Sample records for hard red spring wheat

  1. 76 FR 44574 - Antidumping Duty Investigation and Countervailing Duty Investigation of Hard Red Spring Wheat...


    ... imports from Canada of hard red spring wheat before a North American Free Trade Agreement (``NAFTA... Red Spring Wheat From Canada: Notice of Court Decision and Amended Revocation of Countervailing and... Border Protection (``CBP'') to liquidate all unliquidated entries of hard red spring wheat from Canada...

  2. Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee 2016 Crop

    Seven experimental lines of hard spring wheat were grown at up to five locations in 2016 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Wheat samples were submitted through the Wheat Quality Council and processed and milled at the USDA-ARS Hard Red Spri...

  3. Wheat Quality Council, Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee, 2015 Crop

    Nine experimental lines of hard spring wheat were grown at up to five locations in 2015 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Wheat samples were submitted through the Wheat Quality Council and processed and milled at the USDA-ARS Hard Red Sprin...

  4. Refrigerated dough quality: effect of environment and genotypes of hard red spring wheat.

    Simsek, S; Whitney, K L; Ohm, J B; Anderson, J; Mergoum, M


    Refrigerated dough products use wheat flour as their primary ingredient, so the quality and chemical composition of the flour determine the quality of the final product. Six varieties of hard red spring wheat, grown in 3 locations in Minnesota, U.S.A., were evaluated for use in refrigerated dough products. Total arabinoxylan percentages in the flours ranged from 0.97 to 1.54. Xylanase activity of the flour was measured and ranged from 0.20 to 0.84 mU/g. An important factor in the suitability for refrigerated dough is the syruping during storage. A large amount of variability in dough syruping was observed among the varieties and locations when the extent of dough syruping was measured over a period of 10 d. The mean dough syruping on day 10 ranged from 2.05% to 14.83%. Despite the significant interaction effect of genotype and environment, 2 varieties, Glenn and Oklee, had lower dough syrup formation with greater stability across growing locations and storage days than other varieties. Practical Application: Refrigerated dough production is one of the fastest growing segments of the ready-to-use food industry. Well-formulated and processed refrigerated doughs are practical to consume and should stay fresh during extended periods of storage; thus, maintenance of dough quality during refrigeration is critical. This study was designed to perform the research on genotypic and environmental effects on variations in dough syruping during refrigeration storage of doughs from hard red spring wheats.

  5. Variation of free asparagine concentration and association with quality parameters for hard red spring wheat grown in North Dakota

    Free asparagine in wheat is known to be a precursor for the formation of acrylamide which is unacceptable to consumers due to its potential risks to human health. This research was performed to determine variation of free asparagine concentration (FAC) in hard red spring (HRS) wheat grown in North ...

  6. Cluster analysis of historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars based on parentage and HPLC of gluten protein

    There have been substantial breeding efforts in North Dakota to produce wheat cultivars that are well adapted to weather conditions and disease resistance. In this study, 30 hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars released between 1910 and 2013 were analyzed with regard to how they cluster in terms of...

  7. Effect of flour polymeric proteins on dough thermal properties and breadmaking characteristics for hard red spring wheat genotypes

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of variation of flour polymeric proteins on rheological properties of dough under continuous mixing and thermal treatment for hard red spring (HRS) wheat genotypes grown in North Dakota, USA. Flour polymeric proteins were analyzed by size exclus...

  8. The water factor in harvest-sprouting of hard red spring wheat

    Bauer, A.; Black, A. L. (Principal Investigator)


    Sprouting in unthreshed, ripe, hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is induced by rain, but sprouting does not necessarily occur because the crop is wetted. The spike and grain water conditions conducive to sprouting were determined in a series of laboratory experiments. Sprouting did not occur in field growing wheat wetted to 110% water concentration until the spike water concentration was reduced to 12% and maintained at this concentration for 2 days before wetting. When cut at growth stage 11.3, Feekes scale, Saratovskaya 20 (USSR) sprouted after 4 days drying, Olaf and Alex between 7 and 15 days drying and Columbus, recognized for its resistance to harvest time sprouting, after more than 15 days drying. Sprouting potential was enhanced after 4 wetting drying cycles in which any wetted interval was too brief to permit sufficient water imbibition to initiate sprouting. At harvest ripeness, grain water concentration exceeded spike water concentration by 0.7 percentage units. Following 6 months storage, 20% of the kernels in 300 spike bundles (simulating windrows) sprouted within 28 hrs after initiation of wetting to saturation (150% water concentration). Ninety percent sprouting occurred within 8 days in bundles maintained at 75% water concentration and higher, but less sprouting occurred in bundles dried to 50% water concentration before resaturation.

  9. Analysis of historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars based on parentage and HPLC of gluten proteins using Ward's clustering method

    There have been substantial breeding efforts in North Dakota to produce wheat cultivars that are well adapted to weather conditions and are disease resistant. In this study, 30 hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars released between 1910 and 2013 were analyzed with regard to how they cluster in terms...

  10. Cluster analysis of historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars based on parentage and HPLC analysis of gluten forming proteins

    In this study, 30 hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars released between 1910 and 2013 were analyzed to determine how they cluster in terms of parentage and protein data, analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) of gliadins, and size-exclusion HPLC (SE-HPLC) of unreduced proteins. Dwarfing genes in...

  11. Analysis of Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in Hard Red Spring Wheat Inoculated with Fusarium Graminearum

    Maribel Ovando-Martínez


    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a mycotoxin affecting wheat quality. The formation of the “masked” mycotoxin deoxinyvalenol-3-glucoside (D3G results from a defense mechanism the plant uses for detoxification. Both mycotoxins are important from a food safety point of view. The aim of this work was to analyze DON and D3G content in inoculated near-isogenic wheat lines grown at two locations in Minnesota, USA during three different years. Regression analysis showed positive correlation between DON content measured with LC and GC among wheat lines, locality and year. The relationship between DON and D3G showed a linear increase until a certain point, after which the DON content and the D3G increased. Wheat lines having higher susceptibility to Fusarium showed the opposite trend. ANOVA demonstrated that the line and location have a greater effect on variation of DON and D3G than do their interaction among years. The most important factor affecting DON and D3G was the growing location. In conclusion, the year, environmental conditions and location have an effect on the D3G/DON ratio in response to Fusarium infection.

  12. Quantification of peptides causing celiac disease in historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars

    Celiac disease (CD) is prevalent in 0.5 to 1.26% of adolescents and adults. The disease develops in genetically susceptible individuals as a result of ingestion of gluten forming proteins found in cereals such as, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rye (Secale cereale L.) and barley (Hordeum sativum L.)...

  13. Release of ‘UI Platinum’ hard white spring wheat

    ‘UI Platinum’ (Reg. No. CV------, PI 672533) hard white spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2014. UI Platinum was derived from the cross ‘Blanca Grande’ x ‘Jerome’ and tested under experimental numbers A01178S, IDO694, and I...

  14. The house mouse (Mus musculus L.) exerts strong differential grain consumption preferences among hard red and white spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties in a single-elimination tournament design.

    Morris, Craig F; Fuerst, E Patrick; McLean, Derek J; Momont, Kathleen; James, Caleb P


    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plays a central role in the health and nutrition of humans. Yet, little is known about possible flavor differences among different varieties. We have developed a model system using the house mouse (Mus musculus L.) to determine feeding preferences as a prelude to extending results to human sensory analysis. Here, we examine the application of a single-elimination tournament design to the analysis of consumption preferences of a set of hard red and hard white spring wheat varieties. A single-elimination tournament design in this case pairs 2 wheat varieties and only 1 of the 2 is advanced to further tests. Preferred varieties were advanced until an overall "winner" was identified; conversely, less desirable varieties were advanced such that an overall "loser" was identified. Hollis and IDO702 were the winner and loser, respectively, for the hard red varieties, and Clear White 515 and WA8123 were the winner and loser, respectively, for the hard white varieties. When using the more powerful protocol of 14 mice and a 4-d trial, differences in mean daily consumption preferences of 2 varieties were separated at P-values as small as 2 × 10(-8) . The single-elimination tournament design is an efficient means of identifying the most and least desirable varieties among a larger set of samples. One application for identifying the 2 extremes in preference within a group of varieties would be to use them as parents of a population to identify quantitative trait loci for preference.

  15. Effect of a 5-Year Multi-Crop Rotation on Mineral N and Hard Red Spring Wheat Yield, Protein, Test Weight and Economics in Western North Dakota, USA

    Landblom, Douglas; Senturklu, Songul; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric


    The objectives of this non-irrigated cropping study was to employ the principles of soil health and determine the effect of rotation on seasonal mineral N, HRSW production, protein, test weight, and economics. Prior to the initiation of this research, the cropping study area had been previously seeded to hard red spring wheat (HRSW). The cropping systems consisted of a continuous HRSW control (C) compared to HRSW grown in a multi-crop 5-year rotation (R). The 5-yr rotation consisted of HRSW, cover crop (dual crop winter triticale-hairy vetch harvested for hay in June and immediately reseeded to a 7-species cover crop mix grazed by cows after weaning from mid-November to mid-December), forage corn, field pea-forage barley, and sunflower. The cereal grains, cover crops, and pea-barley intercrop were seeded using a JD 1590 no-till drill, 19 cm row spacing, and seed depth of 2.54 cm Cereal grain plant population was 3,088,750 plants/ha. The row crops were planted using a JD 7000 no-till planter, 76.2 cm row spacing, and seed depth of 5.08 cm. Plant population for the row crops was 46,947 plants/ha. Weeds were controlled using a pre-plant burn down and post-emergence control except for cover crops and pea-barley where a pre-plant burn down was the only chemical applied. Fertilizer application was based on soil test results and recommendations from the North Dakota State University Soil Testing Laboratory. During the 1st three years of the study 31.8 kg of N was applied to the C HRSW and then none the last two years of the 5-year period. The R HRSW was fertilized with 13.6 kg of N the 1st two years of the study and none the remaining three years of the 5-year period. However, chloride was low; therefore, 40.7-56.1 kg/ha were applied each year to both the C and R treatments. Based on 2014 and 2015 seasonal mineral N values, the data suggests that N levels were adequate to meet the 2690 kg/ha yield goal. In 2015, however, the R yield goal was exceeded by 673 kg/ha whereas

  16. Registration of ‘Sprinter’ hard red winter wheat

    High grain protein concentration and stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Eriks.) resistance are important traits for hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars produced in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. The objective of this research wa...


    Wilson, William W.; Dahl, Bruce L.


    Past debate on competition and quality in international wheat markets has focused on class and country of origin as the salient source of differentiation. This study analyzes changes in demand for both wheat classes and grades. Comparisons are made between Canadian and U.S. hard wheats, principal competitors in the hard wheat market. Both countries are dominant producers of Hard Red Spring Wheat (HRS in the United States and Canadian Western Red Spring [CWRS] in Canada); the United States is ...

  18. Registration of ‘NE05548’ (husker genetics brand panhandle) hard red winter wheat

    Western Nebraska wheat producers and those in adjacent areas want taller wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars that retain their height under drought for better harvestability. ‘NE05548’ (Reg. No. CV-1117, PI 670462) hard red winter wheat was developed cooperatively by the Nebraska Agricultural Exp...

  19. Effect of dark, hard, and vitreous kernel content on protein molecular weight distribution and on milling and breadmaking quality characteristics for hard spring wheat samples from diverse growing regions

    Kernel vitreousness is an important grading characteristic for segregation of sub-classes of hard red spring (HRS) wheat in the U.S. This research investigated the protein molecular weight distribution (MWD), and flour and baking quality characteristics of different HRS wheat market sub-classes. T...

  20. Genotype and environmental variation in phenolic content, phenolic acid composition, and antioxidant activity of hard spring wheat.

    Mpofu, Archie; Sapirstein, Harry D; Beta, Trust


    The health-promoting effects of whole-grain wheat likely derive from phenolic compounds and other antioxidants that also make wheat a potential source of functional food ingredients. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of genotype and growing environment on the phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of alcohol-soluble extracts from commercial wheat cultivars. Total phenolic contents (TPCs), antioxidant activities (AOAs), and concentrations of six phenolic acids were measured in six red- and white-grained hard spring wheat genotypes grown at four diverse locations in Western Canada during the 2003 crop year. There were significant differences among genotypes and environments for TPC, AOA, and concentrations of all the phenolic acids measured. The predominant indicators of antioxidant potential, i.e., TPC, AOA, and ferulic acid (FA) concentration were highly intercorrelated (r > 0.72). For these indices, the Canada Western (CW) Red Spring wheat cultivars Neepawa and AC Elsa had the highest levels, whereas an analogous CW hard white spring wheat cultivar, AC Snowbird, had the lowest levels. Grain color did not appear to be a factor in the expression of antioxidant-related parameters. For both TPC and AOA, as well as for vanillic acid, syringic acid, and ferulic acid, environmental effects were considerably larger than genotype effects. Neither growing temperature nor rainfall from anthesis to maturity appeared to be related to the environmental variation that was observed. Genotype x environment interaction was small for all parameters compared with genotype and location effects and was significant only for TPC. Genotype variation for antioxidant properties indicates that it would be possible to select for these quantitative traits in a breeding program. However, the significant environmental variation observed would delay and/or complicate this process.

  1. Digital image analysis of starch granules for recognizing hard red and soft red winter wheats

    Zayas, Inna Y.; Bechtel, D. B.; Wilson, J. D.; Dempster, Richard E.


    The relationship between isolated starch granule morphometry and wheat hardness was studied. Starch granule size and shape may relate to grain millability, rheological properties of dough, and baking quality. Twenty four Kansas wheats were studied: 14 hard red winter (HRW) and 10 soft red winter (SRW). Isolated starch granules were viewed with light microscopy to obtain black and white images which were recorded on video tape. A program was designed to keep track of the taped images and measure starch granules without operator intervention. The data base of starch granule size and shape features of the 24 samples contained 152,237 granule observations. The number of observations per sample varied from 3,238 to 14,671. Distinguishing HRW from SRW wheat samples was accomplished by evaluation of starch granule morphometry. Several data manipulations and transformations were performed in analysis of the data. Information carried in two shape descriptors, which reflect aspect ratio and equivalent diameter distribution, was used to distinguish starch granules of HRW and SRW wheats. The percentage of starch granules in the aspect ratio range of 1.65 - 1.95 was 25.8 - 31.5% for HRW and 19.9 - 25.4% for SRW.

  2. Registration of ‘Faller’ Spring Wheat

    ‘Faller’ (Reg. No. CV-1026, PI 648350) hard red spring wheat (HRSW) (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at North Dakota State University(NDSU) and released by the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station (NDAES). Faller was derived from the ND2857/ND2814 cross made at NDSU in fall 1997. ND2857 ...

  3. Effect of pentosans addition on pasting properties of flours of eight hard white spring wheat cultivars.

    Arif, Saqib; Ali, Tahira Mohsin; Ul Afzal, Qurat; Ahmed, Mubarik; Siddiqui, Asim Jamal; Hasnain, Abid


    The effects of water extractable pentosans (WEP) and water unextractable pentosans (WUP) on pasting properties in flours of eight different hard white spring wheat (HWSW) cultivars was studied. WEP and WUP isolated from a hard wheat flour were added to each of the cultivars at 1% and 2% level. The results indicated that WEP exhibited a pronounced effect on pasting properties as compared to WUP and variety. Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate sources of variation. The variety significantly (P < 0.001) influenced all the pasting parameters. WUP caused significant (P < 0.001) variation in paste viscosities (except breakdown). WEP influenced more pronouncedly the hot paste, cold paste, breakdown and setback viscosities with F values-221.802, 214.286, 98.073 and 120.159, respectively. Variety-by-WEP interaction exhibited significant (P < 0.01) influence on pasting time, peak, hot paste and cold paste viscosities. Whereas, variety-by-WUP interaction only significantly (P < 0.001) influenced the pasting- time and -temperature. Duncan's test was used to analyze the significant difference (P < 0.05) within the variety. The results revealed that WUP did not induce significant (P < 0.05) influence on all the pasting parameters, whereas, WEP influenced significantly (P < 0.05) the paste viscosities of some of the varieties. It was also found that the addition of WEP remarkably reduced the setback, hot paste, cold paste viscosities and increased the breakdown viscosity in all cultivar flours. The effect of WEP was greater at higher level of supplementation on paste viscosities.

  4. Physicochemical properties of A- and B-starch granules isolated from hard red and soft red winter wheat.

    Li, Wenhao; Shan, Yulin; Xiao, Xinlong; Luo, Qingui; Zheng, Jianmei; Ouyang, Shaohui; Zhang, Guoquan


    Large A- and small B-starch granules separated from hard red and soft red winter wheat grains were investigated for their morphological, structural, and physicochemical properties. A-granules displayed a disk or lenticular shape, and B-granules showed a spherical or polygonal shape according to SEM. XRD analysis showed that both A- and B-granules had A-type crystallinity. A-granules contained a higher amount of amylose and a lower protein content and amylopectin/amylose ratio than B-granules. A-type granules exhibited a higher hydrolysis extent and swelling power and a lower iodine affinity than did B-granules. A-granules showed a higher peak, trough, breakdown and final viscosity, and gelatinization enthalpy than did B-granules, while B-granules exhibited a higher gelatinization temperature. The study demonstrated that the A- and B-granules separated from both hard red and soft red winter wheat grains exhibited a similar structure and very different physicochemical properties.

  5. Moisture influence on near-infrared prediction of wheat hardness

    Windham, William R.; Gaines, Charles S.; Leffler, Richard G.


    Recently near infrared (NTR) reflectance instrumentation has been used to provide an empirical measure of wheat hardness. This hardness scale is based on the radiation scattering properties of meal particles at 1680 and 2230 nm. Hard wheats have a larger mean particles size (PS) after grinding than soft wheats. However wheat kernel moisture content can influence mean PS after grinding. The objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity of MR wheat hardness measurements to moisture content and to make the hardness score independent of moisture by correcting hardness measurements for the actual moisture content of measured samples. Forty wheat cultivars composed of hard red winter hard red spring soft red winter and soft white winter were used. Wheat kernel subsamples were stored at 20 40 60 and 80 relative humidity (RH). After equilibration samples were ground and the meal analyzed for hardness score (HS) and moisture. HS were 48 50 54 and 65 for 20 40 60 and 80 RH respectively. Differences in HS within each wheat class were the result of a moisture induced change in the PS of the meal. An algorithm was developed to correct HS to 11 moisture. This correction provides HS that are nearly independent of moisture content. 1.

  6. Cessation of tillering in spring wheat in relation to light interception and red:far-red ratio

    Evers, J.B.; Vos, J.; Andrieu, B.; Struik, P.C.


    ¿ Background and Aims The production of axillary shoots (tillering) in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) depends on intraspecific competition. The mechanisms that underlie this competition are complex, but light within the wheat canopy plays a key role. The main objectives of this paper are to

  7. Spring wheat gliadins: Have they changed in 100 years?

    There have been many hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars released in North Dakota during the last 100 years. These cultivars have been improved for various characteristics such as, adaptation to weather conditions, high yield, and good milling and baking quality. The objectives of this study wer...

  8. Postharvest resistance in hard spring and winter wheat varieties of the northern Great Plains to the lesser grain borer (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae).

    Watts, Vanessa M; Dunkel, Florence V


    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varietal resistance to the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F), was evaluated in hard spring and winter wheat produced 1997, 1998 (Bozeman, Montana). We tested the hypothesis that six Montana-grown spring wheat varieties, 'Ernest', 'Scholar', 'Hi-Line', 'McNeal', 'Newana', and 'Amidon', were equally and strongly resistant to R. dominica at low moisture contents (9-10%). Mortality/Feeding damage occurred in all varieties. In most assays, Ernest had significantly greater feeding damage from R. dominica than other varieties, usually not significantly different from the susceptible control. Mean adult mortality was significantly greater in McNeal (93%) and Hi-Line (92%) than in Ernest (34%) and Montana-grown, soft white spring wheat (Penawawa), the susceptible control (36%). In 9 wk, twice as many adult progeny were produced on Ernest than on McNeal, Hi-Line, or Scholar. We also compared three Montana-grown winter wheat varieties for resistance to R. dominica attack at low moisture contents (9-10%). Significantly more mortality after 6 wk was associated with all winter wheat varieties than the susceptible control. In 'Nuwest', 'Rocky', and 'Vanguard', significantly fewer progeny were produced than in the susceptible control; these varieties appeared more resistant. 'Tiber' and 'Neeley', in contrast, appeared more susceptible than other winter wheat varieties evaluated. Susceptibility decreased significantly with a 1.2% decrease in moisture content. Percentage of total protein was positively correlated with percentage of sound kernels and negatively with total progeny (r2 = -0.69). Kernel hardness was positively correlated with percentage of sound kernels, but negatively correlated with total progeny (r2 = -0.87) and dry weight loss.

  9. Effects of Processing on Wheat Tortilla Quality: Benefits of Hard White Wheat

    Michael Tilley; Valquiria Pierucci; Katherine A Tilley; Okkyung Kim Chung


    The suitability of Kansas hard white winter (HWW) wheat milled at a high extraction rate for tortilla production was investigated. All of the Kansas varieties of white wheat, milled to 80% extraction, performed as well as, if not better than, a standard commercial tortilla flour milled to 72% extraction when various quality factors were compared. Tortillas were made from eight wheat cultivars milled at 80% extraction: four HWW wheat cultivars included Betty, Heyne, Oro Blanco and NuWest; three hard red winter (HRW) wheat samples were Jagger and Ike grown at Hutchinson, Kansas (Ike-Hutch) and at Hays, Kansas (Ike-Hays); and one hard white spring (HWS) wheat cultivar, Idaho 377-S. Tortillas made from these flours were compared to tortillas made from one commercial tortilla-flour milled to 72% extraction from a blend of HRW wheat. Mixograph parameters, starch pasting properties,dough-handling characteristics and tortilla- making attributes of the new Kansas HWW wheat cultivars, Betty and Heyne, were superior. In summary, Kansas HWW wheat flours, milled to 80% extraction, produced tortillas which were equal to, or superior to,those made from 80%-extraction HRW wheat flours and 72%-extraction commercial tortilla flour.

  10. Relationships among deoxynivalenol, ergosterol and Fusarium exoantigens in Canadian hard and soft wheat.

    Abramson, D; Gan, Z; Clear, R M; Gilbert, J; Marquardt, R R


    Soluble extracellular components (exoantigens) from cultures of Fusarium graminearum and F. sporotrichioides were used to produce antisera from chickens for an indirect enzyme immunoassay. This immunoassay was used to estimate Fusarium exoantigen levels in 40 samples of fusarium head blight-infected hard red spring wheat from Manitoba, and in 50 samples of infected soft white winter wheat from Ontario. These wheat samples were also assayed for deoxynivalenol (DON), the predominant Fusarium mycotoxin, and for ergosterol, a metabolite reflecting fungal biomass. Using F. sporotrichioides antisera, the linear correlations between exoantigen level and DON content for the hard and soft wheats had coefficients of 0.80 and 0.76, respectively. With the same antisera, linear correlations between exoantigen level and total ergosterol concentration for the hard and soft wheats had coefficients of 0.66 and 0.81, respectively.

  11. Distribution of Grain Hardness in Chinese Wheats and Genetic Analysis

    ZHOU Yan-hua; HE Zhong-hu; YAN Jun; ZHANG Yan; WANG De-sen; ZHOU Gui-ying


    A hundred winter wheat and 41 spring wheat cultivars and advanced lines were used to investigate the distribution of grain hardness in Chinese wheats and correlations between grain hardness and other kernel traits. P1, P2, F1, F2 and F3 from three crosses, i. e. , Liken2/Yumai2, 85Zhong33/Wenmai6 and 85Zhong33/95Zhong459 were sown to study the genetics of grain hardness. Significant correlation was observed between hardness measured by Single Kernel Characteristic System 4100 (SKCS 4100) and Near Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy, r ranging from 0. 85 to 0.94. Chinese wheat is a mixed population in terms of hardness, ranging from very soft to very hard. For autumn-sown wheat, on average, grain hardness decreases from north to south and spring-sown wheat is dominant with hard type. Hardness is negatively associated with flour color, and its associations with flour yield and ash content differ in winter and spring wheats. Grain hardness is controlled by a major gene and several minor genes with additive effect mostly, but dominant effect is also observed, with heritability of 0.78.

  12. Genotype and environment variation for arabinoxylans in hard winter and spring wheats of the U.S. Pacific Northwest.

    The development of high quality wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties depends on a thorough understanding of the constituents of grain, and their variation due to genetics and environment. Arabinoxylans (pentosans) are key constituents of wheat grain and have broad and far-reaching influences on m...

  13. Dough Rheology and Wet Milling of Hard Waxy Wheat Flours

    To realize the full potential of waxy wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), wet milling of waxy wheat flour to produce gluten and waxy wheat starch was investigated. Flours of six advanced lines of waxy hard wheats, one normal hard wheat (‘Karl 92’), and one partial waxy wheat (‘Trego’) were fractionated by...

  14. Registration of 'Sunshine' Hard White Winter Wheat

    ’Sunshine’ (Reg. No. CV-XXXX, PI 674741) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2014 through a marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado State Un...

  15. Genealogical Analysis of the North-American Spring Wheat Varieties with Different Resistance to Pre-harvest Sprouting

    Martynov Sergey


    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of genetic diversity of North American spring wheat varieties differing in resistance to pre-harvest sprouting was carried out. For identification of sources of resistance the genealogical profiles of 148 red-grained and 63 white-grained North-American spring wheat varieties with full pedigrees were calculated and estimates were made of pre-harvest sprouting. The cluster structure of the populations of red-grained and white-grained varieties was estimated. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences between the average contributions of landraces in the groups of resistant and susceptible varieties. Distribution of the putative sources of resistance in the clusters indicated that varieties having different genetic basis may have different sources of resistance. For red-grained varieties the genetic sources of resistance to pre-harvest sprouting are landraces Crimean, Hard Red Calcutta, and Iumillo, or Button, Kenya 9M-1A-3, and Kenya-U, or Red Egyptian and Kenya BF4-3B-10V1. Tracking of pedigrees showed these landraces contributed to the pedigrees, respectively, via Thatcher, Kenya-Farmer, and Kenya-58, which were likely donors of resistance for red-grained varieties. For white-grained varieties the sources of resistance were landraces Crimean, Hard Red Calcutta, Ostka Galicyjska, Iumillo, Akakomugi, Turco, Hybrid English, Rough Chaff White and Red King, and putative donors of resistance — Thatcher, RL2265, and Frontana. The genealogical profile of accession RL4137, the most important donor of resistance to pre-harvest sprouting in North American spring wheat breeding programmes, contains almost all identified sources of resistance.

  16. Plant water uptake by hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes at 2°C and low light intensity

    Sutton Fedora


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hard red winter wheat (HRWW; Triticum aestivm L. plants from genotypes selected in the Northern Great Plains of the U.S. have less tissue water after exposure to cool autumn temperatures than plants from the Southern Great Plains. It is generally assumed that the reduced tissue water content of northern compared to southern cultivars is due to an impedance to water uptake by northern plants as a result of the low autumn temperatures. We hypothesize that if low temperature impedes water uptake then less soil water would be removed by northern than by southern-selected cultivars. This hypothesis was tested by comparing plant water uptake of a northern (FR and a southern (FS cultivar in relation to their foliage water content at 2°C. Results At 2°C foliage water content of FR plants decreased more rapidly than that of FS plants, similar to field results in the fall. During 6 wk, foliage water content of FR plants decreased 20 to 25% of the pre-treatment value, compared to only 5 to 10% by FS plants. Plant water uptake was about 60 g H2O·g FDW-1 by FS plants, while FR plants maintained plant water uptake in excess of 100 g H2O·g FDW-1 during the 6 wk period at 2°C. When four other northern genotypes of equal freeze resistance were studied, foliage water content and plant water uptake change were similar to FR plants. Conclusion In these northern-selected HRWW cultivars foliage water content reduction resulting from cold acclimation is not due to impedance to plant water uptake.

  17. Physical, textural, and antioxidant properties of extruded waxy wheat flour snack supplemented with several varieties of bran

    Wheat represents a ubiquitous commodity and while industries valorize 10% of wheat bran, most of this antioxidant-rich byproduct gets discarded. The objective of this study was to incorporate wheat bran into an extruded snack. Bran varieties from hard red spring, white club Bruehl, and purple whea...

  18. Flour quality and kernel hardness connection in winter wheat

    Szabó B. P.


    Full Text Available Kernel hardness is controlled by friabilin protein and it depends on the relation between protein matrix and starch granules. Friabilin is present in high concentration in soft grain varieties and in low concentration in hard grain varieties. The high gluten, hard wheat our generally contains about 12.0–13.0% crude protein under Mid-European conditions. The relationship between wheat protein content and kernel texture is usually positive and kernel texture influences the power consumption during milling. Hard-textured wheat grains require more grinding energy than soft-textured grains.

  19. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Studies Of Wheat In The Mid Infrared

    Olinger, Jill M.; Griffiths, Peter R.


    Official grain standards of the United States state that wheat may be divided into seven classes which are: Durum, Red Durum, Hard Red Spring, Hard Red Winter, Soft Red Winter, White, and Mixed.1 Most end uses of wheat involve converting the grain into flour through one of a variety of grinding methods. The quality of wheat-based products is often very dependent upon the type or class of wheat which was used to make the flour. Pasta products, for example, are made almost exclusively from the flour of durum wheats, which are the hardest of the wheats listed above. The highest quality breads are produced using flour from wheats classed as hard, whereas cakes, cookies and pastries are considered best when flour from wheats classed as soft are used. It is obvious then that the capability of determining the class of a particular wheat, especially with respect to hardness, is of economic importance to growers, processors, and merchants of wheat and wheat products. Hardness has been measured in many different ways 2-5 but, as of yet, no one method has become the method of choice. This paper reports on the use of principal components analysis (PCA) of mid infrared diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra of diluted ground wheats to aid in the classification of those wheats with respect to their hardness. The theory and mathematics involved in a principal component analysis have been described elsewhere.9

  20. Study on Somaclonal Variation of Spring Wheat

    JIANG Shu-mei; HU Shang-lian; LI Wen-xiong


    Somaclonal variation of calli and regenerated plants of spring wheat ware detected by using technique RAPD in the study. Calli at different culture stages and regenerated plants derived from young spikes and immature embryos were used as materials. Molecular variation could be reflected from electrophoresis patternof RAPD fragments at different culture stage in calli, and in regenerated plants derived from different explants, even no phenotype variations were found. Somaclonal variation in calli and in regenerated plants appeared regularly: A higher frequency of variation in hybrids F2 was detected than that of the cultivar that is stable genetically. High variation frequency of RAPD fragments appeared in calli when cultured 75 days. The identical variations of RAPD fragments were observed in calli and in the regenerated plants induced from different genotype or explants. The variation frequency detected is higher in regenerated plants than that of in calli. RAPD could be applied easily and simply to determine variation in level of DNA at each stage cultured in vitro.

  1. Dough rheology and wet milling of hard waxy wheat flours.

    Guan, Lan; Seib, Paul A; Graybosch, Robert A; Bean, Scott; Shi, Yong-Cheng


    To realize the full potential of waxy wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the wet milling properties of waxy wheat flours including their dough-mixing properties were investigated. Flours of six waxy hard wheats, one normal hard wheat ('Karl 92'), and one partial waxy hard wheat ('Trego') were fractionated by the dough-washing (Martin) process, and the yields and recoveries of starch and gluten were compared. When waxy and normal wheat starches each were blended with a wheat gluten to give a mixture containing 14.5% protein, they gave very different mixograms even though the protein was the same in those blends. Waxy wheat starch absorbed more water than normal wheat starch, which apparently retarded hydration of gluten and dough development. Higher water content had to be used for some waxy wheat flours to develop optimum dough. Washing waxy wheat flour dough under a stream of water caused dough to become slack, spread out more on the sieve, and break apart into several pieces, which when thoroughly washed, coalesced into an elastic dough like the controls. By mixing a weak dough with 2% NaCl solution or by adding hemicellulase, stickiness of the dough subsided during the washing step and thereby improved the recovery of the gluten and starch fractions.

  2. Study on the Change of GAs,ABA Level and ABA/GAs Ratio in the Embryos of Spring Wheat and Winter Wheat During Vernalization

    MiGuohua; LiWenxong


    Spring wheat(cv.7742)and winter wheat (cv.Nongda 015) were vernalized by seed chilling,and the changes of GAs,ABA content and GAs/ABA ration in embryo wer investigated.The differences between cultivars,treatments and variety-treatment inleractions were significant for both GAs and ABA.The level of GAs and ABA as well as GAs/ABA ratio were hardly changed by seed chilling in spriug wheat Howerve,in winter wheat,the GAs content decreased much less compared with ABA that reduced sharply after chilling.It showed that the GAs/ABA ratio in winter wheat was increased remarkably(4.55 times)than in spring wheat.It was suggested that the absolute GAs Ievel was independent of the vernalization effect because there was a higher GAs Level before and after seed chilling in winter wheat when compared with spring wheat,One of the vemalization effects was the decline of ABA level that led to the increase of GAs/ABA ratio.

  3. Relative Efficacy of Liquid Nitrogen Fertilizers in Dryland Spring Wheat

    Olga S. Walsh


    Full Text Available The study was conducted in 2012 and 2013 at three locations in North Central and Western Montana (total of 6 site-years to evaluate the relative efficacy of three liquid nitrogen (N fertilizer sources, urea ammonium nitrate (UAN, 32-0-0, liquid urea (LU, 21-0-0, and High NRGN (HNRGN, 27-0-0-1S, in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. In addition to at-seeding urea application at 90 kg N ha−1 to all treatments (except for the unfertilized check plot, the liquid fertilizers were applied utilizing an all-terrain vehicle- (ATV- mounted stream-bar equipped sprayer at a rate of 45 kg N ha−1 at Feekes 5 growth stage (early tillering. Three dilution ratios of fertilizer to water were accessed: 100/0 (undiluted, 66/33, and 33/66. The effects of N source and the dilution ratio (fertilizer/water on N uptake (NUp, N use efficiency (NUE, spring wheat grain yield (GY, grain protein (GP content, and protein yield (PY were assessed. The dilution ratios had no effect on GY, GP, PY, NUp, and NUE at any of the site-years in this study. Taking into account agronomic and economic factors, LU can be recommended as the most suitable liquid N fertilizer source for spring wheat cropping systems of the Northern Great Plains.

  4. Physiological response cascade of spring wheat to soil warming and drought

    Weldearegay, Dawit Fisseha; Yan, F.; Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgaard;


    Climate change is affecting wheat production in Northern Europe; in particular, drought and soil warming during anthesis may cause significant yield losses of the crop. In a search for genotypes tolerant to these stresses, the physiological responses of three spring wheat cultivars to increased...... soil temperature (3°C above normal) (H), drought (D) and their combination (HD) were investigated. The plants were grown in pots in a climate-controlled greenhouse. Stomatal conductance (gs), photosynthesis (A), leaf water potential (Ψl), and relative water content (RWC) were measured during...... the treatment period. The responses of these variables to soil drying (for both D and HD) were described by a linear–plateau model, indicating the soil water thresholds at which the variables started to decrease in relation to the control plants. The H treatment alone hardly affected the variables, whereas both...

  5. Soft wheat instead of hard wheat in pelleted diets results in high starch digestibility in broiler chickens.

    Carré, B; Muley, N; Gomez, J; Ouryt, F X; Laffitte, E; Guillou, D; Signoret, C


    (1) The aim of the experiment was to re-examine variations in digestibilities of food components in 3-week-old broiler chickens fed on pelleted diets based on wheats differing in lipase activity and hardness. Fourteen wheat (Triticum aestivum) samples, each from a different cultivar, were included at 550 g/kg in 14 different diets given to male Ross broiler chicks from 7 d of age. The other main ingredients consisted of soyabean meal (353 g/kg) and rapeseed oil (55 g/kg). A 15th diet containing durum wheat (Triticum durum) was also tested. (2) Hardness of wheats (Triticum aestivum) varied between 14 (very soft) and 88 (very hard), and lipase activity of wheats varied from 1 to 13.1 (relative scale). No significant correlation was found between in vitro viscosities and other parameters such as hardness, particle size of wheat flours and lipase. Hardness was correlated with the mean particle size of wheat flours and durability of pellets. (3) Individual lipid digestibilities were negatively correlated with in vitro viscosities of wheats. (4) Individual starch digestibilities were negatively correlated with wheat hardness, particle size of wheat flour before pelleting, and pellet durability. The ratio of measured AME(N) to predicted AME(N) was also negatively correlated with wheat hardness. Simple regression calculation showed that a 100-point increase in wheat hardness resulted in a 3% decrease in the AME(N) value of diets. Multiple regression calculation showed the food/gain ratio (d 10 to d 21) to be positively related to wheat hardness and negatively related to pellet durability. (5) Wheat lipase activity was positively correlated with individual starch digestibility, which was the reverse of a result obtained in a previous experiment. Thus, wheat lipase activity did not seem consistent for predicting starch digestibility and AME(N) values. (6) Among all wheat samples, durum wheat showed the highest protein content and the lowest content of water-insoluble cell

  6. Fertilization Management for Improving Quality Properties of Spring Wheat in Northeast China

    LIU Xiao-bing; ZHANG Qiu-ying; JIN Jian; WANG Guang-hua; S J Herbert


    Fertilization management to improve quality properties of spring wheat cultivars has received little research attention in Northeast China. In this study, the effects of different fertilization management regimes on the quality properties of spring wheat cultivar New Kehan 9 (Triticum aestivum L.) were investigated for two years. The results showed that fertilization consistently increased wheat yield, and the highest yield was obtained with addition of N, P and NPK fertilizers. The NPK treatment resulted in 50% more yield than the unfertilized plot. The average increases in protein content from NPK and NP at seeding + N at anthesis over no fertilization and NP fertilizers at seeding were 2.7% and 0.90% respectively. The highest protein yields were achieved in NPK and NPK + N treatments, and the lowest protein yield was observed in the no fertilizer treatment due to both low protein content and grain yield. Fertilization increased gliadins content, but decreased glutenins content, thus the gliadins/glutenins ratios were higher in the fertilization treatments. The most obvious effect of fertilization on kernel quality was the significant increase of hardness percentage. Although the dough rheological properties were not strongly changed by fertilization, dry gluten and wet gluten were significantly increased, and the highest bread volume and bread score were found in the NPK treatment in both years. The application of 3% urea at anthesis, or applying 45 kg ha-1 of potassium sulphate at seeding, with urea and diammonium phosphate as basal applications, significantly increased protein yield and improved quality properties of this wheat cultivar.

  7. Investigation on Pasting Characteristics of Spring-sown Chinese Bread Wheats

    ZHANG Yong; HE Zhong-hu


    Forty-seven spring wheat Triticumaestivum cultivars and advanced lines from spring-sown spring wheat regions, at twelve locations in 1998 and 1999, were used to investigate pasting properties of Chinese spring wheats. Starch pasting properties were closely associated with noodle quality. Significant differences were observed for all pasting characteristics. Samples collected from Harbin, Shenyang, Beijing, Bameng, Yongning, and Urumqi had better pasting quality than those from other locations. Genotype, environment, and genotype by environment interaction had large effects on all pasting characteristics. Significant correlations among pasting characteristics were observed and peak viscosity was considered the most important pasting characteristics.

  8. Share of anthropophytes in the crop sequence: winter wheat – maize – spring wheat depending on tillage system

    Tomasz R. Sekutowski


    Full Text Available An experiment, conducted over the period 2008–2010, evaluated the effect of tillage system on the occurrence and species composition of anthropophytes in winter wheat, maize and spring wheat. Regardless of crop plant and tillage system, anthropophytes (73.9%, represented by archaeophytes and kenophytes, were the main component of the flora in the crops studied, whereas apophytes accounted for the remaining 26.1%. Most archaeophytes (13 species were found in the spring wheat crop under no-tillage, while their lowest number (6 species occurred in the spring wheat crop under conventional tillage. The only kenophyte, Conyza canadensis, was found to occur in the spring wheat and maize crops in the no-tillage system. The following taxa were dominant species among archeophytes: Geranium pusillum, Anthemis arvensis, and Viola arvensis (regardless of tillage system and crop plant, Anthemis arvensis (in spring wheat – conventional tillage, Echinochloa crus-galli and Setaria glauca (in maize – reduced tillage and no-tillage, Chenopodium album (in maize – no-tillage as well as Apera spica-venti, Anthemis arvensis and Papaver rhoeas (in winter wheat – no-tillage.

  9. Genetic Architecture of Anther Extrusion in Spring and Winter Wheat

    Quddoos H. Muqaddasi


    Full Text Available Hybrid wheat breeding is gaining prominence worldwide because it ensures higher and more static yield than conventionally bred varieties. The cleistogamous floral architecture of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. impedes anthers inside the floret, making it largely an inbreeder. For hybrid seed production, high anther extrusion is needed to promote cross pollination and to ensure a high level of pollen availability for the seed plant. This study, therefore, aimed at the genetic dissection of anther extrusion (AE in panels of spring (SP, and winter wheat (WP accessions by genome wide association studies (GWAS. We performed GWAS to identify the SNP markers potentially linked with AE in each panel separately. Phenotypic data were collected for 3 years for each panel. The average levels of Pearson's correlation (r among all years and their best linear unbiased estimates (BLUEs within both panels were high (r(SP = 0.75, P < 0.0001;r(WP = 0.72, P < 0.0001. Genotypic data (with minimum of 0.05 minor allele frequency applied included 12,066 and 12,191 SNP markers for SP and WP, respectively. Both genotypes and environment influenced the magnitude of AE. In total, 23 significant (|log10(P| > 3.0 marker trait associations (MTAs were detected (SP = 11; WP = 12. Anther extrusion behaved as a complex trait with significant markers having either favorable or unfavorable additive effects and imparting minor to moderate levels of phenotypic variance (R2(SP = 9.75−14.24%; R2 (WP = 9.44−16.98%. All mapped significant markers as well as the markers within their significant linkage disequilibrium (r2 ≥ 0.30 regions were blasted against wheat genome assembly (IWGSC1+popseq to find the corresponding genes and their high confidence descriptions were retrieved. These genes and their orthologs in Hordeum vulgare, Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa, and Sorghum bicolor revealed syntenic genomic regions potentially involved in flowering-related traits. Moreover, the

  10. Phenolic compounds contribute to dark bran pigmentation in hard white wheat.

    Matus-Cádiz, Maria A; Daskalchuk, Timothy E; Verma, Brij; Puttick, Debbie; Chibbar, Ravindra N; Gray, Gordon R; Perron, Connie E; Tyler, Robert T; Hucl, Pierre


    Unacceptably dark bran color has prevented the white-kernelled variety Argent from meeting grain color marketing standards for hard white wheats (Triticum aestivum L.). The objective of this research was to identify phenolic compounds that negatively affect bran color in white wheat using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) and vanillin-HCl and NaOH staining methods. In mature bran, FT-ICR-MS detected derivatives of the flavonol quercetin in varieties Argent and RL4137 (red-kernelled wheat) but not in W98616, a white wheat variety with acceptable grain color. Derivatives of the isoflavone formononetin were more abundant in W98616 relative to RL4137 and Argent. Vanillin-HCl staining indicated that RL4137 sequestered high levels of proanthocyanidin (PA) throughout its entire seed coat, whereas white wheats sequestered PAs as discrete speckles. Argent possessed abundant speckles over its entire seed coat, whereas speckles were almost undetectable in W98616. In mature kernels, flavonoids throughout the seed coat of RL4137 reacted with NaOH, but only the speckles appeared to react in white wheats. W98616 consistently had lighter grain than Argent before and after NaOH treatment. Free and bound phenolic differences in bran samples confirmed that the darker seed coat color of Argent, relative to W98616, was likely due to higher total phenolic acid content. Although isoflavones accumulated in Argent and RL4137, it appears that the majority of the flux through the flavonoid pathway ultimately accumulates quercetin derivatives and PAs. In W98616, PAs accumulate, but it appears that flavonoid biosynthesis ultimately accumulates isoflavones. Argent, compared to W98616, generally accumulated higher levels of total phenolics (flavonols, stilbenes, and PAs) within its darker pigmented bran.

  11. Effect of Pre-Harvest Sprouting on Physicochemical Properties of Starch in Wheat

    Senay Simsek


    Full Text Available Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. occurs when physiologically mature kernels begin germinating in the spike. The objective of this study was to provide fundamental information on physicochemical changes of starch due to PHS in Hard Red Spring (HRS and Hard White Spring (HWS wheat. The mean values of α-amylase activity of non-sprouted and sprouted wheat samples were 0.12 CU/g and 2.00 CU/g, respectively. Sprouted samples exhibited very low peak and final viscosities compared to non-sprouted wheat samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images showed that starch granules in sprouted samples were partially hydrolyzed. Based on High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC profiles, the starch from sprouted samples had relatively lower molecular weight than that of non-sprouted samples. Overall, high α-amylase activity caused changes to the physicochemical properties of the PHS damaged wheat.

  12. The occurrence of fungi on the stem base and roots of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown in monoculture depending on tillage systems and catch crops

    Piotr Kraska


    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the period 2006-2008 based on an experiment established in 2005. The study evaluated the effect of conservation and plough tillage as well as of four catch crops on the level of infection by fungal pathogens of the stem base and roots of the spring wheat cultivar ‘Zebra’ grown in monoculture. The species composition of fungi colonizing the stem base and roots of spring wheat was determined. The split-plot design of the experiment set up on rendzina soil included plough tillage and conservation tillage with autumn and spring disking of catch crops. The experiment used four methods for regeneration of the spring wheat monoculture stand using the following: undersown red clover and Westerwolds ryegrass crops as well as lacy phacelia and white mustard stubble crops. Plots without catch crops were the control treatment. Red clover and Westerwolds ryegrass catch crops as well as lacy phacelia and white mustard stubble crops had a significant effect on the decrease in the stem base and root infection index of spring wheat compared to the control without catch crops. The disease indices in the tillage treatments under evaluation did not differ significantly from one another. The stem base and roots of spring wheat were most frequently infected by fungi of the genus Fusarium, with F. culmorum being the dominant pathogen of cereals. Compared to conservation tillage, in plough tillage the pathogenic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana was not found to occur on the stem base and roots. The Westerwolds ryegrass catch crop promoted the occurrence of F. culmorum, both on the stem base and roots of spring wheat.

  13. Determination Testing of Seed Hardness of Staple Breeding Wheat Seed in Gansu Province of China

    Fei Dai


    Full Text Available Seed hardness is one of the important indexes of grain classification. It has close relationship with grain powder, flour quality, seed storage and processing, resist insect pest and so on. In this study, which applied based on the grain hardness indentation loading curve method and chose 3 kind of staple breeding wheat seed to determine the seed hardness in Gansu province. The experimental results showed that the average hardness value of staple breeding wheat seed was 22.42 MPa~57.85 MPa and the dispersion of the hardness value was small, which also between 3~12%. The seed hardness of breeding wheat of Western drought-resistant No.1 was maximum (52.36~61.36MPa and the seed hardness of breeding wheat of Western drought-resistant No.3 between two parties of the other breeding wheat, which was 42.12~50.20MPa. The seed hardness of breeding wheat of Western drought-resistant No.2 was minimum, which were 58.10~62.91% and 47.91~54.66% lower than the rest of the two breeding wheat seed hardness respectively. The findings will provide theoretical basis for seed production and processing and the stimulation analysis by EDEM.

  14. Crop diversification, tillage, and management system influences on spring wheat yield and soil water use

    Depleted soil quality, decreased water availability, and increased weed competition constrain spring wheat production in the northern Great Plains. Integrated crop management systems are necessary for improved crop productivity. We conducted a field experiment from 2004-2010 comparing productivity...

  15. Analysis on Main Traits of Spring Wheat Landraces in Tibet

    Jishan XIANG; Xiaogang MA; Peiyuan MU; Lihua CHEN; Hongjun XU


    In this study, 9 main traits of 774 spring wheat landraces in Tibet were investigated and analyzed. The results show that spring wheat landraces in Tibet have high plant height (with an average of 126.1 cm) and long growth period (with an average of 135.2 d), with an average spike length of 9.5 cm, average effective tiller number per plant of 5.9, average spikelet number per spike of 19.9, average kernel number per spikelet of 3.5, average spikelet number per spike of 51.8, aver- age kernel weight per spike of 2.0 g, and average 1 000-grain weight of 38.1 g. Specifically, kernel number per spikelet of 2 landraces is larger than 6.0, spikelet number per spike of 2 landraces is larger than 100, kernel weight per spike of 2 landraces is larger than 4.0 g, 1 000-grain weight of 11 tandraces is larger than 50 g. There is abundant genetic diversity in those traits except in growth period, and the coefficient variation of 9 traits is in a decreasing order of effective tiller number per plant 〉 kernel weight per spike 〉 kernel number per spike 〉 spike length 〉 kernel number per spikelet 〉 1 000-grain weight 〉 plant height 〉 spikelet number per spike 〉 growth period. There is different relevance among different traits. Growth period is extremely significantly positively related to yield traits; grain number traits are extremely significantly positively relative to plant height and spike length, but ex- tremely significantly negatively relative to effective tiller number per plant; kernel number per spike is extremely significantly positively relative to kernel weight per spike, but extremely significantly negatively related to 1 000-grain weight; 1 000-grain weight is extremely significantly positively related to kernel weight per spike. Based on principal component analysis, these 9 traits could be included by 5 principal com- ponents (grain number, grain weight, spike length, tiller number and growth period). According to the comprehensive evaluation

  16. Improved discrimination of soft and hard white wheat using SKCS and imaging parameters

    Natural variation in the hardness of wheat kernels often results in an overlap between hard and soft classes in the distribution of hardness indices (HI) as measured with the single kernel characterization system (SKCS) and is a major contributor to classification errors. This is particularly true f...

  17. End-use quality of soft kernel durum wheat

    Kernel texture is a major determinant of end-use quality of wheat. Durum wheat has very hard kernels. We developed soft kernel durum wheat via Ph1b-mediated homoeologous recombination. The Hardness locus was transferred from Chinese Spring to Svevo durum wheat via back-crossing. ‘Soft Svevo’ had SKC...

  18. Flip-flop between soft-spring and hard-spring bistabilities in the approximated Toda oscillator analysis

    B K Goswami


    We study theoretically the effect of truncating the nonlinear restoring force (exp $()−1 = \\Sum^{∞}_{n=1} ^n/n!$) in the bistability pattern of the periodically driven, damped one-degree-of-freedom Toda oscillator that originally exhibits soft-spring bistability with counterclockwise hysteresis cycle. We observe that if the truncation is made third order, the harmonic bistability changes to hard-spring type with a clockwise hysteresis cycle. In contrast, for the fourth-order truncation, the bistability again becomes soft-spring type, overriding the effect of third-order nonlinearity. Furthermore, each higher odd-order truncation attempts to introduce hard-spring nature while each even-order truncation turns to soft-spring type of bistability. Overall, the hard-spring effect of every odd-order nonlinear term is weaker in comparison to the soft-spring effect of the next even-order nonlinear term. As a consequence, higher-order approximations ultimately converge to the soft-spring nature. Similar approximate analysis of Toda lattice has in recent past revealed remarkably similar flip-flop pattern between stochasticity (chaotic behaviour) and regularity (integrability).

  19. Genome-wide Association Analysis of Kernel Weight in Hard Winter Wheat

    Wheat kernel weight is an important and heritable component of wheat grain yield and a key predictor of flour extraction. Genome-wide association analysis was conducted to identify genomic regions associated with kernel weight and kernel weight environmental response in 8 trials of 299 hard winter ...

  20. Crop Sequence Influences on Sustainable Spring Wheat Production in the Northern Great Plains

    Joseph M. Krupinsky


    Full Text Available Cropping systems in American agriculture are highly successful since World War II, but have become highly specialized, standardized, and simplified to meet the demands of an industrialized food system. Minimal attention has been given to the efficient exploitation of crop diversity and the synergistic and/or antagonistic relationships of crops in crop sequences. Objectives of our research were to determine if previous crop sequences have long-term benefits and/or drawbacks on spring wheat seed yield, seed N concentration, and seed precipitation-use efficiency in the semiarid northern Great Plains, USA. Research was conducted 6 km southwest of Mandan, ND using a 10 × 10 crop matrix technique as a research tool to evaluate multiple crop sequence effects on spring wheat (triticum aestivum L. production in 2004 and 2005. Spring wheat production risks can be mitigated when second year crop residue was dry pea (Pisium sativum L. averaged over all first year crop residues. When compared to spring wheat as second year crop residue in the dry year of 2004, dry pea as the second year residue crop resulted in a 30% spring wheat seed yield increase. Sustainable cropping systems need to use precipitation efficiently for crop production, especially during below average precipitation years like 2004. Precipitation use efficiency average over all treatments, during the below average precipitation year was 23% greater than the above average precipitation year of 2005. Diversifying crops in cropping systems improves production efficiencies and resilience of agricultural systems.

  1. Prevalence of Puroindoline D1 and Puroindoline b-2 variants in U.S. Pacific Northwest wheat breeding germplasm pools, and their association with kernel texture.

    Geng, Hongwei; Beecher, Brian S; He, Zhonghu; Kiszonas, Alecia M; Morris, Craig F


    Kernel texture is a major factor influencing the classification and end use properties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and is mainly controlled by the Puroindoline a (Pina) and Puroindoline b (Pinb) genes. Recently, a new puroindoline gene, Puroindoline b-2 (Pin b-2), was identified. In this study, 388 wheat cultivars and advanced breeding lines from the U.S. Pacific Northwest were investigated for frequencies of Puroindoline D1 alleles and Pinb-2 variants 2 and 3. Results indicated that Pinb-D1b (74.0%) was the predominant genotype among hard wheats (N = 196), the only other hard allele encountered was Pina-D1b (26.0%). Across all varieties, Pinb-2v3 was the predominant genotype (84.5%) compared with Pinb-2v2 (15.5%). However, among 240 winter wheat varieties (124 soft white, 15 club, 68 hard red and 33 hard white varieties), all carried Pinb-2v3. Among spring wheats, Pinb-2v2 and Pinb-2v3 frequencies were more variable (soft white 25.0:75.0, hard red 58.2:41.8 and hard white 40.0:60.0, respectively). Kernel texture variation was analyzed using 247 of the 388 wheat varieties grown in multi-location factorial trials in up to 7 crop years. The range of variety means among the four groups, soft winter, soft spring, hard winter and hard spring, was on the order of 15-25 single kernel characterization system (SKCS) Hardness Index. The least significant difference for each of these trials ranged from 2.8 to 5.6 SKCS Hardness Index. Observations lead to the conclusion that Pinb-2 variants do not exert a prominent effect on kernel texture, however, Pinb-2 variants do identify features of wheat germ plasm structure in the U.S. Pacific Northwest.

  2. Determination Testing of Seed Hardness of Staple Breeding Wheat Seed in Gansu Province of China

    Fei Dai; Zhengsheng Han; Fengwei Zhang; Wuyun Zhao; Aimin Gao; Xingkai Li


    Seed hardness is one of the important indexes of grain classification. It has close relationship with grain powder, flour quality, seed storage and processing, resist insect pest and so on. In this study, which applied based on the grain hardness indentation loading curve method and chose 3 kind of staple breeding wheat seed to determine the seed hardness in Gansu province. The experimental results showed that the average hardness value of staple breeding wheat seed was 22.42 MPa~57.85 MPa an...

  3. Differences between organically grown varieties of spring wheat, in response to weed competition and yield

    Feledyn-Szewczyk Beata


    Full Text Available When growing wheat, one of the non-chemical methods of weed regulation is to choose wheat varieties which have a high ability to compete with weeds. The first aim of the research was the estimation of the relationships between the morphological features and canopy parameters of six spring wheat varieties. The second aim was the estimation of the varieties’ competitive ability against weeds. The third aim was the estimation of the grain yield of the six varieties. The experiment was carried out in the 2011–2013 time period, on fields which had been organically managed since 1994. Different features affected the weed infestation levels of the spring wheat varieties. For Bombona, negative correlations between the number of weeds and the height, dry matter of wheat, and wheat density, were proved. For Brawura, Hewilla, and Żura, the height, number of tillers, and dry matter of wheat were the main factors influencing weed abundance. A strong negative correlation between the number of weeds and the dry matter of wheat was found for Parabola. Cluster analysis indicated that Bombona and Brawura were the most competitive against weeds, while Monsun and Parabola were characterized as being the least competitive against weeds. Weed number significantly affected the grain yield of spring wheat (r = −0.418. The grain yield was positively correlated with the number of tillers (r = 0.459 and ears (r = 0.355, and the height (r = 0.534 and wheat dry matter (r = 0.411. Bombona and Brawura were the lowest yielding varieties (3.03 and 3.20 t · ha−1, respectively, whereas the highest yield was achieved by Żura (3.82 t · ha−1, on average.

  4. Improved fluorimetric measurement of uranium uptake and distribution in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Borcia, Catalin [' ' Alexandru Ioan Cuza' ' Univ., Iasi (Romania). Dept. of Physics; Popa, Karin; Cecal, Alexandru [' ' Alexandru Ioan Cuza' ' Univ., Iasi (Romania). Dept. of Chemistry; Murariu, Manuela [' ' Petru Poni' ' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iasi (Romania)


    Uranium uptake and (radio)toxicity was tested on spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a laboratory study using differently concentrated uranium nitrate solutions. Within these experiments, two analytical assays of uranium were comparatively tested: a fast and improved fluorimetric assay and the classical colorimetric (U(IV)-arsenazo(III) complexation) one. During the germination, the wheat seeds and plantlets supported well the uranium solutions of treatment within the entire concentration range (1 x 10{sup -4} -5 x 10{sup -3} M). Uranium proved to be non (radio)toxic to wheat as compared with other natural and anthropogenic radiocations, probably because its uptake by spring wheat during the germination is low. Indeed, only a small fraction of uranium administered was located within the roots, whereas the uranium content of the stems was negligible. A high correlation between the results obtained by two analytical methods was found. However, the fluorimetric assay proved to be more reliable and fast, and accurate.

  5. Effect of salt solutions applied during wheat conditioning on lipase activity and lipid stability of whole wheat flour.

    Doblado-Maldonado, Andrés F; Arndt, Elizabeth A; Rose, Devin J


    Lipolytic activity in whole wheat flour (WWF) is largely responsible for the loss in baking quality during storage. Metal ions affect the activity of seed lipases; however, no previous studies have applied this information to WWF in a way that reduces lipase activity, is practical for commercial manufacture, and uses common food ingredients. NaCl, KCl, Ca-propionate, or FeNa-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (FeNa-EDTA) were applied to hard red winter (HRW) and hard white spring (HWS) wheats during conditioning as aqueous solutions at concentrations that would be acceptable in baked goods. Salts affected lipase activity to different degrees depending on the type of wheat used. Inhibition was greater in HRW compared with HWS WWF, probably due to higher lipase activity in HRW wheat. In HRW WWF, 1% NaCl (flour weight) reduced hydrolytic and oxidative rancidity and resulted in higher loaf volume and lower firmness than untreated WWF after 24 weeks of storage.

  6. Influence of commodity type, percentage of cracked kernels, and wheat class on population growth of stored-product psocids (Psocoptera: Liposcelidae).

    Athanassiou, Christos G; Opit, George P; Throne, James E


    Differences in stored-product psocid progeny production as a function of commodity type, percentage of cracked kernels, and wheat class were examined using laboratory bioassays. Population growth of Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel, Liposcelis decolor (Pearman), Liposcelis paeta Pearman, and Liposcelis entomophila (Enderlein) (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) was highest on sorghum Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, followed by wheat, Triticum aestivum L., and rice, Oryza sativa L., whereas progeny production was negligible on wheat germ. In a second experiment that did not include L. entomophila, population growth was examined on wheat containing 0, 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100% cracked kernels. Progeny production did not increase as cracked kernel content increased. Instead, progeny production peaked at 20% for L. bostrychophila adults and nymphs, at 10% for L. decolor, and at 50% for L. paeta adults; no further increases were noted beyond these levels of cracked wheat content. In a third experiment that did not include L. entomophila, progeny production was examined on eight classes of wheat: hard red winter, hard red spring, soft white winter, soft white spring, soft club, durum, soft red winter, and hard white. Overall, progeny production was higher on durum wheat than on the other classes. The results indicate that there are considerable variations in psocid population growth among the different commodities tested, and this information may be used to predict the degree to which stored commodities are susceptible to psocid infestation.

  7. Impact of hard vs. soft wheat and monensin level on rumen acidosis in feedlot heifers.

    Yang, W Z; Xu, L; Zhao, Y L; Chen, L Y; McAllister, T A


    Many feedlot finishing diets include wheat when the relative wheat prices are low. This study was conducted to examine the responses in ruminal pH and fermentation as well as site and extent of digestion from substituting soft or hard wheat for barley grain and to determine whether an elevated monensin concentration might decrease indicators of ruminal acidosis in feedlot heifers. Five ruminally cannulated beef heifers were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square with 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement. Treatments included barley (10% barley silage, 86% barley, 4% supplement, with 28 mg monensin/kg DM) and diets where barley was substituted by either soft or hard wheat with either 28 or 44 mg monensin/kg diet DM. Intake of DM was not affected by grain source, whereas increasing monensin with wheat diets reduced (P type or monensin level. Total VFA concentrations were greater (P type. The molar proportion of propionate was greater (P Feeding soft vs. hard wheat delivered a greater (P feed use by heifers fed wheat-based finishing diets.

  8. The Relationship Between Temperature & Sunshine and Spring-Sown Wheat Quality

    CAO Guang-cai; LI Meng; WU Dong-bing; SUN Qun; QIANG Xiao-lin; CHEN He-qin; DONG Mei; KOU Hao; WANG Jian-lin; HOU Li-bai


    In order to study the relationship between temperature&sunshine and spring-sown wheat qua lity,a spring-sown experiment with 3 wheat varieties was conducted in Rikaze,Lasa,Linzhi,Beijing and Shenyang from 1998 to 2001.The results indicated that significant difference on some quality characteristics of experimental wheat varieties were observed from different locations and different years.The results also showed:protein content was positively correlated with wet gluten content,falling number,the average day temperature and sunshine hours from heading to maturation;and negatively correlated with the growing days and the average diurnal temperature difference from sowing to maturation;wet gluten content was positively correlated with the average day temperature and sunshine hours during the same period.Sedimentation value and falling number were positively correlated with the average sunshine hours from sowing to maturation.The basic way of wheat production in Tibet was as follows:mainly developing medium gluten wheat varieties,suitably planting weak gluten wheat varieties,introducing some inland excellent varieties.

  9. Nitrogen Fertilizer Sources and Application Timing Affects Wheat and Inter-Seeded Red Clover Yields on Claypan Soils

    Kelly A. Nelson


    Full Text Available Controlled-release N fertilizer, such as polymer-coated urea (PCU, may be a fall N management option for wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown in poorly-drained claypan soils. Field research evaluated (1 urea release from fall-applied PCU in 2006 and 2007; (2 broadcast fall-spring split (25%:75% of N sources; and (3 a single fall (100% application of PCU, urea, urea plus NBPT (N-(n-butyl thiophosphoric triamide] (U + NBPT, ammonium nitrate (AN, or urea ammonium nitrate (UAN at 0, 56, 84, and 112 kg·N·ha−1 on wheat yield, wheat biomass, N uptake by wheat, and frost-seeded red clover (FSC (Trifolium pratense L. forage yield (2004–2007. PCU applied in fall released less than 30% urea by February. Urea released from PCU by harvest was 60% and 85% in 2006 and 2007, respectively. In poorly-drained soils, wheat yields ranked PCU > AN > U + NBPT > urea ≥ UAN over the rates evaluated for fall-only application. PCU was a viable fall-applied N source, with yields similar to or greater than urea or U + NBPT split-applied. Split-N applications of AN, urea, UAN, and U + NBPT generally resulted in greater wheat yields than a fall application. Enhanced efficiency fertilizers provide farmers with flexible options for maintaining high yielding production systems.

  10. Genetics of end-use quality differences between a modern and historical spring wheat

    The goal of this project was to determine the genetic basis for quality differences between a modern semidwarf spring wheat cultivar ‘McNeal’ and a historically important standard height cultivar ‘Thatcher’. McNeal is higher yielding with lower grain protein than Thatcher, yet has stronger gluten p...

  11. Combined impact of climate change, cultivar shift, and sowing date on spring wheat phenology in Northern China

    Xiao, Dengpan; Tao, Fulu; Shen, Yanjun; Qi, Yongqing


    Distinct climate changes since the end of the 1980s have led to clear responses in crop phenology in many parts of the world. This study investigated the trends in the dates of spring wheat phenology in relation to mean temperature for different growth stages. It also analyzed the impacts of climate change, cultivar shift, and sowing date adjustments on phenological events/phases of spring wheat in northern China (NC). The results showed that significant changes have occurred in spring wheat phenology in NC due to climate warming in the past 30 years. Specifically, the dates of anthesis and maturity of spring wheat advanced on average by 1.8 and 1.7 day (10 yr)-1. Moreover, while the vegetative growth period (VGP) shortened at most stations, the reproductive growth period (RGP) prolonged slightly at half of the investigated stations. As a result, the whole growth period (WGP) of spring wheat shortened at most stations. The findings from the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM)-Wheat model simulated results for six representative stations further suggested that temperature rise generally shortened the spring wheat growth period in NC. Although the warming trend shortened the lengths of VGP, RGP, and WGP, the shift of new cultivars with high accumulated temperature requirements, to some extent, mitigated and adapted to the ongoing climate change. Furthermore, shifts in sowing date exerted significant impacts on the phenology of spring wheat. Generally, an advanced sowing date was able to lower the rise in mean temperature during the different growth stages (i.e., VGP, RGP, and WGP) of spring wheat. As a result, the lengths of the growth stages should be prolonged. Both measures (cultivar shift and sowing date adjustments) could be vital adaptation strategies of spring wheat to a warming climate, with potentially beneficial effects in terms of productivity.

  12. Fusarium head blight resistance QTL in the spring wheat cross Kenyon/86ISMN 2137

    Curt A McCartney


    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB, caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a very important disease of wheat globally. Damage caused by F. graminearum includes reduced grain yield, reduced grain functional quality, and results in the presence of the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in Fusarium-damaged kernels. The development of FHB resistant wheat cultivars is an important component of integrated management. The objective of this study was to identify QTL for FHB resistance in a recombinant inbred line (RIL population of the spring wheat cross Kenyon/86ISMN 2137. Kenyon is a Canadian spring wheat, while 86ISMN 2137 is an unrelated spring wheat. The RIL population was evaluated for FHB resistance in six FHB nurseries. Nine additive effect QTL for FHB resistance were identified, six from Kenyon and three from 86ISMN 2137. Rht8 and Ppd-D1a co-located with two FHB resistance QTL on chromosome arm 2DS. A major QTL for FHB resistance from Kenyon (QFhb.crc-7D was identified on chromosome 7D. The QTL QFhb.crc-2D.4 from Kenyon mapped to the same region as a FHB resistance QTL from Wuhan-1 on chromosome arm 2DL. This result was unexpected since Kenyon does not share common ancestry with Wuhan-1. Other FHB resistance QTL on chromosomes 4A, 4D, and 5B also mapped to known locations of FHB resistance. Four digenic epistatic interactions were detected for FHB resistance, which involved eight QTL. None of these QTL were significant based upon additive effect QTL analysis. This study provides insight into the genetic basis of native FHB resistance in Canadian spring wheat.


    Hanee Al-Dmoor


    Full Text Available The most important factor in cakes making is the availability of soft wheat flour. Sometimes cake flour is producing by milling hard wheat because the shortage of soft wheat flour. The aim of this study is to identify a specification for production cake flour from hard wheat which gives a high quality of cake products. Protein %, ash %, wet gluten %, dry gluten %, gluten index, falling no, acidity %, damaged starch, sedimentation values and particles size are 8.82, 0.5, 24.1, 8.44, 97.65, 310.3, 0.15, 7.71,72.7 and 10.07 respectively. The development time, stability, elasticity, softening, water absorption, resistance, extensibility and R: F values for dough are 1.35, 3.1, 102, 89.4, 57.73, 98.6, 357, 155 and 2.31 respectively. The average of cakes volume is 711 c.c and overall acceptability is 7.55 of 9 hedonic scales. Both of cake volume and overall acceptability of sensory evaluation test correlate positively (p<0.005 with protein and gluten content, sedimentation rate and extensograph parameters which give an indication about hard wheat cake flour could be substituted for soft wheat flour. Cake producers should apply a special treatment to improve the quality of cake.

  14. Extraordinarily soft, medium-hard and hard Indian wheat varieties: Composition, protein profile, dough and baking properties.

    Katyal, Mehak; Singh, Narpinder; Virdi, Amardeep Singh; Kaur, Amritpal; Chopra, Nidhi; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru


    Hard wheat (HW), medium-hard wheat (MHW) and extraordinarily soft wheat (Ex-SW) varieties with grain hardness index (GHI) of 83 to 95, 72 to 80, 17 to 29 were evaluated for pasting, protein molecular weight (MW) distribution, dough rheology and baking properties. Flours from varieties with higher GHI had more protein content, ash content and paste viscosities. Ex-SW had more glutenins proportion as compared to HW and MHW. Flours from Ex-SW varieties showed lower NaSRC, WA and mixographic parameters as compared to HW and MHW. Dough from flours milled from Ex-SW had higher Intermolecular-β-sheets (IM-β-sheets) than those from MHW and HW. Muffins volume increased with decrease in GHI, Ex-SW varieties had more muffin volume and less air space. The accumulation of polypeptides (PPs) varied significantly in different varieties. Ex-SW variety (QBP12-10) showed accumulation of 98, 90, 81 and 79kDa PPs, which was unique and was different from other varieties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Mohamed Mergoum


    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. flour represents one of the primary sources of calories and proteins for the human diet. The increase in the wheat yield without losing its baking and milling quality is an important breeding objective. The use of QTL analysis is an expedient methodology to help breeders to face this multifaceted challenge. Here, a population of 129 recombinant inbred lines (RILs developed from a cross between ‘Steele-ND’ cultivar and ‘ND 735’ advanced line was used to evaluate several yield and quality traits and map the genomic regions controlling these traits. The phenotypic data were collected from field experiments conducted at four North Dakota (ND, USA environments. Transgressive segregation was observed for all traits, with RILs outperforming the most adapted parent and commercial cultivars. Using a linkage map of 392 markers, composite interval mapping identified a total of 13 environment-specific QTLs, all explaining large phenotypic variations (R2=16-44%. The genotypic values of these “reserve” alleles were directly used as criteria of selection in breeding programs.

  16. Towards an improved variety assortment for the Dutch organic sector : case studies on onion and spring wheat

    Osman, A.M.


    Key words: organic farming; principles of organic agriculture; food production chain; plant breeding; genetic correlation; plant traits; farmers’ preferences; variety testing; Value for Cultivation and Use; EU seed legislation; onion; Allium cepa; spring wheat; Triticum aestivum; baking qualit

  17. Towards an improved variety assortment for the Dutch organic sector : case studies on onion and spring wheat

    Osman, A.M.


    Key words: organic farming; principles of organic agriculture; food production chain; plant breeding; genetic correlation; plant traits; farmers’ preferences; variety testing; Value for Cultivation and Use; EU seed legislation; onion; Allium cepa; spring wheat; Triticum aestivum; baking qualit

  18. Winter soil warming exacerbates the impacts of spring low temperature stress on wheat

    Li, Xiangnan; Jiang, D.; Liu, Fulai


    The increase in global mean air temperature is likely to affect the soil temperatures in agricultural areas. This study aims to study the effects of winter soil warming on the responses of wheat to low temperature stress in spring. Wheat plants were grown under either normal or increased soil...... temperature by 2.5 °C for 82 days in winter. The physiological and yield responses of the plants to a 2-day low temperature stress (4/2 °C in the day/night) at jointing stage were investigated. After exposing to low spring temperature, the plants that had experienced winter soil warming showed lower leaf...... and root water potential, lower oxygen scavenging capacity and poor photosynthetic performance as compared with the plants grown under normal soil temperature during winter. WL plants had significantly lower sugar content in shoot than the CL plants, which might have contributed to their higher...

  19. Molecular markers as a complementary tool in risk assessments: quantifying interspecific gene flow from triticale to spring wheat and durum wheat.

    Kavanagh, Vanessa B; Hills, Melissa J; Goyal, Aakash; Randhawa, Harpinder S; Topinka, A Keith; Eudes, Francois; Hall, Linda M


    Triticale is being considered as a bioindustrial crop in Canada using genetic modification. Because related spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (T. durum) may exhibit synchronous flowering and grow in proximity, determination of interspecific gene flow when triticale is the pollen donor is necessary to evaluate potential risk. Pollen-mediated gene flow risk assessments generally rely on phenotypic markers to detect hybridization but DNA markers could be powerful and less ambiguous in quantifying rare interspecific gene flow. Six cultivars representing four species [spring wheat, durum wheat, triticale and rye (Secale cereale)] were screened with 235 spring wheat and 27 rye SSR markers to evaluate transferability and polymorphism. Fifty-five polymorphic markers were used in conjunction with morphological characterization to quantify interspecific gene flow from a blue aleurone (BA) triticale line to two spring wheat cultivars (AC Barrie and AC Crystal) and one durum wheat cultivar (AC Avonlea). Approximately 1.9 Million seeds from small plot experiments were visually screened in comparison with known hybrid seed. In total 2031 putative hybrids were identified and 448 germinated. Morphological analysis of putative hybrid plants identified five hybrids while molecular analysis identified 11 hybrids and two were common to both. Combined, 14 hybrids were confirmed: 10 spring wheat × triticale (0.0008 % of harvested seed): seven AC Barrie × BA triticale (0.001 %) and three AC Crystal × BA triticale (0.0005 %); and four durum wheat × triticale (0.0006 %). The occurrence of rare hybrids does not present a substantial risk to the development of GM triticale.

  20. Reproductive Allocation Patterns in Different Density Populations of Spring Wheat

    Jing Liu; Gen-Xuan Wang; Liang Wei; Chun-Ming Wang


    The effects of Increased intraspecific competition on size hierarchies (size inequality) and reproductive allocation were investigated in populations of the annual plant, spdng wheat (Triticum aestivum). A series of densities (100, 300, 1 000, 3 000 and 10 000 plants/m2) along a gradient of competition intensity were designed in this experiment. The results showed that average shoot biomass decreased with increased density. Reproductive allocation was negatively correlated to Gini coefficient (R2=0.927), which suggested that reproductive allocation is inclined to decrease as size inequality increases. These results suggest that both vegetative and reproductive structures were significantly affected by intensive competition. However, results also indicated that there were different relationships between plant size and reproductive allocation pattern in different densities. In the lowest density population, lacking competition (100 plants/m2), individual reproductive allocation was size independent but, in high density populations (300, 1 000, 3 000 and 10 000 plants/m2), where competition occurred, individual reproductive allocation was size dependent: the small proportion of larger individuals were winners In competition and got higher reproductive allocation (lower marginal reproductive allocation; MRA), and the larger proportion of smaller individuals were suppressed and got lower reproductive allocation (higher MRA). In conclusion, our results support the prediction that elevated intraspecific competition would result in higher levels of size inequality and decreased reproductive allocation (with a negative relationship between them). However, deeper analysis indicated that these frequency- and size-dependent reproductive strategies were not evolutionarily stable strategies.

  1. Leaf Rust of Wheat: Pathogen Biology, Variation and Host Resistance

    James Kolmer


    Full Text Available Rusts are important pathogens of angiosperms and gymnosperms including cereal crops and forest trees. With respect to cereals, rust fungi are among the most important pathogens. Cereal rusts are heteroecious and macrocyclic requiring two taxonomically unrelated hosts to complete a five spore stage life cycle. Cereal rust fungi are highly variable for virulence and molecular polymorphism. Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina is the most common rust of wheat on a worldwide basis. Many different races of P. triticina that vary for virulence to leaf rust resistance genes in wheat differential lines are found annually in the US. Molecular markers have been used to characterize rust populations in the US and worldwide. Highly virulent races of P. triticina are selected by leaf rust resistance genes in the soft red winter wheat, hard red winter wheat and hard red spring wheat cultivars that are grown in different regions of the US. Cultivars that only have race-specific leaf rust resistance genes that are effective in seedling plants lose their effective resistance and become susceptible within a few years of release. Cultivars with combinations of race non-specific resistance genes have remained resistant over a period of years even though races of the leaf rust population have changed constantly.

  2. Quality requirements of soft red winter wheat for making northern-style Chinese steamed bread

    Flours of 19 soft red winter (SRW) wheat varieties having protein contents of 6.6 to 9.9% were used to determine the suitability of SRW wheat for making steamed bread and the influences of flour characteristics on the quality attributes of steamed bread. Fourteen varieties produced steamed bread of ...

  3. Comparison of Starch Granule Size Distribution Between Hard and Soft Wheat Cultivars in Eastern China


    Granule size distribution of wheat starch is an important characteristic that can affect its chemical composition and functionality. Two types of wheat cultivars, the hard and soft wheat cultivars, grown at Tai'an Experimental Station of Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong, China, were examined in this study. The granule size distribution and amylose contents in wheat grains were studied and compared, and relationships between the properties were identified. A clear bimodal distribution of granule size was shown in all wheat cultivars. Volume distribution of starch granules shows the typical bimodal with peak values in the ranges of 5.6-6.1 μm and 20.7-24.9 μm, respectively. Also, granule surface area distribution was bimodal with peak values in the ranges of 2.4-3.2 μm and 20.7-24.9 μm, respectively. Number distribution of granules was a typical population with a peak value in the range of 0.54-1.05 μm. Contributions from the granules < 2.8 μm and<9.9 μm to the total volume were in the ranges of 94.2-95.1% and 99.7-99.9% of total number, respectively. Proportions of granules <2.8 μm, 2.8-9.9 μm, 9.9-22.8 μm, and 22.8-42.8 μm were in the ranges of 12.9-14.3%, 28.4-31.1%, 33.5-35.6%, and 19.7-22.7% for hard wheat, and 10.3-13.9%, 26.6-28.1%, 32.7-34.6%, and 24.2-27% for soft wheat. Hard wheat had greater B-type granules (< 9.9 μm), and had fewer granules of 22.8-42.8 μm than soft wheat. Amylose content was positively related to volume percentage of granules 22.8-42.8 μm, and negatively related to volume percentage of granules 2.8-22.8 μm.

  4. Importance of insoluble-bound phenolics to antioxidant properties of wheat.

    Liyana-Pathirana, Chandrika M; Shahidi, Fereidoon


    Two commercial samples of soft (70% Canadian Eastern soft red spring and 30% Canadian Eastern soft white winter) and hard (90% Canadian western hard red spring and 10% Canadian Eastern hard red winter) wheats were used to obtain different milling fractions. Phenolics extracted belonged to free, soluble esters and insoluble-bound fractions. Soluble esters of phenolics and insoluble-bound phenolics were extracted into diethyl ether after alkaline hydrolysis of samples. The content of phenolics was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent and expressed as ferulic acid equivalents (FAE). The antioxidant activity of phenolic fractions was evaluated using Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, reducing power, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and DNA, Rancimat, inhibition of photochemilumenescence, and iron(II) chelation activity. The bound phenolic content in the bran fraction was 11.3 +/- 0.13 and 12.2 +/- 0.15 mg FAE/g defatted material for hard and soft wheats, respectively. The corresponding values for flour were 0.33 +/- 0.01 and 0.46 +/- 0.02 mg FAE/g defatted sample. The bound phenolic content of hard and soft whole wheats was 2.1 (+/-0.004 or +/-0.005) mg FAE/g defatted material. The free phenolic content ranged from 0.14 +/- 0.004 to 0.98 +/- 0.05 mg FAE/g defatted milling fractions of hard and soft wheats examined. The contribution of bound phenolics to the total phenolic content was significantly higher than that of free and esterified fractions. In wheat, phenolic compounds were concentrated mainly in the bran tissues. In the numerous in vitro antioxidant assays carried out, the bound phenolic fraction demonstrated a significantly higher antioxidant capacity than free and esterified phenolics. Thus, inclusion of bound phenolics in studies related to quantification and antioxidant activity evaluation of grains and cereals is essential.

  5. Development of silicon microforce sensors integrated with double meander springs for standard hardness test instruments

    Wasisto, Hutomo Suryo; Doering, Lutz; Daus, Alwin; Brand, Uwe; Frank, Thomas; Peiner, Erwin


    Silicon microforce sensors, to be used as a transferable standard for micro force and depth scale calibrations of hardness testing instruments, are developed using silicon bulk micromachining technologies. Instead of wet chemical etching, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) cryogenic deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) is employed in the sensor fabrication process leading to more precise control of 300 μm deep structures with smooth sidewall profiles. Double meander springs are designed flanking to the boss replacing the conventional rectangular springs and thereby improving the system linearity. Two full p-SOI piezoresistive Wheatstone bridges are added on both clamped ends of the active sensors. To realize passive force sensors two spring-mass elements are stacked using glue and photoresist as joining materials. Correspondingly, although plastic deformation seems to occur when the second spring is contacted, the kink effect (i.e., abrupt increase of stiffness) is obviously observed from the first test of the passive stack sensor.

  6. Response of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. quality traits and yield to sowing date.

    Mukhtar Ahmed

    Full Text Available The unpredictability and large fluctuation of the climatic conditions in rainfed regions do affect spring wheat yield and grain quality. These variations offer the opportunity for the production of better quality wheat. The effect of variable years, locations and sowing managements on wheat grain yield and quality was studied through field experiments using three genotypes, three locations for two years under rainfed conditions. The two studied years as contrasting years at three locations and sowing dates depicted variability in temperature and water stress during grain filling which resulted considerable change in grain yield and quality. Delayed sowing, years (2009-10 and location (Talagang with high temperature and water stress resulted increased proline, and grain quality traits i.e. grain protein (GP and grain ash (GA than optimum conditions (during 2008-09, at Islamabad and early sowing. However, opposite trend was observed for dry gluten (DG, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, SPAD content and grain yield irrespective of genotypes. The influence of variable climatic conditions was dominant in determining the quality traits and inverse relationship was observed among some quality traits and grain yield. It may be concluded that by selecting suitable locations and different sowing managements for subjecting the crop to desirable environmental conditions (temperature and water quality traits of wheat crop could be modified.

  7. Soft and Hard Textured Wheat Differ in Starch Properties as Indicated by Trimodal Distribution, Morphology, Thermal and Crystalline Properties

    Kumar, Rohit; Kumar, Aman; Sharma, Nand Kishor; Kaur, Navneet; Chunduri, Venkatesh; Chawla, Meenakshi; Sharma, Saloni; Singh, Kashmir; Garg, Monika


    Starch and proteins are major components in the wheat endosperm that affect its end product quality. Between the two textural classes of wheat i.e. hard and soft, starch granules are loosely bound with the lipids and proteins in soft wheat due to higher expression of interfering grain softness proteins. It might have impact on starch granules properties. In this work for the first time the physiochemical and structural properties of different sized starch granules (A-, B- and C-granules) were studied to understand the differences in starches with respect to soft and hard wheat. A-, B- and C-type granules were separated with >95% purity. Average number and proportion of A-, B-, and C-type granules was 18%, 56%, 26% and 76%, 19%, 5% respectively. All had symmetrical birefringence pattern with varied intensity. All displayed typical A-type crystallites. A-type granules also showed V-type crystallinity that is indicative of starch complexes with lipids and proteins. Granules differing in gelatinization temperature (ΔH) and transition temperature (ΔT), showed different enthalpy changes during heating. Substitution analysis indicated differences in relative substitution pattern of different starch granules. Birefringence, percentage crystallinity, transmittance, gelatinization enthalpy and substitution decreased in order of A>B>C being higher in hard wheat than soft wheat. Amylose content decreased in order of A>B>C being higher in soft wheat than hard wheat. Reconstitution experiment showed that starch properties could be manipulated by changing the composition of starch granules. Addition of A-granules to total starch significantly affected its thermal properties. Effect of A-granule addition was higher than B- and C-granules. Transmittance of the starch granules paste showed that starch granules of hard wheat formed clear paste. These results suggested that in addition to differences in protein concentration, hard and soft wheat lines have differences in starch

  8. Soft and Hard Textured Wheat Differ in Starch Properties as Indicated by Trimodal Distribution, Morphology, Thermal and Crystalline Properties.

    Rohit Kumar

    Full Text Available Starch and proteins are major components in the wheat endosperm that affect its end product quality. Between the two textural classes of wheat i.e. hard and soft, starch granules are loosely bound with the lipids and proteins in soft wheat due to higher expression of interfering grain softness proteins. It might have impact on starch granules properties. In this work for the first time the physiochemical and structural properties of different sized starch granules (A-, B- and C-granules were studied to understand the differences in starches with respect to soft and hard wheat. A-, B- and C-type granules were separated with >95% purity. Average number and proportion of A-, B-, and C-type granules was 18%, 56%, 26% and 76%, 19%, 5% respectively. All had symmetrical birefringence pattern with varied intensity. All displayed typical A-type crystallites. A-type granules also showed V-type crystallinity that is indicative of starch complexes with lipids and proteins. Granules differing in gelatinization temperature (ΔH and transition temperature (ΔT, showed different enthalpy changes during heating. Substitution analysis indicated differences in relative substitution pattern of different starch granules. Birefringence, percentage crystallinity, transmittance, gelatinization enthalpy and substitution decreased in order of A>B>C being higher in hard wheat than soft wheat. Amylose content decreased in order of A>B>C being higher in soft wheat than hard wheat. Reconstitution experiment showed that starch properties could be manipulated by changing the composition of starch granules. Addition of A-granules to total starch significantly affected its thermal properties. Effect of A-granule addition was higher than B- and C-granules. Transmittance of the starch granules paste showed that starch granules of hard wheat formed clear paste. These results suggested that in addition to differences in protein concentration, hard and soft wheat lines have

  9. [Competitiveness of hard wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) varieties against ripgut brome (Bromus rigidus Roth)].

    Hamal, A; Benbella, M; Rzozi, S B; Bouhache, M; Msatef, Y


    Varieties with an excellent competitiveness against ripgut brome (Bromus rigidus Roth.) would be very important to reinforce others methods to control ripgut brome weed. This study was carried out in 1999-2000 season in a greenhouse experiment to test the aggressiveness degree of six varieties of hard wheat (Oum Rabia, Isly, Marzak, Karim, Sebou, and Massa) combined with ripgut brome. Plant density was fixed at 16 plants of wheat or Bromus for pure crop and 8 plants for wheat and 8 for Bromus mixture. The results showed that the numbers of kernels/spikes were higher in the mixture for on pure composition. For the kernel weight, the result was opposite except for Isly and Marzak varieties. Karim and Isly varieties obtained the highest grain yield and were more competitive in mixture composition but Sebou and Massa varieties were less competitive against ripgut brome. Results of ripgut brome productivity and water use efficiency were similar and were used to determine the aggressiveness coefficient of hard wheat varieties against ripgut brome. The reduction of the shoot dry matter of brome was 22 to 56% at flowering. The grain yield of brome was reduced from 57 to 81%.

  10. The Effect of Zinc Fertilizer Application on Grain Yield of Different Zinc-Efficient Spring and Winter Wheat Cultivars

    M. Malian


    Full Text Available These field trials were carried out to investigate the effect of various zinc (Zn fertilizer application treatments on grain yield of some spring (Isfahan and Neishabour and winter wheat cultivars (Mashhad and Jolge-e-Rokh with different Zn efficiency during 2009-2010 growth seasons. Five Zn fertilizer treatments were applied including: no added Zn (control, soil application of Zn-sulfate, and foliar spray of Zn-sulfate, Omex1, and Omex2. Omex1 and Omex2 contained 4 and 17% Zn, respectively. Foliar spray was performed at the anthesis stage. Both spring and winter wheat genotypes significantly differed in grain yield. The results showed that wheat genotypes largely varied in their grain yield response to different Zn application treatments. Some spring (Sholeh in Isfahan and winter (Sabalan in Jolg-e-Rokh wheat genotypes had greater response to Zn fertilization so that Zn addition increased grain yield of Sholeh by 48% and Sabalan by 17% as compared with no added Zn control. In contrast, Zn addition had no effect on grain yield of some other genotypes. Yield response of wheat genotypes to Zn application treatments significantly varied upon location. According to the results obtained from this study, the efficacy of Zn fertilizer treatments on grain yield of wheat is dependent on the genotype and location. Therefore, this concern should be considered in fertilizer recommendation programs that a specific Zn fertilizer treatment may not be recommended for all wheat cultivars and locations.

  11. Impact of Triticum mosaic virus infection on hard winter wheat milling and bread baking quality.

    Miller, Rebecca A; Martin, T Joe; Seifers, Dallas L


    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) is a newly discovered wheat virus. Information regarding the effect of wheat viruses on milling and baking quality is limited. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of TriMV infection on the kernel characteristics, milling yield and bread baking quality of wheat. Commercial hard winter varieties evaluated included RonL, Danby and Jagalene. The TriMV resistance of RonL is low, while that of Danby and Jagalene is unknown. KS96HW10-3, a germplasm with high TriMV resistance, was included as a control. Plots of each variety were inoculated with TriMV at the two- to three-leaf stage. Trials were conducted at two locations in two crop years. TriMV infection had no effect on the kernel characteristics, flour yield or baking properties of KS96HW10-3. The effect of TriMV on the kernel characteristics of RonL, Danby and Jagalene was not consistent between crop years and presumably an environmental effect. The flour milling and bread baking properties of these three varieties were not significantly affected by TriMV infection. TriMV infection of wheat plants did not affect harvested wheat kernel characteristics, flour milling properties or white pan bread baking quality. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Relationship between Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Grain Yield in Spring Wheat Cultivated under Different Water Regimes


    In C3 plants, carbon isotope discrimination (△) has been proposed as an indirect selection criterion for grain yield. Reported correlations between △ and grain yield however, differ highly according to the analyzed organ or tissue, the stage of sampling, and the environment and water regime. In a first experiment carried out in spring wheat during two consecutive seasons in the dry conditions of northwest Mexico (Ciudad Obregon, Sonora), different water treatments were applied,corresponding to the main water regimes available to spring wheat worldwide, and the relationships between △ values of different organs and grain yield were examined. Under terminal (post-anthesis) water stress, grain yield was positively associated with △ in grain at maturity and in leaf at anthesis, confirming results previously obtained under Mediterranean environments. Under early (pre-anthesis) water stress and residual moisture stress, the association between grain △ and yield was weaker and highly depended on the quantity of water stored in the soil at sowing. No correlation was found between △ and grain yield under optimal irrigation. The relationship between △ and grain yield was also studied during two consecutive seasons in 20 bread wheat cultivars in the Ningxia region (Northern China), characterized by winter drought(pre-anthesis water stress). Wheat was grown under rainfed conditions in two locations (Guyuan and Pengyang) and under irrigated conditions in another two (Yinchuan and Huinong). In Huinong, the crop was also exposed to salt stress.Highly significant positive associations were found between leaf and grain △ and grain yields across the environments.The relationship between △ and yield within environments highly depended on the quantity of water stored in the soil at sowing, the quantity and distribution of rainfall during the growth cycle, the presence of salt in the soil, and the occurrence of irrigation before anthesis. These two experiments

  13. Influence of soil amendments made from digestate on soil physics and the growth of spring wheat

    Dietrich, Nils; Knoop, Christine; Raab, Thomas; Krümmelbein, Julia


    Every year 13 million tons of organic wastes accumulate in Germany. These wastes are a potential alternative for the production of energy in biogas plants, especially because the financial subventions for the cultivation of renewable resources for energy production were omitted in 2014. The production of energy from biomass and organic wastes in biogas plants results in the accumulation of digestate and therefore causes the need for a sustainable strategy of the utilization of these residues. Within the scope of the BMBF-funded project 'VeNGA - Investigations for recovery and nutrient use as well as soil and plant-related effects of digestate from waste fermentation' the application of processed digestate as soil amendments is examined. Therefore we tested four different mechanical treatment processes (rolled pellets, pressed pellets, shredded compost and sieved compost) to produce soil amendments from digestate with regard to their impact on soil physics, soil chemistry and the interactions between plants and soil. Pot experiments with soil amendments were performed in the greenhouse experiment with spring wheat and in field trials with millet, mustard and forage rye. After the first year of the experiment, preliminary results indicate a positive effect of the sieved compost and the rolled pellets on biomass yield of spring wheat as compared to the other variations. First results from the Investigation on soil physics show that rolled pellets have a positive effect on the soil properties by influencing size and distribution of pores resulting in an increased water holding capacity. Further ongoing enhancements of the physical and chemical properties of the soil amendments indicate promising results regarding the ecological effects by increased root growth of spring wheat.

  14. New durum wheat with soft kernel texture: milling performance and end-use quality analysis of the Hardness locus in Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    Wheat kernel texture dictates U.S. wheat market class. Durum wheat has limited demand and culinary end-uses compared to bread wheat because of its extremely hard kernel texture which preclude conventional milling. ‘Soft Svevo’, a new durum cultivar with soft kernel texture comparable to a soft white...

  15. New durum wheat with soft kernel texture: end-use quality analysis of the Hardness locus in Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    Wheat kernel texture dictates U.S. wheat market class. Durum wheat has limited demand and culinary end-uses compared to bread wheat because of its extremely hard kernel texture which precludes conventional milling. ‘Soft Svevo’, a new durum cultivar with soft kernel texture comparable to a soft whit...

  16. Exploiting trait correlations for the next-generation grain yield and end-use quality improvement of U.S. hard winter wheat

    Since the early 1980s, the land area planted to U.S. hard winter wheat and the share of U.S. wheat in global export markets have both declined dramatically. Improved profitability of other crops relative to wheat, declining or static domestic wheat flour consumption, and an increasingly competitive ...

  17. Low crop plant population densities promote pollen-mediated gene flow in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Willenborg, Christian J; Brûlé-Babel, Anita L; Van Acker, Rene C


    Transgenic wheat is currently being field tested with the intent of eventual commercialization. The development of wheat genotypes with novel traits has raised concerns regarding the presence of volunteer wheat populations and the role they may play in facilitating transgene movement. Here, we report the results of a field experiment that investigated the potential of spring wheat plant population density and crop height to minimize gene flow from a herbicide-resistant (HR) volunteer population to a non-HR crop. Pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) between the HR volunteer wheat population and four conventional spring wheat genotypes varying in height was assessed over a range of plant population densities. Natural hybridization events between the two cultivars were detected by phenotypically scoring plants in F(1) populations followed by verification with Mendelian segregation ratios in the F(1:2) families. PMGF was strongly associated with crop yield components, but showed no association with flowering synchrony. Maximum observed PMGF was always less than 0.6%, regardless of crop height and density. The frequency of PMGF in spring wheat decreased exponentially with increasing plant population density, but showed no dependence on either crop genotype or height. However, increasing plant densities beyond the recommended planting rate of 300 cropped wheat plants m(-2) provided no obvious benefit to reducing PMGF. Nevertheless, our results demonstrate a critical plant density of 175-200 cropped wheat plants m(-2) below which PMGF frequencies rise exponentially with decreasing plant density. These results will be useful in the development of mechanistic models and best management practices that collectively facilitate the coexistence of transgenic and nontransgenic wheat crops.

  18. Short Response of Spring Wheat to Tillage, Residue Management and Split Nitrogen Application in a Rice-Wheat System

    Khalid Usman; Ejaz Ahmad Khan; Fazal Yazdan; Niamatullah Khan; Abdur Rashid; Saleem Ud Din


    A ifeld experiment was conducted to study the impact of tillage, crop residue management and nitrogen (N) splitting on spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield over 2 yr (2010-2012) in a rice (Oryza sativa L.)-wheat system in northwestern Pakistan. The experiment was conducted as split plot arranged in randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Treatments comprised six tillage and residue managements:zero tillage straw retained (ZTsr), zero tillage straw burnt (ZTsb), reduced tillage straw incorporated (RTsi), reduced tillage straw burnt (RTsb), conventional tillage straw incorporated (CTsi), and conventional tillage straw burnt (CTsb) as main plots and N (200 kg ha-1) was applied as split form viz., control (no nitrogen&no splitting, N0S0);2 splits of total N, half at sowing and half at the 1st irrigation (i.e., 20 d after sowing (DAS)) (NS1);3 splits of total N, 1/3 at sowing, 1/3 at the 1st irrigation, and 1/3 at the 2nd irrigation (NS2);4 splits of total N, 1/4 at sowing, 1/4 at the 1st irrigation, 1/4 at the 2nd irrigation (45 DAS), and 1/4 at the 3rd irrigation (70 DAS) (NS3);and 4 splits of total N, 1/4 at the 1st irrigation, 1/4 at the 2nd irrigation, 1/4 at the 3rd irrigation, and 1/4 at the 4th irrigation (95DAS) (NS4) as sub plots. The results showed that the most pikes m-2, grains/spike, 1 000-grain weight, grain yield, and N use efifciency (NUE) were obtained at zero tillage, straw retained and 4 splits application of total N (i.e., at sowing 20, 45 and 70 d after sowing). The results indicated that ZTsr with application of 200 kg N ha-1 in 4 equal splits viz. at sowing 20, 45 and 70 d after sowing is an appropriate strategy that enhanced wheat yield (7 436-7 634 kg ha-1) and N efifciency (28.6-29.5 kg kg-1) in rice-wheat system.

  19. Proteomic and genetic analysis of wheat endosperm albumins and globulins using deletion lines of cultivar Chinese Spring

    Merlino, Marielle; Bousbata, Sabrina; Svensson, Birte;


    Albumins and globulins from the endosperm of Triticum aestivum L. cv Chinese Spring (CS) were analysed to establish a proteome reference map for this standard wheat cultivar. Approximately, 1,145 Coomassie-stained spots were detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), 410 of which were...... the composition and genetics of a complex tissue, such as the wheat endosperm.......Albumins and globulins from the endosperm of Triticum aestivum L. cv Chinese Spring (CS) were analysed to establish a proteome reference map for this standard wheat cultivar. Approximately, 1,145 Coomassie-stained spots were detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), 410 of which were...... in endosperm proteins due to chromosomal deletions. This differential analysis of spots allowed structural or regulatory genes, encoding 211 proteins, to be located on segments of the 21 wheat chromosomes. In addition, variance analysis of quantitative variations in spot volume showed that the expression...

  20. Microsatellite markers for kernel color genes in wheat

    The establishment of hard white wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as a viable alternative for growers has been impeded by several factors, one of which is that new hard white wheat cultivars may not be competitive with hard red cultivars. This is due to the fact that most breeding programs devote more re...

  1. The relationship between grain hardness, dough mixing parameters and bread-making quality in winter wheat.

    Salmanowicz, Bolesław P; Adamski, Tadeusz; Surma, Maria; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Karolina, Krystkowiak; Kuczyńska, Anetta; Banaszak, Zofia; Lugowska, Bogusława; Majcher, Małgorzata; Obuchowski, Wiktor


    The influence of grain hardness, determined by using molecular markers and physical methods (near-infrared (NIR) technique and particle size index-PSI) on dough characteristics, which in turn were determined with the use of a farinograph and reomixer, as well as bread-making properties were studied. The material covered 24 winter wheat genotypes differing in grain hardness. The field experiment was conducted at standard and increased levels of nitrogen fertilization. Results of molecular analyses were in agreement with those obtained by the use of physical methods for soft-grained lines. Some lines classified as hard (by physical methods) appeared to have the wild-type Pina and Pinb alleles, similar to soft lines. Differences in dough and bread-making properties between lines classified as hard and soft on the basis of molecular data appeared to be of less significance than the differences between lines classified as hard and soft on the basis of physical analyses of grain texture. Values of relative grain hardness at the increased nitrogen fertilization level were significantly higher. At both fertilization levels the NIR parameter determining grain hardness was significantly positively correlated with the wet gluten and sedimentation values, with most of the rheological parameters and bread yield. Values of this parameter correlated with quality characteristics in a higher degree than values of particle size index.

  2. The Relationship Between Grain Hardness, Dough Mixing Parameters and Bread-Making Quality in Winter Wheat

    Maria Surma


    Full Text Available The influence of grain hardness, determined by using molecular markers and physical methods (near-infrared (NIR technique and particle size index—PSI on dough characteristics, which in turn were determined with the use of a farinograph and reomixer, as well as bread-making properties were studied. The material covered 24 winter wheat genotypes differing in grain hardness. The field experiment was conducted at standard and increased levels of nitrogen fertilization. Results of molecular analyses were in agreement with those obtained by the use of physical methods for soft-grained lines. Some lines classified as hard (by physical methods appeared to have the wild-type Pina and Pinb alleles, similar to soft lines. Differences in dough and bread-making properties between lines classified as hard and soft on the basis of molecular data appeared to be of less significance than the differences between lines classified as hard and soft on the basis of physical analyses of grain texture. Values of relative grain hardness at the increased nitrogen fertilization level were significantly higher. At both fertilization levels the NIR parameter determining grain hardness was significantly positively correlated with the wet gluten and sedimentation values, with most of the rheological parameters and bread yield. Values of this parameter correlated with quality characteristics in a higher degree than values of particle size index.

  3. Related physicochemical properties to microstructure of hard and soft wheat grains with different kernel thickness and specific density.

    Li, Yinian; Wang, Jun; Xie, Weizhong; Lu, Daxin; Ding, Weimin


    Physicochemical properties of wheat grains with largest kernel thickness always was lowest than the other sections, examination of microstructure of wheat grains can help us understand this phenomena. Two varieties of wheat, soft white winter wheat Yangmai 11 and hard white winter wheat Zhengmai 9023, were fractionated into five sections by kernel thickness. Then the fractionated wheat grains in 2.7-3.0 mm section were separated into three fractions by kernel specific density sequentially. Microstructure of the fractured surface were evaluated at different scale level to two varieties wheat with different kernel thickness and specific density by using environmental scanning electron microscopy. Compactness and size of endosperm cell tended to decrease with decreasing wheat kernel thickness and specific density. Protein matrix tended to increase with decreasing wheat kernel thickness and specific density. Size of starch granules and proportion for different type starch granules also varied with different wheat kernel thickness and specific density. Those microstructure properties of the fractured surface, formation of endosperm cells, protein matrix and starch granules were close related to rheological properties and pasting properties of wheat grains.

  4. Chlorophyll content of spring wheat flag leaves grown under elevated CO2 concentrations and other environmental stresses within the 'ESPACE-wheat' project

    Ommen, O.E.; Donnelly, A.; Vanhoutvin, S.; Oijen, van M.; Manderscheid, R.


    Spring wheat cv. Minaret was grown in open-top chambers at four sites across Europe. The effect of different treatments (CO2 enrichment, O3 fumigation, drought stress and temperature) on the chlorophyll content of the flag leaf was investigated using the MINOLTA SPAD-502 meter. Under optimum growth

  5. Improving wheat simulation capabilities in Australia from a cropping systems perspective: Water and nitrogen effects on spring wheat in a semi-arid environment.

    Meinke, H.; Hammer, G.L.; Keulen, van H.; Rabbinge, R.; Keating, B.A.


    Systems approaches can help to evaluate and improve the agronomic and economic viability of nitrogen application in the frequently water-limited environments. This requires a sound understanding of crop physiological processes and well tested simulation models. Thus, this experiment on spring wheat

  6. Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat Triticum aestivum: complementary interaction between vernalization-insensitive and photoperiod-insensitive mutations imparts very early flowering habit to spring wheat

    Sushil Kumar; Vishakha Sharma; Swati Chaudhary; Anshika Tyagi; Poonam Mishra; Anupama Priyadarshini; Anupam Singh


    Time to flowering in the winter growth habit bread wheat is dependent on vernalization (exposure to cold conditions) and exposure to long days (photoperiod). Dominant Vrn-1 (Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1 and Vrn-D1) alleles are associated with vernalization-independent spring growth habit. The semidominant Ppd-D1a mutation confers photoperiod-insensitivity or rapid flowering in wheat under short day and long day conditions. The objective of this study was to reveal the nature of interaction between Vrn-1 and Ppd-D1a mutations (active alleles of the respective genes vrn-1 and Ppd-D1b). Twelve Indian spring wheat cultivars and the spring wheat landrace Chinese Spring were characterized for their flowering times by seeding them every month for five years under natural field conditions in New Delhi. Near isogenic Vrn-1 Ppd-D1 and Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a lines constructed in two genetic backgrounds were also phenotyped for flowering time by seeding in two different seasons. The wheat lines of Vrn-A1a Vrn-B1 Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1a, Vrn-A1a Vrn-B1 Ppd-D1a and Vrn-A1a Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1a (or Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a) genotypes flowered several weeks earlier than that of Vrn-A1a Vrn-B1 Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1b, Vrn-A1b Ppd-D1b and Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1b (or Vrn-1 Ppd-D1b) genotypes. The flowering time phenotypes of the isogenic vernalization-insensitive lines confirmed that Ppd-D1a hastened flowering by several weeks. It was concluded that complementary interaction between Vrn-1 and Ppd-D1a active alleles imparted super/very-early flowering habit to spring wheats. The early and late flowering wheat varieties showed differences in flowering time between short day and long day conditions. The flowering time in Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a genotypes was hastened by higher temperatures under long day conditions. The ambient air temperature and photoperiod parameters for flowering in spring wheat were estimated at 25°C and 12 h, respectively.

  7. Suitability of spring wheat varieties for the production of best quality pizza.

    Tehseen, Saima; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Pasha, Imran; Khan, Muhammad Issa; Saeed, Farhan


    The selection of appropriate wheat cultivars is an imperative issue in product development and realization. The nutritional profiling of plants and their cultivars along with their suitability for development of specific products is of considerable interests for multi-national food chains. In this project, Pizza-Hut Pakistan provided funds for the selection of suitable newly developed Pakistani spring variety for pizza production. In this regard, the recent varieties were selected and evaluated for nutritional and functional properties for pizza production. Additionally, emphasis has been paid to assess all varieties for their physico-chemical attributes, rheological parameters and mineral content. Furthermore, pizza prepared from respective flour samples were further evaluated for sensory attributes Results showed that Anmool, Abadgar, Imdad, SKD-1, Shafaq and Moomal have higher values for protein, gluten content, pelshenke value and SDS sedimentation and these were relatively better in studied parameters as compared to other varieties although which were considered best for good quality pizza production. TD-1 got significantly highest score for flavor of pizza and lowest score was observed from wheat variety Kiran. Moreover, it is concluded from current study that all wheat varieties except TJ-83 and Kiran exhibited better results for flavor.

  8. Ecological toxicity of reactive X-3B red dye and cadmium acting on wheat (Triticum aestivum)


    Ecological toxicity of reactive X-3B red dye and cadmium in both their single form and their combined form on wheat was studied using the experimental method of seed and root exposure. The single-factor exposure indicated that the inhibitory rate of wheat root elongation was significantly increased with the increase in the concentration of the dye in the cultural solution, although seed germination of wheat was not sensitive to the dye. The toxicity of cadmium was greatly higher than that of the dye, but low concentration cadmium (< 40 mg/L) could promote the germination of wheat seed. Interactive effects of the dye and cadmium on wheat were complicated. There was no significant correlation between the inhibitory rate of seed germination and the concentrations of the dye and cadmium. Low concentration cadmium could strengthen the toxicity of the dye acting on root elongation. On the contrary, high concentration cadmium could weaken the toxicity of the dye acting on root elongation.

  9. Sensory profiles of bread made from paired samples of organic and conventionally grown wheat grain.

    Annett, L E; Spaner, D; Wismer, W V


    The Canadian hard red spring wheat cultivar "Park" was grown in 2005 in Edmonton, AB, Canada on both conventionally and organically managed land, situated less than 1 km apart. Grains from the paired wheat samples were compared for cereal-grain-quality attributes. For sensory analysis, organically and conventionally produced wheat grains were milled into flour and baked into 60% whole wheat bread. Color, texture, taste, and aroma attributes of bread were compared using the sensory technique of descriptive analysis. Organic grain contained more wholemeal protein than conventional grain (P bread. Mixograph analysis revealed that conventional flour produced stronger bread dough than organic flour (P bread loaf volume. Fourteen sensory attributes were generated by the descriptive analysis panel. No differences were observed for flavor, aroma, or color attributes (P > 0.05), but the panel perceived the organic bread to be more "dense" in texture (P bread.

  10. Comparison of CRD, APU, and state models for Iowa corn and soybeans and North Dakota barley and spring wheat

    French, V.


    A comparison was made among the CEAS crop reporting district (CRD), agrophysical unit (APU), and state level multiple regression yield models for corn and soybeans in Iowa and barley and spring wheat in North Dakota. The best predictions were made by the state model for North Dakota spring wheat, by the APU models for barley, by the CRD models for Iowa soybeans, and by APU covariance models for Iowa corn. Because of this lack of consistency of model performance, CRD models would be recommended due to the availability of the data.

  11. [Analysis of wheat and rye semidwarfing gene distribution in spring hexaploid triticale (Triticosecale Wittm.) varieties and lines].

    Korshunova, A D; Divashchuk, M G; Solov'ev, A A; Karlov, G I


    A collection of spring hexaploid triticale varieties and promising breeding lines has been examined for the presence of wheat Rht-B1b, Rht-B1e, and Rht8c semidwarfing genes and the rye Hl semidwarfing gene. It was discovered in spring triticale that these semidwarfing genes are represented by only one, the Rht-B1b wheat gene. The presence of this gene is associated with shortening of spring triticale plants by 28 cm on average, which constituted 26% of their initial height. Rht-B1b was found in all of the studied commercial varieties of spring triticale, which rendered it possible to conclude that plant height reduction is a necessary condition for increasing the competitiveness of this crop culture.

  12. Distribution of Cadmium, Iron, and Zinc in Millstreams of Hard Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Guttieri, Mary J; Seabourn, Bradford W; Liu, Caixia; Baenziger, P Stephen; Waters, Brian M


    Hard winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major crop in the Great Plains of the United States, and our previous work demonstrated that wheat genotypes vary for grain cadmium accumulation with some exceeding the CODEX standard (0.2 mg kg(-1)). Previous reports of cadmium distribution in flour milling fractions have not included high cadmium grain. This study measured the distribution of cadmium, zinc, and iron in flour and bran streams from high cadmium (0.352 mg kg(-1)) grain on a pilot mill that produced 12 flour and four bran streams. Recovery in flour was substantially greater for cadmium (50%) than for zinc (31%) or iron (22%). Cadmium, zinc, and iron in the lowest mineral concentration flour stream, representing the purest endosperm fraction, were 52, 22, and 11%, respectively, of initial grain concentration. Our results indicate that, relative to zinc and iron, a greater proportion of cadmium is stored in the endosperm, the source of white flour.




    Full Text Available Organic farmers have become more interested in the marginally grown (neglected cultivars, as spring forms of the hulled wheat varieties (eincorn, emmer wheat, spelta wheat or intermediate forms of the soft wheat. 173 land races from the gene bank at the RI in Praha-Ruzyně were grown on the organic certified parcel and evaluated in 2008. The trial aimed to evaluate the conditions of the competitiveness to weeds, tolerance to diseases, assimilation of the sun shine and establishment of the yield. The results show that all the evaluated material inclines to the competitiveness to weeds. This ability is, nevertheless, reduced because of the inclination to the lodging (all the cultivars have long weak stalks. Eincorn and emmer wheat are resistant to mildew and brown rust, spelta wheat is less resistant cultivar and the intermediate cultivars incline to disease attack very much. Eincorn and emmer wheat have short and dense spikes, spelta wheat has long and sparse spikes. Perspective materials have been found in the study and trials. We are going to focus on a possible increase of the resistance to lodging, choice of the resistant cultivars to funga diseases and increase of the spike productivity.

  14. Color of whole-wheat foods prepared from a bright-white hard winter wheat and the phenolic acids in its coarse bran.

    Jiang, Hongxin; Martin, Joe; Okot-Kotber, Moses; Seib, Paul A


    The color of wheat kernels often impacts the color and thereby the value of wheat-based foods. A line of hard white winter wheat (B-W HW) with bright appearing kernels has been developed at the Kansas State Agricultural Research Center. The objective of this study was to compare the color of several foods made from the B-W HW wheat with those of 2 hard white wheat cultivars, Trego and Lakin. The B-W HW kernels showed higher lightness (L*, 57.6) than Trego (55.5) and Lakin (56.8), and the increased lightness was carried over to its bran and whole-wheat flour. Alkaline noodle and bread crumb made from the B-W HW whole-wheat flour showed slightly higher lightness (L*) than those made from Trego and Lakin. The sum of soluble and bound phenolics extracted from the 3 wheat brans, which had not been preextracted to remove lipids, was found to be 17.22 to 18.98 mg/g. The soluble phenolic acids in the brans were principally vanillic, ferulic, and syringic. The bound phenolic acids in the brans were dominated by ferulic, which accounted for 50.1% to 82.2% of total identified bound phenolic acids. Other bound phenolic acids were protocatechuic, caffeic, syringic, trans-cinnamic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric, and vanillic. The lightness (L*) values of coarse wheat brans correlated positively with their levels of bound protocatechuic (r = 0.72, P < 0.01) and p-hydroxybenzoic acids (r = 0.75, P < 0.01).

  15. Characterization of red-near infrared transition for wheat and chickpea using 3 nm bandwidth data

    Gupta, R. K.; Vijayan, D.; Prasad, T. S.


    Enhancement of space based capabilities to discriminate different crops and different varieties of a particular crop needs measurement of (i) the shift in red edge and (ii) the slope of the sudden rise of reflectance in 680 - 760 nm spectral region as a function of Days After Sowing (DAS). To develop the knowledge base for catering to the analysis of future space-based hyperspectral measurements, ground based measurements in 3 nm bandwidth in visible - near Infrared region together with corresponding Leaf Area Index (LAI) observations were taken over the Crop Growth Cycle (CGC) of Wheat and Chickpea. The red edge for wheat crop was at 679 nm for 25 DAS and reached the upper limit i.e., 693.7 nm at 84 DAS and thereafter shifted backward to 679 nm at 108 DAS. There was no change in red edge value of 684.9 nm during 40 to 49 DAS and of 687.8 nm during 55 to 71 DAS. The slope of Red to NIR transition for wheat varied from 0.457 to peak value of 0.784 during 25 to 71 DAS and thereafter decreased to 0.073 at 108 DAS. The peak of Red to Near Infrared (NIR) transition slope and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) occurred at the same time i.e., 71 DAS. However, the upper most value of red edge shift occurred at 84 DAS. Paper discusses the above aspects including role of mid point of Red to NIR transition, interrelationships among the Red-NIR transition Slope, Red Edge, LAI and RVI for wheat and chickpea.

  16. Quality characteristics of northern-style Chinese steamed bread prepared from soft red winter wheat flours with waxy wheat flour substitution

    Quality characteristics of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) prepared from two soft red winter (SRW) wheat flours blended with 0-30% waxy wheat flour (WWF) were determined to estimate the influence of starch amylose content. The increased proportion of WWF in blends raised mixograph absorption with insign...

  17. Traits in Spring Wheat Cultivars Associated with Yield Loss Caused by a Heat Stress Episode after Anthesis

    Vignjevic, Marija; Wang, Xiao; Olesen, Jørgen E


    Heat stress resulting from climate change and more frequent weather extremes is expected to negatively affect wheat yield. We evaluated the response of different spring wheat cultivars to a post-anthesis high temperature episode and studied the relationship between different traits associated...... during grain filling. There is in particular a need to model how heat and other stresses, including interacting effects of heat and drought, affect duration of GLA after flowering and how this affects source–sink relations during grain filling....... with heat tolerance. Fifteen spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars were grown in pots under semifield conditions, and heat stress (35/26 °C) and control treatments (20/12 °C) were applied in growth chambers for 5 days starting 14 days after flowering. The heat stress treatment reduced final yield...

  18. Population- and genome-specific patterns of linkage disequilibrium and SNP variation in spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Campbell Kim


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are ideally suited for the construction of high-resolution genetic maps, studying population evolutionary history and performing genome-wide association mapping experiments. Here, we used a genome-wide set of 1536 SNPs to study linkage disequilibrium (LD and population structure in a panel of 478 spring and winter wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum from 17 populations across the United States and Mexico. Results Most of the wheat oligo pool assay (OPA SNPs that were polymorphic within the complete set of 478 cultivars were also polymorphic in all subpopulations. Higher levels of genetic differentiation were observed among wheat lines within populations than among populations. A total of nine genetically distinct clusters were identified, suggesting that some of the pre-defined populations shared significant proportion of genetic ancestry. Estimates of population structure (FST at individual loci showed a high level of heterogeneity across the genome. In addition, seven genomic regions with elevated FST were detected between the spring and winter wheat populations. Some of these regions overlapped with previously mapped flowering time QTL. Across all populations, the highest extent of significant LD was observed in the wheat D-genome, followed by lower LD in the A- and B-genomes. The differences in the extent of LD among populations and genomes were mostly driven by differences in long-range LD ( > 10 cM. Conclusions Genome- and population-specific patterns of genetic differentiation and LD were discovered in the populations of wheat cultivars from different geographic regions. Our study demonstrated that the estimates of population structure between spring and winter wheat lines can identify genomic regions harboring candidate genes involved in the regulation of growth habit. Variation in LD suggests that breeding and selection had a different impact on each wheat genome both within and

  19. Evaluation of the Doraiswamy-Thompson winter wheat crop calendar model incorporating a modified spring restart sequence

    Taylor, T. W.; Ravet, F. W.; Smika, D. (Principal Investigator)


    The Robertson phenology was used to provide growth stage information to a wheat stress indicator mode. A stress indicator model demands two acurate predictions from a crop calendar: date of spring growth initiation; and crop calendar stage at growth initiation. Several approaches for restarting the Robertson phenology model at spring growth initiation were studied. Although best results were obtained with a solar thermal unit method, an alternate approach which indicates soil temperature as the controlling parameter for spring growth initiation was selected and tested. The modified model (Doraiswamy-Thompson) is compared to LACIE-Robertson model predictions.

  20. Effects of Sorghum Flour Addition on Chemical and Rheological Properties of Hard White Winter Wheat

    Ranya F. Abdelghafor


    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the chemical and rheological properties of different blends prepared using hard white winter wheat (HWWW; Triticum aestivum Desf. and whole or decorticated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor. Whole and decorticated sorghum were used to replace 5, 10, 15 and 20% of wheat flour. Wheat samples had higher protein, moisture and calcium values and lower fat, ash, carbohydrates, iron and phosphorous values compared to whole and decorticated sorghum flours. Decortication of sorghum grains decreased moisture, ash, fat, crude protein, iron and phosphorous content, but increased carbohydrate content. Farinogram properties such as dough water absorption, development time and stability and Farinograph quality number decreased as the amount of substituted sorghum increased; whereas mixing tolerance index increased. Moreover, at fixed gluten levels, as sorghum flour increased in the blend, wet gluten, dry gluten and gluten index decreased. Increasing sorghum in the blend also decreased energy, resistance to extension and extensibility of the dough, but contributed to an increase in the ratio of resistance to extensibility. Furthermore, as fermentation time increased, energy, resistance to extension and the ratio number of energy to extension increased, whereas extensibility decreased.




    The seasonal course of canopy transpiration and the diurnal courses of latent heat flux of a spring wheat crop were simulated for atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations of 370 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1} and 550 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1}. The hourly weather data, soil parameters and the irrigation and fertilizer treatments of the Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment wheat experiment in Arizona (1992/93) were used to drive the model. The simulation results were tested against field measurements with special emphasis on the period between anthesis and maturity. A model integrating leaf photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was scaled to a canopy level in order to be used in the wheat growth model. The simulated intercellular CO{sub 2} concentration, C{sub i} was determined from the ratio of C{sub i} to the CO{sub 2} concentration at the leaf surface, C{sub s} the leaf to air specific humidity deficit and a possibly unfulfilled transpiration demand. After anthesis, the measured assimilation rates of the flag leaves decreased more rapidly than their stomatal conductances, leading to a rise in the C{sub i}/C{sub s} ratio. In order to describe this observation, an empirical model approach was developed which took into account the leaf nitrogen content for the calculation of the C{sub i}/C{sub s} ratio. Simulation results obtained with the new model version were in good agreement with the measurements. If changes in the C{sub i}/C{sub s} ratio accorded to the decrease in leaf nitrogen content during leaf senescence were not considered in the model, simulations revealed an underestimation of the daily canopy transpiration of up to 20% and a decrease in simulated seasonal canopy transpiration by 10%. The measured reduction in the seasonal sum of canopy transpiration and soil evaporation owing to CO{sub 2} enrichment, in comparison, was only about 5%.

  2. Postulation of Leaf Rust Resistance Genes in Seven Chinese Spring Wheat Cultivars

    SHI Li-hong; ZHANG Na; HU Ya-ya; WEI Xue-jun; YANG Wen-xiang; LIU Da-qun


    To detect the leaf rust resistance genes in the 7 Chinese spring wheat clultivars Shenmian 99025, Shenmia 99042, Shenmian 85, Shenmian 91, Shenmian 96, Shenmian 1167 and Shenmian 962, Thatcher, Thatcher backgrounded near-isogenic lines and 15 pathotypes of P. triticina were used for gene postulate at the seedling stage, and 9 of the 15 pathotypes were used in the field tests. Molecular markers closely linked to, or co-segregated with resistance genes Lr1, Lr9, Lr10, Lr19, Lr20, Lr21, Lr24, Lr26, Lr28, Lr29, Lr32, Lr34, Lr35, Lr37, Lr38, and Lr47 were screened to assist detection of the resistance genes. As results, 4 known resistance genes, including Lr1, Lr9, Lr26, and Lr34, and other unknown resistance genes were postulated singly or in combination in the tested cultivars. Shenmian 85, Shenmian 91, Shenmian 96, Shenmian 962, Shenmian 1167, and Shenmian 99042 are potentially useful for wheat production and breeding programs. The result suggested that combining gene postulation, molecular markers and pedigrees is effective and more accuracy method to know the resistance genes in cultivars.

  3. Effects of Auxins and Media on Callus Induction of Chinese Spring Wheat( Triticum aestivum L.)

    WU Li-min; WEI Yu-ming; ZHENG You-liang


    The effects of auxins and media on callus induction from the mature and immature embryos of Chinese spring wheat(Triticum aestivum L.) varieties were investigated. It was found that genotype, medium, auxin source and concentration had the significant effects on the induction of embryogenic callus, explants germination and the increment of callus fresh weight. For immature embryos cultured on MS medium, 2 mg L-1of 2, 4-D was optimal, and the highest frequency of embryogenic callus (33.50%) was observed. For the mature embryos on N6 medium, 4 mg L-1 of 2, 4-D was optimal. The frequency of embryogenic callus and increment of callus fresh weight on 2, 4, 5-T media were higher than those on 2, 4-D media, and in the presence of 2, 4, 5-T the precocious germination of explants for all genotypes were significantly suppressed. These results indicated that 2, 4, 5-T was superior to 2, 4-D and NAA in the culture of immature embryos. This is the first report about the effect of 2, 4, 5-T and NAA on wheat tissue culture, particularly in comparison with 2, 4-D in detail.

  4. Suppressing weed growth after wheat harvest with underseeded red clover in organic farming

    Organic producers are seeking alternative tactics for weed control so that they can reduce their need for tillage. In this study, we examined cover crop strategies for suppressing weed growth after harvest of wheat. Two cover crop treatments, red clover (mammoth type) or a mixture of oat and dry p...

  5. Wheat flour confectionery products as a source of inorganic nutrients: iron and manganese contents in hard biscuits.

    Sebecić, Blazenka; Dragojević, I Vedrina; Horvatić, M


    To evaluate some wheat flour based hard biscuits produced in Croatia with regard to their Fe and Mn contents and thereby their functionality, Fe and Mn are determined by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS) in seven biscuits: classic white wheat flour biscuits and in dietetic biscuits enriched with whole wheat grain flour or whole wheat grain grits, soya flour and milk. Presented data show that Fe contents in seven analyzed biscuits range from 9.32 up to 24.80 mg/kg while Mn contents range from 3.76-16.37 mg/kg depending on type and share of cereal milling products and mineral content of other raw materials used. Thus, enriched biscuits produced from wheat flour type 850 and whole wheat grain flour, having the highest concentrations of Fe and Mn, were about 150% and 250%, respectively, richer in those elements in comparison with classic white flour biscuits of Petit Beurre type. Data show that wheat flour based hard biscuits, particularly enriched biscuits, can be considered as a good additional source of Fe and Mn in diets.

  6. Effects of corn oil and wheat brans on bile acid metabolism in rats.

    Gallaher, D D; Franz, P M


    High concentrations of colonic bile acids may promote tumor formation. Some studies have found that high levels of dietary fat increase fecal bile acid excretion, whereas others report no effect. Wheat bran appears to reduce fecal bile acid concentration. This study was conducted to determine the effect of different dietary fat levels and types of wheat bran on bile acid metabolism. Rats were fed diets containing either no fiber, 2% cholestyramine (CHO) or brans of hard red spring, soft white winter or durum wheat--at both a 5 or 20% fat level. Animals were fed for 7 wk, and feces were collected in the last week. Wheat bran (all types) significantly increased fecal mass approximately fourfold, and CHO significantly increased fecal mass twofold compared to the fiber-free diet. Increasing the fat level did not increase fecal bile acid excretion, nor did the addition of wheat bran. Addition of CHO, however, more than doubled it. CHO increased fecal bile acid concentration, all wheat brans decreased it and fat level had no effect. Bile acid pool size was increased slightly by fat level and cholestyramine feeding but not by wheat brans. These results indicate that fat level slightly alters bile acid metabolism but that wheat brans do not.

  7. [Determination of deoxynivalenol (DON) in wheat, barley and corn and its relationship with the levels of total molds, Fusarium spp., colonization percentage and water activity].

    Moreno Contreras, M C; Martínez Yepez, A J; Raybaudi Martínez, R


    Fifty samples of cereals including 30 of wheat (10 of wheat hard red spring), 10 of wheat soft red winter and 10 of wheat durum ámber), 10 of barley and 10 of corn (5 of white corn and 5 of yellow corn) were analyzed to detect and determine by the TLC method, the quantity of deoxynivalenol levels, which is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by Fusarium species. The aw of samples and the internal and external micoflora and Fusarium spp. levels were also investigated. Results showed that the highest grade of infection (12-80%), and the highest count of total molds (3.9 Log UFC/g) were detected in wheat samples, while the highest levels of Fusarium spp. (2.3 Log UFC/g) were detected in white corn. Deoxynivalenol was found in the wheat and barley samples but not in corn. The wheat red winter soft samples showed the highest levels of deoxynivalenol (3.2 ug/g) which is over the limit levels accepted by the FDA. Correlation was not found among count of total molds, Fusarium spp., infestation grade, aw, and deoxynivalenol levels. These results suggest that it is necessary to exert measures to avoid and to control the importation of contaminated cereals with DON levels higher to those allowed.

  8. Evaluation of the effectiveness of entomopathogens for the management of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) on spring wheat.

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Tangtrakulwanich, Khanobporn; Wu, Shaohui; Miller, John H; Ophus, Victoria L; Prewett, Julie; Jaronski, Stefan T


    Wireworms, the larval stage of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae), are serious soil dwelling pests of small grains, corn, sugar beets, and potatoes. Limonius californicus and Hypnoidus bicolor are the predominant wireworm species infesting wheat in Montana, particularly in the 'Golden Triangle' area of north-central Montana. Wireworm populations in field crops are increasing, but currently available insecticides provide only partial control, and no alternative management tools exist. In our study, three entomopathogenic fungi were tested for their efficacy against wireworms in spring wheat at two field locations (Ledger and Conrad, Montana, USA) in 2013. The three fungi (Metarhizium brunneum F52, Beauveria bassiana GHA, and Metarhizium robertsii DWR 346) were evaluated as seed-coat, in-furrow granular, and soil band-over-row drench applications in addition to imidacloprid (Gaucho® 600) seed treatment (as a chemical check), the approach currently being used by growers. Wireworm damage in these treatments was evaluated as standing plant counts, wireworm population surveys, and yield. The three fungi, applied as formulated granules or soil drenches, and the imidacloprid seed treatment all resulted in significantly higher plant stand counts and yields at both locations than the fungus-coated seed treatments or the untreated control. Significant differences were detected among the application methods but not among the species of fungi within each application method. All three fungi, when applied as granules in furrow or as soil drenches, were more effective than when used as seed-coating treatments for wireworm control, and provided an efficacy comparable or superior to imidacloprid. The fungi used in this study provided significant plant and yield protection under moderate wireworm pressure, supporting their value in the management of this pest.

  9. Expanding Red Clover (Trifolium pratense Usage in the Corn–Soy–Wheat Rotation

    Sara L. Wyngaarden


    Full Text Available A common agronomic recommendation is under-seeding red clover to wheat in the corn–soy–wheat rotation. As a leguminous cover crop, red clover boosts agro-ecological resilience and productivity through nitrogen fixation, as well as non-nitrogen-related contributions, such as soil temperature and moisture regulation; reduction of erosion, runoff, and leaching; weed suppression; and interruption of pest and disease cycles. The objective of this paper is to propose a system that extends red clover usage into the corn phase of the corn–soy–wheat rotation as a living mulch. The system incorporates strip-tillage, strip-mowing, as well as banded herbicide and fertilizer application in order to maximize productivity and minimize competition. We analyzed the feasibility of this proposal by examining red clover’s adequacy for the proposed system in comparison with other broadleaf, leguminous cover crops, and assessed potential agro-ecological benefits. We considered logistical components of the proposition, including the use of strip-tillage, the application of precision technology, as well as the opportunity for further technological developments. We found that the proposed system has potential to increase agro-ecological sustainability, resilience, and the overall productivity of this three-year rotation. Thus, this easily-implemented practice should be formally studied.

  10. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} on canopy transpiration in senescent spring wheat

    Grossman, S.; Kimball, B.A.; Hunsaker, D.J.; Long, S.P. et al


    The seasonal course of canopy transpiration and the diurnal courses of latent heat flux of a spring wheat crop were simulated for atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations of 370 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1} and 550 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1}. The hourly weather data, soil parameters and the irrigation and fertilizer treatments of the Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment wheat experiment in Arizona (1992/93) were used to drive the model. The simulation results were tested against field measurements with special emphasis on the period between anthesis and maturity. A model integrating leaf photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was scaled to a canopy level in order to be used in the wheat growth model. The simulated intercellular CO{sub 2} concentration, C{sub i} was determined from the ratio of C{sub i} to the CO{sub 2} concentration at the leaf surface, C{sub s}, the leaf to air specific humidity deficit and a possibly unfulfilled transpiration demand. After anthesis, the measured assimilation rates of the flag leaves decreased more rapidly than their stomatal conductances, leading to a rise in the C{sub i}/C{sub s} ratio. In order to describe this observation, an empirical model approach was developed which took into account the leaf nitrogen content for the calculation of the C{sub i}/C{sub s} ratio. Simulation results obtained with the new model version were in good agreement with the measurements. If changes in the C{sub i}/C{sub s} ratio accorded to the decrease in leaf nitrogen content during leaf senescence were not considered in the model, simulations revealed an underestimation of the daily canopy transpiration of up to twenty percent and a decrease in simulated seasonal canopy transpiration by ten percent. The measured reduction in the seasonal sum of canopy transpiration and soil evaporation owing to CO{sub 2} enrichment, in comparison, was only about five percent.

  11. Wheat flour confectionery products as a source of inorganic nutrients: zinc and copper contents in hard biscuits.

    Sebecić, Blazenka; Vedrina-Dragojević, Irena


    Cereal-based confectionery products being consumed through whole human life are considered mainly to be a source of carbohydrates, that is energy, although cereals are a rich source of minerals as well. To evaluate some hard biscuits produced in Croatia as a source of different trace elements in nutrition, in this study Zn and Cu contents were determined in classic wheat flour biscuits and in dietetic biscuits enriched with whole wheat grain flour or whole wheat grain grits, soya flour and skimmed milk. Zn was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS); Cu was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The results show that the Zn content in different kinds of biscuits ranges from 5.89 up to 17.64 mg/kg and the Cu content ranges from 1.15 up to 2.79 mg/kg depending on the type of wheat milling products and mineral content of other ingredients used. Enriched dietetic biscuits produced from wheat flour type 850 and whole wheat grain flour and/or soya flour and skimmed milk were almost 200% and 150% higher in Zn and Cu, respectively, in comparison to classic white wheat flour biscuits and can be considered as good sources of Zn and Cu in nutrition.


    Sitnikov M.N.


    Full Text Available The maximum grain productivity can be achieved only taking into account plant biological needs. The need in mineral nutrients depends on the plant hereditary nature and environmental conditions. The greatest demand for nitrogen is characteristic in cereals for spring and winter wheat, the lowest one for barley and rye. The use of mineral nutrients in amounts exceeding plant needs does not result in yield increasing and can worsen the production quality. We were studying reaction of spring bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes to changes in nutrition soil conditions. In the experiment, ITMI mapping population consisting of 110 recombinant inbred lines was evaluated for a number of morphological, biological and economically important traits under different levels of the nitrogen supply. To create different soil nutrition level and to prevent leaching of fertilizers during the plant vegetation season we prepared trenches with depth 0.4 m, width 1 m and length 20 m; the bottoms of which were covered with plastic films. The trenches were filled with soil from the lower soil horizons. In first variant of the experiment, nutrient mixture on the basis of the physiological rate for cereals (N – 0.15 g, P - 0.1 g, K - 0.1 g of active substances per 1 kg of dry soil was applied. In the second variant, nitrogen dose was reduced half with the same phosphorus and potassium doses. Variant without fertilizers applying was used as a control. Thirty nine characters were analyzed during the all growing season. The combination of field and vegetation experiment conditions allowed approximating maximally to real conditions of the experiment and at the same time to control strictly plant vegetation. QTLs identified in our study can be differentiated as dependent and independent on environmental conditions. For example, some QTLs controlling such traits as a wax bloom, phenological phases, etc. are stable under different conditions of soil nutrition. QTLs of

  13. Characterization of wheat-Secale africanum chromosome 5R(a) derivatives carrying Secale specific genes for grain hardness.

    Li, Guangrong; Gao, Dan; La, Shixiao; Wang, Hongjin; Li, Jianbo; He, Weilin; Yang, Ennian; Yang, Zujun


    New wheat- Secale africanum chromosome 5R (a) substitution and translocation lines were developed and identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization and molecular markers, and chromosome 5R (a) specific genes responsible for grain hardness were isolated. The wild species, Secale africanum Stapf. (genome R(a)R(a)), serves as a valuable germplasm resource for increasing the diversity of cultivated rye (S. cereale L., genome RR) and providing novel genes for wheat improvement. In the current study, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and molecular markers were applied to characterize new wheat-S. africanum chromosome 5R(a) derivatives. Labeled rye genomic DNA (GISH) and the Oligo-probes pSc119.2 and pTa535 (FISH) were used to study a wheat-S. africanum amphiploid and a disomic 5R(a) (5D) substitution, and to identify a T5DL.5R(a)S translocation line and 5R(a)S and 5R(a)L isotelosome lines. Twenty-one molecular markers were mapped to chromosome 5R(a) arms which will facilitate future rapid identification of 5R(a) introgressions in wheat backgrounds. Comparative analysis of the molecular markers mapped on 5R(a) with homoeologous regions in wheat confirmed a deletion on the chromosome T5DL.5R(a)S, which suggests that the wheat-S. africanum Robertsonian translocation involving homologous group 5 may not be fully compensating. Complete coding sequences at the paralogous puroindoline-a (Pina) and grain softness protein gene (Gsp-1) loci from S. africanum were cloned and localized onto the short arm of chromosome 5R(a). The S. africanum chromosome 5R(a) substitution and translocation lines showed a reduction in the hardness index, which may be associated with the S. africanum- specific Pina and Gsp-1 gene sequences. The present study reports the production of novel wheat-S. africanum chromosome 5R(a) stripe rust resistant derivatives and new rye-specific molecular markers, which may find application in future use of wild Secale genome resources for grain quality

  14. Weed suppression and yield of thirteen spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. varieties grown in an organic system

    Beata Feledyn-Szewczyk


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between morphological features, canopy parameters, weed infestation, and grain yield of spring wheat varieties. The study was conducted in the period 2011–2013, on fields managed organically at the Experimental Station of The Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation – State Research Institute, Osiny, Poland. Thirteen spring wheat varieties were sown in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Weed density and dry matter production were estimated as well biometric features of the wheat varieties at tillering (BBCH 22–24 and dough (BBCH 85–87 stages. The analyses of variance showed that the year had a stronger effect than varieties on the level of weed infestation. Pearson’s correlation analysis indicated that weed number was influenced by the height of wheat plants and their aboveground biomass at the tillering stage and additionally by number of tillers at the dough stage. A significant correlation (r = −0.328, siginfficant at p < 0.05 was shown between the number of weeds and wheat grain yield. Different morphological features and canopy parameters influenced the competitive abilities of the spring wheat varieties tested. A cluster analysis detected one set of varieties with the largest (‘Bombona’, ‘Brawura’, ‘Hewilla’, ‘Kandela’, ‘Katoda’, ‘Łagwa’, and ‘Żura’ and another with the smallest (‘Monsun’, ‘Ostka Smolicka’, and ‘Parabola’ competitive abilities against weeds. The main outcome of the research is information for farmers as to which varieties are highly competitive against weeds and also high yielding. Among the varieties with the highest competitiveness, Triticum aestivum ‘Żura’ was the highest yielder (3.82 t ha−1 on average, whereas ‘Bombona’ yielded only at an average level (3.03 t ha−1. The suppressive ability of spring wheat varieties against weeds and yield potential should be both

  15. Physiological, proteomic and transcriptional responses of wheat to combination of drought or waterlogging with late spring low temperature

    Li, Xiangnan; Cai, Jian; Liu, Fulai;


    impacts of combined low temperature and water stress, including drought and waterlogging. The responses of potted wheat plants cultivated in climatic chambers to these environmental perturbations were investigated at physiological, proteomic and transcriptional levels. At the physiological level......Spring low temperature events affect winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during late vegetative or reproductive development, exposing plants to a subzero low temperature stress when winter hardening is lost. The increased climatic variability results in wheat being exposed to more frequent adverse...... in chloroplasts and mitochondria of leaf under low temperature. Further proteomic analysis revealed that the oxidative stress defence, C metabolism and photosynthesis related proteins were modulated by the combined low temperature and water stress. Collectively, the results indicate that impairment...

  16. [Ecophysiological effects of multiple cropping of winter wheat-spring corn-summer corn in Huanghuaihai Plain].

    Huang, Jinyong; Li, Xinping; Sun, Dunli


    Compared to sequential cropping of winter wheat-summer corn and mono cropping of spring corn, the ecophysiological effects of multiple cropping of winter wheat-spring corn-summer corn in Huanghuaihai Plain were studied. The results showed that under the multi-cropping, the crops occupied higher spatial niches during the period of reproductive growth. Ecological factors such as light, temperature, and air were improved, and plane light acceptance was changed into multistory light acceptance, which made the relative intensity of illumination in crop communities increased. Moreover, soil temperature between rows and wind velocity in planting strips were also increased. All these changes were advantageous to increasing the intensity and velocity of grain filling. The chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate in functional leaves of crops were higher, which was the main reason of yield increase under multiple cropping.

  17. Nematicides increase grain yields in spring wheat cultivars and suppress plant-parasitic and bacterial-feeding nematodes.

    Kimpinski, J; Martin, R A; Sturz, A V


    Grain yields of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cvs. AC Barrie, AC Walton, AC Wilmot, Belvedere, Glenlea) in field plots over a 3-year period were increased (P nematicide treatments of AC Barrie and Glenlea, which are grown primarily in the prairie provinces of Canada, was greater (48.5%) than the mean response of Belvedere, AC Walton, and AC Wilmot (33.7%), which are more common in the Maritime region of Canada (P nematicide applications (P < 0.001). Bacterial-feeding nematodes (primarily Diplogaster lheritieri (Maupas)) in root zone soil were also suppressed by fosthiazate (P < 0.01) but not by aldicarb. These data indicate that root lesion nematodes cause substantial yield losses in spring wheat in the Maritime region of Canada.

  18. The role of seed size in the non-genetic variation exhibited in salt tolerance studies involving the bread wheat cv. chinese spring

    P. K. Martin


    Full Text Available The intention of this study was to confirm the role of seed size in the non-genetic variation exhibited during salinity tolerance experiments involving the bread wheat cv. Chinese Spring. The nutrient film/rockwool hydroponics technique was utilised. This study concluded that seed size does not play a significant role in the non-genetic variation generated during a study of salinity tolerance of the bread wheat cv. Chinese Spring.

  19. Leaching of nitrate and phosphorus after autumn and spring application of separated solid manures to winter wheat

    Sørensen, Peter; Rubæk, Gitte Holton


    on a loamy sand and a sandy loam soil. The leaching experiment lasted for 2 yr, and the whole experiment was replicated twice. Nitrate leaching was generally low (19–34 kg N/ha) after spring applications of mineral fertilizer and manures. Nitrate leaching increased significantly after autumn application......, solid manure fractions should not be applied to winter wheat on sandy and sandy loam soils under humid North European conditions....

  20. [Effects of increasng field temperature on growth, development and yield of spring wheat in semi-arid area].

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Run-yuan; Wang, He-ling; Zhao, Hong; Zhao, Fu-nian; Yang, Fu-lin; Lei, Jun


    A field infrared temperature-increasing simulation experiment was conducted to investi- gate the effects of air temperature increases (0, 1 and 2 °C ) on growth, development and yield of spring wheat at the Dingxi Arid Meteorology and Ecological Environment Experimental Station of the Institute of Arid Meteorology of China Meteorological Administration. The results showed that the growth period of spring wheat was shortened by 7-11 d when the temperature increased by 1-2 °C. The plant height and leaf area index increased at early growth stage, decreased after entering the jointing stage, and warming 2 °C had a higher effect than warming 1 °C. Warming treatment induced an obvious decrease in chlorophyll content, especially from late grain filling stage to milk ripe stage. Compared with the control, increasing temperature by 1-2 °C decreased the spring wheat yield by 25.4%-45.5%, mainly due to obvious decreases in number of grains and grain mass per panicle. Water consumption of 0-100 cm soil horizons increased with the increase of temperature, while the variation tendency of water consumption of 100-160 cm soil horizons was not obvious.

  1. The distal portion of the short arm of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome 5D controls endosperm vitreosity and grain hardness.

    Morris, Craig F; Beecher, Brian S


    Kernel vitreosity is an important trait of wheat grain, but its developmental control is not completely known. We developed back-cross seven (BC(7)) near-isogenic lines in the soft white spring wheat cultivar Alpowa that lack the distal portion of chromosome 5D short arm. From the final back-cross, 46 BC(7)F(2) plants were isolated. These plants exhibited a complete and perfect association between kernel vitreosity (i.e. vitreous, non-vitreous or mixed) and Single Kernel Characterization System (SKCS) hardness. Observed segregation of 10:28:7 fit a 1:2:1 Chi-square. BC(7)F(2) plants classified as heterozygous for both SKCS hardness and kernel vitreosity (n = 29) were selected and a single vitreous and non-vitreous kernel were selected, and grown to maturity and subjected to SKCS analysis. The resultant phenotypic ratios were, from non-vitreous kernels, 23:6:0, and from vitreous kernels, 0:1:28, soft:heterozygous:hard, respectively. Three of these BC(7)F(2) heterozygous plants were selected and 40 kernels each drawn at random, grown to maturity and subjected to SKCS analysis. Phenotypic segregation ratios were 7:27:6, 11:20:9, and 3:28:9, soft:heterozygous:hard. Chi-square analysis supported a 1:2:1 segregation for one plant but not the other two, in which cases the two homozygous classes were under-represented. Twenty-two paired BC(7)F(2):F(3) full sibs were compared for kernel hardness, weight, size, density and protein content. SKCS hardness index differed markedly, 29.4 for the lines with a complete 5DS, and 88.6 for the lines possessing the deletion. The soft non-vitreous kernels were on average significantly heavier, by nearly 20%, and were slightly larger. Density and protein contents were similar, however. The results provide strong genetic evidence that gene(s) on distal 5DS control not only kernel hardness but also the manner in which the endosperm develops, viz. whether it is vitreous or non-vitreous.

  2. Effects of climate change on spring wheat phenophase and water requirement in Heihe River basin, China

    Dongmei Han; Denghua Yan; Xinyi Xu; Yu Gao


    Climate change has significantly altered the temperature rhythm which is a key factor for the growth and phenophase of the crop. And temperature change further affects crop water requirement and irrigation system. In the north-west of China, one of the most important crop production bases is Heihe River basin where the observed phenological data is scarce. This study thus first adopted accumulated temperature threshold (ATT) method to define the phenological stages of the crop, and analysed the effect of climate change on phenological stages and water requirement of the crop during growing season. The results indicated the ATT was available for the determination of spring wheat phenological stages. The start dates of all phenological stages became earlier and the growing season length (days) was reduced by 7 days under climate change. During the growing season, water requirement without consideration of phenophase change has been increased by 26.1 mm, while that with consideration of phenophase change was featured in the decrease of water requirement by 50 mm. When temperature increased by 1°C on average, the changes were featured in the 2 days early start date of growing season, 2 days decrease of growing season length, and the 1.4 mm increase of water requirement, respectively.

  3. Spring and autumn migration of the red-breasted flycatcher through the Kizilirmak delta, Turkey



    The red-breasted flycatcherFicedula parva is a small passerine bird that breeds in Eastern Europe and across central Asia and winters on the Indian subcontinent.Birds from the western extreme of the breeding range migrating to and from the wintering grounds utilise a large longitudinal component en route that is not typical of the majority of European passerines. Therefore, it is one of the lesser-known species in Europe with respect to migration and biometrics. The aim of this study is to describe the numbers, phenology and biometry of the red-breasted flycatcher in relation to age, sex and migration season at a stopover site in northern Turkey. The number of individuals ringed in autumn was six times higher than in the spring passage. Furthermore, the period of the spring passage was shorter than in autumn, and in spring males migrate six days earlier than fe-males and juveniles; no such differences were found in autumn. Moreover, migrants carried more fuel reserves in spring than in autumn and no differences were recorded in the length of stopover duration. The study underlines the importance of further re-search into passerine migration across Turkey to better understand the whole migratory system of movements of the Palaearctic migratory passerine populations [Current Zoology 61 (3): 412–420, 2015].

  4. Variation in chlorophyll content per unit leaf area in spring wheat and implications for selection in segregating material.

    John Hamblin

    Full Text Available Reduced levels of leaf chlorophyll content per unit leaf area in crops may be of advantage in the search for higher yields. Possible reasons include better light distribution in the crop canopy and less photochemical damage to leaves absorbing more light energy than required for maximum photosynthesis. Reduced chlorophyll may also reduce the heat load at the top of canopy, reducing water requirements to cool leaves. Chloroplasts are nutrient rich and reducing their number may increase available nutrients for growth and development. To determine whether this hypothesis has any validity in spring wheat requires an understanding of genotypic differences in leaf chlorophyll content per unit area in diverse germplasm. This was measured with a SPAD 502 as SPAD units. The study was conducted in series of environments involving up to 28 genotypes, mainly spring wheat. In general, substantial and repeatable genotypic variation was observed. Consistent SPAD readings were recorded for different sampling positions on leaves, between different leaves on single plant, between different plants of the same genotype, and between different genotypes grown in the same or different environments. Plant nutrition affected SPAD units in nutrient poor environments. Wheat genotypes DBW 10 and Transfer were identified as having consistent and contrasting high and low average SPAD readings of 52 and 32 units, respectively, and a methodology to allow selection in segregating populations has been developed.

  5. Analysis of deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucosides content in Canadian spring wheat cultivars inoculated with Fusarium graminearum.

    Amarasinghe, Chami C; Simsek, Senay; Brûlé-Babel, Anita; Fernando, W G Dilantha


    Contamination of wheat grains with Fusarium mycotoxins and their modified forms is an important issue in wheat industry. The objective of this study was to analyse the deoxynivalenol (DON) and deoxynivalenol-3-glucosides (D3G) content in Canadian spring wheat cultivars grown in two locations, inoculated with a mixture of 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON)-producing Fusarium graminearum strains and a mixture of 15-acetlyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON)-producing F. graminearum strains. According to the analysis of variance, significant differences were observed among the cultivars for Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease index, Fusarium-damaged kernel percentage (%FDK), DON content and D3G content. When the effect of chemotype was considered, significant differences were observed for FHB disease index, FDK percentage and DON content. The D3G content and D3G/DON ratio were not significantly different between the chemotypes, except for D3G content at the Winnipeg location. The Pearson correlation coefficient between DON and D3G was 0.84 and 0.77 at Winnipeg and Carman respectively. The highest D3G/DON ratio was observed in cultivars Carberry (44%) in Carman and CDC Kernen (63.8%) in Winnipeg. The susceptible cultivars showed lower D3G/DON ratio compared with the cultivars rated as moderately resistant and intermediate. The current study indicated that Canadian spring cultivars produce D3G upon Fusarium infection.

  6. Fusarium head blight (FHB and Fusarium spp. on grain of spring wheat cultivars grown in Poland

    Lenc Leszek


    Full Text Available Eighteen spring wheat cultivars, recommended for commercial production in northern Poland, were assessed for Fusarium head blight (FHB in natural non-epidemic conditions, from 2011 to 2013. Assessment was based on FHB incidence (proportion of heads with symptoms, disease severity (DS; proportion of bleached spikelets per head, proportion of Fusarium damaged kernels (FDK, and spectrum of Fusarium spp. colonising the kernels. Fusarium head blight incidence and DS often differed significantly among cultivars and years. There was a strong positive correlation between FHB incidence and DS. Fusarium head blight incidence and DS were not correlated with the June–July temperatures, and were only occasionally correlated with the total June–July rainfall. There was a weak positive correlation between FHB incidence and proportion of FDK. There was a strong positive correlation between DS and proportion of FDK. The cultivar affected colonisation of kernels by Fusarium spp. Fusarium poae was the FHB pathogen isolated most often. Fusarium poae colonised 6.0% of the kernels, on average, but up to 12.0% on individual cultivars. Other Fusarium species were less frequent: F. avenaceum in 5.6% of kernels, F. culmorum in 5.3%, F. tricinctum in 2.8%, F. graminearum in 1.5%, and F. sporotrichioides in 1.2%. Fusarium equiseti occurred sporadically. The importance of F. poae in the FHB complex is emphasised. All cultivars expressed ‘moderate FHB resistance’ if evaluated according to FHB incidence. Cultivars Arabella, Izera, Kandela, Monsun, Ostka Smolicka, and Struna expressed ‘moderate susceptibility’, and Bombona, Hewilla, Katoda, KWS Torridon, Łagwa, Nawra, Parabola, Radocha, SMH 87, Trappe, Tybalt, and Waluta expressed ‘susceptibility’ if evaluated by the proportion of FDK. Cultivars differed within the ‘moderately resistant’, ‘moderately susceptible’, and ‘susceptible’ categories. Cultivars Arabella, Izera, Kandela, Monsun, Ostka

  7. Evaluation of Diversity and Traits Correlation in Spring Wheat Cultivars under Drought Stress

    Mohammad Reza NAGHAVI


    Full Text Available In order to study of diversity and classify agro-morphological characters under normal irrigation and drought stress in spring wheat cultivars, 20 cultivars were evaluated in the research farm of University of Tabriz, Iran. According to the results, significant correlation was found between grain yield and number of spikes per plant, number of tiller per plant, number of fertile tillers, spike length, root length, root number, root volume, root diameter and root dry weight under both conditions. Moreover, 1,000 grain weight and plant dry weight had significant positive correlation with grain yield under drought stress. Factor analysis detected four and two factors which explained 96.77% and 90.59% of the total variation in normal irrigation and drought stress conditions, respectively. In drought stress condition the first factor justified 69.52% of total variation and was identified as yield factor. The second factor explained 21.07% of total variation and represented the biomass and plant height factor. Cluster analysis was based on the four and two factors obtained. According to the amount of factors for clusters obtained under drought stress, ‘Kavir’, ‘Niknejhad’, ‘Moghan 3’, ‘Darya’ and ‘Marvdasht’ were identified as the most drought tolerant cultivars. Other cluster was comprised of ‘Bahar’, ‘Pishtaz’, ‘Bam’, ‘Sepahan’, ‘Sistan’, ‘Pars’ and ‘Sivand’ and was named as the most sensitive under drought stress. Tolerant cultivars identified within the study can be used for direct culture or as genitors in breeding programs.

  8. Improving farming practices reduces the carbon footprint of spring wheat production.

    Gan, Yantai; Liang, Chang; Chai, Qiang; Lemke, Reynald L; Campbell, Con A; Zentner, Robert P


    Wheat is one of the world's most favoured food sources, reaching millions of people on a daily basis. However, its production has climatic consequences. Fuel, inorganic fertilizers and pesticides used in wheat production emit greenhouse gases that can contribute negatively to climate change. It is unknown whether adopting alternative farming practices will increase crop yield while reducing carbon emissions. Here we quantify the carbon footprint of alternative wheat production systems suited to semiarid environments. We find that integrating improved farming practices (that is, fertilizing crops based on soil tests, reducing summerfallow frequencies and rotating cereals with grain legumes) lowers wheat carbon footprint effectively, averaging -256 kg CO2 eq ha(-1) per year. For each kg of wheat grain produced, a net 0.027-0.377 kg CO2 eq is sequestered into the soil. With the suite of improved farming practices, wheat takes up more CO2 from the atmosphere than is actually emitted during its production.

  9. Energy and CO$_2$; exchanges and influencing factors in spring wheat ecosystem along the Heihe River, northwestern China

    Shuchen Sun; Ming’an Shao; Hongbei Gao


    Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum Linn.) is an important crop for food security in the desert-oasis farmland in the middle reaches of the Heihe River in northwestern China. We measured fluxes using eddy covarianceand meteorological parameters to explore the energy fluxes and the relationship between CO² flux and climate change in this region during the wheat growing seasons in 2013 and 2014. The energy balance closures were 70.5% and 72.7% in the 2013 and 2014 growing season, respectively. The wheat ecosystem had distinct seasonal and diurnal dynamics of CO² fluxes with U-shaped curves. The accumulated net ecosystemic CO² exchanges (NEE) were −111.6 and −142.2 g C/m² in 2013 and 2014 growing season,respectively. The ecosystem generally acted as a CO² sink during the growing season but became aCO² source after the wheat harvest. A correlation analysis indicated that night-time CO² fluxes wereexponentially dependent on air temperature and soil temperature at a depth of 5 cm but were notcorrelated with soil-water content, water-vapour pressure, or vapour-pressure deficit. CO² flux was notcorrelated with the meteorological parameters during daytime. However, irrigation and precipitation,may complicate the response of CO² fluxes to other meteorological parameters.

  10. Identification and characterization of genes on a single subgenome in the hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotype 'Chinese Spring'.

    Ma, Jian; Zheng, Zhi; Stiller, Jiri; Lan, Xiu-Jin; Liu, Yaxi; Deng, Mei; Wang, Penghao; Pu, Zhien; Chen, Guangdeng; Jiang, Qian-Tao; Wei, Yuming; Zheng, You-Liang


    Gene loss during the formation of hexaploid bread wheat has been repeatedly reported. However, our knowledge on genome-wide analysis of the genes present on a single subgenome (SSG) in bread wheat is still limited. In this study, by analysing the 'Chinese Spring' chromosome arm shotgun sequences together with high-confidence gene models, we detected 433 genes on a SSG. Greater gene loss was observed in A and D subgenomes compared with B subgenome. More than 79% of the orthologs for these SSG genes were detected in diploid and tetraploid relatives of hexaploid wheat. Unexpectedly, no bias in expression breadth or in the distribution patterns of GO (gene ontology) terms for these genes was detected among the high-confidence genes. Further, network and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analyses indicated that most of these genes were not functionally related to each other. Interestingly, 30.7% of these SSG genes were most highly expressed in root, showing biased distribution given the distribution of the whole high-confidence genes. Collectively, these results facilitate our understanding of the loss of the genes that were retained in a SSG during the formation of hexaploid wheat.

  11. Energy and CO2 exchanges and influencing factors in spring wheat ecosystem along the Heihe River, northwestern China

    Sun, Shuchen; Shao, Ming'an; Gao, Hongbei


    Spring wheat ( Triticum aestivum Linn.) is an important crop for food security in the desert-oasis farmland in the middle reaches of the Heihe River in northwestern China. We measured fluxes using eddy covariance and meteorological parameters to explore the energy fluxes and the relationship between CO2 flux and climate change in this region during the wheat growing seasons in 2013 and 2014. The energy balance closures were 70.5% and 72.7% in the 2013 and 2014 growing season, respectively. The wheat ecosystem had distinct seasonal and diurnal dynamics of CO2 fluxes with U-shaped curves. The accumulated net ecosystemic CO2 exchanges (NEE) were -111.6 and -142.2 g C/m2 in 2013 and 2014 growing season, respectively. The ecosystem generally acted as a CO2 sink during the growing season but became a CO2 source after the wheat harvest. A correlation analysis indicated that night-time CO2 fluxes were exponentially dependent on air temperature and soil temperature at a depth of 5 cm but were not correlated with soil-water content, water-vapour pressure, or vapour-pressure deficit. CO2 flux was not correlated with the meteorological parameters during daytime. However, irrigation and precipitation, may complicate the response of CO2 fluxes to other meteorological parameters.

  12. Weed infestation of a spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. crop under the conditions of plough and ploughless tillage

    Andrzej Woźniak


    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in the period 2007- 2009 in the Uhrusk Experimental Farm (Lublin region belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. Different tillage systems - plough and ploughless tillage - were the experimental factors. In the plough tillage system, tillage involved skimming done after the harvest of the forecrop and autumn ploughing. In the ploughless tillage system, only the herbicide Roundup 360 SL (active substance - glyphosate was applied after the harvest of the forecrop. In both tillage treatments, spring tillage involved field cultivating and the use of a tillage assembly consisting of a cultivator, cage roller, and harrow. The present experiment evaluated weed infestation of the crop expressed by the number and air-dry weight of weeds and their species composition. Under the conditions of ploughless tillage, air-dry weight of weeds in the spring wheat crop was shown to increase significantly compared to plough tillage. The tillage systems under comparison did not differentiate the number of weeds per 1 m2. Spring wheat sown using plough tillage was colonized most extensively by the following weed species: Avena fatua L., Stellaria media (L. Vill., Galium aparine L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., and Consolida regalis Gray. In the ploughless tillage treatments, the following weeds were predominant: Stellaria media (L. Vill., Avena fatua L., Fallopia convolvulus (L. A. Löve, Papaver rhoeas L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Galium aparine L., and Chenopodium album L.

  13. Assessing the ratio of leaf carbon to nitrogen in winter wheat and spring barley based on hyperspectral data

    Xu, Xin-gang; Gu, Xiao-he; Song, Xiao-yu; Xu, Bo; Yu, Hai-yang; Yang, Gui-jun; Feng, Hai-kuan


    The metabolic status of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) as two essential elements of crop plants has significant influence on the ultimate formation of yield and quality in crop production. The ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C/N) from crop leaves, defined as ratio of LCC (leaf carbon concentration) to LNC (leaf nitrogen concentration), is an important index that can be used to diagnose the balance between carbon and nitrogen, nutrient status, growth vigor and disease resistance in crop plants. Thus, it is very significant for effectively evaluating crop growth in field to monitor changes of leaf C/N quickly and accurately. In this study, some typical indices aimed at N estimation and chlorophyll evaluation were tested to assess leaf C/N in winter wheat and spring barley. The multi-temporal hyperspectral measurements from the flag-leaf, anthesis, filling, and milk-ripe stages were used to extract these selected spectral indices to estimate leaf C/N in wheat and barley. The analyses showed that some tested indices such as MTCI, MCARI/OSAVI2, and R-M had the better performance of assessing C/N for both of crops. Besides, a mathematic algorithm, Branch-and-Bound (BB) method was coupled with the spectral indices to assess leaf C/N in wheat and barley, and yielded the R2 values of 0.795 for winter wheat, R2 of 0.727 for spring barley, 0.788 for both crops combined. It demonstrates that using hyperspectral data has a good potential for remote assessment of leaf C/N in crops.

  14. Genomic Selection for Processing and End-Use Quality Traits in the CIMMYT Spring Bread Wheat Breeding Program

    Sarah D. Battenfield


    Full Text Available Wheat ( L. cultivars must possess suitable end-use quality for release and consumer acceptability. However, breeding for quality traits is often considered a secondary target relative to yield largely because of amount of seed needed and expense. Without testing and selection, many undesirable materials are advanced, expending additional resources. Here, we develop and validate whole-genome prediction models for end-use quality phenotypes in the CIMMYT bread wheat breeding program. Model accuracy was tested using forward prediction on breeding lines ( = 5520 tested in unbalanced yield trials from 2009 to 2015 at Ciudad Obregon, Sonora, Mexico. Quality parameters included test weight, 1000-kernel weight, hardness, grain and flour protein, flour yield, sodium dodecyl sulfate sedimentation, Mixograph and Alveograph performance, and loaf volume. In general, prediction accuracy substantially increased over time as more data was available to train the model. Reflecting practical implementation of genomic selection (GS in the breeding program, forward prediction accuracies ( for quality parameters were assessed in 2015 and ranged from 0.32 (grain hardness to 0.62 (mixing time. Increased selection intensity was possible with GS since more entries can be genotyped than phenotyped and expected genetic gain was 1.4 to 2.7 times higher across all traits than phenotypic selection. Given the limitations in measuring many lines for quality, we conclude that GS is a powerful tool to facilitate early generation selection for end-use quality in wheat, leaving larger populations for selection on yield during advanced testing and leading to better gain for both quality and yield in bread wheat breeding programs.

  15. Bran hydration and physical treatments improve the bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Fine and coarse bran particles of a hard red and a hard white wheat were used to study the influences of bran hydration and physical treatments such as autoclaving and freezing as well as their combinations on the dough properties and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF). For both h...

  16. Palatable and bio-functional wheat/rice products developed from pre-germinated brown rice of super-hard cultivar EM10.

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Satoh, Hikaru; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi


    It became possible to produce high-quality and bio-functional wheat/rice bread and wheat/rice noodles by blending, pre-germinated and cooked brown rice of a super-hard cultivar with wheat flour. Super-hard rice (SHR) is not suitable for table rice because of its low palatability. Nevertheless, it was found to be suitable as a blending material for bread-making or noodle-making due to its hard texture and high content of resistant starch. We developed a novel rapid germination method to improve the quality and to save the time needed for germination. By blending pre-germinated and cooked SHR (30% w/w on a dry basis) as a rice gel with wheat flour (70% w/w on a dry basis), the bread became very soft and any hardening after bread-making was markedly retarded. Similarly, blending pre-germinated and cooked SHR as cooked a rice gel with wheat flour gave high-quality noodles with a similar texture to that of durum semolina noodles. The resistant starch of the SHR-blended bread and noodles was also markedly increased. White waxy rice (9%) soaked and cooked with the pre-germinated brown rice of SHR (21%) produced a rice gel that was very useful as a material for bread-making and noodle-making by blending with wheat flour (70%) to prepare soft, tasty and bio-functional wheat/rice bread and wheat/rice noodles.

  17. Quantitative trait loci for resistance to pre-harvest sprouting in US hard white winter wheat Rio Blanco.

    Liu, Shubing; Cai, Shibin; Graybosch, Robert; Chen, Cuixia; Bai, Guihua


    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) of wheat is a major problem that severely limits the end-use quality of flour in many wheat-growing areas worldwide. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for PHS resistance, a population of 171 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was developed from the cross between PHS-resistant white wheat cultivar Rio Blanco and PHS-susceptible white wheat breeding line NW97S186. The population was evaluated for PHS in three greenhouse experiments and one field experiment. After 1,430 pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers were screened between the two parents and two bulks, 112 polymorphic markers between two bulks were used to screen the RILs. One major QTL, QPhs.pseru-3AS, was identified in the distal region of chromosome 3AS and explained up to 41.0% of the total phenotypic variation in three greenhouse experiments. One minor QTL, QPhs.pseru-2B.1, was detected in the 2005 and 2006 experiments and for the means over the greenhouse experiments, and explained 5.0-6.4% of phenotypic variation. Another minor QTL, QPhs.pseru-2B.2, was detected in only one greenhouse experiment and explained 4.5% of phenotypic variation for PHS resistance. In another RIL population developed from the cross of Rio Blanco/NW97S078, QPhs.pseru-3AS was significant for all three greenhouse experiments and the means over all greenhouse experiments and explained up to 58.0% of phenotypic variation. Because Rio Blanco is a popular parent used in many hard winter wheat breeding programs, SSR markers linked to the QTLs have potential for use in high-throughput marker-assisted selection of wheat cultivars with improved PHS resistance as well as fine mapping and map-based cloning of the major QTL QPhs.pseru-3AS.

  18. Effects of tillage technologies and application of biopreparations on micromycetes in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of spring wheat

    Shirokikh, I. G.; Kozlova, L. M.; Shirokikh, A. A.; Popov, F. A.; Tovstik, E. V.


    The population density and structure of complexes of soil microscopic fungi in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of spring wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.), plant damage by root rot and leaf diseases, and crop yield were determined in a stationary field experiment on a silty loamy soddy-podzolic soil (Albic Retisol (Loamic, Aric)) in dependence on the soil tillage technique: (a) moldboard plowing to 20-22 cm and (b) non-inversive tillage to 14-16 cm. The results were treated with the two-way ANOVA method. It was shown that the number of fungal propagules in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of plants in the variant with non-inversive tillage was significantly smaller than that in the variant with plowing. Minimization of the impact on the soil during five years led to insignificant changes in the structure of micromycete complexes in the rhizosphere of wheat. The damage of the plants with root rot and leaf diseases upon non-inversive tillage did not increase in comparison with that upon plowing. Wheat yield in the variant with non-inversive tillage was insignificantly lower than that in the variant with moldboard plowing. The application of biopreparations based on the Streptomyces hygroscopicus A4 and Pseudomonas aureofaciens BS 1393 resulted in a significant decrease of plant damage with leaf rust.

  19. Drought priming at vegetative growth stages improves tolerance to drought and heat stresses occurring during grain filling in spring wheat

    Wang, Xiao; Vignjevic, Marija; Liu, Fulai


    Plants of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vinjett) were exposed to moderate water deficit at the vegetative growth stages six-leaf and/or stem elongation to investigate drought priming effects on tolerance to drought and heat stress events occurring during the grain filling stage. Compared......Plants of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vinjett) were exposed to moderate water deficit at the vegetative growth stages six-leaf and/or stem elongation to investigate drought priming effects on tolerance to drought and heat stress events occurring during the grain filling stage....... Comparedwith the non-primed plants, drought priming could alleviate photo-inhibition in flag leaves caused by drought and heat stress episodes during grain filling. In the primed plants, drought stress inhibited photosynthesis mainly through decrease of maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate, while...... decrease of the carboxylation efficiency limited photosynthesis under heat stress. The higher saturated net photosynthetic rate of flag leaves coincidedwith the lowered nonphotochemical quenching rates in the twice-primed plants under drought stress and in the primed plants during stem elongation under...

  20. The effect of herbicides on Chenopodium album L. phenology in fodder beet, spring wheat and faba bean crops

    Marian Wesołowski


    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the time of occurrence of the emergence, budding, fruiting and seed shedding stages, as well as the degree of advancement of the white goosefoot fruiting and diaspores shedding stages in fodder beet, spring wheat and faba bean crops under mechanical and chemical weed control. Phenological observations were conducted in the years 2000-2002 at 10-day intervals, starting from the day of crop sowing on alluvial soil made of light loam. Chemically weed controlled objects were treated with herbicides: fodder beet - lenacil 80%; spring wheat - MCPA 30% + dicamba 4%; faba bean - linuron 50%. It was proven that the times of occurrence and the scale of the studied phenological stages of white goosefoot depended on the crop species, the in-crop weed control method and the pattern of weather conditions in the study years. White goosefoot had the most favourable conditions of growth in the fodder beet crop. The herbicides in the fodder beet and faba bean crops delayed the emergence and the time of occurrence of successive white goosefoot growth stages. These agents also decreased the degree of diaspores shedding by the weed species studied. The most white goosefoot specimens shed fruits on the mechanically weed controlled plots. The diaspores dissemination was promoted by a warm and moist growing season.

  1. Characteristics of spring wheat genotypes exhibiting high resistance to FHB in terms of their resistance to other fungal diseases

    Danuta Kurasiak-Popowska


    Full Text Available The field experiment was carried out in 2010–2012 at the Dłoń Agricultural Research Station, the Poznań University of Life Sciences, Poland. The study was designed to evaluate the degree of infection by powdery mildew, brown rust, and septoria leaf blotch in 61 spring wheat genotypes differing in their resistance to Fusarium ssp. The vast majority of spring wheat genotypes in the collection of gene resources in the USA defined as resistant to Fusarium ssp. confirmed their resistance under Polish climatic conditions. The B .graminis infection rate of genotypes that are considered to be resistant to Fusarium head blight was high. The resistance ranged from 7 for Sumai 3 (PL2 up to 8.8 for Ning 8331 (in a 9-point scale. Most of the genotypes (56.5% were infected by Puccinia recondita at a level of 1–3 (in a 9-point scale. The genotypes of Sumai 3 exhibited high resistance to septoria leaf blotch, amounting to 1–2 in a 9-point scale; the resistance of Frontana ranged from 1 to 3.5, while the genotypes of Ning were infected by Mycosphaerella graminicola at 5–6.

  2. Wheat color (class), not refining, influences colon cancer risk in rats.

    Buescher, Mary I; Gallaher, Daniel D


    Epidemiological studies suggest whole grain consumption is associated with decreased colon cancer risk. However, wheat classes differ in their usage, making the influence of wheat class (red vs. white) and state of refinement (whole vs. refined) difficult to separate, leading to potential confounding. Consequently, we examined the effect of wheat class and refining on colonic precancerous lesions (aberrant crypt foci; ACF) in carcinogen-treated rats. Diets contained wheat flour as whole soft white, refined soft white, whole hard red, or refined hard red. Feeding was begun 10 days prior to carcinogen treatment and continued for 9 wk. Hard red-fed groups had significantly fewer ACF than soft white-fed groups (25-32% reduction, P = 0.013). However, state of refinement had no significant effect on ACF number. Cecal contents supernatant oxygen radical absorbance capacity and fecal bile acid concentration were significantly greater in whole wheat-fed groups than refined wheat-fed groups and did not correlate with ACF number (increase of 21-22%, P wheat class, not state of refinement, appears to influence colon cancer risk, with hard red wheat protective relative to soft white wheat. Thus, epidemiological associations of reduced colon cancer risk with whole grain consumption may actually reflect different wheat classes.

  3. Genome-Wide Analysis of Microsatellite Markers Based on Sequenced Database in Chinese Spring Wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

    Bin Han

    Full Text Available Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs are distributed across both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes and have been widely used for genetic studies and molecular marker-assisted breeding in crops. Though an ordered draft sequence of hexaploid bread wheat have been announced, the researches about systemic analysis of SSRs for wheat still have not been reported so far. In the present study, we identified 364,347 SSRs from among 10,603,760 sequences of the Chinese spring wheat (CSW genome, which were present at a density of 36.68 SSR/Mb. In total, we detected 488 types of motifs ranging from di- to hexanucleotides, among which dinucleotide repeats dominated, accounting for approximately 42.52% of the genome. The density of tri- to hexanucleotide repeats was 24.97%, 4.62%, 3.25% and 24.65%, respectively. AG/CT, AAG/CTT, AGAT/ATCT, AAAAG/CTTTT and AAAATT/AATTTT were the most frequent repeats among di- to hexanucleotide repeats. Among the 21 chromosomes of CSW, the density of repeats was highest on chromosome 2D and lowest on chromosome 3A. The proportions of di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexanucleotide repeats on each chromosome, and even on the whole genome, were almost identical. In addition, 295,267 SSR markers were successfully developed from the 21 chromosomes of CSW, which cover the entire genome at a density of 29.73 per Mb. All of the SSR markers were validated by reverse electronic-Polymerase Chain Reaction (re-PCR; 70,564 (23.9% were found to be monomorphic and 224,703 (76.1% were found to be polymorphic. A total of 45 monomorphic markers were selected randomly for validation purposes; 24 (53.3% amplified one locus, 8 (17.8% amplified multiple identical loci, and 13 (28.9% did not amplify any fragments from the genomic DNA of CSW. Then a dendrogram was generated based on the 24 monomorphic SSR markers among 20 wheat cultivars and three species of its diploid ancestors showing that monomorphic SSR markers represented a promising

  4. Water stress-induced changes in morphology and anatomy of flag leaf of spring wheat

    Barbara Zagdańska


    Full Text Available Flag leaves of wheat (drought hardened and non-hardened were examined by light microscopy to determine whether the differences in leaf anatomy could be related to the known differences in dehydration tolerance. Plants exposure to water stress during tissue differentiation of flag leaves resulted in an irreversible reduction of leaf area and thickness, increased frequencies of stomata and higher number of bulliform cells with simultaneous decrease in number of intermediate veins and an increase in the share of the cell walls in total cell volume. The smaller leaf thickness was due to a diminished number of mesophyll layers and a decreased size of mesophyll cells. Such altered leaf anatomy indicated development of leaf xerophily. It was found that the irreversible changes in anatomy of wheat flag leaves play a decisive role in acquiring drought tolerance during wheat acclimation to drought.

  5. Quality of Bread from Composite Flour of Sorghum and Hard White Winter Wheat

    R.F. Abdelghafor


    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the baking properties of whole, decorticated sorghum- (Sorghum bicolor - wheat (Triticum aestivum Desf. composite flours as well as to determine the physical characteristics and organoleptic quality of pan and balady breads made from those flours. Whole and decorticated sorghum flours were used to replace 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% by weight of bread wheat flour. Sensory evaluation results showed that up to 20% wheat replacement with whole or decorticated sorghum flour produced acceptable pan and balady breads. Decreases, however, were noted in all sensory properties except odor.

  6. Stem Rust Resistance in a Geographically Diverse Collection of Spring Wheat Lines Collected from Across Africa

    Prins, Renée; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Pretorius, Zakkie; van Schalkwyk, Hester; Wessels, Elsabet; Smit, Corneli; Bender, Cornel; Singh, Davinder; Boyd, Lesley A.


    Following the emergence of the Ug99 lineage of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) a collective international effort has been undertaken to identify new sources of wheat stem rust resistance effective against these races. Analyses were undertaken in a collection of wheat genotypes gathered from across Africa to identify stem rust resistance effective against the Pgt races found in Eastern and Southern Africa. The African wheat collection consisted of historic genotypes collected in Kenya, South Africa, Ethiopia, Sudan, Zambia, Morocco, and Tunisia, and current South African breeding lines. Both Bayesian cluster and principal coordinate analyses placed the wheat lines from Sudan in a distinct group, but indicated a degree of genetic relatedness among the other wheat lines despite originating from countries across Africa. Seedling screens with Pgt race PTKST, pedigree information and marker haplotype analysis confirmed the presence of Sr2, Sr36, Sr24, Sr31, and Lr34/Yr18/Sr57 in a number of the lines. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) undertaken with Diversiry Arrays Technology (DArT) and stem rust (Sr) gene associated markers and Stem Area Infected (SAI) and Reaction Type (RT) field phenotypes, collected from trials carried out across two seasons in Kenya in 2009 and in South Africa in 2011, identified 29 marker-trait associations (MTA). Three MTA were in common between SAI and RT, with the biggest effect MTA being found on chromosome 6AS. Two wheat lines, W1406 and W6979 that exhibited high levels of adult plant stem rust resistance were selected to generate bi-parental mapping populations. Only the MTA on chromosomes 6AS and 3BS, and the locus Lr34/Yr18/Sr57 were confirmed following QTL mapping. Additional stem rust resistance QTL, not detected by the GWAS, were found on chromosomes 2BS, 2DL, 3DL, and 4D. PMID:27462322

  7. Springs

    James J. Kilpatrick


    @@ Springs are not always the same. In some years, April bursts upon our Virginia hills in one prodigious leap-and all the stage is filled at once, whole choruses of tulips, arabesques of forsythia, cadenzas of flowering plum. The trees grow leaves overnight

  8. Wheat: The Whole Story.

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This publication presents information on wheat. Wheat was originally a wild grass and not native to the United States. Wheat was not planted there until 1777 (and then only as a hobby crop). Wheat is grown on more acres than any other grain in this country. Soft wheats are grown east of the Mississippi River, and hard wheats are grown west of the…

  9. Estimations of neutron yield from beryllium target irradiated by SPring-8 hard synchrotron radiation

    Gryaznykh, D A; Plokhoi, V V


    The possibility of creating a neutron source based on ''SPring-8'' synchrotron radiation interaction with beryllium targets is discussed. The possible neutron yield is estimated to be of order 10 sup 1 sup 2 s sup - sup 1 .

  10. Hyperspectral imaging for detection of black tip damage in wheat kernels

    Delwiche, Stephen R.; Yang, I.-Chang; Kim, Moon S.


    A feasibility study was conducted on the use of hyperspectral imaging to differentiate sound wheat kernels from those with the fungal condition called black point or black tip. Individual kernels of hard red spring wheat were loaded in indented slots on a blackened machined aluminum plate. Damage conditions, determined by official (USDA) inspection, were either sound (no damage) or damaged by the black tip condition alone. Hyperspectral imaging was separately performed under modes of reflectance from white light illumination and fluorescence from UV light (~380 nm) illumination. By cursory inspection of wavelength images, one fluorescence wavelength (531 nm) was selected for image processing and classification analysis. Results indicated that with this one wavelength alone, classification accuracy can be as high as 95% when kernels are oriented with their dorsal side toward the camera. It is suggested that improvement in classification can be made through the inclusion of multiple wavelength images.

  11. NIR calibration of soluble stem carbohydrates for predicting drought tolerance in spring wheat

    Soluble stem carbohydrates are a component of drought response in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and other grasses. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) can rapidly assay for soluble carbohydrates indirectly, but this requires a statistical model for calibration. The objectives of this study were: (i) to ...

  12. Effects on nutrients and on grain quality in spring wheat crops grown under elevated CO2 concentrations and stress conditions in the European, multiple-site experiment 'ESPACE-wheat'

    Fangmeier, A.; Temmerman, de L.; Mortensen, L.; Kemp, K.; Burke, J.; Mitchell, J.R.A.C.; Oijen, van M.; Weigel, H.J.


    Nutrient element concentrations and grain quality were assessed in spring wheat grown under elevated CO2 concentrations and contrasting levels of tropospheric ozone at different nitrogen supply rates at several European sites. Carbon dioxide enrichment proved to affect nutrient concentrations in a c

  13. Effects of zinc on cadmium uptake by spring wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.): long-time hydroponic study and short-time 109Cd tracing study

    ZHAO Zhong-qiu; ZHU Yong-guan; CAI Yun-long


    To investigate effects of Zn on Cd uptake by spring wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) in solution culture, long-time hydroponic experiment (1 month) (Experiment 1) and short-time Cd isotope (109Cd) tracing experiment (24 h) (Experiment 2) were conducted. In Experiment 1, spring wheat (cv. Brookton) was grown in nutrient solution at uniform cadmium concentration of 20μ mol/L and 10 zinc concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10, 20, 100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000 μ mol/L). In Experiment 2, spring wheat seedlings,pre-cultivated in complete nutrient solution, were treated with 109Cd of uniform activity and the same series of Zn concentrations as those in Experiment 1 for 24 h. Cd concentrations in shoots and roots in Experiment 1 increased marginally but not consistently with Zn increasing at Zn rates of 1~200 μmol/L, and then decreased significantly at high rates (>200 μ mol/L). In Experiment 2, the response of 109Cd activities in shoots and roots to increasing Zn was greatly similar to the response of Cd concentrations to Zn increasing in Experiment 1. The results of the two experiments indicated that the short-time and long-time exposure of spring wheat to Zn had similar effects on Cd accumulation.

  14. A Comparison of Aggressiveness and Deoxynivalenol Production Between Canadian Fusarium graminearum Isolates with 3-Acetyl and 15-Acetyldeoxynivalenol Chemotypes in Field-Grown Spring Wheat

    Twenty four isolates of Fusarium graminearum, half of which were 3- acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and half 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) chemotypes, were tested for their ability to produce deoxynivalenol and to cause Fusarium head blight (FHB), in spring wheat cultivars. The objectives of this...

  15. Environmental Safety for Chernozem Soil Fertilized with Phosphogypsum and Ash for Spring Wheat Cultivation in North Kazakhstan

    Muhanbet Ainur


    Full Text Available Currently, year by year the industrial waste stockpiles increase, but at the same time its recycling is not more than 10–15% of the production. There are several methods of recycling of such waste as phosphogypsum and ash, among which one of the perspective directions is considered using them in agriculture as fertilizer and ameliorator. The limiting factor of their widespread use in agriculture is the presence of heavy metals and radionuclides in them. This article presents data about environmental safety of using phosphogypsum and ash for cultivation spring wheat on the chernozem soils of Northern Kazakhstan. According to the results of research, using phosphogypsum and ash doesn’t give negative impact on the environment, the presence of heavy metals and radionuclides in the soil and grain do not exceed the maximum allowable concentrations.

  16. Gross Primary Production of a Wheat Canopy Relates Stronger to Far Red Than to Red Solar-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence

    Yves Goulas


    Full Text Available Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF is a radiation flux emitted by chlorophyll molecules in the red (RSIF and far red region (FRSIF, and is considered as a potential indicator of the functional state of photosynthesis in remote sensing applications. Recently, ground studies and space observations have demonstrated a strong empirical linear relationship between FRSIF and carbon uptake through photosynthesis (GPP, gross primary production. In this study, we investigated the potential of RSIF and FRSIF to represent the functional status of photosynthesis at canopy level on a wheat crop. RSIF and FRSIF were continuously measured in the O2-B (SIF687 and O2-A bands (SIF760 at a high frequency rate from a nadir view at a height of 21 m, simultaneously with carbon uptake using eddy covariance (EC techniques. The relative fluorescence yield (Fyield and the photochemical yield were acquired at leaf level using active fluorescence measurements. SIF was normalized with photosynthetically active radiation (PAR to derive apparent spectral fluorescence yields (ASFY687, ASFY760. At the diurnal scale, we found limited variations of ASFY687 and ASFY760 during sunny days. We also did not find any link between Fyield and light use efficiency (LUE derived from EC, which would prevent SIF from indicating LUE changes. The coefficient of determination ( r 2 of the linear regression between SIF and GPP is found to be highly variable, depending on the emission wavelength, the time scale of observation, sky conditions, and the phenological stage. Despite its photosystem II (PSII origin, SIF687 correlates less than SIF760 with GPP in any cases. The strongest SIF–GPP relationship was found for SIF760 during canopy growth. When canopy is in a steady state, SIF687 and SIF760 are almost as effective as PAR in predicting GPP. Our results imply some constraints in the use of simple linear relationships to infer GPP from SIF, as they are expected to be better predictive

  17. Angular resolution measurements at SPring-8 of a hard X-ray optic for the New Hard X-ray Mission

    Spiga, D; Furuzawa, A; Basso, S; Binda, R; Borghi, G; Cotroneo, V; Grisoni, G; Kunieda, H; Marioni, F; Matsumoto, H; Mori, H; Miyazawa, T; Negri, B; Orlandi, A; Pareschi, G; Salmaso, B; Tagliaferri, G; Uesugi, K; Valsecchi, G; Vernani, D


    The realization of X-ray telescopes with imaging capabilities in the hard (> 10 keV) X-ray band requires the adoption of optics with shallow (10 m shall be produced and tested. Full-illumination tests of such mirrors are usually performed with on- ground X-ray facilities, aimed at measuring their effective area and the angular resolution; however, they in general suffer from effects of the finite distance of the X-ray source, e.g. a loss of effective area for double reflection. These effects increase with the focal length of the mirror under test; hence a "partial" full-illumination measurement might not be fully representative of the in-flight performances. Indeed, a pencil beam test can be adopted to overcome this shortcoming, because a sector at a time is exposed to the X-ray flux, and the compensation of the beam divergence is achieved by tilting the optic. In this work we present the result of a hard X-ray test campaign performed at the BL20B2 beamline of the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility, aime...

  18. Reconciling the discrepancy in ground- and satellite-observed trends in the spring phenology of winter wheat in China from 1993 to 2008

    Guo, Li; An, Ning; Wang, Kaicun


    Monitoring crop phenology has become a growing concern for food security. Crop phenology can be traditionally observed at plot scale in the field or recently at a much larger scale by satellites. In this study, we compared the spring phenology of winter wheat (Triticum sp.), quantified as the timing of start-of-spring-season (SOS), using 8 km resolution satellite data and ground observations at 112 agrometeorological stations across China from 1993 to 2008. We found that ground and satellite observations displayed opposing trends in winter wheat SOS. Ground observation exhibited a delayed onset of SOS at 86% of ground stations, whereas satellite data suggested an earlier arrival of SOS at 78% of stations. The meteorological SOS calculated from daily air temperature supported the earlier occurrence of SOS indicated by satellite data. Moreover, satellite data showed more agreement with meteorological data with respect to interannual SOS variations than did field phenology records. Given the dominant control of air temperature on winter wheat's spring phenology, satellite observation provides a reliable measure of the long-term trends and dynamics of SOS. Ground-observed SOS trends were impaired by data heterogeneity and limited spatial coverage. However, compared with ground observations, satellite-derived phenological timings are often lack of biological meanings. Therefore, integrating ground and satellite observations could enhance the monitoring of winter wheat SOS, which would increase the knowledge of vegetation's response to the changing climate and help to optimize timely crop management.

  19. Variation for Nitrogen Use Efficiency Traits in Current and Historical Great Plains Hard Winter Wheat

    Wheat genotypes that efficiently capture and convert available soil nitrogen into harvested grain protein are key to sustainably meeting the rising global demand for grain protein. The purposes of this study were to characterize the genetic variation for nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) traits within ...


    Stiegert, Kyle W.; Carton, Olivier


    This research shows that increased concentration in the U.S. wheat milling industry has not led to noncompetive pricing in upstream or downstream markets. Increased concentration has helped to reduce the marketing margin by $0.65 for every 100 pounds of flour produced. This is about 7% of the average marketing margin.

  1. Angular resolution measurements at SPring-8 of a hard x-ray optic for the New Hard X-ray Mission

    Spiga, D.; Raimondi, L.; Furuzawa, A.; Basso, S.; Binda, R.; Borghi, G.; Cotroneo, V.; Grisoni, G.; Kunieda, H.; Marioni, F.; Matsumoto, H.; Mori, H.; Miyazawa, T.; Negri, B.; Orlandi, A.; Pareschi, G.; Salmaso, B.; Tagliaferri, G.; Uesugi, K.; Valsecchi, G.; Vernani, D.


    The realization of X-ray telescopes with imaging capabilities in the hard (> 10 keV) X-ray band requires the adoption of optics with shallow (=10 m shall be produced and tested. Full-illumination tests of such mirrors are usually performed with onground X-ray facilities, aimed at measuring their effective area and the angular resolution; however, they in general suffer from effects of the finite distance of the X-ray source, e.g. a loss of effective area for double reflection. These effects increase with the focal length of the mirror under test; hence a "partial" full-illumination measurement might not be fully representative of the in-flight performances. Indeed, a pencil beam test can be adopted to overcome this shortcoming, because a sector at a time is exposed to the X-ray flux, and the compensation of the beam divergence is achieved by tilting the optic. In this work we present the result of a hard X-ray test campaign performed at the BL20B2 beamline of the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility, aimed at characterizing the Point Spread Function (PSF) of a multilayer-coated Wolter-I mirror shell manufactured by Nickel electroforming. The mirror shell is a demonstrator for the NHXM hard X-ray imaging telescope (0.3 - 80 keV), with a predicted HEW (Half Energy Width) close to 20 arcsec. We show some reconstructed PSFs at monochromatic X-ray energies of 15 to 63 keV, and compare them with the PSFs computed from post-campaign metrology data, self-consistently treating profile and roughness data by means of a method based on the Fresnel diffraction theory. The modeling matches the measured PSFs accurately.

  2. A Novel Retrotransposon Inserted in the Dominant Vrn-B1 Allele Confers Spring Growth Habit in Tetraploid Wheat (Triticum turgidum L.).

    Chu, C-G; Tan, C T; Yu, G-T; Zhong, S; Xu, S S; Yan, L


    Vernalization genes determine winter/spring growth habit in temperate cereals and play important roles in plant development and environmental adaptation. In wheat (Triticum L. sp.), it was previously shown that allelic variation in the vernalization gene VRN1 was due to deletions or insertions either in the promoter or in the first intron. Here, we report a novel Vrn-B1 allele that has a retrotransposon in its promoter conferring spring growth habit. The VRN-B1 gene was mapped in a doubled haploid population that segregated for winter-spring growth habit but was derived from two spring tetraploid wheat genotypes, the durum wheat (T. turgidum subsp. durum) variety 'Lebsock' and T. turgidum subsp. carthlicum accession PI 94749. Genetic analysis revealed that Lebsock carried the dominant Vrn-A1 and recessive vrn-B1 alleles, whereas PI 94749 had the recessive vrn-A1 and dominant Vrn-B1 alleles. The Vrn-A1 allele in Lebsock was the same as the Vrn-A1c allele previously reported in hexaploid wheat. No differences existed between the vrn-B1 and Vrn-B1 alleles, except that a 5463-bp insertion was detected in the 5'-UTR region of the Vrn-B1 allele. This insertion was a novel retrotransposon (designated as retrotrans_VRN), which was flanked by a 5-bp target site duplication and contained primer binding site and polypurine tract motifs, a 325-bp long terminal repeat, and an open reading frame encoding 1231 amino acids. The insertion of retrotrans_VRN resulted in expression of Vrn-B1 without vernalization. Retrotrans_VRN is prevalent among T. turgidum subsp. carthlicum accessions, less prevalent among T. turgidum subsp. dicoccum accessions, and rarely found in other tetraploid wheat subspecies.

  3. Mapping of resistance to spot blotch disease caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana in spring wheat.

    Kumar, Uttam; Joshi, Arun K; Kumar, Sundeep; Chand, Ramesh; Röder, Marion S


    Spot blotch caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana is a destructive disease of wheat in warm and humid wheat growing regions of the world. The development of disease resistant cultivars is considered as the most effective control strategy for spot blotch. An intervarietal mapping population in the form of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was developed from a cross 'Yangmai 6' (a Chinese source of resistance) x 'Sonalika' (a spot blotch susceptible cultivar). The 139 single seed descent (SSD) derived F(6), F(7), F(8) lines of 'Yangmai 6' x 'Sonalika' were evaluated for resistance to spot blotch in three blocks in each of the 3 years. Joint and/or single year analysis by composite interval mapping (CIM) and likelihood of odd ratio (LOD) >2.2, identified four quantitative trait loci (QTL) on the chromosomes 2AL, 2BS, 5BL and 6DL. These QTLs were designated as QSb.bhu-2A, QSb.bhu-2B, QSb.bhu-5B and QSb.bhu-6D, respectively. A total of 63.10% of phenotypic variation was explained by these QTLs based on the mean over years. Two QTLs on chromosomes 2B and 5B with major effects were consistent over 3 years. All QTL alleles for resistance were derived from the resistant parent 'Yangmai 6'.

  4. Effects of dietary fiber from wheat, corn, and soy hull bran on excretion of fecal bile acids in humans.

    Bell, E W; Emken, E A; Klevay, L M; Sandstead, H H


    Effects of dietary fiber on bile acid excretion and fecal bile acid concentration have been studied for seven subjects fed 26 g of either soft white wheat bran, corn bran, soybean hulls, or hard red spring wheat bran. Results indicate that even in a controlled study using a metabolic word, individual subject variation has a major impact on fecal bile acid excretion. This observation has not been fully appreciated in previous human studies. No significant change in the composition of fecal bile acids could be associated with the decrease in serum lipid levels previously reported. A method for the isolation and quantitation of fecal bile acids is described which does not require purification by thin-layer chromatography. A preliminary study of lyophilized fecal samples stored at -10 to -30 degrees C showed very little or no change in bile acid content. Samples stored at room temperatures for 11 months showed a substantial reduction in bile acid content.

  5. [Comparison of red edge parameters of winter wheat canopy under late frost stress].

    Wu, Yong-feng; Hu, Xin; Lü, Guo-hua; Ren, De-chao; Jiang, Wei-guo; Song, Ji-qing


    In the present study, late frost experiments were implemented under a range of subfreezing temperatures (-1 - -9 degrees C) by using a field movable climate chamber (FMCC) and a cold climate chamber, respectively. Based on the spectra of winter wheat canopy measured at noon on the first day after the frost experiments, red edge parameters REP, Dr, SDr, Dr(min), Dr/Dr(min) and Dr/SDr were extracted using maximum first derivative spectrum method (FD), linear four-point interpolation method (FPI), polynomial fitting method (POLY), inverted Gaussian fitting method (IG) and linear extrapolation technique (LE), respectively. The capacity of the red edge parameters to detect late frost stress was explicated from the aspects of the early, sensitivity and stability through correlation analysis, linear regression modeling and fluctuation analysis. The result indicates that except for REP calculated from FPI and IG method in Experiment 1, REP from the other methods was correlated with frost temperatures (P < 0.05). Thereinto, significant levels (P) of POLY and LE methods all reached 0.01. Except for POLY method in Experiment 2, Dr/SDr from the other methods were all significantly correlated with frost temperatures (P < 0.01). REP showed a trend to shift to short-wave band with decreasing temperatures. The lower the temperature, the more obvious the trend is. Of all the REP, REP calculated by LE method had the highest correlation with frost temperatures which indicated that LE method is the best for REP extraction. In Experiment 1 and 2, only Dr(min) and Dr/Dr(min), calculated by FD method simultaneously achieved the requirements for the early (their correlations with frost temperatures showed a significant level P < 0.01), sensitivity (abso- lute value of the slope of fluctuation coefficient is greater than 2.0) and stability (their correlations with frost temperatures al- ways keep a consistent direction). Dr/SDr calculated from FD and IG methods always had a low sensitivity

  6. Hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy equipment developed at beamline BL46XU of SPring-8 for industrial researches

    Yasuno, Satoshi, E-mail:; Koganezawa, Tomoyuki; Watanabe, Takeshi [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Oji, Hiroshi [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); SPring-8 Service Co., Ltd., 1-20-5 Kouto, Shingu, Tatsuno, Hyogo 679-5165 (Japan)


    Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) is a powerful tool for investigating the chemical and electronic states of bulk and buried interface in a non-destructive manner due to the large probing depth of this technique. At BL46XU of SPring-8, there are two HAXPES systems equipped with different electron spectrometers, which can be utilized appropriately according to the purpose in various industrial researches. In this article, these systems are outlined, and two typical examples of HAXPES studies performed by them are presented, which focus on the silicidation at Ni/SiC interface and the energy distribution of interface states at SiO{sub 2}/a-InGaZnO.

  7. Spring-network-based model of a red blood cell for simulating mesoscopic blood flow.

    Nakamura, Masanori; Bessho, Sadao; Wada, Shigeo


    We developed a mechanical model of a red blood cell (RBC) that is capable of expressing its characteristic behaviors in shear flows. The RBC was modeled as a closed shell membrane consisting of spring networks in the framework of the energy minimum concept. The fluid forces acting on RBCs were modeled from Newton's viscosity law and the conservation of momentum. In a steady shear flow, the RBC model exhibited various behaviors, depending on the shear rate; it tumbled, tank-treaded, or both. The transition from tumbling to tank-treading occurred at a shear rate of 20 s( - 1). The simulation of an RBC in steady and unsteady parallel shear flows (Couette flows) showed that the deformation parameters of the RBC were consistent with experimental results. The RBC in Poiseuille flow migrated radially towards the central axis of the flow channel. Axial migration became faster with an increase in the viscosity of the media, qualitatively consistent with experimental results. These results demonstrate that the proposed model satisfies the essential conditions for simulating RBC behavior in blood flow. Finally, a large-scale RBC flow simulation was implemented to show the capability of the proposed model for analyzing the mesoscopic nature of blood flow.

  8. Empirical rheology and pasting properties of soft-textured durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) and hard-textured common wheat (T. aestivum)

    Puroindoline (PIN) proteins are the molecular basis for wheat kernel texture classification and affect flour milling performance. This study aimed at investigating the effect of PINs on kernel physical characteristics and dough rheological properties of common wheat (Alpowa cv, soft wheat) and durum...

  9. [Development and study of spring bread wheat variety Pamyati Maystrenko with introgression of genetic material from synthetic hexaploid Triticum timopheevii zhuk. x Aegilops tauschii Coss].

    Laikova, L I; Belan, I A; Badaeva, E D; Posseeva, L P; Shepelev, S S; Shumny, V K; Pershina, L A


    Synthetic hexaploids are bridges for transferring new genes that determine resistance to stress factors from wild-type species to bread wheat. In the present work, the method of developing the spring bread wheat variety Pamyati Maystrenko and the results of its study are described. This variety was obtained using one of the immune lines produced earlier via the hybridization of the spring bread wheat variety Saratovskaya 29 with the synthetic hexaploid T. timopheevii Zhuk. x Ae. tauschii Coss. The C-staining of chromosomes in the Pamyati Maystrenko variety revealed substitutions of 2B and 6B chromosomes by the homeologous chromosomes of the G genome of T. timopheevii and the substitution of chromosome 1D by an orthologous chromosome ofAe. tauschii. It was found that this variety is characterized by resistance to leaf and stem rust, powdery mildew, and loose smut as well as by high grain and bread-making qualities. The role of the alien genetic material introgressed into the bread-wheat genome in the expression of adaptive and economically valuable traits in the Pamyati Maystrenko variety is discussed.

  10. Impact of the D genome and quantitative trait loci on quantitative traits in a spring durum by spring bread wheat cross

    Desirable agronomic traits are similar for common hexaploid (6X) bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n = 6x = 42, genome, AABBDD) and tetraploid (4X) durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum, 2n = 4x = 28, genome, AABB). However, they are genetically isolated from each other due to an unequal number of ge...

  11. Yield stability of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in the North West Frontier Province, Pakistan

    Ghulam Rasul Tahir


    Full Text Available Ten promising wheat genotypes were evaluated for grain yield stability under varied environments at nine locations in the North West Frontier Province, Pakistan. The interaction between genotypes and environments (G x E was found significant in this study. None of the regression coefficients (bi was significantly different from variety; therefore, stable performance of the genotypes could not be predicted on ‘bi’ alone. In this study, deviations from regression (S2d and average grain yields were used to identify the superior genotypes. Above average grain yields were observed in genotypes, CT-99022, SAW-98063, CT- 99155 and Saleem-2000. Although cultivar Saleem-2000 produced high yield, on the basis of high S2d value seemed to be sensitive upon environmental changes. Based on grain yield performance, low deviation from regression and bi values the genotype CT-99022 is more suitable for favourable and CT-99155 for unfavourable environments. Stable performance was expressed by SAW-98063 because of higher grain yield, regression coefficient (bi = .983 and low deviation from regression (S2d = 0.065.

  12. Effects Of Spring Herbicide Treatments On Winter Wheat Growth And Grain Yield*

    Hamouz P.


    Full Text Available Herbicides provide a low-cost solution for protecting crops from significant yield losses. If weed infestations are below damage thresholds, however, then herbicide application is unnecessary and can even lead to yield loss. A small-plot field trial was conducted to examine the effect of herbicides on winter wheat yields. Weeds were removed manually from the trial area before herbicide application. Twenty-four treatments were tested in four replications. Treatment 1 consisted of an untreated weed-free control, whereas the other treatments comprised applications of the following herbicides and their combinations: metsulfuron-methyl + tribenuron-methyl (4.95 + 9.99 g ha−1, pinoxaden (30 g ha−1, fluroxypyr (175 g ha−1, and clopyralid (120 g ha−1. Water (250 l ha−1 or a urea-ammonium nitrate fertilizer solution (UAN, 120.5 l ha−1 was used as the herbicide carrier. Crop injury 30 days after treatment and yield loss were recorded. Results showed minor crop injury by herbicides and their combinations when applied without UAN and moderate injury caused by UAN in combination with herbicides. Yield losses reached 5.3% and 4.3% in those treatments where all of the tested herbicides were applied with and without UAN, respectively. The effect of all treatments on crop yield was, however, statistically insignificant (P = 0.934.

  13. Root carbon consumption and grain yield of spring wheat in response to phosphorus supply under two water regimes

    GUAN Yu; QIAO Zhen; DU Jiu-yuan; DU Yan-lei


    In semiarid areas, cereal crops often alocate more biomass to root at the expense of aboveground yield. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate carbon consumption of roots and its impact on grain yield of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as affected by water and phosphorus (P) supply. A factorial design was used with six treatments namely two water regimes (at 80–75% and 50–45% ifeld capacity (FC)) and three P supply rates (P1=0, P2=44 and P3=109 µg P g–1 soil). At shooting and lfowering stages, root respiration and carbon consumption increased with the elevate of P supply rates, regardless of water conditions, which achieved the minimum and maximum at P1 under 50–45% FC and P3 under 80–75% FC, respectively. However, total aboveground biomass and grain yield were higher at P2 under 80–75% FC; and decreased with high P application (P3). The results indicated that rational or low P supply (80–75% of ifeld water capacity and 44 mg P kg–1 soil) should be recommended to improve grain yield by decreasing root carbon consumption in semiarid areas.

  14. Identification and validation of single nucleotide polymorphic markers linked to Ug99 stem rust resistance in spring wheat

    Wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. and E. Henn.) is one of the most destructive diseases world-wide. Races belonging to Ug99 (or TTKSK) continue to cause crop losses in East Africa and threaten global wheat production. Developing and deploying wheat varieties with multiple race...

  15. Identification of the VERNALIZATION 4 gene reveals the origin of spring growth habit in ancient wheats from South Asia

    Wheat varieties with a winter growth habit require long exposures to low temperatures (vernalization) to accelerate flowering. Natural variation in the vernalization genes regulating this requirement has favored wheat adaptation to different environments. The main wheat vernalization genes VRN1, V...

  16. Nitrogen Fertilizer Sources and Application Timing Affects Wheat and Inter-Seeded Red Clover Yields on Claypan Soils

    Kelly A. Nelson; Motavalli, Peter P.; Manjula Nathan


    Controlled-release N fertilizer, such as polymer-coated urea (PCU), may be a fall N management option for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in poorly-drained claypan soils. Field research evaluated (1) urea release from fall-applied PCU in 2006 and 2007; (2) broadcast fall-spring split (25%:75%) of N sources; and (3) a single fall (100%) application of PCU, urea, urea plus NBPT (N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide] (U + NBPT), ammonium nitrate (AN), or urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) at 0, 56, ...

  17. Nitrogen Fertilizer Sources and Application Timing Affects Wheat and Inter-Seeded Red Clover Yields on Claypan Soils

    Nelson, Kelly A.; Motavalli, Peter P.; Manjula Nathan


    Controlled-release N fertilizer, such as polymer-coated urea (PCU), may be a fall N management option for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in poorly-drained claypan soils. Field research evaluated (1) urea release from fall-applied PCU in 2006 and 2007; (2) broadcast fall-spring split (25%:75%) of N sources; and (3) a single fall (100%) application of PCU, urea, urea plus NBPT (N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide] (U + NBPT), ammonium nitrate (AN), or urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) at 0, 56, ...

  18. Influence of climatic factors on the low yields of spring barley and winter wheat in Southern Moravia (Czech Republic) during the 1961-2007 period

    Kolář, Petr; Trnka, Miroslav; Brázdil, Rudolf; Hlavinka, Petr


    The paper aims to study the variability of spring barley and winter wheat yields, the most important crops in the Czech Republic, with respect to the variability of weather and climatic factors. Yields of both crops have been studied for 13 districts in Southern Moravia for the 1961-2007 period. From detrended series of spring barley and winter wheat yields, years with very low (lower than the mean minus a 2.5-multiple of the standard deviation) and extremely low (interval given by the mean minus a 1.5- and 2.5-multiple of the standard deviation) yields were selected. Years in which at least one of the districts had extremely low/very low yields were further analyzed. From 10 such years selected separately for spring barley and winter wheat, six of them agreed for both crops. Extreme years were studied using NUTS4-level yield data with respect to temperature, precipitation, the self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI), snow cover, frost patterns, and the onset and duration of select phenophases. Extremely/very low barley yields in 1993, 2000, and 2007 were related to high April-June (AMJ) temperatures, low AMJ precipitation totals, and negative AMJ scPDSI (indicating drought) with an earlier onset of flowering and full ripeness and shorter intervals from tillering to flowering and from flowering to full ripeness compared to the entire 1961-2007 mean. As for extremely/very low winter wheat yields, in addition to the previously mentioned factors, winter patterns also played an important role, particularly the occurrence of severe frosts with a coinciding lack of snow cover and a long-lasting snow cover (in highlands), indicating that low yields are the result of not only one unfavorable factor but a combination of several of them.

  19. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer on crop yields in a field pea-spring wheat-potato rotation system with calcareous soil in semi-arid environments

    Liu, C.A.; Zhang, S.; Hua, S.; Rao, X.


    The object of the present study was to investigate the yield-affecting mechanisms influenced by N and P applications in rainfed areas with calcareous soil. The experimental treatments were as follows: NF (no fertilizer), N (nitrogen), P (phosphorus), and NP (nitrogen plus phosphorus) in a field pea-spring wheat-potato cropping system. This study was conducted over six years (2003-2008) on China’s semi-arid Loess Plateau. The fertilizer treatments were found to decrease the soil water content more than the NF treatment in each of the growing seasons. The annual average yields of the field pea crops during the entire experimental period were 635, 677, 858, and 1117 kg/ha for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. The annual average yields were 673, 547, 966, and 1056 kg/ha for the spring wheat crops for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. Also, the annual average yields were 1476, 2120, 1480, and 2424 kg/ha for the potato crops for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. In the second cycle of the three-year rotation, the pea and spring wheat yields in the P treatment were 1.2 and 2.8 times higher than that in the N treatment, respectively. Meanwhile, the potato crop yield in the N treatment was 3.1 times higher than that in the P treatment. In conclusion, the P fertilizer was found to increase the yields of the field pea and wheat crops, and the N fertilizer increased the potato crop yield in rainfed areas with calcareous soil. (Author)

  20. QTLs associated with agronomic traits in the Attila × CDC Go spring wheat population evaluated under conventional management

    Zou, Jun; Iqbal, Muhammad; Chen, Hua; Asif, Mohammad; N’Diaye, Amidou; Navabi, Alireza; Perez-Lara, Enid; Pozniak, Curtis; Yang, Rong-Cai; Randhawa, Harpinder; Spaner, Dean


    Recently, we investigated the effect of the wheat 90K single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) array and three gene-specific (Ppd-D1, Vrn-A1 and Rht-B1) markers on quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection in a recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population derived from a cross between two spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, ‘Attila’ and ‘CDC Go’, and evaluated for eight agronomic traits at three environments under organic management. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effect of conventional management on QTL detection in the same mapping population using the same set of markers as the organic management and compare the results with organic management. Here, we evaluated 167 RILs for number of tillers (tillering), flowering time, maturity, plant height, test weight (grain volume weight), 1000 kernel weight, grain yield, and grain protein content at seven conventionally managed environments from 2008 to 2014. Using inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM) on phenotypic data averaged across seven environments and a subset of 1203 informative markers (1200 SNPs and 3 gene specific markers), we identified a total of 14 QTLs associated with flowering time (1), maturity (2), plant height (1), grain yield (1), test weight (2), kernel weight (4), tillering (1) and grain protein content (2). Each QTL individually explained from 6.1 to 18.4% of the phenotypic variance. Overall, the QTLs associated with each trait explained from 9.7 to 35.4% of the phenotypic and from 22.1 to 90.8% of the genetic variance. Three chromosomal regions on chromosomes 2D (61–66 cM), 4B (80–82 cM) and 5A (296–297 cM) harbored clusters of QTLs associated with two to three traits. The coincidental region on chromosome 5A harbored QTL clusters for both flowering and maturity time, and mapped about 2 cM proximal to the Vrn-A1 gene, which was in high linkage disequilibrium (0.70 ≤ r2 ≤ 0.75) with SNP markers that mapped within the QTL confidence interval

  1. Ozone uptake modelling and flux-response relationships—an assessment of ozone-induced yield loss in spring wheat

    Danielsson, Helena; Karlsson, Gunilla Pihl; Karlsson, Per Erik; Håkan Pleijel, H.

    Measurements of stomatal conductance on field grown spring wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) from two experiments conducted in southwest Sweden were combined to validate and adjust the Jarvis type of multiplicative stomatal conductance model presented by Emberson et al. (Environ. Pollut. 109 (2000) 403). The adjusted model (Östad model) and the Emberson model are based on the boundary line technique. The aging of the flag leaf became important for stomatal conductance at about 500 degrees days after anthesis, on average 30 days after anthesis. Elevated ozone concentrations were assumed to influence the stomatal conductance in relation to the effect on the leaf life span. During the hours after noon the stomata tended to close to an extent that could not be explained by the combined effects of leaf temperature, leaf-to-air vapour pressure difference (VPD LA) or solar radiation. For these reasons factors describing the reduction of stomatal conductance caused by ozone and time of day were introduced in the calibration of the Östad stomatal conductance model. VPD LA induced closure of stomata at ≈1.5 kPa. In elevated carbon dioxide concentration (680 μmol mol -1) the stomatal conductance was reduced by approximately 60%. Test with the data from Östad showed that the Östad multiplicative model had an r2-value of 0.59 for the relationship between calculated and observed conductance. The Östad as well as the Emberson models were used to estimate the cumulated uptake of ozone (CUO) by the wheat flag leaves. The relationship between CUO based on the Östad model cumulated from anthesis to harvest, with a threshold for the uptake rate of 5 nmol m -2 s -1 and relative yield loss, resulted in a higher r2-value (0.90) than any other CUO model or relationships based on the accumulated ozone exposure over 40 nmol mol -1 (AOT40). The corresponding relationships between relative yield and CUO based on the Emberson model and with AOT40 were however also statistically

  2. Genetic variability in anthocyanin composition and nutritional properties of blue, purple, and red bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum) wheats.

    Ficco, Donatella B M; De Simone, Vanessa; Colecchia, Salvatore A; Pecorella, Ivano; Platani, Cristiano; Nigro, Franca; Finocchiaro, Franca; Papa, Roberto; De Vita, Pasquale


    Renewed interest in breeding for high anthocyanins in wheat (Triticum ssp.) is due to their antioxidant potential. A collection of different pigmented wheats was used to investigate the stability of anthocyanins over three crop years. The data show higher anthocyanins in blue-aleurone bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), followed by purple- and red-pericarp durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum), using cyanidin 3-O-glucoside as standard. HPLC of the anthocyanin components shows five to eight major anthocyanins for blue wheat extracts, compared to three anthocyanins for purple and red wheats. Delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside are predominant in blue wheat, with cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, peonidin 3-O-galactoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside in purple wheat. Of the total anthocyanins, 40-70% remain to be structurally identified. The findings confirm the high heritability for anthocyanins, with small genotype × year effects, which will be useful for breeding purposes, to improve the antioxidant potential of cereal-based foods.

  3. Prediction of digestible and metabolizable energy content and standardized ileal amino Acid digestibility in wheat shorts and red dog for growing pigs.

    Huang, Q; Piao, X S; Ren, P; Li, D F


    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of chemical composition of wheat shorts and red dog on energy and amino acid digestibility in growing pigs and to establish prediction models to estimate their digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) energy content and as well as their standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acid content. For Exp. 1, sixteen diets were fed to thirty-two growing pigs according to a completely randomized design during three successive periods. The basal diet was based on corn and soybean meal while the other fifteen diets contained 28.8% wheat shorts (N = 7) or red dog (N = 8), added at the expense of corn and soybean meal. Over the three periods, each diet was fed to six pigs with each diet being fed to two pigs during each period. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy in wheat shorts and red dog averaged 75.1 and 87.9%. The DE values of wheat shorts and red dog averaged 13.8 MJ/kg (range 13.1 to 15.0 MJ/kg) and 15.1 MJ/kg (range 13.3 to 16.6 MJ/kg) of dry matter, respectively. For Exp. 2, twelve growing pigs were allotted to two 6×6 Latin Square Designs with six periods. Ten of the diets were formulated based on 60% wheat shorts or red dog and the remaining two diets were nitrogen-free diets based on cornstarch and sucrose. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was used as an indigestible marker in all diets. There were no differences (p>0.05) in SID values for the amino acids in wheat shorts and red dog except for lysine and methionine. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and SID values for lysine in different sources of wheat shorts or red dog, which averaged 78.1 and 87.8%, showed more variation than either methionine or tryptophan. A stepwise regression was performed to establish DE, ME and amino acid digestibility prediction models. Data indicated that fiber content and amino acid concentrations were good indicators to predict energy values and amino acid digestibility, respectively. The present study confirms the large

  4. Wheat Production and Wheat Rust Management in Canada

    Xue Allen G; Chi Dawn T; Zhang Shu-zhen; Li Zuo-fu


    Wheat is Canada's the largest crop with most of the production in the western Canadian Prairie Provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta. There were approximately 10 million (M) hectares (hm2) seeded to wheat in Canada, including 7 M hm2 of hexaploid spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), 2 M hm2 of durum wheat (T. turgidum L. ssp. durum (Desf.) Husn.), and 1 M hm2 of winter wheat (T. aestivum). Within hexaploid wheat there has been diversification into a number of market classes based on different end-use quality criteria. The predominant spring bread wheat class has been the Canada Western Red Spring (CWRS) class. Historically, the disease of major concern in wheat was stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. The first significant stem rust resistant cultivar in Canada was Thatcher, grown extensively from 1939 until the early 1970s. Thatcher, however, was very susceptible to leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina. Over years, improved resistance to both stem and leaf rust was achieved with the release of cultivars with additional genes for resistance, primarily Sr2, Sr6, Sr7a, Sr9b, Lr13, Lr14a, Lr16, and Lr34. The genetic resistance has adequately controlled stem rust but leaf rust continues to cause significant loss, partially due to changes in the P. triticina population which reduced the effectiveness of resistance genes such as Lr13 and Lr16. Stripe rust on wheat, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, was historically a problem under irrigation in southern Alberta, but since 2000, it has been found annually in the central Canadian prairies and southern Ontario. The genetic basis of resistance to stripe rust in most Canadian wheat cultivars has not been determined, although Yr18 provides partial resistance in many cultivars. In the future, other rust diseases, such as wheat stripe rust, or highly virulent new pathotypes of current rust pathogens, such as P. graminis f. sp. tritici race Ug-99, may pose

  5. Sources of Partial Resistance to Leaf Rust in Hard Wheat Landraces Cultivated in Palestine

    Munqez Jamil Yacoub SHTAYA


    Full Text Available A collection of 7 landraces of Palestinian durum wheat was screened for resistance to leaf rust (Puccinia triticina under controlled conditions. Latent period was more pronounced in adult plants than in seedlings and within adult plants the latency period was higher in flag leaf. In sixth leaf stage, all lines except White Dibeyah had a relative latency period greater than Meridiano and similar to Akabozu. Black Dibeyah had a latency period superior to Akabozu (partially resistant check. Black Dibeyah, Kahatat and Akabozu had a higher percentage of early abortion without host cell abortions (EA- than the susceptible control in seedling stage. In the sixth leaf stage, only line Black Dibeyah had a higher % EA- than the rest. In flag leaf stage lines, Black Hiteyah, Yellow Hiteyah, Black Dibeyah, Kahatat and Akabozu had a higher percentage of early aborted colonies than Meridiano. These lines may be useful additional sources of partial resistance to leaf rust and they might be used in breeding programs.

  6. Photosynthesis and Rubisco kinetics in spring wheat and meadow fescue under conditions of simulated climate change with elevated CO2 and increased temperatures



    Full Text Available Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Hudson cv. Kalevicwere grown in ambient and elevated (700 µl l -1 carbon dioxide concentration both at present ambient temperatures and at temperatures 3°C higher than at present simulating a future climate.The CO2 concentrations were elevated in large (3 m in diameteropen top chambers and the temperatures in a greenhouse built over the experimental field.The photosynthetic rate of both wheat and meadow fescue was 31 –37%higher in elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2 than in ambient CO 2 (aCO2 throughout the growing season.The enhancement in wheat photosynthesis in eCO2 declined 10 –13 days before yellow ripeness,at which point the rate of photosynthesis in both CO 2 treatments declined.The stomatal conductance of wheat and meadow fescue was 23–36% lower in eCO2 than in aCO2 .The amount and activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco in wheat were lower under conditions of eCO2 ,except at elevated temperatures in 1993 when there was a clear yield increase.There was no clear change in the amount and activity of Rubisco in meadow fescue under eCO2 at either elevated or ambient temperature.This suggests that adaptation to elevated CO2 at biochemical level occurs only when there is insufficient sink for photosynthetic products.While the sink size of wheat can be increased only by introducing new,more productive genotypes,the sink size of meadow fescue can be regulated by fitting the cutting schedule to growth.;

  7. A genome-wide association study of resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) in a worldwide collection of hexaploid spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Maccaferri, Marco; Zhang, Junli; Bulli, Peter; Abate, Zewdie; Chao, Shiaoman; Cantu, Dario; Bossolini, Eligio; Chen, Xianming; Pumphrey, Michael; Dubcovsky, Jorge


    New races of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), the causal pathogen of wheat stripe rust, show high virulence to previously deployed resistance genes and are responsible for large yield losses worldwide. To identify new sources of resistance we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a worldwide collection of 1000 spring wheat accessions. Adult plants were evaluated under field conditions in six environments in the western United States, and seedlings were tested with four Pst races. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Infinium 9K-assay provided 4585 SNPs suitable for GWAS. High correlations among environments and high heritabilities were observed for stripe rust infection type and severity. Greater levels of Pst resistance were observed in a subpopulation from Southern Asia than in other groups. GWAS identified 97 loci that were significant for at least three environments, including 10 with an experiment-wise adjusted Bonferroni probability resistance genes and QTL, and likely represent new resistance loci. The other seven QTL mapped close to known resistance genes and allelism tests will be required to test their relationships. In summary, this study provides an integrated view of stripe rust resistance resources in spring wheat and identifies new resistance loci that will be useful to diversify the current set of resistance genes deployed to control this devastating disease.

  8. QTL analysis of the spring wheat "Chapio" identifies stable stripe rust resistance despite inter-continental genotype × environment interactions.

    Yang, E-N; Rosewarne, G M; Herrera-Foessel, S A; Huerta-Espino, J; Tang, Z-X; Sun, C-F; Ren, Z-L; Singh, R P


    Chapio is a spring wheat developed by CIMMYT in Mexico by a breeding program that focused on multigenic resistances to leaf rust and stripe rust. A population consisting of 277 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was developed by crossing Chapio with Avocet. The RILs were genotyped with DArT markers (137 randomly selected RILs) and bulked segregant analysis conducted to supplement the map with informative SSR markers. The final map consisted of 264 markers. Phenotyping against stripe rust was conducted for three seasons in Toluca, Mexico and at three sites over two seasons (total of four environments) in Sichuan Province, China. Significant loci across the two inter-continental regions included Lr34/Yr18 on 7DS, Sr2/Yr30 on 3BS, and a QTL on 3D. There were significant genotype × environment interactions with resistance gene Yr31 on 2BS being effective in most of the Toluca environments; however, a late incursion of a virulent pathotype in 2009 rendered this gene ineffective. This locus also had no effect in China. Conversely, a 5BL locus was only effective in the Chinese environments. There were also complex additive interactions. In the Mexican environments, Yr31 suppressed the additive effect of Yr30 and the 3D locus, but not of Lr34/Yr18, while in China, the 3D and 5BL loci were generally not additive with each other, but were additive when combined with other loci. These results indicate the importance of maintaining diverse, multi-genic resistances as Chapio had stable inter-continental resistance despite the fact that there were QTLs that were not effective in either one or the other region.

  9. Independent and combined effects of soil warming and drought stress during anthesis on seed set and grain yield in two spring wheat varieties

    Weldearegay, Dawit Fisseha; Yan, F.; Jiang, D.


    irrigation until all of the transpirable soil water had been depleted in the pots. Results showed that, particularly under D treatment, Alora depleted soil water faster than Trappe. In both varieties, flag leaf relative water content (RWC) was significantly lowered, while spikelet abscisic acid (ABA...... decreased shoot biomass and reduced seed set. When analysed across the varieties and the treatments, it was found that the reduction in seed set was closely correlated with the increase in spikelet ABA concentration, indicating that D and HD treatments induced greater spikelet ABA concentrations might have...... caused seed abortion. It was concluded that the grain yield reduction under D and HD treatments during anthesis in spring wheat is ascribed mainly to a lowered seed set and wheat varieties (i.e. Alora) with more dramatic increase in spikelet ABA concentration are more susceptible to D and HD treatment....

  10. Vegetation dynamics after spring and summer fires in red and white pine stands at Voyageurs National Park

    Weyenberg, Scott A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.


    Conducting dormant season or springtime prescribed fire treatments has become a common practice in many regions of the United States to restore ecosystems to their natural state. Despite the knowledge that historically, fires often occurred during the summer, the application of summer burns has been deterred, in part, by a lack of understanding of fire season effects on vegetation. We explored the differences in fire effects between spring and summer burns at Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. The fire season effects on the ground layer vegetation were clearly different among the treatments: pre-burn, spring, and summer. Vegetation composition of pre-burn and after spring fires was similar, but differed significantly from the summer fires. Spring fires propagated the same species that were present prior to the fire, whereas summer fires promoted a new suite of species through the germination of seedbank and high seed dispersal species. Cover and richness of seed bank and intolerant species were greatest after the summer fires, which contributed to the peak in richness found across all reproductive and tolerance attributes five years after these fires. Post summer fire composition showed shifts in composition through time. Substantial differences in the effects of burn seasonality on ground layer vegetation should be considered in long term restoration efforts to help maintain species diversity in red and white pine forest ecosystems.

  11. The Substitution of Wheat Flour with Mixed-Cassava (Manihot utilissima and Red Beans-Flour (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Toward The Characteristics of Instant Noodles

    Novelina Novelina


    Full Text Available Instant noodles are defined as dry food products made of wheat flour with the addition of other foodstuffs. Cassava flour can be used together with wheat flour as a basic ingredient for the noodles, in order to reduce the use of wheat flour. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of substitution of cassava flour to the wheat flour which was enriched with red bean flour toward the quality of instant noodles that had been produced. The treatment in this study was done by mixing 70% of wheat flour with 30% of cassava and red beans flour mixture at various levels. The observations was carried out on raw materials and the instant noodle products, including moisture content, ash content, protein content, fat content and carbohydrate content as well as by different organoleptic test of the flavour, aroma, texture and colour. The results showed that the noodles product that was the most qualified and preferred was the product with the treatment D (a mixture of 70% of wheat flour; 20% of cassava flour and 10% of red bean flour, with the test results of 2.24% of moisture content, 1.07% of ash content, 9.36% of protein content, 17.77% of fat content, carbohydrate content by different of 69.95%, and 71.53% of yield.

  12. Cereal cyst nematode screening in locally adapted spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm of the Pacific Northwest, 2015

    Field screenings were performed to determine if there is resistance to Heterodera filipjevi in locally adapted wheat germplasm which could be introgressed into new WA wheat varieties. A field naturally infested with Heterodera filipjevi located in Colton, WA, was selected for this experiment. Cultiv...

  13. Effects of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment, Applied Nitrogen and Soil Moisture on Dry Matter Accumulation and Nitrogen Uptake in Spring Wheat


    Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Dingxi No. 8654) was treated with two concentrations of atmospheric COz (350 and 700 μmol mol-1), two levels of soil moisture (well-watered and drought) and five rates of nitrogen fertilizer (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg kg-1 soil) to study the atmospheric CO2 concentration effect on dry matter accumulation and N uptake of spring wheat. The effects of CO2 enrichment on the shoot and total mass depended largely on soil nitrogen level, and the shoot and total mass increased significantly in the moderate to high N treatments but did not increase significantly in the low N treatment. Enriched CO2concentration did not increase more shoot and total mass in the drought treatment than in the well-watered treatment. Thus, elevated CO2 did not ameliorate the depressive effects of drought and nitrogen stress. In addition, root mass decreased slightly and root/shoot ratio decreased significantly due to CO2 enrichment in no N treatment under well-watered condition. Enriched CO2 decreased shoot N content and shoot and total N uptake; but it reduced root N content and uptake slightly. Shoot critical N concentration was lower for spring wheat grown at 700 μmol mol-1 CO2 than at 350 μmol mol-1 CO2 in both well-watered and drought treatments. The critical N concentrations were 16 and 19 g kg-1 for the well-watered treatment and drought treatment at elevated CO2 and 21 and 26 g kg-1 at ambient CO2, respectively. The reductions in the movement of nutrients to the plant roots through mass flow due to the enhancement in WUE (water use efficiency) and the increase in N use efficiency at elevated CO2 could elucidate the reduction of shoot and root N concentrations.

  14. Molecular Detection for Variation Types of Puroindoline Gene Controlling Grain Hardness in Semi- hard Wheat%籽粒硬度puroindoline基因在混合麦中变异类型的分子检测

    高洁; 郭凤芝; 郭钢; 李玉莲; 樊庆琦; 孟庆升


    The molecular detection was conducted for puroindoline genes in 18 semi - hard wheat materials to know their variation types. The results showed that all materials were wild type (Pina -Dla/Pinb -Dla). It could be speculated that the grain hardness was probably controlled by some minor genes or physiological indexes. The QTL analysis on the minor genes and the detection for the physiological indexes would be conductive to explore the formation mechanism of the grain hardness in semi - hard wheat.%为了解混合麦中puroindoline基因的变异类型,利用18份混合麦对puroindoline基因进行了分子检测.结果表明:供试材料puroindoline基因类型均为野生型(Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1a).推测混合麦的形成可能是其它微效基因或者是某些生理指标的影响造成的,对控制籽粒硬度微效基因的QTL分析和某些生理指标的测定,有助于混合麦籽粒硬度形成机制的探索.

  15. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the method...

  16. The grain Hardness locus characterized in a diverse wheat panel (Triticum aestivum L.) adapted to the central part of the Fertile Crescent: genetic diversity, haplotype structure, and phylogeny.

    Shaaf, Salar; Sharma, Rajiv; Baloch, Faheem Shehzad; Badaeva, Ekaterina D; Knüpffer, Helmut; Kilian, Benjamin; Özkan, Hakan


    Wheat belongs to the most important crops domesticated in the Fertile Crescent. In this region, fortunately, locally adapted wheat landraces are still present in farmers' fields. This material might be of immense value for future breeding programs. However, especially wheat germplasm adapted to the central part of the Fertile Crescent has been poorly characterized for allelic variation at key loci of agricultural importance. Grain hardness is an important trait influencing milling and baking quality of wheat. This trait is mainly determined by three tightly linked genes, namely, Puroindoline a (Pina), Puroindoline b (Pinb), and Grain softness protein-1 (Gsp-1), at the Hardness (Ha-D) locus on chromosome 5DS. To investigate genetic diversity and haplotype structure, we resequenced 96 diverse wheat lines at Pina-D1, Pinb-D1, Gsp-A1, Gsp-B1, and Gsp-D1. Three types of null alleles were identified using diagnostic primers: the first type was a multiple deletion of Pina-D1, Pinb-D1, and Gsp-D1 (Pina-D1k), the second was a Pina-D1 deletion (Pina-D1b); and the third type was a deletion of Gsp-D1, representing a novel null allele designated here as Gsp-D1k. Sequence analysis resulted in four allelic variants at Pinb-D1 and five at Gsp-A1, among them Gsp-A1-V was novel. Pina-D1, Gsp-B1 and Gsp-D1 sequences were monomorphic. Haplotype and phylogenetic analysis suggested that (1) bread wheat inherited its 5DS telomeric region probably from wild diploid Ae. tauschii subsp. tauschii found within an area from Transcaucasia to Caspian Iran; and that (2) the Ha-A and Ha-B homoeoloci were most closely related to sequences of wild tetraploid T. dicocco ides. This study provides a good overview of available genetic diversity at Pina-D1, Pinb-D1, and Gsp-1, which can be exploited to extend the range of grain texture traits in wheat.

  17. The effect of interspecies interactions and water deficit on spring barley and red clover biomass accumulation at successive growth stages

    Magdalena Jastrzębska


    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in Olsztyn, Poland, in the period 2010–2012. The aim of the study was to examine whether soil water deficit would change biomass volume and distribution of pure sown spring barley and red clover as well as growth rate during their joint vegetation and mutual interactions. The interactions between spring barley and red clover were of a competitive character, and the cereal was the stronger crop. The strength of this competition increased in time with the growing season. Through most of the growing season, the competition was poorer in water deficit conditions. The impact of clover on barley before the heading stage showed facilitation symptoms. Interspecific competition reduced the rate of barley biomass accumulation and decreased stem and leaf biomass towards the end of the growing season. Intensified translocation of assimilates from the vegetative parts to grain minimized the decrease in spike biomass. Water deficit stress had a more inhibitory effect on the biomass and growth rate of barley than competition, and competition did not exacerbate the adverse influence of water deficit stress on barley. Competition from barley significantly reduced the biomass and biomass accumulation rate of clover. Water deficit stress did not exacerbate barley’s competitive effect on clover, but it strongly inhibited the growth of aboveground biomass in pure-sown clover.

  18. Hard Winter Wheat and Flour Properties in Relation to Breadmaking Quality of Straight-dough Bread: Flour Particle Size and Bread Crumb Grain

    S H Park; O K Chung; P A Seib


    Samples of 12 hard winter wheats and their flours that produced breads varying in crumb grain scores were studied for 38 quality parameters including: wheat physical and chemical characteristics; flour ash and protein contents, starch damage,swelling power, pasting characteristics, and flour particle size distribution; dough properties determined by a mixograph; and breadmaking properties for pup loaves (100g flour). Only two parameters, the protein content of wheat and the granulation of flour, showed significant correlations with bread crumb grain scores. Protein content of wheat ranging 12.9%~ 14.5% determined by an NIR method showed a weak inverse relationship (r =-0.61, p < 0.05) with bread crumb grain score. Flour particle size distribution measured by both Alpine Air Jet Sieve and NIR methods revealed that the weight wt % of particles less than 38μ m in size and representing 9.6%~ 19.3% of the flour weights was correlated positively (r =0.78, p < 0.01) with crumb grain score, whereas wt % of flour particles larger than 125μm had an inverse relationship (r =-0.60, p<0.05) with crumb grain score.

  19. Identification and validation of single nucleotide polymorphic markers linked to Ug99 stem rust resistance in spring wheat

    Chao, Shiaoman; Singh, Ravi P.; Sorrells, Mark E.


    Wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. and E. Henn.) is one of the most destructive diseases world-wide. Races belonging to Ug99 (or TTKSK) continue to cause crop losses in East Africa and threaten global wheat production. Developing and deploying wheat varieties with multiple race-specific genes or complex adult plant resistance is necessary to achieve durability. In the present study, we applied genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for identifying loci associated with the Ug99 stem rust resistance (SR) in a panel of wheat lines developed at the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). Genotyping was carried out using the wheat 9K iSelect single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip. Phenotyping was done in the field in Kenya by infection of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKST, the Sr24-virulent variant of Ug99. Marker-trait association identified 12 SNP markers significantly associated with resistance. Among them, 7 were mapped on five chromosomes. Markers located on chromosomes 4A and 4B overlapped with the location of the Ug99 resistance genes SrND643 and Sr37, respectively. Markers identified on 7DL were collocated with Sr25. Additional significant markers were located in the regions where no Sr gene has been reported. The chromosome location for five of the SNP markers was unknown. A BLASTN search of the NCBI database using the flanking sequences of the SNPs associated with Ug99 resistance revealed that several markers were linked to plant disease resistance analogues, while others were linked to regulatory factors or metabolic enzymes. A KASP (Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR) assay was used for validating six marker loci linked to genes with resistance to Ug99. Of those, four co-segregated with the Sr25-pathotypes while the rest identified unknown resistance genes. With further investigation, these markers can be used for marker-assisted selection in breeding for Ug99 stem rust resistance in wheat. PMID:28241006

  20. Evaluation of Soft Red Winter Wheat Forage Yield, Nutritive Value and Tetany Hazard as Influenced by Sampling Date and Nitrogen Fertilization

    A study was conducted from December through March using a completely randomized design to evaluate yield, nutritive value, and tetany hazard of soft red winter wheat forage as influenced by nitrogen (N) fertilization rate and date of sampling. Dry matter (DM) yield, forage DM, crude protein (CP), ne...

  1. Characterization of two adult-plant stripe rust resistance genes on chromosomes 3BS and 4BL in soft red winter wheat

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is an important foliar disease of soft red winter wheat (SRWW) in the eastern U.S. However, very few resistance genes have been characterized in the SRWW germplasm pool. The SRWW line VA96W-270 is known to be resistant to stripe rust race P...

  2. Wheat Growth in Soils Treated by Ex Situ Thermal Desorption.

    O'Brien, Peter L; DeSutter, Thomas M; Casey, Francis X M; Wick, Abbey F; Khan, E


    Successful remediation of oil-contaminated agricultural land may include the goal of returning the land to prespill levels of agricultural productivity. This productivity may be measured by crop yield, quality, and safety, all of which are influenced by soil characteristics. This research was conducted to determine if these metrics are affected in hard red spring wheat ( L. cultivar Barlow) when grown in soils treated by ex situ thermal desorption (TD) compared with wheat grown in native topsoil (TS). Additionally, TD soils were mixed with TS at various ratios to assess the effectiveness of soil mixing as a procedure for enhancing productivity. In two greenhouse studies, TD soils alone produced similar amounts of grain and biomass as TS, although grain protein in TD soils was 22% (±7%) lower. After mixing TS into TD soils, the mean biomass and grain yield were reduced by up to 60%, but grain protein increased. These trends are likely the result of nutrient availability determined by soil organic matter and nutrient cycling performed by soil microorganisms. Thermal desorption soil had 84% (±2%) lower soil organic carbon than TS, and cumulative respiration was greatly reduced (66 ± 2%). From a food safety perspective, grain from TD soils did not show increased uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Overall, this research suggests that TD soils are capable of producing safe, high-quality grain yields. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. The uptake and storage of caesium and strontium by spring wheat - a modelling study based on a field experiment

    Gaerdenaes, Annemieke I.; Linnea Berglund, S.; Bengtsson, Stefan B.; Rosen, Klas [Dept. of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7001, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)


    The aim was to model, quantify, and analyse the dynamics of uptake (foliar and root) and grain storage of wet-deposited radionuclides by a growing crop. The dynamic trace element model, Tracey, for terrestrial ecosystems was used after extension with descriptions for contamination by wet-deposition, interception, and foliar uptake. Tracey contains two alternative root uptake descriptions, one driven by transpiration and one by growth. Radionuclide fluxes were assumed proportional to the corresponding water or carbon fluxes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system, simulated with the CoupModel. The extended Tracey was calibrated against data from the wet-deposition experiment at Ultuna, central Sweden. {sup 134}Cs and {sup 85}Sr were deposited on spring wheat at six growth stages in 2010 and 2011. The sensitivity for different radionuclide, plant, and soil properties were assessed by Monte Carlo simulations using the sensitivity toolbox Eikos. One thousand simulations were made for each of the 48 scenarios (2 radionuclides, 2 root uptake approaches, 6 deposition treatments, 2 years). The simulated dynamics of grains' storage of radionuclides were accepted if the simulated values were within the 95% confidence interval of the measured values at all available samplings of a deposition treatment. A ten percentage of all {sup 134}Cs and {sup 85}Sr simulations were accepted. Highest percentage of accepted simulations was found for the scenarios with deposition shortly before harvest, indicating that the added model descriptions of deposition and interception performed well. The model mimicked well that the grain storage of radionuclides increased exponentially the later in the growing season the deposition took place; the storage of radionuclides when deposited at full ripening was 250 times higher than the storage when deposition took place at tillering. The model results confirmed that foliar uptake i.e. direct atmosphere-plant transfer, fully dominates total plant

  4. Seed-to-seed growth of superdwarf wheat and arabidopsis using red light-emitting diodes (LED's): A report on baseline tests conducted for NASA's proposed Plant Research Unit (PRU)

    Goins, G. D.; Yorio, N. C.; Sanwo, M. M.; Brown, C. S.


    To determine the influence of narrow-spectrum red light-emitting diodes (LED's) on plant growth and seed production, wheat (Triticum aestivum Superdwarf) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh, race Columbia) plants were grown under red LED's (peak emission 660 nm) and compared to plants grown under daylight fluorescent (white) light and red LED's supplemented with either 1 percent or 10 percent blue fluorescent (BF) light. Wheat growth under red LED's alone appeared normal, whereas Arabidopsis under red LED's alone developed curled leaf margins and a spiraling growth pattern. Both wheat and Arabidopsis under red LED's alone or red LED's + 1 percent BF light had significantly lower seed yield than plants grown under white light. However, the addition of 10 percent BF light to red LED's partially alleviated the adverse effect of red LED's on yield. Irrespective of the light treatment, viable seeds were produced by wheat(75-92 percent germination rate) and Arabidopsis (85-100 percent germination rate). These results indicate that wheat, and to a lesser extent Arabidopsis, can be successfully grown under red LED's alone, but supplemental blue light is required with red LED's to sufficiently match the growth characteristics and seed yield associated with plants grown under white light.

  5. Modelling of nitrogen leaching under a complex winter wheat and red clover crop rotation in a drained agricultural field

    Conrad, Y.; Fohrer, N.

    The European Water Framework Directive requires conformity of water management structures all over Europe to pursue a good water quality for all water bodies. The highest nitrate concentrations in the water were measured in regions with well-drained soils, ploughed pastures and high nitrogen inputs. The objective of this study was to calculate the nitrate nitrogen leaching out of a subsurface drainage system under organic farming conditions, especially for the seepage period in winter. Water and nitrogen fluxes between soil and vegetation were simulated with the soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer model CoupModel using data from an 8 years lasting monitoring programme on a field in Northern Germany. Modelling was focused on a crop rotation sequence consisting of winter wheat with undersown red clover followed by two years of red clover used as temporary grassland. Measured soil temperature in a depth of 15 cm was reproduced very well (Nash-Sutcliffe-efficiency NSE = 0.95; R2 = 0.98). Results also indicated that CoupModel accurately simulated drainage discharge and nitrate N loss under winter wheat from 2001 to 2002 with a NSE of 0.73 for the drainage discharge and a NSE of 0.49 for the nitrate N leaching. For the following red clover period the accordance between simulated and measured drainage discharge (NSE = 0.01) and nitrate N loads in the drainage (NSE = 0.31) was much lower. The inaccuracy in the modelling results in November 2002 seems to origin from an inadequate description of soil covering and thus the interception of the hibernating red clover. Secondly, the high nitrogen leaching in February 2004 could not be matched due to poorly adapted nitrogen dynamics in the model. The reason could be that common single parameter values in the mineralization part of the model were not suitable to reproduce an abrupt, short-term N leaching. In general, the results demonstrate the potential of CoupModel to predict water and nitrate N fluxes under complex crop

  6. Staling of white wheat bread crumb and effect of maltogenic α-amylases. Part 1: Spatial distribution and kinetic modeling of hardness and resilience.

    Amigo, José Manuel; Del Olmo Alvarez, Arantxa; Engelsen, Merete Møller; Lundkvist, Henrik; Engelsen, Søren Balling


    Bread staling is one of the most costly food deterioration processes. This study presents an in-depth, multivariate, statistical assessment of the differences in the staling process of white wheat bread as a function of storage time, usage of maltogenic α-amylases and spatial position in the loaf by texture measurements and non-linear fitting (Avrami). This study demonstrates the effects of anti-staling enzymes upon bread staling, where significant changes in the spatial staling kinetics occur. While the spatial development of staling is reduced in the outer crumb by anti-staling enzymes, the staling is retarded in the middle. The Avrami model suggests that this happens by two different competing mechanisms: one which increases the initial staling rate, and one which slows the convergence towards the limiting hardness. The two enzyme treated breads differed widely in early and ultimate resilience, despite the fact that they were adjusted to provide the same ultimate hardness.

  7. Rapid identification of resistance loci effective against Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKSK in 33 spring wheat landraces

    Wheat breeders worldwide are seeking new sources of resistance to Puccinia graminis f. sp tritici race TTKSK. To prioritize field-resistant landraces for follow-up genetic studies to test for the presence of new resistance genes, seedling response to Pgt race TTKSK, molecular markers linked to speci...

  8. Invertebrate communities in spring wheat and the identification of cereal aphid predators through molecular gut content analysis

    Cereal aphid complexes are responsible for reducing wheat production worldwide; however, management against these species is rare in North America. Generalist predators may contribute to reducing cereal aphid numbers and preventing significant damage to crops. A two-year survey identifying the arth...

  9. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by...

  10. Yield and quality prediction using satellite passive imagery and ground-based active optical sensors in sugar beet, spring wheat, corn, and sunflower

    Bu, Honggang

    Remote sensing is one possible approach for improving crop nitrogen use efficiency to save fertilizer cost, reduce environmental pollution, and improve crop yield and quality. Feasibility and potential of using remote sensing tools to predict crops yield and quality as well as detect nitrogen requirements, application timing, rate, and places in season were investigated based on 2012-2013 two-year and four-crop (corn, spring wheat, sugar beet, and sunflower) study. Two ground-based active optical sensors, GreenSeeker and Holland Scientific Crop Circle, and the RapidEye satellite imagery were used to collect sensing data. Highly significant statistical relationships between INSEY (NDVI normalized by growing degree days) and crop yield and quality indices were found for all crops, indicating that remote sensing tools may be useful for managing in-season crop yield and quality prediction.

  11. Removing celiac disease-related gluten proteins from bread wheat while retaining technological properties: a study with Chinese Spring deletion lines

    Bosch Dirk


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gluten proteins can induce celiac disease (CD in genetically susceptible individuals. In CD patients gluten-derived peptides are presented to the immune system, which leads to a CD4+ T-cell mediated immune response and inflammation of the small intestine. However, not all gluten proteins contain T-cell stimulatory epitopes. Gluten proteins are encoded by multigene loci present on chromosomes 1 and 6 of the three different genomes of hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum (AABBDD. Results The effects of deleting individual gluten loci on both the level of T-cell stimulatory epitopes in the gluten proteome and the technological properties of the flour were analyzed using a set of deletion lines of Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring. The reduction of T-cell stimulatory epitopes was analyzed using monoclonal antibodies that recognize T-cell epitopes present in gluten proteins. The deletion lines were technologically tested with respect to dough mixing properties and dough rheology. The results show that removing the α-gliadin locus from the short arm of chromosome 6 of the D-genome (6DS resulted in a significant decrease in the presence of T-cell stimulatory epitopes but also in a significant loss of technological properties. However, removing the ω-gliadin, γ-gliadin, and LMW-GS loci from the short arm of chromosome 1 of the D-genome (1DS removed T-cell stimulatory epitopes from the proteome while maintaining technological properties. Conclusion The consequences of these data are discussed with regard to reducing the load of T-cell stimulatory epitopes in wheat, and to contributing to the design of CD-safe wheat varieties.

  12. QTL Mapping of Adult-Plant Resistance to Leaf Rust in the Wheat Cross Zhou 8425B/Chinese Spring Using High-Density SNP Markers

    Peipei Zhang


    Full Text Available Wheat leaf rust is an important disease worldwide. Growing resistant cultivars is an effective means to control the disease. In the present study, 244 recombinant inbred lines from Zhou 8425B/Chinese Spring cross were phenotyped for leaf rust severities during the 2011–2012, 2012–2013, 2013–2014, and 2014–2015 cropping seasons at Baoding, Hebei province, and 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 cropping seasons in Zhoukou, Henan province. The population was genotyped using the high-density Illumina iSelect 90K SNP assay and SSR markers. Inclusive composite interval mapping identified eight QTL, designated as QLr.hebau-2AL, QLr.hebau-2BS, QLr.hebau-3A, QLr.hebau-3BS, QLr.hebau-4AL, QLr.hebau-4B, QLr.hebau-5BL, and QLr.hebau-7DS, respectively. QLr.hebau-2BS, QLr.hebau-3A, QLr.hebau-3BS, and QLr.hebau-5BL were derived from Zhou 8425B, whereas the other four were from Chinese Spring. Three stable QTL on chromosomes 2BS, 4B and 7DS explained 7.5–10.6%, 5.5–24.4%, and 11.2–20.9% of the phenotypic variance, respectively. QLr.hebau-2BS in Zhou 8425B might be the same as LrZH22 in Zhoumai 22; QLr.hebau-4B might be the residual resistance of Lr12, and QLr.hebau-7DS is Lr34. QLr.hebau-2AL, QLr.hebau-3BS, QLr.hebau-4AL, and QLr.hebau-5BL are likely to be novel QTL for leaf rust. These QTL and their closely linked SNP and SSR markers can be used for fine mapping, candidate gene discovery, and marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding.

  13. [Effects of conservation tillage on soil water conservation and crop yield of winter wheat-spring maize rotation field in Weibei highland].

    Zhang, Li-hua; Li, Jun; Jia, Zhi-kuan; Liu, Bing-feng; Zhao, Hong-li; Shang, Jin-xia


    A field experiment was conducted in 2007-2010 to study the effects of no-tillage, subsoiling, and deep-ploughing combined with balanced fertilization, traditional fertilization, and no (or lower amount) fertilization on the soil water storage, crop yield, water use efficiency (WUE), and economic return of winter wheat-spring maize rotation field in Weibei highland. Among the tillage measures, no-tillage in fallow period had the best effect in soil water conservation, followed by sub-soiling, and deep-ploughing. The average water storage in 0-200 cm soil layer in crop growth period under no-tillage and sub-soiling was 6.7% and 1.9% higher than that under deep-ploughing, respectively. Under the balanced, traditional, and no (or lower amount) fertilizations, subsoiling all showed the highest yield, WUE, and economic return, with the best effect under balanced fertilization. The three-year crop yield under sub-soiling combined with balanced fertilization was 6909, 9689, and 5589 kg x hm(-2), WUE was 18.5, 25.2, and 23.0 kg x hm(-2) x mm(-1), and economic return was 5034, 5045, and 7098 yuan x hm(-2), respectively. It was suggested that balanced fertilization combined with sub-soiling had the best effect in soil water conservation and yield- and income increase, being the more appropriate fertilization and tillage mode for the wheat-maize rotation field in Weibei highland.

  14. 新疆春小麦品种苗期耐盐性分析%Analysis on Salt Stress of Spring Wheat Bred in Xinjiang during Germination

    李士磊; 霍鹏; 李卫华; 石培春; 魏凌基


    [目的]研究新疆20世纪80年代至今自主选育的新春系列春小麦品种苗期耐盐性差异,筛选苗期耐盐性较好的品种,为新疆耐盐春小麦品种的选育提供参考.[方法]对新疆自育的31个春小麦品种分别采用0.15 mol/L的Na2 SO4的单盐和0.1 mol/L NaCl +0.05 mol/L Na2SO4复合盐进行胁迫处理,通过测量发芽率、苗高、苗鲜重、主根长、根数和发芽势,计算出相对耐盐系数和隶属函数综合值,并用SPSS分析软件进行聚类分析.[结果]通过比较分析各个品种苗期相对耐盐系数、隶属函数综合值以及隶属函数综合值总和,筛选出相对耐盐性较好的品种新春26号、新春22号、新春13号和新春16号,这些品种在单盐和复合盐胁迫下都具有较高的隶属函数综合值,且隶属函数综合值总和均较高.通过隶属函数值聚类分析,将新疆自育春小麦品种划分为耐盐性较好、中等和较差的三种类型,其中苗期耐盐性较好的材料有13个,占新疆自育品种数的42%,而耐盐性较差的品种有10个,占新疆自育品种数的32%.[结论]新疆自育春小麦品种多数在苗期具有良好的耐盐性.%[Objective]The study aims at the work of breeding better variety of spring wheat with salt tolerance in Xinjiang and provide reference for such work through the analysis of the differences of salt stress of a lots of spring wheat during germination bred in Xinjiang since the early 1980s. [Method]31 spring wheat cultivars bred in Xinjiang were treated respectively with simple salt with 0. 15 mol/L Na2SO4 and mixed salt with 0. 1 mol/L NaCl +0. 05 mol/L Na2SO4. The differences about spring wheat varieties in germination energy, plant height, seeding wet weight, main root length, root number and germination percentage, and the coefficient of relative salt - tolerance and the sum of membership functions with different salt were studied, then a cluster analysis for them was done with the SPSS

  15. 质构仪测定小麦面筋的硬度与弹性%Determination of Wheat Gluten Hardness and Springiness with Texture Analyzer

    张浩; 李雪琴


    This paper sampled 30 wheat varieties from 9 provinces, and the hardness and springiness of wet wheat gluten were investigated with texture analyzer. The results showed that there was a highly significant positive correlation between gluten hardness and chewiness, with hardness of TPA on 0.05 level. Also, gluten hardness showed highly significant correlations with gluten index, rough stable time, relative extensibility, swelling test value and ratio of penetrable light on 0.01 levels. High significant positive correlation between gluten springiness and gluten index, relative extensibility were also found on 0.01 levels. In addition, gluten springiness also showed clear correlations with swelling test value and toughness on 0.05 level. Therefore, the gluten hardness can be used to determine the strength of gluten and predicting the texture quality of dumpling wrapper.%选取我国9个省份的30个小麦品种作为样品,利用质构仪测定小麦粉湿面筋质的硬度和弹性.结果显示:采用质构仪测得的面筋硬度与饺子皮质构指标TPA模式下的硬度(Hardness)、咀嚼性(Chewiness)在0.05水平上显著相关,与面筋指数、面团稳定时间、比延伸性、溶胀体积、透光率、硬度(Firmness)、强韧性(Toughness)均在0.01的水平上显著相关;面筋弹性仅与面筋指数和面筋比延伸性在0.01水平上显著相关,与溶胀体积、强韧性(Toughness)在0.05的水平上显著相关,上述结果表明采用质构仪测定面筋硬度作为小麦面筋强度的评价指标和饺子皮质构品质的预测指标具有一定的可行性.

  16. Effects of Neonicotinoids and Crop Rotation for Managing Wireworms in Wheat Crops.

    Esser, Aaron D; Milosavljević, Ivan; Crowder, David W


    Soil-dwelling insects are severe pests in many agroecosystems. These pests have cryptic life cycles, making sampling difficult and damage hard to anticipate. The management of soil insects is therefore often based on preventative insecticides applied at planting or cultural practices. Wireworms, the subterranean larvae of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae), have re-emerged as problematic pests in cereal crops in the Pacific Northwestern United States. Here, we evaluated two management strategies for wireworms in long-term field experiments: 1) treating spring wheat seed with the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam and 2) replacing continuous spring wheat with a summer fallow and winter wheat rotation. Separate experiments were conducted for two wireworm species--Limonius californicus (Mannerheim) and Limonius infuscatus (Motschulsky). In the experiment with L. californicus, spring wheat yields and economic returns increased by 24-30% with neonicotinoid treatments. In contrast, in the experiment with L. infuscatus, spring wheat yields and economic returns did not increase with neonicotinoids despite an 80% reduction in wireworms. Thus, the usefulness of seed-applied neonicotinoids differed based on the wireworm species present. In experiments with both species, we detected significantly fewer wireworms with a no-till summer fallow and winter wheat rotation compared with continuous spring wheat. This suggests that switching from continuous spring wheat to a winter wheat and summer fallow rotation may aid in wireworm management. More generally, our results show that integrated management of soil-dwelling pests such as wireworms may require both preventative insecticide treatments and cultural practices. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  17. 汞在春小麦植株中的富集及转移规律研究%Study on Enrichment and Transfer of Mercury in Spring Wheat under Mercury Stress

    张丙春; 任凤山; 孟立红; 范仲学; 王峰恩; 董崭; 吕潇


    A pot experiment was conducted to study the distribution,accumulation and transfer of mercury(Hg) in spring wheat under Hg stress.The transfer rate of Hg was low,the root Hg content hadn't peaked at the end of the growth period of spring wheat.The Hg accumulation of spring wheat was largely deposited in root,and barely transported to leaves,stems and seeds.The enrichment capacity for mercury of wheat root was large.There was a significant correlation between the Hg contents in wheat root and soil(R2=0.9499,P0.05);the Hg content in wheat seed was not correlated with the Hg contents in soil.%为了明确汞(Hg)在小麦植株中的吸收和转运规律,采用盆栽试验,研究了Hg胁迫下重金属Hg在春小麦中的分布、富集及转移规律。结果表明,Hg迁移速率较慢,Hg胁迫下,根对Hg的富集吸收于春小麦生育期结束还未达到峰值。春小麦吸收的Hg大部分积累在根中,仅极少部分转移至叶和茎,未发现转移至籽粒。小麦根对Hg的富集能力较强,根中Hg积累量与土壤中Hg含量呈显著正相关(R2=0.9499,P〈0.05);籽粒中Hg含量与土壤中Hg含量无明显相关性。

  18. Molecular mapping of QTLs for Fusarium head blight resistance in spring wheat. I. Resistance to fungal spread (Type II resistance).

    Buerstmayr, H; Lemmens, M; Hartl, L; Doldi, L; Steiner, B; Stierschneider, M; Ruckenbauer, P


    Fusarium head blight (FHB, scab) is a fungal disease of wheat and other small cereals that is found in both temperate and semi-tropical regions. FHB causes severe yield and quality losses, but the most-serious concern is the possible mycotoxin contamination of cereal food and feed. Breeding for FHB resistance by conventional selection is feasible, but tedious and expensive. This study was conducted to identify and map DNA markers associated with FHB resistance genes in wheat. A population of 364 F(1)-derived doubled-haploid (DH) lines from the cross 'CM-82036' (resistant)/'Remus' (susceptible) was evaluated for Type II resistance (spread within the spike) during 2 years under field conditions. Marker analysis was performed on 239 randomly chosen DH lines. Different marker types were applied, with an emphasis on AFLP and SSR markers. Analysis of variance, as well as simple and composite interval mapping, were applied. Three genomic regions were found significantly associated with FHB resistance. The most-prominent effect was detected on the short arm of chromosome 3B, explaining up to 60% of the phenotypic variance for Type II FHB resistance. A further QTL was located on chromosome 5A and a third one on 1B. The QTL regions on 3B and 5A were tagged with flanking SSR markers, the 1B QTL was found associated with the high-molecular-weight glutenin locus. These results indicate that FHB resistance is under control of a few major QTLs operating together with unknown numbers of minor genes. Marker-assisted selection for these major QTLs involved in FHB resistance appears feasible and should accelerate the development of resistant and agronomically improved wheat cultivars.

  19. [Flag leaf photosynthetic characteristics, change in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and their relationships with yield of winter wheat sowed in spring].

    Xu, Lan; Gao, Zhi-qang; An, Wei; Li, Yan-liang; Jiao, Xiong-fei; Wang, Chuang-yun


    With five good winter wheat cultivars selected from the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River and Southwest China as test materials, a field experiment in Xinding basin area of Shanxi Province was conducted to study the photosynthetic characteristics, chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of flag leaf at different sowing dates, as well as the correlations between these indices and yield for two years (2013-2014). The results showed that the difference in most fluorescence parameters except chlorophyll content among cultivars was significant. The correlations between these fluorescence parameters and yield were significant. The variation coefficient of chlorophyll (Chl) content was low (0.12-0.17), and that of performance index based on absorption (PIabs) was high (0.32-0.39), with the partial correlation coefficients of them with grain yield from 2013 to 2014 ranged in 0.70-0.81. Under the early sowing condition, the grain yield positively correlated with PIabs at flowering and filling stages and chlorophyll content at grain filling stage, but negatively correlated with the relative variable fluorescence at I point (Vi) at grain filling stage. About 81.1%-82.8% of grain yield were determined by the variations of PIabs, Chl, and Vi. Wheat cultivars had various performances in the treatments with different sowing dates and a consistent trend was observed in the two experimental years. Among these 5 cultivars, Yangmai 13 was suitable for early sowing, with the flag leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn), Chl, most fluorescence parame-ters, and grain yield showed obviously high levels. In conclusion, under early sowing condition chlorophyll content at grain filling stages, PIabs at flowering and filling stages, and Pn were important indices for selecting wheat cultivars with high photosynthetic efficiency.

  20. 小麦胚芽燕麦营养韧性饼干的研制%Development of Wheat Germ Oat Semi Hard Biscuit

    张博坤; 孙丽雪; 周爽; 宋杰媛; 贺雁鸣; 刘迎朝; 王磊; 于殿宇


    Different proportions of wheat germ flour and oat flour were added to flour, changes in dough and in texture of products with different proportions of raw materials were investigated. And processing conditions of biscuits were optimized by sin-gle factor experiment and orthogonal test Texture test results showed that ratio of mixed powder 70∶15∶15, hardness of dough and biscuits were in optimum hardness; response surface results showed that the best formula was mixed powder of wheat germ flour and oat flour 25g, xylitol 25g and corn oil 20g, hardness value of biscuit was 2 528.18g, significantly lower than ordinary bis-cuits. Biscuits tasted good and nutrient with wheat flavor, lysine content was 2.12g/100g.%利用不同比例的小麦胚芽粉及燕麦粉加入到小麦粉中,研究其对面团质构及饼干品质的影响。并通过单因素试验及正交试验分析对饼干的加工条件进行优化。质构测试结果表明:小麦粉∶小麦胚芽粉∶燕麦粉的添加比例为70∶15∶15时,面团及饼干的硬度最适中;正交试验结果表明:饼干的最佳研制配方为小麦胚芽粉及燕麦粉添加量为25g、木糖醇25g和玉米油20g时,此时饼干的硬度值为2528.18g,明显低于市售饼干且达到标准,并且饼干的口感适中,具有独特的麦香味和发酵香味,营养丰富,赖氨酸含量高达2.12g/100g。

  1. ISO investigates the nature of extremely-red hard X-ray sources responsible for the X-ray background

    Franceschini, A; Césarsky, C J; Elbaz, D; Flores, H; Granato, G L; Franceschini, Alberto; Fadda, Dario; Cesarsky, Catherine; Elbaz, David; Flores, Hector; Granato, Gian Luigi


    We analyse very deep X-ray and mid-IR surveys in common areas of the Lockman Hole and the HDF North to study the sources of the X-ray background (XRB) and to test the standard obscured accretion paradigm. We detect with ISO a rich population of X-ray luminous sources with red optical colours, including a fraction identified with Extremely Red Objects (R-K > 5) and galaxies with SEDs typical of normal massive ellipticals or spirals at z ~ 1. The high 0.5-10 keV X-ray luminosities of these objects (1E43-1E45 erg/s) indicate that the ultimate energy source is gravitational accretion, while the X-ray to IR flux ratios and the X-ray spectral hardness show evidence of photoelectric absorption at low X-ray energies. An important hint on the physics comes from the mid-IR data at 6.7 and 15 um, well reproduced by model spectra of completely obscured quasars under standard assumptions and l.o.s. optical depths tau ~ 30-40. Other predictions of the standard XRB picture, like the distributions of intrinsic bolometric lum...

  2. Mapping seagrass and colonized hard bottom in Springs Coast, Florida using WorldView-2 satellite imagery

    Baumstark, René; Duffey, Renee; Pu, Ruiliang


    The offshore extent of seagrass habitat along the West Florida (USA) coast represents an important corridor for inshore-offshore migration of economically important fish and shellfish. Surviving at the fringe of light requirements, offshore seagrass beds are sensitive to changes in water clarity. Beyond and intermingled with the offshore seagrass areas are large swaths of colonized hard bottom. These offshore habitats of the West Florida coast have lacked mapping efforts needed for status and trends monitoring. The objective of this study was to propose an object-based classification method for mapping offshore habitats and to compare results to traditional photo-interpreted maps. Benthic maps were created from WorldView-2 satellite imagery using an Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) method and a visual photo-interpretation method. A logistic regression analysis identified depth and distance from shore as significant parameters for discriminating spectrally similar seagrass and colonized hard bottom features. Seagrass, colonized hard bottom and unconsolidated sediment (sand) were mapped with 78% overall accuracy using the OBIA method compared to 71% overall accuracy using the photo-interpretation method. This study suggests an alternative for mapping deeper, offshore habitats capable of producing higher thematic and spatial resolution maps compared to those created with the traditional photo-interpretation method.

  3. Understanding long-term (1982-2013) patterns and trends in winter wheat spring green-up date over the North China Plain

    Wang, Sisi; Mo, Xingguo; Liu, Zhengjia; Baig, Muhammad Hasan Ali; Chi, Wenfeng


    Monitoring the spring green-up date (GUD) has grown in importance for crop management and food security. However, most satellite-based GUD models are associated with a high degree of uncertainty when applied to croplands. In this study, we introduced an improved GUD algorithm to extract GUD data for 32 years (1982-2013) for the winter wheat croplands on the North China Plain (NCP), using the third-generation normalized difference vegetation index form Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS3g NDVI). The spatial and temporal variations in GUD with the effects of the pre-season climate and soil moisture conditions on GUD were comprehensively investigated. Our results showed that a higher correlation coefficient (r = 0.44, p wheat area on the NCP, with significant advances in 37.8% of the area (p < 0.05). GUD occurred later at high altitudes and in coastal areas than in inland areas. At the interannual scale, the average GUD advanced from DOY 76.9 in the 1980s (average 1982-1989) to DOY 73.2 in the 1990s (average 1991-1999), and to DOY 70.3 after 2000 (average 2000-2013), indicating an average advance of 1.8 days/decade (r = 0.35, p < 0.05). Although GUD is mainly controlled by the pre-season temperature, our findings underline that the effect of the pre-season soil moisture on GUD should also be considered. The improved GUD algorithm and satellite-based long-term GUD data are helpful for improving the representation of GUD in terrestrial ecosystem models and enhancing crop management efficiency.

  4. 春天%Spring


    @@ Days get longer and warmer in the spring. There are new leaves on the trees. Flowers begin to grow. Spring rain makes the grass green and helps the plants grow. Nature wears new clothes in many colors red, yellow, blue, white and purple. Spring is the time of new life. I love spring.

  5. Stay-green in spring wheat can be determined by spectral reflectance measurements (normalized difference vegetation index) independently from phenology.

    Lopes, Marta S; Reynolds, Matthew P


    The green area displayed by a crop is a good indicator of its photosynthetic capacity, while chlorophyll retention or 'stay-green' is regarded as a key indicator of stress adaptation. Remote-sensing methods were tested to estimate these parameters in diverse wheat genotypes under different growing conditions. Two wheat populations (a diverse set of 294 advanced lines and a recombinant inbred line population of 169 sister lines derived from the cross between Seri and Babax) were grown in Mexico under three environments: drought, heat, and heat combined with drought. In the two populations studied here, a moderate heritable expression of stay-green was found-when the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) at physiological maturity was estimated using the regression of NDVI over time from the mid-stages of grain-filling to physiological maturity-and for the rate of senescence during the same period. Under heat and heat combined with drought environments, stay-green calculated as NDVI at physiological maturity and the rate of senescence, showed positive and negative correlations with yield, respectively. Moreover, stay-green calculated as an estimation of NDVI at physiological maturity and the rate of senescence regressed on degree days give an independent measurement of stay-green without the confounding effect of phenology. On average, in both populations under heat and heat combined with drought environments CTgf and stay-green variables accounted for around 30% of yield variability in multiple regression analysis. It is concluded that stay-green traits may provide cumulative effects, together with other traits, to improve adaptation under stress further.

  6. Utilization of hard rock dust with red clay to produce roof tiles

    Mst. Shanjida Sultana


    Full Text Available Utilization of rock dust to produce roof tiles and its effects on properties of tiles, mixed with red clay collected from Naogaon district of Bangladesh were investigated. After proper characterization of the raw materials, tiles were prepared with different percentages of rock dust (10-50% mixed with clay sintered from 850-1100 °C temperature. Rock dust has been found good for using as fluxing material after XRF study. The samples were tested for different properties such as water absorption, porosity, mechanical strength, linear shrinkage, and bulk density. The strength values have exceeded the minimum standard requirement for roof tiles with low water absorption in most samples. The results obtained made it possible to conclude about the possibility of producing roof tiles incorporating up to 40% of rock dust having better properties (lower water absorption 6.5%, strength value 31.97 MPa fired at 900 °C. Therefore these dust acts as a fluxing agent and reducing the sinteringtemperature of the clay material.

  7. A wheat intervarietal genetic linkage map based on microsatellite and target region amplified polymorphism markers and its utility for detecting quantitative trait loci.

    Liu, Z H; Anderson, J A; Hu, J; Friesen, T L; Rasmussen, J B; Faris, J D


    Efficient user-friendly methods for mapping plant genomes are highly desirable for the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), genotypic profiling, genomic studies, and marker-assisted selection. SSR (microsatellite) markers are user-friendly and efficient in detecting polymorphism, but they detect few loci. Target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP) is a relatively new PCR-based technique that detects a large number of loci from a single reaction without extensive pre-PCR processing of samples. In the investigation reported here, we used both SSRs and TRAPs to generate over 700 markers for the construction of a genetic linkage map in a hard red spring wheat intervarietal recombinant inbred population. A framework map consisting of 352 markers accounted for 3,045 cM with an average density of one marker per 8.7 cM. On average, SSRs detected 1.9 polymorphic loci per reaction, while TRAPs detected 24. Both marker systems were suitable for assigning linkage groups to chromosomes using wheat aneuploid stocks. We demonstrated the utility of the maps by identifying major QTLs for days to heading and reduced plant height on chromosomes 5A and 4B, respectively. Our results indicate that TRAPs are highly efficient for genetic mapping in wheat. The maps developed will be useful for the identification of quality and disease resistance QTLs that segregate in this population.

  8. Effects of Wheat Naturally Contaminated with Fusarium Mycotoxins on Growth Performance and Selected Health Indices of Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. mossambicus).

    Tola, Siriporn; Bureau, Dominique P; Hooft, Jamie M; Beamish, Frederick W H; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Encarnação, Pedro; Petkam, Rakpong


    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to examine effects of wheat naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, DON 41 mg·kg(-1)) on growth performance and selected health indices of red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. mossambicus; initial weight = 4.3 g/fish). Five experimental diets were formulated by replacement of clean wheat with naturally contaminated wheat resulting in graded levels of DON and zearalenone (ZEN) (Diet 1 0.07/0.01, Diet 2 0.31/0.09, Diet 3 0.50/0.21, Diet 4 0.92/0.37 and Diet 5 1.15/0.98 mg·kg(-1)). Groups of 50 fish were randomly allocated into each of 20 aquaria and fed to near-satiety for eight weeks. Growth rate, feed intake and feed efficiency of fish fed the experimental diets decreased linearly with increasing levels of Fusarium mycotoxins (p 0.05). Though there was no clear evidence of overt DON toxicity to red tilapia, it is recommended that feed ingredients should be screened for Fusarium mycotoxin contamination to ensure optimal growth performance.

  9. Effects of Wheat Naturally Contaminated with Fusarium Mycotoxins on Growth Performance and Selected Health Indices of Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. mossambicus

    Siriporn Tola


    Full Text Available An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to examine effects of wheat naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, DON 41 mg·kg−1 on growth performance and selected health indices of red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. mossambicus; initial weight = 4.3 g/fish. Five experimental diets were formulated by replacement of clean wheat with naturally contaminated wheat resulting in graded levels of DON and zearalenone (ZEN (Diet 1 0.07/0.01, Diet 2 0.31/0.09, Diet 3 0.50/0.21, Diet 4 0.92/0.37 and Diet 5 1.15/0.98 mg·kg−1. Groups of 50 fish were randomly allocated into each of 20 aquaria and fed to near-satiety for eight weeks. Growth rate, feed intake and feed efficiency of fish fed the experimental diets decreased linearly with increasing levels of Fusarium mycotoxins (p < 0.05. Although growth depression was associated with feeding diets naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins, especially DON, no biochemical and histopathological parameters measured in blood and liver appeared affected by Fusarium mycotoxin concentrations of diets (p > 0.05. Though there was no clear evidence of overt DON toxicity to red tilapia, it is recommended that feed ingredients should be screened for Fusarium mycotoxin contamination to ensure optimal growth performance.

  10. A 100%-complete sequence reveals unusually simple genomic features in the hot-spring red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae

    Yoshida Yamato


    Full Text Available Abstract Background All previously reported eukaryotic nuclear genome sequences have been incomplete, especially in highly repeated units and chromosomal ends. Because repetitive DNA is important for many aspects of biology, complete chromosomal structures are fundamental for understanding eukaryotic cells. Our earlier, nearly complete genome sequence of the hot-spring red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae revealed several unique features, including just three ribosomal DNA copies, very few introns, and a small total number of genes. However, because the exact structures of certain functionally important repeated elements remained ambiguous, that sequence was not complete. Obviously, those ambiguities needed to be resolved before the unique features of the C. merolae genome could be summarized, and the ambiguities could only be resolved by completing the sequence. Therefore, we aimed to complete all previous gaps and sequence all remaining chromosomal ends, and now report the first nuclear-genome sequence for any eukaryote that is 100% complete. Results Our present complete sequence consists of 16546747 nucleotides covering 100% of the 20 linear chromosomes from telomere to telomere, representing the simple and unique chromosomal structures of the eukaryotic cell. We have unambiguously established that the C. merolae genome contains the smallest known histone-gene cluster, a unique telomeric repeat for all chromosomal ends, and an extremely low number of transposons. Conclusion By virtue of these attributes and others that we had discovered previously, C. merolae appears to have the simplest nuclear genome of the non-symbiotic eukaryotes. These unusually simple genomic features in the 100% complete genome sequence of C. merolae are extremely useful for further studies of eukaryotic cells.

  11. A 100%-complete sequence reveals unusually simple genomic features in the hot-spring red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae

    Nozaki, Hisayoshi; Takano, Hiroyoshi; Misumi, Osami; Terasawa, Kimihiro; Matsuzaki, Motomichi; Maruyama, Shinichiro; Nishida, Keiji; Yagisawa, Fumi; Yoshida, Yamato; Fujiwara, Takayuki; Takio, Susumu; Tamura, Katsunori; Chung, Sung Jin; Nakamura, Soichi; Kuroiwa, Haruko; Tanaka, Kan; Sato, Naoki; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi


    Background All previously reported eukaryotic nuclear genome sequences have been incomplete, especially in highly repeated units and chromosomal ends. Because repetitive DNA is important for many aspects of biology, complete chromosomal structures are fundamental for understanding eukaryotic cells. Our earlier, nearly complete genome sequence of the hot-spring red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae revealed several unique features, including just three ribosomal DNA copies, very few introns, and a small total number of genes. However, because the exact structures of certain functionally important repeated elements remained ambiguous, that sequence was not complete. Obviously, those ambiguities needed to be resolved before the unique features of the C. merolae genome could be summarized, and the ambiguities could only be resolved by completing the sequence. Therefore, we aimed to complete all previous gaps and sequence all remaining chromosomal ends, and now report the first nuclear-genome sequence for any eukaryote that is 100% complete. Results Our present complete sequence consists of 16546747 nucleotides covering 100% of the 20 linear chromosomes from telomere to telomere, representing the simple and unique chromosomal structures of the eukaryotic cell. We have unambiguously established that the C. merolae genome contains the smallest known histone-gene cluster, a unique telomeric repeat for all chromosomal ends, and an extremely low number of transposons. Conclusion By virtue of these attributes and others that we had discovered previously, C. merolae appears to have the simplest nuclear genome of the non-symbiotic eukaryotes. These unusually simple genomic features in the 100% complete genome sequence of C. merolae are extremely useful for further studies of eukaryotic cells. PMID:17623057

  12. Plant growth and cation composition of two cultivars of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) differing in P uptake efficiency.

    Zhu, Y G; Smith, S E; Smith, F A


    Phosphorus (P)-zinc (Zn) interactions were investigated in two wheat cultivars (Brookton versus Krichauff) differing in P uptake efficiency. The experiment was done in a growth chamber. Rock phosphate (RP) or CaHPO4 (CaP) were used as P sources, and ammonium nitrate (AN) or nitrate only (NO) were used as nitrogen sources. Two Zn levels were used, 0.22 mg x kg(-1) (LZ) and 2.2 mg ZnSO4.7H2O x kg(-1) (HZ), respectively. P availability significantly affected plant biomass production, but Zn supply had little effect. Plants fed ammonium nitrate had significantly lower concentrations of cations than those fed nitrate only. Cultivar Brookton (with higher P uptake efficiency) consistently had lower concentrations of cations than cv. Krichauff (with low P uptake efficiency) under limited P supply. The differences in concentrations of cations increased with the decrease in P availability, but were not affected by Zn supply. The ratio of potassium in roots to shoots of cultivar Brookton was always higher than in cultivar Krichauff. Based on these findings, it is postulated that the lower concentrations of cations in cultivar Brookton are related to root exudation of organic anions, and a conceptual model is established to describe the regulation of root exudation of organic anions and concentrations of cations.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Deoxynivalenol Biosynthesis Related Gene Expression among Different Chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum in Spring Wheat

    Amarasinghe, Chami C.; Fernando, W. G. Dilantha


    Fusarium mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) act as virulence factors and are essential for symptom development after initial infection in wheat. To date, 16 genes have been identified in the DON biosynthesis pathway. However, a comparative gene expression analysis in different chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum in response to Fusarium head blight infection remains to be explored. Therefore, in this study, nine genes that involved in trichothecene biosynthesis were analyzed among 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) and nivalenol producing F. graminearum strains in a time course study. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that the expression of all examined TRI gene transcripts initiated at 2 days post-inoculation (dpi), peaked at three to four dpi and gradually decreased at seven dpi. The early induction of TRI genes indicates that presence of high levels of TRI gene transcripts at early stages is important to initiate the biosynthetic pathway of DON and NIV. Comparison of gene expression among the three chemotypes showed that relative expression of TRI genes was higher in 3-ADON producing strains compared with 15-ADON and NIV strains. Comparatively higher levels of gene expression may contribute to the higher levels of DON produced by 3-ADON strains in infected grains. PMID:27550207

  14. Quality properties and expression profiling of protein disulfide isomerase genes during grain development of three spring wheat near isogenic lines

    Dong Liwei


    Full Text Available Three wheat glutenin near isogenic lines (NILs CB037A, CB037B and CB037C were used to investigate their quality properties and the transcriptional expression profiles of PDI gene family during grain development. Our purpose is to understand the relationships between the dynamic expression of different PDI genes and glutenin allelic compositions related to gluten quality. The results showed that glutenin allelic variations had no significant effects on main agronomic traits and yield performance, but resulted in clear gluten quality changes. CB037B with 5+10 subunits had higher glutenin macropolymer (GMP content and better breadmaking quality than CB037A with 2+12 while the lack of Glu-B3h encoding one abundant B-subunit in CB037C significantly reduced GMP content, dough strength and breadmaking quality. The dynamic expression patterns of eight protein disulfide isomerase (PDI genes during grain development detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR showed the close correlations between higher expression levels of PDI3-1, PDI5-1 and PDI8-1 and the presence of 5+10 subunits. Meanwhile, Glu-B3h silence resulted in significant decrease of expression levels of five PDI genes (PDI3-1, PDI5-1, PDI6-1, PDI7-2 and PDI8-1, suggesting the vital roles of certain PDI genes in glutenin and GMP synthesis and gluten quality formation.

  15. Effect of external potassium (K) supply on the uptake of {sup 137}Cs by spring wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Tonic): a large-scale hydroponic study

    Zhu, Y.-G. E-mail:


    A large-scale hydroponic experiment was carried out in a non-controlled greenhouse. Spring wheat plants were grown to maturity at four levels of external K concentration (2, 4, 20 and 40 mg l{sup -1}) and one concentration of radiocaesium (8 Bq ml{sup -1}). Concentrations of K and radiocaesium in the growth solution were closely monitored, and replenishments were made upon depletion. K effectively competed with radiocaesium in terms of root uptake. Activity concentrations of radiocaesium in plants differed significantly between the four K treatments; the activity concentration at the lowest external K concentration being 100 times higher than that at the highest K level. The relationship between radiocaesium uptake and external K level could be described by a negative power function; this showed that when the K level reached around 12 mg l{sup -1}, further increases in the external K level resulted only in slight changes in its inhibitory effect. As a result of this inhibitory effect of potassium supply, concentrations of radiocaesium in plant tissues, grains in particular, were greatly reduced at high external K concentration. Mechanisms involved in Cs-K interaction in root uptake are also discussed.

  16. Performance and application of a fluidized bed limestone reactor designed for control of alkalinity, hardness and pH at the Warm Springs Regional Fisheries Center

    Watten, Barnaby J.; Mudrak, Vincent A.; Echevarria, Carlos; Sibrell, Philip; Summerfelt, Steven T.; Boyd, Claude E.


    Springs serving the Warm Springs Regional Fisheries Center, Warm Springs, Georgia, have pH, alkalinity, and hardness levels thatlie under the range required for successful fish propagation while free CO2 is well above allowable targets. We evaluate a pretreatment process that exploits limestone’s (CaCO3) ability to react away hydrogen ions (H+) and carbon dioxide (CO2) while increasing alkalinity (HCO3−) and calcium (Ca2+) concentrations, i.e. CaCO3 + H+ ↔ HCO3− + Ca2+ CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O ↔ Ca2+ + 2HCO3− Limestone sand was tested in both pilot and full scale fluidized bed reactors (CycloBio®). We first established the bed expansion characteristics of three commercial limestone products then evaluated the effect of hydraulic flux and bed height on dissolution rate of a single selected product (Type A16 × 120). Pilot scale testing at 18C showed limestone dissolution rates were relatively insensitive to flux over the range 1.51–3.03 m3/min/m2 but were sensitive (P 0.05) demonstrating that limestone was present in the reactor effluent primarily in the form of dissolved Ca(HCO3)2. Effluent alkalinity exceeded our target level of 50 mg/L under most operating conditions evaluated with typical pilot scale values falling within the range of 90–100 mg/L despite influent concentrations of about 4 mg/L. Concurrently, CO2 fell from an average of 50.6 mg/L to 8.3 mg/L (90%), providing for an increase in pH from 5.27 to a mean of 7.71. The ability of the test reactor to provide changes in water chemistry variables that exceeded required changes allowed for a dilution ratio of 0.6. Here, alkalinity still exceeded 50 mg/L, the CO2 concentration remained well below our limit of 20 mg/L (15.4 mg/L) and the pH was near neutral (7.17). Applying the dilution ratio of 0.6 in a full scale treatment plant at the site reduced by 40% the volume of spring water that is directed through each of three parallel reactors that combined react away 49,000 kg of limestone/yr.



    It is suggested that the Karate Zeon insecticide is highly effective in wheat protection against pests. The profitability of soft spring wheat production with the above preparation used is about 176%. The economic effect of Karate Zeon is the same as that of Krezatsin, Mival and TMTD Plus preparations that are used for wheat seeds treatment against plant diseases

  18. 50%吡氟酰草胺水分散粒剂对春小麦田阔叶杂草的防效%Control Effect of Diflufenican 50%WG on Broad-leaved Weeds in Spring Wheat Field



    通过田间药效试验明确50%吡氟酰草胺水分散粒剂对春小麦田阔叶杂草的防除效果和田间推荐使用剂量,结果表明,50%吡氟酰草胺水分散粒剂对小麦田杂草密花香薷、野油菜和酸模叶蓼的防除效果稍差,施药后40 d对杂草株数总体防效为53.01%~61.75%,鲜重总体防效为54.30%~58.03%。该药剂对小麦安全,较空白对照增产6.44%~8.52%。建议该药剂于春小麦3叶期前,杂草2叶期前进行茎叶喷雾处理。%Based on the field trials,the efficacy and recommended dosage of diflufenican 50% WG are determined for controlling broad-leaf weeds in spring wheat field. The result shows that diflufenican 50% WG had not good control effect to broad-leaved weeds. The integrated plant and fresh weight control effects are 53.01%~61.75% and 54.30%~58.03% on weeds respectively after 40 days after spaying. Diflufenican 50% WG had no significant effect on spring wheat growth and the yield increasing rate of spring wheat is 6.44%~8.52%after sparing. The proper period of spraying is 2 leaves in weeds(3 leaves in wheat).

  19. Study on the Effect of High Temperature after Anthesis on Starch Formation and Yield in Spring Wheat%花后高温对春小麦籽粒淀粉含量及产量的影响研究

    周续莲; 康建宏; 吴宏亮; 杨金娟; 姚珊


    春小麦灌浆期频繁遭受高温危害,严重影响了小麦产量和品质.本研究在盆栽条件下,探讨了花后高温对春小麦淀粉形成和产量的影响.结果表明,灌浆期高温使春小麦籽粒直链淀粉含量上升,支链淀粉含量下降,直/支比增大,总淀粉降低显著,淀粉品质下降.花后高温降低了春小麦籽粒淀粉,导致春小麦产量大幅度下降.因此,采取相应栽培技术缓解花后高温危害,可以在一定程度上提高宁夏春小麦的产量.%Spring wheat frequently subjected to high temperature damage, seriously affecting the yield and quality. In this study, spring wheat were plantd under the conditions of high temperature and studied the change of yield of starch formation. The results showed that daring wheat grain filling stage, amylase content increased and amyl pectin decreased, amylase/amyl pectin ratio increased significantly, total starch content and starch quality degraded. High temperature after flowering reduced starch content and yield. So, took a cultivation techniques to remit hazard of high temperaure after flowers could improve the yield of spring wheat in Ningxia,to a certain extent.

  20. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.


    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  1. Study of Commercial Wheat Flour Milling Process:Relation of Flour Yield,Ash and Protein Contents of Flour Mill and Characteristics of Wheat Blend%Study of Commercial Wheat Flour Milling Process: Relation of Flour Yield, Ash and Protein Contents of Flour Mill and Characteristics of Wheat Blend

    Y S Kim; C W Deyoe; O K Chung; E Haque


    The profit margin in the flour milling industry is quite narrow, so high-quality raw materials and efficiency of milling operations are crucial for every company. Many flour mills, especially those which import wheat from other countries and have limited storage space for the different varieties or classes of wheat, can not afford to buy low quality wheat. Consequently, a mathematical model which can test the impact and interactions of raw materials, in technical point of view, would be a useful decision-making tool for the milling industry. A flour miller tests wheat for physical and chemical characteristics, cleanness and soundness. The miller also performs experimental milling, if available, to have some idea how the given wheat will behave during commercial milling. Based on these test results, the miller can only guess the commercial milling results such as flour yields and flour ash and protein contents. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop empirical equations to estimate commercial milling results, using the physical, chemical and experimental milling data of the given wheat blend and also, additionally, flour ash and protein specifications of the end-user. This was done by using the actual commercial milling procedures and their wheat physical, chemical, experimental milling data, and other vital data. Data were collected from a commercial mill located in East Asia that had four production lines and used wheat blend combinations from five different wheat classes, i.e. Hard Red Winter (HRW),Dark Northern Spring (DNS), Soft White (SW), Australian Soft (AS), and Australian Standard White (ASW) wheat to produce over 40 different products. The wheat physical and chemical characteristics included test weight, thousand kernel weight, ash and protein contents. The experimental milling data were straight-grade and patent flour yields, along with patent flour ash and protein contents from a Buhler experimental mill. The commercial milling results included

  2. New Uses for Wheat and Modified Wheat Products

    Hard wheat from the Great Plains historically has been used as a source of flour for the production of leavened bakery products. However, potentially applications of wheat in both new markets and new products has necessitated the need to develop wheats with novel processing attributes. The most lo...

  3. Spring green-up date derived from GIMMS3g and SPOT-VGT NDVI of winter wheat cropland in the North China Plain

    Liu, Zhengjia; Wu, Chaoyang; Liu, Yansui; Wang, Xiaoyue; Fang, Bin; Yuan, Wenping; Ge, Quansheng


    Satellite temporal resolution affects the fitting accuracy of vegetation growth curves. However, there are few studies that evaluate the impact of different satellite data (including temporal resolution and time series change) on spring green-up date (GUD) extraction. In this study, four GUD algorithms and two different temporal resolution satellite data (GIMMS3g during 1982-2013 and SPOT-VGT during 1999-2013) were used to investigate winter wheat GUD in the North China Plain. Four GUD algorithms included logistic-NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index), logistic-cumNDVI (cumulative NDVI), polynomial-NDVI and polynomial-cumNDVI algorithms. All algorithms and data were first regrouped into eight controlled cases. At site scale, we evaluated the performance of each case using correlation coefficient (r), bias and root mean square error (RMSE). We further compared spatial patterns and inter-annual trends of GUD inferred from different algorithms, and then analyzed the difference between GIMMS3g-based GUD and SPOT-VGT-based GUD. Our results showed that all satellite-based GUD were correlated with observations with r ranging from 0.32 to 0.57 (p < 0.01). SPOT-VGT-based GUD generally had better correlations with observed GUD than those of GIMMS3g. Spatially, SPOT-VGT-based GUD performed more reasonable spatial distributions. Inter-annual regional averaged satellite-based GUD presented overall advanced trends during 1982-2013 (0.3-2.0 days/decade) while delayed trends were observed during 1999-2013 (1.7-7.4 days/decade for GIMMS3g and 3.8-7.4 days/decade for SPOT-VGT). However, their significance levels were highly dependent on the data and algorithms used. Our findings suggest cautions on previous results of inter-annual variability of phenology from a single data/method.

  4. Comparison of observed rheological properties of hard wheat flour dough with predictions of the Giesekus-Leonov, White-Metzner and Phan-Thien Tanner models

    Dhanasekharan, M.; Huang, H.; Kokini, J. L.; Janes, H. W. (Principal Investigator)


    The measured rheological behavior of hard wheat flour dough was predicted using three nonlinear differential viscoelastic models. The Phan-Thien Tanner model gave good zero shear viscosity prediction, but overpredicted the shear viscosity at higher shear rates and the transient and extensional properties. The Giesekus-Leonov model gave similar predictions to the Phan-Thien Tanner model, but the extensional viscosity prediction showed extension thickening. Using high values of the mobility factor, extension thinning behavior was observed but the predictions were not satisfactory. The White-Metzner model gave good predictions of the steady shear viscosity and the first normal stress coefficient but it was unable to predict the uniaxial extensional viscosity as it exhibited asymptotic behavior in the tested extensional rates. It also predicted the transient shear properties with moderate accuracy in the transient phase, but very well at higher times, compared to the Phan-Thien Tanner model and the Giesekus-Leonov model. None of the models predicted all observed data consistently well. Overall the White-Metzner model appeared to make the best predictions of all the observed data.

  5. Use of genotype x environment interactions to understand rooting depth and the ability of wheat to penetrate hard soils.

    Acuña, Tina L Botwright; Wade, Len J


    Root systems are well-recognized as complex and a variety of traits have been identified as contributing to plant adaptation to the environment. A significant proportion of soil in south-western Australia is prone to the formation of hardpans of compacted soil that limit root exploration and thus access to nutrients and water for plant growth. Genotypic variation has been reported for root-penetration ability of wheat in controlled conditions, which has been related to field performance in these environments. However, research on root traits in field soil is recognized as difficult and labour intensive. Pattern analysis of genotype × environment (G × E) interactions is one approach that enables interpretation of these complex relationships, particularly when undertaken with probe genotypes with well-documented traits, in this case, for the ability to penetrate a wax layer. While the analytical approach is well-established in the scientific literature, there are very few examples of pattern analysis for G × E interactions applied to root traits of cereal crops. In this viewpoint, we aim to review the approach of pattern analysis for G × E interaction and the importance of environment and genotype characterization, with a focus on root traits. We draw on our research on G × E interaction for root depth and related studies on genotypic evaluation for root-penetration ability. In doing so, we wish to explore how pattern analysis can aid in the interpretation of complex root traits and their interaction with the environment and how this may explain patterns of adaptation and inform future research. With appropriate characterization of environments and genotypes, the G × E approach can be used to aid in the interpretation of the complex interactions of root systems with the environment, inform future research and therefore provide supporting evidence for selecting specific root traits for target environments in a crop breeding programme.

  6. Optimizing nitrogen management for soft red winter wheat yield, grain protein, and grain quality using precision agriculture and remote sensing techniques

    Farrer, Dianne Carter

    The purpose of this research was to improve the management of soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in North Carolina. There were three issues addressed; the quality of the grain as affected by delayed harvest, explaining grain protein variability through nitrogen (N) management, and developing N recommendations at growth stage (GS) 30 using aerial color infrared (CIR) photography. The impact of delayed harvest on grain yield, test weight, grain protein, and 20 milling and baking quality parameters was studied in three trials in 2002 and three trials in 2003. Yield was significantly reduced in three out of five trials due to dry, warm environments, possibly indicating shattering. Test weights were significantly reduced in five out of six trials and were positively correlated to the number of precipitation events and to the number of days between harvests, indicating the negative effects of wetting and drying cycles. Grain protein was not affected by delayed harvest. Of the 20 quality parameters investigated, flour falling number, clear flour, and farinograph breakdown times were significantly reduced due to delayed harvest, while grain deoxynivalenol (DON) levels increased with a delayed harvest. Grain protein content in soft red winter wheat is highly variable across years and environments. A second study examined the effects of different nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates and times of application on grain protein variability. Seven different environments were utilized in this study. Though environment contributed about 23% of grain protein variability, the majority of that variability (52%) was attributed to N management. It was found that as grain protein levels increased at higher N rates, so did overall protein variability as indicated by the three stability indexes employed. In addition, applying the majority of total N at growth stage (GS) 30 decreased grain protein stability. Site-specific N management systems using remote sensing techniques can

  7. Analysis of spatial and yearly variation in winter survival of winter wheat

    Hayhoe, H. N.; Andrews, C. J.

    Four years of winter survival data for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were collected on a loam soil located on the Central Experimental Farm at Ottawa, Ontario (45° 23'N, 75° 43'W). The site was low-lying and subject to frequent winter flooding and ice sheet formation. It appeared level although there was microtopographic variation with a range in elevation of approximately 0.15 m. The objective of the study was to gain insight into factors which might affect winter survival. Two varieties, a soft white and a hard red winter wheat, were planted in September. Crop establishment was measured in late fall and the percentage survival was measured in April of the following year. We assumed the large spatial differences in survival were not totally random, but rather were affected by spatial variation in environmental factors such as snow and ice depth, soil moisture and temperature. Hourly measurements of soil temperature at a depth of 0.05 m were recorded throughout the fall, winter and spring. Fall and spring soil moisture at the same depth were measured on the plot, as well as snow and ice depth at selected times throughout the winter. Measurements were taken on a grid covering the plot to help explain spatial variation in survival. In addition, detailed measurements of elevation were taken on a grid. Meteorological data were available from the nearby weather site. While soil temperatures were never low enough to kill plants according to the CERES model, the spatial variation in winter survival was associated with differences in elevation and the resulting surface drainage patterns.

  8. 河南省小麦新品种(系)籽粒硬度等位变异检测%Allelic Variation of Grain Hardness in New Varieties(Lines) of Bread Wheat in Henan Province

    张福彦; 张建伟; 杨保安; 程仲杰; 郅洋军; 崔党群


    In order to know the situation of kernel hardness and the allelic distribution of Puroin-doline genes in new wheat varieties or lines of Henan province,a total of 145 wheat varieties or advanced lines recently participating in Henan Wheat Pre-test and Regional Test were used to identify the phenotypes of grain texture and the genotypes of Puroindoline genes by means of the technologies of Single Kernel Characterization System (SKCS) , molecular marker,restriction enzyme and DNA sequencing. The results showed that the hard wheat was predominant, with a percentage of 64. 1%, while the mixed wheat and soft wheat accounted for 18. 9% and 20. 0% , respectively. Based on SKCS test,the grain hardness index of wheats ranged widely from 13. 0 to 75. 9. Three Puroindoline alleles of Pina-D1b, Pinb-D1b and Pinb-D1p were detected in hard wheats,of which Pinb-D1b was the most prevalent,with a percentage of 87. 1%,while Pina-D1b and Pinb-D1p was only 4. 3% and 8. 6%, respectively. The kernel hardness was different in different Puroindoline genotypes. The kernel hardness index of mutant Pina-D1b was the highest and that of Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1a was the lowest in all genotypes. There were significant difference in the kernel hardness index between genotypes of Pina-Dlb and Pinb-D1b,but the difference was not significant between Pina-D1b and Pinb-D1p.%为了解河南省最新培育的小麦品种(系)的籽粒硬度概况和Puroindoline等位变异类型及其分布,以参加河南省小麦预试及区域试验的145份小麦新品种(系)为材料,采用单籽粒谷物特性测定仪(SKCS)、分子标记技术、限制性内切酶技术以及DNA测序技术,对其SKCS硬度表型及Puroindoline的不同等位变异类型进行了测试和鉴定.结果表明,参试材料中硬质麦比例较高,为64.1%,而混合型和软质麦比例较低,分别为18.9%和20.0%,SKCS硬度指数范围较宽,为13.0~75.9.在硬质麦的Puroindol ine基因型检测中,共检测到Pina-D1b

  9. Soft durum wheat - a paradigm shift

    Two traits define most aspects of wheat quality and utilization: kernel texture (hardness) and gluten. The former is far simpler genetically and is controlled by two genes, Puroindoline a and Puroindoline b. Durum wheat lacks puroindolines and has very hard kernels. As such, durum wheat when milled ...

  10. Sensitivity analysis of spring wheat to variations in temperatures under different tillage measures%不同耕作措施下春小麦产量对温度变化的敏感性分析

    董莉霞; 李广; 闫丽娟; 刘强; 燕振刚


    为了研究温度变化对不同耕作条件下春小麦产量的影响,利用修正参数后的APSIM模型,自变量因子分别为最低温度、最高温度,在9种变化条件下对传统耕作+秸秆还田(TS )、免耕(NT )、免耕覆盖(NTS )3种耕作措施下的春小麦产量进行了模拟,并利用Surfer软件对产量变化率进行了敏感性分析。结果表明:在三种不同耕作措施下,春小麦产量变化率对最高温度的变化更为敏感,最高温度升高,产量变化率呈负敏感;在传统耕作+秸秆还田和免耕覆盖耕作措施下,春小麦平均产量分别是2268.8 kg·hm-2和2274.0 kg·hm-2,明显高于免耕耕作措施下的春小麦平均产量1815.4 kg·hm-2;传统耕作+秸秆还田和免耕覆盖耕作措施下,小麦产量随温度变化相对稳定;当最低温度和最高温度在一定区域范围内变化时,传统耕作+秸秆还田和免耕覆盖产量表现更稳定。%In order to study the influences of temperature variations under different tillage conditions on yield of spring wheat ,a revised APSIM model was used .A simulation was implemented to analyze the yield of spring wheat by cultivation measures including conventional tillage & straw turnover (TS ) , no-till (NT ) , and no-tillage with mulch (NTS ) under nine variable conditions using lowest and highest temperatures as the independent variable factors .Then the surfer software was used to complete the sensitivity analysis .The result shows that under three different cultivation mea-sures ,yield rate of the spring wheat was more sensitive to the variations of the highest temperature .When the highest temperature rose ,yield rate showed a negative sensitivity .Under conventional tillage + straw returned and no-till cover tillage measures ,the average yield of spring wheat are respectively 2 268 .8 kg·hm-2 and 2 274 .0 kg·hm-2 ,signifi-cantly higher than the average yield of spring

  11. Features of Localization of ARG-X Protease-processing in the Suprastructures of Interphase Chromatin under Conditions of Cell Cycle Arrest by Sodium Butyrate, upon Induction of Growth Morphogenesis of Mature Embryos of Winter and Spring Wheat

    Ivanov R.S.


    Full Text Available A fundamental property of many organisms is the ability to feel, to assess direction of the signal action and respond to the environmental conditions. It is known that chromatin plays a major role in organizing the regulation of gene activity. However, our understanding of how state of the suprastructure organization of chromatin and its proteins reacts not only to changes in the environment, but also on the development of specific signals remains largely unclear. In the course of this work, we have analyzed the result of the various ways of chromatin modifications: the regulatory Arg-X protease-processing and inhibition of protein deacetylation with sodium butyrate. Sodium butyrate causes cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase, and promotes of duration of the transcriptional activity of chromatin. Experiments on molecular-genetic state of the chromatin matrix were carried out at the induction of growth morphogenesis in the physiological period of active water absorption of mature seeds and wheat germs, which were purposefully transformed and formed in different environmental conditions. During focused, long-term transforming of spring wheat Artemovka into winter wheat Mironovskaya 808 and the last of them again into Mironovskaya Spring wheat while stopping of the cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase, mainly occurs the active Arg-X protease-processing at the level of non-histone proteins, and linker histones of suprastructures chromatin. We assume that the regulatory proteolytic processing and prolongation of acetylation of proteins can be interconnected in the regulation of conformational transitions of chromatin at the different levels of its organization: both suprastructures and at the more profound proteomic level of non-histone and histone blocks, and have its peculiarities during the period of transcriptional activation. We hope that the study peculiarities of locations of regulatory proteolysis in the conditions of inhibition of deacetylation in

  12. Study on Control Effect and Safety of Sulfosulfuron 75%WG in Spring Wheat Field%75%磺酰磺隆WG防除春小麦田杂草及安全性研究



    为明确75%磺酰磺隆 WG 对春小麦田杂草的防除效果及对当季春小麦和后茬作物的安全性影响,采用茎叶喷雾处理进行了田间药效试验。结果表明:施药后45 d,75%磺酰磺隆WG 10~40 g/hm2对北方春小麦田稗草、狗尾草、藜和卷茎蓼株防效和鲜重防效均在84.8%以上,且对春小麦安全。75%磺酰磺隆WG对当季后茬敏感作物白菜、油菜、生菜的根长、株鲜重有不同程度的抑制作用。75%磺酰磺隆WG在春小麦田喷雾使用可以有效防除禾本科杂草和阔叶杂草,但当季后茬不能种植敏感作物白菜、油菜、生菜。%In order to determine the control effect of sulfosulfuron 75%WG on weeds in spring wheat field, the safety to spring wheat and following crops, field efficacy trials were carried out by foliar spraying. The results showed that the control effects of sulfosulfuron 75%WG on Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv., Setaria viridis L., Chenopodium album L. and Polygonum convolvlus L. were more than 84.8%, and sulfosulfuron was safe to spring wheat on the 45th days after spraying. Sulfosulfuron 75%WG had inhibition roles on the root length and fresh weight of sensitive crops. Sulfosulfuron 75%WG had good control effects on gramineous weeds and broadleaf weeds in spring wheat field in north China, but the sensitive crops should not be planted in the same growing season.

  13. Molecular Identification of Hardness-related Genes of Bread Wheat New Lines in Huanghuai Wheat Region and Their Influence on Yield Characters%黄淮麦区小麦新品系籽粒硬度相关基因分子鉴定及其对产量性状的影响

    张福彦; 陈锋; 董中东; 尚晓丽; 崔党群; 殷贵鸿


    [目的] 以黄淮麦区小麦新品系为材料,通过对其籽粒硬度相关基因的鉴定,明确黄淮麦区小麦新品系的籽粒硬度基因型分布规律,为小麦品质改良提供优异基因资源.[方法] 利用单籽粒谷物特性测定仪( SKCS)、PCR扩增、酶切以及DNA测序技术,对来自黄淮麦区109份小麦新品系的籽粒硬度表型、puroindoline基因型及其puroindoline b-2的不同等位变异类型进行了鉴定与分析.[结果] 黄淮麦区材料中硬质麦比例较高,为61.5%.混合型和软质麦比例较低,分别为15.6%和22.9%,硬度指数范围较宽,为3.2-82.6.在硬质麦的puroindoline 基因型检测中,发现有Pinb-D1b、Pinb-D1p和Pina-D1b共3种类型,其中,Pinb-D1b所占比例最高,为86.5%,Pinb-D1p和Pina-D1b分别为7.5%和6.0%.通过对puroindoline b-2变异检测,发现在调查的所有小麦材料中,D和A基因组上均含有Pinb-D2v1和Pinb-A2v4,其中,86份小麦品种(系)B基因组上的基因型为Pinb-B2v3,剩余的23份材料为Pinb-B2v2.通过对位于普通小麦B基因组puroindoline b-B2的2个基因型进行产量相关性状的分析,发现Pinb-B2v3变异的小麦品种(系)在穗粒数、单穗粒重、旗叶长和旗叶面积上均显著高于Pinb-B2v2变异类型的小麦品种(系),同时Pinb-B2v3变异类型小麦的千粒重、小穗数、粒长、粒宽和旗叶宽等性状也略高于Pinb-B2v2变异类型的小麦.[结论] 在黄淮麦区109份小麦新品系中,硬质麦比例较高,混合型和软质麦比例较低.硬质麦中,Pinb-D1b是最为常见的类型.在puroindoline b-2基因位点上,Pinb-B2v3变异类型小麦的产量相关性状略优于Pinb-B2v2变异类型小麦.%[Objective] Identification of hardness-related genes in wheat new lines or cultivars developed very recently in Huang-Huai Wheat Region of China could illustrate the distribution of hardness-related genes and provide important gene germplasm for improvement of wheat quality. [Method] A

  14. Rainfastness of Prothioconazole+Tebuconazole for Fusarium head blight and Deoxynivalenol management in soft red winter wheat

    Fungicides are most warranted for control of Fusarium head blight (FHB), a disease of wheat caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum, when wet, rainy conditions occurs during anthesis. However, it is unclear whether rainfall directly following application affects fungicide efficacy against...

  15. Mapping of novel powdery mildew resistance gene Pm53 introgressed from Aegilops speltoides into soft red winter wheat

    Powdery mildew of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major fungal disease in many areas of the world, caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt). Host plant resistance is the preferred form of disease prevention because it is both economical and environmentally benign. Identification of new resi...

  16. The influence of silane coupling agent and poplar particles on the wet-tability, surface roughness, and hardness of UF-bonded wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.)/poplar wood particleboard

    Seyedeh Masoumeh Hafezi; Kazem Doosthoseini


    We used silane coupling agents to improve the bonding ability between wheat straw particles and UF resin, and investigated surface properties (wettability and surface roughness) and hardness of parti-cleboard made from UF-bonded wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) combined with poplar wood as affected by silane coupling agent content and straw/poplar wood particle ratios. We manufactured one-layered particleboard panels at four different ratios of straw to poplar wood par-ticles (0%, 15%, 30% and 45% wheat straw) and silane coupling agent content at three levels of 0, 5% and 10%. Roughness measurements, average roughness (Ra), mean peak-to-valley height (Rz), and root mean square roughness (Rq) were measured on unsanded samples by using a fine stylus tracing technique. We obtained contact angle measurements by using a goniometer connected to a digital camera and computer sys-tem. Boards containing greater amounts of poplar particles had superior hardness compared to control samples and had lower wettability. Panels made with higher amounts of silane had lower Rq values.

  17. Effect of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed color and hardness genes on the consumption preference of the house mouse (Mus musculus L.)

    Background: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain is a staple food and provides necessary nutrients for human health and nutrition. Yet, flavor differences among wheat varieties are not well understood. Grain flavor and consumption preference can be examined using the house mouse (Mus musculus L.) as a...

  18. β-Aminobutyric acid increases abscisic acid accumulation and desiccation tolerance and decreases water use but fails to improve grain yield in two spring wheat cultivars under soil drying.

    Du, Yan-Lei; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Fan, Jing-Wei; Turner, Neil C; Wang, Tao; Li, Feng-Min


    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of the non-protein amino acid, β-aminobutyric acid (BABA), on the homeostasis between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defence during progressive soil drying, and its relationship with the accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA), water use, grain yield, and desiccation tolerance in two spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars released in different decades and with different yields under drought. Drenching the soil with 100 µM BABA increased drought-induced ABA production, leading to a decrease in the lethal leaf water potential (Ψ) used to measure desiccation tolerance, decreased water use, and increased water use efficiency for grain (WUEG) under moderate water stress. In addition, at severe water stress levels, drenching the soil with BABA reduced ROS production, increased antioxidant enzyme activity, and reduced the oxidative damage to lipid membranes. The data suggest that the addition of BABA triggers ABA accumulation that acts as a non-hydraulic root signal, thereby closing stomata, and reducing water use at moderate stress levels, and also reduces the production of ROS and increases the antioxidant defence enzymes at severe stress levels, thus increasing the desiccation tolerance. However, BABA treatment had no effect on grain yield of wheat when water availability was limited. The results suggest that there are ways of effectively priming the pre-existing defence pathways, in addition to genetic means, to improve the desiccation tolerance and WUEG of wheat.

  19. Calibration and Validation of AquaCrop Model in Spring Wheat Region of Songnen Plain%AquaCrop作物模型在松嫩平原春麦区的校正和验证

    付驰; 李双双; 李晶; 王泳超; 芦玉双; 许为政; 魏湜


    In this study,the measured soil moisture,spring wheat growth and yield data,combined with meteorological data obtained AquaCrop soil moisture and spring wheat growth simulation model parameters,and previous years' data for the crop model validation.The results showed that the simulated values and measured values of spring wheat's yield and biomass MAE were 0.058 and 0.109,RMSE were 0.06 and 0.11 t/hm2,EF were 0.795 and 0.822,CRM were-0.006 96 and 0.005 87,IoA were 0.959 and 0.966;for 10 cm and 20 cm in depth soil volumetric water content of the simulated values and measured values,MAE were 5.23 and 2.53,RMSE were 6.47% and 7.95%,EF were-0.277 and-0.069,CRM were 0.097 and 0.212,IoA were 0.585 and 0.741.AquaCrop model of biomass and yield of spring wheat growth stages and soil volumetric water content of the simulation results is fine,the production of spring wheat Songnen Plain has some reference value.%为了研究AquaCrop作物模型在松嫩平原春麦区的适用性,利用实测的土壤水分、春小麦生长和产量数据,结合气象数据,获得AquaCrop模拟土壤水分和春小麦生长的模型参数,并用往年的作物生长数据对模型进行验证。结果表明,春小麦的产量和生物量的实测值与模拟值的绝对平均误差(MAE)为0.058和0.109、均方根误差(RMSE)为0.06和0.11t/hm2、模拟性能指数(EF)为0.795和0.822、残差聚集系数(CRM)为-0.006 96和0.005 87、一致性系数(IoA)为0.959和0.966;对10cm和20cm土壤体积含水率的实测值与模拟值的MAE为5.23和2.53、RMSE为6.47%和7.95%、EF为-0.277和-0.069、CRM为0.097和0.212、IoA为0.585和0.741。说明AquaCrop模型对春小麦的生物量和产量及生育期土壤体积含水率的模拟结果总体较好,对松嫩平原春麦生产有一定的参考意义。

  20. 青海高原不同海拔高度区小麦生长对气候变暖的响应%Climate Warming Impacts on Spring Wheat Growth at Different Altitude Regions in Qinghai Plateau

    王力; 李凤霞; 徐维新; 李晓东; 苏文将


    Impact of climate warming on the growth and yields of spring wheat at high and low altitudes in the Qinghai Plateau was studied by using the observation data obtained at Minhe and Nuomuhong agricultural meteorological stations from 1980 to 2007. The results show that during the past 28 years the air temperature had an increase trend both at high and low altitudes, and the warming amplitude of annual air temperature was larger at high altitude than at low altitude. Responses of spring wheat at low altitude were an advanced sowing time, an unchanged mature stage, an extended growth period, and a declined yield, and at high altitude the responses were a postponed sowing time, an advanced mature stage, a shortened growth period, and an unstable yield with a larger fluctuation. The growth period of spring wheat was shortened by 11.7 d at high altitude and no significant change at low altitude when daily average temperature increased 1 ℃ in the growth period of spring wheat. Tillering stage was the turning point of growing period changes of spring wheat between the two places and also a "buffer" of the environment and crop population.%利用青海高原上两个不同海拔高度区农业气象观测站1980-2007年的观测资料,就低海拔地(民和)和高海拔地(诺木洪)的气候变化及其对春小麦生长发育和产量的影响差异进行研究.结果显示:28年来民和和诺木洪两站均存在变暖趋势,且高海拔地区的线性增暖幅度大于低海拔地区.春小麦对气候变暖的响应表现在低海拔地区播种期提前,成熟期基本没有变化,生育期延长,产量下降;高海拔地区播种期推迟,成熟期提前,生育期缩短,产量波动较大.春小麦生长期内日平均气温每升高1℃,高海拔地区春小麦生育期缩短11.7d,而低海拔地区无显著变化.分蘖期是两地小麦生育时期变化的转折点,是环境与群体的“缓冲者”.

  1. 1961-2010年中国主要麦区冬春气象干旱趋势及其可能影响%Meteorological Drought Trend in Winter and Spring from 1961 to 2010 and Its Possible Impacts on Wheat inWheat Planting Area of China

    房世波; 齐月; 韩国军; 周广胜; Davide Cammarano


    Objective Continuous occurrence of winter and spring drought events in recent years has seriously threatened the safety production and grain increase of winter wheat in the north of China. This study focused on the main wheat growing areas of China, precipitation, no precipitation days and frequency of extreme meteorological drought trend in winter and spring from 1961 to 2010 and its possible impacts on wheat in wheat planting area in north of China.[Method]Trend analysis of precipitation, no precipitation days and frequency of extreme meteorological drought for the 1961-2010 period using data from 329 meteorological stations located in the wheat growing regions in the north of China. The linear trend and significance of precipitation and no precipitation days in different regions in north of China was analyzed using the methods of regression analysis, inverse distance weighted and robust F linear significant test. The precipitation, no precipitation days and frequency of extreme meteorological drought of interannual and decadal variation trend was analyzed. Based on the sliding average precipitation anomaly, the linear tendency of annual extreme drought frequency in winter from 1961 to 2010 was calculated, and the interannual variation trend of extreme drought frequency and changing trend of precipitation indifferent regions were analyzed for exploration of the temporal dynamic trend of drought. According to the GB/ T20481-2006 national standards of meteorological drought classification, the severe drought and specially drought of drought grade were defined as extreme drought. According to the different climate characteristics of wheat growing regions in China, the main wheat growing area is divided into six zones as follows in order to quantify the different drought trends in the north of China.① The Northeast China spring wheat region: Heilongjiang Province, Jilin Province and Liaoning Province;②The Inner Mongolia spring wheat region including the Inner

  2. 晚霜冻害对不同类型小麦产量性状的影响%Influence of Spring Frost on Different Ear Types of Wheat Yield Component

    任德超; 胡新; 黄绍华; 葛君; 赵敬领; 朱培培; 张福娟


    Through low temperature processtion of simulated natural spring frost damage in artificial intelligence frost box to the big ear (s9538, Lankao 906), middle ear (Yumai 21,Shaan 225),multi-spike (Linfen 7203, Luzi 0885299) types of wheat varieties, the changes in their production factors were studied. The result showed that multi-spike type wheat (Linfen 7203, Luzi 0885299) after the spring frost damage treatment got more yield than the others. Spikes per plant of multi-spike type wheat showed the biggest increase, with 32.98% and 37.19% for Linfen 7203 and Luzi 0885299 compared to the untreated, respectively,and the yield of per plant was increased by 36.36% and 38.40 %. Grain weight of wheat after the treatment showed decreased tendency,multi-spike wheat (Linfen 7203, Luzi 0885299) reduced with the maximum rate and middle ear wheat (Yumai 21, Shan 225) reduced with the minimum rate. The grain number per ear of middle ear wheat after treatment (Yumai 21, Shaan 225) were decreased but the others were increased, and multi-spike wheat (Linfen 7203, Luzi 0885299) showed the biggest increase.%采用人工智能霜箱模拟自然界晚霜冻害过程,对大穗(s9538、兰考906)、中穗(豫麦21号、陕225)、多穗(临汾7203、鲁资0885299)类型的小麦品种在经历低温处理后产量因素的变化进行了研究.结果表明,多穗型小麦(临汾7203、鲁资0885299)在经历晚霜冻害后比另外两类小麦表现增产,其中单株穗数较对照增加幅度最大(32.98%、37.19%),单株产量分别较对照提高36.36%、38.40%.千粒重在处理后都呈降低趋势,并且多穗型小麦(临汾7203、鲁资0885299)降低幅度最大,中穗小麦(豫麦21号、陕225)降低幅度最小.穗粒数在低温处理后中穗型小麦(豫麦21号、陕225)呈降低趋势,另外两类呈增加趋势,并且多穗型小麦(临汾7203、鲁资0885299)增加幅度最大.

  3. Do financial investors affect the price of wheat?

    Daniele Girardi


    Full Text Available It is widely debated whether financial speculation was a significant force behind recent food price fluctuations. As a matter of fact, during the 2000s agricultural commodity derivatives markets were flooded by a ‘wall of money’ coming from financial investors. In agricultural exchanges, the greatest part of this huge financial inflow came from index traders, i.e. financial actors that follow a passive strategy of tracking a commodity index. In this article I present new empirical evidence that supports the hypothesis that financial investments have affected wheat price dynamics in recent years. In particular, I focus on Hard Red Winter (HRW wheat. Since 2007 HRW wheat price fluctuations have been positively related to US stock market returns and oil price movements. These correlations appear to be determined by commodity index traders, since both these relationships proved to be spurious, with the most tracked commodity index as the confounding variable.

  4. Genotyping-by-Sequencing derived High-Density Linkage Map and its Application to QTL Mapping of Flag Leaf Traits in Bread Wheat

    Hard red winter wheat parents ‘Harry’ (drought tolerant) and ‘Wesley’ (drought susceptible) was used to develop a recombinant inbred population to identify genomic regions associated with drought and adaptation. To precisely map genomic regions high-density linkage maps are a prerequisite. In this s...

  5. Efficacy of Spinosad and Abamectin against Different Populations of Red Flour Beetle (Tribolium castaneum Herbst in Treated Wheat Grain

    Goran Andrić


    Full Text Available The efficacy of spinosad and abamectin against T. castaneum adults from a laboratorypopulation with normal susceptibility to contact insecticides and against malathion-resistantpopulations from Nikinci and Jakovo was tested in the laboratory (25±1ºC and 60±5%r.h.. The insecticides were applied to 500 g of untreated wheat grain for each of the followingapplication doses: 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg a.i./kg. After treatment, wheat was dividedinto three equal subsamples and 50 T. castaneum adults from each of the three test populationswere released the next day into jars for each dose. Mortality was evaluated after 7,14 and 21 days of exposure to treated wheat grain.Generally, higher concentrations and longer exposure periods resulted in higher efficacyof both insecticides, but abamectin was significantly more effective than spinosadagainst all three tested populations. After 7 days of exposure, mortality did not exceed30% in any test variant. Fourteen days after treatment with the highest dose (5 mg/kgof spinosad, mortality was highest (75% in the laboratory population, while treatmentwith the same dose of abamectin achieved the highest mortality (58% in the laboratoryand Jakovo populations. After 21 days, spinosad applied at the rate of 5 mg/kg was mosteffective (97% mortality in the laboratory population, while 88% efficacy was recorded inJakovo population and 87% in Nikinci population. Abamectin doses of 2.5 and 5 mg/kgcaused high adult mortality of 94-100% in the laboratory and Jakovo populations, and a significantlylower mortality in Nikinci population (75 and 86%, respectively.Statistically significant differences in the efficacy of spinosad, and particularly ofabamectin, were detected among the three tested populations, the greatest differencebeing between the laboratory and Nikinci populations, which clearly indicates that resistanceof T. castaneum adults to malathion had a significant influence.

  6. Quality Analysis of Different Spring Wheat Grain with Different Gluten Strength under Different Germination Conditions%不同筋性春小麦籽粒不同发芽程度下的品质分析



    To understand the influence of the different levels of harvest sprouting on the qualities of spring wheats with different gluten strength,spring wheat varieties with high gluten strength selected in this experiment are Kechun 1 and Kefeng 6;the middle ones are Kehan 16 and Kehan 21;the low ones are XinKehan 9 and Kefeng 9 for the experimental material,artificial control of seed germination under the use of artificial climate incubator to simulate the natural environment,,and then measuring relevant datas,the results show that:for the flour yield in the bud state,high gluten strenth ones are higher than the middle ones which are higher than the low ones,with the deepening of germination,and flour yield is not associated with own characteristic of gluten strengh for the experimental material;compared with the nomal state,the declining rate of the land value of high gluten strength wheats in bud state,is higher than the one with the middle gluten stregth,which is higher than the one with the low gluten strength;for the wheats with different gluten strength,wet gluten content,dry gluten content and gluten index with the deepening of germination are reduced%为了解穗发芽不同程度下对不同筋性春小麦品种品质的影响,该实验选取强筋小麦品种克春1号、克丰6号,中筋品种克旱16、克旱21,弱筋小麦品种新克旱9、克丰9为实验材料,利用人工智能气候培养箱模拟自然环境,人为控制种子发芽程度并测定相关数据,结果表明:出粉率在萌动状态下,强筋〉中筋〉弱筋,随着发芽程度的加深,出粉率并未表现出与小麦筋性相关的规律性;强筋粉降落值在萌动状态下,较正常状态下降幅度大于中筋粉,中筋粉大于弱筋粉;各筋性小麦品种其湿面筋含量、干面筋含量以及面筋指数均随发芽程度的加深,而降低。

  7. 基于寒地春小麦AquaCrop与WOFOST模型适应性验证分析%The Adaptability Test Analysis of AquaCrop and WOFOST Model Based on the Cold Spring Wheat

    张铁楠; 付驰; 李晶; 顾万荣; 许为政; 芦玉双; 魏湜


    使用AquaCrop模型与WOFOST模型对哈尔滨地区春小麦生长进行模拟,以春小麦的地上生物量和产量及生育期土壤体积含水量为指标,对比分析两个模型的模拟精度.结果表明:使用经过校正的两个模型均能够较为准确地模拟哈尔滨地区春小麦的生长发育情况及产量形成,观测值与模拟值一致性较好,误差均在合理范围内.在非正常年际AquaCrop模型模拟结果与实测结果偏差较大,说明该模型适合于正常年景的作物生长模拟,WOFOST模型适应性更强.在对201 1年土壤水分含量的模拟中,两个模型观测值与模拟值总体趋势相同,误差均在合理范围内.总体来说,经过修正和校准后的AquaCrop模型与WOFOST模型均适合寒地春小麦的模拟研究.%The main object of the study was analyzing the accuracy of the two models AquaCrop and WOFOST which were used for simulating the growth of spring wheat in Harbin based on biomass,yield and soil volume moisture content.The results indicated that the spring wheat growth and yield formation could be simulated accurately with the two optimized models.What's more,the values of observation and simulation value were closer and the error was creditable.The simulation results of AquaCrop model exhibit more difference with the measured results in abnormal year which revealed that the model was suitable for the crop growth in normal year while the WOFOST model showed more adaptability.The observation values of soil moisture content in 2011 were consistent with the total trend in the two models used in the research,also the error was creditable.In general,the optimized models AquaCrop and WOFOST were suitable for the cold spring wheat simulation research.

  8. Genetic mapping of resistance to the Ug99 race group of Puccinia graminis f. sp tritici in a spring wheat landrace CItr 4311

    Wheat landrace CItr 4311 has seedling resistance to stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp tritici Eriks. & E. Henn (Pgt) race TTKSK and field resistance to the Ug99 race group. Parents, F1 seedlings, 121 doubled haploid (DH) lines, and 124 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) developed from a cross...

  9. The dissection and SSR mapping of a high-temperature adult-plant stripe rust resistance gene in American spring wheat cultivar Alturas

    Stripe rust is one of major diseases in wheat production worldwide. The best economic and efficient method is to utilize resistant varieties. Alturas has high-temperature adult-plant resistance. In order to determine stripe rust resistance characteristics, resistance gene combination and molecular m...

  10. SIR 2014-5076, Land-Cover Data for Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area and Coyote Springs, Piute-Eldorado Valley, and Mormon Mesa Areas of Critical Environmental Concern, Clark County, Nevada

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Four polygon vector data sets and one related table describe land-cover in Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area (RRC_NCA_p) and Coyote Springs (CS_ACEC_p),...

  11. Progress Towards Genetics and Breeding for Minor Genes Based Resistance to Ug99 and Other Rusts in CIMMYT High-Yielding Spring Wheat

    Ravi Prakash Singh; Sybil Herrera-Foessel; Julio Huerta-Espino; Sukhwinder Singh; Sridhar Bhavani; Caixia Lan; and Bhoja Raj Basnet


    Wheat rusts continue to cause signiifcant losses worldwide despite major efforts given to their genetic control. This is due to frequent evolution and selection of virulence in pathogen overcoming the deployed race-speciifc resistance genes. Although the life of effective race-speciifc resistance genes can be prolonged by using gene combinations, an alternative approach being implemented at CIMMYT is to deploy varieties that posses adult plant resistance (APR) based on combinations of minor, slow rusting genes. When present alone, the APR genes do not confer adequate resistance especially under high disease pressure; however, combinations of 4 or 5 minor genes usually result in “near-immunity” or a high level of resistance. Although only a few APR genes are catalogued, various APR QTLs are now known and could lead to further characterization of additional genes. Four characterized genes have pleiotropic effects in conferring partial APR to all 3 rusts and powdery mildew, thus simplifying the task of breeding wheat varieties that are resistant to multiple diseases. Signiifcant progress was made recently in developing high-yielding wheat germplasm that possesses high levels of APR to all three rusts by implementing a Mexico-Kenya shuttle breeding scheme. Parents with APR to Ug99 were hybridized with high-yielding parents that had adequate to high levels of APR to leaf rust and yellow rust. Segregating populations and advanced lines from these crosses were selected under high rust pressures in Mexico (leaf rust and yellow rust) and Kenya (Ug99 stem rust and yellow rust) to identify high-yielding progenies that possess high to adequate APR to all three rusts. International distribution of these high-yielding wheats is underway through CIMMYT international yield trials and screening nurseries. It is expected that several wheat varieties with APR to three rusts will be released and grown in various countries in the near-future that will allow determining the

  12. Agro-climatic Risk Zoning of Wheat Stripe Rust in Spring of Sichuan Province%四川省小麦条锈病春季流行的农业气候风险区划

    游超; 肖天贵; 李金建; 张菡


    From the perspective of risk zoning, there was little research on the relationship between wheat stripe rust and meteorological condition method during the past years. Based on the theory of agrometeorological disaster risk, this paper developed the agricultural climate risk model to study wheat stripe rust of Sichuan Province in spring with the help of correlation analysis, AHP and range normalization methods. Coinstantaneously, the model included two environmental factors such as climate condition and the number of host plants. Then the risk index was divided into high, medium and low-grades clearly by using the model. After all, with GIS technology, the spring risk zoning of wheat stripe rust in Sichuan Province was carried out. Finally, t he result showed that, the western Sichuan Plateau, as well as the mountainous area of southwest Sichuan and the southwest basin region belonged to the low risk area. Meanwhile, the high and medium area included the the most of Sichuan basin where the wheat stripe rust happened frequently in spring. This paper supplied theoretical basis for the forecast in subarea and integrated control of wheat stripe rust in Sichuan Province. Based on the conclusion which showed that the risk assessment coincided with the actual situation generally, better services for decision-making to disease pests prevention and reduction could be provided.%针对当前从气象风险角度开展小麦条锈病与气象关系研究甚少的状况,从农业气象灾害风险分析理论出发,采用相关分析、层次分析和极差正规化等方法,建立了包含气候条件和寄主存在数量两个环境因子的四川省小麦条锈病春季流行农业气候风险模型,并划分了高、中、低风险等级的指标.在此基础上,利用GIS技术对四川省小麦条锈病春季流行的农业气候风险进行了区划.结果表明,四川省的川西高原地区、川西南山地和盆地西南部是小麦条锈病春季流行低风险区,

  13. 西北干旱区农田春小麦蒸散量的空间插值方法%Spatial Interpolation Analysis of Spring Wheat Evapotranspiration Measurements in Northwest China

    王春梅; 孟庆岩; 占玉林; 刘苗; 王靓; Tamas Jancso


    综合运用传统统计分析方法和地质统计分析方法,研究了西北旱区春小麦蒸散量在不同生育阶段的时空变异特征,并分析了试验区表层土壤储水量和叶面积指数对春小麦蒸散量的影响关系,通过分析比较,筛选表层土壤储水量为协同因子,并将其应用到试验区春小麦蒸散量的空间插值研究中.研究结果表明:在所研究的条件下,即使外观较为均匀、面积相对较小的农田,春小麦蒸散量仍具有较高的空间变异(变异系数范围0.328 ~0.495);当降雨入渗深度小于20 cm时,表层土壤储水量(0 ~20 cm)是影响研究区春小麦蒸散量变异的主要因子,春小麦不同生育期累积蒸散量与表层土壤储水量变化的相关系数在0.8 ~0.9之间,远大于春小麦累积蒸散量与叶面积指数的相关系数;基于表层土壤储水量的蒸散量协同克里金空间插值分析与地面实测结果相比,仅42个蒸散量地面采样数据即可保证研究区春小麦蒸散量估计精度高于90%.%The study investigated spatial variability of spring wheat ET and uses regression analysis to identify the ET main factors.Furthermore,the ET main factors were taken into account in the ET space research.Results showed that the geo-spatial coefficients of variation of spring wheat ET ranged from 0.328 to 0.495 at various growing stages even for homogeneous farm fields.During the spring wheat growing season,the spatial variability of cumulative ET estimates was high at the tillering-shooting stage,and then reduced at the shooting-heading stage.Comparing to leaf area index (LAI),spring wheat ET had a significant relationship with surface soil moisture content change at all the growing stages.When the rainfall infiltration depth was less than 20 cm,the soil moisture (0 ~20 cm)was the ET main factor.Compared with the ground-based observations,the ET estimation precision with 42 ET ground sample data was better than 90%.

  14. Development and characterization of edible films based on gluten from semi-hard and soft Brazilian wheat flours (development of films based on gluten from wheat flours Desenvolvimento e caracterização de filmes comestíveis de glúten de farinhas fortes e fracas de trigos brasileiros

    Patrícia Sayuri Tanada-Palmu


    Full Text Available Edible films based on gluten from four types of Brazilian wheat gluten (2 "semi-hard" and 2 "soft" were prepared and mechanical and barrier properties were compared with those of wheat gluten films with vital gluten. Water vapor, oxygen permeability, tensile strength and percent elongation at break, solubility in water and surface morphology were measured. The films from "semi-hard" wheat flours showed similar water vapor permeability and solubility in water to films from vital gluten and better tensile strength than the films from "soft" and vital gluten. The films from vital gluten had higher elongation at break and oxygen permeability and also lower solubility in water than the films from the Brazilian wheat "soft" flours. In spite of the vital gluten showed greater mechanical resistance, desirable for the bakery products, for the purpose of developing gluten films Brazilian "semi-hard" wheat flours can be used instead of vital gluten, since they showed similar barrier and mechanical properties.Filmes à base de glúten de quatro tipos de farinhas de trigo brasileiras (2 "semi-fortes " e 2 "fracas" foram preparados e suas propriedades mecânicas e de barreira foram comparadas com filmes com glúten vital (comercial. Permeabilidade ao vapor d'água e oxigênio, resistência à tração, porcentagem de elongação na ruptura, solubilidade em água e morfologia de superfície foram medidas. Filmes de glúten das farinhas "semi-fortes" mostraram similar permeabilidade ao vapor d'água e solubilidade em água em comparação aos filmes de glúten vital e melhor resistência à tração do que os filmes das farinhas "fracas" e glúten vital. O filme de glúten vital apresentou maior elongação na ruptura e permeabilidade ao oxigênio do que os filmes das farinhas brasileiras e ainda mais baixa solubilidade que as farinhas fracas. Apesar do glúten vital ter uma grande resistência mecânica, desejável para produtos de panificação, para o prop

  15. Dough Rheology and Breadmaking Traits of Flour Mill Streams from a Hard Spring Wheat and Relationships to Sulfur Content and Protein Size Distribution.

    Knowledge of the differences in quality traits among individual flour mill streams (FMS) provides more precise blending techniques that would meet customer’s flour specifications. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in dough rheology and breadmaking traits among FMS and their relations...

  16. Dryland Winter Wheat Yield, Grain Protein, and Soil Nitrogen Responses to Fertilizer and Biosolids Applications

    Richard T. Koenig


    Full Text Available Applications of biosolids were compared to inorganic nitrogen (N fertilizer for two years at three locations in eastern Washington State, USA, with diverse rainfall and soft white, hard red, and hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars. High rates of inorganic N tended to reduce yields, while grain protein responses to N rate were positive and linear for all wheat market classes. Biosolids produced 0 to 1400 kg ha−1 (0 to 47% higher grain yields than inorganic N. Wheat may have responded positively to nutrients other than N in the biosolids or to a metered N supply that limited vegetative growth and the potential for moisture stress-induced reductions in grain yield in these dryland production systems. Grain protein content with biosolids was either equal to or below grain protein with inorganic N, likely due to dilution of grain N from the higher yields achieved with biosolids. Results indicate the potential to improve dryland winter wheat yields with biosolids compared to inorganic N alone, but perhaps not to increase grain protein concentration of hard wheat when biosolids are applied immediately before planting.

  17. Super Dwarf Wheat for Growth in Confined Spaces

    Bugbee, Bruce


    USU-Perigee is a dwarf red spring wheat that is a hybrid of a high-yield early tall wheat (USU-Apogee) and a low-yield, extremely short wheat that has poor agronomic characteristics. USU-Perigee was selected for its extremely short height (.0.3 m) and high yield . characteristics that make it suitable for growth in confined spaces in controlled environments. Other desirable characteristics include rapid development and resistance to a leaf-tip necrosis, associated with calcium deficiency, that occurs in other wheat cultivars under rapid-growth conditions (particularly, continuous light). Heads emerge after only 21 days of growth in continuous light at a constant temperature of 25 C. In tests, USU-Perigee was found to outyield other full dwarf (defined as wheat cultivars: The yield advantage at a constant temperature of 23 C was found to be about 30 percent. Originally intended as a candidate food crop to be grown aboard spacecraft on long missions, this cultivar could also be grown in terrestrial growth chambers and could be useful for plant-physiology and -pathology studies.

  18. Controlled Release Urea as a Nitrogen Source for Spring Wheat in Western Canada: Yield, Grain N Content, and N Use Efficiency

    Lenz Haderlein; T.L. Jensen; Dowbenko, R.E.; A.D. Blaylock


    Controlled release nitrogen (N) fertilizers have been commonly used in horticultural applications such as turf grasses and container-grown woody perennials. Agrium, a major N manufacturer in North and South America, is developing a low-cost controlled release urea (CRU) product for use in field crops such as grain corn, canola, wheat, and other small grain cereals. From 1998 to 2000, 11 field trials were conducted across western Canada to determine if seed-placed CRU could maintain crop yield...

  19. Controlled Release Urea as a Nitrogen Source for Spring Wheat in Western Canada: Yield, Grain N Content, and N Use Efficiency

    Lenz Haderlein; Jensen, T. L.; Dowbenko, R.E.; A.D. Blaylock


    Controlled release nitrogen (N) fertilizers have been commonly used in horticultural applications such as turf grasses and container-grown woody perennials. Agrium, a major N manufacturer in North and South America, is developing a low-cost controlled release urea (CRU) product for use in field crops such as grain corn, canola, wheat, and other small grain cereals. From 1998 to 2000, 11 field trials were conducted across western Canada to determine if seed-placed CRU could maintain crop yield...

  20. The role of calcium in improving photosynthesis and related physiological and biochemical attributes of spring wheat subjected to simulated acid rain.

    Dolatabadian, Aria; Sanavy, Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres; Gholamhoseini, Majid; Joghan, Aydin Khodaei; Majdi, Mohammad; Kashkooli, Arman Beyraghdar


    The response of photosynthesis parameters, catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activity, malondialdehyde, proline, chlorophyll, yield and yield components to foliar application of calcium and simulated acid rain in wheat were investigated. Foliar treatment of calcium led to significant increases in the photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, proline, chlorophyll, yield and yield components in plants subjected to acid rain. Antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation in the wheat leaves decreased because of calcium foliar application. Calcium hindered degradation of the rubisco subunits under acid rain treatment compared with water-treated plants. Results suggest that acid rain induces the production of free radicals resulting in lipid peroxidation of the cell membrane so that significant increase in antioxidant enzyme activity was observed. In addition, photosynthetic parameters i.e. photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were drastically suppressed by acid rain. The cellular damage caused by free radicals might be reduced or prevented by a protective metabolism including antioxidative enzymes and calcium. We report that foliar application of calcium before acid rain may ameliorate the adverse effects of acid rain in wheat plants.

  1. Investigating Species Boundaries within the Hard Coral Genus Goniopora (Cnidaria, Scleractinia) from the Red Sea Using an Integrative Morphomolecular Approach

    Terraneo, Tullia Isotta


    In the present study the species boundaries of the scleractinian coral genus Goniopora from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea were investigated. An integrated morpho-molecular approach was used to better clarify the complex scenario derived from traditional classification efforts based on skeletal morphology. Traditional taxonomy of this genus considers skeletal morphology first and polyp morphology as a secondary discriminating character. This leads to potential complication due to plasticity in skeletal features within a species. To address this issue, molecular analyses of evolutionary relationships between nine traditional morphospecies of Goniopora from the Red Sea were performed and were used to re-evaluate the informativeness of macromorphological and micromorphological features. Between four and six putative molecular lineages were identified within Goniopora samples from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea on the basis of four molecular markers: the mitochondrial intergenic spacer between Cytochrome b and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2, the entire nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region, the ATP synthase subunit β gene, and a portion of the Calmodulin gene. The results were strongly corroborated by three distinct analyses of species delimitation. Subsequent analyses of micromorphological and microstructural skeletal features identified the presence of distinctive characters in each of the molecular clades. Unique in vivo morphologies were associated with the genetic-delimited lineages, further supporting the molecular findings. The proposed re-organization of Goniopora will resolve several taxonomic problems in this genus while reconciling molecular and morphological evidence. Reliable species-level identification of Goniopora spp. can be achieved with polyp morphology under the proposed revision.

  2. Adubação verde e nitrogenada na cultura do trigo em plantio direto Green manure and nitrogen fertilization in the spring wheat under no-tillage

    Ricardo Viola


    Full Text Available Pouco se sabe sobre os benefícios do cultivo de adubos verdes sobre o desempenho da cultura do trigo, cultivada em sucessão e, até que ponto, pode substituir ou reduzir a adubação nitrogenada mineral. Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar a produção e decomposição de matéria seca bem como o acúmulo e liberação de nutrientes de plantas de cobertura de solo (nabo forrageiro, ervilhaca comum, ervilha forrageira, tremoço e feijoeiro e quantificar seus efeitos sobre o desempenho da cultura do trigo, cultivada em sucessão, sob diferentes doses de adubação nitrogenada (sem adição de nitrogênio, 40, 80 e 120 kg ha-1. O experimento foi desenvolvido no município de Pato Branco (PR, em duas safras agrícolas, em sistema de plantio direto. O nabo forrageiro e o tremoço acumularam as maiores quantidades de cálcio e potássio. A ervilha forrageira e o nabo forrageiro destacam-se pela produção de matéria seca, acúmulo de nitrogênio, fósforo, potássio, bem como pela decomposição e liberação de nitrogênio para a cultura do trigo em estádios fenológicos de maior demanda deste nutriente. A relação C/N (superior a 40 dos restos culturais do milho e feijoeiro não possibilitou equilíbrio entre os processos de mineralização e imobilização. Os adubos verdes promoveram acréscimos significativos na produtividade de grãos em comparação ao pousio. Houve resposta do trigo à aplicação de nitrogênio mineral, e esta foi dependente da planta de cobertura antecessora.There are few studies about the benefits of green manure on wheat performance grown in succession as source of nitrogen. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the dry matter production and nutrient accumulation in wheat and the dry matter decomposition and nutrient release of cover crops forage turnip, common vetch, forage pea, lupine and bean and quantify their effects over wheat crop performance sown in succession under different nitrogen rates (without

  3. 青海省春麦田杂草种类组成及群落特征%Species Composition and Characteriziation of Weed Community in Spring Wheat Field in Qinghai

    翁华; 魏有海; 郭良芝; 郭青云


    The weed species,weed community structure and occurrence regulation in spring wheat fields in Qinghai province were investigated in this research.The results showed that there are 87 species,25 families of weeds in spring wheat fields in Qinghai.Among those the monocotyledon are 8 species,1 family.dicotyledon are 79 species,24 families.Galium aparine (L)Var tenerum Rcbb,Chenopodium album L.,Radix Pteroxygoni Giraldii,Elsholtiza densa Benth,Hypecoum leptocarpum Thoms.and Polygonum aviculare L.are advantage weeds in wheat fields.Polygonum nepalense Meisn.,Polygonum sibiricum Laxm.,Avena fatua L.,Phragmites australis,Stellaria media (Linn.)Cyr.,Sonchus brachyotus DC.,Cephalanoplos setosum (willd)Kitam.are regional advantage weeds.In irrigation region of Qinghai,peak time of emergence is during mid-to-late May;in Qinghai mountain regions,peak time of emergence is in early to middle May.The optimum depth of weeds emergence is 1 ~ 2cm soil layer.Weed population structure has significantly changed in spring wheat field in Qinghai.The farmland weed community structure has changed from wild oats and annual dicotyledonous weeds to perennial weeds and some resistant-herbicide annual weeds.%对青海省春小麦田杂草发生种类、群落构成及发生规律进行了调查研究.结果表明:青海省春麦田杂草共有87种,隶属于25科.其中单子叶植物1科8种,双子叶植物24科79种.猪殃殃、藜、荞麦蔓、密花香薷、节裂角茴香、萹蓄等6种杂草为田间的优势杂草;尼泊尔蓼、西伯利亚蓼、野燕麦、芦苇、繁缕、苣荬菜、大刺儿菜为田间区域性优势杂草.发生规律的研究表明青海川水地区春麦田杂草出苗高峰期在5月中、下旬;脑山地区春麦田杂草出苗高峰期在5月上、中旬,1 ~ 2cm土层是杂草出苗的最适深度.青海春麦田杂草由过去的野燕麦和一年生双子叶杂草为主的群落结构明显向以多年生杂草和部分耐药性强的

  4. End-use quality of CIMMYT-derived soft kernel durum wheat germplasm. I. Grain, milling and soft wheat quality.

    Wheat kernel texture is used in part to define U.S. wheat market class due to its importance in end-use quality and utilization. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum) has lower demand and fewer culinary end-uses compared to bread wheat because of its extremely hard kernel texture, which precl...

  5. Effects of substitution of soybean meal-alfalfa-maize by a combination of field bean or pea with hard wheat bran on digestion and growth performance in rabbits in Algeria

    G. Lounaouci-Ouyed


    Full Text Available The aim of the trial was to study the effects of replacement of a soybean meal-alfalfa-maize based diet by a mixture of field bean (g/kg as fed: 257 crude protein [CP], 139 neutral detergent fibre [NDF] or pea (g/kg as fed: 203 CP, 122 NDF combined with hard wheat bran (g/kg as fed: 140 CP, 396 NDF and without supplementation of synthetic DL-methionine, on diet digestibility, growth and slaughter traits of growing rabbits. Three diets were formulated: a control diet mainly consisting of 15% of soybean meal, alfalfa and maize (SBM15 diet; g/kg as fed: 161 CP and 267 NDF and 2 experimental diets based on 26% of field bean (FB26 diet; g/kg as fed: 167 CP and 250 NDF or 30% of pea (P30 diet; g/kg as fed: 167 CP and 255 NDF as main protein source, and completed with hard wheat bran (34 and 40%, respectively for FB26 and P30 diets partly replacing alfalfa and maize. Diets were distributed ad libitum to 3 groups of 40 mixed-sex growing rabbits of Algerian white population, placed in collective cages (4 rabbits/cage from weaning (28 d, mean weight: 614±112 g until 77 d of age (slaughter. Faecal digestibility was measured between 42 and 46 d of age in 7 rabbits/group. Gross energy and crude protein digestibility coefficients were similar for SBM15 and FB26 diets (78.6 and 86.4%, respectively and lower for P30 diet (75.1 and 83.6%, respectively; P≤0.03. Treatments had no effect (P=0.12 on mortality rate, which was on av. 9.2%. Treatments did not affect growth performance from 28 to 77 d of age (30.8 g/d or feed intake (mean 94.6 g/d, but feed conversion ratio was higher for rabbits fed FB26 and P30 diets compared to those fed SBM15 diet (3.13 vs. 2.94; P=0.006. The dressing out percentages (mean 66.6% and the muscle/bone ratio (6.8 were similar for the 3 groups of rabbits. In conclusion, the substitution of soybean meal-alfalfa-maize by a combination of field bean or pea with hard wheat bran, without methionine supplementation, does not seem to affect

  6. Reservoir characterization of the Ordovician Red River Formation in southwest Williston Basin Bowman County, ND and Harding County, SD

    Sippel, M.A.; Luff, K.D.; Hendricks, M.L.; Eby, D.E.


    This topical report is a compilation of characterizations by different disciplines of the Red River Formation in the southwest portion of the Williston Basin and the oil reservoirs which it contains in an area which straddles the state line between North Dakota and South Dakota. Goals of the report are to increase understanding of the reservoir rocks, oil-in-place, heterogeneity, and methods for improved recovery. The report is divided by discipline into five major sections: (1) geology, (2) petrography-petrophysical, (3) engineering, (4) case studies and (5) geophysical. Interwoven in these sections are results from demonstration wells which were drilled or selected for special testing to evaluate important concepts for field development and enhanced recovery. The Red River study area has been successfully explored with two-dimensional (2D) seismic. Improved reservoir characterization utilizing 3-dimensional (3D) and has been investigated for identification of structural and stratigraphic reservoir compartments. These seismic characterization tools are integrated with geological and engineering studies. Targeted drilling from predictions using 3D seismic for porosity development were successful in developing significant reserves at close distances to old wells. Short-lateral and horizontal drilling technologies were tested for improved completion efficiency. Lateral completions should improve economics for both primary and secondary recovery where low permeability is a problem and higher density drilling is limited by drilling cost. Low water injectivity and widely spaced wells have restricted the application of waterflooding in the past. Water injection tests were performed in both a vertical and a horizontal well. Data from these tests were used to predict long-term injection and oil recovery.

  7. 水浇地与旱地春小麦冠层高光谱反射特征比较%Comparative study of canopy spectral reflectance characteristics of spring wheat in irrigated land and dry land

    靳彦华; 熊黑钢; 张芳


    Canopy data from hyperspectral remote sensing of irrigated land and dry land at different growth stages were used to analyze the difference between irrigated land and dry land. According to the bands of TM image,the measured spectrum was divided into four bands,the comparison of the spectra between irrigated land and dry land at each band was made and, on such a basis, the best band to identify irrigated land and dry land for spring wheat was chosen. The results show that canopy spectral reflectance in the visible region and in the near-infrared region of spring wheat has complete variation regularity:at the first band,the order is sunny land>double-sided land>shady land>irrigated land,which is opposite to the things of the near-infrared band. From setting to milk stage, in the visible band, spring wheat of irrigated land and dry land shows the order of setting stage >milk stage >jointing stage>heading stage>flowering stage;in the near-infrared band, the order is flowering stage>heading stage>jointing stage>setting stage>milk stage. The spectral curves are different because of chlorophyll content and coverage. In the visible band,spectral curves of spring wheat at setting and milk stage have their own lines but become two lines in the middle period; i. e. ,sunny land and double-sided land are completely coincident with each other,whereas shady land and irrigated land are basically coincident with each other. The spectral range of 760~900 nm is the optimal band for identifying spring wheat in irrigated land and dry land.%用野外实测的水浇地与不同坡向旱地春小麦各发育期的冠层光谱数据,对比分析各发育期春小麦冠层光谱反射特征;依据TM图像的波段设置将实测光谱划分为4个波段,对比分析水浇地与旱地春小麦光谱在各波段的差异,并选择出识别水浇地与旱地春小麦的最佳波段。研究结果表明:不同地类水浇地与旱地春小麦冠层光谱反射率在可见光波段

  8. Evaluation and reselection of wheat resistance to Russian wheat aphid biotype 2

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA, Diuraphis noxia, Mordvilko) biotype 2 (RWA2) is virulent to most known RWA resistance genes and severely threatens wheat production in the hard winter wheat area of the US western Great Plains. We determined RWA2 reactions of 386 cultivars from China, 227 advanced breeding...

  9. Registration of 'Tiger' wheat

    ‘Tiger’ hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at Research Center-Hays, Kansas State University and released by Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station in 2010. Tiger was selected from a three-way cross KS98H245/’Trego’//KS98HW518 made in 1999 at Hays, KS. The objective of this ...

  10. Homoeologous recombination-based transfer and molecular cytogenetic mapping of a wheat streak mosaic virus and Triticum mosaic virus resistance gene Wsm3 from Thinopyrum intermedium to wheat.

    Danilova, Tatiana V; Zhang, Guorong; Liu, Wenxuan; Friebe, Bernd; Gill, Bikram S


    Here, we report the production of a wheat- Thinopyrum intermedium recombinant stock conferring resistance to wheat streak mosaic virus and Triticum mosaic virus. Wheat streak mosaic caused by the wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) is an important disease of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide. To date, only three genes conferring resistance to WSMV have been named and two, Wsm1 and Wsm3, were derived from the distantly related wild relative Thinopyrum intermedium. Wsm3 is only available in the form of a compensating wheat-Th. intermedium whole-arm Robertsonian translocation T7BS·7S#3L. Whole-arm alien transfers usually suffer from linkage drag, which prevents their use in cultivar improvement. Here, we report ph1b-induced homoeologous recombination to shorten the Th. intermedium segment and recover a recombinant chromosome consisting of the short arm of wheat chromosome 7B, part of the long arm of 7B, and the distal 43% of the long arm derived from the Th. intermedium chromosome arm 7S#3L. The recombinant chromosome T7BS·7BL-7S#3L confers resistance to WSMV at 18 and 24 °C and also confers resistance to Triticum mosaic virus, but only at 18 °C. Wsm3 is the only gene conferring resistance to WSMV at a high temperature level of 24 °C. We also developed a user-friendly molecular marker that will allow to monitor the transfer of Wsm3 in breeding programs. Wsm3 is presently being transferred to adapted hard red winter wheat cultivars and can be used directly in wheat improvement.

  11. Effects of film-covering cultivation patterns for dryland spring wheat in Lintan county%临潭县旱区地膜春小麦覆膜方式对比试验初报

    梁勇; 杨彩霞


    There are now three patterns of film-covering cultivation for dryland spring wheat for farmers to choose. One is sowing-in-hole and flatly covered with film (Pattern Ⅰ), anoter is sowing-in-hole in furrows between film-covered ridges (Pattern Ⅱ), still a third is sowing-in-both-half-side furrows of film-covered ridges (Pattern Ⅲ). However, different film-covering pattern brings about somewhat different gain against traditional pattern of sowing flatly with no film coverage (CK) in general. Firstly, positive effects show in bringing forth about both sprouting of seedling and being ripe for all of three film-covering patterns. Secondly, because of the improvements mainly in microenvironment of soil, the period of little ears origination, for every film-covering pattern, is stretched longer than that of CK. And thirdly, better developments of wheat plants pace the way to favor results in such productive characteristics as average grains of single plant, average weight of kilo-grain, grain weight of single plant, and therefore, all of these add weight upon the grain output per hm2 over that of CK. Of them, the highest is from PatternⅡ, which harvests 4 600.2 kg/hm2 of grain, up 33.3% against that of CK. After it is PatternⅠ, which produces 3 800.3 kg/hm2 of grain, up 10.1%. Finally, in the view of net income for wheat production, still PatternⅡ gets ahead over others for which produces 4 250.3 yuan/hm2 of net income, over 40.7% than that of CK, also 38.0% higher than PatternⅠ which gets 3 100.5 yuan/hm2 and 2.7% over CK. So it seems to be better to choose Pattern Ⅱ for cultivation of dryland spring wheat covered with film.%在旱作雨养农业区,采用平膜穴播、地膜沟穴播和垄膜侧沟播不同覆膜播种方式对春小麦的产量、经济效益及经济性状进行研究。结果表明,3种不同覆膜方式下春小麦的出苗期、成熟期均比露地条播(CK)提早,幼穗分化期延长,单株粒数、千粒重、单株

  12. Strike fast, strike hard: the red-throated caracara exploits absconding behavior of social wasps during nest predation.

    Sean McCann

    Full Text Available Red-throated Caracaras Ibycter americanus (Falconidae are specialist predators of social wasps in the Neotropics. It had been proposed that these caracaras possess chemical repellents that allow them to take the brood of wasp nests without being attacked by worker wasps. To determine how caracaras exploit nests of social wasps and whether chemical repellents facilitate predation, we: (1 video recorded the birds attacking wasp nests; (2 analyzed surface extracts of the birds' faces, feet, and feathers for potential chemical repellents; and (3 inflicted mechanical damage on wasp nests to determine the defensive behavior of wasps in response to varying levels of disturbance. During caracara predation events, two species of large-bodied wasps mounted stinging attacks on caracaras, whereas three smaller-bodied wasp species did not. The "hit-and-run" predation tactic of caracaras when they attacked nests of large and aggressive wasps reduced the risk of getting stung. Our data reveal that the predation strategy of caracaras is based on mechanical disturbance of, and damage to, target wasp nests. Caracara attacks and severe experimental disturbance of nests invariably caused wasps to abscond (abandon their nests. Two compounds in caracara foot extracts [sulcatone and iridodial] elicited electrophysiological responses from wasp antennae, and were also present in defensive secretions of sympatric arboreal-nesting Azteca ants. These compounds appear not to be wasp repellents but to be acquired coincidentally by caracaras when they perch on trees inhabited with Azteca ants. We conclude that caracara predation success does not depend on wasp repellents but relies on the absconding response that is typical of swarm-founding polistine wasps. Our study highlights the potential importance of vertebrate predators in the ecology and evolution of social wasps.

  13. 不同耕作措施旱地春小麦产量对温度变化的响应%Reponses of spring wheat yield to temperature variations with different tillage measures in dryland

    董莉霞; 李广; 闫丽娟; 刘强; 燕振刚; 罗珠珠


    In order to analyze the influence of the temperature variationson the yield of spring wheat with different cultivation measures ,the spring wheat yields resulted from cultivation measuresemploying two-factor ,nine-level and three-typewere simulated by the APSIM model .Yielding-effect was analyzed by choosing the lowest and the highest day temperatures as the independent variable factors .Interacting effectsbetweenthe lowest and the highest temperatures under three kinds of tillage measures were also investigated by a path analysis .It turned out that under the conditions of differ-ent tillage measureswith the increase of the lowest temperature ,the yield of spring wheat changed in a quadratic parabola rising pattern ,displayinga decrease inrewards .The cultivation measure using conventional tillage ,straw returning and no-tillage with mulch played a more important role in yield improvement than no-tillage cultivation .Under the condition of traditional tillage ,straw returning and no-till farming measures ,the yield decreased in a quadratic parabola type ashigh-est temperature rose ,showinga superposition of diminishing .Yield was negatively correlated with the highest temperature while the production was under covered no-till farming measures .Withinthe three kinds of cultivation measures ,there was a positive synergy between the lowest temperature and highest temperature ,and cultivation measure usingno-tillage with mulch had a better synergistic promoting effect than the other two kinds .%为了探析温度变化对不同耕作措施春小麦产量的影响,利用 APSIM 模型对2因素9水平3种耕作措施下的春小麦产量进行了模拟,选择日最低温度和最高温度作为自变量因子对产量效应进行分析,并对3种耕作措施条件下最低温度和最高温度的互作效应进行通径分析。结果表明:不同耕作措施条件下,春小麦产量随最低温度升高呈二次抛物线上升型变化,会出现报酬递

  14. [Effects of different tillage and fertilization modes on the soil physical and chemical properties and crop yield under winter wheat/spring corn rotation on dryland of east Gansu, Northwest China].

    Zhang, Jian-jun; Wang, Yong; Fan, Ting-lu; Guo, Tian-wen; Zhao, Gang; Dang, Yi; Wang, Lei; Li, Shang-zhong


    Based on the 7-year field experiment on the dryland of east Gansu of Northwest China in 2005-2011, this paper analyzed the variations of soil moisture content, bulk density, and nutrients content at harvest time of winter wheat and of the grain yield under no-tillage and conventional tillage and five fertilization modes, and approached the effects of different tillage and fertilization modes on the soil water storage and conservation, soil fertility, and grain yield under winter wheat/ spring corn rotation. In 2011, the soil moisture content in 0-200 cm layer and the soil bulk density and soil organic matter and available nitrogen and phosphorus contents in 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm layers under different fertilization modes were higher under no-tillage than under conventional tillage. Under the same tillage modes, the contents of soil organic matter and available nitrogen and available phosphorus were higher under the combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers, as compared with other fertilization modes. The soil available potassium content under different tillage and fertilization modes decreased with years. The grain yield under conventional tillage was higher than that under no-tillage. Under the same tillage modes, the grain yield was the highest under the combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers, and the lowest under no fertilization. In sum, no-tillage had the superiority than conventional tillage in improving the soil water storage and conservation and soil fertility, and the combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers under conventional tillage could obtain the best grain yield.

  15. Inclusion of sunflower seed and wheat dried distillers' grains with solubles in a red clover silage-based diet enhances steers performance, meat quality and fatty acid profiles.

    Mapiye, C; Aalhus, J L; Turner, T D; Vahmani, P; Baron, V S; McAllister, T A; Block, H C; Uttaro, B; Dugan, M E R


    The current study compared beef production, quality and fatty acid (FA) profiles of yearling steers fed a control diet containing 70 : 30 red clover silage (RCS) : barley-based concentrate, a diet containing 11% sunflower seed (SS) substituted for barley, and diets containing SS with 15% or 30% wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS). Additions of DDGS were balanced by reductions in RCS and SS to maintain crude fat levels in diets. A total of two pens of eight animals were fed per diet for an average period of 208 days. Relative to the control diet, feeding the SS diet increased (P<0.05) average daily gain, final live weight and proportions of total n-6 FA, non-conjugated 18:2 biohydrogenation products (i.e. atypical dienes) with the first double bond at carbon 8 or 9 from the carboxyl end, conjugated linoleic acid isomers with the first double bond from carbon 7 to 10 from the carboxyl end, t-18:1 isomers, and reduced (P<0.05) the proportions of total n-3 FA, conjugated linolenic acids, branched-chain FA, odd-chain FA and 16:0. Feeding DDGS-15 and DDGS-30 diets v. the SS diet further increased (P<0.05) average daily gains, final live weight, carcass weight, hot dressing percentage, fat thickness, rib-eye muscle area, and improved instrumental and sensory panel meat tenderness. However, in general feeding DGGS-15 or DDGS-30 diets did not change FA proportions relative to feeding the SS diet. Overall, adding SS to a RCS-based diet enhanced muscle proportions of 18:2n-6 biohydrogenation products, and further substitutions of DDGS in the diet improved beef production, and quality while maintaining proportions of potentially functional bioactive FA including vaccenic and rumenic acids.

  16. Antioxidant properties of wheat as affected by pearling.

    Liyana-Pathirana, Chandrika; Dexter, Jim; Shahidi, Fereidoon


    The effects of pearling on the content of phenolics and antioxidant capacity of two Canadian wheat classes, namely, Canada Western Amber Durum; Triticum turgidum L. var. durum; CWAD) and Canada Western Red Spring; Triticum aestivum L.; CWRS) were examined. The antioxidant activity of wheat phenolics was evaluated using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), inhibition of photochemiluminescence (PCL), Rancimat method, inhibition of oxidation of low-density lipoprotein, and DNA. The phenolic composition of wheat extracts was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. The antioxidant capacity of both pearled grains and byproducts significantly decreased as the degree of pearling increased. Among grains, the unprocessed whole grains demonstrated the highest antioxidant capacity. The byproducts always demonstrated higher antioxidant capacity compared to the pearled grains, regardless of the wheat class. The resultant byproducts from 10-20% pearling possessed the highest antioxidant capacity. Processing of cereals may thus exert a significant effect on their antioxidant activity. The concentration of grain antioxidants is drastically reduced during the refining process. As phenolic compounds are concentrated in the outermost layers, the bran fractions resulting from pearling may be used as a natural source of antioxidants and as value-added products in the preparation of functional food ingredients or for enrichment of certain products.

  17. Controlled Release Urea as a Nitrogen Source for Spring Wheat in Western Canada: Yield, Grain N Content, and N Use Efficiency

    Lenz Haderlein


    Full Text Available Controlled release nitrogen (N fertilizers have been commonly used in horticultural applications such as turf grasses and container-grown woody perennials. Agrium, a major N manufacturer in North and South America, is developing a low-cost controlled release urea (CRU product for use in field crops such as grain corn, canola, wheat, and other small grain cereals. From 1998 to 2000, 11 field trials were conducted across western Canada to determine if seed-placed CRU could maintain crop yields and increase grain N and N use efficiency when compared to the practice of side-banding of urea N fertilizer. CRU was designed to release timely and adequate, but not excessive, amounts of N to the crop. Crop uptake of N from seed-placed CRU was sufficient to provide yields similar to those of side-banded urea N. Grain N concentrations of the CRU treatments were higher, on average, than those from side-banded urea, resulting in 4.2% higher N use efficiency across the entire N application range from 25 to 100 kg ha-1. Higher levels of removal of N in grain from CRU compared to side-banded urea can result in less residual N remaining in the soil, and limit the possibility of N losses due to denitrification and leaching.

  18. Study on the Phosphorus Efficiency in Varieties of Spring Wheat Ⅲ. Characteristics of Phosphorus Efficient Varieties%春小麦品种磷营养效率研究Ⅲ.磷高效品种的特征特性

    黄亚群; 马文奇; 王激清; 刘社平


    Based on the identification and classification of the phosphorus efficiency of spring wheat varieties, characteristic of phosphorus efficient varieties were made clear by variance analysis to different efficient varieties. Under phosphorus stress condition, there were high ability to spikelet and floscule differentiation and seed setting. The sensitivity to phosphorus application was decreased forvanieties with the tolerance to phosphorus deficiency. The phosphorus use efficiency was not related to the ability to tolerance phosphorus deficiency and sensitivity to phosphorus application. There was high ability to uptake phosphorus and tolerance phosphorus stress in the varieties with strong root system.%通过对不同磷效率类型品种(系)性状表现的方差分析, 阐明了春小麦磷高效品种的性状特征。当受到同一缺磷胁迫时,耐缺磷的品种具有较高的穗分化和结实能力,品种耐缺磷能力越强,对加磷反应越不敏感;品种的磷利用效率同耐缺磷能力和对加磷反应敏感性无关。具有发达根系的品种吸磷能力强、耐缺磷程度高。


    白凌凤; 逯晓萍; 张瑞霞


    In 1996-1998,the region test of spring wheat varieties inBayenaoer league was carried out to analyse the high-productivity and stability of 10 varieties.The results showed that the differences among varicty,site and variety×site are significant;Among the tested varieties the Heyou2.Shows a good performence and may be substituted for comparative variety Yunliang4 in future.%本文根据1996年~1998年巴盟春小麦区域试验结果资料,对参试的10个品种进行了丰产性和稳定性分析,结果表明:品种、地点以及品种X地点互作差异均达显著水平;在参试品种中,河优2号小麦品种表现优良,将成为目前对照品种永良4号的替代品种。

  20. 我国小麦水分吸着等温线4-参数GAB方程研究%Study on Four-parameter Modified GAB Equation Fitting for EMC/ERH Data of Chinese Wheat Varietie

    李兴军; 张元娣; 秦文; 刘丁; 陆晖


    under the condition of water activity ( aw ) > 0.85, wheat samples are subject to easy fungal growth, which may affect the precision of equilibrium water determination, In this paper, the four - parameter CAB equation ( MCAB) suitable for aw 0 ~ 1 and published by Blahovec and Yanniotis in 2009 was used for fitting and classification of the determined sorption isotherms of 13 wheat varieties in our country. The results showed that the coefficient of determination of the MGAB equation fitting (R ) was > 0. 97, the mean relevant percentage error ( MRE) was <8.34, each parameter of the equation did not differ obviously between red and white wheat, hard and soft wheat, and spring and winter wheat. However, the equation parameters of the sorption isotherms in the same wheat variety was different from the correspondent equipment parameter of the desorption isotherm. In addition, according to Dl0, Rfi and am indices, the moisture sorption isotherm of the wheat was judged that the sorption and desorption isotherms of 13 wheat varieties were close to Langmuir type S isotherm. The result was that the parameters of the wheat moisture sorption and desorption MCAB equation could be used for drying, storage and ventilation of the harvested wheat.%在水分活度(aw)>0.85条件下,小麦样品易发生霉菌生长而影响平衡水分测定的准确性,本研究采用Blahovec和Yanniotis 2009年发表的适合aw在0~1的修正4-参数GAB方程(MGAB),对测定的我国13个小麦品种的水分吸着等温线数据进行拟合和分类.结果表明,MGAB方程拟合的决定系数(R2)>0.97,平均相对百分率误差(MRE) <8.34%,方程的每个参数在红麦与白麦之间、硬麦与软麦之间、春麦与冬麦之间,差异不显著.但是,同一小麦品种吸附等温线的方程参数,不同于解吸等温线的对应方程参数.另外,根据D10、Rfi、awn指标判断小麦水分吸着等温线类型,13个小麦品种的吸附和解吸等温线均属于接

  1. 新疆春小麦品种品质性状主成分及聚类分析%Principal Components and Cluster Analyses of Xinjiang Spring Wheat Quality Traits

    高欢欢; 李卫华; 穆培源; 桑伟; 冶婷; 王亮


    [目的]选择不同筋力新疆自育和引进的春小麦品种,分析其磨粉品质、蛋白质品质性状和淀粉品质性状等指标,为育种家进一步开展品种选育和品质改良提供参考依据.[方法]选择30个春小麦品种,分析23个品种性状指标,采用主成分分析.把23个品质性状归于8个主成分,分别是淀粉糊化特性、粉质参数、蛋白质含量、降落数值、直链淀粉含量、面筋指数、峰值时间和Zeleny沉淀值,以品质因子进行聚类分析.[结果]经主成分分析,8个主成分其分别决定总变异量的44.00%、14.49%、8.52%、8.25%、5.46%、4.07%、3.30%和2.74%.把30个春小麦品种聚成4类:第一类小麦品种的面粉L*、面团形成时间、稳定时间和评价值等粉质参数上表现突出,面筋指数和淀粉糊化特性表现较好,而籽粒蛋白含量、湿面筋含量和面粉吸水率偏低.第二类小麦品种中的淀粉糊化特性好,湿面筋含量、籽粒蛋白质、面粉b*含量高,但面筋指数含量低.第三类小麦品种在面粉L*、面团稳定时间和评价值表现差.第四类小麦品种的灰分含量、面粉吸水率偏高,而形成时间较短,淀粉糊化特性表现较差.[结论]通过对新疆自育和引进的30个春小麦品种的23个品质性状的主成分和聚类分类分析,筛选出了影响春小麦品质的8个主成分,对这8个品质指标的选择有利于小麦品质育种和改良效率的提高.%[ Objective ] Gluten spring wheat of 30 different self - fertile or introduced varieties in Xinjiang were chosen to conduct principal component and cluster analyses of 23 indexes such as their flour quality, protein quality traits and starch quality traits. [Method] By the principal component analysis, the 23 quality characters belong to 8 principal components; starch gelatinization characteristics, silty parameters, protein content, falling number, amylose content, gluten index, peak time and Zeleny

  2. Spring Outing



    It is springtime.The days are getting warmer and the flowers are in bloom.With the pleasantly warm sunshine,gentle breeze and fresh air,it is high time for spring outing and sightseeing.Are you still hesitating? Let’s see what benefits spring outing brings about and then pay attention to some matters while taking a trip out in spring. Benefits of spring outing Spring outing is especially popular with children and teenagers.But many adults also like to go on spring trips.The reason might be that spring outing can have several benefits.

  3. 麦长管蚜(Sitobion avenae F.)危害对春小麦面粉品质性状及面团流变学特性的影响%Responses of Flour Quality and Dough Rheological Properties to Sitobion avenue F. Inoculated in Spring Wheat

    师桂英; 尚勋武; 王化俊; 马小乐; 胡秉芬; 李昌盛


    Sitobion avenae F., one of the important aphid species infesting spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in western China, causes not only yield loss but also quality degradation of wheat flour. In the authors' earlier studies, two wheat lines with high resistance to 5. Avenae, 04-9284 and C272 were screened out from 521 accessions. Another five highly susceptible cultivars (lines) were also identified, including a specific cultivar "Guanchun 20" for Lanzhou hand-stretched noodles. The aims of the present study were to compare quality differences of resistant and susceptible wheat lines inoculated with aphids, and to assess the contributions of grain hardness and gliadin to aphid resistance. The lines 04-9284 and C272 (soft grain) were used as resistant lines, and four cultivars (lines), Ganchun 20 (hard grain) as well as Ganchuan 18, C162, and C167 (soft grain with specific ω gliadin in grains after aphid infecting) were susceptible to S. Avenae. After artificial inoculation with S. Avenae on 5 June, the density of aphid population was measured from 15 June to 20 July at an interval of 6-7 d. Flour quality and dough rheological properties were determined after grain maturing. The mean density of aphid population at peak occurrence was 4.3-fold higher in susceptible lines than in resistant lines. Aphid infecting resulted in no significant change in flour granule (t = 0.4312, P = 0.68), but induced significant increase in ash content (t = 2.9207, P = 0.03) and reductions in protein content (t = 2.5444, P = 0.05), SDS sedimentation value (t = 4.5736, P = 0.01), strength (t = 4.2517, P = 0.01), swelling (t = 6.6691, P = 0.00), extensibility (t = 3.1826, P = 0.02), tenacity (t = 3.6653, P = 0.01), and index of elastic (t = 2.8750, P = 0.03). In susceptible lines Ganchun 18, C162, and C167, aphid infecting significantly reduced quality parameters mentioned above excluding flour gradual and ash content. Ganchun 20 showed less influence than the other three susceptible lines

  4. Spring in the Arab Spring

    Borg, G.J.A.


    Column Gert Borg | Spring in the Arab Spring door dr. Gert Borg, onderzoeker bij Islam en Arabisch aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en voormalig directeur van het Nederlands-Vlaams Instituut Caïro Spring If, in Google, you type "Arab Spring" and hit the button, you get more than 14 mill

  5. Wheat Allergy

    ... but also, in some cases, by inhaling wheat flour. Wheat can be found in many foods, including ... protein Soy sauce Some condiments, such as ketchup Meat products, such as hot dogs or cold cuts ...

  6. Wheat Allergy

    ... Events Blog Media Shop Alerts Donate About Food Allergies Home About Food Allergy Food Allergy Basics Facts ... Registration Create Your Own Events Educational Events Wheat Allergy Wheat allergy is most common in children, and ...

  7. Hard electronics; Hard electronics



    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  8. 77 FR 23420 - United States Standards for Wheat


    ...-AB12 United States Standards for Wheat AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration... Wheat under the U.S. Grain Standards Act. The proposed rule would change the definition of Contrasting classes in Hard White wheat and change the grade limits for shrunken and broken kernels. GIPSA believes...

  9. 78 FR 27857 - United States Standards for Wheat


    ... Standards for Wheat AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA. ACTION: Final... United States Standards for Wheat under the United States Grain Standards Act (USGSA) to change the definition of Contrasting classes (CCL) in the class Hard White wheat. This change will help facilitate the...

  10. End-use quality of soft kernel durum wheat

    Kernel texture is a major determinant of end-use quality of wheat. Durum wheat is known for its very hard texture, which influences how it is milled and for what products it is well suited. We developed soft kernel durum wheat lines via Ph1b-mediated homoeologous recombination with Dr. Leonard Joppa...

  11. 30%苄嘧·苯磺隆WP对春小麦田杂草的防效及安全性评价%Control Effect and Crop Safety of Bensulfuron-methyl and Tribenuron-methyl 30% WP against Broad-leaf Weeds in Spring Wheat Fields



    采用田间试验方法研究了30%苄嘧·苯磺隆WP对春小麦田杂草的控制效果和应用安全性.结果表明,30%苄嘧·苯磺隆对田间阔叶杂草具有较好的防除效果,于春小麦3~5叶期每公顷施用30%苄嘧·苯磺隆WP 281.25~337.50 g/hm2对水300 kg茎叶喷雾,可有效防除密花香薷(Elsholtzia densa)、遏蓝菜(Thlaspi arvnse)、藜(Chenopodium album)、苦苣菜(Sonchus oleraceus)等阔叶杂草;在以大刺儿菜(Cephalanoplos setosum)、泽漆(Euphorbia helioscopia)为优势种群的春麦田需增大剂量至337.50 g/hm2.对供试的乐麦5号和高原483春小麦安全,除草后小麦增产12.02%~17.38%,增产效果总体优于对照药剂.%To provide guidance for chemical weed management in spring wheat fields,experiments were conducted to evaluate the weed control effects and crop safety of Bensulfuron-methyl and Tribenuron-methyl 30% WP. The results showed that Bensulfuron-methyl and Tribenuron-methyl 30% WP has very good efficacy on Elsholtzia densa, Thlaspi arvnse, Chenopodi-um album, Sonchus oleraceus,etc.. Its normal dosage is 281.25~337.50 g/hm2 with 300 kg water in the term of 3~5 leaf—age of spring wheat. The dosage should increase to 337.50 g/hm2 in spring wheat field where the dominant species were Cepha-lanoplos setosum and Euphorbia helioscopia. Bensulfuron-methyl and Tribenuron-methyl 30% WP was safety to spring wheat variety Lemai 5 and Gaoyuan 483; the yield of wheat was increased by 12.02%~17.38% than CK and ecceeded that of the compared herbicides.

  12. Wheat Woes



    @@ Chicago wheat futures began to skyrocket in early June,jumping 62 percent and reaching their highest level since September 2008. In Russia, wheat prices increased 70 percent recently. And Europe's wheat prices also rose 8 percent within a short time.

  13. Wheat Woes


    Soaringwheat prices are unlikely to endanger globalgrain security chicago wheat futures began to skyrocket in early June, jumping 62 percent and reaching their highest level since September 2008. In Russia,wheat prices increased 70 percent recently.And Europe’s wheat prices also rose 8 percent within a short time.

  14. SPRING 2016

    Steinberger, Jessica; Unknown, [Unknown

    SPRING 2016, 11th edition of the SPRING series, is a single-track event that was sponsored by the special interest group Security – Intrusion Detection and Response (SIDAR) of the German Informatics Society (GI). The purpose of SPRING is to provide young researchers the opportunity to discuss their

  15. 反铁磁耦合硬磁-软磁-硬磁三层膜体系的不可逆交换弹性反磁化过程%Irreversible exchange-spring processes of antiferromagnetically exchange coupled hard-soft-hard trilayer structures

    郭光华; 张光富; 王希光


    采用一维原子链模型研究了反铁磁耦合的硬磁/软磁/硬磁三层膜体系的反磁化过程.研究结果表明,当考虑了软磁层的磁晶各向异性能后,软磁层厚度和界面交换耦合强度的改变都有可能导致软磁层的交换弹性反磁化过程由可逆过程转变为不可逆过程.对软磁层很薄的体系,其反磁化过程是典型的可逆交换弹性反磁化过程.然而,当软磁层厚度超过某一临界厚度tc时,反磁化过程转变为不可逆的交换弹性反磁化过程.软磁-硬磁界面交换耦合强度Ash对反磁化行为也有很大的影响.对于软磁层厚度小于临界厚度tc的体系,也存在一个临界界面交换耦合强度Acsh.当Ash大于Asch时,软磁层的反磁化过程是可逆的交换弹性反磁化过程;而当Ash小于Asch时,这一过程变为不可逆.给出了体系的可逆与不可逆交换弹性反磁化过程随软磁层厚度和界面交换耦合强度变化的磁相图.同时还研究了偏转场随软磁层厚度的变化关系.%The demagnetization processes of antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled hard-soft-hard trilayer structures are studied based on the one-dimensional atomic chain model.It is found that when the magnetic anisotropy of soft layer is taken into account,the change of the soft layer thickness or the interfacial exchange coupling strength may lead to a transition from the reversible exchange-spring process to the irreversible process.For the trilayer structures with very thin soft layer,the demagnetization process exhibits typical reversible magnetic exchange-spring behavior.However as the thickness of soft layer increases,there appears a crossover point tc,after which the process becomes irreversible.There occurs also a critical interfacial exchange constant Acsh,above which the exchange-spring process is reversible.When AshAcsh,the irreversible exchange-spring process is realized.The phase diagrams of reversible and irreversible exchange-spring

  16. Rates of mass gain and energy deposition in red knot on their final spring staging site is both time- and condition-dependent

    Atkinson, Philip W.; Baker, Allan J.; Bennett, Karen A.; Clark, Nigel A.; Clark, Jacquie A.; Cole, Kimberly B.; Dekinga, Anne; Dey, Amanda; Gillings, Simon; Gonzalez, Patricia M.; Kalasz, Kevin; Minton, Clive D. T.; Newton, Jason; Niles, Lawrence J.; Piersma, Theunis; Robinson, Robert A.; Sitters, Humphrey P.; Stevens, Phil


    1. Millions of shorebirds migrate each year through a small number of highly productive staging areas where they often conflict with fisheries interests. Delaware Bay, USA, is a major shorebird stopover site where, in spring, many thousands of shorebirds undergo rapid mass gain by feeding on the egg

  17. Hard electronics; Hard electronics



    In the fields of power conversion devices and broadcasting/communication amplifiers, high power, high frequency and low losses are desirable. Further, for electronic elements in aerospace/aeronautical/geothermal surveys, etc., heat resistance to 500degC is required. Devices which respond to such hard specifications are called hard electronic devices. However, with Si which is at the core of the present electronics, the specifications cannot fully be fulfilled because of the restrictions arising from physical values. Accordingly, taking up new device materials/structures necessary to construct hard electronics, technologies to develop these to a level of IC were examined and studied. They are a technology to make devices/IC of new semiconductors such as SiC, diamond, etc. which can handle higher temperature, higher power and higher frequency than Si and also is possible of reducing losses, a technology to make devices of hard semiconducter materials such as a vacuum microelectronics technology using ultra-micro/high-luminance electronic emitter using negative electron affinity which diamond, etc. have, a technology to make devices of oxides which have various electric properties, etc. 321 refs., 194 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Characteristics of diurnal variation about photosynthetic physiology of spring wheat iii dryland at high altitude locality%高海拔地区旱地春小麦光合日变化特征

    马兴祥; 王润元; 杨永龙; 姚涛峰


    An experiment was conducted to measure photosynthetic elements of flag leaves and compare the charac- teristics of diurnal variation about photosynthetic physiology on various sowing dates of wheat named Longchun 8 in Wushaoling . The results show that the net photosynthetic rate and water utilization have increasing trends after pushing their sowing dates . In process of diurnal variation , the transpiration rate is less , water utilization is higher , and photo- synthetic rate is stronger in morning than in afternoon , which turns a phenomenon of photosynthetic siesta . On different sowing dates, air temperature has relationships with photosynthetic elements of spring wheat . In higher air temperature time , air temperature is negatively correlated with net photosynthetic rate and water utilization , but it has unfavorable impact if air temperature is too high . Temperature is positively correlated with transpiration rate , reflecting that the higher temperature is , the larger transpiration rate of leaves is , which has disadvantage of photosynthetic accumulation . Air humidity has positive impact on net photosynthetic rate , and the correlativity between air humidity and net photosynthetic rate has an increasing trend with pushing sowing dates . Air humidity also has positive correlations with leaf stomata trans- mitting rates, intercellular CO2 concentration and CO2 concentration . High humidity would be advantageous to increase the intercellular CO2 concentration . The effective radiation is little negatively correlated with the photosynthetic elements , which shows that the area of Wushaoling has abundant sunlight supply , and the temperature and humidity are sensitive elements in the process of photosynthesis .%测定小麦旗叶光合特性,比较乌鞘岭地区分期播种陇春8号小麦的光合生理日变化特征.结果表明:净光合速率、水分利用效率随播种期推后有增大趋势.在日变化过程中,上午

  19. Spring Tire

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.


    The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

  20. 新疆小麦品种资源籽粒性状和磨粉品质分析及评价%Analysis and Evaluation of the Grain Traits and Milling Qualities of Xinjiang Wheat Variety Resources

    相吉山; 穆培源; 桑伟; 聂迎彬; 庄丽; 徐红军; 崔凤娟; 韩新年


    .And for the overall performance of every tested traits,grain hardness,flour yield,and flour brightness were better,flour red and yellow degree were common,protein and ash content were poor.[Conclusion] In Xinjiang wheat variety resources,the main trait which caused great difference of grain traits and milling qualities was grain hardness and flour color,respectively.In general,the grain traits and milling qualities of winter wheat variety resources were better than those of spring wheat,but protein content was low,and flour yellow degree was higher.In Xinjiang high quality hand-stretched noodle breeding,the target should focus on genetic improvement of ash and protein content,and as for winter wheat more attention should be paid to flour red degree but flour yellow degree for spring wheat.In all the tested materials,grain hardness of landraces,thousand grain weight and flour yellow degree of introduced varieties,and grain diameter,ash content,and flour brightness of self-breeding varieties in winter wheat,and flour color of landraces,thousand grain weight,grain diameter,grain hardness,and flour yield of self-breeding varieties in winter wheat have high use potential in high quality breeding of Xinjiang wheat.%[目的]研究小麦品质及其遗传改良,为新疆优质及专用小麦品种选育和企业加工利用提供指导信息和选择依据.[方法1]采用AACC及国标分析方法对182个新疆小麦品种资源的4个籽粒性状、5个磨粉品质进行分析与评价.[结果]新疆小麦品种资源千粒重为41.38 g,粒径为2.47 mm,籽粒硬度为59.40,籽粒蛋白质含量为15.56%,出粉率为59.59%,灰分含量为0.48%,L*值为90.78,a*值为-0.91,b*值为9.31;其中,籽粒硬度、a*值和b*值的变异系数大,具有很好的改良潜力和利用价值.新疆冬、春小麦地方品种、引进品种、自育品种各具特色:冬小麦品种资源中,地方品种的籽粒硬度、蛋白质含量、出粉率较高,引进品种的千粒重较

  1. Beginning Spring

    Caliskan, Mert


    Get up to speed quickly with this comprehensive guide toSpring Beginning Spring is the complete beginner's guide toJava's most popular framework. Written with an eye towardreal-world enterprises, the book covers all aspects of applicationdevelopment within the Spring Framework. Extensive samples withineach chapter allow developers to get up to speed quickly byproviding concrete references for experimentation, building askillset that drives successful application development byexploiting the full capabilities of Java's latest advances. Spring provides the exact toolset required to build anent

  2. Just Spring

    Konda, Madhusudhan


    Get a concise introduction to Spring, the increasingly popular open source framework for building lightweight enterprise applications on the Java platform. This example-driven book for Java developers delves into the framework's basic features, as well as advanced concepts such as containers. You'll learn how Spring makes Java Messaging Service easier to work with, and how its support for Hibernate helps you work with data persistence and retrieval. Throughout Just Spring, you'll get your hands deep into sample code, beginning with a problem that illustrates dependency injection, Spring's co

  3. Effects of Maize Straw Mulching on Soil Physical Properties in Spring Wheat Fields%玉米秸秆覆盖对春小麦田土壤物理性状的影响

    张志贤; 文卿琳


    The field experiments were made to study the changes of soil temperature, bulk density and soil moisture content under the different mulching. The results showed that mulching and straw standing treatment dicrease soil bulk density compared with the check treatment. In sowing and tillering of spring wheat, the soil layer which the depth of 5 cm, mulching soil temperature is lowest, compared with conventional tillage low than 2.13℃ and 1.79℃; soil temperature of 15 cm was 2.36℃ and 1.90℃ lower on straw mulching than conventional tillage. Between the soil layers, the highest and lowest points of soil temperature delayed 3 hours with the deepening of soil layer. Water content of soil in the layers of 0~10 cm, the cover and pole treatment higher than conventional tillage,but in the layers of 10~20 cm, soil moisture of the cover and pole treatment lower than conventional tillage.%为了明确生物覆盖对塔里木盆地绿洲区土壤性能的影响,采用田间试验研究了玉米秸秆不同覆盖处理方式对土壤容重、温度及含水量的影响。结果表明,覆盖处理、立秆处理都较常规处理降低了土壤容重。在春小麦播种期和分蘖期,覆盖处理的5cm土层温度最低,较常规处理的分别低2.13℃和1.79℃;15 cm土层温度较常规处理的分别低2.36℃和1.90℃;土层加深10 cm土壤温度的最高点和最低点都延迟3 h出现。土壤含水量表现为0~10 cm土层立秆、覆盖处理的土壤含水量均较常规处理的高,而10~20 cm土层则表现为立秆、覆盖处理的土壤含水量均较常规处理的低。

  4. Improvement of wheat protein quality and quantity by breeding.

    Johnson, V A; Mattern, P J


    Substantial genetic, variability for grain protein content in wheat has been identified. In appropriate combinations known genes can increase protein content of wheat grain by 5 percentage points. Productive high protein experimental lines with good agronomic traits and satisfactory processing attributes have been identified. A high protein hard red winter variety developed in Nebraska was released for commercial production in 1975 under the name "Lancota". The high protein of Lancota resides entirely in the starchy endosperm portion of the kernel and is fully transmissible to white milled flour. The high protein of Lancota results from elevated NO3 reductase activity, increased N-absorption by the roots, and more complete translocation of N to the grain. Despite strong environmental influence on wheat protein level, genes for high protein have been demonstrated to effectively increase protein content in many different production environments. Lysine % of protein decreases but lysine % of grain increases as protein is increased. Genetic variability for lysine of sufficient magnitude to overcome the normal depression of lysine % of protein as protein is increased has been uncovered. Experimental lines have been developed in the ARS-Nebraska program in which genes for high protein and high lysine were combined. The lines have been widely distributed for use in other breeding programs.

  5. Registration of ‘UI Darwin’ Wheat

    ‘UI Darwin’ (PI 639953) is a hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed by the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station and released in February 2006. UI Darwin, named for English naturalist Charles Darwin, was released for selected improvements in bread quality relative to hard white wi...

  6. Spring Festival


    Spring Festival is the most important festival in China. It's to celebrate the lunar calendar's new year. In the evening before the Spring Festival, families get together and have a big meal. In many places people like to set off firecrackers. Dumplings are

  7. Lleuque-INIA, New High Yield Spring Durum Wheat Variety for Chile Lleuque-INIA, Nueva Variedad de Trigo Candeal de Primavera de Alto Potencial de Rendimiento para Chile

    Iván Matus


    Full Text Available The Lleuque-INIA spring durum wheat variety (Triticum turgidum var. durum L. originated from a cross carried out by the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, National Wheat Program, in the Centro Regional de Investigación La Platina, Santiago, Chile, in 1993. This variety has an upright growth habit in the seedling stage; the adult plant is of medium height and varies between 80 and 90 cm. The spike is medium-sized, white, and exhibits long whitish awns along its full length. The grain is large-sized, elongated, golden yellow, and vitreous. The variety was sown in mid-August in the Santa Rosa Experimental Station (36°31’ S; 71°54’ W, Chillán, head emergence occurred between 89 and 91 d after sowing, and was 6 to 8 d later than ‘Llareta-INIA’ and ‘Corcolén-INIA’. In La Platina, ‘Lleuque-INIA’ had a mean yield of 16.7 and 20.8% higher than vars. Llareta-INIA and Corcolén-INIA, respectively, whereas the yield was higher in Chillán by 10.3 and 10.1%, respectively. On the other hand, in Yungay located in the Ñuble foothills, ‘Lleuque-INIA’ yield exceeded ‘Llareta-INIA’ by 13.07% and var. Corcolén-INIA by 16.97%. In Humán, var. Lleuque-INIA yield exceeded the control vars. Llareta-INIA and Corcolén-INIA by 15.23 and 24.03%, respectively. Lleuque-INIA variety is a type of wheat with good hectoliter weight, good wet gluten content (%, and a protein value mean fluctuating between 10.47 and 12.3%.La variedad de trigo candeal (Triticum turgidum var. durum L. de primavera Lleuque-INIA proviene de un cruzamiento efectuado el año 1993 por el Programa Nacional de Trigo del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA en el Centro Regional de Investigación La Platina, Santiago, Chile. Es un trigo con hábito de crecimiento erecto al estado de plántula, la planta adulta es de altura mediana y varía entre 80 y 90 cm. La espiga es de tamaño medio, compacta, de color blanco, presenta barbas largas de color

  8. Risk Evaluation for Spring Frost Disaster of Winter Wheat in Yellow River-Huai River Regions Based on Crop Model%基于作物模型灾损识别的黄淮区域冬小麦晚霜冻风险评估

    张雪芬; 余卫东; 王春乙


    利用近50年黄淮地区54个农业气象观测站的作物观测资料和气象资料,结合人工移动式霜箱试验结果,研究了WOFOST作物模型中增加晚霜冻影响的处理技术,揭示了晚霜冻对冬小麦各生长量的影响结果。利用修改后的作物模型提取晚霜冻灾损评估技术,建立以晚霜冻的危险性、暴露性和脆弱性为风险因子的风险评估模型,开展黄淮区域晚霜冻风险评估。结果表明,黄淮区域冬小麦晚霜冻风险分布呈西高东低分布,高风险地区主要分布在黄淮区域的河南西部、西南部、西北部及东部永城、沈丘一带。其中,黄淮西部的高风险主要是由晚霜冻高灾损引起的,河南西南部的高风险是由晚霜冻的高频率引起的,其西北部和东部的高风险则是由晚霜冻的高频率和高灾损共同引起的。%The winter wheat spring frost damage mainly occurs in the Yellow River-Huai River regions.Based on the winter wheat data,the meteorological data at 54 agrometeoroligical observation stations from 1961 to 2008 and the results of frost-box experiment in the field,the technologies of spring frost disaster effect on growth of winter wheat by the WOFOST crop model are studied,and the influence of the spring frost on different growth periods of wheat is revealed.Using the technology of extracting the spring frost disaster damage from crop model,risk evaluation model is established with spring frost danger,exposure and fragility as the risk factors,and develops spring frost risk evaluation in recently 50 years in the Yellow River-Huai River regions.The results show that,the areas including western,southwestern,north western and eastern of Henan Province in Yellow River-Huai River regions are high risk,in which that high risk in western Henan is due to higher yield damage,and higher risk in southwestern Henan results from high frequency of spring frost,and higher risk in northwestern and eastern Henan is because of

  9. Distribution of sulfur in the wheat grain as shown by radioautographs

    Seidman, G.; Frazier, J.C.


    Radioautographs of sections of wheat grains in the dough stage 2 to 5 weeks after treatment with S/sup 35/ indicated appreciable quantities of S/sup 35/ concentrated in the embryo and particularly in the aleurone layer of the bran. An even distribution of low concentration occurred throughout the endosperm. The pericarp was nearly free of radioactivity. This report gives added data to show that the highest concentration of radioactive sulfur in the wheat kernel was deposited in the germ, with bran and endosperm following in order. Radioautographs obtained of longitudinal sections of wheat grains showed the gross distribution of S/sup 35/ in the grain, including a striking localization of radioactivity on the inner surface of the crease. Wheat plants used in this study were grown hydroponically in the greenhouse. The variety was Pusa 52 x Federation, a short-season hard spring wheat. Twenty millicuries of S/sup 35/ in the form of sulfate in weak HCl obtained from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory was prepared for aliquoting by diluting to 5.2 ml with distilled water. One tenth of a milliliter (385 microcuries) was added to each jar which supported three plants. Wheat grains were prepared for sectioning on a freezing microtome by embedding in gelatin. The embedded grains were sliced into longitudinal sections about 500 microns thick. The gelatin was peeled off, then the sections were held in direct contact with the photographic emulsion of Kodak No-screen X-ray film in a light-tight box for 96 hours. The film was developed using X-ray developer and fixer. 2 references, 1 figure.

  10. Eat Wheat!

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    This pamphlet contains puzzles, games, and a recipe designed to teach elementary school pupils about wheat. It includes word games based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and on foods made from wheat. The Food Guide Pyramid can be cut out of the pamphlet and assembled as a three-dimensional information source and food guide.…

  11. 花后水分胁迫对春小麦淀粉形成及相关酶活性的影响%Effects of water stress after anthesis on starch formation and the activity of associated enzyme in spring wheat

    李亚婷; 康建宏; 吴宏亮; 李昱; 姚珊


    近年来,气候变化导致农田干旱与渍水频繁发生.研究花后水分胁迫对春小麦(Triticum aestivum)淀粉形成的影响,对栽培稳产优质的春小麦品种具有重要意义.本研究以宁夏平原主栽春小麦宁春4号和宁春47号为试材,采用盆栽种植,人工控制土壤含水量,设置重度干旱、轻度干旱、正常处理和过度灌溉4个试验梯度.结果表明,花后干旱显著(P<0.05)提高了宁春4号灌浆前期籽粒中直链淀粉含量,显著降低了两种春小麦灌浆中后期直链、支链淀粉含量,最终使收获期籽粒中总淀粉含量显著降低.与籽粒中淀粉形成相关的4种关键酶,AGPP、UGPP、SBE及 SSS活性在整个灌浆期均呈单峰曲线,两种春小麦灌浆中后期受花后水分胁迫显著降低了酶活性,两种春小麦的直链淀粉积累速率与 SSS活性活性均呈极显著正相关(P<0.01).%Recently,frequent drought and waterlogging due to climate change caused severe yield loss in spring wheat.The research about the effects of water stress after anthesis on starch formation had great importance for cultivation of spring wheat with stable production and high quality.In the present study,two spring wheat varieties Ningchun 4 and Ningchun 47 which were domain varieties in Ningxia province were selected as materi-al.Four different soil moisture treatments including heavy drought,light drought,normal and water logging were performed by manipulating the post-anthesis soil moisture in pots.The results showed that post-anthesis drought significantly increased (P<0.05)the grain starch content during the earlier filling stage and signifi-cantly reduced (P<0.05)the amylose and amylopectin content during the mid and late filing stage so that sig-nificantly reduced (P<0.05)the total starch content during the late filing stage.The activities of four key en-zymes associated with starch formation,AGPP (ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase),UGPP (UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase

  12. 模拟增温对春小麦生长发育、根区土壤呼吸速率及酶活性的影响%Effects of Simulated Enhancement of Temperature on Growth and Root Soil Respiration Rate and Enzyme Activity of Spring Wheat



    The small scale temperature enhancement experiment was simulated with open-top chamber ( OTC) in two years,and the response of temperature enhancement on growth and root soil respiration rate and enzyme activity of spring wheat was studied,so as to reveal the spring wheat response mechanism to global climate change and provide scientific basis for the spring wheat cultivation with high yield and good quality under the background of global climate change. The results showed that at the mature stage,the contents of chlorophyll a,b,carbohydrate,protein,crude protein,crude fat,crude fiber,crude ash,nitrogen free extract,and the plant height,stem diameter,leaf area index,specific leaf weight,grains per ear and 1000-seed weight presented OTC >CK ( without temperature enhancement ) . The simulated temperature enhancement increased the soil respiration rate and soil enzyme activities at the growth stage of spring wheat. There were significant exponential relationship between soil respiration rate and enzyme activities and soil temperature. To sum up,enhancement of temperature was beneficial to improve the growth and root soil respiration rate and enzyme activity of spring wheat.%采用开顶式生长室连续2a小尺度的模拟增温,同步监测模拟增温对春小麦生长发育、根区土壤呼吸速率及酶活性的影响,以期揭示春小麦对全球气候变化的响应机制,为实现全球气候变化背景下春小麦高产优质栽培提供科学依据和理论基础.结果表明:成熟期春小麦株高、茎粗、叶面积指数、比叶重、穗粒数和千粒质量均表现为模拟增温处理>未增温处理,并且模拟增温提高了成熟期叶片叶绿素a、叶绿素b、碳水化合物、蛋白质及粗蛋白、粗脂肪、粗纤维、粗灰分、无氮浸出物含量.模拟增温增加了生长期春小麦根区土壤呼吸速率和酶活性,土壤呼吸速率和酶活性均与土壤温度呈极显著的指数关系.综上,模拟增温促进了

  13. Use of fuzzy chromatography mass spectrometric (FCMS) fingerprinting and chemometric analysis for differentiation of whole-grain and refined wheat (T. aestivum) flour.

    Geng, Ping; Zhang, Mengliang; Harnly, James M; Luthria, Devanand L; Chen, Pei


    A fuzzy chromatography mass spectrometric (FCMS) fingerprinting method combined with chemometric analysis has been established for rapid discrimination of whole-grain flour (WF) from refined wheat flour (RF). Bran, germ, endosperm, and WF from three local cultivars or purchased from a grocery store were studied. The state of refinement (whole vs. refined) of wheat flour was differentiated successfully by use of principal-components analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), despite potential confounding introduced by wheat class (red vs. white; hard vs. soft) or resources (different brands). Twelve discriminatory variables were putatively identified. Among these, dihexoside, trihexoside, apigenin glycosides, and citric acid had the highest peak intensity for germ. Variable line plots indicated phospholipids were more abundant in endosperm. Samples of RF and WF from three cultivars (Hard Red, Hard White, and Soft White) were physically mixed to furnish 20, 40, 60, and 80 % WF of each cultivar. SIMCA was able to discriminate between 100 %, 80 %, 60 %, 40 %, and 20 % WF and 100 % RF. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression was used for prediction of RF-to-WF ratios in the mixed samples. When PLS models were used the relative prediction errors for RF-to-WF ratios were less than 6 %. Graphical Abstract Workflow of targeting discriminatory compounds by use of FCMS and chemometric analysis.

  14. The influence of soft kernel texture on the flour, water absorption, rheology, and baking quality of durum wheat

    Durum (T. turgidum subsp. durum) wheat production worldwide is substantially less than that of common wheat (Triticum aestivum). Durum kernels are extremely hard; leading to most durum wheat being milled into semolina. Durum wheat production is limited in part due to the relatively limited end-user ...

  15. Examination of spectral pretreatments for partial least-squares calibrations for chemical and physical properties of wheat.

    Delwiche, Stephen R; Graybosch, Robert A


    Use of near-infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance on ground wheat meal for prediction of protein content is a well-accepted practice. Although protein content has a strong bearing on the suitability of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for processed foods, wheat quality, as largely influenced by the configuration and conformation of the monomeric and polymeric endosperm storage proteins, is also of great importance to the food industry. The measurement of quality by NIR, however, has been much less successful. The present study examines the effects and trends of applying mathematical transformations (pretreatments) to NIR spectral data before partial least-squares (PLS) regression. Running mean smooths, Savitzky-Golay second derivatives, multiplicative scatter correction, and standard normal variate transformation, with and without detrending, were systematically applied to an extensive set of hard red winter wheat and hard white wheat grown over two seasons. The studied properties were protein content, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sedimentation volume, number of hours during grain fill at temperature 32 degrees C. The size of the convolution window used to perform a smooth or second derivative was also examined. The results indicate that for easily modeled properties such as protein content, the importance of pretreatment was lessened, whereas for the more difficult-to-model properties, such as SDS sedimentation volume, wide-window (>20 points) smooth or derivative convolutions were important in maximizing calibration performance. By averaging 30 PLS cross-validation trial statistics (standard error) for each property, we were able to ascertain the inherent modeling ability of each wheat property.

  16. Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Bread and Durum Wheat Using Freshly Isolated Immature Embryos

    Wu, Huixia; Doherty, Angela; Jones, Huw D.

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of wheat is becoming a viable alternative to the more established biolistic protocols. It offers advantages in terms of simple, low-copy-number integrations and can be applied with similar efficiencies to specific durum wheat and spring and winter bread wheat types varieties.

  17. Path Through the Wheat

    David Middleton


    Full Text Available The hillside’s tidal waves of yellow-green Break downward into full-grown stalks of wheat In which a peasant, shouldering his hoe Passes along a snaking narrow path -- A teeming place through which his hard thighs press And where his head just barely stays above The swaying grain, drunken in abundance, Farm buildings almost floating on the swells Beyond which sea gulls gliding white in air Fly down on out of sight to salty fields, Taking the channel fish off Normandy, A surfeit fit for Eden i...

  18. Tritium in the food chain. Comparison of predicted and observed behaviour. A: Re-emission from soil and vegetation. B: Formation of organically bound tritium in grain of spring wheat

    Davis, P. [AECL, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Strack, S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Barry, P. [PJS Barry, (Canada)] [and others


    equation are increasingly invalid. Below a flux of 0.04 g m{sup -2} s{sup -1} models increasingly overpredict, nevertheless at the lowest measured flux, about 0.01 g m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, the overprediction was less than a factor of 4. Tritium fluxes were overpredicted by a factor of between 2 and 3 but this was partially explained by a possible underestimate of the observed value. The second major source of uncertainty arising during work for TR8 was the comparative uptake of HTO by plants and subsequent conversion to OBT in light or dark conditions. Two experiments were carried out at FZK in Germany and the information obtained was used as the basis for the model test exercise Scenario V3.0. The experiments involved exposing spring wheat plants after anthesis to air containing HTO vapour in a growth chamber either with light or with dark conditions. Tissue water tritium concentrations in leaves were measured in samples taken from the chamber two hours after exposure and then OBT concentrations were measured in grain at harvest time 30 days later. Modelers, were provided with the hourly averaged HTO concentrations in air, air temperatures and humidities, radiation information, the history of the plant growth before and after exposure, and the herbage densities of the plants. They were then required to predict the OBT concentrations in grain at harvest. The primary purposes of this scenario were to find out if HTO still enters plant leaves when leaf stomata close at night and, if HTO is present in leaves, whether it can still become incorporated into OBT in the dark. The results were quite clear - HTO does enter plants at night and OBT does continue to be formed in the dark. Models which excluded both processes therefore do not provide the correct predictions when exposures occur at night. Values of the transfer parameters were evaluated from the experimental results. The velocity of deposition was estimated to be 16 - 23 10{sup -3} m s{sup -1} and 3 - 4 10{sup -3} m s

  19. The pangenome of hexaploid bread wheat.

    Montenegro, Juan D; Golicz, Agnieszka A; Bayer, Philipp E; Hurgobin, Bhavna; Lee, HueyTyng; Chan, Chon-Kit Kenneth; Visendi, Paul; Lai, Kaitao; Doležel, Jaroslav; Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David


    There is an increasing understanding that gene presence absence variation plays an important role in the heritability of agronomic traits, however there have been relatively few studies on gene presence absence variation in crop species. Hexaploid wheat is one of the most important food crops in the world and intensive breeding has reduced the genetic diversity of elite cultivars. Major efforts have produced draft genome assemblies for the cultivar Chinese Spring, but it is unknown how well this represents the genome diversity found in current modern elite cultivars. In this study we build an improved reference for Chinese Spring and explore gene diversity across 18 wheat cultivars. We predict a pangenome size of 140,500 +/- 102 genes, a core genome of 81,070 +/- 1,631 genes, and an average of 128,656 genes in each cultivar. Functional annotation of the variable gene set suggests that it is enriched for genes that may be associated with important agronomic traits. In addition to gene presence variation, more than 36 million intervarietal SNPs were identified across the pangenome. This study of the wheat pangenome provides insight into elite wheat genome diversity as a basis for genomics based improvement of this important crop. A wheat pangenome Gbrowse is available at, and data is available for download from This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Lower Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Anhydrous Ammonia Application Prior to Soil Freezing in Late Fall Than Spring Pre-Plant Application.

    Tenuta, Mario; Gao, Xiaopeng; Flaten, Donald N; Amiro, Brian D


    Fall application of anhydrous ammonia in Manitoba is common but its impact on nitrous oxide (NO) emissions is not well known. A 2-yr study compared application before freeze-up in late fall to spring pre-plant application of anhydrous ammonia on nitrous oxide (NO) emissions from a clay soil in the Red River Valley, Manitoba. Spring wheat ( L.) and corn ( L.) were grown on two 4-ha fields in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Field-scale flux of NO was measured using a flux-gradient micrometeorological approach. Late fall treatment did not induce NO emissions soon after application or in winter likely because soil was frozen. Application time did alter the temporal pattern of emissions with late fall and spring pre-plant applications significantly increasing median daily NO flux at spring thaw and early crop growing season, respectively. The majority of emissions occurred in early growing season resulting in cumulative emissions for the crop year being numerically 33% less for late fall than spring pre-plant application. Poor yield in the first year with late fall treatment occurred because of weed and volunteer growth with delayed planting. Results show late fall application of anhydrous ammonia before freeze-up increased NO emissions at thaw and decreased emissions for the early growing season compared to spring pre-plant application. However, improved nitrogen availability of late fall application to crops the following year is required when planting is delayed because of excessive moisture in spring.

  1. Large scale patterns of antimicrofouling defenses in the hard coral Pocillopora verrucosa in an environmental gradient along the Saudi Arabian coast of the Red Sea.

    Martin Wahl

    Full Text Available Large scale patterns of ecologically relevant traits may help identify drivers of their variability and conditions beneficial or adverse to the expression of these traits. Antimicrofouling defenses in scleractinian corals regulate the establishment of the associated biofilm as well as the risks of infection. The Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast features a pronounced thermal and nutritional gradient including regions and seasons with potentially stressful conditions to corals. Assessing the patterns of antimicrofouling defenses across the Red Sea may hint at the susceptibility of corals to global change. We investigated microfouling pressure as well as the relative strength of 2 alternative antimicrofouling defenses (chemical antisettlement activity, mucus release along the pronounced environmental gradient along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast in 2 successive years. Microfouling pressure was exceptionally low along most of the coast but sharply increased at the southernmost sites. Mucus release correlated with temperature. Chemical defense tended to anti-correlate with mucus release. As a result, the combined action of mucus release and chemical antimicrofouling defense seemed to warrant sufficient defense against microbes along the entire coast. In the future, however, we expect enhanced energetic strain on corals when warming and/or eutrophication lead to higher bacterial fouling pressure and a shift towards putatively more costly defense by mucus release.

  2. Quantum Spring

    Feng, Chao-Jun; Li, Xin-Zhou

    In this paper, we will give a short review on quantum spring, which is a Casimir effect from the helix boundary condition that proposed in our earlier works. The Casimir force parallel to the axis of the helix behaves very much like the force on a spring that obeys the Hooke's law when the ratio r of the pitch to the circumference of the helix is small, but in this case, the force comes from a quantum effect, so we would like to call it quantum spring. On the other hand, the force perpendicular to the axis decreases monotonously with the increasing of the ratio r. Both forces are attractive and their behaviors are the same in two and three dimensions.

  3. Wheat Landrace Genome Diversity.

    Wingen, Luzie U; West, Claire; Leverington-Waite, Michelle; Collier, Sarah; Orford, Simon; Goram, Richard; Yang, Cai-Yun; King, Julie; Allen, Alexandra M; Burridge, Amanda; Edwards, Keith J; Griffiths, Simon


    Understanding the genomic complexity of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a cornerstone in the quest to unravel the processes of domestication and the following adaptation of domesticated wheat to a wide variety of environments across the globe. Additionally, it is of importance for future improvement of the crop, particularly in the light of climate change. Focussing on the adaptation after domestication, a nested association mapping (NAM) panel of 60 segregating bi-parental populations were developed mainly involving landrace accessions from the core set of the Watkins hexaploid wheat collection optimized for genetic diversity (WINGEN et al. 2014). A modern spring elite variety, 'Paragon,' was used as common reference parent. Genetic maps were constructed following identical rules to make them comparable. In total, 1,611 linkage groups were identified, based on recombination from an estimated 126,300 crossover events over the whole NAM panel. A consensus map, named landrace consensus map (LRC) was constructed and contained 2,498 genetic loci. These newly developed genetics tools were used to investigate the rules underlying genome fluidity or rigidity, e.g. by comparing at marker distances and marker orders. In general, marker order was highly correlated, which provides support for strong synteny between bread wheat accessions. However, many exceptional cases of incongruent linkage groups and increased marker distances were also found. Segregation distortion was detected for many markers, sometimes as hot-spots present in different populations. Furthermore, evidence for translocations in at least 36 of the maps was found. These translocations fell, in general, into many different translocation classes, but a few translocation classes were found in several accessions, the most frequent one being the well known T5B:7B translocation. Loci involved in recombination rate, which is an interesting trait for plant breeding, were identified by QTL analyses using the

  4. Spring Festival Celebrations inside the High Walls——How the prison inmates celebrate Spring Festival in Henan



    @@ All the prisons in Henan put on a festive atmosphere as the Spring Festival approached.The red lanterns, colorful door couplets, beautiful China knots, New Year's paintings and the big red giant character "福", meaning happiness were seen everywhere.

  5. Effects of Whole Field Soil-Plastic Mulching on Spring Wheat Water Consumption, Yield, and Soil Water Balance in Semiarid Region%旱地全膜覆土穴播对春小麦耗水、产量和土壤水分平衡的影响

    侯慧芝; 吕军峰; 郭天文; 张国平; 董博; 张绪成


    [Objective]The main limiting factors which affect spring wheat productivity on Northwest Loess Plateau are drought, rainfall dynamics could not meet spring wheat water needs, and low temperature in spring. How to conserve the rainwater in soil efficiently, and use it at the spring wheat growth stage, is the most important method to increase spring wheat yield in this area. The aim of the study is to reveal the effect of whole field soil plastic mulching (i.e. the whole soil surface firstly mulched by plastic, and then spread around 1cm thick soil on plastic surface) on spring wheat seasonal water consumption, yield, water use efficiency and the soil water recharge in fallow period, further to assess its effect on inter annual soil water balance in semiarid region on Northwest Loess Plateau. [Method]The spring wheat (Triticum aestivum Lunchun 27) selected as test material, a field experiment was conducted from 2011 to 2013 on the Dingxi Experimental Station of Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences (104°36′E, 35°35′N) , which located on northwest Loess plateau. The designed three treatments are whole field soil plastic mulching and bunch seeded (FMS), whole field mulching and bunch seeded (FM), and uncovered and bunch seeded (CK). The seasonal soil water content, spring wheat biomass, yield and spring wheat yield components were recorded, as well as the rainwater fallow efficiency, evapotranspiration, water use efficiency, harvest index, and reproduction allocation index were calculated.[Result]The evapotranspiration among the three treatments were not differed significantly in 2011 and 2012, but the evapotranspiration of FMS was significantly higher than CK in 2013. From seeding to jointing stage, the FMS and FM significantly increased spring wheat evapotranspiration by 27.2%and 9.6%in dry year, 52.2%and 44.6%in wet year, respectively, as compared with CK. The evapotranspiration of FMS and FM was not significantly different at each spring wheat growth stage

  6. 赤腹松鼠春季生境选择初步分析%Preliminary Analysis on the Habitat Select of Red Bellied Tree Squirrel in Spring



    Habitat select of the red bellied tree squirrel(Callosciurus flavimanus)was investigated in Long Yangtze Riverside Guangxi from February to May 2009.Thirteen ecological factors ( Canopy density.Water distance, Slope, Shelter of wind, Aspect, Slope position, Elevation, Tree density, Shrub density, Distance of tree, Distance of Shrub, Distance to human disturbance,Food abundant) were recorded in each of 10 m × 10 m plots of 101 samples, including 57 used and 44 unused samples.The data thus collected were analyzed with frequency analysis, Mann-Whitney U and Principle Component Analysis.The results showed that shelter of wind, slope, slope position, distance of shrubs, altitude, distance to human disturbance, distance of tree, water distance, tree density, shrub density and aspect ( P > 0.05 ) had no influence, but canopy density and food richness (P <0.05) affected the habitat select of red bellied tree squirrel.Results of principal component analysis showed that the first 5 principal components explained 78.285% of the total variance among all habitat variables.According to the absolute value of the coefficient, the 5 components were classified separately as hidden factor (canopy density, shelter of wind, slope, slope position and distance of shrubs) 26.31% , interference factors (altitude,distance to human disturbance and distance of tree) 21.01%, water factor (water distance, tree density and shrub density) 13.44% , the food factors (food richness) 8.91% and geographic factors (aspect) 8.61%.%2009年2-5月,对广西龙江河畔赤腹松鼠(Calloseiurus flavimanus)的春季生境选择进行研究.共测量了101个样方.其中利用样方57个,未利用样方44个.频次分析和Mann-Whitney U检验结果表明:避风性、坡度、坡位、灌木距离、海拔、人为干扰距离、乔木距离、水源距离、乔木密度、灌木密度、坡向对生境选择无影响(P>0.05),郁闭度、食物丰富度对生境选择有影响(P<0.05).主

  7. Influence of soft kernel texture on the flour and baking quality of durum wheat

    Durum wheat is predominantly grown in semi-arid to arid environments where common wheat does not flourish, especially in the Middle East, North Africa, Mediterranean Basin, and portions of North America. Durum kernels are extraordinarily hard when compared to their common wheat counterparts. Due to ...


    Watson Munyanyi


    Full Text Available The bread waste is one of the important socio-economic's issues country now, the urgent need is feeling to improve the wheat quality. Therefore, using the methods of farming and breeding is necessary to improve the quality of this strategic product. As a result, tests of quality's traits in wheat promising lines in Isfahan climate took place. In this study, the choice 17 advanced lines of compare the performances,s experiments, an experiment was conducted for two consecutive cropping (2011-2012 at cultural experiment and research centre in Isfahan located in Kabutar Abad region. Randomized complete block designs with 3 replications were compared with Spring variety (for control. Traits including: 1000 grain weight, hectolitre weight, protein content, Zeleny sedimentation rate, bread volume, grain moisture content, grain hardness, water absorption, falling number, percentage of dry gluten, gluten index, sedimentation rates were SDS.The results of the combined analysis of variance qualitative characteristics,s for two consecutive cropping showed that treatments with compare together and control variety had significant influence in 1% probability.Correlation coefficients of two years showed that the compound test significant positive correlation within grain hardness index and protein content, wet gluten and dry deposition rates of SDS. Also, significant positive correlation with the percentage of protein content of dry gluten. In view of the high correlation with protein content of dry gluten (quantity. However, grain hardness and relatively high correlation with SDS sedimentation as an important measure of protein quality. Therefore, the test results of dry gluten grains can be tough to choose in order to improve the quality of wheat bread may be used.

  9. The content of dietary fiber, amino acids, dihydroxyphenols and some macro- and micronutrients in grain of conventionally and organically grown common wheat, spelt wheat and proso millet

    Cezary A Kwiatkowski


    Full Text Available The effects of conventional and organic farming system on some quality parameters of grains were studied in winter and spring common wheat, spelt wheat and proso millet. Under organic farming conditions, spelt wheat was characterized by the most favorable grain chemical composition (essential amino acids index [EAAI] 85.3, o-dihydroxyphenol 2.00 g kg-1, nitrogen [N] 23.5 g kg-1, magnesium [Mg] 705, zinc [Zn] 32.9 mg kg-1, followed by millet (total dietary fiber [TDF] 185.3 g kg-1, Mg 904, copper [Cu] 6.27, iron [Fe] 57.0 mg kg-1. The above-mentioned cereals also showed a satisfactory yield level under the organic system (spelt wheat 2.69, proso millet 1.42 t ha-1. Both in winter and spring common wheat organic farming led a significant reduction in productivity, but the content of chemical components in grain (dihydroxyphenols—spring wheat 1.68 g kg-1, winter wheat 1.74 g kg-1; selenium [Se]—spring wheat 53.4 mg kg-1, winter wheat 40.5 mg kg-1; some amino acids—spring wheat valine [Val] 5.11, methionine [Met] 2.09, tryptophan [Trp] 0.40 g kg-1, winter wheat glutamate [Glu] 41.9, proline [Pro] 15.3, glysine [Gly] 5.24, arginine [Arg] 5.04, [Trp] 0.97 g kg-1 was more favorable compared to the conventional system. The present study showed that the organic farming system does not result in reduced productivity neither in spelt wheat or proso millet, but contributes to an improvement in their grain quality parameters. On the other hand, common wheat performed better under the conventional system.

  10. 粉煤灰对加工番茄生长与养分吸收的影响及对春小麦残效研究%Effect of Coal Fly Ash on Plant Growth and Nutrient Uptake in Processing Tomato and Its Residual Effect on Spring Wheat

    李志强; 梁永超; 褚贵新; 冶军; 张波; 刘倩


    [目的]揭示石灰性土壤施用碱性粉煤灰与作物生长和元素吸收的关系.[方法]分别以加工番茄和春小麦为材料,采用盆栽试验研究干旱区灌耕灰漠土施用粉煤灰对加工番茄生长及养分吸收的影响,并以春小麦为二茬作物研究粉煤灰的残效作用.[结果]施用粉煤灰可以增加加工番茄地上部干物质量,同时增加花期叶片氮含量,减少茎秆和叶片磷含量;但是增加收获期叶片氮、磷、钾的含量.同时施用粉煤灰增加加工番茄花期茎秆、叶片和植株整体的氮、钾的积累量,而减少加工番茄茎秆、叶片和植株整体磷的积累量;施用粉煤灰增加加工番茄收获期茎秆、叶片和植株的氮、磷、钾的积累量.残效试验表明,与对照相比,粉煤灰残效显著提高春小麦地上部干物质量,减少春小麦花期茎秆和叶片氮、磷、钾含量;22.50t/hm2粉煤灰残效增加春小麦收获期茎秆和叶片的氮、磷、钾含量.粉煤灰残效增加春小麦花期茎秆、叶片和植株氮和钾积累量和叶片、植株磷的积累量;增加春小麦收获期茎秆,叶片和植株氮、磷、钾积累量.粉煤灰及其残效作用增加土壤pH值和电导率.[结论]使用粉煤灰可以增加收获期加工番茄和春小麦地上部干物质积累量和氮、磷、钾积累量,同时增加土壤pH值和电导率.%[Objective]The objective of the present study is to elucidate nutrient uptake in processing tomato and the residual effect of fly ash on spring wheat grown in a gray desert soil in an arid region - Xinjiang. [Method] Pot experiments were conducted with processing tomato as the first crop and spring wheat as the second crop to study the effect of coal fly ash applied at different rates on plant growth and nutrient uptake . [ Result]The results showed that application of coal fly ash could increase the shoot dry weight of processing tomato, and the foliar N content,but decreased the foliar and

  11. 河北低平原区春玉米一熟替代麦玉两熟制的水生态与粮食安全分析%Security of water-ecology and food under replacement of winter wheat-summer maize rotation with spring maize mono-cropping in Hebei Lowland Plains

    闫鹏; 陈源泉; 张学鹏; 陶志强; 杨肖蕾; 隋鹏


    AbstractHebei Lowland Plains, one of the main grain producing areas in China, has an acute water shortage. To ensure sustainable development in the plains, strategies are needed to manage the water shortage and obtain high crop yield in the region. In terms of water-saving and high-yield farming systems for the region, spring maize mono-cropping has shown to be a promising alternative to the traditional winter wheat-summer maize double-cropping system. A comprehensive comparison between the effects of the winter wheat-summer maize rotation and the spring maize mono-cropping on water ecological security and food security in the study area under different yield levels has not yet been tested. Thus, field experiments were conducted at Wuqiao Experiment Station of China Agricultural University in the Hebei Lowland Plains in 2011–2014 to determine the feasibility of replacing traditional high irrigation costs of the winter wheat-summer maize double-cropping rotation system with the spring maize mono-cropping system. The three treatments implemented in the experiment included a winter wheat and summer maize double-cropping rotation (WS), a rain-fed spring maize mono-cropping system (SMRF) and a fully-irrigated spring maize mono-cropping system (SMSW) — in which treatment WS was used as the control (CK). Four main factors were evaluated — actual annual evapotranspiration (ETa), productivity, water use efficiency (WUE), economic benefit and economic water use efficiency (EWUE) — that influenced the performance of the three treatments. Results showed that averageannual ETawas highest under WS, followed by SMSW and SMRF. Average annual ETa under SMSW and SMRF decreased by 48.4% and 54.2%, respectively, compared with WS. Under WS cropping system, precipitation accounted for only 32.9% of total water consumption by winter wheat during the three-year experimentation period, while irrigation and soil water were the two main water sources of winter wheat. Adversely

  12. Useful genetic sources of economic importance and their utlization in wheat-breeding programs in Pakistan.

    Qureshi, S A

    Wheat breeders the world over have been utilizing genetic sources to tailor the varieties to meet ever-changing requirements. In the late 1940s Dr. Borlaug at CIMMYT recognized that further increase in yield would be possible only if lodging in the existing wheat varieties could be avoided, for which he began to look for a suitable source for dwarfness. The Japanese had developed semidwarf Norin strains through a series of crosses involving a local line, Daruma; American soft red winter variety, Fultz; and American hard red winter variety, Turkey Red. One of the Norin strains, Norin-10, was used in the breeding programs, first in Italy and then in the United States where Dr. Orville Vogel developed two to three semidwarf varieties. In 1953 Dr. Vogel supplied some F2 seeds of Norin-10 Brevor to the CIMMYT program in Mexico, where this source was employed extensively in the breeding rogram; a large number of varieties were developed, some of which worth mentioning are Pitic, Penjamo, Lerma, Sonora, Inia, Tobari, and Siete Cerros.

  13. Pushing Wheat

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    This paper documents the evolution of variables central to understanding the creation of an Atlantic Economy in wheat between the US and the UK in the nineteenth century. The cointegrated VAR model is then applied to the period 1838-1913 in order to find long-run relationships between these varia......This paper documents the evolution of variables central to understanding the creation of an Atlantic Economy in wheat between the US and the UK in the nineteenth century. The cointegrated VAR model is then applied to the period 1838-1913 in order to find long-run relationships between...

  14. The SPARSE model for the prediction of water stress and evapotranspiration components from thermal infra-red data and its evaluation over irrigated and rainfed wheat

    G. Boulet


    -limited soil evaporation against in-situ data over contrasted test sites (irrigated and rainfed wheat. We demonstrated with those two datasets that the series model is more robust to component stress retrieval for this cover type, that its performance increases by using bounding relationships based on potential conditions (root mean square error lowered by up to 11 W m-2 from values of the order of 50–80 W m-2, and that soil evaporation retrieval is globally consistent with an independent estimate from observed soil moisture evolution.


    Yu Yan


    At the tail of the Chinese Lunar New Year,the whole country is still immersed in gaiety.The joyous atmosphere lingers in the red lanterns along the streets,in the colorful candy wrappers,and in the brilliant folk art performances.

  16. Regulation of whole field soil-plastic mulching with bunch planting and whole field sand mulching with flat planting on soil moisture and yield of spring wheat in semiarid dryland areas%旱地全膜覆土穴播和全沙覆盖平作对小麦田土壤水分和产量的调节机理

    宋婷; 王红丽; 陈年来; 张绪成


    Whole field soil-plastic mulching with bunch planting is a firstly spreading wheat cultivation technique in Gansu Province. Domestic studies have shown significant increases in yields of wheat, flax and other crops under this cultivation mode. Previous researches mainly focused on the cultivation techniques and yield effects, with little documentation of the mechanism of yield increase. To address this knowledge gap, field experiments were conducted to explore the regulation of whole field soil-plastic mulching with bunch planting (PM) and whole field sand mulching with flat planting (SM) on soil moisture content and yield of spring wheat in semiarid dryland areas. The results showed that compared to uncovered and flat planting (CK), PM and SM significantly improved soil moisture conditions in the 0-40 cm soil layer. This was especially noticeable in dry years, which supported early growth of wheat by enhancing water use in the 0-200 cm soil layer after wheat emergence. The maximum soil water used by wheat under PM was from 60-80 cm and that under both SM and CK was from 40-60 cm in the first year (median water year) of wheat cultivation. In the second year (less water year) of cultivation, the maximum soil water used under PM was from 120-180 cm and that under both SM and CK was from 60-80 cm. After two years of continuous cultivation, the depth of used water under PM increased from 120 cm to 200 cm, that under SM increased from 120 cm to 140 cm and that under CK remained unchanged. Leisure efficiency of PM was the highest, followed by SM and then CK. Leisure efficiency of each treatment decreased with increasing years of wheat cultivation. In summary, PM and SM improved the moisture environment of the soil in early wheat growth period, promoted water use after wheat emergence and accelerated the use of deep soil moisture. Compared with CK, PM and SM increased wheat yield by 48.77%-815.79% and 49.41%-702.24%, respectively. But with increasing years of cultivation

  17. Stomatal or non-stomatal limitation of photosynthesis of spring wheat flag leaf at late growth stages under natural conditions in semiarid rainfed regions%自然条件下半干旱雨养春小麦生育后期旗叶光合的气孔和非气孔限制

    杨泽粟; 张强; 郝小翠


    为探究半干旱地区雨养春小麦旗叶的光合作用限制因素、不同生育期差异及其适应策略,分析了大田条件下春小麦旗叶在抽穗期和灌浆期光合生理特征的动态变化规律,探讨了自然条件下光合作用的气孔与非气孔限制特征。结果表明:净光合速率日变化趋势在抽穗期和灌浆期分别为单峰型和双峰型,峰值相当,为18.5µmol(CO2)·m−2·s−1左右。气孔导度具有与净光合作用几乎相似的日变化规律,胞间 CO2浓度大致为上午下降、下午回升。胞间CO2浓度变化除受光合作用消耗和气孔限制共同作用外,下午时段叶肉导度增大,也影响胞间CO2浓度变化。在抽穗期和灌浆期,春小麦旗叶光合作用速率与气孔导度相关性十分显著,相关系数分别达0.916(P=0.000)和0.945(P=0.000)。并且2个生育期均出现明显的光合气孔限制,抽穗期达0.64,灌浆期为0.53。其中,抽穗期气孔导度对饱和水汽压差响应十分敏感,下午出现较为明显的气孔限制;灌浆期中午出现较为明显的光合“午休”现象,其主要原因是半干旱区较大饱和水汽压差和强烈辐射致使气孔关闭,气孔限制达到极大值,并且非气孔限制因素也较为突出。抽穗期至灌浆期,由于气孔对饱和水汽压差敏感性的下降以及“午休”策略,光合气孔限制逐渐减小,是春小麦在半干旱地区维持较高光合速率和保证产量的重要自适应机制。%Rainfed agriculture is a critical production mode in arid and semiarid regions, which accounts for 30% of the earth’s surface. Spring wheat is one of the main crops in the semiarid region of the Loess Plateau in China. It is therefore important to investigate the photosynthetic characteristics of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the semiarid region of the Loess Plateau. Previous studies have mainly focused on the responses of photosynthesis to environmental factors, with few

  18. Effect of the Amount and Particle Size of Wheat Fiber on the Physicochemical Properties and Gel Morphology of Starches.

    Sun, Qingjie; Wu, Min; Bu, Xianghui; Xiong, Liu


    Effects of added wheat fiber, with different levels and particle sizes, on the physicochemical properties and gel morphology of wheat starch and mung bean starch were investigated, using rapid visco analyzer (RVA), texture analyzer (TPA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Each starch was added with wheat fiber at 10, 20, 30 and 40% (weight basis, g/100g), and different sizes of 60, 100 and 180 mesh, respectively. The peak viscosity (PV) of starches with wheat fiber were higher than the control. Starches had the highest PV with 40%, 60 mesh wheat fiber. The starches with wheat fiber showed higher hardness when compared to the control. Wheat starch and mung bean starch, with 40%, 60 mesh wheat fiber, had the highest hardnesses of 147.78 and 1032.11 g, respectively. SEM showed that the dense honeycomb structure of starch gel was diminished with increasing wheat fiber. Additionally, the number of internal pores was reduced, and a large lamellar structure was formed.

  19. 中国春小麦品种籽粒硬度等位变异的STS检测%Detection of Allelic Variation for Grain Hardness in Chinese Spring Wheat by STS Marker

    郭世华; 何中虎; 夏兰芹; 王洪刚; 张庆祝


    籽粒硬度是重要的小麦品质性状.采用单籽粒硬度仪(SKCS)和STS标记对春麦区主要推广品种和品系55份进行了籽粒硬度和Puroindoline等位变异类型检测,结果表明,全国春麦品种61.8%为硬质类型,混合和软质品种频率较低,分别为25.5%和12.7%,SKCS硬度指数分布范围为11~84.共检测到6种Puroindoline基因类型,其中Pinb-D1b 分布范围最广,出现在29个品种(系)中;Pina-D1b有2份,Pinb-D1a为7份,Pinb-D1c、Pinb-D1d和Pinb-D1e分别为1、13和3份.Pinb-D1a(野生型)硬度低于突变型,差异达1%显著水平,Pinb-D1b和Pina-D1d无显著性差异.

  20. Wheat Generation Adding in Xundian County of Yunnan Province in Summer

    Kong Zhi-you; Liu Ye-ju; Qin Peng


    Local climate conditions and sowing time are very important to the vernalization and summer reproduction of the wheat. Xundian County is located in Yunnan Province of China, at latitude 25.56° north and longitude 103.25° east. Xundian County is situated 1 873 m above sea level, and is conducive for the summer reproduction of the wheat. To investigate the optimal sowing time, 11 spring wheat cultivars and one semi-winter wheat cultivar were sown 10 times at an interval of five days from May 26, 2012, and the strong winter wheat Suyin 10 was treated in a vernalization room at 2℃ with different concentrations of the gibberellin and 5-azacytidine. The results showed that Suyin 10 should be vernalized at 2℃ for 30 days in summer, and the growth periods of strong winter wheat plants could been shortened if treated with a specific concentration of the gibberellin and 5-azacytidine at a low temperature. The growth period of the spring wheat in summer reproduction was delayed, and their agronomic traits gradually decreased with the passage of the sowing time. Thus, spring wheat should be sown at the earliest time possible for better yield. June 25 should be the latest date for summer reproduction of the wheat, but the semi-winter wheat cultivars in Xundian County should be added generation in summer after being treated at 2℃ for 10 days. Xundian County is a suitable location for summer reproduction of the wheat in China.

  1. Investigation on Paste Property of Chinese Bread Wheat Varieties

    YAN Jun; ZHANG Yong; HE Zhong-hu


    Starch viscosity is closely associated with noodle quality. RVA(rapid viscosity analyzer)was used to investigate the paste property of leading Chinese wheat varieties and 38 Australian wheat lines. Results showed that significant variability for RVA parameters was observed among Chinese wheat varieties, particularly among spring wheat varieties. In general, Australia wheat lines performed better paste characters than that of Chinese winter wheats. Genotype (G), environment (E) and genotype by environment (G × E) interaction affected all paste traits. Correlation analysis indicated that peak viscosity correlated highly and significantly with viscosity, breakdown, setback, final viscosity, peak time, and falling number(r = 0.56-0.93, P < 0.01 ). However breakdown was not significantly associated with most paste properties. Paste characters increased from low to high latitude both in the north and south part of Yellow and Huai Valley.

  2. The dynamics of acid-soluble phosphorus compounds in the course of winter and spring wheat germination under various thermic conditions. Part II. Labile phosphorus after hydrolysis of the acid-soluble fraction

    A. Barbaro


    Full Text Available The changes in labile phosphorus compounds content during germination of wheat were investigated. These compounds were determined in acid-soluble germ extracts separated into fractions according to the solubility of their barium salts. Low germination temperature was found to raise the labile phosphorus content in the fraction of insoluble barium salts. If we assume that labile P of this fraction consisted mainly of adenosinedi- and triphosphates, it would seem that the rise, in the ATP and ADP level under the influence of low temperature may be essential for initiating flowering in winter varieties.

  3. Mineral composition of small-grain cultivars from a uniform test plot in South Dakota

    Erdman, J.A.; Moul, R.C.


    Seventy-five cultivated varieties (cultivars) of hard red spring wheat (HRS), hard red winter wheat (HRW), durum wheat, oats, and barley were harvested in 1974 from a small-grain trial plot in Harding County, SD, just north of Buffalo. Analysis of the grains reported here includes crude protein for only the wheat cultivars, ash yield, and 17 chemical elements, many of which are not commonly given in the literature (such as B, Cd, Mo, Ni, and Se). Differences in composition between the two classes of hard red wheat indicate that HRS is significantly higher (p < 0.05) than HRW in protein content, ash yield, Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, total S, Sr, and Zn; Cd is significantly higher in the HRW cultivars. For the most part, concentrations were quite uniform within all grain types. Only two cultivars were anomalous: cv. Hi Plains in HRW wheats and cv. Astro in the oat group.

  4. Wheat induced urticaria

    Uppal Monica


    Full Text Available Wheat is widely consumed all over India in various forms - flour, daliya, maida, suji and wheat bran. Very few cases of wheat induced urticaria have been reported. This may be due to unusual features of wheat related hypersensitivity. A 35 year old female presented to us with history of chronic urticaria and angioedema. History revealed correlation between wheat intake and urticaria episodes. Prick testing was done with wheat antigen in the standard series and derivatives of raw wheat. Normal saline and histamine were used as controls. Prick testing was positive. Oral challenge induced urticaria within half an hour. This report discusses clinical features of wheat related hypersensitivity.

  5. Chromosomal Location of Traits Associated with Wheat Seedling Water and Phosphorus Use Efficiency under Different Water and Phosphorus Stresses

    Wei-Yi Song


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to locate chromosomes for improving water and phosphorus-deficiency tolerance of wheat at the seedling stage. A set of Chinese Spring- Egyptian Red wheat substitution lines and their parent Chinese Spring (recipient and Egyptian Red (donor cultivars were measured to determine the chromosomal locations of genes controlling water use efficiency (WUE and phosphorus use efficiency (PUE under different water and phosphorus conditions. The results underlined that chromosomes 1A, 7A, 7B, and 3A showed higher leaf water use efficiency (WUEl = Pn/Tr; Pn = photosynthetic rate; Tr = transpiration rate under W-P (Hoagland solution with1/2P, -W-P (Hoagland solution with 1/2P and 10% PEG. Chromosomes 7A, 3D, 2B, 3B, and 4B may carry genes for positive effects on individual plant water use efficiency (WUEp = biomass/TWC; TWC = total water consumption under WP (Hoagland solution, W-P and -W-P treatment. Chromosomes 7A and 7D carry genes for PUE enhancement under WP, -WP (Hoagland solution with 10% PEG and W-P treatment. Chromosome 7A possibly has genes for controlling WUE and PUE simultaneously, which indicates that WUE and PUE may share the same genetic background. Phenotypic and genetic analysis of the investigated traits showed that photosynthetic rate (Pn and transpiration rate (Tr, Tr and WUEl showed significant positive and negative correlations under WP, W-P, -WP and -W-P, W-P, -WP treatments, respectively. Dry mass (DM, WUEP, PUT (phosphorus uptake all showed significant positive correlation under WP, W-P and -WP treatment. PUE and phosphorus uptake (PUT = P uptake per plant showed significant negative correlation under the four treatments. The results might provide useful information for improving WUE and PUE in wheat genetics.

  6. 赤腹松鼠(Callosciurus erythralus)春季生境特征初步分析%Preliminary analysis on the habitat character of red bellied tree squirrel(Callosciurus erythralus)in Spring

    原宝东; 邓维安


    Habitat characteristics of the red bellied tree squirrel ( C. erythralus) were investigated from February to May 2009 in Long Yangtze Riverside, Guangxi. Thirteen ecological factors ( canopy density, water distance, slope, shelter of wind, aspect, slope position, elevation, tree density, shrub density, distance of tree, distance of shrub, distance to human disturbance and food abundant)were recorded in each of 1Om× lOm plots of 57 samples. The collected data were analyzed using frequency analysis and principle component analysis. The results showed that the habitat of red bellied tree squirrel shared the following characteristics: habitat with well canopy density closes to water ( less than 30m) , it was built along the slope between 20 degree to 40 degree toward east or south with well shelter of wind , the slope position was selected from middle to uphill; the habitat where human disturbance distance was less than 1Om was of well food richness, its elevation was about 50m to 1OOm, tree density was less than 50, shrub density less than 200 , the distance to tree was less than 4m, and the distance to shrubs was less than 2m. There were five main factors ( canopy density, shelter of wind , slope, slope position and distance of shrubs) and eight secondary factors ( water distance , aspect, slope position, tree density , shrub density , distance of tree . distance to human disturbance and food richness) affecting the habitat selection of red bellied tree squirrel in spring.%2009年2月至5月,在广西龙江河畔对赤腹松鼠(C.erythralus)的春季生境特征进行了分析.野外共测量了57个10m×10m样方中的13个生态因子,并运用频次分析和主成分分析的方法,对赤腹松鼠的春季生境选择因子进行了分析.结果表明,赤腹松鼠春季生境的主要特征为:郁闭度良好,水源距离<30m,坡度20~40°,避风性良好,坡向以东坡和南坡为主,坡位中坡位或上坡位,食物因子良好,人为干扰距离<10m

  7. 新疆不同类型春小麦品种花后干物质与氮磷的积累及转运规律研究%Study on the Accumulation and Translocation Regulation of Dry Matter and NP after Anthesis in Different Types of Spring Wheat Varieties in Xinjiang

    栾姗姗; 贾永红; 马会杰; 侯丽丽; 王伟; 石书兵


    [Objective] The purpose of this project was to evaluate the accumulation and translocation regulation of dry matter and NP of different types of spring wheat varieties planted in the natural ecological condition. [Method]The test materials were 8 spring wheat varieties cultivated in Xinjiang. The accumulation and translocation regulations were studied by measuring the accumulation of dry matter and NP after anthesis. [ Result] The accumulative dynamic state of dry matter and NP appeared a rising tendency after anthesis. The accumulation of dry matter and NP in strong gluten varieties was the highest in maturity, followed by middle gluten varieties and middle strong varieties. For the translocation of dry matter and NP, the amount and rate of dry matter translocation before anthesis was middle gluten > middle strong gluten > strong gluten in turn from high to low, the amount of dry matter translocation was middle gluten > strong gluten > middle strong gluten, the contribution rate of dry matter translocation to grain yield was strong gluten > middle gluten > middle strong gluten. The regulation of NP accumulation and translocation was basically consistent, and the amount of NP accumulation was strong gluten > middle gluten > middle strong gluten. [ Conclusion ] Certain difference existed under the regulation of dry matter and NP accumulation and translocation in different types of spring wheat varieties.%[目的]在自然生态条件下,研究不同品质类型春小麦品种干物质及氮磷的积累和转运规律.[方法]选用新疆主栽的8个春小麦品种,测定其花后干物质和氮磷的积累量,对其积累和转运规律进行研究.[结果]不同类型品种花后干物质与氮磷的积累动态均呈上升的趋势,成熟期干物质与氮磷的积累量强筋品种最高,其次为中筋品种,中强筋品种较低;从干物质与氮磷的转运情况来看,花前干物质转运量和干物质转运率由大到小依次为中强筋>中筋>

  8. First report of Diuraphis (Holcaphis frequens as a pest of wheat in Finland



    Full Text Available Colonies of Diuraphis (Holcaphis frequens (Walker were found on wheat, Triticum aestivum L. in the vicinity of Jokioinen in south-west Finland in summer 1997. The aphid was present in all wheat fields inspected, and was particularly abundant on spring wheat plants of field and plot margins. The aphid was also common on its recognised, host Elymus repens (L. Gould (couch grass. Damage symptoms, longitudinal chlorotic streaking of tightly rolled leaves, resembled those caused by Diu-raphis noxia (Mordvilko, the Russian wheat aphid. Diuraphis frequens appears unlikely to become a serious pest of wheat, and its relative abundance during 1997 may have resulted from particularly hot, dry weather.

  9. 普通小麦籽粒硬度与胚乳组成及显微结构的关系%Relationship Between the Wheat Grain Hardness and the Endosperm Composition and Microstructure in a RIL Population

    张瑞奇; 荣曼; 张守忠; 胡琳; 许为钢; 陈佩度


    [Objective]Study on the relationship between the grain hardness and the endosperm composition and microstructure will benefit further understanding of the formation mechanism of grain hardness.[Method]One hundred and forty-nine RILs and 2 NILs populations were developed from the cross of Zhengmai 9045(hard)×Yangmai13(soft).Using the RILs and NILs lines, the relationships between the grain hardness and the vitreousness, thousand kernel weights, protein content, total starch content, amyloase content and glutenin subunit composition were analyzed.The soft and hard grain transverse sections were also observed under the electron microscope.[Result]The result showed that the soft grain texture of all family lines carries wild type Pin genes (Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1a) while hard grain texture carries mutant Pin genes (Pina-D1b/Pinb-D1a).The coefficient of variation of soft family lines was higher than hard lines both in Zhengzhou and Nanjing sites.The environmental impact on soft grain texture was more than that on hard grain texture.In RIL population, the highly significant correlation between hardness value andvitreousness, and correlation coefficient was lower in Nanjing site than Zhengzhou site, while the thousand kernel weight, protein content, total starch content and amyloase content with hardness value were not significantly related.There was no obvious difference between the hardness values of lines having high molecular weight glutenin subunit 14+15 and 7+8, while the hardness values of low molecular weight glutenin subunit Glu-A3b lines was significantly greater than Glu-A3c.The result of electron microscope observation showed that there was no obvious difference in the aleurone cells in soft and hard NIL lines, while there was a clear difference in endosperm cells between NIL hard line and soft line.The matrix proteins were clearly separated from the surface of starch granules in the hard line, anyhow they adhered in soft line.In NIL population, the highly

  10. Changes in the Russian Wheat Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Biotype Complex in South Africa.

    Jankielsohn, Astrid


    Russian wheat aphid Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) has spread from its native area in central Asia to all the major wheat-producing countries in the world to become an international wheat pest. Because the Russian wheat aphid is a serious threat to the wheat industry in South Africa, it is important to investigate the key factors involved in the distribution of Russian wheat aphid biotypes and in the changes of the Russian wheat aphid biotype complex in South Africa. There are currently four known Russian wheat aphid biotypes occurring in South Africa. Russian wheat aphid samples were collected from 2011 to 2014 during the wheat-growing season in spring and summer and these samples were screened to determine the biotype status. RWASA1 occurred predominantly in the Western Cape, while RWASA2 and RWASA3 occurred predominantly in the Eastern Free State. Following the first record of RWASA4 in 2011, this biotype was restricted to the Eastern Free State. The surveys suggest that the Russian wheat aphid bioype complex was more diverse in the Eastern Free State than in the other wheat production areas. There was also a shift in Russian wheat aphid biotype composition over time. The Russian wheat aphid biotype complex is dynamic, influenced by environmental factors such as host plants, altitude, and climate, and it can change and diversify over time causing fluctuation in populations over sites and years. This dynamic nature of the Russian wheat aphid will continue to challenge the development of Russian wheat aphid-resistant wheat cultivars in South Africa, and the continued monitoring of the biotypic and genetic structure, to determine genetic relatedness and variation in different biotypes, of Russian wheat aphid populations is important for protecting wheat.

  11. Effects of kernel weight and source-limitation on wheat grain yield ...



    Feb 9, 2012 ... 2Islamic Azad University, Dehdasht Branch, Dehdasht, Iran. ... as well as in other Mediterranean environments and the long-term spring temperatures trend to ... affects wheat grain yield, which potentially increases food.

  12. Mineral composition of organically grown wheat genotypes: contribution to daily minerals intake.

    Hussain, Abrar; Larsson, Hans; Kuktaite, Ramune; Johansson, Eva


    In this study, 321 winter and spring wheat genotypes were analysed for twelve nutritionally important minerals (B, Cu, Fe, Se, Mg, Zn, Ca, Mn, Mo, P, S and K). Some of the genotypes used were from multiple locations and years, resulting in a total number of 493 samples. Investigated genotypes were divided into six genotype groups i.e., selections, old landraces, primitive wheat, spelt, old cultivars and cultivars. For some of the investigated minerals higher concentrations were observed in selections, primitive wheat, and old cultivars as compared to more modern wheat material, e.g., cultivars and spelt wheat. Location was found to have a significant effect on mineral concentration for all genotype groups, although for primitive wheat, genotype had a higher impact than location. Spring wheat was observed to have significantly higher values for B, Cu, Fe, Zn, Ca, S and K as compared to winter wheat. Higher levels of several minerals were observed in the present study, as compared to previous studies carried out in inorganic systems, indicating that organic conditions with suitable genotypes may enhance mineral concentration in wheat grain. This study also showed that a very high mineral concentration, close to daily requirements, can be produced by growing specific primitive wheat genotypes in an organic farming system. Thus, by selecting genotypes for further breeding, nutritional value of the wheat flour for human consumption can be improved.

  13. Evaluation of genetic bases and diversity of Egyptian wheat cultivars released during the last 50 years using coefficient of parentage

    Bhoja R. Basnet


    Full Text Available Discerning the genetic diversity of any crop species provides insight into the strength of an applied breeding program and directs future breeding strategies aimed at long-term genetic gain and minimized genetic vulnerability. The number and abundance of ancestral parents present in the pedigree of crop cultivars can provide an average estimation of the depth of the genetic base of the overall crop improvement program. The objectives of this study were to estimate (1 the genetic similarity among 33 Egyptian wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars and different eras of release (1947-2004 and productivity groups based on COP values, and (2 the relative genetic contribution and abundance of ancestral parents from different geographical origins to the total gene pool of Egyptian wheat cultivars. Broad genetic diversity was observed among 33 Egyptian cultivars with average COP value of 0.11 and large numbers of ancestral parents (155 landraces traced to 31 countries. The genetic base ranged from very low in pre 1960’s cultivars such as ‘Giza 139’ (with only 3 landraces in the background to very high in modern cultivars such as ‘Gemmeiza-7’ (with 73 landraces in the background. ‘Hindi-62’, ‘Red Fife’, ‘Hard Red Calcutta’ and ‘Akagomughi’ were the major ancestors with 6, 5, 4, and 4% of total genetic contribution to the Egyptian wheat gene pool, respectively. Egypt, United States of America, Kenya and Ukraine were the major source countries with 16, 11, 9 and 7% of total genetic contribution to this gene pool, respectively. Though Marquis-Thatcher germplasm from North America has the greatest influence on overall Egyptian cultivars, Mexican-based sources of dwarfing and high yield, derived from ancestors such as ‘Akagomughi’ and ‘Daruma’ and exploited by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT, were very prominent in Egyptian cultivars post 1970’s.

  14. Millán-INIA, New Variety of High Quality Early Spring Bread Wheat for Irrigated Soils in Central-Southern Chile Millán-INIA, Nueva Variedad de Trigo Harinero Precoz de Primavera de Alta Calidad para Suelos de Riego de la Zona Centro Sur de Chile

    Iván Matus


    Full Text Available Millán-INIA is a variety of spring bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. originating from a cross carried out in the Wheat Plant Breeding Project of the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, in the Centro Regional de Investigación Quilamapu in 1995. This is a spring wheat variety with an early to medium-early head emergence and upright growth habit in the seedling stage. The adult plant is low to medium height and varies between 75 and 90 cm, with a mean of 85 cm. The spike is white with long awns along its full length. The grain is large-sized, white, and vitreous. The weight of 1000 grains varies between 50 and 59 g. It was sown in mid-August at the Santa Rosa Experimental Station (36°31’ S; 71°54’ W, Chillán. Head emergence occurred 88 to 89 d after sowing, which is 2 to 3 d after Ciko-INIA. On average, Millán-INIA reached a yield similar to that of the var. Ciko-INIA. This line stands out for its good resistance to disease, high protein content (11.5% mean, high sedimentation value, and high W value.Millán-INIA es un trigo harinero (Triticum aestivum L. de primavera que proviene de un cruzamiento efectuado en 1995 en el Proyecto de Fitomejoramiento de Trigo del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA, en el Centro Regional de Investigación Quilamapu. Es un trigo de hábito primaveral, de época de espigadura mediana a precoz, con hábito de crecimiento erecto al estado de plántula. La altura de la planta adulta se considera mediana a baja, y varía entre 75 y 90 cm, con un promedio de 85 cm. La espiga es de color blanco y de barbas largas y presentes en toda su extensión. El grano es de color blanco y aspecto vítreo y de tamaño grande, con un peso de los 1000 granos que varía entre 50 y 59 g. Sembrado a mediados de agosto en el Campo Experimental Santa Rosa (36°31’ S; 71°54’ O, Chillán, la emisión de espigas ocurre 88 a 89 días después de la siembra, entre 2 y 3 días después que Ciko-INIA. Como

  15. Running springs: speed and animal size.

    Farley, C T; Glasheen, J; McMahon, T A


    Trotting and hopping animals use muscles, tendons and ligaments to store and return elastic energy as they bounce along the ground. We examine how the musculoskeletal spring system operates at different speeds and in animals of different sizes. We model trotting and hopping as a simple spring-mass system which consists of a leg spring and a mass. We find that the stiffness of the leg spring (k(leg)) is nearly independent of speed in dogs, goats, horses and red kangaroos. As these animals trot or hop faster, the leg spring sweeps a greater angle during the stance phase, and the vertical excursion of the center of mass during the ground contact phase decreases. The combination of these changes to the spring system causes animals to bounce off the ground more quickly at higher speeds. Analysis of a wide size range of animals (0.1-140 kg) at equivalent speeds reveals that larger animals have stiffer leg springs (k(leg) [symbol: see text] M0.67, where M is body mass), but that the angle swept by the leg spring is nearly independent of body mass. As a result, the resonant period of vertical vibration of the spring-mass system is longer in larger animals. The length of time that the feet are in contact with the ground increases with body mass in nearly the same way as the resonant period of vertical vibration.

  16. Standard hardness conversion tables for metals relationship among brinell hardness, vickers hardness, rockwell hardness, superficial hardness, knoop hardness, and scleroscope hardness

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 Conversion Table 1 presents data in the Rockwell C hardness range on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, Knoop hardness, and Scleroscope hardness of non-austenitic steels including carbon, alloy, and tool steels in the as-forged, annealed, normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions provided that they are homogeneous. 1.2 Conversion Table 2 presents data in the Rockwell B hardness range on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, Knoop hardness, and Scleroscope hardness of non-austenitic steels including carbon, alloy, and tool steels in the as-forged, annealed, normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions provided that they are homogeneous. 1.3 Conversion Table 3 presents data on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, and Knoop hardness of nickel and high-nickel alloys (nickel content o...

  17. Total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant activity, crude fibre and digestibility in non-traditional wheat flakes and muesli.

    Sumczynski, Daniela; Bubelova, Zuzana; Sneyd, Jan; Erb-Weber, Susanne; Mlcek, Jiri


    The five different types of muesli composed of non-traditional wheat flakes were prepared and analysed. Dickkopf wheat, red wheat, kamut and spelt were compared with commercial wheat flakes. Wheat flakes and muesli were assessed for basic analyses (dry matter, ash, protein, starch and fat content), total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity (ABTS and DPPH assays), crude fibre content and in vitro digestibility. Furthermore, sensory evaluation of muesli involving scale and ranking preference tests was provided. Flakes and muesli made from Dickkopf wheat and red wheat showed the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content and, consequently, the highest antioxidant activity. Moreover, these cereals were high in crude fibre and thus were less digestible. On the other hand, the lowest total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity were determined in commercial flakes and muesli produced from these flakes. The flakes made from non-traditional wheat were sensorially comparable to commercial products.

  18. Short-term storage evaluation of quality and antioxidant capacity in chestnut-wheat bread.

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Cirlini, Martina; Chiavaro, Emma


    Bread traditionally made from wheat is now often supplemented with alternative functional ingredients as chestnut flours; no data have been previously published about the staling of chestnut-containing bread. Thus short-term storage (3 days) for chestnut flour-supplemented soft wheat bread is evaluated by means of selected physicochemical properties (i.e. water dynamics, texture, colour, crumb grain characteristic, total antioxidant capacity). Bread prepared with a 20:80 ratio of chestnut:soft wheat flours maintained its moisture content in both crust and crumb. Crumb hardness, after baking, was found to be significantly higher than that of the soft wheat bread; it did not change during storage, whereas it significantly increased in the control bread until the end of the shelf life. The supplemented bread presented a heterogeneous crumb structure, with a significant decrease in the largest pores during shelf life, relative to the shrinkage of crumb grain. The control exhibited a significant redistribution of crumb holes, with a decrease in the smallest grain classes and an increase in the intermediate ones, most likely caused by cell wall thickening. The colour of the crumb remained unaltered in both breads. The crust of the control presented a significant decrease of a* (redness) and that of the supplemented bread exhibited a decrease of b* (yellowness). The antioxidant capacity was detected after day 1 of storage in the chestnut flour bread only. Chestnut flour supplementation could represent a feasible way of producing bread with improved characteristics, not only just after baking but also during shelf life. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Quantifying relationships between rooting traits and water uptake under drought in Mediterranean barley and durum wheat

    Pedro Carvalho; Sayed AzamAli; M. John Foulkes


    In Mediterranean regions drought is the major factor limiting spring barley and durum wheat grain yields. This study aimed to compare spring barley and durum wheat root and shoot responses to drought and quantify relationships between root traits and water uptake under terminal drought. One spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Rum) and two durum wheat Mediterranean cultivars (Triticum turgidum L. var durum cvs Hourani and Karim) were examined in soil-column experi-ments under wel watered and drought conditions. Root system architecture traits, water uptake, and plant growth were measured. Barley aerial biomass and grain yields were higher than for durum wheat cultivars in wel watered conditions. Drought decreased grain yield more for barley (47%) than durum wheat (30%, Hourani). Root-to-shoot dry matter ratio increased for durum wheat under drought but not for barley, and root weight increased for wheat in response to drought but decreased for barley. The critical root length density (RLD) and root volume density (RVD) for 90%available water capture for wheat were similar to (cv. Hourani) or lower than (cv. Karim) for barley depending on wheat cultivar. For both species, RVD accounted for a slightly higher proportion of phenotypic variation in water uptake under drought than RLD.


    Akula Annapurna


    Full Text Available Nutraceutical is a food or food product that provides health and medical benefits, including the preventionand treatment of disease. Nutraceuticals are the products typically claim to prevent chronic diseases, improve health,delay the aging process, and increase life expectancy.Let us know something about one such nutraceutical.Wheatgrass is a commonly found herb in India contains enzymes like protease, cytrochrome, amylase, lipase,transhydrogenase and SOD (super oxide dismutase. Besides these enzymes, it also contains all the essential aminoacids especially alanine, asparatic acid, glutamic acid, arginine and serine, which are helpful in providing good amountof protein in body which builds and repair tissues. Wheatgrass contains chlorophyll and flavonoids in good amount.It also contains vitamins like vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E and minerals like iron, calcium and magnesium.Chlorophyll has been shown to build red blood cells quickly,cures anemia, normalise blood pressure by dilating theblood vessels. Chlorophyll has been shown to produce an unfavourable environment for bacterial growth in the bodyand therefore effective in increasing the body's resistance to illness. Probably the most important benefit ofwheatgrass is, it is a cancer fighting agent. Many people strongly believe that the benefits of wheatgrass on cancerare real and that consuming wheat grass can help in the treatment and even in the prevention of cancer. Wheatgrassproduces an immunization effect against many dietary carcinogens..Additional benefits of wheatgrass are bettercomplexion and a healthy glow. The slowing of graying hair is also a benefit believed to come from wheatgrass. Wecan grow wheat grass in small cups, pots and trays very conveniently in our homes, so that we will have fresh juiceand powder with minimum cost.

  1. Hyperspectral imaging to identify salt-tolerant wheat lines

    Moghimi, Ali; Yang, Ce; Miller, Marisa E.; Kianian, Shahryar; Marchetto, Peter


    In order to address the worldwide growing demand for food, agriculture is facing certain challenges and limitations. One of the important threats limiting crop productivity is salinity. Identifying salt tolerate varieties is crucial to mitigate the negative effects of this abiotic stress in agricultural production systems. Traditional measurement methods of this stress, such as biomass retention, are labor intensive, environmentally influenced, and often poorly correlated to salinity stress alone. In this study, hyperspectral imaging, as a non-destructive and rapid method, was utilized to expedite the process of identifying relatively the most salt tolerant line among four wheat lines including Triticum aestivum var. Kharchia, T. aestivum var. Chinese Spring, (Ae. columnaris) T. aestivum var. Chinese Spring, and (Ae. speltoides) T. aestivum var. Chinese Spring. To examine the possibility of early detection of a salt tolerant line, image acquisition was started one day after stress induction and continued on three, seven, and 12 days after adding salt. Simplex volume maximization (SiVM) method was deployed to detect superior wheat lines in response to salt stress. The results of analyzing images taken as soon as one day after salt induction revealed that Kharchia and (columnaris)Chinese Spring are the most tolerant wheat lines, while (speltoides) Chinese Spring was a moderately susceptible, and Chinese Spring was a relatively susceptible line to salt stress. These results were confirmed with the measuring biomass performed several weeks later.

  2. Wheat production and wheat rust management in Canada%加拿大小麦生产和锈病防治

    Allen G. Xue; Dawn T. Chi; 张淑珍; 李卓夫; 徐鹏飞; 姜良宇; 范素杰; 王欣


    Wheat is Canada's largest crop with most of the production in the western Canadian Prairie Provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta. There were approximately ten million hm2 seeded to wheat in Canada, including seven million hm2 of hexaploid spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L), two million hm2 of durum wheat (T. Turgkjum L ssp. Durum (Desf.) Husn.), and one million hm2 of winter wheat (T. Aestivum). Within hexaploid wheat there has been diversification into a number of market classes based on differentend-use quality criteria. The predominant spring bread wheat class has been the Canada Western Red Spring (CWRS) class. Historically, the disease of major concern in wheat was stem rust, caused by Pucdnia graminis f. Sp. Tritid. The first significant stem rust resistant cuttivar in Canada was Thatcher, grown extensively from 1939 until the early 1970s. Thatcher, however, was very susceptible to leaf rust, caused by Pucdnia triticina. Over the years, improved resistance to both stem and leaf rust was achieved with the release of cultivars with additional genes for resistance, primarily Sr2, Sr6, Sr7a, Sr9b, Lr13, Lr14a, Lr16, and Lr34. The genetic resistance has adequately controlled stem rust but leaf rust continues to cause significant losses, partially due to changes in the P. Triticina population which reduced the effectiveness of resistance genes such as Lr13 and Lr16. Stripe rust on wheat, caused by Pucdnia striiformis f. Sp. Tritid, was historically a problem under irrigation in southern Alberta, but since 2000 it has been found annually in the central Canadian prairies and southern Ontario. The genetic basis of resistance to stripe rust in most Canadian wheat cultivars has not been determined, although VTI8 provides partial resistance in many cultivars. In the future, other rust diseases such as wheat stripe rust, or highly virulent new pathotypes of current rust pathogens, such as P. Graminis f. Sp. Tritid race Ug-99, may pose new threats to cereal

  3. Wheat and gluten intolerance

    Busink-van den Broeck, Hetty; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Brouns, F.


    With this White Paper, the current state of scientific knowledge on human disorders related to gluten and wheat is presented, with reference to other grains such as spelt, barley, rye, and oats. Backgrounds are described of coeliac disease (gluten intolerance), wheat allergies and any kind of wheat

  4. ABA And GA Signaling, Bridging The Gap Between Wheat And Arabidopsis.

    Wheat is subject to problems with drought stress as well as preharvest sprouting (PHS) on the mother plant when cool moist conditions persist close to the time of harvest. PHS is one barrier to the adoption of hard white wheat varieties as a new market class in the U.S. It is believed that problems ...

  5. Thermal springs of Wyoming

    Breckenridge, R.M.; Hinckley, B.S.


    This bulletin attempts, first, to provide a comprehensive inventory of the thermal springs of Wyoming; second, to explore the geologic and hydrologic factors producing these springs; and, third, to analyze the springs collectively as an indicator of the geothermal resources of the state. A general discussion of the state's geology and the mechanisms of thermal spring production, along with a brief comparison of Wyoming's springs with worldwide thermal features are included. A discussion of geothermal energy resources, a guide for visitors, and an analysis of the flora of Wyoming's springs follow the spring inventory. The listing and analysis of Wyoming's thermal springs are arranged alphabetically by county. Tabulated data are given on elevation, ownership, access, water temperature, and flow rate. Each spring system is described and its history, general characteristics and uses, geology, hydrology, and chemistry are discussed. (MHR)

  6. 秸秆覆盖免耕储水灌溉对春小麦耗水特征及灌溉水分利用效率的影响%Effects of Storage Irrigation by No-tillage with Stubble Mulch on Water Consumption and Irrigation Water Use Efficiency~of Spring Wheat



    Abstract: The effect of storage irrigation by no-tillage with stubble mulch on water consumption and irriga- tion water use efficiency of spring wheat was studied at Heihe River Center Experimental Station in Hexi Corridor. Results showed that: (1) As for the whole growing stage, compared with other tillage methods, no-tillage with stubble mulch didn't reduce soil water consumption of spring wheat but changed the spatio- temporal pattern of water consumption. (2) The mean daily water consumption under no-tillage with stubble mulch was the highest with respect to the whole growing stage, but it was the minimum with respect to the whole year because no-tillage with stubble mulch preserved much soil moisture during no-cultivation stage. (3) To obtain high yield and improve irrigation water use efficiency, the treatment of no-tillage with stubble mulch tillage with water storage of 1 200 m3. hm-2 in winter was the best. (4) During the whole growing stage and the whole year, the mean daily water consumption increased and irrigation water use efficiency decreased when the storage irrigation amounts in efficiency and irrigation water use efficiency, the winter increased. So, if only for improving water saving storage irrigation amount in winter should be reduced to 750 m3 · hm-2.%摘要:在河西走廊的黑河流域中心试验站进行了秸秆覆盖免耕(NTS)储水灌溉对春小麦耗水特征及灌溉水分利用效率影响的试验研究。结果表明:①就春小麦全生育期耗水情况来看,NTS并没有减少土壤水分的消耗,只使春小麦的耗水在时间和空间上有所改变;②NTS的全生育期日均耗水量最高,而全年的日均耗水量最低,这主要是由NTS在休闲期时明显的保墒作用所导致;③为获取高产和提高灌溉水分利用效率,耕作方式为NTS且冬季储水定额为1200m3·hm^-2的处理是最优的;④随着储水定额的增大,全生育期和全年的

  7. Effects of Different Soil Moisture on Growth, Grain Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Spring Wheat Under Drip Irrigation%不同土壤水分对滴灌春小麦生长、产量及水分利用效率的影响

    王冀川; 徐翠莲; 韩秀锋; 高山; 徐雅丽


    在南疆干旱气候生态条件下,以矮秆品种新春22和高杆品种新春19为试验材料,研究了滴灌条件下不同土壤水分对春小麦生长、产量及水分利用效率(WE)的影响,结果表明:拔节-扬花期是春小麦水分敏感期,水分亏缺将显著影响小麦株高、生物量、叶面积和产量形成.各水分处理中丁2(出苗-拔节期、拔节-扬花期、扬花-乳熟期田间相对含水量分别为65%-70%、70%-75%,65%-70%)的产量、WUE和收获指数(HI)最高,其次是T4(出苗-拔节期相对含水量为45%-50%,其余时期同T2),其WE、HI、穗粒数和粒重与处理T2差异不显著,在调亏灌溉中此处理是经济可行性的.不同基因型品种对土壤水分反应有差异,矮秆品种新春22受水分调控较大,各处理的耗水量均低于新春19,是个节水型品种.研究表明南疆春小麦实现高产节水的适宜滴灌量范围:矮秆品种为318.86mm-368.72mm,高杆品种为394.52mm-458.14mm.%A soil moisture controlled experiment under drip irrigation was conducted under the ecological and climatic conditions of South Xinjiang to study the effects of soil moisture on shoot growth, grain yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of spring wheat with tall variety of Xinchun 19 and dwarf variety of Xinchun 22.The results indicated that the moisture-sensitive stage of spring wheat was at jointing to flowering stage and water deficit would significantly affect plant height, biomass, leaf area and yield components.In all water treatments, the soil relative moisture content of T2 at emergence to jointing, jointing to flowering and flowering to milk maturation being 65%-70%, 70%-75% and 65%-70%,respectively, showed a highest values of grain yield, WUE and harvest index(HI).The soil relative moisture content of T4 at emergence to jointing being 45%-50% and at other stages being the same as T2, was the secondary in grain yield, and its WUE, HI, number of kernels per spike and grain

  8. Instant Spring Tool Suite

    Chiang, Geoff


    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A tutorial guide that walks you through how to use the features of Spring Tool Suite using well defined sections for the different parts of Spring.Instant Spring Tool Suite is for novice to intermediate Java developers looking to get a head-start in enterprise application development using Spring Tool Suite and the Spring framework. If you are looking for a guide for effective application development using Spring Tool Suite, then this book is for you.

  9. 小麦中国春 NAM 转录因子 Gpc-1和 Gpc-2灌浆期时空表达模式分析%Spatiotemporal Expression Pattern Analysis of NAM Transcription Factors Gpc-1 and Gpc-2 in Bread Wheat Cultivar Chinese Spring During Grain Filling

    吴丹; 董剑; 要燕杰; 赵万春; 高翔


    Objective]The objective of this experiment is to study the roles of no apical meristem (NAM) transcription factors Gpc-1 and Gpc-2 in early senescence and nutrient remobilization to the grain of bread wheat. [Method] Their spatiotemporal expression patterns were investigated during the grain-filling stage in wheat cultivar Chinese Spring. Their temporal expression dynamics were studied in penultimate leaf, flag leaf, peduncle, glume, rachis and the kernel using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). And the relative expression level was quantified using Pfaffl method with normalization against multiple verified reference genes. Applying mRNA in situ hybridization, the spatial expression pattern was explored in post-anthesis flag leaf, peduncle and the kernel only with digoxin-labeled oligonucleotide probes which were specifically targeting 5′ or 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of Gpc-1 and Gpc-2. [Result] Contrary to a previous report, the functional TaNAM-B1 rather than its dysfunctional paralog was found in Chinese Spring, and its nucleotide sequence was identical with the wild-type TtNAM-B1 in T. turgidum var.dicoccoides. All the results showed that Gpc-1 and Gpc-2 were all widely expressed in studied tissues with the exception of the root in which only the transcript of Gpc-1 was detected. The outcomes of mRNA in situ hybridization indicated that all five genes shared cell-type specificities. To be specific, no transcripts were distributed in leaf epidermal cells, pericarp and the seed coat;however, they mainly aggregated in leaf mesophyll cells, aleurone layer, embryo, and the tissues responsible for the mineral element transport (vascular bundle, pigment strand, nucellar projection and the transfer cell) in grain, in which the highest expression level was observed in embryo. In addition, lower expression level was detected in the peduncle and leaf vascular bundle as well. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the temporal expression

  10. Effects of different rotational tillage patterns on soil physical properties and yield of winter wheat-spring maize rotation field in Weibei highland%不同轮耕方式对渭北旱塬麦玉轮作田土壤物理性状与产量的影响

    陈宁宁; 李军; 吕薇; 王淑兰


    To study the effects of different rotational tillage patterns on soil physical properties and crop yield under winter wheat-spring maize single-cropping rotation systems in Weibei highlands, a 7-year on-site conservation tillage experiment was conducted, which consisted of three rotational tillage and three continuous tillage treatments. The rotational tillage systems included NT/ST (yearly rotation between no-tillage and subsoiling), ST/CT (yearly rotation between subsoiling and conventional tillage) and CT/NT (yearly rotation between conventional tillage and no-tillage). Also the continuous tillage treatments included continuous no-tillage (NT/NT), continuous subsoiling (ST/ST) and continuous conventional tillage (CT/CT). The study was conducted in wheat-maize rotation fields in 2007 to 2014 in Heyang County, Shaanxi Province. Soil physical properties (e.g., bulk density, soil aggregates and soil moisture) and crop yield under different tillage treatments were measured in 2014. The results were as follows: 1) Soil bulk density, soil porosity and field water capacity were significantly impacted by the three rotational tillage patterns, and were best under NT/ST rotational tillage. Compared with CT/CT treatment, NT/ST rotational tillage treatment increased average field capacity in the 0-60 cm soil layer by 12.9%. 2) The properties of soil aggregates changed significantly under different rotational tillage treatments. The NT/ST treatment was the best with the highest macro-aggregate content (R0.25), lowest rate of structure break-up, lowest unstable aggregate index (ELT), highest water-stable aggregate mean weight diameter (MWD) and lowest fractal dimension (D) of mechanical-stable and water-stable aggregates. 3) In wheat growing period, average soil water storage in the 0-200 cm soil layer and yield of wheat under NT/ST treatment were respectively 17.7 mm and 9.5% higher than CT/CT treatment. It was concluded that rotational tillage was conducive for improving

  11. The effects of milling and processing on wheat contaminated with ochratoxin A.

    Osborne, B G; Ibe, F; Brown, G L; Petagine, F; Scudamore, K A; Banks, J N; Hetmanski, M T; Leonard, C T


    Samples of sound home-grown wheat (one hard and one soft milling) were obtained, cleaned, and gamma-irradiation used to reduce numbers of viable naturally-occurring fungi. Each sample was inoculated with a toxigenic strain of Penicillium verrucosum and monitored for ochratoxin A formation. When ochratoxin A had reached a level of 60 micrograms/kg, the samples were milled into ten fractions which were analysed for ochratoxin A by an HPLC method with immunoaffinity column clean-up. Each straight-run white flour was baked into bread which was analysed in the same way. Relationships between ochratoxin A levels in naturally-contaminated wheat and the products of milling and baking were established. The recovery of ochratoxin A in wholemeal compared with the cleaned wheat was essentially complete and no significant loss occurred on baking white or wholemeal flour into bread. Recoveries in the straight-run white flours, however, were only approximately one-third for the hard wheat and two-thirds for the soft wheat of the ochratoxin A in the uncleaned wheat. The reason for this was that a much higher proportion of the ochratoxin A was found in the bran and offal fractions from hard wheat than from soft. Conversely, a much higher proportion of the ochratoxin A was found in the reduction flour from soft wheat than from hard. Scouring was examined as a possible method of decontamination of wheat prior to milling. This process removes a proportion of the pericarp (bran coat) prior to milling. The results of the study confirmed that scouring reduced the ochratoxin A level in white and wholemeal flour three-fold for both the hard and soft wheat.

  12. Binary mixtures of waxy wheat and conventional wheat as measured by NIR reflectance.

    Delwiche, Stephen R; Graybosch, Robert A


    Waxy wheat contains very low concentration (generally industries seek to have a rapid technique to ensure the purity of identity preserved waxy wheat lots. Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy, a technique widely used in the cereals industry for proximate analysis, is a logical candidate for measuring contamination level and thus is the subject of this study. Two sets of wheat samples, harvested, prepared and scanned one year apart, were used to evaluate the NIR concept. One year consisted of nine pairs of conventional:waxy preparations, with each preparation consisting of 29 binary mixtures ranging in conventional wheat fraction (by weight) of 0-100% (261 spectral samples). The second year was prepared in the same fashion, with 12 preparations, thus producing 348 spectral samples. One year's samples were controlled for protein content and moisture level between pair components in order to avoid the basis for the conventional wheat fraction models being caused by something other than spectral differences attributed to waxy and nonwaxy endosperm. Likewise the second year was controlled by selection of conventional wheat for mixture preparation based on either protein content or cluster analysis of principal components of candidate spectra. Partial least squares regression, one and two-term linear regression, and support vector machine regression models were examined. Validation statistics arising from sets within the same year or across years were remarkably similar, as were those among the three regression types. A single wavelength on second derivative transformed spectra, namely 2290 nm, was effective at estimating the mixture level by weight, with standard errors of performance in the 6-9% range. Thus, NIR spectroscopy may be used for measuring conventional hard wheat 'contamination' in waxy wheat at mixture levels above 10% w/w.

  13. Fungicide seed treatment and host resistance for the management of wheat crown rot caused by Fusarium culmorum

    Shree R Pariyar


    Full Text Available Seed treatment of wheat with the fungicide thiabendazole on the development of crown rot caused by Fusarium culmorum was evaluated on six wheat genotypes with different genetic sources of resistance under controlled conditions in a growth chamber. Seed of three susceptible (S cultivars, Seri 82 (Spring bread wheat, Kiziltan 91 (Winter durum Wheat, and Demir 2000 (Winter bread wheat and three moderately resistant (MR wheat lines, 2-49 (Spring bread wheat, Altay 2000 (Winter bread wheat, and Burbot-6 (Winter bread wheat were treated with thiabendazole at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 g ai per 100 kg seeds. Thiabendazole seed treatment caused a significant (P< 0.05 reduction in severity of crown rot on 4 out of the 6 wheat genotypes. The highest crown score reduction was recorded on S genotypes Seri 82 and Demir 2000. Thiabendazole at 100 g ai per 100 kg seed gave the highest CS reduction on both the S and MR wheat genotypes. Seed coating with thiabendazole did not show any effect on plant height, plant weight, root length and root weight. No phytotoxicity symptoms were observed at any concentration of the fungicide.

  14. Colour characteristics of winter wheat grits of different grain size

    Horváth Zs. H.


    Full Text Available Nowadays, wheat has spread all over the world due to its extensive usability. The colour of wheat grits is very important for the milling and baking industry because it determines the colour of the products made from it. The instrumental colour measuring is used, first of all, for durum wheat. We investigated the relationship between colour characteristics and grain size in the case of different hard aestivum wheats. We determined the colour using the CIE (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage 1976 L*, a*, b* colour system measured by MINOLTA CR-300 tristimulus colorimeter. After screening the colour of the wheat fractions of different grain size, grits was measured wet and dry. We determined the L*, a*, b* colour co-ordinates and the whiteness index, too. To evaluate the values we had obtained, we used analysis of variance and regression analysis. We pointed out that the colour of wheat grits of different grain size is dependent on the hardness index of wheat. The lightness co-ordinate (L* of grits of the harder wheat is smaller, while a* and b* co-ordinates are higher. We also found that while grain size rises, the L* co-ordinate decreases and a*, b* values increase in the case of every type of wheat. The colour of grits is determined by the colour of fractions of 250-400 μm in size, independently from the average grain size. The whiteness index and the L* colour co-ordinate have a linear relation (R2 = 0.9151; so, the determination of whiteness index is not necessary. The L* value right characterizes the whiteness of grits.

  15. Validation of Fusarium Head Blight Resistance QTL in US Winter Wheat

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), primarily caused by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe [telemorph: Gibberella zeae Schw. (Petch)], can significantly reduce the grain quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) due to mycotoxin contamination. Two US soft red winter wheat cultivars, Bess and NC-Neuse, have moderate...

  16. Water Treatment Technology - Springs.

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on springs provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on spring basin construction and spring protection. For each competency, student…

  17. Using weather indices to predict survival of winter wheat in a cool temperate environment

    Hayhoe, H. N.; Lapen, D. R.; Andrews, C. J.


    Seven years of winter survival data for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were collected on a loam soil located on the Central Experimental Farm at Ottawa, Ontario (45°23'N, 75°43'W). The site was low-lying and subject to frequent winter flooding and ice-sheet formation. Two cultivars, a soft white and a hard red winter wheat, were planted in September. Crop establishment was measured in late fall and the percentage survival was measured in April of the following year. Meteorological data, which were available from the nearby weather site, were used to develop a large set of monthly weather indices that were felt to be important for winter survival. The objective of the study was to use genetic selection algorithms and artificial neural networks to select a subset of critical weather factors and topographic features and to model winter survival. The six weather indices selected were the total rain depth for December (mm), the total rain depth for February (mm), the number of days of the month with snow on the ground for January, the extreme minimum observed daily air temperature for March (°C), the number of days of the month with snow on the ground for March, and the number of days of April with a daily maximum air temperature greater than 0 °C. It was found 89% of the variation in winter survival could be explained by these six weather indices, the cultivar, elevation and plot location.

  18. 半干旱黄土高原地区春小麦地膜覆盖研究概述%Review of clear plastic film mulch on spring wheat in semi-arid loess plateau

    刘小兰; 李世清; 王俊; 宋秋华


    The results of plastic film mulching experiments for spring wheatcarried out in the semi-arid areas on the loess plateau show that plastic film mulching can play a very important role in the aspect of increasing water and nutrient utilization efficiency and in increase of grain yield.Because plastic film mulching can activate soil nutrient by means of improving soil ecological and environmental conditions in the plowed layer,namely,improving water and heat status.But in recent years through production practice and scientific experiments,people increasingly find that irrational and long-term plastic film mulching during the whole growth period also cause serious problems:for example,during the early stage and medium stage of crop growth,the crops mulched by plastic film usually grow better than those no mulching plastic film,so during the whole growth stage of former situation more soil water will lose through transpiration,the evapotranspiration (evaporation+transpiration) loss of soil water will be much more serious than that no plastic film mulching,during the late growth period of crops if precipitation is little or no additional water is supplemented to irrigation,this will lead to serious water stress phenomena,and will significantly inhibit small spike differentiation,this finally will lead to decrease of harvest index and crop yields;in the meantime,the yield increase effect under plastic film mulching must be paid heavy cost such as exhaust soil fertility especially organic matter to some extent.Therefore,incorrect plastic film mulching method (for instance mulching plastic film during the whole growth period ) sometimes will not only has no significant yield increase effect,but also easily cause the loss of soil nutrient in particular the loss and accumulation of nitrate in the soil,decreasing the fertilizer utilization efficiency,deterioration of soil ecological condition,decline of soil fertility,and high crop yield will also not maintain sustainable

  19. Effect of the Relationship between Agricultural Extension Agents and Wheat Farmers in Medina Region, Saudi Arabia, on the Adoption of Appropriate Wheat Production Practices. A Summary Report of Research. Department Information Bulletin 91-3.

    Bakri, Mohammad Saleh

    The relationship between agricultural extension agents and wheat farmers in the Medina region, Saudi Arabia, was analyzed, based on each group's perception of the relationship. Participants were 73 randomly selected wheat farmers and 31 of 34 agricultural extension agents working in the region during spring 1990. Farmers were interviewed, and…

  20. Starch facilitates enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis

    Hardt, N.A.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.


    Wheat gluten can be hydrolyzed by either using (vital) wheat gluten or directly from wheat flour. This study investigates the influence of the presence of starch, the main component of wheat, on enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis. Wheat gluten present in wheat flour (WFG) and vital wheat gluten (VWG)

  1. Starch facilitates enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis

    Hardt, N.A.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.


    Wheat gluten can be hydrolyzed by either using (vital) wheat gluten or directly from wheat flour. This study investigates the influence of the presence of starch, the main component of wheat, on enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis. Wheat gluten present in wheat flour (WFG) and vital wheat gluten (VWG)

  2. Pro Spring Batch

    Minella, Michael T


    Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What

  3. Wheat bran and the induction of intestinal benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase by dietary benzo(a)pyrene.

    Clinton, S K; Visek, W J


    The mucosa of the intestine responds to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) with the rapid induction of benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase (BPH). Studies were conducted to determine if dietary fiber would reduce exposure of the intestine to dietary benzo(a)pyrene (BP) as indicated by intestinal BPH activity. In all studies, female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a fiber-free purified diet for 7 d, whereupon they were switched to experimental diets for 48 h. After 48 h their small intestinal mucosa was assayed for BPH activity. Diets for the initial study contained 0, 100, 400, 800, or 1200 mg BP/kg diet, each with and without 10% soft white wheat bran. Enzyme induction with 100 and 400 mg BP/kg diet was partially inhibited by bran, but with higher concentrations of BP there was no protective effect. The inhibition in BP-induced intestinal BPH activity was observed with 10% wheat bran but not with 3.3 or 6.6%. Subsequent studies showed no significant inhibition in BPH induction with cellulose or lignin, whereas all forms of wheat bran (hard red, soft white, or finely ground soft white) caused significant inhibition. In the final study, a diet containing charcoal-broiled beef, a known source of PAH, was compared with diets containing raw beef or soybean protein, each with and without 10% soft white wheat bran. BPH activity remained low with raw beef and soybean protein whether or not fiber was added. However, intestinal BPH activity was raised ninefold by charcoal-broiled beef. The addition of bran reduced BPH activity to 65% of that observed with the fiber-free, charcoal-broiled beef diet.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Models for predicting potential yield loss of wheat caused by stripe rust in the U.S. Pacific Northwest.

    Sharma-Poudyal, D; Chen, X M


    Climatic variation in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW) affects epidemics of wheat stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici. Previous models only estimated disease severity at the flowering stage, which may not predict the actual yield loss. To identify weather factors correlated to stripe rust epidemics and develop models for predicting potential yield loss, correlation and regression analyses were conducted using weather parameters and historical yield loss data from 1993 to 2007 for winter wheat and 1995 to 2007 for spring wheat. Among 1,376 weather variables, 54 were correlated to yield loss of winter wheat and 18 to yield loss of spring wheat. Among the seasons, winter temperature variables were more highly correlated to wheat yield loss than the other seasons. The sum of daily temperatures and accumulated negative degree days of February were more highly correlated to winter wheat yield loss than the other monthly winter variables. In addition, the number of winter rainfall days was found correlated with yield loss. Six yield loss models were selected for each of winter and spring wheats based on their better correlation coefficients, time of weather data availability during the crop season, and better performance in validation tests. Compared with previous models, the new system of using a series of the selected models has advantages that should make it more suitable for forecasting and managing stripe rust in the major wheat growing areas in the U.S. PNW, where the weather conditions have become more favorable to stripe rust.

  5. Response of Growth and Water Use Efficiency of Spring Wheat to Whole Season CO2 Enrichment and Drought%CO2浓度升高和干旱对春小麦生长和水分利用的生态效应

    吴冬秀; 王根轩; 白永飞; 廖建雄; 任红旭


    Whole-growing season pot experiments were conducted to examine the response of growth and water use efficiency (WUE) of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cv. Gaoyuan 602) to CO2 enrichment. Wheat plants were grown in open_top chambers (OTCs) subject to two concentrations of CO2 ([CO2])(350 and 700 μL/L, hereafter "ambient" and "elevated" respectively) and three soil water levels (80%, 60% and 40% field water capacity (FWC), hereafter "high soil moisture", "medium soil moisture" and "low soil moisture" respectively). Elevated CO2 greatly increased leaf net photosynthesis (Pn) at all three soil water levels. The Pn of plants growing under elevated [CO2] was 22% lower than that of plants growing at ambient [CO2] when measured with the same [CO2] (700 μL/L). Plant growth was enhanced by elevated [CO2] throughout the growing season, with an increase of 14.8% in shoot dry weight at harvest under high soil moisture, and leaf area was increased by about 20% at all three soil water levels. Elevated [CO2] in combination with high soil moisture increased the ratio of plant shoot dry weight to height by 15.7%, while this ratio was decreased by over 50% when plants were subject to drought. Elevated [CO2] also increased the water use efficiency of wheat, mainly due to decreases in transpiration and cumulative consumption of water, and an increase in shoot dry weight, with the biggest value of 30% occurring at high soil water moisture level. Compared to high soil moisture, drought decreased shoot dry weight by 72% under ambient [CO2], and by 76% under elevated [CO2]. Similarly, drought also reduced WUE by 19% under ambient [CO2], and 23% under elevated [CO2]. Our results indicate that: (1) elevated [CO2] can increase the photosynthetic rates, growth and WUE of wheat plants; (2) long_term exposure to high [CO2] may result in lower photosynthetic capacity; (3) high [CO2] stimulates plants lateral growth more than vertical growth; (4) the effects of CO2 enrichment on plants

  6. Association of Wheat Kernel Hardness and Puroindoline Genes with Alveograph and Mixolab Parameters%小麦籽粒硬度基因型鉴定及其与吹泡仪和混合仪参数关系分析

    陈锋; 李欢欢; 张福彦; 尚晓丽; 许海霞; 崔党群


    以我国黄淮麦区35份小麦高代新品系为材料,通过测定其籽粒硬度表型、puroindoline基因型及其吹泡仪和混合仪参数,分析了籽粒硬度表型和基因型与吹泡仪和混合仪参数间的关系.结果发现,SKCS籽粒硬度与混合仪参数中的C1、C2、C3、C4值、幅度、吸水率、C3-C2值以及吹泡仪参数的P值、L值、G值和P/L值之间均极显著相关(P<0.01).方差分析表明,puroindoline基因对大多数吹泡仪和混合仪参数的影响极显著(P<0.01).其中,Pina-DIb 类型小麦品系的P值、W值和P/L值均显著高于野生型和Pinb-D1b类型,但野生型小麦品系的L值、G值和Ie值则均显著高于Pinb-D1b和Pina-D1b类型.另外,2种硬质基因型(Pinb-D1b和Pina-D1b)小麦品系的C1值、C2值、C2-C1值、幅度和吸水率均显著高于野生型,而野生型小麦品系的C3值、C4值和C5值则显著高于2种硬质基因型.%A total of 35 wheat advanced lines with three replications from the Yellow and Huai Valley wheat region of China were identified for SKCS (single kernel characterization system) hardness index and puroindoline alleles as well as parameters of Alveograph and Mixolab. The results indicated that SKCS hardness index possessed highly significant correlations (P < 0.01) with Mixolab parameters of C1, C2, C3, C4, range of lorque, water absorption, and C3-C2 and Alveograph parameters of P, L, G, and P/L. Most of the Alveograph and Mixolab parameters were significantly affected (P < 0.01) by puroindoline genes. For Alveograph parameters, the averages of P, W, and P/L were significantly higher {P < 0.05) in the Pina-Dlb lines than in the wild type and the Pinb-Dlb lines, but the averages of L, G, and Ie were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the wild type than in both Pina-Dlb and Pinb-Dlb lines. For Mixolab parameters, the averages of C1, C2, C2-C1. Range of torque, and water absorption were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in both Pinb-Dlb and Pina-Dlb lines

  7. The Wheat Puroindoline Genes Confer Fungal Resistance in Transgenic Corn

    Puroindoline a and b (Pina and Pinb), together make up the functional components of the wheat grain hardness locus (Ha) and have antimicrobial properties. The antifungal activity of puroindoline proteins, PINA and PINB, has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. In this study Pina and P...

  8. 4种除草剂防除保护性耕作麦田早熟禾效果及其对作物的安全性%Efficacy and Selectivity of Four Herbicides on Poa annua L. in Spring Wheat



    The efficacy of formulated pyroxsulam 7.5%WG,mesosulfuron plus idosulfuron 3.6%WG,fenoxaprop 6.9%EW,and clodinafop-propargyl 15%WP to control Poa annua and their selectivity to wheat were studied under field con-ditions.Pyroxsulam 7.5%WG (187.5 g hm2 ) and mesosulfuron plus idosulfuron 3.6% WG (450 g hm2 ) controlled 84%and 85% P.annua,respectively,based on fresh weight determinations.Both herbicide treatments were highly se-lective to spring wheat cv.Tongmai 1 although mesosulfuron plus idosulfuron caused slight crop phytotoxicity.Fenoxaprop and clodinafop-propargyl did not provide adequate control of the grass weed.Given the efficacy,selectivity and long-term control provided by pyroxsulam 7.5%WG at 187.5 g hm2 ,its use can be recommended in the field.%通过田间试验,比较4种除草剂药后不同时期对保护性耕作麦田早熟禾的防效及其增产效果,进而比较7.5%啶磺草胺WG、3.6%甲基二磺隆·甲基碘磺隆钠盐WG、15%炔草酸WP、6.9%精唑禾草灵EW 4种除草剂防除早熟禾效果和对小麦的安全性。采用田间药效试验方法,对麦田早熟禾采用喷雾处理,进行4种除草剂防除麦田早熟禾效果及其对作物的安全性试验。7.5%啶磺草胺WG 187.50 g/hm2和3.6%甲基二磺隆·甲基碘磺隆钠盐WG 450.00 g/hm2对早熟禾鲜质量防效分别为83.58%、84.87%。3.6%甲基二磺隆·甲基碘磺隆钠盐WG对春小麦通麦1号品种有一定的药害,药害程度:甲基二磺隆·甲基碘磺隆钠盐>啶磺草胺。6.9%精唑禾草灵EW、15%炔草酸WP对早熟禾达未到防治要求。187.50 g/hm27.5%啶磺草胺WG,安全性好、防效高、持续期长,可进一步示范推广使用。

  9. Adaptability and Genotype x Environment Interaction of Spring Wheat Cultivars in Chile using Regression Analysis, AMMI, and SRAG Adaptabilidad e Interacción Genotipo x Ambiente en Trigos de Primavera utilizando Análisis de Regresión, AMMI y SREG

    Dalma Castillo


    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genetic improvement objectives include obtaining cultivars capable of expressing their maximum potential yield and quality in diverse environments. This make necessary to know and define the environment in which a variety can express its maximum potential yield and quality. The objective of this study was to assess which method is the most efficient to study cultivars response in multiple environments. For this, we analyze the adaptability, stability, and genotype x environment (GxE interaction effect, grain yield, sedimentation, and wet gluten content of 13 spring wheat cultivars sown in six environments in the central-south and southern zones of Chile during two seasons. The data were analyzed by regression analysis, additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI, and the sites regression (SREG model. By this was thus established that SREG analysis is the most efficient for this type of study since, in addition to analyzing stability, adaptability, and effect (GxE, it allows identifying the best cultivar. In this case, 'Pandora-INIA' stands out by exhibiting the best yield (7.38 t ha-1, high sedimentation (36.95 cm³, and wet gluten (41.54% indices in all the environments, and this positions it as a variety having both high yield and quality.Dentro de los objetivos del mejoramiento genético del trigo (Triticum aestivum L. figura la obtención de variedades capaces de expresar su máximo potencial de rendimiento y calidad en diversos ambientes. Por lo cual es necesario conocer y definir el ambiente en que una variedad puede expresar al máximo su potencial de rendimiento y de calidad. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar una metodología eficiente para analizar la respuesta de diversos cultivares de trigo a distintos ambientes. Para ello se analizó la adaptabilidad, estabilidad y la interacción Genotipo x Ambiente (GxE de 13 variedades de trigo de primavera, sembradas, en seis ambientes de la


    QuanxiaoLiu; HuaiyuZhan; BeihaiHe; ShuhuiYang; JianhuaLiu; JianluLiu(1); ZhenxingPang


    Polyether polyurethane was synthesized from modified wheat straw oxygen-alkaline lignin, polyethylene glycol and two different diisocyanates (diphenylemethane-4, 4'-diisocyanate, tolulene diisocyanate) by solution casting method, its properties were investigated. The results show that modified wheat straw oxygen-alkaline lignin can substitute part of polyethylene glycol to react with diisocyanate to synthesize polyurethane. The molar ratio of NCO to OH and modified wheat straw oxygen-alkaline lignin content affect the properties of lignin-based polyether polyurethane respectively. The addition of plasticizer in the polyurethane synthesis process improves the properties of synthesized polyurethane, especially the elasticity of polyurethane. The synthesized polyurethane from modified wheat straw oxygen-alkali lignin can be used as both engineering plastic and hard foam plastic in future.


    Quanxiao Liu; Huaiyu Zhan; Beihai He; Shuhui Yang; Jianhua Liu; Jianlu Liu; Zhenxing Pang


    Polyether polyurethane was synthesized from modified wheat straw oxygen-alkaline lignin,polyethylene glycol and two different diisocyanates (diphenylemethane-4, 4′-diisocyanate, tolulene diisocyanate) by solution casting method, its properties were investigated. The results show that modified wheat straw oxygen-alkaline lignin can substitute part of polyethylene glycol to react with diisocyanate to synthesize polyurethane. The molar ratio of NCO to OH and modified wheat straw oxygen-alkaline lignin content affect the properties of lignin-based polyether polyurethane respectively. The addition of plasticizer in the polyurethane synthesis process improves the properties of synthesized polyurethane, especially the elasticity of polyurethane. The synthesized polyurethane from modified wheat straw oxygen-alkali lignin can be used as both engineering plastic and hard foam plastic in future.

  12. Spring 5 & reactive streams

    CERN. Geneva; Clozel, Brian


    Spring is a framework widely used by the world-wide Java community, and it is also extensively used at CERN. The accelerator control system is constituted of 10 million lines of Java code, spread across more than 1000 projects (jars) developed by 160 software engineers. Around half of this (all server-side Java code) is based on the Spring framework. Warning: the speakers will assume that people attending the seminar are familiar with Java and Spring’s basic concepts. Spring 5.0 and Spring Boot 2.0 updates (45 min) This talk will cover the big ticket items in the 5.0 release of Spring (including Kotlin support, @Nullable and JDK9) and provide an update on Spring Boot 2.0, which is scheduled for the end of the year. Reactive Spring (1h) Spring Framework 5.0 has been released - and it now supports reactive applications in the Spring ecosystem. During this presentation, we'll talk about the reactive foundations of Spring Framework with the Reactor project and the reactive streams specification. We'll al...

  13. Effect of Differen t Mulching Measures on Spring WheatG rowth and Yield in Oasis Region%不同覆盖措施对荒漠绿洲区春小麦生长及产量的影响



    通过野外大田试验,研究了不同覆盖措施对春小麦生长及产量的影响。结果显示:覆盖处理春小麦的株高、叶面积指数、地上生物量均大于无覆盖对照( CK)的,而秸秆覆盖处理的地下生物量低于CK的;与CK相比,地膜覆盖处理春小麦的籽粒产量增加了2.2%~10.9%,石子覆盖处理增加了0.86%~3.50%,秸秆覆盖处理增加了-6.9%~-9.4%;在各覆盖处理间春小麦的千粒重、穗数和每穗小穗个数均无显著性差异。因此,地膜覆盖处理最有利于提高春小麦的籽粒产量。%The effect of spring wheat growth and yield were studied by the different mulching treatments at field trails.The re-sults were as follows:the plant height, leaf area index and the aboveground biomass of mulching treatments were larger than the un-mulching treatments.But the underground biomass of mulching treatments was smaller than the un -mulching treatments.Com-pared with the CK treatment, the grain yield of plastic film mulching treatment was increased by 2.2%~10.9%.And the grain yield of stone mulching treatment was increased by 0.86% ~0.35%.The grain yield of straw mulching treatment was increased by-6.9%~-9.4%.There were no significant differences of 1000-seed weight , the number of spikes and the number of spikelets per spike among the mulching treatments.Plastic film mulching treatment compared with other treatments was better to improve crop yields, which was the best planting method in the oasis area.

  14. Effect of Waxy Wheat Flour Blends on the Quality of Fresh and Stale Bread

    QIN Peng; MA Chuan-xi; WU Rong-lin; KONG Zhi-you; ZHANG Bo-qiao


    Starch is the major component in the wheat kernel,which is mainly composed of amylose and amylopectin.The wheat without amylose in its endosperm was called"waxy wheat".Waxy wheat can be used to adjust the amylose content and improve the wheat-based food quality by adding to non-waxy wheat flour.In order to investigate the effect of waxy wheat flour on the quality of fresh and stale bread,waxy wheat flour was added into the flour of Canadian Spring Wheat 2 at 0.0,5.0,10.0,15.0,20.0,25.0,30.0,and 35.0% to make breads.The physicochemical properties were adjusted to suitability by adding Yangmai 158 flour,and breads were evaluated for sensory quality,crumb firmness,loaf volume and weight loss over a period of 0,2,4,and 6 days.The result showed that the best total score of fresh bread was 82.9 by adding waxy flour at 7.0%,though no significant difference was found among blends with 0.0-15.0% of waxy flour.Breads with the addition of 22.0% waxy flour had lower firmness,and decreasing loss of weight.Waxy wheat flour blend at 15.0% was optimal in retarding staling without significant decreasing fresh bread quality in comparison to the control.

  15. Spring integration essentials

    Pandey, Chandan


    This book is intended for developers who are either already involved with enterprise integration or planning to venture into the domain. Basic knowledge of Java and Spring is expected. For newer users, this book can be used to understand an integration scenario, what the challenges are, and how Spring Integration can be used to solve it. Prior experience of Spring Integration is not expected as this book will walk you through all the code examples.

  16. Pro Spring Integration

    Lui, M; Chan, Andy; Long, Josh


    Pro Spring Integration is an authoritative book from the experts that guides you through the vast world of enterprise application integration (EAI) and application of the Spring Integration framework towards solving integration problems. The book is:. * An introduction to the concepts of enterprise application integration * A reference on building event-driven applications using Spring Integration * A guide to solving common integration problems using Spring Integration What makes this book unique is its coverage of contemporary technologies and real-world information, with a focus on common p

  17. Bed agglomeration risk related to combustion of cultivated fuels (wheat straw, red canary grass, industrial hemp) in commercial bed materials; Baeddagglomereringsrisk vid foerbraenning av odlade braenslen (hampa, roerflen, halm) i kommersiella baeddmaterial

    Erhardsson, Thomas; Oehman, Marcus; Geyter, Sigrid de; Oehrstroem, Anna


    The market of forest products is expanding and thus resulting in more expensive biomass fuels. Therefore research within the combustion industry for alternative fuels is needed, for example cultivated fuels. Combustion and gasification research on these cultivated fuels are limited. The objectives of this work was to increase the general knowledge of silicon rich cultivated fuels by study the agglomeration characteristics for wheat straw, reed canary grass and industrial hemp in combination with commercial bed materials. Controlled fluidized bed agglomeration tests was conducted in a 5 kW, bench-scale, bubbling fluidized bed reactor. The tendencies of agglomeration were determined with the three cultivated fuels in combination with various minerals present in natural sand (quarts, plagioclase and potassium feldspar) and an alternative bed material (olivine). During the experiments bed samples and formed agglomerates were collected for further analyses with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and with X-ray microanalysis (EDS). Wheat straw had the highest agglomeration tendency of the studied fuels followed by reed canary grass and industrial hemp. No significant layer formation was found around the different bed particles. Instead, the ash forming matter were found as individual ash sticky (partial melted) particles in the bed. The bed material mineralogical composition had no influence of the agglomeration process because of the non layer formation propensities of the used silicon rich fuels.

  18. The International Heat Stress Genotype Experiment for Modeling Wheat Response to Heat: Field Experiments and AgMIP-Wheat Multi-Model Simulations

    Martre, Pierre; Reynolds, Matthew P.; Asseng, Senthold; Ewert, Frank; Alderman, Phillip D.; Cammarano, Davide; Maiorano, Andrea; Ruane, Alexander C.; Aggarwal, Pramod K.; Anothai, Jakarat; hide


    The data set contains a portion of the International Heat Stress Genotype Experiment (IHSGE) data used in the AgMIP-Wheat project to analyze the uncertainty of 30 wheat crop models and quantify the impact of heat on global wheat yield productivity. It includes two spring wheat cultivars grown during two consecutive winter cropping cycles at hot, irrigated, and low latitude sites in Mexico (Ciudad Obregon and Tlaltizapan), Egypt (Aswan), India (Dharwar), the Sudan (Wad Medani), and Bangladesh (Dinajpur). Experiments in Mexico included normal (November-December) and late (January-March) sowing dates. Data include local daily weather data, soil characteristics and initial soil conditions, crop measurements (anthesis and maturity dates, anthesis and final total above ground biomass, final grain yields and yields components), and cultivar information. Simulations include both daily in-season and end-of-season results from 30 wheat models.

  19. Estimation of adaptive of bread spring wheat varieties

    В. А. Власенко


    Full Text Available For estimation of adaptive of varieties it is offered to use the aggregate of estimations of stability and plasticity in the integrated index - rating of adaptive of varieties. The high rating of adaptive on the parameters of productivity have the varieties Elegia myronivska, Kolektyvna 3, Etud and Suita.


    冯跟胜; 党金春; 等


    A method used for on line determining the change of wheat density with a automatic watering machine in a lqarge flour mill has been studied.The results show that the higher distinguishing ability is obtained when using 241Am as a γ-ray source for measuring the wheat density than using 137Cs.

  1. The distributions of dissolved nutrients in spring of Sungo Bay and potential reason of outbreak of red tide%桑沟湾春季营养盐分布特征及赤潮暴发诱因

    张继红; 王巍; 韩婷婷; 刘顶海; 方建光; 蒋增杰; 刘新杰; 张新军; 连岩


    There are over 20 years of history of shellfish and seaweed polyculture in Sungo Bay. There had not been reported the outbreak of red tide in the Bay. However, in May 2011, there occurred large scale red tide outbreak, which almost spread over the total bay, and which caused higher mortality of cultivated shellfish. It is very important to understand the cause of red tide and to provide data for future environmental protection and aquaculture management. We just carried out one survey of environment monitoring before the outbreak of the red tide. Therefore, in this paper, the distributions of sea water temperature, salinity and dissolved nutrients were investigated in Sungo Bay in April 2006 and 2011 ,so as to understand the cause of the outbreak of red tide. The results showed that the concentration of dissolved inorganic nitrogen ( DIN), phosphate(PO3-4 )and silicate(Si)in Sungo Bay of 2011 was 5.6,3.2 and 1.3 times of the same period in 2006,respectively. The mole ratio of DIN/P,Si/P and Si/DIN was(66.33 ±47. 16), (35. 12 ±21.44)and (0.82 ±0. 77), respectively, which was seriously deviated from the Redfield ratio. Dissolved nutrients showed obvious block distribution, their horizontal distribution was characterized by a concentration decrease from the open sea to the inner bay,and there were two sub-peak values near the Yatou River and Bahegang areas,the isolines were almost overlaps with low-salinity isolines. The probable causes of red tide outbreak were discussed from four aspects including nutrients, hydrological characteristics, kelp and temperature.%根据2006年4月和2011年4月两个航次的调查数据,对比分析了桑沟湾水域春季水温、盐度及溶解无机氮(DIN)、活性磷酸盐(PO3-4)、活性硅酸盐(Si2-3-Si)含量的时空分布特征,探讨了目前大面积赤潮暴发的可能原因.结果显示,2011年的氮、磷、硅浓度都高于2006年同期调查结果,分别是2006年的5.6倍,1.3倍和3.2倍.氮磷比高达(66.33

  2. Spring A Developer's Notebook

    Tate, Bruce A


    This no-nonsense book quickly gets you up to speed on the new Spring open source framework. Favoring examples and practical application over theory, Spring: A Developer's Notebook features 10 code-intensive labs that'll reveal the many assets of this revolutionary, lightweight architecture. In the end, you'll understand how to produce simple, clean, and effective applications.

  3. Mockito for Spring

    Acharya, Sujoy


    If you are an application developer with some experience in software testing and want to learn more about testing frameworks, then this technology and book is for you. Mockito for Spring will be perfect as your next step towards becoming a competent software tester with Spring and Mockito.

  4. Masters of the springs

    Laursen, Steffen


    led to a number of insights into the social organization of the mound cemeteries that will be presented in the paper. It is obvious that there existed a close spatial relation between freshwater springs and the compact mounds cemeteries that emerged c.2050 BC. The mound cemeteries appear to have been...... flanked by villages that relied on these water recourses for agricultural production. The springs emerged in the zone separating the cemeteries from the settlements. The freshwater springs were actively incorporated into the religious landscape of the dead, by consistently erecting mounds of a particular...... high status type right above the head of each spring. These tombs of the masters of the springs are distinguished by their larger size and vertical shaft entrance. It is argued that this particular strategy of power was employed after population growth had intensified conflicts over the rights...

  5. Effects of Different Phosphorus Rates on Variations of Mn, Al, Mg and Ca Concentrations in Soil Solution and Wheat Growth in Acid Red Soil%不同磷水平对红壤溶液中锰、铝、镁和钙浓度变化以及小麦生长的影响

    邵继锋; 陈荣府; 董晓英; 沈仁芳


    为了探明不同磷水平对红壤中土壤溶液主要金属离子变化的影响以及小麦对磷的响应,确定红壤中小麦适宜的施磷水平,采用原位提取土壤溶液和比较生物量的方法,监测了短期内红壤溶液中主要金属离子浓度变化及小麦生物量的变化.结果表明:碳酸钙的加入可以显著升高酸性红壤的pH,土壤溶液中铝、锰和镁浓度显著低于未加碳酸钙处理;800 mg/kg磷处理后铝、锰、镁和钙的浓度要比未加磷处理分别至少降低47%、44%、37%和33%.随着施磷量的增加,小麦在200 mg/kg磷处理时积累的生物量最大,随后磷增加,小麦生物量反而降低.而加碳酸钙处理小麦地下部生物量随着施磷量增加则降低.结果表明碳酸钙不仅可以有效升高土壤pH,降低土壤溶液铝浓度,还降低土壤溶液中锰的浓度.磷的加入同样可以降低锰和铝的浓度,缓解铝和锰毒害.红壤中生长小麦的适宜施磷量为200 mg/kg.%To investigate the effects of different phosphorus rates on the variations of Mn, Al, Mg and Ca concentrations in soil solutions and wheat responses to phosphorus in acid red soil, a pot experiment with a non-destructive soil-solution sampler preinstalled were conducted with increasing phosphorus fertilizer levels from 0 to 800 mg/kg. The results showed that pH was increased while the concentrations of Mn, Al, Mg and Ca in soil solutions were significance lower amended with CaCO3 than without CaCO3. Compared to 0 mg/kg phosphorus treatment the concentrations of Al, Mn, Mg and Ca at least decreased 47%, 44%, 37% and 33% after 800 mg/kg phosphorus treatment no matter amended with CaCO3 or not. Wheat biomass was accumulated highest in 200 mg/kg phosphorus treatment then decreased as phosphorus rates increased. However, the root biomass trended to decline as phosphorus rate increased while the soil was amended with CaCO3. Those results indicated that CaCO3 could increase pH and decrease Mn

  6. Effect of intercropping wheat with forage legumes on wheat production and ground cover Efeito do consórcio entre trigo e leguminosas forrageiras na produção de trigo e na cobertura de solo

    Gilberto Omar Tomm


    Full Text Available The use of winter legumes in southern Brazil is hindered by the slow growth of these species during establishment exposing soil surface to erosion. Introduction of these species along with spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was studied as a means of increasing ground cover during their initial establishment period, without reducing wheat grain yield. Two experiments were conducted in nearby areas, one in each year. Birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L., red clover (Trifolium pratense L. cultivar Quiñequelli, white clover (T. repens L., and arrowleaf clover (T. vesiculosum Savi did not reduce cereal yield in either year. Wheat yield was reduced by intercropped red clover cultivar Kenland and by subclover (T. subterraneum L. in the first year. No grain yield differences due to intercropping with any legume were detected in the second year, when rainfall was below normal. Intercropping with wheat showed to be a practical alternative to enhance ground cover at establishing forage legumes.O uso de leguminosas forrageiras no sul do Brasil é dificultado pelo lento crescimento dessas espécies no ano de estabelecimento, o que expõe o solo à erosão. Estudou-se a introdução dessas leguminosas concomitantemente ao trigo (Triticum aestivum L. com o objetivo de aumentar a cobertura de solo durante o seu desenvolvimento inicial, sem reduzir o rendimento de grãos de trigo. Foram realizados dois experimentos em áreas próximas, um em cada ano. O cornichão (Lotus corniculatus L., o trevo-vermelho (Trifolium pratense L., cultivar Quiñequelli, o trevo-branco (T. repens L. e o trevo-vesiculoso (T. vesiculosum Savi não reduziram o rendimento de trigo em nenhum dos anos. O rendimento de grãos de trigo foi reduzido pelo trevo-vermelho, cultivar Kenland, e pelo trevo subterrâneo (T. subterraneum L., no primeiro ano. No segundo ano, em que, durante o período de desenvolvimento de trigo, a precipitação pluvial foi inferior à normal, não se

  7. Eye redness

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral injection; Conjunctival injection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies. Others are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Many are nothing to worry about. Eye ...

  8. Spring Bird Migration Phenology in Eilat, Israel

    Reuven Yosef


    Full Text Available Analysis of the mean date of first captures and median arrival dates of spring migration for 34 species of birds at Eilat, Israel, revealed that the earlier a species migrates through Eilat, the greater is the inter-annual variation in the total time of its passage. Birds arrive during spring migration in Eilat in four structured and independent waves. The annual fluctuation in the initial arrival dates (initial capture dates and median dates (median date of all captures, not including recaptures, did not depend on the length of the migratory route. This implies that migrants crossing the Sahara desert depart from their winter quarters on different Julian days in different years. We suggest that negative correlations between the median date of the spring migration of early and late migrants depends upon the easterly (Hamsin wind period. Moreover, we believe that the phenology of all birds during spring migration in Eilat is possibly also determined by external factors such as weather conditions on the African continent or global climatic processes in the Northern hemisphere. Orphean Warblers (Sylvia hortensis show a strong positive correlation (rs=-0.502 of initial capture date with calendar years, whereas other species such as Barred Warbler (S. nisoria; rs = -0.391 and Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata; rs = -0.398 display an insignificant trend. The Dead Sea Sparrow (Passer moabiticus and Red-Backed Shrike (Lanius collurio are positively correlated regarding initial arrival date and medians of spring migration.

  9. Geothermal energy and hot springs in Ethiopia

    Koga, T. (Hot Springs Therapeutics Research Institute, Kyushu, Univ., Japan)


    The hot springs in Ethiopia are concentrated in two areas: the North Afar depression and adjacent Red Sea shore, and a geothermal field 100 km from northeast to southwest in the central part of Ethiopia. The latter extends not only to the Great Rift Valley but also to the Aden Gulf. In the lake district in the central Great Rift Valley, there are a number of hot springs on the lake shore. These are along NE-SW fault lines, and the water is a sodium bicarbonate-type rich in HCO/sub 3/ and Na but low in C1 and Ca. In Dallol in the North Afar depression, CO/sub 2/-containing hot springs with high temperatures (110/sup 0/C) and a specific gravity of 1.4, were observed. In the South Afar depression, located in the northeastern part of the Rift Valley, there are many active volcanoes and hot springs between the lake district and the Danakil depression. The spring water is a sodium bicarbonate saline type. Nine graphs and maps are included.

  10. Structural development of aleurone and its function in common wheat.

    Xiong, Fei; Yu, Xu-Run; Zhou, Liang; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng


    The wheat aleurone is formed from surface endosperm cells, and its developmental status reflects its biogenesis, structural characteristics, and physiological functions. In this report, wheat caryopses at different development stages were embedded in Spurr's low-viscosity embedding medium for observation of the development of aleurone cells (ACs) by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy, respectively. According to their structures and physiological characterization, the ACs development process was divided into five stages: endosperm cellulization, spherosome formation, aleurone grain formation, filling material proliferation, and maturation. Furthermore, ACs in different parts of the caryopsis formed differently. ACs near the vascular bundle developed earlier and formed transfer cells, but other ACs formed slowly and did not form transfer cells. ACs on the caryopsis backside were a regular square shape; however, ACs in the caryopsis abdomen were mainly irregular. There were also differences in development between wheat varieties. ACs were rectangular in hard wheat but square in soft wheat. ACs were larger and showed a greater degree of filling in hard compared to soft wheat. The storage materials in ACs were different compared to inner endosperm cells (IECs). The concentrations of minerals such as sodium, magnesium, silicon, phosphorus and potassium were higher in ACs than in IECs. ACs contained many aleurone grains and spherosomes, which store lipids and mineral nutrients, respectively. The cell nucleus did not disappear and the cells were still alive during aleurone maturation. However, IECs were dead and mainly contained amyloplast and protein bodies, which store starch and protein, respectively. Overall, the above results characterized major structural features of aleurone and revealed that the wheat aleurone has mainly four functions.

  11. Effect of sorghum flour addition on in vitro starch digestibility, cooking quality, and consumer acceptability of durum wheat pasta.

    Khan, Imran; Yousif, Adel M; Johnson, Stuart K; Gamlath, Shirani


    Whole grain sorghum is a valuable source of resistant starch and polyphenolic antioxidants and its addition into staple food like pasta may reduce the starch digestibility. However, incorporating nondurum wheat materials into pasta provides a challenge in terms of maintaining cooking quality and consumer acceptability. Pasta was prepared from 100% durum wheat semolina (DWS) as control or by replacing DWS with either wholegrain red sorghum flour (RSF) or white sorghum flour (WSF) each at 20%, 30%, and 40% incorporation levels, following a laboratory-scale procedure. Pasta samples were evaluated for proximate composition, in vitro starch digestibility, cooking quality, and consumer acceptability. The addition of both RSF and WSF lowered the extent of in vitro starch digestion at all substitution levels compared to the control pasta. The rapidly digestible starch was lowered in all the sorghum-containing pastas compared to the control pasta. Neither RSF or WSF addition affected the pasta quality attributes (water absorption, swelling index, dry matter, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, and springiness), except color and hardness which were negatively affected. Consumer sensory results indicated that pasta samples containing 20% and 30% RSF or WSF had acceptable palatability based on meeting one or both of the preset acceptability criteria. It is concluded that the addition of wholegrain sorghum flour to pasta at 30% incorporation level is possible to reduce starch digestibility, while maintaining adequate cooking quality and consumer acceptability.

  12. Effects of diurnal temperature range and drought on wheat yield in Spain

    Hernandez-Barrera, S.; Rodriguez-Puebla, C.; Challinor, A. J.


    This study aims to provide new insight on the wheat yield historical response to climate processes throughout Spain by using statistical methods. Our data includes observed wheat yield, pseudo-observations E-OBS for the period 1979 to 2014, and outputs of general circulation models in phase 5 of the Coupled Models Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) for the period 1901 to 2099. In investigating the relationship between climate and wheat variability, we have applied the approach known as the partial least-square regression, which captures the relevant climate drivers accounting for variations in wheat yield. We found that drought occurring in autumn and spring and the diurnal range of temperature experienced during the winter are major processes to characterize the wheat yield variability in Spain. These observable climate processes are used for an empirical model that is utilized in assessing the wheat yield trends in Spain under different climate conditions. To isolate the trend within the wheat time series, we implemented the adaptive approach known as Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition. Wheat yields in the twenty-first century are experiencing a downward trend that we claim is a consequence of widespread drought over the Iberian Peninsula and an increase in the diurnal range of temperature. These results are important to inform about the wheat vulnerability in this region to coming changes and to develop adaptation strategies.

  13. The Spring Festival



    Everybody likes to have the Spring Festival, so do I.Because during the Spring Festival there are many good things to eat, to drink and to play with. During the last Spring Festival I had a very good time. On the eve of the festival, our family had a big dinner. My uncle, aunt and cousin came back from Canada to celebrate(庆祝) my grandma's eightieth birthday. They also brought many beautiful gifts to me. My cousin and I watched TV and played games the whole night, while the grown-ups had a long talk. I didn't know when I fell asleep.

  14. Gametocidal chromosomes enhancing chromosome aberration in common wheat induced by 5-azacytidine.

    Su, W-Y; Cong, W-W; Shu, Y-J; Wang, D; Xu, G-H; Guo, C-H


    The gametocidal (Gc) chromosome from Aegilops spp induces chromosome mutation, which is introduced into common wheat as a tool of chromosome manipulation for genetic improvement. The Gc chromosome functions similar to a restriction-modification system in bacteria, in which DNA methylation is an important regulator. We treated root tips of wheat carrying Gc chromosomes with the hypomethylation agent 5-azacytidine; chromosome breakage and micronuclei were observed in these root tips. The frequency of aberrations differed in wheat containing different Gc chromosomes, suggesting different functions inducing chromosome breakage. Gc chromosome 3C caused the greatest degree of chromosome aberration, while Gc chromosome 3C(SAT) and 2C caused only slight chromosome aberration. Gc chromosome 3C induced different degrees of chromosome aberration in wheat varieties Triticum aestivum var. Chinese Spring and Norin 26, demonstrating an inhibition function in common wheat.


    Goryana Yonkova


    Full Text Available Over the past few years in Bulgaria there is an increasing interest in organic production of healthy cereals einkorn and spelt. Typical for them is that they are unpretentious to the soil, resistant to major diseases and pests occurring in cereals. Einkorn and spelt are considered the most ancient types of wheat today and now they are perceived as healthy food. They are distinguished from ordinary wheat in the following parameters: higher percentage of protein; greater amount of fiber, minerals and vitamins /twice higher contents of Vitamin A; vitamins B; calcium, phosphorus, iron, zinc and others/; they do not contain cholesterol. They outmach the common wheat in the content of selenium and antioxidants, the amount of gluten is minimized. It does not cause allergic reactions in people suffering from celiac disease /in which the specific protein is not digested, in this case - gluten/. The reason for this property is the content of only 14 chromosomes as opposed to 28 in the common wheat and 42 in the modern types of wheat, which makes it easy to assimilate. Because of the hard shell flakes the grain of einkorn does not absorb harmful substances from soil /eg heavy metals/ which is a problem in modern wheat varieties. This article examines the energy and nutritional qualities of those cereals and the possibility einkorn and spelled to be an alternative in agricultural production - both in crop and animal husbandry.

  16. [Microbiological quality of wheat flour consumed in Morocco].

    Ennadir, Jihane; Hassikou, Rachida; Ohmani, Farida; Hammamouchi, Jamila; Bouazza, Fatima; Qasmaoui, Aicha; Mennane, Zakaria; Touhami, Amina Ouazzani; Charof, Reda; Khedid, Khadija


    Cereal products (soft and hard wheat) are a basic staple food in the Moroccan diet. A total of 60 samples of two types of wheat flours used for human consumption were collected; 30 samples among this collection were obtained from various households using Moroccan varieties of wheat produced in traditional flour mills. The rest of the samples were purchased from retail wheat flour sources in the Rabat and Sale city markets. Standard plate counts (SPC), total and faecal coliforms, Clostridium, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, yeast, lactic acid bacteria, and molds, were carried out to assess the microbiological quality of wheat flour. Microbiological interpretation of the criteria was performed according to standards implemented by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Most frequent counts, in traditional and industrial wheat flour, were total aerobic mesophilic bacteria with an average 4 × 104 and 2.5 × 104 cfu/g, respectively. The results showed higher coliform and fungi counts in house than in commercial samples. Pathogenic flora as Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, and Clostridium were not detected in all investigated samples. Bacterial strains isolated from both flours belong to the following genera: Enterobacter spp., Serratia spp., Klebsiella spp., Pantoea spp., Leclercia spp., Proteus spp. The most frequent genus of the investigated isolates was Aspergillus (81 %). Microbial counts were lower than the limit laid down in the Codex Alimentarius, attributing to these flours a satisfactory microbiological quality.

  17. Thermodynamic hardness and the maximum hardness principle

    Franco-Pérez, Marco; Gázquez, José L.; Ayers, Paul W.; Vela, Alberto


    An alternative definition of hardness (called the thermodynamic hardness) within the grand canonical ensemble formalism is proposed in terms of the partial derivative of the electronic chemical potential with respect to the thermodynamic chemical potential of the reservoir, keeping the temperature and the external potential constant. This temperature dependent definition may be interpreted as a measure of the propensity of a system to go through a charge transfer process when it interacts with other species, and thus it keeps the philosophy of the original definition. When the derivative is expressed in terms of the three-state ensemble model, in the regime of low temperatures and up to temperatures of chemical interest, one finds that for zero fractional charge, the thermodynamic hardness is proportional to T-1(I -A ) , where I is the first ionization potential, A is the electron affinity, and T is the temperature. However, the thermodynamic hardness is nearly zero when the fractional charge is different from zero. Thus, through the present definition, one avoids the presence of the Dirac delta function. We show that the chemical hardness defined in this way provides meaningful and discernible information about the hardness properties of a chemical species exhibiting integer or a fractional average number of electrons, and this analysis allowed us to establish a link between the maximum possible value of the hardness here defined, with the minimum softness principle, showing that both principles are related to minimum fractional charge and maximum stability conditions.

  18. Expression of a Thatcher wheat adult plant stem rust resistance QTL on chromosome arm 2BL is enhanced by Lr34

    An F6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) spring wheat population derived from RL6071, a stem rust susceptible line and RL6058, a backcross line of Thatcher wheat with Lr34 that is highly resistant to stem rust, was evaluated for adult plant stem rust resistance in North Dakota in 1999, and in Kenya in 20...

  19. Intercropping of wheat and pea as influenced by nitrogen fertilization

    Ghaley, B.B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Jensen, Henning Høgh;


    The effect of sole and intercropping of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on crop yield, fertilizer and soil nitrogen (N) use was tested on a sandy loam soil at three levels of urea fertilizer N (0, 4 and 8 g N m−2) applied at sowing. The 15N enrichment...... and natural abundance techniques were used to determine N accumulation in the crops from the soil, fertilizer and symbiotic N2 fixation. Intercrops of pea and wheat showed maximum productivity without the supply of N fertilizer. Intercropping increased total dry matter (DM) and N yield, grain DM and N yield......, grain N concentration, the proportion of N derived from symbiotic N2 fixation, and soil N accumulation. With increasing fertilizer N supply, intercropped and sole cropped wheat responded with increased yield, grain N yield and soil N accumulation, whereas the opposite was the case for pea. Fertilizer N...

  20. Heat stress-responsive transcriptome analysis in heat susceptible and tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum L. by using Wheat Genome Array

    Peng Huiru


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wheat is a major crop in the world, and the high temperature stress can reduce the yield of wheat by as much as 15%. The molecular changes in response to heat stress are poorly understood. Using GeneChip® Wheat Genome Array, we analyzed genome-wide gene expression profiles in the leaves of two wheat genotypes, namely, heat susceptible 'Chinese Spring' (CS and heat tolerant 'TAM107' (TAM. Results A total of 6560 (~10.7% probe sets displayed 2-fold or more changes in expression in at least one heat treatment (false discovery rate, FDR, α = 0.001. Except for heat shock protein (HSP and heat shock factor (HSF genes, these putative heat responsive genes encode transcription factors and proteins involved in phytohormone biosynthesis/signaling, calcium and sugar signal pathways, RNA metabolism, ribosomal proteins, primary and secondary metabolisms, as well as proteins related to other stresses. A total of 313 probe sets were differentially expressed between the two genotypes, which could be responsible for the difference in heat tolerance of the two genotypes. Moreover, 1314 were differentially expressed between the heat treatments with and without pre-acclimation, and 4533 were differentially expressed between short and prolonged heat treatments. Conclusion The differences in heat tolerance in different wheat genotypes may be associated with multiple processes and mechanisms involving HSPs, transcription factors, and other stress related genes. Heat acclimation has little effects on gene expression under prolonged treatments but affects gene expression in wheat under short-term heat stress. The heat stress responsive genes identified in this study will facilitate our understanding of molecular basis for heat tolerance in different wheat genotypes and future improvement of heat tolerance in wheat and other cereals.

  1. Wear of hard materials by hard particles

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.


    Hard materials, such as WC-Co, boron carbide, titanium diboride and composite carbide made up of Mo2C and WC, have been tested in abrasion and erosion conditions. These hard materials showed negligible wear in abrasion against SiC particles and erosion using Al2O3 particles. The WC-Co materials have the highest wear rate of these hard materials and a very different material removal mechanism. Wear mechanisms for these materials were different for each material with the overall wear rate controlled by binder composition and content and material grain size.

  2. Fish Springs pond snail

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Communication scenario between the branch of Listing and Recovery, Fish and Wildlife Enhancement, and Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), in regards to the...

  3. Spring Bottom Trawl Survey

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Spring Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1968 and covered an area from Cape Hatteras, NC, to Nova Scotia, Canada, at depths >27m....

  4. Learning Spring application development

    Soni, Ravi Kant


    This book is intended for those who are interested in learning the core features of the Spring Framework. Prior knowledge of Java programming and web development concepts with basic XML knowledge is expected.

  5. Harbingers of Spring

    Serrao, John


    Emphasizing the spring migration of frogs, toads, and salamanders to their watery breeding sites, this article presents information on numerous amphibians and suggests both indoor and outdoor educational activities appropriate for elementary and/or early secondary instruction. (JC)

  6. 1980-2011年阿勒泰市光热资源变化对春小麦发育期的影响%Influence of Light and Heat Resources Change on Development Stage of Spring Wheat in Altay During 1980-2011

    李海花; 候彦芹; 李新建; 刘大锋


    Based on the meteorological observation data in Altay station during 1981-2011, it was analyzed that the change of light and heat resources for spring wheat in its full growth period, and correlation study of each of growth date and ≥0 ℃ effective accumulated temperature solar radiation hours. The results showed that the full growth period was a significant decreasing trend (P<0.01), and the test of significance showed that the effect is remarkable in tillering and milky maturity period. Results also suggested that effective accumulated temperature (≥0 ℃)during full growth period had shown obviously an linear decreasing tendency, and significant correlation between effective accumulated temperature (≥0 ℃)in jointing and mature period and year (P<0.01);there was a decreasing trend of solar radiation hours in full growth period, and it showed that correlation between year and solar radiation hours in emergence, jointing and milky maturity period. Finally, there was a positive correlation between solar radiation hours and date in milky maturity period(P<0.05), similar to ≥0 ℃ effective accumulated temperature in tillering and milky maturity (P<0.01).These differences could be mainly attributed to the different yearly climate conditions, secondly to the dissimilar non -climatic factors such as cultivate,management (irrigation, fertilization,disease and pest controlling)etc. The growth and yields in different year were formed by the joint influence both climatic and non-climatic factors.%利用阿勒泰基准站1980—2011年观测资料,进行了阿勒泰市春小麦发育期和光热资源变化,及各发育期日期与≥0℃积温、日照时数的相关性研究。结果表明:全发育期天数的变化呈减少趋势,分蘖、乳熟期、全发育期天数均通过了(P<0.01)显著性检验;全发育期≥0℃积温和日照时数呈线性减少趋势,拔节、乳熟、成熟期≥0℃积温与年份

  7. The Springs at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_springs)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 5 points representing the springs, natural and man-made, at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The springs were...

  8. Alien Introgression in Wheat

    Molnár-Láng, M.; Ceoloni, C; Doležel, J


    This book provides an overview of the latest advancements in the field of alien introgression in wheat. The discovery and wide application of molecular genetic techniques including molecular markers, in situ hybridization, and genomics has led to a surge in interspecific and intergeneric hybridization in recent decades. The work begins with the taxonomy of cereals, especially of those species which are potential gene sources for wheat improvement. The text then goes on to cover.

  9. Effect of Pleurotus eryngii Mushroom β-Glucan on Quality Characteristics of Common Wheat Pasta.

    Kim, SunHee; Lee, Jo-Won; Heo, Yena; Moon, BoKyung


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of β-glucan-rich fractions (BGRFs) from Pleurotus eryngii mushroom powder on the quality, textural properties, and sensory evaluation of common wheat pasta. Pasta was prepared from semolina flour and common wheat flour by replacing common wheat flour at 2%, 4%, and 6% with BGRFs. Semolina flour showed significantly higher viscosities than common wheat flour samples. However, all viscosities, except the breakdown viscosity, were reduced with increasing percentages of BGRFs. Replacement of the common wheat flour with BGRFs resulted in a reddish brown colored pasta with a lower L* value and a higher a* value. The common wheat pastas containing up to 4% BGRFs were not significantly different from semolina pasta with regard to cooking loss. Addition of up to 2% BGRFs had no significant impact on swelling index and water absorption. The addition of BGRFs in common wheat flour had a positive effect on the quality of common wheat pasta and resulted in hardness values similar to those of semolina pasta. In a sensory evaluation, cooked pasta with 2% BGRFs had the highest overall acceptability score. In summary, the results showed that common wheat flour containing 4% BGRFs could be used to produce pasta with an improved quality and texture properties similar to semolina pasta.

  10. Wheat for Kids! [and] Teacher's Guide.

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    "Wheat for Kids" contains information at the elementary school level about: the structure of the wheat kernel; varieties of wheat and their uses; growing wheat; making wheat dough; the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and nutrition; Idaho's part of the international wheat market; recipes; and word games based on the…

  11. Wheat for Kids! [and] Teacher's Guide.

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    "Wheat for Kids" contains information at the elementary school level about: the structure of the wheat kernel; varieties of wheat and their uses; growing wheat; making wheat dough; the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and nutrition; Idaho's part of the international wheat market; recipes; and word games based on the…

  12. Numbers and locations of native bacteria on field-grown wheat roots quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Watt, Michelle; Hugenholtz, Philip; White, Rosemary; Vinall, Kerry


    Native bacteria, Pseudomonas and filamentous bacteria were quantified and localized on wheat roots grown in the field using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Seminal roots were sampled through the season from unploughed soil in a conservation farming system. Such soils are spatially heterogeneous, and many roots grow slowly through hard soil with cracks and pores containing dead roots remnant from previous crops. Root and rhizosphere morphology, and contact with soil particles were preserved, and autofluorescence was avoided by observing sections in the far-red with Cy5 and Cy5.5 fluorochromes. Spatial analyses showed that bacteria were embedded in a stable matrix (biofilm) within 11 microm of the root surface (range 2-30 microm) and were clustered on 40% of roots. Half the clusters co-located with axial grooves between epidermal cells, soil particles, cap cells or root hairs; the other half were not associated with visible features. Across all wheat roots, although variable, bacteria averaged 15.4 x 10(5) cells per mm(3) rhizosphere, and of these, Pseudomonas and filaments comprised 10% and 4%, respectively, with minor effects of sample time, and no effect of plant age. Root caps were most heavily colonized by bacteria along roots, and elongation zones least heavily colonized. Pseudomonas varied little with root development and were 17% of bacteria on the elongation zone. Filamentous bacteria were not found on the elongation zone. The most significant factor to rhizosphere populations along a wheat root, however, was contact with dead root remnants, where Pseudomonas were reduced but filaments increased to 57% of bacteria (P < 0.001). This corresponded with analyses of root remnants showing they were heavily colonized by bacteria, with 48% filaments (P < 0.001) and 1.4%Pseudomonas (P = 0.014). Efforts to manage rhizosphere bacteria for sustainable agricultural systems should continue to focus on root cap and mucilage chemistry, and remnant roots as

  13. Integration of weed management and tillage practices in spring barley production

    Spring barley can be used to diversify and intensify winter wheat-based production systems in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, but the response of barley to conservation tillage systems, which are needed to reduce the risk of soil erosion, is not well documented. The objective of this study was to descri...

  14. Effect of the Amount and Particle Size of Wheat Fiber on the Physicochemical Properties and Gel Morphology of Starches.

    Qingjie Sun

    Full Text Available Effects of added wheat fiber, with different levels and particle sizes, on the physicochemical properties and gel morphology of wheat starch and mung bean starch were investigated, using rapid visco analyzer (RVA, texture analyzer (TPA and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Each starch was added with wheat fiber at 10, 20, 30 and 40% (weight basis, g/100g, and different sizes of 60, 100 and 180 mesh, respectively. The peak viscosity (PV of starches with wheat fiber were higher than the control. Starches had the highest PV with 40%, 60 mesh wheat fiber. The starches with wheat fiber showed higher hardness when compared to the control. Wheat starch and mung bean starch, with 40%, 60 mesh wheat fiber, had the highest hardnesses of 147.78 and 1032.11 g, respectively. SEM showed that the dense honeycomb structure of starch gel was diminished with increasing wheat fiber. Additionally, the number of internal pores was reduced, and a large lamellar structure was formed.

  15. Rational design of the exchange-spring permanent magnet.

    Jiang, J S; Bader, S D


    The development of the optimal exchange-spring permanent magnet balances exchange hardening, magnetization enhancement, and the feasibility of scalable fabrication. These requirements can be met with a rational design of the microstructural characteristics. The magnetization processes in several model exchange-spring structures with different geometries have been analyzed with both micromagnetic simulations and nucleation theory. The multilayer geometry and the soft-cylinders-in-hard-matrix geometry have the highest achievable figure of merit (BH)max, while the soft-spheres-in-hard-matrix geometry has the lowest upper limit for (BH)max. The cylindrical geometry permits the soft phase to be larger and does not require strict size control. Exchange-spring permanent magnets based on the cylindrical geometry may be amenable to scaled-up fabrication.

  16. Wheat Production and Economics

    Elgilany Ahmed


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The crop in the irrigated scheme has faced by manifold problems contributed to low level of productivity and high cost of production of wheat. The crop is commonly produced under pump irrigation from the River Nile. In River Nile State (RNS, wheat is grown under the irrigated sector, the State is considered as a suitable environment for producing this crop. The study was conducted at Elzeidab irrigated scheme of RNS which is regarded as the oldest and biggest scheme belonging to the Ministry of Agriculture of RNS. Approach: Primary data was collected by using structured questionnaire for (70 randomly selected respondents. More than one technique used to assess economic aspects of the crop. Cobb-Douglas production function, descriptive statistics and partial budgeting have been employed to analyze the primary data. The study detected that the major socioeconomic characteristics of Elzeidab farmers were educated, the scheme tenants have had a cumulative experience in agriculture and average farm size is found to be small and the majority 50% of surveyed tenants in Elzeidab scheme were rented. The farming system of Elzeidab scheme is dominated by wheat production which counts to 25% of the farm land. The yield gab with the potential yield obtained by Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC in the State amounts 66%. The microfinance market in Elzeidab scheme is not well developed. Water charges in the scheme were high. About 53% of the annual running expenses were allocated for fuel that made irrigation costs to be the highest single component of production costs of the crop, while irrigation water cost was considered as the most agricultural constraint, this item was found to be as 19% of the total cost of production as the highest percentage overall the variable cost items. Results: The regression analysis revealed that the most factors affecting wheat productivity under the study were: the average of tenants age, family labor

  17. Diversity of Antioxidant Content and Its Relationship to Grain Color and Morphological Characteristics in Winter Wheat Grains

    MA Dong-yun; SUN De-xiang; ZUO Yi; WANG Chen-yang; ZHU Yun-ji; GUO Tian-cai


    The current interest in the health beneifts of whole wheat grain has prompted breeders to further increase the concentration of antioxidants in wheat. The objective of this study was to investigate the variation in antioxidant content among Chinese wheat grains and the relationship between antioxidants and grain color and morphological characteristics. A wide variation was observed in the total phenolic, carotenoid and lfavonoid contents, as well as the antioxidant activity (AOA), of Chinese wheat varieties. Black wheat had the highest mean total phenolic, carotenoid and lfavonoid contents and the highest AOA, followed by red and white wheats. The grain color parameters were signiifcantly negatively correlated with total phenolic, carotenoid and lfavonoid contents and AOA among all of the wheat varieties examined, and grain weight was also signiifcantly negatively correlated with these traits. The same correlation between grain weight and antioxidant traits was also observed within individual groups of wheat, which indicates that grain weight may be used as an index for selecting wheat varieties with high AOA. Landraces had signiifcantly higher lfavonoid content than commercial wheat varieties. The results of this study may be useful for breeding nutrient-rich wheat varieties.

  18. JINAN: the City of Springs


    @@ Attractions Jinan is not a hot tourist destination in China, but it has Something special to offer, such as the 72 springs scattered throughout the city. Jinan has an alias of the Spring City (Quan Cheng)because of ouver 700 natural springs run through the city. Among them,the Baotu Spring is the most famous.

  19. Block-surface staining for differentiation of starch and cell walls in wheat endosperm.

    Glenn, G M; Pitts, M J; Liao, K; Irving, D W


    A staining technique for differentiating starch granules and cell walls was developed for computer-assisted studies of starch granule distribution in cells of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) caryopses. Blocks of embedded caryopses were sectioned, exposing the endosperm tissue, and stained with iodine potassium iodide (IKI) and Calcofluor White. Excessive tissue hydration during staining was avoided by using stains prepared in 80% ethanol and using short staining times. The IKI quenched background fluorescence which facilitated the use of higher concentrations of Calcofluor White. Cell wall definition was improved with the IKI-Calcofluor staining combination compared to Calcofluor alone. The high contrast between darkly stained starch granules and fluorescent cell walls permitted computer assisted analysis of data from selected hard and soft wheat varieties. The ratio of starch granule area to cell area was similar for both wheat classes. The starch granule sizes ranged from 2.1 microns 3 to 22,000 microns 3 with approximately 90% of the granules measuring less than 752 microns 3 (ca. 11 microns in diameter). Hard wheat samples had a greater number of small starch granules and a lower mean starch granule area compared to the soft wheat varieties tested. The starch size distribution curve was bimodal for both the hard and soft wheat varieties. Three-dimensional starch size distribution was measured for four cells near the central cheek region of a single caryopsis. The percentage of small granules was higher at the ends than at the mid-section of the cells.

  20. Chemical, isotopic, and gas compositions of selected thermal springs in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, William C.


    Twenty-seven thermal springs in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah were sampled for detailed chemical and isotopic analysis. The springs issue sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, or sodium mixed-anion waters of near neutral (6.2) to alkaline (9.2) pH. High concentrations of fluoride, more than 8 milligrams per liter, occur in Arizona in waters from Gillard Hot Springs, Castle Hot Springs, and the unnamed spring of Eagle Creek, and in New Mexico from springs along the Gila River. Deuterium compositions of the thermal waters cover the same range as those expected for meteoric waters in the respective areas. The chemical compositions of the thermal waters indicate that Thermo Hot Springs in Utah and Gillard Hot Springs in Arizona represent hydrothermal systems which are at temperatures higher than 125 deg C. Estimates of subsurface temperature based on the quartz and Na-K-Ca geothermometer differ by up to 60 deg C for Monroe, Joseph, Red Hill, and Crater hot springs in Utah. Similar conflicting estimates of aquifer temperature occur for Verde Hot Springs, the springs near Clifton and Coolidge Dam, in Arizona; and the warm springs near San Ysidro, Radium Hot Springs, and San Francisco Hot Springs, in New Mexico. Such disparities could result from mixing, precipitation of calcium carbonate, or perhaps appreciable concentrations of magnesium. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. Vernalization and Photoperiod Genes in Iranian Wheat Cultivars

    Seyyed Hamid Reza Ramazani


    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. can avoid the deleterious effects of low temperatures by using environmental adaptation strategies such as vernalization requirement and photoperiod reaction. Awareness of the genetic factors influencing growth and flowering patterns is necessary for introducing new varieties to specific environments. We performed morphological and genetic studies of 104 lines and cultivars of Iranian wheat genotypes, including four durum genotypes, obtained from national wheat breeding programmes. We used sequence-tagged site (STS-PCR with specific primers to identify alleles affecting the sensitivity to vernalization and photoperiod response at the Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1, Vrn-D1, Ppd-A1, Ppd-B1, and Ppd-D1 loci. Some morphological traits such as percentage germination, growth habit, final leaf number (FLN, ear length, and days to ear emergence were also measured. Results showed that FLN and days to ear emergence are the best morphological traits to study wheat flowering time. Allelic variation showed that Vrn-D1 is more frequent than other genes in Iranian wheat genotypes, and so most Iranian genotypes are vernalization-insensitive. In addition, most genotypes were photoperiod-insensitive because of the semi-dominant mutation allele, Ppd-D1a. Based on allelic variation and morphological traits, we identified five classes of Iranian genotypes. The allelic variation study and morphology evaluation of this germplasm showed that the majority of Iranian cultivars and breeding lines are spring varieties and insensitive to day length.

  2. Walking with springs

    Sugar, Thomas G.; Hollander, Kevin W.; Hitt, Joseph K.


    Developing bionic ankles poses great challenges due to the large moment, power, and energy that are required at the ankle. Researchers have added springs in series with a motor to reduce the peak power and energy requirements of a robotic ankle. We developed a "robotic tendon" that reduces the peak power by altering the required motor speed. By changing the required speed, the spring acts as a "load variable transmission." If a simple motor/gearbox solution is used, one walking step would require 38.8J and a peak motor power of 257 W. Using an optimized robotic tendon, the energy required is 21.2 J and the peak motor power is reduced to 96.6 W. We show that adding a passive spring in parallel with the robotic tendon reduces peak loads but the power and energy increase. Adding a passive spring in series with the robotic tendon reduces the energy requirements. We have built a prosthetic ankle SPARKy, Spring Ankle with Regenerative Kinetics, that allows a user to walk forwards, backwards, ascend and descend stairs, walk up and down slopes as well as jog.

  3. Molecular characterization of vernalization loci VRN1 in wild and cultivated wheats

    Golovnina Kseniya A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variability of the VRN1 promoter region of the unique collection of spring polyploid and wild diploid wheat species together with diploid goatgrasses (donor of B and D genomes of polyploid wheats were investigated. Accessions of wild diploid (T. boeoticum, T. urartu and tetraploid (T. araraticum, T. timopheevii species were studied for the first time. Results Sequence analysis indicated great variability in the region from -62 to -221 nucleotide positions of the VRN1 promoter region. Different indels were found within this region in spring wheats. It was shown that VRN1 promoter region of B and G genome can also contain damages such as the insertion of the transposable element. Some transcription factor recognition sites including hybrid C/G-box for TaFDL2 protein known as the VRN1 gene upregulator were predicted inside the variable region. It was shown that deletions leading to promoter damage occurred in diploid and polyploid species independently. DNA transposon insertions first occurred in polyploid species. At the same time, the duplication of the promoter region was observed in A genomes of polyploid species. Conclusions We can conclude that supposed molecular mechanism of the VRN1 gene activating in cultivated diploid wheat species T. monococcum is common also for wild T. boeoticum and was inherited by T. monococcum. The spring polyploids are not related in their origin to spring diploids. The spring T. urartu and goatgrass accessions have another mechanism of flowering activation that is not connected with indels in VRN1 promoter region. All obtained data may be useful for detailed insight into origin of spring wheat forms in evolution and domestication process.

  4. In vitro binding of puroindolines to wheat starch granules

    Sørensen, Helle Aagaard; Darlington, H.F.; Shewry, P.R.


    Puroindoline (pin) preparations made from flours of hard and soft wheats contained a mixture of pin-a, 0.19/0.53 alpha -amylase inhibitor, and purothionins. Starch granule preparations from the same cultivars were treated with proteinase to remove surface proteins and incubated with solutions...... of the pin preparations. Binding of pin-a and purothionins but not the 0.19/0.53 inhibitor was observed with no apparent differences between the behavior of the pin preparations or starch granule preparations from hard or soft types. No binding was observed when several other proteins (bovine serum albumin......, total albumins, a commercial preparation of wheat alpha -amylase inhibitors, and barley beta -amylase) were incubated with the starch granules under the same conditions, indicating that in vitro binding can be used to study specific starch granule and protein interactions....

  5. Spring of women?

    Mónica Castillo


    Full Text Available Terms such as “Islamic feminism” and “women’s movement” refer to those social movements of women that seek to assert their rights in Islamic societies. This brief study focuses on theses social movements of women and will presentan overview of the role and participation of women in the Arab Spring by examining news, events, press articles and opinions in order to contextualize the participation of women and feminists in the Arab Spring from a perspective of the social networking phenomenon as apparent drivers of the revolution.

  6. Instant Spring security starter

    Jagielski, Piotr


    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to-follow format following the Starter guide approach.This book is for people who have not used Spring Security before and want to learn how to use it effectively in a short amount of time. It is assumed that readers know both Java and HTTP protocol at the level of basic web programming. The reader should also be familiar with Inversion-of-Control/Dependency Injection, preferably with the Spring framework itsel

  7. Pro Spring security

    Scarioni, Carlo


    Security is a key element in the development of any non-trivial application. The Spring Security Framework provides a comprehensive set of functionalities to implement industry-standard authentication and authorization mechanisms for Java applications. Pro Spring Security will be a reference and advanced tutorial that will do the following: Guides you through the implementation of the security features for a Java web application by presenting consistent examples built from the ground-up. Demonstrates the different authentication and authorization methods to secure enterprise-level applications

  8. What's Behind Spring Festival?


    @@ Similar to what the Christmas Day means for the westerners,the Spring Festival is the most important celebration for Chinese people.This big event according to Chinese traditional lunar calendar relaxes and pleases the whole country as the happiest gathering time of the year.National-wide crusade for going back home,too-difficult-to-get train tickets,generous family-going-out shopping,Miaohui laundering,New Year Eve reunion dinner,visiting friends and relatives,watching annual TV gala……each piece of clue reminds us of the smell of Chinese Spring Festival.

  9. Meiotic behaviour of tetraploid wheats (Triticum turgidum L.) and their synthetic hexaploid wheat derivates influenced by meiotic restitution and heat stress

    Masoumeh Rezaei; Ahmad Arzani; Badraldin Ebrahim Sayed-Tabatabaei


    Meiotic restitution is considered to be a common mechanism of polyploidization in plants and hence is one of the most important processes in plant speciation. Meiotic behaviour of plant chromosomes is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. In this study, the meiotic behaviour of cereal crops was investigated, which includes tetraploid wheat genotypes (with and without the meiotic restitution trait) and their derivates (synthetic hexaploid wheats and a doubled haploid (DH) line), grown at two planting dates in the field. In addition, two local landraces of emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccum), one wheat cultivar (Chinese spring), one DH triticale cultivar (Eleanor) and one rye accession were included. Immature spikes of mid-autumn and end-winter sowing plants were collected in April and May 2008, respectively, fixed in Carnoy’s solution and stained with hematoxylin. Pollen mother cells (PMCs) from anthers at different stages of meiotic process were analysed for their chromosomal behaviour and irregularities. Meiotic aberrations such as laggards, chromosome bridges, micronuclei, abnormal cytokines, chromatin pulling and meiotic restitution were observed and the studied genotypes were accordingly ranked as follows: triticale > synthetic hexaploid wheats > tetraploid wheats possessing meiotic restitution > tetraploid wheats lacking meiotic restitution > rye. The results indicated that the samples that had been planted in the autumn, thus experiencing an optimum temperature level at the flowering stage, exhibited less meiotic irregularities than winter planting samples that encountered heat stress at the flowering period.

  10. Deconvolution of grading curves during milling: example of wheat straw

    Blanc, Nicolas; Richefeu, Vincent; Mayer, Claire; Delenne, Jean-Yves


    The evolution of grading-curves during powder milling or agglomeration processes includes a wealth of information about the mechanisms involved at the scale of particles. However, such information can hardly be retrieved from the particle size distribution (PSD). Based on a minimization technique we developed a methodology for the decomposition of grading curves as sub-PSDs. In this paper we follow their evolution with time in the specific case of the comminution of wheat straw.

  11. Thermoformed wheat gluten biopolymers.

    Pallos, Ferenc M; Robertson, George H; Pavlath, Attila E; Orts, William J


    The quantity of available wheat gluten exceeds the current food use markets. Thermoforming is an alternative technical means for transforming wheat gluten. Thermoforming was applied here to wheat gluten under chemically reductive conditions to form pliable, translucent sheets. A wide variety of conditions, i.e., temperature, reducing agents, plasticizers and additives were tested to obtain a range of elastic properties in the thermoformed sheets. These properties were compared to those of commercially available polymers, such as polypropylene. Elasticity of the gluten formulations were indexed by Young's modulus and were in the range measured for commercial products when tested in the 30-70% relative humidity range. Removal of the gliadin subfraction of gluten yielded polymers with higher Young's modulus since this component acts as a polymer-chain terminator. At relative humidity less than 30% all whole gluten-based sheets were brittle, while above 70% they were highly elastic.

  12. Use of a recombination-deficient phage lambda system to construct wheat genomic libraries.

    Murray, M G; Kennard, W C; Drong, R F; Slightom, J L


    The poor cloning efficiency of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Yamhill) DNA in conventional cloning vectors has previously prevented the preparation of complete genomic libraries. We show here that while wheat DNA does not clone efficiently using the vector Ch4A, it can be cloned efficiently using Ch32. Ch32 clones are red- gam+ and therefore can be propagated on recombination-deficient hosts. These results suggest that instability of wheat sequences in conventional lambda vector systems has frustrated previous attempts to prepare libraries.


    K. Mészáros


    Full Text Available Transformation of cereals is one of the emerging areas for plant genomic and biotechnology research. Wheat was among the last major crops to be transformed by particle bombardment about 10 years ago. However, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has several advantages over bombardment, including a reduction in copy number, fewer rearrangements and preferential integration into transcriptionally active chromosome regions. As a first step, we started to adapt an immature embryo-based transformation method for the model variety ‘Cadenza’. The regeneration of this variety was low and especially the cost of generating donor plants was high. Therefore, we decided (i to test regeneration capacity of winter and spring wheats using four different explants, (ii to determine the optimal genotype-regeneration system combinations, and (iii to work out the details of mature embryo transformation with Agrobacterium. The experiment was carried out with 16 cultivated winter wheat and 2 model spring wheat varieties. Four different explants: anther, immature embryo, mature embryo and dry seed were tested for callus induction and plant regeneration. The regeneration capacity was the lowest in the case of anther culture and ranged from 20% (‘Mv Béres’ to 0.1% (‘Mv Magvas’ with four varieties exerting significantly higher regeneration than ‘Cadenza’. Plant regeneration from immature embryos ranged between 59% (‘Mv Regiment’ and 0.1% (‘Mv Toborzó’. Again, four varieties produced significantly more plants than the control ‘Cadenza’. We tested two systems for the plant regeneration from mature embryos. First, mature embryos were isolated from seeds, which resulted in an average of 17% plant regeneration (from 63% in ‘Fatima’ to zero in ‘Mv Palotás’. ‘Cadenza’ was one of the worse regenerating genotype (7%. The highest plant regeneration (average 54% was in the case of seed explants. There were no significant differences

  14. Biomechanical properties of wheat grains: the implications on milling

    Reith, Martin


    Millennia of continuous innovation have driven ever increasing efficiency in the milling process. Mechanically characterizing wheat grains and discerning the structure and function of the wheat bran layers can contribute to continuing innovation. We present novel shear force and puncture force testing regimes to characterize different wheat grain cultivars. The forces endured by wheat grains during the milling process can be quantified, enabling us to measure the impact of commonly applied grain pretreatments, such as microwave heating, extended tempering, enzyme and hormone treatments on grains of different ‘hardness’. Using these methods, we demonstrate the importance of short tempering phases prior to milling and identify ways in which our methods can detect differences in the maximum force, energy and breaking behaviours of hard and soft grain types. We also demonstrate for the first time, endosperm weakening in wheat, through hormone stratification on single bran layers. The modern milling process is highly refined, meaning that small, cultivar specific, adjustments can result in large increases in downstream profits. We believe that methods such as these, which enable rapid testing of milling pretreatments and material properties can help to drive an innovation process that has been core to our industrial efforts since prehistory. PMID:28100826

  15. Influence of wheat kernel physical properties on the pulverizing process.

    Dziki, Dariusz; Cacak-Pietrzak, Grażyna; Miś, Antoni; Jończyk, Krzysztof; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula


    The physical properties of wheat kernel were determined and related to pulverizing performance by correlation analysis. Nineteen samples of wheat cultivars about similar level of protein content (11.2-12.8 % w.b.) and obtained from organic farming system were used for analysis. The kernel (moisture content 10 % w.b.) was pulverized by using the laboratory hammer mill equipped with round holes 1.0 mm screen. The specific grinding energy ranged from 120 kJkg(-1) to 159 kJkg(-1). On the basis of data obtained many of significant correlations (p kernel physical properties and pulverizing process of wheat kernel, especially wheat kernel hardness index (obtained on the basis of Single Kernel Characterization System) and vitreousness significantly and positively correlated with the grinding energy indices and the mass fraction of coarse particles (> 0.5 mm). Among the kernel mechanical properties determined on the basis of uniaxial compression test only the rapture force was correlated with the impact grinding results. The results showed also positive and significant relationships between kernel ash content and grinding energy requirements. On the basis of wheat physical properties the multiple linear regression was proposed for predicting the average particle size of pulverized kernel.

  16. A diploid wheat TILLING resource for wheat functional genomics

    Rawat Nidhi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triticum monococcum L., an A genome diploid einkorn wheat, was the first domesticated crop. As a diploid, it is attractive genetic model for the study of gene structure and function of wheat-specific traits. Diploid wheat is currently not amenable to reverse genetics approaches such as insertion mutagenesis and post-transcriptional gene silencing strategies. However, TILLING offers a powerful functional genetics approach for wheat gene analysis. Results We developed a TILLING population of 1,532 M2 families using EMS as a mutagen. A total of 67 mutants were obtained for the four genes studied. Waxy gene mutation frequencies are known to be 1/17.6 - 34.4 kb DNA in polyploid wheat TILLING populations. The T. monococcum diploid wheat TILLING population had a mutation frequency of 1/90 kb for the same gene. Lignin biosynthesis pathway genes- COMT1, HCT2, and 4CL1 had mutation frequencies of 1/86 kb, 1/92 kb and 1/100 kb, respectively. The overall mutation frequency of the diploid wheat TILLING population was 1/92 kb. Conclusion The mutation frequency of a diploid wheat TILLING population was found to be higher than that reported for other diploid grasses. The rate, however, is lower than tetraploid and hexaploid wheat TILLING populations because of the higher tolerance of polyploids to mutations. Unlike polyploid wheat, most mutants in diploid wheat have a phenotype amenable to forward and reverse genetic analysis and establish diploid wheat as an attractive model to study gene function in wheat. We estimate that a TILLING population of 5, 520 will be needed to get a non-sense mutation for every wheat gene of interest with 95% probability.

  17. Spring batch essentials

    Rao, P Raja Malleswara


    If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of Spring and some experience in the development of enterprise applications, and want to learn about batch application development in detail, then this book is ideal for you. This book will be perfect as your next step towards building simple yet powerful batch applications on a Java-based platform.

  18. Energy Matters - Spring 2002



    Quarterly newsletter from DOE's Industrial Technologies Program to promote the use of energy-efficient industrial systems. The focus of the Spring 2002 Issue of Energy Matters focuses on premium energy efficiency systems, with articles on new gas technologies, steam efficiency, the Augusta Newsprint Showcase, and more.

  19. Renaissance Administrator, Spring 1998.

    Dowdy, June P., Ed.


    This spring 1998 issue of Renaissance Administrator features the following articles: (1) "Servant Leadership and Higher Education--What is Leadership?" (Richard E. Hasselbach); (2) "Teaching Writing in the 90's--Carnivorous Printers and Dying Grandmothers" (Helen Ruggieri); (3) Assignment--Journal Writing" (Lynn Muscato); and (4) "A Business…

  20. Editors' Spring Picks

    Library Journal, 2011


    While they do not represent the rainbow of reading tastes American public libraries accommodate, Book Review editors are a wildly eclectic bunch. One look at their bedside tables and ereaders would reveal very little crossover. This article highlights an eclectic array of spring offerings ranging from print books to an audiobook to ebook apps. It…