstrip Tracking Detectors at the HL-LHC" (PETTL), which was supported by the Helmholtz Alliance "Phys...

  17. Boron imaging with a microstrip silicon detector for applications in BNCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattera, A.; Basilico, F.; Bolognini, D.; Borasio, P.; Cappelletti, P.; Chiari, P.; Conti, V.; Frigerio, M.; Gelosa, S.; Giannini, G.; Hasan, S.; Mascagna, V.; Mauri, P.; Monti, A. F.; Mozzanica, A.; Ostinelli, A.; Prest, M.; Scazzi, S.; Vallazza, E.; Zanini, A.

    2009-06-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a radiotherapic technique exploiting the α particles produced after the irradiation of the isotope 10 of boron with thermal neutrons in the capture reaction B(n,α)710Li. It is used to treat tumours that for their features (radioresistance, extension, localization near vital organs) cannot be treated through conventional photon-beams radiotherapy. One of the main limitations of this technique is the lack of specificity (i.e. the ability of localizing in tumour cells, saving the healthy tissues) of the compounds used to carry the 10B isotope in the organs to be treated. This work, developed in the framework of the INFN PhoNeS project, describes the possibility of boron imaging performed exploiting the neutrons photoproduced by a linac (the Clinac 2100C/D of the S. Anna Hospital Radiotherapy Unit in Como, Italy) and detecting the α s with a non-depleted microstrip silicon detector: the result is a 1D scan of the boron concentration. Several boron doped samples have been analysed, from solutions of H3BO3 (reaching a minimum detectable amount of 25 ng of 10B) to biological samples of urine containing BPA and BSH (the two molecules currently used for the clinical trials in BNCT) in order to build kinetic curves (showing the absolute 10B concentration as a function of time). Further measurements are under way to test the imaging system with 10BPA-Fructose complex perfused human lung samples.

  18. Development of a Test System for the Quality Assurance of Silicon Microstrip Detectors for the Inner Tracking System of the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Axer, Markus

    2003-01-01

    The inner tracking system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which is being built at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) will be equipped with two different technologies of silicon detectors. While the innermost tracker will be composed of silicon pixel detectors, silicon microstrip detectors are envisaged for the outer tracker architecture. The silicon microstrip tracker will house about 15,000 single detector modules each composed of a set of silicon sensors, the readout electronics (front end hybrid), and a support frame. It will provide a total active area of 198 m2 and ten million analogue channels read out at the collider frequency of 40 MHz. This large number of modules to be produced and integrated into the tracking system is an unprecedented challenge involving industrial companies and various research institutes from many different countries. This thesis deals with the physics of silicon sensors and the preparation of ...

  19. Boron imaging with a microstrip silicon detector for applications in BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattera, A. [Universita degli Studi dell' Insubria (Italy); INFN, sez. Milano Bicocca (Italy)], E-mail: andrea.mattera@gmail.com; Basilico, F. [CNR di Milano (Italy); Bolognini, D. [Universita degli Studi dell' Insubria (Italy); INFN, sez. Milano Bicocca (Italy); Borasio, P. [Azienda Universitaria Ospedaliera ' S. Luigi' Orbassano (Tonga) (Italy); Cappelletti, P. [Azienda Ospedaliera Sant' Anna di Como (Italy); Chiari, P. [Universita degli Studi di Pavia (Italy); Conti, V. [Universita degli Studi di Milano (Italy); Frigerio, M.; Gelosa, S. [Azienda Ospedaliera Sant' Anna di Como (Italy); Giannini, G. [INFN, sez. Trieste (Italy); Hasan, S. [Universita degli Studi dell' Insubria (Italy); INFN, sez. Milano Bicocca (Italy); Mascagna, V. [Universita degli Studi dell' Insubria (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Brescia (Italy); Mauri, P. [CNR di Milano (Italy); Monti, A.F. [Azienda Ospedaliera Sant' Anna di Como (Italy); Mozzanica, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Ostinelli, A. [Azienda Ospedaliera Sant' Anna di Como (Italy); Prest, M. [Universita degli Studi dell' Insubria (Italy); INFN, sez. Milano Bicocca (Italy); Scazzi, S. [Universita degli Studi dell' Insubria (Italy); Vallazza, E. [INFN, sez. Trieste (Italy); Zanini, A. [INFN, sez. Torino (Italy)

    2009-06-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a radiotherapic technique exploiting the {alpha} particles produced after the irradiation of the isotope 10 of boron with thermal neutrons in the capture reaction {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li. It is used to treat tumours that for their features (radioresistance, extension, localization near vital organs) cannot be treated through conventional photon-beams radiotherapy. One of the main limitations of this technique is the lack of specificity (i.e. the ability of localizing in tumour cells, saving the healthy tissues) of the compounds used to carry the {sup 10}B isotope in the organs to be treated. This work, developed in the framework of the INFN PhoNeS project, describes the possibility of boron imaging performed exploiting the neutrons photoproduced by a linac (the Clinac 2100C/D of the S. Anna Hospital Radiotherapy Unit in Como, Italy) and detecting the {alpha} s with a non-depleted microstrip silicon detector: the result is a 1D scan of the boron concentration. Several boron doped samples have been analysed, from solutions of H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} (reaching a minimum detectable amount of 25 ng of {sup 10}B) to biological samples of urine containing BPA and BSH (the two molecules currently used for the clinical trials in BNCT) in order to build kinetic curves (showing the absolute {sup 10}B concentration as a function of time). Further measurements are under way to test the imaging system with {sup 10}BPA-Fructose complex perfused human lung samples.

  20. Development of Radiation Hard Radiation Detectors, Differences between Czochralski Silicon and Float Zone Silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Tuominen, Eija

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop radiation hard silicon detectors. Radiation detectors made ofsilicon are cost effective and have excellent position resolution. Therefore, they are widely used fortrack finding and particle analysis in large high-energy physics experiments. Silicon detectors willalso be used in the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiment that is being built at the LHC (LargeHadron Collider) accelerator at CERN (European Organisation for Nuclear Research). This work wasdone in the CMS programme of Helsinki Institute of Physics (HIP).Exposure of the silicon material to particle radiation causes irreversible defects that deteriorate theperformance of the silicon detectors. In HIP CMS Programme, our approach was to improve theradiation hardness of the silicon material with increased oxygen concentration in silicon material. Westudied two different methods: diffusion oxygenation of Float Zone silicon and use of high resistivityCzochralski silicon.We processed, characterised, tested in a parti...

  1. Towards Gotthard-II: development of a silicon microstrip detector for the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Andrä, M.; Barten, R.; Bergamaschi, A.; Brückner, M.; Dinapoli, R.; Fröjdh, E.; Greiffenberg, D.; Lopez-Cuenca, C.; Mezza, D.; Mozzanica, A.; Ramilli, M.; Redford, S.; Ruat, M.; Ruder, C.; Schmitt, B.; Shi, X.; Thattil, D.; Tinti, G.; Turcato, M.; Vetter, S.

    2018-01-01

    Gotthard-II is a 1-D microstrip detector specifically developed for the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser. It will not only be used in energy dispersive experiments but also as a beam diagnostic tool with additional logic to generate veto signals for the other 2-D detectors. Gotthard-II makes use of a silicon microstrip sensor with a pitch of either 50 μm or 25 μm and with 1280 or 2560 channels wire-bonded to adaptive gain switching readout chips. Built-in analog-to-digital converters and digital memories will be implemented in the readout chip for a continuous conversion and storage of frames for all bunches in the bunch train. The performance of analogue front-end prototypes of Gotthard has been investigated in this work. The results in terms of noise, conversion gain, dynamic range, obtained by means of infrared laser and X-rays, will be shown. In particular, the effects of the strip-to-strip coupling are studied in detail and it is found that the reduction of the coupling effects is one of the key factors for the development of the analogue front-end of Gotthard-II.

  2. Processing of Radiation Hard Particle Detectors on Czochralski Silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Tuovinen, Esa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the radiation hardness of particle detectors. Silicon detectors are cost-effective andhave an excellent spatial resolution. Therefore, they are widely used in many high-energy physics experiments. It is knownthat oxygen improves the radiation hardness of silicon detectors. The natural way to have a high concentration of oxygen insilicon is to use magnetic Czochralski silicon (MCz-Si). MCz-Si has intrinsically a relatively uniform and high level ofoxygen (5x10^17 cm^3) compared to regular float-zone silicon (FZ-Si). Such a level is hard to attain with other methods,namely the diffusion oxygenation of float-zone silicon.In the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and its potential upgrade, the luminosity and the fluencies of fast hadrons can be sohigh that detectors made of standard detector-grade FZ-Si might not survive the planned operating period. MCz-Si offers animprovement to the lifetime of particle detectors through improved radiation hardness.This thesis takes a process-orie...

  3. Radiation hard strip detectors on oxygenated silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Andricek, L; Moser, H G; Richter, R H

    2002-01-01

    Recent results of the RD48 (ROSE) collaboration suggest the usage of oxygen enriched silicon for sensors operated in the harsh radiation environment of future high luminosity experiments. To investigate if the anticipated beneficial properties are still present after full processing of the wafers, strip detectors for the innermost ring of the ATLAS forward region have been fabricated on oxygen enriched silicon by CiS, Germany. These sensors, together with sensors on standard and thin substrates, have been exposed to 3.10/sup 14/ 24 Ge V/c protons/cm/sup 2/ at the CERN PS. We are presenting here the comparison between the sensors based on the CV measurements and the investigation of the charge collection efficiency obtained with a /sup 90/Sr source and the analogue readout chip SCT128A. (13 refs).

  4. Silicon carbide devices for radiation hard applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMullin, P.G.; Barrett, D.L.; Hopkins, R.H.; Spitznagel, J.A. (Westinghouse Sciences and Technology Center, 1310 Beulah Road, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15235 (United States)); Powell, J.A. (NASA Lewis Research Center, 21000 Brookpark Road, Cleveland Ohio 44135 (United States)); Thome, F.V. (Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States))

    1993-01-15

    Silicon carbide has long been recognized as a favorable material for applications at high temperatures and in radiation environments, but device development has been hindered by lack of adequate substrates. This paper reviews the current Westinghouse material development effort aimed at the growth of high quality 6H boules and describes 6H SiC devices fabricated on Westinghouse substrates. MESFET and MOSFET transistors were made in a microwave power design layout. The MESFET and MOSFET transistors were subjected to a total gamma irradiation of 1 megaGray (100 megarad) and exhibited threshold voltage shifts of about 0.4 and 1.2 Volts respectively with little change in bulk material parameters.

  5. Silicon carbide devices for radiation hard applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullin, Paul G.; Barrett, Donovan L.; Hopkins, Richard H.; Spitznagel, John A.; Powell, J. Anthony; Thome, Frank V.

    1993-01-01

    Silicon carbide has long been recognized as a favorable material for applications at high temperatures and in radiation environments, but device development has been hindered by lack of adequate substrates. This paper reviews the current Westinghouse material development effort aimed at the growth of high quality 6H boules and describes 6H SiC devices fabricated on Westinghouse substrates. MESFET and MOSFET transistors were made in a microwave power design layout. The MESFET and MOSFET transistors were subjected to a total gamma irradiation of 1 megaGray (100 megarad) and exhibited threshold voltage shifts of about 0.4 and 1.2 Volts respectively with little change in bulk material parameters.

  6. Characterization of silicon microstrip sensors, front-end electronics, and prototype tracking detectors for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorokin, Iurii

    2013-07-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment will explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter in the region of high net baryonic densities. The matter at the extreme conditions will be studied in collisions of a heavy ion beam with a fixed heavy element target. The present work is devoted to the development of the main component of the CBM experiment - the Silicon Tracking System (STS). The STS has to enable reconstruction of up to 1000 charged particle tracks per nucleus-nucleus interaction at the rate of up to 10 MHz, provide a momentum resolution Δp/p of 1 %, and withstand the radiation load of up to 10{sup 14} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} (n{sub eq}-neutron equivalent). The STS will be based on double-sided silicon microstrip sensors, that will be arranged in 8 planes in the aperture of the dipole magnet. Selftriggering readout electronics will be located on the periphery of the detecting planes, and connected to the sensors with low mass microcables. In the stage of R and D, as well as in the stages of pre-series and series production, characterization of the sensors, of the front-end electronics, and of the complete detector modules has to be performed. In the present work the required techniques were developed, and the performance of the latest detector prototypes was evaluated. A particular attention is paid to evaluation of the signal amplitude, as it is one of the most important detector characteristics. Techniques for measuring the passive electrical characteristics of the sensors were developed. These include: the coupling and the interstrip capacitances, the interstrip resistance, the bias resistance, the strip leakage current, the bulk capacitance, and the bulk leakage current. The techniques will be applied for the quality assurance of the sensors during the pre-series and the series production. Extensive characterization of the prototype readout chip, n-XYTER, was performed. The register settings were optimized, and the dependence of the

  7. Hardness and thermal stability of cubic silicon nitride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Kragh, Flemming; Frost, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    The hardness and thermal stability of cubic spinel silicon nitride (c-Si3N4), synthesized under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions, have been studied by microindentation measurements, and x-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively The phase at ambient...... temperature has an average hardness of 35.31 GPa, slightly larger than SiO2 stishovite, which is often referred to as the third hardest material after diamond and cubic boron nitride. The cubic phase is stable up to 1673 K in air. At 1873 K, alpha -and beta -Si3N4 phases are observed, indicating a phase...

  8. Processing of microstrip detectors on Czochralski grown high resistivity silicon substrates

    CERN Document Server

    Härkönen, J; Tuovinen, E; Mehtälä, P; Lassila-Perini, K M; Ovchinnikov, V; Heikkilä, P; Ylikoski, M; Palmu, L; Kallijärvi, S; Nikkila, H; Anttila, O; Niinikoski, T O; Eremin, V; Ivanov, A; Verbitskaya, E

    2003-01-01

    We have processed large-area strip sensors on silicon wafers grown by the magnetic Czochralski (MCZ) method. The n-type MCZ silicon wafers manufactured by Okmetic Oyj have nominal resistivity of 900 Omega cm and oxygen concentration of less than 10 ppma. The Photoconductive Decay (PCD) measurements, current-voltage measurements and capacitance-voltage measurements were made to characterise the samples. The leakage current of 3 muA at 900 V bias voltage was measured on the 32.5 cm**2 detector. Detector depletion took place at about 420 V. According to PCD measurements, process induced contamination was effectively bound and neutralised by the oxygen present in Czochralski silicon. During the sample processing, the silicon resistivity increased in spite of the lack of specific donor- killing heat treatment.

  9. Investigation of design parameters and choice of substrate resistivity and crystal orientation for the CMS silicon microstrip detector

    CERN Document Server

    Braibant, S

    2000-01-01

    The electrical characteristics ( interstrip and backplane capacitance, leakage current, depletion and breakdown voltage) of silicon microstrip detectors were measured for strip pitches between 60 um and 240 um and various strip implant and metal widths on multi-geometry devices. Both AC and DC coupled devices wereinvestigated. Measurements on detectors were performed before and after irradiation with 24 GeV/c protons up to a fluence of 4.1x10E14 cm-2. We found that the total strip capacitance can be parametrized as a linear function of the ratio of the implant width over the read-out pitch only. We found a significant increase in the interstrip capacitance after radiation on detectors with standard <111> crystal orientation but not on sensors with <100> crystal orientation. We analyzed the measured depletion voltages as a function of the detector geometrical parameters ( read-out pitch, strip width and substrate thickness) found in the literature and we found a linear dependence in...

  10. The front-end amplifier for the silicon microstrip sensors of the PANDA MVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Pietro, Valentino; Brinkmann, Kai-Thomas; Riccardi, Alberto [II. Physikalisches Institut, JLU Giessen (Germany); Rivetti, Angelo; Rolo, Manuel [INFN Sezione di Torino (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    The most common readout systems designed for the nuclear physics detectors are based on amplitude measurements. The information that needs to be preserved is the charge delivered by a particle hitting the sensor. The electronic chain employed in these cases is made from two main building blocks: front-end amplifier and ADC. One of the issues associated with the implementation of such an architecture in scaled CMOS technologies is the dynamic range, because the charge information is extrapolated through the sampling of the peak of the front-end output signal. It is therefore interesting to explore the possibility of using time-based architectures offering better performances from that point of view. In fact, in these topologies the linearity between the charge and the signal duration can be maintained even if some building blocks in the chain saturate. The main drawback is the loss in resolution since a duration measurement involves the difference between two time measurements. This work will present the design of a front-end optimized for fast Time-over-Threshold applications. The circuit has been developed for the microstrip detectors of the PANDA experiment. The key features of the front-end amplifier are illustrated and both schematic level, and post-layout simulations are discussed.

  11. Porous Silicon Nanocomposites with Combined Hard and Soft Magnetic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpf, Klemens; Granitzer, Petra; Michor, Herwig

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic nanostructures of two ferromagnetic metals have been combined within porous silicon, and the magnetic switching behavior of the resulting porous silicon/metal nanocomposite has been modified by varying the arrangement. The two magnetic materials are Ni and Co, whereas Co is the magnetic harder one. These "hard/soft" magnetic nanocomposites have been achieved by two different routes. On the one hand, double-sided porous silicon has been used whereas one side has been filled with Ni nanostructures and the other one with Co nanostructures. On the other hand, Ni and Co have been deposited within one porous layer alternatingly. The filling of the pores has been carried out by electrodeposition with varying the deposition parameters. In systems which offer two distinct slopes of the hysteresis curves due to the different saturation behavior of the two types of deposited metal, magnetic exchange coupling is not present. For samples which show smooth hysteresis curves exchange, coupling between the Ni and Co nanostructures seems to be present. The aim is to control especially the structure size of the soft and the hard magnetic materials and the distance between them at the nanoscale to optimize exchange coupling resulting in a maximum energy product.

  12. Improvement in breakdown characteristics with multiguard structures in microstrip silicon detectors for CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bacchetta, N; Candelori, A; Da Rold, M; Descovich, M; Kaminski, A; Messineo, A; Rizzo, F; Verzellesi, G

    2001-01-01

    To obtain full charge collection the CMS silicon detectors should be able to operate at high bias voltage. We observed that multiguard structures enhance the breakdown performance of the devices on several tens of baby detectors designed for CMS. The beneficial effects of the multiguard structures still remains after the strong neutron irradiation performed to simulate the operation at the LHC. (3 refs).

  13. Improvement in breakdown characteristics with multiguard structures in microstrip silicon detectors for CMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Candelori, A.; Da Rold, M.; Descovich, M.; Kaminski, A.; Messineo, A.; Rizzo, F.; Verzellesi, G.

    2001-04-01

    To obtain full charge collection the CMS silicon detectors should be able to operate at high bias voltage. We observed that multiguard structures enhance the breakdown performance of the devices on several tens of baby detectors designed for CMS. The beneficial effects of the multiguard structures still remains after the strong neutron irradiation performed to simulate the operation at the LHC.

  14. Characterisation of micro-strip and pixel silicon detectors before and after hadron irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Allport, P.P

    2012-01-01

    The use of segmented silicon detectors for tracking and vertexing in particle physics has grown substantially since their introduction in 1980. It is now anticipated that roughly 50,000 six inch wafers of high resistivity silicon will need to be processed into sensors to be deployed in the upgraded experiments in the future high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) at CERN. These detectors will also face an extremely severe radiation environment, varying with distance from the interaction point. The volume of required sensors is large and their delivery is required during a relatively short time, demanding a high throughput from the chosen suppliers. The current situation internationally, in this highly specialist market, means that security of supply for large orders can therefore be an issue and bringing additional potential vendors into the field can only be an advantage. Semiconductor companies that could include planar sensors suitable for particle physics in their product lines will, however, need to prove their pro...

  15. Thick silicon microstrip detectors simulation for PACT: Pair and Compton Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, M.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Tatischeff, V.; Dolgorouky, Y.; Bertoli, W.; Breelle, E.

    2016-11-01

    PACT is a space borne Pair and Compton Telescope that aims to make a sensitive survey of the gamma-ray sky between 100 keV and 100 MeV. It is based upon two main components: a silicon-based gamma-ray tracker and a crystal-based calorimeter. In this paper we will explain the imaging technique of PACT as a Multi-layered Compton telescope (0.1-10 MeV) and its major improvements over its predecessor COMPTEL. Then we will present a simulation study to optimize the silicon tracker of PACT. This tracker is formed of thousands of identical silicon double sided strip detectors (DSSDs). We have developed a simulation model (using SILVACO) to simulate the DSSD performance while varying its thickness, impurity concentration of the bulk material, electrode pitch, and electrode width. We will present a comprehensive overview of the impact of each varied parameter on the DSSD performance, in view of the application to PACT. The considered DSSD parameters are its depletion voltage, capacitance, and leakage current. After the selection of the PACT DSSD, we will present a simulation of the performance of the PACT telescope in the 0.1-10 MeV range.

  16. Thick silicon microstrip detectors simulation for PACT: Pair and Compton Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, M., E-mail: khalilmohammad@hotmail.com [APC Laboratory, 10rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F. [APC Laboratory, 10rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); CEA, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Tatischeff, V. [CSNSM, IN2P3/CNRSand Paris-Sud University, 91405 Orsay Campus (France); Dolgorouky, Y.; Bertoli, W.; Breelle, E. [APC Laboratory, 10rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2016-11-01

    PACT is a space borne Pair and Compton Telescope that aims to make a sensitive survey of the gamma-ray sky between 100 keV and 100 MeV. It is based upon two main components: a silicon-based gamma-ray tracker and a crystal-based calorimeter. In this paper we will explain the imaging technique of PACT as a Multi-layered Compton telescope (0.1–10 MeV) and its major improvements over its predecessor COMPTEL. Then we will present a simulation study to optimize the silicon tracker of PACT. This tracker is formed of thousands of identical silicon double sided strip detectors (DSSDs). We have developed a simulation model (using SILVACO) to simulate the DSSD performance while varying its thickness, impurity concentration of the bulk material, electrode pitch, and electrode width. We will present a comprehensive overview of the impact of each varied parameter on the DSSD performance, in view of the application to PACT. The considered DSSD parameters are its depletion voltage, capacitance, and leakage current. After the selection of the PACT DSSD, we will present a simulation of the performance of the PACT telescope in the 0.1–10 MeV range.

  17. Testbeam studies of silicon microstrip sensor architectures modified to facilitate detector module mass production

    CERN Document Server

    Poley, Anne-luise; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    For the High Luminosity Upgrade of the LHC, the Inner Detector of the ATLAS detector will be replaced by an all-silicon tracker, consisting of pixel and strip sensor detector modules. Silicon strip sensors are being developed to meet both the tracking requirements in a high particle density environment and constraints imposed by the construction process. Several thousand wire bonds per module, connecting sensor strips and readout channels, need to be produced with high reliability and speed, requiring wire bond pads of sufficient size on each sensor strip. These sensor bond pads change the local sensor architecture and the resulting electric field and thus alter the sensor performance. These sensor regions with bond pads, which account for up to 10 % of a silicon strip sensor, were studied using both an electron beam at DESY and a micro-focused X-ray beam at the Diamond Light Source. This contribution presents measurements of the effective strip width in sensor regions where the structure of standard parallel...

  18. Digital Radiography of Mammographic Phantoms and Biologic Samples Using a 64 Microstrips Crystalline Silicon Detector Coupled to the RX64 ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, A.; Montaño, L. M.; Díaz, C. C.; Ortiz, C. M.; Padilla, F.; de la Mora, R.; Fontaine, M.; Cabal, A.; Piñera, I.; Abreu, Y.; Cruz, C. M.

    2008-08-01

    The present paper synthesizes the results obtained in the evaluation of a 64 microstrips crystalline silicon detector coupled to RX64 ASIC, designed for high-energy physics experiments, as a useful X-ray detector in advanced medical radiography, specifically in digital mammography. Research includes the acquisition of two-dimensional radiography of a mammography phantom using the scanning method, and the comparison of experimental profile with mathematically simulated one. The paper also shows the experimental images of three biological samples taken from breast biopsies, where it is possible to identify the presence of possible pathological tissues.

  19. A binary readout chip for silicon microstrip detector in proton imaging application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipala, V.; Bruzzi, M.; Bondì, M.; Bonanno, D.; Cadeddu, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Civinini, C.; Cuttone, G.; Lai, A.; Leonora, E.; Lo Presti, D.; Maccioni, G.; Pallotta, S.; Randazzo, N.; Scaringella, M.; Talamonti, C.; Tesi, M.; Vanzi, E.

    2017-01-01

    The mixed-signal PRIMA-chip has been developed for sensitive-position silicon detector in proton imaging application. The chip is based upon the binary readout architecture which, providing fully parallel signal processing, is a good solution for high intensity radiation application. It includes 32-front-end channels with a charge preamplifier, a shaper and a comparator. In order to adjust the comparator thresholds, each channel contains a 8-bit DAC, programmed using an I2C like interface. The PRIMA-chip has been fabricated using the AMS 0.35 μm standard CMOS process and its performances have been tested coupling it to the detectors used in the tracker assembled for the pCT (proton Computed Tomography) apparatus.

  20. A comparison on radiation tolerance of microstrip detectors built on <1 0 0> and <1 1 1> silicon substrates after proton irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Fiore, L; My, S; Radicci, V; Selvaggi, G; Tempesta, P

    2002-01-01

    A comparative study on silicon microstrip detectors of the same geometry built on low resistivity and high resistivity substrates has been carried out. Leakage current, depletion voltage and interstrip capacitance have been measured before and after irradiation with 34 MeV protons at regular intervals during the beneficial annealing period. The samples were irradiated at four different fluences up to approx =2x10 sup 1 sup 4 n/cm sup 2. The measurements after irradiation show that leakage current does not depend on substrate resistivity and crystal orientation. Above type inversion also, the depletion voltage does not depend substantially on the initial resistivity. The interstrip capacitance is damaged both for and silicon substrates, even if in the first case the interstrip capacitance increase is lower, as expected from the known difference in charge trapping effects. The results of this work are compared with previous measurements performed on identical structures irradiated with neutrons.

  1. Development and evaluation of test stations for the quality assurance of the silicon micro-strip detector modules for the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poettgens, M.

    2007-11-22

    CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) is one of four large-scale detectors which will be operated at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN). For the search for new physics the reconstruction of the collision products and their properties is essential. In the innermost part of the CMS detector the traces of ionizing particles are measured utilizing a silicon tracker. A large fraction of this detector is equipped with silicon micro-strip modules which provide a precise space resolution in 1-dimension. A module consists of a sensor for detection of particles, the corresponding read-out electronics (hybrid) and a mechanical support structure. Since the 15,148 modules, which will be installed in the silicon micro-strip detector, have a total sensitive surface area of about 198 m{sup 2}, the inner tracker of CMS is the largest silicon tracking detector, which has ever been built. While the sensors and hybrids are produced in industry, the construction of the modules and the control of the quality is done by the members of the 21 participating institutes. Since the access to the silicon micro-strip tracker will be very limited after the installation in the CMS detector the installed modules must be of high quality. For this reason the modules are thoroughly tested and the test results are uploaded to a central database. By the development of a read-out system and the corresponding software the III. Physikalisches Institut made an important contribution for the electrical and functional quality control of hybrids and modules. The read-out system provides all features for the operation and test of hybrids and modules and stands out due to high reliability and simple handling. Because a very user-friedly and highly automated software it became the official test tool and was integrated in various test stands. The test stands, in which the read-out system is integrated in, are described and the tests which are implemented in the

  2. Parameters optimization, microstructure and micro-hardness of silicon carbide laser deposited on titanium alloy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adebiyia, DI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Silicon carbide (SiC), has excellent mechanical properties such as high hardness and good wear resistance, and would have been a suitable laser-coating material for titanium alloy to enhance the poor surface hardness of the alloy. However, SiC has...

  3. First prototype of a silicon microstrip detector with the data-driven readout chip FSSR2 for a tracking-based trigger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinardo, M.E. [INFN and Universita degli Studi di Milan (Italy); Cardoso, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (United States); Hoff, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (United States); Manghisoni, M. [INFN Pavia and Universita degli Studi di Bergamo (Italy)]. E-mail: massimo.manghisoni@unibg.it; Mekkaoui, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (United States); Moroni, L. [INFN and Universita degli Studi di Milan (Italy); Ratti, L. [INFN Pavia and Universita degli Studi di Pavia (Italy); Re, V. [INFN Pavia and Universita degli Studi di Bergamo (Italy); Valsecchi, F. [INFN and Universita degli Studi di Milan (Italy); Yarema, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (United States)

    2007-03-01

    We developed and characterized the first prototype of a silicon microstrip detector system to be used in the forward region (high rapidity) of high energy physics experiments. This detector features an innovative readout integrated circuit, the second version of the Fermilab Silicon Strip Readout chip (FSSR2), which, being completely data-driven, allows for the direct use of the detector information at the lowest level of the trigger. All the particle hits on the detector can be read out in real time without any external trigger and any particular limitation due to deadtime. The chip services 128 strips providing the address, the time-stamp and a 3 bit amplitude information for all hits. Several programmable features are included in the chip, such as an internal pulser, a baseline restorer, and a selectable signal peaking time and gain. The performance in terms of noise and threshold dispersion have been measured with and without sensor connected to the chip and at different values of peaking time and gain, confirming that the FSSR2 meets the design requirements. The electronic calibration has been crosschecked with a radioactive source of {sup 241}Am.

  4. Development and Evaluation of a Test System for the Quality Assurance during the Mass Production of Silicon Microstrip Detector Modules for the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Franke, Torsten

    2005-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of four large-scale experiments that is going to be installed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN). For CMS an inner tracking system entirely equipped with silicon microstrip detectors was chosen. With an active area of about 198 m2 it will be the largest tracking device of the world that was ever constructed using silicon sensors. The basic components in the construction of the tracking system are approximately 16,000 so-called modules, which are pre-assembled units consisting of the sensors, the readout electronics and a support structure. The module production is carried out by a cooperation of number of institutes and industrial companies. To ensure the operation of the modules within the harsh radiation environment extensive tests have to be performed on all components. An important contribution to the quality assurance of the modules is made by a test system of which all components were developed in Aachen. In ad...

  5. Measurement of the Inclusive $b$-jet cross section in $p\\bar{p}$ collisions at CDF RunII and Development of silicon microstrip detectors for the ATLAS silicon tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Onofrio, Monica [Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland)

    2005-01-01

    In the past twenty years, the study of events with bottom quark has led to many important Tevatron results- as the discovery of the top quark- and it will be as well crucial at the LHC for the search of new physics phenomena. This analysis exploits the good tracking capabilities of the detector and relies on b-jet identification made by secondary vertex reconstruction. The study of the Inner Tracker system performance and in particular the Semi conductor Tracker (SCT), can be considered one of the fundamental issues in the construction of the apparatus. The second part of this thesis work reports some of the crucial tests performed during the development of the silicon microstrip detectors composing the SCT.

  6. Radiation-hard silicon photonics for high energy physics and beyond

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Silicon photonics (SiPh) is currently being investigated as a promising technology for future radiation hard optical links. The possibility of integrating SiPh devices with electronics and/or silicon particle sensors as well as an expected very high resistance against radiation damage make this technology particularly interesting for potential use close to the interaction points in future in high energy physics experiments and other radiation-sensitive applications. The presentation will summarize the outcomes of the research on radiation hard SiPh conducted within the ICE-DIP projected.

  7. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Crystal Orientation and Temperature Influences in the Hardness on Monocrystalline Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A nanoindentation simulation using molecular dynamic (MD method was carried out to investigate the hardness behavior of monocrystalline silicon with a spherical diamond indenter. In this study, Tersoff potential was used to model the interaction of silicon atoms in the specimen, and Morse potential was used to model the interaction between silicon atoms in the specimen and carbon atoms in the indenter. Simulation results indicate that the silicon in the indentation zone undergoes phase transformation from diamond cubic structure to body-centred tetragonal and amorphous structure upon loading of the diamond indenter. After the unloading of the indenter, the crystal lattice reconstructs, and the indented surface with a residual dimple forms due to unrecoverable plastic deformation. Comparison of the hardness of three different crystal surfaces of monocrystalline silicon shows that the (0 0 1 surface behaves the hardest, and the (1 1 1 surface behaves the softest. As for the influence of the indentation temperature, simulation results show that the silicon material softens and adhesiveness of silicon increases at higher indentation temperatures.

  8. Influences of Silicon on Properties of Hard Drawn Aluminium Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu XueXia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Influences of Si content on the tensile strength and electrical resistivity of hard drawn aluminium wire were studied in this paper. It showed that the electrical resistivity and tensile strength of the wire improved with the increase of Si content, and trace content of Si led to significant increase of the electrical resistivity. It was analyzed that Fe dissolved in the α(Al matrix in form of supersaturated solid solution and its solid solubility was about 0.03%. Similarly Si dissolved in α(Al in form of solid solution when its content was low, and with the content increased to certain content, redundant Si would precipitate as secondary phase transforming from AlFe binary compound to AlFeSi ternary intermetallic compound of α(Al12Fe3Si2 then β(Al9Fe2Si2 phase.

  9. The nanoindentation behaviour of hard and soft films on silicon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beegan, D.; Chowdhury, S.; Laugier, M.T

    2004-11-01

    Carbon nitride and copper films of thickness 550 and 400 nm, respectively have been sputter deposited on silicon substrates. The indentation behaviour of these films is investigated by analysis of the load-displacement curves and by imaging of the residual indents. The Oliver and Pharr method is used to calculate the hardness from the load-displacement curve, while the contact area measured by atomic force microscopy is used in the traditional hardness equation: H=P/A. The carbon nitride films exhibited neither pile-up nor sink-in behaviour and the hardnesses determined by both methods are very similar. The copper films showed pile-up at the indent edges at nearly all loads, and there is then a large difference between the hardness values measured by the two methods. Both films show the effect of the substrate on the hardness values as the indentation depth increases. In order to distinguish the 'true' film hardness from the measured composite hardness, Korsunksy's composite hardness model is applied.

  10. Radiation hardness of silicon detectors manufactured on epitaxial material and FZ bulk enriched with oxygen, carbon, tin and platinum

    CERN Document Server

    Ruzin, A; Glaser, M; Lemeilleur, F; Talamonti, R; Watts, S; Zanet, A

    1999-01-01

    Recent results on the radiation hardness of silicon detectors fabricated on epitaxial and float zone bulk silicon enriched by various impurities, such as carbon, oxygen, tin and platinum are reported. A new methodology of measurements of electrical properties of the devices has been utilized in the experiment. It has been shown that in the case of irradiation by protons, oxygen enriched silicon has better radiation hardness than standard float zone silicon. The carbon enriched silicon detectors, on the other hand, exhibited significantly inferior radiation hardness compared to standard detectors. This study shows for the first time, a violation of the widely used normalization technique of the various particle irradiations by NIEL coefficients. The study has been carried out in the framework of the RD48 (ROSE) collaboration, which studies the radiation hardening of silicon detectors. (5 refs).

  11. Studies of the radiation hardness of oxygen-enriched silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Ruzin, A; Glaser, M; Lemeilleur, F

    1999-01-01

    Detectors of high-energy particles sustain substantial structural defects induced by the particles during the operation period. Some of the defects have been found to be electrically active, degrading the detector's performance. Understanding the mechanisms of the electrical activities and learning to suppress their influence are essential if long 'lifetime' detectors are required. This work report s about radiation hardness of silicon P-I-N devices fabricated from oxygen-enriched, high-resistivity material. The high and nearly uniform concentration of oxygen in float-zone silicon has been achie ved by diffusion of oxygen from SiO2 layers.

  12. Hardness evaluation of prosthetic silicones containing opacifiers following chemical disinfection and accelerated aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Coelho Goiato

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of disinfection and aging on the hardness of silicones containing opacifiers and intended for use in facial prosthetics. A total of 90 samples were produced using a cylindrical metal mold 3 mm in height and 30 mm in diameter. The samples were fabricated from Silastic MDX 4-4210 silicone in three groups: GI contained no opacifier, GII contained barium sulfate (Ba, and GIII contained titanium dioxide (Ti. The samples were disinfected using effervescent tablets (Ef, neutral soap (Ns, or 4% chlorhexidine (Cl 3 times a week for 60 days. After this period the samples underwent 1,008 hours of accelerated aging. The hardness was measured using a durometer immediately following the disinfection period and after 252, 504, and 1,008 hours of aging. The data were statistically analyzed using 3-way ANOVA and the Tukey test (p < .05. The GIII group exhibited the greatest variation in hardness regardless of elapsed time. All groups displayed greater hardness after 1,008 hours of accelerated aging independent of disinfectant type. All of the hardness values were within the clinically acceptable range.

  13. Defect analysis of silicon detectors made of different materials for radiation hardness

    CERN Document Server

    Dezillie, B; Li, Z

    1999-01-01

    A comparative study of the radiation hardness of single pad detectors, manufactured from standard float-zone (FZ) and epitaxial (Epi) n-type monocrystal silicon with comparable initial resistivity is presented. Detectors 2processed from FZ and Epi material with a low (400 OMEGA cm and 500 OMEGA cm) and a high (approx 2 k OMEGA cm) initial resistivity have been irradiated up to 4x10 sup 1 sup 4 n/cm sup 2 and measured under the same conditions in order to study the influence of the initial resistivity on the detector radiation hardness.

  14. Hyperon production in proton-nucleus collisions at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s{sub NN}) = 41.6 GeV at HERA-B and design of silicon microstrip detectors for tracking at LHCb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agari, Michaela

    2006-07-01

    The topics of this thesis are the measurements of hyperon production in protonnucleus collisions at {radical}(s)=41.6 GeV with the Hera-B detector located at DESY, Hamburg (Germany), and the design of silicon microstrip sensors for the LHCb experiment at CERN, Geneva (Switzerland). {lambda}, {xi} and {omega} hyperons and their antiparticles were reconstructed from 113.5 . 10{sup 6} inelastic collisions of protons with fixed carbon, titanium and tungsten targets. With these samples, antiparticle-to-particle ratios, cross sections integrated for the accessible kinematic region of Hera-B and single differential cross sections as function of transverse momentum, d{sigma}/dp{sub T}{sup 2} (for {lambda} and {xi}) and rapidity, d{sigma}/dy (for {lambda} only), have been been measured as well as the dependence of these quantities on the atomic number of the target nucleus, as parameterized using the Glauber model. The obtained ratios follow the same trend as found for the energy dependence of measurements from nucleus-nucleus collisions. Silicon microstrip sensors have been designed for the tracking system of the LHCb detector. Evaluating the performance in beam tests at CERN, the strip geometry and sensor thickness were varied optimizing for a large signal-to-noise ratio, a small number of read-out channels and a low occupancy. The detector is currently being built to be operational for first proton-proton collisions in autumn 2007. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of hardness and surface roughness of two maxillofacial silicones following disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Coelho Goiato

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Shore A hardness and surface roughness of two silicones for maxillofacial prosthetic treatment, under the influence of chemical disinfection and storage. Twenty-eight specimens were obtained, half of which were made of Silastic MDX 4-4210 silicone and, the other half were made of Silastic 732 RTV silicone. The specimens were divided into four groups: Silastic 732 RTV and MDX 4-4210 with disinfection 3 times a week with Efferdent tablets and the same materials without disinfection. The hardness of the materials was analyzed with a Shore A Durometer. The surface roughness was established by a digital portable roughness tester, initially and 2 months after the confection of the specimens. A variance test was applied (2-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey test (the level of significance was set at 1%. The storage time factor statistically influenced (p < 0.01 the materials' properties of hardness and roughness. MDX 4-4210 (28.59 Shore A, 0.789 Ra presented higher values than Silastic 732 RTV (18.08 Shore A, 0.656 Ra for both properties. Regarding the disinfection period, there was no significant difference in any of the materials tested.

  16. Collected charge and Lorentz angle measurement on non-irradiated ATLAS silicon micro-strip sensors for the HL-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildirim, Eda

    2017-02-15

    In this thesis, the collected charge and the Lorentz angle on non-irradiated and the irradiated miniature of the current test silicon micro-strip sensors (ATLAS12) of the future ATLAS inner tracker are measured. The samples are irradiated up to 5 x 10{sup 15} 1 MeV n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} and some of them also measured after short-term annealing (80 min at 60 C). The measurements are performed at the DESY II test beam, which provides the advantage of tracking to suppress noise hits. The collected charge is measured at various bias voltages for each sample. The results are compared with the measurements performed using a Sr{sup 90} radioactive source. It is shown that the measurements with beam and radioactive source are consistent with each other, and the advantage of tracking at the beam measurements provides the measurement of collected charge on highly irradiated sensors at lower bias voltages. The Lorentz angle is measured for each sample at different magnetic field strengths between 0 T and 1 T, the results are extrapolated to 2 T, which is the magnetic field in the inner tracker of the ATLAS detector. Most of the measurements are performed at -500 V bias voltage, which is the planned operation bias voltage of the future strip tracker. Some samples are also measured at different bias voltages to observe the effect of bias voltage on the Lorentz angle. The signal reconstruction of the strip sensors are performed using the lowest possible signal-to-noise thresholds. For non-irradiated samples, the measured Lorentz angle agrees with the prediction of the BFK model. On the irradiated samples, the results suggest that the Lorentz angle decreases with increasing bias voltage due to the increasing electric field in the sensor. The Lorentz angle decreases with increasing irradiation level; however, if the sample is under-depleted, the effect of electric field dominates and the Lorentz angle increases. Once the irradiation level becomes too high, hence the collected charge

  17. Coplanar, Microstrips and Coupled Microstrip Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bent Poul

    1995-01-01

    In the accessible literature is applied simplified calculation methods for coupled microstrips, as give a fair decision of the characteristic impedances within 10-20% accuracy. In this report it is succeeded to appear calculation methods that give the desired exactly calculations of differential...... mode impedance (identical to 2x odd mode impedance) and commom mode impedance (identical to 1/2x even mode impedance). The conformal mapping with Schwarz-Christoffel formula give no possibility for the inverse functions for a synthesis optimization. For that reason there is calculated figures, who can...... be used for stipulation of strip dimensions within 4% precision, referred to produced coupled microstrips and measured impedances. The report is initiated with exactly calculation of impedances for coplanar strips and microstrips, because these calculations apply to the calculations of coupled microstrips....

  18. Radiation hard silicon detectors - developments by the RD48 (ROSE) collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstroem, G. E-mail: gunnar.lindstroem@desy.de; Ahmed, M.; Albergo, S.; Allport, P.; Anderson, D.; Andricek, L.; Angarano, M.M.; Augelli, V.; Bacchetta, N.; Bartalini, P.; Bates, R.; Biggeri, U.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Boemi, D.; Borchi, E.; Botila, T.; Brodbeck, T.J.; Bruzzi, M.; Budzynski, T.; Burger, P.; Campabadal, F.; Casse, G.; Catacchini, E.; Chilingarov, A.; Ciampolini, P.; Cindro, V.; Costa, M.J.; Creanza, D.; Clauws, P.; Da Via, C.; Davies, G.; De Boer, W.; Dell' Orso, R.; De Palma, M.; Dezillie, B.; Eremin, V.; Evrard, O.; Fallica, G.; Fanourakis, G.; Feick, H.; Focardi, E.; Fonseca, L.; Fretwurst, E.; Fuster, J.; Gabathuler, K.; Glaser, M.; Grabiec, P.; Grigoriev, E.; Hall, G.; Hanlon, M.; Hauler, F.; Heising, S.; Holmes-Siedle, A.; Horisberger, R.; Hughes, G.; Huhtinen, M.; Ilyashenko, I.; Ivanov, A.; Jones, B.K.; Jungermann, L.; Kaminsky, A.; Kohout, Z.; Kramberger, G.; Kuhnke, M.; Kwan, S.; Lemeilleur, F.; Leroy, C.; Letheren, M.; Li, Z.; Ligonzo, T.; Linhart, V.; Litovchenko, P.; Loukas, D.; Lozano, M.; Luczynski, Z.; Lutz, G.; MacEvoy, B.; Manolopoulos, S.; Markou, A.; Martinez, C.; Messineo, A.; Mikuz, M.; Moll, M.; Nossarzewska, E.; Ottaviani, G.; Oshea, V.; Parrini, G.; Passeri, D.; Petre, D.; Pickford, A.; Pintilie, I.; Pintilie, L.; Pospisil, S.; Potenza, R.; Raine, C.; Rafi, J.M.; Ratoff, P.N.; Richter, R.H.; Riedler, P.; Roe, S.; Roy, P.; Ruzin, A.; Ryazanov, A.I.; Santocchia, A.; Schiavulli, L.; Sicho, P.; Siotis, I.; Sloan, T.; Slysz, W.; Smith, K.; Solanky, M.; Sopko, B.; Stolze, K.; Sundby Avset, B.; Svensson, B.; Tivarus, C.; Tonelli, G.; Tricomi, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Valvo, G.; Vasilescu, A.; Vayaki, A.; Verbitskaya, E.; Verdini, P.; Vrba, V.; Watts, S.; Weber, E.R.; Wegrzecki, M.; Wegrzecka, I.; Weilhammer, P.; Wheadon, R.; Wilburn, C.; Wilhelm, I.; Wunstorf, R.; Wuestenfeld, J.; Wyss, J.; Zankel, K.; Zabierowski, P.; Zontar, D

    2001-07-01

    The RD48 (ROSE) collaboration has succeeded to develop radiation hard silicon detectors, capable to withstand the harsh hadron fluences in the tracking areas of LHC experiments. In order to reach this objective, a defect engineering technique was employed resulting in the development of Oxygen enriched FZ silicon (DOFZ), ensuring the necessary O-enrichment of about 2x10{sup 17} O/cm{sup 3} in the normal detector processing. Systematic investigations have been carried out on various standard and oxygenated silicon diodes with neutron, proton and pion irradiation up to a fluence of 5x10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} (1 MeV neutron equivalent). Major focus is on the changes of the effective doping concentration (depletion voltage). Other aspects (reverse current, charge collection) are covered too and the appreciable benefits obtained with DOFZ silicon in radiation tolerance for charged hadrons are outlined. The results are reliably described by the 'Hamburg model': its application to LHC experimental conditions is shown, demonstrating the superiority of the defect engineered silicon. Microscopic aspects of damage effects are also discussed, including differences due to charged and neutral hadron irradiation.

  19. Fabrication of Triangular Nanobeam Waveguide Networks in Bulk diamond Using Single-Crystal Silicon Hard Masks

    CERN Document Server

    Bayn, I; Li, L; Goldstein, J A; Schröder, T; Zhang, J; Chen, E H; Gaathon, O; Lu, M; Stein, A; Ruggiero, C A; Salzman, J; Kalish, R; Englund, D

    2014-01-01

    A scalable approach for integrated photonic networks in single-crystal diamond using triangular etching of bulk samples is presented. We describe designs of high quality factor (Q=2.51x10^6) photonic crystal cavities with low mode volume (Vm=1.062x({\\lambda}/n)^3), which are connected via waveguides supported by suspension structures with predicted transmission loss of only 0.05 dB. We demonstrate the fabrication of these structures using transferred single-crystal silicon hard masks and angular dry etching, yielding photonic crystal cavities in the visible spectrum with measured quality factors in excess of Q=3x103.

  20. Silicon-on-insulator field effect transistor with improved body ties for rad-hard applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwank, James R.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Draper, Bruce L.; Dodd, Paul E.

    2001-01-01

    A silicon-on-insulator (SOI) field-effect transistor (FET) and a method for making the same are disclosed. The SOI FET is characterized by a source which extends only partially (e.g. about half-way) through the active layer wherein the transistor is formed. Additionally, a minimal-area body tie contact is provided with a short-circuit electrical connection to the source for reducing floating body effects. The body tie contact improves the electrical characteristics of the transistor and also provides an improved single-event-upset (SEU) radiation hardness of the device for terrestrial and space applications. The SOI FET also provides an improvement in total-dose radiation hardness as compared to conventional SOI transistors fabricated without a specially prepared hardened buried oxide layer. Complementary n-channel and p-channel SOI FETs can be fabricated according to the present invention to form integrated circuits (ICs) for commercial and military applications.

  1. Radiation-hard Silicon Photonics for Future High Energy Physics Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2089774; Troska, Jan

    Collisions of proton beams in the Large Hadron Collider at CERN produce very high radiation levels in the innermost parts of the particle detectors and enormous amounts of measurement data. Thousands of radiation-hard optical links based on directly-modulated laser diodes are thus installed in the particle detectors to transmit the measurement data to the processing electronics. The radiation levels in the innermost regions of future particle detectors will be much higher than they are now. Alternative solutions to laser-based radiation-hard optical links have to be found since the performance of laser diodes decreases beyond the operation margin of the system when irradiated to sufficiently high radiation levels. Silicon Photonics (SiPh) is currently being investigated as a promising alternative technology. First tests have indeed shown that SiPh Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZMs) are relatively insensitive to a high neutron fluence. However, they showed a strong degradation when exposed to ionizing radiation. ...

  2. Correlation of structure and hardness of rf magnetron sputtered silicon carbonitride films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, A. S.; Mishra, S. K. [Materials Science and Technology Division, National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831007 (India); Mukherjee, S. [Department of Metallurgical and Material Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2010-07-15

    Ternary nanocomposite silicon carbonitride (Si-C-N) ceramic coatings have shown potential for wear resistance, oxidation resistance, hardness, tunable band gap, and chemical inertness applications. A systematic investigation on the deposition of Si-C-N nanocomposite coatings by sputtering under varying deposition conditions such as chamber pressure, substrate temperature by structural, nanoindentation, and microstructural studies of optimized condition has been presented. Significant role of different deposition parameter on the mechanical and structural properties were observed. The structural characterizations of the coatings were carried out using Fourier transformed infra red (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscope. An increase in argon-nitrogen pressure in the range of 1-5 Pa led to lowering of particle size and surface smoothening and growth of hard phases of {beta}-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and {beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. An increase in substrate temperature from room temperature to 500 deg. C led to nucleation and growth of hard phases of {beta}-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} in the amorphous Si-C-N matrix. The nanoindentation studies showed the variation in hardness and Young's modulus from 8 to 22 GPa and from 100 to 240 GPa, respectively, dependent on the deposition conditions. The FTIR studies confirmed the presence of C-N, Si-N, Si-Si, Si-O, and Si-C in different films.

  3. Design,construction and commissioning of a cylinder of double-sided silicon micro-strips detectors for the Star experiment at RHIC; Developpement et mise en oeuvre de detecteurs silicium a micropistes pour l'experience star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedon, M

    2005-05-15

    This study has been performed in the frame of quark gluon plasma physics research in the STAR experiment at RHIC. It deals with the design, the construction and the commissioning of a barrel of silicon-strip detectors (SSD). Added to the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) of the STAR detector, it extends the capabilities of track reconstruction for charged particles emitted in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. It also contributes to the general study of the quark-gluon plasma production undertaken at STAR. The SSD is a cylinder of 1 m long and of 23 cm radius, and it is composed of 320 compact identical modules. Each module includes one double-sided silicon micro-strip detector, 12 readout chips ALICE 128C, 12 TAB ribbons, 2 COSTAR control chips and 2 hybrids supporting all the components. The document explains why the SSD is an important and relevant element, and justifies the technological choices as well as their validation by in-beam characterization. All component functionalities, characteristics and test procedures are presented. The data and test results are stored in a database for tracing purpose. Component and module production is described. Two parallel studies have been performed, analysed and described. One on the temperature dependence of the module performances and the other one on the optimal adjustments of the analogue blocks inside the ALICE 128C chip. The SSD installation on the RHIC site as well as the commissioning are presented together with the first data takings. (author)

  4. Recent results on the development of radiation-hard diamond detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Conway, J S; Bauer, C; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Dabrowski, W; Da Graca, J; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Jamieson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Palmieri, V G; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Plano, R; Polesello, P; Prawer, S; Pretzl, Klaus P; Procario, M; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Schnetzer, S; Sciortino, S; Somalwar, S V; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R; Thomson, G B; Trawick, M; Trischuk, W; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; White, C; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M

    1999-01-01

    Charged particle detectors made from chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond have radiation hardness greatly exceeding that of silicon- based detectors. The CERN-based RD42 Collaboration has developed and tested CVD diamond microstrip and pixel detectors with an eye to their application in the intense radiation environment near the interaction region of hadron colliders. This paper presents recent results from tests of these detectors. (4 refs).

  5. Dependence of optical properties and hardness on carbon content in silicon carbonitride films deposited by plasma ion immersion processing technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afanasyev-Charkin, I.V.; Nastasi, M. E-mail: nasty@lanl.gov

    2003-05-01

    Materials with Si-C-N composition are of great interest due to their remarkable properties such as high hardness and oxidation resistance. In this study amorphous silicon nitride and silicon carbonitride films were deposited on glass, fused silica, and carbon substrates by the plasma immersion ion processing technique. Gas pressure during the deposition was kept around 0.13 Pa (1 mTorr) and SiH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}, Ar and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} gas mixtures were used. Film hardness, composition and UV-visible optical absorption were characterized using nanoindentation, ion beam analysis techniques, and UV-visible spectroscopy, respectively. The films exhibit high transparency in the visible and near UV regions. Addition of the carbon to the films causes decrease in the density of the films, as well as decrease in hardness and transparency. These results suggest that in the low energy regime of PIIP the deposition of hard carbon composites with nitrogen and silicon does not take place.

  6. Design and development of a vertex reconstruction for the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) data. Study of gaseous and silicon micro-strips detectors (MSGC); Conception d'un algorithme de reconstruction de vertex pour les donnees de CMS. Etude de detecteurs gazeux (MSGC) et silicium a micropistes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, St

    2002-12-01

    The work presented in this thesis has contributed to the development of the Compact Muon Solenoid detector (CMS) that will be installed at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which will start running in summer 2007. This report is organised in three parts: the study of gaseous detectors and silicon micro-strips detectors, and a development of a software for the reconstruction and analysis of CMS data in the framework of ORCA. First, the micro-strips gaseous detectors (MSGC) study was on the ultimate critical irradiation test before their substitution in the CMS tracker. This test showed a really small number of lost anodes and a stable signal to noise ratio. This test proved that the described MSGC fulfill all the requirements to be integrated in the CMS tracker. The following contribution described a study of silicon micro-strips detectors and its electronics exposed to a 40 MHz bunched LHC like beam. These tests indicated a good behaviour of the data acquisition and control system. The signal to noise ratio, the bunch crossing identification and the cluster finding efficiency had also be analysed. The last study concern the design and the development of an ORCA algorithm dedicates to secondary vertex reconstruction. This iterative algorithm aims to be use for b tagging. This part analyse also primary vertex reconstruction in events without and with pile up. (author)

  7. An Uncoventional Approach for a Straw Tube-Microstrip Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Basile, E.; Bellucci, F.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Caponero, M. A.; Colonna, D.; Di Falco, F.; Fabbri, F. L.; Felli, F.; Giardoni, M.; La Monaca, A.; Mensitieri, G.; Ortenzi, B.; Pallotta, M.

    2004-01-01

    We report on a novel concept of silicon microstrips and straw tubes detector, where integration is accomplished by a straw module with straws not subjected to mechanical tension in a Rohacell lattice and carbon fiber reinforced plastic shell. Results on mechanical and test beam performances are reported on as well.

  8. Frequency scanning microstrip antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Magnus; Jørgensen, Rolf

    1979-01-01

    The principles of using radiating microstrip resonators as elements in a frequency scanning antenna array are described. The resonators are cascade-coupled. This gives a scan of the main lobe due to the phase-shift in the resonator in addition to that created by the transmission line phase...

  9. Influence of adding nanoparticles on the hardness, tear strength, and permanent deformation of facial silicone subjected to accelerated aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobrega, Adhara S; Andreotti, Agda M; Moreno, Amália; Sinhoreti, Mário A C; Dos Santos, Daniela M; Goiato, Marcelo C

    2016-10-01

    The efficiency of adding nanoparticles to silicone protection has proven to prevent color degradation. However, reports of other physical property changes in facial silicone are scarce. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of adding nanoparticles on the hardness, tear strength, and permanent deformation of a facial silicone. Specimens were made for each test, with 140 for the hardness test, 140 for the permanent deformation test, but 280 for the rupture test. This higher number was due to the fact that the first 140 specimens were ruptured and unusable after the initial reading. ZnO, BaSO 4 , and TiO 2 nanoparticles at concentrations of 1% and 2% of silicone were used, as well as specimens without nanoparticles that consisted of only oil paint and of only silicone. Outcomes were measured before and after 1008 hours of accelerated aging. Data were analyzed by nested analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey honest significant differences test (α=.05). Results showed that the presence of nanoparticles influenced the properties of the assessed groups. The nanoparticles decreased hardness values. The highest values of tear strength were observed for the groups with addition of BaSO 4 . The 1% ZnO group without oil paint showed the lowest values of permanent deformation. Based on the findings of this in vitro study, the use of ZnO nanoparticles is recommended, since they did not negatively affect the properties of the materials evaluated. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The microstrip SQUID amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrien, Roy

    A Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDS) can operate at frequencies up to several GHz and can be cooled to less than 100 mK. Such characteristics make the SQUID---a flux-to-voltage transducer---an excellent candidate for use as a low-noise rf amplifier. Coupling of input signals of frequencies larger than 200 MHz, however, has been limited by the parasitic capacitance between the input coil and SQUID body. We present experimental observations of a do SQUID-based rf amplifier which circumvents this problem by incorporating the input coil as a microstrip resonator. The microstrip input configuration uses the capacitance and inductance of the input coil to form a resonant cavity capable of operating up to several GHz. The input signal is applied between the SQUID body and one end of the input coil, while the other end of the coil is left open. We present data from microstrip SQUID amplifiers with gains of up to 22 dB at 900 MHz. In order to understand the gain and input impedance of the microstrip SQUID in greater detail, we made and studied a 1:190 scale analog patterned on a double-sided printed circuit board consisting of copper deposited on a kapton sheet. The measured input impedance of the analog SQUID is successfully modeled by describing the microstrip input as a low-loss transmission line. When operated with the slit in the copper washer ground plane shorted, the input coil behaves exactly like a linear resonator with the resonant frequency given by f = 1/2ℓ(L 0C0)1/2, where L0 and C0 are the inductance and capacitance per unit length and ℓ is the coil length. With the slit in the washer left open, the inductance of the input coil is significantly altered in a manner partially consistent with the Ketchen-Jaycox model in which the reflected inductance of the input coil is Li = n2L, where L is the inductance of the washer loop and n is the number of turns in the coil. We present input impedance measurements on microstrip SQUIDs cooled to 4

  11. Studying signal collection in the punch-through protection area of a silicon micro-strip sensor using a micro-focused X-ray beam

    CERN Document Server

    Poley, Anne-luise; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    For the Phase-II Upgrade of the ATLAS detector, a new, all-silicon tracker will be constructed in order to cope with the increased track density and radiation level of the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider. While silicon strip sensors are designed to minimise the fraction of dead material and maximise the active area of a sensor, concessions must be made to the requirements of operating a sensor in a particle physics detector. Sensor geometry features like the punch-through protection deviate from the standard sensor architecture and thereby affect the charge collection in that area. In order to study the signal collection of silicon strip sensors over their punch-through-protection area, ATLAS silicon strip sensors were scanned with a micro-focused X-ray beam at the Diamond Light Source. Due to the highly focused X-ray beam ($\\unit[2\\times3]{\\upmu\\text{m}}^2$) and the short average path length of an electron after interaction with an X-ray photon ($\\unit[\\leq2]{\\upmu\\text{m}}$), local signal collection i...

  12. Pronounced Surface Band Bending of Thin-Film Silicon Revealed by Modeling Core Levels Probed with Hard X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wippler, David; Wilks, Regan G; Pieters, Bart E; van Albada, Sacha J; Gerlach, Dominic; Hüpkes, Jürgen; Bär, Marcus; Rau, Uwe

    2016-07-13

    Enhancing the probing depth of photoemission studies by using hard X-rays allows the investigation of buried interfaces of real-world device structures. However, it also requires the consideration of photoelectron-signal attenuation when evaluating surface effects. Here, we employ a computational model incorporating surface band bending and exponential photoelectron-signal attenuation to model depth-dependent spectral changes of Si 1s and Si 2s core level lines. The data were acquired from hydrogenated boron-doped microcrystalline thin-film silicon, which is applied in silicon-based solar cells. The core level spectra, measured by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy using different excitation energies, reveal the presence of a 0.29 nm thick surface oxide layer. In the silicon film a downward surface band bending of eVbb = -0.65 eV over ∼6 nm obtained via inverse modeling explains the observed core level shifts and line broadening. Moreover, the computational model allows the extraction of the "real" Si 1s and Si 2s bulk core level binding energies as 1839.13 and 150.39 eV, and their natural Lorentzian line widths as 496 and 859 meV, respectively. These values significantly differ from those directly extracted from the measured spectra. Because band bending usually occurs at material surfaces we highly recommend the detailed consideration of signal integration over depth for quantitative statements from depth-dependent measurements.

  13. Improving the radiation hardness properties of silicon detectors using oxygenated n-type and p-type silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Casse, G L; Hanlon, M

    2000-01-01

    The degradation of the electrical properties of silicon detectors exposed to 24 GeV/c protons were studied using pad diodes made from different silicon materials. Standard high-grade p-type and n-type substrates and oxygenated n-type substrates have been used. The diodes were studied in terms of reverse current (I/sub r/) and full depletion voltage (V/sub fd/) as a function of fluence. The oxygenated devices from different suppliers with a variety of starting materials and techniques, all show a consistent improvement of the degradation rate of V/sub fd/ and CCE compared to un- oxygenated substrate devices. Radiation damage of n-type detectors introduces stable defects acting as effective p-type doping and leads to the change of the conductivity type of the silicon bulk (type inversion) at a neutron equivalent fluence of a few 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -2/. The diode junction after inversion migrates from the original side to the back plane of the detector. The migration of the junction is avoided using silicon detec...

  14. Characterisation of silicon microstrip detectors for the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poley, Luise [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Blue, Andrew; Bates, Richard [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy; and others

    2016-03-15

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential through a sizable increase in the luminosity, totalling 1 x 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} after 10 years of operation. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at 3000 fb{sup -1}, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over 1 x 10{sup 16} 1 MeV neutrons per cm{sup 2}. With the addition of increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk). Two proposed detectors for the ATLAS strip tracker region of the ITk were characterized at the Diamond Light Source with a 3 μm FWHM 15 keV micro focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were a 320 μm thick silicon stereo (Barrel) ATLAS12 strip mini sensor wire bonded to a 130 nm CMOS binary readout chip (ABC130) and a 320 μm thick full size radial (Endcap) strip sensor - utilizing bi-metal readout layers - wire bonded to 250 nm CMOS binary readout chips (ABCN-25). Sub-strip resolution of the 74.5 μm strips was achieved for both detectors. Investigation of the p-stop diffusion layers between strips is shown in detail for the wire bond pad regions. Inter strip charge collection measurements indicate that the effective width of the strip on the silicon sensors is determined by p-stops regions between the strips rather than the strip pitch. The collected signal allowed for the identification of operating thresholds for both devices, making it possible to compare signal response between different versions of silicon strip detector modules.

  15. Effect of hard segments on the thermal and mechanical behaviour of a novel hybrid silicon thermoplastic elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiang; Lu, Hongchao; Deng, Bofu; Li, Li

    2017-07-01

    A novel hybrid organic silicon thermoplastic elastomer (Si-TPE) was copolymerized by adopting branched organic polysiloxane and diphenyl methane diisocyanate, and the thermal processing mechanism and the effect of hard segments on the thermal processability and mechanical properties of Si-TPE were studied. The results showed that Si-TPE presents excellent thermal processability ascribed to its reversible physical crosslinking, i.e. hydrogen bonding between NH-C=O of the hard chains, and could be stably thermally processed into different products including films, tubes, tapes and sheets at 160-180 °C. With increasing hard segment content, the hydrogen bonding in the system was enhanced, leading to increases in both the melt viscosity and the softening temperature of Si-TPE. Simultaneously, the mechanical properties of Si-TPE were improved. When the hard segments increased to 20.3%, the tensile strength and Young’s modulus of Si-TPE reached 13.4 MPa and 43.8 MPa, respectively.

  16. Optimisation of Microstrip Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. El Hamchary

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available When choosing the most appropriate microstrip antenna configuration for particular applications, the kind of excitation of the radiating element is an essential factor that requires careful considerations. For controlling the distribution of energy of the linear or planar array of elements and for coupling energy to the individual elements, a wide variety of feed mechanisms are available. In this paper, the coaxial antenna feeding is assumed and the best (optimised feeding is found. Then, antenna characteristics such as radiation pattern, return loss, input impedance, and VSWR are obtained.

  17. Simulation of signals in ultra radiation-hard silicon pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lari, Tommaso

    2004-01-01

    A detailed simulation of silicon pixel detectors irradiated to very high fluences, in the range foreseen for vertex detectors after the Large Hadron Collider luminosity upgrade, is presented. The charge collection properties and the detector response were computed for different silicon materials (standard float zone, diffusion oxygenated float zone, Czochralski, epitaxial silicon) and operating conditions. At the maximum fluence (10/sup 16/ n/sub eq/cm/sup -2/) the signal is limited by charge trapping rather than by the thickness of the active volume. Since all the silicon materials studied so far have a similar trapping cross section, they are all expected to collect a signal of 2000-2500 electrons at 600 V bias voltage. A detection threshold of 1000-1200 electrons is required in order to have a 97% detection efficiency.

  18. Foundations for microstrip circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Building on the success of the previous three editions, Foundations for Microstrip Circuit Design offers extensive new, updated and revised material based upon the latest research. Strongly design-oriented, this fourth edition provides the reader with a fundamental understanding of this fast expanding field making it a definitive source for professional engineers and researchers and an indispensable reference for senior students in electronic engineering. Topics new to this edition: microwave substrates, multilayer transmission line structures, modern EM tools and techniques, microstrip and planar transmision line design, transmission line theory, substrates for planar transmission lines, Vias, wirebonds, 3D integrated interposer structures, computer-aided design, microstrip and power-dependent effects, circuit models, microwave network analysis, microstrip passive elements, and slotline design fundamentals.

  19. Radiation hardness of silicon photomultipliers under {sup 60}Co γ-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagano, R. [Istituto per la Microelettronica e Microsistemi, Zona Industriale, Ottava Strada, 5, 95121, Catania (Italy); Lombardo, S., E-mail: salvatore.lombardo@imm.cnr.it [Istituto per la Microelettronica e Microsistemi, Zona Industriale, Ottava Strada, 5, 95121, Catania (Italy); Palumbo, F. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, 32000, Haifa (Israel); Sanfilippo, D.; Valvo, G.; Fallica, G. [STMicroelectronics, Stradale Primosole, 50, 95121, Catania (Italy); Libertino, S. [Istituto per la Microelettronica e Microsistemi, Zona Industriale, Ottava Strada, 5, 95121, Catania (Italy)

    2014-12-11

    Radiation damage in silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) caused by exposure to {sup 60}Co γ-rays is experimentally evaluated and discussed. SiPM devices were irradiated to doses up to 9.4 kGy. Dark current, dark count rate, gain, single photon counting capability, and cross-talk probability among SiPM pixels are evaluated as a function of irradiation dose.

  20. Investigation on the improved radiation hardness of silicon detectors with high oxygen concentration

    CERN Document Server

    Moll, Michael; Lindström, G

    2000-01-01

    We present an investigation on the influence of the oxygen concentration on radiation-induced changes in the effective doping concentration of silicon detectors. Diodes fabricated from silicon with interstitial oxygen content ranging from below 2*10/sup 14/ to 9*10/sup 17/ cm/sup -3/ have been irradiated with fast neutrons up to a fluence of 2*10/sup 15/ cm/sup -2/. Our main interest focused on the so-called stable damage component in the change of the effective doping concentration being of prime importance for the application of silicon detectors in high-energy physics experiments. We demonstrate, that with a high oxygen enrichment the donor removal is appreciably reduced, reaching a value of only 10601130f the initial doping concentration for [O/sub i/]=9*10/sup 17/ cm/sup -3/, while for normal detector grade material with [O/sub i/] below 5*10/sup 16/ cm /sup -3/ that value is 60-90Furthermore, we show that the fluence proportional introduction of stable acceptors is independent of the oxygen concentratio...

  1. Determination of adhesion between thermoplastic and liquid silicone rubbers in hard-soft-combinations via mechanical peeling test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühr, C.; Spörrer, A.; Altstädt, V.

    2014-05-01

    The production of hard-soft-combinations via multi injection molding gained more and more importance in the last years. This is attributed to different factors. One principle reason is that the use of two-component injection molding technique has many advantages such as cancelling subsequent and complex steps and shortening the process chain. Furthermore this technique allows the combination of the properties of the single components like the high stiffness of the hard component and the elastic properties of the soft component. Because of the incompatibility of some polymers the adhesion on the interface has to be determined. Thereby adhesion is not only influenced by the applied polymers, but also by the injection molding parameters and the characteristics of the mold. Besides already known combinations of thermoplastics with thermoplastic elastomers (TPE), there consists the possibility to apply liquid silicone rubber (LSR) as soft component. A thermoplastic/LSR combination gains in importance due to the specific advantages of LSR to TPE. The faintly adhesion between LSR and thermoplastics is currently one of the key challenges when dealing with those combinations. So it is coercively necessary to improve adhesion between the two components by adding an adhesion promoter. To determine the promoters influence, it is necessary to develop a suitable testing method to investigate e.g. the peel resistance. The current German standard "VDI Richtlinie 2019', which is actually only employed for thermoplastic/TPE combinations, can serve as a model to determine the adhesion of thermoplastic/LSR combinations.

  2. Effect of Silicon Nitride Incorporation on Microstructure and Hardness of Ni-Co Metal Matrix Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ni-Co-Si3N4 nanocomposite coatings were prepared by electrodeposition technique. The deposition was performed at 50 mA cm-2 on copper substrate. The working temperature of electrodepostion was constant at 500C in an acidic environment of pH 4. The effects of silicon in the nickel-cobalt metal matrix composite were investigated. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used to determine the composition. The Co content in the coatings is in the range 27-49 at.%. The phase present in the Ni-Co-Si3N4 were examined with an X-ray diffraction analysis. All the reflection patterns indicate that the coatings are having face-centered cubic (fcc structure. The microhardness of the Ni-Co-Si3N4 nanocomposite coating increases with increasing silicon content. The microhardness of the Ni-Co-Si3N4 nanocomposite coating increased from 549 HV for Nickel-cobalt alloy coating to 641 HV for Ni-Co-Si3N4 nanocomposite coating with 5.47 at.% Si.

  3. Comparison between rad-hard standard float zone (FZ) and magnetic Czochralski (MCZ) silicon diodes in radiotherapy electron beam dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, T.C. dos; Goncalves, J.A.C.; Vasques, M.M.; Tobias, C.C.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes; Neves-Junior, W.F.P.; Haddad, C.M.K. [Hospital Sirio Libanes, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Sociedade Beneficente de Senhoras; Harkonen, J. [Helsinki University of Technology (Denmark). Helsinki Inst. of Physics

    2010-07-01

    Full text. The use of semiconductor detectors has increased in radiotherapy practice since 1980s due to mainly their fast processing time, small sensitive volume and high relative sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Other major advantages of Si devices are excellent repeatability, good mechanical stability, high spatial resolution and the energy independence of mass collision stopping powers ratios (between silicon and water for electron beams with energy from 4 up to 20 MeV). However, ordinary silicon devices are very prone to radiation damage effects. In the last years, the development of radiation tolerant silicon detectors for High Energy Physics experiments has overcome this drawback. In this work we present the preliminary results obtained with a rad-hard epitaxial silicon diode as on-line clinical electron beam dosimeter. The diodes with 25 mm{sup 2} active area, were housed in a PMMA probe and connected, in a photovoltaic mode, to a Keithley 6517B electrometer. During all measurements, the diodes were held between PMMA plates, placed at Zref and centered in a radiation field of 10 cm x 10 cm, with the SSD kept at 100 cm. The devices dosimetric response was evaluated for 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 e 21 MeV electron beams from a Siemens KD 2 Radiotherapy Linear Accelerator, located at Sirio-Libanes Hospital. The radiation induced current in the diodes was registered as a function of the exposure time during 60 s for a fixed 300 MU. To study the short term repeatability, current signals were registered for the same radiation dose, for all energies. The dose-response of the diodes was achieved through the integration of the current signals as a function of the exposure time. The results obtained in the energy range of 6 up to 21 MeV evidenced that, for the same average dose rate of 5.0 cGy/s, the current signals are very stable and repeatable in both cases. For all energies, data shows good instantaneous repeatability with a percentage variation coefficient better than 2

  4. Radiation hardness and precision timing study of silicon detectors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter (HGC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currás, Esteban, E-mail: ecurrasr@cern.ch [CERN, Organisation europnne pour la recherche nucleaire, CH-1211 Genéve 23 (Switzerland); Instituto de Física de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Avda. los Castros s/n, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Fernández, Marcos [Instituto de Física de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Avda. los Castros s/n, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Gallrapp, Christian [CERN, Organisation europnne pour la recherche nucleaire, CH-1211 Genéve 23 (Switzerland); Gray, Lindsey [Fermilab, Wilson Street and Kirk Road, Batavia, IL 60510-5011, Illinois (United States); Mannelli, Marcello [CERN, Organisation europnne pour la recherche nucleaire, CH-1211 Genéve 23 (Switzerland); Meridiani, Paolo [Istituto Nazionale Di Fisica Nucleare – Sezione di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Moll, Michael [CERN, Organisation europnne pour la recherche nucleaire, CH-1211 Genéve 23 (Switzerland); Nourbakhsh, Shervin [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Scharf, Christian [Hamburg University, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Silva, Pedro [CERN, Organisation europnne pour la recherche nucleaire, CH-1211 Genéve 23 (Switzerland); Steinbrueck, Georg [Hamburg University, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Fatis, Tommaso Tabarelli de [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare – Sezione di Milano-Bicocca Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); Vila, Iván [Instituto de Física de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Avda. los Castros s/n, E-39005 Santander (Spain)

    2017-02-11

    The high luminosity upgraded LHC or Phase-II is expected to increase the instantaneous luminosity by a factor of 10 beyond the LHC's design value, expecting to deliver 250 fb{sup −1} per year for a further 10 years of operation. Under these conditions the performance degradation due to integrated radiation dose will need to be addressed. The CMS collaboration is planning to upgrade the forward calorimeters. The replacement is called the High Granularity Calorimeter (HGC) and it will be realized as a sampling calorimeter with layers of silicon detectors interleaved. The sensors will be realized as pad detectors with sizes of less that ∼1.0 cm{sup 2} and an active thickness between 100 and 300 μm depending on the position, respectively, the expected radiation levels. For an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb{sup −1}, the electromagnetic calorimetry will sustain integrated doses of 1.5 MGy (150 Mrads) and neutron fluences up to 10{sup 16} neq/cm{sup 2}. A radiation tolerance study after neutron irradiation of 300, 200, and 100 μm n-on-p and p-on-n silicon pads irradiated to fluences up to 1.6×10{sup 16} neq/cm{sup 2} is presented. The properties of these diodes studied before and after irradiation were leakage current, capacitance, charge collection efficiency, annealing effects and timing capability. The results of these measurements validate these sensors as candidates for the HGC system.

  5. Analysis of biconical microstrip antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Shafai, L.

    1992-12-01

    Biconical microstrip antennas having a conical patch over a conical substrate are investigated. Analytical expressions for the field distribution inside the conical cavity are developed in a spherical coordinate system and used to determine the eigenvalues of the resonant modes. It is found that, in addition to the axially symmetric modes, TE modes can also resonate which are asymmetric and dependent on the azimuthal angle. For coaxial probe excitation of the cavity its analytic expressions for the field components are determined and used to investigate the antenna input parameters and radiation patterns. The special case of a conical patch microstrip antenna with a planar substrate is also studied. It is shown that, in comparison with circular disk microstrip antennas, a conical patch yields a wider impedance bandwidth and higher gain.

  6. Radiation hardness and precision timing study of Silicon Detectors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL)

    CERN Document Server

    Curras Rivera, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    The high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC or Phase-II) is expected to increase the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC by a factor of about five, delivering about 250 fba-1 per year between 2025 and 2035. Under these conditions the performance degradation of detectors due to integrated radiation dose/fluence will need to be addressed. The CMS collaboration is planning to upgrade many components, including the forward calorimeters. The replacement for the existing endcap preshower, electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters is called the High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL) and it will be realized as a sampling calorimeter, including 30 layers of silicon detectors totalling 600m^2. The sensors will be realized as pad detectors with cell sizes of between 0.5-1.0 cm^2 and an active thickness between 100 um and 300 um depending on their location in the endcaps the thinner sensors will be used in the highest radiation environment. For an integrated luminosity of 3000 fba-1, the electromagnetic calorimetry will sustain integ...

  7. A measurement of Lorentz angle and spatial resolution of radiation hard silicon pixel sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorelov, I.; Gorfine, G.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Seidel, S.C.; Ciocio, A.; Einsweiler, K.; Gilchriese, M.; Joshi, A.; Kleinfelder, S.; Marchesini, R.; Milgrome, O.; Palaio, N.; Pengg, F.; Richardson, J.; Zizka, G.; Ackers, M.; Fischer, P.; Keil, M.; Meuser, S.; Stockmanns, T.; Treis, J.; Wermes, N.; Goessling, C.; Huegging, F.; Wuestenfeld, J.; Wunstorf, R.; Barberis, D.; Beccherle, R.; Cervetto, M.; Darbo, G.; Gagliardi, G.; Gemme, C.; Morettini, P.; Netchaeva, P.; Osculati, B.; Parodi, F.; Rossi, L.; Dao, K.; Fasching, D.; Blanquart, L.; Breugnon, P.; Calvet, D.; Clemens, J.-C.; Delpierre, P.; Hallewell, G.; Laugier, D.; Mouthuy, T.; Rozanov, A.; Trouilleau, C.; Valin, I.; Aleppo, M.; Andreazza, A.; Caccia, M.; Lari, T.; Meroni, C.; Ragusa, F.; Troncon, C. E-mail: clara.troncon@mi.infn.itclara.troncon@cern.ch; Vegni, G.; Rohe, T.; Boyd, G.R.; Severini, H.; Skubic, P.L.; Snow, J.; Sicho, P.; Tomasek, L.; Vrba, V.; Holder, M.; Lipka, D.; Ziolkowski, M.; Cauz, D.; D' Auria, S.; Del Papa, C.; Grassman, H.; Santi, L.; Becks, K.H.; Gerlach, P.; Grah, C.; Gregor, I.; Harenberg, T.; Linder, C

    2002-04-01

    Silicon pixel sensors developed by the ATLAS collaboration to meet LHC requirements and to withstand hadronic irradiation to fluences of up to 10{sup 15} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} have been evaluated using a test beam facility at CERN providing a magnetic field. The Lorentz angle was measured and found to alter from 9.0 deg. before irradiation, when the detectors operated at 150 V bias at B=1.48 T, to 3.1 deg. after irradiation and operating at 600 V bias at 1.01 T. In addition to the effect due to magnetic field variation, this change is explained by the variation of the electric field inside the detectors arising from the different bias conditions. The depletion depths of irradiated sensors at various bias voltages were also measured. At 600 V bias 280 {mu}m thick sensors depleted to {approx}200 {mu}m after irradiation at the design fluence of 1x10{sup 15} 1 MeV n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} and were almost fully depleted at a fluence of 0.5x10{sup 15} 1 MeV n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. The spatial resolution was measured for angles of incidence between 0 deg. and 30 deg. The optimal value was found to be better than 5.3 {mu}m before irradiation and 7.4 {mu}m after irradiation.

  8. Radiation hardness and precision timing study of Silicon detectors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter (HGC)

    CERN Document Server

    Curras, E; Gallrapp, C; Gray, L; Mannelli, M; Meridiani, P; Moll, M; Nourbakhsh, S; Scharf, C; Silva, P; Steinbrueck, G; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Vila, I

    2016-01-01

    The high luminosity upgraded LHC or Phase-II is expected to increase the instantaneous luminosity by a factor of 10 beyond the LHC's design value, expecting to deliver 250 fb^−1 per year for a further 10 years of operation. Under these conditions the performance degradation due to integrated radiation dose will need to be addressed. The CMS collaboration is planning to upgrade the forward calorimeters. The replacement is called the High Granularity Calorimeter (HGC) and it will be realized as a sampling calorimeter with layers of silicon detectors interleaved. The sensors will be realized as pad detectors with sizes of less that ∼1.0 cm^2 and an active thickness between 100 and 300 μm depending on the position, respectively, the expected radiation levels. For an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb^−1, the electromagnetic calorimetry will sustain integrated doses of 1.5 MGy (150 Mrads) and neutron fluences up to 10^16 neq/cm^2. A radiation tolerance study after neutron irradiation of 300, 200, and 100 μ...

  9. A Novel Approach for an Integrated Straw Tube-Microstrip Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, E.; Bellucci, F.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Caponero, M. A.; Colonna, D.; Di Falco, F.; Fabbri, F. L.; Felli, F.; Giardoni, M.; La Monaca, A.; Mensitieri, G.; Ortenzi, B.; Pallotta, M.; Paolozzi, A.; Passamonti, L.; Pierluigi, D.; Pucci, C.; Russo, A.; Saviano, G.; Casali, F.; Bettuzzi, M.; Bianconi, D.; Baruffaldi, F.; Perilli, E.; Massa, F.

    2006-06-01

    We report on a novel concept of silicon microstrips and straw tubes detector, where integration is accomplished by a straw module with straws not subjected to mechanical tension in a Rohacell/spl reg/ lattice and carbon fiber reinforced plastic shell. Results on mechanical and test beam performances are reported as well.

  10. A Novel Approach for an Integrated Straw tube-Microstrip Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Basile, E.; Bellucci, F.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Caponero, M. A.; Colonna, D.; Di Falco, F.; Fabbri, F. L.; Felli, F.; Giardoni, M.; La Monaca, A.; Mensitieri, G.; Ortenzi, B.; Pallotta, M.

    2005-01-01

    We report on a novel concept of silicon microstrips and straw tubes detector, where integration is accomplished by a straw module with straws not subjected to mechanical tension in a Rohacell $^{\\circledR}$ lattice and carbon fiber reinforced plastic shell. Results on mechanical and test beam performances are reported on as well.

  11. Microstrip microwave band gap structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microwave band gap structures exhibit certain stop band characteristics based on the periodicity, impedance contrast and effective refractive index contrast. These structures though formed in one-, two- and three-dimensional periodicity, are huge in size. In this paper, microstrip-based microwave band gap structures are ...

  12. Effect of SiO$_{2}$ passivating layer in segmented silicon planar detectors on the detector response

    CERN Document Server

    Verbitskaya, Elena; Eremin, Vladimir; Golubkov, S; Konkov, K; Roe, Shaun; Ruggiero, G; Sidorov, A; Weilhammer, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Silicon detectors with a fine segmentation (micropixel and microstrip) are the main type of detectors used in the inner trackers of LHC experiments. Due to the high luminosity of the LHC machines they are required to have a fast response to fit the short shaping time of 25 ns and to be radiation hard. Evaluation of silicon microstrip detectors developed for the ATLAS silicon tracker and carried out under collaboration of CERN and PTI has shown the reversal of the pulse polarity in the detector response to short- range radiation. Since the negative signal is of about 30% of the normal positive one, the effect strongly reduces the charge collection efficiency in irradiated detectors. The investigation presents the consideration on the origin of a negative response in Si microstrip detectors and the experimental proof of the model. The study of the effect has been carried out using "baby" strip detectors with a special design: each strip has a window in a metallization, which covers the p/sup +/ implant. The sca...

  13. Standard Practice for Minimizing Dosimetry Errors in Radiation Hardness Testing of Silicon Electronic Devices Using Co-60 Sources

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers recommended procedures for the use of dosimeters, such as thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's), to determine the absorbed dose in a region of interest within an electronic device irradiated using a Co-60 source. Co-60 sources are commonly used for the absorbed dose testing of silicon electronic devices. Note 1—This absorbed-dose testing is sometimes called “total dose testing” to distinguish it from “dose rate testing.” Note 2—The effects of ionizing radiation on some types of electronic devices may depend on both the absorbed dose and the absorbed dose rate; that is, the effects may be different if the device is irradiated to the same absorbed-dose level at different absorbed-dose rates. Absorbed-dose rate effects are not covered in this practice but should be considered in radiation hardness testing. 1.2 The principal potential error for the measurement of absorbed dose in electronic devices arises from non-equilibrium energy deposition effects in the vicinity o...

  14. Transparent graphene microstrip filters for wireless communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinchen; Guan, Yifei; Yu, Hua; Li, Na; Wang, Shuopei; Shen, Cheng; Dai, Zhijiang; Gan, Decheng; Yang, Rong; He, Songbai; Zhang, Guangyu

    2017-08-01

    A microstrip is an indispensable component for wireless communication circuits. With the development of 5G technology, optically transparent microstrip filters urgently need to be developed. In this work, we have theoretically and experimentally demonstrated the immense potential of graphene microstrips for transparent wireless communication circuits in the 5G era. Both wideband and dual-band transparent graphene microstrip filters have shown more than 80% optical transmissivity in the region from 250 nm to 2000 nm with good frequency responses. S and C band microwave signals can transmit along the graphene microstrip lines effectively while coupling excitations produce relatively large insertion losses. Our results show that transparent microstrips designed with high-quality graphene will largely scale down the size of the wireless devices and thus play an irreplaceable role in the 5G era.

  15. Improved Gain Microstrip Patch Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-06

    PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...08-2015 Publication Improved Gain Microstrip Patch Antenna David A. Tonn Naval Under Warfare Center Division, Newport 1176 Howell St., Code 00L...Distribution A An antenna for mounting on a ground plane includes a dielectric substrate for mounting on the ground plane. A conductive patch

  16. Silicon PM Radiation Hardness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohlf, James [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2016-08-25

    Detailed measurements have been made of 9 mm2 SiPMs from Hamamatsu (MPPC) and Zecotek (MAPD) after room temperature annealing after exposure to fluences of 1012 to 1013 cm-2. The data was used to complete the final ADR report.

  17. RD50 recent results: Development of radiation hard sensors for SLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Macchiolo, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The need for radiation hard semiconductor detectors for the tracker regions in high energy physics experiments at a future high luminosity hadron collider, like the proposed LHC upgrade, has led to the formation of the CERN RD50 collaboration. The R&D directions of RD50 follow two paths: the optimization of radiation hard bulk materials (Material Engineering) and the development of new detector designs (Device Engineering) as 3D sensors, thin sensors and n-in-p sensors. Some of the RD50 most recent results about silicon detectors are reported in this paper, with special reference to: (i) identification of defects responsible for long term annealing, (ii) charge collection efficiency of irradiated planar devices, in particular n-in-p microstrip detectors and epitaxial diodes, (iii) charge collection efficiency of double-type column 3D detectors, (iv) comparison of the performances of FZ and MCZ structures under mixed irradiation.

  18. Radiation Hard Silicon Photonics Mach-Zehnder Modulator for HEP applications: all-Synopsys Sentaurus™ Pre-Irradiation Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Cammarata, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Silicon Photonics may well provide the opportunity for new levels of integration between detectors and their readout electronics. This technology is thus being evaluated at CERN in order to assess its suitability for use in particle physics experiments. In order to check the agreement with measurements and the validity of previous device simulations, a pure Synopsys Sentaurus™ simulation of an un-irradiated Mach-Zehnder silicon modulator has been carried out during the Summer Student project.

  19. 10?GHz bandstop microstrip filter using excitation of magnetostatic surface wave in a patterned Ni78Fe22 ferromagnetic film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroubel, M.; Zhuang, Y.; Rejaei, B.; Burghartz, J.N.

    2006-01-01

    Various microstrips with a ferromagnetic core were designed and fabricated on a silicon substrate. The core was formed by a 0.5-?m-thick Ni78Fe22 film, patterned into rectangular prisms. Measurement results for attenuation constant versus frequency show a peak value of ? 50?dB/cm around 10?GHz.

  20. Some Recent Developments of Microstrip Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the microstrip antenna has been extensively studied in the past few decades as one of the standard planar antennas, it still has a huge potential for further developments. The paper suggests three areas for further research based on our previous works on microstrip antenna elements and arrays. One is exploring the variety of microstrip antenna topologies to meet the desired requirement such as ultrawide band (UWB, high gain, miniaturization, circular polarization, multipolarized, and so on. Another is to apply microstrip antenna to form composite antenna which is more potent than the individual antenna. The last is growing towards highly integration of antenna/array and feeding network or operating at relatively high frequencies, like sub-millimeter wave or terahertz (THz wave regime, by using the advanced machining techniques. To support our points of view, some examples of antennas developed in our group are presented and discussed.

  1. Microstrip Patch Sensor for Salinity Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kibae Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a compact microstrip feed inset patch sensor is proposed for measuring the salinities in seawater. The working principle of the proposed sensor depends on the fact that different salinities in liquid have different relative permittivities and cause different resonance frequencies. The proposed sensor can obtain better sensitivity to salinity changes than common sensors using conductivity change, since the relative permittivity change to salinity is 2.5 times more sensitive than the conductivity change. The patch and ground plane of the proposed sensor are fabricated by conductive copper spray coating on the masks made by 3D printer. The fabricated patch and the ground plane are bonded to a commercial silicon substrate and then attached to 5 mm-high chamber made by 3D printer so that it contains only 1 mL seawater. For easy fabrication and testing, the maximum resonance frequency was selected under 3 GHz and to cover salinities in real seawater, it was assumed that the salinity changes from 20 to 35 ppt. The sensor was designed by the finite element method-based ANSYS high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS, and it can detect the salinity with 0.01 ppt resolution. The designed sensor has a resonance frequency separation of 37.9 kHz and reflection coefficients under −20 dB at the resonant frequencies. The fabricated sensor showed better performance with average frequency separation of 48 kHz and maximum reflection coefficient of −35 dB. By comparing with the existing sensors, the proposed compact and low-cost sensor showed a better detection capability. Therefore, the proposed patch sensor can be utilized in radio frequency (RF tunable sensors for salinity determination.

  2. Microstrip Patch Sensor for Salinity Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kibae; Hassan, Arshad; Lee, Chong Hyun; Bae, Jinho

    2017-12-18

    In this paper, a compact microstrip feed inset patch sensor is proposed for measuring the salinities in seawater. The working principle of the proposed sensor depends on the fact that different salinities in liquid have different relative permittivities and cause different resonance frequencies. The proposed sensor can obtain better sensitivity to salinity changes than common sensors using conductivity change, since the relative permittivity change to salinity is 2.5 times more sensitive than the conductivity change. The patch and ground plane of the proposed sensor are fabricated by conductive copper spray coating on the masks made by 3D printer. The fabricated patch and the ground plane are bonded to a commercial silicon substrate and then attached to 5 mm-high chamber made by 3D printer so that it contains only 1 mL seawater. For easy fabrication and testing, the maximum resonance frequency was selected under 3 GHz and to cover salinities in real seawater, it was assumed that the salinity changes from 20 to 35 ppt. The sensor was designed by the finite element method-based ANSYS high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS), and it can detect the salinity with 0.01 ppt resolution. The designed sensor has a resonance frequency separation of 37.9 kHz and reflection coefficients under -20 dB at the resonant frequencies. The fabricated sensor showed better performance with average frequency separation of 48 kHz and maximum reflection coefficient of -35 dB. By comparing with the existing sensors, the proposed compact and low-cost sensor showed a better detection capability. Therefore, the proposed patch sensor can be utilized in radio frequency (RF) tunable sensors for salinity determination.

  3. Potential applications of microstrip devices with traveling wave resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushechenko E. N.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The shortcomings of the known microwave filters in microstrip lines are considered, the advantages of the use of directional traveling-wave filters in microstrip performance and examples of their potential applications are shown.

  4. Irradiation qualification of CMS silicon tracker components with protons

    CERN Document Server

    Dierlamm, A

    2003-01-01

    The tracking system of the CMS experiment at the LHC collider (CERN) is based on silicon micro-strip detectors. They will be exposed to an equivalent fluence of up to 1.6 multiplied by 10**1**4n (1 MeV)/cm**2 during 10 years of operation. The survival of the sensors in such a radiation environment depends strongly on the sensor design and on the choice of appropriate material. During production we have to verify not only the current quality of the delivered sensors (optical and electronic inspection) but also their radiation hardness. After irradiation to the exposed fluence plus a safety factor, the quality of bulk and surface parameters is verified. Required protocol, measurements and results are presented.

  5. SuperAGILE: The hard X-ray imager for the AGILE space mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feroci, M.; Costa, E.; Soffitta, P.; Del Monte, E.; di Persio, G.; Donnarumma, I.; Evangelista, Y.; Frutti, M.; Lapshov, I.; Lazzarotto, F.; Mastropietro, M.; Morelli, E.; Pacciani, L.; Porrovecchio, G.; Rapisarda, M.; Rubini, A.; Tavani, M.; Argan, A.

    2007-11-01

    SuperAGILE is a coded mask experiment based on silicon microstrip detectors. It operates in the 15 45 keV nominal energy range, providing crossed one-dimensional images of the X-ray sky with an on-axis angular resolution of 6 arcmin, over a field of view in excess of 1 sr. It was designed as the hard X-ray monitor of the AGILE space mission, a small satellite of the Italian Space Agency devoted to image the gamma-ray sky in the 30 MeV 50 GeV energy band. The AGILE mission was launched in a low-earth orbit on 23rd April 2007. In this paper we describe the SuperAGILE experiment, its construction and test processes, and its performance before flight, based on the on-ground test and calibrations.

  6. Radiation Hard GaNFET High Voltage Multiplexing (HV Mux) for the ATLAS Upgrade Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Lynn, David; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The outer radii of the inner tracker (ITk) for the Phase-II Upgrade of the ATLAS experiment will consist of groups of silicon strip sensors mounted on common support structures. Lack of space creates a need to remotely disable a failing sensor from the common HV bus. We have developed circuitry consisting of a GaNFET transistor and a HV Multiplier circuit to disable a failed sensor. We will present two variants of the HV Mux circuitry and show irradiation results on individual components with an emphasis on the GaNFET results. We will also discuss the reliability of the HV Mux circuitry and show plans to ensure reliability during production.

  7. Microstrip microwave band gap structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    band characteristics. The controlling of the electromagnetic radiation was possible by employing two frequency selective switches. Use of such MBG structures for the non-destructive evaluation of material properties was demonstrated by replacing the substrate with silicon. Pramana – J. Phys., Vol. 70, No. 4, April 2008. 745 ...

  8. Developments for radiation hard silicon detectors by defect engineering - results by the CERN RD48 (ROSE) Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstroem, G. E-mail: gunnar@sesam.desy.de; Ahmed, M.; Albergo, S.; Allport, P.; Anderson, D.; Andricek, L.; Angarano, M.M.; Augelli, V.; Bacchetta, N.; Bartalini, P.; Bates, R.; Biggeri, U.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Boemi, D.; Borchi, E.; Botila, T.; Brodbeck, T.J.; Bruzzi, M.; Budzynski, T.; Burger, P.; Campabadal, F.; Casse, G.; Catacchini, E.; Chilingarov, A.; Ciampolini, P.; Cindro, V.; Costa, M.J.; Creanza, D.; Clauws, P.; Da Via, C.; Davies, G.; De Boer, W.; Dell' Orso, R.; De Palma, M.; Dezillie, B.; Eremin, V.; Evrard, O.; Fallica, G.; Fanourakis, G.; Feick, H.; Focardi, E.; Fonseca, L.; Fretwurst, E.; Fuster, J.; Gabathuler, K.; Glaser, M.; Grabiec, P.; Grigoriev, E.; Hall, G.; Hanlon, M.; Hauler, F.; Heising, S.; Holmes-Siedle, A.; Horisberger, R.; Hughes, G.; Huhtinen, M.; Ilyashenko, I.; Ivanov, A.; Jones, B.K.; Jungermann, L.; Kaminsky, A.; Kohout, Z.; Kramberger, G.; Kuhnke, M.; Kwan, S.; Lemeilleur, F.; Leroy, C.; Letheren, M.; Li, Z.; Ligonzo, T.; Linhart, V.; Litovchenko, P.; Loukas, D.; Lozano, M.; Luczynski, Z.; Lutz, G.; MacEvoy, B.; Manolopoulos, S.; Markou, A.; Martinez, C.; Messineo, A.; Miku, M.; Moll, M.; Nossarzewska, E.; Ottaviani, G.; Oshea, V.; Parrini, G.; Passeri, D.; Petre, D.; Pickford, A.; Pintilie, I.; Pintilie, L.; Pospisil, S.; Potenza, R.; Radicci, V.; Raine, C.; Rafi, J.M.; Ratoff, P.N.; Richter, R.H.; Riedler, P.; Roe, S.; Roy, P.; Ruzin, A.; Ryazanov, A.I.; Santocchia, A.; Schiavulli, L.; Sicho, P.; Siotis, I.; Sloan, T.; Slysz, W.; Smith, K.; Solanky, M.; Sopko, B.; Stolze, K.; Sundby Avset, B.; Svensson, B.; Tivarus, C.; Tonelli, G.; Tricomi, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Valvo, G.; Vasilescu, A.; Vayaki, A.; Verbitskaya, E.; Verdini, P.; Vrba, V.; Watts, S.; Weber, E.R.; Wegrzecki, M.; Wegrzecka, I.; Weilhammer, P.; Wheadon, R.; Wilburn, C.; Wilhelm, I.; Wunstorf, R.; Wuestenfeld, J.; Wyss, J.; Zankel, K.; Zabierowski, P.; Zontar, D

    2001-06-01

    This report summarises the final results obtained by the RD48 collaboration. The emphasis is on the more practical aspects directly relevant for LHC applications. The report is based on the comprehensive survey given in the 1999 status report (RD48 3rd Status Report, CERN/LHCC 2000-009, December 1999), a recent conference report (Lindstroem et al. (RD48)), and some latest experimental results. Additional data have been reported in the last ROSE workshop (5th ROSE workshop, CERN, CERN/LEB 2000-005). A compilation of all RD48 internal reports and a full publication list can be found on the RD48 homepage (http://cern.ch/RD48/). The success of the oxygen enrichment of FZ-silicon as a highly powerful defect engineering technique and its optimisation with various commercial manufacturers are reported. The focus is on the changes of the effective doping concentration (depletion voltage). The RD48 model for the dependence of radiation effects on fluence, temperature and operational time is verified; projections to operational scenarios for main LHC experiments demonstrate vital benefits. Progress in the microscopic understanding of damage effects as well as the application of defect kinetics models and device modelling for the prediction of the macroscopic behaviour has also been achieved but will not be covered in detail.

  9. Two-dimensional microstrip detector for neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oed, A. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Because of their robust design, gas microstrip detectors, which were developed at ILL, can be assembled relatively quickly, provided the prefabricated components are available. At the beginning of 1996, orders were received for the construction of three two-dimensional neutron detectors. These detectors have been completed. The detectors are outlined below. (author). 2 refs.

  10. Passive and active reconfigurable microstrip reflectarray antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajian, M.

    2008-01-01

    Novel solutions for conceiving microstrip reflectarray antennas (MRA) using various types of patches are presented in this PhD thesis. The approach is based on the integration of a varactor diode active device into elementary hollow patch radiators. In the first part of the thesis, a new concept for

  11. Silicon carbonitride, a new hard material and its relation to the confusion about 'harder than diamond' C{sub 3}N{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badzian, A.; Badzian, T.; Roy, R.; Drawl, W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Materials Research Lab.

    1999-10-08

    The claim by Cohen (1993) that powerful computational tools allow us to predict 'properties of substances even before we have created them' was made in conjunction with the claim of special properties for a hypothetical phase, C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. Among such properties was hardness, and it was asserted that, the covalent form of C{sub 3}N{sub 4} could be 'harder than diamond'. This assumption contradicted what chemists have known since 1816 in their experimentation with carbon nitrides. Never was there a single hint of the existence of a covalent, single bond C-N network. In the last decade some 400 papers have been written about this non-existent material of dubious significance (R.C. DeVries (1997)). No C{sub 3}N{sub 4} material has ever been made and the claims on both the chemical composition and crystal structure are clearly in error. The impact of such exaggerated claims on the scientific enterprise cannot be ignored. In contrast, we report herein on a related but real hard material, silicon carbonitride, with the {alpha}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} crystal structure modified by the introduction of carbon atoms. Synthesis of this Si-N-C crystalline material was possible by using a CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} microwave plasma etching of solid Si. Films on Si, SiC, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and diamond, as well as crystal agglomerates of a few mm{sup 3} volume, have been prepared. This phase possesses a micro-hardness lower than cubic boron nitride and a band gap of 3.8 eV. The present experiments indicate that only 6 at.% of C have been incorporated into {alpha}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. We might suggest that 'first principles' calculations be undertaken to explain the limited solubility of carbon in the {alpha}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} phase. (orig.)

  12. Experience with the silicon strip detector of ALICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooren, G.J.L.

    2009-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) forms the two outermost layers of the ALICE Inner Track- ing System (ITS), connecting the TPC with the inner layers of the ITS. The SSD consists of 1698 double-sided silicon microstrip modules, 95 μm pitch, distributed in two cylindrical bar- rels, whose radii are

  13. Flexible Microstrip Circuits for Superconducting Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, James; Mateo, Jennette

    2013-01-01

    Flexible circuits with superconducting wiring atop polyimide thin films are being studied to connect large numbers of wires between stages in cryogenic apparatus with low heat load. The feasibility of a full microstrip process, consisting of two layers of superconducting material separated by a thin dielectric layer on 5 mil (approximately 0.13 mm) Kapton sheets, where manageable residual stress remains in the polyimide film after processing, has been demonstrated. The goal is a 2-mil (approximately 0.051-mm) process using spin-on polyimide to take advantage of the smoother polyimide surface for achieving highquality metal films. Integration of microstrip wiring with this polyimide film may require high-temperature bakes to relax the stress in the polyimide film between metallization steps.

  14. Study on Horizontally Polarized Omnidirectional Microstrip Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A horizontally polarized omnidirectional microstrip antenna is proposed in this paper. The structure of designed antenna is with two back-to-back horizontally polarized microstrip antenna elements. Gain variation on main radiation plane of this new antenna is analyzed and radiation theory is deduced; formula of directivity on main radiation plane is given. Better omnidirectional characteristic of this antenna can be obtained by decreasing patch physical length. Both simulated and measured results verify the omnidirectional radiation patterns and input impedance characteristics. Good omnidirectional radiation patterns (gain variation in E-plane less than ±0.4 dBi and input impedance characteristics are obtained; moreover, cross polarization less than −20 dBi is achieved.

  15. 5G MIMO Conformal Microstrip Antenna Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of wireless communication technology, 5G will develop into a new generation of wireless mobile communication systems. MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output technology is expected to be one of the key technologies in the field of 5G wireless communications. In this paper, 4 pairs of microstrip MIMO conformal antennas of 35 GHz have been designed. Eight-element microstrip Taylor antenna array with series-feeding not only achieves the deviation of the main lobe of the pattern but also increases the bandwidth of the antenna array and reduces sidelobe. MIMO antennas have been fabricated and measured. Measurement results match the simulation results well. The return loss of the antenna at 35 GHz is better than 20 dB, the first sidelobe level is −16 dB, and the angle between the main lobe and the plane of array is 60°.

  16. The Frequency Characteristics of Coupled Microstrip Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Krukonis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the use of the finite difference time domain method and uniaxial perfectly matching layer for analysis of frequency characteristics of coupled microstrip transmission lines. It describes calculation techniques for voltage, current, characteristic impedance and effective dielectric constant of each signal conductor. Besides, it analyses the frequency dependencies of characteristic impedance and the effective dielectric constant.Article in Lithuanian

  17. Performances of miniature microstrip detectors made on oxygen enriched p-type substrates after very high proton irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Casse, G; Lozano, M; Martí i García, S; Turner, P R

    2004-01-01

    Silicon microstrip detectors with n-type implant read-out strips on FZ p-type bulk (n-in-p) show superior charge collection properties, after heavy irradiation, to the more standard p-strips in n-type silicon (p-in-n). It is also well established that oxygen-enriched n- type silicon substrates show better performance, in terms of degradation of the full depletion voltage after charged hadron irradiation, than the standard FZ silicon used for high energy physics detectors. Silicon microstrip detectors combining both the advantages of oxygenation and of n-strip read-out (n-in-n) have achieved high radiation tolerance to charged hadrons. The manufacturing of n-in-n detectors though requires double-sided processing, resulting in more complicated and expensive devices than standard p-in-n. A cheaper single-sided option, that still combines these advantages, is to use n-in-p devices. P-type FZ wafers have been oxygen-enriched by high temperature diffusion from an oxide layer and succesfully used to process miniatur...

  18. Bonding of the Inner Tracker Silicon Microstrip Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Bosi, Filippo; Brianzi, Mirko; Cariola, P; Costa, Salvatore; Demaria, Natale; Dumitrache, Floarea; Farano, R; Fiore, Luigi; Galet, G; Giudice, Nunzio; Kaminski, A; Mammini, Paolo; Manolescu, Florentina; Pantano, Devis; Profeti, Alessandro; Raimondo, F S; Saizu, Mirela Angela; Scarlini, Enrico; Tempesta, Paolo; Tessaro, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Microbonding of the CMS Tracker Inner Barrel (TIB) and Tracker Inner Disks (TID) modules was shared among six different Italian Institutes. The organization devised and the infrastructure deployed to handle this task is illustrated. Microbonding specifications and procedures for the different types of TIB and TID modules are given. The tooling specially designed and developed for these types of modules is described. Experience of production is presented. Attained production rates are given. An analysis of the microbonding quality achieved is presented, based on bond strengths measured in sample bond pull tests as well as on rates of bonding failures. Italian Bonding Centers routinely performed well above minimum specifications and a very low global introduced failure rate, at the strip level, of only $\\sim$0.015 \\% is observed.

  19. Tracking and Alignment Performance of the LHCb silicon detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Borghi, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is primarily dedicated to the study of new physics through the heavy flavour decays. The tracking system of LHCb is composed of a silicon micro-strip vertex detector, two silicon strip tracker detectors and straw-tube drift chambers in front of and behind a dipole generating a magnetic field. This system provides precise measure of the vertex position and high momentum resolution. The performances of the silicon tracking subdetectors in terms of hit resolution and detector...

  20. Fabrication and impact performance of three-dimensionally integrated microstrip antennas with microstrip and coaxial feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lan; Wang, Xin; Xu, Fujun; Zhao, Da; Jiang, Muwen; Qiu, Yiping

    2009-09-01

    A conformal load-bearing antenna structure (CLAS) combines the antenna into a composite structure such that it can carry the designed load while functioning as an antenna. In this paper, two types of new 3D integrated microstrip antennas (3DIMAs) with different feeding methods are designed to work at the radar L-band. Different from the conventional CLAS, the radiating patch and the ground plane of the 3DIMA are both composed of woven conductive wires and are bonded into the 3D composite physically by Z-yarns, greatly improving the damage tolerance of the antenna. The return loss of the coaxial-fed antenna is -13.15 dB with a resonant frequency of 1.872 GHz, while that of the microstrip-fed antenna is -31.50 dB with a resonant frequency of 1.33 GHz. Both of the 3DIMAs have similar radiation patterns to that of the traditionally designed microstrip antenna. In addition, an experimental investigation of the impact response of the coaxial-fed 3DIMA was carried out and the results showed the radiation pattern had almost no change even when the antenna received an impact energy of 15 J, exhibiting superior impact resistance to that of a conventional microstrip antenna.

  1. Tracking with heavily irradiated silicon detectors operated at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Casagrande, L; Bartalini, P; Bell, W H; Borer, K; Bowcock, T J V; Buytaert, J; Chochula, P; Collins, P; Da Vià, C; Dijkstra, H; Dormond, O; Esposito, A P; Frei, R; Granata, V; Janos, S; Konorov, I; Lourenço, C; Niinikoski, T O; Pagano, S; Palmieri, V G; Parkes, C; Paul, S; Pretzl, Klaus P; Ruf, T; Ruggiero, G; Saladino, S; Schmitt, L; Smith, K; Sonderegger, P; Stavitski, I; Steele, D; Vitobello, F

    1999-01-01

    In this work we show that a heavily irradiated double-sided silicon microstrip detector recovers its performance when operated at cryogenic temperatures. A DELPHI microstrip detector, irradiated to a fluence of $\\sim\\,4\\times 10^{14}$ p/cm$^2$, no longer operational at room temperature, cannot be distinguished from a non-irradiated one when operated at $T<120$~K. Besides confirming the previously observed `Lazarus effect' in single diodes, these results establish for the first time, the possibility of using standard silicon detectors for tracking applications in extremely demanding radiation environments.

  2. 2D position sensitive microstrip sensors with charge division along the strip Studies on the position measurement error

    CERN Document Server

    Bassignana, D; Fernandez, M; Jaramillo, R; Lozano, M; Munoz, F.J; Pellegrini, G; Quirion, D; Vila, I; Vitorero, F

    2013-01-01

    Position sensitivity in semiconductor detectors of ionizing radiation is usually achieved by the segmentation of the sensing diode junction in many small sensing elements read out separately as in the case of conventional microstrips and pixel detectors. Alternatively, position sensitivity can be obtained by splitting the ionization signal collected by one single electrode amongst more than one readout channel with the ratio of the collected charges depending on the position where the signal was primary generated. Following this later approach, we implemented the charge division method in a conventional microstrip detector to obtain position sensitivity along the strip. We manufactured a proofof-concept demonstrator where the conventional aluminum electrodes were replaced by slightly resistive electrodes made of strongly doped poly-crystalline silicon and being readout at both strip ends. Here, we partially summarize the laser characterization of this first proof-of-concept demonstrator with special emphasis ...

  3. CBC3: a CMS microstrip readout ASIC with logic for track-trigger modules at HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Prydderch, Mark Lyndon; Bell, Stephen Jean-marc; Key-Charriere, M; Jones, Lawrence; Auzinger, Georg; Borg, Johan; Hall, Geoffrey; Pesaresi, Mark Franco; Raymond, David Mark; Uchida, Kirika; Goldstein, Joel; Seif El Nasr, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The CBC3 is the latest version of the CMS Binary Chip ASIC for readout of the outer radial region of the upgraded CMS Tracker at HL-LHC. This 254-channel, 130nm CMOS ASIC is designed to be bump-bonded to a substrate to which sensors will be wire-bonded. It will instrument double-layer 2S-modules, consisting of two overlaid silicon microstrip sensors with aligned microstrips. On-chip logic identifies first level trigger primitives from high transverse-momentum tracks by selecting correlated hits in the two sensors. Delivered in late 2016, the CBC3 has been under test for several months, including X-ray irradiations and SEU testing. Results and performance are reported.

  4. Microstrip gas chambers on implanted substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallares, A. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Barthe, S. [Laboratoire PHASE (UPR 292 du CNRS), 23 rue du Loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Bergtold, A.M. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Brom, J.M. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Cailleret, J. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Christophel, E. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Coffin, J. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Eberle, H. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Fang, R. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Fontaine, J.C. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Geist, W. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Kachelhoffer, T. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Levy, J.M. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Mack, V. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Schunck, J.P. [Laboratoire PHASE (UPR 292 du CNRS), 23 rue du Loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Sigward, M.H. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires

    1995-12-11

    We have studied the performance of several Microstrip Gas Chamber (MSGC) prototypes made on standard Desag D263 boron implanted glass. The purpose of the implantation is to reduce the surface resistance. The long term stability of this implantation has been measured under applied bias voltage. Comparative tests have been carried out on prototypes made on implanted and unimplanted detectors under electron ({sup 90}Sr) and X-ray (8 keV) irradiation. The total dose was approximately 7 mC/cm. (orig.).

  5. Radiation Hard Silicon Photonics Mach-Zehnder Modulator for HEP applications: all-Synopsys SentaurusTM Pre-Irradiation Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Cammarata, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Silicon Photonics may well provide the opportunity for new levels of integration between detectors and their readout electronics. This technology is thus being evaluated at CERN in order to assess its suitability for use in particle physics experiments. In order to check the agreement with measurements and the validity of previous device simulations, a pure Synopsys SentaurusTM simulation of an un-irradiated Mach-Zehnder silicon modulator has been carried out during the Summer Student project. Index Terms—Silicon Photonics, Mach-Zehnder modulator, electro-optic simulation, Synopsys SentaurusTM, electro-optic measurement, HEP.

  6. Input Impedance of the Microstrip SQUID Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinion, Darin; Clarke, John

    2008-03-01

    We present measurements of the complex scattering parameters of microstrip SQUID amplifiers (MSA) cooled to 4.2 K. The input of the MSA is a microstrip transmission line in the shape of a square spiral coil surrounding the hole in the SQUID washer that serves as the ground plane. The input impedance is found by measuring the reverse scattering parameter (S11) and is described well by a low-loss transmission line model. We map the low-loss transmission line model into an equivalent parallel RLC circuit in which a resistance R, inductance L, and capacitance C are calculated from the resonant frequency, characteristic impedance and attenuation factor. Using this equivalent RLC circuit, we model the MSA and input network with a lumped circuit model that accurately predicts the observed gain given by the forward scattering parameter (S21). We will summarize results for different coil geometries and terminations as well as SQUID bias conditions. A portion of this work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in part under Contract W-7405-Eng-48 and in part under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  7. Impedance of the Microstrip SQUID Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrien, Roy; Kinion, Darin; Mueck, Michael; Clarke, John

    2003-03-01

    We present measurements of the input impedance of microstrip SQUID amplifiers cooled to 4.2 K. A low-loss transmission line model fits the real and imaginary parts of this impedance quite accurately. We map the low-loss transmission line model into an equivalent parallel RLC circuit in which a resistance R, inductance L, and capacitance C are calculated from the characteristic impedance and attenuation factor determined from fits to the input impedance data. Using this equivalent RLC circuit, we model the microstrip SQUID and input network with a lumped circuit model which accurately predicts the observed gain of the amplifier. We find that the gain is maximized when the input circuit is critically matched, with the imaginary part of the input impedance summing to zero and the real part equal to the 50 ohm resistance of the coaxial input line. Work in progress is aimed at expressing the equivalent circuit parameters in terms of the device parameters. This work was supported by DOE.

  8. Low-mass aluminum microstrips for data transmission in the PANDA MVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quagli, Tommaso [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino (Italy); Calvo, Daniela; Remigis, Paolo de; Mignone, Marco; Wheadon, Richard [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino (Italy); Schnell, Robert [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitaet Bonn (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Among the requirements of the PANDA Micro-Vertex-Detector (MVD) there are the capability to handle a high data rate with a continuous readout and a low material budget. These requirements, together with the layout constraints, demand dedicated low-mass cables for data transmission. Differential microstrips, realized with aluminum tracks laminated on a polyimide support, have been produced and experimentally tested for both electrical functionality and radiation hardness, using signal integrity techniques. Furthermore, the capability of the cables to cope with the SLVS signaling standard has been investigated. An overview of the results will be presented, examining the upper frequency limits of the samples and the dependences on layout and track width. Finally, special focus will be given to the results of the radiation hardness measurements, performed with neutron irradiation at the research reactor at LENA (Pavia) and with proton irradiation at the cyclotron in Bonn.

  9. Wideband RCS Reduction of Microstrip Array Antenna Based on Absorptive Frequency Selective Surface and Microstrip Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Xue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach for wideband radar cross section (RCS reduction of a microstrip array antenna is presented and discussed. The scheme is based on the microstrip resonators and absorptive frequency selective surface (AFSS with a wideband absorptive property over the low band 1.9–7.5 GHz and a transmission characteristic at high frequency 11.05 GHz. The AFSS is designed to realize the out-of-band RCS reduction and preserve the radiation performance simultaneously, and it is placed above the antenna with the operating frequency of 11.05 GHz. Moreover, the microstrip resonators are loaded to obtain the in-band RCS reduction. As a result, a significant RCS reduction from 1.5 GHz to 13 GHz for both types of polarization has been accomplished. Compared with the reference antenna, the simulated results exhibit that the monostatic RCS of the proposed array antenna in x- and y-polarization can be reduced as much as 17.6 dB and 21.5 dB, respectively. And the measured results agree well with the simulated ones.

  10. Silicon Strip detectors for the ATLAS End-Cap Tracker at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00232570

    Inside physics programme of the LHC different experiment upgrades are foreseen. After the phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS detector the luminosity will be increased up to 5-7.5x10E34 cm-2s-1. This will mean a considerable increase in the radiation levels, above 10E16 neq/cm2 in the inner regions. This thesis is focused on the development of silicon microstrip detectors enough radiation hard to cope with the particle fluence expected at the ATLAS detector during HL-LHC experiment. In particular on the electrical characterization of silicon sensors for the ATLAS End-Caps. Different mechanical and thermal tests are shown using a Petal core as well as the electrical characterization of the silicon sensors that will be used with the Petal structure. Charge collection efficiency studies are carried out on sensors with different irradiation fluences using the ALiBaVa system and two kinds of strips connection are also analized (DC and AC ganging) with a laser system. The Petalet project is presented and the electrical c...

  11. Analysis of Microstrip Line Fed Patch Antenna for Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ashish

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, theoretical analysis of microstrip line fed rectangular patch antenna loaded with parasitic element and split-ring resonator is presented. The proposed antenna shows that the dualband operation depends on gap between parasitic element, split-ring resonator, length and width of microstrip line. It is found that antenna resonates at two distinct resonating modes i.e., 0.9 GHz and 1.8 GHz for lower and upper resonance frequencies respectively. The antenna shows dual frequency nature with frequency ratio 2.0. The characteristics of microstrip line fed rectangular patch antenna loaded with parasitic element and split-ring resonator antenna is compared with other prototype microstrip line fed antennas. Further, the theoretical results are compared with simulated and reported experimental results, they are in close agreement.

  12. A Stacked Microstrip Antenna Array with Fractal Patches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xueyao Ren; Xing Chen; Yufeng Liu; Wei Jin; Kama Huang

    2014-01-01

      A novel microstrip antenna array, which utilizes Giuseppe Peano fractal shaped patches as its radiation elements and adopts a two-layer stacked structure for achieving both wideband and high-gain...

  13. Geometrical optimization of microstripe arrays for microbead magnetophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Anders Dahl; Rozlosnik, Noemi; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2015-09-01

    Manipulation of magnetic beads plays an increasingly important role in molecular diagnostics. Magnetophoresis is a promising technique for selective transportation of magnetic beads in lab-on-a-chip systems. We investigate periodic arrays of exchange-biased permalloy microstripes fabricated using a single lithography step. Magnetic beads can be continuously moved across such arrays by combining the spatially periodic magnetic field from microstripes with a rotating external magnetic field. By measuring and modeling the magnetophoresis properties of thirteen different stripe designs, we study the effect of the stripe geometry on the magnetophoretic transport properties of the magnetic microbeads between the stripes. We show that a symmetric geometry with equal width of and spacing between the microstripes facilitates faster transportation and that the optimal period of the periodic stripe array is approximately three times the height of the bead center over the microstripes.

  14. Analysis of Microstrip Line Fed Patch Antenna for Wireless Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashish; Aneesh, Mohammad; Kamakshi; Ansari, J. A.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, theoretical analysis of microstrip line fed rectangular patch antenna loaded with parasitic element and split-ring resonator is presented. The proposed antenna shows that the dualband operation depends on gap between parasitic element, split-ring resonator, length and width of microstrip line. It is found that antenna resonates at two distinct resonating modes i.e., 0.9 GHz and 1.8 GHz for lower and upper resonance frequencies respectively. The antenna shows dual frequency nature with frequency ratio 2.0. The characteristics of microstrip line fed rectangular patch antenna loaded with parasitic element and split-ring resonator antenna is compared with other prototype microstrip line fed antennas. Further, the theoretical results are compared with simulated and reported experimental results, they are in close agreement.

  15. Metamaterial Embedded Wearable Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Joshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an indigenous low-cost metamaterial embedded wearable rectangular microstrip patch antenna using polyester substrate for IEEE 802.11a WLAN applications. The proposed antenna resonates at 5.10 GHz with a bandwidth and gain of 97 MHz and 4.92 dBi, respectively. The electrical size of this antenna is 0.254λ×0.5λ. The slots are cut in rectangular patch to reduce the bending effect. This leads to mismatch the impedance at WLAN frequency band; hence, a metamaterial square SRR is embedded inside the slot. A prototype antenna has been fabricated and tested, and the measured results are presented in this paper. The simulated and measured results of the proposed antenna are found to be in good agreement. The bending effect on the performance of this antenna is experimentally verified.

  16. Rectenna composed of a circular microstrip antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, K.; Ohgane, T.; Ogawa, Y.

    1986-01-01

    One of the big problems in the SPS system is reradiation of the harmonic waves generated by the rectifying diode. The authors proposed the use of a circular microstrip antenna (CMSA), since the CMSA has no higher resonance-harmonic of integer multiple of the dominant resonance frequency. However, characteristics of a large rectenna array of CMSA's have not been clarified. This paper is concerned with the absorption efficiency of the rectenna composed of the CMSA. The efficiency is estimated explicitly using an infinite array model. The results show that the absorption efficiency of the infinite rectenna array composed of the CMSA is 100%. Also, this paper considers the effect of the losses of the composed of the CMSA is 100%. Also, this paper considers the effect of the losses of the CMSA. 4 references, 4 figures.

  17. Radiation damage in silicon. Defect analysis and detector properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenniger, F.

    2008-01-15

    Silicon microstrip and pixel detectors are vital sensor-components as particle tracking detectors for present as well as future high-energy physics (HEP) experiments. All experiments at the large Hadron Collider (LHC) are equipped with such detectors. Also for experiments after the upgrade of the LHC (the so-called Super-LHC), with its ten times higher luminosity, or the planned International Linear Collider (ILC) silicon tracking detectors are forseen. Close to the interaction region these detectors have to face harsh radiation fields with intensities above the presently tolerable level. defect engineering of the used material, e. g. oxygen enrichment of high resistivity float zone silicon and growing of thin low resistivityepitaxial layers on Czochralski silicon substrates has been established to improve the radiation hardness of silicon sensors. This thesis focuses mainly on the investigation of radiation induced defects and their differences observed in various kinds of epitaxial silicon material. Comparisons with other materials like float zone or Czochralski silicon are added. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) and Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) measurements have been performed after {gamma}-, electron-, proton- and neutron-irradiation. The differenced in the formation of vacancy and interstitial related defects as well as so-called clustered regions were investigated for various types of irradiation. In addition to the well known defects VO{sub i}, C{sub i}O{sub i}, C{sub i}C{sub s}, VP or V{sub 2} several other defect complexes have been found and investigated. Also the material dependence of the defect introduction rates and the defect annealing behavior has been studied by isothermal and isochronal annealing experiments. Especially the IO{sub 2} defect which is an indicator for the oxygen-dimer content of the material has been investigated in detail. On the basis of radiation induced defects like the bistable donor (BD) defect and a deep

  18. 3D, Flash, Induced Current Readout for Silicon Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Sherwood I. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2014-06-07

    A new method for silicon microstrip and pixel detector readout using (1) 65 nm-technology current amplifers which can, for the first time with silicon microstrop and pixel detectors, have response times far shorter than the charge collection time (2) 3D trench electrodes large enough to subtend a reasonable solid angle at most track locations and so have adequate sensitivity over a substantial volume of pixel, (3) induced signals in addition to, or in place of, collected charge

  19. Radiation hardening of silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lemeilleur, F

    1999-01-01

    The radiation hardness of high grade silicon detectors is summarized in terms of an increase of the diode reverse current and evolution of the full depletion voltage and charge collection efficiency. With the aim of improving their radiation tolerance, detectors have been produced from non-standard, float-zone silicon containing various atomic impurities and from epitaxial silicon materials. Some recent results concerning their radiation hardness are presented. (15 refs).

  20. Status of the CDF silicon detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinstein, Sebastian; /Harvard U.

    2006-05-01

    The CDF Run II silicon micro-strip detector is an essential part of the heavy flavor tagging and forward tracking capabilities of the experiment. Since the commissioning period ended in 2002, about 85% of the 730 k readout channels have been consistently provided good data. A summary of the recent improvements in the DAQ system as well as experience of maintaining and operating such a large, complex detector are presented.

  1. Performance of a radiation hard 128 channel analogue front-end chip for the readout of a silicon-based hybrid photon detector

    CERN Document Server

    Lacasta, C; Dulinski, W; Chesi, Enrico Guido; Joram, C; Kaplon, J; Lozano-Bahilo, J; Séguinot, Jacques; Szczygiel, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Ypsilantis, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The performance is described of a front-end chip, the SCT128A-LC chip, originally developed for the readout of a silicon based Hybrid Photon Detector (HPD), which is part of an RICH detector to be run in an LHC experimental environment. The relatively low signal charge from single photoelectrons, impinging on the silicon pad sensor, put very stringent requirements on the noise performance of the front-end chip. An absolute noise calibration using X-ray sources and a **2**4**1Am gamma source was performed. It is demonstrated that sufficiently good signal over noise ratio can be obtained to use this chip for the read-out of an HPD in LHC experiments.

  2. Microstrip coupling techniques applied to thin-film Josephson junctions at microwave frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, O H; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Mygind, Jesper

    1981-01-01

    Three different schemes for coupling to low impedance Josephson devices have been investigated. They all employ superconducting thin-film microstrip circuit techniques. The schemes are: (i) a quarterwave stepped impedance transformer, (ii) a microstrip resonator, (iii) an adjustable impedance...... transformer in inverted microstrip. Using single microbridges to probe the performance we found that the most primising scheme in terms of coupling efficiency and useful bandwidth was the adjustable inverted microstrip transformer....

  3. A New Defected Ground Structure for Different Microstrip Circuit Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Das

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a microstrip transmission line combined with a new U-headed dumb-bell defected ground structure (DGS is investigated. The proposed DGS of two U-shape slots connected by a thin transverse slot is placed in the ground plane of a microstrip line. A finite cutoff frequency and attenuation pole is observed and thus, the equivalent circuit of the DGS unit can be represented by a parallel LC resonant circuit in series with the transmission line. A two-cell DGS microstrip line yields a better lowpass filtering characteristics. The simulation is carried out by the MoM based IE3D software and in the experimental measurements a vector network analyzer is used. The effects of the transverse slot width and the distance between arms of the U-slot on the filter response curve are studied. This DGS is utilized for different microstrip circuit applications. The DGS is placed in the ground of a capacitive loaded microstrip line and a very low cutoff frequency is obtained. The DGS is adopted under the coupled lines of a parallel line coupler and an improvement in coupling coefficient is noticed. The proposed DGS is also incorporated in the ground plane under the feed lines and the coupled lines of a bandpass filter to improve separately the stopband and passband performances.

  4. Operation of high rate microstrip gas chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, A J; Bouclier, Roger; Capéans-Garrido, M; Dominik, Wojciech; Manzin, G; Million, Gilbert; Hoch, M; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Sharma, A

    1996-01-01

    We describe recent measurements carried out in well controlled and reproducible conditions to help understanding the factors affecting the short and long term behaviour of Microstrip Gas Chambers. Special care has been taken concerning the gas purity and choice of materials used in the system and for the detectors construction. Detectors built on glasses with surface resistivity in the range $10^{13}-10^{15} \\Omega/\\Box$ have shown satisfactory performance as they do not show charging-up process at high rate and stand the large doses required for the future high luminosity experiments (~10 mC·cm-1·yr-1). Concerning the lifetime measurements, it has been observed that chambers manufactured on high-resistivity glass are far more susceptible of suffering ageing than detectors made on low resistivity, electron-conducting supports, independently of the metal used for the artwork (chromium or gold) at least in clean gas conditions. The successfully operation in the laboratory of detectors manufactured on diamond-...

  5. A Cryogenic Waveguide Mount for Microstrip Circuit and Material Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    U-yen, Kongpop; Brown, Ari D.; Moseley, Samuel H.; Noroozian, Omid; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    A waveguide split-block fixture used in the characterization of thin-film superconducting planar circuitry at millimeter wavelengths is described in detail. The test fixture is realized from a pair of mode converters, which transition from rectangular-waveguide to on-chip microstrip-line signal propagation via a stepped ridge-guide impedance transformer. The observed performance of the W-band package at 4.2K has a maximum in-band transmission ripple of 2dB between 1.53 and 1.89 times the waveguide cutoff frequency. This metrology approach enables the characterization of superconducting microstrip test structures as a function temperature and frequency. The limitations of the method are discussed and representative data for superconducting Nb and NbTiN thin film microstrip resonators on single-crystal Si dielectric substrates are presented.

  6. Wireless OAM transmission system based on elliptical microstrip patch antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia Jia; Lu, Qian Nan; Dong, Fei Fei; Yang, Jing Jing; Huang, Ming

    2016-05-30

    The multiplexing transmission has always been a focus of attention for communication technology. In this paper, the radiation characteristics of circular microstrip patch antenna was firstly analyzed based on cavity model theory, and then spiral beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) were generated, using elliptical microstrip patch antenna, with a single feed probe instead of a standard circular patch with two feedpoints. Moreover, by combining the proposed elliptic microstrip patch antenna with Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP), a wireless OAM transmission system was established and the real-time transmission of text, image and video in a real channel environment was realized. Since the wireless OAM transmission has the advantage of good safety and high spectrum utilization efficiency, this work has theoretical significance and potential application.

  7. Nonuniformly coupled microstrip transversal filters for analog signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Leonard A.; Tripathi, Vijai K.

    1991-01-01

    The Fourier transform relationship between frequency response and impedance profile for single nonuniform transmission lines is used to derive the time-domain step response of single and coupled nonuniform lines. The expression for the step response of a characteristically terminated nonuniformly coupled transmission line structure is shown to correspond to the characteristic impedance profile. By using this relationship, any arbitrary step response can be realized by utilizing nonuniformly coupled strip or microstrip lines for possible applications as waveform-shaping networks and chirp filters. A numerical procedure to compute the step response of the nonuniform coupled line four-port is also formulated in terms of frequency-domain parameters of an equivalent cascaded uniform coupled line model with a large number of sections. Sinusoidal and chirp responses are presented as examples that are readily implemented using coupled microstrip structures. The step response of an experimental nonuniformly coupled microstrip structure is presented to validate the theoretical results.

  8. Patterning of diamond like carbon films for sensor applications using silicon containing thermoplastic resist (SiPol) as a hard mask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virganavičius, D. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Kaunas University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science, 51423 Kaunas (Lithuania); Cadarso, V.J.; Kirchner, R. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Stankevičius, L.; Tamulevičius, T.; Tamulevičius, S. [Kaunas University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science, 51423 Kaunas (Lithuania); Schift, H., E-mail: helmut.schift@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Nanopatterning of thin diamond-like carbon (DLC) films and silver containing DLC composites. • Nanoimprint lithography with thermoplastic silicon containing resist. • Zero-residual layer imprinting and pattern transfer by reactive ion etching. • Robust leaky waveguide sensors with sensitivity up to 319 nm/RIU. - Abstract: Patterning of diamond-like carbon (DLC) and DLC:metal nanocomposites is of interest for an increasing number of applications. We demonstrate a nanoimprint lithography process based on silicon containing thermoplastic resist combined with plasma etching for straightforward patterning of such films. A variety of different structures with few hundred nanometer feature size and moderate aspect ratios were successfully realized. The quality of produced patterns was directly investigated by the means of optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Such structures were further assessed by employing them in the development of gratings for guided mode resonance (GMR) effect. Optical characterization of such leaky waveguide was compared with numerical simulations based on rigorous coupled wave analysis method with good agreement. The use of such structures as refractive index variation sensors is demonstrated with sensitivity up to 319 nm/RIU, achieving an improvement close to 450% in sensitivity compared to previously reported similar sensors. This pronounced GMR signal fully validates the employed DLC material, the technology to pattern it and the possibility to develop DLC based gratings as corrosion and wear resistant refractometry sensors that are able to operate under harsh conditions providing great value and versatility.

  9. RF Transmission Lines on Silicon Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.

    1999-01-01

    A review of RF transmission lines on silicon substrates is presented. Through measurements and calculated results, it is shown that attenuation is dominated by conductor loss if silicon substrates with a resistivity greater than 2500 Ohm-cm are used. Si passivation layers affect the transmission line attenuation; however, measured results demonstrate that passivation layers do not necessarily increase attenuation. If standard, low resistivity Si wafers must be used, alternative transmission lines such as thin film microstrip and Co-Planar Waveguide (CPW) on thick polyimide layers must be used. Measured results presented here show that low loss per unit length is achievable with these transmission lines.

  10. Analysis of superconducting microstrip resonator at various microwave power levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, G.P.; Jacob, M.V.; Jayakumar, M.; Bhatnagar, P.K. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi, South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi 110021 (India); Kataria, N.D. [National Physical Laboratory, K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110 012 (India)

    1997-05-01

    The real and imaginary parts of the surface impedance of YBCO superconductors have been studied at different microwave power levels. Using the relations for the critical current density and the grain boundary resistance, a relation for calculating the power dependence of the surface resistance has been obtained. Also, a relation to find the resonant frequency of a superconducting microstrip resonator at various input power levels has been derived. Measurements have been carried out on various microstrip resonators to study the variation of surface resistance and resonant frequency at different rf power levels. The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical results. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Microstrip antenna for polarimetric C-band SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granholm, Johan; Woelders, Kim; Dich, Mikael

    1994-01-01

    The paper outlines the design and the measured performance of a 224-element dual-linearly polarized microstrip array antenna with low cross-polarization. The array is currently being flown on the Danish high-resolution polarimetric C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR)......The paper outlines the design and the measured performance of a 224-element dual-linearly polarized microstrip array antenna with low cross-polarization. The array is currently being flown on the Danish high-resolution polarimetric C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR)...

  12. Performances of keystone geometry micro-strip gas chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Chiari, M; Tonetto, F; Travaglini, L

    2002-01-01

    The performances of micro-strip gas chamber detectors with CF sub 4 counting gas have been tested with a sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am alpha source. The behaviour of the gain as a function of gas pressure, the dependence of the energy resolution on gas pressure and anode voltage, and the gain variation along the strip length due to the keystone geometry of the micro-strip pads are reported. An empirical response function to describe such a position dependence of the gain is proposed.

  13. Testbeam evaluation of silicon strip modules for ATLAS Phase - II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Blue, Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration; Ai, Xiaocong; Allport, Phillip; Arling, Jan-Hendrik; Atkin, Ryan Justin; Bruni, Lucrezia Stella; Carli, Ina; Casse, Gianluigi; Chen, Liejian; Chisholm, Andrew; Cormier, Kyle James Read; Cunningham, William Reilly; Dervan, Paul; Diez Cornell, Sergio; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dopke, Jens; Dreyer, Etienne; Dreyling-Eschweiler, Jan Linus Roderik; Escobar, Carlos; Fabiani, Veronica; Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Fernandez Tejero, Javier; Fleta Corral, Maria Celeste; Gallop, Bruce; Garcia-Argos, Carlos; Greenall, Ashley; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Greig, Graham George; Guescini, Francesco; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hauser, Marc Manuel; Huang, Yanping; Hunter, Robert Francis Holub; Keller, John; Klein, Christoph; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Kotek, Zdenek; Kroll, Jiri; Kuehn, Susanne; Lee, Steven Juhyung; Liu, Yi; Lohwasser, Kristin; Meszarosova, Lucia; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mi\\~nano Moya, Mercedes; Mori, Riccardo; Moser, Brian; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Peschke, Richard; Pezzullo, Giuseppe; Phillips, Peter William; Poley, Anne-luise; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Ravotti, Federico; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC with 10 years of operation at instantaneous luminosities of \\mbox{$7.5\\times10^{34}\\;\\mathrm{cm}^{-2}\\mathrm{s}^{-1}$}. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over $1x10^{15}$ 1 MeV neutron equivalent per $cm^{2}$ in the ATLAS Strips system. The silicon strip tracker exploits the concept of modularity. Fast readout electronics, deploying 130nm CMOS front-end electronics are glued on top of a silicon sensor to make a module. The radiation hard n-in-p micro-strip sensors used have been developed by the ATLAS ITk Strip Sensor collaboration and produced by Hamamatsu Photonics. A series of tests were performed at the DESY-II test beam facility to investigate the detailed performance of a strip module with both 2.5cm and 5cm length strips before irradiation. The DURANTA telescope was used to obtain a pointing...

  14. Development of a microstrip-based neutron detector

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A gas-filled microstrip detector for thermal neutrons has been built and successfully tested in our laboratory. The detector has an active area of 20 mm × 15 mm and consists of alternate anodes and cathodes of widths 12 m and 300 m respectively. The anode to cathode gap is 150 m and the pitch is 612 m. A high ...

  15. A bounds on the resonant frequency of rectangular microstrip antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, M. C.

    1980-01-01

    The calculation of currents induced by a transverse electric plane wave normally incident upon an infinite strip embedded in a grounded dielectric slab is used to infer a lower bound on the resonant frequency (or resonant-E-plane dimension) for rectangular microstrip antennas. An upper bound is provided by the frequency for which the E-plane dimension is a half-wavelength.

  16. Use of microstrip patch antennas in grain permittivity measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sabbagh, M.A.; Ramahi, O.M.; Trabelsi, S.; Nelson, S.O.; Khan, L.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a compact size free-space setup is proposed for the measurement of complex permittivity of granular materials. The horn antennas in the conventional setup are replaced by microstrip patch antennas which is a step toward system miniaturization. The experimental results obtained are in good agreement with those obtained with horn antennas.

  17. Analysis of Rectangular Microstrip Antennas with Air Substrates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an analysis of rectangular microstrip antennas with air substrates. The effect of the substrate thickness on the bandwidth and the efficiency are examined. An additional thin layer supporting the dielectric material is added to the air substrate in order to make the antenna mechanically rigid and easy to ...

  18. Stable Delay of Microstrip Line with Side Grounded Conductors

    OpenAIRE

    Gazizov, T. R.; Salov, V. K.; Kuksenko, S. P.

    2017-01-01

    Characteristics of transmission lines are addressed. Wave impedance and per-unit-length delay of the microstrip structure with grounded side conductors on three layers are calculated under different parameters of the structure. A line which provides the desired value of wave impedance and constant per-unit-length delay, at the expense of correction of the gaps on different layers, is proposed.

  19. Front-Side Microstrip Line Feeding a Raised Antenna Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Richard; Hoppe, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    An improved design concept for a printed-circuit patch antenna and the transmission line that feeds the patch calls for (1) a microstrip transmission line on the front (radiative) side of a printed-circuit board based on a thin, high-permittivity dielectric substrate; (2) using the conductor covering the back side of the circuit board as a common ground plane for both the microstrip line and the antenna patch; (3) supporting the antenna patch in front of the circuit board on a much thicker, lower-permittivity dielectric spacer layer; and (4) connecting the microstrip transmission line to the patch by use of a thin wire or narrow ribbon that extends through the thickness of the spacer and is oriented perpendicularly to the circuit-board plane. The thickness of the substrate is typically chosen so that a microstrip transmission line of practical width has an impedance between 50 and 100 ohms. The advantages of this design concept are best understood in the context of the disadvantages of prior design concepts, as explained

  20. Microstrip-Transmission-Line Shock-Front Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiweke, Robert J.; Smith, William C.

    1993-01-01

    Microstrip-transmission-line sensor measures velocities of low-overpressure shock fronts and offers dynamic range needed for measurements both far from and near explosions. Fabricated easily, relatively inexpensive, and repaired in field. In addition, basic geometry modified easily, as needed.

  1. Microstrip Patch Antenna Bandwidth Enhancement Using AMC/EBG Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Hadarig

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A microstrip patch antenna with bandwidth enhancement by means of artificial magnetic conductor (AMC/electromagnetic band-gap structure (EGB is presented. The electrical characteristics of the embedded structure are evaluated using MoM simulations. The manufactured prototypes are characterized in terms of return loss, gain, and radiation pattern measurements in an anechoic chamber.

  2. Microstripes for transport and separation of magnetic particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donolato, Marco; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple technique for creating an on-chip magnetic particle conveyor based on exchange-biased permalloy microstripes. The particle transportation relies on an array of stripes with a spacing smaller than their width in conjunction with a periodic sequence of four different externally...

  3. Geometrical optimization of microstripe arrays for microbead magnetophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anders Dahl; Rozlosnik, Noemi; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2015-01-01

    Manipulation of magnetic beads plays an increasingly important role in molecular diagnostics. Magnetophoresis is a promising technique for selective transportation of magnetic beads in lab-on-a-chip systems. We investigate periodic arrays of exchange-biased permalloy microstripes fabricated using...

  4. Characterisation of an inhomogeneously irradiated microstrip detector using a fine spot infrared laser

    CERN Document Server

    Casse, G; Bowcock, T J V; Greenall, A; Phillips, JP; Turner, PR; Wright, V

    2001-01-01

    A prototype silicon microstrip detector for the LHCb vertex locator (VELO) has been partially irradiated using a 24 GeV/c proton beam at the CERN-PS accelerator. The detector possesses a radial strip geometry designed to measure the azimuthal coordinate (Phi) of tracks within the VELO. The peak fluence received by the detector was measured to be 4.6×10 14 p/cm 2 though the non-uniform nature of the exposure left part of the detector unirradiated. The inhomogeneous irradiation introduced a damage profile in the detector approximating to that expected in the VELO. High irradiation gradients are important to study as they can modify the electric field within the silicon. Of special interest are changes in the component of the electric field parallel to the strip plane but perpendicular to the strips which lead to systematic shifts in the reconstructed cluster position. If these (flux and position dependent) shifts are sufficiently large they could contribute to a degraded spatial resolution of the detector. In ...

  5. Tracking and Alignment Performance of the LHCb silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Borghi, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is primarily dedicated to the study of new physics through the heavy flavour decays. The tracking system of LHCb is composed of a silicon micro-strip vertex detector, two silicon strip tracker detectors and straw-tube drift chambers in front of and behind a dipole generating a magnetic field. This system provides precise measure of the vertex position and high momentum resolution. The performances of the silicon tracking subdetectors in terms of hit resolution and detector efficiencies, as well as on the overall track reconstruction performance and the alignment status, are reported.

  6. BI-ground microstrip array coil vs. conventional microstrip array coil for mouse imaging at 7 tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Ricardo; Terrones, M. A. López; Jakob, P. M.

    2012-10-01

    At high field strengths, the need for more efficient high frequency coils has grown. Since the radiation losses and the interaction between coil and sample increase proportionally to field strength, the quality factor (Q) and the sensitivity of the coil decrease as consequence of these negative effects. Since Zhang et al proposed in 2001 a new surface coil based on the microstrip transmission line for high frequency, different Tx-Rx phased arrays based on this concept have been already introduced in animal and whole body systems at high field strengths, each of them with different modifications in order to get better field homogeneity, SNR or isolation between coil elements in the array. All these arrays for animals systems have been built for rat imaging. One of these modifications is called BI-Ground Microstrip Array Coil (BIGMAC). The implementation of a smaller two-channel BIGMAC design for mouse imaging is studied and its performance compared to a two-channel conventional Microstrip array at 7 Tesla, the higher isolation by using BIGMAC elements in comparison with conventional Microstrip elements is shown in this work.

  7. Standard Test Method for Application of Ionization Chambers to Assess the Low Energy Gamma Component of Cobalt-60 Irradiators Used in Radiation-Hardness Testing of Silicon Electronic Devices

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 Low energy components in the photon energy spectrum of Co-60 irradiators lead to absorbed dose enhancement effects in the radiation-hardness testing of silicon electronic devices. These low energy components may lead to errors in determining the absorbed dose in a specific device under test. This method covers procedures for the use of a specialized ionization chamber to determine a figure of merit for the relative importance of such effects. It also gives the design and instructions for assembling this chamber. 1.2 This method is applicable to measurements in Co-60 radiation fields where the range of exposure rates is 7 × 10 −6 to 3 × 10−2 C kg −1 s−1 (approximately 100 R/h to 100 R/s). For guidance in applying this method to radiation fields where the exposure rate is >100 R/s, see Appendix X1. Note 1—See Terminology E170 for definition of exposure and its units. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information onl...

  8. Silicon Sensors for HEP Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Dierlamm, Alexander Hermann

    2017-01-01

    With increasing luminosity of accelerators for experiments in High Energy Physics the demands on the detectors increase as well. Especially tracking and vertexing detectors made of silicon sensors close to the interaction point need to be equipped with more radiation hard devices. This article introduces the different types of silicon sensors, describes measures to increase radiation hardness and provides an overview of present upgrade choices of HEP experiments.

  9. Radiation Hardening of Silicon Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Leroy, C; Glaser, M

    2002-01-01

    %RD48 %title\\\\ \\\\Silicon detectors will be widely used in experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider where high radiation levels will cause significant bulk damage. In addition to increased leakage current and charge collection losses worsening the signal to noise, the induced radiation damage changes the effective doping concentration and represents the limiting factor to long term operation of silicon detectors. The objectives are to develop radiation hard silicon detectors that can operate beyond the limits of the present devices and that ensure guaranteed operation for the whole lifetime of the LHC experimental programme. Radiation induced defect modelling and experimental results show that the silicon radiation hardness depends on the atomic impurities present in the initial monocrystalline material.\\\\ \\\\ Float zone (FZ) silicon materials with addition of oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, germanium and tin were produced as well as epitaxial silicon materials with epilayers up to 200 $\\mu$m thickness. Their im...

  10. Test-beam evaluation of heavily irradiated silicon strip modules for ATLAS Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Blue, Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC with 10 years of operation at instantaneous luminosities of 7.5x1034cm−2s−1. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over 1x1015 1 MeV neutron equivalent per cm2 in the ATLAS Strips system. The silicon strip tracker exploits the concept of modularity. Fast readout electronics, deploying 130nm CMOS front-end electronics are glued on top of a silicon sensor to make a module. The radiation hard n-in-p micro-strip sensors used have been developed by the ATLAS ITk Strip Sensor collaboration and produced by Hamamatsu Photonics. A series of tests were performed at the DESY-II and CERN SPS test beam facilities to investigate the detailed performance of a strip module with both 2.5cm and 5cm length strips before and after irradiation with 8x1014neqcm−2 protons and a total ionising dose of 37.2MRad. The DURA...

  11. Resonance of Superconducting Microstrip Antenna with Aperture in the Ground Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Benkouda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rigorous full-wave analysis of a high Tc superconducting rectangular microstrip antenna with a rectangular aperture in the ground plane. To include the effect of the superconductivity of the microstrip patch in the full-wave analysis, a complex surface impedance is considered. The proposed approach is validated by comparing the computed results with previously published data. Results showing the effect of the aperture on the resonance of the superconducting microstrip antenna are given.

  12. The BaBar silicon vertex tracker, performance and running experience

    CERN Document Server

    Re, V; Bozzi, C; Carassiti, V; Cotta-Ramusino, A; Piemontese, L; Breon, A B; Brown, D; Clark, A R; Goozen, F; Hernikl, C; Kerth, L T; Gritsan, A; Lynch, G; Perazzo, A; Roe, N A; Zizka, G; Roberts, D; Schieck, J; Brenna, E; Citterio, M; Lanni, F; Palombo, F; Ratti, L; Manfredi, P F; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bosi, F; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ceccanti, M; Forti, F; Gagliardi, D J; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Mammini, P; Morganti, M; Morsani, F; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Profeti, A; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Simi, G; Triggiani, G; Walsh, J; Burchat, Patricia R; Cheng, C; Kirkby, D; Meyer, T I; Roat, C; Bóna, M; Bianchi, F; Gamba, D; Trapani, P; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Lanceri, L; Pompili, A; Poropat, P; Rashevskaia, I; Vuagnin, G; Burke, S; Callahan, D; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Hale, D; Hart, P; Kuznetsova, N; Kyre, S; Levy, S; Long, O; May, J; Mazur, M; Richman, J; Verkerke, W; Witherell, M; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Frey, A; Grillo, A A; Grothe, M; Johnson, R P; Kröger, W; Lockman, W S; Pulliam, T; Rowe, W; Schmitz, R E; Seiden, A; Spencer, E N; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Wilder, M; Wilson, M; Charles, E; Elmer, P; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Scott, I; Zobernig, H

    2002-01-01

    The Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) of the BaBar experiment at the PEP-II asymmetric B factory is a five-layer double-sided, AC-coupled silicon microstrip detector. It represents the crucial element to precisely measure the decay position of B mesons and extract time-dependent CP asymmetries. The SVT architecture is shown and its performance is described, with emphasis on hit resolutions and efficiencies.

  13. DESIGN OF MICROSTRIP RADIATOR USING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Kumar Choukiker

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available An inset feed Microstrip radiator has been designed and developed for operation at 2.4GHz frequency. The Microstrip patch antenna (MPA parameters were designed using IE3D®TM EM simulator (version 14.0 and optimized with an evolutionary stochastic optimizer i.e. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO technique. Optimized results show that the antenna has a bandwidth of 33.54 MHz (<-10dB in the range 2.38355 GHz to 2.41709 GHz and a maximum return loss of -43.87dB at the resonant frequency of 2.4 GHz. The patch antenna is fabricated and the important parameters like return loss, VSWR etc were measured. The measured parameters match with the simulated results well within the tolerable limits.

  14. Slotted Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna for RFID Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A single layer coaxial fed rectangular microstrip slotted antenna for circular polarization (CP is proposed for radio frequency identification (RFID application. Two triangular shaped slots and one rectangular slot along the diagonal axis of a square patch have been embedded. Due to slotted structure along the diagonal axis and less surface area, good quality of circular polarization has been obtained with the reduction in the size of microstrip antenna by 4.04 %. Circular polarization radiation performance has been studied by size and angle variation of diagonally slotted structures. The experimental result found for 10-dB return loss is 44 MHz with 10MHz of 3dB Axial Ratio (AR bandwidth respectively at the resonant frequency 910 MHz. The overall proposed antenna size including the ground plane is 80 mm x 80 mm x 4.572 mm.

  15. Development and preliminary tests of resistive microdot and microstrip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Peskov, V; Nappi, E; Martinengo, P; Oliveira, R; Pietropaolo, F; Picchi, P

    2012-01-01

    In the last few years our group have focused on developing various designs of spark-protected micropattern gaseous detectors featuring resistive electrodes instead of the traditional metallic ones: resistive microstrip counters, resistive GEM, resistive MICROMEGAS. These detectors combine in one design the best features of RPCs (spark-protection) and micropattern detectors (a high position resolution). In this paper we report the progress so far made in developing other types of resistive micropattern detectors: a microdot-microhole detector and a microgap-microstrip detector. The former detector is an optimal electron amplifier for some special designs of dual phase noble liquid TPCs, for example with a CsI photocathode immersed inside the noble liquid. Preliminary tests of such a detector, for the first time built and investigated, are reported in this paper. The latter detector is mainly orientated towards medical imaging applications such as X-ray scanners. However, we believe that after a proper gas opti...

  16. Thermal imaging of hot spots in nanostructured microstripes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidi, E; Lesueur, J; Aigouy, L [LPEM, CNRS UPR5, ESPCI, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75231 Paris Cedex 5 (France); Labeguerie-Egea, J; Mortier, M, E-mail: lionel.aigouy@espci.f [LCMCP, CNRS UMR 7574, ENSCP, 11 rue P. et M. Curie, 75005 Paris (France)

    2010-03-01

    By scanning thermal microscopy, we study the behavior of nanostructured metallic microstripes heated by Joule effect. Regularly spaced indentations have been made along the thin film stripe in order to create hot spots. For the designed stripe geometry, we observe that heat remains confined in the wire and in particular at shrinkage points within {approx}1{mu}m{sup 2}. Thermal maps have been obtained with a good lateral resolution (< 300nm) and a good temperature sensitivity ({approx}1K).

  17. Practical Aspects of the Transmission Line Stub Matching in Microstrip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Novak

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available While designing microwave circuits with microstrip lines using open or shorted stubs for matching or realization of filters, the actual circuit can be substantially mismatched when the length of the open stub is below 30 degrees of electrical length, or shorted stub is over 60 degrees of electrical length. Realization of such stubs could lead to practical difficulties because the normal etching accuracy does not support the exact lengths required for such stubs.

  18. Factors influencing the performances of micro-strips gas chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, V.; Brom, J.M.; Fang, R.; Fontaine, J.C.; Huss, D.; Kachelhoffer, T.; Kettunen, H.; Levy, J.M.; Pallares, A.; Bergdolt, A.M.; Cailleret, J.; Christophel, E.; Coffin, J.; Eberle, H.; Osswald, F.; Sigward, M.H. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Barthe, S.; Schunck, J.P. [Laboratoire PHASE, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    1995-12-31

    Damages to MSGCs (Micro-Strips Gas Chambers) induced by discharges have been investigated. Optimization of electrode shapes and/or deposition of a protective coating allows the potential difference between anode and cathode, thus increasing the gain. For prototypes of MSGCs made at the Centre de Recherches Nucleaires, each step of the manufacturing processes was carefully controlled. Results are presented on the influence of cleaning processes on the surface resistance of glass substrates. (author). 21 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Microstrip Patch Antenna Design with Artificial Material Loadings

    OpenAIRE

    Calafell Rueda, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Conventional microstrip patch antennas can be easily miniaturized by increasing the substrate electric permittivity (εr) although the fractional bandwith (FBW) is dramatically decreased. In this work, the use of metamaterials as artificial antenna substrates is studied as an alternative method to eficiently miniaturize patch antennas, accounting not only electric permittivity εr but also magnetic permeability μr. In addition, a compact FBW formulation proposed by Yaghjian et al. [10] is ap...

  20. Stable Delay of Microstrip Line with Side Grounded Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Gazizov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of transmission lines are addressed. Wave impedance and per-unit-length delay of the microstrip structure with grounded side conductors on three layers are calculated under different parameters of the structure. A line which provides the desired value of wave impedance and constant per-unit-length delay, at the expense of correction of the gaps on different layers, is proposed.

  1. Design of Tunable Edge Coupled Microstrip Bandpass Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Kaveri, Srinidhi V

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is a study of tunability of edge-coupled filters. Microstrip edge-coupled bandpass filters are planar structures and have advantages such as easy design procedures and simple integration into circuits. Three tuning techniques were implemented. The first technique involved the loading of one open end of each coupled into tunable capacitors. The second technique used a tunable resonator in series with the edge-coupled blocks. The final design made use of tunable feedback sections. A...

  2. Recent results for the CMS tracker silicon detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Dell'Orso, R

    2001-01-01

    The paper reports on a detailed study of the radiation resistance of p/sup +/ on n silicon microstrip detectors for the CMS tracking system. From this study, it is seen that the use of low-resistivity substrates with crystal lattice orientation promises excellent performance of the Inner Tracker after heavy irradiation in the Large Hadron Collider environment. Furthermore, the advantage of using detectors thicker than 300 mu m in the Outer Tracker is discussed together with experimental meas...

  3. Radiation damage status of the ATLAS silicon strip detectors (SCT)

    CERN Document Server

    Kondo, Takahiko; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Silicon microstrip detector system (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at LHC has been working well for about 7 years since 2010. The innermost layer has already received a few times of 10**13 1-MeV neutron-equivalent fluences/cm2. The evolutions of the radiation damage effects on strip sensors such as leakage current and full depletion voltages will be presented.

  4. Silicon germanium mask for deep silicon etching

    KAUST Repository

    Serry, Mohamed

    2014-07-29

    Polycrystalline silicon germanium (SiGe) can offer excellent etch selectivity to silicon during cryogenic deep reactive ion etching in an SF.sub.6/O.sub.2 plasma. Etch selectivity of over 800:1 (Si:SiGe) may be achieved at etch temperatures from -80 degrees Celsius to -140 degrees Celsius. High aspect ratio structures with high resolution may be patterned into Si substrates using SiGe as a hard mask layer for construction of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and semiconductor devices.

  5. The DELPHI Silicon Tracker at LEP2

    CERN Document Server

    Chochula, P; Andreazza, A; Barker, G; Chabaud, V; Collins, P; Dijkstra, H; Dufour, Y; Elsing, M; Jalocha, P; Mariotti, C; Mönig, K; Treille, D; Zalewska-Bak, A; Ledroit, F; Eklund, C; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Saarikko, H; Vuopionperä, R; de Boer, Wim; Hartmann, F; Heising, S; Kaiser, M; Knoblauch, D; Maehlum, G; Wielers, M; Brückman, P; Galuszka, K; Gdanski, T; Kucewicz, W; Michalowski, J; Palka, H; Cindro, V; Kriznic, E; Zontar, D; Clemens, J C; Cohen-Solal, M; Delpierre, P A; Mouthuy, T; Raymond, M; Sauvage, D; Bravin, Enrico; Caccia, M; Campagnolo, R; Chignoli, F; Leoni, R; Meroni, C; Pindo, M; Troncon, C; Vegni, G; Couchot, F; D'Almagne, B; Fulda, F; Trombini, A; Bibby, J H; Demaria, N; Pattison, P; Vassilopoulos, N; Mazzucato, M; Nomerotski, A; Stavitski, I; Brunet, J M; Courty, B; Guglielmi, G; Jaeger, J J; Tristram, G; Turlot, J P; Baubillier, M; Roos, L; Rossel, F; Leitner, R; Masik, J; Rídky, J; Vrba, V; Bates, M J; Bizzell, J P; Denton, Lynn; Phillips, P; Gandelman, M; Polycarpo, E; Bosio, C; Rykalin, V I; Martínez-Rivero, C; Brenner, R A; Bystrom, O; Adam, W; Frischauf, N; Krammer, Manfred; Leder, Gerhard; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Rakoczy, D; Becks, K H; Drees, J; Gerlach, P; Glitza, K W; Heuser, J M; Kersten, S; Überschär, B

    1998-01-01

    The DELPHI Silicon Tracker, an ensemble of microstrips, ministrips and pixels, was completed in 1997 and has accumulated over $70~{\\rm pb^{-1}}$ of high energy data. The Tracker is optimised for the LEP2 physics programme. It consists of a silicon microstrip barrel and endcaps with layers of silicon pixel and ministrip detectors. In the barrel part, three dimensional $b$ tagging information is available down to a polar angle of $25^\\circ$. Impact parameter resolutions have been measured of $28~\\mu {\\rm m} \\oplus 71/(p~{\\rm sin} ^{\\frac{3}{2}} \\theta)~\\mu {\\rm m} $ in $R \\phi$ and $34~\\mu {\\rm m} \\oplus 69/p~\\mu {\\rm m}$ in $Rz$, where $p$ is the track momentum in $\\rm {GeV/c}$. The amount of material has been kept low with the use of double-sided detectors, double-metal readout, and light mechanics. The pixels have dimensions of 330~$\\times$~330~$\\m u${\\rm m}$^2$ and the ministrips have a readout pitch of 200~$\\mu {\\rm m}$. The forward part of the detector shows average efficiencies of more than 96\\%, has sig...

  6. Computer-Aided Design of Microstrip GaAs Mesfet Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Ole

    1976-01-01

    Results on computer-aided design of broadband GaAs MESFET amplifiers in microstrip is presented. The analysis of an amplifier is based on measured scattering parameters and a model of the microstrip structure, which includes parasitics and junction effects. The optimized performance of one stage...

  7. Characteristics of edgeless silicon detectors for the Roman Pots of the TOTEM experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    G. Ruggiero, G; Antchev, G; Deile, M; Eggert, K; Eremin, V; Kaspar, J; Niewiadomski, H; Petäjäjärvi, J; Radicioni, E; Ravotti, F; Radermacher, E; Snoeys, W; Spearman, W; Wu, J

    2009-01-01

    TOTEM Roman Pot (RP) microstrip edgeless silicon detectors, fabricated with standard planar technology, reach full sensitivity within 50 μm from the cut edge and can operate with high bias voltage at room temperature. These detectors use a newly developed terminating structure, which prevents breakdown and surface current injection at high bias, while simultaneously providing extremely reduced dead zones at the edges. Moreover, radiation hardness studies indicate that when operated under moderate cooling, the detectors remain fully efficient up to a fluence of about 1.5×1014 p cm−2. The mass production of these detectors for the TOTEM Experiment is being completed and their installation in the Roman Pots is ongoing. When the installation is complete and the LHC will be operational, these detectors will allow the TOTEM Experiment to detect leading protons at distance of 1 mm from the beam centre at the LHC. This work presented here is a survey of this recently developed device and its most up-to-date chara...

  8. Broadband Via-Less Microwave Crossover Using Microstrip-CPW Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Thomas; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward; Moseley, Samuel; Hsieh, Wen-Ting

    2011-01-01

    The front-to-back interface between microstrip and CPW (coplanar waveguide) typically requires complex fabrication or has high radiation loss. The microwave crossover typically requires a complex fabrication step. The prior art in microstrip-CPW transition requires a physical vias connection between the microstrip and CPW line on a separate layer. The via-less version of this transition was designed empirically and does not have a close form solution. The prior art of the micro wave crossover requires either additional substrate or wire bond as an air bridge to isolate two microwave lines at the crossing junction. The disadvantages are high radiation loss, no analytical solution to the problem, lengthy simulation time, and complex fabrication procedures to generate air bridges or via. The disadvantage of the prior crossover is a complex fabrication procedure, which also affects the device reliability and yield. This microstrip-CPW transition is visualized as two microstrip-slotline transitions combined in a way that the radiation from two slotlines cancels each other out. The invention is designed based on analytical methods; thus, it significantly reduces the development time. The crossover requires no extra layer to cross two microwave signals and has low radiation loss. The invention is simple to fabricate and design. It produces low radiation loss and can be designed with low insertion loss, with some tradeoff with signal isolation. The microstrip-CPW transition is used as an interface to connect between the device and the circuit outside the package. The via-less microwave crossover is used to allow two signals to cross without using an extra layer or fabrication processing step to enable this function. This design allows the solution to be determined entirely though analytical techniques. In addition, a planar via-less microwave crossover using this technique was proposed. The experimental results show that the proposed crossover at 5 GHz has a minimum

  9. Hybrid Microstrip/Slotline Ultra-Wideband Bandpass Filter with a Controllable Notch Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehui Guan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An ultra-wideband (UWB bandpass filter (BPF with a controllable notch band is presented by using hybrid microstrip/slotline structure. Firstly, a slotline resonator with symmetrically loaded stubs is fed by two microstrip lines to produce a UWB bandpass filtering response. Secondly, a microstrip triangular loop resonator is externally loaded over the slotline, and a notch band is introduced in the UWB passband. The notch band is determined by the perimeter of the loop resonator. Thirdly, two patches are added as the perturbation element to the corners of the microstrip resonator to excite a pair of degenerate modes. Bandwidth of the notch band can be tuned by properly selecting the patch size. Circuit model for the microstrip resonator loaded slotline is given and studied. Finally, the filter is designed, simulated, and measured. Measured results have agreed well with the simulated ones, demonstrating that a UWB filter with a controllable notch band has been realized.

  10. Experimental Correlation Between Silicon Carbide And Hardness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fe/SiC particulate composites have been investigated. 5-25% SiC additions were used for the production of different grades of Al-Si-Fe/SiC particulate composites. The composites samples were solution heat-treated at 500oC for 3hours and ...

  11. Standard hardness conversion tables for metals relationship among brinell hardness, vickers hardness, rockwell hardness, superficial hardness, knoop hardness, and scleroscope hardness

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 Conversion Table 1 presents data in the Rockwell C hardness range on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, Knoop hardness, and Scleroscope hardness of non-austenitic steels including carbon, alloy, and tool steels in the as-forged, annealed, normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions provided that they are homogeneous. 1.2 Conversion Table 2 presents data in the Rockwell B hardness range on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, Knoop hardness, and Scleroscope hardness of non-austenitic steels including carbon, alloy, and tool steels in the as-forged, annealed, normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions provided that they are homogeneous. 1.3 Conversion Table 3 presents data on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, and Knoop hardness of nickel and high-nickel alloys (nickel content o...

  12. Design of Dual Band Microstrip Patch Antenna using Metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiqul Islam, Md; Alsaleh Adel, A. A.; Mimi, Aminah W. N.; Yasmin, M. Sarah; Norun, Farihah A. M.

    2017-11-01

    Metamaterial has received great attention due to their novel electromagnetic properties. It consists of artificial metallic structures with negative permittivity (ɛ) and permeability (µ). The average cell size of metamaterial must be less than a quarter of wavelength, hence, size reduction for the metamaterial antenna is possible. In addition, metamaterial can be used to enhance the low gain and efficiency in conventional patch antenna, which is important in wireless communication. In this paper, dual band microstrip patch antenna design using metamaterial for mobile GSM and WiMax application is introduced. The antenna structure consists of microstrip feed line connected to a rectangular patch. An array of five split ring resonators (SRRs) unit cells is inserted under the patch. The presented antenna resonates at 1.8 GHz for mobile GSM and 2.4 GHz for WIMAX applications. The return loss in the FR4 antenna at 1.8 GHz is -22.5 dB. Using metamaterial the return loss has improved to -25 dB at 2.4 GHz and -23.5 dB at 1.8 GHz. A conventional microstrip patch antenna using pair of slots is also designed which resonates at 1.8 GHz and 2.4 GHz. The return loss at 1.8 GHz and 2.4 GHz were -12.1 dB and -21.8 dB respectively. The metamaterial antenna achieved results with major size reduction of 45%, better bandwidth and better returns loss if it is compared to the pair of slots antenna. The software used to design, simulate and optimize is CST microwave studio.

  13. Gas microstrip detectors for X-ray tomographic flow imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Key, M J; Luggar, R D; Kundu, A

    2003-01-01

    A investigation into the suitability of gas microstrip detector technology for a high-speed industrial X-ray tomography system is reported. X-ray energies in the region 20-30 keV are well suited to the application, which involves imaging two-dimensional slices through gas/liquid multiphase pipeline flows for quantitative component fraction measurement. Stable operation over a period representing several hundred individual tomographic scans at gas gains of 500 is demonstrated using a Penning gas mixture of krypton/propylene.

  14. Snaps to Connect Coaxial and Microstrip Lines in Wearable Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiti Kellomäki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial snaps (clothing fasteners can be used to connect a coaxial cable to a microstrip line. This is useful in the context of wearable antennas, especially in consumer applications and disposable connections. The measured S-parameters of the transition are presented, and an equivalent circuit and approximate equations are derived for system design purposes. The proposed connection is usable up to 1.5 GHz (10 dB return loss condition, and the frequency range can be extended to 2 GHz if a thinner, more flexible coaxial cable is used.

  15. MULTIOBJECTIVE EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHMS APPLIED TO MICROSTRIP ANTENNAS DESIGN ALGORITMOS EVOLUTIVOS MULTIOBJETIVO APLICADOS A LOS PROYECTOS DE ANTENAS MICROSTRIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Rodrigues Brianeze

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents three of the main evolutionary algorithms: Genetic Algorithm, Evolution Strategy and Evolutionary Programming, applied to microstrip antennas design. Efficiency tests were performed, considering the analysis of key physical and geometrical parameters, evolution type, numerical random generators effects, evolution operators and selection criteria. These algorithms were validated through design of microstrip antennas based on the Resonant Cavity Method, and allow multiobjective optimizations, considering bandwidth, standing wave ratio and relative material permittivity. The optimal results obtained with these optimization processes, were confirmed by CST Microwave Studio commercial package.Este trabajo presenta tres de los principales algoritmos evolutivos: Algoritmo Genético, Estrategia Evolutiva y Programación Evolutiva, aplicados al diseño de antenas de microlíneas (microstrip. Se realizaron pruebas de eficiencia de los algoritmos, considerando el análisis de los parámetros físicos y geométricos, tipo de evolución, efecto de generación de números aleatorios, operadores evolutivos y los criterios de selección. Estos algoritmos fueron validados a través del diseño de antenas de microlíneas basado en el Método de Cavidades Resonantes y permiten optimizaciones multiobjetivo, considerando ancho de banda, razón de onda estacionaria y permitividad relativa del dieléctrico. Los resultados óptimos obtenidos fueron confirmados a través del software comercial CST Microwave Studio.

  16. Electromagnetic Radiation from Arbitrarily Shaped Microstrip Antenna Using the Equivalent Dipole-Moment Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiade Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The equivalent dipole-moment method (EDM is extended and applied in the analysis of electromagnetic (EM radiation by arbitrarily shaped microstrip antenna in this paper. The method of moments (MoM is used to solve the volume-surface integral equation (VSIE. A strip model is applied in the treatment of the feeding probe of the microstrip antenna, in which the discretized triangular elements of the excitation source are equivalent as dipole models. The proposed approach is sufficiently versatile in handling arbitrarily shaped microstrip antenna and is easily constructed through a simple procedure. Numerical results are given to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of this method.

  17. The DAMPE silicon tungsten tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Gallo, Valentina; Asfandiyarov, R; Azzarello, P; Bernardini, P; Bertucci, B; Bolognini, A; Cadoux, F; Caprai, M; Domenjoz, M; Dong, Y; Duranti, M; Fan, R; Franco, M; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gong, K; Guo, D; Husi, C; Ionica, M; Lacalamita, N; Loparco, F; Marsella, G; Mazziotta, M N; Mongelli, M; Nardinocchi, A; Nicola, L; Pelleriti, G; Peng, W; Pohl, M; Postolache, V; Qiao, R; Surdo, A; Tykhonov, A; Vitillo, S; Wang, H; Weber, M; Wu, D; Wu, X; Zhang, F; De Mitri, I; La Marra, D

    2017-01-01

    The DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) satellite has been successfully launched on the 17th December 2015. It is a powerful space detector designed for the identification of possible Dark Matter signatures thanks to its capability to detect electrons and photons with an unprecedented energy resolution in an energy range going from few GeV up to 10 TeV. Moreover, the DAMPE satellite will contribute to a better understanding of the propagation mechanisms of high energy cosmic rays measuring the nuclei flux up to 100 TeV. DAMPE is composed of four sub-detectors: a plastic strip scintillator, a silicon-tungsten tracker-converter (STK), a BGO imaging calorimeter and a neutron detector. The STK is made of twelve layers of single-sided AC-coupled silicon micro-strip detectors for a total silicon area of about 7 $m^2$ . To promote the conversion of incident photons into electron-positron pairs, tungsten foils are inserted into the supporting structure. In this document, a detailed description of the STK constructi...

  18. DESIGN AND CHARACTERIZATION OF E-SHAPE MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Divya

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The area of microstrip antennas has seen some inventive work in recent years and is one of the most dynamic fields of antenna theory. The ever increasing need for mobile communication and the emergence of newer technologies require an efficient design of antenna of smaller size for wider frequency range applications such as Wi-Max. The main aim of this paper is increase the impedance bandwidth of the microstrip patch antenna. A low profile wideband unequal E-shaped microstrip patch antenna for Wi-Max application is proposed in this paper .This proposed antenna is made by using the microstrip feeding method. Its bandwidth is further increased by introducing composite effect of stacking of patches with partial grounding. The antenna is designed and simulated by three-dimensional electromagnetic field software HFSS’12.The properties of the antenna such as bandwidth, S parameter, VSWR have been investigated.

  19. A new micro-strip tracker for the new generation of experiments at hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinardo, Mauro E. [Univ. of Milan (Italy)

    2005-12-01

    This thesis concerns the development and characterization of a prototype Silicon micro-strip detector that can be used in the forward (high rapidity) region of a hadron collider. These detectors must operate in a high radiation environment without any important degradation of their performance. The innovative feature of these detectors is the readout electronics, which, being completely data-driven, allows for the direct use of the detector information at the lowest level of the trigger. All the particle hits on the detector can be readout in real-time without any external trigger and any particular limitation due to dead-time. In this way, all the detector information is available to elaborate a very selective trigger decision based on a fast reconstruction of tracks and vertex topology. These detectors, together with the new approach to the trigger, have been developed in the context of the BTeV R&D program; our aim was to define the features and the design parameters of an optimal experiment for heavy flavour physics at hadron colliders. Application of these detectors goes well beyond the BTeV project and, in particular, involves the future upgrades of experiments at hadron colliders, such as Atlas, CMS and LHCb. These experiments, indeed, are already considering for their future high-intensity runs a new trigger strategy a la BTeV. Their aim is to select directly at trigger level events containing Bhadrons, which, on several cases, come from the decay of Higgs bosons, Zo's or W±'s; the track information can also help on improving the performance of the electron and muon selection at the trigger level. For this reason, they are going to develop new detectors with practically the same characteristics as those of BTeV. To this extent, the work accomplished in this thesis could serve as guide-line for those upgrades.

  20. Design of a Microstrip Bowtie Antenna for Indoor Radio-Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Fraga-Rosales Hector; Reyes-Ayala Mario; Hernandez-Valdez Genaro; Andrade-Gonzalez Edgar Alejandro; Miranda-Tello Jose Raul; Cruz-Perez Felipe Alejandro; Castellanos-Lopez Sandra Lirio

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a microstrip bowtie patch antenna (MBPA) for wireless indoor communications is carried out. Here, a microstrip transmission-line feed network was designed in order to match the MBPA. The proposed antenna uses a ground plane with the aim of narrowing down the back lobes in comparison with bowtie sheet antennas, which radiation pattern is omni-directional. The far-field pattern of the antenna was simulated using a finite-element numerical algorithm and obtained by interpolation e...

  1. Ultra Wideband Slotted Microstrip Patch Antenna for Downlink and Uplink Satellite Application in C band

    OpenAIRE

    Tajeswita Gupta; P.K. Singhal

    2013-01-01

    An ultra-wideband slotted microstrip patch antenna has been proposed in this paper for uplink and downlink satellite applications in c band of IEEE 802.11 standards. Various slots have been introduced in the patch to achieve wider bandwidth. Presented work provides a comparative result of the microstrip patch antenna with and without the slots. Fractional bandwidth of the basic antenna is 9% which is increased to 46% after introduction of the slots in the proposed patch antenna.

  2. Microstrip superconducting quantum interference device radio-frequency amplifier: Scattering parameters and input coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinion, D; Clarke, J

    2008-01-24

    The scattering parameters of an amplifier based on a dc Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) are directly measured at 4.2 K. The results can be described using an equivalent circuit model of the fundamental resonance of the microstrip resonator which forms the input of the amplifier. The circuit model is used to determine the series capacitance required for critical coupling of the microstrip to the input circuit.

  3. Microstrip superconducting quantum interference device amplifier: Operation in higher-order modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mück, Michael; Schmidt, Bernd; Clarke, John

    2017-07-01

    DC Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) are widely used to amplify low-level, radio frequency (rf) electrical signals. SQUID amplifiers offer low noise, high gain, and low power dissipation. One method of implementing a SQUID rf amplifier for frequencies from a few hundred megahertz to several gigahertz is to operate the integrated input coil on top of the SQUID washer as a microstrip resonator. This is achieved by applying the input signal between one end of the coil and the SQUID washer, which acts as a groundplane; the other end of the coil is left open. Substantial levels of gain can be achieved from the microstrip SQUID amplifier for a signal frequency at the fundamental resonant frequency of the microstrip, at which the length of the microstrip is equal to one-half wavelength, λ/2. Since the length of the microstrip has to be made shorter for higher frequencies, however, the mutual inductance between a SQUID with a given geometry and the microstrip—and thus the gain—decreases with increasing frequency. We show that a significantly enhanced gain can be achieved by operating the microstrip resonator in higher-order modes, for example, with a microstrip length of 3λ/2 or 5λ/2, provided the winding sense of the microstrip for each consecutive λ/2 section is reversed. For a 4λ/2 resonator, we demonstrate a gain of 24 dB at 2.6 GHz, an increase in gain of about 10 dB compared to a λ/2 resonator on a SQUID of the same geometry and characteristics.

  4. A Compact Multiband Metamaterial based Microstrip Patch Antenna for Wireless communication Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nikhil Kulkarni; G. B. Lohiya

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a metamaterial based compact multiband microstrip antenna is proposed which can give high gain and directivity. Metamaterials are periodic structures and have been intensively investigated due to the particular features such as ultra-refraction phenomenon and negative permittivity and/or permeability. A metamaterialbased microstrip patch antenna with enhanced characteristics and multi band operation will be investigated in this work. The multiple frequency operation will be ach...

  5. Novel Compact Spider Microstrip Antenna with New Defected Ground Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoname, R. S.; Mohamed, M. A.; Hennawy, A. El.

    2012-08-01

    Two novel Defected Ground Structures (DGS) were first proposed, which have better results than that of the dumbbell (published shape). Using the general model of DGS, its equivalent parameters were extracted. The two new proposed shapes of DGS were then used to design a novel compact spider microstrip antenna to minimize its area. The size of the developed antenna was reduced to about 90.5% of that of the conventional one. This antenna with two different novel shapes of DGS was designed and simulated by using the ready-made software package Zeland-IE3D. Finally, it was fabricated by using thin film and photolithographic technique and measured by using vector network analyzer. Good agreements were found between the simulated and measured results.

  6. Dual-Band Microstrip Patch Antenna Miniaturization Using Metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrasen Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A dual-band microstrip patch antenna is designed and analyzed using metamaterial artificial substrate. Metamaterial based substrate is designed using Square Split Ring Resonator (SSRR and Wire Strip. The antenna is tuned to work at two resonating frequencies in the frequency range from 1 GHz to 4 GHz depending on the geometric specifications of SSRR, strip line, radiating patch, and feed location point. Proposed antenna provides good return loss behavior at both resonating frequencies. The obtained VSWR at both resonating frequencies is very much near to 1. Proposed antenna covers applications in mobile communication and Wi-MAX. Proposed patch antenna is compared with the conventional patch antenna, which shows the significant miniaturization as compared to conventional patch antenna.

  7. Miniaturized Circularly Polarized Microstrip RFID Antenna Using Fractal Metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel miniaturized circularly polarized (CP microstrip antenna that can handle UHF band (920–925 MHz, corresponding to the assigned band for RFID in China has been designed, fabricated, and measured in this paper. The miniaturization of antenna is achieved by a special cross-shaped fractal metamaterial structure that is inserted between the patch and ground plane. The measured results show that the antenna possesses an impedance bandwidth of 8.7% with VSWR 1.5 : 1 and 3-dB axial bandwidth of 3.8%. Furthermore, the proposed antenna has 10.2% size reduction compared with traditional patch antenna. The tested results are in good agreement with that of the simulations.

  8. Modified Microstrip Aperture Coupled Patch Antenna with Sierpinski Fractal Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-layer modified microstrip aperture coupled patch antenna with Sierpinski fractal geometry is presented in this paper. The effects of the two coupling slots and the parasitic patch are discussed. The proposed antenna can work on 956 MHz to 968 MHz, 3.654 GHz to 3.78 GHz, and 8.81 GHz to 9.28 GHz three frequency bands, and the maximum gain in each band is 4.64 dBi, 8.46 dBi, and 7.85 dBi, respectively. The simulated result reveals that the Sierpinski patch antenna we proposed in this paper performs better on radiation properties.

  9. Composite metamaterial enabled excellent performance of microstrip antenna array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ming-Chun; Xiao, Shao-Qiu; Guan, Jian; Bai, Yan-Ying; Gao, Shan-Shan; Wang, Bing-Zhong

    2010-07-01

    This paper reports that the split ring resonators and complementary split ring resonators are compounded to construct a novel compact composite metamaterial. The composite metamaterial exhibits a unique property of blocking electromagnetic wave propagating in two directions near the resonant frequency. An example of two-element microstrip antenna array demonstrates that the developed metamaterial enables array performance that is an improvement in comparison with the traditional one, including mutual coupling suppression of 9.07 dB, remarkable side lobe suppression and gain improvement of 2.14 dB. The mechanism of performance enhancement is analysed based on the electric field and Poynting vector distributions in array. The present work not only is a meaningful exploration of new type composite metamaterial design, but also opens up possibilities for extensive metamaterial applications to antenna engineer.

  10. Progress with diamond over-coated microstrip gas chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Boimska, B; Capéans-Garrido, M; Dominik, Wojciech; Million, Gilbert; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Sharma, A; Temmel-Ropelewski, T

    1998-01-01

    We describe recent observations and measurements with Micro-Strip Gas Chambers coated, after manufacturing, with a thin diamond-like layer in order to increase their rate capability. Compared to the more widely used solution consisting in coating the insulating support with a conductive layer before photo-lithography (the so-called undercoating), over-coating has the advantage of avoiding possible problems with adherence of metals to the layer, damages during the etching process and reduced quality of the artwork resulting from imperfections or dust inclusions in the layer. Early tests have however indicated that, possibly because of damages to the layer due to electron and ion bombardment during the avalanche process, irreversible structural modifications and fatal breakdown could be encountered at very high integral radiation fluxes. The present paper summarizes these results, and describes recent developments demonstrating that a better choice of the parameters of the over-coat may allow to withstand the r...

  11. Frequency selective surfaces based high performance microstrip antenna

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, Shiv; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on performance enhancement of printed antennas using frequency selective surfaces (FSS) technology. The growing demand of stealth technology in strategic areas requires high-performance low-RCS (radar cross section) antennas. Such requirements may be accomplished by incorporating FSS into the antenna structure either in its ground plane or as the superstrate, due to the filter characteristics of FSS structure. In view of this, a novel approach based on FSS technology is presented in this book to enhance the performance of printed antennas including out-of-band structural RCS reduction. In this endeavor, the EM design of microstrip patch antennas (MPA) loaded with FSS-based (i) high impedance surface (HIS) ground plane, and (ii) the superstrates are discussed in detail. The EM analysis of proposed FSS-based antenna structures have been carried out using transmission line analogy, in combination with the reciprocity theorem. Further, various types of novel FSS structures are considered in desi...

  12. Synthesis of an aperiodic antenna array - Application to microstrip antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekkioui, Zahera; Bendimerad, Fethi-Tarik

    1992-10-01

    Several methods for synthesizing aperiodic arrays are proposed with application to microstrip antennas. Their particular feature is to take into account the field pattern issued by the primary source. By stating the feed law and by acting solely on the position parameter we are able to make the radiation pattern of the antenna array conform to a number of given requirements. The duplication of the spatial distribution sets constraints linked to the criteria for nonoverlapping sources. Starting with two different formulations regarding the problem of synthesis we propose two solution techniques: minimax (top down based on subgradient) and relaxation under constraints. The various methods are compared and an extension to a plane array is derived.

  13. A Quarter Ellipse Microstrip Resonator for Filters in Microwave Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Á. Jaramillo-Flórez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the results of computational simulations and construction of quadrant elliptical resonators excited by coplanar slot line waveguide for designing microwave filters in RF communications systems. By means of the equation of optics, are explained the fundamentals of these geometry of resonators proposed. Are described the construction of quadrant elliptical resonators, one of microstrip and other two of cavity, of size different, and an array of four quadrant elliptical resonators in cascade. The results of the measures and the computational calculus of scattering S11 and S21 of elliptical resonators is made for to identify the resonant frequencies of the resonators studied, proving that these have performance in frequency as complete ellipses by the image effect due to their two mirror in both semiaxis, occupying less area, and the possible applications are discussed.

  14. FILTSoft: A computational tool for microstrip planar filter design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, M. H.; Abidin, Z. Z.; Dahlan, S. H.; Cholan N., A.; Ngu, Xavier T. I.; Majid, H. A.

    2017-09-01

    Filters are key component of any communication system to control spectrum and suppress interferences. Designing a filter involves long process as well as good understanding of the basic hardware technology. Hence this paper introduces an automated design tool based on Matlab-GUI, called the FILTSoft (acronym for Filter Design Software) to ease the process. FILTSoft is a user friendly filter design tool to aid, guide and expedite calculations from lumped elements level to microstrip structure. Users just have to provide the required filter specifications as well as the material description. FILTSoft will calculate and display the lumped element details, the planar filter structure, and the expected filter's response. An example of a lowpass filter design was calculated using FILTSoft and the results were validated through prototype measurement for comparison purposes.

  15. Microstrip Cross-coupled Interdigital SIR Based Bandpass Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Maharjan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple and compact 4.9 GHz bandpass filter for C-band applications is proposed. This paper presents a novel microstrip cross-coupled interdigital half-wavelength stepped impedance resonator (SIR based bandpass filter (BPF.The designed structure is similar to that of a combination of two parallel interdigital capacitors. The scattering parameters of the structure are measured using vector network analyzer (VNA. The self generated capacitive and inductive reactances within the interdigital resonators exhibited in a resonance frequency of 4.9 GHz. The resonant frequency and bandwidth of the capacitive cross-coupled resonator is directly optimized from the physical arrangement of the resonators. The measured insertion loss (S21 and return loss (S11 were 0.3 dB and 28 dB, respectively, at resonance frequency which were almost close to the simulation results.

  16. Realization of Negative Group Delay Network Using Defected Microstrip Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girdhari Chaudhary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A design of negative group delay (NGD networks using a U-shaped defected microstrip structure (DMS and lumped elements is presented in this paper. The signal attenuation characteristics of DMS were utilized to get NGD time. The group delay (GD time and signal attenuation of the proposed networks are controlled by an external resistor connected across the DMS slot. For experimental validation, a single-stage and cascaded two-stage NGD networks were designed and fabricated. From experimental results, the GD of -8.24±1.1 ns with the maximum insertion loss of 37.84 dB was obtained over bandwidth of 40 MHz.

  17. Computer Aided Design and Analysis of a 2-4 GHz Broadband Balanced Microstrip Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Ibrahim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a computer-aided design and analysis of a 2-4 GHz broadband balanced microstrip amplifier using a full computer simulation program developed by the author and others is presented. A short and efficient CAD procedure for broadband amplifier design is introduced. The first step is to design an initial narrow-band high gain microstrip amplifier at 3-GHz central frequency. The second step is to optimize the initial lengths and widths of the input and output microstrip-matching circuits to get the broadband amplifier over the range 2-4 GHz. The analysis of both narrow and broadband amplifiers is investigated. In addition, with the design and analysis of a low-pass microstrip filter, the paper introduces the design and analysis of a Lange coupler. The final AC schematic diagram of the designed amplifier with the lengths and widths of microstrip lines is presented.Key Words: Computer-Aided Design and Analysis, Microstrip Amplifier, Microwave Amplifier.

  18. Chemical reactivity of hypervalent silicon compounds: The local ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    at silicon. The object of the present work is to make use of the hard and soft acids and bases (HSAB) principle4–9 and of its local version,10–12 and density functional theory (DFT)13,14 to analyze the global behaviour of hypervalent silicon compounds, and the role of the silicon atom in the reactivity of tetra and pentacoor-.

  19. Commissioning and Performance of the LHCb Silicon Tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    van Tilburg, J; Buechler, A; Bursche , A; Chiapolini, N; Elsaesser, C; Hangartner, V; Salzmann, C; Steiner, S; Steinkamp, O; Staumann, U; Tobin, M; Vollhardt, A; Bay, A; Bettler, M O; Blanc, F; Bressieux, J; Conti, G; Fave, V; Frei, R; Gauvin, N; Gonzalez, R; Haefeli, G; Hicheur, A; Keune, A; Luisier, J; Muresan, R; Nakada, T; Needham, M; Nicolas, L; Knecht, M; Perrin, A; Potterat, C; Schneider, O; Tran, M; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Bauer, C; Britsch, M; Hofmann, W; Maciuc, F; Schmelling, M; Voss, H; Adeva, B; Esperante, D; Fungueiriño Pazos, J; Gallas, A; Pazos-Alvarez, A; Pérez-Trigo, E; Pló Casasús, M; Rogríguez Pérez, P; Saborido, J; Vázquez, P; Iakovenko, V; Okhrimenko, O; Pugatch, V

    2010-01-01

    The LHCb Silicon Tracker is a silicon micro-strip detector with a sensitive area of 12 m$^2$ and a total of 272k readout channels. The Silicon Tracker consists of two parts that use different detector modules. The detector installation was completed by early summer 2008 and the commissioning without beam has reached its finals stage, successfully overcoming most of the encountered problems. Currently, the detector has more than 99% of the channels fully functioning. Commissioning with particles has started using beam-induced events from the LHC injection tests in 2008 and 2009. These events allowed initial studies of the detector performance. Especially, the detector modules could be aligned with an accuracy of about 20 $\\mu$m. Furthermore, with the first beam collisions that took place end of 2009 we could further study the performance and improve the alignment of the detector.

  20. LHCb: Installation and operation of the LHCb Silicon Tracker detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Esperante Pereira, D

    2009-01-01

    The LHCb experiment has been designed to perform high-precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of B hadrons. The construction and installation phases of the Silicon Tracker (ST) of the experiment were completed by early summer 2008. The LHCb Silicon Tracker sums up to a total sensitive area of about 12 m^2 using silicon micro-strip technology and withstands charged particle fluxes of up to 5 x 10^5cm^−2s^−1. We will report on the preparation of the detectors for the first LHC beams. Selected results from the commissioning in LHCb are shown, including the first beam-related events accumulated during LHC injection tests in September 2008. Lessons are drawn from the experience gathered during the installation and commissioning.

  1. Study of New Silicon Sensors for Experiments at Future Particle Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Muñoz Sánchez, Francisca Javiela

    In this work, two new technologies for future tracker detectors at future colliders are studied. In addition, the characterization techniques are described and the obtained results are presented. On one side, we studied two-dimensional position-sensitive microstrip sensors. This sensors use a resistive material as electrode instead of the standard metallic one. In this way, using a single sensor we can get information about two coordinates of a particle hit. On the other side, we studied double-sided double-type 3D pixel sensors. This sensors are manufactured in 3D technology instead of in the planar technology. They show more radiation hardness and require less energy to be efficiently operated than sensors manufactured in planar technology. With this work, we demonstrate the resistive microstrip sensors functionality as particle detector and the radiation hardness of 3D pixel detectors has been evaluated.

  2. Recent results for the CMS tracker silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Dell'Orso, R

    2001-01-01

    The paper reports on a detailed study of the radiation resistance of p/sup +/ on n silicon microstrip detectors for the CMS tracking system. From this study, it is seen that the use of low-resistivity substrates with crystal lattice orientation promises excellent performance of the Inner Tracker after heavy irradiation in the Large Hadron Collider environment. Furthermore, the advantage of using detectors thicker than 300 mu m in the Outer Tracker is discussed together with experimental measurements on prototypes. (18 refs).

  3. Signal coupling to embedded pitch adapters in silicon sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Artuso, Marina; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Blusk, Steven R.; Brundler Denzer, Ruth; Bugiel, Szymon; Dasgupta, Roma; Dendek, Adam Mateusz; Dey, Biplab; Ely, Scott Edward; Lionetto, Federica; Petruzzo, Marco; Polyakov, Ivan; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Schindler, Heinrich; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stone, Sheldon

    2017-01-01

    We have examined the effects of embedded pitch adapters on signal formation in n-substrate silicon microstrip sensors with data from beam tests and simulation. According to simulation, the presence of the pitch adapter metal layer changes the electric field inside the sensor, resulting in slowed signal formation on the nearby strips and a pick-up effect on the pitch adapter. This can result in an inefficiency to detect particles passing through the pitch adapter region. All these effects have been observed in the beam test data.

  4. A Compact Annular Ring Microstrip Antenna for WSN Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daihua Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A compact annular ring microstrip antenna was proposed for a wireless sensor network (WSN application in the 2.4 GHz band. In this paper the major considerations of the conformal antenna design were the compact size and the impact on antenna’s performance of a steel installation base. By using a chip resistor of large resistance (120 Ω the antenna size was reduced to 38% of that a conventional annular ring patch antenna. With the addition of the steel installation base the resonant frequency of the antenna increases about 4.2% and the bandwidth reduces from 17.5% to 11.7% by adjusting the load resistance simultaneously. Several key parameters were discussed and optimized, and the antenna was fabricated and its performance measured. The antenna is well matched at 2.4 GHz with 34.2 dB return loss and –2.5 dBi peak gain. Meanwhile, it exhibits excellent radiation patterns with very low cross-polarization levels.

  5. Operation of sealed microstrip gas chambers at the ILL

    CERN Document Server

    Clergeau, J F; Feltin, D; Fischer, H E; Guérard, B; Hansen, T; Manzin, G; Oed, A; Palleau, P

    2001-01-01

    Microstrip Gas Counters (MSGCs) were introduced at the ILL as a response to the problem of fabricating the large area neutron detector of the D20 neutron powder diffractometer. This banana-like detector consists of 48 MSGCs, each comprising 32 counting cells. It was in operation during 18 months before being stopped due to the progressive deterioration of the anode strips. In order to increase its lifetime, significant modifications were introduced in the recently assembled new version. Another instrument, D4C, was recently equipped with a modular detector made of nine MSGCs, each of them in an individual gas vessel. Besides the unidimensional individual readout MSGC of D20 and D4C, the ILL has developed bidimensional MSGCs with a charge division readout. All these detectors employ sealed vessels containing a gas mixture at a pressure which can be as high as 15 bar, necessitating very clean conditions. This paper describes the experience acquired at the ILL in the fabrication and operation of these detectors.

  6. Electrodynamic modeling applied to micro-strip gas chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, R

    1998-12-31

    Gas gain variations as functions of time, counting rate and substrate resistivity have been observed with Micro-Strip Gas Chambers (MSGC). Such a chamber is here treated as a system of 2 dielectrics, gas and substrate, with finite resistivities. Electric charging between their interface results in variations of the electric field and the gas gain. The electrodynamic equations (including time dependence) for such a system are proposed. A Rule of Charge Accumulation (RCA) is then derived which allows to determine the quantity and sign of charges accumulated on the surface at equilibrium. In order to apply the equations and the rule to MSGCs, a model of gas conductance induced by ionizing radiation is proposed, and a differential equation and some formulae are derived to calculate the rms dispersion and the spatial distribution of electrons (ions) in inhomogeneous electric fields. RCA coupled with a precise simulation of the electric fields gives the first quantitative explanation of gas gain variations of MSGCs. Finally an electrodynamic simulation program is made to reproduce the dynamic process of gain variation due to surface charging with an uncertainty of at most 15% relative to experimental data. As a consequence, the methods for stabilizing operation of MSGCs are proposed. (author) 18 refs.

  7. An Inflatable L-Band Microstrip SAR Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Lou, M.; Feria, A.; Kim, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Inflatable structures have been identified as one of the enabling technologies to achieve low mass, high packaging efficiency, and reliable deployment for future NASA spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) array antennas. A current L-band SAR antenna development, with aperture size of 10 m x 3 m, is required to have the capabilities of dual-linear polarization, 80-MHz bandwidth, electronic beam scanning, and less than 100 kg of mass. An inflatable concept, which employs the inflatable tubular frame structure to support a multilayer, thin membrane, microstrip array radiating aperture, has been identified. It uses a "roll-up" concept, for deploying the thin membranes to form a planar array aperture. To demonstrate this concept, two contracts were independently given to ILC Dover, Inc. and L'Garde Corp. for each to construct a 1/3 size (3.3 m x 1.0 m) functional model with an inflatable structure at L-band frequency. JPL provided both contractors with the antenna RF design and the etched thin membranes. The ILC Dover model has been delivered to JPL and gone through a series of deployment and RF tests. This is believed to be the first inflatable array antenna ever developed. This paper presents the mechanical and electrical constructions of this inflatable array and its test results.

  8. Circular Microstrip Antenna with Fractal Slots for Multiband Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sivia Jagtar; Singh, Gurpreet; Bharti, Gurpreet

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a multiband, fractal, slotted, Circular Microstrip Patch Antenna for GSM, WiMAX, C and X bands (satellite communication applications) is presented. A cantor set theory is used to make fractal slots for obtaining the desired multiband. The projected antenna is simulated using Ansys HFSS v13.0 software. Simulation test of this antenna has been carried out for a frequency range of 1 GHz-10 GHz and a peak gain of 9.19 dB at a resonance frequency of 1.9 GHz is obtained. The antenna also resonates at 3.7 GHz, 6.06 GHz and 7.9 GHz with gains of 3.04 dB, 5.19 dB and 5.39 dB respectively. Parameters like voltage standing wave ratio, return loss, and gain are used to compare the results of the projected antenna with conventional CMPA's of same dimensions with full and defective grounds. The projected antenna is fabricated on a glass epoxy material and is tested using Vector Network Analyzer. The performance parameters of the antenna are found to in good agreement with each both using simulated and measured data.

  9. Compact Microstrip Antenna with Pattern-Reconfigurable Characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. D. Ma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a compact microstrip antenna with radiation pattern reconfigurable characteristic employing MEMS switches is proposed and investigated. This novel antenna mainly includes four parts: a circular-shaped patch, six MEMS switches, six fan-shaped coupling cells and six fan-shaped radiation cells. Through controlling the states of MEMS switches, radiation pattern selectivity of the proposed antenna can be achieved. When switching operation states of the antenna from state 1 to state 12 sequentially, the main radiation beam direction in azimuth planes could rotate 30˚ from 0˚ to 330˚ with each switch. Meanwhile, the radiation beam directions in elevation plane and the operation frequencies of proposed antenna for different operation states are stable at about 35˚ and 4GHz, respectively. With the consideration of MEMS switches actual size, the antenna structure and dimensions were optimized and adjusted. The simulated and measured results were analyzed and compared, indicating this compact antenna can be widely used for multifunctional applications and modern wireless communication systems.

  10. Design and Production of Detector Modules for the LHCb Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Agari, M; Blouw, J; Hofmann, W; Löchner, S; Maciuc, F; Schmelling, M; Smale, N; Schwingenheuer, B; Voss, H; Pugatch, V; Bay, A; Bettler, MO; Fauland, P; Frei, R; Van Hunen, J; Knecht, M; Nicolas, L; Perrin, A; Schneider, O; Tran, MT; Vervink, K; Adeva, B; Esperante-Pereira, D; Fungueirino-Pazos, J L; Lois, C; Pazos-Alvarez, A; Pérez-Trigo, E; Pló-Casasus, M; Vázquez, P; Bernhard, RP; Bernet, P; Gassner, J; Lehner, F; Needham, M; Sakhelashvili, T M; Steiner, S; Steinkamp, O; Straumann, U; Van Tilburg, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Wenger, A

    2006-01-01

    The LHCb Silicon Tracker will cover a sensitive surface of about 12 m^2 with silicon micro-strip detectors. The production of detector modules is currently coming close to its conclusion. In this paper, the design of the detector modules, the main module production steps, and the module quality assurance programme are described. Selected results from the quality assurance are shown and first lessons are drawn from the experience gained during module production. Presented at the 6th International ``Hiroshima'' Symposium on the Development and Application of Semiconductor Tracking Detectors, Carmel, California, September 11-15, 2006; proceedings submitted for publication in Nucl. Instr. and Meth.~A

  11. Design and Production of Detector Modules for the LHCb Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Agari, M; Blouw, J; Hofmann, W; Löchner, S; Maciuc, F; Schmelling, M; Smale, N; Schwingenheuer, B; Voss, H; Pugatch, V; Bay, A; Bettler, MO; Fauland, P; Frei, R; Van Hunen, J; Knecht, M; Nicolas, L; Perrin, A; Schneider, O; Tran, MT; Vervink, K; Adeva, B; Esperante-Pereira, D; Fungueirino-Pazos, J L; Lois, C; Pazos-Alvarez, A; Pérez-Trigo, E; Pló-Casasus, M; Vázquez, P; Bernhard, RP; Bernet, R; Gassner, J; Lehner, F; Needham, M; Sakhelashvili, T M; Steiner, S; Steinkamp, O; Straumann, U; Van Tilburg, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Wenger, A

    2007-01-01

    The LHCb Silicon Tracker consists of four planar tracking stations and will cover a sensitive surface of about 12 m^2 with silicon micro-strip detectors. Detector modules of two different designs will be employed in different parts of the detecor. The production of these detector modules is coming close to its completion. A brief overview over the module designs, production and quality assurance programmes is given and a few lessons are drawn from the production experience. Presented at the 11th Vienna Conference on Instrumentation, Vienna, Austria, February 19-24, 2007; Proceedings submitted for publication in Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A

  12. Characterization of Czochralski Silicon Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Luukka, Panja-Riina

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes the characterization of irradiated and non-irradiated segmenteddetectors made of high-resistivity (>1 kΩcm) magnetic Czochralski (MCZ) silicon. It isshown that the radiation hardness (RH) of the protons of these detectors is higher thanthat of devices made of traditional materials such as Float Zone (FZ) silicon or DiffusionOxygenated Float Zone (DOFZ) silicon due to the presence of intrinsic oxygen (> 5 x1017 cm-3). The MCZ devices therefore present an interesting alternative for future highenergy physics experiments. In the large hadron collider (LHC), the RH of the detectorsis a critical issue due to the high luminosity (1034 cm-2s-1) corresponding to the expectedtotal fluencies of fast hadrons above 1015 cm-2. This RH improvement is important sinceradiation damage in the detector bulk material reduces the detector performance andbecause some of the devices produced from standard detector-grade silicon, e.g. FZsilicon with negligible oxygen concentration, might not survive the plann...

  13. A Comprehensive Computational Design for Microstrip Passive and Active Linear Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed A. El-Badawy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a complete program called HHSS2 is introduced which is a user-oriented program capable of designing linear active and passive microstrip circuits such as amplifiers, oscillators, mixers, lowpass filters, and couplers. The substrate parameters and the characteristic impedance of the microstrip lines are given to the program as a common statement. Examples for the design of a 3-GHz high gain amplifier, 2.6-GHz oscillator, ring coupler operated at 3.33 GHz, Lange coupler operated at 3.3 GHz, and maximally-flat lowpass filter operated at 2 GHz with 0.75 GHz cutoff frequency are introduced.    Key Words: Computational Microstrip Circuit Design, Microwave Circuits, Computer Aided Design.

  14. Mixed-Potential Integral Equation Based Characteristic Mode Analysis of Microstrip Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yikai Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A characteristic mode (CM formulation is developed for the modal analysis of microstrip antennas. It is derived from the mixed-potential integral equation (MPIE with spatial-domain Green’s functions for multilayered media, where spatial-domain Green’s functions take into account the effect of the multilayered media. The resultant characteristic currents and fields are orthogonal with each other among different orders of modes. Together with the eigenvalues and their deduced indicators, the CMs provide deep physical insights into the radiation mechanisms of microstrip antennas. Numerical results are presented to confirm CM formulation’s effectiveness and accuracy in determining the resonant frequencies, radiating mode currents, and modal fields of microstrip antennas. As opposed to the very popular CM formulation for conducting bodies, comparative studies are presented to show the quite different modal analysis results by considering the multilayered media.

  15. Electronically tunable microstrip bandstop filters using a varactor-loaded open ring resonator (VLORR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, Juan; Saura-Ródenas, Adrián; Alvarez-Melcon, Alejandro; Martínez-Viviente, Félix L.

    2017-07-01

    A compact microstrip bandstop filter (BSF) with a wide electronically tunable frequency range and a constant absolute bandwidth is presented. It consists of an open ring resonator (ORR) loaded with a varactor diode and connected to a section of a microstrip transmission line. As a reverse bias is applied to the proposed varactor-loaded ORR (VLORR), the value of the resulting capacitor is controlled and the resonant frequency can be varied to the desired position. The measured tunable BSF achieves 92.6 % tuning range with a constant 15 dB absolute bandwidth of 0.27 GHz and a minimum rejection level of 37 dB. This reconfigurable microstrip BSF can be useful in microwave communication systems.

  16. Smaller-loss planar SPP transmission line than conventional microstrip in microwave frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao Chi; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Jun Feng; Tang, Wenxuan; Fan, Yifeng; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-03-17

    Transmission line is a basic component in all passive devices, integrated circuits, and systems. Microstrip is the most popular transmission line in the microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies, and has been widely used in current electronic devices, circuits, and systems. One of the important issues to be solved in such applications is the relatively large transmission loss of microstrip. Here, we propose a method to reduce the loss of microwave transmission line based on the designable wavenumber of spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Using this characteristic, we analyze and experimentally demonstrate the low-loss feature of the SPP transmission line through the perturbation method and S-parameter measurements, respectively. Both simulation and experimental results show that the SPP transmission line has much smaller transmission loss than traditional microstrip with the same size in the microwave frequencies. Hence, the spoof SPP transmission line may make a big step forward in the low-loss circuits and systems.

  17. Compact and Broadband Microstrip-Line-Fed Modified Rhombus Slot Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Y. Pan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The printed microstrip-line-fed broadband rhombus slot antenna is investigated in this paper. With the use of the offset microstrip feed line and the corner-truncated protruded ground plane, the bandwidth enhancement and the slot size reduction for the proposed slot antenna can be obtained. The experimental results demonstrate that the impedance bandwidth for 10 dB return loss reaches 5210 MHz (108.2%, 2210-7420 MHz, which is about 2.67 times of a conventional microstrip-line-fed rhombus slot antenna. This bandwidth can provide with the wireless communication services operating in wireless local area network (WLAN and worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX bands. Under the use of the protruded ground plane, the slot size can be reduced by about 52%. Details of simulated and measured results are presented and discussed.

  18. Microstrip Resonator for High Field MRI with Capacitor-Segmented Strip and Ground Plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Boer, Vincent; Petersen, Esben Thade

    2017-01-01

    ) segmenting stripe and ground plane of the resonator with series capacitors. The design equations for capacitors providing symmetric current distribution are derived. The performance of two types of segmented resonators are investigated experimentally. To authors’ knowledge, a microstrip resonator, where both......High field MRI coils are often based on transmission line resonators. Due to relatively short wavelength of RF fields, such coils produce uneven field patterns. Here we show, that it is possible to manipulate magnetic field patterns of microstrip resonators in both planes (sagittal and transverse......, strip and ground plane are capacitor-segmented, is shown here for the first time....

  19. Design and Fabrication of Graphene Reinforced Polymer Conductive Patch-Based Inset Fed Microstrip Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, A.; Kannan, P. Muthu; Shankar, P.

    This work explores the design and fabrication of graphene reinforced polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) patch-based microstrip antenna. Primarily, antenna was designed at 6GHz frequency and simulation results were obtained using Ansoft HFSS tool. Later fabrication of antenna was carried out with graphene-PVDF films as conducting patch deposited on bakelite substrate and copper as ground plane. Graphene-PVDF films were prepared using solvent casting process. The radiation efficiency of fabricated microstrip patch antenna was 48% entailing it to be adapted as a practically functional antenna. Both simulated and the practical results were compared and analyzed.

  20. [Microstrip antenna design and system research of radio frequency identification temperature sensor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Yang, Xiaohe; Chen, Yuquan; Pan, Min

    2008-12-01

    Radio frequency identification sensor network, which is a product of integrating radio frequency identification (RFID) with wireless sensor network (WSN), is introduced in this paper. The principle of radio frequency identification sensor is analyzed, and the importance of the antenna is emphasized. Then three kinds of common antennae, namely coil antenna, dipole antenna and microstrip antenna, are discussed. Subsequently, according to requirement, we have designed a microstrip antenna in a wireless temperature-monitoring and controlling system. The measurement of factual effect showed the requirement was fulfilled.

  1. Design of Multilevel Sequential Rotation Feeding Networks Used for Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aixin Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequential rotation feeding networks can significantly improve performance of the circularly polarized microstrip antenna array. In this paper, single, double, and multiple series-parallel sequential rotation feeding networks are examined. Compared with conventional parallel feeding structures, these multilevel feeding techniques present reduction of loss, increase of bandwidth, and improvement of radiation pattern and polarization purity. By using corner-truncated square patch as the array element and adopting appropriate level of sequential rotation series-parallel feeding structures as feeding networks, microstrip arrays can generate excellent circular polarization (CP over a relatively wide frequency band. They can find wide applications in phased array radar and satellite communication systems.

  2. New materials for radiation hard semiconductor detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Sellin, P J; CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    We present a review of the current status of research into new semiconductor materials for use as particle tracking detectors in very high radiation environments. This work is carried out within the framework of the CERN RD50 collaboration, which is investigating detector technologies suitable for operation at the proposed Super-LHC facility (SLHC). Tracking detectors operating at the SLHC in this environment will have to be capable of withstanding radiation levels arising from a luminosity of 1035 cm-2s-1 which will present severe challenges to current tracking detector technologies. The "new materials" activity within RD50 is investigating the performance of various semiconductor materials that potentially offer radiation hard alternatives to silicon devices. The main contenders in this study are silicon carbide, gallium nitride and amorphous silicon. In this paper we review the current status of these materials, in terms of material quality, commercial availability, charge transport properties, and radiati...

  3. Reconfigurable Wideband Circularly Polarized Microstrip Patch Antenna for Wireless Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khidre, Ahmed

    In this thesis, developments of rectangular microstrip patch antenna to have circular polarization agility with wideband performance, for wireless applications are presented. First, a new technique to achieve circularly polarized (CP) probe feed single-layer microstrip patch antenna with wideband characteristics is proposed. The antenna is a modified form of the popular E-shaped patch, used to broaden the impedance bandwidth of a basic rectangular patch antenna. This is established by letting the two parallel slots of the E-patch unequal. Thus, by introducing asymmetry two orthogonal currents on the patch are excited and circularly polarized fields are realized. The proposed technique exhibits the advantage of the simplicity inherent in the E-shaped patch design. It requires only slot lengths, widths, and position parameters to be determined. Also, it is suitable for later adding the reconfigurable capability. With the aid of full-wave simulator Ansoft HFSS, investigations on the effect of various dimensions of the antenna have been carried out via parametric analysis. Based on these investigations, a design procedure for a CP E-shaped patch is summarized. Various design examples with different substrate thicknesses and material types are presented and compared, with CP U-slot patch antennas, recently proposed in the literature. A prototype has been constructed following the suggested design procedure to cover the IEEE 802.11b/g WLAN band. The performance of the fabricated antenna was measured and compared with the simulation results for the reflection coefficient, axial ratio, radiation pattern, and antenna gain. Good agreement is achieved between simulation and measured results demonstrating a high gain and wideband performance. Second, a polarization reconfigurable single feed E-shaped patch antenna with wideband performance is proposed. The antenna is capable of switching from right-hand circular polarization (RHCP) to left-hand circular polarization (LHCP) and

  4. Optimizing the Gain and Noise Temperature of Microstrip SQUID Amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinion, Darin

    2009-03-01

    Micrrostrip SQUID amplifiers (MSA) offer near quantum-limited sensitivity and gains greater than 20 dB at frequencies around 1 GHz. These properties make them desirable for applications ranging from dark-matter axion detection to dispersive readout of superconducting qubits. The input of the MSA is a microstrip transmission line in the shape of a square spiral coil surrounding the hole in the SQUID washer that serves as the ground plane. Near the fundamental resonance, there is strong flux coupling between the input coil and SQUID. To obtain maximum performance it is necessary to know the complete set of complex scattering parameters. We present measurements of the scattering parameters of MSAs cooled to 4.2 K. The input impedance is found by measuring the reverse scattering parameter (S11) and is described well by a low-loss transmission line model. We map the low-loss transmission line model into an equivalent parallel RLC circuit that accurately predicts the observed gain given by the forward scattering parameter (S21). This information is used to optimize the input and output matching circuitry to achieve optimal noise temperature and gain. We will present results for the gain, dynamic range, linearity and noise temperature of these optimized MSAs at 30-500 mK as a function of frequency and SQUID bias. We will compare the results to the prediction of the circuit model and to the theoretical expectation that the lowest noise temperature occurs off-resonance. This work is in collaboration with John Clarke and a portion of this work was supported by DOE.

  5. Thermodynamic hardness and the maximum hardness principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Pérez, Marco; Gázquez, José L.; Ayers, Paul W.; Vela, Alberto

    2017-08-01

    An alternative definition of hardness (called the thermodynamic hardness) within the grand canonical ensemble formalism is proposed in terms of the partial derivative of the electronic chemical potential with respect to the thermodynamic chemical potential of the reservoir, keeping the temperature and the external potential constant. This temperature dependent definition may be interpreted as a measure of the propensity of a system to go through a charge transfer process when it interacts with other species, and thus it keeps the philosophy of the original definition. When the derivative is expressed in terms of the three-state ensemble model, in the regime of low temperatures and up to temperatures of chemical interest, one finds that for zero fractional charge, the thermodynamic hardness is proportional to T-1(I -A ) , where I is the first ionization potential, A is the electron affinity, and T is the temperature. However, the thermodynamic hardness is nearly zero when the fractional charge is different from zero. Thus, through the present definition, one avoids the presence of the Dirac delta function. We show that the chemical hardness defined in this way provides meaningful and discernible information about the hardness properties of a chemical species exhibiting integer or a fractional average number of electrons, and this analysis allowed us to establish a link between the maximum possible value of the hardness here defined, with the minimum softness principle, showing that both principles are related to minimum fractional charge and maximum stability conditions.

  6. Mechanical Properties of Silicon Carbonitride Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaofeng; Hu, Xingfang; Wang, Wei; Song, Lixin

    2003-02-01

    Silicon carbonitride thin films were synthesized by reactive rf sputtering a silicon carbide target in nitrogen and argon atmosphere, or sputtering a silicon nitride target in methane and argon atmosphere, respectively. The Nanoindentation technique (Nanoindenter XP system with a continuous stiffness measurement technique) was employed to measure the hardness and elastic modulus of thin films. The effects of sputtering power on the mechanical properties are different for the two SiCN thin films. With increasing sputtering power, the hardness and the elastic modulus decrease for the former but increase for the latter. The tendency is similar to the evolution trend of Si-C bonds in SiCN materials. This reflects that Si-C bonds provide greater hardness for SiCN thin films than Si-N and C-N bonds.

  7. Performance studies of the CBM Silicon Tracking System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotynia, Anna [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    One of the most challenging fields of modern high-energy physics is exploration of the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter. In order to study the dynamics of phase diagram at high net baryon densities, the CBM experiment will be performed with high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. Efficient charged particle tracking and high momentum resolution is one of the central performance requirements for the CBM Silicon Tracking System (STS). The aim of ongoing layout studies is to design a highly granular and low mass detector system that can track the 1000 charged particles that are typically generated in Au+Au collisions at 25 GeV/u projectile energy. A low mass detector is required to achieve a momentum resolution down to 1%. The STS layout comprises eight detector stations fully based on micro-strip detectors. The stations have a ladder structure and are build of 300 {mu}m thick double-sided silicon micro-strip sensors with horizontal size of 6 cm and a strip pitch of 60 {mu}m. The strip length was matched to a maximum occupancy of less than 5% and results in a vertical size of one sensor from 2 to 18 cm. We present the concept of STS geometry, tools used for simulation of realistic detector responce together with discussion about results of such simulations.

  8. On-chip characterization of low-noise microstrip-coupled transition edge sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostem, Karwan; Goldie, David J.; Withington, Stafford; Glowacka, Dorota M.; Tsaneva, Vassilka N.; Audley, Michael D.

    2009-04-01

    Transition edge sensors (TESs) are used extensively in millimeter-wave and submillimeter-wave astronomy. The next technological push is to reduce the noise equivalent powers from 10-17 to 10-20 W Hz-1/2 in order to take full advantage of the exceptionally low backgrounds associated with cooled-aperture space telescopes. We describe a lab-on-a-chip (LoC) for measuring the small-signal and noise properties of ultralow-noise microstrip-coupled TESs. The LoC comprises two suspended SiNx membranes, one of which supports a single-mode, variable-temperature blackbody source, and the other a microstrip-coupled TES. The two devices are connected by a superconducting microstrip transmission line. The temperature of the source is determined by Johnson noise thermometry using superconducting quantum interference device readout. In this paper, we describe the theory, layout, operation, and calibration of the experimental system and report on two prototype devices. The LoC concept has many advantages, and already we have been able to assess the optical efficiencies of our TESs. We have started to gain an appreciation of the losses associated with 100-300 GHz microminiature superconducting microstrip transmission lines at low temperatures. The next phase of our work is to apply the technique to ultralow-noise detectors, to study fluctuation phenomena in multimode devices, and to investigate the behavior of more complicated integrated circuits.

  9. Dual-Frequency, Dual-Polarization Microstrip Antenna Development for High-Resolution, Airborne SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granholm, Johan; Skou, N.

    2000-01-01

    synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system. The dual-frequency array concept adopted relies on the use of probe-fed perforated, stacked patches for L-band (1.2-1.3 GHz). Inside these perforations probe-fed, wideband stacked microstrip patches for C-band (4.9-5.7 GHz) are placed. Measured impedance and radiation...

  10. Proximity fed gap-coupled half E-shaped microstrip antenna array

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    USA: Artech. Chair R, Mak C L, Lee K F, Luk K M and Kishk A A 2005 Miniaturized wide-bandhalf U-slot and half. E-shaped patch antennas. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 53(8): 2645–2652. Cock R T and Christodoulou C G 1987 Design of a two layer capacitively coupled, microstrip patch antenna.

  11. Comparison of CAD Formulas, Method of Moments and Experiments for Rectangular Microstrip Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Novacek

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Calculations of several cases for rectangular microstrip patchantennas using more accurate cavity model have been compared with theconventional cavity calculations, expressions generated by curvefitting to full wave solutions and method of moments. Calculated aswell as experimental values have been studied for different thickness,patch sizes and substrate materials with different permittivities andlosses.

  12. Suppression of Cross-Polarization of the Microstrip Integrated Balun-Fed Printed Dipole Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Jingjian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The high cross-polarization of the microstrip integrated balun-fed printed dipole antenna cannot meet the demands of many engineering applications. This kind of antennas has high cross-polarization levels (about −20 dB. And we find that the high cross-polarization radiation is mainly produced by the microstrip integrated balun rather than the dipole itself. The very limited method to lower the cross-polarization level of this kind of antennas is to reduce the substrate thickness. In this paper, to improve the low cross-polarized performance, firstly, an equivalent model is presented to analyze the cross-polarization radiation. Secondly, a novel structure with low cross-polarization is proposed. The microstrip integrated balun is enclosed by a center slotted cavity. The E-field of the microstrip integrated balun is transformed parallel to the dipole arms by the slot, so the radiation of the cross-polarized component is suppressed. Measured results show that this structure can achieve a bandwidth wider than 40% while reducing the cross-polarization level to less than −35 dB within the frequency band.

  13. Performance of microstrip proportional counters for x-ray astronomy on spectrum-roentgen-gamma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; BAHNSEN, A; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1991-01-01

    DSRI will provide a set of four imaging proportional counters for the Danish-Soviet X-ray telescopes XSPECT/SODART. The sensor principle is based on the novel micro-strip proportional counter (MSPC), where the strip electrodes are deposited by photolithography onto a rigid substrate. The MSPC off...

  14. Dual Polarization Stacked Microstrip Patch Antenna Array With Very Low Cross-Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granholm, Johan; Woelders, Kim

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development and performance of a wideband dual linear polarization microstrip antenna array used in the Danish high-resolution airborne multifrequency polarimetric synthetic aperture radar, EMISAR. The antenna was designed for an operating frequency of 1.25 GHz±50 MHz...

  15. Probe-Fed Stacked Microstrip Patch Antenna for High-Resolution Polarimetric C-Band SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granholm, Johan; Skou, Niels

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes a C-band, dual-linear polarization wideband antenna for use in the next-generation of the Danish high-resolution, airborne polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system, EMISAR. The design and performance of a probe-fed, stacked microstrip patch element, operating from 4...

  16. Wideband Dual-Polarization Microstrip Patch Antenna Array for Airborne Ice Sounder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vazquez-Roy, Jose Luis; Krozer, Viktor; Dall, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    We present the design and realization of an antenna array based on cavity-backed microstrip patch antenna elements, with a relative operating bandwidth exceeding 20% at a return-loss level better than 15 dB. The antenna array of four elements did not show any compromise in bandwidth. It exhibited...

  17. Analysis and design of broadband U-slot cut rectangular microstrip ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 42; Issue 10. Analysis and design of broadband U-slot cut rectangular microstrip antennas ... However, in most of the reported work, an in-depth explanation about the mode introduced by U-slot and procedure to design U-slot cut antennas at any given frequency is not explained.

  18. Study of the bunch crossing identification at LHC using microstrip gas chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelini, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); Bacchetta, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padua (Italy); Bellazzini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); Bon, D. [IPN, Lyon (France); Bondar, A. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki; Bozzo, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Genoa (Italy); Brez, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); Brom, J.M. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Caldero, J.C. [IPN, Lyon (France); Clergeau, J.F. [IPN, Lyon (France); Contardo, D. [IPN, Lyon (France); French, M. [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (United Kingdom); Giraldo, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padua (Italy); Guillot, G. [IPN, Lyon (France); Hall, G. [IC, London (United Kingdom); Hammarstroem, R. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Haroutunian, R. [IPN, Lyon (France); Jones, L. [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (United Kingdom); Kachelhoffer, T. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Kryn, D. [IPN, Lyon (France); Loreti, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padua (Italy); Ladzinski, T. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Mabo, J.C. [IPN, Lyon (France); MacEvoy, B. [IC, London (United Kingdom); Massai, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); Miguet, M. [IPN, Lyon (France); Millmore, M. [IC, London (United Kingdom); Morelli, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Genoa (Italy); Nagaslaev, V. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Pallares, A. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Parodi, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Genoa (Italy); Peisert, A. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Quian, S. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires

    1996-01-01

    During the beam test of a tracker prototype for the Compact Muon Solenoid detector proposed for the LHC, the time response of the Microstrip Gas Chambers was studied using different gases and chamber gaps. The subsequent efficiency to identify the bunch crossings at LHC is discussed for several algorithms used in the off-line signal processing of the data. (orig.).

  19. Performance of the CLAS12 Silicon Vertex Tracker modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonioli, Mary Ann [JLAB; Boiarinov, Serguie; Bonneau, Peter R. [JLAB; Elouadrhiri, Latifa [JLAB; Eng, Brian J. [JLAB; Gotra, Yuri N. [JLAB; Kurbatov, Evgeny O. [Moscow State U.; Leffel, Mindy A. [JLAB; Mandal, Saptarshi [JLAB; McMullen, Marc E. [JLAB; Merkin, Mikhail M. [Moscow State U.; Raydo, Benjamin J. [JLAB; Teachey, Robert W, [JLAB; Tucker, Ross J. [Arizona State U.; Ungaro, Maurizio [JLAB; Yegneswaran, Amrit S. [JLAB; Ziegler, Veronique [JLAB

    2013-12-01

    For the 12 GeV upgrade, the CLAS12 experiment has designed a Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) using single sided microstrip sensors fabricated by Hamamatsu. The sensors have graded angle design to minimize dead areas and a readout pitch of 156{micro}m, with intermediate strip. Double sided SVT module hosts three daisy-chained sensors on each side with a full strip length of 33 cm. There are 512 channels per module read out by four Fermilab Silicon Strip Readout (FSSR2) chips featuring data driven architecture, mounted on a rigid-flex hybrid. Modules are assembled on the barrel using unique cantilevered geometry to minimize the amount of material in the tracking volume. Design and performance of the SVT modules are presented, focusing on results of electrical measurements.

  20. Quality assurance database for the CBM silicon tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lymanets, Anton [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Silicon Tracking System is a main tracking device of the CBM Experiment at FAIR. Its construction includes production, quality assurance and assembly of large number of components, e.g., 106 carbon fiber support structures, 1300 silicon microstrip sensors, 16.6k readout chips, analog microcables, etc. Detector construction is distributed over several production and assembly sites and calls for a database that would be extensible and allow tracing the components, integrating the test data, monitoring the component statuses and data flow. A possible implementation of the above-mentioned requirements is being developed at GSI (Darmstadt) based on the FAIR DB Virtual Database Library that provides connectivity to common SQL-Database engines (PostgreSQL, Oracle, etc.). Data structure, database architecture as well as status of implementation are discussed.

  1. Data Quality Monitoring for the CMS Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, S; Mennea, Maria Santa; Zito, G

    2006-01-01

    The CMS silicon tracker, consisting of about 17,000 detector modules and divided into micro-strip and pixel sensors, will be the largest silicon tracker ever realized for high energy physics experiments. The detector performance will be monitored using applications based on the CMS Data Quality Monitoring\\,(DQM) framework and running on the High-Level Trigger Farm as well as local DAQ systems. The monitorable quantities of this large number of modules are divided into hierarchical structures reflecting the detector sections. In addition, they are organized into structures corresponding to the levels of data processing. The information produced are delivered to client applications according to their subscription requests. The client applications summarize and visualize the quantities received. We describe here the functionalities of the CMS tracker DQM applications and report preliminary performance tests.

  2. Superconducting microstrip detectors Addendum to proposal DRDC-P-53

    CERN Document Server

    Borer, K; Palmieri, V G; Pretzl, Klaus P; Li, Z; Heijne, Erik H M; Lourenço, C; Niinikoski, T O; Ropotar, I; Sonderegger, P; Borchi, E; Bruzzi, Mara; Pirollo, S; Chapuy, S; Dimcovski, Zlatomir; Bell, W; Smith, K; Berglund, P; Koivuniemi, J H; Valtonen, M J; Mukhanov, O; de Boer, Wim; Grigoriev, E; Heising, S; Casagrande, L; Cindro, V; Mikuz, M; Zavrtanik, M; Da Vià, C; Konorov, I; Paul, S; Buontempo, S; D'Ambrosio, N; Granata, V; Pagano, S; Ruggiero, G; Takada, S; Esposito, A P; Salmi, J; Seppä, H; Suni, I; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1999-01-01

    The recent advances in Si and diamond detector technology give hope of a simple solution to the radiation hardness problem for vertex trackers at the LHC. In particular, we have recently demonstrated that operating a heavily irradiated Si detector at liquid nitrogen (LN2) temperature results in significant recovery of Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE). Among other potential benefits of operation at cryogenic temperatures are the use of large low-resistivity wafers, simple processing, higher and faster electrical signal because of higher mobility and drift velocity of carriers, and lower noise of the readout circuit. A substantial reduction in sensor cost could result. Several CERN experiments are potential users of cold radiation hard tracking devices. The first goal of the proposed extension of the RD39 programme is to demonstrate that irradiation at low temperature in situ during operation does not affect the results obtained so far by cooling detectors which were irradiated at room temperature. In particu...

  3. A Compact High-Pass Filter Using Hybrid Microstrip/Nonuniform CPW with Dual-Mode Resonant Response

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Chen; Di Jiang; Ke-Song Chen; Hong-Fei Zhao

    2016-01-01

    A novel and miniature high-pass filter (HPF) based on a hybrid-coupled microstrip/nonuniform coplanar waveguide (CPW) resonator is proposed in this article, in which the designed CPW has exhibited a wideband dual-mode characteristic within the desired high-pass frequency range. The implemented filter consists of the top microstrip coupled patches and the bottom modified nonuniformly short-circuited CPW resonator. Simulated results from the electromagnetic (EM) analysis software and measured r...

  4. Hardness Tester for Polyur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, D. L.; Buras, D. F.; Corbin, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Rubber-hardness tester modified for use on rigid polyurethane foam. Provides objective basis for evaluation of improvements in foam manufacturing and inspection. Typical acceptance criterion requires minimum hardness reading of 80 on modified tester. With adequate correlation tests, modified tester used to measure indirectly tensile and compressive strengths of foam.

  5. Comprehensive hard materials

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive Hard Materials deals with the production, uses and properties of the carbides, nitrides and borides of these metals and those of titanium, as well as tools of ceramics, the superhard boron nitrides and diamond and related compounds. Articles include the technologies of powder production (including their precursor materials), milling, granulation, cold and hot compaction, sintering, hot isostatic pressing, hot-pressing, injection moulding, as well as on the coating technologies for refractory metals, hard metals and hard materials. The characterization, testing, quality assurance and applications are also covered. Comprehensive Hard Materials provides meaningful insights on materials at the leading edge of technology. It aids continued research and development of these materials and as such it is a critical information resource to academics and industry professionals facing the technological challenges of the future. Hard materials operate at the leading edge of technology, and continued res...

  6. Microfabrication of hard x-ray lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stöhr, Frederik

    This thesis deals with the development of silicon compound refractive lenses (Si-CRLs) for shaping hard x-ray beams. The CRLs are to be fabricated using state of the art microfabrication techniques. The primary goal of the thesis work is to produce Si-CRLs with considerably increased structure...... developed. Inverse replica molding in PDMS of the CRLs was established as an effective way to circumvent the limitations AFM probes have when concave surfaces need to be characterized, e.g. due to the finite lengths of AFM probes. Four different x-ray optical components have been designed, manufactured...... of space for sample surroundings and ensure low-divergent and wide x-ray beams with narrow waists. Both results are substantial improvements to what was available at the start of this thesis work. The challenge of making x-ray objectives in silicon by interdigitation of lenslets alternately focusing...

  7. Quality Factor Effect on the Wireless Range of Microstrip Patch Antenna Strain Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Daliri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently introduced passive wireless strain sensors based on microstrip patch antennas have shown great potential for reliable health and usage monitoring in aerospace and civil industries. However, the wireless interrogation range of these sensors is limited to few centimeters, which restricts their practical application. This paper presents an investigation on the effect of circular microstrip patch antenna (CMPA design on the quality factor and the maximum practical wireless reading range of the sensor. The results reveal that by using appropriate substrate materials the interrogation distance of the CMPA sensor can be increased four-fold, from the previously reported 5 to 20 cm, thus improving considerably the viability of this type of wireless sensors for strain measurement and damage detection.

  8. Full-Wave Analysis of Microstrip Antennas in Three-Layered Spherical Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of three-layered spherical microstrip antenna has been analyzed based on Rao-Wilton-Glisson (RWG triangular basis functions using mixed potential integral equation (MPIE. Firstly, the model of antenna and the dyadic Green’s function in spherical microstrip antennas are given at the beginning of this paper. Then, due to the infinite series convergence problem, asymptotic extraction approach is presented to accelerate the Green’s functions convergence speed when source and field points are located in the same layer and different layers. The convergence speed can be accelerated observably by using this method. Finally, in order to simplify impedance matrix elements calculation at the junction of the probe and patch, a novel division fashion of pair of triangles is adopted in this paper. The input impedance result obtained shows the validity and effectiveness of the analysis method comparing with published data.

  9. Singularity Processing Method of Microstrip Line Edge Based on LOD-FDTD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of the accuracy and efficiency for analyzing the microstrip structure, a singularity processing method is proposed theoretically and experimentally based on the fundamental locally one-dimensional finite difference time domain (LOD-FDTD with second-order temporal accuracy (denoted as FLOD2-FDTD. The proposed method can highly improve the performance of the FLOD2-FDTD even when the conductor is embedded into more than half of the cell by the coordinate transformation. The experimental results showed that the proposed method can achieve higher accuracy when the time step size is less than or equal to 5 times of that the Courant-Friedrich-Levy (CFL condition allowed. In comparison with the previously reported methods, the proposed method for calculating electromagnetic field near microstrip line edge not only improves the efficiency, but also can provide a higher accuracy.

  10. Microstrip linear phase low pass filter based on defected ground structures for partial response modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cimoli, Bruno; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Olmos, Juan Jose Vegas

    2018-01-01

    We report a high performance linear phase low pass filter (LPF) designed for partial response (PR) modulations. For the implementation, we adopted microstrip technology and a variant of the standard stepped‐impedance technique. Defected ground structures (DGS) are used for increasing the characte......We report a high performance linear phase low pass filter (LPF) designed for partial response (PR) modulations. For the implementation, we adopted microstrip technology and a variant of the standard stepped‐impedance technique. Defected ground structures (DGS) are used for increasing...... the characteristic impedance of transmission lines. Experimental results prove that the proposed filter can successfully modulate a non‐return‐to‐zero (NRZ) signal into a five levels PR one....

  11. Hardware Neural Networks Modeling for Computing Different Performance Parameters of Rectangular, Circular, and Triangular Microstrip Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taimoor Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last one decade, neural networks-based modeling has been used for computing different performance parameters of microstrip antennas because of learning and generalization features. Most of the created neural models are based on software simulation. As the neural networks show massive parallelism inherently, a parallel hardware needs to be created for creating faster computing machine by taking the advantages of the parallelism of the neural networks. This paper demonstrates a generalized neural networks model created on field programmable gate array- (FPGA- based reconfigurable hardware platform for computing different performance parameters of microstrip antennas. Thus, the proposed approach provides a platform for developing low-cost neural network-based FPGA simulators for microwave applications. Also, the results obtained by this approach are in very good agreement with the measured results available in the literature.

  12. Resonant frequencies of irregularly shaped microstrip antennas using method of moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Manohar D.; Shively, David G.; Cockrell, C. R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes an application of the method of moments to determine resonant frequencies of irregularly shaped microstrip patches embedded in a grounded dielectric slab. For analysis, the microstrip patch is assumed to be excited by a linearly polarized plane wave that is normal to the patch. The surface-current density that is induced on the patch because of the incident field is expressed in terms of subdomain functions by dividing the patch into identical rectangular subdomains. The amplitudes of the subdomain functions, as a function of frequency, are determined using the electric-field integral equation (EFIE) approach in conjunction with the method of moments. The resonant frequencies of the patch are then obtained by selecting the frequency at which the amplitude of the surface-current density is real. The resonant frequencies of the equilateral triangular and other nonrectangular patches are computed using the present technique, and these frequencies are compared with measurements and other independent calculations.

  13. Development of Gas Micro-Strip Chambers for Radiation Detection and Tracking at High Rates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD28 \\\\ \\\\ Micro-Strip Gas Chambers (GMSC) are a promising high rate, high resolution position detector suited for use in high luminosity hadron collider experiments, as general purpose tracker or to improve the performances of preshower counters, transition radiation and inner muon detectors. Large GMSC arrays have been included in proposed LHC and SSC experimental setups. The operating characteristics of GMSC make their use very attractive also for detectors at tau/beauty/charm factories, as well as for synchrotron radiation facilities and medical applications. At the present state of the art, some problems limiting the usefulness of microstrip chambers are the observed gain changes due to charging up of the support, possible long-term degradation due to ageing, limited sizes imposed by fabrication technologies and unavailability of dedicated high-speed, high-density readout electronics. Limited experience exists of operation of GMSC in real experimental conditions, and little if anything is known about p...

  14. Low Loss, Finite Width Ground Plane, Thin Film Microstrip Lines on Si Wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.; Margomenos, Alexandros; Katehi, Linda P. B.

    1999-01-01

    Si RFICs on standard, 2 Omega-cm. Si wafers require novel transmission lines to reduce the loss caused by the resistive substrate. One such transmission line is commonly called Thin Film Microstrip (TFMS), which is created by depositing a metallic ground plane, thin insulating layers, and the microstrip lines on the Si wafer. Thus, the electric fields are isolated from the Si wafer. In this paper, it is shown through experimental results that the ground plane of TFMS may be finite width and comparable to the strip width in size while still achieving low loss on 2 Omega-cm Si. Measured effective permittivity shows that the field interaction with the Si wafer is small.

  15. The analysis of reactively loaded microstrip antennas by finite difference time domain modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, G. S.; Beach, M. A.; Railton, C. J.

    1990-01-01

    In recent years, much interest has been shown in the use of printed circuit antennas in mobile satellite and communications terminals at microwave frequencies. Although such antennas have many advantages in weight and profile size over more conventional reflector/horn configurations, they do, however, suffer from an inherently narrow bandwidth. A way of optimizing the bandwidth of such antennas by an electronic tuning technique using a loaded probe mounted within the antenna structure is examined, and the resulting far-field radiation patterns are shown. Simulation results from a 2D finite difference time domain (FDTD) model for a rectangular microstrip antenna loaded with shorting pins are given and compared to results obtained with an actual antenna. It is hoped that this work will result in a design package for the analysis of microstrip patch antenna elements.

  16. Bird Face Microstrip Printed Monopole Antenna Design for Ultra Wide Band Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Jakir; Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal; Islam, Md. Moinul; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Rahman, Md. Atiqur

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a novel bird face microstrip printed monopole ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna is investigated. The proposed compact antenna consists of a ring-shaped with additional slot and slotted ground plane on FR4 material. The overall electrical dimension of the proposed antenna is 0.25 λ×0.36 λ×0.016 λ and is energized by microstrip feed line. The Computer Simulation Technology (CST) and the High Frequency Structural Simulator (HFSS) is applied in this analysis. The impedance bandwidth of the monopole antenna cover 3.1-12.3 GHz (9.2 GHz, BW) frequency range. The messurement displayed that the designed antenna achieved excellent gain and stable omnidirectional radiation patterns within the UWB. The maximum gain of 6.8 dBi and omnidirectional radiation pattern makes the proposed antenna that is suitable for UWB systems.

  17. A Broadband Left-Handed Metamaterial Microstrip Antenna with Double-Fractal Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Kubacki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a microstrip patch antenna based on the left-handed metamaterial concept, using planar periodic geometry, which results in improved characteristics. This periodic geometry is derived from fractal shapes, which have been widely used in antenna engineering. The metamaterial property was obtained as a result of the double-fractal structure on both the upper and the bottom sides of the antenna. The final structure has been optimized to enhance bandwidth, gain, and radiation characteristics of the microstrip antenna. This combination significantly improved antenna performance; our design could support an ultrawide bandwidth ranging from 4.1 to 19.4 GHz, demonstrating higher gain with an average value of 6 dBi over the frequency range and a peak of 10.9 dBi and a radiation capability directed in the horizontal plane of the antenna.

  18. Development of gas micro-strip chambers for high rate radiation detection and tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Bouclier, Roger; Gaudaen, J; Florent, J J; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Bondar, A E; Groshev, V R; Minakov, G D; Onuchin, A P; Pestov, Yu N; Shekhtman, L I; Sidorov, V A; Dixit, M S; Oakham, G K; Møller, S; Sørensen, G; Uggerhøj, Erik; Brons, S; Brückner, W; Godbersen, M; Heidrich, M; Paul, S; Trombini, A; Werding, R; Armitage, J A; Karlen, D A; Stewart, G; Barasch, E F; McIntyre, P; Pang, Y; Trost, H J; Salomon, M; Breskin, Amos; Chechik, R; Pansky, A; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1992-01-01

    Gas Micro-Strip Chambers (GMSC) are a promising high-rate, high resolution position detector suited for use in high luminosity hadron collider experiments, as general purpose tracker or to improve the performances of pre-shower counters, transition radiation and inner muon detectors. Large GMSC arrays have been included in proposed LHC and SSC experimental setups. The operating characteristics of GMSC make their use very attractive also for detectors at tau/charm/beauty factories, as well as for synchrotron radiation facilities and for medical applications. At the present state of the art, some problems limiting the usefulness of microstrip chambers are the observed gain changes due to charging up of the support, possible long-term degradation due to ageing, limited sizes imposed by fabrication technologies and unavailability of dedicated high-speed, high-density readout electronics. Limited experience exists of operation of GMSC in real experimental conditions, and little if anything is known about performan...

  19. Circularly Polarized Aperture Coupled Microstrip Antenna with Resonant Slots and a Screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Kirov

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A broadband circularly polarized (CP Aperture Coupled Microstrip Antenna (ACMSA is described herein. In order to decrease the back radiation of the antenna due to resonant coupling slots (a cross-slot in the ground plane, a three-layer structure with a screen is proposed. As a result, the back radiation of the antenna is reduced by more than 12 dB and its gain is increased by about 1.3 dB compared to the conventional two-layer ACMSA with nonresonant coupling slots. The antenna is designed to operate within the Ku-band. Keeping its simple and compact construction and high mechanical characteristics it can be used as an element of CP microstrip antenna arrays with various applications in the contemporary communication systems. A comparison with two similar CP antennas with resonant slots, a two-layer ACMSA and a three-layer ACMSA with a patch reflector is accomplished.

  20. IMPROVEMENT OF PARAMETERS OF STACKED MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA USING EDGE COUPLED PARASITIC PATCHES AND METAMATERIAL SUPERSTRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shridhar E. Mendhe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available High directive stacked multilayer and edge coupled planar microstrip patch antenna made from a single-layer helical resonating metamaterial superstrate has been investigated. Metamaterials are artificial materials whose properties not found in nature. These materials have negative permittivity and permeability and negative index of refraction over a frequency band. In this paper, an innovative design of stacked rectangular microstrip patch antenna using four edge coupled parasitic patches and helical resonating metamaterial superstrate is explored. The Rogers RO3003 material of dielectric constant 3 has been used as the substrate of the antenna. Investigation is carried out related to bandwidth, gain and directivity enhancement by using edge coupled patches and metamaterial superstrate also the study of highest reduction in the size of helical resonator is carried out and highest reduction in size of helical resonator is achieved at a metallic fill ratio of 0.2. The proposed antenna exhibits wide percentage bandwidth of approximately 72.62%.

  1. Analysis of photonic crystal and multi-frequency terahertz microstrip patch antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Lechen, E-mail: yanglechen@163.com [The 41st Research Institute of CETC, Qingdao 266555, Shandong Province (China); Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123, Jiangsu Province (China); Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Chinese Academy of Science, Suzhou 215123, Jiangsu Province (China); Shi, Xueshun [The 41st Research Institute of CETC, Qingdao 266555, Shandong Province (China); Science and Technology on Electronic Test and Measurement Laboratory, Qingdao 266555, Shandong Province (China); Chen, Kunfeng [The 41st Research Institute of CETC, Qingdao 266555, Shandong Province (China); Fu, Kai; Zhang, Baoshun [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123, Jiangsu Province (China); Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Chinese Academy of Science, Suzhou 215123, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2013-12-15

    In this paper, two-dimensional photonic crystals working at terahertz (THz) frequency is analyzed, a multi-frequency terahertz microstrip patch antenna on photonic crystal substrate is presented and its electromagnetic wave propagation phenomenon is investigated. The proposed antenna can work at five frequency points' scope at terahertz frequency regions, and the radiation efficiency is as high as ∼96%. The photonic crystal structure of the substrate is used to enhance the gain, directivity and radiation efficiency of the antenna.

  2. A Study on the RF-DC Conversion Efficiency of Microstrip Patch Rectenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yang Ha; Youn, Dong Gi; Kim, Kwan Ho [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea); Rhee, Young Chul [Kyungnam University (Korea)

    2000-07-01

    We designed and manufactured microstrip patch antenna mainly used in the rectenna and then analysed RF-DC conversion efficiency of wireless power transmission system. We analyse conversion efficiency of load, direction of linear and dual polization rectenna. We found that the maximum efficiency would be about 70% of load and direction in patch type. In conclusion, we found that total conversion efficiency is 64% - 71% in patch Rectenna. (author). 5 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Dual-polarization, wideband microstrip antenna array for airborne C-band SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granholm, Johan; Skou, Niels

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes the development of a C-band, dual linear polarization wideband antenna array, for use in the next-generation of the Danish airborne polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system. The array is made of probe-fed, stacked microstrip patches. The design and performance...... of the basic stacked patch element, operating from 4.9 GHz to 5.7 GHz, and a 2×2 element test array of these, are described....

  4. A Novel Microstrip Frequency Discriminator for IFM Based on Balanced Gray-code

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, Elias M.F.; Pedrosa, Túlio L.; de Souza, S.R.O.; Melo, M. T. de; Oliveira, B. G. M. de; Llamas-Garro, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    This work presents the design, simulation, fabrication and measurement of a novel set of microstrip filters to perform the task of frequency discriminators. These filters’ frequency responses are based on the balanced Gray-code. Results show that the use of the balanced Gray-code, as opposed to the traditional Gray-code, allowed 20% circuit size reduction by using 60% less resonators due to a change in the resonators’ orientation.

  5. The gaseous microstrip detector Micromegas for the COMPASS experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Kunne, Fabienne; Ball, J; Bedfer, Y; Bernet, C; Delagnes, E; Giganon, Arnaud; Le Goff, J M; Magnon, A; Neyret, D; Pereira, H; Platchkov, S; Rebourgeard, P C; Tarte, Gérard; Thers, D

    2003-01-01

    The measurements foreseen in the COMPASS experiment at CERN, require high resolution tracking detectors, with low radiation length and high rate capability. For this purpose we have developed and optimized a gaseous microstrip detector 'Micromegas'. Twelve planes with 1024 strips each, assembled in 3 stations of 4 views XYUV, have been operated with success in the summer of 2002 in the COMPASS environment. We describe here the performances and results obtained. (3 refs).

  6. A single photon resolution integrating chip for microstrip detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzanica, A.; Bergamaschi, A.; Dinapoli, R.; Graafsma, H.; Henrich, B.; Kraft, P.; Johnson, I.; Lohmann, M.; Schmitt, B.; Shi, X.

    2011-05-01

    A charge integrating readout chip for silicon strip sensors is currently under development at Paul Sherrer Institut. The goal of the project is to provide a readout system that can sustain, through charge integration and automatic gain switching, the instantaneous many-photon deposition typical of the forthcoming XFEL machines. Nevertheless, a charge integrating readout with single photon sensitivity presents several features that can be exploited in many Synchrotron source applications: the possibility of a higher position resolution, the high photon rate capabilities and the possibility to detect low energy photon. A prototype of the readout chip (ROC) has been integrated with a strip detector and with a dedicated DAQ electronic, and it has been tested at the SYRMEP beam line (ELETTRA, Trieste). This work presents the readout chip and shows the results of the beam line tests in terms of spatial resolution and rate capabilities.

  7. New technologies of silicon position-sensitive detectors for future tracker systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bassignana, Daniela; Lozano, M

    In view of the new generation of high luminosity colliders, HL-LHC and ILC, a farther investigation of silicon radiation detectors design and technology is demanded, in order to satisfy the stringent requirements of the experiments at such sophisticated machines. In this thesis, innovative technologies of silicon radiation detectors for future tracking systems are proposed. Three dierent devices have been studied and designed with the help of dierent tools for computer simulations. They have been manufactured in the IMB-CNM clean room facilities in Barcelona and characterized with proper experimental set-ups in order to test the detectors capabilities and the quality and suitability of the technologies used for their fabrication. The rst technology deals with the upgrade of dedicated sensors for laser alignment systems in future tracker detectors. The design and technology of common single-sided silicon microstrip detectors have been slightly modied in order to improve IR light transmittance of the devices. T...

  8. Tilted microstrip phased arrays with improved electromagnetic decoupling for ultrahigh-field magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yong; Wu, Bing; Jiang, Xiaohua; Vigneron, Daniel B; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2014-12-01

    One of the technical challenges in designing a dedicated transceiver radio frequency (RF) array for MR imaging in humans at ultrahigh magnetic fields is how to effectively decouple the resonant elements of the array. In this work, we propose a new approach using tilted microstrip array elements for improving the decoupling performance and potentially parallel imaging capability. To investigate and validate the proposed design technique, an 8-channel volume array with tilted straight-type microstrip elements was designed, capable for human imaging at the ultrahigh field of 7 Tesla. In this volume transceiver array, its electromagnetic decoupling behavior among resonant elements, RF field penetration to biological samples, and parallel imaging performance were studied through bench tests and in vivo MR imaging experiments. In this specific tilted element array design, decoupling among array elements changes with the tilted angle of the elements and the best decoupling can be achieved at certain tilted angle. In vivo human knee MR images were acquired using the tilted volume array at 7 Tesla for method validation. Results of this study demonstrated that the electromagnetic decoupling between array elements and the B1 field strength can be improved by using the tilted element method in microstrip RF coil array designs at the ultrahigh field of 7T.

  9. An UWB LNA Design with PSO Using Support Vector Microstrip Line Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Demirel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A rigorous and novel design procedure is constituted for an ultra-wideband (UWB low noise amplifier (LNA by exploiting the 3D electromagnetic simulator based support vector regression machine (SVRM microstrip line model. First of all, in order to design input and output matching circuits (IMC-OMC, source ZS and load ZL termination impedance of matching circuit, which are necessary to obtain required input VSWR (Vireq, noise (Freq, and gain (GTreq, are determined using performance characterisation of employed transistor, NE3512S02, between 3 and 8 GHz frequencies. After the determination of the termination impedance, to provide this impedance with IMC and OMC, dimensions of microstrip lines are obtained with simple, derivative-free, easily implemented algorithm Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. In the optimization of matching circuits, highly accurate and fast SVRM model of microstrip line is used instead of analytical formulations. ADCH-80a is used to provide ultra-wideband RF choking in DC bias. During the design process, it is aimed that Vireq = 1.85, Freq = Fmin, and GTreq = GTmax all over operating frequency band. Measurements taken from the realized LNA demonstrate the success of this approximation over the band.

  10. Closed Form Formulas for Distributed Circuit Model of Discontinuities in HTS Microstrip Transmission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadzadeh, S. Mohammad Hassan; Mamaghany, Zahra Mardy; Farzaneh, Forouhar; Fardmanesh, Mehdi

    A distributed circuit model for different kinds of discontinuities in high temperature superconducting (HTS) microstrip transmission lines (TLs), is proposed. In each case, closed form formula for lumped element model is presented based on the configuration of the discontinuity and the characterizations of HTS microstrip TLs. These discontinuities consist of steps in width, open ends, gaps and 90-degree bends. In the case of normal conductor microstrip TLs there are a lot of numerical and analytical equations that can accurately model them, however those formulas are not efficient for HTS TLs. Thus modified relations are extracted utilizing the superconducting characterizations to obtain much more accurate formulas. Additionally temperature dependence of HTS TLs is considered in the relations. Moreover regarding the kinetic inductance in HTS TLs a closed form formula is proposed for characteristic impedance of HTS TLs. Furthermore correction factors based on fringe fields is used to optimize all formulas. Using these formulations can lead to modeling and analysis of some superconducting microwave devices such as resonators, microwave filters, couplers, etc. In contrast to EM analysis, using the distributed circuit model is much easier for analysis of HTS microwave devices. The accuracy of the proposed model is confirmed in comparison with some electromagnetic full-wave simulations. This full analytical approach shows great accuracy in this test case as well.

  11. Signal of microstrip scanning near-field optical microscope in far- and near-field zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Yevhenii M; Lapchuk, Anatoliy S

    2016-05-01

    An analytical model of interference between an electromagnetic field of fundamental quasi-TM(EH)00-mode and an electromagnetic field of background radiation at the apex of a near-field probe based on an optical plasmon microstrip line (microstrip probe) has been proposed. The condition of the occurrence of electromagnetic energy reverse flux at the apex of the microstrip probe was obtained. It has been shown that the nature of the interference depends on the length of the probe. Numerical simulation of the sample scanning process was conducted in illumination-reflection and illumination-collection modes. Results of numerical simulation have shown that interference affects the scanning signal in both modes. However, in illumination-collection mode (pure near-field mode), the signal shape and its polarity are practically insensible to probe length change; only signal amplitude (contrast) is slightly changed. However, changing the probe length strongly affects the signal amplitude and shape in the illumination-reflection mode (the signal formed in the far-field zone). Thus, we can conclude that even small background radiation can significantly influence the signal in the far-field zone and has practically no influence on a pure near-field signal.

  12. Microstrip Antenna for Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture and Sea Surface Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramhat-Samii, Yahya; Kona, Keerti; Manteghi, Majid; Dinardo, Steven; Hunter, Don; Njoku, Eni; Wilson, Wiliam; Yueh, Simon

    2009-01-01

    This compact, lightweight, dual-frequency antenna feed developed for future soil moisture and sea surface salinity (SSS) missions can benefit future soil and ocean studies by lowering mass, volume, and cost of the antenna system. It also allows for airborne soil moisture and salinity remote sensors operating on small aircraft. While microstrip antenna technology has been developed for radio communications, it has yet to be applied to combined radar and radiometer for Earth remote sensing. The antenna feed provides a key instrument element enabling high-resolution radiometric observations with large, deployable antennas. The design is based on the microstrip stacked-patch array (MSPA) used to feed a large, lightweight, deployable, rotating mesh antenna for spaceborne L-band (approximately equal to 1 GHz) passive and active sensing systems. The array consists of stacked patches to provide dual-frequency capability and suitable radiation patterns. The stacked-patch microstrip element was designed to cover the required L-band center frequencies at 1.26 GHz (lower patch) and 1.413 GHz (upper patch), with dual-linear polarization capabilities. The dimension of patches produces the required frequencies. To achieve excellent polarization isolation and control of antenna sidelobes for the MSPA, the orientation of each stacked-patch element within the array is optimized to reduce the cross-polarization. A specialized feed-distribution network was designed to achieve the required excitation amplitude and phase for each stacked-patch element.

  13. Effect of Weaving Direction of Conductive Yarns on Electromagnetic Performance of 3D Integrated Microstrip Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fujun; Yao, Lan; Zhao, Da; Jiang, Muwen; Qiu, Yipping

    2013-10-01

    A three-dimensionally integrated microstrip antenna (3DIMA) is a microstrip antenna woven into the three-dimensional woven composite for load bearing while functioning as an antenna. In this study, the effect of weaving direction of conductive yarns on electromagnetic performance of 3DIMAs are investigated by designing, simulating and experimental testing of two microstrip antennas with different weaving directions of conductive yarns: one has the conductive yarns along the antenna feeding direction (3DIMA-Exp1) and the other has the conductive yarns perpendicular the antenna feeding direction (3DIMA-Exp2). The measured voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) of 3DIMA-Exp1 was 1.4 at the resonant frequencies of 1.39 GHz; while that of 3DIMA-Exp2 was 1.2 at the resonant frequencies of 1.35 GHz. In addition, the measured radiation pattern of the 3DIMA-Exp1 has smaller back lobe and higher gain value than those of the 3DIMA-Exp2. This result indicates that the waving direction of conductive yarns may have a significant impact on electromagnetic performance of textile structural antennas.

  14. High-T{sub c} superconducting rectangular microstrip patch covered with a dielectric layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedra, Sami, E-mail: s_bedra@yahoo.fr [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Khenchela, 40004 Khenchela (Algeria); Fortaki, Tarek [Electronics Department, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • We model a microstrip antenna with a dielectric cover and superconductor patch. • The extended full-wave analysis is used to solve for the antenna characteristics • The accuracy of the method is checked by comparing our results with published data • The superconducting patch affects the resonant characteristics of the antenna • Patch on substrate–superstrate configuration is more advantageous than the one on single layer. - Abstract: This paper presents a full-wave method to calculate the resonant characteristics of rectangular microstrip antenna with and without dielectric cover, to explain the difference of performance with temperature between superconducting and normal conducting antenna. Especially the characteristics of high temperature superconducting (HTS) antenna were almost ideal around the critical temperature (T{sub c}). The dyadic Green's functions of the considered structure are efficiently determined in the vector Fourier transform domain. The effect of the superconductivity of the patch is taken into account using the concept of the complex resistive boundary condition. The computed results are found to be in good agreement with results obtained using other methods. Also, the effects of the superstrate on the resonant frequency and bandwidth of rectangular microstrip patch in a substrate–superstrate configuration are investigated. This type of configuration can be used for wider bandwidth by proper selection of superstrate thickness and its dielectric constants.

  15. Characteristics of a high T{sub c} superconducting rectangular microstrip patch on uniaxially anisotropic substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkouda, Siham; Messai, Abderraouf [Electronics Department, University of Constantine 1, 25000 Constantine (Algeria); Amir, Mounir; Bedra, Sami [Electronics Department, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Fortaki, Tarek, E-mail: t_fortaki@yahoo.fr [Electronics Department, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • We model a microstrip antenna with anisotropic substrate and superconductor patch. • The extended full-wave analysis is used to solve for the antenna characteristics. • The accuracy of the method is checked by comparing our results with published data. • Uniaxial anisotropy affects the resonant characteristics of the antenna. • Patch on uniaxial substrate is more advantageous than the one on isotropic medium. - Abstract: Resonant characteristics of a high T{sub c} superconducting rectangular microstrip patch printed on uniaxially anisotropic substrate are investigated using a full-wave spectral analysis in conjunction with the complex resistive boundary condition. The uniaxial medium shows anisotropy of an electric type as well as anisotropy of a magnetic type. Both permittivity and permeability tensors of the substrate are included in the formulation of the dyadic Green’s function of the problem. The accuracy of the analysis is tested by comparing the computed results with previously published data for several anisotropic substrate materials. Numerical data of the resonant frequency and bandwidth as a function of electric anisotropy ratio are presented. Variations of the resonant frequency and bandwidth with the magnetic anisotropy ratio are also given. Finally, results showing the influence of the temperature on the resonant frequency and quality factor of the high T{sub c} superconducting rectangular microstrip patch on a uniaxial substrate are also given.

  16. Developing very hard nanostructured bainitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amel-Farzad, H., E-mail: hh_amel@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Engineering and Metallurgy, Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faridi, H.R., E-mail: faridihr@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Engineering and Metallurgy, Hamedan University of Technology, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rajabpour, F.; Abolhasani, A.; Kazemi, Sh.; Khaledzadeh, Y. [Department of Materials Engineering and Metallurgy, Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-01

    Novel nanostructured high carbon high silicon, carbide-free bainitic steels with very high strength and good ductility have been developed in the recent decade. In this work, an alloy with a high carbon content and no manganese was designed and cast. The prepared samples were heat treated through an austempering process in the range 200-350 Degree-Sign C. Optical and scanning electron microscopes and XRD were used to analyze the microstructures precisely. Bainitic ferrite plates of just a few tens of nanometer thickness were obtained with the hardness of 697{+-}6 HV. It is reasonable to say that the unprecedented hardness values obtained in this work are mostly caused by the extraordinary carbon content of the alloy.

  17. Hard probes 2006 Asilomar

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "The second international conference on hard and electromagnetic probes of high-energy nuclear collisions was held June 9 to 16, 2006 at the Asilomar Conference grounds in Pacific Grove, California" (photo and 1/2 page)

  18. Crystal Indentation Hardness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W. Armstrong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is expanded interest in the long-standing subject of the hardness properties of materials. A major part of such interest is due to the advent of nanoindentation hardness testing systems which have made available orders of magnitude increases in load and displacement measuring capabilities achieved in a continuously recorded test procedure. The new results have been smoothly merged with other advances in conventional hardness testing and with parallel developments in improved model descriptions of both elastic contact mechanics and dislocation mechanisms operative in the understanding of crystal plasticity and fracturing behaviors. No crystal is either too soft or too hard to prevent the determination of its elastic, plastic and cracking properties under a suitable probing indenter. A sampling of the wealth of measurements and reported analyses associated with the topic on a wide variety of materials are presented in the current Special Issue.

  19. Commissioning, operation and performance of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker detector

    CERN Document Server

    Demina, Regina

    2009-01-01

    The CMS silicon strip tracker is the largest device of this type ever built for detection of charge particles produced in beam-beam collisions. There are 24244 single-sided micro-strip sensors covering an active area of over 200 square meters, and nearly 10 millions channels to be read out. The detector was installed inside CMS in December 2007, and it was commissioned during the summer 2008. Since then it integrated several global CMS cosmic muons data taking and performances were measured. The commissioning strategy, operational experience learned during the data taking period, and detector performance results will be presented.

  20. Metallic coatings on silicon substrates, and methods of forming metallic coatings on silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branagan, Daniel J [Idaho Falls, ID; Hyde, Timothy A [Idaho Falls, ID; Fincke, James R [Los Alamos, NM

    2008-03-11

    The invention includes methods of forming a metallic coating on a substrate which contains silicon. A metallic glass layer is formed over a silicon surface of the substrate. The invention includes methods of protecting a silicon substrate. The substrate is provided within a deposition chamber along with a deposition target. Material from the deposition target is deposited over at least a portion of the silicon substrate to form a protective layer or structure which contains metallic glass. The metallic glass comprises iron and one or more of B, Si, P and C. The invention includes structures which have a substrate containing silicon and a metallic layer over the substrate. The metallic layer contains less than or equal to about 2 weight % carbon and has a hardness of at least 9.2 GPa. The metallic layer can have an amorphous microstructure or can be devitrified to have a nanocrystalline microstructure.

  1. Hardness amplification in nondeterministic logspace

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Sushmita

    2007-01-01

    A hard problem is one which cannot be easily computed by efficient algorithms. Hardness amplification is a procedure which takes as input a problem of mild hardness and returns a problem of higher hardness. This is closely related to the task of decoding certain error-correcting codes. We show amplification from mild average case hardness to higher average case hardness for nondeterministic logspace and worst-to-average amplification for nondeterministic linspace. Finally we explore possible ...

  2. Lithographically patterned silicon nanostructures on silicon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megouda, Nacera [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI, USR 3078), Universite Lille1, Parc de la Haute Borne, 50 Avenue de Halley-BP 70478, 59658 Villeneuve d' Ascq and Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN, CNRS-8520), Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare-B.P. 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mouloud Mammeri, Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Unite de Developpement de la Technologie du Silicium (UDTS), 2 Bd. Frantz Fanon, B.P. 140 Alger-7 merveilles, Alger (Algeria); Piret, Gaeelle; Galopin, Elisabeth; Coffinier, Yannick [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI, USR 3078), Universite Lille1, Parc de la Haute Borne, 50 Avenue de Halley-BP 70478, 59658 Villeneuve d' Ascq and Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN, CNRS-8520), Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare-B.P. 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Hadjersi, Toufik, E-mail: hadjersi@yahoo.com [Unite de Developpement de la Technologie du Silicium (UDTS), 2 Bd. Frantz Fanon, B.P. 140 Alger-7 merveilles, Alger (Algeria); Elkechai, Omar [Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mouloud Mammeri, Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); and others

    2012-06-01

    The paper reports on controlled formation of silicon nanostructures patterns by the combination of optical lithography and metal-assisted chemical dissolution of crystalline silicon. First, a 20 nm-thick gold film was deposited onto hydrogen-terminated silicon substrate by thermal evaporation. Gold patterns (50 {mu}m Multiplication-Sign 50 {mu}m spaced by 20 {mu}m) were transferred onto the silicon wafer by means of photolithography. The etching process of crystalline silicon in HF/AgNO{sub 3} aqueous solution was studied as a function of the silicon resistivity, etching time and temperature. Controlled formation of silicon nanowire arrays in the unprotected areas was demonstrated for highly resistive silicon substrate, while silicon etching was observed on both gold protected and unprotected areas for moderately doped silicon. The resulting layers were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  3. Spectral Domain Approach Using Spheroidal Wave Functions to Analyze the Dispersion Characteristics of Dielectric and Ferrite Filled Microstrip Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Meskerem Ruth

    Microstrips are open waveguiding structures that are used in electronics. In this research, we compute the effective dielectric constants of open microstrip transmission lines using spheroidal wave functions and the spectral domain method. The microstrips considered are the dielectric filled and the ferrite filled microstrips. The magnetic field, electric field and current density relations for the boundary value problem associated with the open microstrip line are determined using Maxwell's equations. The field quantities and the boundary conditions are transformed to the spectral domain. The integro-differential equations that govern the electromagnetic fields are discretized using Galerkin's generalized moment method in the spectral domain. The effective dielectric constant is calculated for frequencies up to 100 GHZ for waveguides with dimensions on the order of a millimeter. An analysis of dielectric filled microstrips using the Fourier integrals was introduced by Denlinger. The results achieved were dependent on the assumed form of current distribution on the strip, which is not known a priori. Itoh and Mittra approached the problem by combining Galerkin's moment method with the spectral domain method. The difficulty of finding the current distribution exactly is avoided. Galerkin's moment method can be applied using any set of complete basis functions that meet the boundary conditions. If the choice of basis functions is not optimal more expansion terms will be needed to achieve the desired accuracy. This implies solving a larger size matrix. Itoh and Mittra used the Walsh functions to expand the current on the microstrip. The behavior of the current at the edges of the microstrip was not incorporated in the choice of basis functions. Itoh later used sinusoidal functions with edge conditions. The results were better than those achieved using the Walsh functions. Hechtman, et al. later used spheroidal wave functions. More accurate results were achieved and

  4. Performances of the Si microstrip detector of the STAR experiment at RHIC; Performances du detecteur en silicium a micropistes de l'experience STAR a RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchet, J

    2007-10-15

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) is the fourth layer of detector using a double-sided microstrip technology of the STAR experiment at RHIC, completing STAR's inner tracking device. The goal of STAR is to study heavy ions collisions in order to probe the existence of the quark gluon plasma (QGP), a deconfined state of nuclear matter. Strangeness enhancement, such as {kappa}{sub S}{sup 0}, {lambda}, {xi} and {omega}, for particles production, has been proposed to sign the formation of QGP. Then precise measurement of secondary vertices is needed. The SSD will also permit an attempt to use the inner tracking device to measure charm and beauty with direct topological identification. It was proposed to enhance the STAR tracking capabilities by providing a better connection between reconstructed tracks in the main tracking device (TPC) and the initial vertex detector (SVT). In this thesis, we will present the intrinsic performances of the SSD and its impact on the inner tracking system performances by studying Cu-Cu collisions occurred at RHIC in 2005. We show that the SSD detector has excellent performances in terms of resolution: (945 {+-} 18) {mu}m in azimuth and (1021 {+-} 13) {mu}m along the beam axis. For the final result when SSD is associated to the SVT the resolutions are (281 {+-} 1) {mu}m and (213 {+-} 0.8) {mu}m in azimuth and along the beam axis respectively. The resolution reached by the addition of the Silicon Vertex detectors of STAR will allow the search for rare particles like charm and beauty, which have a decay-length of the order of hundred microns.

  5. Hard superconducting nitrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Jia; Struzhkin, Viktor V.; Wu, Zhigang; Somayazulu, Maddury; Qian, Jiang; Kung, Simon; Christensen, Axel Nørlund; Zhao, Yusheng; Cohen, Ronald E.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Hemley, Russell J.

    2005-01-01

    Detailed study of the equation of state, elasticity, and hardness of selected superconducting transition-metal nitrides reveals interesting correlations among their physical properties. Both the bulk modulus and Vickers hardness are found to decrease with increasing zero-pressure volume in NbN, HfN, and ZrN. The computed elastic constants from first principles satisfy c11 > c12 > c44 for NbN, but c11 > c44 > c12 for HfN and ZrN, which are in good agreement with the neutron scattering data. The cubic δ-NbN superconducting phase possesses a bulk modulus of 348 GPa, comparable to that of cubic boron nitride, and a Vickers hardness of 20 GPa, which is close to sapphire. Theoretical calculations for NbN show that all elastic moduli increase monotonically with increasing pressure. These results suggest technological applications of such materials in extreme environments. PMID:15728352

  6. A Novel Bandpass Filter Using a Combination of Open-Loop Defected Ground Structure and Half-Wavelength Microstrip Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vagner

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a defected ground structure (DGS open-loop resonator analysis and bandpass filter design, using coupled DGS and microstrip resonators. The combination of DGS and microstrip resonators allows using top and bottom sides of the microwave substrate, therefore the resonators can partially overlap and a desired coupling coefficient can be easily achieved. The open-loop DGS resonator properties are investigated, as well as coupling types between the resonators. Finally, two bandpass filters are designed and simulated. The sixth order filter is fabricated and the results are compared with measurement. The introduced structure represents an alternative to a conventional parallel-coupled half wavelength microstrip resonator bandpass filter.

  7. Millimeter-Wave Microstrip Antenna Array Design and an Adaptive Algorithm for Future 5G Wireless Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Nan Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a high gain millimeter-wave (mmW low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC microstrip antenna array with a compact, simple, and low-profile structure. Incorporating minimum mean square error (MMSE adaptive algorithms with the proposed 64-element microstrip antenna array, the numerical investigation reveals substantial improvements in interference reduction. A prototype is presented with a simple design for mass production. As an experiment, HFSS was used to simulate an antenna with a width of 1 mm and a length of 1.23 mm, resonating at 38 GHz. Two identical mmW LTCC microstrip antenna arrays were built for measurement, and the center element was excited. The results demonstrated a return loss better than 15 dB and a peak gain higher than 6.5 dBi at frequencies of interest, which verified the feasibility of the design concept.

  8. Session: Hard Rock Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Dunn, James C.; Drumheller, Douglas S.; Glowka, David A.; Lysne, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hard Rock Penetration - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''Overview - Hard Rock Penetration'' by James C. Dunn; ''An Overview of Acoustic Telemetry'' by Douglas S. Drumheller; ''Lost Circulation Technology Development Status'' by David A. Glowka; ''Downhole Memory-Logging Tools'' by Peter Lysne.

  9. Hard-hat day

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    CERN will be organizing a special information day on Friday, 27th June, designed to promote the wearing of hard hats and ensure that they are worn correctly. A new prevention campaign will also be launched.The event will take place in the hall of the Main Building from 11.30 a.m. to 2.00 p.m., when you will be able to come and try on various models of hard hat, including some of the very latest innovative designs, ask questions and pass on any comments and suggestions.

  10. Design of Vivaldi Microstrip Antenna for Ultra-Wideband Radar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdana, M. Y.; Hariyadi, T.; Wahyu, Y.

    2017-03-01

    The development of radar technology has an important role in several fields such as aviation, civil engineering, geology, and medicine. One of the essential components of the radar system is the antenna. The bandwidth can specify the resolution of the radar. The wider the bandwidth, the higher the resolution of radar. For Ground penetrating radar (GPR) or medical applications need with a high-resolution radar so it needs an antenna with a wide bandwidth. In addition, for the radar application is required antenna with directional radiation pattern. So, we need an antenna with wide bandwidth and directional radiation pattern. One of antenna that has meet with these characteristics is vivaldi antenna. In previous research, has designed several vivaldi microstrip antenna for ultra-wideband radar applications which has a working frequency of 3.1 to 10.7 GHz. However, these studies there is still a shortage of one of them is the radiation pattern from lowest to highest frequency radiation pattern is not uniform in the sense that not all directional. Besides the antenna material used is also not easily available and the price is not cheap. This paper will discuss the design of a vivaldi microstrip antenna which has a wide bandwidth with directional radiation pattern works on 3.1 to 10.7 GHz and using cheaper substrate. Substrates used for vivaldi microstrip antenna vivaldi is FR4 with a dielectric constant of 4.3 and a thickness of 1.6 mm. Based on the simulation results we obtained that the antenna design has frequency range 3.1-10.7 GHz for return loss less than -10 dB with a directional radiation pattern. This antenna gain is 4.8 to 8 dBi with the largest dimension is 50 mm x 40 mm.

  11. Modeling and Characterization for Microstrip Filters in the Manufacturing Process through the Unscented Transform and Use of Electromagnetic Simulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham E. Ortega Paredes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the unscented transform (UT applied to uncertainty modeling of manufacturing tolerances at the design stage of microwave passive devices. The process combines the UT with electromagnetic simulations and assumes that the numerical sources of error are negligible in comparison to the imperfections due to the manufacturing process. The technique was validated with the simulation, construction, and test of several sets of identical microstrip filters with very good results. Although the combination of UT and electromagnetic simulators was presented for microstrip filters, it can also be used for different types of microwave devices.

  12. Resonant frequency of microstrip antennas calculated from TE-excitation of an infinite strip embedded in a grounded dielectric slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, M. C.

    1979-01-01

    The calculation of currents induced by a plane wave normally incident upon an infinite strip embedded in a grounded dielectric slab is used to infer the resonant width (or frequency) of rectangular microstrip antennas. By placing the strip inside the dielectric, the effect of a dielectric cover of the same material as the substrate can be included in the calculation of resonant frequency. A comparison with measured results indicated agreement of 1 percent or better for rectangular microstrip antennas constructed on Teflon-fiberglass substrate.

  13. New USS Microstrip Antenna Proposal Based Both On Ku And Ka Frequency New USSMA Ku Ka Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chafaa Hamrouni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article we propose a Microstrip Antenna for Ultra Small Satellite USS telecommunication subsystem application in UWB Ku frequency band and Ka band. The designed MA is based on circular patch antenna. We process by minimizing and adjusting the MA dimension to lift the latch of bandwidth while maintaining quality performance of other properties. We have developed a studied geometric shape and used tricks to design them. Obtained antenna feds by microstrip line and the ground plane. Antenna feed elements are placed on the same plate to reduce the spatial dimension. Successful results are presented to validate function of proposed design and its precision operating at high frequencies.

  14. A new silicon tracker for proton imaging and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.T., E-mail: jtaylor@hep.ph.liv.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Waltham, C. [Laboratory of Vision Engineering, School of Computer Science, University of Lincoln, Lincoln LN6 7TS (United Kingdom); Price, T. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B25 2TT (United Kingdom); Allinson, N.M. [Laboratory of Vision Engineering, School of Computer Science, University of Lincoln, Lincoln LN6 7TS (United Kingdom); Allport, P.P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B25 2TT (United Kingdom); Casse, G.L. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Kacperek, A. [Douglas Cyclotron, The Clatterbridge Cancer Centre NHS Foundation Trust, Clatterbridge Road, Bebington, Wirral CH63 4JY (United Kingdom); Manger, S. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Smith, N.A.; Tsurin, I. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-21

    For many years, silicon micro-strip detectors have been successfully used as tracking detectors for particle and nuclear physics experiments. A new application of this technology is to the field of particle therapy where radiotherapy is carried out by use of charged particles such as protons or carbon ions. Such a treatment has been shown to have advantages over standard x-ray radiotherapy and as a result of this, many new centres offering particle therapy are currently under construction around the world today. The Proton Radiotherapy, Verification and Dosimetry Applications (PRaVDA) consortium are developing instrumentation for particle therapy based upon technology from high-energy physics. The characteristics of a new silicon micro-strip tracker for particle therapy will be presented. The array uses specifically designed, large area sensors with technology choices that follow closely those taken for the ATLAS experiment at the HL-LHC. These detectors will be arranged into four units each with three layers in an x–u–v configuration to be suitable for fast proton tracking with minimal ambiguities. The sensors will form a tracker capable of tracing the path of ~200 MeV protons entering and exiting a patient allowing a new mode of imaging known as proton computed tomography (pCT). This will aid the accurate delivery of treatment doses and in addition, the tracker will also be used to monitor the beam profile and total dose delivered during the high fluences used for treatment. We present here details of the design, construction and assembly of one of the four units that will make up the complete tracker along with its characterisation using radiation tests carried out using a {sup 90}Sr source in the laboratory and a 60 MeV proton beam at the Clatterbridge Cancer Centre.

  15. A new silicon tracker for proton imaging and dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. T.; Waltham, C.; Price, T.; Allinson, N. M.; Allport, P. P.; Casse, G. L.; Kacperek, A.; Manger, S.; Smith, N. A.; Tsurin, I.

    2016-09-01

    For many years, silicon micro-strip detectors have been successfully used as tracking detectors for particle and nuclear physics experiments. A new application of this technology is to the field of particle therapy where radiotherapy is carried out by use of charged particles such as protons or carbon ions. Such a treatment has been shown to have advantages over standard x-ray radiotherapy and as a result of this, many new centres offering particle therapy are currently under construction around the world today. The Proton Radiotherapy, Verification and Dosimetry Applications (PRaVDA) consortium are developing instrumentation for particle therapy based upon technology from high-energy physics. The characteristics of a new silicon micro-strip tracker for particle therapy will be presented. The array uses specifically designed, large area sensors with technology choices that follow closely those taken for the ATLAS experiment at the HL-LHC. These detectors will be arranged into four units each with three layers in an x-u-v configuration to be suitable for fast proton tracking with minimal ambiguities. The sensors will form a tracker capable of tracing the path of 200 MeV protons entering and exiting a patient allowing a new mode of imaging known as proton computed tomography (pCT). This will aid the accurate delivery of treatment doses and in addition, the tracker will also be used to monitor the beam profile and total dose delivered during the high fluences used for treatment. We present here details of the design, construction and assembly of one of the four units that will make up the complete tracker along with its characterisation using radiation tests carried out using a 90Sr source in the laboratory and a 60 MeV proton beam at the Clatterbridge Cancer Centre.

  16. Spiral Slotted Microstrip Antenna Design for 700 MHz Band Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Meneses González

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the design and implementation of spiral slotted microstrip antenna. Recently, just like other countries, in Mexico, terrestrial digital television has been implemented (analogic shutdown; as a consequence, the 700 MHz UFH Band (698–806 MHz has been opened to new telecommunications services, particularly wireless mobile communication. This technological advance represents a radio mobile antenna design challenge because it is necessary to design an antenna whose dimensions must be small enough, which satisfies gain, resonance frequency, and bandwidth requirements and is of low cost.

  17. Novel Notched UWB Filter Using Stepped Impedance Stub Loaded Microstrip Resonator and Spurlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar Uikey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel ultrawideband (UWB bandpass filter using stepped impedance stub loaded microstrip resonator (SISLMR. The proposed resonator is so formed to allow its four resonant frequencies in the UWB passband, which extends from 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz. Moreover, two spurline sections are employed to create a sharp notched-band filter for suppressing the signals of 5 GHz WLAN devices. Experimental results of the fabricated filters are in good agreement with the HFSS simulations and validate the design.

  18. Performance of a micro-strip gas chamber in solution X-ray scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Toyokawa, H; Inoko, Y; Nagayoshi, T; Nishi, Y; Nishikawa, Y; Ochi, A; Suzuki, M; Tanimori, T

    2001-01-01

    The performance of a Micro-Strip Gas Chamber in solution X-ray scattering was studied at the RIKEN structural biology beamline I of the SPring-8 facility. The practical dynamic range was confirmed to be approx 1,000,000 : 1 by measuring S sup - sup 4 decay from a polystyrene latex solution. Steep troughs of scattering profile from an apoferritin solution were clearly obtained without smearing. An unfolding process of a pH jump of cytochrome c was measured. A time resolution of 500 mu s was achieved.

  19. A New Microstrip Filter Using CRLH Structure and Defected Ground Structure in Antenna Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Cao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new microstrip bandpass filter using composite right/left-handed (CRLH mushroom structure with interdigital capacitors and defected ground structure (DGS is proposed. The proposed filter uses CRLH mushroom structure working at its first negative resonance mode to create the passband and DGS to increase rejection outside the passband. Simulation and measurement results are in good agreement, and low in-band insertion loss and great out-band rejection have been achieved. It is demonstrated that the combination of CRLH mushroom structure with interdigital capacitors and DGS has succeeded in achieving excellent performance. This new filter can be applied in transmitting and receiving antennas.

  20. Study of LDPE/Al2O3 composite material as substrate for microstrip antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmah, Debashis; Bhattacharyya, N. S.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Gogoi, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Low density polyethylene (LDPE)/Alumina (Al2O3) composite systems have been studied as an alternate substrate for microstrip patch antennas (MPA). Morphological, thermal and microwave characterizations of the composites are carried out for different volume fractions of Al2O3 in the LDPE matrix. The size and the distribution of alumina particles are quite uniform in the composite. Enhancement of thermal and microwave properties of the composite over the parent polymer is observed. Simple rectangular MPA in X-band is fabricated on the composite material to verify its applicability as substrates for MPA. A return loss of ~ -26dB is observed at the design frequency.

  1. Design of WLAN microstrip antenna for 5.17 - 5.835 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaj, Jarosław; Bugaj, Marek; Wnuk, Marian

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents the project of miniaturized WLAN Antenna made in microstrip technique working at a frequency of 5.17 - 5.835 GHz in 802.11ac IEEE standard. This dual layer antenna is designed on RT/duroid 5870 ROGERS CORPORATION substrate with dielectric constant 2.33 and thickness of 3.175 mm. The antenna parameters such as return loss, VSWR, gain and directivity are simulated and optimized using commercial computer simulation technology microwave studio (CST MWS). The paper presents the results of discussed numerical analysis.

  2. Analysis of Aperture-coupled Microstrip Antenna Using Method of Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hajach

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A microstrip patch antenna that is coupled to a microstripline by anaperture in the intervening ground plane is analyzed by using themethod of moments. Integral equation is formulated by considering theexact dyadic Green's function in spectral domain for groundeddielectric slab so that the analysis includes all coupling effects andthe radiation and surface wave effects of both substrates. Thecombination of the reciprocity method analysis and a Galerkin momentmethod solution seems to be suitable for a number of planar antennaproblems, especially when coupling slots in the ground plane areincluded. Results for antenna input impedance are compared with otherauthors and verified by experimental results.

  3. Spectral-domain moment-method analysis of coplanar microstrip parasitic subarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Lee, Kai-Fong; Lee, R. Q.

    1993-01-01

    Basic characteristics of several configurations of coplanar microstrip parasitic subarrays consisting of one fed patch and two or more parasitic patches were investigated by means of a spectral-domain full-wave analysis and the moment method analysis. Results are presented for radiating- and nonradiating edge-coupled three-element linear subarrays and for a five-patch cross. A comparison of the theoretical input impedance results obtained by the analysis of a three-element linear array showed a reasonable agreement between computed and measured R and X values.

  4. Fine-Tuning on the Effective Patch Radius Expression of the Circular Microstrip Patch Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Yilmaz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effective patch radius expression for the circular microstrip antennas is improved by means of several manipulations. Departing from previously proposed equations in the literature, one of the most accurate equations is picked up, and this equation is fine-tuned by means of Particle Swarm Optimization technique. Throughout the study, impacts of other parameters (such as the definition of the fitness/objective function, the degree-of-freedom in the proposed effective patch radius expression, the number of measured resonant frequency values are observed in a controlled manner. Finally, about 3% additional improvement is achieved over a very accurate formula, which was proposed earlier.

  5. Beam-Steerable Microstrip-Fed Bow-Tie Antenna Array for Fifth Generation Cellular Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojaroudiparchin, Naser; Shen, Ming; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2016-01-01

    The design and performance of mm-wave phased array antenna for 5G mobile broadband communication systems has been provided in this manuscript. The antenna is designed on a N9000 PTFE substrate with 0.787 mm thickness and 2.2 dielectric constant and 65×130 mm2 overall dimension. Eight elements...... of bow-tie antennas have been used at the top-edge region of mobile phone PCB. The antenna elements fed by microstrip lines are designed to operate at 17 GHz. The simulated results give good performances in terms of different antenna parameters. In addition, an investigation on the distance between...

  6. An aging study of a gas electron multiplier with micro-strip gas chamber readout

    CERN Document Server

    Miyamoto, J

    1999-01-01

    We have performed an aging study of a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) readout with a Micro-Strip Gas Chamber (MSGC). The GEM is constructed from Kapton and copper, and the MSGC is constructed from semiconductive glass and gold. When the detector (GEM+MSGC) is operated in an argon-dimethyl ether (DME) gas mixture and irradiated with a 5.4 keV photon beam, about 220 mC/cm of charge can be accumulated without degradation of the detector performance. This corresponds to about 20 years of operation at the LHC.

  7. Characteristic Impedance of a Microstrip-Like Interconnect Line in Presence of Ground Plane Aperture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Sharma

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose new empirical expressions for the characteristic impedance of a microstrip-like interconnect line in presence of ground plane aperture. The existing characteristic impedance expressions are modified so as to include the effect of the ground plane aperture. The variation in the characteristic impedance vis-à-vis the aperture size is established. The proposed expressions are general and valid for a range of dielectric materials concerning MICs, RFICs, and PCBs. The results are validated by measurements performed on a vector network analyzer.

  8. Mechanically Reconfigurable Microstrip Lines Loaded with Stepped Impedance Resonators and Potential Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Naqui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on exploring the possibilities and potential applications of microstrip transmission lines loaded with stepped impedance resonators (SIRs etched on top of the signal strip, in a separated substrate. It is shown that if the symmetry plane of the line (a magnetic wall is perfectly aligned with the electric wall of the SIR at the fundamental resonance, the line is transparent. However, if symmetry is somehow ruptured, a notch in the transmission coefficient appears. The notch frequency and depth can thus be mechanically controlled, and this property can be of interest for the implementation of sensors and barcodes, as it is discussed.

  9. Resonance of High Tc Superconducting Microstrip Patch in a Substrate-Superstrate Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Benkouda

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a protecting dielectric superstrate on the resonance of a high Tc superconducting microstrip patch is investigated. The analysis approach is based on the spectral-domain method of moments in conjunction with the complex resistive boundary condition. The complex surface impedance of the superconducting thin film is determined using London’s equation and the two-fluid model of Gorter and Casimir. Numerical results show that the resonant frequency of the high Tc superconducting rectangular patch decreases monotonically with increasing superstrate thickness, the decrease being greater for high permittivity loading.

  10. High-frequency microstrip dual-band bandpass filter fabricated using FR-4 glass epoxy material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challal, Mouloud; Mermoul, Ali; Hocine, Kenza

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, design, fabrication and measurement of a novel microstrip dual-band bandpass filter (BPF) structure with a compact size using FR-4 glass epoxy material is presented. The filter structure is composed of folded non-uniform meander resonators. The proposed filter with a total size of 0.24λg  ×  0.16λg is designed to exhibit two passbands centred at 2.68 GHz and 5.64 GHz with fractional bandwidths of 25.38% and 10.4%, respectively. The simulation and experimental measurement results are basically in good agreement which validate the proposed approach.

  11. Hardness and excitation energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that the first excitation energy can be given by the Kohn-Sham hardness (i.e. the energy difference of the ground-state lowest unoccupied and highest occupied levels) plus an extra term coming from the partial derivative of the ensemble exchange-correlation energy with respect to the weighting factor in the ...

  12. Hard Probes at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Citron, Z; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has measured several hard probe observables in Pb+Pb and p+Pb collisions at the LHC. These measurements include jets which show modification in the hot dense medium of heavy ion collisions as well as color neutral electro-weak bosons. Together, they elucidate the nature of heavy ion collisions.

  13. Hardness of metallic crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    where H is the hardness, k the coefficient, G the shear modulus, ν the Poisson's ratio, η a function of the radius of an atom (r) and the electron density at the atom interface (n). The formula will not only be used to testify the critical grain size with stable dislocations, but also play an important role in the understanding of ...

  14. Running in Hard Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, John N., III

    2009-01-01

    Roberta Stevens and Kent Oliver are campaigning hard for the presidency of the American Library Association (ALA). Stevens is outreach projects and partnerships officer at the Library of Congress. Oliver is executive director of the Stark County District Library in Canton, Ohio. They have debated, discussed, and posted web sites, Facebook pages,…

  15. CSI: Hard Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Acting on information from students who reported seeing a classmate looking at inappropriate material on a school computer, school officials used forensics software to plunge the depths of the PC's hard drive, searching for evidence of improper activity. Images were found in a deleted Internet Explorer cache as well as deleted file space.…

  16. Hard and Soft Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moos, Lejf

    2009-01-01

    The governance and leadership at transnational, national and school level seem to be converging into a number of isomorphic forms as we see a tendency towards substituting 'hard' forms of governance, that are legally binding, with 'soft' forms based on persuasion and advice. This article analyses...

  17. Hardness and excitation energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    form a new species leading to a single electronegativity or chemical potential (the same way as in ordinary thermodynamics). The hardness η of an electronic system is ..... Technological Innovation Foundation and the Minis- try of Science and Technology. This work was also supported by the grant OTKA No. T042505.

  18. Performance of Radiation Hard Pixel Sensors for the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Dorokhov, Andrei

    2005-01-01

    Position sensitive detectors in particle physics experiments are used for the detection of the particles trajectory produced in high energy collisions. To study physics phenomena at high energies the high particle interaction rate is unavoidable, as the number of interesting events falls with the energy and the total number of events is dominated by the soft processes. The position resolution of vertex detectors has to be of few microns in order to distinguish between particle tracks produced in b-quark or tau-decays, because of the short flight path before the decay. The high spatial position resolution and the ability to detect a large number of superimposed track are the key features for tracking detectors. Modern silicon microstrip and pixel detectors with high resolution are currently most suitable devices for the tracking systems of high energy physics experiments. In this work the performance of the sensors designed for the CMS pixel detector are studied and the position resolution is estimated. In the...

  19. Development of radiation hard readout electronics for LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Sexauer, Edgar; Lindenstruth, Volker

    2001-01-01

    The experiment LHCb is under development at CERN and aims to measure CP-violation in the B-Meson system at very high precision. The experiment makes use of a vertex detector that is equipped with silicon microstrip detectors. A chip suitable for the readout of this detector has been developed in a working group at the ASIC-laboratory Heidelberg. This readout chip 'Beetle-1.0' contains 128 analog input stages of a charge sensitive preamplifier, a pulse shaper and a buffer. The analog signal is fed into a comparator, from which a fast trigger signal can be derived. The following pipeline, realized as an array of gate capacitances, can be used to either store the analog output of the input amplifiers or to store the digital comparator output. External trigger signals mark events that have to be read out and the according pipeline location is stored in a derandomizing buffer. Pending events are read out from the pipeline via a charge-sensitive, resetable amplifier and an analog multiplexer, which serializes the s...

  20. Advanced silicon materials for photovoltaic applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pizzini, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Today, the silicon feedstock for photovoltaic cells comes from processes which were originally developed for the microelectronic industry. It covers almost 90% of the photovoltaic market, with mass production volume at least one order of magnitude larger than those devoted to microelectronics. However, it is hard to imagine that this kind of feedstock (extremely pure but heavily penalized by its high energy cost) could remain the only source of silicon for a photovoltaic market which is in continuous expansion, and which has a cumulative growth rate in excess of 30% in the last few years. Ev

  1. Silicon Strip Detectors for the ATLAS HL-LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Affolder, A

    2012-01-01

    To further extend the ultimate physics reach of the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a series of accelerator and experimental upgrades are planned in 2014 (phase 0), 2017 (phase 1) and 2022 (phase 2). The phase 2 machine upgrade, called the High Luminosity-LHC (HL-LHC), is foreseen to increase the instantaneous luminosity by a factor ten with a total integrated luminosity of $3000~\\rm{fb^{-1}}$. The ATLAS experiment plans to build a new all-silicon tracker for HL-LHC operation which can cope with the predicted high particle rates and intense radiation doses. This article summarizes the plans and recent progress prototyping the silicon micro-strip section of the ATLAS HL-LHC upgrade. Results from measurements of miniature ($10 \\times 10~\\rm{mm^2}$) and full-size ($97.5 \\times 97.5~\\rm{mm^2}$) planar n-in-p FZ silicon sensors are shown. The first prototypes of different module concepts with highly integrated cooling and mechanical support structures are also described.

  2. Performance of the CLAS12 Silicon Vertex Tracker modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonioli, M.A.; Boiarinov, S.; Bonneau, P.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eng, B. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Gotra, Y., E-mail: gotra@jlab.org [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Kurbatov, E. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Leffel, M.; Mandal, S.; McMullen, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Merkin, M. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Raydo, B.; Teachey, W. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Tucker, R. [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Ungaro, M.; Yegneswaran, A.; Ziegler, V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2013-12-21

    For the 12 GeV upgrade, the CLAS12 experiment has designed a Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) using single sided microstrip sensors fabricated by Hamamatsu. The sensors have graded angle design to minimize dead areas and a readout pitch of 156μm, with intermediate strip. Double sided SVT module hosts three daisy-chained sensors on each side with a full strip length of 33 cm. There are 512 channels per module read out by four Fermilab Silicon Strip Readout (FSSR2) chips featuring data driven architecture, mounted on a rigid-flex hybrid. Modules are assembled on the barrel using unique cantilevered geometry to minimize the amount of material in the tracking volume. Design and performance of the SVT modules are presented, focusing on results of electrical measurements. -- Highlights: •A Silicon Vertex Tracker has been designed for the central tracker of the CLAS12 experiment. •Using cantilevered module geometry allows minimizing amount of material in the tracking volume. •A dedicated Hybrid Flex Circuit Board has been developed to read out double sided module. •Module performance meets design goals of the CLAS12 Central Tracker.

  3. Silicon Photonics-Silicon Raman Lasers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 10. Silicon Photonics - Silicon Raman Lasers. P K Basu. General Article Volume 12 ... Keywords. Silicon photonics; Si Raman laser; semiconductor laser; light emitter; optical interconnect; optical communication; Indirect gap semiconductors.

  4. Performance of a Wideband Cadmium Ferrite Microstrip Patch Antenna in the X-Band Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhongale, S. R.; Ingavale, H. R.; Shinde, T. J.; Vasambekar, P. N.

    2017-10-01

    Magnesium-substituted cadmium ferrites with the chemical composition Mg x Cd1-x Fe2O4 (x = 0, 0.4 and 0.8) were prepared by an oxalate co-precipitation method under microwave sintering technique. The structural properties of ferrites were studied by x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscope techniques. The scattering parameters such as reflection coefficient (S 11) and transmission coefficient (S 21) at microwave frequencies of palletized ferrites were measured by using a vector network analyzer. The software module 85071E followed by scattering parameters was used to determine the electromagnetic properties of the ferrites. The values determined for electromagnetic parameters such as the real part of permittivity (ɛ'), permeability (μ'), dielectric loss tangent (tanδ e) and magnetic loss tangent (tanδ m) of synthesized ferrites were used to design rectangular microstrip patch antennas. The performance of magnesium-substituted Cd ferrites as substrate for microstrip patch antennas was investigated. The antenna parameters such as return loss, bandwidth, voltage standing wave ratio, Smith chart and radiation pattern were studied. It is found that the Cd ferrite has applicability as a substrate for wideband antennas in the X-band region.

  5. Investigation of New Microstrip Bandpass Filter Based on Patch Resonator with Geometrical Fractal Slot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqeen S Mezaal

    Full Text Available A compact dual-mode microstrip bandpass filter using geometrical slot is presented in this paper. The adopted geometrical slot is based on first iteration of Cantor square fractal curve. This filter has the benefits of possessing narrower and sharper frequency responses as compared to microstrip filters that use single mode resonators and traditional dual-mode square patch resonators. The filter has been modeled and demonstrated by Microwave Office EM simulator designed at a resonant frequency of 2 GHz using a substrate of εr = 10.8 and thickness of h = 1.27 mm. The output simulated results of the proposed filter exhibit 22 dB return loss, 0.1678 dB insertion loss and 12 MHz bandwidth in the passband region. In addition to the narrow band gained, miniaturization properties as well as weakened spurious frequency responses and blocked second harmonic frequency in out of band regions have been acquired. Filter parameters including insertion loss, return loss, bandwidth, coupling coefficient and external quality factor have been compared with different values of perturbation dimension (d. Also, a full comparative study of this filter as compared with traditional square patch filter has been considered.

  6. A Multiband Proximity-Coupled-Fed Flexible Microstrip Antenna for Wireless Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Andrea Casula

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiband printed microstrip antenna for wireless communications is presented. The antenna is fed by a proximity-coupled microstrip line, and it is printed on a flexible substrate. The antenna has been designed using a general-purpose 3D computer-aided design software (CAD, CST Microwave Studio, and then realized. The comparison between simulated and measured results shows that the proposed antenna can be used for wireless communications for WLAN systems, covering both the WLAN S-band (2.45 GHz and C-band (5.2 GHz, and the Wi-Max 3.5 GHz band, with satisfactory input matching and broadside radiation pattern. Moreover, it has a compact size, is very easy to realize, and presents a discrete out-of-band rejection, without requiring the use of stop-band filters. The proposed structure can be used also as a conformal antenna, and its frequency response and radiated field are satisfactory for curvatures up to 65°.

  7. Design of a Microstrip Bowtie Antenna for Indoor Radio-Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraga-Rosales Hector

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a microstrip bowtie patch antenna (MBPA for wireless indoor communications is carried out. Here, a microstrip transmission-line feed network was designed in order to match the MBPA. The proposed antenna uses a ground plane with the aim of narrowing down the back lobes in comparison with bowtie sheet antennas, which radiation pattern is omni-directional. The far-field pattern of the antenna was simulated using a finite-element numerical algorithm and obtained by interpolation employing near-field equipment. The experimental results are described in detail intending to agree well with the simulated predictions. The antenna was designed, measured and built and its far field performance was evaluated with a 2.11 GHz resonant frequency. The azimuth and elevation antenna patterns, antenna gain and, the matching frequency were the main parameters obtained to analyze the antenna behaviour. The antenna has a gain approximately equal to 8.77 dBi and its beam-widths are higher than 100° in E plane.

  8. Dielectric parameter estimation of novel magneto-dielectric substrate based microstrip antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Ashish; Kumar, P.; Ravelo, B.; Thakur, Atul; Thakur, Preeti

    2016-05-01

    The effective relative permittivity and effective relative permeability of magneto-dielectric materials when used as substrate for microstrip antenna shows interdependency. This dependency was analyzed through simulation and verified by synthesizing nano composite ferrite. The 40nm nano crystallite size particles were synthesized using a co- precipitation method. Matching values of complex permittivity (ɛ* = 4.2-0.1j) and complex permeability (μ* = 4.3-0.2j) at 1 GHz were obtained from the electromagnetic characterization. The microstrip antenna with coaxial feed was fabricated and the interdependence of relative permittivity and relative permeability was verified. An error of 7% in the drawn length was observed for ɛr and μr of the order of 4. The magneto-dielectric material with composition Mn0.5Zn0.3Co0.2Fe2O4+BaFe12O19 proposed in this paper definitely can be proposed as a substrate material for miniaturized antenna. The antenna with desired resonant frequency can be fabricated by calculating the effective medium parameters as discussed in the paper.

  9. Breakdown Features of Various Microstrip-Type Gas Counter Designs and Their Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskov, V.; Ramsey, B. D.; Fonte, P.

    1998-01-01

    Breakdown mechanisms and spurious pulses, the precursors to some breakdowns, were studied experimentally for both uncoated and coated Microstrip Gas Counters (MSGCs) of different geometries, as well as for MicroGap Counters (MGCs) and for the "Compteur A Trou" (CAT). It was found that in all cases the breakdowns occurred through surface streamers, although the exact mechanism of streamer formation depended on the particular detector design. Based on these studies, new designs of microstrip detectors, in which the role of the substrate was minimized, were elaborated and tested. In some of these detectors, especially with large pitches (greater than 2mm), gains up to 2-3 x 10(exp 5) were achieved together with good rate characteristics. The ultimate gain limit in all geometries was still set by spark-inducing streamers which appeared at some critical charge density in the avalanche. To avoid this, and particularly to enhance the performance of small-pitch MSGCs, preamplification structures can be used. Utilizing a parallel plate avalanche chamber as a front end to an MSGC resulted in an overall gain of approximately 10(exp 6), limited in this case only by charge saturation.

  10. Linearity discontinuities in Xe-filled X-ray microstrip detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zavattini, G.; Feroci, M.; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl

    1997-01-01

    A prototype Xe + 10% CH4 microstrip detector was used to study the K-edge discontinuity in the pulse-height distribution as a function of the energy of incident X-rays. The electronics used was such that a pulse-shape rejection could be made of K-fluorescence reabsorption in the detector. The mea......A prototype Xe + 10% CH4 microstrip detector was used to study the K-edge discontinuity in the pulse-height distribution as a function of the energy of incident X-rays. The electronics used was such that a pulse-shape rejection could be made of K-fluorescence reabsorption in the detector....... The measured jump at the K-edge was (169 +/- 12)eV. It was also seen that K-alpha- and K-beta-decay channels produce different pulse heights for the same deposited energy. We find that the difference in energy between the calibration fines of the K-beta 2- and the K-beta 1.3-escape peaks is (93+/-12)eV whereas...... between the K-beta 1.3 and the K-alpha-escape peaks' calibration the energy gal is (69+/-7)eV....

  11. Study of lead free ferroelectrics using overlay technique on thick film microstrip ring resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shridhar N. Mathad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The lead free ferroelectrics, strontium barium niobates, were synthesized via the low cost solid state reaction method and their fritless thick films were fabricated by screen printing technique on alumina substrate. The X band response (complex permittivity at very high frequencies of Ag thick film microstrip ring resonator perturbed with strontium barium niobates (SrxBa1-xNb2O6 in form of bulk and thick film was measured. A new approach for determination of complex permittivity (ε′ and ε′′ in the frequency range 8–12 GHz, using perturbation of Ag thick film microstrip ring resonator (MSRR, was applied for both bulk and thick film of strontium barium niobates (SrxBa1-xNb2O6. The microwave conductivity of the bulk and thick film lie in the range from 1.779 S/cm to 2.874 S/cm and 1.364 S/cm to 2.296 S/cm, respectively. The penetration depth of microwave in strontium barium niobates is also reported.

  12. Performance of a Wideband Cadmium Ferrite Microstrip Patch Antenna in the X-Band Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhongale, S. R.; Ingavale, H. R.; Shinde, T. J.; Vasambekar, P. N.

    2018-01-01

    Magnesium-substituted cadmium ferrites with the chemical composition Mg x Cd1- x Fe2O4 ( x = 0, 0.4 and 0.8) were prepared by an oxalate co-precipitation method under microwave sintering technique. The structural properties of ferrites were studied by x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscope techniques. The scattering parameters such as reflection coefficient ( S 11) and transmission coefficient ( S 21) at microwave frequencies of palletized ferrites were measured by using a vector network analyzer. The software module 85071E followed by scattering parameters was used to determine the electromagnetic properties of the ferrites. The values determined for electromagnetic parameters such as the real part of permittivity ( ɛ'), permeability ( μ'), dielectric loss tangent (tan δ e) and magnetic loss tangent (tan δ m) of synthesized ferrites were used to design rectangular microstrip patch antennas. The performance of magnesium-substituted Cd ferrites as substrate for microstrip patch antennas was investigated. The antenna parameters such as return loss, bandwidth, voltage standing wave ratio, Smith chart and radiation pattern were studied. It is found that the Cd ferrite has applicability as a substrate for wideband antennas in the X-band region.

  13. PENGEMBANGAN VARIATIF RANCANGAN ANTENA PANEL MICROSTRIP TAPERED PATCH DALAM SISTEM KOMUNIKASI WI-FI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Artawan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pada penelitian ini dilakukan pengembangan rancangan antena microstrip tapered patch untuk dilakukan pengukuran parameternya sebagai karakteristik dari antena Microstrip. Penelitian ini sebagai pengembangan variatif rancangan untuk memperoleh hasil yang lebih optimal. Metode eksperiment dilakukan dalam penelitian ini. Tahap pengerjaanya yaitu membuat desain rancangan antena sesuai persamaan yang ada yang kemudian dirancang dengan metode UV Photoresist laminate. Hasil rancangan antena diukur untuk mendapatkan karakteristik sebagai parameter antena meliputi frekuensi (bandwidth, SWR, VSWR, koofesien refleksi, pola radiasi dan penguatan (gain serta nilai HPBW. Nilai-nilai tersebut mencerminkan karakter dari sebuah antena sebagai parameter antena yang layak diimplementasikan dalam sistem komunikasi internet dengan sistem wi-fi. Hasil penelitian ini meliputi: nilai lebar pita (bandwidth = 0.21 GHz, VSWR = 1,23, SWR = 1,79,  return loss = -20,00 dB, koofesien refleksi = 0,10 dan grafik pola radiasi dengan penguatan (gain = 17 dB (polarisasi vertikal, 20 dB (polarisasi horizontal. Nilai Half Power Beamwidth (HPBW 820 untuk pola radiasi vertikal dan pola radiasi horizontal. Kesalahan (error hasil pengukuran 0,12% dengan keseksamaan 99,88%. Hasil ini memberikan indikasi sebagai rancangan antena yang layak untuk sistem komunikasi wi-fi. Penelitian ini sebagai salah satu aplikasi ilmu Fisika dalam dunia teknologi informasi dan diharapkan dapat bermanfaat sebagai dinamika wahana salah satu produk penerapan ilmu Fisika dalam bidang Teknologi Informasi.

  14. A Novel Performance Analysis of the Microstrip Antenna Printed on a Cylindrical Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr M. Mahros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance of a circular patch microstrip antenna is highly affected by the effective dielectric constant of a used substrate material. When the circular patch is conformed on a cylindrical body, the effective dielectric constant is changing with curvature due to the changing in the fringing field. Consequently, some of antenna parameters such as resonance frequency, input impedance, voltage standing wave ratio, return loss, quality factor, and antenna bandwidth are functions of curvature. In this work, we study the effect of curvature on the performance of circular patch microstrip antenna. A mathematical model for the antenna parameters as functions of curvature is also introduced. The model is applied in case of using two substrates of different refractive index values. By extension, the antenna performance was studied through simulation by using method of moments (MoM which is reliable in solving Maxwell’s integral equations in the frequency domain. The results from simulation compare very favorably with the described analytical results.

  15. Bandwidth enhancement of a dual band planar monopole antenna using meandered microstrip feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, M R; Islam, M T; Habib Ullah, M; Misran, N

    2014-01-01

    A meandered-microstrip fed circular shaped monopole antenna loaded with vertical slots on a high dielectric material substrate (ε r = 15) is proposed in this paper. The performance criteria of the proposed antenna have been experimentally verified by fabricating a printed prototype. The experimental results show that the proposed antenna has achieved wider bandwidth with satisfactory gain by introducing meandered-microstrip feeding in assistant of partial ground plane. It is observed that, the -10 dB impedance bandwidth of the proposed antenna at lower band is 44.4% (600 MHz-1 GHz) and at upper band is 28% (2.25 GHz-2.95 GHz). The measured maximum gains of -1.18 dBi and 4.87 dBi with maximum radiation efficiencies have been observed at lower band and upper band, respectively. The antenna configuration and parametric study have been carried out with the help of commercially available computer-aided EM simulator, and a good accordance is perceived in between the simulated and measured results. The analysis of performance criteria and almost consistent radiation pattern make the proposed antenna a suitable candidate for UHF RFID, WiMAX, and WLAN applications.

  16. Design & Analysis of Microstrip Patch Antenna Using Different Dielectric Materials for WiMAX Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Moidul Islam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This Paper presents Microstrip patch antenna for WiMAX communication system which operate at 5.8 GHz frequency band. The main objective of this paper is to design and observe the performance of the designed microstrip patch antenna for different dielectric materials. The size of the designed antenna has been also miniaturized. Better performance is observed for FR4 and dupont-951 dielectric material. For FR4 radiation efficiency is-2.776 dB and total efficiency is -3.026 dB at 5.8 GHz, this indicates better performance. And for dupont-951 the return loss is much lower comparing to the other dielectric materials used in this research, which is -16.609 dB. Also for dupont-951 and FR4, VSWR is found 1.35 and 1.7 respectively which is desirable. Also the size of the antenna has been reduced. In this paper we also observed and analyzed the radiation pattern of far field region, gain, radiation efficiency and total efficiency for different dielectric materials.

  17. Compact Dual-mode Microstrip Bandpass Filter Based on Greek-cross Fractal Resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S. Lu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A geometrically symmetrical fractal structure is presented in this paper to provide an alternative approach for the miniaturization design of microstrip bandpass filters (BPFs. The generation process of the geometric geometry is described in detail, and a new fractal resonator called Greek-cross fractal resonator (GCFR is produced by etching the proposed fractal configuration on the surface of the conventional dual-mode meandered loop resonator. Four microstrip BPFs based on the first four iterations GCFR are modeled and simulated. The simulation results show that with the increase of the number of iterations, the central frequency of the BPF is gradually moving towards the low frequency, which indicates that the proposed fractal resonator has the characteristic of miniaturization. In addition, the parameter optimization and surface current density distribution are also analyzed in order to better understand the performance of the BPF. Finally, a compact dual-mode BPF based on the third iteration GCFR is designed, fabricated and measured. The measurement results are in good agreement with the simulation ones.

  18. Silicon Carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit (PPU) for Hall Effect Thrusters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, APEI, Inc. is proposing to develop a high efficiency, rad-hard 3.8 kW silicon carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit (PPU) for Hall Effect...

  19. A single-photon counting “edge-on” silicon detector for synchrotron radiation mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigon, L.; Arfelli, F.; Astolfo, A.; Bergamaschi, A.; Dreossi, D.; Longo, R.; Menk, R.-H.; Schmitt, B.; Vallazza, E.; Castelli, E.

    2009-09-01

    The Phase Imaging for Clinical Application with Silicon detector and Synchrotron radiatiOn (PICASSO) project is developing an "edge-on" silicon microstrip detector for mammography with synchrotron radiation. The sensor is equipped with a fast single-photon counting electronics based on the Mythen-II application-specific integrated circuit. A first prototype has been assembled and tested at the SYnchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics (SYRMEP) beamline at Elettra in Trieste, Italy. The first results are presented in this study including evidence of high-rate single-photon counting with negligible losses up to 1.2×10 6 incident photons per pixel per second; spatial resolution consistent with the pixel aperture (0.3 mm×0.05 mm); high-quality imaging of test-objects, obtained with a dose comparable to the one delivered in modern full-field digital mammographic systems.

  20. A Test-Bench for Measurement of Electrical Static Parameters of Strip Silicon Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Golutvin, I A; Danilevich, V G; Dmitriev, A Yu; Elsha, V V; Zamiatin, Y I; Zubarev, E V; Ziaziulia, F E; Kozus, V I; Lomako, V M; Stepankov, D V; Khomich, A P; Shumeiko, N M; Cheremuhin, A E

    2003-01-01

    An automated test-bench for electrical parameters input control of the strip silicon detectors, used in the End-Cap Preshower detector of the CMS experiment, is described. The test-bench application allows one to solve a problem of silicon detectors input control in conditions of mass production - 1800 detectors over 2 years. The test-bench software is realized in Delphi environment and contains a user-friendly operator interface for measurement data processing and visualization as well as up-to-date facilities for MS-Windows used for the network database. High operating characteristics and reliability of the test-bench were confirmed while more than 800 detectors were tested. Some technical solutions applied to the test-bench could be useful for design and construction of automated facilities for electrical parameters measurements of the microstrip detectors input control.

  1. Test of CMS tracker silicon detector modules with the ARC readout system

    CERN Document Server

    Axer, M; Flügge, G; Franke, T; Hegner, B; Hermanns, T; Kasselmann, S T; Mnich, J; Nowack, A; Pooth, O; Pottgens, M

    2004-01-01

    The CMS tracker will be equipped with 16,000 silicon microstrip detector modules covering a surface of approximately 220 m**2. For quality control, a compact and inexpensive DAQ system is needed to monitor the mass production in industry and in the CMS production centres. To meet these requirements a set-up called APV Readout Controller (ARC) system was developed and distributed among all collaborating institutes to perform full readout tests of hybrids and modules at each production step. The system consists of all necessary hardware components, C++ based readout software using LabVIEW **1 Lab VIEW is a product of National Instruments, Austin, USA. as graphical user interface and provides full database connection to track every single module component during the production phase. Two preseries of Tracker End Cap (TEC) silicon detector modules have been produced by the TEC community and tested with the ARC system at Aachen. The results of the second series are presented.

  2. A precision device needs precise simulation: Software description of the CBM Silicon Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malygina, Hanna; Friese, Volker; CBM Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    Precise modelling of detectors in simulations is the key to the understanding of their performance, which, in turn, is a prerequisite for the proper design choice and, later, for the achievement of valid physics results. In this report, we describe the implementation of the Silicon Tracking System (STS), the main tracking device of the CBM experiment, in the CBM software environment. The STS makes uses of double-sided silicon micro-strip sensors with double metal layers. We present a description of transport and detector response simulation, including all relevant physical effects like charge creation and drift, charge collection, cross-talk and digitization. Of particular importance and novelty is the description of the time behaviour of the detector, since its readout will not be externally triggered but continuous. We also cover some aspects of local reconstruction, which in the CBM case has to be performed in real-time and thus requires high-speed algorithms.

  3. Degradation of charge sharing after neutron irradiation in strip silicon detectors with different geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Casse, G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the CERN/RD50 collaboration is the improvement of the radiation tolerance of semiconductor detectors for future experiments at high-luminosity colliders. In the RD50 framework, evidence of enhanced signal charge in severely irradiated silicon detectors (diodes, segmented planar and 3D devices) was found. The underlying mechanism was labelled charge multiplication. This has been one of the most exciting results from the research activity of RD50 because it could allow for a greatly extended radiation tolerance, if the mechanism is to be found controllable and tuneable. The charge multiplication mechanism is governed by impact ionisation from electrons drifting in high electric field. The electric field profile is influenced by the geometry of the implanted electrodes. In order to investigate the influence of the diode implantation geometry on charge multiplication, the RD50 collaboration has commissioned the production of miniature microstrip silicon sensors with various choices of strip pitch and s...

  4. Measurements on irradiated L1 sensor prototypes for the D0 Run IIb silicon detector project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahsan, M.; Bolton, T.; Carnes, K.; /Kansas State U.; Demarteau, M.; /Fermilab; Demina, R.; /Rochester U.; Gray, T.; /Kansas State U.; Korjenevski, S.; /Rochester U.; Lehner, F.; /Zurich U.; Lipton, R.; Mao, H.S.; /Fermilab; McCarthy, R.; /SUNY, Stony Brook /Kansas State U. /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    We report on irradiation studies of Hamamatsu prototype silicon microstrip detectors for layer 1 of the D0 upgrade project for Run IIb. The irradiation was carried out with 10 MeV protons up to proton fluence of 10{sup 14} p/cm{sup 2} at the J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Manhatten, KS. The flux calibration was carefully checked using different dose normalization techniques. The results based on the obtained sensor leakage currents after irradiation show that the NIEL scaling hypothesis for low energy protons has to be applied with great care. We observe 30-40% less radiation damage in silicon for 10 MeV proton exposure than is expected from the predicted NIEL scaling.

  5. SUPER HARD SURFACED POLYMERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansur, Louis K [ORNL; Bhattacharya, R [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Clemons, Art [ORNL; Eberle, Cliff [ORNL; Evans, H B [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL; Lee, E H [Consultant, Milpitas, CA; Leonard, Keith J [ORNL; Trejo, Rosa M [ORNL; Rivard, John D [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    High energy ion beam surface treatments were applied to a selected group of polymers. Of the six materials in the present study, four were thermoplastics (polycarbonate, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, and polystyrene) and two were thermosets (epoxy and polyimide). The particular epoxy evaluated in this work is one of the resins used in formulating fiber reinforced composites for military helicopter blades. Measures of mechanical properties of the near surface regions were obtained by nanoindentation hardness and pin on disk wear. Attempts were also made to measure erosion resistance by particle impact. All materials were hardness tested. Pristine materials were very soft, having values in the range of approximately 0.1 to 0.5 GPa. Ion beam treatment increased hardness by up to 50 times compared to untreated materials. For reference, all materials were hardened to values higher than those typical of stainless steels. Wear tests were carried out on three of the materials, PET, PI and epoxy. On the ion beam treated epoxy no wear could be detected, whereas the untreated material showed significant wear.

  6. Hard Probes at RHIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bielčíková Jana

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of jets and heavy flavour, the so called hard probes, play a crucial role in understanding properties of hot and dense nuclear matter created in high energy heavy-ion collisions. The measurements at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC showed that in central Au+Au collisons at RHIC energy ( √sNN = 200 GeV the nuclear matter created has properties close to those of perfect liquid, manifests partonic degrees of freedom and is opaque to hard probes. In order to draw quantitative conclusions on properties of this hot and dense nuclear matter reference measurements in proton-proton collisions and d+Au collisions are essential to estimate cold nuclear matter effects. In this proceedings a review of recent results on hard probes measurements in p+p, d+Au and A+A collisions as well as of beam energy dependence of jet quenching from STAR and PHENIX experiments at RHIC is presented.

  7. Beam Test Results for Single- and Double-Sided Silicon Detector Prototypes of the CMS Central Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Adriani, O

    1997-01-01

    We report the results of two beam tests performed in July and September 1995 at CERN using silicon microstrip detectors of various types: single sided, double sided with small angle stereo strips, double sided with orthogonal strips, double sided with pads. For the read-out electronics use was made of Preshape32, Premux128 and VA1 chips. The signal to noise ratio and the resolution of the detectors was studied for different incident angles of the incoming particles and for different values of the detector bias voltage. The goal of these tests was to check and improve the performances of the prototypes for the CMS Central Detector.

  8. Silicone chain extender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a silicone chain extender, more particularly a chain extender for silicone polymers and copolymers, to a chain extended silicone polymer or copolymer and to a functionalized chain extended silicone polymer or copolymer, to a method for the preparation thereof...

  9. Problem-Matched Basis Functions for Microstrip Coupled Slot Arrays Based on Transmission Line Green's Functions (TLGF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerini, G.; Maci, S.; Bruni, S.; Llombart, N.; Neto, A.

    2005-01-01

    Problem matched basis functions are proposed for the method of moments analysis of printed slot coupled microstrips. The appropriate equivalent currents of the integral equation kernel are represented in terms of two sets of entire domain basis functions. These functions synthesize on one hand the

  10. Design and Fabrication of Silicon-on-Silicon-Carbide Substrates and Power Devices for Space Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gammon P.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new generation of power electronic semiconductor devices are being developed for the benefit of space and terrestrial harsh-environment applications. 200-600 V lateral transistors and diodes are being fabricated in a thin layer of silicon (Si wafer bonded to silicon carbide (SiC. This novel silicon-on-silicon-carbide (Si/SiC substrate solution promises to combine the benefits of silicon-on-insulator (SOI technology (i.e device confinement, radiation tolerance, high and low temperature performance with that of SiC (i.e. high thermal conductivity, radiation hardness, high temperature performance. Details of a process are given that produces thin films of silicon 1, 2 and 5 μm thick on semi-insulating 4H-SiC. Simulations of the hybrid Si/SiC substrate show that the high thermal conductivity of the SiC offers a junction-to-case temperature ca. 4× less that an equivalent SOI device; reducing the effects of self-heating, and allowing much greater power density. Extensive electrical simulations are used to optimise a 600 V laterally diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (LDMOSFET implemented entirely within the silicon thin film, and highlight the differences between Si/SiC and SOI solutions.

  11. Radiation-Hard Optical Link for SLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Gan, K K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Law, A; Smith, S; Lebbi, M R M; Skubic, P L

    2008-01-01

    We study the feasibility of fabricating an optical link for the SLHC ATLAS silicon tracker based on the current pixel optical link architecture. The electrical signals between the current pixel modules and the optical modules are transmitted via micro-twisted cables. The optical signals between the optical modules and the data acquisition system are transmitted via radiation-hard/low-bandwidth SIMM fibres fusion spliced to radiation-tolerant/medium-bandwidth GRIN fibres. The link has several nice features. We have measured the bandwidths of the micro twisted-pair cables to be ~ 1 Gb/s and the fusion spliced fibre ribbon to be ~ 2 Gb/s. We have irradiated PIN and VCSEL arrays with 24 GeV protons and find the arrays can operate up to the SLHC dosage. We have also demonstrated the feasibility of fabricating a novel opto-pack for housing VCSEL and PIN arrays with BeO as the substrate.

  12. Mongoose: Creation of a Rad-Hard MIPS R3000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Dan; Smith, Brian

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a 32 Bit, full MIPS R3000 code-compatible Rad-Hard CPU, code named Mongoose. Mongoose progressed from contract award, through the design cycle, to operational silicon in 12 months to meet a space mission for NASA. The goal was the creation of a fully static device capable of operation to the maximum Mil-883 derated speed, worst-case post-rad exposure with full operational integrity. This included consideration of features for functional enhancements relating to mission compatibility and removal of commercial practices not supported by Rad-Hard technology. 'Mongoose' developed from an evolution of LSI Logic's MIPS-I embedded processor, LR33000, code named Cobra, to its Rad-Hard 'equivalent', Mongoose. The term 'equivalent' is used to infer that the core of the processor is functionally identical, allowing the same use and optimizations of the MIPS-I Instruction Set software tool suite for compilation, software program trace, etc. This activity was started in September of 1991 under a contract from NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)-Flight Data Systems. The approach affected a teaming of NASA-GSFC for program development, LSI Logic for system and ASIC design coupled with the Rad-Hard process technology, and Harris (GASD) for Rad-Hard microprocessor design expertise. The program culminated with the generation of Rad-Hard Mongoose prototypes one year later.

  13. RTV Silicone Rubber Degradation Induced by Temperature Cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xishan Wen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Room temperature vulcanized (RTV silicone rubber is extensively used in power system due to its hydrophobicity and hydrophobicity transfer ability. Temperature has been proven to markedly affect the performance of silicone rubbers. This research investigated the degradation of RTV silicone rubber under temperature cycling treatment. Hydrophobicity and its transfer ability, hardness, functional groups, microscopic appearance, and thermal stability were analyzed using the static contact angle method, a Shore A durometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and thermogravimetry (TG, respectively. Some significant conclusions were drawn. After the temperature was cycled between −25 °C and 70 °C, the hydrophobicity changed modestly, but its transfer ability changed remarkably, which may result from the competition between the formation of more channels for the transfer of low molecular weight (LMW silicone fluid and the reduction of LMW silicone fluid in the bulk. A hardness analysis and FTIR analysis demonstrated that further cross-linking reactions occurred during the treatment. SEM images showed the changes in roughness of the RTV silicone rubber surfaces. TG analysis also demonstrated the degradation of RTV silicone rubber by presenting evidence that the content of organic materials decreased during the temperature cycling treatment.

  14. Revisiting the definition of local hardness and hardness kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco-Ramírez, Carlos A; Franco-Pérez, Marco; Carmona-Espíndola, Javier; Gázquez, José L; Ayers, Paul W

    2017-05-17

    An analysis of the hardness kernel and local hardness is performed to propose new definitions for these quantities that follow a similar pattern to the one that characterizes the quantities associated with softness, that is, we have derived new definitions for which the integral of the hardness kernel over the whole space of one of the variables leads to local hardness, and the integral of local hardness over the whole space leads to global hardness. A basic aspect of the present approach is that global hardness keeps its identity as the second derivative of energy with respect to the number of electrons. Local hardness thus obtained depends on the first and second derivatives of energy and electron density with respect to the number of electrons. When these derivatives are approximated by a smooth quadratic interpolation of energy, the expression for local hardness reduces to the one intuitively proposed by Meneses, Tiznado, Contreras and Fuentealba. However, when one combines the first directional derivatives with smooth second derivatives one finds additional terms that allow one to differentiate local hardness for electrophilic attack from the one for nucleophilic attack. Numerical results related to electrophilic attacks on substituted pyridines, substituted benzenes and substituted ethenes are presented to show the overall performance of the new definition.

  15. Tracking antenna architectures based on an integrated mixer microstrip patch array

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, S

    1997-01-01

    The object of this work is to design, develop and characterize both theoretically and experimentally a compact integrated mixer microstrip patch antenna which exhibits a low level of cross-polarization. Modelling of this antenna using various CAD techniques and supporting measurements has led to a clearer understanding of its operation and the optimization of its design. The attractiveness of such a frequency scaleable design lies in the inherent simplicity and ease with which it can be used to produce an intermediate frequency (IF) signal with minimum circuit complexity and low cross-polar levels. The operation of the integrated mixer antenna circuit is exploited under the phenomenon of injection locking for its potential for direct phase modulation and detection. It leads to new vistas of study such as IF phase-shifterless beam steering. Here the desired phased shift is derived through injection locking and achieved solely by the DC bias control, thus eliminating the need for phase shifters and feed network...

  16. A gas microstrip wide angle X-ray detector for application in synchrotron radiation experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Bateman, J E; Derbyshire, G E; Duxbury, D M; Lipp, J; Mir, J A; Simmons, J E; Spill, E J; Stephenson, R; Dobson, B R; Farrow, R C; Helsby, W I; Mutikainen, R; Suni, I

    2002-01-01

    The Gas Microstrip Detector has counting rate capabilities several orders of magnitude higher than conventional wire proportional counters while providing the same (or better) energy resolution for X-rays. In addition the geometric flexibility provided by the lithographic process combined with the self-supporting properties of the substrate offers many exciting possibilities for X-ray detectors, particularly for the demanding experiments carried out on Synchrotron Radiation Sources. Using experience obtained in designing detectors for Particle Physics we have developed a detector for Wide Angle X-ray Scattering studies. The detector has a fan geometry which makes possible a gas detector with high detection efficiency, sub-millimetre spatial resolution and good energy resolution over a wide range of X-ray energy. The detector is described together with results of experiments carried out at the Daresbury Laboratory Synchrotron Radiation Source.

  17. Pole discontinuity removal using artificial neural networks for microstrip antenna design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshrestha, Sanjeev; Chheda, Deven J.; Chakrabarty, S. B.; Jyoti, Rajeev; Sharma, S. B.

    2011-12-01

    This article presents the use of artificial neural networks for the evaluation of integrals with finite number of pole singularities while formulating the integral equation for the electric surface current density. A feed-forward single-layer back-propagated artificial neural network (ANN) model has been trained to approximate the discontinuous integrand function. Generation of a soft continuous function obtained from the ANN model and closed-loop expressions for the evaluation of the integrals are presented. The proposed technique is applied to compute the input impedance of microstrip antenna and results have been compared with IE3D. Integration has been performed using n-point Gaussian quadrature rule for evaluating the reaction matrix.

  18. Design of Microstrip Bandpass Filters Using SIRs with Even-Mode Harmonics Suppression for Cellular Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theerawisitpong, Somboon; Suzuki, Toshitatsu; Morita, Noboru; Utsumi, Yozo

    The design of microstrip bandpass filters using stepped-impedance resonators (SIRs) is examined. The passband center frequency for the WCDMA-FDD (uplink band) Japanese cellular system is 1950MHz with a 60-MHz bandwidth. The SIR physical characteristic can be designed using a SIR characteristic chart based on second harmonic suppression. In our filter design, passband design charts were obtained through the design procedure. Tchebycheff and maximally flat bandpass filters of any bandwidth and any number of steps can be designed using these passband design charts. In addition, sharp skirt characteristics in the passband can be realized by having two transmission zeros at both adjacent frequency bands by using open-ended quarter-wavelength stubs at input and output ports. A new even-mode harmonics suppression technique is proposed to enable a wide rejection band having a high suppression level. The unloaded quality factor of the resonator used in the proposed filters is greater than 240.

  19. Wide-stopband microstrip low-pass filter using modified semi-circle patch resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayati, Mohsen; Sheikhi, Akram; Adineh Vand, Auob

    2012-11-01

    In this article, a compact microstrip low-pass filter with elliptic-function response is proposed. To achieve wide stopband, modified semi-circle patch resonator in series with semi-circle stepped impedance resonator is used. The proposed structure achieves a wide stopband and a high selectivity within a small circuit area. The proposed filter has 3-dB cutoff frequency at 1.71 GHz and 20 dB rejection at 2.1 GHz. The stopband with the attenuation level better than -18.7 dB is from 2.08 up to 16 GHz, and consequently we have reached the high and wide rejection in stopband as well as compact size. The structure is simulated, fabricated and measured. The measured results are in good agreement with the simulated results.

  20. Microstrip dual-band bandstop filter of defected ground structure and stepped impedance resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Wenquan; Feng, Wenjie; Deng, Kuan

    2010-11-01

    This article presents a compact microstrip dual-band bandstop filter (BSF), in which one λg/4 defected ground structure (DGS) pair is utilised to realise one stopband while two stepped impedance resonators (SIRs) help obtain another stopband and suppress the spurious harmonics. The design strategies and the equivalent circuits are introduced in detail. The measured results indicate 43.8% and 18.7% fractional bandwidth in the two stopbands (2.4 GHZ and 5.2 GHz) respectively, and the return loss is greater than 15 dB in the whole passband. In addition, size reduction can be conveniently achieved by adjusting the length of the SIRs and DGS.

  1. Stroke Diagnosis using Microstrip Patch Antennas Based on Microwave Tomography Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakthisudhan K

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Microwave tomography (MT based on stroke diagnosis is one of the alternative methods for determinations of the haemorrhagic, ischemic and stroke in brain nervous systems. It is focusing on the brain imaging, continuous monitoring, and preclinical applications. It provides cost effective system and able to use the rural and urban medical clinics that lack the necessary resources in effective stroke diagnosis during emerging applications in road accident and pre-ambulance clinical treatment. In the early works, the design of microstrip patch antennas (MPAs involved the implementation of MT system. Consequently, the MT system presented a few limitations since it required an efficient MPA design with appropriate parameters. Moreover, there were no specific diagnosis modules and body centric features in it. The present research proposes the MPA designs in the forms of diagnosis modules and implements it on the MT system.

  2. Characterization and analysis of high temperature superconducting microstrip and coplanar resonators using a spectral domain method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kedar, Ashutosh [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi-110021 (India); Kataria, N D [National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012 (India); Gupta, K K [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi-11002, (India)

    2004-07-01

    Microwave characteristics of planar high temperature superconducting microstrip line resonator (MSR) and coplanar waveguide (CPW) resonators have been estimated using a full wave spectral domain technique in conjunction with the complex resistive boundary condition. The computer aided design method developed is applied to simulate the characteristics of planar resonators. The proposed method has been validated with experimental results after taking into account the practical operating conditions. A reasonable agreement for the theoretically computed and measured resonant frequency and unloaded Q-value with experimental data of Porch et al (1995 IEEE Microw. Theory Technol. 2 306-14) has been observed for the MSR operated at 5 GHz as well as for the CPW resonator at 7.95 GHz.

  3. 2×1 Microstrip Patch Array Antenna with Harmonic Suppression Capability for Rectenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Aisyah Amir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an extension of work originally presented in 2016 IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Applied Electromagnetics (APACE. A 2×1 microstrip patch array antenna integrated with photonic bandgap (PBG and stubs is designed and analyzed. The performance of the PBG and stubs structure are explained and analyzed in terms of the elimination of the resonance at the harmonic frequencies of the antenna. The proposed antenna is designed on FR-4 substrate with thickness of 1.6 mm and operated at 2.45 GHz frequency suitable for rectenna design application. From the simulated result, the first harmonic frequency (5.4 GHz, the second harmonic frequency (6.6 GHz and the third harmonic frequency (7.8 GHz are successfully suppressed. For instance, the radiation to the forward of the stubs-PBG antenna is suppressed at more than 15 dB at the second and third harmonic frequencies.

  4. "Diamond" over-coated Microstrip Gas Chambers for high rate operation

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, A J; Bouclier, Roger; Capéans-Garrido, M; Dominik, Wojciech; Hoch, M; Manzin, G; Million, Gilbert; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Sharma, A

    1997-01-01

    We describe the recent developments on the diamond-like carbon (DLC) over-coated Microstrip Gas Chambers made on drawn glass substrates. MSGC surface coating with thin DLC layer of stable and controlled resistivity was proposed to overcome the limitation of detector operation due to surface charging-up under avalanches. This brings also advantages for the detector manufacturing technology. The thin layer, deposited on top of a manufactured MSGC (over-coating), demonstrates excellent mechanical properties and very good stability. We report on recent measurements with DLC over-coated MSGCs of various surface resistivities (ranging from 1013W/r to 1016W/r) on D-263 and AF45 glass substrates. Over-coated MSGCs exhibit good rate capability for the resistivity of the surface around 1015W/r. Stable operation up to 50 mC/cm of accumulated charge from avalanches has been demonstrated.

  5. Optimization of micro-strip gas chamber as two-dimensional neutron detector using gadolinium converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masaoka, Sei; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Yamagishi, Hideshi; Soyama, Kazuhiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-02-01

    A micro-strip gas chamber (MSGC) has been developing as a two-dimensional position sensitive neutron detector for neutron scattering experiments using high-intensity pulsed-neutron source in a high-intensity proton accelerator facility. MSGC is required for the high count rate, high detective efficiency, high positional resolution, stabilization and covering large area. Our purpose in this paper is to verify the proper of Gadolinium as MSGC converter. First, the basic property of Gadolinium converter was examined by simple experiments using a zero-dimensional neutron detector on the purpose of deriving the detective efficiency. Second, the optimization of the arrangement of a capillary plate in MSGC has been done by simulation on the MSGC using Gadolinium converter. As a result of that, it has been proved that Gadolinium can be theoretically used as a converter of MSGC. (author)

  6. Optimization of a 12.5 GHz Microstrip Antenna Array Using Taguchi's Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Spasos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Taguchi's optimization method implemented in the design of a single feed (without any matching network 5×5 microstrip antenna array operating around 12.5 GHz. The proposed optimization method is statistical and is widely used for quality assurance in many fields such as mechanical and chemical production, consumer electronics, services; however it has been underused in the field of electromagnetics. It allows optimization of multiparameter, multitarget complex designs in a very short time in conjunction with advanced simulation tools. The proposed antenna has been fully evaluated under Taghuchi's and PSO's optimization methods, and the experimental results show total Gain of 15 dB, and good matching with S11 better than −20 dB, in the frequency range 12.3 to 12.8 GHz.

  7. Dual-band microstrip patch antenna based on metamaterial refractive surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhi, Ridha; Labidi, Mondher; Boujemaa, Mohamed Ali; Choubani, Fethi

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we present a new design of microstrip patch antenna based on metamaterial refractive surface (MRS). By optimizing the air gap between the MRS layer and the patch antenna to be 7 mm, the band width and the gain of the proposed antenna are significantly enhanced. The proposed prototype presents a dual band antenna. The center frequency for the first band is 2.44 GHz and the generated bandwidth is 25 MHz. The second band has a center frequency of 2.8 GHz and with a bandwidth of 50 MHz. The simulation results are analyzed and discussed in terms of return loss, gain and radiation pattern using electromagnetic simulator software. Finally, the designed dual band antenna is fabricated and different measurement results are performed and compared with simulation results in order to validate its performances. The proposed antenna supports WiBro (wireless broadband), ISM, WiFi, Bluetooth, WiMAX and radars services.

  8. Design and Development of Compact Microstrip Patch Antenna for Wireless Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nagendra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel dual band microstrip patch antenna based on composite patch antenna and radiating part. By selecting a suitable offset feed position, it is feasible to provide 50Ω characteristic impedance and thus making better impedance matching. The proposed antenna has been improved broader bandwidth by using RT Duroid substrate. The radiating part is plays a important role in creating a lower operating band (2.45 GHz in addition to achieve miniaturization. The proposed antenna has to be fabricated with RT / Duroid substrate and dimensions of 19 × 22 × 0.8 mm. The measured -10 dB bandwidth of 200 MHz at 2.45 GHz and 990 MHz at 5.45 GHz, which is quite useful for Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM and WLAN applications.

  9. A Butterfly-Shaped Wideband Microstrip Patch Antenna for Wireless Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liling Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel butterfly-shaped patch antenna for wireless communication is introduced in this paper. The antenna is designed for wideband wireless communications and radio-frequency identification (RFID systems. Two symmetrical quasi-circular arms and two symmetrical round holes are incorporated into the patch of a microstrip antenna to expand its bandwidth. The diameter and position of the circular slots are optimized to achieve a wide bandwidth. The validity of the design concept is demonstrated by means of a prototype having a bandwidth of about 40.1%. The return loss of the butterfly-shaped antenna is greater than 10 dB between 4.15 and 6.36 GHz. The antenna can serve simultaneously most of the modern wireless communication standards.

  10. Computing resonant frequency of C-shaped compact microstrip antennas by using ANFIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdagli, Ali; Kayabasi, Ahmet; Develi, Ibrahim

    2015-03-01

    In this work, the resonant frequency of C-shaped compact microstrip antennas (CCMAs) operating at UHF band is computed by using the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). For this purpose, 144 CCMAs with various relative dielectric constants and different physical dimensions were simulated by the XFDTD software package based on the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method. One hundred and twenty-nine CCMAs were employed for training, while the remaining 15 CCMAs were used for testing of the ANFIS model. Average percentage error (APE) values were obtained as 0.8413% and 1.259% for training and testing, respectively. In order to demonstrate its validity and accuracy, the proposed ANFIS model was also tested over the simulation data given in the literature, and APE was obtained as 0.916%. These results show that ANFIS can be successfully used to compute the resonant frequency of CCMAs.

  11. Nonuniform Overlapping Method in Designing Microstrip Patch Antennas Using Genetic Algorithm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Jeevani W. Jayasinghe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic algorithm (GA has been a popular optimization technique used for performance improvement of microstrip patch antennas (MPAs. When using GA, the patch geometry is optimized by dividing the patch area into small rectangular cells. This has an inherent problem of adjacent cells being connected to each other with infinitesimal connections, which may not be achievable in practice due to fabrication tolerances in chemical etching. As a solution, this paper presents a novel method of dividing the patch area into cells with nonuniform overlaps. The optimized design, which is obtained by using fixed overlap sizes, shows a quad-band performance covering GSM1800, GSM1900, LTE2300, and Bluetooth bands. In contrast, use of nonuniform overlap sizes leads to obtaining a pentaband design covering GSM1800, GSM1900, UMTS, LTE2300, and Bluetooth bandswith fractional bands with of 38% due to the extra design flexibility.

  12. Efficient CAD Model to Analysis of High Tc Superconducting Circular Microstrip Antenna on Anisotropic Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bedra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an electromagnetic approach based on cavity model in conjunction with electromagnetic knowledge was developed. The cavity model combined with London’s equations and the Gorter-Casimir two-fluid model has been improved to investigate the resonant characteristics of high Tc superconducting circular microstrip patch in the case where the patch is printed on uniaxially anisotropic substrate materials.  Merits of our extended model include low computational cost and mathematical simplify. The numerical simulation of this modeling shows excellent agreement with experimental results available in the literature. Finally, numerical results for the dielectric anisotropic substrates effects on the operating frequencies for the case of superconducting circular patch are also presented.

  13. Dual band multi frequency rectangular patch microstrip antenna with flyswatter shaped slot for wireless systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhardwaj, Dheeraj, E-mail: dbhardwaj.bit@gmail.com [Department of Physics, BIT-Mesra-Jaipur Campus, Jaipur 302017 (India); Saraswat, Shriti, E-mail: saraswat.srishti@gmail.com; Gulati, Gitansh, E-mail: gitanshgulati@gmail.com; Shekhar, Snehanshu, E-mail: snehanshushekhar.bit@gmail.com; Joshi, Kanika, E-mail: kanika.karesh@gmail.com [Department of Electronics & Communication, BIT-Mesra-Jaipur Campus, Jaipur 302017 (India); Sharma, Komal, E-mail: kbhardwaj18@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Swami Keshvanand Institute of Technology, Jaipur 302017 (India)

    2016-03-09

    In this paper a dual band planar antenna has been proposed for IEEE 802.16 Wi-MAX /IEEE 802.11 WLAN/4.9 GHz public safety applications. The antenna comprises a frequency bandwidth of 560MHz (3.37GHz-3.93GHz) for WLAN and WiMAX and 372MHz (4.82GHz-5.192GHz) for 4.9 GHz public safety applications and Radio astronomy services (4.8-4.94 GHz). The proposed antenna constitutes of a single microstrip patch reactively loaded with three identical steps positioned in a zig-zag manner towards the radiating edges of the patch. The coaxially fed patch antenna characteristics (radiation pattern, antenna gain, antenna directivity, current distribution, S{sub 11}) have been investigated. The antenna design is primarily focused on achieving a dual band operation.

  14. Effect of radiation-induced substrate defects on microstrip gas chamber gain behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallares, A.; Brom, J.M.; Bergdolt, A.M.; Coffin, J.; Eberle, H.; Sigward, M.H. [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Fontaine, J.C. [Universite de Haute Alsace, GRPHE, 61 rue Albert Camus, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France); Barthe, S.; Schunck, J.P. [Laboratoire PHASE (UPR 292 du CNRS), 23 rue du Loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)

    1998-08-01

    The aim of this work was to quantify the influence of radiation-induced substrate defects on microstrip gas chamber (MSGC) gain behaviour. The first part of this paper focuses on radiation effects on a typical MSGC substrate: Desag D263 glass. Defect generation was studied for Desag D263 with pure silica (Suprasil 1) as a reference. We studied the evolution of defect concentration with respect to accumulated doses up to 480 kGy. Annealing studies of defects in Desag D263 were also performed. In the second part, the radiation sensitivity of Desag D263 glass has been linked to the behaviour of the detector under irradiation. Comparative gain measurements were taken before and after substrate irradiation at 10 and 80 kGy the minimal dose received during LHC operation and the dose for which defect density is maximum (respectively). (orig.) 26 refs.

  15. Genetic Algorithm Optimization of a High-Directivity Microstrip Patch Antenna Having a Rectangular Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.W. Jayasinghe

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A single high-directivity microstrip patch antenna (MPA having a rectangular profile, which can substitute a linear array is proposed. It is designed by using genetic algorithms with the advantage of not requiring a feeding network. The patch fits inside an area of 2.54lambda x 0.25lambda, resulting in a broadside pattern with a directivity of 12 dBi and a fractional impedance bandwidth of 4%. The antenna is fabricated and the measurements are in good agreement with the simulated results. The genetic MPA provides a similar directivity as linear arrays using a corporate or series feeding, with the advantage that the genetic MPA results in more bandwidth.

  16. Tracking antenna architectures based on an integrated mixer microstrip patch array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Sanjeev

    1997-07-01

    The object of this work is to design, develop and characterize both theoretically and experimentally a compact integrated mixer microstrip patch antenna which exhibits a low level of cross-polarization. Modelling of this antenna using various CAD techniques and supporting measurements has led to a clearer understanding of its operation and the optimization of its design. The attractiveness of such a frequency scaleable design lies in the inherent simplicity and ease with which it can be used to produce an intermediate frequency (IF) signal with minimum circuit complexity and low cross-polar levels. The operation of the integrated mixer antenna circuit is exploited under the phenomenon of injection locking for its potential for direct phase modulation and detection. It leads to new vistas of study such as IF phase-shifterless beam steering. Here the desired phased shift is derived through injection locking and achieved solely by the DC bias control, thus eliminating the need for phase shifters and feed networks. A self-tracking integrated mixer array has also been described which uses an in-band pilot carrier signal for self-calibration. By minor alteration of the integrated antenna topology, a minimum complexity variant of a heterodyne retrodirective array has then been realized. These tracking antenna architectures minimize the problems of cost, complexity and size limitations associated with conventional phased arrays. These are designed for emerging commercial applications and are resolutions of some trade-offs that balance performance, cost and reliability. Theoretical and experimental results are presented to show their performances and, in addition, the practical requirements relevant to these are also addressed. The results indicate that these tracking antenna architectures based on an integrated mixer microstrip patch array could form a synergistic link with other emerging technologies and can be to some extent embodied in future phased array designs

  17. Development of Electromagnetic Band Gap Structures in the Perspective of Microstrip Antenna Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shahidul Alam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic band gap (EBG technology has become a significant breakthrough in the radio frequency (RF and microwave applications due to their unique band gap characteristics at certain frequency ranges. Since 1999, the EBG structures have been investigated for improving performances of numerous RF and microwave devices utilizing the surface wave suppression and the artificial magnetic conductor (AMC properties of these special type metamaterial. Issues such as compactness, wide bandwidth with low attenuation level, tunability, and suitability with planar circuitry all play an important role in the design of EBG structures. Remarkable efforts have been undertaken for the development of EBG structures to be compatible with a wide range of wireless communication systems. This paper provides a comprehensive review on various EBG structures such as three-, two-, and one-dimensional (3D, 2D, and 1D EBG, mushroom and uniplanar EBG, and their successive advancement. Considering the related fabrication complexities, implementation of vialess EBG is an attractive topic for microwave engineers. For microstrip antennas, EBG structures are used in diversified ways, which of course found to be effective except in some cases. The EBG structures are also successfully utilized in antenna arrays for reducing the mutual coupling between elements of the array. Current challenges and limitations of the typical microstrip antennas and different EBG structures are discussed in details with some possible suggestions. Hopefully, this survey will guide to increasing efforts towards the development of more compact, wideband, and high-efficient uniplanar EBG structures for performance enhancement of antenna and other microwave devices.

  18. Microstrip Antennas with Polarization Diversity across a Wide Frequency Range and Phased Array Antennas for Radar and Satellite Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kevin Ming-Jiang

    The thesis comprises of 3 projects; an L-band microstrip antenna with frequency agility and polarization diversity, X-band phased array antennas incorporating commercially packaged RFIC phased array chips, and studies for Ku/Ka-band shared aperture antenna array. The first project features the use of commercially packaged RF-MEMS SPDT switches, that boasts of high reliability, high linearity, low losses, hermetically packaged and fully compatible for SMTA processes for mass-assembly and production. Using the switches in a novel manner for the feed network, microstrip antennas with polarization diversity are presented. Frequency agility is achieved with the use of tuning diodes to provide capacitive loading to the antenna element. Additional inductance effects from surface-mounted capacitors, and its impact, is introduced. Theoretical cross-polarization of probe-fed antenna elements is presented for both linear and circular polarized microstrip antennas. Designs and measurements are presented, for microstrip antennas with polarization diversity, wide frequency tuning range, and both features. Replacement of the tuning diodes with commercially-packaged high Q RF MEMS tunable capacitors will allow for significant improvements to the radiation efficiency. In another project, multi-channel CMOS RFIC phased-array receiver chips are assembled in QFN packages and directly integrated on the same multi-layered PCB stack-up with the antenna arrays. Problems of isolation from the PCB-QFN interface, and potential performance degradation on antenna array from the use of commercial-grade laminates for assembly requirements, namely potential scan blindness and radiation efficiency, are presented. Causes for apparent drift of dielectric constant for microstrip circuits, and high conductor losses observed in measurements, are introduced. Finally, studies are performed for the design of a Ku/Ka-Band shared aperture array. Different approaches for developing dual-band shared apertures

  19. Hard photoproduction at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasen, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph Fourier / CNRS-IN2P3, 53 Avenue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble (France)

    2007-07-01

    In view of possible photoproduction studies in ultra-peripheral heavy-ion collisions at the LHC, we briefly review the present theoretical understanding of photons and hard photoproduction processes at HERA, discussing the production of jets, light and heavy hadrons, quarkonia, and prompt photons. We address in particular the extraction of the strong coupling constant from photon structure function and inclusive jet measurements, the infrared safety and computing time of jet definitions, the sensitivity of di-jet cross sections on the parton densities in the photon, factorization breaking in diffractive di-jet production, the treatment of the heavy-quark mass in charm production, the relevance of the color-octet mechanism for quarkonium production, and isolation criteria for prompt photons. (author)

  20. Development of prototype components for the silicon tracking system of the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lymanets, Anton

    2013-06-26

    . A detector module is a basic functional unit that includes a sensor, an analogue microcable and frontend electronics mounted on a support structure. The objective of the thesis is to perform quality assurance tests of the prototype module components in order to validate the concept of the detector module and to demonstrate its operation using radioactive sources and particle beams. Double-sided silicon microstrip detectors have been chosen as sensor technology for the STS because of the combination of a good spatial resolution, two-dimensional coordinate measurement achieved within low material budget (0.3%X{sub 0}), high readout speed and sufficient radiation tolerance. Several generations of double-sided silicon microstrip sensors have been manufactured in order to explore the radiation hard design features and the concept of a large-area sensor compatible with ladder-type structure of the detector module. In particular, sensors with double metal layer on both sides and active area of 62 x 62 mm{sup 2} have been produced. Electrical characterization of the sensors has been performed in order to establish the overall operability as well as to extract the device parameters. Current-voltage, capacitance-voltage characteristics and interstrip parameters have been measured. Readout of the sensors has been done using self-triggering front-end electronics. A front-end board has been developed based on the n-XYTER readout chip with data driven architecture and capable of operating at 32 MHz readout rate. The front-end board included an external analog-to-digital converter (ADC). Calibration of the ADC has been performed using both {sup 241}Am X-ray source and external pulse generator. Threshold calibration and investigation of temperature dependence of chip parameters has been carried out. Low-mass support structures have been developed using carbon fibre that has the rigidity to hold the detector modules and introduce minimal Coulomb scattering of the particle tracks

  1. Silicon takes a spin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.

    An efficient way to transport electron spins from a ferromagnet into silicon essentially makes silicon magnetic, and provides an exciting step towards integration of magnetism and mainstream semiconductor electronics.

  2. Janka hardness using nonstandard specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Marshall Begel; William Nelson

    2006-01-01

    Janka hardness determined on 1.5- by 3.5-in. specimens (2×4s) was found to be equivalent to that determined using the 2- by 2-in. specimen specified in ASTM D 143. Data are presented on the relationship between Janka hardness and the strength of clear wood. Analysis of historical data determined using standard specimens indicated no difference between side hardness...

  3. LHCb Silicon Tracker DAQ and DCS Online Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    Buechler, A; Rodriguez, P

    2009-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva Switzerland is specialized on precision measurements of b quark decays. The Silicon Tracker (ST) contributes a crucial part in tracking the particle trajectories and consists of two silicon micro-strip detectors, the Tracker Turicensis upstream of the LHCb magnet and the Inner Tracker downstream. The radiation and the magnetic field represent new challenges for the implementation of a Detector Control System (DCS) and the data acquisition (DAQ). The DAQ has to deal with more than 270K analog readout channels, 2K readout chips and real time DAQ at a rate of 1.1 MHz with data processing at TELL1 level. The TELL1 real time algorithms for clustering thresholds and other computations run on dedicated FPGAs that implement 13K configurable parameters per board, in total 1.17 K parameters for the ST. After data processing the total throughput amounts to about 6.4 Gbytes from an input data rate of around ~337 Gbytes per second. A finite state ma...

  4. Producing Silicon Carbide/Silicon Nitride Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Manufacturing process makes CxSiyNz fibers. Precursor fibers spun from extruding machine charged with polycarbosilazane resin. When pyrolyzed, resin converted to cross-linked mixture of silicon carbide and silicon nitride, still in fiber form. CxSiyNz fibers promising substitutes for carbon fibers in high-strength, low-weight composites where high electrical conductivity unwanted.

  5. 2TB hard disk drive

    CERN Multimedia

    This particular object was used up until 2012 in the Data Centre. It slots into one of the Disk Server trays. Hard disks were invented in the 1950s. They started as large disks up to 20 inches in diameter holding just a few megabytes (link is external). They were originally called "fixed disks" or "Winchesters" (a code name used for a popular IBM product). They later became known as "hard disks" to distinguish them from "floppy disks (link is external)." Hard disks have a hard platter that holds the magnetic medium, as opposed to the flexible plastic film found in tapes and floppies.

  6. Silicon: electrochemistry and luminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Ernst Stefan

    1997-01-01

    The electrochemistry of crystalline and porous silicon and the luminescence from porous silicon has been studied. One chapter deals with a model for the anodic dissolution of silicon in HF solution. In following chapters both the electrochemistry and various ways of generating visible

  7. Improving the Pass-Band Return Loss in Liquid Crystal Dual-Mode Bandpass Filters by Microstrip Patch Reshaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Torrecilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the design and experimental characterization of a tunable microstrip bandpass filter based on liquid crystal technology are presented. A reshaped microstrip dual-mode filter structure has been used in order to improve the device performance. Specifically, the aim is to increase the pass-band return loss of the filter by narrowing the filter bandwidth. Simulations confirm the improvement of using this new structure, achieving a pass-band return loss increase of 1.5 dB at least. Because of the anisotropic properties of LC molecules, a filter central frequency shift from 4.688 GHz to 5.045 GHz, which means a relative tuning range of 7.3%, is measured when an external AC voltage from 0 Vrms to 15 Vrms is applied to the device.

  8. A novel microstrip lowpass filter with sharp roll-off and ultra-wide stopband using SICMRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayati, Mohsen; Abbasi, Hamed; Sadeghi Fathabadi, Omid

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a novel microstrip lowpass filter with sharp roll-off and ultra-wide stopband using stepped-impedance resonator and bended transmission line structure. The filter includes stepped-impedance prototype filter and stepped-impedance compact microstrip resonator cells that are combined in one structure. The proposed filter has good specifications such as sharp roll-off, ultra-wide stopband and low insertion loss. The transition band is approximately 0.25 GHz from 1.75 to 2 GHz with corresponding attenuation levels of -3 and -40 dB. The attenuation level in the stopband is better than -20 dB that is achieved from 1.94 to 23 GHz, and the insertion loss in the passband is less than 0.4 dB. The proposed filter is fabricated and measured, and the simulation and measurement results are found to be in good agreement with each other.

  9. Improving the Pass-Band Return Loss in Liquid Crystal Dual-Mode Bandpass Filters by Microstrip Patch Reshaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrecilla, Javier; Urruchi, Virginia; Sánchez-Pena, José Manuel; Bennis, Noureddine; García, Alejandro; Segovia, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the design and experimental characterization of a tunable microstrip bandpass filter based on liquid crystal technology are presented. A reshaped microstrip dual-mode filter structure has been used in order to improve the device performance. Specifically, the aim is to increase the pass-band return loss of the filter by narrowing the filter bandwidth. Simulations confirm the improvement of using this new structure, achieving a pass-band return loss increase of 1.5 dB at least. Because of the anisotropic properties of LC molecules, a filter central frequency shift from 4.688 GHz to 5.045 GHz, which means a relative tuning range of 7.3%, is measured when an external AC voltage from 0 Vrms to 15 Vrms is applied to the device. PMID:28788690

  10. Analysis of High Tc Superconducting Rectangular Microstrip Patches over Ground Planes with Rectangular Apertures in Substrates Containing Anisotropic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderraouf Messai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rigorous full-wave analysis of high Tc superconducting rectangular microstrip patch over ground plane with rectangular aperture in the case where the patch is printed on a uniaxially anisotropic substrate material is presented. The dyadic Green’s functions of the considered structure are efficiently determined in the vector Fourier transform domain. The effect of the superconductivity of the patch is taken into account using the concept of the complex resistive boundary condition. The accuracy of the analysis is tested by comparing the computed results with measurements and previously published data for several anisotropic substrate materials. Numerical results showing variation of the resonant frequency and the quality factor of the superconducting antenna with regard to operating temperature are given. Finally, the effects of uniaxial anisotropy in the substrate on the resonant frequencies of different TM modes of the superconducting microstrip antenna with rectangular aperture in the ground plane are presented.

  11. Development of advanced silicon radiation detectors for harsh radiation environment

    CERN Document Server

    Groenlund, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of advanced silicon radiation detectors and their characterization by simulations, used in the work for searching elementary particles in the European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN. Silicon particle detectors will face extremely harsh radiation in the proposed upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider, the future high-energy physics experiment Super-LHC. The increase in the maximal fluence and the beam luminosity up to 1016 neq / cm2 and 1035 cm-2s-1 will require detectors with a dramatic improvement in radiation hardness, when such a fluence will be far beyond the operational limits of the present silicon detectors. The main goals of detector development concentrate on minimizing the radiation degradation. This study contributes mainly to the device engineering technology for developing more radiation hard particle detectors with better characteristics. Also the defect engineering technology is discussed. In the nearest region of the beam in Super-LHC, the only dete...

  12. Microstrip Antennas with Polarization Diversity across a Wide Frequency Range and Phased Array Antennas for Radar and Satellite Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Kevin Ming-Jiang

    2014-01-01

    The thesis comprises of 3 projects; an L-band microstrip antenna with frequency agility and polarization diversity, X-band phased array antennas incorporating commercially packaged RFIC phased array chips, and studies for Ku/Ka- band shared aperture antenna array. The first project features the use of commercially packaged RF-MEMS SPDT switches, that boasts of high reliability, high linearity, low losses, hermetically packaged and fully compatible for SMTA processes for mass-assembly and prod...

  13. Prediction of matching condition for a microstrip subsystem using artificial neural network and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Mohammad Reza; Noori, Leila; Abiri, Ebrahim

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a subsystem consisting of a microstrip bandpass filter and a microstrip low noise amplifier (LNA) is designed for WLAN applications. The proposed filter has a small implementation area (49 mm2), small insertion loss (0.08 dB) and wide fractional bandwidth (FBW) (61%). To design the proposed LNA, the compact microstrip cells, an field effect transistor, and only a lumped capacitor are used. It has a low supply voltage and a low return loss (-40 dB) at the operation frequency. The matching condition of the proposed subsystem is predicted using subsystem analysis, artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). To design the proposed filter, the transmission matrix of the proposed resonator is obtained and analysed. The performance of the proposed ANN and ANFIS models is tested using the numerical data by four performance measures, namely the correlation coefficient (CC), the mean absolute error (MAE), the average percentage error (APE) and the root mean square error (RMSE). The obtained results show that these models are in good agreement with the numerical data, and a small error between the predicted values and numerical solution is obtained.

  14. Investigation of Compact Balun-Bandpass Filter Using Folded Open-Loop Ring Resonators and Microstrip Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Mao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A balun-bandpass filter was proposed by using two folded open-loop ring resonators (OLRRs to couple three microstrip lines. By tuning the size of the OLRR, the operating frequency of the balun-bandpass filter could be tuned to the needed value. By tuning the size of open stub at the end of microstrip lines, the balanced impedance of the balun-bandpass filter could also be tuned. The fabricated balun-bandpass filter had a wide bandwidth and a low insertion loss at center frequency of the passband. The balun-bandpass filter presented an excellent in-band balanced performance with common-mode rejection ratio more than 20 dB in the passbands. An advanced design methodology had been adopted based on EM simulation for making these designed parameters of OLRRs and microstrip lines. Good correlation was seen between simulation and measurement, and the result was that first run pass had been achieved in the majority of our designs.

  15. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V. (GVSt), Herne (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    International the coal market in 2014 was the first time in a long time in a period of stagnation. In Germany, the coal consumption decreased even significantly, mainly due to the decrease in power generation. Here the national energy transition has now been noticable affected negative for coal use. The political guidances can expect a further significant downward movement for the future. In the present phase-out process of the German hard coal industry with still three active mines there was in 2014 no decommissioning. But the next is at the end of 2015, and the plans for the time after mining have been continued. [German] International war der Markt fuer Steinkohle 2014 erstmals seit langem wieder von einer Stagnation gekennzeichnet. In Deutschland ging der Steinkohlenverbrauch sogar deutlich zurueck, vor allem wegen des Rueckgangs in der Stromerzeugung. Hier hat sich die nationale Energiewende nun spuerbar und fuer die Steinkohlennutzung negativ ausgewirkt. Die politischen Weichenstellungen lassen fuer die Zukunft eine weitere erhebliche Abwaertsbewegung erwarten. Bei dem im Auslaufprozess befindlichen deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau mit noch drei aktiven Bergwerken gab es 2014 keine Stilllegung. Doch die naechste steht zum Jahresende 2015 an, und die Planungen fuer die Zeit nach dem Bergbau sind fortgefuehrt worden.

  16. Silicon photonics beyond silicon-on-insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiles, Jeff; Fathpour, Sasan

    2017-05-01

    The standard platform for silicon photonics has been ridge or channel waveguides fabricated on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers. SOI waveguides are so versatile and the technology built around it is so mature and popular that silicon photonics is almost regarded as synonymous with SOI photonics. However, due to several shortcomings of SOI photonics, novel platforms have been recently emerging. The shortcomings could be categorized into two sets: (a) those due to using silicon as the waveguide core material; and (b) those due to using silicon dioxide as the bottom cladding layer. Several heterogeneous platforms have been developed to address the first set of shortcomings. In such important heterogeneous integrated photonic platforms, the top silicon layer of SOI is typically replaced by a thin film of another optical material with a refractive index higher than the buried oxide (BOX) bottom cladding layer. Silicon is still usually preferred as the substrate of choice, but silicon has no optical functionality. In contrast, the second category of solutions aim at using silicon as the core waveguide material, while resolving issues related to the BOX layer. Particularly, one of the main drawbacks of SOI is that the BOX layer induces high optical loss in the mid-wavelength infrared (mid-IR) range. Accordingly, a host of platforms have been proposed, and some have been demonstrated, in which the BOX is replaced with insulating materials that have low intrinsic loss in the mid-IR. Examples are sapphire, lithium niobate, silicon nitride and air (suspended Si membrane waveguides). Although silicon is still the preferred substrate, sometimes a thin film of silicon, on which the optical waveguide is formed, is directly placed on top of another substrate (e.g., sapphire or lithium niobate). These alternative substrates act as both mechanical support and the lower cladding layer. In addition to the demands of mid-IR photonics, the non-SOI platforms can potentially offer other

  17. The chemistry of silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Rochow, E G; Emeléus, H J; Nyholm, Ronald

    1975-01-01

    Pergamon Texts in Organic Chemistry, Volume 9: The Chemistry of Silicon presents information essential in understanding the chemical properties of silicon. The book first covers the fundamental aspects of silicon, such as its nuclear, physical, and chemical properties. The text also details the history of silicon, its occurrence and distribution, and applications. Next, the selection enumerates the compounds and complexes of silicon, along with organosilicon compounds. The text will be of great interest to chemists and chemical engineers. Other researchers working on research study involving s

  18. Silicon Carbide Diodes Performance Characterization and Comparison With Silicon Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebron-Velilla, Ramon C.; Schwarze, Gene E.; Trapp, Scott

    2003-01-01

    Commercially available silicon carbide (SiC) Schottky diodes from different manufacturers were electrically tested and characterized at room temperature. Performed electrical tests include steady state forward and reverse I-V curves, as well as switching transient tests performed with the diodes operating in a hard switch dc-to-dc buck converter. The same tests were performed in current state of the art silicon (Si) and gallium arsenide (GaAs) Schottky and pn junction devices for evaluation and comparison purposes. The SiC devices tested have a voltage rating of 200, 300, and 600 V. The comparison parameters are forward voltage drop at rated current, reverse current at rated voltage and peak reverse recovery currents in the dc to dc converter. Test results show that steady state characteristics of the tested SiC devices are not superior to the best available Si Schottky and ultra fast pn junction devices. Transient tests reveal that the tested SiC Schottky devices exhibit superior transient behavior. This is more evident at the 300 and 600 V rating where SiC Schottky devices showed drastically lower reverse recovery currents than Si ultra fast pn diodes of similar rating.

  19. Silicon Sensors for Trackers at High-Luminosity Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Peltola, Timo

    2015-01-01

    The planned upgrade of the LHC accelerator at CERN, namely the high luminosity (HL) phase of the LHC (HL-LHC foreseen for 2023), will result in a more intense radiation environment than the present tracking system was designed for. The required upgrade of the all-silicon central trackers at the ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments will include higher granularity and radiation hard sensors. The radiation hardness of the new sensors must be roughly an order of magnitude higher than the one of LHC detectors. To address this, a massive R&D program is underway within the CERN RD50 collaboration "Development of Radiation Hard Semiconductor Devices for Very High Luminosity Colliders" to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation tolerance. Research topics include the improvement of the intrinsic radiation tolerance of the sensor material and novel detector designs with benefits like reduced trapping probability (thinned and 3D sensors), maximized sensitive area (active edge sensors) and enhanced charge ...

  20. 77 GHz MEMS antennas on high-resistivity silicon for linear and circular polarization

    KAUST Repository

    Sallam, M. O.

    2011-07-01

    Two new MEMS antennas operating at 77 GHz are presented in this paper. The first antenna is linearly polarized. It possesses a vertical silicon wall that carries a dipole on top of it. The wall is located on top of silicon substrate covered with a ground plane. The other side of the substrate carries a microstrip feeding network in the form of U-turn that causes 180 phase shift. This phase-shifter feeds the arms of the dipole antenna via two vertical Through-Silicon Vias (TSVs) that go through the entire wafer. The second antenna is circularly polarized and formed using two linearly polarized antennas spatially rotated with respect to each other by 90 and excited with 90 phase shift. Both antennas are fabricated using novel process flow on a single high-resistivity silicon wafer via bulk micromachining. Only three processing steps are required to fabricate these antennas. The proposed antennas have appealing characteristics, such as high polarization purity, high gain, and high radiation efficiency. © 2011 IEEE.

  1. Porous silicon gettering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Menna, P.; Al-Jassim, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    We have studied a novel extrinsic gettering method that utilizes the very large surface areas, produced by porous silicon etch on both front and back surfaces of the silicon wafer, as gettering sites. In this method, a simple and low-cost chemical etching is used to generate the porous silicon layers. Then, a high-flux solar furnace (HFSF) is used to provide high-temperature annealing and the required injection of silicon interstitials. The gettering sites, along with the gettered impurities, can be easily removed at the end the process. The porous silicon removal process consists of oxidizing the porous silicon near the end the gettering process followed by sample immersion in HF acid. Each porous silicon gettering process removes up to about 10 {mu}m of wafer thickness. This gettering process can be repeated so that the desired purity level is obtained.

  2. The development of p-type silicon detectors for the high radiation regions of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Hanlon, M D L

    1998-01-01

    This thesis describes the production and characterisation of silicon microstrip detectors and test structures on p-type substrates. An account is given of the production and full parameterisation of a p-type microstrip detector, incorporating the ATLAS-A geometry in a beam test. This detector is an AC coupled device incorporating a continuous p-stop isolation frame and polysilicon biasing and is typical of n-strip devices proposed for operation at the LHC. It was successfully read out using the FELix-128 analogue pipeline chip and a signal to noise (s/n) of 17+-1 is reported, along with a spatial resolution of 14.6+-0.2 mu m. Diode test structures were fabricated on both high resistivity float zone material and on epitaxial material and subsequently irradiated with 24 GeV protons at the CERN PS up to a dose of (8.22+-0.23) x 10 sup 1 sup 4 per cm sup 2. An account of the measurement program is presented along with results on the changes in the effective doping concentration (N sub e sub f sub f) with irradiat...

  3. Study of the Radiation-Hardness of VCSEL and PIN

    CERN Document Server

    Gan, K K; Fernando, W; Kagan, H P; Kass, R D; Lebbai, M R M; Merritt, H; Moore, J R; Nagarkar, A; Rizatdinova, F; Skubic, P L; Smith, D S; Strang, M

    2009-01-01

    The silicon trackers of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva) use optical links for data transmission. An upgrade of the trackers is planned for the Super LHC (SLHC), an upgraded LHC with ten times higher luminosity. We study the radiation-hardness of VCSELs (Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser) and GaAs and silicon PINs using 24 GeV/c protons at CERN for possible application in the data transmission upgrade. The optical power of VCSEL arrays decreases significantly after the irradiation but can be partially annealed with high drive currents. The responsivities of the PIN diodes also decrease significantly after irradiation, but can be recovered by operating at higher bias voltage. This provides a simple mechanism to recover from the radiation damage.

  4. Experience on 3D Silicon Sensors for ATLAS IBL

    CERN Document Server

    Darbo, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    To extend the physics reach of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), upgrades to the accelerator are planned which will increase the peak luminosity by a factor 5-10. To cope with the increased occupancy and radiation damage, the ATLAS experiment plans to introduce an all-silicon inner tracker with the high luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). The detector proximity to the interaction point will require new radiation hard technologies for both sensors and front end electronics. 3D silicon sensors, where plasma micromachining is used to etch deep narrow apertures in the silicon substrate to form electrodes of PIN junctions, represent possible solutions for inner layers. Based on the gained experience with 3D silicon sensors for the ATLAS IBL project and the on-going developments on light materials, interconnectivity and cooling, we will discuss possible solutions to these requirements as well as key design aspects and device fabrication plans.

  5. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Research results of hard photon technology have been summarized as a part of novel technology development highly utilizing the quantum nature of photon. Hard photon technology refers to photon beam technologies which use photon in the 0.1 to 200 nm wavelength region. Hard photon has not been used in industry due to the lack of suitable photon sources and optical devices. However, hard photon in this wavelength region is expected to bring about innovations in such areas as ultrafine processing and material synthesis due to its atom selective reaction, inner shell excitation reaction, and spatially high resolution. Then, technological themes and possibility have been surveyed. Although there are principle proposes and their verification of individual technologies for the technologies of hard photon generation, regulation and utilization, they are still far from the practical applications. For the photon source technology, the laser diode pumped driver laser technology, laser plasma photon source technology, synchrotron radiation photon source technology, and vacuum ultraviolet photon source technology are presented. For the optical device technology, the multi-layer film technology for beam mirrors and the non-spherical lens processing technology are introduced. Also are described the reduction lithography technology, hard photon excitation process, and methods of analysis and measurement. 430 refs., 165 figs., 23 tabs.

  6. Synthesis of bismuth titanate (BTO) nanopowder and fabrication of microstrip rectangular patch antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruramanathan, P.; Sharma, Sanjeev K.; Sankar, S.; Sankar Ganesh, R.; Marikani, A.; Kim, Deuk Young

    2016-12-01

    The bismuth titanate (Bi4Ti3O12) or BTO nanopowder was synthesized from the combustion method and fabricated a microstrip rectangular patch antenna (MPA). The crystal structure and lattice spacing of BTO were evaluated from XRD, TEM, and SAED analysis. The crystal structure of BTO (annealed at 900 °C) was observed to be the orthorhombic phase with fcc lattice. The microstructure of BTO nanoparticles was confirmed the spherical and hexagonal shapes, which were slightly agglomerated due to the lack of stabilizing surfactants. The presence of weak and wide bands in Raman spectrum quantified the mechanical compressions to the uniform directions of elongated lattice constants and tensions to the lattice constriction of crystalline bismuth titanate. To fabricate the MPA, pellets of BTO nanopowder were prepared by applying the uniaxial pressure in the dimension of 1.5 mm thickness and 8 mm diameter. These pellets were formed a densely packed structure close to the theoretical density. The coercivity and remanence polarization of BTO ceramics increased as the applied field increased. The inexpensive combustion synthesis method of BTO nanopowder showed the high dielectric constant (ɛ' = 450) and low dielectric loss (tan δ = 0.98), which has a potential implication of the cost-effectiveness in the field of miniaturized microelectronics. The synthesis and measurements of BTO ceramics are found to be suitable for wireless communication systems.

  7. Hertz vector and current distribution of microstrip spiral antenna in biological stratified media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li; Xiang, Xun-Xian

    1993-09-01

    The Hertz vectors of the horizontal electric dipole in stratified biological media are derived from spectral domain wave matrii method. By using the Fourier-Bessel transformation we have obtained the solution of the hertz vectors in space domain. The electric field tangential to the microstrip antenna arm is derived by using the relationship between the hertz vectors and the electric field. In order to get the current distribution of the antenna arm the moment method is used. We have also analysed the Sommerfeld-type integrals which emerged in the process of finding the solution. It is important to find the current distribution for determining the parameters of antenna and finding the power deposition in biological media. l. TIIE hERTZ VECTORS OF HORIZONTAL ELECTRIC DIPOLE IN BIOLOGICAL STRATIFIED MEDIA The hertz vectors of electric dipole can be derived by using the spectral domain transmission coefficient method'' while the wave matrix method is useful to dealing with the reflection and transmission of the electromagnetic wave in stratified media2 the wave propagation inwhich ithas been studied''_ ''. The structurQ analysed in this paper is shown in Fig. 1. The Hertz vectors of electric dipole in biological stratified media are determined by using the wave matrix method. In Fig. I plane f is the nominal field plane and the source plane coincides with the interface B. At the interface B when you look in the 4 z

  8. Cirlularly Polarized Proximity- Fed Microstrip Array Antenna for LAPAN TUBSAT Micro Satellite System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Wijaya

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The design microstrip of array antenna circular polarization characteristic developed for support LAPAN TUBSAT micro satellite system. The antenna on the micro satellite systems transmit data to ground stations operating at S band frequencies.The antenna is designed for impedance matching at frequencies of 2:25 GHz.The four elements of the square patch antenna array composed using linear methods, where the design of the transmission lines used by federal corporate structure model network consisting of three elements of the quarter wave transformer of a power divider. The feeding techniques for antenna designed using proximity coupling method, which for the type of substrate material used is similar. Circularly polarized antenna characteristics are influenced by the truncated corner pieces on the patch. To design the overall antenna used simulated method of moments in microwave office software applications. The results of measurements and simulations obtained antenna parameters, such as: bandwidth of return loss under 10 dB is 200 MHz (shifted 35%, bandwidth of axial ratio under 3dB is 1.7% and maximum gain directivity is 9 dB. Overall results obtained antenna parameters to meet the specifications of LAPAN TUBSAT micro satellite system.

  9. New Design Method of UWB Microstrip Filters Using Adaptive Genetic Algorithms with Defected Ground Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Dastkhosh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of adaptive genetic algorithms (AGAs and defected ground structures (DGSs on performance optimization of tapered microstrip filter are investigated. The proposed structure achieves an ultra wide stopband with high attenuation within a small surface area, as well as 45% smaller size, in comparison with conventional filters. The parameters of the filter are optimized using in-home AGA code. In the proposed AGA algorithm, the crossover and mutation probabilities are adaptively changed according to the value of individual fitness. Then by utilizing the proposed DGS, a compact S-band lowpass filter with ultra-wide spurious free window is obtained. The proposed filter achieves an insertion loss of 0.8 dB from DC up to 4 GHz and 21 dB rejection in the stopband from 4.3 up to 60 GHz. The fabricated and measured results exhibit good agreement with the simulated results. They demonstrate that combining AGA and DGS yields best possible response for this group of filters.

  10. Investigation of Dual-Mode Microstrip Bandpass Filter Based on SIR Technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqeen S Mezaal

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new bandpass filter design has been presented using simple topology of stepped impedance square loop resonator. The proposed bandpass filter has been simulated and fabricated using a substrate with an insulation constant of 10.8, thickness of 1.27mm and loss tangent of 0.0023 at center frequency of 5.8 GHz. The simulation results have been evaluated using Sonnet simulator that is extensively adopted in microwave analysis and implementation. The output frequency results demonstrated that the proposed filter has high-quality frequency responses in addition to isolated second harmonic frequency. Besides, this filter has very small surface area and perceptible narrow band response features that represent the conditions of recent wireless communication systems. Various filter specifications have been compared with different magnitudes of perturbation element dimension. Furthermore, phase scattering response and current intensity distribution of the proposed filter have been discussed. The simulated and experimental results are well-matched. Lastly, the features of the proposed filter have been compared with other designed microstrip filters in the literature.

  11. Investigation of Dual-Mode Microstrip Bandpass Filter Based on SIR Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezaal, Yaqeen S.; Ali, Jawad K.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new bandpass filter design has been presented using simple topology of stepped impedance square loop resonator. The proposed bandpass filter has been simulated and fabricated using a substrate with an insulation constant of 10.8, thickness of 1.27mm and loss tangent of 0.0023 at center frequency of 5.8 GHz. The simulation results have been evaluated using Sonnet simulator that is extensively adopted in microwave analysis and implementation. The output frequency results demonstrated that the proposed filter has high-quality frequency responses in addition to isolated second harmonic frequency. Besides, this filter has very small surface area and perceptible narrow band response features that represent the conditions of recent wireless communication systems. Various filter specifications have been compared with different magnitudes of perturbation element dimension. Furthermore, phase scattering response and current intensity distribution of the proposed filter have been discussed. The simulated and experimental results are well-matched. Lastly, the features of the proposed filter have been compared with other designed microstrip filters in the literature. PMID:27798675

  12. On Miniaturizing On-Chip Microstrip Inductors Using Embedded Radiating Dipoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chungpin Liao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As RF mixed-signal and patch-antenna-equipped SOC devices are becoming the dominant products worldwide, concerns over the large real-estate consumption by the spiral inductors (including those for microstrip antennas and impedance-matching inductances, as well as their generally Q-low (quality factor performance, are now being discussed more than ever. Liao et al. have recently addressed the Q-low issue via using location-selective proton beam bombardment, whereby Q-improvements of 100%–300% were evidenced. That success, nevertheless, is at times tarnished by some undesirable features, that is, the explosive rises of inductances near certain frequencies, which practically cut short the Q-enhancement and were identified to be due to resonant interactions between the inductor-propagating EM wave and the proton-caused defect dipoles. In this paper, however, the authors attempt to turn this resonance-caused undesirability to favor by proposing a new way to greatly shrink down the needed inductor size through dipoles engineering.

  13. Novel Dual Band Microstrip Circular Patch Antennas Loaded with ENG and MNG Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ababil Hossain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel design of a dual band microstrip circular patch antenna loaded with ENG (ε negative metamaterial has been shown in the first section. Using ENG metamaterial instead of the conventional dielectric, unconventional TMδ10 (1<δ<2 mode was produced to yield a dual band performance. Optimized parameters such as permittivity (ε1 and filling ratio (η of metamaterials were selected with the aid of a MATLAB based parameter optimization algorithm, developed for all these sort of patch antennas. In the second section, a dual band circular patch antenna loaded with MNG (µ negative metamaterial has been reported. An unconventional modified TMδ10 (0<δ<1 mode has been produced along with conventional TM110 mode due to using MNG metamaterial. Here also the optimum values of permeability (µ1 and filling ratio (η for these sorts of patch antennas have been calculated from a MATLAB based parameter optimization algorithm. Both the proposed antennas provide good and resonance and satisfactory radiation performances (directivity, radiation efficiency, and gain with a dual band performance.

  14. Micro-strip Metal Foil Detectors for the Beam Profile Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Pugatch, V M; Fedorovitch, O A; Mikhailenko, A V; Prystupa, S V; Pylypchenko, Y

    2005-01-01

    The Micro-strip Metal Foil Detectors (MMFD) designed and used for the Beam Profile Monitoring (BPM) are discussed. Fast particles hitting a metal strip initiate Secondary Electron Emission (SEE) which occurs at 10 - 50 nm surface layers of a strip. The SEE yield is measured by a sensitive Charge Integrator with built-in current-to-frequency converter (1 Hz per 1 fA). The MMFD (deposited onto the 20 μm thick Si-wafer) with 32 Al strips (10 μm wide, 32 μm pitch) has been used for the BPM of the 32 MeV alpha-particle beam at the MPIfK (Heidelberg) Tandem generator for Single-Event-Upset studies of the BEETLE micro-chip. Similar MMFD (0.5 μm thick Ni-strips) with totally removed Si-wafer (by plasma-chemistry, at the working area of 8 x 10 mm2) has been applied for the on-line X-ray BPM at the HASYLAB (DESY). The number of photons (11.3 GeV, mean X-ray energy 18 keV) producing out of a strip a single SEE was evaluated as (1.5 ±0.5)* 104. MMFD has demonstrated stable...

  15. Compact Double-P Slotted Inset-Fed Microstrip Patch Antenna on High Dielectric Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Ahsan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a compact sized inset-fed rectangular microstrip patch antenna embedded with double-P slots. The proposed antenna has been designed and fabricated on ceramic-PTFE composite material substrate of high dielectric constant value. The measurement results from the fabricated prototype of the antenna show −10 dB reflection coefficient bandwidths of 200 MHz and 300 MHz with center resonant frequency of 1.5 GHz and 4 GHz, respectively. The fabricated antenna has attained gains of 3.52 dBi with 81% radiation efficiency and 5.72 dBi with 87% radiation efficiency for lower band and upper band, respectively. The measured E- and H-plane radiation patterns are also presented for better understanding. Good agreement between the simulation and measurement results and consistent radiation patterns make the proposed antenna suitable for GPS and C-band applications.

  16. Design and characterization of microstrip based E-field sensor for GSM and UMTS frequency bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, N.; Dubey, S. K.; Negi, P. S.; Ojha, V. N.

    2016-12-01

    An Electric (E-) field sensor based on coplanar waveguide-fed microstrip antenna to measure E-field strength for dual-band operation at 914 MHz and 2.1 GHz is proposed, designed, and characterized. The parametric optimization of the design has been performed to obtain resonance at global system for mobile communication and universal mobile telecommunication system frequency band. Low return loss (-17 dB and -19 dB), appropriate gain (0.50 dB and 1.55 dB), and isotropic behaviour (directivity ˜ 1 dB), respectively, at 914 MHz and 2.1 GHz, are obtained for probing application. Antenna factor (AF) is used as an important parameter to characterize the performance of the E-field sensor. The AF measurement is explained in detail and results are reported. Finally, using the designed E-field sensor, the E-field strength measurements are carried out in a transverse electromagnetic cell. The key sources of uncertainties in the measurement are identified, evaluated, and incorporated into the final results. The measurement results are compared with theoretical values, which are found in good agreement. For comparative validation, the results are evaluated with reference to an already calibrated commercially available isotropic probe.

  17. On the Application of the Incomplete QR Algorithm to the Analysis of Microstrip Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gluchowski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we provide some insight into the usage of fast, iterative, method-of-moments (MoM solution of integral equations (IE describing antennas and other metallic structures immersed in a planar multilayered environment. Based on the form of multilayered media Green's functions, we extract free-space terms, associated with direct rays within the analyzed structure, reducing the number of significant interactions required to describe the rest of MoM matrix. Next, we show that it is possible to construct a hybrid algorithm, where the fast multipole method (FMM is used to the free-space matrix part, while the reduced rank incomplete QR (iQR decomposition is applied to the remaining portion of the MoM matrix. This HM-iQR (hybrid multipole - incomplete QR method is applied to a relatively large (in terms o f the number of unknowns problem of plane wave scattering by a finite array of rectangular microstrip patches printed on a grounded dielectric slab. Computation results from the new algorithm are compared to literature data and to the results of the pure low rank IE-QR method.

  18. Laminated NbTi-on-Kapton Microstrip Cables for Flexible Sub-Kelvin RF Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Alex B.; Bockstiegel, Clinton; Mazin, Benjamin A.; Daal, Miguel

    2017-11-01

    Large arrays of superconducting devices such as microwave kinetic inductance detectors require high density interconnects from higher temperatures with minimal heat load, low loss, and negligible crosstalk capable of carrying large and overlapping bandwidth signals. We report the fabrication of superconducting 53 wt% Nb-47 wt% Ti (Nb-47Ti) microstrip transmission lines laminated onto flexible polyimide substrates with lengths up to 40 cm and up to ten traces. The 50 Ω traces terminate in G3PO coaxial push-on connectors. We found transmission losses of 2.5 dB and a nearest-neighbor forward crosstalk of -25 dB at 8 GHz on a typical 5 trace, 1.8-cm-wide, 0.198-mm-thick, 22-cm-long flex cable at 30 mK. A simple two-port analytical model and subsequent Sonnet simulations indicate that this loss is mainly due to a complex impedance mismatch from wirebonds at the end connector without which the insertion loss would be resistive losses in the copper adapter coaxes of our tested device. Heat flow calculations from literature data show that the 0.198-mm-thick flex cables tested have roughly equivalent thermal conductance per trace below 4 K compared to the 0.86 mm Nb-47Ti coaxial cables.

  19. Design Studies of Ultra-Wideband Microstrip Antennas with a Small Capacitive Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veeresh G. Kasabegoudar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of an ultra-wideband microstrip patch antenna with a small coplanar capacitive feed strip is presented. The proposed rectangular patch antenna provides an impedance bandwidth of nearly 50%, and has stable radiation patterns for almost all frequencies in the operational band. Results presented here show that such wide bandwidths are also possible for triangular and semiellipse geometries with a similar feed arrangement. The proposed feed is a very small strip placed very close to the radiator on a substrate above the ground plane. Shape of the feed strip can also be different, so long as the area is not changed. Experimental results agree with the simulated results. Effects of key design parameters such as the air gap between the substrate and the ground plane, the distance between radiator patch and feed strip, and the dimensions of the feed strip on the input characteristics of the antenna have been investigated and discussed. As demonstrated here, the proposed antenna can be redesigned for any frequency in the L-, S-, C-, or X-band. A design criterion for the air gap has been empirically obtained to enable maximum antenna bandwidth for all these operational frequencies.

  20. DESIGN OF MULTILAYER APERTURE COUPLED STACKED MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA FOR WLAN APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jothilakshmi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the major drawbacks of microstrip patch antenna is its narrow bandwidth. The solution of this problem is to use aperture coupled stacked micro strip patch antenna. The antenna uses a combination of aperture coupled feeding technique and multi- layer radiating patch in order for the radiating elements are increase the gain bandwidth. The ‘I’ and ‘H’ shaped aperture slots are etched onto the ground plane. It is used to transfer the energy from feed line to stacked patch. A variation of the feed line length controls the selected aperture slots to be active. The waves from the selected activated aperture slots will radiate to particular radiating patch and achieve the desired resonant frequency. The air gap is used to avoid coupling loss between the aperture slots and stacked patches. The observed simulated and measured results show that the proposed antenna structure resonated at 2.51 GHz frequency with reduced return loss and optimum voltage standing wave ratio.

  1. Wearable Quarter-Wave Folded Microstrip Antenna for Passive UHF RFID Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kaufmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A wearable low-profile inset-fed quarter-wave folded microstrip patch antenna for noninvasive activity monitoring of elderly is presented. The proposed antenna is embedded with a sensor-enabled passive radio-frequency identification (RFID tag operating in the ultra-high frequency (UHF industrial-scientific-medical (ISM band around 900 MHz. The device exhibits a low and narrow profile based on a planar folded quarter-wave length patch structure and is integrated on a flexible substrate to maximise comfort to the wearer. An extended ground plane made from silver fabric successfully minimises the impact of the human body on the antenna performance. Measurements on a prototype demonstrate a reflection coefficient (S11 of −30 dB at resonance and a −10 dB bandwidth from 920 MHz to 926 MHz. Simulation results predict a maximum gain of 2.8 dBi. This is confirmed by tag measurements where a 4-meter read range is achieved using a transmit power of 30 dBm, for the case where the passive wearable tag antenna is mounted on a body in a practical setting. This represents an almost 40% increase in read range over an existing dipole antenna placed over a 10 mm isolator layer on a human subject.

  2. Design and Simulation of a Novel Broadband Circularly Polarized Microstrip Slot Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Shirazi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel broadband printed circularly polarized microstrip slot antenna fed by a co planar wave guide (CPW is designed, analyzed and simulated. The structure of the proposed antenna is made of a modified stair-shaped patch in conjunction with a square ground plane with a stair-shaped slot inside it. By using a modified stair-shaped patch and square ground plane, additional resonances are excited and, hence, much wider impedance bandwidth can be produced, especially at the higher band. Moreover, by using this structure, especially by adding two rectangular strip to the ground plane, very broadband axial-ratio bandwidth is obtained. the proposed antenna has dimensions of 45×45×0.8 mm3, which is compatible with the requirements imposed by portable wireless systems. Simulation results exhibits a 81.7% (2.78-6.62 GHz -10 dB impedance bandwidth and a 57.6% (3.5-6.33 GHz 3 dB axial-ratio bandwidth. the antenna performance confirms its viability for commercial portable wireless systems.

  3. Low-cost dielectric substrate for designing low profile multiband monopole microstrip antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, M R; Islam, M T; Habib Ullah, M; Arshad, H; Mansor, M F

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a small sized, low-cost multiband monopole antenna which can cover the WiMAX bands and C-band. The proposed antenna of 20 × 20 mm(2) radiating patch is printed on cost effective 1.6 mm thick fiberglass polymer resin dielectric material substrate and fed by 4 mm long microstrip line. The finite element method based, full wave electromagnetic simulator HFSS is efficiently utilized for designing and analyzing the proposed antenna and the antenna parameters are measured in a standard far-field anechoic chamber. The experimental results show that the prototype of the antenna has achieved operating bandwidths (voltage stand wave ratio (VSWR) less than 2) 360 MHz (2.53-2.89 GHz) and 440 MHz (3.47-3.91 GHz) for WiMAX and 1550 MHz (6.28-7.83 GHz) for C-band. The simulated and measured results for VSWR, radiation patterns, and gain are well matched. Nearly omnidirectional radiation patterns are achieved and the peak gains are of 3.62 dBi, 3.67 dBi, and 5.7 dBi at 2.66 GHz, 3.65 GHz, and 6.58 GHz, respectively.

  4. Compact and Wide Upper-Stopband Triple-Mode Broadband Microstrip BPF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouxiao Jun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A broadband microstrip bandpass filter (BPF with compact size, sharp skirt and wide upper-stopband performance is proposed using the triple-mode stub-loaded resonator. The resonator can generate one odd mode and two even modes in the desired passband. Due to the main path signal counteraction, two transmission zeros Tz1, Tz2 can be created near the passband edge to achieve sharp skirt. Two transmission zeros Tz4, Tz5 are created between two harmonic frequencies hm2, hm3 by the folded open stub and the interdigital coupling feeding lines, respectively. Owing to the source-load coupling, one zero Tz3 is introduced to deepen the stopband. Meanwhile, the zero Tz1 is shifted to the lower cut-off frequency and the other three ones Tz2, Tz4, Tz5 can be slightly turned to suppress three harmonic frequencies hm1, hm2, hm3. One filter prototype with the fractional bandwidth 34% is designed, fabricated and measured.

  5. A time digitizer for the microstrip detectors of the PANDA MVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccardi, Alberto; Brinkmann, Kai-Thomas; Di Pietro, Valentino [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Garbolino, Sara; Rivetti, Angelo; Rolo, Manuel [INFN Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    In nuclear detectors the information on the energy of the particle is usually obtained by measuring the amplitude of the signal delivered by the sensor. The low voltage power supply used in modern deep submicron technologies constrain the maximum dynamic range of the ADC. Still, the energy information can be obtained with time-based techniques, in which the energy is associated with the duration of the signal through the Time over Threshold method. This work is focused on the PANDA Micro Vertex Detector and explores the possibility of applying a time-based readout approach for the microstrip sensors. In PANDA, the strip system must cope with hit rates up to 50 kHz per channel. Therefore, the front-end output must be relatively short, this implies that the clock resolution is not enough to measure the signal duration, so it is necessary to use a Time to Digital Converter. The front-end and the TDC structure are designed in a 0.11μm CMOS process. The TDC chosen is based on an analog clock interpolator because it combines good time resolution with a fairly simple implementation and low power consumption. In the presentation an overview of the analog part of the PASTA (PANDA strip ASIC) is presented.

  6. The CDF Run IIb Silicon Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Aoki; N. Bacchetta; S. Behari et al.

    2004-02-25

    Fermilab plans to deliver 5-15 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity to the CDF and D0 experiments. The current inner silicon detectors at CDF (SVXIIa and L00) will not tolerate the radiation dose associated with high luminosity running and will need to be replaced. A new readout chip (SVX4) has been designed in radiation-hard 0.25 {micro}m CMOS technology. Single sided sensors are arranged in a compact structure, called a stave, with integrated readout and cooling systems. This paper describes the general design of the Run IIb system, testing results of prototype electrical components (staves), and prototype silicon sensor performance before and after irradiation.

  7. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; /SINTEF, Oslo; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; /SLAC; Da Via, C.; /Manchester U.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  8. Liquid Silicon Pouch Anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-06

    Docket No. 300139 1 of 13 LIQUID SILICON POUCH ANODE STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured... silicon -based anodes during cycling, lithium insertion and deinsertion. Mitigation of this problem has long been sought and will result in improved...with other potential lithium alloy materials such as gallium and tin. Silicon -based solid state anodes are typically composed of small particles of

  9. Silicon spin communication

    OpenAIRE

    Dery, Hanan; Song, Yang; Li, Pengke; Zutic, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Recent experimental breakthroughs have demonstrated that the electron spin in silicon can be reliably injected and detected as well as transferred over distances exceeding 1 mm. We propose an on-chip communication paradigm which is based on modulating spin polarization of a constant current in silicon wires. We provide figures of merit for this scheme by studying spin relaxation and drift-diffusion models in silicon.

  10. Handbook of silicon photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    The development of integrated silicon photonic circuits has recently been driven by the Internet and the push for high bandwidth as well as the need to reduce power dissipation induced by high data-rate signal transmission. To reach these goals, efficient passive and active silicon photonic devices, including waveguide, modulators, photodetectors, multiplexers, light sources, and various subsystems, have been developed that take advantage of state-of-the-art silicon technology.

  11. In-flight operations and status of the AMS-02 silicon tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosi, G; Battiston, R; Bertucci, b B; Choumilov, E; Choutko, V; Crispoltoni, M; Delgado, C; Duranti, M; Donnini, F; D'Urso, D; Fiandrini, cE; Formato, V; Graziani, M; Habiby, M; Haino, S; Ionica, M; Kanishchev, K; Nozzoli, F; Oliva, c A; Paniccia, M; Pizzolotto, C; Pohl, c M; Qin, X; Rapin, d D; Saouter, P; Tomassetti, N; Vitale, V; Vitillo, c S; Wu, X; Zhang, Z; Zuccon, P

    2016-01-01

    The AMS-02 detector is a large acceptance magnetic spectrometer operating on the International Space Station since May 2011. More than 60 billion events have been collected by the instrument as of today. One of the key subdetectors of AMS-02 is the microstrip silicon Tracker, designed to precisely measure the trajectory and absolute charge of cosmic rays in the GeV-TeV energy range. In addition, with the magnetic field, is also measuring the particle magnetic rigidity, defined as R = pc/Ze, and the sign of the charge. This report presents the Tracker on-line operations and calibration during the first four years of data taking in space. The track reconstruction efficiency and the resolution will be also reviewed.

  12. The Layer 0 Inner Silicon Detector of the D0 Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angstadt, R.; Bagby, L.; Bean, A.; Bolton, T.; Buchholz, D.; Butler, D.; Christofek, L.; Cooper, W.E.; Daly, C.H.; Demarteau, M.; Foglesong, J.

    2009-11-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication, installation and performance of the new inner layer called Layer 0 (L0) that was inserted in the existing Run IIa Silicon Micro-Strip Tracker (SMT) of the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron {bar p}p collider. L0 provides tracking information from two layers of sensors, which are mounted with center lines at a radial distance of 16.1 mm and 17.6 mm respectively from the beam axis. The sensors and readout electronics are mounted on a specially designed and fabricated carbon fiber structure that includes cooling for sensor and readout electronics. The structure has a thin polyimide circuit bonded to it so that the circuit couples electrically to the carbon fiber allowing the support structure to be used both for detector grounding and a low impedance connection between the remotely mounted hybrids and the sensors.

  13. Laboratory and test beam results from a large-area silicon drift detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bonvicini, V; Giubellino, P; Gregorio, A; Idzik, M; Kolojvari, A A; Montaño-Zetina, L M; Nouais, D; Petta, C; Rashevsky, A; Randazzo, N; Reito, S; Tosello, F; Vacchi, A; Vinogradov, L I; Zampa, N

    2000-01-01

    A very large-area (6.75*8 cm/sup 2/) silicon drift detector with integrated high-voltage divider has been designed, produced and fully characterised in the laboratory by means of ad hoc designed MOS injection electrodes. The detector is of the "butterfly" type, the sensitive area being subdivided into two regions with a maximum drift length of 3.3 cm. The device was also tested in a pion beam (at the CERN PS) tagged by means of a microstrip detector telescope. Bipolar VLSI front-end cells featuring a noise of 250 e/sup -/ RMS at 0 pF with a slope of 40 e/sup -//pF have been used to read out the signals. The detector showed an excellent stability and featured the expected characteristics. Some preliminary results will be presented. (12 refs).

  14. Silicon web process development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hopkins, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    The silicon web process takes advantage of natural crystallographic stabilizing forces to grow long, thin single crystal ribbons directly from liquid silicon. The ribbon, or web, is formed by the solidification of a liquid film supported by surface tension between two silicon filaments, called dendrites, which border the edges of the growing strip. The ribbon can be propagated indefinitely by replenishing the liquid silicon as it is transformed to crystal. The dendritic web process has several advantages for achieving low cost, high efficiency solar cells. These advantages are discussed.

  15. Neutron irradiation induced amorphization of silicon carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, L.L.; Hay, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This paper provides the first known observation of silicon carbide fully amorphized under neutron irradiation. Both high purity single crystal hcp and high purity, highly faulted (cubic) chemically vapor deposited (CVD) SiC were irradiated at approximately 60 C to a total fast neutron fluence of 2.6 {times} 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2}. Amorphization was seen in both materials, as evidenced by TEM, electron diffraction, and x-ray diffraction techniques. Physical properties for the amorphized single crystal material are reported including large changes in density ({minus}10.8%), elastic modulus as measured using a nanoindentation technique ({minus}45%), hardness as measured by nanoindentation ({minus}45%), and standard Vickers hardness ({minus}24%). Similar property changes are observed for the critical temperature for amorphization at this neutron dose and flux, above which amorphization is not possible, is estimated to be greater than 130 C.

  16. Radiation-Hard Optical Link for SLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Gan, K K; Fernando, W; Kagan, H P; Kass, R D; Law, A; Lebbai, M R M; Rau, A; Rizatdinova, F K; Skubic, P L; Smith, D S

    2007-01-01

    We study the feasibility of fabricating an optical link for the SLHC ATLAS silicon tracker based on the current pixel optical link architecture. The electrical signals between the current pixel modules and the optical modules are transmitted via micro-twisted cables. The optical signals between the optical modules and the data acquisition system are transmitted via rad-hard SIMM fibres spliced to rad-tolerant GRIN fibres. The link has several nice features. We have measured the bandwidths of the transmission lines and the results indicate that the micro twisted-pair cables can transmit signals up to ~ 1 Gb/s. The fusion spliced fibre ribbon can transmit signals up to ~ 2 Gb/s as reported in the previous conference. We have irradiated VCSEL arrays with 24 GeV protons and find four types of VCSEL arrays from three vendors survive to the SLHC dosage. We have also demonstrated the feasibility of fabricating a novel opto-pack for housing VCSEL and PIN arrays with BeO as the substrate.

  17. Hard-phase engineering in hard/soft nanocomposite magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudyal, Narayan; Rong, Chuanbing; Vuong Nguyen, Van; Liu, J. Ping

    2014-03-01

    Bulk SmCo/Fe(Co) based hard/soft nanocomposite magnets with different hard phases (1:5, 2:17, 2:7 and 1:3 types) were fabricated by high-energy ball-milling followed by a warm compaction process. Microstructural studies revealed a homogeneous distribution of bcc-Fe(Co) phase in the matrix of hard magnetic Sm-Co phase with grain size ⩽20 nm after severe plastic deformation and compaction. The small grain size leads to effective inter-phase exchange coupling as shown by the single-phase-like demagnetization behavior with enhanced remanence and energy product. Among the different hard phases investigated, it was found that the Sm2Co7-based nanocomposites can incorporate a higher soft phase content, and thus a larger reduction in rare-earth content compared with the 2:17, 1:5 and 1:3 phase-based nanocomposite with similar properties. (BH)max up to 17.6 MGOe was obtained for isotropic Sm2Co7/FeCo nanocomposite magnets with 40 wt% of the soft phase which is about 300% higher than the single-phase counterpart prepared under the same conditions. The results show that hard-phase engineering in nanocomposite magnets is an alternative approach to fabrication of high-strength nanocomposite magnets with reduced rare-earth content.

  18. Evaluation of colour and hardness changes of soft lining materials in food colorant solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canay, S; Hersek, N; Tulunoğlu, I; Uzun, G

    1999-10-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the colour stability and viscoelastic properties of three commercially available soft lining materials in vitro, by exposing them to 3% erythrosine, tartrazine and sunset yellow solutions. The colour changes were determined using a computer controlled spectrophotometer. The colour change of three soft lining materials--Molloplast B, Flexor and Coe Super Soft--were determined after 1, 3 and 6 months storage in three different food colorant solutions. The colour changes of Molloplast B was not noticeable. Only the initial colour value of Flexor was significantly different from the other time interval colour measurements. On the other hand, the colour difference of Coe Super Soft was found to be significantly different at all comparative time interval measurements (P<0.05). According to Shore A hardness values, Molloplast B had an initial hardness of 44 in all three solutions, and there was a slight increase after 6 months. Flexor had an initial hardness of 39, at the end of 6 months the hardness changed a little. Coe Super Soft was fairly hard after processing and Shore A hardness was initially 89 which increased to 95 later on. According to these results, only the hardness values of Coe Super Soft showed a statistically significant difference when compared using Wilcoxon signed rank test at the P<0.05 level. As a conclusion, silicon type soft lining material seems to be more resistant to colour change and hardness than the acrylic type soft liners.

  19. Nonlinear silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, M.; Castellan, C.; Signorini, S.; Trenti, A.; Pavesi, L.

    2017-09-01

    Silicon photonics is a technology based on fabricating integrated optical circuits by using the same paradigms as the dominant electronics industry. After twenty years of fervid development, silicon photonics is entering the market with low cost, high performance and mass-manufacturable optical devices. Until now, most silicon photonic devices have been based on linear optical effects, despite the many phenomenologies associated with nonlinear optics in both bulk materials and integrated waveguides. Silicon and silicon-based materials have strong optical nonlinearities which are enhanced in integrated devices by the small cross-section of the high-index contrast silicon waveguides or photonic crystals. Here the photons are made to strongly interact with the medium where they propagate. This is the central argument of nonlinear silicon photonics. It is the aim of this review to describe the state-of-the-art in the field. Starting from the basic nonlinearities in a silicon waveguide or in optical resonator geometries, many phenomena and applications are described—including frequency generation, frequency conversion, frequency-comb generation, supercontinuum generation, soliton formation, temporal imaging and time lensing, Raman lasing, and comb spectroscopy. Emerging quantum photonics applications, such as entangled photon sources, heralded single-photon sources and integrated quantum photonic circuits are also addressed at the end of this review.

  20. ALICE silicon strip module

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    This small silicon detector strip will be inserted into the inner tracking system (ITS) on the ALICE detector at CERN. This detector relies on state-of-the-art particle tracking techniques. These double-sided silicon strip modules have been designed to be as lightweight and delicate as possible as the ITS will eventually contain five square metres of these devices.

  1. Silicon Valley: Planet Startup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. P. Ester; dr. A. Maas

    2016-01-01

    For decades now, Silicon Valley has been the home of the future. It's the birthplace of the world's most successful high-tech companies-including Apple, Yahoo, Google, Facebook, Twitter, and many more. So what's the secret? What is it about Silicon Valley that fosters entrepreneurship and

  2. Characterization of low loss microstrip resonators as a building block for circuit QED in a 3D waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoepfl, D.; Muppalla, P. R.; Schneider, C. M. F.; Kasemann, S.; Partel, S.; Kirchmair, G.

    2017-08-01

    Here we present the microwave characterization of microstrip resonators, made from aluminum and niobium, inside a 3D microwave waveguide. In the low temperature, low power limit internal quality factors of up to one million were reached. We found a good agreement to models predicting conductive losses and losses to two level systems for increasing temperature. The setup presented here is appealing for testing materials and structures, as it is free of wire bonds and offers a well controlled microwave environment. In combination with transmon qubits, these resonators serve as a building block for a novel circuit QED architecture inside a rectangular waveguide.

  3. Matlab/Simulink Implementation of Wave-based Models for Microstrip Structures utilizing Short-circuited and Opened Stubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana P. Stošić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes modeling and analyzing procedures for microstrip filters based on use of one-dimensional wave digital approach. Different filter structures are observed. One filter is based on quarter-wave length short-circuited stubs and connecting transmission lines. The other one is based on cross-junction opened stubs. Frequency responses are obtained by direct analysis of the block-based networks formed in Simulink toolbox of MATLAB environment. This wave-based method allows an accurate and efficient analysis of different microwave structures.

  4. Advances in silicon nanophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Pu, Minhao

    plasma effect have been tested up to 40 Gbit/s, and hybrid evanescent silicon lasers have been realized both in the form of distributed feed-back lasers and micro-disk lasers. For enhancing the impact of silicon photonics in future ultrafast and energy-efficient all-optical signal processing, e......Silicon has long been established as an ideal material for passive integrated optical circuitry due to its high refractive index, with corresponding strong optical confinement ability, and its low-cost CMOS-compatible manufacturability. However, the inversion symmetry of the silicon crystal lattice...... has been an obstacle for a simple realization of electro-optic modulators, and its indirect band gap has prevented the realization of efficient silicon light emitting diodes and lasers. Still, significant progress has been made in the past few years. Electro-optic modulators based on the free carrier...

  5. Silicone-containing composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mustafa

    2012-01-24

    A silicone-containing composition comprises the reaction product of a first component and an excess of an isocyanate component relative to the first component to form an isocyanated intermediary. The first component is selected from one of a polysiloxane and a silicone resin. The first component includes a carbon-bonded functional group selected from one of a hydroxyl group and an amine group. The isocyanate component is reactive with the carbon-bonded functional group of the first component. The isocyanated intermediary includes a plurality of isocyanate functional groups. The silicone-containing composition comprises the further reaction product of a second component, which is selected from the other of the polysiloxane and the silicone resin. The second component includes a plurality of carbon-bonded functional groups reactive with the isocyanate functional groups of the isocyanated intermediary for preparing the silicone-containing composition.

  6. Intraventricular Silicone Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Stéphane; Boissonnot, Michèle; Tasu, Jean-Pierre; Simonet, Charles; Ciron, Jonathan; Neau, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Intracranial silicone oil is a rare complication of intraocular endotamponade with silicone oil. We describe a case of intraventricular silicone oil fortuitously observed 38 months after an intraocular tamponade for a complicated retinal detachment in an 82 year-old woman admitted in the Department of Neurology for a stroke. We confirm the migration of silicone oil along the optic nerve. We discuss this rare entity with a review of the few other cases reported in the medical literature. Intraventricular migration of silicone oil after intraocular endotamponade is usually asymptomatic but have to be known of the neurologists and the radiologists because of its differential diagnosis that are intraventricular hemorrhage and tumor. PMID:26735537

  7. Edge sensitivity of “edgeless” silicon pad detectors measured in a high-energy beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea Solano, B.; Abreu, M. C.; Avati, V.; Boccali, T.; Boccone, V.; Bozzo, M.; Capra, R.; Casagrande, L.; Chen, W.; Eggert, K.; Heijne, E.; Klauke, S.; Li, Z.; Mäki, T.; Mirabito, L.; Morelli, A.; Niinikoski, T. O.; Oljemark, F.; Palmieri, V. G.; Rato Mendes, P.; Rodrigues, S.; Siegrist, P.; Silvestris, L.; Sousa, P.; Tapprogge, S.; Trocmé, B.

    2005-09-01

    We report measurements in a high-energy beam of the sensitivity of the edge region in “edgeless” planar silicon pad diode detectors. The edgeless side of these rectangular diodes is formed by a cut and break through the contact implants. A large surface current on such an edge prevents the normal reverse biasing of this device above the full depletion voltage, but we have shown that the current can be sufficiently reduced by the use of a suitable cutting method, followed by edge treatment, and by operating the detector at a low temperature. A pair of these edgeless silicon diode pad sensors was exposed to the X5 high-energy pion beam at CERN, to determine the edge sensitivity. The signal of the detector pair triggered a reference telescope made of silicon microstrip detector modules. The gap width between the edgeless sensors, determined using the tracks measured by the reference telescope, was then compared with the results of precision metrology. It was concluded that the depth of the dead layer at the diced edge is compatible with zero within the statistical precision of ±8 μm and systematic error of ±6 μm.

  8. Coupled microstrip line transverse electromagnetic resonator model for high-field magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, G; Ludwig, R

    2002-03-01

    The performance modeling of RF resonators at high magnetic fields of 4.7 T and more requires a physical approach that goes beyond conventional lumped circuit concepts. The treatment of voltages and currents as variables in time and space leads to a coupled transmission line model, whereby the electric and magnetic fields are assumed static in planes orthogonal to the length of the resonator, but wave-like along its longitudinal axis. In this work a multiconductor transmission line (MTL) model is developed and successfully applied to analyze a 12-element unloaded and loaded microstrip line transverse electromagnetic (TEM) resonator coil for animal studies. The loading involves a homogeneous cylindrical dielectric insert of variable radius and length. This model formulation is capable of estimating the resonance spectrum, field distributions, and certain types of losses in the coil, while requiring only modest computational resources. The boundary element method is adopted to compute all relevant transmission line parameters needed to set up the transmission line matrices. Both the theoretical basis and its engineering implementation are discussed and the resulting model predictions are placed in context with measurements. A comparison between a conventional lumped circuit model and this distributed formulation is conducted, showing significant departures in the resonance response at higher frequencies. This MTL model is applied to simulate two small-bore animal systems: one of 7.5-cm inner diameter, tuned to 200 MHz (4.7 T for proton imaging), and one of 13.36-cm inner diameter, tuned to both 200 and 300 MHz (7 T). Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Metasurface Reflector (MSR Loading for High Performance Small Microstrip Antenna Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rezwanul Ahsan

    Full Text Available A meander stripline feed multiband microstrip antenna loaded with metasurface reflector (MSR structure has been designed, analyzed and constructed that offers the wireless communication services for UHF/microwave RFID and WLAN/WiMAX applications. The proposed MSR assimilated antenna comprises planar straight forward design of circular shaped radiator with horizontal slots on it and 2D metasurface formed by the periodic square metallic element that resembles the behavior of metamaterials. A custom made high dielectric bio-plastic substrate (εr = 15 is used for fabricating the prototype of the MSR embedded planar monopole antenna. The details of the design progress through numerical simulations and experimental results are presented and discussed accordingly. The measured impedance bandwidth, radiation patterns and gain of the proposed MSR integrated antenna are compared with the obtained results from numerical simulation, and a good compliance can be observed between them. The investigation shows that utilization of MSR structure has significantly broadened the -10 dB impedance bandwidth than the conventional patch antenna: from 540 to 632 MHz (17%, 467 to 606 MHz (29% and 758 MHz to 1062 MHz (40% for three distinct operating bands centered at 0.9, 3.5 and 5.5 GHz. Additionally, due to the assimilation of MSR, the overall realized gains have been upgraded to a higher value of 3.62 dBi, 6.09 dBi and 8.6 dBi for lower, middle and upper frequency band respectively. The measured radiation patterns, impedance bandwidths (S11<-10 dB and gains from the MSR loaded antenna prototype exhibit reasonable characteristics that can satisfy the requirements of UHF/microwave (5.8 GHz RFID, WiMAX (3.5/5.5 GHz and WLAN (5.2/5.8 GHz applications.

  10. Chemical hardness and density functional theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Hardness; softness; hard & soft acids bases (HSAB); principle of maximum hardness (PMH) density functional theory (DFT). Abstract. The concept of chemical hardness is reviewed from a personal point of view. Author Affiliations. Ralph G Pearson1. Chemistry Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, ...

  11. Deflection of 400  GeV/c proton beam with bent silicon crystals at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Scandale

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed study of the deflection phenomena of a 400  GeV/c proton beam impinging on a new generation of bent silicon crystals; the tests have been performed at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron H8 beam line. Channeling and volume reflection angles are measured with an extremely precise goniometer and with high resolution silicon microstrip detectors. Volume reflection has been observed and measured for the first time at this energy, with a single-pass efficiency as large as 98%, in good agreement with the simulation results. This efficiency makes volume reflection a possible candidate for collimation with bent crystals at the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  12. Deflection of 400  GeV/c proton beam with bent silicon crystals at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, Walter; Della Mea, Gianantonio; De Salvador, Davide; Milan, Riccardo; Vomiero, Alberto; Baricordi, Stefano; Dalpiaz, Pietro; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Guidi, Vincenzo; Martinelli, Giuliano; Mazzolari, Andrea; Milan, Emiliano; Ambrosi, Giovanni; Azzarello, Philipp; Battiston, Roberto; Bertucci, Bruna; Burger, William J; Ionica, Maria; Zuccon, Paolo; Cavoto, Gianluca; Santacesaria, Roberta; Valente, Paolo; Vallazza, Erik; Afonin, Alexander G; Baranov, Vladimir T; Chesnokov, Yury A; Kotov, Vladilen I; Maisheev, Vladimir A; Yazynin, Igor A; Afanasiev, Sergey V; Kovalenko, Alexander D; Taratin, Alexander M; Denisov, Alexander S; Gavrikov, Yury A; Ivanov,Yuri M; Ivochkin, Vladimir G; Kosyanenko, Sergey V; Petrunin, Anatoli A; Skorobogatov, Vyacheslav V; Suvorov, Vsevolod M; Bolognini, Davide; Foggetta, Luca; Hasan, Said; Prest, Michela

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed study of the deflection phenomena of a 400  GeV/c proton beam impinging on a new generation of bent silicon crystals; the tests have been performed at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron H8 beam line. Channeling and volume reflection angles are measured with an extremely precise goniometer and with high resolution silicon microstrip detectors. Volume reflection has been observed and measured for the first time at this energy, with a single-pass efficiency as large as 98%, in good agreement with the simulation results. This efficiency makes volume reflection a possible candidate for collimation with bent crystals at the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  13. P-Type Silicon Strip Sensors for the new CMS Tracker at HL-L-HC

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, W; Härkönen, J.(Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki, Finland); Lampén, T.; Luukka, P.; Peltola, T; Tuominen, E; Tuovinen, E.; Eerola, P.; Tuuva, T.; CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: The upgrade of the LHC to the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is expected to increase the LHC design luminosity by an order of magnitude. This will require silicon tracking detectors with a significantly higher radiation hardness. The CMS Tracker Collaboration has conducted an irradiation and measurement campaign to identify suitable silicon sensor materials and strip designs for the future outer tracker at the CMS experiment. Based on these results, the collaboration has chosen to use...

  14. Transformational silicon electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2014-02-25

    In today\\'s traditional electronics such as in computers or in mobile phones, billions of high-performance, ultra-low-power devices are neatly integrated in extremely compact areas on rigid and brittle but low-cost bulk monocrystalline silicon (100) wafers. Ninety percent of global electronics are made up of silicon. Therefore, we have developed a generic low-cost regenerative batch fabrication process to transform such wafers full of devices into thin (5 μm), mechanically flexible, optically semitransparent silicon fabric with devices, then recycling the remaining wafer to generate multiple silicon fabric with chips and devices, ensuring low-cost and optimal utilization of the whole substrate. We show monocrystalline, amorphous, and polycrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide fabric, all from low-cost bulk silicon (100) wafers with the semiconductor industry\\'s most advanced high-κ/metal gate stack based high-performance, ultra-low-power capacitors, field effect transistors, energy harvesters, and storage to emphasize the effectiveness and versatility of this process to transform traditional electronics into flexible and semitransparent ones for multipurpose applications. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  15. Transformational silicon electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Torres Sevilla, Galo Andres; Ghoneim, Mohamed Tarek; Inayat, Salman Bin; Ahmed, Sally M; Hussain, Aftab Mustansir; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-02-25

    In today's traditional electronics such as in computers or in mobile phones, billions of high-performance, ultra-low-power devices are neatly integrated in extremely compact areas on rigid and brittle but low-cost bulk monocrystalline silicon (100) wafers. Ninety percent of global electronics are made up of silicon. Therefore, we have developed a generic low-cost regenerative batch fabrication process to transform such wafers full of devices into thin (5 μm), mechanically flexible, optically semitransparent silicon fabric with devices, then recycling the remaining wafer to generate multiple silicon fabric with chips and devices, ensuring low-cost and optimal utilization of the whole substrate. We show monocrystalline, amorphous, and polycrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide fabric, all from low-cost bulk silicon (100) wafers with the semiconductor industry's most advanced high-κ/metal gate stack based high-performance, ultra-low-power capacitors, field effect transistors, energy harvesters, and storage to emphasize the effectiveness and versatility of this process to transform traditional electronics into flexible and semitransparent ones for multipurpose applications.

  16. Nanomechanics of hard films on compliant substrates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedy, Earl David, Jr. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Emerson, John Allen (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Bahr, David F. (Washington State University, Pullman, WA); Moody, Neville Reid; Zhou, Xiao Wang; Hales, Lucas (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Adams, David Price (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Yeager,John (Washington State University, Pullman, WA); Nyugen, Thao D. (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD); Corona, Edmundo (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Kennedy, Marian S. (Clemson University, Clemson, SC); Cordill, Megan J. (Erich Schmid Institute, Leoben, Austria)

    2009-09-01

    a result, our understanding of the critical relationship between adhesion, properties, and fracture for hard films on compliant substrates is limited. To address this issue, we integrated nanomechanical testing and mechanics-based modeling in a program to define the critical relationship between deformation and fracture of nanoscale films on compliant substrates. The approach involved designing model film systems and employing nano-scale experimental characterization techniques to isolate effects of compliance, viscoelasticity, and plasticity on deformation and fracture of thin hard films on substrates that spanned more than two orders of compliance magnitude exhibit different interface structures, have different adhesion strengths, and function differently under stress. The results of this work are described in six chapters. Chapter 1 provides the motivation for this work. Chapter 2 presents experimental results covering film system design, sample preparation, indentation response, and fracture including discussion on the effects of substrate compliance on fracture energies and buckle formation from existing models. Chapter 3 describes the use of analytical and finite element simulations to define the role of substrate compliance and film geometry on the indentation response of thin hard films on compliant substrates. Chapter 4 describes the development and application of cohesive zone model based finite element simulations to determine how substrate compliance affects debond growth. Chapter 5 describes the use of molecular dynamics simulations to define the effects of substrate compliance on interfacial fracture of thin hard tungsten films on silicon substrates. Chapter 6 describes the Workshops sponsored through this program to advance understanding of material and system behavior.

  17. Silicon applications in photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenski, A. M.; Gawlik, G.; Wesolowski, M.

    2005-09-01

    Silicon technology enabled the miniaturization of computers and other electronic system for information storage, transmission and transformation allowing the development of the Knowledge Based Information Society. Despite the fact that silicon roadmap indicates possibilities for further improvement, already now the speed of electrons and the bandwidth of electronic circuits are not sufficient and photons are commonly utilized for signal transmission through optical fibers and purely photonic circuits promise further improvements. However materials used for these purposes II/V semiconductor compounds, glasses make integration of optoelectronic circuits with silicon complex an expensive. Therefore research on light generation, transformation and transmission in silicon is very active and recently, due to nanotechnology some spectacular results were achieved despite the fact that mechanisms of light generation are still discussed. Three topics will be discussed. Porous silicon was actively investigated due to its relatively efficient electroluminescence enabling its use in light sources. Its index of refraction, differs considerably from the index of silicon, and this allows its utilization for Bragg mirrors, wave guides and photonic crystals. The enormous surface enables several applications on medicine and biotechnology and in particular due to the effective chemo-modulation of its refracting index the design of optical chemosensors. An effective luminescence of doped and undoped nanocrystalline silicon opened another way for the construction of silicon light sources. Optical amplification was already discovered opening perspectives for the construction of nanosilicon lasers. Luminescences was observed at red, green and blue wavelengths. The used technology of silica and ion implantation are compatible with commonly used CMOS technology. Finally the recently developed and proved idea of optically pumped silicon Raman lasers, using nonlinearity and vibrations in the

  18. Effect of Surface Treated Silicon Dioxide Nanoparticles on Some Mechanical Properties of Maxillofacial Silicone Elastomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Zayed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current materials used for maxillofacial prostheses are far from ideal and there is a need for novel improved materials which mimic as close as possible the natural behavior of facial soft tissues. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of adding different concentrations of surface treated silicon dioxide nanoparticles (SiO2 on clinically important mechanical properties of a maxillofacial silicone elastomer. 147 specimens of the silicone elastomer were prepared and divided into seven groups (n=21. One control group was prepared without nanoparticles and six study groups with different concentrations of nanoparticles, from 0.5% to 3% by weight. Specimens were tested for tear strength (ASTM D624, tensile strength (ASTM D412, percent elongation, and shore A hardness. SEM was used to assess the dispersion of nano-SiO2 within the elastomer matrix. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Scheffe test (α=0.05. Results revealed significant improvement in all mechanical properties tested, as the concentration of the nanoparticles increased. This was supported by the results of the SEM. Hence, it can be concluded that the incorporation of surface treated SiO2 nanoparticles at concentration of 3% enhanced the overall mechanical properties of A-2186 silicone elastomer.

  19. A Compact High-Pass Filter Using Hybrid Microstrip/Nonuniform CPW with Dual-Mode Resonant Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel and miniature high-pass filter (HPF based on a hybrid-coupled microstrip/nonuniform coplanar waveguide (CPW resonator is proposed in this article, in which the designed CPW has exhibited a wideband dual-mode characteristic within the desired high-pass frequency range. The implemented filter consists of the top microstrip coupled patches and the bottom modified nonuniformly short-circuited CPW resonator. Simulated results from the electromagnetic (EM analysis software and measured results from a vector network analyzer (VNA show a good agreement. A designed and fabricated prototype filter having a 3 dB cutoff frequency (fc of 5.78 GHz has shown an ultrawide high-pass behavior, which exhibits the highest passband frequency exceeding 4.0fc under the minimum insertion loss (IL 0.75 dB. The printed circuit board (PCB area of the filter is approximately 0.062λg×0.093λg, where λg is the guided wavelength at fc.

  20. An HTS microstrip equalizer for improving the group delay of an HTS filter for third-generation communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Liang; Li Chunguang; Zhang Xueqiang; Li Fei; Zhang Qiang; He Aisheng; Li Hong; Gu Changzhi; Luo Qiang; He Yusheng [National Laboratory for Superconductivity, Institute of Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Beijing 100080 (China); Li Shunzhou [Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)], E-mail: sunliang@ssc.iphy.ac.cn

    2008-03-01

    This paper reports a high temperature superconducting (HTS) microstrip equalizer for improving the flatness of the pass-band group delay of an HTS filter for third-generation (3G) communications. The HTS filter to be equalized is a ten-pole quasi-elliptic function filter with a bandwidth of 9.6 MHz centered at 1946.5 MHz. The one-port coupled-resonator microstrip equalizers were designed to have three or four poles, and the calculated and simulated group delay response curves of the filter with the equalizers are presented and discussed. A three-pole equalizer was fabricated on a piece of 0.5 mm thick MgO wafer with double-sided YBCO films. The measured responses show that after connecting with the HTS equalizer, the group-delay effective bandwidth of the filter, defined as the ratio between the flat group delay pass-band width (a criterion of variation of pass-band group delay being less than 50 ns was applied) and the equal ripple pass-band width, increased from 50% to 70% without any noticeable degradation of the band-edge steepness of the HTS filter.