WorldWideScience

Sample records for hard scale qcd

  1. Hard exclusive QCD processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, W.

    2007-01-15

    Hard exclusive processes in high energy electron proton scattering offer the opportunity to get access to a new generation of parton distributions, the so-called generalized parton distributions (GPDs). This functions provide more detailed informations about the structure of the nucleon than the usual PDFs obtained from DIS. In this work we present a detailed analysis of exclusive processes, especially of hard exclusive meson production. We investigated the influence of exclusive produced mesons on the semi-inclusive production of mesons at fixed target experiments like HERMES. Further we give a detailed analysis of higher order corrections (NLO) for the exclusive production of mesons in a very broad range of kinematics. (orig.)

  2. Parton saturation and $N_{part}$ scaling of semi-hard processes in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Kharzeev, Dima E; McLerran, L; 10.1016/S0370-2693(03)00420-9

    2003-01-01

    We argue that the suppression of high p/sub t/ hadrons discovered recently in heavy ion collisions at RHIC may be a consequence of saturation in the color glass condensate. We qualitatively and semi- quantitatively describe the data, in particular, the dependence upon the number of nucleon participants. We show that if parton saturation sets in at sufficiently small energy, then in nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC energies the cross sections of semi-hard processes should scale approximately with the number of participants, N/sub part/. Our results provide a possible explanation of both the absence of apparent jet quenching at SPS energies and its presence at RHIC. Under the same assumption we predict that in semi-central and central pA (dA) collisions at collider energies the dependence of semi-hard processes on the number of participating nucleons of the nucleus will change to ~(N/sub part//sup A/)/sup 1/2/. The forthcoming data on dA collisions will provide a crucial test of this description. (61 ...

  3. Scaling violation in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furmanski, W.

    1981-08-01

    The effects of scaling violation in QCD are discussed in the perturbative scheme, based on the factorization of mass singularities in the light-like gauge. Some recent applications including the next-to-leading corrections are presented (large psub(T) scattering, numerical analysis of the leptoproduction data). A proposal is made for extending the method on the higher twist sector. (author)

  4. Hard QCD at hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moch, S

    2008-02-15

    We review the status of QCD at hadron colliders with emphasis on precision predictions and the latest theoretical developments for cross sections calculations to higher orders. We include an overview of our current information on parton distributions and discuss various Standard Model reactions such as W{sup {+-}}/Z-boson, Higgs boson or top quark production. (orig.)

  5. Hard QCD at hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moch, S.

    2008-02-01

    We review the status of QCD at hadron colliders with emphasis on precision predictions and the latest theoretical developments for cross sections calculations to higher orders. We include an overview of our current information on parton distributions and discuss various Standard Model reactions such as W ± /Z-boson, Higgs boson or top quark production. (orig.)

  6. Novel Aspects of Hard Diffraction in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2005-01-01

    Initial- and final-state interactions from gluon-exchange, normally neglected in the parton model have a profound effect in QCD hard-scattering reactions, leading to leading-twist single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, diffractive hard hadronic reactions, and nuclear shadowing and antishadowing--leading-twist physics not incorporated in the light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. I also discuss the use of diffraction to materialize the Fock states of a hadronic projectile and test QCD color transparency

  7. Hard QCD Measurements at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Pasztor, Gabriella

    2018-01-01

    The rich proton-proton collision data of the LHC allow to study QCD processes in a previously unexplored region with ever improving precision. This paper summarises recent results of the ATLAS, CMS and LHCb Collaborations using primarily multi-jet and vector boson plus jet data collected at $\\sqrt s$ = 8 and 13 TeV. Comparisons to higher-order theoretical calculations and sophisticated Monte Carlo predictions are presented, as well as the impact of the data on the determination of the parton distribution functions and the measurement of the strong coupling constant, $\\alpha_s$.

  8. Hard And Soft QCD Physics In ATLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adomeit Stefanie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hard and soft QCD results using proton-proton collisions recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC are reported. Charged-particle distributions and forward-backward correlations have been studied in low-luminosity minimum bias data taken at centre-of-mass energies of √s = 0.9, 2.36 and 7 TeV. Recent measurements on underlying event characteristics using charged-particle jets are also presented. The results are tested against various phenomenological soft QCD models implemented in Monte-Carlo generators. A summary of hard QCD measurements involving high transverse momentum jets is also given. Inclusive jet and dijet cross-sections have been measured at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and are compared to expectations based on NLO pQCD calculations corrected for non-perturbative effects as well as to NLO Monte Carlo predictions. Recent studies exploiting jet substructure techniques to identify hadronic decays of boosted massive particles are reported.

  9. Scale setting in lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, Rainer

    2014-02-01

    The principles of scale setting in lattice QCD as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various commonly used scales are discussed. After listing criteria for good scales, I concentrate on the main presently used ones with an emphasis on scales derived from the Yang-Mills gradient flow. For these I discuss discretisation errors, statistical precision and mass effects. A short review on numerical results also brings me to an unpleasant disagreement which remains to be explained.

  10. Scale setting in lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Rainer [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2014-02-15

    The principles of scale setting in lattice QCD as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various commonly used scales are discussed. After listing criteria for good scales, I concentrate on the main presently used ones with an emphasis on scales derived from the Yang-Mills gradient flow. For these I discuss discretisation errors, statistical precision and mass effects. A short review on numerical results also brings me to an unpleasant disagreement which remains to be explained.

  11. Relating hard QCD processes through universality of mass singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amati, D.; Petronzio, R.; Veneziano, G.

    1978-01-01

    Hard QCD processes involving final jets are studied and compared by means of a simple approach to mass singularities. This is based on the Lee-Nauenberg-Kinoshita theorem and on a rather subtle use of gauge invariance in hard collinear gluon bremsstrahlung. One-loop results are easily derived for processes involving any number of initial quarks and/or currents. The method greatly simplifies the computation of higher-order loops at the leading log level and the preliminary results allow one to conclude that the crucial features encountered at the one-loop level will persist. The authors are thus able to relate different hard processes and to show that suitable ratios of cross sections, being free from mass singularities, can be computed perturbatively, as usually assumed in QCD-inspired parton models. It is also possible to relate the universal leading mass singularities to leading scaling violations and to extend therefor the results of the operator product expansion method to processes outside the range of the light-cone analysis. Some delicate points caused by confinement-related singularities (e.g. narrow resonance poles) are also discussed. (Auth.)

  12. QCD and hard diffraction at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrow, Michael G.; Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    As an introduction to QCD at the LHC I given an overview of QCD at the Tevatron, emphasizing the high Q 2 frontier which will be taken over by the LHC. After describing briefly the LHC detectors I discuss high mass diffraction, in particular central exclusive production of Higgs and vector boson pairs. I introduce the FP420 project to measure the scattered protons 420 m downstream of ATLAS and CMS

  13. Scale hierarchy in high-temperature QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Akerlund, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Because of asymptotic freedom, QCD becomes weakly interacting at high temperature: this is the reason for the transition to a deconfined phase in Yang-Mills theory at temperature $T_c$. At high temperature $T \\gg T_c$, the smallness of the running coupling $g$ induces a hierachy betwen the "hard", "soft" and "ultrasoft" energy scales $T$, $g T$ and $g^2 T$. This hierarchy allows for a very successful effective treatment where the "hard" and the "soft" modes are successively integrated out. However, it is not clear how high a temperature is necessary to achieve such a scale hierarchy. By numerical simulations, we show that the required temperatures are extremely high. Thus, the quantitative success of the effective theory down to temperatures of a few $T_c$ appears surprising a posteriori.

  14. Soft gluon resummation formulae for hard proton processes in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craigie, N.S.; Jones, H.F.

    1980-01-01

    We briefly review the treatment of leading logarithmic behaviour of the parton distributions in QCD within the Bethe-Salpeter framework by analysing directly parton hadron Green functions in the limit of parton four-momentum k 2 → - infinitely in a special light-like gauge involving a spectator vector. This technique allows us to derive the factorization of parton probabilities in leading logarithmic order in QCD in the various inclusive processes involving a single short-distance scale. The proof requires us to show that the use of planar gauges eta = psub(A) + psub(B) + ..., where psub(A), psub(B)... are the observed hadron momenta, reduces to choosing the appropriate light-like gauge for each hadron-parton BS channel, after demonstrating a Bloch-Nordsieck cancellation of the real and virtual soft left-over gluons. In the case where two large momentum scales appear, by restricting the transverse phase space into which the gluons are radiated, we derive the double logarithmic eikonal renormalization of the hard scattering formula of the type proposed recently by Parisi and Petronzio. (orig.)

  15. Early Run 2 Hard QCD Results from the ATLAS Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of hard QCD results based on data collected with the ATLAS detector in proton-proton collision at √s = 13 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider. The production of high transverse momentum jets, photons and photon-pairs were studied; the inclusive jet cross section is found to agree well with the prediction of perturbative QCD calculations performed at next-to-leading accuracy. The production cross sections for W and Z bosons in their e and μ decays was measured; in general, agreement is found with the expectation of next-to-next-to leading order QCD calculations and interesting sensitivities to the proton structure functions are already observed. The top production cross sections were measured in different top decay channels and found to agree with the state of the art QCD predictions.

  16. Tests of hard and soft QCD with $e^{+}e^{-}$ Annihilation Data

    CERN Document Server

    Kluth, S

    2002-01-01

    Experimental tests of QCD predictions for event shape distributions combining contributions from hard and soft processes are discussed. The hard processes are predicted by perturbative QCD calculations. The soft processes cannot be calculated directly using perturbative QCD, they are treated by a power correction model based on the analysis of infrared renormalons. Furthermore, an analysis of the gauge structure of QCD is presented using fits of the colour factors within the same combined QCD predictions.

  17. Hard-Thermal-Loop QCD thermodynamics and quark number susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogliacci Sylvain

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The weak-coupling expansion of the QCD pressure is known up to the order g6 log g. However, at experimentally relevant temperatures, the corresponding series is poorly convergent. In this proceedings, we discuss at which extent the gauge-invariant resummation scheme, Hard-Thermal-Loop perturbation theory (HTLpt, improves the apparent convergence. We first present HTLpt results for QCD thermodynamic functions up to three-loop order at vanishing chemical potential. Then, we report a preliminary HTLpt result of one-loop quark number susceptibility, probing the finite density equation of state. Our results are consistent with lattice data down to 2 − 3Tc, reinforcing the weakly-coupled quasiparticle picture in the intermediate coupling regime.

  18. Factorial correlators: angular scaling within QCD jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschanski, R.

    2001-01-01

    Factorial correlators measure the amount of dynamical correlation in the multiplicity between two separated phase-space windows. We present the analytical derivation of factorial correlators for a QCD jet described at the double logarithmic (DL) accuracy. We obtain a new angular scaling property for properly normalized correlators between two solid-angle cells or two rings around the jet axis. Normalized QCD factorial correlators scale with the angular distance and are independent of the window size. Scaling violations are expected beyond the DL approximation, in particular from the subject structure. Experimental tests are feasible, and thus would be welcome. (orig.)

  19. The hard gluon component of the QCD Pomeron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A.R.

    1996-01-01

    The authors argue that deep-inelastic diffractive scaling provides fundamental insight into the QCD Pomeron. The logarithmic scaling violations seen experimentally are in conflict with the scale-invariance of the BFKL Pomeron and with phenomenological two-gluon models. Instead the Pomeron appears as a single gluon at short-distances, indicating the appearance of a Super-Critical phase of Reggeon Field Theory. That the color compensation takes place at a longer distance is consistent with the Pomeron carrying odd color charge parity

  20. Experimental tests of QCD: Deep inelastic scattering, e+e- annihilation and hard hadron-hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansl-Kozanecka, T.

    1992-01-01

    In this set of lectures the author examines phenomenological aspects of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) which are relevant for lepton-hadron, electron-positron, and hadron-hadron collisions. He points how the strength of the strong coupling constant, αs, makes QCD calculations converge much more slowly in powers of αs, and missing higher order terms must be carefully estimated. The most stringent test of QCD can be performed in deep inelastic lepton scattering and in e + e - annihilation. In deep inelastic scattering the virtual γ or W/Z are used as a probe of the nucleon structure. They couple to quarks, not gluons. Only the incoming and outgoing lepton have to be measured. The hadronic fluid state does not have to be analyzed. In e + e - annihilation the virtual γ or Z 0 decays to lepton and quark pairs. The branching ratio into quarks is a counter for the number of colours available, the detailed structure of the final state reflects the radiation of gluons as the initial quark-antiquark separate from each other. Quarks and gluons are observed here, though in the presence of hadron formation. Hard hadron-hadron, or parton-parton collisions provide cross sections dominated by the gluon component, which is only weakly measured in deep inelastic collisions. Recent experimental results in these three areas are reviewed, and compared to QCD calculations. Scaling violations and analysis of structure functions in deep inelastic scattering are reviewed. QCD in e + e - branching to hadrons is reviewed near the Z 0 resonance, and a number of cross sections and jet related properties which can be calculated as a function of the single parameter αs are reviewed. Hadron-hadron collisions are reviewed for three processes; jet production, direct photon production, and high p perpendicular W/Z boson production

  1. Resummation of the QCD perturbative series for hard processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catani, S.

    1989-01-01

    We study the region of inhibited radiation in hard hadronic processes, as for jet cross sections and heavy flavour production near threshold. The cases of deep inelastic scattering and Drell-Yan annihilation are explicitly considered. A general method to exponentiate leading and next-to-leading logarithms to all orders in perturbation theory is developed. A complete formula for the large N-moments is given and shown to agree with previous two-loop calculations. The resummation procedure suggests how to connect the perturbative and nonperturbative regions. The natural limit within the perturbative phase is shown to be the intrinsic transverse momentum. (orig.)

  2. Determinations of the QCD strong coupling αsub(s) and the scale Λsub(QCD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, D.W.; Roberts, R.G.

    1984-08-01

    The authors review determinations, via experiment of the strong coupling of QCD, αsub(s). In almost every case, the results are used of perturbative QCD to make the necessary extraction from data. These include scaling violations of deep inelastic scattering, e + e - annihilation experiments (including quarkonium decays) and lepton pair production. Finally estimates for Λ from lattice calculations are listed. (author)

  3. On scale dependence of hardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shorshorov, M.Kh.; Alekhin, V.P.; Bulychev, S.I.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of hardness as a structure-sensitive characteristic of a material is considered. It is shown that in conditions of a decreasing stress field under the inventor the hardness function is determined by the average distance, Lsub(a), between the stops (fixed and sessile dislocations, segregation particles, etc.). In the general case, Lsub(a) depends on the size of the impression and explains the great diversity of hardness functions. The concept of average true deformation rate on depression is introduced

  4. QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Catani, S; Soper, Davison Eugene; Stirling, William James; Tapprogge, Stefan; Alekhin, S I; Aurenche, Patrick; Balázs, C; Ball, R D; Battistoni, G; Berger, E L; Binoth, T; Brock, R L; Casey, D; Corcella, Gennaro; Del Duca, V; Fabbro, A D; de Roeck, A; Ewerz, C; de Florian, D; Fontannaz, M; Frixione, Stefano; Giele, W T; Grazzini, Massimiliano; Guillet, J P; Marlen-Heinrich, G; Huston, J; Kalk, J; Kataev, A L; Kato, K; Keller, S; Klasen, M; Kosower, D A; Kulesza, A; Kunszt, Zoltán; Kupco, A; Ilyin, V A; Magnea, L; Mangano, Michelangelo L; Martin, A D; Mazumdar, K; Miné, P; Moretti, M; van Neerven, W L; Parente, G; Perret-Gallix, D; Pilon, E; Pukhov, A E; Puljak, I; Pumplin, Jon; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Roberts, R G; Salam, Gavin P; Seymour, Michael H; Skachkov, N B; Sidorov, A V; Stenzel, H; Stump, D R; Thorne, R S; Treleani, D; Tung, W K; Vogt, A; Webber, Bryan R; Werlen, M; Zmouchko, S; Mine, Ph.

    2000-01-01

    We discuss issues of QCD at the LHC including parton distributions, Monte Carlo event generators, the available next-to-leading order calculations, resummation, photon production, small x physics, double parton scattering, and backgrounds to Higgs production.

  5. Determining the scale in lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornyakov, V.G. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino (Russian Federation); Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Far Eastern Federal Univ., Vladivostok (Russian Federation). School of Biomedicine; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Hudspith, R. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; and others

    2015-12-15

    We discuss scale setting in the context of 2+1 dynamical fermion simulations where we approach the physical point in the quark mass plane keeping the average quark mass constant. We have simulations at four beta values, and after determining the paths and lattice spacings, we give an estimation of the phenomenological values of various Wilson flow scales.

  6. The scale of soft resummation in SCET vs perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonvini, Marco; Forte, Stefano; Ghezzi, Margherita; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    We summarize and extend previous results on the comparison of threshold resummation, performed using soft-collinear effective theory (SCET) in the Becher-Neubert approach, to the standard perturbative QCD formalism based on factorization and resummation of Mellin moments of partonic cross sections. We show that the logarithmic accuracy of the SCET result can be extended by half a logarithmic order, thereby bringing it in full agreement with the standard QCD result if a suitable choice is made for the soft scale μ s which characterizes the SCET result. We provide a master formula relating the two approaches for other scale choices. We then show that with the Becher-Neubert scale choice the Landau pole, which in the perturbative QCD approach is usually removed through power- or exponentially suppressed terms, in the SCET approach is removed by logarithmically subleading terms which break factorization. Such terms may become leading for generic choices of parton distributions, and are always leading when resummation is used far enough from the hadronic threshold

  7. The scale of soft resummation in SCET vs perturbative QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonvini, Marco [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchroton, DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Forte, Stefano, E-mail: Stefano.Forte@mi.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano and INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ghezzi, Margherita [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma and INFN, Sezione di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, I-00185 Roma,Italy (Italy); Ridolfi, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova and INFN, Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    We summarize and extend previous results on the comparison of threshold resummation, performed using soft-collinear effective theory (SCET) in the Becher-Neubert approach, to the standard perturbative QCD formalism based on factorization and resummation of Mellin moments of partonic cross sections. We show that the logarithmic accuracy of the SCET result can be extended by half a logarithmic order, thereby bringing it in full agreement with the standard QCD result if a suitable choice is made for the soft scale μ{sub s} which characterizes the SCET result. We provide a master formula relating the two approaches for other scale choices. We then show that with the Becher-Neubert scale choice the Landau pole, which in the perturbative QCD approach is usually removed through power- or exponentially suppressed terms, in the SCET approach is removed by logarithmically subleading terms which break factorization. Such terms may become leading for generic choices of parton distributions, and are always leading when resummation is used far enough from the hadronic threshold.

  8. The scale of soft resummation in SCET vs perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonvini, Marco; Forte, Stefano; Ghezzi, Margherita; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    We summarize and extend previous results on the comparison of threshold resummation, performed, using softcollinear effective theory (SCET), in the Becher-Neubert approach, to the standard perturbative QCD formalism based on factorization and resummation of Mellin moments of partonic cross sections. We show that the logarithmic accuracy of this SCET result can be extended by half a logarithmic order, thereby bringing it in full agreement with the standard QCD result if a suitable choice is made for the soft scale μ s which characterizes the SCET result. We provide a master formula relating the two approaches for other scale choices. We then show that with the Becher-Neubert scale choice the Landau pole, which in the perturbative QCD approach is usually removed through power- or exponentially suppressed terms, in the SCET approach is removed by logarithmically subleading terms which break factorization. Such terms may become leading for generic choices of parton distributions, and are always leading when resummation is used far enough from the hadronic threshold.

  9. The scale of soft resummation in SCET vs perturbative QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonvini, Marco [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Forte, Stefano [Milano Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Milano (Italy); Ghezzi, Margherita [Rome-3 Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Roma (Italy); Ridolfi, Giovanni [Genova Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Genova (Italy)

    2013-01-15

    We summarize and extend previous results on the comparison of threshold resummation, performed, using softcollinear effective theory (SCET), in the Becher-Neubert approach, to the standard perturbative QCD formalism based on factorization and resummation of Mellin moments of partonic cross sections. We show that the logarithmic accuracy of this SCET result can be extended by half a logarithmic order, thereby bringing it in full agreement with the standard QCD result if a suitable choice is made for the soft scale {mu}{sub s} which characterizes the SCET result. We provide a master formula relating the two approaches for other scale choices. We then show that with the Becher-Neubert scale choice the Landau pole, which in the perturbative QCD approach is usually removed through power- or exponentially suppressed terms, in the SCET approach is removed by logarithmically subleading terms which break factorization. Such terms may become leading for generic choices of parton distributions, and are always leading when resummation is used far enough from the hadronic threshold.

  10. QCD

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Basic Properties of QCD: the Lagrangian, the running coupling, asymptotic freedom and colour confinement. Examples of perturbative calculations in electron- positron physics (total cross sections and event) Parton branching approach will be used to derive the evolution equations for hadron structure functions Comarison with data on deep inelastic scattering and jet production will be for hadron structure functions and jet fragmentation functions

  11. Large scale computing in theoretical physics: Example QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, K.

    1986-01-01

    The limitations of the classical mathematical analysis of Newton and Leibniz appear to be more and more overcome by the power of modern computers. Large scale computing techniques - which resemble closely the methods used in simulations within statistical mechanics - allow to treat nonlinear systems with many degrees of freedom such as field theories in nonperturbative situations, where analytical methods do fail. The computation of the hadron spectrum within the framework of lattice QCD sets a demanding goal for the application of supercomputers in basic science. It requires both big computer capacities and clever algorithms to fight all the numerical evils that one encounters in the Euclidean world. The talk will attempt to describe both the computer aspects and the present state of the art of spectrum calculations within lattice QCD. (orig.)

  12. Geometric scaling in ultrahigh energy neutrinos and nonlinear perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Magno V.T.

    2011-01-01

    The ultrahigh energy neutrino cross section is a crucial ingredient in the calculation of the event rate in high energy neutrino telescopes. Currently there are several approaches which predict different behaviors for its magnitude for ultrahigh energies. In this contribution is presented a summary of current predictions based on the non-linear QCD evolution equations, the so-called perturbative saturation physics. In particular, predictions are shown based on the parton saturation approaches and the consequences of geometric scaling property at high energies are discussed. The scaling property allows an analytical computation of the neutrino scattering on nucleon/nucleus at high energies, providing a theoretical parameterization. (author)

  13. The renormalization scale-setting problem in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xing-Gang [Chongqing Univ. (China); Brodsky, Stanley J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Mojaza, Matin [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Univ. of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark)

    2013-09-01

    A key problem in making precise perturbative QCD predictions is to set the proper renormalization scale of the running coupling. The conventional scale-setting procedure assigns an arbitrary range and an arbitrary systematic error to fixed-order pQCD predictions. In fact, this ad hoc procedure gives results which depend on the choice of the renormalization scheme, and it is in conflict with the standard scale-setting procedure used in QED. Predictions for physical results should be independent of the choice of the scheme or other theoretical conventions. We review current ideas and points of view on how to deal with the renormalization scale ambiguity and show how to obtain renormalization scheme- and scale-independent estimates. We begin by introducing the renormalization group (RG) equation and an extended version, which expresses the invariance of physical observables under both the renormalization scheme and scale-parameter transformations. The RG equation provides a convenient way for estimating the scheme- and scale-dependence of a physical process. We then discuss self-consistency requirements of the RG equations, such as reflexivity, symmetry, and transitivity, which must be satisfied by a scale-setting method. Four typical scale setting methods suggested in the literature, i.e., the Fastest Apparent Convergence (FAC) criterion, the Principle of Minimum Sensitivity (PMS), the Brodsky–Lepage–Mackenzie method (BLM), and the Principle of Maximum Conformality (PMC), are introduced. Basic properties and their applications are discussed. We pay particular attention to the PMC, which satisfies all of the requirements of RG invariance. Using the PMC, all non-conformal terms associated with the β-function in the perturbative series are summed into the running coupling, and one obtains a unique, scale-fixed, scheme-independent prediction at any finite order. The PMC provides the principle underlying the BLM method, since it gives the general rule for extending

  14. Scheme-scale ambiguity in analysis of QCD observable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirjalili, A.; Kniehl, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    The scheme-scale ambiguity that has plagued perturbative analysis in QCD remains on obstacle to making precise tests of the theory. Many attempts have been done to resolve the scale ambiguity. In this regard the BLM, EC, PMS and CORGI approaches are more distinct. We try to employ these methods to fix the scale ambiguity at NLO, NNLO and even in more higher order approximations. By optimizing the renormalization scale, there will be a possibility to predicate higher order terms. We present general results for predicted terms at any order, using different optimization methods. Some observable as specific examples will be used to indicate the validity of scale fixing to predicate the higher order terms. (authors)

  15. Relevant energy scale of color confinement from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Arata; Suganuma, Hideo

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new lattice framework to extract the relevant gluonic energy scale of QCD phenomena which is based on a 'cut' on link variables in momentum space. This framework is expected to be broadly applicable to all lattice QCD calculations. Using this framework, we quantitatively determine the relevant energy scale of color confinement, through the analyses of the quark-antiquark potential and meson masses. The relevant energy scale of color confinement is found to be below 1.5 GeV in the Landau gauge. In fact, the string tension is almost unchanged even after cutting off the high-momentum gluon component above 1.5 GeV. When the relevant low-energy region is cut, the quark-antiquark potential is approximately reduced to a Coulomb-like potential, and each meson becomes a quasifree quark pair. As an analytical model calculation, we also investigate the dependence of the Richardson potential on the cut, and find the consistent behavior with the lattice result.

  16. NLO QCD Corrections to Drell-Yan in TeV-scale Gravity Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, Prakash; Ravindran, V.

    2006-01-01

    In TeV scale gravity models, we present the NLO-QCD corrections for the double differential cross sections in the scattering angle for dilepton production at hadron colliders. The quantitative impact of QCD corrections for extra dimension searches at LHC and Tevatron are investigated for both ADD and RS models through K-factors. We also show how the inclusion of QCD corrections to NLO stabilises the cross section with respect to renormalisation and factorisation scale variations

  17. How hadron collider experiments contributed to the development of QCD: from hard-scattering to the perfect liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, M. J.

    2018-05-01

    A revolution in elementary particle physics occurred during the period from the ICHEP1968 to the ICHEP1982 with the advent of the parton model from discoveries in Deeply Inelastic electron-proton Scattering at SLAC, neutrino experiments, hard-scattering observed in p+p collisions at the CERN ISR, the development of QCD, the discovery of the J/ Ψ at BNL and SLAC and the clear observation of high transverse momentum jets at the CERN SPS p¯ + p collider. These and other discoveries in this period led to the acceptance of QCD as the theory of the strong interactions. The desire to understand nuclear physics at high density such as in neutron stars led to the application of QCD to this problem and to the prediction of a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) in nuclei at high energy density and temperatures. This eventually led to the construction of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL to observe superdense nuclear matter in the laboratory. This article discusses how experimental methods and results which confirmed QCD at the first hadron collider, the CERN ISR, played an important role in experiments at the first heavy ion collider, RHIC, leading to the discovery of the QGP as a perfect liquid as well as discoveries at RHIC and the LHC which continue to the present day.

  18. QCD phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1979-01-01

    Selected topics in QCD phenomenology are reviewed: the development of an effective jet perturbation series with applications to factorization, energy flow analysis and photon physics; implications of non-perturbative phenomena for hard scattering processes and the pseudoscalar mass spectrum; resonance properties as extracted from the combined technologies of perturbative and non-perturbative QCD. (orig.)

  19. Lattice QCD results on soft and hard probes of strongly interacting matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Olaf

    2017-11-01

    We present recent results from lattice QCD relevant for the study of strongly interacting matter as it is produced in heavy ion collision experiments. The equation of state at non-vanishing density from a Taylor expansion up to 6th order will be discussed for a strangeness neutral system and using the expansion coefficients of the series limits on the critical point are estimated. Chemical freeze-out temperatures from the STAR and ALICE Collaborations will be compared to lines of constant physics calculated from the Taylor expansion of QCD bulk thermodynamic quantities. We show that qualitative features of the √{sNN} dependence of skewness and kurtosis ratios of net proton-number fluctuations measured by the STAR Collaboration can be understood from QCD results for cumulants of conserved baryon-number fluctuations. As an example for recent progress towards the determination of spectral and transport properties of the QGP from lattice QCD, we will present constraints on the thermal photon rate determined from a spectral reconstruction of continuum extrapolated lattice correlation functions in combination with input from most recent perturbative calculations.

  20. Resummations in QCD hard-scattering at large and small x

    CERN Document Server

    Kidonakis, Nikolaos; Stephens, Philip

    2008-01-01

    We discuss different resummations of large logarithms that arise in hard-scattering cross sections of quarks and gluons in regions of large and small x. The large-x logarithms are typically dominant near threshold for the production of a specified final state. These soft and collinear gluon corrections produce large enhancements of the cross section for many processes, notably top quark and Higgs production, and typically the higher-order corrections reduce the factorization and renormalization scale dependence of the cross section. The small-x logarithms are dominant in the regime where the momentum transfer of the hard sub-process is much smaller than the total collision energy. These logarithms are important to describe multijet final states in deep inelastic scattering and hadron colliders, and in the study of parton distribution functions. The resummations at small and large x are linked by the eikonal approximation and are dominated by soft gluon anomalous dimensions. We will review their role in both c...

  1. Lattice QCD - a challenge in large scale computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, K.

    1987-01-01

    The computation of the hadron spectrum within the framework of lattice QCD sets a demanding goal for the application of supercomputers in basic science. It requires both big computer capacities and clever algorithms to fight all the numerical evils that one encounters in the Euclidean space-time-world. The talk will attempt to introduce to the present state of the art of spectrum calculations by lattice simulations. (orig.)

  2. Chiral polarization scale of QCD vacuum and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandru, Andrei; Horv, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    It has recently been found that dynamics of pure glue QCD supports the low energy band of Dirac modes with local chiral properties qualitatively different from that of a bulk: while bulk modes suppress chirality relative to statistical independence between left and right, the band modes enhance it. The width of such chirally polarized zone – chiral polarization scale bigwedge ch – has been shown to be finite in the continuum limit at fixed physical volume. Here we present evidence that bigwedge ch remains non-zero also in the infinite volume, and is therefore a dynamical scale in the theory. Our experiments in N f = 2+1 QCD support the proposition that the same holds in the massless limit, connecting bigwedge ch to spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. In addition, our results suggest that thermal agitation in quenched QCD destroys both chiral polarization and condensation of Dirac modes at the same temperature T ch > T c .

  3. QCD jet evolution at high and low scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Jan-Christopher

    2008-07-01

    The formation of jets of hadrons is a basic manifestation of the strong interaction as explored in and measured by high-energy physics collider experiments. Jets appear as narrow cones of particles that yield energy deposits in the calorimeters of the detectors. Invoking Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) - the underlying theory of the strong interaction and one of the four fundamental forces of nature - leads to predictions and models, which describe the initiation, evolution and hadronization of jets. Good precision and quality of theoretical results and approaches to jet physics are necessary and thus vital for the successful accomplishment of the challenges in elementary particle physics, the current (e.g. proton-antiproton collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron) as well as the upcoming ones (e.g. proton-proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider). In this thesis various aspects of the eld of QCD jet physics are addressed, all of which under the common denominator of validating and improving the simulations computed by Monte Carlo event generators, in particular that of SHERPA, which has been developed in Dresden. Therefor the following questions were investigated, and, respective results have been achieved: - The method of merging tree-level matrix elements with parton showers has been critically verified against other merging approaches for inclusive gauge boson production at Tevatron and LHC energies. Also, the genesis of dibosons has been studied in comparison to next-to-leading order predictions in the strong coupling and other Monte Carlo generator approaches. These studies triggered improvements of the method of SHERPA, and, finally, important results have been derived, proving its relevance for ongoing and future experimental analyses. In its present form this method hence exhibits a very modern, state-of-the-art, approach to multijet production and evolution in high-energy particle collisions. - A new shower model based on QCD colour dipoles and their

  4. QCD jet evolution at high and low scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, Jan-Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The formation of jets of hadrons is a basic manifestation of the strong interaction as explored in and measured by high-energy physics collider experiments. Jets appear as narrow cones of particles that yield energy deposits in the calorimeters of the detectors. Invoking Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) - the underlying theory of the strong interaction and one of the four fundamental forces of nature - leads to predictions and models, which describe the initiation, evolution and hadronization of jets. Good precision and quality of theoretical results and approaches to jet physics are necessary and thus vital for the successful accomplishment of the challenges in elementary particle physics, the current (e.g. proton-antiproton collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron) as well as the upcoming ones (e.g. proton-proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider). In this thesis various aspects of the eld of QCD jet physics are addressed, all of which under the common denominator of validating and improving the simulations computed by Monte Carlo event generators, in particular that of SHERPA, which has been developed in Dresden. Therefor the following questions were investigated, and, respective results have been achieved: - The method of merging tree-level matrix elements with parton showers has been critically verified against other merging approaches for inclusive gauge boson production at Tevatron and LHC energies. Also, the genesis of dibosons has been studied in comparison to next-to-leading order predictions in the strong coupling and other Monte Carlo generator approaches. These studies triggered improvements of the method of SHERPA, and, finally, important results have been derived, proving its relevance for ongoing and future experimental analyses. In its present form this method hence exhibits a very modern, state-of-the-art, approach to multijet production and evolution in high-energy particle collisions. - A new shower model based on QCD colour dipoles and their

  5. Hard Break-Up of Two-Nucleons and QCD Dynamics of NN Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargsian, Misak

    2008-01-01

    We discus recent developments in theory of high energy two-body break-up of few-nucleon systems. The characteristics of these reactions are such that the hard two-body quasielastic subprocess can be clearly separated from the accompanying soft subprocesses. We discuss in details the hard rescattering model (HRM) in which hard photodisintegration develops in two stages. At first, photon knocks-out an energetic quark which rescatters subsequently with a quark of the other nucleon. The latter provides a mechanism of sharing the initial high momentum of the photon between two outgoing nucleons. This final state hard rescattering can be expressed through the hard NN scattering amplitude. Within HRM we discuss hard break-up reactions involving D and 3 He targets and demonstrate how these reactions are sensitive to the dynamics of hard pn and pp interaction. Another development of HRM is the prediction of new helicity selection mechanism for hard two-body reactions, which was apparently confirmed in the recent JLab experiment.

  6. A treatment of hard processes sensitive to the infrared structure of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amati, D.; Veneziano, G.; Bassetto, A.; Marchesini, F.

    1980-01-01

    We propose a modified jet evolution equation which resums large corrections to the usual leading logarithmic approximation when phase-space constraints expose the singular infrared structure of QCD. The modification, which consists simply of a rescaling of the argument of the running coupling constant, is based on perturbative arguments verified at the fourth-order level. Processes analyzed by this method include the quark (Sudakov) form factor, the large moments of structure and fragmentation functions, the asymptotic behaviour of multiplicities and the clustering of final quanta in colourless systems which occupy finite regions of (momentum and position) phase space. (orig.)

  7. Improved hard-thermal-loop effective action for hot QED and QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flechsig, F.; Rebhan, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    The conventional results for hard thermal loops, which are the building blocks of resummed perturbation theory in thermal field theories, have collinear singularities when external momenta are light-like. It is shown that by taking into account asymptotic thermal masses these singularities are removed. The thus improved hard thermal loops can be summarized by compact gauge-invariant effective actions, generalizing the ones found by Taylor and Wong, and by Braaten and Pisarski. (orig.)

  8. Renormalization group invariance and optimal QCD renormalization scale-setting: a key issues review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xing-Gang; Ma, Yang; Wang, Sheng-Quan; Fu, Hai-Bing; Ma, Hong-Hao; Brodsky, Stanley J.; Mojaza, Matin

    2015-12-01

    A valid prediction for a physical observable from quantum field theory should be independent of the choice of renormalization scheme—this is the primary requirement of renormalization group invariance (RGI). Satisfying scheme invariance is a challenging problem for perturbative QCD (pQCD), since a truncated perturbation series does not automatically satisfy the requirements of the renormalization group. In a previous review, we provided a general introduction to the various scale setting approaches suggested in the literature. As a step forward, in the present review, we present a discussion in depth of two well-established scale-setting methods based on RGI. One is the ‘principle of maximum conformality’ (PMC) in which the terms associated with the β-function are absorbed into the scale of the running coupling at each perturbative order; its predictions are scheme and scale independent at every finite order. The other approach is the ‘principle of minimum sensitivity’ (PMS), which is based on local RGI; the PMS approach determines the optimal renormalization scale by requiring the slope of the approximant of an observable to vanish. In this paper, we present a detailed comparison of the PMC and PMS procedures by analyzing two physical observables R e+e- and Γ(H\\to b\\bar{b}) up to four-loop order in pQCD. At the four-loop level, the PMC and PMS predictions for both observables agree within small errors with those of conventional scale setting assuming a physically-motivated scale, and each prediction shows small scale dependences. However, the convergence of the pQCD series at high orders, behaves quite differently: the PMC displays the best pQCD convergence since it eliminates divergent renormalon terms; in contrast, the convergence of the PMS prediction is questionable, often even worse than the conventional prediction based on an arbitrary guess for the renormalization scale. PMC predictions also have the property that any residual dependence on

  9. TMD Evolution at Moderate Hard Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Ted [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Collins, John C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We summarize some of our recent work on non-perturbative transverse momentum dependent (TMD) evolution, emphasizing aspects that are necessary for dealing with moderately low scale processes like semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering.

  10. Does the effective Lagrangian for low-energy QCD scale?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birse, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    Quantum chromodynamics is not an approximately scale-invariant theory. Hence a dilaton field is not expected to provide a good description of the low-energy dynamics associated with the gluon condensate. Even if such a field is introduced, it remains almost unchanged in hadronic matter at normal densities. This is because the large glueball mass together with the size of the phenomenological gluon condensate ensure that changes to that condensate are very small at such densities. Any changes in hadronic masses and decay constants in matter generated by that condensate will be much smaller than those produced directly by changes in the quark condensate. Hence, masses and decay constants are not expected to display a universal scaling. (author)

  11. Wilson flow and scale setting from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornyakov, V.G. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino (Russian Federation); Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Far Eastern Federal Univ., Vladivostok (Russian Federation). School of Biomedicine; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Hudspith, R. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics; Collaboration: QCDSF-UKQCD Collaboration; and others

    2015-08-15

    We give a determination of the phenomenological value of the Wilson (or gradient) flow scales t{sub 0} and w{sub 0} for 2+1 flavours of dynamical quarks. The simulations are performed keeping the average quark mass constant, which allows the approach to the physical point to be made in a controlled manner. O(a) improved clover fermions are used and together with four lattice spacings this allows the continuum extrapolation to be taken.

  12. Meson effective mass in the isospin medium in hard-wall AdS/QCD model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamedov, Shahin [Gazi University, Department of Physics, Ankara (Turkey); Baku State University, Institute for Physical Problems, Baku (Azerbaijan); Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics, Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2016-02-15

    We study a mass splitting of the light vector, axial-vector, and pseudoscalar mesons in the isospin medium in the framework of the hard-wall model. We write an effective mass definition for the interacting gauge fields and scalar field introduced in gauge field theory in the bulk of AdS space-time. Relying on holographic duality we obtain a formula for the effective mass of a boundary meson in terms of derivative operator over the extra bulk coordinate. The effective mass found in this way coincides with the one obtained from finding of poles of the two-point correlation function. In order to avoid introducing distinguished infrared boundaries in the quantization formula for the different mesons from the same isotriplet we introduce extra action terms at this boundary, which reduces distinguished values of this boundary to the same value. Profile function solutions and effective mass expressions were found for the in-medium ρ, a{sub 1}, an π mesons. (orig.)

  13. Scheme-Independent Predictions in QCD: Commensurate Scale Relations and Physical Renormalization Schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    1998-01-01

    Commensurate scale relations are perturbative QCD predictions which relate observable to observable at fixed relative scale, such as the ''generalized Crewther relation'', which connects the Bjorken and Gross-Llewellyn Smith deep inelastic scattering sum rules to measurements of the e + e - annihilation cross section. All non-conformal effects are absorbed by fixing the ratio of the respective momentum transfer and energy scales. In the case of fixed-point theories, commensurate scale relations relate both the ratio of couplings and the ratio of scales as the fixed point is approached. The relations between the observables are independent of the choice of intermediate renormalization scheme or other theoretical conventions. Commensurate scale relations also provide an extension of the standard minimal subtraction scheme, which is analytic in the quark masses, has non-ambiguous scale-setting properties, and inherits the physical properties of the effective charge α V (Q 2 ) defined from the heavy quark potential. The application of the analytic scheme to the calculation of quark-mass-dependent QCD corrections to the Z width is also reviewed

  14. On the probability distribution of the stochastic saturation scale in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquet, C.; Soyez, G.; Xiao Bowen

    2006-01-01

    It was recently noticed that high-energy scattering processes in QCD have a stochastic nature. An event-by-event scattering amplitude is characterised by a saturation scale which is a random variable. The statistical ensemble of saturation scales formed with all the events is distributed according to a probability law whose cumulants have been recently computed. In this work, we obtain the probability distribution from the cumulants. We prove that it can be considered as Gaussian over a large domain that we specify and our results are confirmed by numerical simulations

  15. Setting the renormalization scale in QCD: The principle of maximum conformality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodsky, S. J.; Di Giustino, L.

    2012-01-01

    A key problem in making precise perturbative QCD predictions is the uncertainty in determining the renormalization scale mu of the running coupling alpha(s)(mu(2)). The purpose of the running coupling in any gauge theory is to sum all terms involving the beta function; in fact, when the renormali......A key problem in making precise perturbative QCD predictions is the uncertainty in determining the renormalization scale mu of the running coupling alpha(s)(mu(2)). The purpose of the running coupling in any gauge theory is to sum all terms involving the beta function; in fact, when...... the renormalization scale is set properly, all nonconformal beta not equal 0 terms in a perturbative expansion arising from renormalization are summed into the running coupling. The remaining terms in the perturbative series are then identical to that of a conformal theory; i.e., the corresponding theory with beta...... = 0. The resulting scale-fixed predictions using the principle of maximum conformality (PMC) are independent of the choice of renormalization scheme-a key requirement of renormalization group invariance. The results avoid renormalon resummation and agree with QED scale setting in the Abelian limit...

  16. Scaling functions for the Inverse Compressibility near the QCD critical point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Roy

    2017-09-01

    The QCD phase diagram can be mapped out by studying fluctuations and their response to changes in the temperature and baryon chemical potential. Theoretical studies indicate that the cumulant ratios Cn /Cm used to characterize the fluctuation of conserved charges, provide a valuable probe of deconfinement and chiral dynamics, as well as for identifying the position of the critical endpoint (CEP) in the QCD phase diagram. The ratio C1 /C2 , which is linked to the inverse compressibility, vanishes at the CEP due to the divergence of the net quark number fluctuations at the critical point belonging to the Z(2) universality class. Therefore, it's associated scaling function can give insight on the location of the critical end point, as well as the critical exponents required to assign its static universality class. Scaling functions for the ratio C1 /C2 , obtained from net-proton multiplicity distributions for a broad range of collision centralities in Au+Au (√{sNN} = 7.7 - 200 GeV) collisions will be presented and discussed.

  17. Is It Hard Yet? The Qualitative Agreement of pQCD Energy Loss with RHIC and LHC Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, W A

    2013-01-01

    Heavy flavor research is a vigorous and active topic in high-energy QCD physics. Comparing theoretical predictions to data as a function of flavor provides a unique opportunity to tease out properties of quark-gluon plasma. We explicitly demonstrate this utility with energy loss predictions based on the assumption of 1) a weakly-coupled plasma weakly coupled to a high-p T probe using pQCD and 2) a strongly-coupled plasma strongly coupled to a high-p T probe using AdS/CFT; we find that while the former enjoys broad qualitative agreement with data, it is difficult to reconcile the latter with experimental measurements

  18. QCD condensates in ADS/QCD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechi, Jacopo

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on some issues about condensates and renormalization in AdS/QCD models. In particular we consider the consistency of the AdS/QCD approach for scale dependent quantities as the chiral condensate questioned in some recent papers and the 4D meaning of the 5D cosmological constant...... in a model in which the QCD is dual to a 5D gravity theory. We will be able to give some arguments that the cosmological constant is related to the QCD gluon condensate....

  19. Degeneracy relations in QCD and the equivalence of two systematic all-orders methods for setting the renormalization scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Yu Bi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Principle of Maximum Conformality (PMC eliminates QCD renormalization scale-setting uncertainties using fundamental renormalization group methods. The resulting scale-fixed pQCD predictions are independent of the choice of renormalization scheme and show rapid convergence. The coefficients of the scale-fixed couplings are identical to the corresponding conformal series with zero β-function. Two all-orders methods for systematically implementing the PMC-scale setting procedure for existing high order calculations are discussed in this article. One implementation is based on the PMC-BLM correspondence (PMC-I; the other, more recent, method (PMC-II uses the Rδ-scheme, a systematic generalization of the minimal subtraction renormalization scheme. Both approaches satisfy all of the principles of the renormalization group and lead to scale-fixed and scheme-independent predictions at each finite order. In this work, we show that PMC-I and PMC-II scale-setting methods are in practice equivalent to each other. We illustrate this equivalence for the four-loop calculations of the annihilation ratio Re+e− and the Higgs partial width Γ(H→bb¯. Both methods lead to the same resummed (‘conformal’ series up to all orders. The small scale differences between the two approaches are reduced as additional renormalization group {βi}-terms in the pQCD expansion are taken into account. We also show that special degeneracy relations, which underly the equivalence of the two PMC approaches and the resulting conformal features of the pQCD series, are in fact general properties of non-Abelian gauge theory.

  20. Novel QCD Phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins

    2011-08-12

    I review a number of topics where conventional wisdom in hadron physics has been challenged. For example, hadrons can be produced at large transverse momentum directly within a hard higher-twist QCD subprocess, rather than from jet fragmentation. Such 'direct' processes can explain the deviations from perturbative QCD predictions in measurements of inclusive hadron cross sections at fixed x{sub T} = 2p{sub T}/{radical}s, as well as the 'baryon anomaly', the anomalously large proton-to-pion ratio seen in high centrality heavy ion collisions. Initial-state and final-state interactions of the struck quark, the soft-gluon rescattering associated with its Wilson line, lead to Bjorken-scaling single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, the breakdown of the Lam-Tung relation in Drell-Yan reactions, as well as nuclear shadowing and antishadowing. The Gribov-Glauber theory predicts that antishadowing of nuclear structure functions is not universal, but instead depends on the flavor quantum numbers of each quark and antiquark, thus explaining the anomalous nuclear dependence measured in deep-inelastic neutrino scattering. Since shadowing and antishadowing arise from the physics of leading-twist diffractive deep inelastic scattering, one cannot attribute such phenomena to the structure of the nucleus itself. It is thus important to distinguish 'static' structure functions, the probability distributions computed from the square of the target light-front wavefunctions, versus 'dynamical' structure functions which include the effects of the final-state rescattering of the struck quark. The importance of the J = 0 photon-quark QCD contact interaction in deeply virtual Compton scattering is also emphasized. The scheme-independent BLM method for setting the renormalization scale is discussed. Eliminating the renormalization scale ambiguity greatly improves the precision of QCD predictions and increases the sensitivity of

  1. A scaling study of the step scaling function of quenched QCD with improved gauge actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, S.; Aoki, S.; Fukugita, M.; Ishikawa, K-I.; Ishizuka, N.; Iwasaki, Y.; Kanaya, K.; Kaneko, T.; Kuramashi, Y.; Okawa, M.; Taniguchi, Y.; Ukawa, A.; Yoshie, T.

    2005-01-01

    We study the scaling behavior of the step scaling function for SU(3) gauge theory, employing the Iwasaki gauge action and the Luescher-Weisz gauge action. In particular, we test the choice of boundary counter terms and apply a perturbative procedure for removal of lattice artifacts for the simulation results in the extrapolation procedure. We confirm the universality of the step scaling functions at both weak and strong coupling regions. We also measure the low energy scale ratio with the Iwasaki action, and confirm its universality

  2. Isotropic-nematic transition in a mixture of hard spheres and hard spherocylinders: scaled particle theory description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Holovko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The scaled particle theory is developed for the description of thermodynamical properties of a mixture of hard spheres and hard spherocylinders. Analytical expressions for free energy, pressure and chemical potentials are derived. From the minimization of free energy, a nonlinear integral equation for the orientational singlet distribution function is formulated. An isotropic-nematic phase transition in this mixture is investigated from the bifurcation analysis of this equation. It is shown that with an increase of concentration of hard spheres, the total packing fraction of a mixture on phase boundaries slightly increases. The obtained results are compared with computer simulations data.

  3. Angular distribution of Drell-Yan process at hadron colliders to NLO-QCD in models of TeV scale gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, Prakash; Ravindran, V.

    2006-01-01

    In TeV scale gravity models, for dilepton production at hadron colliders, we present the NLO-QCD corrections for the double differential cross section in the invariant mass and scattering angle. For both ADD and RS models, the quantitative impact of QCD corrections for extra dimension searches at LHC and Tevatron are investigated. We present the K-factors for both ADD and RS models at LHC and Tevatron. Inclusion of QCD corrections to NLO stabilises the cross section with respect to scale variations

  4. Anomalous leptonic U(1) symmetry: Syndetic origin of the QCD axion, weak-scale dark matter, and radiative neutrino mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ernest; Restrepo, Diego; Zapata, Óscar

    2018-01-01

    The well-known leptonic U(1) symmetry of the Standard Model (SM) of quarks and leptons is extended to include a number of new fermions and scalars. The resulting theory has an invisible QCD axion (thereby solving the strong CP problem), a candidate for weak-scale dark matter (DM), as well as radiative neutrino masses. A possible key connection is a color-triplet scalar, which may be produced and detected at the Large Hadron Collider.

  5. Calculating hadronic properties in strong QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    This talk gives a brief review of the progress that has been made in calculating the properties of hadrons in strong QCD. In keeping with this meeting I will concentrate on those properties that can be studied with electromagnetic probes. Though perturbative QCD is highly successful, it only applies in a limited kinematic regime, where hard scattering occur, and the quarks move in the interaction region as if they are free, pointlike objects. However, the bulk of strong interactions are governed by the long distance regime, where the strong interaction is strong. It is this regime of length scales of the order of a Fermi, that determines the spectrum of light hadrons and their properties. The calculation of these properties requires an understanding of non-perturbative QCD, of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking. (author)

  6. Perturbative QCD (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Perturbative QCD is the general theoretical framework for describing hard scattering processes yielding multiparticle production at hadron colliders. In these lectures, we shall introduce fundamental features of perturbative QCD and describe its application to several high energy collider processes, including jet production in electron-positron annihilation, deep inelastic scattering, Higgs boson and gauge boson production at the LHC.

  7. Recent QCD results from ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has performed studies of a wide range of QCD phenomena, from soft particle to hard photon and jet production. Recent soft-QCD measurements include studies of underlying event and vector meson production. Differential measurements of inclusive and dijet production provide stringent tests of high-order QCD predictions and provide input for determination of parton density functions. Measurements of isolated inclusive and di-photons cross sections for high transverse momentum photons test theoretical predictions of perturbative QCD and constrain parton density functions. An overview of these results is given.

  8. Scaling properties of S-wave level density for heavy quarkonium from QCD sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    In the framework of a specific scheme of the QCD sum rules for S-wave of the heavy quarkonium one derives an expression, relating the energetic density of quarkonium states and universal characteristics in the heavy quarkonium physics, such as the difference between the masses of a heavy quark Q and meson and the number of heavy quarkonium levels below the threshold decay. 20 refs

  9. Scaling and χPT description of pions from Nf=2 twisted mass QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimopoulos, Petros; Frezzotti, Roberto; Herdoiza, Gregorio; Jansen, Karl; Michael, Chris; Urbach, Carsten; Bonn Univ.

    2009-12-01

    We study light-quark observables by means of dynamical lattice QCD simulations using two flavours of twisted mass fermions at maximal twist. We employ chiral perturbation theory to describe our data for the pion mass and decay constant. In this way, we extract precise determinations for the low-energy constants of the effective theory as well as for the light-quark mass and the chiral condensate. (orig.)

  10. Computers for Lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christ, Norman H

    2000-01-01

    The architecture and capabilities of the computers currently in use for large-scale lattice QCD calculations are described and compared. Based on this present experience, possible future directions are discussed

  11. Replica scaling studies of hard missile impacts on reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, P.; Carter, P.G.; Howe, W.D.; Neilson, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Missile and target combinations at three different liners scales have been used in an experimental assessment of the applicability of replica scaling to the dynamic behaviour of reinforced concrete structures impacted by rigid missiles. Experimental results are presented for models with relative linear scales of 1, 0.37 and 0.12. (orig.) [de

  12. Delving into QCD jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, K.

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses, in an introductory fashion, the latest developments in the study of hadronic jets produced in hard processes, based on perturbative QCD. Emphasis is on jet calculus (and its applications and generalizations), and on the appearance of a parton-like consistent, over-all picture of jet evolution in momentum, colour, and real space-time. (Auth.)

  13. Setting the renormalization scale in pQCD: Comparisons of the principle of maximum conformality with the sequential extended Brodsky-Lepage-Mackenzie approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Hong -Hao [Chongqing Univ., Chongqing (People' s Republic of China); Wu, Xing -Gang [Chongqing Univ., Chongqing (People' s Republic of China); Ma, Yang [Chongqing Univ., Chongqing (People' s Republic of China); Brodsky, Stanley J. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Mojaza, Matin [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology and Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-05-26

    A key problem in making precise perturbative QCD (pQCD) predictions is how to set the renormalization scale of the running coupling unambiguously at each finite order. The elimination of the uncertainty in setting the renormalization scale in pQCD will greatly increase the precision of collider tests of the Standard Model and the sensitivity to new phenomena. Renormalization group invariance requires that predictions for observables must also be independent on the choice of the renormalization scheme. The well-known Brodsky-Lepage-Mackenzie (BLM) approach cannot be easily extended beyond next-to-next-to-leading order of pQCD. Several suggestions have been proposed to extend the BLM approach to all orders. In this paper we discuss two distinct methods. One is based on the “Principle of Maximum Conformality” (PMC), which provides a systematic all-orders method to eliminate the scale and scheme ambiguities of pQCD. The PMC extends the BLM procedure to all orders using renormalization group methods; as an outcome, it significantly improves the pQCD convergence by eliminating renormalon divergences. An alternative method is the “sequential extended BLM” (seBLM) approach, which has been primarily designed to improve the convergence of pQCD series. The seBLM, as originally proposed, introduces auxiliary fields and follows the pattern of the β0-expansion to fix the renormalization scale. However, the seBLM requires a recomputation of pQCD amplitudes including the auxiliary fields; due to the limited availability of calculations using these auxiliary fields, the seBLM has only been applied to a few processes at low orders. In order to avoid the complications of adding extra fields, we propose a modified version of seBLM which allows us to apply this method to higher orders. As a result, we then perform detailed numerical comparisons of the two alternative scale-setting approaches by investigating their predictions for the annihilation cross section ratio R

  14. RIKEN WINTER SCHOOL: STRUCTURE OF HADRONS - INTRODUCTION TO QCD HARD PROCESSES. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP, DECEMBER 9-12, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, N.

    1999-01-01

    In this lecture I give a pedagogical introduction to the Perturbative QCD to understand the short-distance dynamics of the strong interaction. Starting with fundamental concepts such as the color degree of freedom of QCD, non-abelian gauge field theory, renormalization group equation etc., I explain a basic idea of the perturbative QCD and apply this idea to the e + e - processes and the structure functions. The notion of mass singularity and the necessity of its factorization is discussed in some detail

  15. QCD Dual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    We uncover a novel solution of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions for QCD. Interestingly in the perturbative regime the new gauge theory, if interpreted as a possible QCD dual, predicts the critical number of flavors above which QCD in the nonperturbative regime, develops an infrared stable...

  16. Conformal Symmetry as a Template for QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S

    2004-08-04

    Conformal symmetry is broken in physical QCD; nevertheless, one can use conformal symmetry as a template, systematically correcting for its nonzero {beta} function as well as higher-twist effects. For example, commensurate scale relations which relate QCD observables to each other, such as the generalized Crewther relation, have no renormalization scale or scheme ambiguity and retain a convergent perturbative structure which reflects the underlying conformal symmetry of the classical theory. The ''conformal correspondence principle'' also dictates the form of the expansion basis for hadronic distribution amplitudes. The AdS/CFT correspondence connecting superstring theory to superconformal gauge theory has important implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders demonstration of counting rules for hard exclusive processes as well as determining essential aspects of hadronic light-front wavefunctions. Theoretical and phenomenological evidence is now accumulating that QCD couplings based on physical observables such as {tau} decay become constant at small virtuality; i.e., effective charges develop an infrared fixed point in contradiction to the usual assumption of singular growth in the infrared. The near-constant behavior of effective couplings also suggests that QCD can be approximated as a conformal theory even at relatively small momentum transfer. The importance of using an analytic effective charge such as the pinch scheme for unifying the electroweak and strong couplings and forces is also emphasized.

  17. Conformal Symmetry as a Template for QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S

    2004-01-01

    Conformal symmetry is broken in physical QCD; nevertheless, one can use conformal symmetry as a template, systematically correcting for its nonzero β function as well as higher-twist effects. For example, commensurate scale relations which relate QCD observables to each other, such as the generalized Crewther relation, have no renormalization scale or scheme ambiguity and retain a convergent perturbative structure which reflects the underlying conformal symmetry of the classical theory. The ''conformal correspondence principle'' also dictates the form of the expansion basis for hadronic distribution amplitudes. The AdS/CFT correspondence connecting superstring theory to superconformal gauge theory has important implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders demonstration of counting rules for hard exclusive processes as well as determining essential aspects of hadronic light-front wavefunctions. Theoretical and phenomenological evidence is now accumulating that QCD couplings based on physical observables such as τ decay become constant at small virtuality; i.e., effective charges develop an infrared fixed point in contradiction to the usual assumption of singular growth in the infrared. The near-constant behavior of effective couplings also suggests that QCD can be approximated as a conformal theory even at relatively small momentum transfer. The importance of using an analytic effective charge such as the pinch scheme for unifying the electroweak and strong couplings and forces is also emphasized

  18. A method of analyzing the scaling violation of inclusive spectra in hard processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furmanski, W.; Petronzio, R.

    1982-01-01

    The analytic solution of the evolution equations in QCD is given in the form of a series of Laguerre polynomials in the variable y = ln(1/x). The Laguerre series converges very quickly and it can be truncated after few terms with a reasonable accuracy. Also high precision calculations are possible since the coefficients of the series are given by simple recurrence formulae. The method works both for non-singlet and for singlet spectra and it can be applied to any hard process. The inclusion of higher order effects is immediate. The Laguerre technique provides a natural framework for extracting from the data the input quark and gluon distributions without any prejudices concerning their particular analytic form. (orig.)

  19. The QCD mass gap and quark deconfinement scales as mass bounds in strong gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burikham, Piyabut [Chulalongkorn University, High Energy Physics Theory Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Bangkok (Thailand); Harko, Tiberiu [Babes-Bolyai University, Department of Physics, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Lake, Matthew J. [Sun Yat-Sen University, School of Physics, Guangzhou (China); Nanyang Technological University, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Singapore (Singapore); Naresuan University, The Institute for Fundamental Study, ' ' The Tah Poe Academia Institute' ' , Phitsanulok (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2017-11-15

    Though not a part of mainstream physics, Salam's theory of strong gravity remains a viable effective model for the description of strong interactions in the gauge singlet sector of QCD, capable of producing particle confinement and asymptotic freedom, but not of reproducing interactions involving SU(3) color charge. It may therefore be used to explore the stability and confinement of gauge singlet hadrons, though not to describe scattering processes that require color interactions. It is a two-tensor theory of both strong interactions and gravity, in which the strong tensor field is governed by equations formally identical to the Einstein equations, apart from the coupling parameter, which is of order 1 GeV{sup -1}. We revisit the strong gravity theory and investigate the strong gravity field equations in the presence of a mixing term which induces an effective strong cosmological constant, Λ{sub f}. This introduces a strong de Sitter radius for strongly interacting fermions, producing a confining bubble, which allows us to identify Λ{sub f} with the 'bag constant' of the MIT bag model, B ≅ 2 x 10{sup 14} g cm{sup -3}. Assuming a static, spherically symmetric geometry, we derive the strong gravity TOV equation, which describes the equilibrium properties of compact hadronic objects. From this, we determine the generalized Buchdahl inequalities for a strong gravity 'particle', giving rise to upper and lower bounds on the mass/radius ratio of stable, compact, strongly interacting objects. We show, explicitly, that the existence of the lower mass bound is induced by the presence of Λ{sub f}, producing a mass gap, and that the upper bound corresponds to a deconfinement phase transition. The physical implications of our results for holographic duality in the context of the AdS/QCD and dS/QCD correspondences are also discussed. (orig.)

  20. Factorisation scale independence, the connection between alternative explanations of the EMC effect and QCD predictions for nuclear properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, F.E.; Roberts, R.G.; Ross, G.G.

    1987-05-01

    Different models are examined for deep inelastic scattering in nuclei in the context of the operator product expansion where the operator matrix elements involve a factorisation scale characterising the separation of short or long distance physics. By exploiting the independence of physical quantities upon this scale seemingly different models for the nucleus can be connected, such as dynamical rescaling and the standard convolution models of nuclear physics, allowing nuclear properties to be simply expressed in terms of the anomalous dimensions of QCD. A discussion is carried out of how non-convolution contributions may also be described by dynamical rescaling and it is shown how to extend dynamical rescaling to describe spin dependent quantities. (author)

  1. NNLO QCD corrections to the Drell-Yan cross section in models of TeV-scale gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Taushif; Banerjee, Pulak; Dhani, Prasanna K.; Rana, Narayan [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai (India); Kumar, M.C. [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Department of Physics, Guwahati (India); Mathews, Prakash [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Ravindran, V. [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2017-01-15

    The first results on the complete next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) Quantum Chromodynamic (QCD) corrections to the production of di-leptons at hadron colliders in large extra dimension models with spin-2 particles are reported in this article. In particular, we have computed these corrections to the invariant mass distribution of the di-leptons taking into account all the partonic sub-processes that contribute at NNLO. In these models, spin-2 particles couple through the energy-momentum tensor of the Standard Model with the universal coupling strength. The tensorial nature of the interaction and the presence of both quark annihilation and gluon fusion channels at the Born level make it challenging computationally and interesting phenomenologically. We have demonstrated numerically the importance of our results at Large Hadron Collider energies. The two-loop corrections contribute an additional 10% to the total cross section. We find that the QCD corrections are not only large but also important to make the predictions stable under renormalisation and factorisation scale variations, providing an opportunity to stringently constrain the parameters of the models with a spin-2 particle. (orig.)

  2. Determination of the QCD color factor ratio CA/CF from the scale dependence of multiplicity in three jet events

    CERN Document Server

    Gary, J W

    2000-01-01

    I examine the determination of the QCD color factor ratio CA/CF from the scale evolution of particle multiplicity in e+e- three jet events. I fit an analytic expression for the multiplicity in three jet events to event samples generated with QCD multihadronic event generators. I demonstrate that a one parameter fit of CA/CF yields the expected result CA/CF=2.25 in the limit of asymptotically large energies if energy conservation is included in the calculation. In contrast, a two parameter fit of CA/CF and a constant offset to the gluon jet multiplicity, proposed in a recent study, does not yield CA/CF=2.25 in this limit. I apply the one parameter fit method to recently published data of the DELPHI experiment at LEP and determine the effective value of CA/CF from this technique, at the finite energy of the Z0 boson, to be 1.74+-0.03+-0.10, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic.

  3. Predictive Lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronfeld, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the quantum field theory describing the strong interactions of quarks bound inside hadrons. It is marvelous theory, which works (mathematically) at all distance scales. Indeed, for thirty years, theorists have known how to calculate short-distance properties of QCD, thanks to the (Nobel-worthy) idea of asymptotic freedom. More recently, numerical techniques applied to the strong-coupling regime of QCD have enabled us to compute long-distance bound-state properties. In this colloquium, we review these achievements and show how the new-found methods of calculation will influence high-energy physics.

  4. Novel QCD Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; SLAC

    2007-01-01

    I discuss a number of novel topics in QCD, including the use of the AdS/CFT correspondence between Anti-de Sitter space and conformal gauge theories to obtain an analytically tractable approximation to QCD in the regime where the QCD coupling is large and constant. In particular, there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimension coordinate z of AdS space and a specific impact variable ζ which measures the separation of the quark constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of mesons and baryons, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of exclusive scattering amplitudes. I also discuss a number of novel phenomenological features of QCD. Initial- and final-state interactions from gluon-exchange, normally neglected in the parton model, have a profound effect in QCD hard-scattering reactions, leading to leading-twist single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, diffractive hard hadronic reactions, the breakdown of the Lam Tung relation in Drell-Yan reactions, and nuclear shadowing and non-universal antishadowing--leading-twist physics not incorporated in the light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. I also discuss tests of hidden color in nuclear wavefunctions, the use of diffraction to materialize the Fock states of a hadronic projectile and test QCD color transparency, and anomalous heavy quark effects. The presence of direct higher-twist processes where a proton is produced in the hard subprocess can explain the large proton-to-pion ratio seen in high centrality heavy ion collisions

  5. Experimental tests of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansl-Kozanecka, T.

    1992-01-01

    The phenomenological aspects of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) are examined which are relevant for lepton-hadron, electron-positron and hadron-hadron collisions. In deep inelastic scattering the virtual γ or W/Z is used as a probe of the nucleon structure. The strong coupling constant (α s ) measurements via deep inelastic scattering and e + e - annihilation are discussed. Parton-parton collisions (e.g., hard hadron-hadron collisions) are examined as the third regime for QCD tests. (K.A.) 122 refs., 84 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Large scale simulations of lattice QCD thermodynamics on Columbia Parallel Supercomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Shigemi

    1989-01-01

    The Columbia Parallel Supercomputer project aims at the construction of a parallel processing, multi-gigaflop computer optimized for numerical simulations of lattice QCD. The project has three stages; 16-node, 1/4GF machine completed in April 1985, 64-node, 1GF machine completed in August 1987, and 256-node, 16GF machine now under construction. The machines all share a common architecture; a two dimensional torus formed from a rectangular array of N 1 x N 2 independent and identical processors. A processor is capable of operating in a multi-instruction multi-data mode, except for periods of synchronous interprocessor communication with its four nearest neighbors. Here the thermodynamics simulations on the two working machines are reported. (orig./HSI)

  7. Semihard QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiecinski, J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent results concerning the small x limit of parton distributions in perturbative QCD are reviewed. This includes in particular discussion of the bare Pomeron in perturbative QCD and of shadowing corrections. The minijet production processes and possible manifestation of semihard interactions in high energy pp-bar elastic scattering are also discussed. 46 refs., 8 figs. (author)

  8. Future directions for QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1996-10-01

    New directions for exploring QCD at future high-energy colliders are sketched. These include jets within jets. BFKL dynamics, soft and hard diffraction, searches for disoriented chiral condensate, and doing a better job on minimum bias physics. The new experimental opportunities include electron-ion collisions at HERA, a new collider detector at the C0 region of the TeVatron, and the FELIX initiative at the LHC

  9. Hard Diffraction - from Blois 1985 to 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnar, Ingelman [Uppsala Univ., High Energy Physics (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    The idea of diffractive processes with a hard scale involved, to resolve the underlying parton dynamics, was presented at the first Blois conference in 1985 and experimentally verified a few years later. Today hard diffraction is an attractive research field with high-quality data and new theoretical models. The trend from Regge-based pomeron models to QCD-based parton level models has given insights on QCD dynamics involving perturbative gluon exchange mechanisms. In the new QCD-based models, the pomeron is not part of the proton wave function, but diffraction is an effect of the scattering process. Models based on interactions with a colour background field provide an interesting approach which avoids conceptual problems of pomeron-based models, such as the pomeron flux, and provide a basis for common theoretical framework for all final states, diffractive gap events as well as non-diffractive events. Finally, the new process of gaps between jets provides strong evidence for the BFKL dynamics as predicted since long by QCD, but so far hard to establish experimentally.

  10. Hard electroproduction of hybrid mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, I.V.; LPT Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay; Szymanowski, L.; Teryaev, O.V.; ); Wallon, S.

    2005-01-01

    We estimate the sizeable cross section for deep exclusive electroproduction of an exotic J PC = 1 -+ hybrid meson in the Bjorken regime. The production amplitude scales like the one for usual meson electroproduction, i.e. as 1/Q 2 . This is due to the non-vanishing leading twist distribution amplitude for the hybrid meson, which may be normalized thanks to its relation to the energy momentum tensor and to the QCD sum rules technique. The hard amplitude is considered up to next-to-leading order in as and we explore the consequences of fixing the renormalization scale ambiguity through the BLM procedure. (author)

  11. Lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenfratz, P.

    1983-01-01

    The author presents a general introduction to lattice gauge theories and discusses non-perturbative methods in the gauge sector. He then shows how the lattice works in obtaining the string tension in SU(2). Lattice QCD at finite physical temperature is discussed. Universality tests in SU(2) lattice QCD are presented. SU(3) pure gauge theory is briefly dealt with. Finally, fermions on the lattice are considered. (Auth.)

  12. Opportunities, Challenges, and Fantasies in Lattice QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Wilczek, Frank

    2002-01-01

    Some important problems in quantitative QCD will certainly yield to hard work and adequate investment of resources, others appear difficult but may be accessible, and still others will require essentially new ideas. Here I identify several examples in each class.

  13. Geometric scaling in ultrahigh-energy neutrino scattering and nonlinear perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Magno V.T.

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that in ultrahigh-energy inelastic neutrino-nucleon(nucleus) scattering the cross sections for the boson-hadron(nucleus) reactions should exhibit geometric scaling on the single variable τ A =Q 2 /Q sat,A 2 . The dependence on energy and atomic number of the charged/neutral current cross sections are encoded in the saturation momentum Q sat,A . This fact allows an analytical computation of the neutrino scattering on nucleon/nucleus at high energies, providing a theoretical parameterization based on the scaling property

  14. Soft gluons and superleading logarithms in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Forshaw, J R

    2009-01-01

    After a brief introduction to the physics of soft gluons in QCD we present a surprising prediction. Dijet production in hadron-hadron collisions provides the paradigm, i.e. h_1 +h_2 \\to jj+X. In particular, we look at the case where there is a restriction placed on the emission of any further jets in the region in between the primary (highest p_T) dijets. Logarithms in the ratio of the jet scale to the veto scale can be summed to all orders in the strong coupling. Surprisingly, factorization of collinear emissions fails at scales above the veto scale and triggers the appearance of double logarithms in the hard sub-process. The effect appears first at fourth order relative to the leading order prediction and is subleading in the number of colours.

  15. Lattice QCD for cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsanyi, Sz.; Kampert, K.H.; Fodor, Z.; Forschungszentrum Juelich; Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest

    2016-06-01

    We present a full result for the equation of state (EoS) in 2+1+1 (up/down, strange and charm quarks are present) flavour lattice QCD. We extend this analysis and give the equation of state in 2+1+1+1 flavour QCD. In order to describe the evolution of the universe from temperatures several hundreds of GeV to the MeV scale we also include the known effects of the electroweak theory and give the effective degree of freedoms. As another application of lattice QCD we calculate the topological susceptibility (χ) up to the few GeV temperature region. These two results, EoS and χ, can be used to predict the dark matter axion's mass in the post-inflation scenario and/or give the relationship between the axion's mass and the universal axionic angle, which acts as a initial condition of our universe.

  16. QCD analysis of p-bar N->{gamma}*{pi} in the scaling limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pire, B. [CPhT, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Szymanowski, L. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland) and Universite de Liege, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)]. E-mail: lech@nuclth02.phys.ulg.ac.be

    2005-08-25

    We study the scaling regime of nucleon-antinucleon annihilation into a deeply virtual photon and a meson, p-bar N->{gamma}*{pi}, in the forward kinematics, where vertical bar t vertical bar Q{sup 2}{approx}s. We obtain the leading twist amplitude in the kinematical region where it factorizes into an antiproton distribution amplitude, a short-distance matrix element related to nucleon form factor and the long-distance dominated transition distribution amplitudes which describe the nucleon to meson transition. We give the Q{sup 2} evolution equation for these transition distribution amplitudes. The scaling of the cross section of this process may be tested at the proposed GSI intense antiproton beam facility FAIR with the PANDA or PAX detectors. We comment on related processes such as {pi}N->N{sup '}{gamma}* and {gamma}*N->N{sup '}{pi} which may be experimentally studied at intense meson beams facilities and at JLab or Hermes, respectively.

  17. Basics of QCD perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soper, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    This is an introduction to the use of QCD perturbation theory, emphasizing generic features of the theory that enable one to separate short-time and long-time effects. The author also covers some important classes of applications: electron-positron annihilation to hadrons, deeply inelastic scattering, and hard processes in hadron-hadron collisions. 31 refs., 38 figs

  18. Basics of QCD perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soper, D.E. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Inst. of Theoretical Science

    1997-06-01

    This is an introduction to the use of QCD perturbation theory, emphasizing generic features of the theory that enable one to separate short-time and long-time effects. The author also covers some important classes of applications: electron-positron annihilation to hadrons, deeply inelastic scattering, and hard processes in hadron-hadron collisions. 31 refs., 38 figs.

  19. From HERA to the Tevatron: A scaling law in hard diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulianos, K.

    1997-01-01

    Results on hard diffraction from CDF are reviewed and compared with predictions based on the diffractive structure function of the proton measured in deep inelastic scattering at HERA. The predictions are generally larger than the measured rates by a factor of ∼ 6, suggesting a breakdown of conventional factorization. Correct predictions are obtained by scaling the rapidity gap probability distribution of the diffractive structure function to the total integrated gap probability. The scaling of the gap probability is traced back to the pomeron flux renormalization hypothesis, which was introduced to unitarize the soft diffraction amplitude

  20. Scaling studies of QCD with the dynamical highly improved staggered quark action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazavov, A.; Freeman, W.; Toussaint, D.; Bernard, C.; Laiho, J.; DeTar, C.; Levkova, L.; Oktay, M.; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, U. M.; Hetrick, J. E.; Osborn, J.; Sugar, R. L.; Van de Water, R. S.

    2010-01-01

    We study the lattice spacing dependence, or scaling, of physical quantities using the highly improved staggered quark (HISQ) action introduced by the HPQCD/UKQCD Collaboration, comparing our results to similar simulations with the asqtad fermion action. Results are based on calculations with lattice spacings approximately 0.15, 0.12, and 0.09 fm, using four flavors of dynamical HISQ quarks. The strange and charm quark masses are near their physical values, and the light-quark mass is set to 0.2 times the strange-quark mass. We look at the lattice spacing dependence of hadron masses, pseudoscalar meson decay constants, and the topological susceptibility. In addition to the commonly used determination of the lattice spacing through the static quark potential, we examine a determination proposed by the HPQCD Collaboration that uses the decay constant of a fictitious ''unmixed ss'' pseudoscalar meson. We find that the lattice artifacts in the HISQ simulations are much smaller than those in the asqtad simulations at the same lattice spacings and quark masses.

  1. Effects of device scaling and geometry on MOS radiation hardness assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Winokur, P.S.; Schwank, J.R.; Meisenheimer, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    In this work the authors investigate the effects of transistor scaling and geometry on radiation hardness. The total dose response is shown to depend strongly on transistor channel length. Specifically, transistors with shorter gate lengths tend to show more negative threshold-voltage shifts during irradiation than transistors with longer gate lengths. Similarly, transistors with longer gate lengths tend to show more positive threshold-voltage shifts during post-irradiation annealing than transistors with shorter gate lengths. These differences in radiation response, caused by differences in transistor size and geometry, will be important to factor into test-structure-to-IC correlations necessary to support cost-effective Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) hardness assurance. Transistors with minimum gate length (more negative ΔV th ) will have a larger effect on standby power supply current for an IC at high dose rates, such as in a weapon environment, where worst-case response is associated with negative threshold-voltage shifts during irradiation. On the other hand, transistors with maximum gate length (more positive ΔV th ) will have a larger effect on the timing parameters of an IC at low dose rates, such as in a space environment, where worst-case response is represented by positive threshold-voltage shifts after postirradiation anneal. The channel size and geometry effects they observe cannot be predicted from simple scaling models, but occur because of real differences in oxide-, interface-, and border-trap charge densities among devices of different sizes

  2. Generalization of BLM procedure and its scales in any order of pQCD: a practical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, S.V.

    2005-01-01

    Brodsky-Lepage-Mackenzie procedure is sequentially extended for any fixed order of the perturbation QCD. The reformed perturbation series looks like a continued fraction. A generalization of this procedure which provides one with a certain mechanism of the Fastest Apparent Convergence (FAC) prescription is developed. This generalized BLM procedure is applied to Adler function D in N 3 LO and N 4 LO. The final effect of this generalized BLM improvement for D and R e + e - functions is discussed

  3. New Perspectives for Hadron Phenomenology:The Effects of Final-State Interactions and Near-Conformal Effective QCD Couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S

    2003-10-24

    The effective QCD charge extracted from {tau} decay is remarkably constant at small momenta, implying the near-conformal behavior of hadronic interactions at small momentum transfer. The correspondence of large-N{sub c} supergravity theory in higher-dimensional anti-de Sitter spaces with gauge theory in physical space-time also has interesting implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, such as constituent counting rules for hard exclusive processes. The utility of light-front quantization and lightfront Fock wavefunctions for analyzing such phenomena and representing the dynamics of QCD bound states is reviewed. I also discuss the novel effects of initial- and final-state interactions in hard QCD inclusive processes, including Bjorken-scaling single-spin asymmetries and the leading-twist diffractive and shadowing contributions to deep inelastic lepton-proton scattering.

  4. Weak-interacting holographic QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazit, D.; Yee, H.-U.

    2008-06-01

    We propose a simple prescription for including low-energy weak-interactions into the frame- work of holographic QCD, based on the standard AdS/CFT dictionary of double-trace deformations. As our proposal enables us to calculate various electro-weak observables involving strongly coupled QCD, it opens a new perspective on phenomenological applications of holographic QCD. We illustrate efficiency and usefulness of our method by performing a few exemplar calculations; neutron beta decay, charged pion weak decay, and meson-nucleon parity non-conserving (PNC) couplings. The idea is general enough to be implemented in both Sakai-Sugimoto as well as Hard/Soft Wall models. (author)

  5. Conformal Aspects of QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S

    2003-11-19

    Theoretical and phenomenological evidence is now accumulating that the QCD coupling becomes constant at small virtuality; i.e., {alpha}{sub s}(Q{sup 2}) develops an infrared fixed point in contradiction to the usual assumption of singular growth in the infrared. For example, the hadronic decays of the {tau} lepton can be used to determine the effective charge {alpha}{sub {tau}}(m{sub {tau}{prime}}{sup 2}) for a hypothetical {tau}-lepton with mass in the range 0 < m{sub {tau}{prime}} < m{sub {tau}}. The {tau} decay data at low mass scales indicates that the effective charge freezes at a value of s = m{sub {tau}{prime}}{sup 2} of order 1 GeV{sup 2} with a magnitude {alpha}{sub {tau}} {approx} 0.9 {+-} 0.1. The near-constant behavior of effective couplings suggests that QCD can be approximated as a conformal theory even at relatively small momentum transfer and why there are no significant running coupling corrections to quark counting rules for exclusive processes. The AdS/CFT correspondence of large N{sub c} supergravity theory in higher-dimensional anti-de Sitter space with supersymmetric QCD in 4-dimensional space-time also has interesting implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders demonstration of counting rules for exclusive processes and light-front wavefunctions. The utility of light-front quantization and light-front Fock wavefunctions for analyzing nonperturbative QCD and representing the dynamics of QCD bound states is also discussed.

  6. The structure of gluon radiation in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parke, S.; Mangano, M.

    1989-08-01

    For massless QCD the hard scattering amplitudes are naturally written in terms of the dual color expansion. here I present this expansion for purely gluonic processes and processes involving quark-antiquark pairs and gluons. The properties of the sub-amplitudes as well as explicit algebraic expressions are given for a number of these processes. Also, I demonstrate how to recover massless QED amplitudes from the dual expansion of massless QCD. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  7. The structure of gluon radiation in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parke, S.; Mangano, M.

    1990-01-01

    For massless QCD the hard scattering amplitudes are naturally written in terms of the dual color expansion. Here I present this expansion for purely gluonic processes and processes involving quark-antiquark pairs and gluons. The properties of the sub-amplitudes as well as explicit algebraic expressions are given for a number of these processess. Finally, I demonstrate how to recover massless QED amplitudes from the dual expansion of massless QCD

  8. QCD as a Theory of Hadrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narison, Stephan

    2007-07-01

    About Stephan Narison; Outline of the book; Preface; Acknowledgements; Part I. General Introduction: 1. A short flash on particle physics; 2. The pre-QCD era; 3. The QCD story; 4. Field theory ingredients; Part II. QCD Gauge Theory: 5. Lagrangian and gauge invariance; 6. Quantization using path integral; 7. QCD and its global invariance; Part III. MS scheme for QCD and QED: Introduction; 8. Dimensional regularization; 9. The MS renormalization scheme; 10. Renormalization of operators using the background field method; 11. The renormalization group; 12. Other renormalization schemes; 13. MS scheme for QED; 14. High-precision low-energy QED tests; Part IV. Deep Inelastic Scattering at Hadron Colliders: 15. OPE for deep inelastic scattering; 16. Unpolarized lepton-hadron scattering; 17. The Altarelli-Parisi equation; 18. More on unpolarized deep inelastic scatterings; 19. Polarized deep-inelastic processes; 20. Drell-Yan process; 21. One 'prompt photon' inclusive production; Part V. Hard Processes in e+e- Collisions: Introduction; 22. One hadron inclusive production; 23. gg scatterings and the 'spin' of the photon; 24. QCD jets; 25. Total inclusive hadron productions; Part VI. Summary of QCD Tests and as Measurements; Part VII. Power Corrections in QCD: 26. Introduction; 27. The SVZ expansion; 28. Technologies for evaluating Wilson coefficients; 29. Renormalons; 30. Beyond the SVZ expansion; Part VIII. QCD Two-Point Functions: 31. References guide to original works; 32. (Pseudo)scalar correlators; 33. (Axial-)vector two-point functions; 34. Tensor-quark correlator; 35. Baryonic correlators; 36. Four-quark correlators; 37. Gluonia correlators; 38. Hybrid correlators; 39. Correlators in x-space; Part IX. QCD Non-Perturbative Methods: 40. Introduction; 41. Lattice gauge theory; 42. Chiral perturbation theory; 43. Models of the QCD effective action; 44. Heavy quark effective theory; 45. Potential approaches to quarkonia; 46. On monopole and confinement; Part X. QCD

  9. QCD Results from ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Leyton, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS and CMS collaborations have performed a wide range of studies of QCD phenomena, from soft particle to hard photon and jet production. Recent soft-­QCD measurements include studies of the underlying event, double parton interactions and vector meson production. Differential measurements of inclusive and dijet production provide stringent tests of high­-order QCD predictions and provide input for the determination of parton density functions. Measurements of isolated, inclusive and di­-photon cross sections for high-pT photons test various theoretical predictions and further constrain PDFs. An overview of these results is given.


  10. Counting hard-to-count populations: the network scale-up method for public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, H Russell; Hallett, Tim; Iovita, Alexandrina; Johnsen, Eugene C; Lyerla, Rob; McCarty, Christopher; Mahy, Mary; Salganik, Matthew J; Saliuk, Tetiana; Scutelniciuc, Otilia; Shelley, Gene A; Sirinirund, Petchsri; Weir, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Estimating sizes of hidden or hard-to-reach populations is an important problem in public health. For example, estimates of the sizes of populations at highest risk for HIV and AIDS are needed for designing, evaluating and allocating funding for treatment and prevention programmes. A promising approach to size estimation, relatively new to public health, is the network scale-up method (NSUM), involving two steps: estimating the personal network size of the members of a random sample of a total population and, with this information, estimating the number of members of a hidden subpopulation of the total population. We describe the method, including two approaches to estimating personal network sizes (summation and known population). We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each approach and provide examples of international applications of the NSUM in public health. We conclude with recommendations for future research and evaluation. PMID:21106509

  11. Large scale gas injection test (Lasgit) performed at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Summary report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuss, R.J.; Harrington, J.F.; Noy, D.J.

    2010-02-01

    This report describes the set-up, operation and observations from the first 1,385 days (3.8 years) of the large scale gas injection test (Lasgit) experiment conducted at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. During this time the bentonite buffer has been artificially hydrated and has given new insight into the evolution of the buffer. After 2 years (849 days) of artificial hydration a canister filter was identified to perform a series of hydraulic and gas tests, a period that lasted 268 days. The results from the gas test showed that the full-scale bentonite buffer behaved in a similar way to previous laboratory experiments. This confirms the up-scaling of laboratory observations with the addition of considerable information on the stress responses throughout the deposition hole. During the gas testing stage, the buffer was continued to artificially hydrate. Hydraulic results, from controlled and uncontrolled events, show that the buffer continues to mature and has yet to reach full maturation. Lasgit has yielded high quality data relating to the hydration of the bentonite and the evolution in hydrogeological properties adjacent to the deposition hole. The initial hydraulic and gas injection tests confirm the correct working of all control and data acquisition systems. Lasgit has been in successful operation for in excess of 1,385 days

  12. Large scale gas injection test (Lasgit) performed at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Summary report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuss, R.J.; Harrington, J.F.; Noy, D.J. (British Geological Survey (United Kingdom))

    2010-02-15

    This report describes the set-up, operation and observations from the first 1,385 days (3.8 years) of the large scale gas injection test (Lasgit) experiment conducted at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. During this time the bentonite buffer has been artificially hydrated and has given new insight into the evolution of the buffer. After 2 years (849 days) of artificial hydration a canister filter was identified to perform a series of hydraulic and gas tests, a period that lasted 268 days. The results from the gas test showed that the full-scale bentonite buffer behaved in a similar way to previous laboratory experiments. This confirms the up-scaling of laboratory observations with the addition of considerable information on the stress responses throughout the deposition hole. During the gas testing stage, the buffer was continued to artificially hydrate. Hydraulic results, from controlled and uncontrolled events, show that the buffer continues to mature and has yet to reach full maturation. Lasgit has yielded high quality data relating to the hydration of the bentonite and the evolution in hydrogeological properties adjacent to the deposition hole. The initial hydraulic and gas injection tests confirm the correct working of all control and data acquisition systems. Lasgit has been in successful operation for in excess of 1,385 days

  13. 13. international QCD conference (QCD 06)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This conference was organized around 5 sessions: 1) quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at colliders, 2) CP-violation, Kaon decays and Chiral symmetry, 3) perturbative QCD, 4) physics of light and heavy hadrons, 5) confinement, thermodynamics QCD and axion searches. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations

  14. 13. international QCD conference (QCD 06)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This conference was organized around 5 sessions: 1) quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at colliders, 2) CP-violation, Kaon decays and Chiral symmetry, 3) perturbative QCD, 4) physics of light and heavy hadrons, 5) confinement, thermodynamics QCD and axion searches. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations.

  15. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Evaluation of scaling records for TASA access tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ittner, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the result of a project accomplished during the summer 2009. It introduces a method to estimate the magnitude, mass distribution and cause of scaled blocks by tunnel mapping and evaluation of scaling data records. These issues are important for understanding the impact of the excavation method on the surrounding rock mass during excavation of the planned underground repository for spent nuclear fuel. The project includes mapping of the 3120 m drill and blast excavated part of the TASA access tunnel in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL). In addition it includes development of a method for evaluation of the collected material together with scaling data records from the Site Characterization Database (SICADA). An interview has also been held with Erik Gabrielsson, who has been in charge of tunnel maintenance at Aespoe for many years. The mapping focused on to identify size and cause of areas with significant overbreaks in the tunnel roof. By distributing documented scaled volume in a tunnel section on several mapped overbreak areas in the same section it is possible to reconstruct the size of scaled blocks. The observed overbreak areas have been categorized in five different area types, depending on the cause of scaling: two geologically induced, one blast induced, one induced from a combination of geology and blasting and one unable to place in any category. For the calculated mass distribution the number of observations is declining with increasing block mass. 11% of the total blocks exceeding 400 Kg and 75% of the scaled blocks weights under 200 Kg. Most of the blocks are however lighter with 34% weighting 50 Kg or less. There is a relation between the mapped area type and the size distribution among the mapped overbreak areas. For example the areas caused by the end of blasting rounds are more frequently appearing then the other types but most of them are small in relation to the others The impression achieved from the tunnel mapping is

  16. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Evaluation of scaling records for TASA access tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ittner, Henrik (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2009-07-01

    This report presents the result of a project accomplished during the summer 2009. It introduces a method to estimate the magnitude, mass distribution and cause of scaled blocks by tunnel mapping and evaluation of scaling data records. These issues are important for understanding the impact of the excavation method on the surrounding rock mass during excavation of the planned underground repository for spent nuclear fuel. The project includes mapping of the 3120 m drill and blast excavated part of the TASA access tunnel in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL). In addition it includes development of a method for evaluation of the collected material together with scaling data records from the Site Characterization Database (SICADA). An interview has also been held with Erik Gabrielsson, who has been in charge of tunnel maintenance at Aespoe for many years. The mapping focused on to identify size and cause of areas with significant overbreaks in the tunnel roof. By distributing documented scaled volume in a tunnel section on several mapped overbreak areas in the same section it is possible to reconstruct the size of scaled blocks. The observed overbreak areas have been categorized in five different area types, depending on the cause of scaling: two geologically induced, one blast induced, one induced from a combination of geology and blasting and one unable to place in any category. For the calculated mass distribution the number of observations is declining with increasing block mass. 11% of the total blocks exceeding 400 Kg and 75% of the scaled blocks weights under 200 Kg. Most of the blocks are however lighter with 34% weighting 50 Kg or less. There is a relation between the mapped area type and the size distribution among the mapped overbreak areas. For example the areas caused by the end of blasting rounds are more frequently appearing then the other types but most of them are small in relation to the others The impression achieved from the tunnel mapping is

  17. QCD threshold corrections for gluino pair production at hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langenfeld, Ulrich [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany); Moch, Sven-Olaf; Pfoh, Torsten [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    We present the complete threshold enhanced predictions in QCD for the total cross section of gluino pair production at hadron colliders at next-to-next-to-leading order. Thanks to the computation of the required one-loop hard matching coefficients our results are accurate to the next-to-next-to-leading logarithm. In a brief phenomenological study we provide predictions for the total hadronic cross sections at the LHC and we discuss the uncertainties arising from scale variations and the parton distribution functions.

  18. Lattice QCD. A critical status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Karl

    2008-10-15

    The substantial progress that has been achieved in lattice QCD in the last years is pointed out. I compare the simulation cost and systematic effects of several lattice QCD formulations and discuss a number of topics such as lattice spacing scaling, applications of chiral perturbation theory, non-perturbative renormalization and finite volume effects. Additionally, the importance of demonstrating universality is emphasized. (orig.)

  19. Lattice QCD. A critical status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, Karl

    2008-10-01

    The substantial progress that has been achieved in lattice QCD in the last years is pointed out. I compare the simulation cost and systematic effects of several lattice QCD formulations and discuss a number of topics such as lattice spacing scaling, applications of chiral perturbation theory, non-perturbative renormalization and finite volume effects. Additionally, the importance of demonstrating universality is emphasized. (orig.)

  20. Experimental status QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radyushkin, A.V.; Slepchenko, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis of experimental status of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) has been carried out. A short introduction into QCD is given. QCD sum rules are considered. Jets in e + e - annihilation and inclusive processes of lepton-hadron and hadron-hadron scattering are considered. Effect of QCD corrections to perturbation theory on quark count is analyzed

  1. Decay constants in soft wall AdS/QCD revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Nelson R.F., E-mail: braga@if.ufrj.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, RJ 21941-972 (Brazil); Diles, Saulo, E-mail: smdiles@if.ufrj.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, RJ 21941-972 (Brazil); Contreras, M.A. Martin, E-mail: ma.martin41@uniandes.edu.co [High Energy Group, Department of Physics, Universidad de los Andes, Carrera 1, No 18A-10, Bloque Ip, ZIP 111711, Bogotá (Colombia)

    2016-12-10

    Phenomenological AdS/QCD models, like hard wall and soft wall, provide hadronic mass spectra in reasonable consistency with experimental and (or) lattice results. These simple models are inspired in the AdS/CFT correspondence and assume that gauge/gravity duality holds in a scenario where conformal invariance is broken through the introduction of an energy scale. Another important property of hadrons: the decay constant, can also be obtained from these models. However, a consistent formulation of an AdS/QCD model that reproduces the observed behavior of decay constants of vector meson excited states is still lacking. In particular: for radially excited states of heavy vector mesons, the experimental data lead to decay constants that decrease with the radial excitation level. We show here that a modified framework of soft wall AdS/QCD involving an additional dimensionfull parameter, associated with an ultraviolet energy scale, provides decay constants decreasing with radial excitation level. In this version of the soft wall model the two point function of gauge theory operators is calculated at a finite position of the anti-de Sitter space radial coordinate.

  2. Power corrections to exclusive processes in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankiewicz, Lech

    2002-02-01

    In practice applicability of twist expansion crucially depends on the magnitude to power corrections to the leading-twist amplitude. I illustrate this point by considering explicit examples of two hard exclusive processes in QCD. In the case of {gamma}{sup *}{gamma} {yields} {pi}{pi} amplitude power corrections are small enough such that it should be possible to describe current experimental data by the leading-twist QCD prediction. The photon helicity-flip amplitude in DVCS on a nucleon receives large kinematical power corrections which screen the leading-twist prediction up to large values of the hard photon virtuality.

  3. Two-dimensional QCD as a model for strong interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1977-01-01

    After an introduction to the formalism of two-dimensional QCD, its applications to various strong interaction processes are reviewed. Among the topics discussed are spectroscopy, deep inelastic cross-sections, ''hard'' processes involving hadrons, ''Regge'' behaviour, the existence of the Pomeron, and inclusive hadron cross-sections. Attempts are made to abstracts features useful for four-dimensional QCD phenomenology. (author)

  4. QCD: color or glow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reya, E.

    1982-01-01

    The some of motivations for color and the numerous qualitative successes of QCD are presented. Non-leading higher order contributions to the (x, Q 2 )-dependence of scaling violations of non-singlet and singlet structure functions are discussed, especially non-perturbative correction to deep inelastic processes such as higher twist contributions. Finally the topic of how to account theoretically for the existence of free fractionally charged particles by concentrating mainly on spontaneously breaking SU(3) color is presented. (M.F.W.)

  5. Large-Scale Academic Achievement Testing of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Sen; Mitchell, Ross E.

    2012-01-01

    The first large-scale, nationwide academic achievement testing program using Stanford Achievement Test (Stanford) for deaf and hard-of-hearing children in the United States started in 1969. Over the past three decades, the Stanford has served as a benchmark in the field of deaf education for assessing student academic achievement. However, the…

  6. Long time scale hard X-ray variability in Seyfert 1 galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Alex Gary

    This dissertation examines the relationship between long-term X-ray variability characteristics, black hole mass, and luminosity of Seyfert 1 Active Galactic Nuclei. High dynamic range power spectral density functions (PSDs) have been constructed for six Seyfert 1 galaxies. These PSDs show "breaks" or characteristic time scales, typically on the order of a few days. There is resemblance to PSDs of lower-mass Galactic X-ray binaries (XRBs), with the ratios of putative black hole masses and variability time scales approximately the same (106--7) between the two classes of objects. The data are consistent with a linear correlation between Seyfert PSD break time scale and black hole mass estimate; the relation extrapolates reasonably well over 6--7 orders of magnitude to XRBs. All of this strengthens the case for a physical similarity between Seyfert galaxies and XRBs. The first six years of RXTE monitoring of Seyfert 1s have been systematically analyzed to probe hard X-ray variability on multiple time scales in a total of 19 Seyfert is in an expansion of the survey of Markowitz & Edelson (2001). Correlations between variability amplitude, luminosity, and black hole mass are explored, the data support the model of PSD movement with black hole mass suggested by the PSD survey. All of the continuum variability results are consistent with relatively more massive black holes hosting larger X-ray emission regions, resulting in 'slower' observed variability. Nearly all sources in the sample exhibit stronger variability towards softer energies, consistent with softening as they brighten. Direct time-resolved spectral fitting has been performed on continuous RXTE monitoring of seven Seyfert is to study long-term spectral variability and Fe Kalpha variability characteristics. The Fe Kalpha line displays a wide range of behavior but varies less strongly than the broadband continuum. Overall, however, there is no strong evidence for correlated variability between the line and

  7. Assessment of site-scale hydrogeological modelling possibilities in crystalline hard rock for safety appraisal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, J. [Cleanwater Hardrock Consulting, Corvallis, OR (United States); Luukkonen, A.

    2012-09-15

    This review describes the state-of-the-art in hydrogeological modelling for safety-case studies related to spent-fuel repositories in crystalline hard rock, focusing on issues of relevance for the KBS-3 disposal concept in Nordic environments. The review includes a survey of model capabilities and assumptions regarding groundwater flow processes, geological and excavation-related features, and boundary conditions for temperate, periglacial, and glacial climates. Modelling approaches are compared for research sites including the Stripa mine (Sweden), the Grimsel Test Site (Switzerland), the Whiteshell Underground Research Laboratory (Canada), the Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory and Simpevarp-Laxemar site (Sweden), the Forsmark site (Sweden), the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site (USA), and Olkiluoto (Finland). Current hydrogeological models allow realistic representations, but are limited by availability of data to constrain their properties. Examples of calibrations of stochastic representations of heterogeneity are still scarce. Integrated models that couple flow and non-reactive transport are now well established, particularly those based on continuum representations. Models that include reactive transport are still mainly in the realm of research tools. Thus far, no single software tool allows fully coupled treatment of all relevant thermal, hydraulic, mechanical, and chemical transport processes in the bedrock, together with climate-related physical processes at the ground surface, and with explicit treatment of bedrock heterogeneity. Hence practical applications require combinations of models based on different simplifications. Key improvements can be expected in treatment of the unsaturated zone, simulation of heterogeneous infiltration at the surface, and hydromechanical coupling. Significant advances have already been made in the amounts and types of data that can be used in site-scale models, including large datasets to define topography and other surface

  8. Two flavor QCD and Confinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Elia, M.; Di Giacomo, A.; Pica, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    We argue that the order of the chiral transition for N_f=2 is a sensitive probe of the QCD vacuum, in particular of the mechanism of color confinement. A strategy is developed to investigate the order of the transition by use of finite size scaling analysis. An in-depth numerical investigation is...

  9. The supercritical pomeron in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A. R.

    1998-01-01

    Deep-inelastic diffractive scaling violations have provided fundamental insight into the QCD pomeron, suggesting a single gluon inner structure rather than that of a perturbative two-gluon bound state. This talk outlines a derivation of a high-energy, transverse momentum cut-off, confining solution of QCD. The pomeron, in first approximation, is a single reggeized gluon plus a ''wee parton'' component that compensates for the color and particle properties of the gluon. This solution corresponds to a super-critical phase of Reggeon Field Theory

  10. Quark mass effects in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, D.V.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper recent studies of invariant QCD coupling anti asub(s)(Qsup(2)) in the 2-loop approximation with account of fermionic mass effects are summarized. The main results are: An explicit expression for anti asub(s)(Qsup(2)) in the 2-loop approximation with accurate account of heavy quark masses. A quantitative analysis on the basis of the above-mentioned expression for anti asub(s)(Qsup(2)) of the energy dependence of the scale QCD parameter ν and the conclusion about its inadequacy in the modern energy range

  11. Hard production of exotic hybrid mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anikin, I.; Teryaev, O.V. [Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Pire, B.; Anikin, I. [Ecole Polytechnique, CPHT, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Szymanowski, I. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); Liege Univ. (Belgium); Anikin, I.; Wallon, S. [Paris-11 Univ., Lab. de Physique Theorique, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2005-07-01

    Exotic hybrid mesons H, with quantum numbers J{sup PC} = 1{sup -+} may be copiously produced in the hard exclusive processes {gamma}{sup *}(Q{sup 2}){gamma} {yields} H and {gamma}{sup *}(Q{sup 2})P(p) {yields} HP(p') because they have a leading twist distribution amplitude with a sizable coupling constant f{sub H}, which may be estimated through QCD sum rules. The reaction rates scale in the same way as the corresponding rates for usual mesons. (authors)

  12. Pion form factor in QCD at intermediate momentum transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, V. M.; Khodjamirian, A.; Maul, M.

    2000-04-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of the electromagnetic pion form factor in the light-cone sum rule approach, including radiative corrections and higher-twist effects. The comparison to the existing data favors the asymptotic profile of the pion distribution amplitude and allows us to estimate the deviation: [∫du/uφπ(u)]/[∫du/uφasπ(u)]=1.1+/-0.1 at the scale of 1 GeV. Special attention is paid to the precise definition and interplay of soft and hard contributions at intermediate momentum transfer, and to the matching of the sum rule to the perturbative QCD prediction. We observe a strong numerical cancellation between the soft (end-point) contribution and power-suppressed hard contributions of higher twist, so that the total nonperturbative correction to the usual PQCD result turns out to be of the order of 30% for Q2~1 GeV2.

  13. Hard spectator interactions in B → ππ at order α2s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilipp, V.

    2007-01-01

    In the present thesis I discuss the hard spectator interaction amplitude in B → ππ at NLO i.e. at O(α 2 s ). This special part of the amplitude, whose LO starts at O(α s ), is defined in the framework of QCD factorization. QCD factorization allows to separate the short- and the long-distance physics in leading power in an expansion in Λ QCD /m b , where the short-distance physics can be calculated in a perturbative expansion in α s . Compared to other parts of the amplitude hard spectator interactions are formally enhanced by the hard collinear scale √(Λ QCD m b ), which occurs next to the mb-scale and leads to an enhancement of α s . From a technical point of view the main challenges of this calculation are due to the fact that we have to deal with Feynman integrals that come with up to five external legs and with three independent ratios of scales. These Feynman integrals have to be expanded in powers of Δ QCD /m b . I discuss integration by parts identities to reduce the number of master integrals and differential equations techniques to get their power expansions. A concrete implementation of integration by parts identities in a computer algebra system is given in the appendix. Finally I discuss numerical issues like scale dependence of the amplitudes and branching ratios. It turns out that the NLO contributions of the hard spectator interactions are important but small enough for perturbation theory to be valid. (orig.)

  14. QCD in hadron-hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrow, M.

    1997-03-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics provides a good description of many aspects of high energy hadron-hadron collisions, and this will be described, along with some aspects that are not yet understood in QCD. Topics include high E T jet production, direct photon, W, Z and heavy flavor production, rapidity gaps and hard diffraction

  15. Multiparton interactions and multiparton distributions in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus

    2011-11-15

    After a brief recapitulation of the general interest of parton densities, we discuss multiple hard interactions and multiparton distributions. We report on recent theoretical progress in their QCD description, on outstanding conceptual problems and on possibilities to use multiparton distributions as a laboratory to test and improve our understanding of hadron structure. (orig.)

  16. A QCD motivated model for soft processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormilitzin, A.; Levin, E.

    2009-01-01

    In this talk we give a brief description of a QCD motivated model for both hard and soft interactions at high energies. In this model the long distance behaviour of the scattering amplitude is determined by the dipole scattering amplitude in the saturation domain.

  17. Multiparton interactions and multiparton distributions in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, Markus

    2011-11-01

    After a brief recapitulation of the general interest of parton densities, we discuss multiple hard interactions and multiparton distributions. We report on recent theoretical progress in their QCD description, on outstanding conceptual problems and on possibilities to use multiparton distributions as a laboratory to test and improve our understanding of hadron structure. (orig.)

  18. Molecular-scale hydrophobic interactions between hard-sphere reference solutes are attractive and endothermic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Mangesh I; Holleran, Sinead A; Ashbaugh, Henry S; Pratt, Lawrence R

    2013-12-17

    The osmotic second virial coefficients, B2, for atomic-sized hard spheres in water are attractive (B2 attractive with increasing temperature (ΔB2/ΔT attractive and endothermic at moderate temperatures. Hydrophobic interactions between atomic-sized hard spheres in water are more attractive than predicted by the available statistical mechanical theory. These results constitute an initial step toward detailed molecular theory of additional intermolecular interaction features, specifically, attractive interactions associated with hydrophobic solutes.

  19. Large-scale academic achievement testing of deaf and hard-of-hearing students: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Sen; Mitchell, Ross E

    2012-01-01

    The first large-scale, nationwide academic achievement testing program using Stanford Achievement Test (Stanford) for deaf and hard-of-hearing children in the United States started in 1969. Over the past three decades, the Stanford has served as a benchmark in the field of deaf education for assessing student academic achievement. However, the validity and reliability of using the Stanford for this special student population still require extensive scrutiny. Recent shifts in educational policy environment, which require that schools enable all children to achieve proficiency through accountability testing, warrants a close examination of the adequacy and relevance of the current large-scale testing of deaf and hard-of-hearing students. This study has three objectives: (a) it will summarize the historical data over the last three decades to indicate trends in academic achievement for this special population, (b) it will analyze the current federal laws and regulations related to educational testing and special education, thereby identifying gaps between policy and practice in the field, especially identifying the limitations of current testing programs in assessing what deaf and hard-of-hearing students know, and (c) it will offer some insights and suggestions for future testing programs for deaf and hard-of-hearing students.

  20. Modeling the thermodynamics of QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hell, Thomas

    2010-07-26

    Strongly interacting (QCD) matter is expected to exhibit a multifaceted phase structure: a hadron gas at low temperatures, a quark-gluon plasma at very high temperatures, nuclear matter in the low-temperature and high-density region, color superconductors at asymptotically high densities. Most of the conjectured phases cannot yet be scrutinized by experiments. Much of the present picture - particularly concerning the intermediate temperature and density area of the phase diagram of QCD matter - is based on model calculations. Further insights come from Lattice-QCD computations. The present thesis elaborates a nonlocal covariant extension of the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model with built-in constraints from the running coupling of QCD at high-momentum and instanton physics at low-momentum scales. We present this model for two and three quark flavors (in the latter case paying particular attention to the axial anomaly). At finite temperatures and densities, gluon dynamics is incorporated through a gluonic background field, expressed in terms of the Polyakov loop (P). The thermodynamics of this nonlocal PNJL model accounts for both chiral and deconfinement transitions. We obtain results in mean-field approximation and beyond, including additional pionic and kaonic contributions to the chiral condensate, the pressure and other thermodynamic quantities. Finally, the nonlocal PNJL model is applied to the finite-density region of the QCD phase diagram; for three quark flavors we investigate, in particular, the dependence of the critical point appearing in the models on the axial anomaly. The thesis closes with a derivation of the nonlocal PNJL model from first principles of QCD. (orig.)

  1. QCD and string theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen-Tannoudji, G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is devoted to a review of the connections between quantumchromodynamics (QCD) and string theories. One reviews the phenomenological models leading to string pictures in non perturbative QCD and the string effects, related to soft gluon coherence, which arise in perturbative QCD. One tries to build a string theory which goes to QCD at the zero slope limit. A specific model, based on superstring theories is shown to agree with QCD four point amplitudes at the Born approximation and with one loop corrections. One shows how this approach can provide a theoretical framework to account for the phenomenological property of parton-hadron duality

  2. QCD and hadronic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen-Tannoudji, G.

    1989-01-01

    This series of lectures is devoted to review ot he connections between QCD and string theories. One reviews the phenomenological models leading to string pictures in non perturbative QCD and the string effects, related to soft gluon coherence, which arise in perturbative QCD. One tries to build a string theory which goes to QCD at the zero slope limit. A specific model, based on superstring theories is shown to agree with QCD four point amplitudes at the Born approximation and with one loop corrections. One shows how this approach can provide a theoretical framework to account for the phenomenological property of parton-hadron duality.(author)

  3. A theoretical overview on single hard diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuesthoff, M.

    1996-01-01

    The concept of the Pomeron structure function and its application in Single Hard Diffraction at hadron colliders and in diffractive Deep Inelastic Scattering is critically reviewed. Some alternative approaches are briefly surveyed with a focus on QCD inspired models

  4. Soft Power and Hard Measures: Large-Scale Assessment, Citizenship and the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, David; Engel, Laura C.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) with particular emphasis on the European Union's (EU's) involvement in the regional portion. Using the ICCS, the EU actively combines hard measures with soft power, allowing the EU to define and steer cross-national rankings of values of EU citizenship. The…

  5. Experimental study of hard X-rays emitted from meter-scale positive discharges in air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.O. Kochkin (Pavlo); C.V. Nguyen; A. van Deursen (Arie); U. M. Ebert (Ute)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate structure and evolution of long positive spark breakdown; and we study at which stage pulses of hard x-rays are emitted. Positive high-voltage pulses of standardized lightning impulse wave form of about 1 MV were applied to about 1 m of ambient air. The discharge evolution

  6. Centennial- to millennial-scale hard rock erosion rates deduced from luminescence-depth profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza; Liu, Jinfeng; Jain, Mayank

    2018-01-01

    to quantify hard rock erosion rates at centennial to millennial timescales. Here we propose a novel technique, based on the solar bleaching of luminescence signals with depth into rock surfaces, to bridge this analytical gap. We apply our technique to glacial and landslide boulders in the Eastern Pamirs...

  7. Perturbative corrections to B → D form factors in QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Ming; Wei, Yan-Bing; Shen, Yue-Long; Lü, Cai-Dian

    2017-06-01

    We compute perturbative QCD corrections to B → D form factors at leading power in Λ/ m b , at large hadronic recoil, from the light-cone sum rules (LCSR) with B-meson distribution amplitudes in HQET. QCD factorization for the vacuum-to- B-meson correlation function with an interpolating current for the D-meson is demonstrated explicitly at one loop with the power counting scheme {m}_c˜ O(√{Λ {m}_b}) . The jet functions encoding information of the hard-collinear dynamics in the above-mentioned correlation function are complicated by the appearance of an additional hard-collinear scale m c , compared to the counterparts entering the factorization formula of the vacuum-to- B-meson correction function for the construction of B → π from factors. Inspecting the next-to-leading-logarithmic sum rules for the form factors of B → Dℓν indicates that perturbative corrections to the hard-collinear functions are more profound than that for the hard functions, with the default theory inputs, in the physical kinematic region. We further compute the subleading power correction induced by the three-particle quark-gluon distribution amplitudes of the B-meson at tree level employing the background gluon field approach. The LCSR predictions for the semileptonic B → Dℓν form factors are then extrapolated to the entire kinematic region with the z-series parametrization. Phenomenological implications of our determinations for the form factors f BD +,0 ( q 2) are explored by investigating the (differential) branching fractions and the R( D) ratio of B → Dℓν and by determining the CKM matrix element |V cb | from the total decay rate of B → Dμν μ .

  8. Exotic hybrid mesons in hard electroproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, I.V.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Teryaev, O.V.; Wallon, S.

    2005-01-01

    We estimate the sizeable cross section for deep exclusive electroproduction of an exotic J PC =1 -+ hybrid meson in the Bjorken regime. The production amplitude scales like the one for usual meson electroproduction, i.e., as 1/Q 2 . This is due to the nonvanishing leading twist distribution amplitude for the hybrid meson, which may be normalized thanks to its relation to the energy-momentum tensor and to the QCD sum rules technique. The hard amplitude is considered up to next-to-leading order in α S and we explore the consequences of fixing the renormalization scale ambiguity through the Brodsky-Lepage-Mackenzie (BLM) procedure. We study the particular case where the hybrid meson decays through a πη meson pair. We discuss the πη generalized distribution amplitude and then calculate the production amplitude for this process. We propose a forward-backward asymmetry in the production of π and η mesons as a signal for the hybrid meson production. We briefly comment on hybrid electroproduction at very high energy, in the diffractive limit where a QCD Odderon exchange mechanism should dominate. The conclusion of our study is that hard electroproduction is a promising way to study exotic hybrid mesons, in particular, at JLAB, HERA (HERMES), or CERN (Compass)

  9. On microscopic structure of the QCD vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, D. G.; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Kim, Youngman; Tsukioka, Takuya; Zhang, P. M.

    2018-05-01

    We propose a new class of regular stationary axially symmetric solutions in a pure QCD which correspond to monopole-antimonopole pairs at macroscopic scale. The solutions represent vacuum field configurations which are locally stable against quantum gluon fluctuations in any small space-time vicinity. This implies that the monopole-antimonopole pair can serve as a structural element in microscopic description of QCD vacuum formation.

  10. Interplay of hard and soft physics in small x deep inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.

    1995-01-01

    Coherence phenomena, the increase with energy of coherence length and the nonuniversality of parton structure of the effective pomeron are explained. New hard phenomena directly calculable in QCD such as diffractive electroproduction of states with M 2 2 and the color transparency phenomenon as well as new options to measure the light-cone wave functions of various hadrons are considered. An analogue of Bjorken scaling is predicted for the diffractive electroproduction of ρ mesons at large momentum transfers and for the production of large rapidity gap events, as observed at HERA. A phenomenological QCD evolution equation is suggested to calculate the basic characteristics of the large rapidity gap events. The increase of parton densities at small x as well as new means to disentangle experimentally soft and hard physics are considered. We discuss constraints on the increase of deep inelastic amplitudes with Q 2 derived from the inconsistency of QCD predictions for inclusive and exclusive processes and from unitarity of the S matrix for collisions of wave packets. New ways to probe QCD physics of hard processes at large longitudinal distances and to answer the long standing problems on the origin of the pomeron are suggested. Unresolved problems and perspectives of small x physics are also outlined. (orig.)

  11. The Galaxy Hosts And Large-Scale Environments of Short-Hard Gamma-Ray Bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochaska, Jason X.; Bloom, J.S.; Chen, H.-W.; Foley, R.J.; Perley, D.A.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Granot, J.; Lee, W.H.; Pooley, D.; Alatalo, K.; Hurley, K.; Cooper, M.C.; Dupree, A.K.; Gerke, B.F.; Hansen, B.M.S.; Kalirai, J.S.; Newman, J.A.; Rich, R.M.; Richer, H.; Stanford, S.A.; Stern, D.

    2005-01-01

    The rapid succession of discovery of short-duration hard-spectrum GRBs has led to unprecedented insights into the energetics of the explosion and nature of the progenitors. Yet short of the detection of a smoking gun, like a burst of coincident gravitational radiation or a Li-Paczynski mini-supernova, it is unlikely that a definitive claim can be made for the progenitors. As was the case with long-duration soft-spectrum GRBs, however, the expectation is that a systematic study of the hosts and the locations of short GRBs could begin to yield fundamental clues about their nature. We present the first aggregate study of the host galaxies of short-duration hard-spectrum GRBs. In particular, we present the Gemini-North and Keck discovery spectra of the galaxies that hosted three short GRBs and a moderate-resolution (R ∼ 6000) spectrum of a fourth host. We find that these short-hard GRBs originate in a variety of low-redshift (z # circle d ot# yr -1 ) or recent star formation. Two of these galaxies are located within a cluster environment. These observations support an origin from the merger of compact stellar remnants, such as double neutron stars of a neutron star-black hole binary. The fourth event, in contrast, occurred within a dwarf galaxy with a star formation rate exceeding 0.5 M # circle d ot# yr -1 . Therefore, it appears that like supernovae of Type Ia, the progenitors of short-hard bursts are created in all galaxy types, suggesting a corresponding class with a wide distribution of delay times between formation and explosion

  12. Mechanical design of multiple zone plates precision alignment apparatus for hard X-ray focusing in twenty-nanometer scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Deming; Liu, Jie; Gleber, Sophie C.; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Lai, Barry; Maser, Jorg M.; Roehrig, Christian; Wojcik, Michael J.; Vogt, Franz Stefan

    2017-04-04

    An enhanced mechanical design of multiple zone plates precision alignment apparatus for hard x-ray focusing in a twenty-nanometer scale is provided. The precision alignment apparatus includes a zone plate alignment base frame; a plurality of zone plates; and a plurality of zone plate holders, each said zone plate holder for mounting and aligning a respective zone plate for hard x-ray focusing. At least one respective positioning stage drives and positions each respective zone plate holder. Each respective positioning stage is mounted on the zone plate alignment base frame. A respective linkage component connects each respective positioning stage and the respective zone plate holder. The zone plate alignment base frame, each zone plate holder and each linkage component is formed of a selected material for providing thermal expansion stability and positioning stability for the precision alignment apparatus.

  13. Towards the chiral limit in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shailesh Chandrasekharan

    2006-01-01

    Computing hadronic observables by solving QCD from first principles with realistic quark masses is an important challenge in fundamental nuclear and particle physics research. Although lattice QCD provides a rigorous framework for such calculations many difficulties arise. Firstly, there are no good algorithms to solve lattice QCD with realistically light quark masses. Secondly, due to critical slowing down, Monte Carlo algorithms are able to access only small lattice sizes on coarse lattices. Finally, due to sign problems it is almost impossible to study the physics of finite baryon density. Lattice QCD contains roughly three mass scales: the cutoff (or inverse lattice spacing) a -1 , the confinement scale Λ QCD , and the pion mass m π . Most conventional Monte Carlo algorithms for QCD become inefficient in two regimes: when Λ QCD becomes small compared to a -1 and when m π becomes small compared to Λ QCD . The former can be largely controlled by perturbation theory thanks to asymptotic freedom. The latter is more difficult since chiral extrapolations are typically non-analytic and can be unreliable if the calculations are not done at sufficiently small quark masses. For this reason it has been difficult to compute quantities close to the chiral limit. The essential goal behind this proposal was to develop a new approach towards understanding QCD and QCD-like theories with sufficiently light quarks. The proposal was based on a novel cluster algorithm discovered in the strong coupling limit with staggered fermions [1]. This algorithm allowed us to explore the physics of exactly massless quarks and as well as light quarks. Thus, the hope was that this discovery would lead to the complete solution of at least a few strongly coupled QCD-like theories. The solution would be far better than those achievable through conventional methods and thus would be able to shed light on the chiral physics from a new direction. By the end of the funding period, the project led

  14. Resolution of ambiguities in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakkagawa, Hisao; Niegawa, Akira.

    1984-01-01

    In the perturbative QCD analyses of the deeply inelastic processes, the coupling constant depends on at least two mass-scales, the renormalization scale and the factorization scale. By integrating the coupled renormalization group equations with respect to these two mass-scales, the running coupling constant is defined. A perturbative approximation then introduces a new ambiguity, the integration-path dependence, into the theory. We show that the problem of this new ambiguity is resolved by imposing Stevenson's principle of minimal sensitivity. Together with the analogous analysis of the operator matrix element or the cut vertex, we can completely solve the problem of getting an unambiguous perturbative QCD prediction. (author)

  15. Hard spectator interactions in B {yields} {pi}{pi} at order {alpha}{sup 2}{sub s}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilipp, V.

    2007-05-31

    In the present thesis I discuss the hard spectator interaction amplitude in B {yields} {pi}{pi} at NLO i.e. at O({alpha}{sup 2}{sub s}). This special part of the amplitude, whose LO starts at O({alpha}{sub s}), is defined in the framework of QCD factorization. QCD factorization allows to separate the short- and the long-distance physics in leading power in an expansion in {lambda}{sub QCD}/m{sub b}, where the short-distance physics can be calculated in a perturbative expansion in {alpha}{sub s}. Compared to other parts of the amplitude hard spectator interactions are formally enhanced by the hard collinear scale {radical}({lambda}{sub QCD}m{sub b}), which occurs next to the mb-scale and leads to an enhancement of {alpha}{sub s}. From a technical point of view the main challenges of this calculation are due to the fact that we have to deal with Feynman integrals that come with up to five external legs and with three independent ratios of scales. These Feynman integrals have to be expanded in powers of {delta}{sub QCD}/m{sub b}. I discuss integration by parts identities to reduce the number of master integrals and differential equations techniques to get their power expansions. A concrete implementation of integration by parts identities in a computer algebra system is given in the appendix. Finally I discuss numerical issues like scale dependence of the amplitudes and branching ratios. It turns out that the NLO contributions of the hard spectator interactions are important but small enough for perturbation theory to be valid. (orig.)

  16. Hard Electromagnetic Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, F.

    1987-09-01

    Among hard electromagnetic processes, I will use the most recent data and focus on quantitative test of QCD. More specifically, I will retain two items: - hadroproduction of direct photons, - Drell-Yan. In addition, I will briefly discuss a recent analysis of ISR data obtained with AFS (Axial Field Spectrometer) which sheds a new light on the e/π puzzle at low P T

  17. Towards understanding Regge trajectories in holographic QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cata, Oscar

    2007-01-01

    We reassess a work done by Migdal on the spectrum of low-energy vector mesons in QCD in the light of the anti-de Sitter (AdS)-QCD correspondence. Recently, a tantalizing parallelism was suggested between Migdal's work and a family of holographic duals of QCD. Despite the intriguing similarities, both approaches face a major drawback: the spectrum is in conflict with well-tested Regge scaling. However, it has recently been shown that holographic duals can be modified to accommodate Regge behavior. Therefore, it is interesting to understand whether Regge behavior can also be achieved in Migdal's approach. In this paper we investigate this issue. We find that Migdal's approach, which is based on a modified Pade approximant, is closely related to the issue of quark-hadron duality breakdown in QCD

  18. Work Hard / Play Hard

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, J.; Johnson, V.; Henckel, D.

    2016-01-01

    Work Hard / Play Hard was a participatory performance/workshop or CPD experience hosted by interdisciplinary arts atelier WeAreCodeX, in association with AntiUniversity.org. As a socially/economically engaged arts practice, Work Hard / Play Hard challenged employees/players to get playful, or go to work. 'The game changes you, you never change the game'. Employee PLAYER A 'The faster the better.' Employer PLAYER B

  19. QCD collinear factorization, its extensions and the partonic distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Szymanowski, Lech

    2012-01-01

    I review the basics of the collinear factorization theorem applied primarily to deep inelastic scattering (DIS) involving forward parton distributions (PDFs) and the extensions of this theorem for exclusive processes probing non-forward parton distributions (GPDs), the generalized distribution amplitudes (GDAs) and the transition distribution amplitudes (TDAs). These QCD factorization theorem is an important tool in the description of hard processes in QCD. Whenever valid, it permits to repre...

  20. Recent QCD results from ATLAS at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Keoshkerian, H; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has performed studies of a wide range of QCD phenomena, from soft particle to hard photon and jet production. Recent soft-QCD measurements include studies of underlying event, vector meson production. Differential measurements of inclusive and dijet production provide stringent tests of high-order QCD predictions and provide input for determination of parton density functions. Measurements of isolated inclusive and di-photons cross sections for high p_T photons test various theoretical predictions and constrain parton density functions. An overview of these results is given.



  1. Novel QCD Phenomena at Electron-Proton Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S

    2008-01-01

    I discuss several novel phenomenological features of QCD which are observable in deep inelastic lepton-nucleon and lepton-nucleus scattering. Initial- and final-state interactions from gluon exchange, normally neglected in the parton model, have a profound effect on QCD hard-scattering reactions, leading to leading-twist single-spin asymmetries, the diffractive contribution to deep inelastic scattering, and the breakdown of the pQCD Lam-Tung relation in Drell-Yan reactions. Leading-twist diffractive processes in turn lead to nuclear shadowing and non-universal antishadowing--physics not incorporated in the light-front wavefunctions of the nucleus computed in isolation

  2. Effective field theory approach to parton-hadron conversion in high energy QCD processes

    CERN Document Server

    Kinder-Geiger, Klaus

    1995-01-01

    A QCD based effective action is constructed to describe the dynamics of confinement and symmetry breaking in the process of parton-hadron conversion. The deconfined quark and gluon degrees of freedom of the perturbative QCD vacuum are coupled to color singlet collective fields representing the non-perturbative vacuum with broken scale and chiral symmetry. The effective action recovers QCD with its scale and chiral symmetry properties at short space-time distances, but yields at large distances (r > 1 fm) to the formation of symmetry breaking gluon and quark condensates. The approach is applied to the evolution of a fragmenting q\\bar q pair with its generated gluon distribution, starting from a large hard scale Q^2. The modification of the gluon distribution arising from the coupling to the non-perturbative collective field results eventually in a complete condensation of gluons. Color flux tube configurations of the gluons in between the q\\bar q pair are obtained as solutions of the equations of motion. With ...

  3. Charm production and QCD analysis at HERA and LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenaiev, Oleksandr

    2015-03-01

    In this thesis the study of charm production in ep and pp collisions is presented. The heavy-quark masses provide a hard scale, allowing the application of perturbative QCD. A measurement of D + -meson production in deep inelastic scattering with the ZEUS detector at HERA is presented. The analysis was performed using a data sample with an integrated luminosity of 354 pb -1 . Differential cross sections were measured as a function of virtuality Q 2 , inelasticity y, transverse momentum and pseudorapidity of the D + mesons. Lifetime information was used to reduce the combinatorial background significantly. Next-to-leading-order QCD predictions in the fixed-flavour-number scheme were compared to the data. This measurement was combined with other H1 and ZEUS measurements of charm production. The combination was performed at inclusive level for the reduced charm cross sections, which were obtained from the measured visible cross sections, extrapolated to the full phase space using the shape of the theoretical predictions in the fixed-flavour-number scheme. The combination method accounts for the correlations of the systematic uncertainties among the different datasets, thus allowing cross calibration of different measurements. The combined charm data were compared to QCD predictions in various heavy-flavour schemes and used together with the inclusive production data at HERA as input for QCD analyses to determine the charm running mass in the MS renormalisation scheme and the optimal values of the charm-quark mass parameters in other heavy-flavour schemes. An additional combination of the H1 and ZEUS D *+ visible cross sections was performed to provide the combined cross sections without theory-related uncertainties from the extrapolation procedure. This combination also provides differential cross sections as a function of the D *+ kinematic variables. Next-to-leading-order QCD predictions in the fixed-flavour-number scheme were compared to the combined D *+ cross

  4. The QCD/SM working group: Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giele, W.

    2004-01-01

    Quantum Chromo-Dynamics (QCD), and more generally the physics of the Standard Model (SM), enter in many ways in high energy processes at TeV Colliders, and especially in hadron colliders (the Tevatron at Fermilab and the forthcoming LHC at CERN), First of all, at hadron colliders, QCD controls the parton luminosity, which rules the production rates of any particle or system with large invariant mass and/or large transverse momentum. Accurate predictions for any signal of possible ''New Physics'' sought at hadron colliders, as well as the corresponding backgrounds, require an improvement in the control of uncertainties on the determination of PDF and of the propagation of these uncertainties in the predictions. Furthermore, to fully exploit these new types of PDF with uncertainties, uniform tools (computer interfaces, standardization of the PDF evolution codes used by the various groups fitting PDF's) need to be proposed and developed. The dynamics of colour also affects, both in normalization and shape, various observables of the signals of any possible ''New Physics'' sought at the TeV scale, such as, e.g. the production rate, or the distributions in transverse momentum of the Higgs boson. Last, but not least, QCD governs many backgrounds to the searches for this ''New Physics''. Large and important QCD corrections may come from extra hard parton emission (and the corresponding virtual corrections), involving multi-leg and/or multi-loop amplitudes. This requires complex higher order calculations, and new methods have to be designed to compute the required multi-legs and/or multi-loop corrections in a tractable form. In the case of semi-inclusive observables, logarithmically enhanced contributions coming from multiple soft and collinear gluon emission require sophisticated QCD resummation techniques. Resummation is a catch-all name for efforts to extend the predictive power of QCD by summing the large logarithmic corrections to all orders in perturbation theory. In

  5. The QCD/SM working group: Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Giele et al.

    2004-01-12

    Quantum Chromo-Dynamics (QCD), and more generally the physics of the Standard Model (SM), enter in many ways in high energy processes at TeV Colliders, and especially in hadron colliders (the Tevatron at Fermilab and the forthcoming LHC at CERN), First of all, at hadron colliders, QCD controls the parton luminosity, which rules the production rates of any particle or system with large invariant mass and/or large transverse momentum. Accurate predictions for any signal of possible ''New Physics'' sought at hadron colliders, as well as the corresponding backgrounds, require an improvement in the control of uncertainties on the determination of PDF and of the propagation of these uncertainties in the predictions. Furthermore, to fully exploit these new types of PDF with uncertainties, uniform tools (computer interfaces, standardization of the PDF evolution codes used by the various groups fitting PDF's) need to be proposed and developed. The dynamics of colour also affects, both in normalization and shape, various observables of the signals of any possible ''New Physics'' sought at the TeV scale, such as, e.g. the production rate, or the distributions in transverse momentum of the Higgs boson. Last, but not least, QCD governs many backgrounds to the searches for this ''New Physics''. Large and important QCD corrections may come from extra hard parton emission (and the corresponding virtual corrections), involving multi-leg and/or multi-loop amplitudes. This requires complex higher order calculations, and new methods have to be designed to compute the required multi-legs and/or multi-loop corrections in a tractable form. In the case of semi-inclusive observables, logarithmically enhanced contributions coming from multiple soft and collinear gluon emission require sophisticated QCD resummation techniques. Resummation is a catch-all name for efforts to extend the predictive power of QCD by summing the large

  6. QCD on the connection machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.

    1990-01-01

    In this talk I give a brief introduction to the standard model of particle interactions and illustrate why analytical methods fail to solve QCD. I then give some details of our implementation of the high performance QCD code on the CM2 and highlight the important lessons learned. The sustained speed of the code at the time of this conference is 5.2 Gigaflops (scaled to a full 64K machine). Since this is a conference dedicated to computing in the 21st century, I will tailor my expectations (somewhat idiosyncratic) of the physics objectives to reflect what we will be able to do in 10 years time, extrapolating from where we stand today. This work is being done under a joint LANL-TMC collaboration consisting of C. Baillie, R. Brickner, D. Daniel, G. Kilcup, L. Johnson, A. Patel. S. Sharpe and myself. 5 refs

  7. QCD roadshow rolls on

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1979-10-15

    Is quantum chromodynamics (QCD) the ultimate theory of hadronic phenomena? Or, put more sceptically, can one tell QCD from a hole in the ground? This is the title of a new theory roadshow, which after a successful premiere at CERN went on to attract a large audience at Erice, Sicily, during the recent international school of subnuclear physics.

  8. QCD and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonov, Yu.A.

    1989-01-01

    To apply QCD to nuclear physics one needs methods of long-distance QCD. A new method, method of Confining Background Fields, CBF, which incorporates confinement, is presented with applications to heavy and light quarks, both in mesons and baryons. Spin-dependent forces are calculated for light and heavy quarks. The quark potential model in some limiting case is derived. 25 refs

  9. QCD roadshow rolls on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Is quantum chromodynamics (QCD) the ultimate theory of hadronic phenomena? Or, put more sceptically, can one tell QCD from a hole in the ground? This is the title of a new theory roadshow, which after a successful premiere at CERN went on to attract a large audience at Erice, Sicily, during the recent international school of subnuclear physics

  10. The Operator Product Expansion Beyond Perturbation Theory in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Operator Product Expansion (OPE) of current correlators at short distances beyond perturbation theory in QCD, together with Cauchy's theorem in the complex energy plane, are the pillars of the method of QCD sum rules. This technique provides an analytic tool to relate QCD with hadronic physics at low and intermediate energies. It has been in use for over thirty years to determine hadronic parameters, form factors, and QCD parameters such as the quark masses, and the running strong coupling at the scale of the τ-lepton. QCD sum rules provide a powerful complement to numerical simulations of QCD on the lattice. In this talk a short review of the method is presented for non experts, followed by three examples of recent applications.

  11. Fully NLO Parton Shower in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrzypek, M.; Jadach, S.; Slawinska, M.; Gituliar, O.; Kusina, A.; Placzek, W.

    2011-01-01

    The project of constructing a complete NLO-level Parton Shower Monte Carlo for the QCD processes developed in IFJ PAN in Krakow is reviewed. Four issues are discussed: (1) the extension of the standard inclusive collinear factorization into a new, fully exclusive scheme; (2) reconstruction of the LO Parton Shower in the new scheme; (3) inclusion of the exclusive NLO corrections into the hard process and (4) inclusion of the exclusive NLO corrections into the evolution (ladder) part. (authors)

  12. Fast solar hard X-ray bursts and large scale coronal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simnett, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    The conditions at the Sun at the times corresponding to a selected set 22 fast impulsive hard X-ray bursts reported by Crannell et al. are examined. It is suggested that one of the bursts must arise from a precipitating beam of subrelativistic electrons; the source of the electrons is postulated to be in a region very remote from the X-ray site on the basis of type III and other radio data. The connection is via a coronal magnetic loop extending to approx.3 R/sub sun/ above the photosphere. The energy in the electron beam is estimated at 3 x 10 27 ergs. Intense soft X-ray and/or microwave radio storms at times corresponding to many of the impulsive X-ray bursts lead the conclusion that 14, and possibly 18, of the 22 bursts could have the same interpretation. The energy in such an electron beam could be important when considering the trigger phase of some flares

  13. Pion form factor within QCD instanton vacuum model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorokhov, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Instanton induced pion wave function is constructed. It provides an intrinsic k 1 dependence which suppress soft virtual one-gluon exchanges and thus legitimate the perturbative QCD (pQCD) calculations of the pion electromagnetic form factor in the region of momentum transfers above the scale. (author)

  14. A consistent analysis for the quark condensate in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zheng; Huang Tao

    1988-08-01

    The dynamical symmetry breaking in QCD is analysed based on the vacuum condensates. A self-consistent equation for the quark condensate (φ φ) is derived. A nontrivial solution for (φ φ) ≠ 0 is given in terms of the QCD scale parameter A

  15. QCD predictions for weak neutral current structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jimin

    1987-01-01

    Employing the analytic expression (to the next leading order) for non-singlet component of structure function which the author got from QCD theory and putting recent experiment result of neutral current structure function at Q 2 = 11 (GeV/C) 2 as input, the QCD prediction for neutral current structure function of their scaling violation behaviours was given

  16. Centennial- to millennial-scale hard rock erosion rates deduced from luminescence-depth profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sohbati, Reza; Liu, Jinfeng; Jain, Mayank; Murray, Andrew; Egholm, David; Paris, Richard; Guralnik, Benny

    2018-01-01

    The measurement of erosion and weathering rates in different geomorphic settings and over diverse temporal and spatial scales is fundamental to the quantification of rates and patterns of earth surface processes. A knowledge of the rates of these surface processes helps one to decipher their

  17. Hard scattering and a diffractive trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.L.; Collins, J.C.; Soper, D.E.; Sterman, G.

    1986-02-01

    Conclusions concerning the properties of hard scattering in diffractively produced systems are summarized. One motivation for studying diffractive hard scattering is to investigate the interface between Regge theory and perturbative QCD. Another is to see whether diffractive triggering can result in an improvement in the signal-to-background ratio of measurements of production of very heavy quarks. 5 refs

  18. Charm Production and QCD Analysis at HERA and LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Zenaiev, Oleksandr; Foster, Brian; McNulty, Ronan

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis the study of charm production in ep and pp collisions is presented. The heavy- quark masses provide a hard scale, allowing the application of perturbative QCD. A measurement of D + -meson production in deep inelastic scattering with the ZEUS detector at HERA is presented. The analysis was performed using a data sample with an integrated luminosity of 354 pb-1. Di erential cross sections were measured as a function of virtuality Q 2 , inelasticity y , transverse momentum and pseudorapidity of the D + mesons. Lifetime infor- mation was used to reduce the combinatorial background significantly. Next-to-leading-order QCD predictions in the fixed-flavour-number scheme were compared to the data. This measurement was combined with other H1 and ZEUS measurements of charm produc- tion. The combination was performed at inclusive level for the reduced charm cross sections, which were obtained from the measured visible cross sections, extrapolated to the full phase space using the shape of the theoretical ...

  19. Exclusive radiative decays of W and Z bosons in QCD factorization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, Yuval [Department of Physics, LEPP, Cornell University,Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); König, Matthias [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence & Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics,Johannes Gutenberg University,55099 Mainz (Germany); Neubert, Matthias [Department of Physics, LEPP, Cornell University,Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); PRISMA Cluster of Excellence & Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics,Johannes Gutenberg University,55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2015-04-20

    We present a detailed theoretical analysis of very rare, exclusive hadronic decays of the electroweak gauge bosons V=W,Z from first principles of QCD. Our main focus is on the radiative decays V→Mγ, in which M is a pseudoscalar or vector meson. At leading order in an expansion in powers of Λ{sub QCD}/m{sub V} the decay amplitudes can be factorized into convolutions of calculable hard-scattering coefficients with the leading-twist light-cone distribution amplitude of the meson M. Power corrections to the decay rates arise first at order (Λ{sub QCD}/m{sub V}){sup 2}. They can be estimated in terms of higher-twist distribution amplitudes and are predicted to be tiny. We include one-loop O(α{sub s}) radiative corrections to the hard-scattering coefficients and perform the resummation of large logarithms (α{sub s}ln (m{sub V}{sup 2}/μ{sub 0}{sup 2})){sup n} (with μ{sub 0}∼1 GeV a typical hadronic scale) to all orders in perturbation theory. Evolution effects have an important impact both numerically and conceptually, since they reduce the sensitivity to poorly determined hadronic parameters. We present detailed numerical predictions and error estimates, which can serve as benchmarks for future precision measurements. We also present an exploratory study of the weak radiative decays Z→MW. Some of the decay modes studied here have branching ratios large enough to be accessible in the high-luminosity run of the LHC. Many of them can be measured with high accuracy at a future lepton collider. This will provide stringent tests of the QCD factorization formalism and enable novel searches for new physics.

  20. Light-cone quantization and QCD phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.; Robertson, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    In principle, quantum chromodynamics provides a fundamental description of hadronic and nuclear structure and dynamics in terms of their elementary quark and gluon degrees of freedom. In practice, the direct application of QCD to reactions involving the structure of hadrons is extremely complex because of the interplay of nonperturbative effects such as color confinement and multi-quark coherence. A crucial tool in analyzing such phenomena is the use of relativistic light-cone quantum mechanics and Fock state methods to provide tractable and consistent treatments of relativistic many-body systems. In this article we present an overview of this formalism applied to QCD, focusing in particular on applications to the final states in deep inelastic lepton scattering that will be relevant for the proposed European Laboratory for Electrons (ELFE), HERMES, HERA, SLAC, and CEBAF. We begin with a brief introduction to light-cone field theory, stressing how it many allow the derivation of a constituent picture, analogous to the constituent quark model, from QCD. We then discuss several applications of the light-cone Fock state formalism to QCD phenomenology. The Fock state representation includes all quantum fluctuations of the hadron wavefunction, including far off-shell configurations such as intrinsic charm and, in the case of nuclei, hidden color. In some applications, such as exclusive processes at large momentum transfer, one can make first-principle predictions using factorization theorems which separate the hard perturbative dynamics from the nonpertubative physics associated with hadron binding. The Fock state components of the hadron with small transverse size, which dominate hard exclusive reactions, have small color dipole moments and thus diminished hadronic interactions. Thus QCD predicts minimal absorptive corrections, i.e., color transparency for quasi-elastic exclusive reactions in nuclear targets at large momentum transfer

  1. ADS/CFT and QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.

    2007-01-01

    The AdS/CFT correspondence between string theory in AdS space and conformal .eld theories in physical spacetime leads to an analytic, semi-classical model for strongly-coupled QCD which has scale invariance and dimensional counting at short distances and color confinement at large distances. Although QCD is not conformally invariant, one can nevertheless use the mathematical representation of the conformal group in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space to construct a first approximation to the theory. The AdS/CFT correspondence also provides insights into the inherently non-perturbative aspects of QCD, such as the orbital and radial spectra of hadrons and the form of hadronic wavefunctions. In particular, we show that there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z and a specific impact variable ζ which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of decay constants, form factors, and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. New relativistic lightfront equations in ordinary space-time are found which reproduce the results obtained using the 5-dimensional theory. The effective light-front equations possess remarkable algebraic structures and integrability properties. Since they are complete and orthonormal, the AdS/CFT model wavefunctions can also be used as a basis for the diagonalization of the full light-front QCD Hamiltonian, thus systematically improving the AdS/CFT approximation

  2. Gravitational waves generated from the cosmological QCD phase transition within AdS/QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmadvand

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the gravitational waves produced by the collision of the bubbles as a probe for the cosmological first order QCD phase transition, considering heavy static quarks. Using AdS/QCD and the correspondence between a first order Hawking–Page phase transition and confinement–deconfinement phase transition, we find the spectrum and the strain amplitude of the gravitational wave within the hard and soft wall models. We postulate the duration of the phase transition corresponds to the evaporation time of the black hole in the five dimensional dual gravity space, and thereby obtain a bound on the string length in the space and correspondingly on the duration of the QCD phase transition. We also show that IPTA and SKA detectors will be able to detect these gravitational waves, which can be an evidence for the first order deconfinement transition.

  3. Excited QCD 2017

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This edition is the ninth in a series of workshops that had been previously organised in Poland (2009), Slovakia (2010 and 2015), France (2011), Portugal (2012 and 2016) and Bosnia and Herzegovina (2013 and 2014). In the year 2017 the workshop goes to the beautiful Sintra near Lisbon, Portugal. The workshop covers diverse aspects of QCD: (i) QCD at low energies: excited hadrons, new resonances, glueballs, multiquarks. (ii) QCD at high temperatures and large densities: heavy-ion collisions, jets, diffraction, hadronisation, quark-gluon plasma, holography, colour-glass condensate, compact stars, applications to astrophysics.

  4. DESY: QCD workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingelman, Gunnar

    1994-01-01

    The traditional annual DESY Theory Workshop highlights a topical theory sector. The most recent was under the motto 'Quantum Chromo-Dynamics' - QCD, the field theory of quarks and gluons. The organizers had arranged a programme covering most aspects of current QCD research. This time the workshop was followed by a topical meeting on 'QCD at HERA' to look at the electron-proton scattering experiments now in operation at DESY's new HERA collider

  5. QED, QCD en pratique

    OpenAIRE

    Aurenche , P; Guillet , J.-Ph; Pilon , E

    2016-01-01

    3rd cycle; Ces notes sont une introduction à l'application de l'électrodynamique quantique (QED) et de la chromodynamiques quantique (QCD) aux réactions de diffusion à hautes énergies. Le premier thème abordé est celui des divergences ultraviolettes et de la renormalisation à une boucle, avec comme conséquence pour QCD la liberté asymptotique. Le deuxième thème est celui des divergences infrarouges et colinéaires qui dans QCD sont traitées dans le cadre du modèle des partons avec l'introducti...

  6. Aspects of perturbative QCD in Monte Carlo shower models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, T.D.

    1986-01-01

    The perturbative QCD content of Monte Carlo models for high energy hadron-hadron scattering is examined. Particular attention is given to the recently developed backwards evolution formalism for initial state parton showers, and the merging of parton shower evolution with hard scattering cross sections. Shower estimates of K-factors are discussed, and a simple scheme is presented for incorporating 2 → QCD cross sections into shower model calculations without double counting. Additional issues in the development of hard scattering Monte Carlo models are summarized. 69 references, 20 figures

  7. QCD and hadron structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    I give a brief and selective overview of QCD as it pertains to determining hadron structure, and the relevant directions in this field for nuclear theory. This document is intended to start discussion about priorities, not end it

  8. ATLAS soft QCD results

    CERN Document Server

    Sykora, Tomas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Recent results of soft QCD measurements performed by the ATLAS collaboration are reported. The measurements include total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, inclusive spectra, underlying event and particle correlations in p-p and p-Pb collisions.

  9. Gluonium spectrum in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, C.A.

    1987-02-01

    The scalar (0 ++ ) and the tensor (2 ++ ) gluonium spectrum is analyzed in the framework of QCD sum rules. Stable eigenvalue solutions, consistent with duality and low energy theorems, are obtained for the mass and width of these glueballs. (orig.)

  10. Resonances in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, Matthias F. M.; Lange, Jens Sören; Pennington, Michael; Bettoni, Diego; Brambilla, Nora; Crede, Volker; Eidelman, Simon; Gillitzer, Albrecht; Gradl, Wolfgang; Lang, Christian B.; Metag, Volker; Nakano, Takashi; Nieves, Juan; Neubert, Sebastian; Oka, Makoto; Olsen, Stephen L.; Pappagallo, Marco; Paul, Stephan; Pelizäus, Marc; Pilloni, Alessandro; Prencipe, Elisabetta; Ritman, Jim; Ryan, Sinead; Thoma, Ulrike; Uwer, Ulrich; Weise, Wolfram

    2016-04-01

    We report on the EMMI Rapid Reaction Task Force meeting 'Resonances in QCD', which took place at GSI October 12-14, 2015 (Fig.~1). A group of 26 people met to discuss the physics of resonances in QCD. The aim of the meeting was defined by the following three key questions; what is needed to understand the physics of resonances in QCD?; where does QCD lead us to expect resonances with exotic quantum numbers?; and what experimental efforts are required to arrive at a coherent picture? For light mesons and baryons only those with up, down and strange quark content were considered. For heavy-light and heavy-heavy meson systems, those with charm quarks were the focus.This document summarizes the discussions by the participants, which in turn led to the coherent conclusions we present here.

  11. Perturbative QCD and jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.H.

    1986-03-01

    A brief review of some of the recent progress in perturbative QCD is given (heavy quark production, small-x physics, minijets and related topics, classical simulations in high energy reactions, coherence and the string effect)

  12. QCD at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikkawa, Keiji

    1983-01-01

    The varidity of the perturbation method in the high temperature QCD is discussed. The skeleton expansion method takes account of plasmon effects and eliminates the electric infrared singularity but not the magnetic one. A possibility of eliminating the latter, which was recently proposed, is examined by a gauge invariant skeleton expansion. The magnetic singularity is unable to be eliminated by the perturbation method. This implies that some non-perturbative approaches must be incorporated in the high temperature QCD. (author)

  13. Aspects of QCD factorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubert, Matthias

    2001-01-01

    The QCD factorization approach provides the theoretical basis for a systematic analysis of nonleptonic decay amplitudes of B mesons in the heavy-quark limit. After recalling the basic ideas underlying this formalism, several tests of QCD factorization in the decays B→D (*) L, B→K * γ, and B→πK, ππ are discussed. It is then illustrated how factorization can be used to obtain new constraints on the parameters of the unitarity triangle

  14. Color ordering in QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Schuster, Theodor

    2013-01-01

    We derive color decompositions of arbitrary tree and one-loop QCD amplitudes into color ordered objects called primitive amplitudes. Furthermore, we derive general fermion flip and reversion identities spanning the null space among the primitive amplitudes and use them to prove that all color ordered tree amplitudes of massless QCD can be written as linear combinations of color ordered tree amplitudes of $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills theory.

  15. Components of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivers, D.

    1979-10-01

    Some aspects of a simple strategy for testing the validity of QCD perturbation theory are examined. The importance of explicit evaluation of higher-order contributions is illustrated by considering Z 0 decays. The recent progress toward understanding exclusive processes in QCD is discussed and some simple examples are given of how to isolate and test the separate components of the perturbation expansion in a hypothetical series of jet experiments

  16. QCD for Collider Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Skands, Peter

    2011-01-01

    These lectures are directed at a level suitable for graduate students in experimental and theoretical High Energy Physics. They are intended to give an introduction to the theory and phenomenology of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) as it is used in collider physics applications. The aim is to bring the reader to a level where informed decisions can be made concerning different approaches and their uncertainties. The material is divided into four main areas: 1) fundamentals, 2) perturbative QCD, ...

  17. Multi-scale thermal stability of a hard thermoplastic protein-based material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latza, Victoria; Guerette, Paul A.; Ding, Dawei; Amini, Shahrouz; Kumar, Akshita; Schmidt, Ingo; Keating, Steven; Oxman, Neri; Weaver, James C.; Fratzl, Peter; Miserez, Ali; Masic, Admir

    2015-09-01

    Although thermoplastic materials are mostly derived from petro-chemicals, it would be highly desirable, from a sustainability perspective, to produce them instead from renewable biopolymers. Unfortunately, biopolymers exhibiting thermoplastic behaviour and which preserve their mechanical properties post processing are essentially non-existent. The robust sucker ring teeth (SRT) from squid and cuttlefish are one notable exception of thermoplastic biopolymers. Here we describe thermoplastic processing of squid SRT via hot extrusion of fibres, demonstrating the potential suitability of these materials for large-scale thermal forming. Using high-resolution in situ X-ray diffraction and vibrational spectroscopy, we elucidate the molecular and nanoscale features responsible for this behaviour and show that SRT consist of semi-crystalline polymers, whereby heat-resistant, nanocrystalline β-sheets embedded within an amorphous matrix are organized into a hexagonally packed nanofibrillar lattice. This study provides key insights for the molecular design of biomimetic protein- and peptide-based thermoplastic structural biopolymers with potential biomedical and 3D printing applications.

  18. Softly broken N=2 QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Gaumé, Luís; Kounnas, Costas; Marino, M; Alvarez-Gaume, Luis; Distler, Jacques; Kounnas, Costas; Marino, Marcos

    1996-01-01

    We analyze the possible soft breaking of N=2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with and without matter flavour preserving the analyticity properties of the Seiberg-Witten solution. For small supersymmetry breaking parameter with respect to the dynamical scale of the theory we obtain an exact expression for the effective potential. We describe in detail the onset of the confinement transition and some of the patterns of chiral symmetry breaking. If we extrapolate the results to the limit where supersymmetry decouples, we obtain hints indicating that perhaps a description of the QCD vacuum will require the use of Lagrangians containing simultaneously mutually non-local degrees of freedom (monopoles and dyons).

  19. Sound speed during the QCD phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, Michiyasu; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    1998-01-01

    The Jeans scale is estimated during the coexistence epoch of quark-gluon and hadron phases in the first-order QCD phase transition. It is shown that, contrary to previous claims, reduction of the sound speed is so little that the phase transition does not affect evolution of cosmological density fluctuations appreciably. (author)

  20. Parametric form of QCD travelling waves

    OpenAIRE

    Peschanski, R.

    2005-01-01

    We derive parametric travelling-wave solutions of non-linear QCD equations. They describe the evolution towards saturation in the geometric scaling region. The method, based on an expansion in the inverse of the wave velocity, leads to a solvable hierarchy of differential equations. A universal parametric form of travelling waves emerges from the first two orders of the expansion.

  1. The instanton liquid model of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blotz, A.

    1998-01-01

    Within a microscopic model for the non-perturbative vacuum of QCD, hadronic correlation functions are calculated. In the model the vacuum is a statistical, interacting ensemble of instantons and anti-instantons at the scale of Λ QCD . Hadronic two-point as well as three-point correlation functions are evaluated and compared with phenomenological information about the spectra, couplings and form factors. Especially the electro magnetic form factor of the pion is obtained and new predictions for the charm contribution to DIS structure functions are made

  2. QCD physics with the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Cerci, Salim

    2017-01-01

    Jets which are the signatures of quarks and gluons in the detector can be described by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) in terms of parton-parton scattering. Jets are abundantly produced at the LHC's high energy scales. Measurements of inclusive jets, dijets and multijets can be used to test perturbative QCD predictions and to constrain parton distribution functions (PDF), as well as to measure the strong coupling constant $\\alpha_{S}$. The measurements use the samples of proton-proton collisions collected with the CMS detector at the LHC at various center-of-mass energies of 7, 8 and 13 TeV.

  3. QCD Physics with the CMS Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerci, S.

    2017-12-01

    Jets which are the signatures of quarks and gluons in the detector can be described by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) in terms of parton-parton scattering. Jets are abundantly produced at the LHC's high energy scales. Measurements of inclusive jets, dijets and multijets can be used to test perturbative QCD predictions and to constrain parton distribution functions (PDF), as well as to measure the strong coupling constant αS . The measurements use the samples of proton-proton collisions collected with the CMS detector at the LHC at various center-of-mass energies of 7, 8 and 13 TeV.

  4. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  5. Testing QCD with Hypothetical Tau Leptons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    1998-10-21

    We construct new tests of perturbative QCD by considering a hypothetical {tau} lepton of arbitrary mass, which decays hadronically through the electromagnetic current. We can explicitly compute its hadronic width ratio directly as an integral over the e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation cross section ratio, R{sub e{sup +}e{sup -}}. Furthermore, we can design a set of commensurate scale relations and perturbative QCD tests by varying the weight function away from the form associated with the V-A decay of the physical {tau}. This method allows the wide range of the R{sub e{sup +}e{sup -}} data to be used as a probe of perturbative QCD.

  6. Comparing and counting logs in direct and effective methods of QCD resummation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Leandro G. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Université Paris-Sud 11 and CNRS,91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Institut de Biologie de l’École Normale Supérieure (IBENS),Inserm 1024-CNRS 8197, 46 rue d’Ulm, 75005 Paris (France); Ellis, Stephen D. [Department of Physics, University of Washington,Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Lee, Christopher [Theoretical Division, MS B283, Los Alamos National Laboratory,Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Sterman, George [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stony Brook University,Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Sung, Ilmo [Department of Applied Physics, New York University,Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Queens College, City University of New York,Flushing, NY 11367 (United States); Walsh, Jonathan R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California,Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, University of California,Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-04-29

    We compare methods to resum logarithms in event shape distributions as they have been used in perturbative QCD directly and in effective field theory. We demonstrate that they are equivalent. In showing this equivalence, we are able to put standard soft-collinear effective theory (SCET) formulae for cross sections in momentum space into a novel form more directly comparable with standard QCD formulae, and endow the QCD formulae with dependence on separated hard, jet, and soft scales, providing potential ways to improve estimates of theoretical uncertainty. We show how to compute cross sections in momentum space to keep them as accurate as the corresponding expressions in Laplace space. In particular, we point out that that care is required in truncating differential distributions at N{sup k}LL accuracy to ensure they match the accuracy of the corresponding cumulant or Laplace transform. We explain how to avoid such mismatches at N{sup k}LL accuracy, and observe why they can also be avoided by working to N{sup k}LL{sup ′} accuracy.

  7. QCD Structure of Nuclear Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granados, Carlos [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States)

    2011-05-25

    This dissertation investigated selected processes involving baryons and nuclei in hard scattering reactions. Through these processes, this work explored the constituent structure of baryons and the mechanisms through which the interactions between these constituents ultimately control the selected reactions. First, hard nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering was studied considering the quark exchange (QE) between the nucleons to be the dominant mechanism of interaction in the constituent picture. It was found that an angular asymmetry exhibited by proton-neutron (pn) elastic scattering data is explained within this framework if a quark-diquark picture dominates the nucleon's structure instead of a more traditional SU(6) model. The latter yields an asymmetry around 90 deg center of mass scattering with a sign opposite to what is experimentally observed. The second process is the hard breakup by a photon of a nucleon-nucleon system in light nuclei. Proton-proton (pp) and pn breakup in 3He, and double Δ-isobars production in deuteron breakup were analyzed in the hard rescattering model (HRM), which in conjunction with the QE mechanism provides a QCD description of the reaction. Cross sections for both channels in 3He photodisintegration were computed without the need of a fitting parameter. The results presented here for pp breakup show excellent agreement with recent experimental data. In double Δ-isobars production in deuteron breakup, HRM angular distributions for the two double Δ channels were compared to the pn channel and to each other. An important prediction from this study is that the Δ++ Δ- channel consistently dominates Δ+Δ0, which is in contrast with models that unlike the HRM consider a double Δ system in the initial state of the interaction. For such models both channels should have the same strength.

  8. Heavy-Quark Associated Production with One Hard Photon at Hadron Colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartanto, Heribertus Bayu [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2013-01-01

    We present the calculation of heavy-quark associated production with a hard photon at hadron colliders, namely $pp(p\\bar p) → Q\\bar Q +X$γ (for $Q=t,b$), at Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). We study the impact of NLO QCD corrections on the total cross section and several differential distributions at both the Tevatron and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). For $t\\bar t$γ production we observe a sizeable reduction of the renormalization and factorization scale dependence when the NLO QCD corrections are included, while for $b\\bar b$γ production a considerable scale dependence still persists at NLO in QCD. This is consistent with what emerges in similar processes involving $b$ quarks and vector bosons and we explain its origin in detail. For $b\\bar b$γ production we study both the case in which at least one $b$ jet and the case in which at least two $b$ jets are observed. We perform the $b\\bar b$γ calculation using the Four Flavor Number Scheme (4FNS) and compare the case where at least one $b$ jet is observed with the corresponding results from the Five Flavor Number Scheme (5FNS) calculation. Finally we compare our results for $p\\bar p →+b+X$γ with the Tevatron data.

  9. Transport at ''NLO'' in hot QCD

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The study of QCD kinetics is driven by a vast array of the experimental measurements of transport at the LHC, ranging from heavy quark energy loss, jet suppression, and hydrodynamics. I first review the fundamental elements of QCD kinetic theory, i.e. plasma screening, 2to2 scattering, and medium modified collinear bremsstrahlung. Then I will summarize recent progress in calculating these elements and their interplay at "NLO" -- "NLO" refers to an order $\\sqrt{\\alpha_s}$ correction to the plasma processes arising from the statistical fluctuations of soft gluons. These "NLO" calculations suggest a computational strategy where the influence of the Debye sector on the real time dynamics of the hard lightlike modes can be incorporated into a few medium coefficients (such as the drag coefficient and $\\hat{q}$), which can be simulated with a Euclidean 3D dimensionally reduced theory.

  10. Phases of QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessner, Simon

    2009-04-09

    Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction within the Standard Model of elementary particles. Today's research in this area dedicates substantial resources to numeric solutions of the QCD field equations and experimental programs exploring the phases of QCD. This thesis proceeds along a complementary line - that of modelling QCD, with the aim of identifying its dominant degrees of freedom. This is possible by minimally coupling effective potentials for the Polyakov loop to Nambu-Jona-Lasinio models using temporal background fields to model chiral symmetry breaking respecting colour confinement. The fermion sign problem resulting from the minimal coupling is addressed in this work establishing a novel, systematically ordered approach. The modifications to the approximative order parameter of colour confinement, the Polyakov loop, are in direct connection with the fermion sign problem. Furthermore an effective coupling of quark densities of different flavours is induced. This mechanism, most likely also present in QCD, produces finite contributions to flavour off diagonal susceptibilities. Susceptibilities are amongst the most promising physical quantities for the experimental exploration of the phase transition at high temperatures and densities. (orig.)

  11. Phases of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessner, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction within the Standard Model of elementary particles. Today's research in this area dedicates substantial resources to numeric solutions of the QCD field equations and experimental programs exploring the phases of QCD. This thesis proceeds along a complementary line - that of modelling QCD, with the aim of identifying its dominant degrees of freedom. This is possible by minimally coupling effective potentials for the Polyakov loop to Nambu-Jona-Lasinio models using temporal background fields to model chiral symmetry breaking respecting colour confinement. The fermion sign problem resulting from the minimal coupling is addressed in this work establishing a novel, systematically ordered approach. The modifications to the approximative order parameter of colour confinement, the Polyakov loop, are in direct connection with the fermion sign problem. Furthermore an effective coupling of quark densities of different flavours is induced. This mechanism, most likely also present in QCD, produces finite contributions to flavour off diagonal susceptibilities. Susceptibilities are amongst the most promising physical quantities for the experimental exploration of the phase transition at high temperatures and densities. (orig.)

  12. QCD machines - present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christ, N.H.

    1991-01-01

    The present status of the currently working and nearly working dedicated QCD machines is reviewed and proposals for future machines are discussed with particular emphasis on the QCD Teraflop Project in the US. (orig.)

  13. Multi parton interactions and multi parton distributions in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, M.

    2012-01-01

    After a brief recapitulation of the general interest of parton densities, we discuss multiple hard interactions and multi parton distributions. We report on recent theoretical progress in their QCD description, on outstanding conceptual problems and on possibilities to use multi parton distributions as a laboratory to test and improve our understanding of hadron structure. (author)

  14. Heterotic Pomeron: high energy hadronic collisions in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung-I Tan

    1993-01-01

    A unified treatment of high energy collisions in QCD is presented. Using a probabilistic approach, both perturbative (hard) and non-perturbative (soft) components are incorporated in a consistent fashion, leading to a ''Heterotic Pomeron''. As a Regge trajectory, it is non linear, approaching 1 in the limit t → -∞. 2 tabs., 9 refs

  15. Hard processes. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, B.L.; Khoze, V.A.; Lipatov, L.N.

    1984-01-01

    Deep inelastic (hard) processes are now at the epicenter of modern high-energy physics. These processes are governed by short-distance dynamics, which reveals the intrinsic structure of elementary particles. The theory of deep inelastic processes is now sufficiently well settled. The authors' aim was to give an effective tool to theoreticians and experimentalists who are engaged in high-energy physics. This book is intended primarily for physicists who are only beginning to study the field. To read the book, one should be acquainted with the Feynman diagram technique and with some particular topics from elementary particle theory (symmetries, dispersion relations, Regge pole theory, etc.). Theoretical consideration of deep inelastic processes is now based on quantum chromodynamics (QCD). At the same time, analysis of relevant physical phenomena demands a synthesis of QCD notions (quarks, gluons) with certain empirical characteristics. Therefore, the phenomenological approaches presented are a necessary stage in a study of this range of phenomena which should undoubtedly be followed by a detailed description based on QCD and electroweak theory. The authors were naturally unable to dwell on experimental data accumulated during the past decade of intensive investigations. Priority was given to results which allow a direct comparison with theoretical predictions. (Auth.)

  16. Optomechanical Design of a Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Instrument with Nanometer-Scale Active Vibration Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Preissner, C.; Smolyanitskiy, A.; Maser, J.; Winarski, R.; Holt, M.; Lai, B.; Vogt, S.; Stephenson, G. B.

    2007-01-01

    We are developing a new hard x-ray nanoprobe instrument that is one of the centerpieces of the characterization facilities of the Center for Nanoscale Materials being constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. This new probe will cover an energy range of 3-30 keV with 30-nm spacial resolution. The system is designed to accommodate x-ray optics with a resolution limit of 10 nm, therefore, it requires staging of x-ray optics and specimens with a mechanical repeatability of better than 5 nm. Fast feedback for differential vibration control between the zone-plate x-ray optics and the sample holder has been implemented in the design using a digital-signal-processor-based real-time closed-loop feedback technique. A specially designed, custom-built laser Doppler displacement meter system provides two-dimensional differential displacement measurements with subnanometer resolution between the zone-plate x-ray optics and the sample holder. The optomechanical design of the instrument positioning stage system with nanometer-scale active vibration control is presented in this paper

  17. Optomechanical design of a hard x-ray nanoprobe instrument with active vibration control in nanometer scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Maser, J.; Holt, M.; Winarski, R.; Preissner, C.; Smolyanitskiy, A.; Lai, B.; Vogt, S.; Stephenson, G.

    2007-01-01

    We are developing a new hard x-ray nanoprobe instrument that is one of the centerpieces of the characterization facilities of the Center for Nanoscale Materials being constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. This new probe will cover an energy range of 3-30 keV with 30-nm spatial resolution. The system is designed to accommodate x-ray optics with a resolution limit of 10 nm, therefore, it requires staging of x-ray optics and specimens with a mechanical repeatability of better than 5 nm. Fast feedback for differential vibration control between the zone-plate x-ray optics and the sample holder has been implemented in the design using a digital-signal-processor-based real-time closed-loop feedback technique. A specially designed, custom-built laser Doppler displacement meter system provides two-dimensional differential displacement measurements with subnanometer resolution between the zone-plate x-ray optics and the sample holder. The optomechanical design of the instrument positioning stage system with nanometer-scale active vibration control is presented in this paper.

  18. Resonances in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, Matthias F.M., E-mail: m.lutz@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Lange, Jens Sören, E-mail: Soeren.Lange@exp2.physik.uni-giessen.de [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Pennington, Michael, E-mail: michaelp@jlab.org [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Bettoni, Diego [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Brambilla, Nora [Physik Department, Technische Universität München, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Crede, Volker [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Eidelman, Simon [Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Budker Istitute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Gillitzer, Albrecht [Institut für Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Gradl, Wolfgang [Institut für Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Lang, Christian B. [Institut für Physik, Universität Graz, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Metag, Volker [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Nakano, Takashi [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); and others

    2016-04-15

    We report on the EMMI Rapid Reaction Task Force meeting ‘Resonances in QCD’, which took place at GSI October 12–14, 2015. A group of 26 people met to discuss the physics of resonances in QCD. The aim of the meeting was defined by the following three key questions: • What is needed to understand the physics of resonances in QCD? • Where does QCD lead us to expect resonances with exotic quantum numbers? • What experimental efforts are required to arrive at a coherent picture? For light mesons and baryons only those with up, down and strange quark content were considered. For heavy–light and heavy–heavy meson systems, those with charm quarks were the focus. This document summarizes the discussions by the participants, which in turn led to the coherent conclusions we present here.

  19. Knot topology in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, L.P.; Zhang, P.M.; Pak, D.G.

    2013-01-01

    We consider topological structure of classical vacuum solutions in quantum chromodynamics. Topologically non-equivalent vacuum configurations are classified by non-trivial second and third homotopy groups for coset of the color group SU(N) (N=2,3) under the action of maximal Abelian stability group. Starting with explicit vacuum knot configurations we study possible exact classical solutions. Exact analytic non-static knot solution in a simple CP 1 model in Euclidean space–time has been obtained. We construct an ansatz based on knot and monopole topological vacuum structure for searching new solutions in SU(2) and SU(3) QCD. We show that singular knot-like solutions in QCD in Minkowski space–time can be naturally obtained from knot solitons in integrable CP 1 models. A family of Skyrme type low energy effective theories of QCD admitting exact analytic solutions with non-vanishing Hopf charge is proposed

  20. Bulk viscous corrections to screening and damping in QCD at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Qianqian [Department of Physics, Guangxi Normal University,Guilin, 541004 (China); Dumitru, Adrian [Department of Natural Sciences, Baruch College, CUNY,17 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10010 (United States); The Graduate School and University Center, The City University of New York,365 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Guo, Yun [Department of Physics, Guangxi Normal University,Guilin, 541004 (China); Strickland, Michael [Department of Physics, Kent State University,206B Smith Hall, Kent, OH 44240 (United States)

    2017-01-27

    Non-equilibrium corrections to the distribution functions of quarks and gluons in a hot and dense QCD medium modify the “hard thermal loops” (HTL). The HTLs determine the retarded, advanced, and symmetric (time-ordered) propagators for gluons with soft momenta as well as the Debye screening and Landau damping mass scales. We compute such corrections to a thermal as well as to a non-thermal fixed point. The screening and damping mass scales are sensitive to the bulk pressure and hence to (pseudo-) critical dynamical scaling of the bulk viscosity in the vicinity of a second-order critical point. This could be reflected in the properties of quarkonium bound states in the deconfined phase and in the dynamics of soft gluon fields.

  1. Bulk viscous corrections to screening and damping in QCD at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Qianqian; Dumitru, Adrian; Guo, Yun; Strickland, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Non-equilibrium corrections to the distribution functions of quarks and gluons in a hot and dense QCD medium modify the “hard thermal loops” (HTL). The HTLs determine the retarded, advanced, and symmetric (time-ordered) propagators for gluons with soft momenta as well as the Debye screening and Landau damping mass scales. We compute such corrections to a thermal as well as to a non-thermal fixed point. The screening and damping mass scales are sensitive to the bulk pressure and hence to (pseudo-) critical dynamical scaling of the bulk viscosity in the vicinity of a second-order critical point. This could be reflected in the properties of quarkonium bound states in the deconfined phase and in the dynamics of soft gluon fields.

  2. Quark model and QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisovich, V.V.

    1989-06-01

    Using the language of the quarks and gluons for description of the soft hadron physics it is necessary to take into account two characteristic phenomena which prevent one from usage of QCD Lagrangian in the straightforward way, chiral symmetry breaking, and confinement of colour particles. The topics discussed in this context are: QCD in the domain of soft processes, phenomenological Lagrangian for soft processes and exotic mesons, spectroscopy of low-lying hadrons (mesons, baryons and mesons with heavy quarks - c,b -), confinement forces, spectral integration over quark masses. (author) 3 refs.; 19 figs.; 3 tabs

  3. Twisted mass lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shindler, A.

    2007-07-01

    I review the theoretical foundations, properties as well as the simulation results obtained so far of a variant of the Wilson lattice QCD formulation: Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. Emphasis is put on the discretization errors and on the effects of these discretization errors on the phase structure for Wilson-like fermions in the chiral limit. The possibility to use in lattice simulations different lattice actions for sea and valence quarks to ease the renormalization patterns of phenomenologically relevant local operators, is also discussed. (orig.)

  4. Phases of Holographic QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippert, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the Sakai-Sugimoto model of large N QCD at nonzero temperature and baryon chemical potential and in the presence of background electric and magnetic fields. We studied the holographic representation of baryons and the deconfinement, chiral-symmetry breaking, and nuclear matter phase transitions. In a background electric field, chiral-symmetry breaking corresponds to an insulator-conductor transition. A magnetic field both catalyzes chiral-symmetry breaking and generates, in the confined phase, a pseudo-scalar gradient or, in the deconfined phase, an axial current. The resulting phase diagram is in qualitative agreement with studies of hot, dense QCD.

  5. Twisted mass lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindler, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2007-07-15

    I review the theoretical foundations, properties as well as the simulation results obtained so far of a variant of the Wilson lattice QCD formulation: Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. Emphasis is put on the discretization errors and on the effects of these discretization errors on the phase structure for Wilson-like fermions in the chiral limit. The possibility to use in lattice simulations different lattice actions for sea and valence quarks to ease the renormalization patterns of phenomenologically relevant local operators, is also discussed. (orig.)

  6. Scaling of the space-time correlation function of particle currents in a suspension of hard-sphere-like particles: exposing when the motion of particles is Brownian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Megen, W; Martinez, V A; Bryant, G

    2009-12-18

    The current correlation function is determined from dynamic light scattering measurements of a suspension of particles with hard spherelike interactions. For suspensions in thermodynamic equilibrium we find scaling of the space and time variables of the current correlation function. This finding supports the notion that the movement of suspended particles can be described in terms of uncorrelated Brownian encounters. However, in the metastable fluid, at volume fractions above freezing, this scaling fails.

  7. QCD and QGP: a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satz, Helmut

    1998-01-01

    The aim of high energy nuclear collisions is to study strong interaction thermodynamics in the laboratory; we want to explore colour deconfinement and the resulting new state of matter, the quark-gluon plasma. Phenomenological models have done much to form the concepts of the field, but today QCD provides the theoretical basis for our understanding of hot and dense matter and for the tools to probe it. I will therefore begin by summarizing recent results from finite temperature lattice QCD and then turn to the study of colour deconfinement using hard probes; here the recently reported anomalous J/ψ suppression represents a particularly promising signal. Similarly, the observed low mass dilepton enhancement has focussed our attention on the properties of hadrons near chiral symmetry restoration. The hadrosynthesis at freeze-out is yet another region of much present activity to be addressed in the final part of this summary. All aspects were covered here in a variety of excellent plenary talks and contributions; I hope the speakers will forgive me for concentrating on the progress in physics as I see it, rather than on individual talks. The field of high energy nuclear collisions is very many-faceted, and moreover I had to select what I could coherently summarize in the given time. I therefore also apologize to all those whose contributions to this meeting are covered insufficiently or not at all. In particular, I shall review neither the developments in astrophysics nor the search for disoriented chiral condensates, simply because of my lack of competence in these areas. (author)

  8. Hard scattering contribution to particle production in high energy heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareek, Pooja; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Sahoo, Pragati; Sahoo, Raghunath

    2014-01-01

    Global observables like the multiplicity of produced charged particles and transverse energy, are the key observables used to characterize the properties of the matter created in heavy-ion collisions. In order to study the dependence of the charged particle density on colliding system, center of mass energy and collision centrality, there have been measurements starting few GeV to TeV energies at LHC. There is a need to understand the particle production contribution coming from the QCD hard processes, which scale with number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, N coll and soft processes scaling with number of participant nucleons, N part

  9. Low-energy QCD and ultraviolet renormalons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peris, S.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the contribution of ultraviolet (UV) renormalons in QCD to two-point functions of quark current operators. This explicitly includes effects due to the exchange of one renormalon chain as well as two chains. It is shown that, when the external Euclidean momentum of the two-point functions becomes smaller than the scale Λ L associated with the Landau singularity of the QCD one-loop running coupling constant, the positions of the UV renormalons in the Borel plane become true singularities in the integration range of the Borel transform. This introduces ambiguities in the evaluation of the corresponding two-point functions. The ambiguities associated with the leading UV renormalon singularity are of the same type as the contribution due to the inclusion of dimension d=6 local operators in a low-energy effective Lagrangian valid at scales smaller than Λ L . We then discuss the inclusion of an infinite number of renormalon chains and argue that the previous ambiguity hints at a plausible approximation scheme for low-energy QCD, resulting in an effective Lagrangian similar to the one of the extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (ENJL) model of QCD at large N c . (orig.)

  10. Effects of Cooking End-point Temperature and Muscle Part on Sensory 'Hardness' and 'Chewiness' Assessed Using Scales Presented in ISO11036:1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Keisuke; Motoyama, Michiyo; Narita, Takumi; Chikuni, Koichi

    2013-10-01

    Texture and 'tenderness' in particular, is an important sensory characteristic for consumers' satisfaction of beef. Objective and detailed sensory measurements of beef texture have been needed for the evaluation and management of beef quality. This study aimed to apply the sensory scales defined in ISO11036:1994 to evaluate the texture of beef. Longissimus and Semitendinosus muscles of three Holstein steers cooked to end-point temperatures of 60°C and 72°C were subjected to sensory analyses by a sensory panel with expertise regarding the ISO11036 scales. For the sensory analysis, standard scales of 'chewiness' (9-points) and 'hardness' (7-points) were presented to the sensory panel with reference materials defined in ISO11036. As a result, both 'chewiness' and 'hardness' assessed according to the ISO11036 scales increased by increasing the cooking end-point temperature, and were different between Longissimus and Semitendinosus muscles. The sensory results were in good agreement with instrumental texture measurements. However, both texture ratings in this study were in a narrower range than the full ISO scales. For beef texture, ISO11036 scales for 'chewiness' and 'hardness' are useful for basic studies, but some alterations are needed for practical evaluation of muscle foods.

  11. Parton distributions and lattice QCD calculations: A community white paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huey-Wen; Nocera, Emanuele R.; Olness, Fred; Orginos, Kostas; Rojo, Juan; Accardi, Alberto; Alexandrou, Constantia; Bacchetta, Alessandro; Bozzi, Giuseppe; Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Collins, Sara; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Constantinou, Martha; Del Debbio, Luigi; Engelhardt, Michael; Green, Jeremy; Gupta, Rajan; Harland-Lang, Lucian A.; Ishikawa, Tomomi; Kusina, Aleksander; Liu, Keh-Fei; Liuti, Simonetta; Monahan, Christopher; Nadolsky, Pavel; Qiu, Jian-Wei; Schienbein, Ingo; Schierholz, Gerrit; Thorne, Robert S.; Vogelsang, Werner; Wittig, Hartmut; Yuan, C.-P.; Zanotti, James

    2018-05-01

    In the framework of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), parton distribution functions (PDFs) quantify how the momentum and spin of a hadron are divided among its quark and gluon constituents. Two main approaches exist to determine PDFs. The first approach, based on QCD factorization theorems, realizes a QCD analysis of a suitable set of hard-scattering measurements, often using a variety of hadronic observables. The second approach, based on first-principle operator definitions of PDFs, uses lattice QCD to compute directly some PDF-related quantities, such as their moments. Motivated by recent progress in both approaches, in this document we present an overview of lattice-QCD and global-analysis techniques used to determine unpolarized and polarized proton PDFs and their moments. We provide benchmark numbers to validate present and future lattice-QCD calculations and we illustrate how they could be used to reduce the PDF uncertainties in current unpolarized and polarized global analyses. This document represents a first step towards establishing a common language between the two communities, to foster dialogue and to further improve our knowledge of PDFs.

  12. Final report on APMP.M.H-S3: Comparison on hardness measurement Rockwell scale A and B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanponpute, Tassanai; Meesaplak, Apichaya; Menelao, Febo; Chan, T. K.; Bahng, Gun-Woong; Titus, S. S. K.; Jain, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    The APMP.M.H-S3 Rockwell hardness intercomparison was initiated by NIMT, Thailand and the required protocol was prepared by NIMT and checked by Dr John Man, MNIA, Australia, in 2009. PTB, Germany, Standards and Calibration Laboratory (SCL), Hong Kong, National Physical Laboratory (NPLI), India, and Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Korea, participated in this comparison. This comparison exercise was focused on the measurement range of 25 to 100 HRBW scale and 35 to 85 HRA scale. The round robin test was done during the period from April 2010 to October 2010. The participating laboratories have demonstrated the capability of the machine and the operating conditions according to ISO 6508 Part 3 to perform the measurements. However, SCL, Hong Kong, could demonstrate their capability to perform the measurements only according to ISO 6508 Part 2. The CMCs declared by the different laboratories lie in the range of 0.30 HRA to 0.40 HRA and 0.40 HRBW to 0.75 HRBW. The CMC declared by SCL for the Rockwell B scale is 1.5 HRBW for the reason described above. It is observed from the results that the measurement uncertainty is estimated not less than the CMCs declared by the laboratories. From the measurement results provided by all the participating laboratories, the En ratio was determined to establish the degrees of equivalence. The En ratio was calculated by including as well as by excluding the results of the laboratory which has performed the test according to ISO 6508 Part 2 in order to make sure that it does not affect the overall results. It is noticed that the En ratio was still found to remain less than 1. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the APMP, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  13. Next-to-leading-order QCD corrections to e+e−→H+γ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Long Sang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The associated production of Higgs boson with a hard photon at lepton collider, i.e., e+e−→Hγ, is known to bear a rather small cross section in Standard Model, and can serve as a sensitive probe for the potential new physics signals. Similar to the loop-induced Higgs decay channels H→γγ,Zγ, the e+e−→Hγ process also starts at one-loop order provided that the tiny electron mass is neglected. In this work, we calculate the next-to-leading-order (NLO QCD corrections to this associated H+γ production process, which mainly stem from the gluonic dressing to the top quark loop. The QCD corrections are found to be rather modest at lower center-of-mass energy range (s<300 GeV, thus of negligible impact on Higgs factory such as CEPC. Nevertheless, when the energy is boosted to the ILC energy range (s≈400 GeV, QCD corrections may enhance the leading-order cross section by 20%. In any event, the e+e−→Hγ process has a maximal production rate σmax≈0.08 fb around s=250 GeV, thus CEPC turns out to be the best place to look for this rare Higgs production process. In the high energy limit, the effect of NLO QCD corrections become completely negligible, which can be simply attributed to the different asymptotic scaling behaviors of the LO and NLO cross sections, where the former exhibits a milder decrement ∝1/s , but the latter undergoes a much faster decrease ∝1/s2. Keywords: Standard Model, Higgs boson, QCD corrections

  14. QCD studies in ep collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    These lectures describe QCD physics studies over the period 1992--1996 from data taken with collisions of 27 GeV electrons and positrons with 820 GeV protons at the HERA collider at DESY by the two general-purpose detectors H1 and ZEUS. The focus of these lectures is on structure functions and jet production in deep inelastic scattering, photoproduction, and diffraction. The topics covered start with a general introduction to HERA and ep scattering. Structure functions are discussed. This includes the parton model, scaling violation, and the extraction of F 2 , which is used to determine the gluon momentum distribution. Both low and high Q 2 regimes are discussed. The low Q 2 transition from perturbative QCD to soft hadronic physics is examined. Jet production in deep inelastic scattering to measure α s , and in photoproduction to study resolved and direct photoproduction, is also presented. This is followed by a discussion of diffraction that begins with a general introduction to diffraction in hadronic collisions and its relation to ep collisions, and moves on to deep inelastic scattering, where the structure of diffractive exchange is studied, and in photoproduction, where dijet production provides insights into the structure of the Pomeron. 95 refs., 39 figs

  15. QCD studies in ep collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, W.H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Physics Dept.

    1997-06-01

    These lectures describe QCD physics studies over the period 1992--1996 from data taken with collisions of 27 GeV electrons and positrons with 820 GeV protons at the HERA collider at DESY by the two general-purpose detectors H1 and ZEUS. The focus of these lectures is on structure functions and jet production in deep inelastic scattering, photoproduction, and diffraction. The topics covered start with a general introduction to HERA and ep scattering. Structure functions are discussed. This includes the parton model, scaling violation, and the extraction of F{sub 2}, which is used to determine the gluon momentum distribution. Both low and high Q{sup 2} regimes are discussed. The low Q{sup 2} transition from perturbative QCD to soft hadronic physics is examined. Jet production in deep inelastic scattering to measure {alpha}{sub s}, and in photoproduction to study resolved and direct photoproduction, is also presented. This is followed by a discussion of diffraction that begins with a general introduction to diffraction in hadronic collisions and its relation to ep collisions, and moves on to deep inelastic scattering, where the structure of diffractive exchange is studied, and in photoproduction, where dijet production provides insights into the structure of the Pomeron. 95 refs., 39 figs.

  16. QCD and Hadron Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Deshpande, Abhay L.; Gao, Haiyan; McKeown, Robert D.; Meyer, Curtis A.; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Milner, Richard G.; Qiu, Jianwei; Richards, David G.; Roberts, Craig D.

    2015-02-26

    This White Paper presents the recommendations and scientific conclusions from the Town Meeting on QCD and Hadronic Physics that took place in the period 13-15 September 2014 at Temple University as part of the NSAC 2014 Long Range Planning process. The meeting was held in coordination with the Town Meeting on Phases of QCD and included a full day of joint plenary sessions of the two meetings. The goals of the meeting were to report and highlight progress in hadron physics in the seven years since the 2007 Long Range Plan (LRP07), and present a vision for the future by identifying the key questions and plausible paths to solutions which should define the next decade. The introductory summary details the recommendations and their supporting rationales, as determined at the Town Meeting on QCD and Hadron Physics, and the endorsements that were voted upon. The larger document is organized as follows. Section 2 highlights major progress since the 2007 LRP. It is followed, in Section 3, by a brief overview of the physics program planned for the immediate future. Finally, Section 4 provides an overview of the physics motivations and goals associated with the next QCD frontier: the Electron-Ion-Collider.

  17. QCD and collider physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stirling, William James

    1991-12-01

    1. Some basic theory. 2. Two important applications: - e+ e- annihilation (LEPSLS) ; deep inelastic scattering (HERA). 3. Other applications..., large Pt jets, W and Z, heavy quark production..., (pp- colliders). In this lecture: some basic theory. 1. QCD as a non abelian gauge field theory. 2. Asymptotic freedom. 3. Beyond leading order - renormalisation schemes. 4. MS.

  18. Renormalization of Hamiltonian QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrasi, A.; Taylor, John C.

    2009-01-01

    We study to one-loop order the renormalization of QCD in the Coulomb gauge using the Hamiltonian formalism. Divergences occur which might require counter-terms outside the Hamiltonian formalism, but they can be cancelled by a redefinition of the Yang-Mills electric field.

  19. Phenomenology Using Lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R.

    2005-08-01

    This talk provides a brief summary of the status of lattice QCD calculations of the light quark masses and the kaon bag parameter BK. Precise estimates of these four fundamental parameters of the standard model, i.e., mu, md, ms and the CP violating parameter η, help constrain grand unified models and could provide a window to new physics.

  20. Hadronic laws from QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahill, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    A review is given of progress in deriving the effective action for hadronic physics, S[π, ρ, ω, .., anti N, N, ..], from the fundamental defining action of QCD, S[anti q, q, A μ a ]. This is a problem in quantum field theory and the most success so far has been achieved using functional integral calculus (FIC) techniques. This formulates the problem as an exercise in changing the variables of integration in the functional integrals, from those of the quark and gluon fields to those of the (bare) meson and baryon fields. The appropriate variables are determined by the dynamics of QCD, and the final hadronic variables (essentially the 'normal modes' of QCD) are local fields describing the 'centre-of-mass' motion of extended bound states of quarks. The quarks are extensively dressed by the gluons, and the detailed aspects of the hidden chiral symmetry emerge naturally from the formalism. Particular attention is given to covariant integral equations which determine bare nucleon structure (i.e. in the quenched approximation). These equations, which arise from the closed double-helix diagrams of the FIC analysis, describe the baryons in terms of quark-diquark structure, in the form of Faddeev equations. This hadronisation of QCD also generates the dressing of these baryons by the pions, and the non-local πNN coupling. (orig.)

  1. Observables of QCD diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieskolainen, Mikael; Orava, Risto

    2017-03-01

    A new combinatorial vector space measurement model is introduced for soft QCD diffraction. The model independent mathematical construction resolves experimental complications; the theoretical framework of the approach includes the Good-Walker view of diffraction, Regge phenomenology together with AGK cutting rules and random fluctuations.

  2. QCD at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Metzger, W.J.

    2003-01-01

    Several preliminary QCD results from e+e- interactions at LEP are reported. These include studies of event shape variables, which are used to determine alpha_s and for studies of the validity of power corrections. Further, a study of color reconnection effects in 3-jet Z decays is reported.

  3. Baryons and QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathan Isgur

    1997-01-01

    The author presents an idiosyncratic view of baryons which calls for a marriage between quark-based and hadronic models of QCD. He advocates a treatment based on valence quark plus glue dominance of hadron structure, with the sea of q pairs (in the form of virtual hadron pairs) as important corrections

  4. Photon-photon inclusive scattering and perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maor, U.

    1988-01-01

    Perturbative QCD expectations and problems associated with the study of the photon structure function data are reviewed. An assessment is given for the viability and sensitivity of photon-photon scattering as a decisive tool for the determination of the QCD scale. Particular attention is given to the theoretical problems of singularity cancellations at x = 0 and threshold-associated difficulties at x = 1 and their implications on the actual data analysis. It is concluded that the experimental results, while not providing a decisive verification of QCD at small distances, do add to other independent experiments which are all consistent with the theory and suggest a reasonably well defined QCD scale parameter. The importance of the small Q 2 limit to photon-photon analysis is discussed and the data are examined in an attempt to identify and isolate the contributions of the hadronic and point-like sectors of the target photon. 21 refs., 7 figs. (author)

  5. Anomalous couplings in WZ production beyond NLO QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campanario, Francisco; Roth, Robin; Zeppenfeld, Dieter [Institute for Theoretical Physics, KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Sapeta, Sebastian [CERN PH-TH, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2016-07-01

    We study WZ production with anomalous couplings (AC) at anti nNLO QCD using the LoopSim method in combination with the Monte Carlo program VBFNLO. Higher order corrections to WZ production are dominated by additional hard jet radiation. Those contributions are insensitive to AC and should thus be suppressed in analyses. We do this using a dynamical jet veto based on the transverse energy of the QCD and EW final state particles. This removes jet dominated events without introducing problematic logs like a fixed p{sub T} jet veto.

  6. From notes to chords in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczek, F.

    1998-01-01

    After a very brief overview recollecting the 'classic' parts of QCD, that is its application to describe hard processes and static properties of hadrons, I survey recent work - some very recent - on QCD at non-zero temperature and density. At finite temperature and zero density there is a compelling theoretical framework allowing us to predict highly specific, non-trivial dependence of the phase structure on the number of flavors and colors. Several aspects have been rigorously, and successfully, tested against massive numerical realizations of the microscopic theory. The theoretical description of high density is nowhere near as mature, but some intriguing possibilities have been put forward. The color/flavor locked state recently proposed for three flavors has many remarkable features connected to its basic symmetry structure, notably including chiral symmetry re-breaking and the existence (unlike for two flavors) of a gauge invariant order parameter. I survey potential applications to heavy ion collisions, astrophysics, and cosmology. A noteworthy possibility is that stellar explosions are powered by release of QCD latent heat. (orig.)

  7. Unraveling the Structure of Hadrons with Effective Field Theories of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iain Stewart

    2004-01-01

    Effective Field theory is a powerful framework based on controlled expansions for problems with a natural separation of energy scales. This technique is particularly important for QCD, the theory of strong interactions, due to the vast diversity of phenomena that it describes. Stewart and collaborators have invented a new class of effective theories that can be used in processes with energetic hadrons. These Soft-Collinear Effective Theories provide a unified framework for describing hadronic processes which involve hard probes or the release of a large amount of energy. Many interesting issues about hadronic physics can be addressed with the soft-collinear effective theory. Examples include the size and shape of hadronic form factors, the universality of hadronic distribution functions for a plethora of processes, and the importance of subleading corrections at intermediate energy scales. Effective field theories allow these issues to be addressed using only the underlying symmetries and scales in QCD. Understanding these issues also has a direct impact on other areas of physics, such as on devising clean methods for the measurement of CP violation in the decay of B-mesons. Current progress on the soft-collinear effective theory and related methods is discussed in this report

  8. Lepton pair production at ISR energies and QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, G.; Martinelli, G.

    1985-01-01

    Motivated by some recent results from the ISR we have considered all available data on the production of Drell-Yan pairs by high energy proton beams. We show that the lepton pair cross sections and qsub(T) distributions are correctly described by QCD using the known distributions of partons in the proton and acceptable values of the QCD scale Λ. No other free parameter is required. Within the accuracy of the data no appreciable intrinsic transverse momentum is needed. (orig.)

  9. Introduction to quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the physics of jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billoire, Alain; Napoly, Olivier.

    1980-12-01

    These lecture notes constitute an introduction to Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), theory of strong interactions. After an elementary presentation of the essential theoretical tools (Lagrangian, renormalization group) and of their consequences for QCD (asymptotic freedom, scaling invariance), we use these to study jets in e + e - annihilation. We thus deal with the problem of infrared divergences and, finally, with the one of the indirect experimental detection of the gluon [fr

  10. QCD and asymptotic freedom: Perspectives and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczek, F.

    1993-01-01

    QCD is now a mature theory, and it is possible to begin to view its place in the conceptual universe of physics with an appropriate perspective. There is a certain irony in the achievements of QCD. For the problems which initially drove its development - specifically, the desire to understand in detail the force that holds atomic nuclei together, and later the desire to calculate the spectrum of hadrons and their interactions - only limited insight has been achieved. However, the author shall argue that QCD is actually more special and important a theory than one had any right to anticipate. In many ways, the importance of the solution transcends that of the original motivating problems. After elaborating on these quasiphilosophical remarks, he discusses two current frontiers of physics that illustrate the continuing vitality of the ideas. The recent wealth of beautiful precision experiments measuring the parameters of the standard model have made it possible to consider the unification of couplings in unprecedented quantitative detail. One central result emerging from these developments is a tantalizing hint of virtual supersymmetry. The possibility of phase transitions in matter at temperatures of order ∼ 10 2 MeV, governed by QCD dynamics, is of interest from several points of view. Finally, at the end, there is a brief discussion on the relation between scaling violations and running of the coupling

  11. Hard scattering in γp interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, T.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.

    1992-10-01

    We report on the investigation of the final state in interactions of quasi-real photons with protons. The data were taken with the H1 detector at the HERA ep collider. Evidence for hard interactions is seen in both single particle spectra and jet formation. The data can best be described by inclusion of resolved photon processes as predicted by QCD. (orig.)

  12. Soft gluon contributions to hard processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciafaloni, M.

    1981-10-01

    The main concern of this paper is in trying to elucidate the origin of large QCD perturbative corrections and explain how to deal with them to all orders. They come essentially from the phase space regions close to the kinematical boundary of a hard process, in which one or many gluons become soft

  13. Compositeness and QCD at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, V.; Blumenfeld, B.; Cahn, R.

    1987-01-01

    Compositeness may be signaled by an increase in the production of high transverse momentum hadronic jet pairs or lepton pairs. The hadronic jet signal competes with the QCD production of jets, a subject of interest in its own right. Tests of perturbative QCD at the SSC will be of special interest because the calculations are expected to be quite reliable. Studies show that compositeness up to a scale of 20 to 35 TeV would be detected in hadronic jets at the SSC. Leptonic evidence would be discovered for scales up to 10 to 20 TeV. The charge asymmetry for leptons would provide information on the nature of the compositeness interaction. Calorimetry will play a crucial role in the detection of compositeness in the hadronic jet signal. Deviations from an e/h response of 1 could mask the effect. The backgrounds for lepton pair production seem manageable. 30 refs., 19 figs., 10 tabs

  14. QCD measurements with heavy quarks at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maettig, P.

    1991-10-01

    Recent experimental results from LEP on strong interactions using heavy quarks are reviewed. By identifying bottom and charm decays, a model independent evidence for the string effect has been found together with a softer fragmentation function of gluons compared to quarks. The comparison of jet properties and the value of the strong coupling constant α s in bottom events and average events provides evidence for the flavour independence of QCD: α b0tt0m s /α s udsc = 1.00 ± 0.05 ± 0.06. The average scaled energy of charmed and bottom hadrons at Z 0 energies is found to be + )> = 0.507 +0.012 -0.015 ± 0.010 = 0.705 ± 0,008 ± 0.010. A comparison with results at lower c.m. energies exhibits significant scaling violations. These are interpreted in the context of various QCD calculations. (orig.)

  15. QCD tests at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, E.

    1996-02-01

    We present results for the inclusive jet cross section and the dijet mass distribution. The inclusive cross section and dijet mass both exhibit significant deviations from the predictions of NLO QCD for jets with E T >200 GeV, or dijet masses > 400 GeV/c 2 . We show that it is possible, within a global QCD analysis that includes the CDF inclusive jet data, to modify the gluon distribution at high x. The resulting increase in the jet cross-section predictions is 25-35%. Owing to the presence of k T smearing effects, the direct photon data does not provide as strong a constraint on the gluon distribution as previously thought. A comparison of the CDF and UA2 jet data, which have a common range in x, is plagued by theoretical and experimental uncertainties, and cannot at present confirm the CDF excess or the modified gluon distribution

  16. The QCD Effective String

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espriu, D.

    2003-01-01

    QCD can be described in a certain kinematical regime by an effective string theory. This string must couple to background chiral fields in a chirally invariant manner, thus taking into account the true chirally non-invariant QCD vacuum. By requiring conformal symmetry of the string and the unitarity constraint on chiral fields we reconstruct the equations of motion for the latter ones. These provide a consistent background for the propagation of the string. By further requiring locality of the effective action we recover the Lagrangian of non-linear sigma model of pion interactions. The prediction is unambiguous and parameter-free. The estimated chiral structural constants of Gasser and Leutwyler fit very well the phenomenological values. (author)

  17. QCD@LHC International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The particle physics groups of UZH and ETH will host the QCD@LHC2016 conference (22.8.-26.8., UZH downtown campus), which is part of an annual conference series bringing together theorists and experimentalists working on hard scattering processes at the CERN LHC, ranging from precision studies of Standard Model processes to searches for new particles and phenomena. The format of the conference is a combination of plenary review talks and parallel sessions, with the latter providing a particularly good opportunity for junior researchers to present their results. The conference will take place shortly after the release of the new data taken by the LHC in sping 2016 at a collision energy of 13TeV, expected to more than double the currently available data set. It will be one of the first opportunities to discuss these data in a broader context, and we expect the conference to become a very lively forum at the interface of phenomenology and experiment.

  18. Form factors and QCD in spacelike and timelike region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.P. Bakulev; A.V. Radyushkin; N.G. Stefanis

    2000-01-01

    The authors analyze the basic hard exclusive processes: πγ * γ-transition, pion and nucleon electromagnetic form factors, and discuss the analytic continuation of QCD formulas from the spacelike q 2 2 > 0 of the relevant momentum transfers. They describe the construction of the timelike version of the coupling constant α s . They show that due to the analytic continuation of the collinear logarithms each eigenfunction of the evolution equation acquires a phase factor and investigate the resulting interference effects which are shown to be very small. They found no sources for the K-factor-type enhancements in the perturbative QCD contribution to the hadronic form factors. To study the soft part of the pion electromagnetic form factor, they use a QCD sum rule inspired model and show that there are non-canceling Sudakov double logarithms which result in a K-factor-type enhancement in the timelike region

  19. Form factors and QCD in spacelike and timelike regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakulev, A. P.; Radyushkin, A. V.; Stefanis, N. G.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze the basic hard exclusive processes, the πγ * γ-transition and the pion and nucleon electromagnetic form factors, and discuss the analytic continuation of QCD formulas from the spacelike q 2 2 >0 of the relevant momentum transfers. We describe the construction of the timelike version of the coupling constant α s . We show that due to the analytic continuation of the collinear logarithms, each eigenfunction of the evolution equation acquires a phase factor and investigate the resulting interference effects which are shown to be very small. We find no sources for the K-factor-type enhancements in the perturbative QCD contribution to the hadronic form factors. To study the soft part of the pion electromagnetic form factor, we use a QCD sum rule inspired model and show that there are noncanceling Sudakov double logarithms which result in a K-factor-type enhancement in the timelike region

  20. QCD and RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharzeev, D.

    2004-01-01

    In this talk I discuss recent advances in Quantum Chromo-Dynamics, in particular the progress in understanding the collective dynamics of the theory. I emphasise the significance of the RHIC program for establishing the properties of hot and dense QCD matter and for understanding the dynamics of the theory at the high parton density, strong color field frontier. Hopes and expectations for the future are discussed as well

  1. WORKSHOP QCD at 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachtmann, O.

    1992-01-01

    The modern theory of strong interactions - Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), where quarks and gluons carrying the 'colour' quantum number play the essential role, is twenty years old. This birthday was duly celebrated at RWTH Aachen from 9-13 June, where recurring themes were - what has been achieved in the past twenty years?, where do we stand?, and what are the perspectives for the future?

  2. String dynamics in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervais, J.L.; Neveu, A.

    1980-01-01

    Recent works of the authors on string interpretation of the Wilson loop operators in QCD are reviewed in a self-contained fashion. Although most of the results habe already appeared in print, some new material is presented in renormalization of the Wilson loop operator and on the use of light-cone expansion to derive a linear string-like equation in light-cone formalism. (orig.)

  3. Introduction to QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Skands, Peter

    2012-01-01

    These lectures were originally given at TASI and are directed at a level suitable for graduate students in High Energy Physics. They are intended to give an introduction to the theory and phenomenology of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), focusing on collider physics applications. The aim is to bring the reader to a level where informed decisions can be made concerning different approaches and their uncertainties. The material is divided into five main areas: 1) fundamentals, 2) fixed-order pertu...

  4. The QCD Teraflops Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlieb, S.

    1992-01-01

    Increased computer power is essential for future progress in lattice gauge theory and for other Grand challenge applications. We address the physics that can be done with a computer capable of sustaining 1 Teraflops for QCD and the technology that will make it possible to construct such a computer within the next three years. Our collaboration has proposed to build a computer based on the Thinking Machines CM5 communication network, but with nodes 10 times faster

  5. Ultrahigh energy neutrinos and nonlinear QCD dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Magno V.T.

    2004-01-01

    The ultrahigh energy neutrino-nucleon cross sections are computed taking into account different phenomenological implementations of the nonlinear QCD dynamics. Based on the color dipole framework, the results for the saturation model supplemented by the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (DGLAP) evolution as well as for the Balitskii-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov (BFKL) formalism in the geometric scaling regime are presented. They are contrasted with recent calculations using next-to-leading order DGLAP and unified BFKL-DGLAP formalisms

  6. Diffraction theory in QCD and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    A study of the Pomeron in QCD is briefly outlined. Implications for the production of W + W - and Z 0 Z 0 pairs are described and the possibility that the electroweak scale is a major strong-interaction threshold discussed. The application of Pomeron phase-transition theory to SU(5) dynamical symmetry breaking is suggested and the related ''strong-interaction'' properties of the photon briefly mentioned

  7. Dual QCD: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.; Ball, J.S.; Zachariasen, F.

    1991-01-01

    We review the attempts to use dual (electric) vector potentials rather than the standard magnetic vector potentials to describe QCD, particularly in the infrared regime. The use of dual potentials is motivated by the fact that in classical electrodynamics, in a medium with a dielectric constant vanishing at small momenta (as is believed to be the case in QCD), electric potentials provide a far more convenient language than do magnetic potentials. To begin with, we outline attempts to construct the QCD Lagrangian in terms of dual potentials and describe the various possibilities, their shortcomings and advantages, which so far exist. We then proceed to use the most attractive (albeit consistent as a field theory only at the tree level) of these Lagrangians in a number of applications. We show that it describes a non-Abelian dual superconductor (so that it automatically confines color), derive the static quark-antiquark potential, and various temperature dependent effects, such as deconfinement and chiral symmetry breaking. (orig.)

  8. QCD: Renormalization for the practitioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascual, P.; Tarrach, R.

    1984-01-01

    These notes correspond to a GIFT (Grupo Interuniversitario de Fisica Teorica) course which was given by us in autumn 1983 at the University of Barcelona. Their main subject is renormalization in perturbative QCD and only the last chapter goes beyond perturbation theory. They are essentially self contained and their aim is to teach the student the techniques of perturbative QCD and the QCD sum rules. (orig./HSI)

  9. Experimental application of QCD antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobrovskyi, Sergei

    2010-02-01

    A serious problem in searches for new physics at the LHC is the rejection of QCD induced multijet events. In this thesis the formalism of QCD antenna variables based on the SPHEL approximation of QCD matrix elements is applied for the rst time on experimentally reconstructed jets in order to discriminate QCD from supersymmetric processes. The new observables provide additional information with respect to traditional event shape variables. Albeit correlated with experimentally measured missing transverse energy, the variables can be used to improve the signal to background ratio. (orig.)

  10. Experimental application of QCD antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobrovskyi, Sergei

    2010-02-15

    A serious problem in searches for new physics at the LHC is the rejection of QCD induced multijet events. In this thesis the formalism of QCD antenna variables based on the SPHEL approximation of QCD matrix elements is applied for the rst time on experimentally reconstructed jets in order to discriminate QCD from supersymmetric processes. The new observables provide additional information with respect to traditional event shape variables. Albeit correlated with experimentally measured missing transverse energy, the variables can be used to improve the signal to background ratio. (orig.)

  11. Renormalization of Extended QCD2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukaya, Hidenori; Yamamura, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    Extended QCD (XQCD), proposed by Kaplan [D. B. Kaplan, arXiv:1306.5818], is an interesting reformulation of QCD with additional bosonic auxiliary fields. While its partition function is kept exactly the same as that of original QCD, XQCD naturally contains properties of low-energy hadronic models. We analyze the renormalization group flow of 2D (X)QCD, which is solvable in the limit of a large number of colors N c , to understand what kind of roles the auxiliary degrees of freedom play and how the hadronic picture emerges in the low-energy region

  12. Hadron structure from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Some elements and current developments of lattice QCD are reviewed, with special emphasis on hadron structure observables. In principle, high precision experimental and lattice data provide nowadays a very detailled picture of the internal structure of hadrons. However, to relate both, a very good controle of perturbative QCD is needed in many cases. Finally chiral perturbation theory is extremely helpful to boost the precision of lattice calculations. The mutual need and benefit of all four elements: experiment, lattice QCD, perturbative QCD and chiral perturbation theory is the main topic of this review

  13. The generalized scheme-independent Crewther relation in QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian-Ming; Wu, Xing-Gang; Ma, Yang; Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2017-07-01

    The Principle of Maximal Conformality (PMC) provides a systematic way to set the renormalization scales order-by-order for any perturbative QCD calculable processes. The resulting predictions are independent of the choice of renormalization scheme, a requirement of renormalization group invariance. The Crewther relation, which was originally derived as a consequence of conformally invariant field theory, provides a remarkable connection between two observables when the β function vanishes: one can show that the product of the Bjorken sum rule for spin-dependent deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering times the Adler function, defined from the cross section for electron-positron annihilation into hadrons, has no pQCD radiative corrections. The ;Generalized Crewther Relation; relates these two observables for physical QCD with nonzero β function; specifically, it connects the non-singlet Adler function (Dns) to the Bjorken sum rule coefficient for polarized deep-inelastic electron scattering (CBjp) at leading twist. A scheme-dependent ΔCSB-term appears in the analysis in order to compensate for the conformal symmetry breaking (CSB) terms from perturbative QCD. In conventional analyses, this normally leads to unphysical dependence in both the choice of the renormalization scheme and the choice of the initial scale at any finite order. However, by applying PMC scale-setting, we can fix the scales of the QCD coupling unambiguously at every order of pQCD. The result is that both Dns and the inverse coefficient CBjp-1 have identical pQCD coefficients, which also exactly match the coefficients of the corresponding conformal theory. Thus one obtains a new generalized Crewther relation for QCD which connects two effective charges, αˆd (Q) =∑i≥1 αˆg1 i (Qi), at their respective physical scales. This identity is independent of the choice of the renormalization scheme at any finite order, and the dependence on the choice of the initial scale is negligible. Similar

  14. The renormalization group and lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: scaling of thermodynamic quantities and critical exponents; scaling relations; block spin idea of Kadanoff; exact RG solution of the 1-d Ising model; Wilson's formulation of the renormalization group; linearized transformation matrix and classification of exponents; derivation of exponents from the eigenvalues of Τ αβ ; simple field theory: the gaussian model; linear renormalization group transformations; numerical methods: MCRG; block transformations for 4-d SU(N) LGT; asymptotic freedom makes QCD simple; non-perturbative β-function and scaling; and the holy grail: the renormalized trajectory

  15. Threshold resummation and higher order effects in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringer, Felix Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is a quantum field theory that describes the strong interactions between quarks and gluons, the building blocks of all hadrons. Thanks to the experimental progress over the past decades, there has been an ever-growing need for QCD precision calculations for scattering processes involving hadrons. For processes at large momentum transfer, perturbative QCD offers a systematic approach for obtaining precise predictions. This approach relies on two key concepts: the asymptotic freedom of QCD and factorization. In a perturbative calculation at higher orders, the infrared cancellation between virtual and real emission diagrams generally leaves behind logarithmic contributions. In many observables relevant for hadronic scattering these logarithms are associated with a kinematic threshold and are hence known as ''threshold logarithms''. They become large when the available phase space for real gluon emission shrinks. In order to obtain a reliable prediction from QCD, the threshold logarithms need to be taken into account to all orders in the strong coupling constant, a procedure known as ''threshold resummation''. The main focus of my PhD thesis is on studies of QCD threshold resummation effects beyond the next-to-leading logarithmic order. Here we primarily consider the production of hadron pairs in hadronic collisions as an example. In addition, we also consider hadronic jet production, which is particularly interesting for the phenomenology at the LHC. For both processes, we fully take into account the non-trivial QCD color structure of the underlying partonic hard- scattering cross sections. We find that threshold resummation leads to sizable numerical effects in the kinematic regimes relevant for comparisons to experimental data.

  16. The rational parts of one-loop QCD amplitudes I: The general formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zhiguang; Yang Gang; Zhu Chuanjie

    2006-01-01

    A general formalism for computing only the rational parts of one-loop QCD amplitudes is developed. Starting from the Feynman integral representation of the one-loop amplitude, we use tensor reduction and recursive relations to compute the rational parts directly. Explicit formulas for the rational parts are given for all bubble and triangle integrals. Formulas are also given for box integrals up to two-mass-hard boxes which are the needed ingredients to compute up to 6-gluon QCD amplitudes. We use this method to compute explicitly the rational parts of the 5- and 6-gluon QCD amplitudes in two accompanying papers

  17. QCD and panti p collider physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, G.

    1983-01-01

    The relevance for QCD of experiments at the SPS collider rests on the possibility they offer of testing parton dynamics in a new and highly non trivial configuration. For example, hadron-hadron interactions in the deep inelastic, large Psub(perpendicular to), region are non linear in parton densities. Also the relevant predictions cannot be derived by less committed formulations than the explicit QCD improved parton model, as for example light cone dominance and operator expansion. This complexity, which is important for providing qualitatively new testing grounds is however paid for by a loss of precision in predictive power. In addition to that, panti p collisions are also important as jet sources with an energy scale comparable to that of an e + e - ring with beam energy up to 50 GeV and more. (orig./HSI)

  18. Effective Chiral Lagrangians and Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Heitger, J; Wittig, H; Heitger, Jochen; Sommer, Rainer; Wittig, Hartmut

    2000-01-01

    We propose a general method to obtain accurate estimates for some of the "low-energy constants" in the one-loop effective chiral Lagrangian by means of simulating lattice QCD. In particular, the method is sensitive to those constants whose values are required to test the hypothesis of a massless up-quark. Initial tests performed in the quenched approximation confirm that good statistical precision can be achieved. As a byproduct we obtain an accurate estimate for the ratio of pseudoscalar decay constants, F_K/F_pi, in the quenched approximation, which lies 10% below the experimental result. The quantities that serve to extract the low-energy constants also allow a test of the scaling behaviour of different discretizations of QCD and a search for the effects of dynamical quarks.

  19. QCD and the chiral critical point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, S.; Gocksch, A.; Pisarski, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    As an extension of QCD, consider a theory with ''2+1'' flavors, where the current quark masses are held in a fixed ratio as the overall scale of the quark masses is varied. At nonzero temperature and baryon density it is expected that in the chiral limit the chiral phase transition is of first order. Increasing the quark mass from zero, the chiral transition becomes more weakly first order, and can end in a chiral critical point. We show that the only massless field at the chiral critical point is a σ meson, with the universality class that of the Ising model. Present day lattice simulations indicate that QCD is (relatively) near to the chiral critical point

  20. Effective string theory and QCD scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makeenko, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    QCD string is formed at distances larger than the confinement scale and can be described by the Polchinski-Strominger effective string theory with a nonpolynomial action, which has nevertheless a well-defined semiclassical expansion around a long-string ground state. We utilize modern ideas about the Wilson-loop/scattering-amplitude duality to calculate scattering amplitudes and show that the expansion parameter in the effective string theory is small in the Regge kinematical regime. For the amplitudes we obtain the Regge behavior with a linear trajectory of the intercept (d-2)/24 in d dimensions, which is computed semiclassically as a momentum-space Luescher term, and discuss an application to meson scattering amplitudes in QCD.

  1. QCD: Questions, challenges, and dilemmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.

    1996-11-01

    An introduction to some outstanding issues in QCD is presented, with emphasis on work by Diakonov and co-workers on the influence of the instanton vacuum on low-energy QCD observables. This includes the calculation of input valence-parton distributions for deep-inelastic scattering. 35 refs., 3 figs

  2. Experimental Summary Moriond QCD 2007

    CERN Document Server

    Rolandi, Gigi

    2007-01-01

    More than 90 speakers gave a presentation at this years Moriond QCD conference and more than 60 talks reported the experimental status and perspectives on Standard Model, especially QCD, search for new physics, quark spectroscopy and Heavy Ions physics. I summarize what I consider the highlights of these presentations.

  3. Nuclear properties from perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, F.E.; Roberts, R.G.; Ross, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    Two apparently different descriptions of quark distributions in a nucleus may in fact be connected. A ''duality'' between the QCD approach and the conventional model of nucleon binding leads to nuclear properties being simply related to the anomalous dimensions of QCD. (orig.)

  4. Quarklei: nuclear physics from QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, T.

    1985-01-01

    The difficulties posed for nuclear physics by either recognizing or ignoring QCD, are discussed. A QCD model for nuclei is described. A crude approximation is shown to qualitatively reproduce saturation of nuclear binding energies and the EMC effect. The model is applied seriously to small nuclei, and to hypernuclei

  5. Light hadron spectrum from quenched lattice QCD. Results from the CP-PACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshie, Tomoteru

    2001-01-01

    Deriving the light hadron spectrum from first principles of QCD has been a fundamental issue in elementary particle physics since the mid-1970s, when QCD was established. With this goal in mind, we have carried out large-scale simulations of lattice QCD on the CP-PACS computer. In this article, we present results for the light hadron spectrum derived in the quenched approximation to lattice QCD. We find that although the global structure of the observed spectrum is reproduced, the quenched spectrum systematically deviates from experiment when examined with an accuracy at better than a 10% level. Results for light quark masses are also reported. Another simulation of full QCD done recently (also on the CP-PACS computer) shows indications that the discrepancy observed in quenched QCD is significantly reduced by the introduction of two flavors of light dynamical quarks. (author)

  6. Light-Front QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.

    2004-11-30

    In these lectures, I survey a number of applications of light-front methods to hadron and nuclear physics phenomenology and dynamics, including light-front statistical physics. Light-front Fock-state wavefunctions provide a frame-independent representation of hadrons in terms of their fundamental quark and gluon degrees of freedom. Nonperturbative methods for computing LFWFs in QCD are discussed, including string/gauge duality which predicts the power-law fall-off at high momentum transfer of light-front Fock-state hadronic wavefunctions with an arbitrary number of constituents and orbital angular momentum. The AdS/CFT correspondence has important implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders derivation of counting rules for exclusive processes. One can also compute the hadronic spectrum of near-conformal QCD assuming a truncated AdS/CFT space. Given the LFWFs, one can compute form factors, heavy hadron decay amplitudes, hadron distribution amplitudes, and the generalized parton distributions underlying deeply virtual Compton scattering. The quantum fluctuations represented by the light-front Fock expansion leads to novel QCD phenomena such as color transparency, intrinsic heavy quark distributions, diffractive dissociation, and hidden-color components of nuclear wavefunctions. A new test of hidden color in deuteron photodisintegration is proposed. The origin of leading-twist phenomena such as the diffractive component of deep inelastic scattering, single-spin asymmetries, nuclear shadowing and antishadowing is also discussed; these phenomena cannot be described by light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. Part of the anomalous NuTeV results for the weak mixing angle {theta}{sub W} could be due to the non-universality of nuclear antishadowing for charged and neutral currents.

  7. Composite operators in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoda, Hidenori

    1992-01-01

    We give a formula for the derivatives of a correlation function of composite operators with respect to the parameters (i.e. the strong fine structure constant and the quark mass) of QCD in four- dimensional euclidean space. The formula is given as spatial integration of the operator conjugate to a parameter. The operator product of a composite operator and a conjugate operator has an unintegrable part, and the formula requires divergent subtractions. By imposing consistency conditions we drive a relation between the anomalous dimensions of the composite operators and the unintegrable part of the operator product coefficients. (orig.)

  8. The strong coupling constant of QCD with four flavors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekin, Fatih

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we study the theory of strong interaction Quantum Chromodynamics on a space-time lattice (lattice QCD) with four flavors of dynamical fermions by numerical simulations. In the early days of lattice QCD, only pure gauge field simulations were accessible to the computational facilities and the effects of quark polarization were neglected. The so-called fermion determinant in the path integral was set to one (quenched approximation). The reason for this approximation was mainly the limitation of computational power because the inclusion of the fermion determinant required an enormous numerical effort. However, for full QCD simulations the virtual quark loops had to be taken into account and the development of new machines and new algorithmic techniques made the so-called dynamical simulations with at least two flavors possible. In recent years, different collaborations studied lattice QCD with dynamical fermions. In our project we study lattice QCD with four degenerated flavors of O(a) improved Wilson quarks in the Schroedinger functional scheme and calculate the energy dependence of the strong coupling constant. For this purpose, we determine the O(a) improvement coefficient c sw with four flavors and use this result to calculate the step scaling function of QCD with four flavors which describes the scale evolution of the running coupling. Using a recursive finite-size technique, the Λ parameter is determined in units of a technical scale L max which is an unambiguously defined length in the hadronic regime. The coupling α SF of QCD in the so-called Schroedinger functional scheme is calculated over a wide range of energies non-perturbatively and compared with 2-loop and 3-loop perturbation theory as well as with the non-perturbative result for only two flavors. (orig.)

  9. The strong coupling constant of QCD with four flavors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tekin, Fatih

    2010-11-01

    In this thesis we study the theory of strong interaction Quantum Chromodynamics on a space-time lattice (lattice QCD) with four flavors of dynamical fermions by numerical simulations. In the early days of lattice QCD, only pure gauge field simulations were accessible to the computational facilities and the effects of quark polarization were neglected. The so-called fermion determinant in the path integral was set to one (quenched approximation). The reason for this approximation was mainly the limitation of computational power because the inclusion of the fermion determinant required an enormous numerical effort. However, for full QCD simulations the virtual quark loops had to be taken into account and the development of new machines and new algorithmic techniques made the so-called dynamical simulations with at least two flavors possible. In recent years, different collaborations studied lattice QCD with dynamical fermions. In our project we study lattice QCD with four degenerated flavors of O(a) improved Wilson quarks in the Schroedinger functional scheme and calculate the energy dependence of the strong coupling constant. For this purpose, we determine the O(a) improvement coefficient c{sub sw} with four flavors and use this result to calculate the step scaling function of QCD with four flavors which describes the scale evolution of the running coupling. Using a recursive finite-size technique, the {lambda} parameter is determined in units of a technical scale L{sub max} which is an unambiguously defined length in the hadronic regime. The coupling {alpha}{sub SF} of QCD in the so-called Schroedinger functional scheme is calculated over a wide range of energies non-perturbatively and compared with 2-loop and 3-loop perturbation theory as well as with the non-perturbative result for only two flavors. (orig.)

  10. Chiral models of low energy QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripka, G.

    1993-01-01

    Two processes may be distinguished when a hadron propagates in a dense baryonic medium. The polarization of the medium and the change in the quark structure of the hadron. The polarization of the medium is better described in terms of colorless mesons and nucleons while the intrinsic change of the hadron is better described by quark models. It is shown how to couple the two processes. The scaling of effective Lagrangians, is related to changes in the quark constituent masses, based on the QCD scale anomaly. (author) 62 refs

  11. Jets and QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Kramer, G.

    2010-12-01

    The observation of quark and gluon jets has played a crucial role in establishing Quantum Chromodynamics [QCD] as the theory of the strong interactions within the Standard Model of particle physics. The jets, narrowly collimated bundles of hadrons, reflect configurations of quarks and gluons at short distances. Thus, by analysing energy and angular distributions of the jets experimentally, the properties of the basic constituents of matter and the strong forces acting between them can be explored. In this review we summarise the properties of quark and gluon jets and the impact of their observation on Quantum Chromodynamics, primarily the discovery of the gluons as the carriers of the strong force. Focusing on these basic points, jets in e + e - collisions will be in the foreground of the discussion. In addition we will delineate the role of jets as tools for exploring other particle aspects in ep and pp/p anti p collisions - quark and gluon densities in protons, measurements of the QCD coupling, fundamental 2-2 quark/gluon scattering processes, but also the impact of jet decays of top quarks, and W ± ,Z bosons on the electroweak sector. The presentation to a large extent is formulated in a non-technical language with the intent to recall the significant steps historically and convey the significance of this field also to communities beyond high energy physics. (orig.)

  12. Jets and QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kramer, G. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2010-12-15

    The observation of quark and gluon jets has played a crucial role in establishing Quantum Chromodynamics [QCD] as the theory of the strong interactions within the Standard Model of particle physics. The jets, narrowly collimated bundles of hadrons, reflect configurations of quarks and gluons at short distances. Thus, by analysing energy and angular distributions of the jets experimentally, the properties of the basic constituents of matter and the strong forces acting between them can be explored. In this review we summarise the properties of quark and gluon jets and the impact of their observation on Quantum Chromodynamics, primarily the discovery of the gluons as the carriers of the strong force. Focusing on these basic points, jets in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions will be in the foreground of the discussion. In addition we will delineate the role of jets as tools for exploring other particle aspects in ep and pp/p anti p collisions - quark and gluon densities in protons, measurements of the QCD coupling, fundamental 2-2 quark/gluon scattering processes, but also the impact of jet decays of top quarks, and W{sup {+-}},Z bosons on the electroweak sector. The presentation to a large extent is formulated in a non-technical language with the intent to recall the significant steps historically and convey the significance of this field also to communities beyond high energy physics. (orig.)

  13. Massively Parallel QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltz, R; Vranas, P; Blumrich, M; Chen, D; Gara, A; Giampap, M; Heidelberger, P; Salapura, V; Sexton, J; Bhanot, G

    2007-01-01

    The theory of the strong nuclear force, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), can be numerically simulated from first principles on massively-parallel supercomputers using the method of Lattice Gauge Theory. We describe the special programming requirements of lattice QCD (LQCD) as well as the optimal supercomputer hardware architectures that it suggests. We demonstrate these methods on the BlueGene massively-parallel supercomputer and argue that LQCD and the BlueGene architecture are a natural match. This can be traced to the simple fact that LQCD is a regular lattice discretization of space into lattice sites while the BlueGene supercomputer is a discretization of space into compute nodes, and that both are constrained by requirements of locality. This simple relation is both technologically important and theoretically intriguing. The main result of this paper is the speedup of LQCD using up to 131,072 CPUs on the largest BlueGene/L supercomputer. The speedup is perfect with sustained performance of about 20% of peak. This corresponds to a maximum of 70.5 sustained TFlop/s. At these speeds LQCD and BlueGene are poised to produce the next generation of strong interaction physics theoretical results

  14. Static QCD potential at rQCD-1: Perturbative expansion and operator-product expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumino, Y.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the static QCD potential V QCD (r) in the distance region 0.1 fm QCD (r) analytically. Higher-order terms are estimated by large-β 0 approximation or by renormalization group, and the renormalization scale is varied around the minimal-sensitivity scale. A 'Coulomb'+linear potential can be identified with the scale-independent and renormalon-free part of the prediction and can be separated from the renormalon-dominating part. (II) In the frame of OPE, we define two types of renormalization schemes for the leading Wilson coefficient. One scheme belongs to the class of conventional factorization schemes. The other scheme belongs to a new class, which is independent of the factorization scale, derived from a generalization of the Coulomb+linear potential of (I). The Wilson coefficient is free from IR renormalons and IR divergences in both schemes. We study properties of the Wilson coefficient and of the corresponding nonperturbative contribution δE US (r) in each scheme. (III) We compare numerically perturbative predictions of the Wilson coefficient and lattice computations of V QCD (r) when n l =0. We confirm either correctness or consistency (within uncertainties) of the theoretical predictions made in (II). Then we perform fits to simultaneously determine δE US (r) and r 0 Λ MS 3-loop (relation between lattice scale and Λ MS ). As for the former quantity, we improve bounds as compared to the previous determination; as for the latter quantity, our analysis provides a new method for its determination. We find that (a) δE US (r)=0 is disfavored, and (b) r 0 Λ MS 3-loop =0.574±0.042. We elucidate the mechanism for the sensitivities and examine sources of errors in detail

  15. Light-cone quantized QCD and novel hadron phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1997-09-01

    The authors reviews progress made in solving gauge theories such as collinear quantum chromodynamics using light-cone Hamiltonian methods. He also shows how the light-cone Fock expansion for hadron wavefunctions can be used to compute operator matrix elements such as decay amplitudes, form factors, distribution amplitudes, and structure functions, and how it provides a tool for exploring novel features of QCD. The author also reviews commensurate scale relations, leading-twist identities which relate physical observables to each other, thus eliminating renormalization scale and scheme ambiguities in perturbative QCD predictions

  16. Calculation of hadronic part of photon structure function in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorskij, A.S.; Ioffe, B.L.; Oganesyan, A.G.; Khodzhamiryan, A.Yu.

    1989-01-01

    The photon structure function in QCD in the intermediate region of the Bjorken variable 0.2 2 /2pq, where q 2 is the hard photon virtuality, p is the soft photon momentum) is calculated. It is shown that without introduction of fitting parameters the experimental data can be described in the range 3GeV 2 ≤Q 2 2 /Q 2 =-q 2 /not taking account for the leading logarithmic corrections. It is demonstrated that the corrections proportional to μ ν 2 > to the hard photon scattering amplitude on the longitudinal soft photon and to the Callan-Gross relation vanish. 16 refs.; 6 figs

  17. QCD under extreme conditions. Inhomogeneous condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinz, Achim

    2014-10-15

    Almost 40 years after the first publication on the phase diagram of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) big progress has been made but many questions are still open. This work covers several aspects of low-energy QCD and introduces advanced methods to calculate selected parts of the QCD phase diagram. Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking as well as its restoration is a major aspect of QCD. Two effective models, the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model and the linear σ-model, are widely used to describe the QCD chiral phase transition. We study the large-N{sub c} behavior of the critical temperature T{sub c} for chiral symmetry restoration in the framework of both models. While in the NJL model T{sub c} is independent of N{sub c} (and in agreement with the expected QCD scaling), the scaling behavior in the linear σ-model reads T{sub c} ∝ N{sup 1/2}{sub c}. However, this mismatch can be corrected: phenomenologically motivated temperature-dependent parameters or the extension with the Polyakov-loop renders the scaling in the linear σ-model compatible with the QCD scaling. The requirement that the chiral condensate which is the order parameter of the chiral symmetry is constant in space is too restrictive. Recent studies on inhomogeneous chiral condensation in cold, dense quark matter suggest a rich crystalline structure. These studies feature models with quark degrees of freedom. In this thesis we investigate the formation of the chiral density wave (CDW) in the framework of the so-called extended linear sigma model (eLSM) at high densities and zero temperature. The eLSM is a modern development of the linear σ-model which contains scalar, pseudoscalar, vector, as well as axial-vector mesons, and in addition, a light tetraquark state. The nucleon and its chiral partner are introduced as parity doublets in the mirror assignment. The model describes successfully the vacuum phenomenology and nuclear matter ground-state properties. As a result we find that an inhomogeneous phase

  18. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Analysis of fracture networks based on the integration of structural and hydrogeological observations on different scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossart, P. [Geotechnical Inst. Ltd., Bern (Switzerland); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates, Stockholm (Sweden); Mazurek, M. [Univ. of Bern (Switzerland)

    2001-05-01

    Fracture networks at Aespoe have been studied for several rock types exhibiting different degrees of ductile and brittle deformation, as well as on different scales. Mesoscopic fault systems have been characterised and classified in an earlier report, this report focuses mainly on fracture networks derived on smaller scales, but also includes mesoscopic and larger scales. The TRUE-1 block has been selected for detailed structural analysis on a small scale due to the high density of relevant information. In addition to the data obtained from core materials, structural maps, BIP data and the results of hydro tests were synthesised to derive a conceptual structural model. The approach used to derive this conceptual model is based on the integration of deterministic structural evidence, probabilistic information and both upscaling and downscaling of observations and concepts derived on different scales. Twelve fracture networks mapped at different sites and scales and exhibiting various styles of tectonic deformation were analysed for fractal properties and structural and hydraulic interconnectedness. It was shown that these analysed fracture networks are not self-similar. An important result is the structural and hydraulic interconnectedness of fracture networks on all scales in the Aespoe rocks, which is further corroborated by geochemical evidence. Due to the structural and hydraulic interconnectedness of fracture systems on all scales at Aespoe, contaminants from waste canisters placed in tectonically low deformation environments would be transported - after having passed through the engineered barriers -from low-permeability fractures towards higher permeability fractures and may thus eventually reach high-permeability features.

  19. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Analysis of fracture networks based on the integration of structural and hydrogeological observations on different scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossart, P.; Hermanson, Jan; Mazurek, M.

    2001-05-01

    Fracture networks at Aespoe have been studied for several rock types exhibiting different degrees of ductile and brittle deformation, as well as on different scales. Mesoscopic fault systems have been characterised and classified in an earlier report, this report focuses mainly on fracture networks derived on smaller scales, but also includes mesoscopic and larger scales. The TRUE-1 block has been selected for detailed structural analysis on a small scale due to the high density of relevant information. In addition to the data obtained from core materials, structural maps, BIP data and the results of hydro tests were synthesised to derive a conceptual structural model. The approach used to derive this conceptual model is based on the integration of deterministic structural evidence, probabilistic information and both upscaling and downscaling of observations and concepts derived on different scales. Twelve fracture networks mapped at different sites and scales and exhibiting various styles of tectonic deformation were analysed for fractal properties and structural and hydraulic interconnectedness. It was shown that these analysed fracture networks are not self-similar. An important result is the structural and hydraulic interconnectedness of fracture networks on all scales in the Aespoe rocks, which is further corroborated by geochemical evidence. Due to the structural and hydraulic interconnectedness of fracture systems on all scales at Aespoe, contaminants from waste canisters placed in tectonically low deformation environments would be transported - after having passed through the engineered barriers -from low-permeability fractures towards higher permeability fractures and may thus eventually reach high-permeability features

  20. Exotic hybrid mesons in hard electroproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Anikin, I V; Szymanowski, L; Teryaev, O V; Wallon, S

    2005-01-01

    We estimate the sizeable cross section for deep exclusive electroproduction of an exotic $J^{PC}=1^{-+}$ hybrid meson in the Bjorken regime. The production amplitude scales like the one for usual meson electroproduction, i.e. as $1/Q^2$. This is due to the non-vanishing leading twist distribution amplitude for the hybrid meson, which may be normalized thanks to its relation to the energy momentum tensor and to the QCD sum rules technique. The hard amplitude is considered up to next-to-leading order in $\\alpha_{S}$ and we explore the consequences of fixing the renormalization scale ambiguity through the BLM procedure. We study the particular case where the hybrid meson decays through a $\\pi\\eta $ meson pair. We discuss the $\\pi\\eta$ generalized distribution amplitude and then calculate the production amplitude for this process. We propose a forward-backward asymmetry in the production of $\\pi$ and $\\eta$ mesons as a signal for the hybrid meson production. We briefly comment on hybrid electroproduction at very ...

  1. Heavy flavor production in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyer, P.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper a brief survey is given of the status of heavy quark hadroproduction in QCD. The next-to-leading order calculation allows an estimate of the theoretical uncertainties to be made. They are manageable for top, but considerable for charm. The data on charm continues to show an excess of events at large x F , compared to QCD expectations. This may be linked to the measured anomalous A-dependence of the cross section on nuclear targets, also present at large x F . QCD models for the diffractive production of heavy quarks remain to be tested experimentally

  2. Non-perturbative QCD correlation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyrol, Anton Konrad

    2017-11-27

    Functional methods provide access to the non-perturbative regime of quantum chromo- dynamics. Hence, they allow investigating confinement and chiral symmetry breaking. In this dissertation, correlation functions of Yang-Mills theory and unquenched two-flavor QCD are computed from the functional renormalization group. Employing a self-consistent vertex expansion of the effective action, Yang-Mills correlation functions are obtained in four as well as in three spacetime dimensions. To this end, confinement and Slavnov-Taylor identities are discussed. Our numerical results show very good agreement with corresponding lattice results. Next, unquenched two-flavor QCD is considered where it is shown that the unquenched two-flavor gluon propagator is insensitive to the pion mass. Furthermore, the necessity for consistent truncations is emphasized. Finally, correlation functions of finite-temperature Yang-Mills theory are computed in a truncation that includes the splitting of the gluon field into directions that are transverse and longitudinal to the heat bath. In particular, it includes the splitting of the three- and four-gluon vertices. The obtained gluon propagator allows to extract a Debye screening mass that coincides with the hard thermal loop screening mass at high temperatures, but is meaningful also at temperatures below the phase transition temperature.

  3. Datagrids for lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechner, O. [Zentralinstitut fuer Angewandte Mathematik ZAM, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Ernst, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Jansen, K. [John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC/DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Lippert, Th. [Zentralinstitut fuer Angewandte Mathematik ZAM, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Melkumyan, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Orth, B. [Zentralinstitut fuer Angewandte Mathematik ZAM, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Pleiter, D. [John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC/DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany)]. E-mail: dirk.pleiter@desy.de; Stueben, H. [Konrad-Zuse-Institut fuer Informationstechnik ZIB, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Wegner, P. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Wollny, S. [Konrad-Zuse-Institut fuer Informationstechnik ZIB, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2006-04-01

    As the need for computing resources to carry out numerical simulations of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) formulated on a lattice has increased significantly, efficient use of the generated data has become a major concern. To improve on this, groups plan to share their configurations on a worldwide level within the International Lattice DataGrid (ILDG). Doing so requires standardized description of the configurations, standards on binary file formats and common middleware interfaces. We describe the requirements and problems, and discuss solutions. Furthermore, an overview is given on the implementation of the LatFor DataGrid [http://www-zeuthen.desy.de/latfor/ldg], a France/German/Italian grid that will be one of the regional grids within the ILDG grid-of-grids concept.

  4. Vacuum structure and QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of QCD is given, and some of the dynamical issues that arise in attempts to solve this theory are discussed. In particular, attention is focused on the problems that appear in attempts to discuss the structure of low-lying hadrons, e.g. nucleons, on the basis of a color gauge theory of quarks. The picture of hadronic structure developed by Callan, Dashen, and Gross is reviewed; this picture maintains that it presents the qualitative features of hadronic structure emerging in a direct way from first principles. Finally, the relevance of the emerging understanding of the structure of hadrons to the question of what hadronic matter (nuclear or quark matter) might look like at high densities is discussed

  5. Hard processes in hadronic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satz, H.; Wang, X.N.

    1995-01-01

    Quantum chromodynamics is today accepted as the fundamental theory of strong interactions, even though most hadronic collisions lead to final states for which quantitative QCD predictions are still lacking. It therefore seems worthwhile to take stock of where we stand today and to what extent the presently available data on hard processes in hadronic collisions can be accounted for in terms of QCD. This is one reason for this work. The second reason - and in fact its original trigger - is the search for the quark-gluon plasma in high energy nuclear collisions. The hard processes to be considered here are the production of prompt photons, Drell-Yan dileptons, open charm, quarkonium states, and hard jets. For each of these, we discuss the present theoretical understanding, compare the resulting predictions to available data, and then show what behaviour it leads to at RHIC and LHC energies. All of these processes have the structure mentioned above: they contain a hard partonic interaction, calculable perturbatively, but also the non-perturbative parton distribution within a hadron. These parton distributions, however, can be studied theoretically in terms of counting rule arguments, and they can be checked independently by measurements of the parton structure functions in deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering. The present volume is the work of Hard Probe Collaboration, a group of theorists who are interested in the problem and were willing to dedicate a considerable amount of their time and work on it. The necessary preparation, planning and coordination of the project were carried out in two workshops of two weeks' duration each, in February 1994 at CERn in Geneva andin July 1994 at LBL in Berkeley

  6. International Meeting: Excited QCD 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Giacosa, Francesco; Malek, Magdalena; Marinkovic, Marina; Parganlija, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Excited QCD 2014 will take place on the beautiful Bjelasnica mountain located in the vicinity of the Bosnian capital Sarajevo. Bjelasnica was a venue of the XIV Winter Olympic Games and it is situated only 30 kilometers from Sarajevo International Airport. The workshop program will start on February 2 and finish on February 8, 2014, with scientific lectures taking place from February 3 to 7. Workshop participants will be accomodated in Hotel Marsal, only couple of minutes by foot from the Olympic ski slopes. ABOUT THE WORKSHOP This edition is the sixth in a series of workshops that were previously organised in Poland, Slovakia, France and Portugal. Following the succesful meeting in 2013, the Workshop is returning to Sarajevo Olympic mountains in 2014, exactly thirty years after the Games. The workshop covers diverse aspects of QCD: (i) QCD at low energies: excited hadrons, glueballs, multiquarks. (ii) QCD at high temperatures and large densities: heavy-ion collisions, jets, diffraction, hadronisation, quark-...

  7. Deflation acceleration of lattice QCD simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luescher, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Close to the chiral limit, many calculations in numerical lattice QCD can potentially be accelerated using low-mode deflation techniques. In this paper it is shown that the recently introduced domain-decomposed deflation subspaces can be propagated along the field trajectories generated by the Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) algorithm with a modest effort. The quark forces that drive the simulation may then be computed using a deflation-accelerated solver for the lattice Dirac equation. As a consequence, the computer time required for the simulations is significantly reduced and an improved scaling behaviour of the simulation algorithm with respect to the quark mass is achieved

  8. Deflation acceleration of lattice QCD simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Lüscher, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Close to the chiral limit, many calculations in numerical lattice QCD can potentially be accelerated using low-mode deflation techniques. In this paper it is shown that the recently introduced domain-decomposed deflation subspaces can be propagated along the field trajectories generated by the Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) algorithm with a modest effort. The quark forces that drive the simulation may then be computed using a deflation-accelerated solver for the lattice Dirac equation. As a consequence, the computer time required for the simulations is significantly reduced and an improved scaling behaviour of the simulation algorithm with respect to the quark mass is achieved.

  9. QCD traveling waves beyond leading logarithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschanski, R.; Sapeta, S.

    2006-01-01

    We derive the asymptotic traveling-wave solutions of the nonlinear 1-dimensional Balitsky-Kovchegov QCD equation for rapidity evolution in momentum space, with 1-loop running coupling constant and equipped with the Balitsky-Kovchegov-Kuraev-Lipatov kernel at next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy, conveniently regularized by different resummation schemes. Traveling waves allow us to define ''universality classes'' of asymptotic solutions, i.e. independent of initial conditions and of the nonlinear damping. A dependence on the resummation scheme remains, which is analyzed in terms of geometric scaling properties

  10. Color diffusion in QCD transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selikhov, A.V.; Gyulassy, M.

    1993-01-01

    Color diffusion is shown to be an important dissipative property of quark-gluon plasmas with the characteristic color relaxation time scale, t c ∼ (3α s T log (m E /m M )) -1 , showing its sensitivity to the ratio of the static color electric and magnetic screening masses. Fokker-Planck equations are derived for QCD Wigner distributions taking into account quantum color dynamics. These equations show that the anomalously small color relaxation time leads to a small color conductivity and to strong damping of collective color modes

  11. Perturbative current quark masses in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scadron, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    Neutral PCAC current quark masses follow from the covariant light plane of QCD requirement that α-m-circumflex(M), which is not inconsistent with the spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry. The resulting current quark mass ratio (m sub(s)/m-circumflex) sub(curr)=5 and scale m-circumflex sub(curr)=62 MeV at M=2 Gev are compatible with the observed πNσ - term, the Goldberger-Treiman discrepancy, the low-lying 0 - , 1/2 + , 1 - , 3/2 + hadron mass spectrum, the flavor independence of the dynamically generated quark mass and the perturbative weak binding limit. (author)

  12. Precision probes of QCD at high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alioli, Simone; Farina, Marco; Pappadopulo, Duccio; Ruderman, Joshua T.

    2017-07-01

    New physics, that is too heavy to be produced directly, can leave measurable imprints on the tails of kinematic distributions at the LHC. We use energetic QCD processes to perform novel measurements of the Standard Model (SM) Effective Field Theory. We show that the dijet invariant mass spectrum, and the inclusive jet transverse momentum spectrum, are sensitive to a dimension 6 operator that modifies the gluon propagator at high energies. The dominant effect is constructive or destructive interference with SM jet production. We compare differential next-to-leading order predictions from POWHEG to public 7 TeV jet data, including scale, PDF, and experimental uncertainties and their respective correlations. We constrain a New Physics (NP) scale of 3.5 TeV with current data. We project the reach of future 13 and 100 TeV measurements, which we estimate to be sensitive to NP scales of 8 and 60 TeV, respectively. As an application, we apply our bounds to constrain heavy vector octet colorons that couple to the QCD current. We project that effective operators will surpass bump hunts, in terms of coloron mass reach, even for sequential couplings.

  13. Decay constants in soft wall AdS/QCD revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson R.F. Braga

    2016-12-01

    We show here that a modified framework of soft wall AdS/QCD involving an additional dimensionfull parameter, associated with an ultraviolet energy scale, provides decay constants decreasing with radial excitation level. In this version of the soft wall model the two point function of gauge theory operators is calculated at a finite position of the anti-de Sitter space radial coordinate.

  14. Quark–gluon plasma phenomenology from anisotropic lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skullerud, Jon-Ivar; Kelly, Aoife [Department of Mathematical Physics, Maynooth University, Maynooth, Co Kildare (Ireland); Aarts, Gert; Allton, Chris; Amato, Alessandro; Evans, P. Wynne M.; Hands, Simon [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales (United Kingdom); Burnier, Yannis [Institut de Théorie des Phénomènes Physiques, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH–1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Giudice, Pietro [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Münster, D–48149 Münster (Germany); Harris, Tim; Ryan, Sinéad M. [School of Mathematics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Kim, Seyong [Department of Physics, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Lombardo, Maria Paola [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, I–00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Oktay, Mehmet B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Rothkopf, Alexander [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, D–69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-01-22

    The FASTSUM collaboration has been carrying out simulations of N{sub f} = 2 + 1 QCD at nonzero temperature in the fixed-scale approach using anisotropic lattices. Here we present the status of these studies, including recent results for electrical conductivity and charge diffusion, and heavy quarkonium (charm and beauty) physics.

  15. The running coupling of QCD with four flavors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekin, Fatih; Wolff, Ulli; Sommer, Rainer

    2010-06-01

    We have calculated the step scaling function and the running coupling of QCD in the Schroedinger functional scheme with four flavors of O(a) improved Wilson quarks. Comparisons of our non-perturbative results with 2-loop and 3-loop perturbation theory as well as with non-perturbative data for only two flavors are made. (orig.)

  16. Non-perturbative studies of QCD at small quark masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wennekers, J.

    2006-07-15

    We investigate the quenched approximation of lattice QCD with numerical simulations of Ginsparg-Wilson fermions, which are a fermion discretisation with exact chiral symmetry. We compute the renormalisation constant of the scalar density, which allows to extrapolate the chiral condensate to the continuum limit. Furthermore we match lattice results of matrix elements describing hadronic kaon decays to Chiral Perturbation Theory in finite volume and at almost vanishing quark mass. The resulting low-energy constants in the considered SU(4)-flavour symmetric case indicate a substantial contribution of low scale QCD effects to the {delta}I = 1/2 rule. (Orig.)

  17. Prediction of Large Vessel Occlusions in Acute Stroke: National Institute of Health Stroke Scale Is Hard to Beat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, Peter; Heldner, Mirjam R; Amiguet, Michael; Faouzi, Mohamed; Cras, Patrick; Ntaios, George; Arnold, Marcel; Mattle, Heinrich P; Gralla, Jan; Fischer, Urs; Michel, Patrik

    2016-06-01

    Endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke with a large vessel occlusion was recently shown to be effective. We aimed to develop a score capable of predicting large vessel occlusion eligible for endovascular treatment in the early hospital management. Retrospective, cohort study. Two tertiary, Swiss stroke centers. Consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients (1,645 patients; Acute STroke Registry and Analysis of Lausanne registry), who had CT angiography within 6 and 12 hours of symptom onset, were categorized according to the occlusion site. Demographic and clinical information was used in logistic regression analysis to derive predictors of large vessel occlusion (defined as intracranial carotid, basilar, and M1 segment of middle cerebral artery occlusions). Based on logistic regression coefficients, an integer score was created and validated internally and externally (848 patients; Bernese Stroke Registry). None. Large vessel occlusions were present in 316 patients (21%) in the derivation and 566 (28%) in the external validation cohort. Five predictors added significantly to the score: National Institute of Health Stroke Scale at admission, hemineglect, female sex, atrial fibrillation, and no history of stroke and prestroke handicap (modified Rankin Scale score, < 2). Diagnostic accuracy in internal and external validation cohorts was excellent (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.84 both). The score performed slightly better than National Institute of Health Stroke Scale alone regarding prediction error (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p < 0.001) and regarding discriminatory power in derivation and pooled cohorts (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.81 vs 0.80; DeLong test, p = 0.02). Our score accurately predicts the presence of emergent large vessel occlusions, which are eligible for endovascular treatment. However, incorporation of additional demographic and historical information available on hospital arrival

  18. QCD in gauge-boson production at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Schott, Matthias; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Measurements of the Drell-Yan production of W and Z/gamma* bosons at the LHC provide a benchmark of our understanding of perturbative QCD and probe the proton structure in a unique way. The ATLAS and CMS collaborations have performed several high precision measurements at different center-of-mass energies, ranging from single to triple differential cross sections. These measurements are the key in improving physics modelling uncertainties of electroweak precision measurements at the LHC. Moreover, perturbative QCD can be tested further in a multi-scale environment, when studying the production of jets in association with single and di-bosons final states. In this talk, we review the latest measurements, discuss the compatibility between the experiments and compare the results to the state-of-the-art QCD calculations and Monte Carlo simulations, as well their potential impact on improving our understanding PDFs.

  19. QCD teraflops computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negele, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Architectural enhancements are described to increase the performance of the arithmetic accelerator and memory of the nodes in the CM-5 for QCD and a broad range of general problems while maintaining compatibility with existing software, compilers, communications network and I/O subsystems. A factor of 10 increase in performance is obtained by increasing the number of floating point processors by a factor of 4, extending the vector instruction set for dual execution of single-precision arithmetic, and increasing the clock rate from 32 to 40 MHz. The required memory bandwidth is obtained by using synchronous DRAMs and 4 floating point processors are packaged into a multichip module which occupies the same area as a present processor package. The proposed 2048 node machine will provide 2.6 Teraflops peak, 0.5 - 1.5 Teraflops sustained on lattices of 32 2 x 64 - 128 3 x 256, will have 256 Gigabytes of memory, 1 Terabyte of disk, an estimated cost of approximately $40 million, and can be built in 2.5 years. (orig.)

  20. Induced QCD I: theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, Bastian B. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe-University of Frankfurt,60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Regensburg,93040 Regensburg (Germany); Lohmayer, Robert; Wettig, Tilo [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Regensburg,93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2016-11-14

    We explore an alternative discretization of continuum SU(N{sub c}) Yang-Mills theory on a Euclidean spacetime lattice, originally introduced by Budzcies and Zirnbauer. In this discretization the self-interactions of the gauge field are induced by a path integral over N{sub b} auxiliary boson fields, which are coupled linearly to the gauge field. The main progress compared to earlier approaches is that N{sub b} can be as small as N{sub c}. In the present paper we (i) extend the proof that the continuum limit of the new discretization reproduces Yang-Mills theory in two dimensions from gauge group U(N{sub c}) to SU(N{sub c}), (ii) derive refined bounds on N{sub b} for non-integer values, and (iii) perform a perturbative calculation to match the bare parameter of the induced gauge theory to the standard lattice coupling. In follow-up papers we will present numerical evidence in support of the conjecture that the induced gauge theory reproduces Yang-Mills theory also in three and four dimensions, and explore the possibility to integrate out the gauge fields to arrive at a dual formulation of lattice QCD.

  1. Comparative Study of Algorithms for the Numerical Simulation of Lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luz, Fernando H. P.; Mendes, Tereza

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale numerical simulations are the prime method for a nonperturbative study of QCD from first principles. Although the lattice simulation of the pure-gauge (or quenched-QCD) case may be performed very efficiently on parallel machines, there are several additional difficulties in the simulation of the full-QCD case, i.e. when dynamical quark effects are taken into account. We discuss the main aspects of full-QCD simulations, describing the most common algorithms. We present a comparative analysis of performance for two versions of the hybrid Monte Carlo method (the so-called R and RHMC algorithms), as provided in the MILC software package. We consider two degenerate flavors of light quarks in the staggered formulation, having in mind the case of finite-temperature QCD.

  2. QCD Jets and particle correlations in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of jets and particle correlations in nucleus-nucleus collisions are intended to probe QCD interactions in the high temperature phase, where matter is understood to behave as a quark-gluon plasma. Two probes are reviewed: jets which are used to study the energy loss of hard-scattered partons in this medium and particle correlations which are used to understand collective effects of the bulk matter. Whereas collisions of lighter systems, namely proton-ion and proton-proton, initially served primarily as control experiments, certain (but not all) effects first observed in nucleus-nucleus collisions have proven to be pervasive in these systems. Comparative measurements in these three systems have broadened our understanding of many-body QCD phenomena, and raised new questions. This talk reviewed these recent developments.

  3. Resummation of perturbative QCD by pade approximants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardi, E.

    1997-01-01

    In this lecture I present some of the new developments concerning the use of Pade Approximants (PA's) for resuming perturbative series in QCD. It is shown that PA's tend to reduce the renormalization scale and scheme dependence as compared to truncated series. In particular it is proven that in the limit where the β function is dominated by the 1-loop contribution, there is an exact symmetry that guarantees invariance of diagonal PA's under changing the renormalization scale. In addition it is shown that in the large β 0 approximation diagonal PA's can be interpreted as a systematic method for approximating the flow of momentum in Feynman diagrams. This corresponds to a new multiple scale generalization of the Brodsky-Lepage-Mackenzie (BLM) method to higher orders. I illustrate the method with the Bjorken sum rule and the vacuum polarization function. (author)

  4. Multiplicity and Underlying Event in ALICE: as measurements and as tools to probe QCD arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00361691

    With the high collision energies at the LHC, the contributions to particle production from hard-QCD processes increase, but it remains dominated by soft-QCD processes. Such processes challenge the theoretical models, since they are described by non-perturbative phenomenology. A selection of the most recent ALICE measurements of charged-particle multiplicities and the Underlying Event will be presented, focusing on model comparisons. A summary of the current understanding of soft-QCD processes will be discussed, evaluating possible ways to further constrain theory.

  5. QCD corrections for two jet production in photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastmans, R.; Berends, F.A.; Kunszt, Z.

    1980-09-01

    We present the calculation of the first order QCD corrections to the process γγ → q anti q, including virtual gluons and bremsstrahlung of soft and hard collinear gluons. The obtained cross section is then used to calculate the αsub(s) corrections to the process e + e - → e + e - + 2 jets. The numerical importance of hard acollinear gluons is also discussed. (orig.)

  6. Higher twist effects in QCD description of light meson exclusive formfactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorskij, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    The general approach to a quantitative description of higher twist effects in hard exclusive processes in QCD is proposed. The consistent calculations in coordinate space and the choice of special gauges for quantum and classical gluon fields are essential ingradients of this method. The self consistent system of twist three wave functions for π-meson has been built

  7. Determination of s(x) and anti s(x) from a global QCD analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zomer, F

    1999-10-01

    A new global QCD analysis of DIS data is presented. The {nu}Fe and {nu}-bar Fe differential cross-section data are included to constrain the strange component of the nucleon sea. As a result we found a hard strangeness at high-x and some evidence for an asymmetry between xs(x) and xs-bar(x). (author)

  8. Multi-meson systems in lattice QCD / Many-body QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detmold, William [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2013-08-31

    Nuclear physics entails the study of the properties and interactions of hadrons, such as the proton and neutron, and atomic nuclei and it is central to our understanding of our world at the smallest scales. The underlying basis for nuclear physics is provided by the Standard Model of particle physics which describes how matter interacts through the strong, electromagnetic and weak (electroweak) forces. This theory was developed in the 1970s and provides an extremely successful description of our world at the most fundamental level to which it has been probed. The Standard Model has been, and continues to be, subject to stringent tests at particle accelerators around the world, so far passing without blemish. However, at the relatively low energies that are relevant for nuclear physics, calculations involving the strong interaction, governed by the equations of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), are enormously challenging, and to date, the only systematic way to perform them is numerically, using a framework known as lattice QCD (LQCD). In this approach, one discretizes space-time and numerically solves the equations of QCD on a space-time lattice; for realistic calculations, this requires highly optimized algorithms and cutting-edge high performance computing (HPC) resources. Progress over the project period is discussed in detail in the following subsections

  9. Analytic continuation in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caprini, Irinel

    2002-01-01

    We discuss some attempts to improve standard perturbative expansion in QCD by using the analytic continuation in the momentum and the Borel complex planes. We first analyse the momentum-plane analyticity properties of the Borel-summed Green functions in perturbative QCD and the connection between the Landau singularities and the infrared renormalons. By using the analytic continuation in the Borel complex plane, we propose a new perturbative series replacing the standard expansion in powers of the normalized coupling constant a. The new expansion functions have branch point and essential singularities at the origin of the complex a-plane and divergent Taylor expansions in powers of a. On the other hand the modified expansion of the QCD correlators is convergent under rather conservative conditions. (author)

  10. Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and collider physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.K.; Stirling, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses: fundamentals of perturbative QCD; QCD in e + e - → hadrons; deep inelastic scattering and parton distributions; the QCD parton model in hadron-hadron collisions; large p T jet production in hadron-hadron collisions; the production of vector bosons in hadronic collisions; and the production of heavy quarks

  11. Theoretical summary talk of QCD 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Rahul

    2003-01-01

    This is a summary of the talks on QCD, not including QCD at finite temperature or density (which are discussed elsewhere) presented at the QCD 2002 meeting held at IIT, Kanpur. I have attempted to give only an overview of the talks since the details may be found in the individual contributions. (author)

  12. The gauge-independent QCD effective charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, N.J.

    1999-01-01

    It is shown how the QCD concept of a gauge-, scale-and scheme-independent one-loop effective charge can be extended directly at the diagrammatic level to QCD, thus justifying explicitly the 'naive non-abelialization' prescription used in renormalon calculus. It is first argued that, for one-shell external fields and at the strictly one-loop level, the required gluon self-energy-like function is precisely that obtained from S-matrix elements via the pinch technique. The generalization of the pinch technique to explicitly off-shell processes is then introduced. It is shown how, as a result of a fundamental cancellation among conventional perturbation theory diagrams encoded in the QCD Ward identities, the pinch technique one-loop gluon self-energy iΠ μν ab (q) remains gauge-independent and universal regardless of the fact that the 'external' fields in the given process are off-shell. This demonstration involves a simple technique enabling the isolation in a arbitrary gauge, of iΠ μν ab (q) from subclasses of up to several hundreds diagrams at once. Furthermore, it is shown how this one-loop cancellation mechanism iterates for the subclasses of n-loop diagrams containing implicitly the Dyson chains of n-loop self energies iΠ μν ab (q). The gauge cancellation required for the Dyson summation of iΠ μν ab (q) is thus demonstrated explicitly in the class of ghost-free gauges for all orders n. (authors)

  13. Recent QCD results from CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we report recent QCD analysis with the new data taken from CDF detector. CDF recorded an integrated luminosity of 4.4 nb -1 during the 1988--1989 run at center of mass system (CMS) energy of 1.8 TeV. The major topics of this report are inclusive jet, dijet, trijet and direct photon analysis. These measurements are compared of QCD predictions. For the inclusive jet an dijet analysis, tests of quark compositeness are emphasized. 11 refs., 6 figs

  14. Simulating QCD at finite density

    CERN Document Server

    de Forcrand, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    In this review, I recall the nature and the inevitability of the "sign problem" which plagues attempts to simulate lattice QCD at finite baryon density. I present the main approaches used to circumvent the sign problem at small chemical potential. I sketch how one can predict analytically the severity of the sign problem, as well as the numerically accessible range of baryon densities. I review progress towards the determination of the pseudo-critical temperature T_c(mu), and towards the identification of a possible QCD critical point. Some promising advances with non-standard approaches are reviewed.

  15. The first lap in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, F.E.

    1980-07-01

    The idea that quantum chromodynamics is Nature's choice for the theory of quark interactions and that desirable phenomena, such as quark confinement, are consequences of it are considered. The lecture is presented under the headings: (1) Why do we believe that quarks have colour. (2) A rapid summary of the parton model in deep inelastic scattering. (3) Non Abelian theories: the vertices. (4) Hyperfine splitting of hadrons: more evidence for colour. (5) Renormalisation. (6) Alpha(Q 2 ). (7) The renormalisation group equations. (8) QCD, the renormalisation group equation and deep inelastic data. (9) Higher order corrections in QCD. (U.K.)

  16. Neutron star structure from QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Fraga, Eduardo S; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-01-01

    In this review article, we argue that our current understanding of the thermodynamic properties of cold QCD matter, originating from first principles calculations at high and low densities, can be used to efficiently constrain the macroscopic properties of neutron stars. In particular, we demonstrate that combining state-of-the-art results from Chiral Effective Theory and perturbative QCD with the current bounds on neutron star masses, the Equation of State of neutron star matter can be obtained to an accuracy better than 30% at all densities.

  17. Lattice QCD: Status and Prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukawa, Akira

    2006-01-01

    A brief review is given of the current status and near-future prospect of lattice QCD studies of the Standard Model. After summarizing a bit of history, we describe current attempts toward inclusion of dynamical up, down and strange quarks. Recent results on the light hadron mass spectrum as well as those on the heavy quark quantities are described. Recent work on lattice pentaquark search is summarized. We touch upon the PACS-CS Project for building our next machine for lattice QCD, and conclude with a summary of computer situation and the physics possibilities over the next several years

  18. Hadron scattering, resonances, and QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, R. A.

    2016-11-01

    The non-perturbative nature of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) has historically left a gap in our understanding of the connection between the fundamental theory of the strong interactions and the rich structure of experimentally observed phenomena. For the simplest properties of stable hadrons, this is now circumvented with the use of lattice QCD (LQCD). In this talk I discuss a path towards a rigorous determination of few-hadron observables from LQCD. I illustrate the power of the methodology by presenting recently determined scattering amplitudes in the light-meson sector and their resonance content.

  19. Archeology and evolution of QCD

    CERN Document Server

    De Rújula, A.

    2017-01-01

    These are excerpts from the closing talk at the "XIIth Conference on Quark Confinement and the Hadron Spectrum", which took place last Summer in Thessaloniki --an excellent place to enjoy an interest in archeology. A more complete personal view of the early days of QCD and the rest of the Standard Model is given in [1]. Here I discuss a few of the points which --to my judgement-- illustrate well the QCD evolution (in time), both from a scientific and a sociological point of view.

  20. Dijet production in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering in next-to-next-to-leading order QCD arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Britzger, D.; Gehrmann, T.; Huss, A.; Niehues, J.; Žlebčík, R.

    Hard processes in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering can be described by a factorisation into parton-level subprocesses and diffractive parton distributions. In this framework, cross sections for inclusive dijet production in diffractive deep-inelastic electron-proton scattering (DIS) are computed to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) QCD accuracy and compared to a comprehensive selection of data. Predictions for the total cross sections, 39 single-differential and four double-differential distributions for six measurements at HERA by the H1 and ZEUS collaborations are calculated. In the studied kinematical range, the NNLO corrections are found to be sizeable and positive. The NNLO predictions typically exceed the data, while the kinematical shape of the data is described better at NNLO than at next-to-leading order (NLO). A significant reduction of the scale uncertainty is achieved in comparison to NLO predictions. Our results use the currently available NLO diffractive parton distributions, and the dis...

  1. The dual description of long-distance QCD (Dual QCD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.

    1990-01-01

    We construct and solve a local field theory which describes in terms of dual variables a system having an A μ propagator behaving like M 2 /q 4 in the infrared and discuss how this theory can be used as a starting point for describing long-distance QCD. 3 refs

  2. Consistent Perturbative Fixed Point Calculations in QCD and Supersymmetric QCD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    order by order in $\\Delta_f$. We then compute $\\gamma_*$ through $O(\\Delta_f^2)$ for supersymmetric QCD in the $\\overline{\\text{DR}}$ scheme and find that it matches the exact known result. We find that $\\gamma_*$ is astonishingly well described in perturbation theory already at the few loops level...

  3. Correlations and discreteness in nonlinear QCD evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armesto, N.; Milhano, J.

    2006-01-01

    We consider modifications of the standard nonlinear QCD evolution in an attempt to account for some of the missing ingredients discussed recently, such as correlations, discreteness in gluon emission and Pomeron loops. The evolution is numerically performed using the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation on individual configurations defined by a given initial value of the saturation scale, for reduced rapidities y=(α s N c /π)Y<10. We consider the effects of averaging over configurations as a way to implement correlations, using three types of Gaussian averaging around a mean saturation scale. Further, we heuristically mimic discreteness in gluon emission by considering a modified evolution in which the tails of the gluon distributions are cut off. The approach to scaling and the behavior of the saturation scale with rapidity in these modified evolutions are studied and compared with the standard mean-field results. For the large but finite values of rapidity explored, no strong quantitative difference in scaling for transverse momenta around the saturation scale is observed. At larger transverse momenta, the influence of the modifications in the evolution seems most noticeable in the first steps of the evolution. No influence on the rapidity behavior of the saturation scale due to the averaging procedure is found. In the cutoff evolution the rapidity evolution of the saturation scale is slowed down and strongly depends on the value of the cutoff. Our results stress the need to go beyond simple modifications of evolution by developing proper theoretical tools that implement such recently discussed ingredients

  4. Valence QCD: Connecting QCD to the quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, K.F.; Dong, S.J.; Draper, T.; Sloan, J.; Leinweber, D.; Woloshyn, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    A valence QCD theory is developed to study the valence quark properties of hadrons. To keep only the valence degrees of freedom, the pair creation through the Z graphs is deleted in the connected insertions, whereas the sea quarks are eliminated in the disconnected insertions. This is achieved with a new 'valence QCD' Lagrangian where the action in the time direction is modified so that the particle and antiparticle decouple. It is shown in this valence version of QCD that the ratios of isovector to isoscalar matrix elements (e.g., F A /D A and F S /D S ratios) in the nucleon reproduce the SU(6) quark model predictions in a lattice QCD calculation. We also consider how the hadron masses are affected on the lattice and discover new insights into the origin of dynamical mass generation. It is found that, within statistical errors, the nucleon and the Δ become degenerate for the quark masses we have studied (ranging from 1 to 4 times the strange mass). The π and ρ become nearly degenerate in this range. It is shown that valence QCD has the C, P, T symmetries. The lattice version is reflection positive. It also has the vector and axial symmetries. The latter leads to a modified partially conserved axial Ward identity. As a result, the theory has a U(2N F ) symmetry in the particle-antiparticle space. Through lattice simulation, it appears that this is dynamically broken down to U q (N F )xU bar q (N F ). Furthermore, the lattice simulation reveals spin degeneracy in the hadron masses and various matrix elements. This leads to an approximate U q (2N F )xU bar q (2N F ) symmetry which is the basis for the valence quark model. In addition, we find that the masses of N, Δ,ρ,π,a 1 , and a 0 all drop precipitously compared to their counterparts in the quenched QCD calculation. This is interpreted as due to the disappearance of the 'constituent' quark mass which is dynamically generated through tadpole diagrams. The origin of the hyperfine splitting in the baryon is

  5. Fundamental parameters of QCD from non-perturbative methods for two and four flavors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkovic, Marina

    2013-01-01

    The non-perturbative formulation of Quantumchromodynamics (QCD) on a four dimensional space-time Euclidean lattice together with the finite size techniques enable us to perform the renormalization of the QCD parameters non-perturbatively. In order to obtain precise predictions from lattice QCD, one needs to include the dynamical fermions into lattice QCD simulations. We consider QCD with two and four mass degenerate flavors of O(a) improved Wilson quarks. In this thesis, we improve the existing determinations of the fundamental parameters of two and four flavor QCD. In four flavor theory, we compute the precise value of the Λ parameter in the units of the scale L max defined in the hadronic regime. We also give the precise determination of the Schroedinger functional running coupling in four flavour theory and compare it to the perturbative results. The Monte Carlo simulations of lattice QCD within the Schroedinger Functional framework were performed with a platform independent program package Schroedinger Funktional Mass Preconditioned Hybrid Monte Carlo (SF-MP-HMC), developed as a part of this project. Finally, we compute the strange quark mass and the Λ parameter in two flavour theory, performing a well-controlled continuum limit and chiral extrapolation. To achieve this, we developed a universal program package for simulating two flavours of Wilson fermions, Mass Preconditioned Hybrid Monte Carlo (MP-HMC), which we used to run large scale simulations on small lattice spacings and on pion masses close to the physical value.

  6. Consequences of the partial restoration of chiral symmetry in an AdS/QCD model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngman; Lee, Hyun Kyu

    2008-01-01

    Chiral symmetry is an essential concept in understanding QCD at low energy. We treat the chiral condensate, which measures the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry, as a free parameter to investigate the effect of partially restored chiral symmetry on the physical quantities in the framework of an AdS/QCD model. We observe an interesting scaling behavior among the nucleon mass, pion decay constant, and chiral condensate. We propose a phenomenological way to introduce the temperature dependence of a physical quantity in the AdS/QCD model with the thermal AdS metric.

  7. Beauty and the beast: What lattice QCD can do for B physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronfeld, A.S.

    1993-01-01

    One of the reasons why b-hadrons are interesting is that their properties (decays, mixing, CP violation) help determine the least well-known elements of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. In each case, however, the standard-model expression for the (differential) decay rate follows the pattern: (experimental measurement) = (known factors)(QCD factor)(CKM factor). To extract the CKM factor from the measurement one must have reliable theoretical calculations in nonperturbative QCD. The only systematic, first-principles approach to nonperturbative QCD is the formulation on the lattice. The most promising calculational method has proven to be large-scale numerical computations

  8. Mechanism for confinement in massive quark QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    The first part of this talk reviews the mean field approach to quark statics and the leading log model for bag formation was given in a recent paper. The second part treats two new topics. First, a flux function reformulation of the leading log model which leads to a stable iterative numerical method is given. Second, it is shown that when the running coupling constant is defined so that the β-function terminates at 1- or 2-loop order, QCD has two perturbative regions: the standard asymptotically free region F 2 much greater than kappa 2 (with kappa/sup 1/2/ the scale mass), and a second asymptotically free region where vertical bar F 2 vertical bar much less than kappa 2 . The existence of this second region gives a perturbative QCD justification for the weak-field behavior of the leading log model which is responsible for confinement. A possible starting point is suggested for an attempt at a general confinement proof

  9. QCD and short-range nuclear phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankfurt, L.L.; Strikman, M.I.

    1981-01-01

    In terms of pertubative QCD we estimate the shape of the high-momentum tail of the nucleus wave function. We derive QCD predictions for the yield of leading particles in nucleus fragmentation processes. The predicted yield is much larger than the expectations of the quark counting rules. Obtained formulae are in reasonable agreement with the momentum and angular dependence of cumulative particle production. We derive general expressions for deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering using the LSZ representation for the amplitude and use it to calculate the scaling violation in high Q 2 near threshold eD scattering at x >= 1. It is shown that the existence of few-nucleon correlations explains the large cross section of the deep inelastic process e + 3 He → e +... and leads to a larger effect for heavier nuclei. We demonstrate that the observed features of ν(anti ν) + A → μsup(+-) + backward proton + X data indicate the dominance of few-nucleon correlations in the nucleus wave function over average field configurations at momenta > 0.4 GeV/c. Implications of these data for the magnitude of smearing in deep inelastic processes are also considered. (orig.)

  10. Current issues in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinchliffe, I.

    1994-12-01

    This review talk discusses some issues of active research in perturbative QCD. The following topics are discussed: (1) current value of αs; (2) heavy quark production in hadron collisions; (3) production of Ψ and Υ in p anti p collisions; (4) prompt photon production; (5) small-x and related phenomena; and (6) particle multiplicity in heavy quark jets

  11. New results in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    Three topics in perturbative QCD important for Super-collider physics are reviewed. The topics are: 1. (2 → 2) jet phenomena calculated in O(αs 3 ). 2. New techniques for the calculation of tree graphs. 3. Color coherence in jet phenomena. 31 references, 6 figures

  12. Seven topics in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buras, A.J.

    1980-09-01

    The following topics of perturbative QCD are discussed: (1) deep inelastic scattering; (2) higher order corrections to e + e - annihilation, to photon structure functions and to quarkonia decays; (3) higher order corrections to fragmentation functions and to various semi-inclusive processes; (4) higher twist contributions; (5) exclusive processes; (6) transverse momentum effects; (7) jet and photon physics

  13. Reggeon interactions in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschner, R.

    1994-08-01

    We study the pairwise interaction of reggeized gluons and quarks in the Regge limit of perturbative QCD. The interactions are represented as integral kernels in the transverse momentum space and as operators in the impact parameter space. We observe conformal symmetry and holomorphic factorization in all cases. (orig.)

  14. LHC physics: challenges for QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Frixione, S.

    2003-01-01

    I review the status of the comparisons between a few measurements at hadronic colliders and perturbative QCD predictions, which emphasize the need for improving the current computations. Such improvements will be mandatory for a satisfactory understanding of high-energy collisions at the LHC

  15. An overview of lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woloshyn, R.M.

    1988-03-01

    The basic concepts of the Lagrangian formulation of lattice field theory are discussed. The Wilson and staggered schemes for dealing with fermions on the lattice are described. Some recent results for hadron masses and vector and axial vector current matrix elements in lattice QCD are reviewed. (Author) (118 refs., 16 figs.)

  16. Multiplicity distributions in QCD cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafson, G.

    1992-03-01

    Multiplicity distributions for hadrons and for jets are studied in QCD parton cascades. The colour dipole formalism is used and earlier results in the double log approximation are generalized to include terms which are suppressed by colour factors or factors of ln s. The result is a set of coupled differential equations, together with appropriate boundary conditions

  17. Chiral symmetry in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueman, T.L.

    1979-04-01

    The chiral symmetry of quantum chromodynamics with massless quarks is unbroken in perturbation theory. Dimensional regularization is used. The ratio of the vector and axial vector renormalization constante is shown to be independent of the renormalization mass. The general results are explicitly verified to fourth order in g, the QCD coupling constant

  18. Beyond QCD: Why and How

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparata, G.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper the necessity of going beyond Quantum chromodynamics is argued, and a new theory of Isotropic Chromodynamics (ICD) is introduced. The basic theoretical notions behind QCD--quarks, colors, and gauge theory are retained, but the conclusion that QCD must be the theory of hadrions is questioned. Two points of QCD are reviewed, gluons (including glueballs), and asymptotic freedom. It is suggested that much of this theory is wishful thinking. Beyond QCD, aspects which are puzzling in hadrodynamics are well understood in two-dimensional gauge theories (confinement, freedom at short distances etc). Anisotropic chromodynamics is proposed in the attempt to conjugate the basic pillars of hadrodynamics with the peculiar characteristics of two-dimensional gauge dynamics. In order to construct a gauge dynamics for the color field which is isomorphic to a two-dimensional gauge-theory base space must be enlarged to a seven dimension space-time structure, to be called Anisotropic Space-Time (AST). The ideas and present achievements of ICD are then reviewed

  19. A classical primer for QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyasu, K.

    1981-01-01

    A basic primer for QCD is presented using a semiclassical approach to the colour Maxwell equations. The non-Abelian nature of colour symmetry and the violation of superposition by colour fields is compared with QED. A simple discussion of asymptotic freedom is also presented. (author)

  20. Renormalization and applications of baryon distribution amplitudes QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrwild, Juergen Holger

    2009-07-17

    Higher-twist effects are relevant for precision calculations of hard exclusive reactions. Furthermore, they reveal fine details of the hadron structure. In this work we construct an operator basis for arbitrary twist respecting the conformal symmetry of QCD (which is realized on 1-loop level). Using this basis the 1-loop renormalization kernels of twist 4 are constructed for baryon operators. The full spectrum of anomalous dimensions and the multiplicatively renormalizable operators is obtained. As an application of these results the radiative N{sup *}(1535) decay is discussed. Employing light-cone sum rule, the transition form factors can be directly related to the N{sup *} distribution amplitudes. (orig.)

  1. Renormalization and applications of baryon distribution amplitudes in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrwild, Juergen Holger

    2009-07-17

    Higher-twist effects are relevant for precision calculations of hard exclusive reactions. Furthermore, they reveal fine details of the hadron structure. In this work we construct an operator basis for arbitrary twist respecting the conformal symmetry of QCD (which is realized on 1-loop level). Using this basis the 1-loop renormalization kernels of twist 4 are constructed for baryon operators. The full spectrum of anomalous dimensions and the multiplicatively renormalizable operators is obtained. As an application of these results the radiative N{sup *}(1535) decay is discussed. Employing light-cone sum rule, the transition form factors can be directly related to the N* distribution amplitudes. (orig.)

  2. Renormalization and applications of baryon distribution amplitudes in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrwild, Juergen Holger

    2009-01-01

    Higher-twist effects are relevant for precision calculations of hard exclusive reactions. Furthermore, they reveal fine details of the hadron structure. In this work we construct an operator basis for arbitrary twist respecting the conformal symmetry of QCD (which is realized on 1-loop level). Using this basis the 1-loop renormalization kernels of twist 4 are constructed for baryon operators. The full spectrum of anomalous dimensions and the multiplicatively renormalizable operators is obtained. As an application of these results the radiative N * (1535) decay is discussed. Employing light-cone sum rule, the transition form factors can be directly related to the N* distribution amplitudes. (orig.)

  3. Renormalization and applications of baryon distribution amplitudes QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrwild, Juergen Holger

    2009-01-01

    Higher-twist effects are relevant for precision calculations of hard exclusive reactions. Furthermore, they reveal fine details of the hadron structure. In this work we construct an operator basis for arbitrary twist respecting the conformal symmetry of QCD (which is realized on 1-loop level). Using this basis the 1-loop renormalization kernels of twist 4 are constructed for baryon operators. The full spectrum of anomalous dimensions and the multiplicatively renormalizable operators is obtained. As an application of these results the radiative N * (1535) decay is discussed. Employing light-cone sum rule, the transition form factors can be directly related to the N * distribution amplitudes. (orig.)

  4. Soft and hard pomerons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maor, Uri; Tel Aviv Univ.

    1995-09-01

    The role of s-channel unitarity screening corrections, calculated in the eikonal approximation, is investigated for soft Pomeron exchange responsible for elastic and diffractive hadron scattering in the high energy limit. We examine the differences between our results and those obtained from the supercritical Pomeron-Regge model with no such corrections. It is shown that screening saturation is attained at different scales for different channels. We then proceed to discuss the new HERA data on hard (PQCD) Pomeron diffractive channels and discuss the relationship between the soft and hard Pomerons and the relevance of our analysis to this problem. (author). 18 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  5. Studies of jet production rates and tests of QCD on the Z0 resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethke, S.

    1990-01-01

    Production rates of multijet hadronic final states of Z 0 boson decays are studied. They can be well described by analytic O(α s 2 ) QCD calculations with parameters as determined at lower energies. The data cannot be described by an abelian, QED-like vector gluon model. The QCD parameters Λsub(anti(MS)) and μ 2 are adjusted to describe the measured differential 2-jet invariant mass distribution. In second order QCD, including theoretical uncertainties due to the ambiguous choice of the renormalisation scale μ 2 , the result is Λ (5) sub(anti(MS)) = (80-450) MeV, which corresponds to α s (M Z 0 ) = 0.117 ± 0.015. Significant scaling violations are observed when the 3-jet fractions are compared to the corresponding results from smaller centre of mass energies, thus increasing, in good agreement with QCD, the evidence for a running coupling constant α s . (orig.)

  6. Scaled particle theory for a hard spherocylinder fluid in a disordered porous medium: Carnahan-Starling and Parsons-Lee corrections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Holovko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The scaled particle theory (SPT approximation is applied for the study of the influence of a porous medium on the isotropic-nematic transition in a hard spherocylinder fluid. Two new approaches are developed in order to improve the description in the case of small lengths of spherocylinders. In one of them, the so-called SPT-CS-PL approach, the Carnahan-Starling (CS correction is introduced to improve the description of thermodynamic properties of the fluid, while the Parsons-Lee (PL correction is introduced to improve the orientational ordering. The second approach, the so-called SPT-PL approach, is connected with generalization of the PL theory to anisotropic fluids in disordered porous media. The phase diagram is obtained from the bifurcation analysis of a nonlinear integral equation for the singlet distribution function and from the thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. The results obtained are compared with computer simulation data. Both ways and both approaches considerably improve the description in the case of spherocylinder fluids with smaller spherocylinder lengths. We did not find any significant differences between the results of the two developed approaches. We found that the bifurcation analysis slightly overestimates and the thermodynamical analysis underestimates the predictions of the computer simulation data. A porous medium shifts the phase diagram to smaller densities of the fluid and does not change the type of the transition.

  7. Equivalence of the AdS-metric and the QCD running coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirner, H. J.; Galow, B.

    2009-08-01

    We use the functional form of the QCD running coupling to modify the conformal metric in AdS/CFT mapping the fifth-dimensional z-coordinate to the energy scale in the four-dimensional QCD. The resulting type-0 string theory in five dimensions is solved with the Nambu-Goto action giving good agreement with the Coulombic and confinement QQbar potential.

  8. Prompt atmospheric neutrino fluxes: perturbative QCD models and nuclear effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Atri [Department of Physics, University of Arizona,1118 E. 4th St. Tucson, AZ 85704 (United States); Space sciences, Technologies and Astrophysics Research (STAR) Institute,Université de Liège,Bât. B5a, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Enberg, Rikard [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University,Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Jeong, Yu Seon [Department of Physics and IPAP, Yonsei University,50 Yonsei-ro Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); National Institute of Supercomputing and Networking, KISTI,245 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, C.S. [Department of Physics and IPAP, Yonsei University,50 Yonsei-ro Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Reno, Mary Hall [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa,Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Sarcevic, Ina [Department of Physics, University of Arizona,1118 E. 4th St. Tucson, AZ 85704 (United States); Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona,933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Stasto, Anna [Department of Physics, 104 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University,University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-11-28

    We evaluate the prompt atmospheric neutrino flux at high energies using three different frameworks for calculating the heavy quark production cross section in QCD: NLO perturbative QCD, k{sub T} factorization including low-x resummation, and the dipole model including parton saturation. We use QCD parameters, the value for the charm quark mass and the range for the factorization and renormalization scales that provide the best description of the total charm cross section measured at fixed target experiments, at RHIC and at LHC. Using these parameters we calculate differential cross sections for charm and bottom production and compare with the latest data on forward charm meson production from LHCb at 7 TeV and at 13 TeV, finding good agreement with the data. In addition, we investigate the role of nuclear shadowing by including nuclear parton distribution functions (PDF) for the target air nucleus using two different nuclear PDF schemes. Depending on the scheme used, we find the reduction of the flux due to nuclear effects varies from 10% to 50% at the highest energies. Finally, we compare our results with the IceCube limit on the prompt neutrino flux, which is already providing valuable information about some of the QCD models.

  9. A Precise determination of B(K) in quenched QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulos, P.; Palombi, F.; Pena, C.; Sint, S.; Vladikas, A.

    2006-01-01

    The $B_K$ parameter is computed in quenched lattice QCD with Wilson twisted mass fermions. Two variants of tmQCD are used; in both of them the relevant $\\Delta S = 2$ four-fermion operator is renormalised multiplicatively. The renormalisation adopted is non-perturbative, with a Schroedinger functional renormalisation condition. Renormalisation group running is also non-perturbative, up to very high energy scales. In one of the two tmQCD frameworks the computations have been performed at the physical $K$-meson mass, thus eliminating the need of mass extrapolations. Simulations have been performed at several lattice spacings and the continuum limit was reached by combining results from both tmQCD regularisations. Finite volume effects have been partially checked and turned out to be small. Exploratory studies have also been performed with non-degenerate valence flavours. The final result for the RGI bag parameter, with all sources of uncertainty (except quenching) under control, is $\\hat B_K =0.789 \\pm 0.046$.

  10. Boring of full scale deposition holes at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Operational experiences including boring performance and a work time analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Christer [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Johansson, Aasa [SWECO, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    Thirteen experimental deposition holes similar to those in the present KBS-3 design have been bored at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, Oskarshamn, Sweden. The objective with the boring program was to test and demonstrate the current technique for boring of large vertical holes in granitic rock. Conclusions and results from this project is used in the planning process for the deposition holes that will be bored in the real repository for spent nuclear fuel. The boreholes are also important for three major projects. The Prototype Repository, the Canister Retrieval Test and the Demonstration project will all need full-scale deposition holes for their commissioning. The holes are bored in full scale and have a radius of 1.75 m and a depth of 8.5 m. To bore the holes an existing TBM design was modified to produce a novel type Shaft Boring Machine (SBM) suitable for boring 1.75 m diameter holes from a relatively small tunnel. The cutter head was equipped with two types of roller cutters: two row carbide button cutters and disc cutters. Removal of the cuttings was made with a vacuum suction system. The boring was monitored and boring parameters recorded by a computerised system for the evaluation of the boring performance. During boring of four of the holes temperature, stress and strain measurements were performed. Acoustic emission measurements were also performed during boring of these four holes. The results of these activities will not be discussed in this report since they are reported separately. Criteria regarding nominal borehole diameter, deviation of start and end centre point, surface roughness and performance of the machine were set up according to the KBS-3 design and were fulfilled with a fair margin. The average total time for boring one deposition hole during this project was 105 hours.

  11. Boring of full scale deposition holes at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Operational experiences including boring performance and a work time analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Christer; Johansson, Aasa

    2002-12-01

    Thirteen experimental deposition holes similar to those in the present KBS-3 design have been bored at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, Oskarshamn, Sweden. The objective with the boring program was to test and demonstrate the current technique for boring of large vertical holes in granitic rock. Conclusions and results from this project is used in the planning process for the deposition holes that will be bored in the real repository for spent nuclear fuel. The boreholes are also important for three major projects. The Prototype Repository, the Canister Retrieval Test and the Demonstration project will all need full-scale deposition holes for their commissioning. The holes are bored in full scale and have a radius of 1.75 m and a depth of 8.5 m. To bore the holes an existing TBM design was modified to produce a novel type Shaft Boring Machine (SBM) suitable for boring 1.75 m diameter holes from a relatively small tunnel. The cutter head was equipped with two types of roller cutters: two row carbide button cutters and disc cutters. Removal of the cuttings was made with a vacuum suction system. The boring was monitored and boring parameters recorded by a computerised system for the evaluation of the boring performance. During boring of four of the holes temperature, stress and strain measurements were performed. Acoustic emission measurements were also performed during boring of these four holes. The results of these activities will not be discussed in this report since they are reported separately. Criteria regarding nominal borehole diameter, deviation of start and end centre point, surface roughness and performance of the machine were set up according to the KBS-3 design and were fulfilled with a fair margin. The average total time for boring one deposition hole during this project was 105 hours

  12. Standard hardness conversion tables for metals relationship among brinell hardness, vickers hardness, rockwell hardness, superficial hardness, knoop hardness, and scleroscope hardness

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 Conversion Table 1 presents data in the Rockwell C hardness range on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, Knoop hardness, and Scleroscope hardness of non-austenitic steels including carbon, alloy, and tool steels in the as-forged, annealed, normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions provided that they are homogeneous. 1.2 Conversion Table 2 presents data in the Rockwell B hardness range on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, Knoop hardness, and Scleroscope hardness of non-austenitic steels including carbon, alloy, and tool steels in the as-forged, annealed, normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions provided that they are homogeneous. 1.3 Conversion Table 3 presents data on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, and Knoop hardness of nickel and high-nickel alloys (nickel content o...

  13. Hard Probes in Heavy-Ion Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Renk, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    The aim of ultrarelativistic heavy ion physics is to study collectivity and thermodynamics of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) by creating a transient small volume of matter with extreme density and temperature. There is experimental evidence that most of the particles created in such a collision form indeed a thermalized system characterized by collective response to pressure gradients. However, a numerically small subset of high transverse momentum ($P_T$) processes takes place independent of the bulk, with the outgoing partons subsequently propagating through the bulk medium. Understanding the modification of such 'hard probes' by the bulk medium is an important part of the efforts to determine the properties of hot and dense QCD matter. In this paper, current developments are reviewed.

  14. Hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, J.P.; Boving, H.J.; Hintermann, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    Hard, wear resistant and low friction coatings are presently produced on a world-wide basis, by different processes such as electrochemical or electroless methods, spray technologies, thermochemical, CVD and PVD. Some of the most advanced processes, especially those dedicated to thin film depositions, basically belong to CVD or PVD technologies, and will be looked at in more detail. The hard coatings mainly consist of oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides or carbon. Over the years, many processes have been developed which are variations and/or combinations of the basic CVD and PVD methods. The main difference between these two families of deposition techniques is that the CVD is an elevated temperature process (≥ 700 C), while the PVD on the contrary, is rather a low temperature process (≤ 500 C); this of course influences the choice of substrates and properties of the coating/substrate systems. Fundamental aspects of the vapor phase deposition techniques and some of their influences on coating properties will be discussed, as well as the very important interactions between deposit and substrate: diffusions, internal stress, etc. Advantages and limitations of CVD and PVD respectively will briefly be reviewed and examples of applications of the layers will be given. Parallel to the development and permanent updating of surface modification technologies, an effort was made to create novel characterisation methods. A close look will be given to the coating adherence control by means of the scratch test, at the coating hardness measurement by means of nanoindentation, at the coating wear resistance by means of a pin-on-disc tribometer, and at the surface quality evaluation by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finally, main important trends will be highlighted. (orig.)

  15. Spectral functions from anisotropic lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarts, G.; Allton, C. [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales (United Kingdom); Amato, A. [Helsinki Institute of Physics and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Evans, W. [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics Universitat Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Giudice, P. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Münster, D–48149 Münster (Germany); Harris, T. [School of Mathematics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Kelly, A. [Department of Mathematical Physics, Maynooth University, Maynooth, Co Kildare (Ireland); Kim, S.Y. [Department of Physics, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Lombardo, M.P. [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, I–00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Praki, K. [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales (United Kingdom); Ryan, S.M. [School of Mathematics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Skullerud, J.-I. [Department of Mathematical Physics, Maynooth University, Maynooth, Co Kildare (Ireland)

    2016-12-15

    The FASTSUM collaboration has been carrying out lattice simulations of QCD for temperatures ranging from one third to twice the crossover temperature, investigating the transition region, as well as the properties of the Quark Gluon Plasma. In this contribution we concentrate on quarkonium correlators and spectral functions. We work in a fixed scale scheme and use anisotropic lattices which help achieving the desirable fine resolution in the temporal direction, thus facilitating the (ill posed) integral transform from imaginary time to frequency space. We contrast and compare results for the correlators obtained with different methods, and different temporal spacings. We observe robust features of the results, confirming the sequential dissociation scenario, but also quantitative differences indicating that the methods' systematic errors are not yet under full control. We briefly outline future steps towards accurate results for the spectral functions and their associated statistical and systematic errors.

  16. Two-color lattice QCD with staggered quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffler, David

    2015-07-20

    The study of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at finite temperature and density provides important contributions to the understanding of strong-interaction matter as it is present e.g. in nuclear matter and in neutron stars or as produced in heavy-ion collision experiments. Lattice QCD is a non-perturbative approach, where equations of motion for quarks and gluons are discretized on a finite space-time lattice. The method successfully describes the behavior of QCD in the vacuum and at finite temperature, however it cannot be applied to finite baryon density due to the fermion sign problem. Various QCD-like theories, that offer to draw conclusions about QCD, allow simulations also at finite densities. In this work we investigate two-color QCD as a popular example of a QCD-like theory free from the sign problem with methods from lattice gauge theory. For the generation of gauge configurations with two dynamical quark flavors in the staggered formalism with the ''rooting trick'' we apply the Rational Hybrid Monte Carlo (RHMC) algorithm. We carry out essential preparatory work for future simulations at finite density. As a start, we concentrate on the calculation of the effective potential for the Polyakov loop, which is an order parameter for the confinement-deconfinement transition, in dependence of the temperature and quark mass. It serves as an important input for effective models of QCD. We obtain the effective potential via the histogram method from local distributions of the Polyakov loop. To study the influence of dynamical quarks on gluonic observables, the simulations are performed with large quark masses and are compared to calculations in the pure gauge theory. In the second part of the thesis we examine aspects of the chiral phase transition along the temperature axis. The symmetry group of chiral symmetry in two-color QCD is enlarged to SU(2N{sub f}). Discretized two-color QCD in the staggered formalism exhibits a chiral symmetry breaking

  17. QCD on the light cone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1992-09-01

    The quantization of gauge theory at fixed light-cone time τ = t - z/c provides new perspectives for solving non-perturbative problems in quantum chromodynamics. The light-cone Fock state expansion provides both a precise definition of the relativistic wavefunctions of hadrons as bound-states of quarks and gluons and a general calculus for predicting QCD processes at the amplitude level. Applications to exclusive processes and weak decay amplitudes are discussed. The problem of computing the hadronic spectrum and the corresponding light-cone wavefunctions of QCD in one space and one time dimension has been successfully reduced to the diagonalization of a discrete representation of the light-cone Hamiltonian. The problems confronting the solution of gauge theories in 3 + 1 dimensions in the light-cone quantization formalism,, including zero modes and non-perturbative renormalization, are reviewed

  18. Innovations in lattice QCD algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orginos, Konstantinos

    2006-01-01

    Lattice QCD calculations demand a substantial amount of computing power in order to achieve the high precision results needed to better understand the nature of strong interactions, assist experiment to discover new physics, and predict the behavior of a diverse set of physical systems ranging from the proton itself to astrophysical objects such as neutron stars. However, computer power alone is clearly not enough to tackle the calculations we need to be doing today. A steady stream of recent algorithmic developments has made an important impact on the kinds of calculations we can currently perform. In this talk I am reviewing these algorithms and their impact on the nature of lattice QCD calculations performed today

  19. Baryon physics in holographic QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Pomarol

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In a simple holographic model for QCD in which the Chern–Simons term is incorporated to take into account the QCD chiral anomaly, we show that baryons arise as stable solitons which are the 5D analogs of 4D skyrmions. Contrary to 4D skyrmions and previously considered holographic scenarios, these solitons have sizes larger than the inverse cut-off of the model, and therefore they are predictable within our effective field theory approach. We perform a numerical determination of several static properties of the nucleons and find a satisfactory agreement with data. We also calculate the amplitudes of “anomalous” processes induced by the Chern–Simons term in the meson sector, such as ω→πγ and ω→3π. A combined fit to baryonic and mesonic observables leads to an agreement with experiments within 16%.

  20. Testing QCD with current algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leutwyler, H.

    1984-01-01

    Spontaneously broken chiral symmetry fixes the low energy structure of QCD to a large extent. I show how to determine the Green's functions to first nonleading order in a simultaneous expansion in powers of the momenta and of the u- and d-quark masses. In particular, I discuss the corrections of order M π 2 to the low energy theorems for ππ scattering. 19 refs., 1 tab. (author)

  1. Lattice gauge theory for QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGrand, T.

    1997-01-01

    These lectures provide an introduction to lattice methods for nonperturbative studies of Quantum Chromodynamics. Lecture 1: Basic techniques for QCD and results for hadron spectroscopy using the simplest discretizations; lecture 2: Improved actions--what they are and how well they work; lecture 3: SLAC physics from the lattice-structure functions, the mass of the glueball, heavy quarks and α s (M z ), and B-anti B mixing. 67 refs., 36 figs

  2. The status of perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.K.

    1988-10-01

    The advances in perturbative QCD are reviewed. The status of determinations of the coupling constant α/sub S/ and the parton distribution functions is presented. New theoretical results on the spin dependent structure functions of the proton are also reviewed. The theoretical description of the production of vector bosons, jets and heavy quarks is outlined with special emphasis on new results. Expected rates for top quark production at hadronic colliders are presented. 111 refs., 8 figs

  3. Hadronic τ decays and QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davier, M.

    1999-12-01

    Hadronic decays of the τ lepton provide a clean source to study hadron dynamics in an energy regime dominated by resonances, with the interesting information captured in the spectral functions. Recent results on exclusive channels are reviewed. Inclusive spectral functions are the basis for QCD analyses, delivering an accurate determination of the strong coupling constant and quantitative information on nonperturbative contributions. Strange decays yield a determination of the strange quark mass. (author)

  4. Lattice gauge theory for QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeGrand, T. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-06-01

    These lectures provide an introduction to lattice methods for nonperturbative studies of Quantum Chromodynamics. Lecture 1: Basic techniques for QCD and results for hadron spectroscopy using the simplest discretizations; lecture 2: Improved actions--what they are and how well they work; lecture 3: SLAC physics from the lattice-structure functions, the mass of the glueball, heavy quarks and {alpha}{sub s} (M{sub z}), and B-{anti B} mixing. 67 refs., 36 figs.

  5. Nucleon structure from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinter, Simon

    2012-11-13

    In this thesis we compute within lattice QCD observables related to the structure of the nucleon. One part of this thesis is concerned with moments of parton distribution functions (PDFs). Those moments are essential elements for the understanding of nucleon structure and can be extracted from a global analysis of deep inelastic scattering experiments. On the theoretical side they can be computed non-perturbatively by means of lattice QCD. However, since the time lattice calculations of moments of PDFs are available, there is a tension between these lattice calculations and the results from a global analysis of experimental data. We examine whether systematic effects are responsible for this tension, and study particularly intensively the effects of excited states by a dedicated high precision computation. Moreover, we carry out a first computation with four dynamical flavors. Another aspect of this thesis is a feasibility study of a lattice QCD computation of the scalar quark content of the nucleon, which is an important element in the cross-section of a heavy particle with the nucleon mediated by a scalar particle (e.g. Higgs particle) and can therefore have an impact on Dark Matter searches. Existing lattice QCD calculations of this quantity usually have a large error and thus a low significance for phenomenological applications. We use a variance-reduction technique for quark-disconnected diagrams to obtain a precise result. Furthermore, we introduce a new stochastic method for the calculation of connected 3-point correlation functions, which are needed to compute nucleon structure observables, as an alternative to the usual sequential propagator method. In an explorative study we check whether this new method is competitive to the standard one. We use Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist in all our calculations, such that all observables considered here have only O(a{sup 2}) discretization effects.

  6. Hadronic {tau} decays and QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davier, M

    1999-12-01

    Hadronic decays of the {tau} lepton provide a clean source to study hadron dynamics in an energy regime dominated by resonances, with the interesting information captured in the spectral functions. Recent results on exclusive channels are reviewed. Inclusive spectral functions are the basis for QCD analyses, delivering an accurate determination of the strong coupling constant and quantitative information on nonperturbative contributions. Strange decays yield a determination of the strange quark mass. (author)

  7. Nucleon structure from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinter, Simon

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we compute within lattice QCD observables related to the structure of the nucleon. One part of this thesis is concerned with moments of parton distribution functions (PDFs). Those moments are essential elements for the understanding of nucleon structure and can be extracted from a global analysis of deep inelastic scattering experiments. On the theoretical side they can be computed non-perturbatively by means of lattice QCD. However, since the time lattice calculations of moments of PDFs are available, there is a tension between these lattice calculations and the results from a global analysis of experimental data. We examine whether systematic effects are responsible for this tension, and study particularly intensively the effects of excited states by a dedicated high precision computation. Moreover, we carry out a first computation with four dynamical flavors. Another aspect of this thesis is a feasibility study of a lattice QCD computation of the scalar quark content of the nucleon, which is an important element in the cross-section of a heavy particle with the nucleon mediated by a scalar particle (e.g. Higgs particle) and can therefore have an impact on Dark Matter searches. Existing lattice QCD calculations of this quantity usually have a large error and thus a low significance for phenomenological applications. We use a variance-reduction technique for quark-disconnected diagrams to obtain a precise result. Furthermore, we introduce a new stochastic method for the calculation of connected 3-point correlation functions, which are needed to compute nucleon structure observables, as an alternative to the usual sequential propagator method. In an explorative study we check whether this new method is competitive to the standard one. We use Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist in all our calculations, such that all observables considered here have only O(a 2 ) discretization effects.

  8. QCD contributions to vacuum polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinders, L.J.; Rubinstein, H.R.; Yazaki, S.

    1980-01-01

    We have computed to lowest non-trivial order the perturbative and non-perturbative contributions to the vacuum polarization from all currents up to and including spin 2 ++ . These expressions are important, for example to evaluate QCD sum rules for heavy and light quark systems as shown by Shifman, Vainshtein and Zakharov. Most of the known ones are verified, one slightly changed, and many new ones are displayed. (orig.)

  9. Perturbative QCD at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altherr, T.

    1989-03-01

    We discuss an application of finite temperature QCD to lepton-pair production in a quark-gluon plasma. The perturbative calculation is performed within the realtime formalism. After cancellation of infrared and mass singularities, the corrections at O (α s ) are found to be very small in the region where the mass of the Drell-Yan pair is much larger than the temperature of the plasma. Interesting effects, however, appear at the annihilation threshold of the thermalized quarks

  10. High-Energy QCD Asymptotics of Photon--Photon Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2002-07-26

    The high-energy behavior of the total cross section for highly virtual photons, as predicted by the BFKL equation at next-to-leading order (NLO) in QCD, is discussed. The NLO BFKL predictions, improved by the BLM optimal scale setting, are in good agreement with recent OPAL and L3 data at CERN LEP2. NLO BFKL predictions for future linear colliders are presented.

  11. A scalable PC-based parallel computer for lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, Z.; Katz, S.D.; Pappa, G.

    2003-01-01

    A PC-based parallel computer for medium/large scale lattice QCD simulations is suggested. The Eoetvoes Univ., Inst. Theor. Phys. cluster consists of 137 Intel P4-1.7GHz nodes. Gigabit Ethernet cards are used for nearest neighbor communication in a two-dimensional mesh. The sustained performance for dynamical staggered (wilson) quarks on large lattices is around 70(110) GFlops. The exceptional price/performance ratio is below $1/Mflop

  12. A scalable PC-based parallel computer for lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, Z.; Papp, G.

    2002-09-01

    A PC-based parallel computer for medium/large scale lattice QCD simulations is suggested. The Eoetvoes Univ., Inst. Theor. Phys. cluster consists of 137 Intel P4-1.7 GHz nodes. Gigabit Ethernet cards are used for nearest neighbor communication in a two-dimensional mesh. The sustained performance for dynamical staggered(wilson) quarks on large lattices is around 70(110) GFlops. The exceptional price/performance ratio is below $1/Mflop. (orig.)

  13. High-Energy QCD Asymptotics of Photon-Photon Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Brodsky, S J; Kim, V T; Lipatov, L N; Pivovarov, G B

    2002-01-01

    The high-energy behaviour of the total cross section for highly virtual photons, as predicted by the BFKL equation at next-to-leading order (NLO) in QCD, is discussed. The NLO BFKL predictions, improved by the BLM optimal scale setting, are in good agreement with recent OPAL and L3 data at CERN LEP2. NLO BFKL predictions for future linear colliders are presented.

  14. Uses of Effective Field Theory in Lattice QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Kronfeld, Andreas S.

    2002-01-01

    Several physical problems in particle physics, nuclear physics, and astrophysics require information from non-perturbative QCD to gain a full understanding. In some cases the most reliable technique for quantitative results is to carry out large-scale numerical calculations in lattice gauge theory. As in any numerical technique, there are several sources of uncertainty. This chapter explains how effective field theories are used to keep them under control and, then, obtain a sensible error ba...

  15. Comment on QCD sum rules and weak bottom decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guberina, B.; Machet, B.

    1982-07-01

    QCD sum rules derived by Bourrely et al. are applied to B-decays to get a lower and an upper bound for the decay rate. The sum rules are shown to be essentially controlled by the large mass scales involved in the process. These bounds combined with the experimental value of BR (B→eνX) provide an upper bound for the lifetime of the B + meson. A comparison is made with D-meson decays

  16. Perturbative QCD and exclusive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.; Hawes, F.; Zhao, M.; Zyla, P.

    1991-01-01

    The authors discuss perturbation theory as applied to particle physics calculations. In particle physics one is generally interested in the scattering amplitude for a system going from some initial state to a final state. The intermediate state or states are unknown. To get the scattering amplitude it is necessary to sum the contributions from processes which pass through all possible intermediate states. Intermediate states involve the exchange of intermediate vector bosons between the particles, and with this interaction is associated a coupling constant α. Each additional boson exchange involves an additional contribution of α to the coupling. If α is less than 1, one can see that the relative contribution of higher order processes is less and less important as α falls. In QCD the gluons serve as the intermediate vector bosons exchanged by quarks and gluons, and the interaction constant is not really a constant, but depends upon the distance between the particles. At short distances the coupling is small, and one can assume perturbative expansions may converge rapidly. Exclusive scattering processes, as opposed to inclusive, are those in which all of the final state products are detected. The authors then discuss the application of perturbative QCD to the deuteron. The issues of chiral conservation and color transparancy are also discussed, in the scheme of large Q 2 interations, where perturbative QCD should be applicable

  17. Critical slowing down and error analysis in lattice QCD simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virotta, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    In this work we investigate the critical slowing down of lattice QCD simulations. We perform a preliminary study in the quenched approximation where we find that our estimate of the exponential auto-correlation time scales as τ exp (a)∝a -5 , where a is the lattice spacing. In unquenched simulations with O(a) improved Wilson fermions we do not obtain a scaling law but find results compatible with the behavior that we find in the pure gauge theory. The discussion is supported by a large set of ensembles both in pure gauge and in the theory with two degenerate sea quarks. We have moreover investigated the effect of slow algorithmic modes in the error analysis of the expectation value of typical lattice QCD observables (hadronic matrix elements and masses). In the context of simulations affected by slow modes we propose and test a method to obtain reliable estimates of statistical errors. The method is supposed to help in the typical algorithmic setup of lattice QCD, namely when the total statistics collected is of O(10)τ exp . This is the typical case when simulating close to the continuum limit where the computational costs for producing two independent data points can be extremely large. We finally discuss the scale setting in N f =2 simulations using the Kaon decay constant f K as physical input. The method is explained together with a thorough discussion of the error analysis employed. A description of the publicly available code used for the error analysis is included.

  18. One-dimensional model for QCD at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iancu, E.; Santana Amaral, J.T. de; Soyez, G.; Triantafyllopoulos, D.N.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a stochastic particle model in (1+1) dimensions, with one dimension corresponding to rapidity and the other one to the transverse size of a dipole in QCD, which mimics high-energy evolution and scattering in QCD in the presence of both saturation and particle-number fluctuations, and hence of pomeron loops. The model evolves via non-linear particle splitting, with a non-local splitting rate which is constrained by boost-invariance and multiple scattering. The splitting rate saturates at high density, so like the gluon emission rate in the JIMWLK evolution. In the mean field approximation obtained by ignoring fluctuations, the model exhibits the hallmarks of the BK equation, namely a BFKL-like evolution at low density, the formation of a traveling wave, and geometric scaling. In the full evolution including fluctuations, the geometric scaling is washed out at high energy and replaced by diffusive scaling. It is likely that the model belongs to the universality class of the reaction-diffusion process. The analysis of the model sheds new light on the pomeron loops equations in QCD and their possible improvements

  19. Novel QCD Phenomena at the LHC: The Ridge, Digluon-Initiated Subprocesses, Direct Reactions, Non-Universal Antishadowing, and Forward Higgs Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2014-10-03

    I discuss a number of novel tests of QCD at the LHC, measurements which can illuminate fundamental features of hadron physics. I also review the “Principle of Maximum Conformality” (PMC) which systematically sets the renormalization scale order-by-order in pQCD, eliminating an unnecessary theoretical uncertainty. The PMC allows LHC experiments to test QCD much more precisely, and the sensitivity of LHC measurements to physics beyond the Standard Model is increased.

  20. Topology in dynamical lattice QCD simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, Florian

    2012-08-20

    Lattice simulations of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the quantum field theory which describes the interaction between quarks and gluons, have reached a point were contact to experimental data can be made. The underlying mechanisms, like chiral symmetry breaking or the confinement of quarks, are however still not understood. This thesis focuses on topological structures in the QCD vacuum. Those are not only mathematically interesting but also closely related to chiral symmetry and confinement. We consider methods to identify these objects in lattice QCD simulations. Based on this, we explore the structures resulting from different discretizations and investigate the effect of a very strong electromagnetic field on the QCD vacuum.

  1. Topology in dynamical lattice QCD simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Lattice simulations of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the quantum field theory which describes the interaction between quarks and gluons, have reached a point were contact to experimental data can be made. The underlying mechanisms, like chiral symmetry breaking or the confinement of quarks, are however still not understood. This thesis focuses on topological structures in the QCD vacuum. Those are not only mathematically interesting but also closely related to chiral symmetry and confinement. We consider methods to identify these objects in lattice QCD simulations. Based on this, we explore the structures resulting from different discretizations and investigate the effect of a very strong electromagnetic field on the QCD vacuum.

  2. Single slepton production associated with a top quark at LHC in NLO QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiao-Peng; Guo, Lei; Ma, Wen-Gan; Han, Liang; Zhang, Ren-You; Wang, Shao-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Single slepton production in association with a top quark at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is one of the important processes in probing the R-parity violation couplings. We calculate the QCD next-to-leading order (NLO) corrections to the pp→tl - (anti tl + ) + X process at the LHC and discuss the impacts of the QCD corrections on kinematic distributions. We investigate the dependence of the leading order (LO) and the NLO QCD corrected integrated cross section on the factorization/renormalization energy scale, slepton, stop-quark and gluino masses. We find that the uncertainty of the LO cross section due to the energy scale is obviously improved by the NLO QCD corrections, and the exclusive jet event selection scheme keeps the convergence of the perturbative series better than the inclusive scheme. The results show that the polarization asymmetry of the top-quark will be reduced by the NLO QCD corrections, and the QCD corrections generally increase with the increment of the t 1 or g mass value. (orig.)

  3. Disconnected Diagrams in Lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir, Arjun Singh

    In this work, we present state-of-the-art numerical methods and their applications for computing a particular class of observables using lattice quantum chromodynamics (Lattice QCD), a discretized version of the fundamental theory of quarks and gluons. These observables require calculating so called "disconnected diagrams" and are important for understanding many aspects of hadron structure, such as the strange content of the proton. We begin by introducing the reader to the key concepts of Lattice QCD and rigorously define the meaning of disconnected diagrams through an example of the Wick contractions of the nucleon. Subsequently, the calculation of observables requiring disconnected diagrams is posed as the computationally challenging problem of finding the trace of the inverse of an incredibly large, sparse matrix. This is followed by a brief primer of numerical sparse matrix techniques that overviews broadly used methods in Lattice QCD and builds the background for the novel algorithm presented in this work. We then introduce singular value deflation as a method to improve convergence of trace estimation and analyze its effects on matrices from a variety of fields, including chemical transport modeling, magnetohydrodynamics, and QCD. Finally, we apply this method to compute observables such as the strange axial charge of the proton and strange sigma terms in light nuclei. The work in this thesis is innovative for four reasons. First, we analyze the effects of deflation with a model that makes qualitative predictions about its effectiveness, taking only the singular value spectrum as input, and compare deflated variance with different types of trace estimator noise. Second, the synergy between probing methods and deflation is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Third, we use the synergistic combination of deflation and a graph coloring algorithm known as hierarchical probing to conduct a lattice calculation of light disconnected matrix elements

  4. Disconnected Diagrams in Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambhir, Arjun [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we present state-of-the-art numerical methods and their applications for computing a particular class of observables using lattice quantum chromodynamics (Lattice QCD), a discretized version of the fundamental theory of quarks and gluons. These observables require calculating so called \\disconnected diagrams" and are important for understanding many aspects of hadron structure, such as the strange content of the proton. We begin by introducing the reader to the key concepts of Lattice QCD and rigorously define the meaning of disconnected diagrams through an example of the Wick contractions of the nucleon. Subsequently, the calculation of observables requiring disconnected diagrams is posed as the computationally challenging problem of finding the trace of the inverse of an incredibly large, sparse matrix. This is followed by a brief primer of numerical sparse matrix techniques that overviews broadly used methods in Lattice QCD and builds the background for the novel algorithm presented in this work. We then introduce singular value deflation as a method to improve convergence of trace estimation and analyze its effects on matrices from a variety of fields, including chemical transport modeling, magnetohydrodynamics, and QCD. Finally, we apply this method to compute observables such as the strange axial charge of the proton and strange sigma terms in light nuclei. The work in this thesis is innovative for four reasons. First, we analyze the effects of deflation with a model that makes qualitative predictions about its effectiveness, taking only the singular value spectrum as input, and compare deflated variance with different types of trace estimator noise. Second, the synergy between probing methods and deflation is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Third, we use the synergistic combination of deflation and a graph coloring algorithm known as hierarchical probing to conduct a lattice calculation of light disconnected matrix elements

  5. General QED/QCD aspects of simple systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telegdi, V.L.; Brodsky, S.J.

    1989-09-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: renormalization theory; the Kinoshita-Lee-Nauenberg theorem; the Yennie-Frautschi-Suura relation; scale invariance at large momentum transfer; scaling and scaling violation at large momentum transfers; low-energy theorem in Compton scattering; does the perturbation series in QED converge; renormalization of the weak angle Θ w ; the Nambu-Bethe-Salpeter (NBS) equation; the decay rate of 3 S, positronium; radiative corrections to QCD Born cross section; and progress on the relativistic 2-body equation

  6. A convergent reformulation of perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, R.J.G.

    2000-10-01

    We present and explore a new formulation of perturbative QCD based not on the renormalised coupling but on the dimensional transmutation parameter of the theory and the property of asymptotic scaling. The approach yields a continued function, the iterated function being that involved in the solution of the two-loop β-function equation. In the so-called large-b limit the continued function reduces to a continued fraction and the successive approximants are diagonal Pade approximants. We investigate numerically the convergence of successive approximants using the leading-b approximation, motivated by renormalons, to model the all-orders result. We consider the Adler D-function of vacuum polarisation, the Polarised Bjorken and Gross-LIewellyn Smith sum rules, the (unpolarised) Bjorken sum rule, and the Minkowskian quantities R τ and the R-ratio of e + e - annihilation. In contrast to diagonal Pade approximants the truncated continued function method gives remarkably stable large-order approximants in cases where infrared renormalon effects are important. We also use the new approach to determine the QCD fundamental parameters from the R τ and the R-ratio measurements, where we find Λ-tilde (3)/MS = 516 ± 48 MeV (which yields α s (μ = m τ ) = 0.360 -0.020 +0.021 ), and Λ-tilde (5)/MS = 299 -7 +6 MeV (which yields α s (μ = m z 0 ) = 0.1218 ± 0.0004), respectively. The evolution of the former value to the m z 0 energy results in α s (μ = m z 0 ) = 0.123 ± 0.002. These values are in line with other determinations available in the literature. We implement the Complete Renormalisation Group Improvement (CORGI) scheme throughout all the calculations. We report on how the mathematical concept of Stieltjes series can be used to assess the convergence of Pade approximants of perturbative series. We find that the combinations of UV renormalons which occur in perturbative QCD may or may not be Stieltjes series depending on the renormalisation scheme used. (author)

  7. Applications of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1978-05-01

    A review is given of reliable quantum chromodynamics predictions which either have or soon can be verified by experiment. Included are a discussion of the classic application of quantum chromodynamics perturbation theory and asymptotic freedom to predict scaling violations in deep inelastic leptoproduction experiments, with emphasis on the first direct experimental confirmation of the numerical values of the anomalous dimensions; a review of recent advances in developing and justifying quantum chromodynamics perturbation theory predictions for a number of physical applications not underwritten by the operator product expansion and renormalization group arguments; and mention of attempts to consider the reliability of quantum chromodynamics perturbation theory predictions, given the fact that nonperturbative effects are presumably crucial in quantum chromodynamics. 100 references

  8. Controlling quark mass determinations non-perturbatively in three-flavour QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Campos, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    The determination of quark masses from lattice QCD simulations requires a non-perturbative renormalization procedure and subsequent scale evolution to high energies, where a conversion to the commonly used MS-bar scheme can be safely established. We present our results for the non-perturbative running of renormalized quark masses in Nf=3 QCD between the electroweak and a hadronic energy scale, where lattice simulations are at our disposal. Recent theoretical advances in combination with well-established techniques allows to follow the scale evolution to very high statistical accuracy, and full control of systematic effects.

  9. The gauge-independent QCD effective charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, N.J.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown how the QED concept of a gauge-, scale- and scheme-independent one-loop effective charge can be extended directly at the diagrammatic level to QCD, thus justifying explicitly the ''naive non-abelianization'' prescription used in renormalon calculus. It is first argued that, for on-shell external fields and at the strictly one-loop level, the required gluon self-energy-like function is precisely that obtained from S-matrix elements via the pinch technique. The generalization of the pinch technique to explicitly off-shell processes is then introduced. It is shown how, as a result of a fundamental cancellation among conventional perturbation theory diagrams, encoded in the QCD Ward identities, the pinch technique one-loop gluon self-energy iΠ μν ab (q) remains gauge-independent and universal regardless of the fact that the ''external'' fields in the given process are off-shell. This demonstration involves a simple technique enabling the isolation, in an arbitrary gauge, of iΠ μν ab (q) from subclasses of up to several hundred diagrams at once. Furthermore, it is shown how this one-loop cancellation mechanism iterates for the subclasses of n-loop diagrams containing implicitly the Dyson chains of n one-loop self-energies iΠ μν ab (q). The gauge cancellation required for the Dyson summation of iΠ μν ab (q) is thus demonstrated explicitly in a general class of ghost-free gauges for all orders n. (orig.)

  10. Global QCD Analysis of the Nucleon Tensor Charge with Lattice QCD Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shows, Harvey, III; Melnitchouk, Wally; Sato, Nobuo

    2017-09-01

    By studying the parton distribution functions (PDFs) of a nucleon, we probe the partonic scale of nature, exploring what it means to be a nucleon. In this study, we are interested in the transversity PDF-the least studied of the three collinear PDFs. By conducting a global analysis on experimental data from semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS), as well as single-inclusive e+e- annihilation (SIA), we extract the fit parameters needed to describe the transverse moment dependent (TMD) transversity PDF, as well as the Collins fragmentation function. Once the collinear transversity PDF is obtained by integrating the extracted TMD PDF, we wish to resolve discrepancies between lattice QCD calculations and phenomenological extractions of the tensor charge from data. Here we show our results for the transversity distribution and tensor charge. Using our method of iterative Monte Carlo, we now have a more robust understanding of the transversity PDF. With these results we are able to progress in our understanding of TMD PDFs, as well as testify to the efficacy of current lattice QCD calculations. This work is made possible through support from NSF award 1659177 to Old Dominion University.

  11. Sudakov resummation in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolzoni, P.

    2007-09-01

    In this PhD thesis, we analyze and generalize the renormalization group approach to the resummation of large logarithms in the perturbative expansion due to soft and collinear multiparton emissions. In particular, we present a generalization of this approach to prompt photon production. It is interesting to see that also with the more intricate two-scale kinematics that characterizes prompt photon production in the soft limit, it remains true that resummation simply follows from general kinematic properties of the phase space. Also, this approach does not require a separate treatment of individual colour structures when more than one colour structure contributes to fixed order results. However, the resummation formulae obtained here turn out to be less predictive than previous results: this depends on the fact that here neither specific factorization properties of the cross section in the soft limit is assumed, nor that soft emission satisfies eikonal-like relations. We also derive resumation formulae to all logarithmic accuracy and valid for all values of rapidity for the prompt photon production and the Drell-Yan rapidity distributions. We show that for the fixed-target experiment E866/NuSea, the NLL resummation corrections are comparable to NLO fixed-order corrections and are crucial to obtain agreement with the data. Finally we outline also possible future applications of the renormalization group approach. (orig.)

  12. Sudakov resummation in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolzoni, P

    2007-09-15

    In this PhD thesis, we analyze and generalize the renormalization group approach to the resummation of large logarithms in the perturbative expansion due to soft and collinear multiparton emissions. In particular, we present a generalization of this approach to prompt photon production. It is interesting to see that also with the more intricate two-scale kinematics that characterizes prompt photon production in the soft limit, it remains true that resummation simply follows from general kinematic properties of the phase space. Also, this approach does not require a separate treatment of individual colour structures when more than one colour structure contributes to fixed order results. However, the resummation formulae obtained here turn out to be less predictive than previous results: this depends on the fact that here neither specific factorization properties of the cross section in the soft limit is assumed, nor that soft emission satisfies eikonal-like relations. We also derive resumation formulae to all logarithmic accuracy and valid for all values of rapidity for the prompt photon production and the Drell-Yan rapidity distributions. We show that for the fixed-target experiment E866/NuSea, the NLL resummation corrections are comparable to NLO fixed-order corrections and are crucial to obtain agreement with the data. Finally we outline also possible future applications of the renormalization group approach. (orig.)

  13. PT Symmetry and QCD: Finite Temperature and Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Ogilvie

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of PT symmetry to quantum chromodynamics (QCD, the gauge theory of the strong interactions, is explored in the context of finite temperature and density. Two significant problems in QCD are studied: the sign problem of finite-density QCD, and the problem of confinement. It is proven that the effective action for heavy quarks at finite density is PT-symmetric. For the case of 1+1 dimensions, the PT-symmetric Hamiltonian, although not Hermitian, has real eigenvalues for a range of values of the chemical potential μ, solving the sign problem for this model. The effective action for heavy quarks is part of a potentially large class of generalized sine-Gordon models which are non-Hermitian but are PT-symmetric. Generalized sine-Gordon models also occur naturally in gauge theories in which magnetic monopoles lead to confinement. We explore gauge theories where monopoles cause confinement at arbitrarily high temperatures. Several different classes of monopole gases exist, with each class leading to different string tension scaling laws. For one class of monopole gas models, the PT-symmetric affine Toda field theory emerges naturally as the effective theory. This in turn leads to sine-law scaling for string tensions, a behavior consistent with lattice simulations.

  14. Primordial black hole formation during the QCD epoch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jedamzik, K.

    1997-01-01

    We consider the formation of horizon-size primordial black holes (PBH close-quote s) from pre-existing density fluctuations during cosmic phase transitions. It is pointed out that the formation of PBH close-quote s should be particularly efficient during the QCD epoch due to a substantial reduction of pressure forces during adiabatic collapse, or equivalently, a significant decrease in the effective speed of sound during the color-confinement transition. Our considerations imply that for generic initial density perturbation spectra PBH mass functions are expected to exhibit a pronounced peak on the QCD-horizon mass scale ∼1M circle-dot . This mass scale is roughly coincident with the estimated masses for compact objects recently observed in our galactic halo by the MACHO Collaboration. Black holes formed during the QCD epoch may offer an attractive explanation for the origin of halo dark matter evading possibly problematic nucleosynthesis and luminosity bounds on baryonic halo dark matter. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  15. Duality between QCD perturbative series and power corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narison, S.; Zakharov, V.I.

    2009-01-01

    We elaborate on the relation between perturbative and power-like corrections to short-distance sensitive QCD observables. We confront theoretical expectations with explicit perturbative calculations existing in literature. As is expected, the quadratic correction is dual to a long perturbative series and one should use one of them but not both. However, this might be true only for very long perturbative series, with number of terms needed in most cases exceeding the number of terms available. What has not been foreseen, the quartic corrections might also be dual to the perturbative series. If confirmed, this would imply a crucial modification of the dogma. We confront this quadratic correction against existing phenomenology (QCD (spectral) sum rules scales, determinations of light quark masses and of α s from τ-decay). We find no contradiction and (to some extent) better agreement with the data and with recent lattice calculations.

  16. Duality between QCD perturbative series and power corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narison, S. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Astroparticules, CNRS-IN2P3 and Universite de Montpellier II, Case 070, Place Eugene, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 05 (France)], E-mail: snarison@yahoo.fr; Zakharov, V.I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany); Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: xxz@mppmu.mpg.de

    2009-08-31

    We elaborate on the relation between perturbative and power-like corrections to short-distance sensitive QCD observables. We confront theoretical expectations with explicit perturbative calculations existing in literature. As is expected, the quadratic correction is dual to a long perturbative series and one should use one of them but not both. However, this might be true only for very long perturbative series, with number of terms needed in most cases exceeding the number of terms available. What has not been foreseen, the quartic corrections might also be dual to the perturbative series. If confirmed, this would imply a crucial modification of the dogma. We confront this quadratic correction against existing phenomenology (QCD (spectral) sum rules scales, determinations of light quark masses and of {alpha}{sub s} from {tau}-decay). We find no contradiction and (to some extent) better agreement with the data and with recent lattice calculations.

  17. QCD analysis of polarized deep inelastic scattering data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, Johannes; Boettcher, Helmut

    2010-05-01

    A QCD analysis of the world data on polarized deep inelastic scattering is presented in next-to-leading order, including the heavy flavor Wilson coefficient in leading order in the fixed flavor number scheme. New parameterizations are derived for the quark and gluon distributions and the value of α s (M z 2 ) is determined. The impact of the variation of both the renormalization and factorization scales on the distributions and the value of α s is studied. We obtain α s NLO (M Z 2 )=0.1132 -0.0095 +0.0056 . The first moments of the polarized twist-2 parton distribution functions are calculated with correlated errors to allow for comparisons with results from lattice QCD simulations. Potential higher twist contributions to the structure function g 1 (x,Q 2 ) are determined and found to be compatible with zero both for proton and deuteron targets. (orig.)

  18. Anti-Pauli blocking in QCD1+1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkardt, M.; Busch, R.

    1991-02-01

    We investigate the flavor asymmetry of the q bar q sea in a (uu)-proton for QCD 1+1 with SU(2)-color. The excess of bar u over bar d which apparently seems to be in conflict with the exclusion principle is explained by taking the color degrees of freedom into account. By computing color factors for the relevant perturbation theory diagrams we show that the non-abelian sea quarks behave effectively similar to abelian bosons. For the magnitude of the flavor asymmetry of the sea we predict scaling proportional to the ratio of the quark Compton wavelength to the proton radius. We show that the sign of the asymmetry in QCD 1+1 is different from the sign measured in 3+1 dimensions. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  19. Cosmologically safe QCD axion without fine-tuning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masaki; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.; Yonekura, Kazuya

    2015-10-01

    Although QCD axion models are widely studied as solutions to the strong CP problem, they generically confront severe fine-tuning problems to guarantee the anomalous PQ symmetry. In this letter, we propose a simple QCD axion model without any fine-tunings. We introduce an extra dimension and a pair of extra quarks living on two branes separately, which is also charged under a bulk Abelian gauge symmetry. We assume a monopole condensation on our brane at an intermediate scale, which implies that the extra quarks develop the chiral symmetry breaking and the PQ symmetry is broken. In contrast to the original Kim's model, our model explains the origin of the PQ symmetry thanks to the extra dimension and avoids the cosmological domain wall problem because of the chiral symmetry breaking in the Abelian gauge theory.

  20. Fractal structures and intermittency in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafson, Goesta.

    1990-04-01

    New results are presented for fractal structures and intermittency in QCD parton showers. A geometrical interpretation of the anomalous dimension in QCD is given. It is shown that model predications for factorial moments in the PEP-PETRA energy range are increased. if the properties of directly produced pions are more carefully taken into account

  1. HERA results on QCD and EW physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarnecki, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    Selected HERA results on QCD and EW interactions are presented. They include the measurement of the proton structure function and its analysis in terms of the QCD evolution, as well as results concerning deep inelastic scattering at very low and very high Q 2 . Selected HERA limits on new physics and parameters which extend the standard model are also presented. (author)

  2. Color-magnetic permeability of QCD vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan); Shigemoto, K

    1980-03-01

    In the very strong background gauge field the QCD true vacuum has been shown to have lower energy than the ''perturbative vacuum.'' The color-magnetic permeability of the QCD true vacuum is then calculated to be 1/2 within the quark-one-loop approximation.

  3. Recent developments in QCD for LHC physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastasiou, C.

    2006-01-01

    We will review recent theoretical developments in QCD, attempting to assess the phenomenological impact of new theoretical results and to identify potentially useful directions for the future. A part of the talk will be devoted to new imaginative ideas which are rapidly changing the traditional approach to QCD computations, and surprising theoretical discoveries from perturbative calculations on the structure of gauge theories. (author)

  4. Understanding of QCD through solvable models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, G.

    1980-07-01

    Various aspects of strong interaction physics are discussed. It is shown that several nontrivial features arise from non-perturbative 'solutions' of QCD-like models in (1+1) dimensions. An attempt is made to bring these features in (3+1) dimensional semiclassical treatments of QCD.

  5. Academic Training Lectures - QCD for Postgraduates

    CERN Multimedia

    Maureen Prola-Tessaur

    2010-01-01

    by Giulia Zanderighi (University of Oxford) Monday 12 to Friday 16 April 2010 From 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, Bldg. 500-1-001 Monday 12 - Modern QCD - Lecture 1 Starting from the QCD Lagrangian we will revisit some basic QCD concepts and derive fundamental properties like gauge invariance and isospin symmetry and will discuss the Feynman rules of the theory. We will then focus on the gauge group of QCD and derive the Casimirs CF and CA and some useful color identities. Tuesday 13 - Modern QCD - Lecture 2 We will start discussing the matter content of the theory and revisit the experimental measurements that led to the discovery of quarks. We will then consider a classic QCD observable, the R-ratio, and use it to illustrate the appearance of UV divergences and the need to renormalize the coupling constant of QCD. We will then discuss asymptotic freedom and confinement. Finally, we will examine a case where soft and collinear infrared divergences appear, will discuss the soft approximation in QCD ...

  6. Solving QCD via multi-Regge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A. R.

    1998-01-01

    A high-energy, transverse momentum cut-off, solution of QCD is outlined. Regge pole and single gluon properties of the pomeron are directly related to the confinement and chiral symmetry breaking properties of the hadron spectrum. This solution, which corresponds to a supercritical phase of Reggeon Field Theory, may only be applicable to QCD with a very special quark content

  7. Solvable models and hidden symmetries in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yepez-Martinez, Tochtli; Hess, P. O.; Szczepaniak, A.; Civitarese, O.; Lerma H., S.

    2010-01-01

    We show that QCD Hamiltonians at low energy exhibit an SU(2) structure, when only few orbital levels are considered. In case many orbital levels are taken into account we also find a semi-analytic solution for the energy levels of the dominant part of the QCD Hamiltonian. The findings are important to propose the structure of phenomenological models.

  8. How is the charmonium splitting in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertlmann, R.A.

    1981-06-01

    Using the SVZ moment procedure to predict resonance masses within QCD the author has calculated exponential moments as a limit of the QCD formulae given by Reinders, Rubinstein and Yazaki. Applied to charmonium their results (besides 3 P 0 ) are reproduced very well. (Auth.)

  9. Quantum properties of QCD string fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorova-Nová Šárka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple quantization concept for a 3-dim QCD string is used to derive properties of QCD flux tube from the mass spectrum of light mesons and to predict observable quantum effects in correlations between adjacent hadrons. The quantized fragmentation model is presented and compared with experimental observations.

  10. Hard diffraction and small-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    In the United States, phrases such as ''small-x evolution'', ''the BFKL Pomeron'', ''deep-inelastic rapiditygap events'' and ''hard-diffraction'' do not generate the same intensity of discussion amongst high-energy physicists that they do in Europe. However, for three days in the fall such discussion filled the air at Fermilab. The ''2nd Workshop on Small-x and Diffractive Physics at the Tevatron'' was a review of the rapid theoretical and experimental progress taking place in this field. Although Quantum Chromo-dynamics (QCD) has been established as the theory of strong interactions for twenty years, as yet neither perturbative high-energy calculations nor low-energy non-perturbative techniques have been successfully extended to the mixture of high energy and low transverse momenta which characterize traditional ''soft'' diffractive processes. The simplest soft diffractive process is elastic scattering. In this case it is easiest to accept that there is an exchanged ''pomeron'', which can be pictured as a virtual entity with no electric charge or strong charge (colour), perhaps like an excitation of the vacuum. The same pomeron is expected to appear in all diffractive processes. Understanding the pomeron in QCD is a fundamental theoretical and experimental challenge. In the last two or three years the ''frontier'' in this challenging area of QCD has been pushed back significantly in both theory and experiment. Progress has been achieved by studying the evolution of hard collisions to relatively smaller constituent momenta (small x) and by studying ''hard'' diffractive collisions containing simultaneous signatures of diffraction and hard perturbative processes. The hard processes have included high transverse momentum jet production, deep inelastic lepton scattering, and (most recently) W

  11. Inclusive observables and hard gluon emission in neutrino deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchiat, C.; Meyer, P.; Mezard, M.

    1980-01-01

    We derive the predictions of perturbative QCD together with non-perturbative corrections for a set of inclusive observables connected with the angular distribution of light-cone energy in deep inelastic neutrino scattering. Our particular choice of observables has been made in order to meet important physical requirements besides the necessary condition of infrared regularity. Our inclusive observables receive their dominant contribution from the quark fragmentation region. The non-perturbative contribution is calculable in a rather model-independent way and stays at an acceptable level in realistic experimental conditions. The QCD perturbative contribution, which takes the simple form of a convolution product, exhibits a strongly decreasing behaviour as a function of the Bjorken scaling variable x, superimposed on a constant background associated with the non-perturbative terms, allowing a rather clean separation of the two effects. The perturbative term being dominated by the process of hard-gluon emission, an experimental investigation of the observables discussed here may be a good way to detect the effect of gluon emission in deep inelastic neutrino scattering. (orig.)

  12. Lattice QCD Calculation of Nucleon Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Keh-Fei; Draper, Terrence

    2016-01-01

    It is emphasized in the 2015 NSAC Long Range Plan that 'understanding the structure of hadrons in terms of QCD's quarks and gluons is one of the central goals of modern nuclear physics.' Over the last three decades, lattice QCD has developed into a powerful tool for ab initio calculations of strong-interaction physics. Up until now, it is the only theoretical approach to solving QCD with controlled statistical and systematic errors. Since 1985, we have proposed and carried out first-principles calculations of nucleon structure and hadron spectroscopy using lattice QCD which entails both algorithmic development and large-scale computer simulation. We started out by calculating the nucleon form factors -- electromagnetic, axial-vector, ?NN, and scalar form factors, the quark spin contribution to the proton spin, the strangeness magnetic moment, the quark orbital angular momentum, the quark momentum fraction, and the quark and glue decomposition of the proton momentum and angular momentum. The first round of calculations were done with Wilson fermions in the 'quenched' approximation where the dynamical effects of the quarks in the sea are not taken into account in the Monte Carlo simulation to generate the background gauge configurations. Beginning in 2000, we have started implementing the overlap fermion formulation into the spectroscopy and structure calculations. This is mainly because the overlap fermion honors chiral symmetry as in the continuum. It is going to be more and more important to take the symmetry into account as the simulations move closer to the physical point where the u and d quark masses are as light as a few MeV only. We began with lattices which have quark masses in the sea corresponding to a pion mass at ~ 300 MeV and obtained the strange form factors, charm and strange quark masses, the charmonium spectrum and the D_s meson decay constant f_D__s, the strangeness and charmness, the meson mass decomposition and the strange quark spin from the

  13. Lattice QCD Calculation of Nucleon Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Keh-Fei [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Draper, Terrence [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2016-08-30

    It is emphasized in the 2015 NSAC Long Range Plan that "understanding the structure of hadrons in terms of QCD's quarks and gluons is one of the central goals of modern nuclear physics." Over the last three decades, lattice QCD has developed into a powerful tool for ab initio calculations of strong-interaction physics. Up until now, it is the only theoretical approach to solving QCD with controlled statistical and systematic errors. Since 1985, we have proposed and carried out first-principles calculations of nucleon structure and hadron spectroscopy using lattice QCD which entails both algorithmic development and large-scale computer simulation. We started out by calculating the nucleon form factors -- electromagnetic, axial-vector, πNN, and scalar form factors, the quark spin contribution to the proton spin, the strangeness magnetic moment, the quark orbital angular momentum, the quark momentum fraction, and the quark and glue decomposition of the proton momentum and angular momentum. The first round of calculations were done with Wilson fermions in the `quenched' approximation where the dynamical effects of the quarks in the sea are not taken into account in the Monte Carlo simulation to generate the background gauge configurations. Beginning in 2000, we have started implementing the overlap fermion formulation into the spectroscopy and structure calculations. This is mainly because the overlap fermion honors chiral symmetry as in the continuum. It is going to be more and more important to take the symmetry into account as the simulations move closer to the physical point where the u and d quark masses are as light as a few MeV only. We began with lattices which have quark masses in the sea corresponding to a pion mass at ~ 300 MeV and obtained the strange form factors, charm and strange quark masses, the charmonium spectrum and the Ds meson decay constant fDs, the strangeness and charmness, the meson mass

  14. QCD pairing in primordial nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugones, G.; Horvath, J. E.

    2003-08-01

    We analyze the problem of boiling and surface evaporation of quark nuggets in the cosmological quark-hadron transition. Recently, it has been shown that QCD pairing modifies the stability properties of strange quark matter. More specifically, strange quark matter in a color-flavor locked state was found to be absolutely stable for a much wider range of the parameters than ordinary unpaired strange quark matter (G. Lugones and J. E. Horvath, Phys. Rev. D, 66, 074017 (2002)). Assuming that primordial quark nuggets are actually formed we analyze the consequences of pairing on the rates of boiling and surface evaporation in order to determine whether they could have survived.

  15. Nucleon deformation from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapalis, A.

    2008-01-01

    The issue of nucleon and Delta(1232) deformation is discussed through the evaluation of the N to Delta electromagnetic transition and Delta electromagnetic form factors in Lattice QCD. The momentum dependence of the form factors is studied using 2+1 staggered dynamical flavors at pion masses as low as 350 MeV and compared to results obtained in the Wilson quenched and two-flavor dynamical theory at similar pion masses. The measurement of small non-zero quadrupole amplitudes, in agreement to recent experiments, establishes the existence of deformation in the N and Delta states. (author)

  16. Nuclear Physics from Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Detmold, Silas Beane, Konstantinos Orginos, Martin Savage

    2011-01-01

    We review recent progress toward establishing lattice Quantum Chromodynamics as a predictive calculational framework for nuclear physics. A survey of the current techniques that are used to extract low-energy hadronic scattering amplitudes and interactions is followed by a review of recent two-body and few-body calculations by the NPLQCD collaboration and others. An outline of the nuclear physics that is expected to be accomplished with Lattice QCD in the next decade, along with estimates of the required computational resources, is presented.

  17. Cluster computing for lattice QCD simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coddington, P.D.; Williams, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Simulations of lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) require enormous amounts of compute power. In the past, this has usually involved sharing time on large, expensive machines at supercomputing centres. Over the past few years, clusters of networked computers have become very popular as a low-cost alternative to traditional supercomputers. The dramatic improvements in performance (and more importantly, the ratio of price/performance) of commodity PCs, workstations, and networks have made clusters of off-the-shelf computers an attractive option for low-cost, high-performance computing. A major advantage of clusters is that since they can have any number of processors, they can be purchased using any sized budget, allowing research groups to install a cluster for their own dedicated use, and to scale up to more processors if additional funds become available. Clusters are now being built for high-energy physics simulations. Wuppertal has recently installed ALiCE, a cluster of 128 Alpha workstations running Linux, with a peak performance of 158 G flops. The Jefferson Laboratory in the US has a 16 node Alpha cluster and plans to upgrade to a 256 processor machine. In Australia, several large clusters have recently been installed. Swinburne University of Technology has a cluster of 64 Compaq Alpha workstations used for astrophysics simulations. Early this year our DHPC group constructed a cluster of 116 dual Pentium PCs (i.e. 232 processors) connected by a Fast Ethernet network, which is used by chemists at Adelaide University and Flinders University to run computational chemistry codes. The Australian National University has recently installed a similar PC cluster with 192 processors. The Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter (CSSM) undertakes large-scale high-energy physics calculations, mainly lattice QCD simulations. The choice of the computer and network hardware for a cluster depends on the particular applications to be run on the machine. Our

  18. Meson Spectroscopy from QCD - Project Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudek, Jozef [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2017-04-17

    Highlights of the research include: the determination of the form of the lowest energy gluonic excitation within QCD and the spectrum of hybrid hadrons which follows; the first calculation of the spectrum of hybrid baryons within a first-principles approach to QCD; a detailed mapping out of the phase-shift of elastic ππ scattering featuring the ρ resonance at two values of the light quark mass within lattice QCD; the first (and to date, only) determinations of coupled-channel meson-meson scattering within first-principles QCD; the first (and to date, only) determinations of the radiative coupling of a resonant state, the ρ appearing in πγ→ππ; the first (and to date, only) determination of the properties of the broad σ resonance in elastic ππ scattering within QCD without unjustified approximations.

  19. An analysis of formation mechanism and nano-scale hardness of the laser-induced coating on Ni–17Mo–7Cr based superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yanming; Yang, Jianguo; Fu, Wei; Wang, Limei; Gao, Zengliang

    2016-01-01

    The Ni–17Mo–7Cr based superalloy was laser surface treated in argon atmosphere to enhance its tribological property. The formation mechanism of the coating was revealed and its mechanical properties were characterized. The microstructure and phase identification in the coating were investigated by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction techniques. The mechanical properties of the coating, i.e. elastic modulus and hardness, were measured by nanoindentation tests. The SiC particles were used as the coating materials. During the laser treatment, the SiC will first decompose and the decomposition products Si will trigger the formation of MoC carbides in the coating. After complete solidification, the coating consists of the MoC equiaxed dendrites, interdendritic Ni matrix and graphite. Lot of tiny MoC and chromium carbides can also occur in the interdendritic matrix. The elastic modulus and hardness of MoC are characterized to be 394.0 GPa and 22.3 GPa, which are far higher than that of the matrix (E = 246.8 GPa, H = 5.3 GPa). In addition, the volume fraction of hard MoC can reach about 45.3% in the coating. The method reported in this work will provide us a new approach to fabricate the wear-resisting coating. - Highlights: • The SiC will decompose and the released Si atoms can trigger formation of hard MoC. • The coating consists of MoC equiaxed dendrites, interdendritic matrix and graphite. • The elastic modulus and hardness of MoC are measured to be 394.0 GPa and 22.3 GPa. • The volume fraction of hard MoC in the coating can reach approximately 45.3%.

  20. An analysis of formation mechanism and nano-scale hardness of the laser-induced coating on Ni–17Mo–7Cr based superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yanming [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, 310014 (China); Yang, Jianguo, E-mail: yangjianguo@hit.edu.cn [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, 310014 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Fu, Wei [Shanghai Baosteel Industry Technological Service Co., Ltd., Shanghai, 201900 (China); Wang, Limei; Gao, Zengliang [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, 310014 (China)

    2016-07-15

    The Ni–17Mo–7Cr based superalloy was laser surface treated in argon atmosphere to enhance its tribological property. The formation mechanism of the coating was revealed and its mechanical properties were characterized. The microstructure and phase identification in the coating were investigated by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction techniques. The mechanical properties of the coating, i.e. elastic modulus and hardness, were measured by nanoindentation tests. The SiC particles were used as the coating materials. During the laser treatment, the SiC will first decompose and the decomposition products Si will trigger the formation of MoC carbides in the coating. After complete solidification, the coating consists of the MoC equiaxed dendrites, interdendritic Ni matrix and graphite. Lot of tiny MoC and chromium carbides can also occur in the interdendritic matrix. The elastic modulus and hardness of MoC are characterized to be 394.0 GPa and 22.3 GPa, which are far higher than that of the matrix (E = 246.8 GPa, H = 5.3 GPa). In addition, the volume fraction of hard MoC can reach about 45.3% in the coating. The method reported in this work will provide us a new approach to fabricate the wear-resisting coating. - Highlights: • The SiC will decompose and the released Si atoms can trigger formation of hard MoC. • The coating consists of MoC equiaxed dendrites, interdendritic matrix and graphite. • The elastic modulus and hardness of MoC are measured to be 394.0 GPa and 22.3 GPa. • The volume fraction of hard MoC in the coating can reach approximately 45.3%.

  1. QCD Monte-Carlo model tuning studies with CMS data at 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Sunar Cerci, Deniz

    2018-01-01

    New CMS PYTHIA 8 event tunes are presented. The new tunes are obtained using minimum bias and underlying event observables using Monte Carlo configurations with consistent parton distribution functions and strong coupling constant values in the matrix element and the parton shower. Validation and performance studies are presented by comparing the predictions of the new tune to various soft- and hard-QCD measurements at 7, 8 and 13 TeV with CMS.

  2. Diffractive hard photoproduction at HERA and evidence for the gluon content of the pomeron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.

    1995-01-01

    Inclusive jet cross sections for events with a large rapidity gap with respect to the proton direction from the reaction ep→jet+X with quasi-real photons have been measured with the ZEUS detector. The cross sections refer to jets with transverse energies E T jet >8 GeV. The data show the characteristics of a diffractive process mediated by pomeron exchange. Assuming that the events are due to the exchange of a pomeron with partonic structure, the quark and gluon content of the pomeron is probed at a scale ∼(E T jet ) 2 . A comparison of the measurements with model predictions based on QCD plus Regge phenomenology requires a contribution of partons with a hard momentum density in the pomeron. A combined analysis of the jet cross sections and recent ZEUS measurements of the diffractive structure function in deep inelastic scattering gives the first experimental evidence for the gluon content of the pomeron in diffractive hard scattering processes. The data indicate that between 30% and 80% of the momentum of the pomeron carried by partons is due to hard gluons. (orig.)

  3. QCD as a basis for quark and nuclear forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter examines quarks in nucleons and the ideas behind the quantum chromodynamic (QCD) theory of their interactions. Compares nuclei and nucleons, and examines length or energy scales in physics. Reviews the present knowledge about the basic building blocks: quarks and leptons. Discusses color, building colorless hadrons, effects of color inside hadrons (spin flavor correlations, magnetic moments), color as the source of a field theory (molecular and nuclear forces), non-Abelian theories (qualitative features, boson-fermion vertices in SU(N), gauge invariance), renormalization and scaling violation (Lagrangians and renormalization, logs in perturbation theory), and quarks and nuclear forces

  4. Hadron physics from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Andreas [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    2016-11-01

    Particle physics experiments at modern high luminosity particle accelerators achieve orders of magnitude higher count rates than what was possible ten or twenty years ago. This extremely large statistics allows to draw far reaching conclusions even from minute signals, provided that these signals are well understood by theory. This is, however, ever more difficult to achieve. Presently, technical and scientific progress in general and experimental progress in particle physics in particular, shows typically an exponential growth rate. For example, data acquisition and analysis are, among many other factor, driven by the development of ever more efficient computers and thus by Moore's law. Theory has to keep up with this development by also achieving an exponential increase in precision, which is only possible using powerful computers. This is true for both types of calculations, analytic ones as, e.g., in quantum field perturbation theory, and purely numerical ones as in Lattice QCD. As stated above such calculations are absolutely indispensable to make best use of the extremely costly large particle physics experiments. Thus, it is economically reasonable to invest a certain percentage of the cost of accelerators and experiments in related theory efforts. The basic ideas behind Lattice QCD simulations are the following: Because quarks and gluons can never be observed individually but are always ''confined'' into colorless hadrons, like the proton, all quark-gluon states can be expressed in two different systems of basis states, namely in a quark-gluon basis and the basis of hadron states. The proton, e.g., is an eigenstate of the latter, a specific quark-gluon configuration is part of the former. In the quark-gluon basis a physical hadron, like a proton, is given by an extremely complicated multi-particle wave function containing all effects of quantum fluctuations. This state is so complicated that it is basically impossible to model it

  5. Towards the QCD phase diagram

    CERN Document Server

    De Forcrand, Philippe; Forcrand, Philippe de; Philipsen, Owe

    2006-01-01

    We summarize our recent results on the phase diagram of QCD with N_f=2+1 quark flavors, as a function of temperature T and quark chemical potential \\mu. Using staggered fermions, lattices with temporal extent N_t=4, and the exact RHMC algorithm, we first determine the critical line in the quark mass plane (m_{u,d},m_s) where the finite temperature transition at \\mu=0 is second order. We confirm that the physical point lies on the crossover side of this line. Our data are consistent with a tricritical point at (m_{u,d},m_s) = (0,\\sim 500) MeV. Then, using an imaginary chemical potential, we determine in which direction this second-order line moves as the chemical potential is turned on. Contrary to standard expectations, we find that the region of first-order transitions shrinks in the presence of a chemical potential, which is inconsistent with the presence of a QCD critical point at small chemical potential. The emphasis is put on clarifying the translation of our results from lattice to physical units, and ...

  6. Theta dependence in holographic QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolini, Lorenzo [Dipartimento di Fisica “E. Fermi' , Università di Pisa and INFN, Sezione di Pisa,Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bigazzi, Francesco [INFN, Sezione di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Bolognesi, Stefano [Dipartimento di Fisica “E. Fermi' , Università di Pisa and INFN, Sezione di Pisa,Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Cotrone, Aldo L. [INFN, Sezione di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Manenti, Andrea [Institute of Physics, EPFL,Rte de la Sorge, BSP 728, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2017-02-07

    We study the effects of the CP-breaking topological θ-term in the large N{sub c} QCD model by Witten, Sakai and Sugimoto with N{sub f} degenerate light flavors. We first compute the ground state energy density, the topological susceptibility and the masses of the lowest lying mesons, finding agreement with expectations from the QCD chiral effective action. Then, focusing on the N{sub f}=2 case, we consider the baryonic sector and determine, to leading order in the small θ regime, the related holographic instantonic soliton solutions. We find that while the baryon spectrum does not receive O(θ) corrections, this is not the case for observables like the electromagnetic form factor of the nucleons. In particular, it exhibits a dipole term, which turns out to be vector-meson dominated. The resulting neutron electric dipole moment, which is exactly the opposite as that of the proton, is of the same order of magnitude of previous estimates in the literature. Finally, we compute the CP-violating pion-nucleon coupling constant ḡ{sub πNN}, finding that it is zero to leading order in the large N{sub c} limit.

  7. The surface between QCD and Hadron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Geramb, H.V.; Bayansan, D.

    2005-01-01

    The relativistic potential concept is fostered for the description of nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction and scattering for energies 0 < T Lab ≤ 3 GeV. We use a formalism, developed by Crater and Van Alstine, for two coupled spin 1/2 particles in terms of coupled Dirac equations with constraint instant form dynamics. Sets of coupled Dirac equations are used and reduced into partial wave Schr¨odinger type equations. We study np and pp scattering phase shifts for energies 0 to 3 GeV and the deuteron bound state. The interactions are inspired and parameterized in terms of π, η, ρ, ω and σ meson exchanges for which we adjust coupling constants. This yields, in the first instant, high quality fits to the Arndt phase shifts 0 to 300 MeV. Second, the potentials show a universal, independent from angular momentum, core potential which is generated with the relativistic meson exchange dynamics. Extrapolations towards higher energies, up to T Lab equal 3 GeV, allow to separate a QCD dominated short range zone as well as inelastic nucleon excitation mechanism contributing to meson production. A local short range optical model, replacing the short range meson exchange Dirac potential, produces exact agreement between theoretical and phase shifts data. The optical model potentials reflect short lived complex multi hadronic intermediate structure formation of which the optical model parameters give a consistent picture. This phenomenological approach shows the need to describe the short range NN interaction zone r < 0.8 fm with a microscopic model. It implies using the quark content of the nucleons and gluon exchange as well as the need for a microscopic description of intermediate Δ and hadron pair excitations. The conventional soft or hard core NN potentials remain valid for an effective short range low energy description

  8. A comparison of jet production rates on the Z0 resonance to perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, P.; Adam, W.; Adami, F.

    1990-01-01

    The production rates for 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-jet hardronic final states have been measured with the DELPHI detector at the e + e - storage ring LEP at centre of mass energies around 91.5 GeV. Fully corrected data are compared to O(α s 2 ) QCD matrix element calculations and the QCD scale parameter Λsub(anti Manti S) is determined for different parametrizations of the renormalization scale μ 2 . Including all uncertainties our result is α s (M Z 2 )=0.114±0.003[stat.]±0.004[syst.]±0.012[theor.]. (orig.)

  9. The AdS/QCD Correspondence and Exclusive Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    The AdS/CFT correspondence between theories in AdS space and conformal field theories in physical space-time provides an analytic, semi-classical, color-confining model for strongly-coupled QCD. The soft-wall AdS/QCD model modified by a positive-sign dilaton metric leads to a remarkable one-parameter description of nonperturbative hadron dynamics at zero quark mass, including a zero-mass pion and a Regge spectrum of linear trajectories with the same slope in orbital angular momentum L and radial quantum number n for both mesons and baryons. One also predicts the form of the non-perturbative effective coupling α s AdS (q) and its β-function which agrees with the effective coupling α ga extracted from the Bjorken sum rule. Light-front holography, which connects the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z to an invariant impact separation variable ζ, allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties as well as decay constants, form factors, deeply virtual Compton scattering, exclusive heavy hadron decays and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. One thus obtains a relativistic description of hadrons in QCD at the amplitude level with dimensional counting for hard exclusive reactions at high momentum transfer. As specific examples we discuss the behavior of the pion and nucleon form factors in the space-like and time-like regions. We also review the phenomenology of exclusive processes including some anomalous empirical results.

  10. The underlying event in hard scattering processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, R.

    2002-01-01

    The authors study the behavior of the underlying event in hard scattering proton-antiproton collisions at 1.8 TeV and compare with the QCD Monte-Carlo models. The underlying event is everything except the two outgoing hard scattered jets and receives contributions from the beam-beam remnants plus initial and final-state radiation. The data indicate that neither ISAJET or HERWIG produce enough charged particles (with p T > 0.5 GeV/c) from the beam-beam remnant component and that ISAJET produces too many charged particles from initial-state radiation. PYTHIA which uses multiple parton scattering to enhance the underlying event does the best job describing the data

  11. Confinement in Polyakov gauge and the QCD phase diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marhauser, Marc Florian

    2009-10-14

    We investigate Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) in the framework of the functional renormalisation group (fRG). Thereby describing the phase transition from the phase with confined quarks into the quark-gluon-plasma phase. We focus on a physical gauge in which the mechanism driving the phase transition is discernible. We find results compatible with lattice QCD data, as well as with functional methods applied in different gauges. The phase transition is of the expected order and we computed critical exponents. Extensions of the model are discussed. When investigating the QCD phase diagram, we compute the effects of dynamical quarks at finite density on the running of the gauge coupling. Additionally, we calculate how these affect the deconfinement phase transition, also, dynamical quarks allow for the inclusion of a finite chemical potential. Concluding the investigation of the phase diagram, we establish a relation between confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, which is tied to the dynamical generation of hadron masses. In the investigations, we often encounter scale dependent fields. We investigate a footing on which these can be dealt with in a uniform way. (orig.)

  12. Reality of the fundamental topological structure in the QCD vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandru, Andrei; Horvath, Ivan; Zhang Jianbo

    2005-01-01

    Long-range order of a specific kind has recently been found directly in configurations dominating the regularized QCD path integral. In particular, a low-dimensional global structure was identified in typical space-time distributions of topological charge defined via the overlap Dirac matrix. The presence of the order has been concluded from the fact that the structure disappears after random permutation of position coordinates in measured densities. Here we complete the argument for the reality of this structure (namely the conjecture that its existence is a consequence of QCD dynamics and not an artifact of the overlap-based definition of lattice topological field) by showing that the structure ceases to exist after randomizing the space-time coordinates of the underlying gauge field. This implies that the long-range order present in the overlap-based topological density is indeed a manifestation of the QCD vacuum, and that the notion of the fundamental structure (structure involving relevant features at all scales) is viable

  13. Scattering processes and resonances from lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, Raúl A.; Dudek, Jozef J.; Young, Ross D.

    2018-04-01

    The vast majority of hadrons observed in nature are not stable under the strong interaction; rather they are resonances whose existence is deduced from enhancements in the energy dependence of scattering amplitudes. The study of hadron resonances offers a window into the workings of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) in the low-energy nonperturbative region, and in addition many probes of the limits of the electroweak sector of the standard model consider processes which feature hadron resonances. From a theoretical standpoint, this is a challenging field: the same dynamics that binds quarks and gluons into hadron resonances also controls their decay into lighter hadrons, so a complete approach to QCD is required. Presently, lattice QCD is the only available tool that provides the required nonperturbative evaluation of hadron observables. This article reviews progress in the study of few-hadron reactions in which resonances and bound states appear using lattice QCD techniques. The leading approach is described that takes advantage of the periodic finite spatial volume used in lattice QCD calculations to extract scattering amplitudes from the discrete spectrum of QCD eigenstates in a box. An explanation is given of how from explicit lattice QCD calculations one can rigorously garner information about a variety of resonance properties, including their masses, widths, decay couplings, and form factors. The challenges which currently limit the field are discussed along with the steps being taken to resolve them.

  14. Hard processes in photon-photon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchovni, E.

    1985-03-01

    In this thesis, the existence of hard component in two-photon collisions is investigated. Due to the relative simplicity of the photon, such processes can be exactly calculated in QCD. Untagged (low Q 2 ) two-photon events are used. This leads to relatively high statistics, but to severe background problem due mainly to e + e - annihilation. The background contamination is reduced to a tolerable level using a special set of cuts. Moreover, the remaining contamination is shown to be calculable with a small systematic error. A large number of events of the hard ''γγ'' type is found. An attempt to explain these events using the simplest QCD diagram (the Born term) is done. This process is found to be capable of explaining only a 1/4 of the data. Other options like the constituent intercharge model, integer charged quarks, and higher order diagrams are therefore also discussed. The large cross-section for the production of ρ 0 ρ 0 pairs in ''γγ'' collisions has not been understood yet. Inorder to look at closely related processes, a search for φρ 0 and φφ was initiated. The cross-section for θπ + π - was found to be sizeable. Only upper limits for the production of φρ 0 and φφ are obtained

  15. New strong interactions above the electroweak scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    Theoretical arguments for a new higher-color quark sector, based on Pomeron physics in QCD, are briefly described. The electroweak symmetry-breaking, Strong CP conservation, and electroweak scale CP violation, that is naturally produced by this sector is also outlined. A further consequence is that above the electroweak scale there will be a radical change in the strong interaction. Electroweak states, in particular multiple W's and Z's, and new, semi-stable, very massive, baryons, will be commonly produced. The possible correlation of expected phenomena with a wide range of observed Cosmic Ray effects at and above the primary spectrum knee is described. Related phenomena that might be seen in the highest energy hard scattering events at the Fermilab Tevatron, some of which could be confused with top production, are also briefly discussed

  16. The QCD Critical Point and Related Observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahrgang, Marlene

    2016-12-15

    The search for the critical point of QCD in heavy-ion collision experiments has sparked enormous interest with the completion of phase I of the RHIC beam energy scan. Here, I review the basics of the thermodynamics of the QCD phase transition and its implications for experimental multiplicity fluctuations in heavy-ion collisions. Several sources of noncritical fluctuations impact the observables and need to be understood in addition to the critical phenomena. Recent progress has been made in dynamical modeling of critical fluctuations, which ultimately is indispensable to understand potential signals of the QCD critical point in heavy-ion collision.

  17. Dynamical effects of QCD vacuum structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Erasmo

    1994-01-01

    The role of the QCD vacuum structure in the determination of the properties of states and processes occurring in the confinement regime of QCD is reviewed. The finite range of the vacuum correlations is discussed, and an analytical form is suggested for the correlation functions. The role of the vacuum quantum numbers in the phenomenology of high-energy scattering is reviewed. The vacuum correlation model of non-perturbative QCD is mentioned as a bridge between the fundamental theory and the description of the experiments. (author). 13 refs., 1 fig

  18. Quark virtuality and QCD vacuum condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Lijuan; Ma Weixing

    2004-01-01

    Based on the Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSEs) in the 'rainbow' approximation, the authors investigate the quark virtuality in the vacuum state and quantum-chromodynamics (QCD) vacuum condensates. In particular, authors calculate the local quark vacuum condensate and quark-gluon mixed condensates, and then the virtuality of quark. The calculated quark virtualities are λ u,d 2 =0.7 GeV 2 for u, d quarks, and λ s 2 =1.6 GeV 2 for s quark. The theoretical predictions are consistent with empirical values used in QCD sum rules, and also fit to lattice QCD predictions

  19. QCD are we ready for the LHC?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    The LHC energy regime poses a serious challenge to our capability of predicting QCD reactions to the level of accuracy necessary for a successful programme of searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. In these lectures, I'll introduce basic concepts in QCD, and present techniques based on perturbation theory, such as fixed-order and resummed computations, and Monte Carlo simulations. I'll discuss applications of these techniques to hadron-hadron processes, concentrating on recent trends in perturbative QCD aimed at improving our understanding of LHC phenomenology.

  20. Death to perturbative QCD in exclusive processes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckardt, R.; Hansper, J.; Gari, M.F. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Bochum (Germany)

    1994-04-01

    The authors discuss the question of whether perturbative QCD is applicable in calculations of exclusive processes at available momentum transfers. They show that the currently used method of determining hadronic quark distribution amplitudes from QCD sum rules yields wave functions which are completely undetermined because the polynomial expansion diverges. Because of the indeterminacy of the wave functions no statement can be made at present as to whether perturbative QCD is valid. The authors emphasize the necessity of a rigorous discussion of the subject and the importance of experimental data in the range of interest.

  1. Four-jet production at LHC and Tevatron in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, B.; Dokshitzer, Yu.; Frankfurt, L.; Strikman, M.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that in the back-to-back kinematics the production of four jets in the collision of two partons is suppressed in the leading log approximation of pQCD, compared to the E-circumflex hard processes involving the collision of four partons. We derive the basic equation for four-jet production in QCD in terms of the convolution of generalized two-parton distributions of colliding hadrons in the momentum space representation. Our derivation leads to geometrical approach in the impact parameter space close to that suggested within the parton model and used before to describe the four-jet production. We develop the independent parton approximation to the light-cone wave function of the proton. Comparison with the CDF and D0 data shows that the independent parton approximation to the light-cone wave function of the proton is insufficient to explain the data. We argue that the data indicate the presence of significant multiparton correlations in the light-cone wave functions of colliding protons.

  2. From hot lattice QCD to cold quark stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, Robert

    2011-02-22

    A thermodynamic model of the quark-gluon plasma using quasiparticle degrees of freedom based on the hard thermal loop self-energies is introduced. It provides a connection between an established phenomenological quasiparticle model - following from the former using a series of approximations - and QCD - from which the former is derived using the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis formalism and a special parametrization of the running coupling. Both models allow for an extrapolation of first-principle QCD results available at small chemical potentials using Monte-Carlo methods on the lattice to large net baryon densities with remarkably similar results. They are used to construct equations of state for heavy-ion collider experiments at SPS and FAIR as well as quark and neutron star interiors. A mixed-phase construction allows for a connection of the SPS equation of state to the hadron resonance gas. An extension to the weak sector is presented as well as general stability and binding arguments for compact stellar objects are developed. From the extrapolation of the most recent lattice results the existence of bound pure quark stars is not suggested. However, quark matter might exist in a hybrid phase in cores of neutron stars. (orig.)

  3. From hot lattice QCD to cold quark stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A thermodynamic model of the quark-gluon plasma using quasiparticle degrees of freedom based on the hard thermal loop self-energies is introduced. It provides a connection between an established phenomenological quasiparticle model - following from the former using a series of approximations - and QCD - from which the former is derived using the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis formalism and a special parametrization of the running coupling. Both models allow for an extrapolation of first-principle QCD results available at small chemical potentials using Monte-Carlo methods on the lattice to large net baryon densities with remarkably similar results. They are used to construct equations of state for heavy-ion collider experiments at SPS and FAIR as well as quark and neutron star interiors. A mixed-phase construction allows for a connection of the SPS equation of state to the hadron resonance gas. An extension to the weak sector is presented as well as general stability and binding arguments for compact stellar objects are developed. From the extrapolation of the most recent lattice results the existence of bound pure quark stars is not suggested. However, quark matter might exist in a hybrid phase in cores of neutron stars. (orig.)

  4. Soft QCD at the CMS and ATLAS experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Veres, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    A short overview of some of the recent results on soft QCD processes at the LHC will be presented from the ATLAS and CMS experiments. The discussion will proceed starting from the most inclusive to the more differential and rare phenomena. New results include total inelastic cross section measurements; studies of minimum bias collisions (charged particle $\\eta$ and $p_T$ distributions and two-particle correlations in high-multiplicity events); features of the underlying event (multiplicity and $\\Sigma p_T$ distributions in the presence of a high-$p_T$ track, jet, Z boson or $t\\overline{t}$ pair); minijets characterizing the transition between the soft and hard QCD regimes; dijets with a rapidity gap (as a signature of color-singlet exchange); M\\uller-Navelet dijets and their angular decorrelations (as an attempt to search for signs of the BFKL evolution and deviations from DGLAP); and finally, Double Parton Scattering (DPS) studies using various final states (4-jet events, $\\gamma$ + 3 jets, 2 b-jets and 2 je...

  5. Hot QCD equations of state and relativistic heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Vinod; Kumar, Ravindra; Ravishankar, V.

    2007-11-01

    We study two recently proposed equations of state obtained from high-temperature QCD and show how they can be adapted to use them for making predictions for relativistic heavy ion collisions. The method involves extracting equilibrium distribution functions for quarks and gluons from the equation of state (EOS), which in turn will allow a determination of the transport and other bulk properties of the quark gluon-plasma. Simultaneously, the method also yields a quasiparticle description of interacting quarks and gluons. The first EOS is perturbative in the QCD coupling constant and has contributions of O(g5). The second EOS is an improvement over the first, with contributions up to O[g6ln(1/g)]; it incorporates the nonperturbative hard thermal contributions. The interaction effects are shown to be captured entirely by the effective chemical potentials for the gluons and the quarks, in both cases. The chemical potential is seen to be highly sensitive to the EOS. As an application, we determine the screening lengths, which are, indeed, the most important diagnostics for QGP. The screening lengths are seen to behave drastically differently depending on the EOS considered and therefore yield a way to distinguish the two equations of state in heavy ion collisions.

  6. Renormalization scheme invariant predictions for deep-inelastic scattering and determination of ΛQCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vovk, V.I.

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical aspects of the renormalization scheme (RS) ambiguity problem and the approaches to its solution are discussed from the point of view of QCD phenomenology and the scale Λ determination. The method of RS-invariant perturbation theory (RSIPT) as a sound basis for describing experiment in QCD is advocated. To this end the method is developed for the non-singlet structure functions (SF) of deep-inelastic scattering and recent high precision data on SF's are analyzed in a RS-invariant way. It is shown that RSIPT leads to a more accurate and reliable determination of the QCD scale Λ, which is consistent with the theoretical assumption of a better convergence of RS-invariant perturbative series. 24 refs.; 1 tab

  7. Nucleon-nucleon interactions via Lattice QCD: Methodology. HAL QCD approach to extract hadronic interactions in lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Sinya

    2013-07-01

    We review the potential method in lattice QCD, which has recently been proposed to extract nucleon-nucleon interactions via numerical simulations. We focus on the methodology of this approach by emphasizing the strategy of the potential method, the theoretical foundation behind it, and special numerical techniques. We compare the potential method with the standard finite volume method in lattice QCD, in order to make pros and cons of the approach clear. We also present several numerical results for nucleon-nucleon potentials.

  8. Resummation prescriptions and ambiguities in SCET vs. direct QCD. Higgs production as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonvini, Marco; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Rottoli, Luca

    2014-09-01

    We perform a comparison of soft-gluon resummation in SCET vs. direct QCD (dQCD), using Higgs boson production in gluon fusion as a case study, with the goal of tracing the quantitative impact of each source of difference between the two approaches. We show that saddle-point methods enable a direct quantitative comparison despite the fact that the scale which is resummed in the two approaches is not the same. As a byproduct, we put in one-to-one analytic correspondence various features of either approach: specifically, we show how the SCET method for treating the Landau pole can be implemented in dQCD, and how the resummation of the optimal partonic scale of dQCD can be implemented in SCET. We conclude that the main quantitative difference comes from power-suppressed subleading contributions, which could in fact be freely tuned in either approach, and not really characteristic of either. This conclusion holds for Higgs production in gluon fusion, but it is in fact generic for processes with similar kinematics. For Higgs production, everything else being equal, SCET resummation at NNLL in the Becher-Neubert implementation leads to essentially no enhancement of the NNLO cross-section, unlike dQCD in the standard implementation of Catani et al.

  9. Resummation prescriptions and ambiguities in SCET vs. direct QCD: Higgs production as a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonvini, Marco [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchroton, DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Forte, Stefano [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ridolfi, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova and INFN, Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Rottoli, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-01-12

    We perform a comparison of soft-gluon resummation in SCET vs. direct QCD (dQCD), using Higgs boson production in gluon fusion as a case study, with the goal of tracing the quantitative impact of each source of difference between the two approaches. We show that saddle-point methods enable a direct quantitative comparison despite the fact that the scale which is resummed in the two approaches is not the same. As a byproduct, we put in one-to-one analytic correspondence various features of either approach: specifically, we show how the SCET method for treating the Landau pole can be implemented in dQCD, and how the resummation of the optimal partonic scale of dQCD can be implemented in SCET. We conclude that the main quantitative difference comes from power-suppressed subleading contributions, which could in fact be freely tuned in either approach, and not really characteristic of either. This conclusion holds for Higgs production in gluon fusion, but it is in fact generic for processes with similar kinematics. For Higgs production, everything else being equal, SCET resummation at NNLL in the Becher-Neubert implementation leads to essentially no enhancement of the NNLO cross-section, unlike dQCD in the standard implementation of Catani et al.

  10. Resummation prescriptions and ambiguities in SCET vs. direct QCD: Higgs production as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonvini, Marco; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Rottoli, Luca

    2015-01-01

    We perform a comparison of soft-gluon resummation in SCET vs. direct QCD (dQCD), using Higgs boson production in gluon fusion as a case study, with the goal of tracing the quantitative impact of each source of difference between the two approaches. We show that saddle-point methods enable a direct quantitative comparison despite the fact that the scale which is resummed in the two approaches is not the same. As a byproduct, we put in one-to-one analytic correspondence various features of either approach: specifically, we show how the SCET method for treating the Landau pole can be implemented in dQCD, and how the resummation of the optimal partonic scale of dQCD can be implemented in SCET. We conclude that the main quantitative difference comes from power-suppressed subleading contributions, which could in fact be freely tuned in either approach, and not really characteristic of either. This conclusion holds for Higgs production in gluon fusion, but it is in fact generic for processes with similar kinematics. For Higgs production, everything else being equal, SCET resummation at NNLL in the Becher-Neubert implementation leads to essentially no enhancement of the NNLO cross-section, unlike dQCD in the standard implementation of Catani et al.

  11. Resummation prescriptions and ambiguities in SCET vs. direct QCD. Higgs production as a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonvini, Marco [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Forte, Stefano [Univ. di Milano (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Sezione di Milano (Italy); Ridolfi, Giovanni [Univ. di Genova (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Sezione di Genova (Italy); Rottoli, Luca [Univ. di Milano (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica

    2014-09-15

    We perform a comparison of soft-gluon resummation in SCET vs. direct QCD (dQCD), using Higgs boson production in gluon fusion as a case study, with the goal of tracing the quantitative impact of each source of difference between the two approaches. We show that saddle-point methods enable a direct quantitative comparison despite the fact that the scale which is resummed in the two approaches is not the same. As a byproduct, we put in one-to-one analytic correspondence various features of either approach: specifically, we show how the SCET method for treating the Landau pole can be implemented in dQCD, and how the resummation of the optimal partonic scale of dQCD can be implemented in SCET. We conclude that the main quantitative difference comes from power-suppressed subleading contributions, which could in fact be freely tuned in either approach, and not really characteristic of either. This conclusion holds for Higgs production in gluon fusion, but it is in fact generic for processes with similar kinematics. For Higgs production, everything else being equal, SCET resummation at NNLL in the Becher-Neubert implementation leads to essentially no enhancement of the NNLO cross-section, unlike dQCD in the standard implementation of Catani et al.

  12. Phenomenology of large Nc QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebed, R.F.

    1999-01-01

    These lectures are designed to introduce the methods and results of large N c QCD in a presentation intended for nuclear and particle physicists alike. Beginning with definitions and motivations of the approach, we demonstrate that all quark and gluon Feynman diagrams are organized into classes based on powers of 1/N c . We then show that this result can be translated into definite statements about mesons and baryons containing arbitrary numbers of constituents. In the mesons, numerous well-known phenomenological properties follow as immediate consequences of simply counting powers of N c , while for the baryons, quantitative large N c analyses of masses and other properties are seen to agree with experiment, even when 'large' N c is set equal to its observed value of 3. Large N c reasoning is also used to explain some simple features of nuclear interactions. (author)

  13. Phenomenology of large Nc QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard Lebed

    1998-01-01

    These lectures are designed to introduce the methods and results of large N c QCD in a presentation intended for nuclear and particle physicists alike. Beginning with definitions and motivations of the approach, they demonstrate that all quark and gluon Feynman diagrams are organized into classes based on powers of 1/N c . They then show that this result can be translated into definite statements about mesons and baryons containing arbitrary numbers of constituents. In the mesons, numerous well-known phenomenological properties follow as immediate consequences of simply counting powers of N c , while for the baryons, quantitative large N c analyses of masses and other properties are seen to agree with experiment, even when ''large'' N c is set equal to its observed value of 3. Large N c reasoning is also used to explain some simple features of nuclear interactions

  14. Soft Pomeron in Holographic QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Ballon-Bayona, Alfonso; Costa, Miguel S; Djurić, Marko

    2016-01-01

    We study the graviton Regge trajectory in Holographic QCD as a model for high energy scattering processes dominated by soft pomeron exchange. This is done by considering spin J fields from the closed string sector that are dual to glueball states of even spin and parity. In particular, we construct a model that governs the analytic continuation of the spin J field equation to the region of real J < 2, which includes the scattering domain of negative Maldelstam variable t. The model leads to approximately linear Regge trajectories and is compatible with the measured values of 1.08 for the intercept and 0.25 GeV$^{-2}$ for the slope of the soft pomeron. The intercept of the secondary pomeron trajectory is in the same region of the subleading trajectories, made of mesons, proposed by Donnachie and Landshoff, and should therefore be taken into account.

  15. Pion structure from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javadi Motaghi, Narjes

    2015-05-12

    In this thesis we use lattice QCD to compute the second Mellin moments of pion generalized parton distributions and pion electromagnetic form factors. For our calculations we are able to analyze a large set of gauge configurations with 2 dynamical flavours using non-perturbatively the improved Wilson-Sheikholeslami-Wohlert fermionic action pion masses ranging down to 151 MeV. By employing improved smearing we were able to suppress excited state contamination. However, our data in the physical quark mass limit show that some excited state contamination remains. We show the non-zero sink momentum is optimal for the computation of the electromagnetic form factors and generalized form factors at finite momenta.

  16. Colour singlets in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassetto, A.

    1979-01-01

    In the axial gauge and at the leading log level, a definite and consistent picture seems to emerge of a parton decay into states in which many partons are found just before confinement should take place. They are grouped into colourless clusters in a number sufficient to exhaust the ''final'' state, still possessing a finite average mass. This result is peculiar of QCD, in particular of its non-abelian nature. Large transverse momenta or more generally average invariant quantities of partons are mainly due to the multiplicities involved in the branching processes. If eventually confinement would convert these clusters into hadrons (and this is of course the main issue which has still to be proven) without a large rearrangement of the colour lines, the picture we have found for colour singlets could apply to the real hadronic world. (author)

  17. QCD in heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iancu, Edmond [IPhT, Saclay (France)

    2014-07-01

    These lectures provide a modern introduction to selected topics in the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions which shed light on the fundamental theory of strong interactions, the Quantum Chromodynamics. The emphasis is on the partonic forms of QCD matter which exist in the early and intermediate stages of a collision -- the colour glass condensate, the glasma, and the quark-gluon plasma -- and on the effective theories that are used for their description. These theories provide qualitative and even quantitative insight into a wealth of remarkable phenomena observed in nucleus-nucleus or deuteron-nucleus collisions at RHIC and/or the LHC, like the suppression of particle production and of azimuthal correlations at forward rapidities, the energy and centrality dependence of the multiplicities, the ridge effect, the limiting fragmentation, the jet quenching, or the dijet asymmetry.

  18. QCD in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iancu, Edmond

    2014-01-01

    These lectures provide a modern introduction to selected topics in the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions which shed light on the fundamental theory of strong interactions, the Quantum Chromodynamics. The emphasis is on the partonic forms of QCD matter which exist in the early and intermediate stages of a collision -- the colour glass condensate, the glasma, and the quark-gluon plasma -- and on the effective theories that are used for their description. These theories provide qualitative and even quantitative insight into a wealth of remarkable phenomena observed in nucleus-nucleus or deuteron-nucleus collisions at RHIC and/or the LHC, like the suppression of particle production and of azimuthal correlations at forward rapidities, the energy and centrality dependence of the multiplicities, the ridge effect, the limiting fragmentation, the jet quenching, or the dijet asymmetry

  19. QCD string in the baryon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikova, Yu.S.; Nefediev, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    The QCD-motivated constituent string model is extended to consider the baryon. The system of three quarks propagating in the confining background field is studied in the Wilson loop approach, and the effective action is obtained. The resulting Lagrangian at large interquark distances corresponds to the Mercedes Benz string configuration. Assuming the quarks to be heavy enough to allow the adiabatic separation of quark and string junction motion and using the hyperspherical expansion for the quark subsystem we write out and solve the classical equation of motion for the junction. We quantize the motion of the junction and demonstrate that the account of these modes leads to the effective swelling of baryon in comparison with standard potential picture. The effects of finite gluonic correlation length which do not affect the excited states but appear to be substantial for the baryonic ground state, reducing the swelling considerably is discussed

  20. Baryon structure from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, C.

    2009-01-01

    We present recent lattice results on the baryon spectrum, nucleon electromagnetic and axial form factors, nucleon to Δ transition form factors as well as the Δ electromagnetic form factors. The masses of the low lying baryons and the nucleon form factors are calculated using two degenerate flavors of twisted mass fermions down to pion mass of about 270 MeV. We compare to the results of other collaborations. The nucleon to Δ transition and Δ form factors are calculated in a hybrid scheme, which uses staggered sea quarks and domain wall valence quarks. The dominant magnetic dipole nucleon to Δ transition form factor is also evaluated using dynamical domain wall fermions. The transverse density distributions of the Δ in the infinite momentum frame are extracted using the form factors determined from lattice QCD. (author)

  1. QCD jets from coherent states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curci, G [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Greco, M; Srivastava, Y [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Nazionale di Frascati

    1979-11-19

    A recently proposed approach to the problem of infrared and mass singularities in QCD based on the formalism of coherent states, is extended to discuss massless quark and gluon jets. The present results include all leading (ln delta) terms as well as finite terms in the energy loss epsilon, in addition to the usual ln epsilon associated with ln delta. The formulae agree with explicit perturbative calculations, whenever available. Explicit expressions for the total Ksub(T) distributions are given which take into account transverse-momentum conservation. Predictions are also made for the Q/sup 2/ dependence of the mean Ksub(T)/sup 2/ for quark and gluon jets. The jet ksub(T) distributions are extrapolated for low ksub(T) and shown to describe with good accuracy the data for eanti e..-->..qanti q..-->.. hadrons. Numerical predictions are also presented for the forthcoming PETRA, PEP and LEP machines.

  2. Lattice QCD for nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    With ever increasing computational resources and improvements in algorithms, new opportunities are emerging for lattice gauge theory to address key questions in strongly interacting systems, such as nuclear matter. Calculations today use dynamical gauge-field ensembles with degenerate light up/down quarks and the strange quark and it is possible now to consider including charm-quark degrees of freedom in the QCD vacuum. Pion masses and other sources of systematic error, such as finite-volume and discretization effects, are beginning to be quantified systematically. Altogether, an era of precision calculation has begun, and many new observables will be calculated at the new computational facilities.  The aim of this set of lectures is to provide graduate students with a grounding in the application of lattice gauge theory methods to strongly interacting systems, and in particular to nuclear physics.  A wide variety of topics are covered, including continuum field theory, lattice discretizations, hadron spect...

  3. Particle states of lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapoyannis, A.S.; Panagiotou, A.D. [University of Athens, Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Faculty of Physics, Athens (Greece)

    2017-11-15

    We determine the degeneracy factor and the average particle mass of particles that produce the lattice QCD pressure and specific entropy at zero baryon chemical potential. The number of states of the gluons and the quarks are found to converge above T = 230 MeV to almost constant values, close to the number of states of an ideal quark-gluon phase, while their assigned masses retain high values. The number of states and the average mass of a system containing quarks in interaction with gluons are found to decrease steeply with increase of temperature between T ∝ 150 and 160 MeV, a region contained within the region of the chiral transition. The minimum value of the number of states within this temperature interval indicates that the states are of hadronic nature. (orig.)

  4. Jet formation and interference in a thin QCD medium

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Tywoniuk, Konrad

    2016-11-29

    In heavy-ion collisions, an abundant production of high-energy QCD jets allows to study how these multiparticle sprays are modified as they pass through the quark-gluon plasma. In order to shed new light on this process, we compute the inclusive two-gluon rate off a hard quark propagating through a color deconfined medium at first order in medium opacity. We explicitly impose an energy ordering of the two emitted gluons, such that the "hard" gluon can be thought of as belonging to the jet substructure while the other is a "soft" emission (which can be collinear or medium-induced). Our analysis focusses on two specific limits that clarify the modification of the additional angle- and formation time-ordering of splittings. In one limit, the formation time of the "hard" gluon is short compared to the "soft" gluon formation time, leading to a probabilistic formula for production of and subsequent radiation off a quark-gluon antenna. In the other limit, the ordering of formation is reverted, which automatically le...

  5. Recent QCD Results from SLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, David

    1999-01-01

    We present selected results on strong interaction physics from the SLD experiment at the SLAC Linear Collider. We report on several new studies of 3- and 4-jet hadronic Z 0 decays, in which jets are identified as quark, antiquark or gluon. The 3-jet Z 0 --> b anti-bg rate is sensitive to the b-quark mass; prospects for measuring m b are discussed. The gluon energy spectrum is measured over the full kinematic range, providing an improved test of QCD and limits on anomalous b anti-bg couplings. The parity violation in Z 0 --> b anti-bg decays is consistent with electroweak theory plus QCD. New tests of T- and CP-conservation at the bbg vertex are performed. A new measurement of the rate of gluon splitting into b anti-b pairs yields g b anti-b = 0.0031 ± 0.0007 (stat.)± 0.0006 (syst.) (Preliminary). We also present a number of new results on jet fragmentation into identified hadrons. The B hadron energy spectrum is measured over the full kinematic range using a new, inclusive technique, allowing stringent tests of predictions for its shape and a precise measurement of (xB) = 0.714 ± 0.005(stat.) ± 0.007(syst.) (Preliminary). A detailed study of correlations in rapidity y between pairs of identified pi ± , K ± and p/anti-p confirms that strangeness and baryon number are conserved locally, and shows local charge conservation between meson-baryon and strange-nonstrange pairs. Flavor-dependent long-range correlations are observed for all combinations of these hadron species, yielding new information on leading particle production. The first study of correlations using rapidities signed such that y > 0 corresponds to the quark direction provides additional new insights into fragmentation, including the first direct observation of baryon number ordering along the q anti-q axis

  6. Drell-Yan diffraction: breakdown of QCD factorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasechnik, R.S.; Kopeliovich, B.Z.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the diffractive Drell-Yan process in proton-(anti)proton collisions at high energies in the color dipole approach. The calculations are performed at forward rapidities of the leptonic pair. The effect of eikonalization of the universal ''bare'' dipole-target elastic amplitude in the saturation regime takes into account the principal part of the gap survival probability. We present predictions for the total and differential cross sections of the single-diffractive lepton-pair production at RHIC and LHC energies. We analyze implications of the QCD factorization breakdown in the diffractive Drell-Yan process, which is caused by a specific interplay of the soft and hard interactions, resulting in rather unusual properties of the corresponding observables. (orig.)

  7. Strange Baryon Physics in Full Lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huey-Wen Lin

    2007-01-01

    Strange baryon spectra and form factors are key probes to study excited nuclear matter. The use of lattice QCD allows us to test the strength of the Standard Model by calculating strange baryon quantities from first principles

  8. Chiral perturbation theory for lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The formulation of chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) for lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is reviewed. We start with brief summaries of ChPT for continuum QCD as well as the Symanzik effective theory for lattice QCD. We then review the formulation of ChPT for lattice QCD. After an additional chapter on partial quenching and mixed action theories various concrete applications are discussed: Wilson ChPT, staggered ChPT and Wilson ChPT with a twisted mass term. The remaining chapters deal with the epsilon regime with Wilson fermions and selected results in mixed action ChPT. Finally, the formulation of heavy vector meson ChPT with Wilson fermions is discussed. (orig.)

  9. A Bayesian analysis of QCD sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubler, Philipp; Oka, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    A new technique has recently been developed, in which the Maximum Entropy Method is used to analyze QCD sum rules. This approach has the virtue of being able to directly generate the spectral function of a given operator, without the need of making an assumption about its specific functional form. To investigate whether useful results can be extracted within this method, we have first studied the vector meson channel, where QCD sum rules are traditionally known to provide a valid description of the spectral function. Our results show a significant peak in the region of the experimentally observed ρ-meson mass, which is in agreement with earlier QCD sum rules studies and suggests that the Maximum Entropy Method is a strong tool for analyzing QCD sum rules.

  10. Two-color QCD via dimensional reduction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, T.; Brauner, Tomáš; Kurkela, A.; Vuorinen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2012, č. 139 (2012), s. 1-16 ISSN 1126-6708 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : thermal field theory * QCD * confinement Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 5.618, year: 2012

  11. QCD Effective Field Theories for Heavy Quarkonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, Nora

    2006-01-01

    QCD nonrelativistic effective field theories (NREFT) are the modern and most suitable frame to describe heavy quarkonium properties. Here I summarize few relevant concepts and some of the interesting physical applications (spectrum, decays, production) of NREFT

  12. Benchmarking computer platforms for lattice QCD applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenbusch, M.; Jansen, K.; Pleiter, D.; Wegner, P.; Wettig, T.

    2003-09-01

    We define a benchmark suite for lattice QCD and report on benchmark results from several computer platforms. The platforms considered are apeNEXT, CRAY T3E, Hitachi SR8000, IBM p690, PC-Clusters, and QCDOC. (orig.)

  13. Benchmarking computer platforms for lattice QCD applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenbusch, M.; Jansen, K.; Pleiter, D.; Stueben, H.; Wegner, P.; Wettig, T.; Wittig, H.

    2004-01-01

    We define a benchmark suite for lattice QCD and report on benchmark results from several computer platforms. The platforms considered are apeNEXT, CRAY T3E; Hitachi SR8000, IBM p690, PC-Clusters, and QCDOC

  14. The time development of QCD jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caneschi, L.

    1979-01-01

    The time development of jets in perturbative QCD is studied. In spite of the fact that the total time for the jet to develop increases indefinitely with increasing energy, quark antiquark pairs remain unscreened only an infinitesimal time. (author)

  15. Chiral perturbation theory for lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, Oliver

    2010-07-21

    The formulation of chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) for lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is reviewed. We start with brief summaries of ChPT for continuum QCD as well as the Symanzik effective theory for lattice QCD. We then review the formulation of ChPT for lattice QCD. After an additional chapter on partial quenching and mixed action theories various concrete applications are discussed: Wilson ChPT, staggered ChPT and Wilson ChPT with a twisted mass term. The remaining chapters deal with the epsilon regime with Wilson fermions and selected results in mixed action ChPT. Finally, the formulation of heavy vector meson ChPT with Wilson fermions is discussed. (orig.)

  16. Challenges for QCD theory: some personal reflections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjöstrand, T

    2013-01-01

    At the LHC all processes are QCD ones, whether ‘signal’ or ‘background’. In this review the frontiers of current QCD research are addressed, towards increased understanding, improved calculational precision, and role in potential future discoveries. Issues raised include: - the limits of perturbative QCD calculations and parton distribution usage,; - the nature of multiparton interactions,; - the impact of colour reconnection on physical observables,; - the need for progress on hadronization modelling,; - the improvements of parton showers and their combination with the matrix-element description,; - the use of QCD concepts in Beyond-the-Standard-Model scenarios and; - the key position of event generators and other software in the successful exploration of LHC physics. On the way, several questions are posed, where further studies are needed. (paper)

  17. Automated NLO QCD corrections with WHIZARD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Christian; Siegen Univ.; Chokoufe Nejad, Bijan; Reuter, Juergen; Kilian, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    We briefly discuss the current status of NLO QCD automation in the Monte Carlo event generator WHIZARD. The functionality is presented for the explicit study of off-shell top quark production with associated backgrounds at a lepton collider.

  18. Domain wall QCD with physical quark masses

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, T.; Christ, N.H.; Frison, J.; Garron, N.; Hudspith, R.J.; Izubuchi, T.; Janowski, T.; Jung, C.; Jüttner, A.; Kelly, C.; Kenway, R.D.; Lehner, C.; Marinkovic, M.; Mawhinney, R.D.; McGlynn, G.; Murphy, D.J.; Ohta, S.; Portelli, A.; Sachrajda, C.T.; Soni, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present results for several light hadronic quantities ($f_\\pi$, $f_K$, $B_K$, $m_{ud}$, $m_s$, $t_0^{1/2}$, $w_0$) obtained from simulations of 2+1 flavor domain wall lattice QCD with large physical volumes and nearly-physical pion masses at two lattice spacings. We perform a short, O(3)%, extrapolation in pion mass to the physical values by combining our new data in a simultaneous chiral/continuum `global fit' with a number of other ensembles with heavier pion masses. We use the physical values of $m_\\pi$, $m_K$ and $m_\\Omega$ to determine the two quark masses and the scale - all other quantities are outputs from our simulations. We obtain results with sub-percent statistical errors and negligible chiral and finite-volume systematics for these light hadronic quantities, including: $f_\\pi$ = 130.2(9) MeV; $f_K$ = 155.5(8) MeV; the average up/down quark mass and strange quark mass in the $\\bar {\\rm MS}$ scheme at 3 GeV, 2.997(49) and 81.64(1.17) MeV respectively; and the neutral kaon mixing parameter, $B_K$...

  19. Charge correlations as definitive tests of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, C.J.

    1981-07-01

    Certain weighted charge correlations are defined and it is shown how they can be used to measure properties of the gluon jet in the e + e - 3-jet final state. Properties are suggested which are indicative of the form of the QCD matrix element, the running coupling constant and value of Λ, and hence constitute definitive tests of QCD. The recent near tenfold increase in luminosity at PETRA should make such experimental tests possible in the near future. (author)

  20. Deuteron transverse densities in holographic QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Chandan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China); Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Physics, Kanpur (India); Chakrabarti, Dipankar [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Physics, Kanpur (India); Zhao, Xingbo [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China)

    2017-05-15

    We investigate the transverse charge density in the longitudinally as well as transversely polarized deuteron using the recent empirical description of the deuteron electromagnetic form factors in the framework of holographic QCD. The predictions of the holographic QCD are compared with the results of a standard phenomenological parameterization. In addition, we evaluate GPDs and the gravitational form factors for the deuteron. The longitudinal momentum densities are also investigated in the transverse plane. (orig.)