WorldWideScience

Sample records for hard mixed-signal readout

  1. Development, optimisation and characterisation of a radiation hard mixed-signal readout chip for LHCb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loechner, S.

    2006-07-26

    The Beetle chip is a radiation hard, 128 channel pipelined readout chip for silicon strip detectors. The front-end consists of a charge-sensitive preamplifier followed by a CR-RC pulse shaper. The analogue pipeline memory is implemented as a switched capacitor array with a maximum latency of 4us. The 128 analogue channels are multiplexed and transmitted off chip in 900ns via four current output drivers. Beside the pipelined readout path, the Beetle provides a fast discrimination of the front-end pulse. Within this doctoral thesis parts of the radiation hard Beetle readout chip for the LHCb experiment have been developed. The overall chip performances like noise, power consumption, input charge rates have been optimised as well as the elimination of failures so that the Beetle fulfils the requirements of the experiment. Furthermore the characterisation of the chip was a major part of this thesis. Beside the detailed measurement of the chip performance, several irradiation tests and an Single Event Upset (SEU) test were performed. A long-time measurement with a silicon strip detector was also part of this work as well as the development and test of a first mass production test setup. The Beetle chip showed no functional failure and only slight degradation in the analogue performance under irradiation of up to 130Mrad total dose. The Beetle chip fulfils all requirements of the vertex detector (VELO), the trigger tracker (TT) and the inner tracker (IT) and is ready for the start of LHCb end of 2007. (orig.)

  2. Development, optimisation and characterisation of a radiation hard mixed-signal readout chip for LHCb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loechner, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Beetle chip is a radiation hard, 128 channel pipelined readout chip for silicon strip detectors. The front-end consists of a charge-sensitive preamplifier followed by a CR-RC pulse shaper. The analogue pipeline memory is implemented as a switched capacitor array with a maximum latency of 4us. The 128 analogue channels are multiplexed and transmitted off chip in 900ns via four current output drivers. Beside the pipelined readout path, the Beetle provides a fast discrimination of the front-end pulse. Within this doctoral thesis parts of the radiation hard Beetle readout chip for the LHCb experiment have been developed. The overall chip performances like noise, power consumption, input charge rates have been optimised as well as the elimination of failures so that the Beetle fulfils the requirements of the experiment. Furthermore the characterisation of the chip was a major part of this thesis. Beside the detailed measurement of the chip performance, several irradiation tests and an Single Event Upset (SEU) test were performed. A long-time measurement with a silicon strip detector was also part of this work as well as the development and test of a first mass production test setup. The Beetle chip showed no functional failure and only slight degradation in the analogue performance under irradiation of up to 130Mrad total dose. The Beetle chip fulfils all requirements of the vertex detector (VELO), the trigger tracker (TT) and the inner tracker (IT) and is ready for the start of LHCb end of 2007. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation of mixed-signal noise effects in photon-counting X-ray image sensor readout circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, Jan; Abdalla, Suliman; O'Nils, Mattias; Oelmann, Bengt

    2006-01-01

    In readout electronics for photon-counting pixel detectors, the tight integration between analog and digital blocks causes the readout electronics to be sensitive to on-chip noise coupling. This noise coupling can result in faulty luminance values in grayscale X-ray images, or as color distortions in a color X-ray imaging system. An exploration of simulating noise coupling in readout circuits is presented which enables the discovery of sensitive blocks at as early a stage as possible, in order to avoid costly design iterations. The photon-counting readout system has been simulated for noise coupling in order to highlight the existing problems of noise coupling in X-ray imaging systems. The simulation results suggest that on-chip noise coupling should be considered and simulated in future readout electronics systems for X-ray detectors

  4. Development of radiation hard readout electronics for LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Sexauer, Edgar; Lindenstruth, Volker

    2001-01-01

    The experiment LHCb is under development at CERN and aims to measure CP-violation in the B-Meson system at very high precision. The experiment makes use of a vertex detector that is equipped with silicon microstrip detectors. A chip suitable for the readout of this detector has been developed in a working group at the ASIC-laboratory Heidelberg. This readout chip 'Beetle-1.0' contains 128 analog input stages of a charge sensitive preamplifier, a pulse shaper and a buffer. The analog signal is fed into a comparator, from which a fast trigger signal can be derived. The following pipeline, realized as an array of gate capacitances, can be used to either store the analog output of the input amplifiers or to store the digital comparator output. External trigger signals mark events that have to be read out and the according pipeline location is stored in a derandomizing buffer. Pending events are read out from the pipeline via a charge-sensitive, resetable amplifier and an analog multiplexer, which serializes the s...

  5. The rad-hard readout system of the BaBar silicon vertex tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, V.; DeWitt, J.; Dow, S.; Frey, A.; Johnson, R. P.; Kroeger, W.; Kipnis, I.; Leona, A.; Luo, L.; Mandelli, E.; Manfredi, P. F.; Nyman, M.; Pedrali-Noy, M.; Poplevin, P.; Perazzo, A.; Roe, N.; Spencer, N.

    1998-02-01

    This paper discusses the behaviour of a prototype rad-hard version of the chip developed for the readout of the BaBar silicon vertex tracker. A previous version of the chip, implemented in the 0.8 μm HP rad-soft version has been thoroughly tested in the recent times. It featured outstanding noise characteristics and showed that the specifications assumed as target for the tracker readout were met to a very good extent. The next step was the realization of a chip prototype in the rad-hard process that will be employed in the actual chip production. Such a prototype is structurally and functionally identical to its rad-soft predecessor. However, the process parameters being different, and not fully mastered at the time of design, some deviations in the behaviour were to be expected. The reasons for such deviations have been identified and some of them were removed by acting on the points that were left accessible on the chip. Other required small circuit modifications that will not affect the production schedule. The tests done so far on the rad-hard chip have shown that the noise behaviour is very close to that of the rad-soft version, that is fully adequate for the vertex detector readout.

  6. Investigation of DEPFET as vertex detector at ILC. Intrinsic properties, radiation hardness and alternative readout schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rummel, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is supposed to be the next generation lepton collider. The detectors at ILC are intended to be precision instruments improving the performance in impact parameter (IP), momentum and energy resolution significantly compared to previous detectors at lepton colliders. To achieve this goal it is necessary to develop new detector technologies or pushing existing technologies to their technological edges. Regarding the Vertex detector (VTX) this implies challenges in resolution, material budget, power consumption and readout speed. A promising technology for the Vertex detector is the Depleted Field Effect Transistor (DEPFET). The DEPFET is a semiconductor device with in-pixel ampli cation integrated on a fully depleted bulk. This allows building detectors with intrinsically high SNR due to the large sensitive volume and the small input capacitance at the rst ampli er. To reach the ambitious performance goals it is important to understand its various features: clear performance, internal amplification, noise and radiation hardness. The intrinsic noise is analyzed, showing that the contribution of the DEPFET is below 50 e - at the required speed. Moreover it is possible to show that the internal ampli cation could be further improved to more than 1nA/e - using the standard DEPFET technology. The clear performance is investigated on matrix level utilizing a dedicated setup for single pixel testing which allows direct insight into the DEPFET operation, without the complexity of the full readout system. It is possible to show that a full clear could be achieved with a voltage pulse of 10 V. Furthermore a novel clear concept - the capacitive coupled clear gate - is demonstrated. The radiation hardness is studied with respect to the system performance utilizing various irradiations with ionizing and non ionizing particles. The impact on the bulk as well as the interface damage is investigated. Up to now the readout is performed with

  7. Investigation of DEPFET as vertex detector at ILC. Intrinsic properties, radiation hardness and alternative readout schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rummel, Stefan

    2009-07-20

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is supposed to be the next generation lepton collider. The detectors at ILC are intended to be precision instruments improving the performance in impact parameter (IP), momentum and energy resolution significantly compared to previous detectors at lepton colliders. To achieve this goal it is necessary to develop new detector technologies or pushing existing technologies to their technological edges. Regarding the Vertex detector (VTX) this implies challenges in resolution, material budget, power consumption and readout speed. A promising technology for the Vertex detector is the Depleted Field Effect Transistor (DEPFET). The DEPFET is a semiconductor device with in-pixel ampli cation integrated on a fully depleted bulk. This allows building detectors with intrinsically high SNR due to the large sensitive volume and the small input capacitance at the rst ampli er. To reach the ambitious performance goals it is important to understand its various features: clear performance, internal amplification, noise and radiation hardness. The intrinsic noise is analyzed, showing that the contribution of the DEPFET is below 50 e{sup -} at the required speed. Moreover it is possible to show that the internal ampli cation could be further improved to more than 1nA/e{sup -} using the standard DEPFET technology. The clear performance is investigated on matrix level utilizing a dedicated setup for single pixel testing which allows direct insight into the DEPFET operation, without the complexity of the full readout system. It is possible to show that a full clear could be achieved with a voltage pulse of 10 V. Furthermore a novel clear concept - the capacitive coupled clear gate - is demonstrated. The radiation hardness is studied with respect to the system performance utilizing various irradiations with ionizing and non ionizing particles. The impact on the bulk as well as the interface damage is investigated. Up to now the readout is performed

  8. Development and characterisation of a radiation hard readout chip for the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Baumeister, Daniel; Stachel, Johanna

    2003-01-01

    Within this doctoral thesis parts of the radiation hard readout chip Beetle have been developed and characterised, before and after irradiation. The design work included the analogue memory with the corresponding readout amplifier as well as components of the digital control circuitry. An interface compatible with the I2C-standard and the control logic for event readout have been implemented. A scheme has been developed which ensures the robustness of the Beetle chip against Single-Event Upset (SEU). This includes the consistent use of triple-redundant memory devices together with a self-triggered correction in parts of the circuit. The Beetle ASIC is a 128 channel pipelined readout chip for silicon strip detectors. The front-end consists of a charge-sensitive preamplifier and a CR-RC pulse shaper. It features an equivalent noise charge of ENC = 497 e− +48.3 e−/pF·Cin. The analogue memory is a switched capacitor array, which provides a latency of max. 4 µs. The 128 channels are transmitted off chip in 9...

  9. A Low Power Rad-Hard ADC for the KID Readout Electronics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposal aims to develop a radiation hardened analog-to-digital converter (ADC) required for the Kinetic Inductance Detector (KID) readout electronics. KIDs are...

  10. A pixel unit-cell targeting 16ns resolution and radiation hardness in a column read-out particle vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, M.; Millaud, J.; Nygren, D.

    1993-01-01

    A pixel unit cell (PUC) circuit architecture, optimized for a column read out architecture, is reported. Each PUC contains an integrator, active filter, comparator, and optional analog store. The time-over-threshold (TOT) discriminator allows an all-digital interface to the array periphery readout while passing an analog measure of collected charge. Use of (existing) radiation hard processes, to build a detector bump-bonded to a pixel readout array, is targeted. Here emphasis is on a qualitative explanation of how the unique circuit implementation benefits operation for Super Collider (SSC) detector application. (orig.)

  11. A pixel unit-cell targeting 16 ns resolution and radiation hardness in a column read-out particle vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, M.; Millaud, J.; Nygren, D.

    1992-10-01

    A pixel unit cell (PUC) circuit architecture, optimized for a column read out architecture, is reported. Each PUC contains an integrator, active filter, comparator, and optional analog store. The time-over-threshold (TOT) discriminator allows an all-digital interface to the array periphery readout while passing an analog measure of collected charge. Use of (existing) radiation hard processes, to build a detector bump-bonded to a pixel readout array, is targeted. Here, emphasis is on a qualitative explanation of how the unique circuit implementation benefits operation for Super Collider (SSC) detector application

  12. Radiation hardness and lifetime studies of LEDs and VCSELs for the optical readout of the ATLAS SCT

    CERN Document Server

    Beringer, J; Mommsen, R K; Nickerson, R B; Weidberg, A R; Monnier, E; Hou, H Q; Lear, K L

    1999-01-01

    We study the radiation hardness and the lifetime of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser diodes (VCSELs) in the context of the development of the optical readout for the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) at LHC. About 170 LEDs from two different manufacturers and about 130 VCSELs were irradiated with neutron and proton fluences equivalent to (and in some cases more than twice as high as) the combined neutral and charged particle fluence of about 5x10 sup 1 sup 4 n (1 MeV eq. in GaAs)/cm sup 2 expected in the ATLAS inner detector. We report on the radiation damage and the conditions required for its partial annealing under forward bias, we calculate radiation damage constants, and we present post-irradiation failure rates for LEDs and VCSELs. The lifetime after irradiation was investigated by operating the diodes at an elevated temperature of 50 degree sign C for several months, resulting in operating times corresponding to up to 70 years of operation in the ATLAS SCT. From o...

  13. Analog and mixed-signal electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Stephan, Karl

    2015-01-01

    A practical guide to analog and mixed-signal electronics, with an emphasis on design problems and applications This book provides an in-depth coverage of essential analog and mixed-signal topics such as power amplifiers, active filters, noise and dynamic range, analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion techniques, phase-locked loops, and switching power supplies. Readers will learn the basics of linear systems, types of nonlinearities and their effects, op-amp circuits, the high-gain analog filter-amplifier, and signal generation. The author uses system design examples to motivate

  14. A radiation-hard dual-channel 12-bit 40 MS/s ADC prototype for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter readout electronics upgrade at the CERN LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuppambatti, J. [Columbia University, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, New York, NY (United States); Ban, J. [Columbia University, Nevis Laboratories, Irvington, NY (United States); Andeen, T., E-mail: tandeen@utexas.edu [Columbia University, Nevis Laboratories, Irvington, NY (United States); Brown, R.; Carbone, R. [Columbia University, Nevis Laboratories, Irvington, NY (United States); Kinget, P. [Columbia University, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, New York, NY (United States); Brooijmans, G.; Sippach, W. [Columbia University, Nevis Laboratories, Irvington, NY (United States)

    2017-05-21

    The readout electronics upgrade for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters at the CERN Large Hadron Collider requires a radiation-hard ADC. The design of a radiation-hard dual-channel 12-bit 40 MS/s pipeline ADC for this use is presented. The design consists of two pipeline A/D channels each with four Multiplying Digital-to-Analog Converters followed by 8-bit Successive-Approximation-Register analog-to-digital converters. The custom design, fabricated in a commercial 130 nm CMOS process, shows a performance of 67.9 dB SNDR at 10 MHz for a single channel at 40 MS/s, with a latency of 87.5 ns (to first bit read out), while its total power consumption is 50 mW/channel. The chip uses two power supply voltages: 1.2 and 2.5 V. The sensitivity to single event effects during irradiation is measured and determined to meet the system requirements.

  15. Radiation hardness investigation of avalanche photodiodes for the Projectile Spectator Detector readout at the Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kushpil, Vasilij; Mikhaylov, Vasily; Kushpil, Svetlana; Tlustý, Pavel; Svoboda, Ondřej; Kugler, Andrej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 787, JUL (2015), s. 117-120 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG12007; GA MŠk LG14004; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : avalanche photodiodes * single protons detection * radiation hardness * neutron irradiation tests * compressed Baryonic Matter experiment * Projectile Spectator Detector Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics , Colliders Impact factor: 1.200, year: 2015

  16. Low swing differential logic for mixed signal applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, P.; Kraft, E.

    2004-01-01

    Low swing differential logic operated at a constant bias current is a promising approach to reduce the switching noise in sensitive mixed mode circuits. Most differential logic families do not allow a significant change in bias current between cells so that it is difficult to optimize the power consumption for a required speed. A nonlinear load circuit for differential current-steering logic consisting of a current source in parallel with a diode connected FET is therefore proposed. The logic levels can be easily adjusted with an external supply voltage so that the circuit design is significantly simplified. As an example application a counter for the use in pixel readout chips is presented. The layout area using radiation hard design rules is not significantly larger than CMOS. The logic can be operated at very low power

  17. Quantification, modelling and design for signal history dependent effects in mixed-signal SOI/SOS circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, C.F.; Redman-White, W.; Bracey, M.; Tenbroek, B.M.; Lee, M.S.; Uren, M.J.; Brunson, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with how the radiation hardness of mixed signal SOI/SOS CMOS circuits is taken into account at both architectural terms as well as the the transistor level cell designs. The primary issue is to deal with divergent transistor threshold shifts, and to understand the effects of large amplitude non stationary signals on analogue cell behaviour. (authors)

  18. Analysis of Design of Mixed-Signal Electronic Packaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pileggi, Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop innovative algorithms and prototype tools that will help facilitate the design of mixed signal multi-chip modules and packaging in a manner that is similar...

  19. Analogue and Mixed-Signal Integrated Circuits for Space Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of AMICSA 2014 (organised in collaboration of ESA and CERN) is to provide an international forum for the presentation and discussion of recent advances in analogue and mixed-signal VLSI design techniques and technologies for space applications.

  20. A Mixed-Signal Embedded Platform for Automotive Sensor Conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Emilio Volpi; Luca Fanucci; Adolfo Giambastiani; Alessandro Rocchi; Francesco D'Ascoli; Marco Tonarelli; Massimiliano Melani; Corrado Marino

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A mixed-signal embedded system called Intelligent Sensor InterFace (ISIF) suited to fast identify, trim, and verify an architecture to interface a given sensor is presented. This system has been developed according to a platform-based design approach, a methodology that has proved to be efficient for building complex mixed-signal embedded systems with short time-to-market. Such platform consists in a wide set of optimized high-performance analog, digital, and software intellectual pr...

  1. FPGA based mixed-signal circuit novel testing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouros, Sotirios; Vassios, Vassilios; Papakostas, Dimitrios; Hristov, Valentin

    2013-01-01

    Electronic circuits fault detection techniques, especially on modern mixed-signal circuits, are evolved and customized around the world to meet the industry needs. The paper presents techniques used on fault detection in mixed signal circuits. Moreover, the paper involves standardized methods, along with current innovations for external testing like Design for Testability (DfT) and Built In Self Test (BIST) systems. Finally, the research team introduces a circuit implementation scheme using FPGA

  2. China's mixed signals on nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieldhouse, R.

    1991-01-01

    Ultimately, it is nuclear whether the Chinese leadership has made up its collective mind on practical nuclear weapons. It is known from Chinese official sources, including articles in Communist Party and military publications and histories of the Chinese nuclear program, that an internal debate has proceeded for more than two decades, punctuated by occasional nuclear exercises or low-yield warhead tests. But China presumably has less reason now to pursue development of tactical nuclear weapons than in previous decades: relations with the Soviet Union have improved and military confrontation has eased; China's relations with India and Vietnam are also improving. The decision may already have been made, however, and the weapons built. The mystery surrounding Chinese tactical nuclear weapons is itself interesting, but it is also symbolic of the difficulty of understanding China's nuclear weapons program and policies. The West has accumulated a considerable body of knowledge about China's nuclear forces, especially historical material. But important aspects of China's nuclear behavior and its future as a nuclear power are hard to discern. A key question is China's future role in the spread of nuclear-capable weapons to other countries. China might add to international efforts to stem the proliferation of nuclear related technology, or it might become the world's missile merchant. It could make a constructive contribution to arms control efforts in general, or it could act as a spoiler

  3. AnalogRF and mixed-signal circuit systematic design

    CERN Document Server

    Tlelo-Cuautle, Esteban; Castro-Lopez, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that in the digital domain, designers can take full benefits of IPs and design automation tools to synthesize and design very complex systems, the analog designers’ task is still considered as a ‘handcraft’, cumbersome and very time consuming process. Thus, tremendous efforts are being deployed  to develop new design methodologies in the analog/RF and mixed-signal domains. This book collects 16 state-of-the-art contributions devoted to the topic of systematic design of analog, RF and mixed signal circuits. Divided in the two parts Methodologies and Techniques recent theories, synthesis techniques and design methodologies, as well as new sizing approaches in the field of robust analog and mixed signal design automation are presented for researchers and R/D engineers.  

  4. Oscillation-based test in mixed-signal circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, Gloria Huertas; Rueda, Adoración Rueda

    2007-01-01

    This book presents the development and experimental validation of the structural test strategy called Oscillation-Based Test - OBT in short. The results presented here assert, not only from a theoretical point of view, but also based on a wide experimental support, that OBT is an efficient defect-oriented test solution, complementing the existing functional test techniques for mixed-signal circuits.

  5. The FE-I4 pixel readout integrated circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Sciveres, M., E-mail: mgarcia-sciveres@bl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Arutinov, D.; Barbero, M. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Beccherle, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy); Dube, S.; Elledge, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fleury, J. [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, Orsay (France); Fougeron, D.; Gensolen, F. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Marseille (France); Gnani, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Gromov, V. [Nationaal Instituut voor Subatomaire Fysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hemperek, T.; Karagounis, M. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Kluit, R. [Nationaal Instituut voor Subatomaire Fysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kruth, A. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Mekkaoui, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Menouni, M. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Marseille (France); Schipper, J.-D. [Nationaal Instituut voor Subatomaire Fysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-04-21

    A new pixel readout integrated circuit denominated FE-I4 is being designed to meet the requirements of ATLAS experiment upgrades. It will be the largest readout IC produced to date for particle physics applications, filling the maximum allowed reticle area. This will significantly reduce the cost of future hybrid pixel detectors. In addition, FE-I4 will have smaller pixels and higher rate capability than the present generation of LHC pixel detectors. Design features are described along with simulation and test results, including low power and high rate readout architecture, mixed signal design strategy, and yield hardening.

  6. A Mixed-Signal Embedded Platform for Automotive Sensor Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Volpi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixed-signal embedded system called Intelligent Sensor InterFace (ISIF suited to fast identify, trim, and verify an architecture to interface a given sensor is presented. This system has been developed according to a platform-based design approach, a methodology that has proved to be efficient for building complex mixed-signal embedded systems with short time-to-market. Such platform consists in a wide set of optimized high-performance analog, digital, and software intellectual property (IP modules for various kinds of sensors. These IPs can be easily defined for fast prototyping of the interface circuit for the given sensor. Final ASIC implementation for the given sensor conditioning can be easily derived with reduced risk and short development time. Some case examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and flexibility of this system.

  7. A Mixed-Signal Embedded Platform for Automotive Sensor Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giambastiani Adolfo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A mixed-signal embedded system called Intelligent Sensor InterFace (ISIF suited to fast identify, trim, and verify an architecture to interface a given sensor is presented. This system has been developed according to a platform-based design approach, a methodology that has proved to be efficient for building complex mixed-signal embedded systems with short time-to-market. Such platform consists in a wide set of optimized high-performance analog, digital, and software intellectual property (IP modules for various kinds of sensors. These IPs can be easily defined for fast prototyping of the interface circuit for the given sensor. Final ASIC implementation for the given sensor conditioning can be easily derived with reduced risk and short development time. Some case examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and flexibility of this system.

  8. A Radiation Hardened by Design CMOS ASIC for Thermopile Readouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilligan, G.; Aslam, S.; DuMonthier, J.

    2012-01-01

    A radiation hardened by design (RHBD) mixed-signal application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) has been designed for a thermopile readout for operation in the harsh Jovian orbital environment. The multi-channel digitizer (MCD) ASIC includes 18 low noise amplifier channels which have tunable gain/filtering coefficients, a 16-bit sigma-delta analog-digital converter (SDADC) and an on-chip controller. The 18 channels, SDADC and controller were designed to operate with immunity to single event latchup (SEL) and to at least 10 Mrad total ionizing dose (TID). The ASIC also contains a radiation tolerant 16-bit 20 MHz Nyquist ADC for general purpose instrumentation digitizer needs. The ASIC is currently undergoing fabrication in a commercial 180 nm CMOS process. Although this ASIC was designed specifically for the harsh radiation environment of the NASA led JEO mission it is suitable for integration into instrumentation payloads 011 the ESA JUICE mission where the radiation hardness requirements are slightly less stringent.

  9. Test vehicles for CMS HGCAL readout ASIC

    CERN Document Server

    Thienpont, Damien

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents first measurement results of two test vehicles ASIC embedding some building blocks for the future CMS High Granularity CALorimeter (HGCAL) read-out ASIC. They were fabricated in CMOS 130 nm, in order to first design the Analog and Mixed-Signal blocks before going to a complete and complex chip. Such a circuit needs to achieve low noise high dynamic range charge measurement and 20 ps resolution timing capability. The results show good analog performance but with higher noise levels compared to simulations. We present the results of the preamplifiers, shapers and ADCs.

  10. Design and Measurement of a Low-Noise 64-Channels Front-End Readout ASIC for CdZnTe Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Bo; Wei, Tingcun; Gao, Wu; Liu, Hui; Hu, Yann [School of Computer Science and Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an (China)

    2015-07-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) detectors, as one of the principal detectors for the next-generation X-ray and γ-ray imagers, have high energy resolution and supporting electrode patterning in the radiation environment at room-temperature. In the present, a number of internationally renowned research institutions and universities are actively using these detector systems to carry out researches of energy spectrum analysis, medical imaging, materials characterization, high-energy physics, nuclear plant monitoring, and astrophysics. As the most important part of the readout system for the CdZnTe detector, the front-end readout application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) would have an important impact on the performances of the whole detector system. In order to ensure the small signal to noise ratio (SNR) and sufficient range of the output signal, it is necessary to design a front-end readout ASIC with very low noise and very high dynamic range. In addition, radiation hardness should be considered when the detectors are utilized in the space applications and high energy physics experiments. In this paper, we present measurements and performances of a novel multi-channel radiation-hardness low-noise front-end readout ASIC for CdZnTe detectors. The readout circuits in each channel consist of charge sensitive amplifier, leakage current compensation circuit (LCC), CR-RC shaper, S-K filter, inverse proportional amplifier, peak detect and hold circuit (PDH), discriminator and trigger logic, time sequence control circuit and driving buffer. All of 64 readout channels' outputs enter corresponding inputs of a 64 channel multiplexer. The output of the mux goes directly out of the chip via the output buffer. The 64-channel readout ASIC is implemented using the TSMC 0.35 μm mixed-signal CMOS technology. The die size of the prototype chip is 2.7 mm x 8 mm. At room temperature, the equivalent noise level of a typical channel reaches 66 e{sup -} (rms) at zero farad for a

  11. Mixed signal custom integrated circuit development for physics instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, C.L. Jr.; Bryan, W.L.; Emery, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    The Monolithic Systems Development Group at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been greatly involved in custom mixed-mode integrated circuit development for the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory and position-sensitive germanium spectrometer front-ends for the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). This paper will outline the work done for both PHENIX and the Naval Research Laboratory in the area of full-custom, mixed-signal CMOS integrated electronics. This paper presents the architectures chosen for the various PHENIX detectors which include position-sensitive silicon, capacitive pixel, and phototube detectors, and performance results for the subsystems as well as a system description of the NRL germanium strip system and its performance. The performance of the custom preamplifiers, discriminators, analog memories, analog-digital converters, and control circuitry for all systems will be presented

  12. Mixed signal custom integrated circuit development for physics instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, C.L. Jr.; Bryan, W.L.; Emery, M.S. [and others

    1998-10-01

    The Monolithic Systems Development Group at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been greatly involved in custom mixed-mode integrated circuit development for the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory and position-sensitive germanium spectrometer front-ends for the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). This paper will outline the work done for both PHENIX and the Naval Research Laboratory in the area of full-custom, mixed-signal CMOS integrated electronics. This paper presents the architectures chosen for the various PHENIX detectors which include position-sensitive silicon, capacitive pixel, and phototube detectors, and performance results for the subsystems as well as a system description of the NRL germanium strip system and its performance. The performance of the custom preamplifiers, discriminators, analog memories, analog-digital converters, and control circuitry for all systems will be presented.

  13. Radiation Hard Wide Temperature Range Mixed-Signal Components, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Low temperature survivability, high performance and radiation tolerance of electronics in combination is required for NASA's surface missions. Modern sub-micron CMOS...

  14. Industry-Oriented Laboratory Development for Mixed-Signal IC Test Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J.; Haffner, M.; Yoder, S.; Scott, M.; Reehal, G.; Ismail, M.

    2010-01-01

    The semiconductor industry is lacking qualified integrated circuit (IC) test engineers to serve in the field of mixed-signal electronics. The absence of mixed-signal IC test education at the collegiate level is cited as one of the main sources for this problem. In response to this situation, the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at…

  15. Pixel detector readout chip

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    Close-up of a pixel detector readout chip. The photograph shows an aera of 1 mm x 2 mm containing 12 separate readout channels. The entire chip contains 1000 readout channels (around 80 000 transistors) covering a sensitive area of 8 mm x 5 mm. The chip has been mounted on a silicon detector to detect high energy particles.

  16. Comparison of two different high performance mixed signal controllers for DC/DC converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lars Tønnes; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes how mixed signal controllers combining a cheap microcontroller with a simple analogue circuit can offer high performance digital control for DC/DC converters. Mixed signal controllers have the same versatility and performance as DSP based controllers. It is important to have...... an engineer experienced in microcontroller programming write the software algorithms to achieve optimal performance. Two mixed signal controller designs based on the same 8-bit microcontroller are compared both theoretically and experimentally. A 16-bit PID compensator with a sampling frequency of 200 k......Hz implemented in the 16 MIPS, 8-bit ATTiny26 microcontroller is demonstrated....

  17. Quantification, modelling and design for signal history dependent effects in mixed-signal SOI/SOS circuits; Quantification, modelisation et conception prenant en compte les etats anterieurs des signaux dans les circuits mixtes SOI/SOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, C.F.; Redman-White, W.; Bracey, M.; Tenbroek, B.M.; Lee, M.S. [Southampton Univ., Dept. of Electronics and Computer Sciences (United Kingdom); Uren, M.J.; Brunson, K.M. [DERA Farnborough, GU, Hants (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    This paper deals with how the radiation hardness of mixed signal SOI/SOS CMOS circuits is taken into account at both architectural terms as well as the the transistor level cell designs. The primary issue is to deal with divergent transistor threshold shifts, and to understand the effects of large amplitude non stationary signals on analogue cell behaviour. (authors)

  18. Automated Design Tools for Integrated Mixed-Signal Microsystems (NeoCAD)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petre, P; Visher, J; Shringarpure, R; Valley, F; Swaminathan, M

    2005-01-01

    Automated design tools and integrated design flow methodologies were developed that demonstrated more than an order- of-magnitude reduction in cycle time and cost for mixed signal (digital/analoglRF...

  19. The IBL Readout System

    CERN Document Server

    Dopke, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Flick, T; Gabrielli, A; Kugel, A; Maettig, P; Morettini, P; Polini, A; Schroer, N

    2010-01-01

    The first upgrade for the ATLAS pixel detector will be an additional layer, which is called IBL (Insertable B-Layer). To readout this new layer having new electronics assembled an update of the readout electronics is necessary. The aim is to develop a system which is capable to read out at a higher bandwidth and also compatible with the existing system to be integrated into it. The talk will describe the necessary development to reach a new readout system, concentrating on the requirements of a newly designed Back of Crate card as the optical interface in the counting room.

  20. The IBL Readout System

    CERN Document Server

    Dopke, J; Flick, T; Gabrielli, A; Kugel, A; Maettig, P; Morettini, P; Polini, A; Schroer, N

    2011-01-01

    The first upgrade for the ATLAS Pixel Detector will be an additional layer, which is called IBL (Insertable B-Layer). To readout this new layer, having new electronics, an update of the readout electronics is necessary. The aim is to develop a system which is capable to read out at a higher bandwidth, but also compatible with the existing system to be integrated into it. This paper will describe the necessary development to reach a new readout system, concentrating on the requirements of a newly designed Back of Crate card as the optical interface in the counting room.

  1. Mixed-signal 0.18μm CMOS and SiGe BiCMOS foundry technologies for ROIC applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar-Roy, Arjun; Howard, David; Racanelli, Marco; Scott, Mike; Hurwitz, Paul; Zwingman, Robert; Chaudhry, Samir; Jordan, Scott

    2010-10-01

    Today's readout integrated-circuits (ROICs) require a high level of integration of high performance analog and low power digital logic. TowerJazz offers a commercial 0.18μm CMOS technology platform for mixed-signal, RF, and high performance analog applications which can be used for ROIC applications. The commercial CA18HD dual gate oxide 1.8V/3.3V and CA18HA dual gate oxide 1.8V/5V RF/mixed signal processes, consisting of six layers of metallization, have high density stacked linear MIM capacitors, high-value resistors, triple-well isolation and thick top aluminum metal. The CA18HA process also has scalable drain extended LDMOS devices, up to 40V Vds, for high-voltage sensor applications, and high-performance bipolars for low noise requirements in ROICs. Also discussed are the available features of the commercial SBC18 SiGe BiCMOS platform with SiGe NPNs operating up to 200/200GHz (fT/fMAX frequencies in manufacturing and demonstrated to 270 GHz fT, for reduced noise and integrated RF capabilities which could be used in ROICs. Implementation of these technologies in a thick film SOI process for integrated RF switch and power management and the availability of high fT vertical PNPs to enable complementary BiCMOS (CBiCMOS), for RF enabled ROICs, are also described in this paper.

  2. Multichannel readout ASIC design flow for high energy physics and cosmic rays experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronin, A; Malankin, E

    2016-01-01

    In the large-scale high energy physics and astrophysics experiments multi-channel readout application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) are widely used. The ASICs for such experiments are complicated systems, which usually include both analog and digital building blocks. The complexity and large number of channels in such ASICs require the proper methodological approach to their design. The paper represents the mixed-signal design flow of the ASICs for high energy physics and cosmic rays experiments. This flow was successfully embedded to the development of the read-out ASIC prototype for the muon chambers of the CBM experiment. The approach was approved in UMC CMOS MMRF 180 nm process. The design flow enable to analyse the mixed-signal system operation on the different levels: functional, behavioural, schematic and post layout including parasitic elements. The proposed design flow allows reducing the simulation period and eliminating the functionality mismatches on the very early stage of the design. (paper)

  3. Readout Architecture for Hybrid Pixel Readout Chips

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)694170; Westerlund, Tomi; Wyllie, Ken

    The original contribution of this thesis to knowledge are novel digital readout architectures for hybrid pixel readout chips. The thesis presents asynchronous bus-based architecture, a data-node based column architecture and a network-based pixel matrix architecture for data transportation. It is shown that the data-node architecture achieves readout efficiency 99 % with half the output rate as a bus-based system. The network-based solution avoids ``broken'' columns due to some manufacturing errors, and it distributes internal data traffic more evenly across the pixel matrix than column-based architectures. An improvement of $>$ 10 % to the efficiency is achieved with uniform and non-uniform hit occupancies. Architectural design has been done using transaction level modeling ($TLM$) and sequential high-level design techniques for reducing the design and simulation time. It has been possible to simulate tens of column and full chip architectures using the high-level techniques. A decrease of $>$ 10 in run-time...

  4. Design and prototyping of a readout aggregation ASIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemke, Frank; Schatral, Sven; Bruening, Ulrich [ZITI, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Som, Indranil; Bhattacharyya, Tarun [Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    In close collaboration between the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (IITKGP) and the Institute for Computer Engineering (ZITI) at the University of Heidelberg a readout aggregation ASIC was designed. This happened in the context of the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR). The ASIC is designed in 65nm TSMC technology. Its miniASIC tapeout to verify the analog and high-speed components is scheduled to the first quarter of 2015. This mixed-signal ASIC consists of a full-custom 5Gb/s serializer/deserializer, designed by the IITKGP including design elements such as phase-locked loop, bandgap reference, and clock data recovery, and a digital designed network communication and aggregation part designed by the ZITI. In addition, there are test structures and an I2C readout integrated to ease bring up and monitoring. A specialty of this test ASIC is the aggregation of links featuring different data rates, running with bundles of 500 MB/s LVDS. This enables flexible readout setups of mixed detectors respectively readout of various chips. As communication protocol, a unified link protocol is used including control messages, data messages, and synchronization messages on an identical lane. The design has been simulated, verified, and hardware emulated using Spartan 6 FPGAs.

  5. Practical Implementation of Defect-Oriented Testing for a Mixed-Signal Class-D Amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurze, R.H.; Xing, Y; Xing, Y.; van Kleef, R.; Tangelder, R.J.W.T.; Engin, N.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the flow of defect-oriented testing from beginning to end, based on the industrial test development for a commercial mixed-signal class-D amplifier. A software tool called DOTSS (Defect-Oriented Test Simulation System) was used to perform the fault simulations. The greatest

  6. MISSED: an environment for mixed-signal microsystem testing and diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoff, Hans G.; Docherty, G.

    1993-01-01

    A tight link between design and test data is proposed for speeding up test-pattern generation and diagnosis during mixed-signal prototype verification. Test requirements are already incorporated at the behavioral level and specified with increased detail at lower hierarchical levels. A strict

  7. Single-event effects in analog and mixed-signal integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turflinger, T.L.

    1996-01-01

    Analog and mixed-signal integrated circuits are also susceptible to single-event effects, but they have rarely been tested. Analog circuit single-particle transients require modified test techniques and data analysis. Existing work is reviewed and future concerns are outlined

  8. Latest generation of ASICs for photodetector readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguin-Moreau, N.

    2013-01-01

    The OMEGA microelectronics group has designed a new generation of multichannel integrated circuits, the “ROC” family, in AustrianMicroSystem (AMS) SiGe 0.35 μm technology to read out signals from various families of photodetectors. The chip named MAROC (standing for Multi Anode ReadOut Chip) has been designed to read out MultiAnode Photomultipliers (MAPMT), Photomultiplier ARray In SiGe ReadOut Chip (PARISROC) to read out Photomultipliers (PMTs) and SiPM Integrated ReadOut Chip (SPIROC) to readout Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM) detectors and which was the first ASIC to do so. The three of them fulfill the stringent requirements of the future photodetectors, in particular in terms of low noise, radiation hardness, large dynamic range, high density and high speed while keeping low power thanks to the SiGe technology. These multi-channel ASICs are real System on Chip (SoC) as they provide charge, time and photon-counting information which are digitized internally. Their complexity and versatility enable innovative frontier detectors and also cover spin off of these detectors in adjacent fields such as medical or material imaging as well as smart detectors. In this presentation, the three ASIC architectures and test results will be described to give a general panorama of the “ROC” chips

  9. Latest generation of ASICs for photodetector readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin-Moreau, N.

    2013-08-01

    The OMEGA microelectronics group has designed a new generation of multichannel integrated circuits, the "ROC" family, in AustrianMicroSystem (AMS) SiGe 0.35 μm technology to read out signals from various families of photodetectors. The chip named MAROC (standing for Multi Anode ReadOut Chip) has been designed to read out MultiAnode Photomultipliers (MAPMT), Photomultiplier ARray In SiGe ReadOut Chip (PARISROC) to read out Photomultipliers (PMTs) and SiPM Integrated ReadOut Chip (SPIROC) to readout Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM) detectors and which was the first ASIC to do so. The three of them fulfill the stringent requirements of the future photodetectors, in particular in terms of low noise, radiation hardness, large dynamic range, high density and high speed while keeping low power thanks to the SiGe technology. These multi-channel ASICs are real System on Chip (SoC) as they provide charge, time and photon-counting information which are digitized internally. Their complexity and versatility enable innovative frontier detectors and also cover spin off of these detectors in adjacent fields such as medical or material imaging as well as smart detectors. In this presentation, the three ASIC architectures and test results will be described to give a general panorama of the "ROC" chips.

  10. Latest generation of ASICs for photodetector readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seguin-Moreau, N., E-mail: seguin@lal.in2p3.fr [Laboratoire de l’Accélérateur Linéaire, IN2P3-CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, Bâtiment 200, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2013-08-01

    The OMEGA microelectronics group has designed a new generation of multichannel integrated circuits, the “ROC” family, in AustrianMicroSystem (AMS) SiGe 0.35 μm technology to read out signals from various families of photodetectors. The chip named MAROC (standing for Multi Anode ReadOut Chip) has been designed to read out MultiAnode Photomultipliers (MAPMT), Photomultiplier ARray In SiGe ReadOut Chip (PARISROC) to read out Photomultipliers (PMTs) and SiPM Integrated ReadOut Chip (SPIROC) to readout Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM) detectors and which was the first ASIC to do so. The three of them fulfill the stringent requirements of the future photodetectors, in particular in terms of low noise, radiation hardness, large dynamic range, high density and high speed while keeping low power thanks to the SiGe technology. These multi-channel ASICs are real System on Chip (SoC) as they provide charge, time and photon-counting information which are digitized internally. Their complexity and versatility enable innovative frontier detectors and also cover spin off of these detectors in adjacent fields such as medical or material imaging as well as smart detectors. In this presentation, the three ASIC architectures and test results will be described to give a general panorama of the “ROC” chips.

  11. Work Hard / Play Hard

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, J.; Johnson, V.; Henckel, D.

    2016-01-01

    Work Hard / Play Hard was a participatory performance/workshop or CPD experience hosted by interdisciplinary arts atelier WeAreCodeX, in association with AntiUniversity.org. As a socially/economically engaged arts practice, Work Hard / Play Hard challenged employees/players to get playful, or go to work. 'The game changes you, you never change the game'. Employee PLAYER A 'The faster the better.' Employer PLAYER B

  12. Readout electronic for multichannel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kulibaba, V I; Naumov, S V

    2001-01-01

    Readout electronics based on the 128-channel chip 'Viking' (IDE AS inc., Norway) is considered. The chip 'Viking' integrates 128 low noise charge-sensitive preamplifiers with tunable CR-(RC) sup 2 shapers,analog memory and multiplexed readout to one output. All modules of readout electronics were designed and produced in KIPT taking into account the published recommendations of IDE AS inc.

  13. Readout electronic for multichannel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulibaba, V.I.; Maslov, N.I.; Naumov, S.V.

    2001-01-01

    Readout electronics based on the 128-channel chip 'Viking' (IDE AS inc., Norway) is considered. The chip 'Viking' integrates 128 low noise charge-sensitive preamplifiers with tunable CR-(RC) 2 shapers,analog memory and multiplexed readout to one output. All modules of readout electronics were designed and produced in KIPT taking into account the published recommendations of IDE AS inc

  14. On the Use of an Algebraic Signature Analyzer for Mixed-Signal Systems Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Geurkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an approach to design of an algebraic signature analyzer that can be used for mixed-signal systems testing. The analyzer does not contain carry propagating circuitry, which improves its performance as well as fault tolerance. The common design technique of a signature analyzer for mixed-signal systems is based on the rules of an arithmetic finite field. The application of this technique to the systems with an arbitrary radix is a challenging task and the devices designed possess high hardware complexity. The proposed technique is simple and applicable to systems of any size and radix. The hardware complexity is low. The technique can also be used in arithmetic/algebraic coding and cryptography.

  15. Property-Based Monitoring of Analog and Mixed-Signal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlicek, John; Little, Scott; Maler, Oded; Nickovic, Dejan

    In the recent past, there has been a steady growth of the market for consumer embedded devices such as cell phones, GPS and portable multimedia systems. In embedded systems, digital, analog and software components are combined on a single chip, resulting in increasingly complex designs that introduce richer functionality on smaller devices. As a consequence, the potential insertion of errors into a design becomes higher, yielding an increasing need for automated analog and mixed-signal validation tools. In the purely digital setting, formal verification based on properties expressed in industrial specification languages such as PSL and SVA is nowadays successfully integrated in the design flow. On the other hand, the validation of analog and mixed-signal systems still largely depends on simulation-based, ad-hoc methods. In this tutorial, we consider some ingredients of the standard verification methodology that can be successfully exported from digital to analog and mixed-signal setting, in particular property-based monitoring techniques. Property-based monitoring is a lighter approach to the formal verification, where the system is seen as a "black-box" that generates sets of traces, whose correctness is checked against a property, that is its high-level specification. Although incomplete, monitoring is effectively used to catch faults in systems, without guaranteeing their full correctness.

  16. Calibration of ALIBAVA readout system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trofymov, Artur [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Collaboration: ATLAS experiment-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (LH-LHC) is the upgrade of the LHC that foreseen to increase the instantaneous luminosity by a factor ten with a total integrated luminosity of 3000 fb{sup -1}. The ATLAS experiment will need to build a new tracker to operate in the new severe LH-LHC conditions (increasing detector granularity to cope with much higher channel occupancy, designing radiation-hard sensors and electronics to cope with radiation damage). Charge collection efficiency (CCE) of silicon strip sensors for the new ATLAS tracker can be done with ALIBAVA analog readout system (analog system gives more information about signal from all strips than digital). In this work the preliminary results of ALIBAVA calibration using two different methods (with ''source data'' and ''calibration data'') are presented. Calibration constant obtained by these methods is necessary for knowing collected charge on the silicon strip sensors and for having the ability to compare it with measurements done at the test beam.

  17. Commercially developed mixed-signal CMOS process features for application in advanced ROICs in 0.18μm technology node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar-Roy, Arjun; Hurwitz, Paul; Mann, Richard; Qamar, Yasir; Chaudhry, Samir; Zwingman, Robert; Howard, David; Racanelli, Marco

    2012-06-01

    Increasingly complex specifications for next-generation focal plane arrays (FPAs) require smaller pixels, larger array sizes, reduced power consumption and lower cost. We have previously reported on the favorable features available in the commercially available TowerJazz CA18 0.18μm mixed-signal CMOS technology platform for advanced read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) applications. In his paper, new devices in development for commercial purposes and which may have applications in advanced ROICs are reported. First, results of buried-channel 3.3V field effect transistors (FETs) are detailed. The buried-channel pFETs show flicker (1/f) noise reductions of ~5X in comparison to surface-channel pFETs along with a significant reduction of the body constant parameter. The buried-channel nFETs show ~2X reduction of 1/f noise versus surface-channel nFETs. Additional reduced threshold voltage nFETs and pFETs are also described. Second, a high-density capacitor solution with a four-stacked linear (metal-insulator-metal) MIM capacitor having capacitance density of 8fF/μm2 is reported. Additional stacking with MOS capacitor in a 5V tolerant process results in >50fC/μm2 charge density. Finally, one-time programmable (OTP) and multi-time programmable (MTP) non-volatile memory options in the CA18 technology platform are outlined.

  18. Waveshifting fiber readout of lanthanum halide scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, G.L.; Cherry, M.L.; Stacy, J.G.

    2006-01-01

    Newly developed high-light-yield inorganic scintillators coupled to waveshifting optical fibers provide the capability of efficient X-ray detection and millimeter scale position resolution suitable for high-energy cosmic ray instruments, hard X-ray/gamma ray astronomy telescopes and applications to national security. The CASTER design for NASA's proposed Black Hole Finder Probe mission, in particular, calls for a 6-8 m 2 hard X-ray coded aperture imaging telescope operating in the 20-600 keV energy band, putting significant constraints on cost and readout complexity. The development of new inorganic scintillator materials (e.g., cerium-doped LaBr 3 and LaCl 3 ) provides improved energy resolution and timing performance that is well suited to the requirements for national security and astrophysics applications. LaBr 3 or LaCl 3 detector arrays coupled with waveshifting fiber optic readout represent a significant advance in the performance capabilities of scintillator-based gamma cameras and provide the potential for a feasible approach to affordable, large area, extremely sensitive detectors. We describe some of the applications and present laboratory test results demonstrating the expected scintillator performance

  19. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  20. Integrated microelectronic capacitive readout subsystem for lab-on-a-chip applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spathis, Christos; Georgakopoulou, Konstantina; Petrellis, Nikos; Efstathiou, Konstantinos; Birbas, Alexios

    2014-01-01

    A mixed-signal capacitive biosensor readout system is presented with its main readout functionality embedded in an integrated circuit, compatible with complementary metal oxide semiconductor-type biosensors. The system modularity allows its usage as a consumable since it eventually leads to a system-on-chip where sensor and readout circuitry are hosted on the same die. In this work, a constant current source is used for measuring the input capacitance. Compared to most capacitive biosensor readout circuits, this method offers the convenience of adjusting both the range and the resolution, depending on the requirements dictated by the application. The chip consumes less than 5 mW of power and the die area is 0.06 mm 2 . It shows a broad input capacitance range (capable of measuring bio-capacitances from 6 pF to 9.8 nF), configurable resolution (down to 1 fF), robustness to various biological experiments and good linearity. The integrated nature of the readout system is proven to be sufficient both for one-time in situ (consumable-type) bio-measurements and its incorporation into a point-of-care system. (paper)

  1. Reduction of EMC Emissions in Mixed Signal Integrated Circuits with Embedded LIN Driver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hartl

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes several methods for reduction of electromagnetic emissions (EME of mixed signal integrated circuits (IC. The focus is on the impact that a LIN bus communication block has on a complex IC which contains analog blocks, noisy digital block, micro-core (µC and several types of memories. It is used in an automotive environment, where EMC emission reduction is one of the key success factors. Several proposed methods for EME reduction are described and implemented on three test chips. These methods include current consumption reduction, internal on-chip decoupling, ground separation and different linear voltage regulator topologies. Measurement results of several fabricated test chips are shown and discussed.

  2. A mixed signal ECG processing platform with an adaptive sampling ADC for portable monitoring applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyejung; Van Hoof, Chris; Yazicioglu, Refet Firat

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a mixed-signal ECG processing platform with an 12-bit ADC architecture that can adapt its sampling rate according to the input signals rate of change. This enables the sampling of ECG signals with significantly reduced data rate without loss of information. The presented adaptive sampling scheme reduces the ADC power consumption, enables the processing of ECG signals with lower power consumption, and reduces the power consumption of the radio while streaming the ECG signals. The test results show that running a CWT-based R peak detection algorithm using the adaptively sampled ECG signals consumes only 45.6 μW and it leads to 36% less overall system power consumption.

  3. Description of the SAltro-16 chip for gas detector readout

    CERN Document Server

    Aspell, P; Garcia Garcia, E; de Gaspari, M; Mager, M; Musa, L; Rehman, A; Trampitsch, G

    2010-01-01

    The S-ALTRO prototype chip is a mixed-signal integrated circuit designed to be one of the building blocks of the readout electronics for gas detectors. Its architecture is based in the ALTRO (ALICE TPC Read Out) chip, being its main difference the integration of the charge shaping amplifier in the same IC. Just like ALTRO chip, the prototype architecture and programmability make it suitable for the readout of a wider class of detectors. In one single chip, 16 analogue signals from the detector are shaped, digitised, processed, compressed and stored in a multi-acquisition memory. The Analogue-to- Digital converters embedded in the chip have a 10-bit dynamic range and a maximum sampling rate up to 40MHz. After digitisation, a pipelined Data Processor is able to remove from the input signal a wide range of perturbations, related to the non- ideal behaviour of the detector, temperature variation of the electronics, environmental noise, etc. Moreover, the Data Processor is able to suppress the pulse tail within 1�...

  4. Power distribution and substrate noise coupling investigations on the behavioral level for photon counting imaging readout circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, Jan; Abdalla, Suliman; O'Nils, Mattias; Oelmann, Bengt

    2007-01-01

    In modern mixed-signal system design, there are increasing problems associated with noise coupling caused by switching digital parts to sensitive analog parts. As a consequence, there is a growing necessity to understand these problems. In order to avoid costly design iterations, noise coupling simulations should be initiated as early as possible in the design chain. The problems associated with on-chip noise coupling have been discovered in photon counting pixel detector readout systems, where the level of integration of analog and digital circuits is very high on a very small area, and it would appear that these problems will continue to increase for future system designs in this field. This paper deals with the functionality of utilizing behavioral level models for simulating noise coupling in these readout systems. The methods and models are described and simulation results are shown for a photon counting pixel detector readout system

  5. Timing and Readout Contorl in the LHCb Upgraded Readout System

    CERN Document Server

    Alessio, Federico

    2016-01-01

    In 2019, the LHCb experiment at CERN will undergo a major upgrade where its detectors electronics and entire readout system will be changed to read-out events at the full LHC rate of 40 MHz. In this paper, the new timing, trigger and readout control system for such upgrade is reviewed. Particular attention is given to the distribution of the clock, timing and synchronization information across the entire readout system using generic FTTH technology like Passive Optical Networks. Moreover the system will be responsible to generically control the Front-End electronics by transmitting configuration data and receiving monitoring data, offloading the software control system from the heavy task of manipulating complex protocols of thousands of Front-End electronics devices. The way in which this was implemented is here reviewed with a description of results from first implementations of the system, including usages in test-benches, implementation of techniques for timing distribution and latency control."

  6. The PAUCam readout electronics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Jorge; Illa, José M.; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; de Vicente, Juan; Castilla, Javier; Casas, Ricard

    2016-08-01

    The PAUCam is an optical camera with a wide field of view of 1 deg x 1 deg and up to 46 narrow and broad band filters. The camera is already installed on the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) in the Canary Islands, Spain and successfully commissioned during the first period of 2015. The paper presents the main results from the readout electronics commissioning tests and include an overview of the whole readout electronics system, its configuration and current performance.

  7. Cosmic non-TEM radiation and synthetic feed array sensor system in ASIC mixed signal technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centureli, F.; Scotti, G.; Tommasino, P.; Trifiletti, A.; Romano, F.; Cimmino, R.; Saitto, A.

    2014-08-01

    The paper deals with the opportunity to introduce "Not strictly TEM waves" Synthetic detection Method (NTSM), consisting in a Three Axis Digital Beam Processing (3ADBP), to enhance the performances of radio telescope and sensor systems. Current Radio Telescopes generally use the classic 3D "TEM waves" approximation Detection Method, which consists in a linear tomography process (Single or Dual axis beam forming processing) neglecting the small z component. The Synthetic FEED ARRAY three axis Sensor SYSTEM is an innovative technique using a synthetic detection of the generic "NOT strictly TEM Waves radiation coming from the Cosmo, which processes longitudinal component of Angular Momentum too. Than the simultaneous extraction from radiation of both the linear and quadratic information component, may reduce the complexity to reconstruct the Early Universe in the different requested scales. This next order approximation detection of the observed cosmologic processes, may improve the efficacy of the statistical numerical model used to elaborate the same information acquired. The present work focuses on detection of such waves at carrier frequencies in the bands ranging from LF to MMW. The work shows in further detail the new generation of on line programmable and reconfigurable Mixed Signal ASIC technology that made possible the innovative Synthetic Sensor. Furthermore the paper shows the ability of such technique to increase the Radio Telescope Array Antenna performances.

  8. Mixed-Signal Hardware Security: Attacks and Countermeasures for ΔΣ ADC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayan Taheri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mixed-signal integrated circuits (ICs play an eminent and critical role in design and development of the embedded systems leveraged within smart weapons and military systems. These ICs can be a golden target for adversaries to compromise in order to function maliciously. In this work, we study the security aspects of a tunnel field effect transistor (TFET-based first-order one-bit delta-sigma ( Δ Σ analog to digital converter (ADC through proposing four attack and one defense models. The first attack manipulates the input signal to the Δ Σ modulator. The second attack manipulates the analog version of the modulator output bit and is triggered by the noise signal. The third attack manipulates the modulator output bit and has a controllable trigger mechanism. The fourth attack manipulates the analog version of the modulator output bit and is triggered by a victim capacitance within the chip. For the defense, a number of signal processing filters are used in order to purge the analog version of the modulator output bit for elimination of the malicious unwanted features, introduced by the attacks. According to the simulation results, the second threat model displays the strongest attack. Derived from the countermeasure evaluation, the best filter to confront the threat models is the robust regression using the least absolute residual computing method.

  9. A configurable and low-power mixed signal SoC for portable ECG monitoring applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyejung; Kim, Sunyoung; Van Helleputte, Nick; Artes, Antonio; Konijnenburg, Mario; Huisken, Jos; Van Hoof, Chris; Yazicioglu, Refet Firat

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes a mixed-signal ECG System-on-Chip (SoC) that is capable of implementing configurable functionality with low-power consumption for portable ECG monitoring applications. A low-voltage and high performance analog front-end extracts 3-channel ECG signals and single channel electrode-tissue-impedance (ETI) measurement with high signal quality. This can be used to evaluate the quality of the ECG measurement and to filter motion artifacts. A custom digital signal processor consisting of 4-way SIMD processor provides the configurability and advanced functionality like motion artifact removal and R peak detection. A built-in 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is capable of adaptive sampling achieving a compression ratio of up to 7, and loop buffer integration reduces the power consumption for on-chip memory access. The SoC is implemented in 0.18 μm CMOS process and consumes 32 μ W from a 1.2 V while heart beat detection application is running, and integrated in a wireless ECG monitoring system with Bluetooth protocol. Thanks to the ECG SoC, the overall system power consumption can be reduced significantly.

  10. Dependable Digitally-Assisted Mixed-Signal IPs Based on Integrated Self-Test & Self-Calibration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoff, Hans G.; Wan, J.

    2010-01-01

    Heterogeneous SoC devices, including sensors, analogue and mixed-signal front-end circuits and the availability of massive digital processing capability, are being increasingly used in safety-critical applications like in the automotive, medical, and the security arena. Already a significant amount

  11. Submicron InP DHBT technology for high-speed high-swing mixed-signal ICs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godin, Jean; Nodjiadjim, V.; Riet, Muriel

    2008-01-01

    We report on the development of a submicron InP DHBT technology, optimized for the fabrication of 50-GHz-clock mixed signal ICs. In-depth study of device geometry and structure has allowed to get the needed performances and yield. Special attention has been paid to critical thermal behavior. Vari...... applications of interest....

  12. A reuse-based framework for the design of analog and mixed-signal ICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Lopez, Rafael; Fernandez, Francisco V.; Rodriguez Vazquez, Angel

    2005-06-01

    Despite the spectacular breakthroughs of the semiconductor industry, the ability to design integrated circuits (ICs) under stringent time-to-market (TTM) requirements is lagging behind integration capacity, so far keeping pace with still valid Moore"s Law. The resulting gap is threatening with slowing down such a phenomenal growth. The design community believes that it is only by means of powerful CAD tools and design methodologies - and, possibly, a design paradigm shift - that this design gap can be bridged. In this sense, reuse-based design is seen as a promising solution, and concepts such as IP Block, Virtual Component, and Design Reuse have become commonplace thanks to the significant advances in the digital arena. Unfortunately, the very nature of analog and mixed-signal (AMS) design has hindered a similar level of consensus and development. This paper presents a framework for the reuse-based design of AMS circuits. The framework is founded on three key elements: (1) a CAD-supported hierarchical design flow that facilitates the incorporation of AMS reusable blocks, reduces the overall design time, and expedites the management of increasing AMS design complexity; (2) a complete, clear definition of the AMS reusable block, structured into three separate facets or views: the behavioral, structural, and layout facets, the two first for top-down electrical synthesis and bottom-up verification, the latter used during bottom-up physical synthesis; (3) the design for reusability set of tools, methods, and guidelines that, relying on intensive parameterization as well as on design knowledge capture and encapsulation, allows to produce fully reusable AMS blocks. A case study and a functional silicon prototype demonstrate the validity of the paper"s proposals.

  13. Three-dimensional impedance engineering for mixed-signal system-on-chip applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Kyuchul

    A novel approach for three-dimensional substrate impedance engineering of p-/p+ epi substrate is proposed for mixed-signal integrated circuit applications. This technology requires minimum intrusion to conventional Si CMOS processing, but offers astounding improvements with regard to RF crosstalk via substrate and RF passive device performance. The engineered substrate consists of conducting as well as semi-insulating regions strategically placed three-dimensionally throughout the volume of the substrate. The p-/p+ epi substrate is used to prevent latch-up at tight design rules in high performance digital CMOS. Metal vias are fabricated from the front side using electroless plating method for Faraday cage isolation structure as well as "true ground" contacts. A self-limiting micro-PS formation process is employed to allow the insertion of semi-insulating regions from the backside of the wafer and RIE etch to remove p- layer is performed from the front side completely eliminating any parasitic pathways for crosstalk. The crosstalk isolation methods in this study are based on the principle of RF noise shielding in addition to insulating. Both the suppression of crosstalk by the metal vias and micro-PS trench isolation are so significant that the crosstalk goes down to the noise floor of the conventional measurement instruments. The use of micro-PS layer effectively can reduce the parasitic substrate effect. These reductions result in higher Q and fr of inductors on micro-PS region. Inductors located on micro-PS are subjected to a much less stringent set of constraints than that on bulk Si substrates, allowing for much higher inductance without severe sacrifice in Q and fr, and much higher Q for with reasonable inductance and fr. The bond pad structure using micro-PS can significantly reduce the parasitic bond pad capacitance and increases the crosstalk isolation characteristic. Reducing the parasitic pad capacitance by using micro-PS results in high bond pad resonant

  14. Test and diagnosis of analogue, mixed-signal and RF integrated circuits the system on chip approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Yichuang

    2008-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive discussion of automatic testing, diagnosis and tuning of analogue, mixed-signal and RF integrated circuits, and systems in a single source. The book contains eleven chapters written by leading researchers worldwide. As well as fundamental concepts and techniques, the book reports systematically the state of the arts and future research directions of these areas. A complete range of circuit components are covered and test issues are also addressed from the SoC perspective.

  15. Optical readout and control systems for the CMS tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Troska, Jan K; Faccio, F; Gill, K; Grabit, R; Jareno, R M; Sandvik, A M; Vasey, F

    2003-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Experiment will be installed at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2007. The readout system for the CMS Tracker consists of 10000000 individual detector channels that are time-multiplexed onto 40000 unidirectional analogue (40 MSample /s) optical links for transmission between the detector and the 65 m distant counting room. The corresponding control system consists of 2500 bi-directional digital (40 Mb/s) optical links based as far as possible upon the same components. The on-detector elements (lasers and photodiodes) of both readout and control links will be distributed throughout the detector volume in close proximity to the silicon detector elements. For this reason, strict requirements are placed on minimal package size, mass, power dissipation, immunity to magnetic field, and radiation hardness. It has been possible to meet the requirements with the extensive use of commercially available components with a minimum of customization. The project has now entered its vol...

  16. Digital column readout architectures for hybrid pixel detector readout chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poikela, T; Plosila, J; Westerlund, T; Buytaert, J; Campbell, M; Gaspari, M De; Llopart, X; Wyllie, K; Gromov, V; Kluit, R; Beuzekom, M van; Zappon, F; Zivkovic, V; Brezina, C; Desch, K; Fu, Y; Kruth, A

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, two digital column architectures suitable for sparse readout of data from a pixel matrix in trigger-less applications are presented. Each architecture reads out a pixel matrix of 256 x 256 pixels with a pixel pitch of 55 μm. The first architecture has been implemented in the Timepix3 chip, and this is presented together with initial measurements. Simulation results and measured data are compared. The second architecture has been designed for Velopix, a readout chip planned for the LHCb VELO upgrade. Unlike Timepix3, this has to be tolerant to radiation-induced single-event effects. Results from post-layout simulations are shown with the circuit architectures

  17. ASIC Readout Circuit Architecture for Large Geiger Photodiode Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, Stefan; Lipson, Jerold

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a new class of readout integrated circuit (ROIC) arrays to be operated with Geiger avalanche photodiode (GPD) arrays, by integrating multiple functions at the pixel level (smart-pixel or active pixel technology) in 250-nm CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) processes. In order to pack a maximum of functions within a minimum pixel size, the ROIC array is a full, custom application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design using a mixed-signal CMOS process with compact primitive layout cells. The ROIC array was processed to allow assembly in bump-bonding technology with photon-counting infrared detector arrays into 3-D imaging cameras (LADAR). The ROIC architecture was designed to work with either common- anode Si GPD arrays or common-cathode InGaAs GPD arrays. The current ROIC pixel design is hardwired prior to processing one of the two GPD array configurations, and it has the provision to allow soft reconfiguration to either array (to be implemented into the next ROIC array generation). The ROIC pixel architecture implements the Geiger avalanche quenching, bias, reset, and time to digital conversion (TDC) functions in full-digital design, and uses time domain over-sampling (vernier) to allow high temporal resolution at low clock rates, increased data yield, and improved utilization of the laser beam.

  18. R&D Studies of the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter Readout Electronics for super-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, H

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters are high precision, high sensitivity and high granularity detectors, total about 180,000 signals are digitized and processed real-time on detector, to provide energy and time deposited in each detector element at every occurrence of the L1-trigger. A luminosity upgrade (x10) of the LHC will occur ~2017, the current readout electronics will have to be upgraded to sustain the higher radiation levels. A completely innovative readout scheme is being developed. The front-end readout will send out data continuously at each bunch crossing through high speed radiation resistant optical links, the data will be processed real-time with the possibility of implementing trigger algorithms. This article is an overview of the R&D activities and architectural studies the ATLAS LAr collaboration is developing: front-end analog and mixed-signal ASIC design, radiation resistance optical-links in SOS, high-speed back-end processing units based on FPGA architectures and power supply d...

  19. Prototype readout electronics for the upgraded ALICE Inner Tracking System

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sielewicz, K. M.; Rinella, G. A.; Bonora, M.; Ferencei, Jozef; Giubilato, P.; Rossewij, M. J.; Schambach, J.; Vaňát, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, JAN (2017), č. článku C01008. ISSN 1748-0221. [Topical Workshop on Electronics for Particle Physics. Karlsruhe, 26.09.2016-30.09.2016] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015056; GA MŠk(CZ) LG15052; GA MŠk LM2015058 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : digital electronic circuits * electronic detector readout concepts * modlar electronics * radiation-hard electronics Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016

  20. The Belle II SVD data readout system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thalmeier, R., E-mail: Richard.Thalmeier@oeaw.ac.at [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Adamczyk, K. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Angelini, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita’ di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Aziz, T.; Babu, V. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bacher, S. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Bahinipati, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, Satya Nagar (India); Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, Ti.; Baroncelli, To. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Basith, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Batignani, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita’ di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bauer, A. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Behera, P.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Bergauer, T. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Bettarini, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita’ di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bhuyan, B. [Indian Institute of Technolog y Guwahati, Assam 781039 (India); Bilka, T. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, 12116 Prague (Czech Republic); Bosi, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); and others

    2017-02-11

    The Belle II Experiment at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) in Tsukuba, Japan, will explore the asymmetry between matter and antimatter and search for new physics beyond the standard model. 172 double-sided silicon strip detectors are arranged cylindrically in four layers around the collision point to be part of a system which measures the tracks of the collision products of electrons and positrons. A total of 1748 radiation-hard APV25 chips read out 128 silicon strips each and send the analog signals by time-division multiplexing out of the radiation zone to 48 Flash Analog Digital Converter Modules (FADC). Each of them applies processing to the data; for example, it uses a digital finite impulse response filter to compensate line signal distortions, and it extracts the peak timing and amplitude from a set of several data points for each hit, using a neural network. We present an overview of the SVD data readout system, along with front-end electronics, cabling, power supplies and data processing.

  1. The read-out chain of the CBM STS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, Joerg; Emschermann, David [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR will explore the QCD phase diagram at high baryon densities during nucleus-nucleus collisions in a fixed target setup. Its physics goals require interaction rates up to 10 MHz, which can be exploited with fast and radiation hard detectors equipped with free-streaming front-end and readout electronics, connected to a common Data Aquisition (DAQ) system to forward data to the First Level Event Selector (FLES). The core component of the CBM DAQ system is the Data Processing Board (DPB) implementing three important functionalities: - The incoming data via multiple lower-speed, short distance links is preprocessed, concentrated and forwarded to the FLES via higher-speed, long distance links. - The DPBs provide an interface for the Detector Control System (DCS) to configure readout and front-end electronics (FEE). - As part of the Timing and Fast Control (TFC) system the DPBs ensure transmission of the reference clock and synchronous commands necessary to synchronize the FEE. This contribution presents the readout and DAQ chain on the example of the core subdetector, the Silicon Tracking System (STS).

  2. BATS, the readout control of UA1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botlo, M.; Dorenbosch, J.; Jimack, M.; Szoncso, F.; Taurok, A.; Walzel, G. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1991-04-15

    A steadily rising luminosity and different readout architectures for the various detector systems of UA1 required a new data flow control to minimize the dead time. BATS, a finite state machine conceived around two microprocessors in a single VME crate, improved flexibility and reliability. Compatibility with BATS streamlined all readout branches. BATS also proved to be a valuable asset in spotting readout problems and previously undetected data flow bottlenecks. (orig.).

  3. Design and implementation of a reconfigurable mixed-signal SoC based on field programmable analog arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lintao; Gao, Yuhan; Deng, Jun

    2017-11-01

    This work presents a reconfigurable mixed-signal system-on-chip (SoC), which integrates switched-capacitor-based field programmable analog arrays (FPAA), analog-to-digital converter (ADC), digital-to-analog converter, digital down converter , digital up converter, 32-bit reduced instruction-set computer central processing unit (CPU) and other digital IPs on a single chip with 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The FPAA intellectual property could be reconfigured as different function circuits, such as gain amplifier, divider, sine generator, and so on. This single-chip integrated mixed-signal system is a complete modern signal processing system, occupying a die area of 7 × 8 mm 2 and consuming 719 mW with a clock frequency of 150 MHz for CPU and 200 MHz for ADC/DAC. This SoC chip can help customers to shorten design cycles, save board area, reduce the system power consumption and depress the system integration risk, which would afford a big prospect of application for wireless communication. Project supported by the National High Technology and Development Program of China (No. 2012AA012303).

  4. Mixed-Signal Architectures for High-Efficiency and Low-Distortion Digital Audio Processing and Power Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Terreni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the algorithmic and architectural design of digital input power audio amplifiers. A modelling platform, based on a meet-in-the-middle approach between top-down and bottom-up design strategies, allows a fast but still accurate exploration of the mixed-signal design space. Different amplifier architectures are configured and compared to find optimal trade-offs among different cost-functions: low distortion, high efficiency, low circuit complexity and low sensitivity to parameter changes. A novel amplifier architecture is derived; its prototype implements digital processing IP macrocells (oversampler, interpolating filter, PWM cross-point deriver, noise shaper, multilevel PWM modulator, dead time compensator on a single low-complexity FPGA while off-chip components are used only for the power output stage (LC filter and power MOS bridge; no heatsink is required. The resulting digital input amplifier features a power efficiency higher than 90% and a total harmonic distortion down to 0.13% at power levels of tens of Watts. Discussions towards the full-silicon integration of the mixed-signal amplifier in embedded devices, using BCD technology and targeting power levels of few Watts, are also reported.

  5. Frequency multiplexing for readout of spin qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornibrook, J. M.; Colless, J. I.; Mahoney, A. C.; Croot, X. G.; Blanvillain, S.; Reilly, D. J., E-mail: david.reilly@sydney.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Lu, H.; Gossard, A. C. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    We demonstrate a low loss, chip-level frequency multiplexing scheme for readout of scaled-up spin qubit devices. By integrating separate bias tees and resonator circuits on-chip for each readout channel, we realise dispersive gate-sensing in combination with charge detection based on two radio frequency quantum point contacts. We apply this approach to perform multiplexed readout of a double quantum dot in the few-electron regime and further demonstrate operation of a 10-channel multiplexing device. Limitations for scaling spin qubit readout to large numbers of multiplexed channels are discussed.

  6. Hybrid amplifier for calorimetry with photodiode readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sushkov, V V

    1994-12-31

    A hybrid surface mounted amplifier for the photodiode readout of the EM calorimeter has been developed. The main technical characteristics of the design are presented. The design able to math readout constraints for a high luminosity collider experiment is discussed. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  7. Evolution of the dual-readout calorimeter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... a calorimeter system of a relatively simple construction and moderate costs, however with excellent properties, built upon experience gained with the extensively beam-tested DREAM (Dual REAdout. Module) prototype. The main idea of multiple readout calorimetry is to indepen- dently measure for each hadronic shower ...

  8. Evaluation of COTS SiGe, SOI, and Mixed Signal Electronic Parts for Extreme Temperature Use in NASA Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program sponsors a task at the NASA Glenn Research Center titled "Reliability of SiGe, SOI, and Advanced Mixed Signal Devices for Cryogenic Space Missions." In this task COTS parts and flight-like are evaluated by determining their performance under extreme temperatures and thermal cycling. The results from the evaluations are published on the NEPP website and at professional conferences in order to disseminate information to mission planners and system designers. This presentation discusses the task and the 2010 highlights and technical results. Topics include extreme temperature operation of SiGe and SOI devices, all-silicon oscillators, a floating gate voltage reference, a MEMS oscillator, extreme temperature resistors and capacitors, and a high temperature silicon operational amplifier.

  9. A mixed signal multi-chip module with high speed serial output links for the ATLAS Level-1 trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeiffer, U

    2000-01-01

    We have built and tested a mixed signal multi-chip module (MCM) to be used in the Level-1 Pre-Processor system for the Calorimeter Trigger of the ATLAS experiment at CERN. The MCM performs high speed digital signal processing on four analogue input signals. Results are transmitted serially at a serial data rate of 800 MBd. Nine chips of different technologies are mounted on a four layer Cu substrate. ADC converters and serialiser chips are the major consumers of electrical power on the MCM, which amounts to 9 W for all dies. Special cut-out areas are used to dissipate heat directly to the copper substrate. In this paper we report on design criteria, chosen MCM technology for substrate and die mounting, experiences with the MCM operation and measurement results. (4 refs).

  10. A low-jitter RF PLL frequency synthesizer with high-speed mixed-signal down-scaling circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Lu; Wang Zhigong; Xue Hong; He Xiaohu; Xu Yong; Sun Ling

    2010-01-01

    A low-jitter RF phase locked loop (PLL) frequency synthesizer with high-speed mixed-signal down-scaling circuits is proposed. Several techniques are proposed to reduce the design complexity and improve the performance of the mixed-signal down-scaling circuit in the PLL. An improved D-latch is proposed to increase the speed and the driving capability of the DMP in the down-scaling circuit. Through integrating the D-latch with 'OR' logic for dual-modulus operation, the delays associated with both the 'OR' and D-flip-flop (DFF) operations are reduced, and the complexity of the circuit is also decreased. The programmable frequency divider of the down-scaling circuit is realized in a new method based on deep submicron CMOS technology standard cells and a more accurate wire-load model. The charge pump in the PLL is also realized with a novel architecture to improve the current matching characteristic so as to reduce the jitter of the system. The proposed RF PLL frequency synthesizer is realized with a TSMC 0.18-μm CMOS process. The measured phase noise of the PLL frequency synthesizer output at 100 kHz offset from the center frequency is only -101.52 dBc/Hz. The circuit exhibits a low RMS jitter of 3.3 ps. The power consumption of the PLL frequency synthesizer is also as low as 36 mW at a 1.8 V power supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  11. Common Readout System in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Jubin, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is going for a major physics upgrade in 2018. This upgrade is necessary for getting high statistics and high precision measurement for probing into rare physics channels needed to understand the dynamics of the condensed phase of QCD. The high interaction rate and the large event size in the upgraded detectors will result in an experimental data flow traffic of about 1 TB/s from the detectors to the on-line computing system. A dedicated Common Readout Unit (CRU) is proposed for data concentration, multiplexing, and trigger distribution. CRU, as common interface unit, handles timing, data and control signals between on-detector systems and online-offline computing system. An overview of the CRU architecture is presented in this manuscript.

  12. Drift chamber data readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiladze, S.G.; Lokhonyai, L.

    1980-01-01

    An electronic system for processing drift chamber signals is described. The system consists of 4-channel fast amplifier-discriminators of low threshold, 16-channel time-expanders transforming 0.5 μs time intervals to 10 μs and a 9-bit time-to-digital converter (TDC) recording up to 16 expanded time intervals. If the average track multiplicity is small, TDC is capable to process signals from 4 time-expanders (i.e., 64 drift gaps). In order to record multiple tracks per drift gap discriminator outputs can be connected to a number of time-expander channels. The fast clear input enables the system to be cleared within 0.5 μs. Efficient readout from TDC is facilated by reading only those channels which contain non-zero data (9 bits - drift time; 6 bits - wire number)

  13. Common Readout System in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Jubin, Mitra

    2017-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is going for a major physics upgrade in 2018. This upgrade is necessary for getting high statistics and high precision measurement for probing into rare physics channels needed to understand the dynamics of the condensed phase of QCD. The high interaction rate and the large event size in the upgraded detectors will result in an experimental data flow traffic of about 1 TB/s from the detectors to the on-line computing system. A dedicated Common Readout Unit (CRU) is proposed for data concentration, multiplexing, and trigger distribution. CRU, as common interface unit, handles timing, data and control signals between on-detector systems and online-offline computing system. An overview of the CRU architecture is presented in this manuscript.

  14. Digital readout alpha survey instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, M.E.

    1976-01-01

    A prototype solid-state digital readout alpha particle survey instrument has been designed and constructed. The meter incorporates a Ludlum alpha scintillator as a detector, digital logic circuits for control and timing, and a Digilin counting module with reflective liquid crystal display. The device is used to monitor alpha radiation from a surface. Sample counts are totalized over 10-second intervals and displayed digitally in counts per minute up to 19,999. Tests over source samples with counts to 15,600 cpm have shown the device to be rapid, versatile and accurate. The instrument can be fabricated in one man-week and requires about $835 in material costs. A complete set of drawings is included

  15. Digital column readout architecture for the ATLAS pixel 025 mum front end IC

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelli, E; Blanquart, L; Comes, G; Denes, P; Einsweiler, Kevin F; Fischer, P; Marchesini, R; Meddeler, G; Peric, I

    2002-01-01

    A fast low noise, limited power, radiation-hard front-end chip was developed for reading out the Atlas Pixel Silicon Detector. As in the past prototypes, every chip is used to digitize and read out charge and time information from hits on each one of its 2880 inputs. The basic column readout architecture idea was adopted and modified to allow a safe transition to quarter micron technology. Each pixel cell, organized in a 160 multiplied by 18 matrix, can be independently enabled and configured in order to optimize the analog signal response and to prevent defective pixels from saturating the readout. The digital readout organizes hit data coming from each column, with respect to time, and output them on a low-level serial interface. A considerable effort was made to design state machines free of undefined states, where single-point defects and charge deposited by heavy ions in the silicon could have led to unpredicted forbidden states. 7 Refs.

  16. Design of a CMOS readout circuit on ultra-thin flexible silicon chip for printed strain gauges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elsobky

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Flexible electronics represents an emerging technology with features enabling several new applications such as wearable electronics and bendable displays. Precise and high-performance sensors readout chips are crucial for high quality flexible electronic products. In this work, the design of a CMOS readout circuit for an array of printed strain gauges is presented. The ultra-thin readout chip and the printed sensors are combined on a thin Benzocyclobutene/Polyimide (BCB/PI substrate to form a Hybrid System-in-Foil (HySiF, which is used as an electronic skin for robotic applications. Each strain gauge utilizes a Wheatstone bridge circuit, where four Aerosol Jet® printed meander-shaped resistors form a full-bridge topology. The readout chip amplifies the output voltage difference (about 5 mV full-scale swing of the strain gauge. One challenge during the sensor interface circuit design is to compensate for the relatively large dc offset (about 30 mV at 1 mA in the bridge output voltage so that the amplified signal span matches the input range of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC. The circuit design uses the 0. 5 µm mixed-signal GATEFORESTTM technology. In order to achieve the mechanical flexibility, the chip fabrication is based on either back thinned wafers or the ChipFilmTM technology, which enables the manufacturing of silicon chips with a thickness of about 20 µm. The implemented readout chip uses a supply of 5 V and includes a 5-bit digital-to-analog converter (DAC, a differential difference amplifier (DDA, and a 10-bit successive approximation register (SAR ADC. The circuit is simulated across process, supply and temperature corners and the simulation results indicate excellent performance in terms of circuit stability and linearity.

  17. Pixel detector readout electronics with two-level discriminator scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pengg, F.

    1998-01-01

    In preparation for a silicon pixel detector with more than 3,000 readout channels per chip for operation at the future large hadron collider (LHC) at CERN the analog front end of the readout electronics has been designed and measured on several test-arrays with 16 by 4 cells. They are implemented in the HP 0.8 microm process but compatible with the design rules of the radiation hard Honeywell 0.8 microm bulk process. Each cell contains bump bonding pad, preamplifier, discriminator and control logic for masking and testing within a layout area of only 50 microm by 140 microm. A new two-level discriminator scheme has been implemented to cope with the problems of time-walk and interpixel cross-coupling. The measured gain of the preamplifier is 900 mV for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP, about 24,000 e - for a 300 microm thick Si-detector) with a return to baseline within 750 ns for a 1 MIP input signal. The full readout chain (without detector) shows an equivalent noise charge to 60e - r.m.s. The time-walk, a function of the separation between the two threshold levels, is measured to be 22 ns at a separation of 1,500 e - , which is adequate for the 40 MHz beam-crossing frequency at the LHC. The interpixel cross-coupling, measured with a 40fF coupling capacitance, is less than 3%. A single cell consumes 35 microW at 3.5 V supply voltage

  18. Evolution of the dual-readout calorimeter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of longitudinal fibers, scintillator and quartz respectively, and therefore capable of deter- ... The main idea of multiple readout calorimetry is to indepen- ... in a campaign of R&D and tests (with sources, cosmic rays and beams) through-.

  19. Standard hardness conversion tables for metals relationship among brinell hardness, vickers hardness, rockwell hardness, superficial hardness, knoop hardness, and scleroscope hardness

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 Conversion Table 1 presents data in the Rockwell C hardness range on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, Knoop hardness, and Scleroscope hardness of non-austenitic steels including carbon, alloy, and tool steels in the as-forged, annealed, normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions provided that they are homogeneous. 1.2 Conversion Table 2 presents data in the Rockwell B hardness range on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, Knoop hardness, and Scleroscope hardness of non-austenitic steels including carbon, alloy, and tool steels in the as-forged, annealed, normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions provided that they are homogeneous. 1.3 Conversion Table 3 presents data on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, and Knoop hardness of nickel and high-nickel alloys (nickel content o...

  20. Hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, J.P.; Boving, H.J.; Hintermann, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    Hard, wear resistant and low friction coatings are presently produced on a world-wide basis, by different processes such as electrochemical or electroless methods, spray technologies, thermochemical, CVD and PVD. Some of the most advanced processes, especially those dedicated to thin film depositions, basically belong to CVD or PVD technologies, and will be looked at in more detail. The hard coatings mainly consist of oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides or carbon. Over the years, many processes have been developed which are variations and/or combinations of the basic CVD and PVD methods. The main difference between these two families of deposition techniques is that the CVD is an elevated temperature process (≥ 700 C), while the PVD on the contrary, is rather a low temperature process (≤ 500 C); this of course influences the choice of substrates and properties of the coating/substrate systems. Fundamental aspects of the vapor phase deposition techniques and some of their influences on coating properties will be discussed, as well as the very important interactions between deposit and substrate: diffusions, internal stress, etc. Advantages and limitations of CVD and PVD respectively will briefly be reviewed and examples of applications of the layers will be given. Parallel to the development and permanent updating of surface modification technologies, an effort was made to create novel characterisation methods. A close look will be given to the coating adherence control by means of the scratch test, at the coating hardness measurement by means of nanoindentation, at the coating wear resistance by means of a pin-on-disc tribometer, and at the surface quality evaluation by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finally, main important trends will be highlighted. (orig.)

  1. Irradiation tests of readout chain components of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, C; Golikov, V; Golubyh, S M; Kukhtin, V; Kulagin, E; Luschikov, V; Minashkin, V F; Shalyugin, A N

    1999-01-01

    Various readout chain components of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters have been exposed to high neutron fluences and $gamma$-doses at the irradiation test facility of the IBR-2 reactor of JINR, Dubna. Results of the capacitance and impedance measurements of coaxial cables are presented. Results of peeling tests of PC board samples (kapton and copper strips) as a measure of the bonding agent irradiation hardness are also reported.

  2. Irradiation tests of readout chain components of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, C.; Cheplakov, A.; Golikov, V.; Golubykh, S.; Kukhtin, V.; Kulagin, E.; Lushchikov, V.; Minashkin, V.; Shalyugin, A.

    2000-01-01

    Various readout chain components of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters have been exposed to high neutron fluences and γ doses at the irradiation test facility of the IBR-2 reactor of JINR, Dubna. Results of the capacitance and impedance measurements of coaxial cables are presented. Results of peeling tests of PC board samples (carton and copper strips) as a measure of the bonding agent irradiation hardness are also reported

  3. Return to mixed signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadomski, C.R.; Maloney, P.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the performance of independent energy stocks. The topics discussed in the article include the performance of the energy stocks compared to the performance of the DOW Averages and industry prospects for the short term. The article includes two side bars concerning Wall Street analysts recommendations of independent energy companies and a rating of the Independent Energy 100 based on their performance as of August 1991

  4. Scaling and application of commercial, feature-rich, modular mixed-signal technology platforms for large format ROICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar-Roy, Arjun; Racanelli, Marco; Howard, David; Miyagi, Glenn; Bowler, Mark; Jordan, Scott; Zhang, Tao; Krieger, William

    2010-04-01

    Today's modular, mixed-signal CMOS process platforms are excellent choices for manufacturing of highly integrated, large-format read out integrated circuits (ROICs). Platform features, that can be used for both cooled and un-cooled ROIC applications, can include (1) quality passives such as 4fFμm2 stacked MIM capacitors for linearity and higher density capacitance per pixel, 1kOhm high-value poly-silicon resistors, 2.8μm thick metals for efficient power distribution and reduced I-R drop; (2) analog active devices such as low noise single gate 3.3V, and 1.8V/3.3V or 1.8V/5V dual gate configurations, 40V LDMOS FETs, and NPN and PNP devices, deep n-well for substrate isolation for analog blocks and digital logic; (3) tools to assist the circuit designer such as models for cryogenic temperatures, CAD assistance for metal density uniformity determination, statistical, X-sigma and PCM-based models for corner validation and to simulate design sensitivity, and (4) sub-field stitching for large die. The TowerJazz platform of technology for 0.50μm, 0.25μm and 0.18μm CMOS nodes, with features as described above, is described in detail in this paper.

  5. Study of the spatial resolution for binary readout detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonamine, R., E-mail: ryo.yonamine@ulb.ac.be; Maerschalk, T.; Lentdecker, G. De

    2016-07-11

    Often the binary readout is proposed for high granularity detectors to reduce the generated data volume to be readout at the price of a somewhat reduced spatial resolution compared to an analogue readout. We have been studying single hit resolutions obtained with a binary readout using simulations as well as analytical approaches. In this note we show that the detector geometry could be optimized to offer an equivalent spatial resolution than with an analogue readout.

  6. Readout ASIC for ILC-FPCCD vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takubo, Yosuke; Miyamoto, Akiya; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Itagaki, Kennosuke; Nagamine, Tadashi; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    The concept of FPCCD (Fine Pixel CCD) whose pixel size is 5x5μm 2 has been proposed as vertex detector at ILC. Since FPCCD has 128 x20,000 pixels in one readout channel, its readout poses a considerable challenge. We have developed a prototype of readout ASIC to readout the large number of pixels during the inter-train gap of the ILC beam. In this paper, we report the design and performance of the readout ASIC.

  7. LHCb: Fast Readout Control for the upgraded readout architecture of the LHCb experiment at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Alessio, F

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at CERN has proposed an upgrade towards a full 40 MHz readout system in order to run between five and ten times its initial design luminosity with an upgraded LHCb detector. As a consequence, the various LHCb sub-systems in the readout architecture will be upgraded to cope with higher sub-detector occupancies, higher rate, and higher readout load. The new architecture, new functionalities, and the first hardware implementation of a new LHCb Readout Control system (commonly referred to as S-TFC) for the upgraded LHCb experiment is here presented. Our attention is focused in describing solutions for the distribution of clock and timing information to control the entire upgraded readout architecture by profiting of a bidirectional optical network and powerful FPGAs, including a real-time mechanism to synchronize the entire system. Solutions and implementations are presented, together with first results on the simulation and the validation of the system.

  8. [Evaluation of Image Quality of Readout Segmented EPI with Readout Partial Fourier Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Yuuki; Suzuki, Daisuke; Miyahara, Kanae

    Readout segmented EPI (readout segmentation of long variable echo-trains: RESOLVE) segmented k-space in the readout direction. By using the partial Fourier method in the readout direction, the imaging time was shortened. However, the influence on image quality due to insufficient data sampling is concerned. The setting of the partial Fourier method in the readout direction in each segment was changed. Then, we examined signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and distortion ratio for changes in image quality due to differences in data sampling. As the number of sampling segments decreased, SNR and CNR showed a low value. In addition, the distortion ratio did not change. The image quality of minimum sampling segments is greatly different from full data sampling, and caution is required when using it.

  9. Novel electrochemical nickel metallization in silicon impedance engineering for mixed-signal system-on-chip crosstalk isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi

    One of the major challenges for single chip radio frequency integrated circuits (RFIC's) built on Si is the RE crosstalk through the Si substrate. Noise from switching transient in digital circuits can be transmitted through Si substrate and degrades the performance of analog circuit elements. A highly conductive moat or Faraday cage type structure of through-the-wafer thickness in the Si substrate was demonstrated to be effective in shielding electromagnetic interference thereby reducing RE cross-talk in high performance mixed signal integrated circuits. Such a structure incorporated into the p- Si substrate was realized by electroless Ni metallization over selected regions with ultra-high-aspect-ratio macropores that was etched electrochemically in p- Si substrates. The metallization process was conducted by immersing the macroporous Si sample in an alkaline aqueous solution containing Ni2+ without a reducing agent. It was found that working at slightly elevated temperature, Ni 2+ was rapidly reduced and deposited in the macropores. During the wet chemical process, conformal metallization on the pore wall was achieved. The entire porous Si skeleton was gradually replaced by Ni along the extended duration of immersion. In a p-/p+ epi Si substrate used for high performance digital CMOS, the suppression of crosstalk by the arrayed metallic Ni via structure fabricated from the front p side was significant that the crosstalk went down to the noise floor of the conventional measurement instruments. The process and mechanism of forming such a Ni structure over the original Si were studied. Theoretical computation relevant to the process was carried out to show a good consistency with the experiments.

  10. Imaging achievements with the Vernier readout

    CERN Document Server

    Lapington, J S; Worth, L B C; Tandy, J A

    2002-01-01

    We describe the Vernier anode, a high resolution and charge division image readout for microchannel plate detectors. It comprises a planar structure of insulated electrodes deposited on an insulating substrate. The charge cloud from an event is divided amongst all nine electrodes and the charge ratio uniquely determines the two-dimensional position coordinate of the charge centroid. We discuss the design of the anode pattern and describe the advantages offered by this readout. The cyclic variation of the electrode structure allows the image resolution to exceed the charge measurement resolution and enables the entire active area of the readout to be utilized. In addition, fixed pattern noise is greatly reduced. We present results demonstrating the position resolution and image linearity. A position resolution of 10 mu m FWHM is demonstrated and the overall imaging performance is shown to be limited by the microchannel plate pore spacing. We present measurements of the image distortions and describe techniques...

  11. The NA60 experiment readout architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Floris, M; Usai, G L; David, A; Rosinsky, P; Ohnishi, H

    2004-01-01

    The NA60 experiment was designed to identify signatures of a new state of matter, the Quark Gluon Plasma, in heavy-ion collisions at the CERN Super Proton Synchroton. The apparatus is composed of four main detectors: a muon spectrometer (MS), a zero degree calorimeter (ZDC), a silicon vertex telescope (VT), and a silicon microstrip beam tracker (BT). The readout of the whole experiment is based on a PCI architecture. The basic unit is a general purpose PCI card, interfaced to the different subdetectors via custom mezzanine cards. This allowed us to successfully implement several completely different readout protocols (from the VME like protocol of the MS to the custom protocol of the pixel telescope). The system was fully tested with proton and ion beams, and several million events were collected in 2002 and 2003. This paper presents the readout architecture of NA60, with particular emphasis on the PCI layer common to all the subdetectors. (16 refs).

  12. D-Zero muon readout electronics design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldin, B.; Hansen, S.; Los, S.; Matveev, M.; Vaniev, V.

    1996-11-01

    The readout electronics designed for the D null Muon Upgrade are described. These electronics serve three detector subsystems and one trigger system. The front-ends and readout hardware are synchronized by means of timing signals broadcast from the D null Trigger Framework. The front-end electronics have continuously running digitizers and two levels of buffering resulting in nearly deadtimeless operation. The raw data is corrected and formatted by 16- bit fixed point DSP processors. These processors also perform control of the data buffering. The data transfer from the front-end electronics located on the detector platform is performed by serial links running at 160 Mbit/s. The design and test results of the subsystem readout electronics and system interface are discussed

  13. Design of GRM phoswich detector readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jiangtao; Dong Yongwei; Song Liming; Wu Bobing; Zhang Yongjie; Xu He

    2014-01-01

    A set of mixed-signal read out system was designed for the phoswich detectors of the γ-ray burst monitor in the SVOM satellite, which was used to obtain the amplitude and the width of the voltage pulse that came from the GRM phoswich detector, and classify the signals. The FPGA was used to control the timing in the system, high-speed peak holding circuit was used to get the peak of voltage pulse, and the RS232 interface was used to complete the data exchange between the system and the PC. The test results show that this design can achieve the data acquisition and the discrimination. (authors)

  14. Development of a readout technique for the high data rate BTeV pixel detector at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Bradley K.

    2001-01-01

    The pixel detector for the BTeV experiment at Fermilab provides digitized data from approximately 22 million silicon pixel channels. Portions of the detector are six millimeters from the beam providing a substantial hit rate and high radiation dose. The pixel detector data will be employed by the lowest level trigger system for track reconstruction every beam crossing. These requirements impose a considerable constraint on the readout scheme. This paper presents a readout technique that provides the bandwidth that is adequate for high hit rates, minimizes the number of radiation hard components, and satisfies all other design constraints

  15. Data readout system utilizing photonic integrated circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stopiński, S., E-mail: S.Stopinski@tue.nl [COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology (Poland); Malinowski, M.; Piramidowicz, R. [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology (Poland); Smit, M.K.; Leijtens, X.J.M. [COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands)

    2013-10-11

    We describe a novel optical solution for data readout systems. The core of the system is an Indium-Phosphide photonic integrated circuit performing as a front-end readout unit. It functions as an optical serializer in which the serialization of the input signal is provided by means of on-chip optical delay lines. The circuit employs electro-optic phase shifters to build amplitude modulators, power splitters for signal distribution, semiconductor optical amplifiers for signal amplification as well as on-chip reflectors. We present the concept of the system, the design and first characterization results of the devices that were fabricated in a multi-project wafer run.

  16. High-speed readout of high-Z pixel detectors with the LAMBDA detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennicard, D.; Smoljanin, S.; Sheviakov, I.; Xia, Q.; Rothkirch, A.; Yu, Y.; Struth, B.; Hirsemann, H.; Graafsma, H.

    2014-01-01

    High-frame-rate X-ray pixel detectors make it possible to perform time-resolved experiments at synchrotron beamlines, and to make better use of these sources by shortening experiment times. LAMBDA is a photon-counting hybrid pixel detector based on the Medipix3 chip, designed to combine a small pixel size of 55 μm, a large tileable module design, high speed, and compatibility with ''high-Z'' sensors for hard X-ray detection. This technical paper focuses on LAMBDA's high-speed-readout functionality, which allows a frame rate of 2000 frames per second with no deadtime between successive images. This takes advantage of the Medipix3 chip's ''continuous read-write'' function and highly parallelised readout. The readout electronics serialise this data and send it back to a server PC over two 10 Gigabit Ethernet links. The server PC controls the detector and receives, processes and stores the data using software designed for the Tango control system. As a demonstration of high-speed readout of a high-Z sensor, a GaAs LAMBDA detector was used to make a high-speed X-ray video of a computer fan

  17. Development of a Timepix3 readout system based on the Merlin readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crevatin, G.; Carrato, S.; Horswell, I.; Omar, D.; Tartoni, N.; Cautero, G.

    2015-01-01

    Timepix3 chip is a new ASIC specifically designed to readout hybrid pixel detectors. The main purpose of Timepix3 is to measure the time of arrival of events. This characteristic can be exploited very effectively to develop detectors for time resolved experiments at synchrotron radiation facilities. In order to investigate how the ASIC can be applied to synchrotron experiments the Merlin readout system, developed at Diamond for the Medipix3 ASIC, has been adapted to readout the Timepix3 ASIC. The first tests of the ASIC with pulse injection and with alpha particles show that its behaviour is consistent with its nominal characteristics

  18. Comparison between two possible CMS Barrel Muon Readout Architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguayo, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Molinero, A.; Pablos, J.L.; Willmott, C.; Alberdi, J.; Marin, J.; Navarrete, J.; Romero, L.

    1997-01-01

    A comparison between two possible readout arquitectures for the CMS muon barrel readout electronics is presented, including various aspects like costs, reliability, installation, staging and maintenance. A review of the present baseline architecture is given in the appendix. (Author)

  19. Authenticated communication from quantum readout of PUFs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skoric, Boris; Pinkse, Pepijn Willemszoon Harry; Mosk, Allard

    2016-01-01

    Quantum Readout of Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) is a recently introduced method for remote authentication of objects. We present an extension of the protocol to enable the authentication of data: a verifier can check if received classical data was sent by the PUF holder. We call this

  20. Evolution of the dual-readout calorimeter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The 4th concept design is built upon calorimetry criteria that result in the DREAM prototype, read-out via two different types of longitudinal fibers, scintillator and quartz respectively, and therefore capable of determining for each shower the corresponding electromagnetic fraction, thus eliminating the strong effect of ...

  1. Readout of the upgraded ALICE-ITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepankiewicz, A.; ALICE Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The ALICE experiment will undergo a major upgrade during the second long shutdown of the CERN LHC. As part of this program, the present Inner Tracking System (ITS), which employs different layers of hybrid pixels, silicon drift and strip detectors, will be replaced by a completely new tracker composed of seven layers of monolithic active pixel sensors. The upgraded ITS will have more than twelve billion pixels in total, producing 300 Gbit/s of data when tracking 50 kHz Pb-Pb events. Two families of pixel chips realized with the TowerJazz CMOS imaging process have been developed as candidate sensors: the ALPIDE, which uses a proprietary readout and sparsification mechanism and the MISTRAL-O, based on a proven rolling shutter architecture. Both chips can operate in continuous mode, with the ALPIDE also supporting triggered operations. As the communication IP blocks are shared among the two chip families, it has been possible to develop a common Readout Electronics. All the sensor components (analog stages, state machines, buffers, FIFOs, etc.) have been modelled in a system level simulation, which has been extensively used to optimize both the sensor and the whole readout chain design in an iterative process. This contribution covers the progress of the R&D efforts and the overall expected performance of the ALICE-ITS readout system.

  2. Readout of the upgraded ALICE-ITS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczepankiewicz, A.

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE experiment will undergo a major upgrade during the second long shutdown of the CERN LHC. As part of this program, the present Inner Tracking System (ITS), which employs different layers of hybrid pixels, silicon drift and strip detectors, will be replaced by a completely new tracker composed of seven layers of monolithic active pixel sensors. The upgraded ITS will have more than twelve billion pixels in total, producing 300 Gbit/s of data when tracking 50 kHz Pb–Pb events. Two families of pixel chips realized with the TowerJazz CMOS imaging process have been developed as candidate sensors: the ALPIDE, which uses a proprietary readout and sparsification mechanism and the MISTRAL-O, based on a proven rolling shutter architecture. Both chips can operate in continuous mode, with the ALPIDE also supporting triggered operations. As the communication IP blocks are shared among the two chip families, it has been possible to develop a common Readout Electronics. All the sensor components (analog stages, state machines, buffers, FIFOs, etc.) have been modelled in a system level simulation, which has been extensively used to optimize both the sensor and the whole readout chain design in an iterative process. This contribution covers the progress of the R&D efforts and the overall expected performance of the ALICE-ITS readout system.

  3. Readout of the upgraded ALICE-ITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczepankiewicz, A., E-mail: Adam.Szczepankiewicz@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Institute of Computer Science, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-07-11

    The ALICE experiment will undergo a major upgrade during the second long shutdown of the CERN LHC. As part of this program, the present Inner Tracking System (ITS), which employs different layers of hybrid pixels, silicon drift and strip detectors, will be replaced by a completely new tracker composed of seven layers of monolithic active pixel sensors. The upgraded ITS will have more than twelve billion pixels in total, producing 300 Gbit/s of data when tracking 50 kHz Pb–Pb events. Two families of pixel chips realized with the TowerJazz CMOS imaging process have been developed as candidate sensors: the ALPIDE, which uses a proprietary readout and sparsification mechanism and the MISTRAL-O, based on a proven rolling shutter architecture. Both chips can operate in continuous mode, with the ALPIDE also supporting triggered operations. As the communication IP blocks are shared among the two chip families, it has been possible to develop a common Readout Electronics. All the sensor components (analog stages, state machines, buffers, FIFOs, etc.) have been modelled in a system level simulation, which has been extensively used to optimize both the sensor and the whole readout chain design in an iterative process. This contribution covers the progress of the R&D efforts and the overall expected performance of the ALICE-ITS readout system.

  4. Rutherford X-ray spectrometer readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.

    1978-07-01

    Rutherford electronic X-ray spectrometer readout is based on the combination of two established techniques (a) the detection and location of soft X-rays by means of multichannel electron multiplier arrays (MCP's), and (b) the electronic readout of charge distributions (generally in multi-wire proportional counters) by means of the delay line techniques. In order for the latter device to function well a charge signal of approximately 10 6 electrons must be available to the delay line wand. This is achieved in the present device by means of two cascaded MCP's which can produce electron gains up to approximately 10 8 , and so operate the delay line from the single electron pulses generated at the front face of an MCP by a soft X-ray. The delay line readout technique was chosen because of its simplicity (both in terms of the necessary hardware and the associated electronics), robustness, and ease of implementation. In order to achieve the target spatial resolution of 50 μm (fwhm) or 20 μm (standard deviation) it was necessary to adapt the charge collection system so that the readout takes place from a length of delay line 200 mm long. The general layout of the system and the functions of the electronic circuits are described. Performance testing, setting up procedures and trouble shooting of the system are discussed. (U.K.)

  5. Very forward calorimeters readout and machine interface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The paper describes the requirements for the readout electronics and DAQ for the instrumentation of the forward region of the future detector at the international linear collider. The preliminary design is discussed. Author Affiliations. Wojciech Wierba1 on behalf of the FCAL Collaboration. The Henryk Niewodniczański ...

  6. Microwave multiplex readout for superconducting sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferri, E., E-mail: elena.ferri@mib.infn.it [Università Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); INFN Sez. di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Becker, D.; Bennett, D. [NIST, Boulder, CO (United States); Faverzani, M. [Università Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); INFN Sez. di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Fowler, J.; Gard, J. [NIST, Boulder, CO (United States); Giachero, A. [Università Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); INFN Sez. di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Hays-Wehle, J.; Hilton, G. [NIST, Boulder, CO (United States); Maino, M. [Università Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); INFN Sez. di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Mates, J. [NIST, Boulder, CO (United States); Puiu, A.; Nucciotti, A. [Università Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); INFN Sez. di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Reintsema, C.; Schmidt, D.; Swetz, D.; Ullom, J.; Vale, L. [NIST, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-07-11

    The absolute neutrino mass scale is still an outstanding challenge in both particle physics and cosmology. The calorimetric measurement of the energy released in a nuclear beta decay is a powerful tool to determine the effective electron-neutrino mass. In the last years, the progress on low temperature detector technologies has allowed to design large scale experiments aiming at pushing down the sensitivity on the neutrino mass below 1 eV. Even with outstanding performances in both energy (~ eV on keV) and time resolution (~ 1 μs) on the single channel, a large number of detectors working in parallel is required to reach a sub-eV sensitivity. Microwave frequency domain readout is the best available technique to readout large array of low temperature detectors, such as Transition Edge Sensors (TESs) or Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs). In this way a multiplex factor of the order of thousands can be reached, limited only by the bandwidth of the available commercial fast digitizers. This microwave multiplexing system will be used to readout the HOLMES detectors, an array of 1000 microcalorimeters based on TES sensors in which the {sup 163}Ho will be implanted. HOLMES is a new experiment for measuring the electron neutrino mass by means of the electron capture (EC) decay of {sup 163}Ho. We present here the microwave frequency multiplex which will be used in the HOLMES experiment and the microwave frequency multiplex used to readout the MKID detectors developed in Milan as well.

  7. Resistive Plate Chambers for hadron calorimetry: Tests with analog readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, Gary [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Repond, Jose [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)]. E-mail: repond@hep.anl.gov; Underwood, David [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Xia, Lei [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2007-07-21

    Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) are being developed for use in a hadron calorimeter with very fine segmentation of the readout. The design of the chambers and various tests with cosmic rays are described. This paper reports on the measurements with multi-bit (or analog) readout of either a single larger or multiple smaller readout pads.

  8. Study on FPGA SEU Mitigation for the Readout Electronics of DAMPE BGO Calorimeter in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhongtao; Feng, Changqing; Gao, Shanshan; Zhang, Deliang; Jiang, Di; Liu, Shubin; An, Qi

    2015-06-01

    The BGO calorimeter, which provides a wide measurement range of the primary cosmic ray spectrum, is a key sub-detector of the Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE). The readout electronics of calorimeter consists of 16 pieces of Actel ProASIC Plus FLASH-based field-programmable gate array (FPGA), of which the design-level flip-flops and embedded block random access memories (RAM) are single event upset (SEU) sensitive in the harsh space environment. To comply with radiation hardness assurance (RHA), SEU mitigation methods, including partial triple modular redundancy (TMR), CRC checksum, and multi-domain reset are analyzed and tested by the heavy-ion beam test. Composed of multi-level redundancy, a FPGA design with the characteristics of SEU tolerance and low resource consumption is implemented for the readout electronics.

  9. A 2D 4×4 Channel Readout ASIC for Pixelated CdTe Detectors for Medical Imaging Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias-Montero, Jose-Gabriel; Sarraj, Maher; Chmeissani, Mokhtar; Martínez, Ricardo; Puigdengoles, Carles

    2015-10-01

    We present a 16-channel readout integrated circuit (ROIC) with nanosecond-resolution time to digital converter (TDC) for pixelated Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) gamma-ray detectors. The 4 × 4 pixel array ROIC is the proof of concept of the 10 × 10 pixel array readout ASIC for positron-emission tomography (PET) scanner, positron-emission mammography (PEM) scanner, and Compton gamma camera. The electronics of each individual pixel integrates an analog front-end with switchable gain, an analog to digital converter (ADC), configuration registers, and a 4-state digital controller. For every detected photon, the pixel electronics provides the energy deposited in the detector with 10-bit resolution, and a fast trigger signal for time stamp. The ASIC contains the 16-pixel matrix electronics, a digital controller, five global voltage references, a TDC, a temperature sensor, and a band-gap based current reference. The ASIC has been fabricated with TSMC 0.25 μ m mixed-signal CMOS technology and occupies an area of 5.3 mm × 6.8 mm. The TDC shows a resolution of 95.5 ps, a precision of 600 ps at full width half maximum (FWHM), and a power consumption of 130 μ W. In acquisition mode, the total power consumption of every pixel is 200 μ W. An equivalent noise charge (ENC) of 160 e - RMS at maximum gain and negative polarity conditions has been measured at room temperature.

  10. A real-time data transmission method based on Linux for physical experimental readout systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Ping; Song Kezhu; Yang Junfeng

    2012-01-01

    In a typical physical experimental instrument, such as a fusion or particle physical application, the readout system generally implements an interface between the data acquisition (DAQ) system and the front-end electronics (FEE). The key task of a readout system is to read, pack, and forward the data from the FEE to the back-end data concentration center in real time. To guarantee real-time performance, the VxWorks operating system (OS) is widely used in readout systems. However, VxWorks is not an open-source OS, which gives it has many disadvantages. With the development of multi-core processor and new scheduling algorithm, Linux OS exhibits performance in real-time applications similar to that of VxWorks. It has been successfully used even for some hard real-time systems. Discussions and evaluations of real-time Linux solutions for a possible replacement of VxWorks arise naturally. In this paper, a real-time transmission method based on Linux is introduced. To reduce the number of transfer cycles for large amounts of data, a large block of contiguous memory buffer for DMA transfer is allocated by modifying the Linux Kernel (version 2.6) source code slightly. To increase the throughput for network transmission, the user software is designed into formation of parallelism. To achieve high performance in real-time data transfer from hardware to software, mapping techniques must be used to avoid unnecessary data copying. A simplified readout system is implemented with 4 readout modules in a PXI crate. This system can support up to 48 MB/s data throughput from the front-end hardware to the back-end concentration center through a Gigabit Ethernet connection. There are no restrictions on the use of this method, hardware or software, which means that it can be easily migrated to other interrupt related applications.

  11. An integrated control and readout circuit for implantable multi-target electrochemical biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreishizadeh, Sara S; Baj-Rossi, Camilla; Cavallini, Andrea; Carrara, Sandro; De Micheli, Giovanni

    2014-12-01

    We describe an integrated biosensor capable of sensing multiple molecular targets using both cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA). In particular, we present our custom IC to realize voltage control and current readout of the biosensors. A mixed-signal circuit block generates sub-Hertz triangular waveform for the biosensors by means of a direct-digital-synthesizer to control CV. A current to pulse-width converter is realized to output the data for CA measurement. The IC is fabricated in 0.18 μm technology. It consumes 220 μW from 1.8 V supply voltage, making it suitable for remotely-powered applications. Electrical measurements show excellent linearity in sub- μA current range. Electrochemical measurements including CA measurements of glucose and lactate and CV measurements of the anti-cancer drug Etoposide have been acquired with the fabricated IC and compared with a commercial equipment. The results obtained with the fabricated IC are in good agreement with those of the commercial equipment for both CV and CA measurements.

  12. Design and Performance of the CMS Pixel Detector Readout Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Kästli, H C; Erdmann, W; Hörmann, C; Horisberger, R P; Kotlinski, D; Meier, B; Hoermann, Ch.

    2006-01-01

    The readout chip for the CMS pixel detector has to deal with an enormous data rate. On-chip zero suppression is inevitable and hit data must be buffered locally during the latency of the first level trigger. Dead-time must be kept at a minimum. It is dominated by contributions coming from the readout. To keep it low an analog readout scheme has been adopted where pixel addresses are analog coded. We present the architecture of the final CMS pixel detector readout chip with special emphasis on the analog readout chain. Measurements of its performance are discussed.

  13. LYSO crystal calorimeter readout with silicon photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berra, A., E-mail: alessandro.berra@gmail.com [Università degli Studi dell' Insubria (Italy); INFN sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Bonvicini, V. [INFN sezione di Trieste (Italy); Cecchi, C.; Germani, S. [INFN sezione di Perugia (Italy); Guffanti, D. [Università degli Studi dell' Insubria (Italy); Lietti, D. [Università degli Studi dell' Insubria (Italy); INFN sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Lubrano, P.; Manoni, E. [INFN sezione di Perugia (Italy); Prest, M. [Università degli Studi dell' Insubria (Italy); INFN sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Rossi, A. [INFN sezione di Perugia (Italy); Vallazza, E. [INFN sezione di Trieste (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    Large area Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPMs) are the new frontier of the development of readout systems for scintillating detectors. A SiPM consists of a matrix of parallel-connected silicon micropixels operating in limited Geiger–Muller avalanche mode, and thus working as independent photon counters with a very high gain (∼10{sup 6}). This contribution presents the performance in terms of linearity and energy resolution of an electromagnetic homogeneous calorimeter composed of 9∼18X{sub 0} LYSO crystals. The crystals were readout by 36 4×4 mm{sup 2} SiPMs (4 for each crystal) produced by FBK-irst. This calorimeter was tested at the Beam Test Facility at the INFN laboratories in Frascati with a single- and multi-particle electron beam in the 100–500 MeV energy range.

  14. The pipelined readout for the ZEUS calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervas, L.

    1991-01-01

    The electron-proton storage ring complex HERA under construction at DESY in Hamburg is the first machine of a new generation of colliders. Since physics to be studied at HERA (covered in chapter 2) base on the precise measurement of kinematic variables over a very large range of energies, a foremost emphasis is set in calorimetry. After long studies and an ambitious test program, the ZEUS collaboration has built a high resolution depleted uranium-scintillator calorimeter with photomultiplier readout, the state of the art in detectors of this type. In chapter 3 the principles of calorimetry are reviewed and the construction of the ZEUS calorimeter is described. Mainly due to the large dynamic range and the short bunch crossing times a novel concept for the readout in an analog pipelined fashion had to be designed. This concept is explained in chapter 4. The solid state implementation of the pipeline required two integrated circuits which were developed specially for the ZEUS calorimeter in collaboration with an electronics research institute and produced by industry. The design and construction of these devices and the detailed testing which has been performed for properties critical in the readout is covered in chapters 5 and 6. The whole pipelined readout is a complicated setup with many steps and collaborating systems. Its implementation and the information to operate it are covered in chapter 7. Finally the concepts presented and the applications discussed have been installed and tested on a test beam calibration experiment. There, the modules of the calorimeter have been calibrated. Chapter 8 presents results from these measurements which show excellent performance of the electronics as well as optimal properties of the calorimeter modules. (orig./HSI)

  15. LSST camera readout chip ASPIC: test tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antilogus, P; Bailly, Ph; Juramy, C; Lebbolo, H; Martin, D; Jeglot, J; Moniez, M; Tocut, V; Wicek, F

    2012-01-01

    The LSST camera will have more than 3000 video-processing channels. The readout of this large focal plane requires a very compact readout chain. The correlated ''Double Sampling technique'', which is generally used for the signal readout of CCDs, is also adopted for this application and implemented with the so called ''Dual Slope integrator'' method. We have designed and implemented an ASIC for LSST: the Analog Signal Processing asIC (ASPIC). The goal is to amplify the signal close to the output, in order to maximize signal to noise ratio, and to send differential outputs to the digitization. Others requirements are that each chip should process the output of half a CCD, that is 8 channels and should operate at 173 K. A specific Back End board has been designed especially for lab test purposes. It manages the clock signals, digitizes the analog differentials outputs of ASPIC and stores data into a memory. It contains 8 ADCs (18 bits), 512 kwords memory and an USB interface. An FPGA manages all signals from/to all components on board and generates the timing sequence for ASPIC. Its firmware is written in Verilog and VHDL languages. Internals registers permit to define various tests parameters of the ASPIC. A Labview GUI allows to load or update these registers and to check a proper operation. Several series of tests, including linearity, noise and crosstalk, have been performed over the past year to characterize the ASPIC at room and cold temperature. At present, the ASPIC, Back-End board and CCD detectors are being integrated to perform a characterization of the whole readout chain.

  16. Dual-readout calorimetry with scintillating crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinci, D

    2009-01-01

    The dual-readout approach, which allows an event-by-event measurement of the electromagnetic shower fraction, was originally demonstrated with the DREAM sampling calorimeter. This approach can be extended to homogeneous detectors like crystals if Cherenkov and scintillation light can be separated. In this paper we present several methods we developed for distinguishing the two components in PWO and BGO based calorimeters and the results obtained.

  17. Analog readout for optical reservoir computers

    OpenAIRE

    Smerieri, Anteo; Duport, François; Paquot, Yvan; Schrauwen, Benjamin; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Reservoir computing is a new, powerful and flexible machine learning technique that is easily implemented in hardware. Recently, by using a time-multiplexed architecture, hardware reservoir computers have reached performance comparable to digital implementations. Operating speeds allowing for real time information operation have been reached using optoelectronic systems. At present the main performance bottleneck is the readout layer which uses slow, digital postprocessing. We have designed a...

  18. LSST camera readout chip ASPIC: test tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antilogus, P.; Bailly, Ph; Jeglot, J.; Juramy, C.; Lebbolo, H.; Martin, D.; Moniez, M.; Tocut, V.; Wicek, F.

    2012-02-01

    The LSST camera will have more than 3000 video-processing channels. The readout of this large focal plane requires a very compact readout chain. The correlated ''Double Sampling technique'', which is generally used for the signal readout of CCDs, is also adopted for this application and implemented with the so called ''Dual Slope integrator'' method. We have designed and implemented an ASIC for LSST: the Analog Signal Processing asIC (ASPIC). The goal is to amplify the signal close to the output, in order to maximize signal to noise ratio, and to send differential outputs to the digitization. Others requirements are that each chip should process the output of half a CCD, that is 8 channels and should operate at 173 K. A specific Back End board has been designed especially for lab test purposes. It manages the clock signals, digitizes the analog differentials outputs of ASPIC and stores data into a memory. It contains 8 ADCs (18 bits), 512 kwords memory and an USB interface. An FPGA manages all signals from/to all components on board and generates the timing sequence for ASPIC. Its firmware is written in Verilog and VHDL languages. Internals registers permit to define various tests parameters of the ASPIC. A Labview GUI allows to load or update these registers and to check a proper operation. Several series of tests, including linearity, noise and crosstalk, have been performed over the past year to characterize the ASPIC at room and cold temperature. At present, the ASPIC, Back-End board and CCD detectors are being integrated to perform a characterization of the whole readout chain.

  19. Performance of MSGC with analog pipeline readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, F.; Adeva, B.; Gracia, G.; Lopez, M.A.; Nunez, T.; Pazos, A.; Plo, M.; Rodriguez, A.; Santamarina, C.; Vazquez, P.

    1997-01-01

    We analyse some of the performance characteristics of a chromium MSGC operated with Ar-DME 50%-50% in a test beam at CERN. Excellent signal-to-noise ratio and efficiency has been achieved with this gas mixture using cathode analog pipeline readout. We also determine optimal parameters for the sampling algorithm in order to work in a random trigger experiment (fixed target). (orig.)

  20. Preliminary Assessment of Microwave Readout Multiplexing Factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croce, Mark Philip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Koehler, Katrina Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rabin, Michael W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bennett, D. A. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Mates, J. A. B. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Gard, J. D. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Becker, D. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Schmidt, D. R. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Ullom, J. N. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-01-23

    Ultra-high resolution microcalorimeter gamma spectroscopy is a new non-destructive assay technology for measurement of plutonium isotopic composition, with the potential to reduce total measurement uncertainty to a level competitive with destructive analysis methods [1-4]. Achieving this level of performance in practical applications requires not only the energy resolution now routinely achieved with transition-edge sensor microcalorimeter arrays (an order of magnitude better than for germanium detectors) but also high throughput. Microcalorimeter gamma spectrometers have not yet achieved detection efficiency and count rate capability that is comparable to germanium detectors, largely because of limits from existing readout technology. Microcalorimeter detectors must be operated at low temperature to achieve their exceptional energy resolution. Although the typical 100 mK operating temperatures can be achieved with reliable, cryogen-free systems, the cryogenic complexity and heat load from individual readout channels for large sensor arrays is prohibitive. Multiplexing is required for practical systems. The most mature multiplexing technology at present is time-division multiplexing (TDM) [3, 5-6]. In TDM, the sensor outputs are switched by applying bias current to one SQUID amplifier at a time. Transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter arrays as large as 256 pixels have been developed for X-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy using TDM technology. Due to bandwidth limits and noise scaling, TDM is limited to a maximum multiplexing factor of approximately 32-40 sensors on one readout line [8]. Increasing the size of microcalorimeter arrays above the kilopixel scale, required to match the throughput of germanium detectors, requires the development of a new readout technology with a much higher multiplexing factor.

  1. Signal processing for distributed readout using TESs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Stephen J.; Whitford, Chris H.; Fraser, George W.

    2006-01-01

    We describe optimal filtering algorithms for determining energy and position resolution in position-sensitive Transition Edge Sensor (TES) Distributed Read-Out Imaging Devices (DROIDs). Improved algorithms, developed using a small-signal finite-element model, are based on least-squares minimisation of the total noise power in the correlated dual TES DROID. Through numerical simulations we show that significant improvements in energy and position resolution are theoretically possible over existing methods

  2. Cryogenic readout techniques for germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benato, G. [University of Zurich, (Switzerland); Cattadori, C. [INFN - Milano Bicocca, (Italy); Di Vacri, A. [INFN LNGS, (Italy); Ferri, E. [Universita Milano Bicocca/INFN Milano Bicocca, (Italy); D' Andrea, V.; Macolino, C. [GSSI/INFN LNGS, (Italy); Riboldi, S. [Universita degli Studi di Milano/INFN Milano, (Italy); Salamida, F. [Universita Milano Bicocca/INFN Milano Bicocca, (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    High Purity Germanium detectors are used in many applications, from nuclear and astro-particle physics, to homeland security or environment protection. Although quite standard configurations are often used, with cryostats, charge sensitive amplifiers and analog or digital acquisition systems all commercially available, it might be the case that a few specific applications, e.g. satellites, portable devices, cryogenic physics experiments, etc. also require the development of a few additional or complementary techniques. An interesting case is for sure GERDA, the Germanium Detector Array experiment, searching for neutrino-less double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory of INFN - Italy. In GERDA the entire detector array, composed of semi-coaxial and BEGe naked crystals, is operated suspended inside a cryostat filled with liquid argon, that acts not only as cooling medium and but also as an active shield, thanks to its scintillation properties. These peculiar circumstances, together with the additional requirement of a very low radioactive background from all the materials adjacent to the detectors, clearly introduce significant constraints on the design of the Ge front-end readout electronics. All the Ge readout solutions developed within the framework of the GERDA collaboration, for both Phase I and Phase II, will be briefly reviewed, with their relative strength and weakness compared together and with respect to ideal Ge readout. Finally, the digital processing techniques developed by the GERDA collaboration for energy estimation of Ge detector signals will be recalled. (authors)

  3. The Phase-I Trigger Readout Electronics Upgrade for the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Ochoa, Ines; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Electronics developments are pursued for the trigger readout of the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeter towards the Phase-I upgrade scheduled in the LHC shut-down period of 2019-2020. The LAr Trigger Digitizer system will digitize 34000 channels at a 40 MHz sampling with 12 bit precision after the bipolar shaper at the front-end system, and transmit to the LAr Digital Processing system in the back-end to extract the transverse energies. Results of ASIC developments including QA and radiation hardness evaluations, and performances on prototypes will presented with the overall system design.

  4. The Phase-I Trigger Readout Electronics Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Enari, Yuji; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Electronics developments are pursued for the trigger readout of the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeter towards the Phase-I upgrade scheduled in the LHC shut-down period of 2019-2020. The LAr Trigger Digitizer system will digitize 34000 channels at a 40 MHz sampling with 12 bit precision after the bipolar shaper at the front-end system, and transmit to the LAr Digital Processing system in the back-end to extract the transverse energies. Results of ASIC developments including QA and radiation hardness evaluations, performances of the final prototypes and results of the system integration tests will presented along with the overall system design.

  5. The SVX3D integrated circuit for dead-timeless silicon strip readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Sciveres, M. E-mail: mgs@lbl.gov; Milgrome, O.; Zimmerman, T.; Volobouev, I.; Ely, R.P.; Connolly, A.; Fish, D.; Affolder, T.; Sill, A

    1999-10-01

    The revision D of the SVX3 readout IC has been fabricated in the Honeywell radiation-hard 0.8 {mu}m bulk CMOS process, for instrumenting 712,704 silicon strips in the upgrade to the Collider Detector at Fermilab. This final revision incorporates new features and changes to the original architecture that were added to meet the goal of dead-timeless operation. This paper describes the features central to dead-timeless operation, and presents test data for un-irradiated and irradiated SVX3D chips. (author)

  6. FILTRES: a 128 channels VLSI mixed front-end readout electronic development for microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anstotz, F.; Hu, Y.; Michel, J.; Sohler, J.L.; Lachartre, D.

    1998-01-01

    We present a VLSI digital-analog readout electronic chain for silicon microstrip detectors. The characteristics of this circuit have been optimized for the high resolution tracker of the CERN CMS experiment. This chip consists of 128 channels at 50 μm pitch. Each channel is composed by a charge amplifier, a CR-RC shaper, an analog memory, an analog processor, an output FIFO read out serially by a multiplexer. This chip has been processed in the radiation hard technology DMILL. This paper describes the architecture of the circuit and presents test results of the 128 channel full chain chip. (orig.)

  7. Digital frequency domain multiplexing readout electronics for the next generation of millimeter telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Amy N.; Cliche, Jean-François; de Haan, Tijmen; Dobbs, Matt A.; Gilbert, Adam J.; Montgomery, Joshua; Rowlands, Neil; Smecher, Graeme M.; Smith, Ken; Wilson, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    Frequency domain multiplexing (fMux) is an established technique for the readout of transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers in millimeter-wavelength astrophysical instrumentation. In fMux, the signals from multiple detectors are read out on a single pair of wires reducing the total cryogenic thermal loading as well as the cold component complexity and cost of a system. The current digital fMux system, in use by POLARBEAR, EBEX, and the South Pole Telescope, is limited to a multiplexing factor of 16 by the dynamic range of the Superconducting Quantum Interference Device pre-amplifier and the total system bandwidth. Increased multiplexing is key for the next generation of large format TES cameras, such as SPT-3G and POLARBEAR2, which plan to have on the of order 15,000 detectors. Here, we present the next generation fMux readout, focusing on the warm electronics. In this system, the multiplexing factor increases to 64 channels per module (2 wires) while maintaining low noise levels and detector stability. This is achieved by increasing the system bandwidth, reducing the dynamic range requirements though active feedback, and digital synthesis of voltage biases with a novel polyphase filter algorithm. In addition, a version of the new fMux readout includes features such as low power consumption and radiation-hard components making it viable for future space-based millimeter telescopes such as the LiteBIRD satellite.

  8. The readout system of the new H1 silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, J.; Hansen, K.; Lange, W.; Prell, S.; Zimmermann, W.; Henschel, H.; Haynes, W.J.; Noyes, G.W.; Joensson, L.; Gabathuler, K.; Horisberger, R.; Wagener, M.; Eichler, R.; Erdmann, W.; Niggli, H.; Pitzl, D.

    1995-03-01

    The H1 detector at HERA at DESY undergoes presently a major upgrade. In this context silicon strip detectors have been installed at beginning of 1995. The high bunch crossing frequency of HERA (10.4 MHz) demands a novel readout architecture which includes pipelining, signal processing and data reduction at a very early stage. The front end readout is hierarchically organized. The detector elements are read out by the APC chip which contains an analog pipeline and performs first background subtraction. Up to five readout chips are controlled by a Decoder Chip. The readout processor module (OnSiRoC) operates the detectors, controls the Decoder Chips and performs a first level data reduction. The paper describes the readout architecture of the H1 Silicon Detectors and performance data of the complete readout chain. (orig.)

  9. AVME readout module for multichannel ASIC characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkar, S.P.; Lalwani, S.K.; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.; Kataria, S.K.; Reynaud, Serge; )

    2004-01-01

    Electronics Division, BARC has been working on the development of multi-channel ASIC, called SPAIR (Silicon-strip Pulse Amplifier Integrated Readout). It contains 8 channels of preamplifier, shaper and track-and-hold circuitry. Electronics Division has also actively participated in development of test setup for the front-end ASIC, called PACE, for the preshower detector of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Experiment at CERN, Geneva. PACE is a 32 channel ASIC for silicon strip detector, containing preamplifier, shaper, calibration circuitry, switched capacitor array, readout amplifier per channel and an analog multiplexer. A VME Readout Module, (VRM) is developed which can be utilized in data acquisition from ASICs like PACE and SPAIR. The VRM can also be used as the Detector Dependent Unit for digitally processing the data received from the front-end electronics on the 16-bit LVDS port. The processed, data can be read by the VME system. Thus the VRM is very useful in building an ASIC characterization system and/or the automated ASIC production testing system. It can be used also to build the applications using such ASICs. To cater to various requirements arising in future, variety of VME modules are to be developed like ADCs, DACs and D 1/0. VME interface remains a common part to all these modules. The different functional blocks of these modules can be designed and fabricated on small piggyback boards (called Test Boards) and mounted on the VRM, which provides the common VME interface. The design details and uses of VRM are presented here. (author)

  10. Study on two-dimensional induced signal readout of MRPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yucheng; Yue Qian; Li Yuanjing; Ye Jin; Cheng Jianping; Wang Yi; Li Jin

    2012-01-01

    A kind of two-dimensional readout electrode structure for the induced signal readout of MRPC has been studied in both simulation and experiments. Several MRPC prototypes are produced and a series of test experiments have been done to compare with the result of simulation, in order to verify the simulation model. The experiment results are in good agreement with those of simulation. This method will be used to design the two-dimensional signal readout mode of MRPC in the future work.

  11. Silicon microstrip detectors with SVX chip readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, W.; Dropmann, F.; Godbersen, M.; Konorov, I.; Koenigsmann, K.; Masciocchi, S.; Newsom, C.; Paul, S.; Povh, B.; Russ, J.S.; Timm, S.; Vorwalter, K.; Werding, R.

    1995-01-01

    A new silicon strip detector has been designed for the fixed target experiment WA89 at CERN. The system of about 30 000 channels is equipped with SVX chips and read out via a double buffer into a FASTBUS memory. The detector provides a fast readout by offering zero-suppressed data extraction on the chip. The silicon counters are the largest detectors built on a monocrystal so far in order to achieve good transversal acceptance. Construction and performance during the 1993 data taking run are discussed. ((orig.))

  12. A fast readout system for scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steijger, J.; Kok, E.; Kwakkel, E.; Visschers, J.L.; Zwart, A.N.M.

    1991-01-01

    A system of fast readout electronics for segmented scintillation detectors has been constructed and is now operational. Instead of delaying the analog signals in long coaxial cables, they are digitized immediately and stored in dual-port memories, while the trigger decision is being made. A VMEbus system collects the data from these memories on the data acquisition modules within one crate. Several VME crates are connected via a transputer network to transport the data to an event builder. A separate transputer network is used to perform the VME cycles, needed for the computer-controlled tuning of the experiment. (orig.)

  13. 100 Gbps PCI-Express readout for the LHCb upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durante, P.; Neufeld, N.; Schwemmer, R.; Balbi, G.; Marconi, U.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new data acquisition system under development for the next upgrade of the LHCb experiment at CERN. We focus in particular on the design of a new generation of readout boards, the PCIe40, and on the viability of PCI-Express as an interconnect technology for high speed readout. We show throughput measurements across the PCI-Express bus, on Altera Stratix 5 devices, using a DMA mechanism and different synchronization schemes between the FPGA and the readout unit. Finally we discuss hardware and software design considerations necessary to achieve a data throughput of 100 Gbps in the final readout board

  14. LHCb: A new Readout Control system for the LHCb Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Alessio, F

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb experiment has proposed an upgrade towards a full 40 MHz readout system in order to run between five and ten times its initial design luminosity. The entire readout architecture will be upgraded in order to cope with higher sub-detector occupancies, higher rate and higher network load. In this paper, we describe the architecture, functionalities and the first hardware implementation of a new Readout Control system for the LHCb upgrade. The system is based on FPGAs and bi-directional links for the control of the entire readout architecture. First results on the validation of the system are also given.

  15. Semiconductor detectors with proximity signal readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asztalos, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor-based radiation detectors are routinely used for the detection, imaging, and spectroscopy of x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles for applications in the areas of nuclear and medical physics, astrophysics, environmental remediation, nuclear nonproliferation, and homeland security. Detectors used for imaging and particle tracking are more complex in that they typically must also measure the location of the radiation interaction in addition to the deposited energy. In such detectors, the position measurement is often achieved by dividing or segmenting the electrodes into many strips or pixels and then reading out the signals from all of the electrode segments. Fine electrode segmentation is problematic for many of the standard semiconductor detector technologies. Clearly there is a need for a semiconductor-based radiation detector technology that can achieve fine position resolution while maintaining the excellent energy resolution intrinsic to semiconductor detectors, can be fabricated through simple processes, does not require complex electrical interconnections to the detector, and can reduce the number of required channels of readout electronics. Proximity electrode signal readout (PESR), in which the electrodes are not in physical contact with the detector surface, satisfies this need

  16. Monitoring the CMS strip tracker readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mersi, S; Bainbridge, R; Cripps, N; Fulcher, J; Wingham, M; Baulieu, G; Bel, S; Delaere, C; Drouhin, F; Mirabito, L; Cole, J; Giassi, A; Gross, L; Hahn, K; Nikolic, M; Tkaczyk, S

    2008-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker at the LHC comprises a sensitive area of approximately 200 m 2 and 10 million readout channels. Its data acquisition system is based around a custom analogue front-end chip. Both the control and the readout of the front-end electronics are performed by off-detector VME boards in the counting room, which digitise the raw event data and perform zero-suppression and formatting. The data acquisition system uses the CMS online software framework to configure, control and monitor the hardware components and steer the data acquisition. The first data analysis is performed online within the official CMS reconstruction framework, which provides many services, such as distributed analysis, access to geometry and conditions data, and a Data Quality Monitoring tool based on the online physics reconstruction. The data acquisition monitoring of the Strip Tracker uses both the data acquisition and the reconstruction software frameworks in order to provide real-time feedback to shifters on the operational state of the detector, archiving for later analysis and possibly trigger automatic recovery actions in case of errors. Here we review the proposed architecture of the monitoring system and we describe its software components, which are already in place, the various monitoring streams available, and our experiences of operating and monitoring a large-scale system

  17. Evolution of the dual-readout calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzo, Aldo

    2007-01-01

    Measuring the energy of hadronic jets with high precision is essential at present and future colliders, in particular at ILC. The 4th concept design is built upon calorimetry criteria that result in the DREAM prototype, read-out via two different types of longitudinal fibers, scintillator and quartz respectively, and therefore capable of determining for each shower the corresponding electromagnetic fraction, thus eliminating the strong effect of fluctuations in this fraction on the overall energy resolution. In this respect, 4th is orthogonal to the other three concepts, which rely on particle flow analysis (PFA). The DREAM test-beam results hold promises for excellent performances, coupled with relatively simple construction and moderate costs, making such a solution an interesting alternative to the PFA paradigm. The next foreseen steps are to extend the dual-readout principle to homogeneous calorimeters (with the potential of achieving even better performances) and to tackle another source of, fluctuation in hadronic showers, originating from binding energy losses in nuclear break-up (measuring neutrons of few MeV energy). (author)

  18. MKID digital readout tuning with deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodkins, R.; Mahashabde, S.; O'Brien, K.; Thatte, N.; Fruitwala, N.; Walter, A. B.; Meeker, S. R.; Szypryt, P.; Mazin, B. A.

    2018-04-01

    Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detector (MKID) devices offer inherent spectral resolution, simultaneous read out of thousands of pixels, and photon-limited sensitivity at optical wavelengths. Before taking observations the readout power and frequency of each pixel must be individually tuned, and if the equilibrium state of the pixels change, then the readout must be retuned. This process has previously been performed through manual inspection, and typically takes one hour per 500 resonators (20 h for a ten-kilo-pixel array). We present an algorithm based on a deep convolution neural network (CNN) architecture to determine the optimal bias power for each resonator. The bias point classifications from this CNN model, and those from alternative automated methods, are compared to those from human decisions, and the accuracy of each method is assessed. On a test feed-line dataset, the CNN achieves an accuracy of 90% within 1 dB of the designated optimal value, which is equivalent accuracy to a randomly selected human operator, and superior to the highest scoring alternative automated method by 10%. On a full ten-kilopixel array, the CNN performs the characterization in a matter of minutes - paving the way for future mega-pixel MKID arrays.

  19. Control software for the CBM readout chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loizeau, Pierre-Alain [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment, which will be built at FAIR, will use free-streaming readout electronics to acquire high-statistics data-sets of physics probes in fixed target heavy-ion collisions. Since no simple signatures suitable for a hardware trigger are available for most of them, reconstruction and selection of the interesting collisions will be done in software, in a computer farm called First Level Event Selector (FLES). The raw data coming from the detectors is pre-processed, pre-calibrated and aggregated in a FPGA based layer called Data Preprocessing Boards (DPB). IPbus will be used to communicate with the DPBs and through them with the elements of the readout chain closer to detectors. A slow control environment based on this software is developed by CBM to configure in an efficient way the DPBs as well as the Front-End Electronics and monitor their performances. This contribution presents the layout planned for the slow control software, its first implementation and corresponding test results.

  20. MWPC with highly segmented cathode pad readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debbe, R.; Fischer, J.; Lissauer, D.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments being conducted with high energy heavy ion beams at Brookhaven National Laboratory and at CERN have shown the importance of developing position sensitive detectors capable of handling events with high multiplicity in environments of high track density as will also be the case in future high luminosity colliders like SSC and RHIC. In addition, these detectors are required to have a dynamic range wide enough to detect minimum ionizing particles and heavy ions like oxygen or silicon. We present here a description of work being done on a prototype of such a detector at BNL. Results from a similar counter are also presented in this Conference. The ''pad chamber'' is a detector with a cathode area subdivided into a very large number of pixel-like elements such that a charged particle traversing the detector at normal incidence leaves an induced charge on a few localized pads. The pads are interconnected by a resistive strip, and readout amplifiers are connected to the resistive strip at appropriate, carefully determined spacings. The pattern of tracks in a multi-hit event is easily recognized, and a centroid-finding readout system allows position determination to a small fraction of the basic cell size. 5 refs., 9 figs

  1. Development of SuperHERO readout electronics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Next-generation solar hard X-ray (HXR) imagers will make high-sensitivity, high-dynamic-range observations of the signatures of accelerated electrons in solar...

  2. Radiation hardness of CMS pixel barrel modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohe, T.; Bean, A.; Erdmann, W.; Kaestli, H.-C.; Khalatyan, S.; Meier, B.; Radicci, V.; Sibille, J.

    2010-01-01

    Pixel detectors are used in the innermost part of the multi purpose experiments at the LHC and are therefore exposed to the highest fluences of ionising radiation, which in this part of the detectors consists mainly of charged pions. The radiation hardness of all detector components has been thoroughly tested up to the fluences expected at the LHC. In case of an LHC upgrade, the fluence will be much higher and it is not yet clear how long the present pixel modules will stay operative in such a harsh environment. The aim of this study was to establish such a limit as a benchmark for other possible detector concepts considered for the upgrade. As the sensors and the readout chip are the parts most sensitive to radiation damage, samples consisting of a small pixel sensor bump-bonded to a CMS-readout chip (PSI46V2.1) have been irradiated with positive 200 MeV pions at PSI up to 6x10 14 n eq /cm 2 and with 21 GeV protons at CERN up to 5x10 15 n eq /cm 2 . After irradiation the response of the system to beta particles from a 90 Sr source was measured to characterise the charge collection efficiency of the sensor. Radiation induced changes in the readout chip were also measured. The results show that the present pixel modules can be expected to be still operational after a fluence of 2.8x10 15 n eq /cm 2 . Samples irradiated up to 5x10 15 n eq /cm 2 still see the beta particles. However, further tests are needed to confirm whether a stable operation with high particle detection efficiency is possible after such a high fluence.

  3. Study of Ni Metallization in Macroporous Si Using Wet Chemistry for Radio Frequency Cross-Talk Isolation in Mixed Signal Integrated Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Xu, Chengkun; Chong, Kyuchul; Tu, King-Ning; Xie, Ya-Hong

    2011-05-25

    A highly conductive moat or Faraday cage of through-the-wafer thickness in Si substrate was proposed to be effective in shielding electromagnetic interference thereby reducing radio frequency (RF) cross-talk in high performance mixed signal integrated circuits. Such a structure was realized by metallization of selected ultra-high-aspect-ratio macroporous regions that were electrochemically etched in p - Si substrates. The metallization process was conducted by means of wet chemistry in an alkaline aqueous solution containing Ni 2+ without reducing agent. It is found that at elevated temperature during immersion, Ni 2+ was rapidly reduced and deposited into macroporous Si and a conformal metallization of the macropore sidewalls was obtained in a way that the entire porous Si framework was converted to Ni. A conductive moat was as a result incorporated into p - Si substrate. The experimentally measured reduction of crosstalk in this structure is 5~18 dB at frequencies up to 35 GHz.

  4. Study of Ni Metallization in Macroporous Si Using Wet Chemistry for Radio Frequency Cross-Talk Isolation in Mixed Signal Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Xu, Chengkun; Chong, Kyuchul; Tu, King-Ning; Xie, Ya-Hong

    2011-01-01

    A highly conductive moat or Faraday cage of through-the-wafer thickness in Si substrate was proposed to be effective in shielding electromagnetic interference thereby reducing radio frequency (RF) cross-talk in high performance mixed signal integrated circuits. Such a structure was realized by metallization of selected ultra-high-aspect-ratio macroporous regions that were electrochemically etched in p− Si substrates. The metallization process was conducted by means of wet chemistry in an alkaline aqueous solution containing Ni2+ without reducing agent. It is found that at elevated temperature during immersion, Ni2+ was rapidly reduced and deposited into macroporous Si and a conformal metallization of the macropore sidewalls was obtained in a way that the entire porous Si framework was converted to Ni. A conductive moat was as a result incorporated into p− Si substrate. The experimentally measured reduction of crosstalk in this structure is 5~18 dB at frequencies up to 35 GHz. PMID:28879960

  5. Auxiliary controller for time-to-digital converter module readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermolin, Yu.V.

    1992-01-01

    The KD-225 auxiliary controller for time-to-digital converter module readout in the SUMMA crate is described. After readout and preliminary processing the data are written in the P-140 buffer memory module. The controller is used in the FODS-2 experimental setup data acquisition system. 12 refs.; 1 fig

  6. The Omega Ring Imaging Cerenkov Detector readout system user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallewell, G.

    1984-11-01

    The manual describes the electronic readout system of the Ring Imaging Cerenkov Detector at the CERN Omega Spectrometer. The system is described in its configuration of September 1984 after the Rich readout system had been used in two Omega experiments. (U.K.)

  7. A reconfigurable image tube using an external electronic image readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapington, J. S.; Howorth, J. R.; Milnes, J. S.

    2005-08-01

    We have designed and built a sealed tube microchannel plate (MCP) intensifier for optical/NUV photon counting applications suitable for 18, 25 and 40 mm diameter formats. The intensifier uses an electronic image readout to provide direct conversion of event position into electronic signals, without the drawbacks associated with phosphor screens and subsequent optical detection. The Image Charge technique is used to remove the readout from the intensifier vacuum enclosure, obviating the requirement for additional electrical vacuum feedthroughs and for the readout pattern to be UHV compatible. The charge signal from an MCP intensifier is capacitively coupled via a thin dielectric vacuum window to the electronic image readout, which is external to the sealed intensifier tube. The readout pattern is a separate item held in proximity to the dielectric window and can be easily detached, making the system easily reconfigurable. Since the readout pattern detects induced charge and is external to the tube, it can be constructed as a multilayer, eliminating the requirement for narrow insulator gaps and allowing it to be constructed using standard PCB manufacturing tolerances. We describe two readout patterns, the tetra wedge anode (TWA), an optimized 4 electrode device similar to the wedge and strip anode (WSA) but with a factor 2 improvement in resolution, and an 8 channel high speed 50 ohm device, both manufactured as multilayer PCBs. We present results of the detector imaging performance, image resolution, linearity and stability, and discuss the development of an integrated readout and electronics device based on these designs.

  8. A Triggerless readout system for the ANDA electromagnetic calorimeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemens, M.

    2015-01-01

    One of the physics goals of the future ANDA experiment at FAIR is to research newly discovered exotic states. Because the detector response created by these particles is very similar to the background channels, a new type of data readout had to be developed, called "triggerless" readout. In this

  9. A Fastbus-based silicon strip readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neoustroev, P.; Stepanov, V.; Svoiski, M.; Uvarov, L.; Matthew, P.; Russ, J.; Cooper, P.

    1995-01-01

    The readout system we describe here is built specifically to work with the LBL-designed SVX chip. It is typical of systems using a master sequencer module to direct the trigger and readout cycles of the sparse data source and to push data into a digitization and storage module. (orig.)

  10. Radiation hardness of CMS pixel barrel modules

    CERN Document Server

    Rohe, T; Erdmann, W; Kästli, H C; Khalatyan, S; Meier, B; Radicci, V; Sibille, J

    2010-01-01

    Pixel detectors are used in the innermost part of the multi purpose experiments at LHC and are therefore exposed to the highest fluences of ionising radiation, which in this part of the detectors consists mainly of charged pions. The radiation hardness of all detector components has thoroughly been tested up to the fluences expected at the LHC. In case of an LHC upgrade, the fluence will be much higher and it is not yet clear how long the present pixel modules will stay operative in such a harsh environment. The aim of this study was to establish such a limit as a benchmark for other possible detector concepts considered for the upgrade. As the sensors and the readout chip are the parts most sensitive to radiation damage, samples consisting of a small pixel sensor bump-bonded to a CMS-readout chip (PSI46V2.1) have been irradiated with positive 200 MeV pions at PSI up to 6E14 Neq and with 21 GeV protons at CERN up to 5E15 Neq. After irradiation the response of the system to beta particles from a Sr-90 source w...

  11. Performance study of large area encoding readout MRPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Chen, G.; Han, D.; Wang, X.; Zeng, M.; Zeng, Z.; Zhao, Z.; Guo, B.

    2018-02-01

    Muon tomography system built by the 2-D readout high spatial resolution Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) detector is a project of Tsinghua University. An encoding readout method based on the fine-fine configuration has been used to minimize the number of the readout electronic channels resulting in reducing the complexity and the cost of the system. In this paper, we provide a systematic comparison of the MRPC detector performance with and without fine-fine encoding readout. Our results suggest that the application of the fine-fine encoding readout leads us to achieve a detecting system with slightly worse spatial resolution but dramatically reduce the number of electronic channels.

  12. Development and characterisation of a radiation hard readout chip for the LHCb outer tracker detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stange, U.

    2005-01-01

    The reconstruction of charged particle tracks in the Outer Tracker detector of the LHCb experiment requires to measure the drift times of the straw tubes. A Time to Digital Converter (TDC) chip has been developed for this task. The chip integrates into the LHCb data acquisition schema and fulfils the requirements of the detector. The OTIS chip is manufactured in a commercial 0.25 μm CMOS process. A 32-channel TDC core drives the drift time measurement (25 ns measurement range, 390 ps nominal resolution) without introducing dead times. The resulting drift times are buffered until a trigger decision arrives after the fixed latency of 4 μs. In case of a trigger accept signal, the digital control core processes and transmits the corresponding data to the following data acquisition stage. Drift time measurement and data processing are independent from the detector occupancy. The digital control core of the OTIS chip has been developed within this doctoral thesis. It has been integrated into the TDC chip together with other constituents of the chip. Several test chips and prototype versions of the TDC chip have been characterised. The present version of the chip OTIS1.2 fulfils all requirements and is ready for mass production. (Orig.)

  13. MAROC, a generic photomultiplier readout chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blin, S; Barrillon, P; La Taille, C de

    2010-01-01

    The MAROC ASICs family is dedicated to the readout of 64-channel Multi Anode PMT and similar detectors. Its main roles are to correct the gain spread of MAPMT channels thanks to an individual variable gain preamplifier and to discriminate the input signals (from 50fC i.e 1/3 photo-electron) in order to produce 64 trigger outputs. A multiplexed analog charge output is also available with a dynamic range around 10 pe ( ∼ 1.6 pC) and a 12 bit Wilkinson ADC is embedded. Three versions of this chip have been submitted. MAROC 2 is the production version for the ATLAS luminometer and MAROC3 is a version with lower dissipation and significant improvements concerning the charge (30 pe: ∼ 5 pC) and trigger (discrimination from 10fC). This third version showed very good characteristics that are presented here.

  14. MAROC, a generic photomultiplier readout chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blin, S; Barrillon, P; La Taille, C de, E-mail: blin@lal.in2p3.f [CNRS/IN2p3/LAL-OMEGA, Universite Paris Sud, Bat.200, 91898 Orsay (France)

    2010-12-15

    The MAROC ASICs family is dedicated to the readout of 64-channel Multi Anode PMT and similar detectors. Its main roles are to correct the gain spread of MAPMT channels thanks to an individual variable gain preamplifier and to discriminate the input signals (from 50fC i.e 1/3 photo-electron) in order to produce 64 trigger outputs. A multiplexed analog charge output is also available with a dynamic range around 10 pe ( {approx} 1.6 pC) and a 12 bit Wilkinson ADC is embedded. Three versions of this chip have been submitted. MAROC 2 is the production version for the ATLAS luminometer and MAROC3 is a version with lower dissipation and significant improvements concerning the charge (30 pe: {approx} 5 pC) and trigger (discrimination from 10fC). This third version showed very good characteristics that are presented here.

  15. MAROC, a generic photomultiplier readout chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blin, S.; Barrillon, P.; de La Taille, C.

    2010-12-01

    The MAROC ASICs family is dedicated to the readout of 64-channel Multi Anode PMT and similar detectors. Its main roles are to correct the gain spread of MAPMT channels thanks to an individual variable gain preamplifier and to discriminate the input signals (from 50fC i.e 1/3 photo-electron) in order to produce 64 trigger outputs. A multiplexed analog charge output is also available with a dynamic range around 10 pe ( ~ 1.6 pC) and a 12 bit Wilkinson ADC is embedded. Three versions of this chip have been submitted. MAROC 2 is the production version for the ATLAS luminometer and MAROC3 is a version with lower dissipation and significant improvements concerning the charge (30 pe: ~ 5 pC) and trigger (discrimination from 10fC). This third version showed very good characteristics that are presented here.

  16. Online readout and control unit for high-speed/high resolution readout of silicon tracking detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, J.; Hansen, K.; Lange, W.; Nowak, T.; Prell, S.; Zimmermann, W.

    1997-01-01

    We are describing a high speed VME readout and control module developed and presently working at the H1 experiment at DESY in Hamburg. It has the capability to read out 4 x 2048 analogue data channels at sampling rates up to 10 MHz with a dynamic input range of 1 V. The nominal resolution of the A/D converters can be adjusted between 8 and 12 bit. At the latter resolution we obtain signal-to-noise ratio better than 61.4 dB at a conversion rate of 5 MSps. At this data rate all 8192 detector channels can be read out to the internal raw data memory and VME interface within about 410 μs and 510 μs, respectively. The pedestal subtracted signals can be analyzed on-line. At a raw data hit occupation of 10%, the VME readout time is 50 μs per module. Each module provides four complementary CMOS signals to control the front-end electronics and four independent sets of power supplies for analogue and digital voltages (10 V, 100 mA) to drive the front-end electronics and for the bias voltage (100 V, 1.2 mA) to assure the full functionality of the detectors and the readout. (orig.)

  17. Online readout and control unit for high-speed/high resolution readout of silicon tracking detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürger, J.; Hansen, K.; Lange, W.; Nowak, T.; Prell, S.; Zimmermann, W.

    1997-02-01

    We are describing a high speed VME readout and control module developed and presently working at the H1 experiment at DESY in Hamburg. It has the capability to read out 4 × 2048 analogue data channels at sampling rates up to 10 MHz with a dynamic input range of 1 V. The nominal resolution of the A/D converters can be adjusted between 8 and 12 bit. At the latter resolution we obtain signal-to-noise ratio better than 61.4 dB at a conversion rate of 5 MSps. At this data rate all 8192 detector channels can be read out to the internal raw data memory and VME interface within about 410 μs and 510 μs, respectively. The pedestal subtracted signals can be analyzed on-line. At a raw data hit occupation of 10%, the VME readout time is 50 μs per module. Each module provides four complementary CMOS signals to control the front-end electronics and four independent sets of power supplies for analogue and digital voltages (10 V, 100 mA) to drive the front-end electronics and for the bias voltage (100 V, 1.2 mA) to assure the full functionality of the detectors and the readout.

  18. Online readout and control unit for high-speed / high resolution readout of silicon tracking detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, J.; Hansen, K.; Lange, W.; Nowak, T.; Prell, S.; Zimmermann, W.

    1996-09-01

    We are describing a high speed VME readout and control module developed and presently working at the H1 experiment at DESY in Hamburg. It has the capability to read out 4 x 2048 analogue data channels at sampling rates up to 10 MHz with a dynamic input range of 1 V. The nominal resolution of the A/D converters can be adjusted between 8 and 12 bit. At the latter resolution we obtain signal-to-noise ratio better than 61.4 dB at a conversion rate of 5 MSps. At this data rate all 8192 detector channels can be read out to the internal raw data memory and VME interface within about 410 μs and 510 μs, respectively. The pedestal subtracted signals can be analyzed on-line. At a raw data hit occupation of 10%, the VME readout time is 50 μs per module. Each module provides four complementary CMOS signals to control the front-end electronics and four independent sets of power supplies for analogue and digital voltages (10 V, 100 mA) to drive the front-end electronics and for the bias voltage (100 V, 1.2 mA) to assure the full functionality of the detectors and the readout. (orig.)

  19. Toward VIP-PIX: A Low Noise Readout ASIC for Pixelated CdTe Gamma-Ray Detectors for Use in the Next Generation of PET Scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias-Montero, Jose-Gabriel; Sarraj, Maher; Chmeissani, Mokhtar; Puigdengoles, Carles; Lorenzo, Gianluca De; Martínez, Ricardo

    2013-08-01

    VIP-PIX will be a low noise and low power pixel readout electronics with digital output for pixelated Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) detectors. The proposed pixel will be part of a 2D pixel-array detector for various types of nuclear medicine imaging devices such as positron-emission tomography (PET) scanners, Compton gamma cameras, and positron-emission mammography (PEM) scanners. Each pixel will include a SAR ADC that provides the energy deposited with 10-bit resolution. Simultaneously, the self-triggered pixel which will be connected to a global time-to-digital converter (TDC) with 1 ns resolution will provide the event's time stamp. The analog part of the readout chain and the ADC have been fabricated with TSMC 0.25 μ m mixed-signal CMOS technology and characterized with an external test pulse. The power consumption of these parts is 200 μ W from a 2.5 V supply. It offers 4 switchable gains from ±10 mV/fC to ±40 mV/fC and an input charge dynamic range of up to ±70 fC for the minimum gain for both polarities. Based on noise measurements, the expected equivalent noise charge (ENC) is 65 e - RMS at room temperature.

  20. Quantum readout of physical unclonable functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skoric, B.

    2012-01-01

    Physical unclonable functions (PUFs) are physical structures that are hard to clone and have a unique challenge-response behavior. The term PUF was coined by Pappu et al. in 2001. That work triggered a lot of interest, and since then a substantial number of papers has been written about the use of a

  1. FASTBUS readout system for the CDF DAQ upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, J.; Areti, H.; Black, D.

    1993-11-01

    The Data Acquisition System (DAQ) at the Collider Detector at Fermilab is currently being upgraded to handle a minimum of 100 events/sec for an aggregate bandwidth that is at least 25 Mbytes/sec. The DAQ System is based on a commercial switching network that has interfaces to VME bus. The modules that readout the front end crates (FASTBUS and RABBIT) have to deliver the data to the VME bus based host adapters of the switch. This paper describes a readout system that has the required bandwidth while keeping the experiment dead time due to the readout to a minimum

  2. 100 Gbps PCI-Express Readout for the LHCb Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Durante, Paolo; Schwemmer, Rainer; Marconi, Umberto; Balbi, Gabriele; Lax, Ignazio

    2015-01-01

    We present a new data acquisition system under development for the next upgrade of the LHCb experiment at CERN. We focus in particular on the design of a new common readout board, the PCIe40, and on the viability of PCI-Express as an interconnect technology for high speed readout. We describe a new high-performance DMA controller for data acquisition, implemented on an FPGA, coupled with a custom software module for the Linux kernel. Lastly, we describe how these components can be leveraged to achieve a throughput of 100 Gbit/s per readout board.

  3. Comprehensive hard materials

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive Hard Materials deals with the production, uses and properties of the carbides, nitrides and borides of these metals and those of titanium, as well as tools of ceramics, the superhard boron nitrides and diamond and related compounds. Articles include the technologies of powder production (including their precursor materials), milling, granulation, cold and hot compaction, sintering, hot isostatic pressing, hot-pressing, injection moulding, as well as on the coating technologies for refractory metals, hard metals and hard materials. The characterization, testing, quality assurance and applications are also covered. Comprehensive Hard Materials provides meaningful insights on materials at the leading edge of technology. It aids continued research and development of these materials and as such it is a critical information resource to academics and industry professionals facing the technological challenges of the future. Hard materials operate at the leading edge of technology, and continued res...

  4. Fast timing readout for silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jhingan, A.; Saneesh, N.; Kumar, M.

    2016-01-01

    The development and performance of a 16 channel hybrid fast timing amplifier (FTA), for extracting timing information from silicon strip detectors (SSD), is described. The FTA will be used in a time of flight (TOF) measurement, in which one SSD is used to obtain the ion velocity (A) as well as the energy information of a scattered particle. The TOF information with a thin transmission SSD, acting as ΔE detector (Z) in a detector telescope, will provide a unique detection system for the identification of reaction products in the slowed down beam campaign of low energy branch (LEB) at NUSTAR-FAIR. Such a system will also provide large solid angle coverage with ~ 100% detection efficiency, and adequate segmentation for angular information. A good timing resolution (≤ 100 ps) enables to have shorter flight paths, thus a closely packed 4π array should be feasible. Preamplifiers for energy readout in SSD are easily available. A major constraint with SSDs is the missing high density multichannel preamplifiers which can provide both fast timing as well as energy. Provision of both timing and energy processing, generally makes circuit bulky, with higher power consumption, which may not be suitable in SSD arrays. In case of DSSSD, the problem was overcome by using timing from one side and energy from the other side. A custom designed 16 channel FTA has been developed for DSSSD design W from Micron Semiconductors, UK

  5. Readout of the atomtronic quantum interference device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Tobias; Tan, Joel; Theng, Mark; Dumke, Rainer; Kwek, Leong-Chuan; Amico, Luigi

    2018-01-01

    A Bose-Einstein condensate confined in ring shaped lattices interrupted by a weak link and pierced by an effective magnetic flux defines the atomic counterpart of the superconducting quantum interference device: the atomtronic quantum interference device (AQUID). In this paper, we report on the detection of current states in the system through a self-heterodyne protocol. Following the original proposal of the NIST and Paris groups, the ring-condensate many-body wave function interferes with a reference condensate expanding from the center of the ring. We focus on the rf AQUID which realizes effective qubit dynamics. Both the Bose-Hubbard and Gross-Pitaevskii dynamics are studied. For the Bose-Hubbard dynamics, we demonstrate that the self-heterodyne protocol can be applied, but higher-order correlations in the evolution of the interfering condensates are measured to readout of the current states of the system. We study how states with macroscopic quantum coherence can be told apart analyzing the noise in the time of flight of the ring condensate.

  6. Advanced ACTPol Cryogenic Detector Arrays and Readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, S. W.; Allison, R.; Austermann, J.; Baildon, T.; Battaglia, N.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; De Bernardis, F.; Bond, J. R.; Calabrese, E.; Choi, S. K.; Coughlin, K. P.; Crowley, K. T.; Datta, R.; Devlin, M. J.; Duff, S. M.; Dunkley, J.; Dünner, R.; van Engelen, A.; Gallardo, P. A.; Grace, E.; Hasselfield, M.; Hills, F.; Hilton, G. C.; Hincks, A. D.; Hloẑek, R.; Ho, S. P.; Hubmayr, J.; Huffenberger, K.; Hughes, J. P.; Irwin, K. D.; Koopman, B. J.; Kosowsky, A. B.; Li, D.; McMahon, J.; Munson, C.; Nati, F.; Newburgh, L.; Niemack, M. D.; Niraula, P.; Page, L. A.; Pappas, C. G.; Salatino, M.; Schillaci, A.; Schmitt, B. L.; Sehgal, N.; Sherwin, B. D.; Sievers, J. L.; Simon, S. M.; Spergel, D. N.; Staggs, S. T.; Stevens, J. R.; Thornton, R.; Van Lanen, J.; Vavagiakis, E. M.; Ward, J. T.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-08-01

    Advanced ACTPol is a polarization-sensitive upgrade for the 6 m aperture Atacama Cosmology Telescope, adding new frequencies and increasing sensitivity over the previous ACTPol receiver. In 2016, Advanced ACTPol will begin to map approximately half the sky in five frequency bands (28-230 GHz). Its maps of primary and secondary cosmic microwave background anisotropies—imaged in intensity and polarization at few arcminute-scale resolution—will enable precision cosmological constraints and also a wide array of cross-correlation science that probes the expansion history of the universe and the growth of structure via gravitational collapse. To accomplish these scientific goals, the Advanced ACTPol receiver will be a significant upgrade to the ACTPol receiver, including four new multichroic arrays of cryogenic, feedhorn-coupled AlMn transition edge sensor polarimeters (fabricated on 150 mm diameter wafers); a system of continuously rotating meta-material silicon half-wave plates; and a new multiplexing readout architecture which uses superconducting quantum interference devices and time division to achieve a 64-row multiplexing factor. Here we present the status and scientific goals of the Advanced ACTPol instrument, emphasizing the design and implementation of the Advanced ACTPol cryogenic detector arrays.

  7. Nonlinear parity readout with a microwave photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöndorf, M.; Wilhelm, F. K.

    2018-04-01

    Robust high-fidelity parity measurement is an important operation in many applications of quantum computing. In this work we show how in a circuit QED architecture, one can measure parity in a single shot at very high contrast by taking advantage of the nonlinear behavior of a strongly driven microwave cavity coupled to one or multiple qubits. We work in a nonlinear dispersive regime treated in an exact dispersive transformation. We show that appropriate tuning of experimental parameters leads to very high contrast in the cavity and therefore to a high-efficiency parity readout with a microwave photon counter or another amplitude detector. These tuning conditions are based on nonlinearity and are hence more robust than previously described linear tuning schemes. In the first part of the paper we show in detail how to achieve this for two-qubit parity measurements and extend this to N qubits in the second part of the paper. We also study the quantum nondemolition character of the protocol.

  8. Study of Ni Metallization in Macroporous Si Using Wet Chemistry for Radio Frequency Cross-Talk Isolation in Mixed Signal Integrated Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King-Ning Tu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A highly conductive moat or Faraday cage of through-the-wafer thickness in Si substrate was proposed to be effective in shielding electromagnetic interference thereby reducing radio frequency (RF cross-talk in high performance mixed signal integrated circuits. Such a structure was realized by metallization of selected ultra-high-aspect-ratio macroporous regions that were electrochemically etched in p− Si substrates. The metallization process was conducted by means of wet chemistry in an alkaline aqueous solution containing Ni2+ without reducing agent. It is found that at elevated temperature during immersion, Ni2+ was rapidly reduced and deposited into macroporous Si and a conformal metallization of the macropore sidewalls was obtained in a way that the entire porous Si framework was converted to Ni. A conductive moat was as a result incorporated into p− Si substrate. The experimentally measured reduction of crosstalk in this structure is 5~18 dB at frequencies up to 35 GHz.

  9. A radiation-tolerant electronic readout system for portal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östling, J.; Brahme, A.; Danielsson, M.; Iacobaeus, C.; Peskov, V.

    2004-06-01

    A new electronic portal imaging device, EPID, is under development at the Karolinska Institutet and the Royal Institute of Technology. Due to considerable demands on radiation tolerance in the radiotherapy environment, a dedicated electronic readout system has been designed. The most interesting aspect of the readout system is that it allows to read out ˜1000 pixels in parallel, with all electronics placed outside the radiation beam—making the detector more radiation resistant. In this work we are presenting the function of a small prototype (6×100 pixels) of the electronic readout board that has been tested. Tests were made with continuous X-rays (10-60 keV) and with α particles. The results show that, without using an optimised gas mixture and with an early prototype only, the electronic readout system still works very well.

  10. Readout ASIC of pair-monitor for international linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yutaro; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Ito, Kazutoshi; Miyamoto, Akiya; Nagamine, Tadashi; Sasaki, Rei; Takubo, Yosuke; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    The pair-monitor is a beam profile monitor at the interaction point of the international linear collider. A prototype of the readout ASIC for the pair-monitor has been designed and tested. Since the pair-monitor uses the hit distribution of electrons and positrons generated by the beam-crossing to measure the beam profile, the readout ASIC is designed to count the number of hits. In a prototype ASIC, 36 readout cells were implemented by TSMC 0.25-μm CMOS process. Each readout cell is equipped with an amplifier, comparator, 8-bit counter and 16 count-registers. By the operation test, all the ASIC component were confirmed to work correctly. As the next step, we develop the prototype ASIC with the silicon on insulator technology. It is produced with OKI 0.2-μm FD-SOI CMOS process.

  11. Single-Readout High-Density Memristor Crossbar

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, M. A.

    2016-01-07

    High-density memristor-crossbar architecture is a very promising technology for future computing systems. The simplicity of the gateless-crossbar structure is both its principal advantage and the source of undesired sneak-paths of current. This parasitic current could consume an enormous amount of energy and ruin the readout process. We introduce new adaptive-threshold readout techniques that utilize the locality and hierarchy properties of the computer-memory system to address the sneak-paths problem. The proposed methods require a single memory access per pixel for an array readout. Besides, the memristive crossbar consumes an order of magnitude less power than state-of-the-art readout techniques.

  12. An intelligent readout controller for Fastbus, the Fermilab FSCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, M.; Kwarciany, R.; Urish, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the Fermilab FASTBUS Smart Crate Controller which is intended as a fast, versatile, and cost effective solution for the readout of FASTBUS crates. The on-board 68020 provides intelligence and a programmable microsequencer controls the main readout path. The FSCC supports communication via serial RS 232, Ethernet, and FASTBUS. The main readout path may be programmed for a variety of protocols. Currently, RS 422, VDAS, ECL line, and fiber-optic interfaces are being developed. Hardware interfacing is via the FASTBUS auxiliary connector using a personality card. Provision is made for some on-board formatting and processing of data. The 68020 may sample the data, also headers and word counts may be inserted into the data stream. Data is buffered by FIFOs to allow asynchronous readout

  13. Readout and triggering of the Soudan 2 nucleon decay experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thron, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    The readout and triggering electronics for the Soudan 2 proton decay detector is presented. Pratically all the electronics is implemented in CMOS. The triggering scheme is highly flexible and software controllable

  14. Single-Readout High-Density Memristor Crossbar

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, M. A.; Omran, Hesham; Naous, Rawan; Salem, Ahmed Sultan; Fahmy, H. A. H.; Lu, W. D.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2016-01-01

    High-density memristor-crossbar architecture is a very promising technology for future computing systems. The simplicity of the gateless-crossbar structure is both its principal advantage and the source of undesired sneak-paths of current. This parasitic current could consume an enormous amount of energy and ruin the readout process. We introduce new adaptive-threshold readout techniques that utilize the locality and hierarchy properties of the computer-memory system to address the sneak-paths problem. The proposed methods require a single memory access per pixel for an array readout. Besides, the memristive crossbar consumes an order of magnitude less power than state-of-the-art readout techniques.

  15. Readout scheme for the Baby-MIND detector

    CERN Document Server

    Noah, Etam; Cadoux, F; Favre, Y; Martinez, B; Nicola, L; Parsa, S; Rayner, M; Antonova, M; Fedotov, S; Izmaylov, A; Kleymenova, A; Khabibullin, M; Khotyantsev, A; Kudenko, Y; Likhacheva, V; Mefodiev, A; Mineev, O; Ovsiannikova, T; Shaykhiev, A; Suvorov, S; Yershov, N; Tsenov, R

    2016-01-01

    A readout scheme has been designed for the plastic scintillator bars of the Baby-MIND detector modules. This spectrometer will measure momentum and identify the charge of 1 GeV/c muons with magnetized iron plates interleaved with detector modules. One challenge the detector aims to address is that of keeping high charge identification efficiencies for momenta below 1 GeV/c where multiple scattering in the iron plates degrades momentum resolution. A front-end board has been developed, with 3 CITIROC readout chips per board and up to 96 channels. Hamamatsu MPPCs type S12571-025C photosensors were chosen for readout of wavelength shifting fibers embedded in plastic scintillators. Procurement of the MPPCs has been carried out to instrument 3000 channels in total. Design choices and first results of this readout scheme are presented.

  16. FAIR: A new fast trigger and readout bus system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordine, A.; Boiano, A.; Zaghi, A.

    1998-01-01

    FAIR (FAst Intercrate Readout) is a synchronous ECL bus system dedicated to readout. It is based on a new trigger and readout hardware level protocol and on a new control system that learns how to setup and control modules. The hardware protocol along with the data structure allow both readout and event building at the same time at the rate of 22 ns/longword (1.44 Gbit/s) without the need of CPUs. It performs trigger management and full pipelining by using a multilevel FIFO structure. FAIR provides for a multi-crate front-end environment and uses an embedded serial network to accomplish front-end control and setup. The data transfer measured performances and the control system are presented in some detail

  17. A four gain readout integrated circuit: FRIC 96 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussat, J.M.; Bohner, G.; Lecoq, J.; Colas, J.; Rossetto, O.; Dzahini, D.; Pouxe, J.

    1996-01-01

    The main difficulty for the readout electronics of the ATLAS LARG calorimeter is to handle the 16 bit dynamic range without spoiling the signal to noise ratio. A possible way to split the input. (authors)

  18. Study for the LHCb upgrade read-out board

    CERN Document Server

    Cachemiche, J P; Hachon, F; Le Gac, R; Marin, F; 10.1088/1748-0221/5/12/C12036

    2010-01-01

    The LHCb experiment envisages to upgrade its readout electronics in order to increase the readout rate from 1 MHz to 40 MHz. This electronics upgrade is very challenging, since readout boards will have to handle a higher number of serial links with an increased bandwidth. In addition, the new communication protocol (GBT) developed by the CERN micro-electronics group mixes data acquisition, slow control and clock distribution on the same link. To explore the feasibility of such a readout system, elementary building blocks have been studied. Their goals are multiple: understand signal integrity when using highly integrated high speed serial links running at 8 - 10 Gbits/s; test the implementation of the GBT protocol within FPGAs; understand advantages and limitations of commercial standard with a predefined interconnection topology; validate ideas on how to control easily such a system. We designed two boards compliant with the xTCA standard which meets an increasing interest in the physics community. The first...

  19. Studies and development of a readout ASIC for pixelated CdTe detectors for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalowska, A.

    2013-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis is part of a project where a new instrument is developed: a camera for hard X-rays imaging spectroscopy. It is dedicated to fundamental research for observations in astrophysics, at wavelengths which can only be observed using space-borne instruments. In this domain the spectroscopic accuracy as well as the imaging details are of high importance. This work has been realized at CEA/IRFU (Institut de Recherche sur les lois Fondamentales de l'Univers), which has a long-standing and successful experience in instruments for high energy physics and space physics instrumentation. The objective of this thesis is the design of the readout electronics for a pixelated CdTe detector, suitable for a stacked assembly. The principal parameters of this integrated circuit are a very low noise for reaching a good accuracy in X-ray energy measurement, very low power consumption, a critical parameter in space-borne applications, and a small dead area for the full system combining the detector and the readout electronics. In this work I have studied the limits of these three parameters in order to optimize the circuit. In terms of the spectral resolution, two categories of noise had to be distinguished to determine the final performance. The first is the Fano noise limit, related to detector interaction statistics, which cannot be eliminated. The second is the electronic noise, also unavoidable; however it can be minimized through optimization of the detection chain. Within the detector, establishing a small pixel pitch of 300 μm reduces the input capacitance and the dark current. This limits the effects of the electronic noise. Also in order to limit the input capacitance the future camera is designed as a stacked assembly of the detector with the readout ASIC. This allows to reach extremely good input parameters seen by the readout electronics: a capacitance in range of 0.3 pF-1 pF and a dark current below 5 pA. In the frame of this thesis I have

  20. A compact readout system for multi-pixel hybrid photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datema, C.P.; Meng, L.J.; Ramsden, D.

    1999-01-01

    Although the first Multi-pixel Hybrid Photodiode (M-HPD) was developed in the early 1990s by Delft Electronic Products, the main obstacle to its application has been the lack of availability of a compact read-out system. A fast, parallel readout system has been constructed for use with the earlier 25-pixel tube with High-energy Physics applications in mind. The excellent properties of the recently developed multi-pixel hybrid photodiodes (M-HPD) will be easier to exploit following the development of the new hybrid read-out circuits described in this paper. This system will enable all of the required read-out functions to be accommodate on a single board into which the M-HPD is plugged. The design and performance of a versatile system is described in which a trigger-signal, derived from the common-side of the silicon anode in the M-HPD, is used to trigger the readout of the 60-anode pixels in the M-HPD. The multi-channel amplifier section is based on the use of a new, commercial VLSI chip, whilst the read-out sequencer uses a chip of its own design. The common anode signal is processed by a fast amplifier and discriminator to provide a trigger signal when a single event is detected. In the prototype version, the serial analogue output data-stream is processed using a PC-mounted, high speed ADC. Results obtained using the new read-out system in a compact gamma-camera and with a small muon tracking-chamber demonstrate the low-noise performance of the system. The application of this read-out system in other position-sensitive or multi-anode photomultiplier tube applications are also described

  1. The Philosophy and Feasibility of Dual Readout Calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptman, John

    2006-01-01

    I will discuss the general physical ideas behind dual-readout calorimetry, their implementation in DREAM (Dual REAdout Module) with exact separation of scintillation and Cerenkov light, implementation with mixed light in DREAM fibers, anticipated implementation in PbWO4 crystals with applications to the 4th Concept detector and to CMS, use in high energy gamma-ray and cosmic ray astrophysics with Cerenkov and N2 fluorescent light, and implementation in the 4th Concept detector for muon identification

  2. Strip detectors read-out system user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, G.; Dulinski, W.; Lounis, A.

    1996-01-01

    The Strip Detector Read-out System consists of two VME modules: SDR-Flash and SDR-seq completed by a fast logic SDR-Trig stand alone card. The system is a self-consistent, cost effective and easy use solution for the read-out of analog multiplexed signals coming from some of the front-end electronics chips (Viking/VA chips family, Premus 128 etc...) currently used together with solid (silicon) or gas microstrip detectors. (author)

  3. Readout chip for the CMS pixel detector upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossini, Marco, E-mail: marco.rossini@phys.ethz.ch

    2014-11-21

    For the CMS experiment a new pixel detector is planned for installation during the extended shutdown in winter 2016/2017. Among the changes of the detector modified front end electronics will be used for higher efficiency at peak luminosity of the LHC and faster readout. The first prototype versions of the new readout chip have been designed and produced. The results of qualification and calibration for the new chip are presented in this paper.

  4. Silicon photomultipliers as readout elements for a Compton effect polarimeter: the COMPASS project

    CERN Document Server

    Del Monte, E; Brandonisio, A; Muleri, F; Soffitta, P; Costa, E; di Persio, G; Cosimo, S Di; Massaro, E; Morbidini, A; Morelli, E; Pacciani, L; Fabiani, S; Michilli, D; Giarrusso, S; Catalano, O; Impiombato, D; Mineo, T; Sottile, G; Billotta, S

    2016-01-01

    COMpton Polarimeter with Avalanche Silicon readout (COMPASS) is a research and development project that aims to measure the polarization of X-ray photons through Compton Scattering. The measurement is obtained by using a set of small rods of fast scintillation materials with both low-Z (as active scatterer) and high-Z (as absorber), all read-out with Silicon Photomultipliers. By this method we can operate scattering and absorbing elements in coincidence, in order to reduce the background. In the laboratory we are characterising the SiPMs using different types of scintillators and we are optimising the performances in terms of energy resolution, energy threshold and photon tagging efficiency. We aim to study the design of two types of satellite-borne instruments: a focal plane polarimeter to be coupled with multilayer optics for hard X-rays and a large area and wide field of view polarimeter for transients and Gamma Ray Bursts. In this paper we describe the status of the COMPASS project, we report about the la...

  5. Results of FE65-P2 Pixel Readout Test Chip for High Luminosity LHC Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)394193

    2016-01-01

    A pixel readout test chip called FE65-P2 has been fabricated on 65 nm CMOS technology. FE65-P2 contains a matrix of 64 x 64 pixels on 50 micron by 50 micron pitch, designed to read out a bump bonded sensor. The goals of FE65-P2 are to demonstrate excellent analog performance isolated from digital activity well enough to achieve 500 electron stable threshold, be radiation hard to at least 500 Mrad, and prove the novel concept of isolated analog front ends embedded in a flat digital design, dubbed “analog islands in a digital sea”. Experience from FE65-P2 and hybrid assemblies will be applied to the design for a large format readout chip, called RD53A, to be produced in a wafer run in early 2017 by the RD53 collaboration. We review the case for 65 nm technology and report on threshold stability test results for the FE65-P2.

  6. Timing performances of diamond detectors with Charge Sensitive Amplifier readout

    CERN Document Server

    Berretti, M; Minafra, N

    2015-01-01

    Research on particle detector based on synthetic diamonds has always been limited by the cost, quality and availability of the sensitive material. Moreover, the read-out electronics requires particular care due to the small number of electron/hole pairs generated by the passage of a minimum ionizing particle. However, high radiation hardness, low leakage currents and high mobility of the electron/hole pairs make them an attractive solution for the time of flight measurements and the beam monitoring of new high energy physics experiments where the severe radiation environment is a limitation for most of the technologies commonly used in particle detection. In this work we report the results on the timing performance of a 4.5x4.5 mm$^{2}$ scCVD sensor read-out using a charge sensitive amplifier. Both sensors and amplifiers have been purchased from CIVIDEC Instrumentation. The measurement have been performed on minimum ionizing pions in two beam tests at the PSI and CERN-PS facilities with two different detec...

  7. Induced spherococcoid hard wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, Sh.

    1981-01-01

    A mutant has been obtained - a spheroccocoid line -through irradiation of hard wheat seed with fast neutrons. It is distinguished by semispherical glumes and smaller grain; the plants have low stem with erect leaves but with shorter spikes and with lesser number of spikelets than those of the initial cultivar. Good productive tillering and resistance to lodging contributed to 23.5% higher yield. The line was superior to the standard and the initial cultivars by 14.2% as regards protein content, and by up to 22.8% - as to flour gluten. It has been successfully used in hybridization producing high-yielding hard wheat lines resistant to lodging, with good technological and other indicators. The possibility stated is of obtaining a spherococcoid mutant in tetraploid (hard) wheat out of the D-genome as well as its being suited to hard wheat breeding to enhance protein content, resistance to lodging, etc. (author)

  8. Hard probes 2006 Asilomar

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "The second international conference on hard and electromagnetic probes of high-energy nuclear collisions was held June 9 to 16, 2006 at the Asilomar Conference grounds in Pacific Grove, California" (photo and 1/2 page)

  9. Prototype ATLAS IBL Modules using the FE-I4A Front-End Readout Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, J; Alimonti, Gianluca; Allport, Phil; Altenheiner, Silke; Ancu, Lucian; Andreazza, Attilio; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arutinov, David; Backhaus, Malte; Bagolini, Alvise; Ballansat, Jacques; Barbero, Marlon; Barbier, Gérard; Bates, Richard; Battistin, Michele; Baudin, Patrick; Beau, Tristan; Beccherle, Roberto; Beck, Hans Peter; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, Jim; Bomben, Marco; Borri, Marcello; Boscardin, Maurizio; Botelho Direito, Jose Antonio; Bousson, Nicolas; Boyd, George Russell Jr; Breugnon, Patrick; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buchholz, Peter; Buttar, Craig; Cadoux, Franck; Calderini, Giovanni; Caminada, Leah; Capeans, Mar; Casse, Gianluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Chauveau, Jacques; Chu, Ming-Lee; Ciapetti, Marco; Cindro, Vladimir; Citterio, Mauro; Clark, Allan; Cobal, Marina; Coelli, Simone; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Colin, Daly; Collot, Johann; Crespo-Lopez, Olivier; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Darbo, Giovanni; DaVia, Cinzia; David, Pierre-Yves; Debieux, Stéphane; Delebecque, Pierre; Devetak, Erik; DeWilde, Burton; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Dinu, Nicoleta; Dittus, Fridolin; Diyakov, Denis; Djama, Fares; Dobos, Daniel Adam; Doonan, Kate; Dopke, Jens; Dorholt, Ole; Dube, Sourabh; Dushkin, Andrey; Dzahini, Daniel; Egorov, Kirill; Ehrmann, Oswin; Elldge, David; Elles, Sabine; Elsing, Markus; Eraud, Ludovic; Ereditato, Antonio; Eyring, Andreas; Falchieri, Davide; Falou, Aboud; Fang, Xiaochao; Fausten, Camille; Favre, Yannick; Ferrere, Didier; Fleta, Celeste; Fleury, Julien; Flick, Tobias; Forshaw, Dean; Fougeron, Denis; Fritzsch, Thomas; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gaglione, Renaud; Gallrapp, Christian; Gan, K; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gariano, Giuseppe; Gastaldi, Thibaut; Gemme, Claudia; Gensolen, Fabrice; George, Matthias; Ghislain, Patrick; Giacomini, Gabriele; Gibson, Stephen; Giordani, Mario Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Gjersdal, Håvard; Glitza, Karl Walter; Gnani, Dario; Godlewski, Jan; Gonella, Laura; Gorelov, Igor; Gorišek, Andrej; Gössling, Claus; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gray, Heather; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gromov, Vladimir; Grondin, Denis; Grosse-Knetter, Jörn; Hansen, Thor-Erik; Hansson, Per; Harb, Ali; Hartman, Neal; Hasi, Jasmine; Hegner, Franziska; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Hemperek, Tomasz; Hessey, Nigel; Hetmánek, Martin; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hügging, Fabian; Husi, Coralie; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Idarraga, John; Ikegami, Yoichi; Janoška, Zdenko; Jansen, Jens; Jansen, Luc; Jensen, Frank; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Joseph, John; Kagan, Harris; Karagounis, Michael; Kass, Richard; Kenney, Christopher J; Kersten, Susanne; Kind, Peter; Klingenberg, Reiner; Kluit, Ruud; Kocian, Martin; Koffeman, Els; Kok, Angela; Korchak, Oleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Krieger, Nina; Krüger, Hans; Kruth, Andre; Kugel, Andreas; Kuykendall, William; La Rosa, Alessandro; Lai, Chung-Hang; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laporte, Didier; Lapsien, Tobias; Lounis, abdenour; Lozano, Manuel; Lu, Yunpeng; Lubatti, Henry; Macchiolo, Anna; Mallik, Usha; Mandić, Igor; Marchand, Denis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Massol, Nicolas; Matthias, Wittgen; Mättig, Peter; Mekkaoui, Abderrazak; Menouni, Mohsine; Menu, Johann; Meroni, Chiara; Mesa, Javier; Micelli, Andrea; Michal, Sébastien; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mikuž, Marko; Mitsui, Shingo; Monti, Mauro; Moore, J; Morettini, Paolo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Murray, Peyton; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, David J; Nessi, Marzio; Neumann, Manuel; Nisius, Richard; Nordberg, Markus; Nuiry, Francois-Xavier; Oppermann, Hermann; Oriunno, Marco; Padilla, Cristobal; Parker, Sherwood; Pellegrini, Giulio; Pelleriti, Gabriel; Pernegger, Heinz; Piacquadio, Nicola Giacinto; Picazio, Attilio; Pohl, David; Polini, Alessandro; Popule, Jiří; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Povoli, Marco; Puldon, David; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Quadt, Arnulf; Quirion, David; Ragusa, Francesco; Rambure, Thibaut; Richards, Erik; Ristic, Branislav; Røhne, Ole; Rothermund, Mario; Rovani, Alessandro; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rummler, André; Ruscino, Ettore; Salek, David; Salzburger, Andreas; Sandaker, Heidi; Schipper, Jan-David; Schneider, Basil; Schorlemmer, Andre; Schroer, Nicolai; Schwemling, Philippe; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Šícho, Petr; Skubic, Patrick; Sloboda, Michal; Smith, D; Sood, Alex; Spencer, Edwin; Strang, Michael; Stugu, Bjarne; Stupak, John; Su, Dong; Takubo, Yosuke; Tassan, Jean; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Todorov, Theodore; Tomášek, Michal; Toms, Konstantin; Travaglini, Riccardo; Trischuk, William; Troncon, Clara; Troska, Georg; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsurin, Ilya; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Unno, Yoshinobu; Vacavant, Laurent; Verlaat, Bart; Vianello, Elisa; Vigeolas, Eric; von Kleist, Stephan; Vrba, Václav; Vuillermet, Raphaël; Wang, Rui; Watts, Stephen; Weber, Michele; Weber, Marteen; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Welch, Steven David; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Wiese, Andreas; Wittig, Tobias; Yildizkaya, Tamer; Zeitnitz, Christian; Ziolkowski, Michal; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zorzi, Nicola; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Collaboration will upgrade its semiconductor pixel tracking detector with a new Insertable B-layer (IBL) between the existing pixel detector and the vacuum pipe of the Large Hadron Collider. The extreme operating conditions at this location have necessitated the development of new radiation hard pixel sensor technologies and a new front-end readout chip, called the FE-I4. Planar pixel sensors and 3D pixel sensors have been investigated to equip this new pixel layer, and prototype modules using the FE-I4A have been fabricated and characterized using 120 GeV pions at the CERN SPS and 4 GeV positrons at DESY, before and after module irradiation. Beam test results are presented, including charge collection efficiency, tracking efficiency and charge sharing.

  10. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V., Herne (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The year 2012 benefited from a growth of the consumption of hard coal at the national level as well as at the international level. Worldwide, the hard coal still is the number one energy source for power generation. This leads to an increasing demand for power plant coal. In this year, the conversion of hard coal into electricity also increases in this year. In contrast to this, the demand for coking coal as well as for coke of the steel industry is still declining depending on the market conditions. The enhanced utilization of coal for the domestic power generation is due to the reduction of the nuclear power from a relatively bad year for wind power as well as reduced import prices and low CO{sub 2} prices. Both justify a significant price advantage for coal in comparison to the utilisation of natural gas in power plants. This was mainly due to the price erosion of the inexpensive US coal which partly was replaced by the expansion of shale gas on the domestic market. As a result of this, the inexpensive US coal looked for an outlet for sales in Europe. The domestic hard coal has continued the process of adaptation and phase-out as scheduled. Two further hard coal mines were decommissioned in the year 2012. RAG Aktiengesellschaft (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) running the hard coal mining in this country begins with the preparations for the activities after the time of mining.

  11. R and D on Radiation Hard Active Media Based on Quartz Plates

    CERN Document Server

    Onel, Yasar

    2014-01-01

    The need for radiation-hard active media in particle detectors is prominently dictated by the future colliders and the future operations of the Large Hadron Collider. The areas of implementation range from calorimetry to beamline instrumentation to specialized forward detectors e.g. luminosity monitors. In this context, we developed the idea of utilizing quartz plates with various surface coating properties as the active medium for such detectors. Plain quartz is a pure Cerenkov radiator which has quite limited photostatistics. In order to improve the efficiency of the photodetection, various methods were investigated including radiation hard wavelength shifters, p-terphenyl or 4pct gallium doped zinc oxide. The readout options include direct coupling of the photodetector to the quartz plate, or fibers. We have studied various geometries and readout options and constructed calorimeter prototypes. Here we report on the results of the previous tests, and the recent developments, which enable several factors of ...

  12. FASTBUS Readout Controller card for high speed data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, S.

    1991-10-01

    This article describes a FASTBUS Readout Controller (FRC) for high speed data acquisition in FASTBUS based systems. The controller has two main interfaces: to FASTBUS and to a Readout Port. The FASTBUS interface performs FASTBUS master and slave operations at a maximum transfer rate exceeding 40 MBytes/s. The Readout Port can be adapted for a variety of protocols. Currently, it will be interfaced to a VME bus based processor with a VSB port. The on-board LR33000 embedded processor controls the readout, executing a list of operations download into its memory. It scans the FASTBUS modules and stores the data in a triple port DRAM (TPDRAM), through one of the Serial Access Memory (SAM) ports of the (TPDRAM). Later, it transfers this data to the readout port using the other SAM. The FRC also supports serial communication via RS232 and Ethernet interfaces. This device is intended for use in the data acquisition system at the Collider Detector at Fermilab. 5 refs., 3 figs

  13. Multi-Anode Photomultplier (MAPMT) readout for High Granularity Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Mkrtchyan, Tigran; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Hadron calorimeter high performance in jet sub-structure measurements can be achieved for objects with $p_{T}$ greater than 1 TeV if the readout geometry is finely segmented in $\\Delta\\eta \\times \\Delta\\phi$. A feasibility study to increase the readout granularity of TileCal, the central hadron calorimeter of the ATLAS detector, is presented. We show a preliminary study exploring the possibility to increase by a factor 4 the present readout granularity of the inner layer cells of TileCal (0.1->0.025 in $\\Delta\\eta$) and to split into two layers the intermediate section of TileCal. The proposed solution is designed to cope with mechanical and readout bandwidth and power constraints. Assuming that the mechanics of the Tile modules cannot be changed, Multi-Anode PMTs with same boundary geometry of the present single-anode PMTs are considered to readout WLS bers, ideally one per pixel, carrying the signals from the individual scintillating tiles of each detector cells. The discussed challenges of the design are: ...

  14. Frequency-chirped readout of spatial-spectral absorption features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Tiejun; Mohan, R. Krishna; Harris, Todd L.; Merkel, Kristian D.; Tian Mingzhen; Babbitt, Wm. Randall

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the physical mechanisms of reading out spatial-spectral absorption features in an inhomogeneously broadened medium using linear frequency-chirped electric fields. A Maxwell-Bloch model using numerical calculation for angled beams with arbitrary phase modulation is used to simulate the chirped field readout process. The simulation results indicate that any spatial-spectral absorption feature can be read out with a chirped field with the appropriate bandwidth, duration, and intensity. Mapping spectral absorption features into temporal intensity modulations depends on the chirp rate of the field. However, when probing a spatial-spectral grating with a chirped field, a beat signal representing the grating period can be created by interfering the emitted photon echo chirped field with a reference chirped field, regardless of the chirp rate. Comparisons are made between collinear and angled readout configurations. Readout signal strength and spurious signal distortions are investigated as functions of the grating strength and the Rabi frequency of the readout pulse. Using a collinear readout geometry, distortions from optical nutation on the transmitted field and higher-order harmonics are observed, both of which are avoided in an angled beam geometry

  15. Readout for a large area neutron sensitive microchannel plate detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yiming [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Yang, Yigang, E-mail: yangyigang@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Wang, Xuewu; Li, Yuanjing [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China)

    2015-06-01

    A neutron sensitive microchannel plate (MCP) detector was developed for neutron imaging on the beamline of a compact pulsed hadron source (CPHS). The detector was set up with a Wedge-and-Strip Anode (WSA) and a delay line anode readout to compare the spatial resolution and throughput with these two anodes. Tests show that the WSA readout is suitable for small area imaging with a spatial resolution of 200 μm with low energy X-rays in a 50 mm diameter MCP–WSA assembly. However, the spatial resolution deteriorated to ~2 mm in a 106 mm diameter MCP–WSA assembly because the noise caused by the parasitic capacitance is 10 times larger in the larger assembly than in the 50 mm diameter assembly. A 120 mm by 120 mm delay line anode was then used for the 106 mm MCP readout. The spatial resolution was evaluated for various voltages applied to the MCP V-stack, various readout voltages and various distances between the MCP V-stack rear face and the delay line. The delay line readout had resolutions of 65.6 μm in the x direction and 63.7 μm in the y direction and the throughput was greater than 600 kcps. The MCP was then used to acquire a neutron image of an USAF1951 Gd-mask.

  16. Yarr: A PCIe based readout system for semiconductor tracking systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heim, Timon [Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Maettig, Peter [Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Pernegger, Heinz [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    The Yarr readout system is a novel DAQ concept, using an FPGA board connected via PCIe to a computer, to read out semiconductor tracking systems. The system uses the FPGA as a reconfigurable IO interface which, in conjunction with the very high speed of the PCIe bus, enables a focus of processing the data stream coming from the pixel detector in software. Modern computer system could potentially make the need of custom signal processing hardware in readout systems obsolete and the Yarr readout system showcases this for FE-I4 chips, which are state-of-the-art readout chips used in the ATLAS Pixel Insertable B-Layer and developed for tracking in high multiplicity environments. The underlying concept of the Yarr readout system tries to move intelligence from hardware into the software without the loss of performance, which is made possible by modern multi-core processors. The FPGA board firmware acts like a buffer and does no further processing of the data stream, enabling rapid integration of new hardware due to minimal firmware minimisation.

  17. dc readout experiment at the Caltech 40m prototype interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, R L; Adhikari, R; Abbott, B; Abbott, R; Bork, R; Fricke, T; Heefner, J; Ivanov, A; Miyakawa, O; Smith, M; Taylor, R; Vass, S; Waldman, S; Weinstein, A; Barron, D; Frolov, V; McKenzie, K; Slagmolen, B

    2008-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) operates a 40m prototype interferometer on the Caltech campus. The primary mission of the prototype is to serve as an experimental testbed for upgrades to the LIGO interferometers and for gaining experience with advanced interferometric techniques, including detuned resonant sideband extraction (i.e. signal recycling) and dc readout (optical homodyne detection). The former technique will be employed in Advanced LIGO, and the latter in both Enhanced and Advanced LIGO. Using dc readout for gravitational wave signal extraction has several technical advantages, including reduced laser and oscillator noise couplings as well as reduced shot noise, when compared to the traditional rf readout technique (optical heterodyne detection) currently in use in large-scale ground-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors. The Caltech 40m laboratory is currently prototyping a dc readout system for a fully suspended interferometric gravitational wave detector. The system includes an optical filter cavity at the interferometer's output port, and the associated controls and optics to ensure that the filter cavity is optimally coupled to the interferometer. We present the results of measurements to characterize noise couplings in rf and dc readout using this system

  18. A readout buffer prototype for ATLAS high-level triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Calvet, D; Huet, M; Le Dû, P; Mandjavidze, I D; Mur, M

    2001-01-01

    Readout buffers are critical components in the dataflow chain of the ATLAS trigger/data-acquisition system. At up to 75 kHz, after each Level-1 trigger accept signal, these devices receive and store digitized data from groups of front-end electronic channels. Several readout buffers are grouped to form a readout buffer complex that acts as a data server for the high-level trigger selection algorithms and for the final data-collection system. This paper describes a functional prototype of a readout buffer based on a custom-made PCI mezzanine card that is designed to accept input data at up to 160 MB /s, to store up to 8 MB of data, and to distribute data chunks at the desired request rate. We describe the hardware of the card that is based on an Intel 1960 processor and complex programmable logic devices. We present the integration of several of these cards in a readout buffer complex. We measure various performance figures and discuss to which extent these can fulfil ATLAS needs. (5 refs).

  19. Novel concept of TDI readout circuit for LWIR detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byunghyuck; Yoon, Nanyoung; Lee, Hee Chul; Kim, Choong-Ki

    2000-07-01

    Noise property is the prime consideration in readout circuit design. The output noise caused by the photon noise, which dominates total noise in BLIP detectors, is limited by the integration time that an element looks at a specific point in the scene. Large integration time leads to a low noise performance. Time-delay integration (TDI) is used to effectively increase the integration time and reduce the photon noise. However, it increases the number of dead pixels and requires large integration capacitors and low noise output stage of the readout circuit. In this paper, to solve these problems, we propose a new concept of readout circuit, which performs background suppression, cell-to-cell background current non-uniformity compensation, and dead pixel correction using memory, ADC, DAC, and current copier cell. In simulation results, comparing with the conventional TDI readout circuit, the integration capacitor size can be reduced to 1/5 and trans-impedance gain can be increased by five times. Therefore, the new TDI readout circuit does not require large area and low noise output stage. And the error of skimming current is less than 2%, and the fixed pattern noise induced by cell-to-cell background current variation is reduced to less than 1%.

  20. Zero suppression logic of the ALICE muon forward tracker pixel chip prototype PIXAM and associated readout electronics development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flouzat, C.; Değerli, Y.; Guilloux, F.; Orsini, F.; Venault, P.

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the ALICE experiment upgrade at HL-LHC, a new forward tracking detector, the Muon Forward Tracker (MFT), is foreseen to overcome the intrinsic limitations of the present Muon Spectrometer and will perform new measurements of general interest for the whole ALICE physics. To fulfill the new detector requirements, CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) provide an attractive trade-off between readout speed, spatial resolution, radiation hardness, granularity, power consumption and material budget. This technology has been chosen to equip the Muon Forward Tracker and also the vertex detector: the Inner Tracking System (ITS). Since few years, an intensive R and D program has been performed on the design of MAPS in the 0.18 μ m CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) process. In order to avoid pile up effects in the experiment, the classical rolling shutter readout system of MAPS has been improved to overcome the readout speed limitation. A zero suppression algorithm, based on a 3 by 3 cluster finding (position and data), has been chosen for the MFT. This algorithm allows adequate data compression for the sensor. This paper presents the large size prototype PIXAM, which represents 1/3 of the final chip, and will focus specially on the zero suppression block architecture. This chip is designed and under fabrication in the 0.18 μ m CIS process. Finally, the readout electronics principle to send out the compressed data flow is also presented taking into account the cluster occupancy per MFT plane for a single central Pb-Pb collision

  1. Zero suppression logic of the ALICE muon forward tracker pixel chip prototype PIXAM and associated readout electronics development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouzat, C.; Değerli, Y.; Guilloux, F.; Orsini, F.; Venault, P.

    2015-05-01

    In the framework of the ALICE experiment upgrade at HL-LHC, a new forward tracking detector, the Muon Forward Tracker (MFT), is foreseen to overcome the intrinsic limitations of the present Muon Spectrometer and will perform new measurements of general interest for the whole ALICE physics. To fulfill the new detector requirements, CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) provide an attractive trade-off between readout speed, spatial resolution, radiation hardness, granularity, power consumption and material budget. This technology has been chosen to equip the Muon Forward Tracker and also the vertex detector: the Inner Tracking System (ITS). Since few years, an intensive R&D program has been performed on the design of MAPS in the 0.18 μ m CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) process. In order to avoid pile up effects in the experiment, the classical rolling shutter readout system of MAPS has been improved to overcome the readout speed limitation. A zero suppression algorithm, based on a 3 by 3 cluster finding (position and data), has been chosen for the MFT. This algorithm allows adequate data compression for the sensor. This paper presents the large size prototype PIXAM, which represents 1/3 of the final chip, and will focus specially on the zero suppression block architecture. This chip is designed and under fabrication in the 0.18 μ m CIS process. Finally, the readout electronics principle to send out the compressed data flow is also presented taking into account the cluster occupancy per MFT plane for a single central Pb-Pb collision.

  2. Soft and hard pomerons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maor, Uri; Tel Aviv Univ.

    1995-09-01

    The role of s-channel unitarity screening corrections, calculated in the eikonal approximation, is investigated for soft Pomeron exchange responsible for elastic and diffractive hadron scattering in the high energy limit. We examine the differences between our results and those obtained from the supercritical Pomeron-Regge model with no such corrections. It is shown that screening saturation is attained at different scales for different channels. We then proceed to discuss the new HERA data on hard (PQCD) Pomeron diffractive channels and discuss the relationship between the soft and hard Pomerons and the relevance of our analysis to this problem. (author). 18 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  3. Hard exclusive QCD processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, W.

    2007-01-15

    Hard exclusive processes in high energy electron proton scattering offer the opportunity to get access to a new generation of parton distributions, the so-called generalized parton distributions (GPDs). This functions provide more detailed informations about the structure of the nucleon than the usual PDFs obtained from DIS. In this work we present a detailed analysis of exclusive processes, especially of hard exclusive meson production. We investigated the influence of exclusive produced mesons on the semi-inclusive production of mesons at fixed target experiments like HERMES. Further we give a detailed analysis of higher order corrections (NLO) for the exclusive production of mesons in a very broad range of kinematics. (orig.)

  4. Hard-hat day

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    CERN will be organizing a special information day on Friday, 27th June, designed to promote the wearing of hard hats and ensure that they are worn correctly. A new prevention campaign will also be launched.The event will take place in the hall of the Main Building from 11.30 a.m. to 2.00 p.m., when you will be able to come and try on various models of hard hat, including some of the very latest innovative designs, ask questions and pass on any comments and suggestions.

  5. CASAGEM: a readout ASIC for micro pattern gas detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Li; Deng Zhi; Liu Yinong

    2012-01-01

    A readout ASIC for micro pattern gas detectors has been designed This ASIC integrates 16 channels for anode readout and 1 channel for cathode readout which can make use of the signal of detector's cathode to generate a trigger Every channel can provide amplification and shaping of detector signals. The ASIC can also provide adjustable gain which can be adjusted from 2 mV/fC to 40 mV/fC, and adjustable shaping time which can be adjusted from 20 ns to 80 ns; so this ASIC can be applied to detectors with wide range output signal and different counting rate. The ASIC is fabricated with Chartered 0.35 μm CMOS process More circuit design Details and test results will be presented. (authors)

  6. Sub-10ps monolithic and low-power photodetector readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varner, Gary S.; Ruckman, Larry L.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in photon detectors have resulted in high-density imaging arrays that offer many performance and cost advantages. In particular, the excellent transit time spread of certain devices show promise to provide tangible benefits in applications such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Meanwhile, high-density, high-performance readout techniques have not kept on pace for exploiting these developments. Photodetector readout for next generation high event rate particle identification and time-resolved PET requires a highly-integrated, low-power, and cost-effective readout technique. We propose fast waveform sampling as a method that meets these criteria and demonstrate that sub-10ps resolution can be obtained for an existing device

  7. Looking at Earth from space: Direct readout from environmental satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Direct readout is the capability to acquire information directly from meteorological satellites. Data can be acquired from NASA-developed, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-operated satellites, as well as from other nations' meteorological satellites. By setting up a personal computer-based ground (Earth) station to receive satellite signals, direct readout may be obtained. The electronic satellite signals are displayed as images on the computer screen. The images can display gradients of the Earth's topography and temperature, cloud formations, the flow and direction of winds and water currents, the formation of hurricanes, the occurrence of an eclipse, and a view of Earth's geography. Both visible and infrared images can be obtained. This booklet introduces the satellite systems, ground station configuration, and computer requirements involved in direct readout. Also included are lists of associated resources and vendors.

  8. Readout Electronics Upgrades of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Anelli, Christopher Ryan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The high-luminosity LHC will provide 5-7 times higher luminosites than the orignal design. An improved readout system of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter is needed to readout the 182,500 calorimeter cells at 40 MHz with 16 bit dynamic range in these conditions. Low-noise, low-power, radiation-tolerant and high-bandwidth electronics components are being developed in 65 and 130 nm CMOS technologies. First prototypes of the front-end electronics components show good promise to match the stringent specifications. The off-detector electronics will make use of FPGAs connected through high-speed links to perform energy reconstruction, data reduction and buffering. Results of tests of the first prototypes of front-end components will be presented, along with design studies on the performance of the off-detector readout system.

  9. The New Readout System of the NA62 LKr Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Ceccucci, A; Farthouat, P; Lamanna, G; Rouet, J; Ryjov, V; Venditti, S

    2015-01-01

    The NA62 experiment [1] at CERN SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) accelerator aims at studying Kaon decays with high precision. The high resolution Liquid Krypton (LKr) calorimeter, built for the NA48 [2] experiment, is a crucial part of the photon-veto system; to cope with the demanding NA62 re- quirements,itsback-endelectron icshadtobecompletelyrenewed. The new readout system is based on the Calorimeter REAdout Module (CREAM) [3], a 6U VME board whose design and pro- duction was sub-contracted to CAEN [4], with CERN NA62 group continuously supervising the de velopment and production phase. The first version of the board was delivered by the manufacturer in March 2013 and, as of June 2014, the full board production is ongoing. In addition to describing the CREAM board, all aspects of the new LKr readout system, including its integration within the NA62 TDAQ scheme, will be treated.

  10. Status of readout integrated circuits for radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, B. S.; Hong, S. B.; Cheng, J. E. and others

    2001-09-01

    In this report, we describe the current status of readout integrated circuits developed for radiation detectors, along with new technologies being applied to this field. The current status of ASCIC chip development related to the readout electronics is also included in this report. Major sources of this report are from product catalogs and web sites of the related industries. In the field of semiconductor process technology in Korea, the current status of the multi-project wafer(MPW) of IDEC, the multi-project chip(MPC) of ISRC and other domestic semiconductor process industries is described. In the case of other countries, the status of the MPW of MOSIS in USA and the MPW of EUROPRACTICE in Europe is studied. This report also describes the technologies and products of readout integrated circuits of industries worldwide

  11. Pad readout for gas detectors using 128-channel integrated preamplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, P.; Drees, A.; Glassel, P.

    1988-01-01

    A novel two-dimensional readout scheme for gas detectors is presented which uses small metal pads with 2.54 mm pitch as an anode. The pads are read out via 128-channel VLSI low-noise preamplifier/multiplexer chips. These chips are mounted on 2.8x2.8 cm/sup 2/ modules which are directly plugged onto the detector backplane, daisy-chained with jumpers and read out sequentially. The readout has been successfully tested with a low-pressure, two-step, TMAE-filled UV-RICH detector prototype. A single electron efficiently of >90% was observed at moderate chamber gains (<10/sup 6/). The method offers high electronic amplification, low noise, and high readout speed with a very flexible and compact design, suited for space-limited applications

  12. Sub-10ps monolithic and low-power photodetector readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varner, Gary S.; Ruckman, Larry L.

    2009-02-20

    Recent advances in photon detectors have resulted in high-density imaging arrays that offer many performance and cost advantages. In particular, the excellent transit time spread of certain devices show promise to provide tangible benefits in applications such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Meanwhile, high-density, high-performance readout techniques have not kept on pace for exploiting these developments. Photodetector readout for next generation high event rate particle identification and time-resolved PET requires a highly-integrated, low-power, and cost-effective readout technique. We propose fast waveform sampling as a method that meets these criteria and demonstrate that sub-10ps resolution can be obtained for an existing device.

  13. Hard times; Schwere Zeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Markus

    2012-10-02

    The prices of silicon and solar wafers keep dropping. According to market research specialist IMS research, this is the result of weak traditional solar markets and global overcapacities. While many manufacturers are facing hard times, big producers of silicon are continuing to expand.

  14. Hardness of Clustering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Hardness of Clustering. Both k-means and k-medians intractable (when n and d are both inputs even for k =2). The best known deterministic algorithms. are based on Voronoi partitioning that. takes about time. Need for approximation – “close” to optimal.

  15. Rock-hard coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has signed an agreement with a number of parties to investigate this material further.

  16. Rock-hard coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has

  17. Hardness and excitation energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that the first excitation energy can be given by the Kohn-Sham hardness (i.e. the energy difference of the ground-state lowest unoccupied and highest occupied levels) plus an extra term coming from the partial derivative of the ensemble exchange-correlation energy with respect to the weighting factor in the ...

  18. Experimental characterization of the 192 channel Clear-PEM frontend ASIC coupled to a multi-pixel APD readout of LYSO:Ce crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Edgar; Bexiga, Vasco; Bugalho, Ricardo; Carrico, Bruno; Ferreira, Claudia S.; Ferreira, Miguel; Godinho, Joaquim; Goncalves, Fernando; Leong, Carlos; Lousa, Pedro; Machado, Pedro; Moura, Rui; Neves, Pedro; Ortigao, Catarina; Piedade, Fernando; Pinheiro, Joao F.; Rego, Joel; Rivetti, Angelo; Rodrigues, Pedro; Silva, Jose C.

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of the Clear-PEM project for the construction of a high-resolution scanner for breast cancer imaging, a very compact and dense frontend electronics system has been developed for readout of multi-pixel S8550 Hamamatsu APDs. The frontend electronics are instrumented with a mixed-signal Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), which incorporates 192 low-noise charge pre-amplifiers, shapers, analog memory cells and digital control blocks. Pulses are continuously stored in memory cells at clock frequency. Channels above a common threshold voltage are readout for digitization by off-chip free-sampling ADCs. The ASIC has a size of 7.3x9.8mm 2 and was implemented in a AMS 0.35μm CMOS technology. In this paper the experimental characterization of the Clear-PEM frontend ASIC, reading out multi-pixel APDs coupled to LYSO:Ce crystal matrices, is presented. The chips were mounted on a custom test board connected to six APD arrays and to the data acquisition system. Six 32-pixel LYSO:Ce crystal matrices coupled on both sides to APD arrays were readout by two test boards. All 384 channels were operational. The chip power consumption is 660 mW (3.4 mW per channel). A very stable behavior of the chip was observed, with an estimated ENC of 1200-1300e - at APD gain 100. The inter-channel noise dispersion and mean baseline variation is less than 8% and 0.5%, respectively. The spread in the gain between different channels is found to be 1.5%. Energy resolution of 16.5% at 511 keV and 12.8% at 662 keV has been measured. Timing measurements between the two APDs that readout the same crystal is extracted and compared with detailed Monte Carlo simulations. At 511 keV the measured single photon time RMS resolution is 1.30 ns, in very good agreement with the expected value of 1.34 ns.

  19. DRM2: the readout board for the ALICE TOF upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Falchieri, Davide

    2018-01-01

    For the upgrade of the ALICE TOF electronics, we have designed a new version of the readout board, named DRM2, a card able to read the data coming from the TDC Readout Module boards via VME. A Microsemi Igloo2 FPGA acts as the VME master and interfaces the GBTx link for transmitting data and receiving triggers and a low-jitter clock. Compared to the old board, the DRM2 is able to cope with faster trigger rates and provides a larger data bandwidth towards the DAQ. The results of the measurements on the received clock jitter and data transmission performances in a full crate are given.

  20. The Retinal Readout System: a status report A Status Report

    CERN Document Server

    Litke, A M

    1999-01-01

    The 'Retinal Readout System' is being developed to study the language the eye uses to send information about the visual world to the brain. Its architecture is based on that of silicon microstrip detectors. An array of 512 microscopic electrodes picks up the signals generated by the output neurons of live retinal tissue in response to a dynamic image focused on the input neurons. These signals are amplified, filtered and multiplexed by a set of eight custom-designed VLSI readout chips, and digitized and recorded by a data acquisition system. This report describes the goals, design, and status of the system. (author)

  1. Readout technologies for directional WIMP Dark Matter detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battat, J.B.R.; Irastorza, I.G.; Aleksandrov, A.; Asada, T.; Baracchini, E.; Billard, J.; Bosson, G.; Bourrion, O.; Bouvier, J.; Buonaura, A.; Burdge, K.; Cebrián, S.

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of the direction of WIMP-induced nuclear recoils is a compelling but technologically challenging strategy to provide an unambiguous signature of the detection of Galactic dark matter. Most directional detectors aim to reconstruct the dark-matter-induced nuclear recoil tracks, either in gas or solid targets. The main challenge with directional detection is the need for high spatial resolution over large volumes, which puts strong requirements on the readout technologies. In this paper we review the various detector readout technologies used by directional detectors. In particular, we summarize the challenges, advantages and drawbacks of each approach, and discuss future prospects for these technologies.

  2. SVX3: A deadtimeless readout chip for silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, T.; Huffman, T.; Srage, J.; Stroehmer, R.; Yarema, R.; Garcia-Sciveras, M.; Luo, L.; Milgrome, O.

    1997-12-01

    A new silicon strip readout chip called the SVX3 has been designed for the 720,000 channel CDF silicon upgrade at Fermilab. SVX3 incorporates an integrator, analog delay pipeline, ADC, and data sparsification for each of 128 identical channels. Many of the operating parameters are programmable via a serial bit stream, which allows the chip to be used under a variety of conditions. Distinct features of SVX3 include use of a backside substrate contact for optimal ground referencing, and the capability of simultaneous signal acquisition and digital readout allowing deadtimeless operation in the Fermilab Tevatron

  3. DNA Nanobiosensors: An Outlook on Signal Readout Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Richard Chandrasekaran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A suite of functionalities and structural versatility makes DNA an apt material for biosensing applications. DNA-based biosensors are cost-effective and sensitive and have the potential to be used as point-of-care diagnostic tools. Along with robustness and biocompatibility, these sensors also provide multiple readout strategies. Depending on the functionality of DNA-based biosensors, a variety of output strategies have been reported: fluorescence- and FRET-based readout, nanoparticle-based colorimetry, spectroscopy-based techniques, electrochemical signaling, gel electrophoresis, and atomic force microscopy.

  4. Updates on the most recent results in dual readout calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cascella, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Dual REAdout Method (DREAM) consists in comparing the scintillation and Cherenkov light generated in the shower development process. By comparing the two, the electromagnetic fraction of the hadronic shower can be measured event-by-event, to eliminate the effects of fluctuations in this fraction. In this paper the DREAM fiber calorimeter and its successor, the newDREAM prototype that is currently under construction, will be described. We will also report on the efforts to study the Cherenkov component of the output of high-Z crystals and to realize a dual-readout electromagnetic section that can achieve outstanding electromagnetic resolution whit out compromising the hadronic resolution.

  5. A New Readout Electronics for the LHCb Muon Detector Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Cadeddu, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    The 2018/2019 upgrade of LHCb Muon System foresees a 40 MHz readout scheme and requires the development of a new Off Detector Electronics (nODE) board that will be based on the nSYNC, a radiation tolerant custom ASIC developed in UMC 130 nm technology. Each nODE board has 192 input channels processed by 4 nSYNCs. The nSYNC is equipped with fully digital TDCs and it implements all the required functionalities for the readout: bunch crossing alignment, data zero suppression, time measurements. Optical interfaces, based on GBT and Versatile link components, are used to communicate with DAQ, TFC and ECS systems.

  6. A time projection chamber with GEM-based readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attié, David [CEA Saclay, IRFU, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Behnke, Ties [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, A Research Centre of the Helmholtz Association, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Hamburg site) (Germany); Bellerive, Alain [Carleton University, Department of Physics, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1S 5B6 (Canada); Bezshyyko, Oleg [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64/13, Volodymyrska Street, City of Kyiv 01601 (Ukraine); Bhattacharya, Deb Sankar [CEA Saclay, IRFU, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); now at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Sector 1, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Bhattacharya, Purba [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Sector 1, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); now at National Institute of Science Education and Research (NISER) Bhubaneswar, P.O. Jatni, Khurda 752050, Odisha (India); Bhattacharya, Sudeb [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Sector 1, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Caiazza, Stefano [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, A Research Centre of the Helmholtz Association, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Hamburg site) (Germany); now at Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz, Institut für Physik, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Colas, Paul [CEA Saclay, IRFU, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lentdecker, Gilles De [Inter University ULB-VUB, Av. Fr. Roosevelt 50, B1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Dehmelt, Klaus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, A Research Centre of the Helmholtz Association, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Hamburg site) (Germany); now at State University of New York at Stony Brook, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Desch, Klaus [Universität Bonn, Physikalisches Institut, Nußallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); and others

    2017-06-01

    For the International Large Detector concept at the planned International Linear Collider, the use of time projection chambers (TPC) with micro-pattern gas detector readout as the main tracking detector is investigated. In this paper, results from a prototype TPC, placed in a 1 T solenoidal field and read out with three independent Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) based readout modules, are reported. The TPC was exposed to a 6 GeV electron beam at the DESY II synchrotron. The efficiency for reconstructing hits, the measurement of the drift velocity, the space point resolution and the control of field inhomogeneities are presented.

  7. Vertically integrated pixel readout chip for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Khalid, Farah; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom

    2011-01-01

    We report on the development of the vertex detector pixel readout chips based on multi-tier vertically integrated electronics for the International Linear Collider. Some testing results of the VIP2a prototype are presented. The chip is the second iteration of the silicon implementation of the prototype, data-pushed concept of the readout developed at Fermilab. The device was fabricated in the 3D MIT-LL 0.15 (micro)m fully depleted SOI process. The prototype is a three-tier design, featuring 30 x 30 (micro)m 2 pixels, laid out in an array of 48 x 48 pixels.

  8. The readout performance evaluation of PowerPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Yuanping; Zhang Hongyu; Zhao Jingwei; Ye Mei; Tao Ning; Zhu Kejun; Tang Suqiu; Guo Yanan

    2003-01-01

    PowerPC, as a powerful low-cost embedded computer, is one of the very important research objects in recent years in the project of BESIII data acquisition system. The researches on the embedded system and embedded computer have achieved many important results in the field of High Energy Physics especially in the data acquisition system. The one of the key points to design an acquisition system using PowerPC is to evaluate the readout ability of PowerPC correctly. The paper introduce some tests for the PowerPC readout performance. (authors)

  9. Development of a Crosstalk Suppression Algorithm for KID Readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungmin; Ishitsuka, H.; Oguri, S.; Suzuki, J.; Tajima, O.; Tomita, N.; Won, Eunil; Yoshida, M.

    2018-06-01

    The GroundBIRD telescope aims to detect B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation using the kinetic inductance detector array as a polarimeter. For the readout of the signal from detector array, we have developed a frequency division multiplexing readout system based on a digital down converter method. These techniques in general have the leakage problems caused by the crosstalks. The window function was applied in the field programmable gate arrays to mitigate the effect of these problems and tested it in algorithm level.

  10. Low cost photomultiplier high-voltage readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxoby, G.J.; Kunz, P.F.

    1976-10-01

    The Large Aperture Solenoid Spectrometer (LASS) at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) requires monitoring over 300 voltages. This data is recorded on magnetic tapes along with the event data. It must also be displayed so that operators can easily monitor and adjust the voltages. A low-cost high-voltage readout system has been implemented to offer stand-alone digital readout capability as well as fast data transfer to a host computer. The system is flexible enough to permit use of a DVM or ADC and commercially available analogue multiplexers

  11. Hard Copy Market Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testan, Peter R.

    1987-04-01

    A number of Color Hard Copy (CHC) market drivers are currently indicating strong growth in the use of CHC technologies for the business graphics marketplace. These market drivers relate to product, software, color monitors and color copiers. The use of color in business graphics allows more information to be relayed than is normally the case in a monochrome format. The communicative powers of full-color computer generated output in the business graphics application area will continue to induce end users to desire and require color in their future applications. A number of color hard copy technologies will be utilized in the presentation graphics arena. Thermal transfer, ink jet, photographic and electrophotographic technologies are all expected to be utilized in the business graphics presentation application area in the future. Since the end of 1984, the availability of color application software packages has grown significantly. Sales revenue generated by business graphics software is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of just over 40 percent to 1990. Increased availability of packages to allow the integration of text and graphics is expected. Currently, the latest versions of page description languages such as Postscript, Interpress and DDL all support color output. The use of color monitors will also drive the demand for color hard copy in the business graphics market place. The availability of higher resolution screens is allowing color monitors to be easily used for both text and graphics applications in the office environment. During 1987, the sales of color monitors are expected to surpass the sales of monochrome monitors. Another major color hard copy market driver will be the color copier. In order to take advantage of the communications power of computer generated color output, multiple copies are required for distribution. Product introductions of a new generation of color copiers is now underway with additional introductions expected

  12. New Subarray Readout Patterns for the ACS Wide Field Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golimowski, D.; Anderson, J.; Arslanian, S.; Chiaberge, M.; Grogin, N.; Lim, Pey Lian; Lupie, O.; McMaster, M.; Reinhart, M.; Schiffer, F.; Serrano, B.; Van Marshall, M.; Welty, A.

    2017-04-01

    At the start of Cycle 24, the original CCD-readout timing patterns used to generate ACS Wide Field Channel (WFC) subarray images were replaced with new patterns adapted from the four-quadrant readout pattern used to generate full-frame WFC images. The primary motivation for this replacement was a substantial reduction of observatory and staff resources needed to support WFC subarray bias calibration, which became a new and challenging obligation after the installation of the ACS CCD Electronics Box Replacement during Servicing Mission 4. The new readout patterns also improve the overall efficiency of observing with WFC subarrays and enable the processing of subarray images through stages of the ACS data calibration pipeline (calacs) that were previously restricted to full-frame WFC images. The new readout patterns replace the original 512×512, 1024×1024, and 2048×2046-pixel subarrays with subarrays having 2048 columns and 512, 1024, and 2048 rows, respectively. Whereas the original square subarrays were limited to certain WFC quadrants, the new rectangular subarrays are available in all four quadrants. The underlying bias structure of the new subarrays now conforms with those of the corresponding regions of the full-frame image, which allows raw frames in all image formats to be calibrated using one contemporaneous full-frame "superbias" reference image. The original subarrays remain available for scientific use, but calibration of these image formats is no longer supported by STScI.

  13. READOUT ELECTRONICS FOR A HIGH-RATE CSC DETECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OCONNOR, P.; GRATCHEV, V.; KANDASAMY, A.; POLYCHRONAKOS, V.; TCHERNIATINE, V.; PARSONS, J.; SIPPACH, W.

    1999-01-01

    A readout system for a high-rate muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) is described. The system, planned for use in the forward region of the ATLAS muon spectrometer, uses two custom CMOS integrated circuits to achieve good position resolution at a flux of up to 2,500 tracks/cm 2 /s

  14. DS read-out transcription in transgenic tomato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudenko, George N.; Nijkamp, H. John J.; Hille, Jacques

    1994-01-01

    To select for Ds transposition in transgenic tomato plants a phenotypic excision assay, based on restoration of hygromycin phosphotransferase (HPT II) gene expression, was employed. Some tomato plants, however, expressed the marker gene even though the Ds had not excised. Read-out transcriptional

  15. Investigation of the readout electronics of DELPHI surround muon chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khovanskij, N.; Krumshtejn, Z.; Ol'shevskij, A.; Sadovskij, A.; Sedykh, Yu.; Molnar, J.; Sicho, P.; Tomsa, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The characteristics of the readout electronics of the DELPHI surround muon chambers with various AMPLEX chips (AMPLEX 16 and AMPLEX-SICAL) are presented. This electronics is studied in a cosmic rays test of the real surround muon chamber model. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  16. One-dimensional position readout from microchannel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connell, K.A.; Przybylski, M.M.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a one-dimensional position readout system with microchannel plates, is described, for heavy ion detectors for use in a particle time-of-flight telescope and as a position sensitive device in front of an ionisation counter at the Nuclear Structure Facility. (U.K.)

  17. The Readout Control Unit of the ALICE TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Lien, J A; Musa, L

    2004-01-01

    The ALICE Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main tracking detector of the central barrel of the ALICE (A Large Ion Collider) Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), being constructed at CERN, Geneva. It is a 88 m$^{3}$ cylinder filled with gas and divided into two drift regions by the central electrode located at its axial center. The readout chambers of the TPC are multi-wire proportional chambers with cathode pad readout. About 570 000 pads are read-out by an electronics chain of amplification, digitalization and pre-processing. One of the challenges in designing the TPC for ALICE is the design of Front End Electronics (FEE) to cope with the data rates and the channel occupancy. The Readout Control Unit (RCU), which is presented in this work, is designed to control and monitor the Front End Electronics, and to collect and ship data to the High Level Trigger and the Data Acquisition System, via the Detector Data Link (DDL - optical fibre). The RCU must be capable of reading out up to 200 Mbytes/s f...

  18. A micromachined surface stress sensor with electronic readout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlen, Edwin; Weinberg, M.S.; Zapata, A.M.; Borenstein, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    A micromachined surface stress sensor has been fabricated and integrated off chip with a low-noise, differential capacitance, electronic readout circuit. The differential capacitance signal is modulated with a high frequency carrier signal, and the output signal is synchronously demodulated and

  19. DOSIMO - an interactive web service of the GSF Readout Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, S.; Lempart, R.

    2002-01-01

    Under the Radiation Protection and X-ray Ordinances, official personnel dosimetry centers are charged with measuring, documenting, and monitoring personnel doses as independent agencies. The GSF Readout Center (AWST) for Personnel Dosimeters and Area Monitors is responsible for monitoring persons occupationally exposed to radiation in the federal states of Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bavaria, Hesse, and Schleswig-Holstein. The largest German readout center uses new media in personnel dosimetry in order to simplify and speed up data transfer. In October 1998, AWST in cooperation with ADANAT ENTIRE SYSTEMS implemented an Internet interface. As a result, AWST is the first European readout center to offer not only a possibility to disseminate information through the Internet by means of the DOSIMO (DOSIMETRY On-line) Internet Service, but also enabling the interactive data exchange by electronic means with authorized customers. DOSIMO users enjoy the decisive advantage of having the results of readout of their dosimeters ready for use as soon as they have become available. (orig.) [de

  20. Resonance Frequency Readout Circuit for a 900 MHz SAW Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Heng; Zhang, Chun; Weng, Zhaoyang; Guo, Yanshu; Wang, Zhihua

    2017-09-15

    A monolithic resonance frequency readout circuit with high resolution and short measurement time is presented for a 900 MHz RF surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor. The readout circuit is composed of a fractional-N phase-locked loop (PLL) as the stimulus source to the SAW device and a phase-based resonance frequency detecting circuit using successive approximation (SAR). A new resonance frequency searching strategy has been proposed based on the fact that the SAW device phase-frequency response crosses zero monotonically around the resonance frequency. A dedicated instant phase difference detecting circuit is adopted to facilitate the fast SAR operation for resonance frequency searching. The readout circuit has been implemented in 180 nm CMOS technology with a core area of 3.24 mm². In the experiment, it works with a 900 MHz SAW resonator with a quality factor of Q = 130. Experimental results show that the readout circuit consumes 7 mW power from 1.6 V supply. The frequency resolution is 733 Hz, and the relative accuracy is 0.82 ppm, and it takes 0.48 ms to complete one measurement. Compared to the previous results in the literature, this work has achieved the shortest measurement time with a trade-off between measurement accuracy and measurement time.

  1. Dead Time in the LAr Calorimeter Front-End Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Gingrich, D M

    2002-01-01

    We present readout time, latency, buffering, and dead-time calculations for the switched capacitor array controllers of the LAr calorimeter. The dead time is compared with algorithms for the dead-time generation in the level-1 central trigger processor.

  2. Flexible geometry hodoscope using proportional chamber cathode read-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubret, C.; Bellefon, A. de; Benoit, P.; Brunet, J.M.; Tristram, G.

    1978-01-01

    The construction of a cathode read-out proportional chamber, used as a low mass hodoscope is described. Results on efficiency, time resolution and space resolution are shown. The associative logic, which permits the use of the chamber as a coplanarity chamber is briefly presented

  3. A time projection chamber with microstrip read-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bootsma, T.M.V.; Van den Brink, A.; De Haas, A.P.; Kamermans, R.; Kuijer, P.G.; De Laat, C.T.A.M.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.J.; Ostendorf, R.; Snellings, R.J.M.; Twenhoefel, C.J.W.; Peghaire, A.

    1994-01-01

    The design and testing of a novel detector for heavy-ion physics in the intermediate-energy regime is described. This detector consists of a large drift chamber with microstrip read-out in combination with thick plastic scintillators. With this system particle identification and energy determination with high spatial resolution and multiple hit capacity is achieved. ((orig.))

  4. Optimised cantilever biosensor with piezoresistive read-out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Thaysen, J.; Hansen, Ole

    2003-01-01

    We present a cantilever-based biochemical sensor with piezoresistive read-out which has been optimised for measuring surface stress. The resistors and the electrical wiring on the chip are encapsulated in low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) silicon nitride, so that the chip is well sui...

  5. Proposed differential-frequency-readout system by hysteretic Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.Z.; Duncan, R.V.

    1992-01-01

    The Josephson relation V=nhν/2e has been verified experimentally to 3 parts in 10 19 [A. K. Jain, J. E. Lukens, and J.-S. Tsai, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1165 (1987)]. Motivated by this result, we propose a differential-frequency-readout system by two sets of hysteretic Josephson junctions rf biased at millimeter wavelengths. Because of the Josephson relation, the proposed differential-frequency-readout system is not limited by photon fluctuation, which limits most photon-detection schemes. In the context of the Stewart-McCumber model [W. C. Stewart, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 277 (1968); D. E. McCumber, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3113 (1968)] of Josephson junctions, we show theoretically that the differential frequency of the two milliwave biases can be read out by the proposed system to unprecedented accuracy. The stability of the readout scheme is also discussed. The measurement uncertainty of the readout system resulting from the intrinsic thermal noise in the hysteretic junctions is shown to be insignificant. The study of two single junctions can be extended to two sets of Josephson junctions connected in series (series array) in this measurement scheme provided that junctions are separated by at least 10 μm [D. W. Jillie, J. E. Lukens, and Y. H. Kao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 915 (1977)]. The sensitivity for the differential frequency detection may be increased by biasing both series arrays to a higher constant-voltage step

  6. Hard Electromagnetic Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, F.

    1987-09-01

    Among hard electromagnetic processes, I will use the most recent data and focus on quantitative test of QCD. More specifically, I will retain two items: - hadroproduction of direct photons, - Drell-Yan. In addition, I will briefly discuss a recent analysis of ISR data obtained with AFS (Axial Field Spectrometer) which sheds a new light on the e/π puzzle at low P T

  7. A readout system for the micro-vertex-detector demonstrator for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrader, Christoph

    2011-06-09

    HADES data acquisition system, this platform has been designed as an add-on concept with a HADES standard readout board as basic. By means of a special computer language called VHDL, a common standard for configuring FPGAs and other programmable logics, algorithms can be implemented for data reduction. Noise filtering and shaping for signal conditioning is implemented both on the hardware platforms and in the on-line pipeline construction to achieve an improved spatial resolution of the MVD-Demonstrator. A dedicate protocol has been developed for the beam test which enables the off-line user to track multiple independently-running stations using trigger and time stamps. Furthermore, within the scope of this thesis a PC-RAID system was used together with a dedicated software, which has been developed to safeguard the high data stream and store the data on a hard disc.

  8. A readout system for the micro-vertex-detector demonstrator for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrader, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    acquisition system, this platform has been designed as an add-on concept with a HADES standard readout board as basic. By means of a special computer language called VHDL, a common standard for configuring FPGAs and other programmable logics, algorithms can be implemented for data reduction. Noise filtering and shaping for signal conditioning is implemented both on the hardware platforms and in the on-line pipeline construction to achieve an improved spatial resolution of the MVD-Demonstrator. A dedicate protocol has been developed for the beam test which enables the off-line user to track multiple independently-running stations using trigger and time stamps. Furthermore, within the scope of this thesis a PC-RAID system was used together with a dedicated software, which has been developed to safeguard the high data stream and store the data on a hard disc.

  9. Position readout by charge division in large two-dimensional detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberi, J.L.

    1976-10-01

    The improvement in readout spatial resolution for charge division systems with subdivided readout electrodes has been analyzed. This readout forms the position and sum signals by a linear, unambiguous analogue summation technique. It is shown that the readout resolution is a function of only electrode capacitance and shaping parameters. The line width improves as 1/N/sup 1 / 2 /, where N is the number of electrode subdivisions

  10. First performance results of the ALICE TPC Readout Control Unit 2

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Chengxin; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Appelshäuser, Harald; Bratrud, Lars Karlot Stubberud; Castro, Andrew; Costa, Filippo; David, Ernö; Gunji, Tako; Kirsch, S; Kiss, Tivadar; Langøy, Rune; Lien, Jørgen; Lippmann, C; Oskarsson, Anders

    2016-01-01

    - This paper presents the first performance results of the ALICE TPC Readout Control Unit 2 (RCU2). With the upgraded hardware typology and the new readout scheme in FPGA design, the RCU2 is designed to achieve twice the readout speed of the present Readout Control Unit. Design choices such as using the flash-based Microsemi Smartfusion2 FPGA and applying mitigation techniques in interfaces and FPGA design ensure a high degree of radiation tolerance. This paper presents the system level ir...

  11. Optimal CCD readout by digital correlated double sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, C.; Abusleme, A.; Guzman, D.; Passalacqua, I.; Alvarez-Fontecilla, E.; Guarini, M.

    2016-01-01

    Digital correlated double sampling (DCDS), a readout technique for charge-coupled devices (CCD), is gaining popularity in astronomical applications. By using an oversampling ADC and a digital filter, a DCDS system can achieve a better performance than traditional analogue readout techniques at the expense of a more complex system analysis. Several attempts to analyse and optimize a DCDS system have been reported, but most of the work presented in the literature has been experimental. Some approximate analytical tools have been presented for independent parameters of the system, but the overall performance and trade-offs have not been yet modelled. Furthermore, there is disagreement among experimental results that cannot be explained by the analytical tools available. In this work, a theoretical analysis of a generic DCDS readout system is presented, including key aspects such as the signal conditioning stage, the ADC resolution, the sampling frequency and the digital filter implementation. By using a time-domain noise model, the effect of the digital filter is properly modelled as a discrete-time process, thus avoiding the imprecision of continuous-time approximations that have been used so far. As a result, an accurate, closed-form expression for the signal-to-noise ratio at the output of the readout system is reached. This expression can be easily optimized in order to meet a set of specifications for a given CCD, thus providing a systematic design methodology for an optimal readout system. Simulated results are presented to validate the theory, obtained with both time- and frequency-domain noise generation models for completeness.

  12. Digital readouts for large microwave low-temperature detector arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazin, Benjamin A.; Day, Peter K.; Irwin, Kent D.; Reintsema, Carl D.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2006-01-01

    Over the last several years many different types of low-temperature detectors (LTDs) have been developed that use a microwave resonant circuit as part of their readout. These devices include microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKID), microwave SQUID readouts for transition edge sensors (TES), and NIS bolometers. Current readout techniques for these devices use analog frequency synthesizers and IQ mixers. While these components are available as microwave integrated circuits, one set is required for each resonator. We are exploring a new readout technique for this class of detectors based on a commercial-off-the-shelf technology called software defined radio (SDR). In this method a fast digital to analog (D/A) converter creates as many tones as desired in the available bandwidth. Our prototype system employs a 100MS/s 16-bit D/A to generate an arbitrary number of tones in 50MHz of bandwidth. This signal is then mixed up to the desired detector resonant frequency (∼10GHz), sent through the detector, then mixed back down to baseband. The baseband signal is then digitized with a series of fast analog to digital converters (80MS/s, 14-bit). Next, a numerical mixer in a dedicated integrated circuit or FPGA mixes the resonant frequency of a specified detector to 0Hz, and sends the complex detector output over a computer bus for processing and storage. In this paper we will report on our results in using a prototype system to readout a MKID array, including system noise performance, X-ray pulse response, and cross-talk measurements. We will also discuss how this technique can be scaled to read out many thousands of detectors

  13. Signal collection and position reconstruction of silicon strip detectors with 200 μm readout pitch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krammer, M.; Pernegger, H.

    1997-01-01

    Silicon strip detectors with large readout pitch and intermediate strips offer an interesting approach to reduce the number of readout channels in the tracking systems of future collider experiments without compromising too much on the spatial resolution. Various detector geometries with a readout pitch of 200 μm have been studied for their signal response and spatial resolution. (orig.)

  14. Evaluation of silicon micro strip detectors with large read-out pitch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senyo, K.; Yamamura, K.; Tsuboyama, T.; Avrillon, S.; Asano, Y.; Bozek, A.; Natkaniec, Z.; Palka, H.; Rozanska, M.; Rybicki, K.

    1996-01-01

    For the development of the silicon micro-strip detector with the pitch of the readout strips as large as 250 μm on the ohmic side, we made samples with different structures. Charge collection was evaluated to optimize the width of implant strips, aluminum read-out strips, and/or the read-out scheme among strips. (orig.)

  15. GEM detector performance with innovative micro-TPC readout in high magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garzia I.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas detector development is one of the pillars of the research in fundamental physics. Since several years, a new concept of detectors, called Micro Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD, allowed to overcome several problems related to other types of commonly used detectors, like drift chamber and micro strips detectors, reducing the rate of discharges and providing better radiation tolerance. Among the most used MPGDs are the Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs. Invented by Sauli in 1997, nowadays GEMs have become an important reality for particle detectors in high energy physics. Commonly deployed as fast timing detectors and triggers, their fast response, high rate capability and high radiation hardness make them also suitable as tracking detectors. The readout scheme is one of the most important features in tracking technology. Analog readout based on the calculation of the center of gravity technique allows to overcome the limit imposed by digital pads, whose spatial resolution is limited by the pitch dimensions. However, the presence of high external magnetic fields can distort the electronic cloud and affect the performance. The development of the micro-TPC reconstruction method brings GEM detectors into a new prospective, improving significantly the spatial resolutionin presence of high magnetic fields. This innovative technique allows to reconstruct the 3-dimensional particle position, as Time Projection Chamber, but within a drift gap of a few millimeters. In these report, the charge centroid and micro-TPC methods are described in details. We discuss the results of several test beams performed with planar chambers in magnetic field. These results are one of the first developments of micro-TPC technique for GEM detectors, which allows to reach unprecedented performance in a high magnetic field of 1 T.

  16. GEM detector performance with innovative micro-TPC readout in high magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzia, I.; Alexeev, M.; Amoroso, A.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bianchi, F.; Calcaterra, A.; Canale, N.; Capodiferro, M.; Cassariti, V.; Cerioni, S.; Chai, J. Y.; Chiozzi, S.; Cibinetto, G.; Cossio, F.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; De Mori, F.; Destefanis, M.; Dong, J.; Evangelisti, F.; Evangelisti, F.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Felici, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Gatta, M.; Greco, M.; Lavezzi, L.; Leng, C. Y.; Li, H.; Maggiora, M.; Malaguti, R.; Marcello, S.; Melchiorri, M.; Mezzadri, G.; Mignone, M.; Morello, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Pellegrino, J.; Pelosi, A.; Rivetti, A.; Rolo, M. D.; Savrié, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Soldani, E.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Tskhadadze, E.; Verma, S.; Wheadon, R.; Yan, L.

    2018-01-01

    Gas detector development is one of the pillars of the research in fundamental physics. Since several years, a new concept of detectors, called Micro Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD), allowed to overcome several problems related to other types of commonly used detectors, like drift chamber and micro strips detectors, reducing the rate of discharges and providing better radiation tolerance. Among the most used MPGDs are the Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs). Invented by Sauli in 1997, nowadays GEMs have become an important reality for particle detectors in high energy physics. Commonly deployed as fast timing detectors and triggers, their fast response, high rate capability and high radiation hardness make them also suitable as tracking detectors. The readout scheme is one of the most important features in tracking technology. Analog readout based on the calculation of the center of gravity technique allows to overcome the limit imposed by digital pads, whose spatial resolution is limited by the pitch dimensions. However, the presence of high external magnetic fields can distort the electronic cloud and affect the performance. The development of the micro-TPC reconstruction method brings GEM detectors into a new prospective, improving significantly the spatial resolutionin presence of high magnetic fields. This innovative technique allows to reconstruct the 3-dimensional particle position, as Time Projection Chamber, but within a drift gap of a few millimeters. In these report, the charge centroid and micro-TPC methods are described in details. We discuss the results of several test beams performed with planar chambers in magnetic field. These results are one of the first developments of micro-TPC technique for GEM detectors, which allows to reach unprecedented performance in a high magnetic field of 1 T.

  17. A custom readout electronics for the BESIII CGEM detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Rocha Rolo, M.; Alexeev, M.; Amoroso, A.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bianchi, F.; Bugalho, R.; Calcaterra, A.; Canale, N.; Capodiferro, M.; Carassiti, V.; Cerioni, S.; Chai, J. Y.; Chiozzi, S.; Cibinetto, G.; Cossio, F.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; De Mori, F.; Destefanis, M.; Di Francesco, A.; Dong, J.; Evangelisti, F.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Felici, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Gatta, M.; Greco, M.; Lavezzi, L.; Leng, C. Y.; Li, H.; Maggiora, M.; Malaguti, R.; Marcello, S.; Marciniewski, P.; Melchiorri, M.; Mezzadri, G.; Mignone, M.; Morello, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Pellegrino, J.; Pelosi, A.; Rivetti, A.; Savrié, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Soldani, E.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Tskhadadze, E.; Varela, J.; Verma, S.; Wheadon, R.; Yan, L.

    2017-07-01

    For the upgrade of the inner tracker of the BESIII spectrometer, planned for 2018, a lightweight tracker based on an innovative Cylindrical Gas Electron Multiplier (CGEM) detector is now under development. The analogue readout of the CGEM enables the use of a charge centroid algorithm to improve the spatial resolution to better than 130 μm while loosening the pitch strip to 650 μm, which allows to reduce the total number of channels to about 10 000. The channels are readout by 160 dedicated integrated 64-channel front-end ASICs, providing a time and charge measurement and featuring a fully-digital output. The energy measurement is extracted either from the time-over-threshold (ToT) or the 10-bit digitisation of the peak amplitude of the signal. The time of the event is generated by quad-buffered low-power TDCs, allowing for rates in excess of 60 kHz per channel. The TDCs are based on analogue interpolation techniques and produce a time stamp (or two, if working in ToT mode) of the event with a time resolution better than 50 ps. The front-end noise, based on a CSA and a two-stage complex conjugated pole shapers, dominate the channel intrinsic time jitter, which is less than 5 ns r.m.s. The time information of the hit can be used to reconstruct the track path, operating the detector as a small TPC and hence improving the position resolution when the distribution of the cloud, due to large incident angle or magnetic field, is very broad. Event data is collected by an off-detector motherboard, where each GEM-ROC readout card handles 4 ASIC carrier FEBs (512 channels). Configuration upload and data readout between the off-detector electronics and the VME-based data collector cards are managed by bi-directional fibre optical links. This paper covers the design of a custom front-end electronics for the readout of the new inner tracker of the BESIII experiment, addressing the relevant design aspects of the detector electronics and the front-end ASIC for the CGEM readout

  18. A custom readout electronics for the BESIII CGEM detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolo, M. Da Rocha; Alexeev, M.; Amoroso, A.; Bianchi, F.; Cossio, F.; Mori, F. De; Destefanis, M.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Chai, J.Y.; Bertani, M.; Calcaterra, A.; Capodiferro, M.; Cerioni, S.; Bettoni, D.; Canale, N.; Carassiti, V.; Chiozzi, S.; Cibinetto, G.; Ramusino, A. Cotta; Bugalho, R.

    2017-01-01

    For the upgrade of the inner tracker of the BESIII spectrometer, planned for 2018, a lightweight tracker based on an innovative Cylindrical Gas Electron Multiplier (CGEM) detector is now under development. The analogue readout of the CGEM enables the use of a charge centroid algorithm to improve the spatial resolution to better than 130 μm while loosening the pitch strip to 650 μm, which allows to reduce the total number of channels to about 10 000. The channels are readout by 160 dedicated integrated 64-channel front-end ASICs, providing a time and charge measurement and featuring a fully-digital output. The energy measurement is extracted either from the time-over-threshold (ToT) or the 10-bit digitisation of the peak amplitude of the signal. The time of the event is generated by quad-buffered low-power TDCs, allowing for rates in excess of 60 kHz per channel. The TDCs are based on analogue interpolation techniques and produce a time stamp (or two, if working in ToT mode) of the event with a time resolution better than 50 ps. The front-end noise, based on a CSA and a two-stage complex conjugated pole shapers, dominate the channel intrinsic time jitter, which is less than 5 ns r.m.s. The time information of the hit can be used to reconstruct the track path, operating the detector as a small TPC and hence improving the position resolution when the distribution of the cloud, due to large incident angle or magnetic field, is very broad. Event data is collected by an off-detector motherboard, where each GEM-ROC readout card handles 4 ASIC carrier FEBs (512 channels). Configuration upload and data readout between the off-detector electronics and the VME-based data collector cards are managed by bi-directional fibre optical links. This paper covers the design of a custom front-end electronics for the readout of the new inner tracker of the BESIII experiment, addressing the relevant design aspects of the detector electronics and the front-end ASIC for the CGEM

  19. Revisiting the definition of local hardness and hardness kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco-Ramírez, Carlos A; Franco-Pérez, Marco; Carmona-Espíndola, Javier; Gázquez, José L; Ayers, Paul W

    2017-05-17

    An analysis of the hardness kernel and local hardness is performed to propose new definitions for these quantities that follow a similar pattern to the one that characterizes the quantities associated with softness, that is, we have derived new definitions for which the integral of the hardness kernel over the whole space of one of the variables leads to local hardness, and the integral of local hardness over the whole space leads to global hardness. A basic aspect of the present approach is that global hardness keeps its identity as the second derivative of energy with respect to the number of electrons. Local hardness thus obtained depends on the first and second derivatives of energy and electron density with respect to the number of electrons. When these derivatives are approximated by a smooth quadratic interpolation of energy, the expression for local hardness reduces to the one intuitively proposed by Meneses, Tiznado, Contreras and Fuentealba. However, when one combines the first directional derivatives with smooth second derivatives one finds additional terms that allow one to differentiate local hardness for electrophilic attack from the one for nucleophilic attack. Numerical results related to electrophilic attacks on substituted pyridines, substituted benzenes and substituted ethenes are presented to show the overall performance of the new definition.

  20. The GOTTHARD charge integrating readout detector: design and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozzanica, A; Bergamaschi, A; Dinapoli, R; Greiffenberg, D; Henrich, B; Johnson, I; Valeria, R; Schmitt, B; Xintian, S; Graafsma, H; Lohmann, M

    2012-01-01

    A charge integrating readout ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) for silicon strip sensors has been developed at PSI in collaboration with DESY. The goal of the project is to provide a charge integrating readout system able to cope with the pulsed beam of XFEL machines and at the same time to retain the high dynamic range and single photon resolution performances typical for photon counting systems. The ASIC, designed in IBM 130 nm CMOS technology, takes advantage of its three gain stages with automatic stage selection to achieve a dynamic range of 10000 12 keV photons and a noise better than 300 e.n.c.. The 4 analog outputs of the ASIC are optimized for speed, allowing frame rates higher than 1 MHz, without compromises on linearity and noise performances. This work presents the design features of the ASIC, and reports the characterization results of the chip itself.

  1. TID-dependent current measurements of IBL readout chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dette, Karola [TU Dortmund, Experimentelle Physik IV (Germany); CERN (Switzerland); Collaboration: ATLAS Pixel-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The ATLAS detector consists of several subsystems with a hybrid pixel detector as the innermost component of the tracking system. The pixel detector has been composed of three layers of silicon sensor assemblies during the first data taking run of the LHC and has been upgraded with a new 4th layer, the so-called Insertable B-Layer (IBL), in summer 2014. Each silicon sensor of the IBL is connected to a Front End readout chip (FE-I4) via bump bonds. During the first year of data taking an increase of the LV current produced by the readout chips was observed. This increase could be traced back to radiation damage inside the silicon. The dependence of the current on the Total Ionizing Dose (TID) and temperature has been tested with X-ray irradiations and will be presented in this talk.

  2. Digital Power Consumption Estimations for CHIPIX65 Pixel Readout Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Marcotulli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    New hybrid pixel detectors with improved resolution capable of dealing with hit rates up to 3 GHz/cm2 will be required for future High Energy Physics experiments in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Given this, the RD53 collaboration works on the design of the next generation pixel readout chip needed for both the ATLAS and CMS detector phase 2 pixel upgrades. For the RD53 demonstrator chip in 65nm CMOS technology, different architectures are considered. In particular the purpose of this work is estimating the power consumption of the digital architecture of the readout ASIC developed by CHIPIX65 project of the INFN National Scientific Committee. This has been done with modern chip design tools integrated with the VEPIX53 simulation framework that has been developed within the RD53 collaboration in order to assess the performance of the system in very high rate, high energy physics experiments.

  3. The universal read-out controller for CBM at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manz, Sebastian; Abel, Norbert; Gebelein, Jano [Kirchhoff-Institut fuer Physik, Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2011-07-01

    Since 2007 we design and develop the firmware for the read-out controller (ROC) for data acquisition of the CBM detector at FAIR. While our first implementation solely focused on the nXYTER chip, today we are also designing and implementing readout logic for the GET4 chip which is supposed to be part of the time of flight (TOF) detector. Furthermore, we fully support both Ethernet and Optical transport as two transparent solutions. This addresses the different requirements of a laboratory setup and the final detector setup respectively. The usage of a strict modularization of the Read Out Controller firmware enables us to provide an Universal ROC where front-end specific logic and transport logic can be combined in a very flexible way. Fault tolerance techniques are only required for some of those modules and hence are only implemented there.

  4. A readout system for the wavelength-shifting optical module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foesig, Carl-Christian; Boeser, Sebastian [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The success of IceCube and the plans for an IceCube-Gen2 stimulate the development of new photo sensors. The approach of the Wavelength-shifting Optical Module is to provide a device which has a low dark noise rate combined with a high detection efficiency. A small PMT is used to detect red shifted photons guided in a coated PMMA tube, originally emitted by a wavelength shifting coating that absorbs photons in the UV Region. We have studied several PMTs for their usability with the IceCube-Gen2 readout system. Relevant parameters are the pulse widths in relation to the bandwidth of the IceCube-Gen2 readout electronics and the dark noise rates.

  5. Implementation of the Timepix ASIC in the Scalable Readout System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupberger, M., E-mail: lupberger@physik.uni-bonn.de; Desch, K.; Kaminski, J.

    2016-09-11

    We report on the development of electronics hardware, FPGA firmware and software to provide a flexible multi-chip readout of the Timepix ASIC within the framework of the Scalable Readout System (SRS). The system features FPGA-based zero-suppression and the possibility to read out up to 4×8 chips with a single Front End Concentrator (FEC). By operating several FECs in parallel, in principle an arbitrary number of chips can be read out, exploiting the scaling features of SRS. Specifically, we tested the system with a setup consisting of 160 Timepix ASICs, operated as GridPix devices in a large TPC field cage in a 1 T magnetic field at a DESY test beam facility providing an electron beam of up to 6 GeV. We discuss the design choices, the dedicated hardware components, the FPGA firmware as well as the performance of the system in the test beam.

  6. Test of a PCIe based readout option for PANDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, Simon; Lange, Soeren; Kuehn, Wolfgang [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Engel, Heiko [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The future PANDA detector will achieve an event rate at about 20 MHz resulting in a high data load of up to 200 GB/s. The data acquisition system will be based on a triggerless readout concept, leading to the requirement of large data bandwidths. The data reduction will be guaranteed on the first level by an array of FPGAs running a full on-line reconstruction followed by the second level of a CPU/GPU cluster to achieve a reduction factor more than 1000. The C-RORC (Common Readout Receiver Card), originally developed for ALICE, provides on the one hand 12 optical links with 6.25 Gbps each, and on the other hand a PCIe interface with up to 40 Gbps. The receiver card has been installed and tested, and the firmware has been adjusted for the Panda data format. Test results are presented.

  7. Towards a new generation of pixel detector readout chips

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, M; Ballabriga, R.; Frojdh, E.; Heijne, E.; Llopart, X.; Poikela, T.; Tlustos, L.; Valerio, P.; Wong, W.

    2016-01-01

    The Medipix3 Collaboration has broken new ground in spectroscopic X-ray imaging and in single particle detection and tracking. This paper will review briefly the performance and limitations of the present generation of pixel detector readout chips developed by the Collaboration. Through Silicon Via technology has the potential to provide a significant improvement in the tile- ability and more flexibility in the choice of readout architecture. This has been explored in the context of 3 projects with CEA-LETI using Medipix3 and Timepix3 wafers. The next generation of chips will aim to provide improved spectroscopic imaging performance at rates compatible with human CT. It will also aim to provide full spectroscopic images with unprecedented energy and spatial resolution. Some of the opportunities and challenges posed by moving to a more dense CMOS process will be discussed.

  8. Evaluation of an Integrated Read-Out Layer Prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Ajamieh, Fayez

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents evaluation results of an Integrated Read-out Layer (IRL), a proposed concept in scintillator-based calorimetry intended to meet the exceptional calorimetric requirements of the envisaged International Linear Collider (ILC). This study presents a full characterization of the prototype IRL, including exploration of relevant parameters, calibration performance, and the uniformity of response. The study represents proof of the IRL concept. Finally, proposed design enhancements are presented.

  9. Resistive-strips micromegas detectors with two-dimensional readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byszewski, M.; Wotschack, J.

    2012-02-01

    Micromegas detectors show very good performance for charged particle tracking in high rate environments as for example at the LHC. It is shown that two coordinates can be extracted from a single gas gap in these detectors. Several micromegas chambers with spark protection by resistive strips and two-dimensional readout have been tested in the context of the R&D work for the ATLAS Muon System upgrade.

  10. Two-dimensional readout in a liquid xenon ionisation chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Solovov, V; Ferreira-Marques, R; Lopes, M I; Pereira, A; Policarpo, Armando

    2002-01-01

    A two-dimensional readout with metal strips deposited on both sides of a glass plate is investigated aiming to assess the possibility of its use in a liquid xenon ionisation chamber for positron emission tomography. Here, we present results obtained with an alpha-source. It is shown that position resolution of <=1 mm, fwhm, can be achieved for free charge depositions equivalent to those due to gamma-rays with energy from 220 down to 110 keV.

  11. Hexagonal pixel detector with time encoded binary readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoedlmoser, H.; Varner, G.; Cooney, M.

    2009-01-01

    The University of Hawaii is developing continuous acquisition pixel (CAP) detectors for vertexing applications in lepton colliding experiments such as SuperBelle or ILC. In parallel to the investigation of different technology options such as MAPS or SOI, both analog and binary readout concepts have been tested. First results with a binary readout scheme in which the hit information is time encoded by means of a signal shifting mechanism have recently been published. This paper explains the hit reconstruction for such a binary detector with an emphasis on fake hit reconstruction probabilities in order to evaluate the rate capability in a high background environment such as the planned SuperB factory at KEK. The results show that the binary concept is at least comparable to any analog readout strategy if not better in terms of occupancy. Furthermore, we present a completely new binary readout strategy in which the pixel cells are arranged in a hexagonal grid allowing the use of three independent output directions to reduce reconstruction ambiguities. The new concept uses the same signal shifting mechanism for time encoding, however, in dedicated transfer lines on the periphery of the detector, which enables higher shifting frequencies. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations of full size pixel matrices including hit and BG generation, signal generation, and data reconstruction show that by means of multiple signal transfer lines on the periphery the pixel can be made smaller (higher resolution), the number of output channels and the data volume per triggered event can be reduced dramatically, fake hit reconstruction is lowered to a minimum and the resulting effective occupancies are less than 10 -4 . A prototype detector has been designed in the AMS 0.35μm Opto process and is currently under fabrication.

  12. Performance of an optical readout GEM-based TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margato, L.M.S.; Fraga, F.A.F.; Fetal, S.T.G.; Fraga, M.M.F.R.; Balau, E.F.S.; Blanco, A.; Marques, R. Ferreira; Policarpo, A.J.P.L

    2004-01-01

    We report on the operation of a GEM-based small TPC using an optical readout. The detector was operated with a mixture of Ar+CF 4 using 5.48 MeV alpha particles obtained from a 241 Am source and the GEM scintillation was concurrently read by a CCD camera and a photomultiplier. Precision collimators were used to define the track orientation. Qualitative results on the accuracy of the track angle, length and charge deposition measurements are presented

  13. High precision straw tube chamber with cathode readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, V.N.; Golutvin, I.A.; Ershov, Yu.V.

    1992-01-01

    The high precision straw chamber with cathode readout was constructed and investigated. The 10 mm straws were made of aluminized mylar strip with transparent longitudinal window. The X coordinate information has been taken from the cathode strips as induced charges and investigated via centroid method. The spatial resolution σ=120 μm has been obtained with signal/noise ratio about 60. The possible ways for improving the signal/noise ratio have been described. 7 refs.; 8 figs

  14. A high precision straw tube chamber with cathode readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, V.N.; Golutvin, I.A.; Ershov, Yu.V.; Zubarev, E.V.; Ivanov, A.B.; Lysiakov, V.N.; Makhankov, A.V.; Movchan, S.A.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Preda, T.

    1993-01-01

    The high precision straw chamber with cathode readout was constructed and investigated. The 10 mm diameter straws were made of aluminized Mylar with transparent longitudinal window. The X-coordinate information has been taken from cathode strips as induced charges and investigated with the centroid method. The spatial resolution σ x =103 μm was obtained at a signal-to-noise ratio of about 70. The possible ways to improve the signal-to-noise ratio are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Dual-Readout Calorimetry with Lead Tungstate Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Akchurin, N.

    2007-01-01

    Results are presented of beam tests in which a small electromagnetic calorimeter consisting of lead tungstate crystals was exposed to 50 GeV electrons and pions. This calorimeter was backed up by the DREAM Dual-Readout calorimeter, which measures the scintillation and \\v{C}erenkov light produced in the shower development, using two different media. The signals from the crystal calorimeter were analyzed in great detail in an attempt to determine the contributions from these two types of light ...

  16. 3D, Flash, Induced Current Readout for Silicon Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Sherwood I. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2014-06-07

    A new method for silicon microstrip and pixel detector readout using (1) 65 nm-technology current amplifers which can, for the first time with silicon microstrop and pixel detectors, have response times far shorter than the charge collection time (2) 3D trench electrodes large enough to subtend a reasonable solid angle at most track locations and so have adequate sensitivity over a substantial volume of pixel, (3) induced signals in addition to, or in place of, collected charge

  17. ADVANCED READOUT ELECTRONICS FOR MULTIELEMENT CdZnTe SENSORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DE GERONIMO, G.; O CONNOR, P.; KANDASAMY, A.; GROSHOLZ, J.

    2002-01-01

    A generation of high performance front-end and read-out ASICs customized for highly segmented CdZnTe sensors is presented. The ASICs, developed in a multi-year effort at Brookhaven National Laboratory, are targeted to a wide range of applications including medical, safeguards/security, industrial, research, and spectroscopy. The front-end multichannel ASICs provide high accuracy low noise preamplification and filtering of signals, with versions for small and large area CdZnTe elements. They implement a high order unipolar or bipolar shaper, an innovative low noise continuous reset system with self-adapting capability to the wide range of detector leakage currents, a new system for stabilizing the output baseline and high output driving capability. The general-purpose versions include programmable gain and peaking time. The read-out multichannel ASICs provide fully data driven high accuracy amplitude and time measurements, multiplexing and time domain derandomization of the shaped pulses. They implement a fast arbitration scheme and an array of innovative two-phase offset-free rail-to-rail analog peak detectors for buffering and absorption of input rate fluctuations, thus greatly relaxing the rate requirement on the external ADC. Pulse amplitude, hit timing, pulse risetime, and channel address per processed pulse are available at the output in correspondence of an external readout request. Prototype chips have been fabricated in 0.5 and 0.35 (micro)m CMOS and tested. Design concepts and experimental results are discussed

  18. The ALICE Time of Flight Readout System AFRO

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, A

    1999-01-01

    The ALICE Time of Flight Detector system comprises more than 100.000 channels and covers an area of more than 100 m2. The timing resolution should be better than 150 ps. This combination of requirements poses a major challenge to the readout system. All detector timing measurements are referenced to a unique start signal t0. This signal is generated at the time an event occurs. Timing measurements are performed using a multichannel TDC chip which requires a 40 MHz reference clock signal. The general concept of the readout system is based on a modular architecture. Detector cells are combined to modules of 1024 channels. Each of these modules can be read out and calibrated independently from each other. By distributing a reference signal, a timing relationship between the modules is established. This reference signal can either be the start signal t0 or the TDC-reference clock. The readout architecture is divided into three steps; the TDC controller, the module controller, and the time of flight controller. Th...

  19. Electronic readout for THGEM detectors based on FPGA TDCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Tobias; Buechele, Maximilian; Fischer, Horst; Gorzellik, Matthias; Grussenmeyer, Tobias; Herrmann, Florian; Joerg, Philipp; Koenigsmann, Kay; Kremser, Paul; Kunz, Tobias; Michalski, Christoph; Schopferer, Sebastian; Szameitat, Tobias [Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg Univ. (Germany); Collaboration: COMPASS-II RICH upgrade Group

    2013-07-01

    In the framework of the RD51 programme the characteristics of a new detector design, called THGEM, which is based on multi-layer arrangements of printed circuit board material, is investigated. The THGEMs combine the advantages for covering gains up to 10{sup 6} in electron multiplication at large detector areas and low material budget. Studies are performed by extending the design to a hybrid gas detector by adding a Micromega layer, which significantly improves the ion back flow ratio of the chamber. With the upgrade of the COMPASS experiment at CERN a MWPC plane of the RICH-1 detector will be replaced by installing THGEM chambers. This summarizes to 40k channels of electronic readout, including amplification, discrimination and time-to-digital conversion of the anode signals. Due to the expected hit rate of the detector we design a cost-efficient TDC, based on Artix7 FPGA technology, with time resolution below 100 ps and sufficient hit buffer depth. To cover the large readout area the data is transferred via optical fibres to a central readout system which is part of the GANDALF framework.

  20. Demonstration of Time Domain Multiplexed Readout for Magnetically Coupled Calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porst, J.-P.; Adams, J. S.; Balvin, M.; Bandler, S.; Beyer, J.; Busch, S. E.; Drung, D.; Seidel, G. M.; Smith, S. J.; Stevenson, T. R.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetically coupled calorimeters (MCC) have extremely high potential for x-ray applications due to the inherent high energy resolution capability and being non-dissipative. Although very high energy-resolution has been demonstrated, until now there has been no demonstration of multiplexed read-out. We report on the first realization of a time domain multiplexed (TDM) read-out. While this has many similarities with TDM of transition-edge-sensors (TES), for MGGs the energy resolution is limited by the SQUID read-out noise and requires the well established scheme to be altered in order to minimize degradation due to noise aliasing effects. In cur approach, each pixel is read out by a single first stage SQUID (SQ1) that is operated in open loop. The outputs of the SQ1 s are low-pass filtered with an array of low cross-talk inductors, then fed into a single-stage SQUID TD multiplexer. The multiplexer is addressed from room temperature and read out through a single amplifier channel. We present results achieved with a new detector platform. Noise performance is presented and compared to expectations. We have demonstrated multiplexed X-ray spectroscopy at 5.9keV with delta_FWHM=10eV. In an optimized setup, we show it is possible to multiplex 32 detectors without significantly degrading the Intrinsic detector resolution.

  1. SQUIDs for the readout of metallic magnetic calorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferring, Anna; Wegner, Mathias; Fleischmann, Andreas; Gastaldo, Loredana; Kempf, Sebastian; Enss, Christian [Kirchhoff-Institute for Physics, Heidelberg University (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) are the devices of choice to read out metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs). Here, the temperature change of the detector upon the absorption of an energetic particle is measured as a magnetization change of a paramagnetic temperature sensor that is situated in a weak magnetic field. Driven by the need for devices that allow for the readout of large-scale detector arrays with hundreds or even thousands of individual detectors as well as of single channel detectors with sub-eV energy resolution, we have recently started the development of low-T{sub c} current-sensing SQUIDs. In particular, we are developing cryogenic frequency-domain multiplexers based on non-hysteretic rf-SQUIDs for detector array readout as well as dc-SQUIDs for single channel detector readout. We discuss our SQUID designs and the performance of prototype SQUIDs. We particularly focus on the frequency and temperature dependence of the SQUID noise as well as the reliability of our SQUID fabrication process for Nb/Al-AlO{sub x}/Nb Josephson junctions. Additionally, we demonstrate experimentally that state-of-the-art MMCs can successfully be read out with our current devices. Finally, we discuss different strategies to improve the SQUID and detector performance aiming to reach sub-eV energy resolution for individual detectors as well as for detector arrays.

  2. Optical readout method for solid-state dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.C.; Eichner, F.N.; Stahl, K.A.; Miller, S.D.

    1986-07-01

    The readout of solid-state dosemeters is usually accomplished by heating to produce thermoluminescence. This technique has several disadvantages including stressing the dosemeter crystals, melting Teflon enclosures, and destroying the thin dosemeters designed for beta particle measurements. An optical readout method is being developed to avoid these difficulties. Standard dosemeters were irradiated to a dose of approximately 0.02 Sv with 137 Cs gamma rays. The dosemeters were then irradiated with light produced by a high-intensity xenon lamp. Various wavelength bands, from the ultraviolet through the visible and to the near-infrared, were used. The degree of trap emptying was found to be proportional to the total optical power incident. With the intensities used in the preliminary experiments, over 90% trap emptying was achieved. This new technique will prove useful for dosemeters that are encased in plastic for automatic processing. The details of this optical readout method, along with some possible applications in neutron and beta dosimetry are described. 7 refs., 3 figs

  3. Hard and Soft Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moos, Lejf

    2009-01-01

    of Denmark, and finally the third layer: the leadership used in Danish schools. The use of 'soft governance' is shifting the focus of governance and leadership from decisions towards influence and power and thus shifting the focus of the processes from the decision-making itself towards more focus......The governance and leadership at transnational, national and school level seem to be converging into a number of isomorphic forms as we see a tendency towards substituting 'hard' forms of governance, that are legally binding, with 'soft' forms based on persuasion and advice. This article analyses...... and discusses governance forms at several levels. The first layer is the global: the methods of 'soft governance' that are being utilised by transnational agencies. The second layer is the national and local: the shift in national and local governance seen in many countries, but here demonstrated in the case...

  4. Zirconium nitride hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Daiane; Amorim, Cintia Lugnani Gomes de; Soares, Gabriel Vieira; Figueroa, Carlos Alejandro; Baumvol, Israel Jacob Rabin; Basso, Rodrigo Leonardo de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium nitride (ZrN) nanometric films were deposited onto different substrates, in order to study the surface crystalline microstructure and also to investigate the electrochemical behavior to obtain a better composition that minimizes corrosion reactions. The coatings were produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD). The influence of the nitrogen partial pressure, deposition time and temperature over the surface properties was studied. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and corrosion experiments were performed to characterize the ZrN hard coatings. The ZrN films properties and microstructure changes according to the deposition parameters. The corrosion resistance increases with temperature used in the films deposition. Corrosion tests show that ZrN coating deposited by PVD onto titanium substrate can improve the corrosion resistance. (author)

  5. High-pitch metal-on-glass technology for pad pitch adaptation between detectors and readout electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Ullán, Miguel; Campabadal, Francesca; Fleta, Celeste; Garcia, Carmen; Gonzalez, Francisco; Bernabeu, Jose

    2004-01-01

    Modern high-energy physics and astrophysics strip detectors have increased channel density to levels at which their connection with readout electronics has become very complex due to high pad pitch. Also, direct wire bonding is prevented by the fact that typically detector's pad pitch and electronics' pad pitch do not match. A high- pitch metal-on-glass technology is presented, that allows pad pitch adaptation between detectors and readout electronics. It consists of high-density metal lines on top of an insulating glass substrate. A photoresist layer is deposited covering the metal tracks for passivation and protection The technology is tested for conductivity, bondability, bonding pull force, peel off, and radiation hardness, and it is an established technology in the clean room of the CNM Institute in Barcelona. This technology has been chosen by the ATLAS Collaboration for the pad pitch adapters (PPA) of the SCT Endcap Modules, by a Compton camera project, and by other HEP groups for interconnection betwe...

  6. SPIDR, a general-purpose readout system for pixel ASICs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijden, B. van der; Visser, J.; Beuzekom, M. van; Boterenbrood, H.; Munneke, B.; Schreuder, F.; Kulis, S.

    2017-01-01

    The SPIDR (Speedy PIxel Detector Readout) system is a flexible general-purpose readout platform that can be easily adapted to test and characterize new and existing detector readout ASICs. It is originally designed for the readout of pixel ASICs from the Medipix/Timepix family, but other types of ASICs or front-end circuits can be read out as well. The SPIDR system consists of an FPGA board with memory and various communication interfaces, FPGA firmware, CPU subsystem and an API library on the PC . The FPGA firmware can be adapted to read out other ASICs by re-using IP blocks. The available IP blocks include a UDP packet builder, 1 and 10 Gigabit Ethernet MAC's and a 'soft core' CPU . Currently the firmware is targeted at the Xilinx VC707 development board and at a custom board called Compact-SPIDR . The firmware can easily be ported to other Xilinx 7 series and ultra scale FPGAs. The gap between an ASIC and the data acquisition back-end is bridged by the SPIDR system. Using the high pin count VITA 57 FPGA Mezzanine Card (FMC) connector only a simple chip carrier PCB is required. A 1 and a 10 Gigabit Ethernet interface handle the connection to the back-end. These can be used simultaneously for high-speed data and configuration over separate channels. In addition to the FMC connector, configurable inputs and outputs are available for synchronization with other detectors. A high resolution (≈ 27 ps bin size) Time to Digital converter is provided for time stamping events in the detector. The SPIDR system is frequently used as readout for the Medipix3 and Timepix3 ASICs. Using the 10 Gigabit Ethernet interface it is possible to read out a single chip at full bandwidth or up to 12 chips at a reduced rate. Another recent application is the test-bed for the VeloPix ASIC, which is developed for the Vertex Detector of the LHCb experiment. In this case the SPIDR system processes the 20 Gbps scrambled data stream from the VeloPix and distributes it over four

  7. Janka hardness using nonstandard specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Marshall Begel; William Nelson

    2006-01-01

    Janka hardness determined on 1.5- by 3.5-in. specimens (2×4s) was found to be equivalent to that determined using the 2- by 2-in. specimen specified in ASTM D 143. Data are presented on the relationship between Janka hardness and the strength of clear wood. Analysis of historical data determined using standard specimens indicated no difference between side hardness...

  8. First realization of a tracking detector for high energy physics experiments based on Josephson digital readout circuitry

    CERN Document Server

    Pagano, S; Esposito, A P; Mukhanov, O; Rylov, S

    1999-01-01

    We have designed and realized a prototype of a high energy particle microstrip detector with Josephson readout circuits. The key features of this device are: minimum ionizing particle sensitivity, due to the use of semiconductive sensors, fast speed and radiation hardness, due to the use of superconductive circuitry, and current discrimination, which allows the use of several types of semiconductors as detector (Si, GaAs, CVD-diamond) without loss in performances. The Josephson circuitry, made by a combination of RSFQ and latching logic gates, realizes an 8-bit current discriminator and parallel to serial converter and can be directly interfaced to room temperature electronics. This device, which is designed for application as vertex detector for the Compass and LHC-B accelerator experiments, has been tested with small radioactive sources acid will undergo to a test beam at the CERN SPS facility with 24 GeV/c protons. Current results and future perspectives will be reported. (11 refs).

  9. 2TB hard disk drive

    CERN Multimedia

    This particular object was used up until 2012 in the Data Centre. It slots into one of the Disk Server trays. Hard disks were invented in the 1950s. They started as large disks up to 20 inches in diameter holding just a few megabytes (link is external). They were originally called "fixed disks" or "Winchesters" (a code name used for a popular IBM product). They later became known as "hard disks" to distinguish them from "floppy disks (link is external)." Hard disks have a hard platter that holds the magnetic medium, as opposed to the flexible plastic film found in tapes and floppies.

  10. Prototyping the read-out chain of the CBM Microvertex Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaus, P.; Wiebusch, M.; Amar-Youcef, S.; Deveaux, M.; Koziel, M.; Michel, J.; Milanovic, B.; Müntz, C.; Tischler, T.; Stroth, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) Experiment at the future FAIR (Darmstadt/Germany) will study the phase diagram of hadronic matter in the regime of highest net-baryon densities. The fixed target experiment will explore the nuclear fireballs created in violent heavy ion reactions with a rich number of probes. To reconstruct the decay topologies of open-charm particles as well as to track low-momentum particles, an ultra-light and precise Microvertex Detector (MVD) is required. The necessary performance in terms of spatial resolution, material budget and rate capability will be reached by equipping the MVD with highly granular, radiation-hard CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (CPS) developped at IPHC Strasbourg, which are operated in the target vacuum of the experiment. This contribution introduces the concept of the MVD and puts a focus on the latest results obtained from the R and D of the electronics and read-out chain of the device. Moreover, we briefly introduce the PRESTO project, which realises a prototype of a full size quadrant of an MVD detector station

  11. Multi-anode photon-multiplier readout electronics for the LHCb ring imaging Cherenkov detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Smale, N J

    2004-01-01

    A readout system for the Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) detectors of the LHCb experiment has been developed. Two detector technologies for the measurement of Cherenkov photons are considered, the Multi-Anode Photo-Multiplier Tube (MAPMT) and the Hybrid Photon Detector (HPD), both of which meet the RICH requirements. The properties of the MAPMT are evaluated using a controlled single-photon source; a pixel-to-pixel gain variation of ~3 and a typical signal to noise of ~20 is measured. The relative tube efficiency is found to be reduced by ~26 % due to the detailed focusing structure of the MAPMT device. A radiation hard application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chip, the Beetle1.2MA0, has been developed to capture and store signals from a pair of MAPMTs. The Beetle1.2MA0 is built on the architecture of the Beetle family that was designed for silicon strip detectors, the difference being a modified front-end amplifier. The 128 input-channels of the Beetle1.2MA0 have a charge-sensitive pre-amplifier followed...

  12. A Cylindrical GEM Detector with Analog Readout for the BESIII Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cibinetto, G. [BESIII CGEM group, INFN Ferrara (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    Inner Trackers (IT) are key detectors in Particle Physics experiments; excellent spatial resolution, radiation transparency and hardness, and operability under high occupancies are main requirements. We aim to design, build and commission by 2017 a Cylindrical GEM (CGEM) detector candidate to be the new IT of the BESIII spectrometer, hosted on BEPC2 in IHEP, Beijing; BESIII data taking will last until at least 2020. The IT itself will represent an evolution w.r.t. the state of the art of GEM detectors, since the use of new kind of mechanical supports for the GEM foils will reduce the total radiation length of the detector and improve its tracking performance; an innovative design of the CGEM anode will allow for smaller capacitance and hence for bigger signals. The relatively strong BESIII magnetic field requires a new analogue readout; full custom front-end electronics, including a dedicated ASIC, will be designed and produced for optimal data collection. Prototype Beam Test results showing the measurement of the spatial resolution in a 1 Tesla magnetic field will be presented among with the mechanical design and simulations. (authors)

  13. Testing and simulation of silicon photomultiplier readouts for scintillators in high-energy astronomy and solar physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloser, P. F.; Legere, J. S.; Bancroft, C. M.; Jablonski, L. F.; Wurtz, J. R.; Ertley, C. D.; McConnell, M. L.; Ryan, J. M.

    2014-11-01

    Space-based gamma-ray detectors for high-energy astronomy and solar physics face severe constraints on mass, volume, and power, and must endure harsh launch conditions and operating environments. Historically, such instruments have usually been based on scintillator materials due to their relatively low cost, inherent ruggedness, high stopping power, and radiation hardness. New scintillator materials, such as LaBr3:Ce, feature improved energy and timing performance, making them attractive for future astronomy and solar physics space missions in an era of tightly constrained budgets. Despite this promise, the use of scintillators in space remains constrained by the volume, mass, power, and fragility of the associated light readout device, typically a vacuum photomultiplier tube (PMT). In recent years, silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) have emerged as promising alternative light readout devices that offer gains and quantum efficiencies similar to those of PMTs, but with greatly reduced mass and volume, high ruggedness, low voltage requirements, and no sensitivity to magnetic fields. In order for SiPMs to replace PMTs in space-based instruments, however, it must be shown that they can provide comparable performance, and that their inherent temperature sensitivity can be corrected for. To this end, we have performed extensive testing and modeling of a small gamma-ray spectrometer composed of a 6 mm×6 mm SiPM coupled to a 6 mm×6 mm ×10 mm LaBr3:Ce crystal. A custom readout board monitors the temperature and adjusts the bias voltage to compensate for gain variations. We record an energy resolution of 5.7% (FWHM) at 662 keV at room temperature. We have also performed simulations of the scintillation process and optical light collection using Geant4, and of the SiPM response using the GosSiP package. The simulated energy resolution is in good agreement with the data from 22 keV to 662 keV. Above ~1 MeV, however, the measured energy resolution is systematically worse than

  14. Testing and simulation of silicon photomultiplier readouts for scintillators in high-energy astronomy and solar physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloser, P.F.; Legere, J.S.; Bancroft, C.M.; Jablonski, L.F.; Wurtz, J.R.; Ertley, C.D.; McConnell, M.L.; Ryan, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Space-based gamma-ray detectors for high-energy astronomy and solar physics face severe constraints on mass, volume, and power, and must endure harsh launch conditions and operating environments. Historically, such instruments have usually been based on scintillator materials due to their relatively low cost, inherent ruggedness, high stopping power, and radiation hardness. New scintillator materials, such as LaBr 3 :Ce, feature improved energy and timing performance, making them attractive for future astronomy and solar physics space missions in an era of tightly constrained budgets. Despite this promise, the use of scintillators in space remains constrained by the volume, mass, power, and fragility of the associated light readout device, typically a vacuum photomultiplier tube (PMT). In recent years, silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) have emerged as promising alternative light readout devices that offer gains and quantum efficiencies similar to those of PMTs, but with greatly reduced mass and volume, high ruggedness, low voltage requirements, and no sensitivity to magnetic fields. In order for SiPMs to replace PMTs in space-based instruments, however, it must be shown that they can provide comparable performance, and that their inherent temperature sensitivity can be corrected for. To this end, we have performed extensive testing and modeling of a small gamma-ray spectrometer composed of a 6 mm×6 mm SiPM coupled to a 6 mm×6 mm ×10 mm LaBr 3 :Ce crystal. A custom readout board monitors the temperature and adjusts the bias voltage to compensate for gain variations. We record an energy resolution of 5.7% (FWHM) at 662 keV at room temperature. We have also performed simulations of the scintillation process and optical light collection using Geant4, and of the SiPM response using the GosSiP package. The simulated energy resolution is in good agreement with the data from 22 keV to 662 keV. Above ∼1 MeV, however, the measured energy resolution is systematically

  15. Testing and simulation of silicon photomultiplier readouts for scintillators in high-energy astronomy and solar physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloser, P.F., E-mail: Peter.Bloser@unh.edu; Legere, J.S.; Bancroft, C.M.; Jablonski, L.F.; Wurtz, J.R.; Ertley, C.D.; McConnell, M.L.; Ryan, J.M.

    2014-11-01

    Space-based gamma-ray detectors for high-energy astronomy and solar physics face severe constraints on mass, volume, and power, and must endure harsh launch conditions and operating environments. Historically, such instruments have usually been based on scintillator materials due to their relatively low cost, inherent ruggedness, high stopping power, and radiation hardness. New scintillator materials, such as LaBr{sub 3}:Ce, feature improved energy and timing performance, making them attractive for future astronomy and solar physics space missions in an era of tightly constrained budgets. Despite this promise, the use of scintillators in space remains constrained by the volume, mass, power, and fragility of the associated light readout device, typically a vacuum photomultiplier tube (PMT). In recent years, silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) have emerged as promising alternative light readout devices that offer gains and quantum efficiencies similar to those of PMTs, but with greatly reduced mass and volume, high ruggedness, low voltage requirements, and no sensitivity to magnetic fields. In order for SiPMs to replace PMTs in space-based instruments, however, it must be shown that they can provide comparable performance, and that their inherent temperature sensitivity can be corrected for. To this end, we have performed extensive testing and modeling of a small gamma-ray spectrometer composed of a 6 mm×6 mm SiPM coupled to a 6 mm×6 mm ×10 mm LaBr{sub 3}:Ce crystal. A custom readout board monitors the temperature and adjusts the bias voltage to compensate for gain variations. We record an energy resolution of 5.7% (FWHM) at 662 keV at room temperature. We have also performed simulations of the scintillation process and optical light collection using Geant4, and of the SiPM response using the GosSiP package. The simulated energy resolution is in good agreement with the data from 22 keV to 662 keV. Above ∼1 MeV, however, the measured energy resolution is

  16. Hard processes. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, B.L.; Khoze, V.A.; Lipatov, L.N.

    1984-01-01

    Deep inelastic (hard) processes are now at the epicenter of modern high-energy physics. These processes are governed by short-distance dynamics, which reveals the intrinsic structure of elementary particles. The theory of deep inelastic processes is now sufficiently well settled. The authors' aim was to give an effective tool to theoreticians and experimentalists who are engaged in high-energy physics. This book is intended primarily for physicists who are only beginning to study the field. To read the book, one should be acquainted with the Feynman diagram technique and with some particular topics from elementary particle theory (symmetries, dispersion relations, Regge pole theory, etc.). Theoretical consideration of deep inelastic processes is now based on quantum chromodynamics (QCD). At the same time, analysis of relevant physical phenomena demands a synthesis of QCD notions (quarks, gluons) with certain empirical characteristics. Therefore, the phenomenological approaches presented are a necessary stage in a study of this range of phenomena which should undoubtedly be followed by a detailed description based on QCD and electroweak theory. The authors were naturally unable to dwell on experimental data accumulated during the past decade of intensive investigations. Priority was given to results which allow a direct comparison with theoretical predictions. (Auth.)

  17. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V. (GVSt), Herne (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    International the coal market in 2014 was the first time in a long time in a period of stagnation. In Germany, the coal consumption decreased even significantly, mainly due to the decrease in power generation. Here the national energy transition has now been noticable affected negative for coal use. The political guidances can expect a further significant downward movement for the future. In the present phase-out process of the German hard coal industry with still three active mines there was in 2014 no decommissioning. But the next is at the end of 2015, and the plans for the time after mining have been continued. [German] International war der Markt fuer Steinkohle 2014 erstmals seit langem wieder von einer Stagnation gekennzeichnet. In Deutschland ging der Steinkohlenverbrauch sogar deutlich zurueck, vor allem wegen des Rueckgangs in der Stromerzeugung. Hier hat sich die nationale Energiewende nun spuerbar und fuer die Steinkohlennutzung negativ ausgewirkt. Die politischen Weichenstellungen lassen fuer die Zukunft eine weitere erhebliche Abwaertsbewegung erwarten. Bei dem im Auslaufprozess befindlichen deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau mit noch drei aktiven Bergwerken gab es 2014 keine Stilllegung. Doch die naechste steht zum Jahresende 2015 an, und die Planungen fuer die Zeit nach dem Bergbau sind fortgefuehrt worden.

  18. IDeF-X ECLAIRs: A CMOS ASIC for the Readout of CdTe and CdZnTe Detectors for High Resolution Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevin, O.; Baron, P.; Coppolani, X.; Delagnes, E.; Lugiez, F.; Daly, F.; Limousin, O.; Meuris, A.; Pinsard, F.; Renaud, D.

    2009-01-01

    The very last member of the IDeF-X ASIC family is presented: IDeF-X ECLAIRs is a 32-channel front end ASIC designed for the readout of Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) and Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe) Detectors. Thanks to its noise performance (Equivalent Noise Charge floor of 33 e - rms) and to its radiation hardened design (Single Event Latch-up Linear Energy Transfer threshold of 56 MeV.cm 2 .mg -1 ), the chip is well suited for soft X-rays energy discrimination and high energy resolution, 'space proof', hard X-ray spectroscopy. We measured an energy low threshold of less than 4 keV with a 10 pF input capacitor and a minimal reachable sensitivity of the Equivalent Noise Charge (ENC) to input capacitance of less than 7e - /pF obtained with a 6 μs peak time. IDeF-X ECLAIRs will be used for the readout of 6400 CdTe Schottky mono-pixel detectors of the 2D coded mask imaging telescope ECLAIRs aboard the SVOM satellite. IDeF-X ECLAIRs (or IDeF-X V2) has also been designed for the readout of a pixelated CdTe detector in the miniature spectro-imager prototype Caliste 256 that is currently foreseen for the high energy detector module of the Simbol-X mission. (authors)

  19. IDeF-X ECLAIRs: A CMOS ASIC for the Readout of CdTe and CdZnTe Detectors for High Resolution Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevin, Olivier; Baron, Pascal; Coppolani, Xavier; Daly, FranÇois; Delagnes, Eric; Limousin, Olivier; Lugiez, Francis; Meuris, Aline; Pinsard, FrÉdÉric; Renaud, Diana

    2009-08-01

    The very last member of the IDeF-X ASIC family is presented: IDeF-X ECLAIRs is a 32-channel front end ASIC designed for the readout of Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) and Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe) Detectors. Thanks to its noise performance (Equivalent Noise Charge floor of 33 e- rms) and to its radiation hardened design (Single Event Latchup Linear Energy Transfer threshold of 56 MeV.cm2.mg-1), the chip is well suited for soft X-rays energy discrimination and high energy resolution, ldquospace proof,rdquo hard X-ray spectroscopy. We measured an energy low threshold of less than 4 keV with a 10 pF input capacitor and a minimal reachable sensitivity of the Equivalent Noise Charge (ENC) to input capacitance of less than 7 e-/pF obtained with a 6 mus peak time. IDeF-X ECLAIRs will be used for the readout of 6400 CdTe Schottky monopixel detectors of the 2D coded mask imaging telescope ECLAIRs aboard the SVOM satellite. IDeF-X ECLAIRs (or IDeF-X V2) has also been designed for the readout of a pixelated CdTe detector in the miniature spectro-imager prototype Caliste 256 that is currently foreseen for the high energy detector module of the Simbol-X mission.

  20. Infrared readout electronics; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 21, 22, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R.

    The present volume on IR readout electronics discusses cryogenic readout using silicon devices, cryogenic readout using III-V and LTS devices, multiplexers for higher temperatures, and focal-plane signal processing electronics. Attention is given to the optimization of cryogenic CMOS processes for sub-10-K applications, cryogenic measurements of aerojet GaAs n-JFETs, inP-based heterostructure device technology for ultracold readout applications, and a three-terminal semiconductor-superconductor transimpedance amplifier. Topics addressed include unfulfilled needs in IR astronomy focal-plane readout electronics, IR readout integrated circuit technology for tactical missile systems, and radiation-hardened 10-bit A/D for FPA signal processing. Also discussed are the implementation of a noise reduction circuit for spaceflight IR spectrometers, a real-time processor for staring receivers, and a fiber-optic link design for INMOS transputers.

  1. Melting of polydisperse hard disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, S.; Frenkel, D.

    2004-01-01

    The melting of a polydisperse hard-disk system is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations in the semigrand canonical ensemble. This is done in the context of possible continuous melting by a dislocation-unbinding mechanism, as an extension of the two-dimensional hard-disk melting problem. We find

  2. A novel readout integrated circuit for ferroelectric FPA detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Piji; Li, Lihua; Ji, Yulong; Zhang, Jia; Li, Min; Liang, Yan; Hu, Yanbo; Li, Songying

    2017-11-01

    Uncooled infrared detectors haves some advantages such as low cost light weight low power consumption, and superior reliability, compared with cryogenically cooled ones Ferroelectric uncooled focal plane array(FPA) are being developed for its AC response and its high reliability As a key part of the ferroelectric assembly the ROIC determines the performance of the assembly. A top-down design model for uncooled ferroelectric readout integrated circuit(ROIC) has been developed. Based on the optical thermal and electrical properties of the ferroelectric detector the RTIA readout integrated circuit is designed. The noise bandwidth of RTIA readout circuit has been developed and analyzed. A novel high gain amplifier, a high pass filter and a low pass filter circuits are designed on the ROIC. In order to improve the ferroelectric FPA package performance and decrease of package cost a temperature sensor is designed on the ROIC chip At last the novel RTIA ROIC is implemented on 0.6μm 2P3M CMOS silicon techniques. According to the experimental chip test results the temporal root mean square(RMS)noise voltage is about 1.4mV the sensitivity of the on chip temperature sensor is 0.6 mV/K from -40°C to 60°C the linearity performance of the ROIC chip is better than 99% Based on the 320×240 RTIA ROIC, a 320×240 infrared ferroelectric FPA is fabricated and tested. Test results shows that the 320×240 RTIA ROIC meets the demand of infrared ferroelectric FPA.

  3. Performance of the CAMEX64 silicon strip readout chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarema, R.J.

    1989-06-01

    The CAMEX64 is a 64 channel full custom CMOS chip designed specifically for the readout of silicon strip detectors. CAMEX which stands for CMOS Multichannel Analog MultiplEXer for Silicon Strip Detectors was designed by members of the Franhofer Institute for Microelectronic Circuits and Systems and the Max Planck Institute for Physics and Astrophysics. Each CAMEX channel has a switched capacitor charge sensitive amplifier with 4 sampling capacitors and a multiplexing scheme for reading out each of the channels on an analog bus. The device uses multiple sampling capacitors to filter and reduce input noise. Filtering is controlled through sampling techniques using external clocks. The device operates in a double correlated sampling mode and therefore cannot separate detector leakage current from a charge input. Normal operation of this device is similar to all other silicon readout chips designed and built thus far in that there is a data acquisition cycle during which charge is simultaneously accepted on all channels for a short period of time from a detector array, followed by a readout cycle where that charge or hit information is read out. This device works especially well for colliding beam experiments where the time of charge arrival is accurately known. However it can be used in fixed target or asynchronous mode where the time of charge arrival is not well known. In the asynchronous mode it appears that gain is somewhat dependent on the time interval required to decide whether or not to accept charge input information and thus the maximum signal to noise performance found with the synchronous mode may not be achieved in the asynchronous mode. 18 figs., 5 tabs

  4. Design and performance of the new cathode readout proportional chambers in LASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiken, G.; Aston, D.; Dunwoodie, W.

    1980-10-01

    The design and construction of a new proportional chamber system for the LASS spectrometer are discussed. This system consists of planar and cylindrical chambers employing anode wire and cathode strip readout techniques. The good timing characteristics of anode readout combine with the excellent spatial resolution of cathode readout to provide powerful and compact detectors. Preliminary resolution data are presented along with operating characteristics of the various devices

  5. Read-out and calibration of a tile calorimeter for ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tardell, S.

    1997-06-01

    The read-out and calibration of scintillating tiles hadronic calorimeter for ATLAS is discussed. Tests with prototypes of FERMI, a system of read-out electronics based on a dynamic range compressor reducing the dynamic range from 16 to 10 bits and a 40 MHz 10 bits sampling ADC, are presented. In comparison with a standard charge integrating read-out improvements in the resolution of 1% in the constant term are obtained

  6. Drift chamber readout system of the DIRAC experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasiev, L G

    2002-01-01

    A drift chamber readout system of the DIRAC experiment at CERN is presented. The system is intended to read out the signals from planar chambers operating in a high current mode. The sense wire signals are digitized in the 16-channel time-to-digital converter boards which are plugged in the signal plane connectors. This design results in a reduced number of modules, a small number of cables and high noise immunity. The system has been successfully operating in the experiment since 1999.

  7. The STAR Heavy Flavor Tracker PXL detector readout electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schambach, J.; Contin, G.; Greiner, L.; Stezelberger, T.; Vu, C.; Sun, X.; Szelezniak, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) is a recently installed micro-vertex detector upgrade to the STAR experiment at RHIC, consisting of three subsystems with various technologies of silicon sensors arranged in 4 concentric cylinders. The two innermost layers of the HFT close to the beam pipe, the Pixel ('PXL') subsystem, employ CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) technology that integrate the sensor, front-end electronics, and zero-suppression circuitry in one silicon die. This paper presents selected characteristics of the PXL detector part of the HFT and the hardware, firmware and software associated with the readout system for this detector

  8. A new electronic read-out for the YAPPET scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damiani, C.; Ramusino, A.C.A. Cotta; Malaguti, R.; Guerra, A. Del; Domenico, G. Di; Zavattini, G.

    2002-01-01

    A small animal PET-SPECT scanner (YAPPET) prototype was built at the Physics Department of the Ferrara University and is presently being used at the Nuclear Medicine Department for radiopharmaceutical studies on rats. The first YAPPET prototype shows very good performances, but needs some improvements before it can be fully used for intensive radiopharmaceutical research. The main problem of the actual prototype is its heavy electronics, based on NIM and CAMAC standard modules. For this reason a new, compact read-out electronics was developed and tested. The results of a first series of tests made on the first prototype will be presented in the paper

  9. Drift chamber and pulse height readout systems using analog multiplexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisneros, E.L; Kang, H.K.; Hall, J.N.; Larsen, R.S.

    1976-11-01

    Drift chamber and pulse-height readout systems are being developed for use in a new large scale detector at the SPEAR colliding beam facility. The systems are based upon 32 channels of sample-and-hold together with an analog multiplexer in a single-width CAMAC module. The modules within each crate are scanned by an autonomous controller containing a single ADC and memory plus arithmetic capability for offset, gain and linearity corrections. The drift chamber module has a facility for extracting hit wire information for use in trigger decision circuitry

  10. Fabrication of the GLAST Silicon Tracker Readout Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldini, Luca; Brez, Alessandro; Himel, Thomas; Johnson, R.P.; Latronico, Luca; Minuti, Massimo; Nelson, David; Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.; Sgro, Carmelo; Spandre, Gloria; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Tajima, Hiro; Cohen Tanugi, Johann; Young, Charles; Ziegler, Marcus; /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /SLAC /UC, Santa Cruz

    2006-03-03

    A unique electronics system has been built and tested for reading signals from the silicon-strip detectors of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope mission. The system amplifies and processes signals from 884,736 36-cm long silicon strips in a 4 x 4 array of tower modules. An aggressive mechanical design fits the readout electronics in narrow spaces between the tower modules, to minimize dead area. This design and the resulting departures from conventional electronics packaging led to several fabrication challenges and lessons learned. This paper describes the fabrication processes and how the problems peculiar to this design were overcome.

  11. A new electronic read-out for the YAPPET scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Damiani, C; Malaguti, R; Guerra, A D; Domenico, G D; Zavattini, G

    2002-01-01

    A small animal PET-SPECT scanner (YAPPET) prototype was built at the Physics Department of the Ferrara University and is presently being used at the Nuclear Medicine Department for radiopharmaceutical studies on rats. The first YAPPET prototype shows very good performances, but needs some improvements before it can be fully used for intensive radiopharmaceutical research. The main problem of the actual prototype is its heavy electronics, based on NIM and CAMAC standard modules. For this reason a new, compact read-out electronics was developed and tested. The results of a first series of tests made on the first prototype will be presented in the paper.

  12. HARP: high-pressure argon readout for calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barranco-Luque, M.; Fabjan, C.W.; Frandsen, P.K.

    1982-01-01

    Steel tubes of approximately 8 mm O.D., filled with Argon gas to approx. 200 bar, are considered as the active element for a charge collecting sampling calorimeter readout system. The tubes are permanently sealed and operated in the ion chamber mode, with the charge collection on a one-millimeter concentric anode. We present the motivation for such a device, including Monte Carlo predictions of performance. The method of construction and signal collection are discussed, with initial results on leakage and ageing of the filling gas. A prototype electromagnetic calorimeter is described

  13. Detection system using scintillating optical fibers and image tube readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alspector, J.; Borenstein, S.

    1979-01-01

    The hodoscope subgroup has studied a detection system consisting of bundles of optical fibers with readout via image tubes. The basic building block is an optical fiber with a scintillator inner core. The inner core has refractive index n/sub o/ (1.58 for plastic scintillator), and the outer sheath has a low index (approx. 1.4). Light is created in the core by passage of a particle track; if the light strikes the sheath at an angle greater than the critical angle phi/sub c/, it is trapped in the fiber until it finds its way to the photon detector

  14. Mixed species radioiodine air sampling readout and dose assessment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distenfeld, C.H.; Klemish, J.R. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a simple, reliable, inexpensive and portable means and method for determining the thyroid dose rate of mixed airborne species of solid and gaseous radioiodine without requiring highly skilled personnel, such as health physicists or electronics technicians. To this end, this invention provides a means and method for sampling a gas from a source of a mixed species of solid and gaseous radioiodine for collection of the mixed species and readout and assessment of the emissions therefrom by cylindrically, concentrically and annularly molding the respective species around a cylindrical passage for receiving a conventional probe-type Geiger-Mueller radiation detector

  15. Fast readout of scintillating fibres using position-sensitive photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agoritsas, V.; Akchurin, N.; Bergdolt, A.M.; Bing, O.; Bravar, A.; Ditta, J.; Dufournaud, J.; Dyachenko, V.A.; Giacomich, R.; Gorin, A.M.; Kuroda, K.; Magaudda, D.; Newsom, C.; Okada, K.; Onel, Y.; Penzo, A.; Rakhmatov, V.Ye.; Rykalin, V.I.; Salvato, G.; Savin, A.A.; Schiavon, P.; Sillou, D.; Solovyov, Yu.A.; Takeutchi, F.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Vasilchenko, V.G.; Yoshida, T.; Zaychenko, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    Major progress has recently been achieved in the fast readout of scintillating fibres using position-sensitive photomultipliers (PSPMs). Experimental results obtained with commercially available PSPMs already show a space resolution better than 200 μm, a time resolution of about 1.5 ns with a detection efficiency higher than 90%, and the possibility of separating double hits with a minimum distance of ∼3 mm. An upgrade of PSPMs based on new dynode structures is also in progress. Results obtained with one new PSPM prototype in a magnetic field are also presented. (orig.)

  16. Radiation effects on the Viking-2 preamplifier-readout chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallot-Burghardt, W.; Hawblitzel, C.; Hofmann, W.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Seeger, M.; Brenner, R.; Nygaard, E.; Rudge, A.; Toker, O.; Weilhammer, P.; Yoshioka, K.

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the radiation sensitivity of the Viking-2 VLSI circuit which has been designed for the readout of silicon strip detectors and manufactured at Mietec in 1.5 μm CMOS technology. Both biased and unbiased chips have been irradiated with a 137 Cs γ source up to a total dose of 2 kGy (200 krad) after which all tested chips were still fully functional. We report the characteristic changes of device parameters with dose, including equivalent noise charge for different capacitive loads, and determine transistor threshold shifts and change of mobilities. ((orig.))

  17. Study of preamplifier, shaper and peak detector in readout ASIC for particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ke; Zhang Shengjun; Fan Lei; Li Xian

    2014-01-01

    Recently, kinds of particle detectors have used Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) in their electronics readout system and ASICs have been designed in China now. This project designed a multi-channel readout ASIC for general detector. The chip has Preamplifier, Shaper and Peak Detector embedded for easy readout. For each channel, signal which is preprocessed by a low-noise preamplifier is sent to the shaper to form a quasi-Gaussian pulse and keep its peak for readout. This chip and modules of individual Preamplifier, Shaper and Peak Detector have been manufactured, results will be reported in time. (authors)

  18. Comparing interferometry techniques for multi-degree of freedom test mass readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isleif, Katharina-Sophie; Gerberding, Oliver; Mehmet, Moritz; Schwarze, Thomas S; Heinzel, Gerhard; Danzmann, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Laser interferometric readout systems with 1pm/Hz precision over long time scales have successfully been developed for LISA and LISA Pathfinder. Future gravitational physics experiments, for example in the fields of gravitational wave detection and geodesy, will potentially require similar levels of displacement and tilt readouts of multiple test masses in multiple degrees of freedom. In this article we compare currently available classic interferometry schemes with new techniques using phase modulations and complex readout algorithms. Based on a simple example we show that the new techniques have great potential to simplify interferometric readouts. (paper)

  19. Study and optimization of the spatial resolution for detectors with binary readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonamine, R., E-mail: ryo.yonamine@ulb.ac.be; Maerschalk, T.; Lentdecker, G. De

    2016-09-11

    Using simulations and analytical approaches, we have studied single hit resolutions obtained with a binary readout, which is often proposed for high granularity detectors to reduce the generated data volume. Our simulations considering several parameters (e.g. strip pitch) show that the detector geometry and an electronics parameter of the binary readout chips could be optimized for binary readout to offer an equivalent spatial resolution to the one with an analog readout. To understand the behavior as a function of simulation parameters, we developed analytical models that reproduce simulation results with a few parameters. The models can be used to optimize detector designs and operation conditions with regard to the spatial resolution.

  20. PETRIC - A positron emission tomography readout integrated circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrali-Noy, Marzio; Gruber, Gregory; Krieger, Bradley; Mandelli, Emmanuele; Meddeler, Gerrit; Moses, William; Rosso, Valeria

    2000-11-05

    We present architecture, critical design issues and performance measurements of PETRIC, a 64-channel mixed signal front-end integrated circuit (IC) for reading out a photodiode (PD) array coupled with LSO scintillator crystals for a medical imaging application (PET). Each channel consists of a low noise charge sensitive pre-amplifier (CSA), an RC-CR pulse shaper and a winner-take-all (WTA) multiplexer that selects the channel with the largest input signal. Triggered by an external timing signal, a switch opens and a capacitor stores the peak voltage of the winner channel. The shaper rise and fall times are adjustable by means of external current inputs over a continuous range of 0.7 (mu)s to 9 (mu)s. Power consumption is 5.4 mW per channel, measured Equivalent Noise Charge (ENC) at 1 (mu)s peaking time. Zero leakage current is 33 rms electrons plus 7.3 rms electrons per pF of input capacitance. Design is fabricated in 0.5 (mu)m 3.3V CMOS technology.

  1. Hardness variability in commercial technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Sexton, F.W.; Roeske, S.B.; Knoll, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    The radiation hardness of commercial Floating Gate 256K E 2 PROMs from a single diffusion lot was observed to vary between 5 to 25 krad(Si) when irradiated at a low dose rate of 64 mrad(Si)/s. Additional variations in E 2 PROM hardness were found to depend on bias condition and failure mode (i.e., inability to read or write the memory), as well as the foundry at which the part was manufactured. This variability is related to system requirements, and it is shown that hardness level and variability affect the allowable mode of operation for E 2 PROMs in space applications. The radiation hardness of commercial 1-Mbit CMOS SRAMs from Micron, Hitachi, and Sony irradiated at 147 rad(Si)/s was approximately 12, 13, and 19 krad(Si), respectively. These failure levels appear to be related to increases in leakage current during irradiation. Hardness of SRAMs from each manufacturer varied by less than 20%, but differences between manufacturers are significant. The Qualified Manufacturer's List approach to radiation hardness assurance is suggested as a way to reduce variability and to improve the hardness level of commercial technologies

  2. The readout system for the ALICE zero degree calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Siddhanta, S; De Falco, A; Floris, M; Masoni, A; Puddu, G; Serci, S; Uras, A; Usai, G; Arnaldi, R; Bianchi, L; Bossu, F; Chiavassa, E; De Marco, N; Ferretti, A; Gagliardi, M; Gallio, M; Luparello, G; Musso, A; Oppedisano, C; Piccotti, A; Scomparin, E; Vercellin, E; Cortese, P; Dellacasa, G

    2011-01-01

    ALICE at the CERN LHC will investigate the physics of strongly interacting matter at extreme energy densities where the formation of the Quark Gluon Plasma is expected. Its properties can be studied from observations like the production of mesons w ith charm and beauty quarks. These signals have to be studied as a function of energy density, which is determined by the centrality of collisions. One of the physics observables that is closely related with the centrality of the collision is the number o f spectator nucleons that can be measured by the Zero Degree Calorimeters (ZDC). Having a direct geometric interpretation allows to extract the impact parameter with minimal model assumptions. This paper describes the readout system of the ZDC. The ZDC re adout consists of a VME system with a ZDC Readout Card, a VME Processor, Discriminators, a ZDC Trigger Card, scalers, QDCs and TDCs. The system was successfully tested during the 2009 ALICE data taking and is currently operational at the LHC.

  3. Combined readout of a triple-GEM detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antochi, V. C.; Baracchini, E.; Cavoto, G.; Di Marco, E.; Marafini, M.; Mazzitelli, G.; Pinci, D.; Renga, F.; Tomassini, S.; Voena, C.

    2018-05-01

    Optical readout of GEM based devices by means of high granularity and low noise CMOS sensors allows to obtain very interesting tracking performance. Space resolution of the order of tens of μm were measured on the GEM plane along with an energy resolution of 20%÷30%. The main limitation of CMOS sensors is represented by their poor information about time structure of the event. In this paper, the use of a concurrent light readout by means of a suitable photomultiplier and the acquisition of the electric signal induced on the GEM electrode are exploited to provide the necessary timing informations. The analysis of the PMT waveform allows a 3D reconstruction of each single clusters with a resolution on z of 100 μm. Moreover, from the PMT signals it is possible to obtain a fast reconstruction of the energy released within the detector with a resolution of the order of 25% even in the tens of keV range useful, for example, for triggering purpose.

  4. The New APD Based Readout for the Crystal Barrel Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, M; Honisch, Ch; Steinacher, M

    2015-01-01

    The CBELSA/TAPS experiment at ELSA measures double polarization observables in meson photoproduction off protons and neutrons. To be able to measure purely neutral reactions off polarized neutrons with high efficiency, the main calorimeter has to be integrated into the first level trigger. This requires to exchange the existing PIN photo diode by a new avalanche photo diode (APD) readout. The newly developed readout electronics will provide an energy resolution compatible to the previous set-up and a fast trigger signal down to 10 MeV energy deposit per crystal. After the successful final tests with a 3x3 CsI crystal matrix in Bonn at ELSA and in Mainz at MAMI all front-end electronics were produced in fall 2013. Automated test routines for the front-end electronics were developed and the characterization measurements of all APDs were successfully accomplished in Bonn. The project is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB/TR16) and Schweizerischer Nationalfonds

  5. Front end readout electronics for the CMS hadron calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Terri M

    2002-01-01

    The front-end electronics for the CMS Hadron Calorimeter provides digitized data at the beam interaction rate of 40 MHz. Analog signals provided by hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) or photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are digitized and the data is sent off board through serialized fiber optic links running at 1600 Mbps. In order to maximize the input signal, the front-end electronics are housed on the detector in close proximity to the scintillating fibers or phototubes. To fit the electronics into available space, custom crates, backplanes and cooling methods have had to be developed. During the expected ten-year lifetime, the front-end readout electronics will exist in an environment where radiation levels approach 330 rads and the neutron fluence will be 1.3E11 n/cm sup 2. For this reason, the design approach relies heavily upon custom radiation tolerant ASICs. This paper will present the system architecture of the front-end readout crates and describe their results with early prototypes.

  6. JPSS Science Data Services for the Direct Readout Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Lutz, Bob

    2014-01-01

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) and Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) High Rate Data (HRD) link provides Direct Broadcast data to users in real-time, utilizing their own remote field terminals. The Field Terminal Support (FTS) provides the resources needed to support the Direct Readout communities by providing software, documentation, and periodic updates to enable them to produce data products from SNPP and JPSS. The FTS distribution server will also provide the necessary ancillary and auxiliary data needed for processing the broadcasts, as well as making orbital data available to assist in locating the satellites of interest. In addition, the FTS provides development support for the algorithm and software through GSFC Direct Readout Laboratory (DRL) International Polar Orbiter Processing Package (IPOPP) and University of Wisconsin (UWISC) Community Satellite Processing Package (CSPP), to enable users to integrate the algorithms into their remote terminals. The support the JPSS Program provides to the institutions developing and maintaining these two software packages, will demonstrate the ability to produce ready-to-use products from the HRD link and provide risk reduction effort at a minimal cost. This paper discusses the key functions and system architecture of FTS.

  7. SPAD array chips with full frame readout for crystal characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Peter; Blanco, Roberto; Sacco, Ilaria; Ritzert, Michael [Heidelberg University (Germany); Weyers, Sascha [Fraunhofer Institute for Microelectronic Circuits and Systems (Germany)

    2015-05-18

    We present single photon sensitive 2D camera chips containing 88x88 avalanche photo diodes which can be read out in full frame mode with up to 400.000 frames per second. The sensors have an imaging area of ~5mm x 5mm covered by square pixels of ~56µm x 56µm with a ~55% fill factor in the latest chip generation. The chips contain a self triggering logic with selectable (column) multiplicities of up to >=4 hits within an adjustable coincidence time window. The photon accumulation time window is programmable as well. First prototypes have demonstrated low dark count rates of <50kHz/mm2 (SPAD area) at 10 degree C for 10% masked pixels. One chip version contains an automated readout of the photon cluster position. The readout of the detailed photon distribution for single events allows the characterization of light sharing, optical crosstalk etc., in crystals or crystal arrays as they are used in PET instrumentation. This knowledge could lead to improvements in spatial or temporal resolution.

  8. Fast optical readout for Mu3e experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qinhua [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: Mu3e-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Charged lepton flavour violation is highly suppressed in the Standard Model, which results in a prediction for the branching ratio of μ{sup +}→e{sup +}e{sup +}e{sup -} below O(10{sup -54}). The Mu3e experiment will search for this rare decay with a sensitivity of 10{sup -16}. An observation would be a clear sign for new physics. A high muon stopping rate of 2.10{sup 9} Hz is required so that sufficient statistics can be accumulated in about one year of data taking. The high event rate and the requirement of a full online track reconstruction demand a fast readout system which should provide a bandwidth above 1 Tbit/s. Reconfigurable devices, namely FPGAs, can easily parallelise the data processing, so it becomes possible to sort, merge, pack and route the data with low latency at high throughput. Optical fibres are the only option for the interconnection between different FPGA-based boards. The fibres also reduce the crosstalk and signal attenuation, especially over long distance links. As part of the readout system prototyping, firmware for synchronous merging of different data streams is being developed. In addition, the optical links have been tested and show a bit error rate below O(10{sup -16}) at 6.4 Gbit/s for a single fibre.

  9. New Approach for 2D Readout of GEM Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasell, Douglas K.

    2011-01-01

    Detectors based on Gas Electron Multiplication (GEM) technology are becoming more and more widely used in nuclear and high energy physics and are being applied in astronomy, medical physics, industry, and homeland security. GEM detectors are thin, low mass, insensitive to magnetic fields, and can currently provide position resolutions down to ∼50 microns. However, the designs for reconstructing the position, in two dimensions (2D), of the charged particles striking a GEM detector are often complicated to fabricate and expensive. The objective of this proposal is to investigate a simpler procedure for producing the two dimensional readout layer of GEM detectors using readily available printed circuit board technology which can be tailored to the detector requirements. We will use the established GEM laboratory and facilities at M.I.T. currently employed in developing GEM detectors for the STAR forward tracking upgrade to simplify the testing and evaluation of the new 2D readout designs. If this new design proves successful it will benefit future nuclear and high energy physics experiments already being planned and will similarly extend and simplify the application of GEM technology to other branches of science, medicine, and industry. These benefits would be not only in lower costs for fabrication but also it increased flexibility for design and application.

  10. The digital readout system for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofstedt, Bo

    2000-01-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter is a high-precision detector demanding innovative solutions in order to cope with the high dynamic range and the extreme high resolution of the detector as well as with the harsh environment created by the high level of radiation and the 4 T magnetic field. The readout system is partly placed within the detector and partly in the adjacent counting room. As the on-detector electronics must cope with the harsh environment the use of standard components is excluded for this part of the system. This paper describes the solutions adopted for the high-precision analogue stages, the A-D conversion, the optical transfer of the raw data from the on-detector part to the so-called Upper Level Readout, placed in the counting room, and the functionality of the latter. The ECAL is instrumental in providing information to the first-level trigger process and the generation of this information will be described. Also, the problem of reducing the raw data volume (6x10 12 bytes/s) to a level that can be handled by the central DAQ system (10 5 bytes/s) without degrading the physics performance will be discussed

  11. The TOTEM DAQ based on the Scalable Readout System (SRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinto, Michele; Cafagna, Francesco S.; Fiergolski, Adrian; Radicioni, Emilio

    2018-02-01

    The TOTEM (TOTal cross section, Elastic scattering and diffraction dissociation Measurement at the LHC) experiment at LHC, has been designed to measure the total proton-proton cross-section and study the elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC energies. In order to cope with the increased machine luminosity and the higher statistic required by the extension of the TOTEM physics program, approved for the LHC's Run Two phase, the previous VME based data acquisition system has been replaced with a new one based on the Scalable Readout System. The system features an aggregated data throughput of 2GB / s towards the online storage system. This makes it possible to sustain a maximum trigger rate of ˜ 24kHz, to be compared with the 1KHz rate of the previous system. The trigger rate is further improved by implementing zero-suppression and second-level hardware algorithms in the Scalable Readout System. The new system fulfils the requirements for an increased efficiency, providing higher bandwidth, and increasing the purity of the data recorded. Moreover full compatibility has been guaranteed with the legacy front-end hardware, as well as with the DAQ interface of the CMS experiment and with the LHC's Timing, Trigger and Control distribution system. In this contribution we describe in detail the architecture of full system and its performance measured during the commissioning phase at the LHC Interaction Point.

  12. A continuous read-out TPC for the ALICE upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, C., E-mail: C.Lippmann@gsi.de

    2016-07-11

    The largest gaseous Time Projection Chamber (TPC) in the world, the ALICE TPC, will be upgraded based on Micro Pattern Gas Detector technology during the second long shutdown of the CERN Large Hadron Collider in 2018/19. The upgraded detector will operate continuously without the use of a triggered gating grid. It will thus be able to read all minimum bias Pb–Pb events that the LHC will deliver at the anticipated peak interaction rate of 50 kHz for the high luminosity heavy-ion era. New read-out electronics will send the continuous data stream to a new online farm at rates up to 1 TByte/s. A fractional ion feedback of below 1% is required to keep distortions due to space charge in the TPC drift volume at a tolerable level. The new read-out chambers will consist of quadruple stacks of Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM), combining GEM foils with a different hole pitch. Other key requirements such as energy resolution and operational stability have to be met as well. A careful optimisation of the performance in terms of all these parameters was achieved during an extensive R&D program. A working point well within the design specifications was identified with an ion backflow of 0.63%, a local energy resolution of 11.3% (sigma) and a discharge probability comparable to that of standard triple GEM detectors.

  13. A TDC integrated circuit for drift chamber readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passaseo, M.; Petrolo, E.; Veneziano, S.

    1995-01-01

    A custom integrated circuit for the measurement of the signal drift-time coming from the KLOE chamber developed by INFN Sezione di Roma is presented. The circuit is a multichannel common start/stop TDC, with 32 channels per chip. The TDC integrated circuit will be developed as a full-custom device in 0.5 μm CMOS technology, with 1 ns LSB realized using a Gray counter working at the frequency of 1 GHz. The circuit is capable of detecting rising/falling edges, with a double edge resolution of 8 ns; the hits are recorded as 16 bit words, hits older than a programmable time window are discarded, if not confirmed by a stop signal. The chip has four event-buffers, which are used only if at least one hit is present in one of the 32 channels. The readout of the data passes through the I/O port at a speed of 33 MHz; empty channels are automatically skipped during the readout phase. (orig.)

  14. A TDC integrated circuit for drift chamber readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passaseo, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy); Petrolo, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy); Veneziano, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy)

    1995-12-11

    A custom integrated circuit for the measurement of the signal drift-time coming from the KLOE chamber developed by INFN Sezione di Roma is presented. The circuit is a multichannel common start/stop TDC, with 32 channels per chip. The TDC integrated circuit will be developed as a full-custom device in 0.5 {mu}m CMOS technology, with 1 ns LSB realized using a Gray counter working at the frequency of 1 GHz. The circuit is capable of detecting rising/falling edges, with a double edge resolution of 8 ns; the hits are recorded as 16 bit words, hits older than a programmable time window are discarded, if not confirmed by a stop signal. The chip has four event-buffers, which are used only if at least one hit is present in one of the 32 channels. The readout of the data passes through the I/O port at a speed of 33 MHz; empty channels are automatically skipped during the readout phase. (orig.).

  15. Readout system of TPC/MPD NICA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Averyanov, A. V.; Bajajin, A. G.; Chepurnov, V. F.; Cheremukhina, G. A.; Fateev, O. V.; Korotkova, A. M.; Levchanovskiy, F. V.; Lukstins, J.; Movchan, S. A.; Razin, S. V.; Rybakov, A. A.; Vereschagin, S. V., E-mail: vereschagin@jinr.ru; Zanevsky, Yu. V.; Zaporozhets, S. A.; Zruyev, V. N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The time-projection chamber (TPC) is the main tracking detector in the MPD/NICA. The information on charge-particle tracks in the TPC is registered by the MWPG with cathode pad readout. The frontend electronics (FEE) are developed with use of modern technologies such as application specific integrated circuits (ASIC), field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA), and data transfer to a concentrator via a fast optical interface. The main parameters of the FEE are as follows: total number of channels, ∼95 000; data stream from the whole TPC, 5 GB/s; low power consumption, less than 100 mW/ch; signal to noise ratio (S/N), 30; equivalent noise charge (ENC), <1000e{sup –} (C{sub in} = 10–20 pF); and zero suppression (pad signal rejection ∼90%). The article presents the status of the readout chamber construction and the data acquisition system. The results of testing FEE prototypes are presented.

  16. A new method of readout in radiochromic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellermann, Peer Oliver; Gornik, Erich; Ertl, Adolf

    1998-01-01

    Radiochromic film as a dosimetry medium offers several advantages in high-resolution radiography. A new technique of readout was developed to measure the optical density distributions of the film in purely directed light. This technique implements radiochromic film dosimetry near the film's absorption maximum by using a single-mode top-surface emitting laser diode (675.2 nm). The effective sensitivity of the film, compared with a helium-neon laser densitometer (632.8 nm), is increased approximately threefold. Good accuracy, high spatial resolution and simple assembly of the readout system is achieved. Beam profiles of the four final collimator helmets of a Leksell Gamma Knife (Elekta Inc., Sweden) were experimentally determined. Measured profiles and full-widths at half maximum are consistent with the computer generated data of the dose planning system (Kula 4.4, Elekta Inc., Sweden). The output factor of the 4 mm collimator (the smallest collimator with the steepest dose gradient), essential for the application of well defined doses, was checked. The measurements established an output factor of 826±9 that lies 9±1% lower than the adjusted one. (author)

  17. The LCLS Undulator Beam Loss Monitor Readout System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusatko, John; Browne, M.; Fisher, A.S.; Kotturi, D.; Norum, S.; Olsen, J.; /SLAC

    2012-07-23

    The LCLS Undulator Beam Loss Monitor System is required to detect any loss radiation seen by the FEL undulators. The undulator segments consist of permanent magnets which are very sensitive to radiation damage. The operational goal is to keep demagnetization below 0.01% over the life of the LCLS. The BLM system is designed to help achieve this goal by detecting any loss radiation and indicating a fault condition if the radiation level exceeds a certain threshold. Upon reception of this fault signal, the LCLS Machine Protection System takes appropriate action by either halting or rate limiting the beam. The BLM detector consists of a PMT coupled to a Cherenkov radiator located near the upstream end of each undulator segment. There are 33 BLMs in the system, one per segment. The detectors are read out by a dedicated system that is integrated directly into the LCLS MPS. The BLM readout system provides monitoring of radiation levels, computation of integrated doses, detection of radiation excursions beyond set thresholds, fault reporting and control of BLM system functions. This paper describes the design, construction and operational performance of the BLM readout system.

  18. Front end readout electronics for the CMS hadron calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terri M. Shaw et al.

    2002-01-01

    The front-end electronics for the CMS Hadron Calorimeter provides digitized data at the beam interaction rate of 40 MHz. Analog signals provided by hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) or photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are digitized and the data is sent off board through serialized fiber optic links running at 1600 Mbps. In order to maximize the input signal, the front-end electronics are housed on the detector in close proximity to the scintillating fibers or phototubes. To fit the electronics into available space, custom crates, backplanes and cooling methods have had to be developed. During the expected ten-year lifetime, the front-end readout electronics will exist in an environment where radiation levels approach 330 rads and the neutron fluence will be 1.3E11 n/cm 2 . For this reason, the design approach relies heavily upon custom radiation tolerant ASICs. This paper will present the system architecture of the front-end readout crates and describe their results with early prototypes

  19. Readout electronics development for the ATLAS silicon tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borer, K.; Beringer, J.; Anghinolfi, F.; Aspell, P.; Chilingarov, A.; Jarron, P.; Heijne, E.H.M.; Santiard, J.C.; Verweij, H.; Goessling, C.; Lisowski, B.; Reichold, A.; Bonino, R.; Clark, A.G.; Kambara, H.; La Marra, D.; Leger, A.; Wu, X.; Richeux, J.P.; Taylor, G.N.; Fedotov, M.; Kuper, E.; Velikzhanin, Yu.; Campbell, D.; Murray, P.; Seller, P.

    1995-01-01

    We present the status of the development of the readout electronics for the large area silicon tracker of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, carried out by the CERN RD2 project. Our basic readout concept is to integrate a fast amplifier, analog memory, sparse data scan circuit and analog-to-digital convertor (ADC) on a single VLSI chip. This architecture will provide full analog information of charged particle hits associated unambiguously to one LHC beam crossing, which is expected to be at a frequency of 40 MHz. The expected low occupancy of the ATLAS inner silicon detectors allows us to use a low speed (5 MHz) on-chip ADC with a multiplexing scheme. The functionality of the fast amplifier and analog memory have been demonstrated with various prototype chips. Most recently we have successfully tested improved versions of the amplifier and the analog memory. A piecewise linear ADC has been fabricated and performed satisfactorily up to 5 MHz. A new chip including amplifier, analog memory, memory controller, ADC, and data buffer has been designed and submitted for fabrication and will be tested on a prototype of the ATLAS silicon tracker module with realistic electrical and mechanical constraints. (orig.)

  20. Readout and trigger electronics for the TPC vertex chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronan, M.T.; Jared, R.C.; McGathen, T.K.; Eisner, A.M.; Broeder, W.J.; Godfrey, G.L.

    1987-10-01

    The introduction of the vertex chamber required the addition of new front-end electronics and a new 1024-channel, high-accuracy TDC system. The preamplifier/discriminator should be capable of triggering on the first electrons and the time digitzer should preserve the measurement resolution. For the TDC's, in order to maintain compatibility with the existing TPC readout system, an upgrade of a previous inner drift chamber digitizer system has been chosen. Tests of the accuracy and stability of the original design indicated that the new design specifications would be met. The TPC detector requires a fast pretrigger to turn on its gating grid within 500 ns of the e/sup +/e/sup -/ beam crossing time, to minimize the loss of ionization information. A pretrigger based on the Straw Chamber signals, operating at a rate of about 2 K/sec, will be used for charged particle final states. In addition, in order to reject low mass Two-Photon events at the final trigger level, an accurate transverse momentum cutoff will be made by the Straw Chamber trigger logic. In this paper, we describe the readout and trigger electronics systems which have been built to satisfy the above requirements. 5 refs., 8 figs

  1. A Radiation-Hard Analog Memory In The AVLSI-RA Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, C.L. Jr.; Wintenberg, A.L.; Read, K.F.; Simpson, M.L.; Young, G.R.; Clonts, L.G.; Kennedy, E.J.; Smith, R.S.; Swann, B.K.; Musser, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    A radiation hardened analog memory for an Interpolating Pad Camber has been designed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and fabricated by Harris Semiconductor in the AVLSI-RA CMOS process. The goal was to develop a rad-hard analog pipeline that would deliver approximately 9-bit performance, a readout settling time of 500ns following read enable, an input and output dynamic range of +/-2.25V, a corrected rms pedestal of approximately 5mV or less, and a power dissipation of less than 10mW/channel. The pre- and post-radiation measurements to 5MRad are presented

  2. On scale dependence of hardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shorshorov, M.Kh.; Alekhin, V.P.; Bulychev, S.I.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of hardness as a structure-sensitive characteristic of a material is considered. It is shown that in conditions of a decreasing stress field under the inventor the hardness function is determined by the average distance, Lsub(a), between the stops (fixed and sessile dislocations, segregation particles, etc.). In the general case, Lsub(a) depends on the size of the impression and explains the great diversity of hardness functions. The concept of average true deformation rate on depression is introduced

  3. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Research results of hard photon technology have been summarized as a part of novel technology development highly utilizing the quantum nature of photon. Hard photon technology refers to photon beam technologies which use photon in the 0.1 to 200 nm wavelength region. Hard photon has not been used in industry due to the lack of suitable photon sources and optical devices. However, hard photon in this wavelength region is expected to bring about innovations in such areas as ultrafine processing and material synthesis due to its atom selective reaction, inner shell excitation reaction, and spatially high resolution. Then, technological themes and possibility have been surveyed. Although there are principle proposes and their verification of individual technologies for the technologies of hard photon generation, regulation and utilization, they are still far from the practical applications. For the photon source technology, the laser diode pumped driver laser technology, laser plasma photon source technology, synchrotron radiation photon source technology, and vacuum ultraviolet photon source technology are presented. For the optical device technology, the multi-layer film technology for beam mirrors and the non-spherical lens processing technology are introduced. Also are described the reduction lithography technology, hard photon excitation process, and methods of analysis and measurement. 430 refs., 165 figs., 23 tabs.

  4. Development of readout electronics for monolithic integration with diode strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosticka, B.J.; Wrede, M.; Zimmer, G.; Kemmer, J.; Hofmann, R.; Lutz, G.

    1984-03-01

    Parallel in - serial out analog readout electronics integrated with silicon strip detectors will bring a reduction of two orders of magnitude in external electronics. The readout concept and the chosen CMOS technology solve the basic problem of low noise and low power requirements. A hybrid solution is an intermediate step towards the final goal of monolithic integration of detector and electronics. (orig.)

  5. Alpha-particle detection based on the BJT detector and simple, IC-based readout electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovati, L; Bonaiuti, M [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy); Bettarini, S [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa and INFN Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Bosisio, L [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste and INFN Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Dalla Betta, G-F; Tyzhnevyi, V [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento e INFN Trento, Trento (Italy); Verzellesi, G [Dipartimento di Scienze e Metodi dell' Ingegneria, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia and INFN Trento, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Zorzi, N, E-mail: giovanni.verzellesi@unimore.i [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    In this paper we propose a portable instrument for alpha-particle detection based on a previously-developed BJT detector and a simple, IC-based readout electronics. Experimental tests of the BJT detector and readout electronics are reported. Numerical simulations are adopted to predict the performance enhancement achievable with optimized BJT detectors.

  6. Alpha-particle detection based on the BJT detector and simple, IC-based readout electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovati, L; Bonaiuti, M; Bettarini, S; Bosisio, L; Dalla Betta, G-F; Tyzhnevyi, V; Verzellesi, G; Zorzi, N

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose a portable instrument for alpha-particle detection based on a previously-developed BJT detector and a simple, IC-based readout electronics. Experimental tests of the BJT detector and readout electronics are reported. Numerical simulations are adopted to predict the performance enhancement achievable with optimized BJT detectors.

  7. Occupancy in the CLIC ILD Time Projection Chamber using Pixelised Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Killenberg, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The occupancy in the CLIC ILD TPC caused by the beam induced background from gamma gamma -> hadrons, e+e- pairs and beam halo muons is very high for conventional pad readout. We show that the occupancy for a pixelised TPC readout is moderate and might be a viable solution to operate a TPC at CLIC.

  8. CMOS Active-Pixel Image Sensor With Intensity-Driven Readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbacher, Harry T.; Fossum, Eric R.; Kemeny, Sabrina

    1996-01-01

    Proposed complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated-circuit image sensor automatically provides readouts from pixels in order of decreasing illumination intensity. Sensor operated in integration mode. Particularly useful in number of image-sensing tasks, including diffractive laser range-finding, three-dimensional imaging, event-driven readout of sparse sensor arrays, and star tracking.

  9. A review of lyoluminescence dosimetry and a new readout method using liquid scintillation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziemer, P.L.; Hanig, R.; Fayerman, L.K.

    1978-01-01

    Lyoluminescence dosimetry is useful as a personnel monitor and also as a neutron dosimeter. A review of lyoluminescence is given including readout systems, the machanisms of light emission, radiometric characteristics of lyoluminescence dosimeters, factor affecting response and liquid scintillation lyoluminscence readout

  10. Development of an external readout electronics for a hybrid photon detector

    CERN Document Server

    Uyttenhove, Simon; Tichon, Jacques; Garcia, Salvador

    The pixel hybrid photon detectors currently installed in the LHCb Cherenkov system encapsulate readout electronics in the vacuum tube envelope. The LHCb upgrade and the new trigger system will require their replacement with new photon detectors. The baseline photon detector candidate is the multi-anode photomultiplier. A hybrid photon detector with external readout electronics has been proposed as a backup option. This master thesis covers a R & D phase to investigate this latter concept. Extensive studies of the initial electronics system underlined the noise contributions from the Beetle chip used as front-end readout ASIC and from the ceramic carrier of the photon detector. New front-end electronic boards have been developed and made fully compatible with the existing LHCb-RICH infrastructure. With this compact readout system, Cherenkov photons have been successfully detected in a real particle beam environment. The proof-of-concept of a hybrid photon detector with external readout electronics was val...

  11. Implementation of a Customisable Readout Sequence for the ALICE ITS Upgrade Explorer Family Chips

    CERN Document Server

    Gazzari, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Within the ALICE ITS upgrade R&D programme the Explorer family chips are developed featuring 11700 pixels which are split into 18 different sectors with different properties. These pixels are read out sequentially leading to a time span of 2.34ms between the first and last pixel. Due to the long readout time, shot noise induced by the leakage currents in the in-pixel analogue memories makes the comparison of different sensor implementations located in distant sectors on the Explorer family chips difficult. In order to reduce this noise contribution a customisable readout sequence is developed to read parts instead of the whole chip which reduces the overall readout time. This readout sequence is integrated in the existing characterisation framework in order to choose the best performing sensor implementation through pixel-by-pixel comparison without readout-induced effects.

  12. A digital Front-End and Readout MIcrosystem for calorimetry at LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD-16 A Digital Front-End and Readout Microsystem for Calorimetry at LHC \\\\ \\\\Front-end signal processing for calorimetric detectors is essential in order to achieve adequate selectivity in the trigger function of an LHC experiment, with data identification and compaction before readout being required in the harsh, high rate environment of a high luminosity hadron machine. Other crucial considerations are the extremely wide dynamic range and bandwidth requirements, as well as the volume of data to be transferred to following stages of the trigger and readout system. These requirements are best met by an early digitalization of the detector information, followed by integrated digital signal processing and buffering functions covering the trigger latencies.\\\\ \\\\The FERMI (Front-End Readout MIcrosystem) is a digital implementation of the front-end and readout electronic chain for calorimeters. It is based on dynamic range compression, high speed A to D converters, a fully programmable pipeline/digital filter c...

  13. Superresolution near-field readout in phase-change optical disk data storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Chubing

    2001-01-01

    Readout of a phase-change optical disk with a superresolution (SR) near-field structure (Super-RENS) is theoretically examined on the basis of three-dimensional, full-wave vector diffraction theory. Calculations have demonstrated that Super-RENS has a high spatial resolution beyond the diffraction limit in readout. The read signal is dependent on the nature of SR, the layer structure of the disk, and the state of polarization of the incident laser beam. For the Super-RENS in which antimony is used for SR readout, the readout signal is quite small, and the estimated carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) is only ∼30 dB for marks of 300 nm. For the Super-RENS in which a metallic region is formed during readout, the read signal is large, and the CNR can be as high as 50 dB in reading 300-nm marks

  14. X-ray imaging using amorphous selenium: photoinduced discharge (PID) readout for digital general radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, J A; Hunter, D M

    1995-12-01

    Digital radiographic systems based on photoconductive layers with the latent charge image readout by photoinduced discharge (PID) are investigated theoretically. Previously, a number of different systems have been proposed using sandwiched photoconductor and insulator layers and readout using a scanning laser beam. These systems are shown to have the general property of being very closely coupled (i.e., optimization of one imaging characteristic usually impacts negatively on others). The presence of a condensed state insulator between the photoconductor surface and the readout electrode does, however, confer a great advantage over systems using air gaps with their relatively low breakdown field. The greater breakdown field of condensed state dielectrics permits the modification of the electric field during the period between image formation and image readout. The trade-off between readout speed and noise makes this system suitable for instant general radiography and even rapid sequence radiography, however, the system is unsuitable for the low exposure rates used in fluoroscopy.

  15. 3 ns single-shot read-out in a quantum dot-based memory structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowozin, T.; Bimberg, D.; Beckel, A.; Lorke, A.; Geller, M.

    2014-01-01

    Fast read-out of two to six charges per dot from the ground and first excited state in a quantum dot (QD)-based memory is demonstrated using a two-dimensional electron gas. Single-shot measurements on modulation-doped field-effect transistor structures with embedded InAs/GaAs QDs show read-out times as short as 3 ns. At low temperature (T = 4.2 K) this read-out time is still limited by the parasitics of the setup and the device structure. Faster read-out times and a larger read-out signal are expected for an improved setup and device structure

  16. Optical readout in a multi-module system test for the ATLAS pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flick, Tobias; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Gerlach, Peter; Kersten, Susanne; Maettig, Peter; Nderitu Kirichu, Simon; Reeves, Kendall; Richter, Jennifer; Schultes, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    The innermost part of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, CERN, will be a pixel detector, which is presently under construction. The command messages and the readout data of the detector are transmitted over an optical data path. The readout chain consists of many components which are produced at several locations around the world, and must work together in the pixel detector. To verify that these parts are working together as expected a system test has been built up. It consists of detector modules, optoboards, optical fibres, Back of Crate cards, Readout Drivers, and control computers. In this paper, the system test setup and the operation of the readout chain are described. Also, some results of tests using the final pixel detector readout chain are given

  17. Studies of avalanche photodiodes for scintillating fibre tracking readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenker, H.; Thomas, J.

    1993-01-01

    Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs) operating in ''Geiger Mode'' have been studied in a fibre tracking readout environment. A fast recharge circuit has been developed for high rate data taking, and results obtained from a model fibre tracker in the test beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory are presented. A high rate calibrated light source has been developed using a commercially available laser diode and has been used to measure the efficiency of the devices. The transmission of the light from a 1mm fibre onto a 0.5mm diameter APD surface has been identified as the main problem in the use of these particular devices for scintillating fibre tracking in the Superconducting Supercollider environment. Solutions to this problem are proposed

  18. The 'KATOD-1' strip readout ASIC for cathode strip chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golutvin, I.A.; Gorbunov, N.V.; Karzhavin, V.Yu.; Khabarov, V.S.; Movchan, S.A.; Smolin, D.A.; Dvornikov, O.V.; Shumejko, N.M.; Chekhovskij, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The 'KATOD-1', a 16-channels readout ASIC, has been designed to perform tests of P3 and P4 full-scale prototypes of the cathode strip chamber for the ME1/1 forward muon station of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. The ASIC channel consists of two charge-sensitive preamplifiers, a three-stage shaper with cancellation, and an output driver. The ASIC is instrumented with control of gain, in the range of (-4.2 : +5.0) mV/fC, and control of output pulse-shape. The equivalent input noise is equal to 2400 e with the slope of 12 e/pF for detector capacity up to 200 pF. The peaking time is 100 ns for the chamber signal. The ASIC has been produced by a microwave Bi-jFET technology

  19. A prototype pixel readout chip for asynchronous detection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, D.M.; Hall, G.; Lewis, A.J.; Sharp, P.H.

    1991-01-01

    A two-dimensional array of amplifier cells has been fabricated as a prototype readout system for a matching array of silicon diode detectors. Each cell contains a preamplifier, shaping amplifier, comparator and analogue signal storage in an area of 300 μmx320 μm using 3 μm CMOS technology. Full size chips will be bump bonded to pixel detector arrays. Low noise and asynchronous operation are novel design features. With noise levels of less than 250 rms electrons for input capacitances up to 600 fF, pixel detectors will be suitable for autoradiography, synchrotron X-ray and high energy particle detection applications. The design of the prototype chip is presented and future developments and prospects for applications are discussed. (orig.)

  20. SEU tolerant memory design for the ATLAS pixel readout chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menouni, M; Barbero, M; Breugnon, P; Fougeron, D; Gensolen, F; Arutinov, D; Backhaus, M; Gonella, L; Hemperek, T; Karagounis, M; Beccherle, R; Darbo, G; Caminada, L; Dube, S; Fleury, J; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Gnani, D; Jensen, F; Gromov, V; Kluit, R

    2013-01-01

    The FE-I4 chip for the B-layer upgrade is designed in a 130 nm CMOS process. For this design, configuration memories are based on the DICE latches where layout considerations are followed to improve the tolerance to SEU. Tests have shown that DICE latches for which layout approaches are adopted are 30 times more tolerant to SEU than the standard DICE latches. To prepare for the new pixel readout chip planned for the future upgrades, a prototype chip containing 512 pixels has been designed in a 65 nm CMOS process and a new approach is adopted for SEU tolerant latches. Results in terms of SEU and TID tolerance are presented.

  1. Front-end readout system for PHENIX RICH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Y.; Hara, H.; Ebisu, K.; Hibino, M.; Kametani, S.; Kikuchi, J.; Wintenberg, A.L.; Walker, J.W.; Franck, S.; Moscone, C.; Jones, J.P.; Young, G.R.; Matsumoto, T.; Sakaguchi, T.; Oyama, K.; Hamagaki, H.

    2000-01-01

    A front-end readout system with a custom backplane and custom circuit modules has been developed for the RICH subsystem of the PHENIX experiment. The design specifications and test results of the backplane and the modules are presented in this paper. In the module design, flexibility for modification is maximized through the use of Complex Programmable Logic Devices. In the backplane design, a source-synchronous bus architecture is adopted for the data and control bus. The transfer speed of the backplane has reached 640 Mbyte/s with a 128-bit data bus. Total transaction time is estimated to be less than 30 μs per event when this system is used in the experiment. This result indicates that the performance satisfies the data-rate requirement of the PHENIX experiment

  2. Development of a 10-inch HPD with integrated readout electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Braem, André; Joram, C; Séguinot, Jacques; Weilhammer, Peter; Giunta, M; Malakhov, N; Menzione, A; Pegna, R; Piccioli, A; Raffaelli, F; Sartori, G

    2003-01-01

    A round 10-in. diameter Hybrid Photodiode (HPD) with spherical entrance window is under development for Cherenkov imaging applications in cosmic ray astronomy. The HPD adopts the fountain focusing electron optics, which, as already demonstrated in the 5 inch Pad HPD, allows for a linear demagnification of the image over practically the full tube diameter. Self-triggering front-end electronics providing also sparse readout capability, has been tested. High-efficiency Rb//2Te cathodes have been produced on a UV extended borosilicate glass windows with very thin conductive underlayers of Indium Tin Oxide. We report on the design of the 10- in. HPD, the fabrication procedure and first tests of a 5-in. HPD with Rb//2Te photocathode and 2048 channels.

  3. Feasibility studies for a wireless 60 GHz tracking detector readout

    CERN Document Server

    Dittmeier, Sebastian; Soltveit, Hans Kristian; Wiedner, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The amount of data produced by highly granular silicon tracking detectors in high energy physics experiments poses a major challenge to readout systems. At high collision rates, e.g. at LHC experiments, only a small fraction of data can be read out with currently used technologies. To cope with the requirements of future or upgraded experiments new data transfer techniques are required which offer high data rates at low power and low material budget. Wireless technologies operating in the 60 GHz band or at higher frequencies offer high data rates and are thus a promising upcoming alternative to conventional data transmission via electrical cables or optical fibers. Using wireless technology, the amount of cables and connectors in detectors can be significantly reduced. Tracking detectors profit most from a reduced material budget as fewer secondary particle interactions (multiple Coulomb scattering, energy loss, etc.) improve the tracking performance in general. We present feasibility studies regarding the in...

  4. NIKEL-AMC: readout electronics for the NIKA2 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrion, O.; Bouly, J.L.; Bouvier, J.; Bosson, G.; Catalano, A.; Li, C.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Tourres, D.; Ponchant, N.; Vescovi, C.; Benoit, A.; Calvo, M.; Goupy, J.; Monfardini, A.

    2016-01-01

    The New Iram Kid Arrays-2 (NIKA2) instrument has recently been installed at the IRAM 30 m telescope. NIKA2 is a state-of-art instrument dedicated to mm-wave astronomy using microwave kinetic inductance detectors (KID) as sensors. The three arrays installed in the camera, two at 1.25 mm and one at 2.05 mm, feature a total of 3300 KIDs. To instrument these large array of detectors, a specifically designed electronics, composed of 20 readout boards and hosted in three microTCA crates, has been developed. The implemented solution and the achieved performances are presented in this paper. We find that multiplexing factors of up to 400 detectors per board can be achieved with homogeneous performance across boards in real observing conditions, and a factor of more than 3 decrease in volume with respect to previous generations.

  5. Performance of a liquid argon Accordion calorimeter with fast readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.; Bazan, A.; Beaugiraud, B.; Colas, J.; Leflour, T.; Maire, M.; Vialle, J.P.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Zolnierowski, Y.P.; Gordon, H.A.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Stephani, D.; Chevalley, J.L.; Fabjan, C.W.; Fournier, D.; Franz, A.; Gildemeister, O.; Jenni, P.; Nessi, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pepe, M.; Richter, W.; Soderqvist, J.; Baze, J.M.; Gosset, L.; Lavocat, P.; Lottin, J.P.; Mansoulie, B.; Meyer, J.F.; Renardy, J.F.; Teiger, J.; Zaccone, H.; Battistoni, G.; Camin, D.V.; Cavalli, D.; Costa, G.; Cravero, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gianotti, F.; Mandelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Perini, L.; Pessina, G.; Sala, P.; Sciamanna, M.; Auge, E.; Chase, R.; Chollet, J.C.; La Taille, C. de; Fayard, L.; Jean, P.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Merkel, B.; Noppe, J.M.; Parrour, G.; Petroff, P.; Repellin, J.P.; Schaffer, A.; Seguin, N.; Unal, G.; Fuglesang, C.; Lefebvre, M.; Towers, S.

    1992-01-01

    A prototype lead-liquid-argon electromagnetic calorimeter with parallel plates and Accordion geometry has been equipped with high speed readout electronics and tested with electron and muon beams at the CERN SPS. For a response peaking time of about 35 ns, fast enough for operation at the future hadron colliders, the energy resolution for electrons is 9.6%/√E[GeV] with a local constant term of 0.3% and a noise contribution of 0.33/E[GeV]. The spatial accuracy achieved with a detector granularity of 2.7 cm is 3.7 mm/√E[GeV] and the angular resolution 12 mrad at 60 GeV. (orig.)

  6. Dual-Readout Calorimetry for High-Quality Energy

    CERN Multimedia

    During the past seven years, the DREAM collaboration has systematically investigated all factors that determine and limit the precision with which the properties of hadrons and jets can be measured in calorimeters. Using simultaneous detection of the deposited energy and the Cerenkov light produced in hadronic shower development ${(dual}$ ${readout}$), the fluctuations in the electromagnetic shower fraction could be measured event by event their effects on signal linearity, response function and energy resolution eliminated. Detailed measurement of the time structure of the signals made it possible to measure the contirbutions of nuclear evaporation neutrons to the signals and thus reduce the effects of fluctuations in "invisible energy". We are now embarking on the construction of a full-scale calorimeter which incorporates all these elements and which should make it possible to measure the four-vectors of both electrons, hadrons and jets with very high precision, in an instrument that can be simply calibrat...

  7. A fast ADC system for silicon μstrips readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inzani, P.; Pedrini, D.; Sala, S.

    1986-01-01

    A new fast ADC module has been designed. It is part of a large readout system for a high resolution vertex detector consisting of 12 silicon microstrip planes with more than 8000 channels. The module employs a set of monolithic gated integrators on input (LeCroy MIQ 401) multiplexed on a single 8 bit FADC (Thompson EFX8308). A built-in preprocessing, performed through look up tables, accomplishes equalization and reduction of the data and makes high level trigger feasible. As an additional feature, fast histogramming of all the channels in parallel has been made possible with an internal memory. Special care has been paid to realize a low cost and low power consumption system

  8. PADI ASIC for straw tube read-out

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietraszko, Jerzy; Traeger, Michael; Fruehauf, Jochen; Schmidt, Christian [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Ciobanu, Mircea [ISS, Bucharest (Romania); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    A prototype of the CBM MUCH straw tube detector consisting of six individual straws of 6mm inner diameter and 220 mm length filled with Ar/CO{sub 2} gas mixture has been tested at the COSY accelerator in Juelich. The straw tubes were connected to the FEET-PADI6-HDa PCB equipped with PADI-6 fast amplifier/discriminator ASIC. As a reference counter in this measurement the scCVD diamond detector has been used delivering excellent timing, time resolution below 100 ps (sigma), and very precise position information, below 50 μm. The demonstrated position resolution of about 160 μm of the straw tube read out with PADI-6 ASIC confirms the capability of the PADI chip and puts this development as a very attractive readout option for straw tubes and wire chambers.

  9. Simple optical readout for ethanol-chlorobenzene dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilijas, B.; Razem, D.

    1999-01-01

    Optical readout of the ethanol-chlorobenzene (ECB) or Dvornik dosimetry system is based on the development of the coloured secondary complex of ferric thiocyanate which has a maximum absorption at 485 nm. The applicability of a rugged, hand-held, battery powered filter colorimeter operating at 480 nm has been investigated as a reader for this purpose. This simple reader performs very well within absorbance one displaying an excellent linearity of absorbance with the concentration of Cl - ions. It is shown that by choosing the appropriate dilution factor when preparing the secondary complex solution the entire useful dose range of the dosimeter up to 2 MGy can be covered. The applicability of this reader to some other liquid chemical dosimeters is also discussed. (author)

  10. Simple optical readout for ethanol - chlorobenzene dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilijas, B.; Razem, D.

    1999-01-01

    Optical readout of the ethanol-chlorobenzene (ECB or Dvornik dosimetry system) is based on the development of coloured secondary complex of ferric thiocyanate which has a maximum absorption at 485 nm. The applicability of a rugged, hand-held, battery powered filter colorimeter operating at 480 nm has been investigated as a reader for this purpose. This simple reader performs very well within absorbance displaying an excellent linearity of absorbance with the concentration of Cl - ions. It was shown, by choosing the appropriate dilution factor when preparing the secondary complex solution, the entire useful dose range of the dosimeter up to 2 MGy can be covered. The applicability of the same reader to some other liquid chemical dosimeters is also discussed. (author)

  11. Multi-path interferometric Josephson directional amplifier for qubit readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, Baleegh; Bronn, Nicholas T.; Jinka, Oblesh; Olivadese, Salvatore; Brink, Markus; Chow, Jerry M.

    2018-04-01

    We realize and characterize a quantum-limited, directional Josephson amplifier suitable for qubit readout. The device consists of two nondegenerate, three-wave-mixing amplifiers that are coupled together in an interferometric scheme, embedded in a printed circuit board. Nonreciprocity is generated by applying a phase gradient between the same-frequency pumps feeding the device, which plays the role of the magnetic field in a Faraday medium. Directional amplification and reflection-gain elimination are induced via wave interference between multiple paths in the system. We measure and discuss the main figures of merit of the device and show that the experimental results are in good agreement with theory. An improved version of this directional amplifier is expected to eliminate the need for bulky, off-chip isolation stages that generally separate quantum systems and preamplifiers in high-fidelity, quantum-nondemolition measurement setups.

  12. Operation of a GEM-TPC with pixel readout

    CERN Document Server

    Brezina, C; Kaminski, J; Killenberg, M; Krautscheid, T

    2012-01-01

    A prototype time projection chamber with 26 cm drift length was operated with a short-spaced triple gas electron multiplier (GEM) stack in a setup triggering on cosmic muon tracks. A small part of the anode plane is read out with a CMOS pixel application-specified integrated circuit (ASIC) named Timepix, which provides ultimate readout granularity. Pixel clusters of charge depositions corresponding to single primary electrons are observed and analyzed to reconstruct charged particle tracks. A dataset of several weeks of cosmic ray data is analyzed. The number of clusters per track length is well described by simulation. The obtained single point resolution approaches 50 m at short drift distances and is well reproduced by a simple model of single-electron diffusion.

  13. The "KATOD-1" Strip Readout ASIC for Cathode Strip Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Golutvin, I A; Karjavin, V Yu; Khabarov, V S; Movchan, S A; Smolin, D A; Dvornikov, O V; Shumeiko, N M; Tchekhovski, V A

    2001-01-01

    The "KATOD-1", a 16-channels readout ASIC, has been designed to perform tests of P3 and P4 full-scale prototypes of the cathode strip chamber for the ME1/1 forward muon station of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. The ASIC channel consists of two charge-sensitive preamplifiers, a three-stage shaper with tail cancellation, and an output driver. The ASIC is instrumented with control of gain, in the range of (-4.2\\div +5.0) mV/fC, and control of output pulse-shape. The equivalent input noise is equal to 2400 e with the slope of 12 e/pF for detector capacity up to 200 pF. The peaking time is 100 ns for the chamber signal. The ASIC has been produced by a microwave Bi-jFET technology.

  14. Scintillating glasses for total absorption dual readout calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonvicini, V. [INFN, Trieste; Driutti, A. [Udine U.; Cauz, D. [Udine U.; Pauletta, G. [Udine U.; Rubinov, P. [Fermilab; Santi, L. [Udine U.; Wenzel, H. [Fermilab

    2012-01-01

    Scintillating glasses are a potentially cheaper alternative to crystal - based calorimetry with common problems related to light collection, detection and processing. As such, their use and development are part of more extensive R&D aimed at investigating the potential of total absorption, combined with the readout (DR) technique, for hadron calorimetry. A recent series of measurements, using cosmic and particle beams from the Fermilab test beam facility and scintillating glass with the characteristics required for application of the DR technique, serve to illustrate the problems addressed and the progress achieved by this R&D. Alternative solutions for light collection (conventional and silicon photomultipliers) and signal processing are compared, the separate contributions of scintillation and Cherenkov processes to the signal are evaluated and results are compared to simulation.

  15. Cryogenic readout integrated circuits for submillimeter-wave camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, H.; Kobayashi, J.; Matsuo, H.; Akiba, M.; Fujiwara, M.

    2006-01-01

    The development of cryogenic readout circuits for Superconducting Tunneling Junction (Sj) direct detectors for submillimeter wave is presented. A SONY n-channel depletion-mode GaAs Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) is a candidate for circuit elements of the preamplifier. We measured electrical characteristics of the GaAs JFETs in the temperature range between 0.3 and 4.2K, and found that the GaAs JFETs work with low power consumption of a few microwatts, and show good current-voltage characteristics without cryogenic anomalies such as kink phenomena or hysteresis behaviors. Furthermore, measurements at 0.3K show that the input referred noise is as low as 0.6μV/Hz at 1Hz. Based on these results and noise calculations, we estimate that a Capacitive Transimpedance Amplifier with the GaAs JFETs will have low noise and STJ detectors will operate below background noise limit

  16. Cryogenic readout integrated circuits for submillimeter-wave camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, H. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan) and National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)]. E-mail: hirohisa.nagata@nao.ac.jp; Kobayashi, J. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Shonan Village, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Matsuo, H. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Akiba, M. [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan); Fujiwara, M. [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan)

    2006-04-15

    The development of cryogenic readout circuits for Superconducting Tunneling Junction (Sj) direct detectors for submillimeter wave is presented. A SONY n-channel depletion-mode GaAs Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) is a candidate for circuit elements of the preamplifier. We measured electrical characteristics of the GaAs JFETs in the temperature range between 0.3 and 4.2K, and found that the GaAs JFETs work with low power consumption of a few microwatts, and show good current-voltage characteristics without cryogenic anomalies such as kink phenomena or hysteresis behaviors. Furthermore, measurements at 0.3K show that the input referred noise is as low as 0.6{mu}V/Hz at 1Hz. Based on these results and noise calculations, we estimate that a Capacitive Transimpedance Amplifier with the GaAs JFETs will have low noise and STJ detectors will operate below background noise limit.

  17. TPC cathode read-out with C-pads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janik, R.; Pikna, M.; Sitar, B.; Strmen, P.; Szarka, I.

    2009-01-01

    A Time Projection Chamber with 'C' like shaped cathode pads was built and tested. It offers a low gas gain operation, a good pulse shape and a lightweight construction. The Pad Response Function (PRF), the cathode to anode pulse height ratios and the pad pulse shapes of the C-pad structure were measured and compared with planar cathode structures in two different wire geometries. The cathode to anode signal ratio was improved from between 0.2 and 0.4 up to 0.7. The PRF was considerably improved, it has a Gaussian shape and is narrower than in the case of the planar pads. The pulse shape from the C-pad read-out is similar to the pulse shape from a detector with a cylindrical shape of electrodes. A method for aluminum pad mass production based on a precise cold forging was developed and tested.

  18. Precision Instrumentation Amplifiers and Read-Out Integrated Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Rong; Makinwa, Kofi A A

    2013-01-01

    This book presents innovative solutions in the design of precision instrumentation amplifier and read-out ICs, which can be used to boost millivolt-level signals transmitted by modern sensors, to levels compatible with the input ranges of typical Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs).  The discussion includes the theory, design and realization of interface electronics for bridge transducers and thermocouples. It describes the use of power efficient techniques to mitigate low frequency errors, resulting in interface electronics with high accuracy, low noise and low drift. Since this book is mainly about techniques for eliminating low frequency errors, it describes the nature of these errors and the associated dynamic offset cancellation techniques used to mitigate them.  Surveys comprehensively offset cancellation and accuracy improvement techniques applied in precision amplifier designs; Presents techniques in precision circuit design to mitigate low frequency errors in millivolt-level signals transmitted by ...

  19. ROCK: The readout controller for the KLOE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloisio, A.; Cavaliere, S.; Cevenini, F.; Volpe, D. della; Merola, L.; Fiore, D.J.; Parascandolo, P.

    1996-01-01

    A read-out controller (ROCK) has been developed for the Data Acquisition System of the KLOE High Energy Physics experiment, based in Frascati, Italy. The ROCK performs data acquisition in an event-driven fashion on the AUXbus, a custom high speed parallel bus. The AUXbus's main features are data cycles labeled by event number, sparse data scan operations and an asynchronous protocol optimized to achieve data rates up to 15 MHz. On a standard VMEbus, the ROCK allows for data snooping and real-time performance monitoring, without additional overhead on data acquisition. ROCK boards can be linked together via a custom cable bus (Cbus) to build a complex DAQ subsystem. The ROCK board has been designed around three 4.2 K gate XILINX FPGAs. Dual port FIFO banks are used to decouple the asynchronous buses. A preliminary version of the board is presented and test results are briefly discussed

  20. Production Performance of the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker Readout System

    CERN Document Server

    Mitsou, V A

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) together with the pixel and the transition radiation detectors will form the tracking system of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. It will consist of 20000 single-sided silicon microstrip sensors assembled back-to-back into modules mounted on four concentric barrels and two end-cap detectors formed by nine disks each. The SCT module production and testing has finished while the macro-assembly is well under way. After an overview of the layout and the operating environment of the SCT, a description of the readout electronics design and operation requirements will be given. The quality control procedure and the DAQ software for assuring the electrical functionality of hybrids and modules will be discussed. The focus will be on the electrical performance results obtained during the assembly and testing of the end-cap SCT modules.

  1. A software approach for readout and data acquisition in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Antchev, G H; Chatellier, S; Cittolin, Sergio; Erhan, S; Gigi, D; Gutleber, J; Jacobs, C; Meijers, F; Nicolau, R; Orsini, L; Pollet, Lucien; Rácz, A; Samyn, D; Sinanis, N; Sphicas, Paris

    2000-01-01

    Traditional systems dominated by performance constraints tend to neglect other qualities such as maintainability and configurability. Object-Orientation allows one to encapsulate the technology differences in communication sub-systems and to provide a uniform view of data transport layer to the systems engineer. We applied this paradigm to the design and implementation of intelligent data servers in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) data acquisition system at CERN to easily exploiting the physical communication resources of the available equipment. CMS is a high-energy physics experiment under study that incorporates a highly distributed data acquisition system. This paper outlines the architecture of one part, the so called Readout Unit, and shows how we can exploit the object advantage for systems with specific data rate requirements. A C++ streams communication layer with zero copying functionality has been established for UDP, TCP, DLPI and specific Myrinet and VME bus communication on the VxWorks real-time...

  2. A novel readout concept for multianode photomultiplier tubes with pad matrix anode layout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, Vladimir [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)]. E-mail: Popov@jlab.org; Majewski, Stan [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Welch, Benjamin L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2006-11-01

    We have developed a new analog readout concept for multianode photomultiplier tubes with a pad matrix anode layout. This new readout technique is the result of a modification of a technique previously developed at the Detector Group of Jefferson Lab (V. Popov, US patent No: 6,747,263 B1) [V. Popov, S. Majewski, A.G. Weisenberger, Readout Electronics for Multianode Photomultiplier Tubes with Pad Matrix Anode Layout, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, IEEE 2003 Medical Imaging Conference Record, November 2003]. The new analog readout circuit provides the same analog conversion of matrix 2-D output into X and Y projective output with a significant reduction of analog outputs. The old readout network consists of resistors' matrix and current collecting amplifiers, and it provides decoupling of each anode output into two directions (one to X and one to Y coordinates), but a decoupling function that is carried out independent of photomultiplier tube gains nonuniformity. A newly developed readout network (US patent pending) also consists of resistors' matrix and current collecting amplifiers, but the new matrix includes an additional dumping resistor that provides an excess current from anode pad grounding. As a result, we subtract an extra current of high-gain pads in order to move the pads gain to an absolute minimum value for a given photomultiplier tube. This gain equalization procedure reduces image distortion related to gain nonuniformity. The new readout technique was used in several new radiation imaging detectors designed in the Detector Group of Jefferson Lab. It shows a visible readout uniformity and linearity improvement. The test results of an initial evaluation of this readout that is applied for data readout of four H8500 Hamamtsu PSPMT are presented.

  3. Design of readout electronics for a scintillating plate calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawley, H.B.; Meyer, W.T.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Thomas, W.D.; Blair, R.E.; Buehring, A.; Dawson, J.; Hill, N.; Noland, R.; Petereit, E.; Price, L.E.; Proudfoot, J.; Spinka, H.; Talaga, R.; Trost, H.J.; Underwood, D.; Wickland, A.B.; Hurlbut, C.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K.; Imlay, R.; McNeil, R.; Metcalf, W.; Bolen, L.; Cremaldi, L.; Reidy, J.; Summers, D.; Fu, P.; Gabriel, T.; Handler, T.; Ficenec, J.R.; Lu, B.; Mo, L.; Piilonen, L.E.; Nunamaker, T.; Burke, M.; Hackworth, D.T.; Porter, T.F.; Ravas, R.J.; Scherbarth, D.; Swensrud, R.; Carlsmith, D.; Foudas, C.; Lackey, J.; Loveless, D.; Reeder, D.; Robb, P.; Smith, W.H.

    1990-01-01

    A scintillator calorimeter produces unique problems for the designer of readout electronics. On the one hand the narrow time structure of scintillator pulses, ∼10 nsec, is well matched to the rf structure of the SSC and gives hope of isolating information from individual beam crossings. On the other hand, the compensation mechanism and the need to broaden the pulse shape for use with analog signal sampling devices gives a somewhat wider time structure, ∼50-100 nsec. Furthermore the granularity of such a device implies that the full energy of an electromagnetic shower may be totally contained within one readout channel. If the resolution of the electronics is not to compromise the intrinsic resolution of the calorimeter, assumed to be σ/E ∼ 15%/√E + 1% (E in Gev), coverage of the full dynamic range (40,000:1) requires at least two 12-bit devices with 7 bits of overlap for a linear front-end electronics chain. The positioning of the electronics also is a critical issue. At luminosities of 10 33 cm -2 sec -1 , electronics placed on the calorimeter must withstand doses of at least 10 10 neutron/cm 2 and 2,000 Rad per year at 90 degree. In the past year, the scintillating calorimeter collaboration has begun studying these and related issues. Among the work reported below is: a study related to remote location of the calorimeter electronics, a comprehensive program to evaluate the properties of FADCs capable of operation at 60-80 MHz, design of a analog memory unit and development of a benchmark system to help evaluate components under development both within and outside the authors' collaboration

  4. The CMS silicon strip tracker and its electronic readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedl, M.

    2001-05-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, CH) will be the world's biggest accelerator machine when operation starts in 2006. One of its four detector experiments is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), consisting of a large-scale silicon tracker and electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters, all embedded in a solenoidal magnetic field of 4 T, and a muon system surrounding the magnet coil. The Silicon Strip Tracker has a sensitive area of 206m 2 with 10 million analog channels which are read out at the collider frequency of 40 MHz. The building blocks of the CMS Tracker are the silicon sensors, APV amplifier ASICs, supporting front-end ASICs, analog and digital optical links as well as data processors and control units in the back-end. Radiation tolerance, readout speed and the huge data volume are challenging requirements. The charge collection in silicon detectors was modeled, which is discussed as well as the concepts of readout amplifiers with respect to the LHC requirements, including the deconvolution method of fast pulse shaping, electronic noise constraints and radiation effects. Moreover, extensive measurements on prototype components of the CMS Tracker and different versions of the APV chip in particular were performed. There was a significant contribution to the construction of several detector modules, characterized them in particle beam tests and quantified radiation induced effects on the APV chip and on silicon detectors. In addition, a prototype of the analog optical link and the analog performance of the back-end digitization unit were evaluated. The results are very encouraging, demonstrating the feasibility of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker system and motivating progress towards the construction phase. (author)

  5. Two-dimensional readout system for radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.Y.

    1975-01-01

    A two dimensional readout system has been provided for reading out locations of scintillations produced in a scintillation type radiation detector array wherein strips of scintillator material are arranged in a parallel planar array. Two sets of light guides are placed perpendicular to the scintillator strips, one on the top and one on the bottom to extend in alignment across the strips. Both the top and bottom guides are composed of a number of 90 0 triangular prisms with the lateral side forming the hypotenuse equal to twice the width of a scintillator strip. The prism system reflects light from a scintillation along one of the strips back and forth through adjacent strips to light pipes coupled to the outermost strips of the detector array which transmit light pulses to appropriate detectors to determine the scintillation along one axis. Other light pipes are connected to the end portions of the strips to transmit light from the individual strips to appropriate light detectors to indicate the particular strip activated, thereby determining the position of a scintillation along the other axis. The number of light guide pairs may be equal the number of the scintillation strips when equal spatial resolution for each of the two coordinates is desired. When the scintillator array detects an event which produces a scintillation along one of the strips, the emitted light travels along four different paths, two of which are along the strip, and two of which are through the light guide pair perpendicular to the strips until all four beams reach the outer edges of the array where they may be transmitted to light detectors by means of light pipes connected therebetween according to a binary code for direct digital readout. (U.S.)

  6. Katherine: Ethernet Embedded Readout Interface for Timepix3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burian, P.; Broulím, P.; Jára, M.; Georgiev, V.; Bergmann, B.

    2017-11-01

    The Timepix3—the latest generation of hybrid particle pixel detectors of Medipix family—yields a lot of new possibilities, i.e. a high hit-rate, a time resolution of 1.56 ns, event data-driven readout mode, and the capability of measuring the Time-over-Threshold (ToT - energy) and the Time-of-Arrival (ToA) simultaneously. This paper introduces a newly developed readout device for the Timepix3, called "Katherine", featuring a Gigabit Ethernet interface. The primary benefit of the Katherine is the operation of Timepix3 at long distance (up to 100 m) from computer or server, which is advantageous for the installation at beam lines, where the access is difficult or where radiation levels are too high for human interventions. The maximal hit-rate is limited by the bandwidth of the Ethernet connection (peer-to-peer connection; up to 16 Mhit/s). Since the Katherine interface is equipped with a processor of high computational power (ARM Cortex-A9 dual-core processor), it permits the use as a stand-alone (autonomous) radiation detector. The key features of the device are described in detail. These are the implemented high voltage power supply offering both polarities of bias voltage (up to ± 300 V), the automatic data sending to a sever via SSH, the automatic compensation of ToA values from columns with shifted matrix clock, etc. A dedicated control software was developed, which can be used for the detector preparation (sensor equalization, the DACs dependency scan, and the THL scan) and measurement control. Measured energy spectra from photon fields are shown.

  7. Microwave Readout Techniques for Very Large Arrays of Nuclear Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullom, Joel [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2017-05-17

    During this project, we transformed the use of microwave readout techniques for nuclear sensors from a speculative idea to reality. The core of the project consisted of the development of a set of microwave electronics able to generate and process large numbers of microwave tones. The tones can be used to probe a circuit containing a series of electrical resonances whose frequency locations and widths depend on the state of a network of sensors, with one sensor per resonance. The amplitude and phase of the tones emerging from the circuit are processed by the same electronics and are reduced to the sensor signals after two demodulation steps. This approach allows a large number of sensors to be interrogated using a single pair of coaxial cables. We successfully developed hardware, firmware, and software to complete a scalable implementation of these microwave control electronics and demonstrated their use in two areas. First, we showed that the electronics can be used at room temperature to read out a network of diverse sensor types relevant to safeguards or process monitoring. Second, we showed that the electronics can be used to measure large numbers of ultrasensitive cryogenic sensors such as gamma-ray microcalorimeters. In particular, we demonstrated the undegraded readout of up to 128 channels and established a path to even higher multiplexing factors. These results have transformed the prospects for gamma-ray spectrometers based on cryogenic microcalorimeter arrays by enabling spectrometers whose collecting areas and count rates can be competitive with high purity germanium but with 10x better spectral resolution.

  8. Development and Studies of Novel Microfabricated Radiation Hard Scintillation Detectors With High Spatial Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Mapelli, A; Haguenauer, M; Jiguet, S; Renaud, P; Vico Triviño, N

    2011-01-01

    A new type of scintillation detector is being developed with standard microfabrication techniques. It consists of a dense array of scintillating waveguides obtained by coupling microfluidic channels filled with a liquid scintillator to photodetectors. Easy manipulation of liquid scintillators inside microfluidic devices allow their flushing, renewal, and exchange making the active medium intrinsically radiation hard. Prototype detectors have been fabricated by photostructuration of a radiation hard epoxy resin (SU-8) deposited on silicon wafers and coupled to a multi-anode photomultiplier tube (MAPMT) to read-out the scintillation light. They have been characterized by exciting the liquid scintillator in the 200 micrometers thick microchannels with electrons from a 90Sr yielding approximately 1 photoelectron per impinging Minimum Ionizing Particle (MIP). These promising results demonstrate the concept of microfluidic scintillating detection and are very encouraging for future developments.

  9. Hard diffraction and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, A.

    1995-09-01

    The field of hard diffraction, which studies events with a rapidity gap and a hard scattering, has expanded dramatically recently. A review of new results from CDF, D OE, H1 and ZEUS will be given. These results include diffractive jet production, deep-inelastic scattering in large rapidity gap events, rapidity gaps between high transverse energy jets, and a search for diffractive W-boson production. The combination of these results gives new insight into the exchanged object, believed to be the pomeron. The results axe consistent with factorization and with a hard pomeron that contains both quarks and gluons. There is also evidence for the exchange of a strongly interacting color singlet in high momentum transfer (36 2 ) events

  10. Initiative hard coal; Initiative Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, J.

    2007-08-02

    In order to decrease the import dependence of hard coal in the European Union, the author has submitted suggestions to the director of conventional sources of energy (directorate general for energy and transport) of the European community, which found a positive resonance. These suggestions are summarized in an elaboration 'Initiative Hard Coal'. After clarifying the starting situation and defining the target the presupposition for a better use of hard coal deposits as raw material in the European Union are pointed out. On that basis concrete suggestions for measures are made. Apart from the conditions of the deposits it concerns thereby also new mining techniques and mining-economical developments, connected with tasks for the mining-machine industry. (orig.)

  11. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the application of photon to industrial technologies, in particular, a hard photon technology was surveyed which uses photon beams of 0.1-200nm in wavelength. Its features such as selective atom reaction, dense inner shell excitation and spacial high resolution by quantum energy are expected to provide innovative techniques for various field such as fine machining, material synthesis and advanced inspection technology. This wavelength region has been hardly utilized for industrial fields because of poor development of suitable photon sources and optical devices. The developmental meaning, usable time and issue of a hard photon reduction lithography were surveyed as lithography in ultra-fine region below 0.1{mu}m. On hard photon analysis/evaluation technology, the industrial use of analysis, measurement and evaluation technologies by micro-beam was viewed, and optimum photon sources and optical systems were surveyed. Prediction of surface and surface layer modification by inner shell excitation, the future trend of this process and development of a vacuum ultraviolet light source were also surveyed. 383 refs., 153 figs., 17 tabs.

  12. GPC-enhanced read-out of holograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villangca, Mark Jayson; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin

    2015-01-01

    -holograms are encoded to create reconfigurable spot arrays and arbitrary extended patterns. For a given laser power, our experimental results show a significant intensity gain in the resulting diffraction patterns when we illuminate the holograms with a GPC-shaped beam as compared to the more common practice of hard...

  13. Optimization of MKID noise performance via readout technique for astronomical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czakon, Nicole G.; Schlaerth, James A.; Day, Peter K.; Downes, Thomas P.; Duan, Ran P.; Gao, Jiansong; Glenn, Jason; Golwala, Sunil R.; Hollister, Matt I.; LeDuc, Henry G.; Mazin, Benjamin A.; Maloney, Philip R.; Noroozian, Omid; Nguyen, Hien T.; Sayers, Jack; Siegel, Seth; Vaillancourt, John E.; Vayonakis, Anastasios; Wilson, Philip R.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2010-07-01

    Detectors employing superconducting microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) can be read out by measuring changes in either the resonator frequency or dissipation. We will discuss the pros and cons of both methods, in particular, the readout method strategies being explored for the Multiwavelength Sub/millimeter Inductance Camera (MUSIC) to be commissioned at the CSO in 2010. As predicted theoretically and observed experimentally, the frequency responsivity is larger than the dissipation responsivity, by a factor of 2-4 under typical conditions. In the absence of any other noise contributions, it should be easier to overcome amplifier noise by simply using frequency readout. The resonators, however, exhibit excess frequency noise which has been ascribed to a surface distribution of two-level fluctuators sensitive to specific device geometries and fabrication techniques. Impressive dark noise performance has been achieved using modified resonator geometries employing interdigitated capacitors (IDCs). To date, our noise measurement and modeling efforts have assumed an onresonance readout, with the carrier power set well below the nonlinear regime. Several experimental indicators suggested to us that the optimal readout technique may in fact require a higher readout power, with the carrier tuned somewhat off resonance, and that a careful systematic study of the optimal readout conditions was needed. We will present the results of such a study, and discuss the optimum readout conditions as well as the performance that can be achieved relative to BLIP.

  14. Evaluation of hard fossil fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivkovic, S.; Nuic, J.

    1999-01-01

    Because of its inexhaustible supplies hard fossil fuel will represent the pillar of the power systems of the 21st century. Only high-calorie fossil fuels have the market value and participate in the world trade. Low-calorie fossil fuels ((brown coal and lignite) are fuels spent on the spot and their value is indirectly expressed through manufactured kWh. For the purpose of determining the real value of a tonne of low-calorie coal, the criteria that help in establishing the value of a tonne of hard coal have to be corrected and thus evaluated and assessed at the market. (author)

  15. Calorimeter triggers for hard collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landshoff, P.V.; Polkinghorne, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    We discuss the use of a forward calorimeter to trigger on hard hadron-hadron collisions. We give a derivation in the covariant parton model of the Ochs-Stodolsky scaling law for single-hard-scattering processes, and investigate the conditions when instead a multiple- scattering mechanism might dominate. With a proton beam, this mechanism results in six transverse jets, with a total average multiplicity about twice that seen in ordinary events. We estimate that its cross section is likely to be experimentally accessible at avalues of the beam energy in the region of 100 GeV/c

  16. Hardness of ion implanted ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, W.C.; McHargue, C.J.; Farlow, G.C.; White, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    It has been established that the wear behavior of ceramic materials can be modified through ion implantation. Studies have been done to characterize the effect of implantation on the structure and composition of ceramic surfaces. To understand how these changes affect the wear properties of the ceramic, other mechanical properties must be measured. To accomplish this, a commercially available ultra low load hardness tester has been used to characterize Al 2 O 3 with different implanted species and doses. The hardness of the base material is compared with the highly damaged crystalline state as well as the amorphous material

  17. Chemical hardness and density functional theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    RALPH G PEARSON. Chemistry Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA. Abstract. The concept of chemical hardness is reviewed from a personal point of view. Keywords. Hardness; softness; hard & soft acids bases (HSAB); principle of maximum hardness. (PMH) density functional theory (DFT) ...

  18. Invited article: The fast readout low noise camera as a versatile x-ray detector for time resolved dispersive extended x-ray absorption fine structure and diffraction studies of dynamic problems in materials science, chemistry, and catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labiche, Jean-Claude; Mathon, Olivier; Pascarelli, Sakura; Newton, Mark A.; Ferre, Gemma Guilera; Curfs, Caroline; Vaughan, Gavin; Homs, Alejandro; Carreiras, David Fernandez

    2007-01-01

    Originally conceived and developed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) as an 'area' detector for rapid x-ray imaging studies, the fast readout low noise (FReLoN) detector of the ESRF [J.-C. Labiche, ESRF Newsletter 25, 41 (1996)] has been demonstrated to be a highly versatile and unique detector. Charge coupled device (CCD) cameras at present available on the public market offer either a high dynamic range or a high readout speed. A compromise between signal dynamic range and readout speed is always sought. The parameters of the commercial cameras can sometimes be tuned, in order to better fulfill the needs of specific experiments, but in general these cameras have a poor duty cycle (i.e., the signal integration time is much smaller than the readout time). In order to address scientific problems such as time resolved experiments at the ESRF, a FReLoN camera has been developed by the Instrument Support Group at ESRF. This camera is a low noise CCD camera that combines high dynamic range, high readout speed, accuracy, and improved duty cycle in a single image. In this paper, we show its application in a quasi-one-dimensional sense to dynamic problems in materials science, catalysis, and chemistry that require data acquisition on a time scale of milliseconds or a few tens of milliseconds. It is demonstrated that in this mode the FReLoN can be applied equally to the investigation of rapid changes in long range order (via diffraction) and local order (via energy dispersive extended x-ray absorption fine structure) and in situations of x-ray hardness and flux beyond the capacity of other detectors

  19. An optical fiber-based flexible readout system for micro-pattern gas detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Feng, C. Q.; Zhu, D. Y.; Liu, S. B.; An, Q.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents an optical fiber-based readout system that is intended to provide a general purpose multi-channel readout solution for various Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors (MPGDs). The proposed readout system is composed of several front-end cards (FECs) and a data collection module (DCM). The FEC exploits the capability of an existing 64-channel generic TPC readout ASIC chip, named AGET, to implement 256 channels readout. AGET offers FEC a large flexibility in gain range (4 options from 120 fC to 10 pC), peaking time (16 options from 50 ns to 1 us) and sampling freqency (100 MHz max.). The DCM contains multiple 1 Gbps optical fiber serial link interfaces that allow the system scaling up to 1536 channels with 6 FECs and 1 DCM. Further scaling up is possible through cascading of multiple DCMs, by configuring one DCM as a master while other DCMs in slave mode. This design offers a rapid readout solution for different application senario. Tests indicate that the nonlinearity of each channel is less than 1%, and the equivalent input noise charge is typically around 0.7 fC in RMS (root mean square), with a noise slope of about 0.01 fC/pF. The system level trigger rate limit is about 700 Hz in all channel readout mode. When in hit channel readout mode, supposing that typically 10 percent of channels are fired, trigger rate can go up to about 7 kHz. This system has been tested with Micromegas detector and GEM detector, confirming its capability in MPGD readout. Details of hardware and FPGA firmware design, as well as system performances, are described in the paper.

  20. Impact of the 'non-destructive' multiple-readout on the Lorentzian noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guazzoni, C.; Gatti, E.; Geraci, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the effect of 'non-destructive' multiple-readout on the Lorentzian noise. To our knowledge, it is the first time that such interaction is investigated. We have studied the peculiarities of the shape of the optimum weighting function for the multiple-readout technique in the presence of Lorentzian noise and other noise sources. The impact of the Lorentzian noise on the resolution achievable with the multiple-readout technique is analyzed in detail with respect to the interaction between the oscillation time and the characteristic time constant of the Lorentzian noise

  1. Evaluation of Fermi read-out of the Atlas Tilecal prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajaltouni, Z.; Alifanov, A.

    1998-01-01

    Prototypes of the FERMI system have been used to read out a prototype of the ATLAS hadron calorimeter in a beam test at the CERN SPS. The FERMI read-out system, using a compressor and a sampling ADC, is compared to a standard charge integrating read-out by measuring the energy resolution of the calorimeter separately with the two systems on the same events. Signal processing techniques have been designed to optimize the treatment of FERMI data. The resulting energy resolution is better than the one obtained with the standard read-out. (orig.)

  2. Machine Learning Method Applied in Readout System of Superheated Droplet Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Sullivan, Clair Julia; d'Errico, Francesco

    2017-07-01

    Direct readability is one advantage of superheated droplet detectors in neutron dosimetry. Utilizing such a distinct characteristic, an imaging readout system analyzes image of the detector for neutron dose readout. To improve the accuracy and precision of algorithms in the imaging readout system, machine learning algorithms were developed. Deep learning neural network and support vector machine algorithms are applied and compared with generally used Hough transform and curvature analysis methods. The machine learning methods showed a much higher accuracy and better precision in recognizing circular gas bubbles.

  3. Note: Readout of a micromechanical magnetometer for the ITER fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimminen, H.; Kyynäräinen, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present readout instrumentation for a MEMS magnetometer, placed 30 m away from the MEMS element. This is particularly useful when sensing is performed in high-radiation environment, where the semiconductors in the readout cannot survive. High bandwidth transimpedance amplifiers are used to cancel the cable capacitances of several nanofarads. A frequency doubling readout scheme is used for crosstalk elimination. Signal-to-noise ratio in the range of 60 dB was achieved and with sub-percent nonlinearity. The presented instrument is intended for the steady-state magnetic field measurements in the ITER fusion reactor.

  4. X-ray imaging using amorphous selenium: a photoinduced discharge readout method for digital mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, J A; Hunter, D M; Araj, N

    1991-01-01

    A new digital image readout method for electrostatic charge images on photoconductive plates is described. The method can be used to read out images on selenium plates similar to those used in xeromammography. The readout method, called the air-gap photoinduced discharge method (PID), discharges the latent image pixel by pixel and measures the charge. The PID readout method, like electrometer methods, is linear. However, the PID method permits much better resolution than scanning electrometers while maintaining quantum limited performance at high radiation exposure levels. Thus the air-gap PID method appears to be uniquely superior for high-resolution digital imaging tasks such as mammography.

  5. LHCb : Clock and timing distribution in the LHCb upgraded detector and readout system

    CERN Multimedia

    Alessio, Federico; Barros Marin, M; Cachemiche, JP; Hachon, F; Jacobsson, Richard; Wyllie, Ken

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is upgrading part of its detector and the entire readout system towards a full 40 MHz readout system in order to run between five and ten times its initial design luminosity and increase its trigger efficiency. In this paper, the new timing, trigger and control distribution system for such an upgrade is reviewed with particular attention given to the distribution of the clock and timing information across the entire readout system, up to the FE and the on-detector electronics. Current ideas are here presented in terms of reliability, jitter, complexity and implementation.

  6. Clock and timing distribution in the LHCb upgraded detector and readout system

    CERN Document Server

    Alessio, F; Barros Marin, M; Cachemiche, JP; Hachon, F; Jacobsson, R; Wyllie, K

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is upgrading part of its detector and the entire readout system towards a full 40 MHz readout system in order to run between five and ten times its initial design luminosity and increase its trigger efficiency. In this paper, the new timing, trigger and control distribution system for such an upgrade is reviewed with particular attention given to the distribution of the clock and timing information across the entire readout system, up to the FE and the on-detector electronics. Current ideas are here presented in terms of reliability, jitter, complexity and implementation.

  7. The AMS silicon tracker readout, performance results with minimum ionizing particles

    CERN Document Server

    Alpat, B; Battiston, R; Bourquin, Maurice; Burger, W J; Extermann, Pierre; Chang, Y H; Hou, S R; Pauluzzi, M; Produit, N; Qiu, S; Rapin, D; Ribordy, R; Toker, O; Wu, S X

    2000-01-01

    First results for the AMS silicon tracker readout performance are presented. Small 20.0*20.0*0.300 mm/sup 3/ silicon microstrip detectors were installed in a 50 GeV electron beam at CERN. The detector readout consisted of prototypes of the tracker data reduction card equipped with a 12-bit ADC and the tracker frontend hybrid with VA_hdr readout chips. The system performance is assessed in terms of signal-to-noise, position resolution, and efficiency. (13 refs).

  8. Point-source reconstruction with a sparse light-sensor array for optical TPC readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutter, G; Richards, M; Bennieston, A J; Ramachers, Y A

    2011-01-01

    A reconstruction technique for sparse array optical signal readout is introduced and applied to the generic challenge of large-area readout of a large number of point light sources. This challenge finds a prominent example in future, large volume neutrino detector studies based on liquid argon. It is concluded that the sparse array option may be ruled out for reasons of required number of channels when compared to a benchmark derived from charge readout on wire-planes. Smaller-scale detectors, however, could benefit from this technology.

  9. Mixed signals emerging on full cost accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, D.

    1993-01-01

    In Ontario, various nongovernmental and governmental agencies have put forward mixed views on the use of full cost accounting (FCA) for electric utilities (Ontario Hydro, in particular). Full cost accounting is defined as a process by which social and environmental impacts of projects and technologies can be quantified and assessed for their comparative consequences on the local community and society at large. A November 1992 statement from the Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy has said that all social and environmental costs, impacts, risks, and benefits should be considered in planning. A report of the energy task force of the Ontario Round Table on Environment and Economy (ORTEE) included a strong endorsement of FCA. A task force with the mandate to help Ontario Hydro develop a sustainable energy policy includes a group which will examine FCA and how to implement it. Critics of Ontario Hydro note that the utility's recent announcement of offering substantial discounts to some of its largest industrial customers goes directly against FCA. In addition, Hydro's continued reliance on an avoided cost model (without consideration of social and environmental impacts of power generation) makes it difficult for the utility to think beyond traditional approaches. In contrast, British Columbia is announcing a Social Costing policy to evaluate power projects according to their environmental as well as financial impact. Under the right conditions, adopting FCA can offer distinct trade advantages to Ontario. Under international trade agreements that pay heed to environmental costs, jurisdictions which have high environmental standards stand to gain

  10. Send mixed signals : earn more, work less

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sheffet, Or

    2012-01-01

    Emek et al presented a model of probabilistic single-item second price auctions where an auctioneer who is informed about the type of an item for sale, broadcasts a signal about this type to uninformed bidders. They proved that finding the optimal (for the purpose of generating revenue) pure...

  11. Merlin: a fast versatile readout system for Medipix3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plackett, R; Horswell, I; Gimenez, E N; Marchal, J; Omar, D; Tartoni, N

    2013-01-01

    This contribution reports on the development of a new high rate readout system for the Medipix3 hybrid pixel ASIC developed by the Detector Group at Diamond Light Source. It details the current functionality of the system and initial results from tests on Diamond's B16 beamline. The Merlin system is based on a National Instruments PXI/FlexRIO system running a Xilinx Virtex5 FPGA. It is capable of recording Medipix3 256 by 256 by 12 bit data frames at over 1 kHz in bursts of 1200 frames and running at over 100 Hz continuously to disk or over a TCP/IP link. It is compatible with the standard Medipix3 single chipboards developed at CERN and is capable of driving them over cable lengths of up to 10 m depending on the data rate required. In addition to a standalone graphical interface, a system of remote TCP/IP control and data transfer has been developed to allow easy integration with third party control systems and scripting languages. Two Merlin systems are being deployed on the B16 and I16 beamlines at Diamond and the system has been integrated with the EPICS/GDA control systems used. Results from trigger synchronisation, fast burst and high rate tests made on B16 in March are reported and demonstrate an encouraging reliability and timing accuracy. In addition to normal high resolution imaging applications of Medipix3, the results indicate the system could profitably be used in 'pump and probe' style experiments, where a very accurate, high frame rate is especially beneficial. In addition to these two systems, Merlin is being used by the Detector Group to test the Excalibur 16 chip hybrid modules, and by the LHCb VELO Pixel Upgrade group in their forthcoming testbeams. Additionally the contribution looks forward to further developments and improvements in the system, including full rate quad chip readout capability, multi-FPGA support, long distance optical communication and further functionality enhancements built on the capabilities of the Medipix3 chips.

  12. Merlin: a fast versatile readout system for Medipix3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plackett, R.; Horswell, I.; Gimenez, E. N.; Marchal, J.; Omar, D.; Tartoni, N.

    2013-01-01

    This contribution reports on the development of a new high rate readout system for the Medipix3 hybrid pixel ASIC developed by the Detector Group at Diamond Light Source. It details the current functionality of the system and initial results from tests on Diamond's B16 beamline. The Merlin system is based on a National Instruments PXI/FlexRIO system running a Xilinx Virtex5 FPGA. It is capable of recording Medipix3 256 by 256 by 12 bit data frames at over 1 kHz in bursts of 1200 frames and running at over 100 Hz continuously to disk or over a TCP/IP link. It is compatible with the standard Medipix3 single chipboards developed at CERN and is capable of driving them over cable lengths of up to 10 m depending on the data rate required. In addition to a standalone graphical interface, a system of remote TCP/IP control and data transfer has been developed to allow easy integration with third party control systems and scripting languages. Two Merlin systems are being deployed on the B16 and I16 beamlines at Diamond and the system has been integrated with the EPICS/GDA control systems used. Results from trigger synchronisation, fast burst and high rate tests made on B16 in March are reported and demonstrate an encouraging reliability and timing accuracy. In addition to normal high resolution imaging applications of Medipix3, the results indicate the system could profitably be used in `pump and probe' style experiments, where a very accurate, high frame rate is especially beneficial. In addition to these two systems, Merlin is being used by the Detector Group to test the Excalibur 16 chip hybrid modules, and by the LHCb VELO Pixel Upgrade group in their forthcoming testbeams. Additionally the contribution looks forward to further developments and improvements in the system, including full rate quad chip readout capability, multi-FPGA support, long distance optical communication and further functionality enhancements built on the capabilities of the Medipix3 chips.

  13. The readout system for the ArTeMis camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumayrou, E.; Lortholary, M.; Dumaye, L.; Hamon, G.

    2014-07-01

    During ArTeMiS observations at the APEX telescope (Chajnantor, Chile), 5760 bolometric pixels from 20 arrays at 300mK, corresponding to 3 submillimeter focal planes at 450μm, 350μm and 200μm, have to be read out simultaneously at 40Hz. The read out system, made of electronics and software, is the full chain from the cryostat to the telescope. The readout electronics consists of cryogenic buffers at 4K (NABU), based on CMOS technology, and of warm electronic acquisition systems called BOLERO. The bolometric signal given by each pixel has to be amplified, sampled, converted, time stamped and formatted in data packets by the BOLERO electronics. The time stamping is obtained by the decoding of an IRIG-B signal given by APEX and is key to ensure the synchronization of the data with the telescope. Specifically developed for ArTeMiS, BOLERO is an assembly of analogue and digital FPGA boards connected directly on the top of the cryostat. Two detectors arrays (18*16 pixels), one NABU and one BOLERO interconnected by ribbon cables constitute the unit of the electronic architecture of ArTeMiS. In total, the 20 detectors for the tree focal planes are read by 10 BOLEROs. The software is working on a Linux operating system, it runs on 2 back-end computers (called BEAR) which are small and robust PCs with solid state disks. They gather the 10 BOLEROs data fluxes, and reconstruct the focal planes images. When the telescope scans the sky, the acquisitions are triggered thanks to a specific network protocol. This interface with APEX enables to synchronize the acquisition with the observations on sky: the time stamped data packets are sent during the scans to the APEX software that builds the observation FITS files. A graphical user interface enables the setting of the camera and the real time display of the focal plane images, which is essential in laboratory and commissioning phases. The software is a set of C++, Labview and Python, the qualities of which are respectively used

  14. Seismic signals hard clipping overcoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszowa, Paula; Sokolowski, Jakub

    2018-01-01

    In signal processing the clipping is understand as the phenomenon of limiting the signal beyond certain threshold. It is often related to overloading of a sensor. Two particular types of clipping are being recognized: soft and hard. Beyond the limiting value soft clipping reduces the signal real gain while the hard clipping stiffly sets the signal values at the limit. In both cases certain amount of signal information is lost. Obviously if one possess the model which describes the considered signal and the threshold value (which might be slightly more difficult to obtain in the soft clipping case), the attempt of restoring the signal can be made. Commonly it is assumed that the seismic signals take form of an impulse response of some specific system. This may lead to belief that the sine wave may be the most appropriate to fit in the clipping period. However, this should be tested. In this paper the possibility of overcoming the hard clipping in seismic signals originating from a geoseismic station belonging to an underground mine is considered. A set of raw signals will be hard-clipped manually and then couple different functions will be fitted and compared in terms of least squares. The results will be then analysed.

  15. Hard equality constrained integer knapsacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardal, K.I.; Lenstra, A.K.; Cook, W.J.; Schulz, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    We consider the following integer feasibility problem: "Given positive integer numbers a 0, a 1,..., a n, with gcd(a 1,..., a n) = 1 and a = (a 1,..., a n), does there exist a nonnegative integer vector x satisfying ax = a 0?" Some instances of this type have been found to be extremely hard to solve

  16. Stress in hard metal films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.C.A.M.; Kamminga, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    In the absence of thermal stress, tensile stress in hard metal films is caused by grain boundary shrinkage and compressive stress is caused by ion peening. It is shown that the two contributions are additive. Moreover tensile stress generated at the grain boundaries does not relax by ion

  17. Hard processes in hadronic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satz, H.; Wang, X.N.

    1995-01-01

    Quantum chromodynamics is today accepted as the fundamental theory of strong interactions, even though most hadronic collisions lead to final states for which quantitative QCD predictions are still lacking. It therefore seems worthwhile to take stock of where we stand today and to what extent the presently available data on hard processes in hadronic collisions can be accounted for in terms of QCD. This is one reason for this work. The second reason - and in fact its original trigger - is the search for the quark-gluon plasma in high energy nuclear collisions. The hard processes to be considered here are the production of prompt photons, Drell-Yan dileptons, open charm, quarkonium states, and hard jets. For each of these, we discuss the present theoretical understanding, compare the resulting predictions to available data, and then show what behaviour it leads to at RHIC and LHC energies. All of these processes have the structure mentioned above: they contain a hard partonic interaction, calculable perturbatively, but also the non-perturbative parton distribution within a hadron. These parton distributions, however, can be studied theoretically in terms of counting rule arguments, and they can be checked independently by measurements of the parton structure functions in deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering. The present volume is the work of Hard Probe Collaboration, a group of theorists who are interested in the problem and were willing to dedicate a considerable amount of their time and work on it. The necessary preparation, planning and coordination of the project were carried out in two workshops of two weeks' duration each, in February 1994 at CERn in Geneva andin July 1994 at LBL in Berkeley

  18. Four-channel readout ASIC for silicon pad detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baturitsky, M.A.; Zamiatin, N.I.

    2000-01-01

    A custom front-end readout ASIC has been designed for silicon calorimeters supposed to be used in high-energy physics experiments. The ASIC was produced using BJT-JFET technology. It contains four channels of a fast low-noise charge-sensitive preamplifier (CSP) with inverting outputs summed by a linear adder (LA) followed by an RC-CR shaping amplifier (SA) with 30 ns peaking time. Availability of separate outputs of the CSPs and the LA makes it possible to join any number of silicon detector layers to obtain the longitudinal and transversal resolution required using only this ASIC in any silicon calorimeter minitower configuration. Noise performance is ENC=1800e - +18e - /pF at 30 ns peaking time for detector capacitance up to C d =400 pF. Rise time is 8 ns at input capacitance C d =100 pF. Power dissipation is less than 50 mW/ chip at voltage supply 5 V

  19. Monolithic pixels on moderate resistivity substrate and sparsifying readout architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giubilato, P.; Battaglia, M.; Bisello, D.; Caselle, M.; Chalmet, P.; Demaria, L.; Ikemoto, Y.; Kloukinas, K.; Mansuy, S.C.; Mattiazzo, S.; Marchioro, A.; Mugnier, H.; Pantano, D.; Potenza, A.; Rivetti, A.; Rousset, J.; Silvestrin, L.; Snoeys, W.

    2013-01-01

    The LePix projects aim realizing a new generation monolithic pixel detectors with improved performances at lesser cost with respect to both current state of the art monolithic and hybrid pixel sensors. The detector is built in a 90 nm CMOS process on a substrate of moderate resistivity. This allows charge collection by drift while maintaining the other advantages usually offered by MAPS, like having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line. The collection by drift mechanism, coupled to the low capacitance design of the collecting node made possible by the monolithic approach, provides an excellent signal to noise ratio straight at the pixel cell together with a radiation tolerance far superior to conventional un-depleted MAPS. The excellent signal-to-noise performance is demonstrated by the device ability to separate the 6 keV 55 Fe double peak at room temperature. To achieve high granularity (10–20 µm pitch pixels) over large detector areas maintaining high readout speed, a completely new compressing architecture has been devised. This architecture departs from the mainstream hybrid pixel sparsification approach, which uses in-pixel logic to reduce data, by using topological compression to minimize pixel area and power consumption

  20. X-ray and gamma ray detector readout system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, Tumay O; Clajus, Martin; Visser, Gerard

    2010-10-19

    A readout electronics scheme is under development for high resolution, compact PET (positron emission tomography) imagers based on LSO (lutetium ortho-oxysilicate, Lu.sub.2SiO.sub.5) scintillator and avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays. The key is to obtain sufficient timing and energy resolution at a low power level, less than about 30 mW per channel, including all required functions. To this end, a simple leading edge level crossing discriminator is used, in combination with a transimpedance preamplifier. The APD used has a gain of order 1,000, and an output noise current of several pA/ Hz, allowing bipolar technology to be used instead of CMOS, for increased speed and power efficiency. A prototype of the preamplifier and discriminator has been constructed, achieving timing resolution of 1.5 ns FWHM, 2.7 ns full width at one tenth maximum, relative to an LSO/PMT detector, and an energy resolution of 13.6% FWHM at 511 keV, while operating at a power level of 22 mW per channel. Work is in progress towards integration of this preamplifier and discriminator with appropriate coincidence logic and amplitude measurement circuits in an ASIC suitable for a high resolution compact PET instrument. The detector system and/or ASIC can also be used for many other applications for medical to industrial imaging.

  1. Spectrophotometric readout for an alanine dosimeter for food irradiation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebraheem, S.; Beshir, W.B.; Eid, S.; Sobhy, R.; Kovacs, A.

    2003-01-01

    The alanine-electron spin resonance (EPR) readout system is well known as a reference and transfer dosimetry system for the evaluation of high doses in radiation processing. The high cost of an EPR/alanine dosimetry system is a serious handicap for large-scale routine application in irradiation facilities. In this study, the use of a complex produced by dissolving irradiated L-alanine in 1,4-phenyl diammonium dichloride solution was investigated for dosimetry purposes. This complex--having a purple colour--has an increasing absorbance with increasing dose in the range of 1-20 kGy. The applicability of spectrophotometric evaluation was studied by measuring the absorbance intensity of this complex at 360 and 505 nm, respectively. Fluorimetric evaluation was also investigated by measuring the emission of the complex at 435 nm as a function of dose. The present method is easy for routine application. The effect of the dye concentration as well as the suitable amount of irradiated alanine has been studied. With respect to routine application, the stability of the product complex after its formation was also investigated

  2. Development of Digital Readout Electronics for the CMS Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Corrin, E P

    2002-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general-purpose detector, based at CERN in Switzerland, designed to look for new physics in high-energy protonproton collisions provided by the Large Hadron Collider. The CMS tracker has 10 million readout channels being sampled at a rate of 40 MHz, then read out at up to 100 kHz, generating huge volumes of data; it is essential that the system can handle these rates without any of the data being lost or corrupted. The CMS tracker FED processes the data, removing pedestal and common mode-noise, and then performing hit and cluster finding. Strips below threshold are discarded, resulting in a significant reduction in data size. These zero suppressed data are stored in a buffer before being sent to the DAQ. The processing on the FEDs is done using FPGAs. Programmable logic was chosen over custom ASICs because of the lower cost, faster design and verification process, and the ability to easily upgrade the firmware at a later date. This thesis is concerned with the digital read...

  3. Low-noise readout circuit for SWIR focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altun, Oguz; Tasdemir, Ferhat; Nuzumlali, Omer Lutfi; Kepenek, Reha; Inceturkmen, Ercihan; Akyurek, Fatih; Tunca, Can; Akbulut, Mehmet

    2017-02-01

    This paper reports a 640x512 SWIR ROIC with 15um pixel pitch that is designed and fabricated using 0.18um CMOS process. Main challenge of SWIR ROIC design is related to input circuit due to pixel area and noise limitations. In this design, CTIA with single stage amplifier is utilized as input stage. The pixel design has three pixel gain options; High Gain (HG), Medium Gain (MG), and Low Gain (LG) with corresponding Full-Well-Capacities of 18.7ké, 190ké and 1.56Mé, respectively. According to extracted simulation results, 5.9é noise is achieved at HG mode and 200é is achieved at LG mode of operation. The ROIC can be programmed through an SPI interface. It supports 1, 2 and 4 output modes which enables the user to configure the detector to work at 30, 60 and 120fps frame rates. In the 4 output mode, the total power consumption of the ROIC is less than 120mW. The ROIC is powered from a 3.3V analog supply and allows for an output swing range in excess of 2V. Anti-blooming feature is added to prevent any unwanted blooming effect during readout.

  4. Test beam studies for the atlas tile calorimeter readout electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Phase II upgrade aims to increase the accelerator luminosity by a factor of 5-10. Due to the expected higher radiation levels and the aging of the current electronics, a new readout system for the Tile hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment is needed. A prototype of the upgrade TileCal electronics has been tested using the beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) accelerator at CERN. Data were collected with beams of muons, electrons and hadrons at various incident energies and impact angles. The muon data allow to study the response dependence on the incident point and angle in a cell and inter-calibration of the response between cells. The electron data are used to determine the linearity of the electron energy measurement. The hadron data allow to determined the calorimeter response to pions, kaons and protons and tune the calorimeter simulation to that data. The results of the ongoing data analyses are discussed in the presentation.

  5. Toward a reduced-wire readout system for ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jaemyung; Arkan, Evren F; Degertekin, F Levent; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    We present a system-on-a-chip (SoC) for use in high-frequency capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) imaging systems. This SoC consists of trans-impedance amplifiers (TIA), delay locked loop (DLL) based clock multiplier, quadrature sampler, and pulse width modulator (PWM). The SoC down converts RF echo signal to baseband by quadrature sampling which facilitates modulation. To send data through a 1.6 m wire in the catheter which has limited bandwidth and is vulnerable to noise, the SoC creates a pseudo-digital PWM signal which can be used for back telemetry or wireless readout of the RF data. In this implementation, using a 0.35-μm std. CMOS process, the TIA and single-to-differential (STD) converter had 45 MHz bandwidth, the quadrature sampler had 10.1 dB conversion gain, and the PWM had 5-bit ENoB. Preliminary results verified front-end functionality, and the power consumption of a TIA, STD, quadrature sampler, PWM, and clock multiplier was 26 mW from a 3 V supply.

  6. Characterization of Medipix3 with the MARS readout and software

    CERN Document Server

    Ronaldson, J P; van Leeuwen, D; Doesburg, R M N; Ballabriga, R; Butler, A P H; Donaldson, J; Walsh, M; Nik, S J; Clyne, M N

    2011-01-01

    The Medipix3 x-ray imaging detector has been characterized using the MARS camera. This x-ray camera comprises custom built readout electronics and software libraries designed for the Medipix family of detectors. The performance of the Medipix3 and MARS camera system is being studied prior to use in real-world applications such as the recently developed MARS-CT3 spectroscopic micro-CT scanner. We present the results of characterization measurements, describe methods for optimizing performance and give examples of spectroscopic images acquired with Medipix3 and the MARS camera system. A limited number of operating modes of the Medipix3 chip have been characterized and single-pixel mode has been found to give acceptable performance in terms of energy response, image quality and stability over time. Spectroscopic performance is significantly better in charge-summing mode than single-pixel mode however image quality and stability over time are compromised. There are more modes of operation to be tested and further...

  7. A CMOS smart temperature and humidity sensor with combined readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Clemens; Valente, Virgilio; Donaldson, Nick; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2014-09-16

    A fully-integrated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor for combined temperature and humidity measurements is presented. The main purpose of the device is to monitor the hermeticity of micro-packages for implanted integrated circuits and to ensure their safe operation by monitoring the operating temperature and humidity on-chip. The smart sensor has two modes of operation, in which either the temperature or humidity is converted into a digital code representing a frequency ratio between two oscillators. This ratio is determined by the ratios of the timing capacitances and bias currents in both oscillators. The reference oscillator is biased by a current whose temperature dependency is complementary to the proportional to absolute temperature (PTAT) current. For the temperature measurement, this results in an exceptional normalized sensitivity of about 0.77%/°C at the accepted expense of reduced linearity. The humidity sensor is a capacitor, whose value varies linearly with relative humidity (RH) with a normalized sensitivity of 0.055%/% RH. For comparison, two versions of the humidity sensor with an area of either 0.2 mm2 or 1.2 mm2 were fabricated in a commercial 0.18 μm CMOS process. The on-chip readout electronics operate from a 5 V power supply and consume a current of approximately 85 µA.

  8. Monolithic pixels on moderate resistivity substrate and sparsifying readout architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Giubilato, P; Snoeys, W; Bisello, D; Marchioro, A; Battaglia, M; Demaria, L; Mansuy, S C; Pantano, D; Rousset, J; Mattiazzo, S; Kloukinas, K; Potenza, A; Ikemoto, Y; Rivetti, A; Chalmet, P; Mugnier, H; Silvestrin, L

    2013-01-01

    The LePix projects aim realizing a new generation monolithic pixel detectors with improved performances at lesser cost with respect to both current state of the art monolithic and hybrid pixel sensors. The detector is built in a 90 nm CMOS process on a substrate of moderate resistivity. This allows charge collection by drift while maintaining the other advantages usually offered by MAPS, like having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line. The collection by drift mechanism, coupled to the low capacitance design of the collecting node made possible by the monolithic approach, provides an excellent signal to noise ratio straight at the pixel cell together with a radiation tolerance far superior to conventional un-depleted MAPS. The excellent signal-to-noise performance is demonstrated by the device ability to separate the 6 keV Fe-55 double peak at room temperature. To achieve high granularity (10-20 mu m pitch pixels) over large detector areas maintaining high readout speed, a complet...

  9. Performance of monolayer graphene nanomechanical resonators with electrical readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changyao; Rosenblatt, Sami; Bolotin, Kirill I; Kalb, William; Kim, Philip; Kymissis, Ioannis; Stormer, Horst L; Heinz, Tony F; Hone, James

    2009-12-01

    The enormous stiffness and low density of graphene make it an ideal material for nanoelectromechanical applications. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication and electrical readout of monolayer graphene resonators, and test their response to changes in mass and temperature. The devices show resonances in the megahertz range, and the strong dependence of resonant frequency on applied gate voltage can be fitted to a membrane model to yield the mass density and built-in strain of the graphene. Following the removal and addition of mass, changes in both density and strain are observed, indicating that adsorbates impart tension to the graphene. On cooling, the frequency increases, and the shift rate can be used to measure the unusual negative thermal expansion coefficient of graphene. The quality factor increases with decreasing temperature, reaching approximately 1 x 10(4) at 5 K. By establishing many of the basic attributes of monolayer graphene resonators, the groundwork for applications of these devices, including high-sensitivity mass detectors, is put in place.

  10. TELL1: development of a common readout board for LHCb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legger, Federica; Bay, Aurelio; Haefeli, Guido; Locatelli, Laurent

    2004-01-01

    LHCb is one of the four experiments currently under construction at LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at CERN, and its aim is the study of b-quark physics (LHCb Collaboration, CERN-LHCC/98-4). LHCb trigger strategy is based on three levels, and will reduce the event rate from 40 MHz to a few hundred Hz (LHCb Collaboration, CERN/LHCC 2003-031, LHCb TDR 10, September 2003). The first two levels (L0 and L1) will use signals from some part of the detector in order to take fast decisions, while the last one, called High Level Trigger (HLT), will have access to the full event data. An 'off detector' readout board (TELL1) has been developed and will be used by the majority of LHCb subdetectors. It takes L0 accepted data as input and, after data processing which includes event synchronization, L1 Trigger pre-processing and zero suppression, L1 buffering, and HLT zero suppression, the output is sent to L1 Trigger and HLT

  11. Performance of a thermal imager employing a hybrid pyroelectric detector array with MOSFET readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watton, R.; Mansi, M.V.

    1988-01-01

    A thermal imager employing a two-dimensional hybrid array of pyroelectric detectors with MOSFET readout has been built. The design and theoretical performance of the detector are discussed, and the results of performance measurements are presented. 8 references

  12. A Front-End Readout Architecture for the CMS Barrel Muon Detector: A Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguayo, P.; Alberdi, J.; Barcala, J.M.; Marin, J.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Pablos, J.L. de; Romero, L.; Willmot, C.

    1995-01-01

    A feasibility study of a possible architecture for the CMS barrel muon detector readout electronics is presented. some aspects of system reliability are discussed. Values for the required FIFO's to store data during the first level trigger latency are given

  13. Ligands, cell-based models, and readouts required for Toll-like receptor action.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dellacasagrande, Jerome

    2012-02-01

    This chapter details the tools that are available to study Toll-like receptor (TLR) biology in vitro. This includes ligands, host cells, and readouts. The use of modified TLRs to circumvent some technical problems is also discussed.

  14. A new TLD badge with machine readable ID for fully automated readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, S. Ratna P.; Kulkarni, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    The TLD badge currently being used for personnel monitoring of more than 40,000 radiation workers has a few drawbacks such as lack of on-badge machine readable ID code, delicate two-point clamping of dosimeters on an aluminium card with the chances of dosimeters falling off during handling or readout, projections on one side making automation of readout difficult etc. A new badge has been designed with a 8-digit identification code in the form of an array of holes and smooth exteriors to enable full automation of readout. The new badge also permits changing of dosimeters when necessary. The new design does not affect the readout time or the dosimetric characteristics. The salient features and the dosimetric characteristics are discussed. (author)

  15. Printed low velocity delay lines for cathode readout of proportional chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosshard, R.; Chase, R.L.; Fischer, J.; Radeka, V.

    1974-01-01

    A readout which simultaneously insures a correct electric field, a satisfactory induced signal, the delay function itself, and low particle scattering is described for multiwire proportional chambers. (U.S.)

  16. Researchers develop CCD image sensor with 20ns per row parallel readout time

    CERN Multimedia

    Bush, S

    2004-01-01

    "Scientists at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in Oxfordshire have developed what they claim is the fastest CCD (charge-coupled device) image sensor, with a readout time which is 20ns per row" (1/2 page)

  17. Front-end module readout and control electronics for the PHENIX Multiplicity Vertex Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, M.N.; Allen, M.D.; Boissevain, J.

    1997-11-01

    Front-end module (FEM) readout and control are implemented as modular, high-density, reprogrammable functions in the PHENIX Multiplicity Vertex Detector. FEM control is performed by the heap manager, an FPGA-based circuit in the FEM unit. Each FEM has 256 channels of front-end electronics, readout, and control, all located on an MCM. Data readout, formatting, and control are performed by the heap manager along with 4 interface units that reside outside the MVD detector cylinder. This paper discusses the application of a generic heap manager and the addition of 4 interface module types to meet the specific control and data readout needs of the MVD. Unit functioning, interfaces, timing, data format, and communication rates will be discussed in detail. In addition, subsystem issues regarding mode control, serial architecture and functions, error handling, and FPGA implementation and programming will be presented

  18. Simplification of the DREAM collaboration's “Q/S method” in dual readout calorimetry analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groom, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    The DREAM collaboration has introduced the “Q/S Method” for obtaining the energy estimator from simultaneous Cherenkov and scintillator readouts of individual hadronic events. I show that the algorithm is equivalent to an elementary method.

  19. Data readout system for proportional chambers; Sistema schityvaniya informatsii s proportsional`nykh kamer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuravlev, N I; Sidorov, V T

    1996-12-31

    Paper studies data readout system designed for data output from proportional chambers with up to 1000 channel total number. Short descriptions of the above mentioned units made according to CAMAC standard and their main characteristics are presented here. 2 figs.

  20. Development of pixel readout integrated circuits for extreme rate and radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Sciveres, M; CERN. Geneva. The LHC experiments Committee; LHCC

    2013-01-01

    Letter of Intent for RD Collaboration Proposal focused on development of a next generation pixel readout integrated circuits needed for high luminosity LHC detector upgrades. Brings together ATLAS and CMS pixel chip design communities.

  1. Application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) readout technologies for future ion beam analytical instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitlow, Harry J. E-mail: harry_j.whitlow@nuclear.lu.se

    2000-03-01

    New possibilities for ion beam analysis (IBA) are afforded by recent developments in detector technology which facilitate the parallel collection of data from a large number of channels. Application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) technologies, which have been widely employed for multi-channel readout systems in nuclear and particle physics, are more net-cost effective (160/channel for 1000 channels) and a more rational solution for readout of a large number of channels than afforded by conventional electronics. Based on results from existing and on-going chip designs, the possibilities and issues of ASIC readout technology are considered from the IBA viewpoint. Consideration is given to readout chip architecture and how the stringent resolution, linearity and stability requirements for IBA may be met. In addition the implications of the restrictions imposed by ASIC technology are discussed.

  2. Test of high time resolution MRPC with different readout modes for the BESIII upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S. [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China(USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Sun, Y.J., E-mail: sunday@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China(USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Li, C., E-mail: licheng@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China(USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Heng, Y.K.; Qian, S. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences(IHEP), Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Chen, H.F.; Chen, T.X. [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China(USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Dai, H.L. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences(IHEP), Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Fan, H.H.; Liu, S.B. [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China(USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Liu, S.D.; Jiang, X.S. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences(IHEP), Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Shao, M.; Tang, Z.B.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, Z.G. [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China(USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China)

    2014-11-01

    In order to further enhance the particle identification capability of the Beijing Spectrometer (BESIII), it is proposed to upgrade the current end-cap time-of-flight (eTOF) detector with multi-gap resistive plate chamber (MRPC). The prototypes, together with the front end electronics (FEE) and time digitizer (TDIG) module have been tested at the E3 line of Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPCII) to study the difference between the single and double-end readout MRPC designs. The time resolutions (sigma) of the single-end readout MRPC are 47/53 ps obtained by 600 MeV/c proton/pion beam, while that of the double-end readout MRPC is 40 ps (proton beam). The efficiencies of three MRPC modules tested by both proton and pion beam are better than 98%. For the double-end readout MRPC, no incident position dependence is observed.

  3. Readout Unit-FPGA version for link multipexers, DAQ and VELO trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, H; Guirao, A; Bal, F

    2003-01-01

    The FPGA-based Readout Unit (RU) was designed as entry stage to the readout networks of the LHCb data acquisition and L1-VELO topology trigger systems. The RU performs subevent building from up to 16 custom S-link inputs towards a commercial readout network via a PCI interface card. For output to custom links, as required in datalink multiplexer applications, an output S-link transmitter interface is alternatively available. Baseline readout networks for the RU are intelligent Gbit-ethernet NIC cards for the DAQ system and SCI shared memory network for the L1-VELO system. Any new protocols, like 10Gbit ethernet or Infiniband may be adopted as far as proper PCI interfaces and Linux device drivers will become available. The two baseline RU modes of operation are: 1.) link-multiplexer with N*Slink to single-Slink 2.) eventbuilder interface with quad Slink-to-PCI network interface.

  4. Design of readout drivers for ATLAS pixel detectors using field programmable gate arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Sivasubramaniyan, Sriram

    Microstrip detectors are an integral patt of high energy physics research . Special protocols are used to transmit the data from these detectors . To readout the data from such detectors specialized instrumentation have to be designed . To achieve this task, creative and innovative high speed algorithms were designed simulated and implemented in Field Programmable gate arrays, using CAD/CAE tools. The simulation results indicated that these algorithms would be able to perform all the required tasks quickly and efficiently. This thesis describes the design of data acquisition system called the Readout Drivers (ROD) . It focuses on the ROD data path for ATLAS Pixel detectors. The data path will be an integrated part of Readout Drivers setup to decode the data from the silicon micro strip detectors and pixel detectors. This research also includes the design of Readout Driver controller. This Module is used to control the operation of the ROD. This module is responsible for the operation of the Pixel decoders bas...

  5. A new PCI card for readout in high energy physics experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Floris, M; Marras, D; Usai, G L; David, A

    2004-01-01

    Recently some high energy physics experiments started to adopt readout systems based on the PCI architecture. In this context a new PCI card that can be adapted to several readout schemes has been designed. The card contains a large 64 MB local buffer, programmable FPGA logic and a PLX PCI bridge. The solution to use a PCI bridge external to the programmable logic allows to greatly simplify projects at the level of the on-board local bus. The card is presently used as the basic readout unit of the NA60 experiment. In this context, coupling it to different mezzanine cards it is possible to create interfaces to VME/CAMAC modules or to custom front-end electronics as for the case of the silicon vertex detector. Moreover, it is used as a readout test system for the ALICE muon chambers. (10 refs).

  6. Study of multi-channel readout ASIC and its discrete module for particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ke; Fan Lei; Zhang Shengjun; Li Xian

    2013-01-01

    Recently, kinds of particle detectors have used Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) in their electronics readout systems, it is the key part for the whole system. This project designed a multi-channel readout ASIC for general detectors. The chip has Preamplifier, Shaper and Peak Detector embedded for easy readout. For each channel, signal which is preprocessed by a low-noise preamplifier is sent to the shaper to form a quasi-Gaussian pulse and keep its peak for readout. This chip and modules of individual Preamplifier, Shaper and Peak Detector have been manufactured and tested. The discrete modules work well, and the 6-channel chip NPRE 6 is ready for test in some particle detection system. (authors)

  7. An encoding readout method used for Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPCs) for muon tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, X.; Zeng, M.; Wang, Y.; Wang, X.; Zeng, Z.; Zhao, Z.; Cheng, J.

    2014-09-01

    A muon tomography facility has been built in Tsinghua University. Because of the low flux of cosmic muon, an encoding readout method, based on the fine-fine configuration, was implemented for the 2880 channels induced signals from the Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) detectors. With the encoding method, the number of the readout electronics was dramatically reduced and thus the complexity and the cost of the facility was reduced, too. In this paper, the details of the encoding method, and the overall readout system setup in the muon tomography facility are described. With the commissioning of the facility, the readout method works well. The spatial resolution of all MRPC detectors are measured with cosmic muon and the preliminary imaging result are also given.

  8. An encoding readout method used for Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPCs) for muon tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, X; Zeng, M; Wang, Y; Wang, X; Zeng, Z; Zhao, Z; Cheng, J

    2014-01-01

    A muon tomography facility has been built in Tsinghua University. Because of the low flux of cosmic muon, an encoding readout method, based on the fine-fine configuration, was implemented for the 2880 channels induced signals from the Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) detectors. With the encoding method, the number of the readout electronics was dramatically reduced and thus the complexity and the cost of the facility was reduced, too. In this paper, the details of the encoding method, and the overall readout system setup in the muon tomography facility are described. With the commissioning of the facility, the readout method works well. The spatial resolution of all MRPC detectors are measured with cosmic muon and the preliminary imaging result are also given

  9. Electronic zooming TV readout system for an x-ray microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, K.; Matsumura, T.; Inagaki, Y.; Hirai, N.; Sugiyama, M.; Kihara, H.; Watanabe, N.; Shimanuki, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The electronic zooming TV readout system using the X-ray zooming tube has been developed for purposes of real-time readout of very high resolution X-ray image, e.g. the output image from an X-ray microscope. The system limiting resolution is 0.2∼0.3 μm and it is easy to operate in practical applications

  10. Characteristics of a delay-line readout in a cylindrical drift chamber system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, R.; Ahmed, M.W.; Dzemidzic, M.; Empl, A.; Hungerford, E.V.; Lan, K.J.; Wilson, J.; Cooper, M.D.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Haim, D.; Kim, G.J.; Koetke, D.D.; Tribble, R.E.; Van Ausdeln, L.A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on the design, construction, and operational characteristics of a delay-line readout implemented on the cathode foils of a cylindrical drift chamber system. The readout was used to determine the position of an event along the length of the 1.74 m drift wires in the MEGA detectors used at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. The performance of the system is interpreted by comparison to a PSPICE simulation, and to simple analytical models

  11. The prototype readout chain for CBM using the AFCK board and its software components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizeau, Pierre-Alain; Emscherman, David; Lehnert, Jörg; Müller, Walter F. J.; Yang, Junfeng

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a prototype for the readout chain of the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment using the AFCK FPGA board as Data Processing Board (DPB). The components of the readout chain are described, followed by some test setups, all based on different flavors of AFCK-DPB. Details about the functional blocks in the different versions of the DPB firmware are given, followed by a description of the corresponding software elements.

  12. Design of a hysteretic SQUID as the readout for a dc SQUID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershenson, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper present a design for an optimal hysteretic SQUID readout circuit for a DC SQUID, thus eliminating the need for bulky output transformers or resonance matching circuits. The hysteretic readout system, which is based in part on standard sampling theory, is compared to another similar system and shown to be superior in terms of slew rate and immunity of electromagnetic interference. The circuit will be useful in optimizing the performance of biomagnetic systems

  13. The Data Merger Readout Controller for the NA48 experiment data acquisition electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galagedera, S.B.; Brierton, B.; Halsall, R.

    1996-01-01

    The NA48 experiment at the CERN SPS offers a four fold improvement in statistical and systematic error over earlier measurements of the magnitude of the direct CP (Charge-Parity) violation of the neutral Kaon system. This requires maximum event readout efficiency, controlled event building and fast monitoring of run time errors. The event data flow in particular must be sustained at 100 Mbyte/s. The Data Merger Readout Controller presented in this paper offers this facility at minimal production cost

  14. Compensated readout for high-density MOS-gated memristor crossbar array

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2015-01-01

    Leakage current is one of the main challenges facing high-density MOS-gated memristor arrays. In this study, we show that leakage current ruins the memory readout process for high-density arrays, and analyze the tradeoff between the array density and its power consumption. We propose a novel readout technique and its underlying circuitry, which is able to compensate for the transistor leakage-current effect in the high-density gated memristor array.

  15. Digital radiography using amorphous selenium: photoconductively activated switch (PAS) readout system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznik, Nikita; Komljenovic, Philip T; Germann, Stephen; Rowlands, John A

    2008-03-01

    A new amorphous selenium (a-Se) digital radiography detector is introduced. The proposed detector generates a charge image in the a-Se layer in a conventional manner, which is stored on electrode pixels at the surface of the a-Se layer. A novel method, called photoconductively activated switch (PAS), is used to read out the latent x-ray charge image. The PAS readout method uses lateral photoconduction at the a-Se surface which is a revolutionary modification of the bulk photoinduced discharge (PID) methods. The PAS method addresses and eliminates the fundamental weaknesses of the PID methods--long readout times and high readout noise--while maintaining the structural simplicity and high resolution for which PID optical readout systems are noted. The photoconduction properties of the a-Se surface were investigated and the geometrical design for the electrode pixels for a PAS radiography system was determined. This design was implemented in a single pixel PAS evaluation system. The results show that the PAS x-ray induced output charge signal was reproducible and depended linearly on the x-ray exposure in the diagnostic exposure range. Furthermore, the readout was reasonably rapid (10 ms for pixel discharge). The proposed detector allows readout of half a pixel row at a time (odd pixels followed by even pixels), thus permitting the readout of a complete image in 30 s for a 40 cm x 40 cm detector with the potential of reducing that time by using greater readout light intensity. This demonstrates that a-Se based x-ray detectors using photoconductively activated switches could form a basis for a practical integrated digital radiography system.

  16. A two-dimensional detector with delay line readout for slow neutron fields measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheremukhina, G.A.; Chernenko, S.P.; Ivanov, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the description of a two-dimensional detector of slow neutrons together with its readout and data acquisition electronics based on a PC/AT> The detector with a sensitive area of 260x140 mm 2 is based on a high pressure multiwire proportional chamber with delay line readout and gas filling of 3.0 atm. 3 He + propane. 25 refs.; 10 figs.; 2 tabs

  17. First considerations for a readout system for the ILD TPC with the Timepix3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Tobias [Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Collaboration: LCTPC-Deutschland-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    For the planned International Linear Collider (ILC) two detectors are proposed. One of them, the International Large Detector (ILD) uses a Time Projektion Chamber (TPC) as the main tracking device. As a readout system for this TPC, pixel chips are one of the considered options. An integrated Micromegas stage is foreseen as gas amplification stage, which is built directly on top of the chip. Since first tests of a Pixel-TPC with 160 Timepix ASICs showed promising results, one is interested in developing a detector using the Timepix3 ASIC. It has several advantages, first of all its feature to measure ToT and a ToA at the same time and its significantly increased readout rate. For this purpose a readout system needs to be developed which fulfils the requirements of the Timpix3 ASIC and also has a high scalability. The main challenges are the high speed readout with a clock of up to 640 MHz and the reliability of the system. Also, the data driven as well as the frame-based readout of the Timepix3 needs to be considered for the implementation. The main goal is to provide a fast and parallel readout of several million channels. An overview and the status of the planning is given. Also, the development challenges are discussed.

  18. General-purpose readout electronics for white neutron source at China Spallation Neutron Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Cao, P; Qi, X; Yu, T; Ji, X; Xie, L; An, Q

    2018-01-01

    The under-construction White Neutron Source (WNS) at China Spallation Neutron Source is a facility for accurate measurements of neutron-induced cross section. Seven spectrometers are planned at WNS. As the physical objectives of each spectrometer are different, the requirements for readout electronics are not the same. In order to simplify the development of the readout electronics, this paper presents a general method for detector signal readout. This method has advantages of expansibility and flexibility, which makes it adaptable to most detectors at WNS. In the WNS general-purpose readout electronics, signals from any kinds of detectors are conditioned by a dedicated signal conditioning module corresponding to this detector, and then digitized by a common waveform digitizer with high speed and high precision (1 GSPS at 12-bit) to obtain the full waveform data. The waveform digitizer uses a field programmable gate array chip to process the data stream and trigger information in real time. PXI Express platform is used to support the functionalities of data readout, clock distribution, and trigger information exchange between digitizers and trigger modules. Test results show that the performance of the WNS general-purpose readout electronics can meet the requirements of the WNS spectrometers.

  19. Readout Distance Enhancement of the Passive Wireless Multi-Parameter Sensing System Using a Repeater Coil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifeng Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A repeater coil is used to extend the detection distance of a passive wireless multi-parameter sensing system. The passive wireless sensing system has the ability of simultaneously monitoring three parameters by using backscatter modulation together with channel multiplexing. Two different repeater coils are designed and fabricated for readout distance enhancement of the sensing system: one is a PCB (printed circuit board repeater coil, and the other is a copper wire repeater coil. Under the conditions of fixed voltage and adjustable voltage, the maximum readout distance of the sensing system with and without a repeater coil is measured. Experimental results show that larger power supply voltage can help further increase the readout distance. The maximum readout distance of the sensing system with a PCB repeater coil has been extended 2.3 times, and the one with a copper wire repeater coil has been extended 3 times. Theoretical analysis and experimental results both indicate that the high Q factor repeater coil can extend the readout distance more. With the copper wire repeater coil as well as a higher power supply voltage, the passive wireless multi-parameter sensing system finally achieves a maximum readout distance of 13.5 cm.

  20. Central FPGA-based Destination and Load Control in the LHCb MHz Event Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobsson, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The readout strategy of the LHCb experiment [1] is based on complete event readout at 1 MHz [2]. Over 300 sub-detector readout boards transmit event fragments at 1 MHz over a commercial 70 Gigabyte/s switching network to a distributed event building and trigger processing farm with 1470 individual multi-core computer nodes [3]. In the original specifications, the readout was based on a pure push protocol. This paper describes the proposal, implementation, and experience of a powerful non-conventional mixture of a push and a pull protocol, akin to credit-based flow control. A high-speed FPGA-based central master module controls the event fragment packing in the readout boards, the assignment of the farm node destination for each event, and controls the farm load based on an asynchronous pull mechanism from each farm node. This dynamic readout scheme relies on generic event requests and the concept of node credit allowing load balancing and trigger rate regulation as a function of the global farm load. It also ...

  1. Accounting for Dark Current Accumulated during Readout of Hubble's ACS/WFC Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryon, Jenna E.; Grogin, Norman A.; Coe, Dan A.; ACS Team

    2018-06-01

    We investigate the properties of excess dark current accumulated during the 100-second full-frame readout of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Wide Field Channel (WFC) detectors. This excess dark current, called "readout dark", gives rise to ambient background gradients and hot columns in each ACS/WFC image. While readout dark signal is removed from science images during the bias correction step in CALACS, the additional noise from the readout dark is currently not taken into account. We develop a method to estimate the readout dark noise properties in ACS/WFC observations. We update the error (ERR) extensions of superbias images to include the appropriate noise from the ambient readout dark gradient and stable hot columns. In recent data, this amounts to about 5 e-/pixel added variance in the rows farthest from the WFC serial registers, and about 7 to 30 e-/pixel added variance along the stable hot columns. We also flag unstable hot columns in the superbias data quality (DQ) extensions. The new reference file pipeline for ACS/WFC implements these updates to our superbias creation process.

  2. A new readout control system for the LHCb upgrade at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessio, F; Jacobsson, R

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb experiment has proposed an upgrade towards a full 40 MHz readout system in order to run between five and ten times its initial design luminosity. The entire readout architecture will be upgraded in order to cope with higher sub-detector occupancies, higher rate and higher network load. In this paper, we describe the architecture, functionalities and a first hardware implementation of a new fast Readout Control system for the LHCb upgrade, which will be entirely based on FPGAs and bi-directional links. We also outline the real-time implementations of the new Readout Control system, together with solutions on how to handle the synchronous distribution of timing and synchronous information to the complex upgraded LHCb readout architecture. One section will also be dedicated to the control and usage of the newly developed CERN GBT chipset to transmit fast and slow control commands to the upgraded LHCb Front-End electronics. At the end, we outline the plans for the deployment of the system in the global LHCb upgrade readout architecture.

  3. Hard-to-fill vacancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ruth

    2010-09-29

    Skills for Health has launched a set of resources to help healthcare employers tackle hard-to-fill entry-level vacancies and provide sustainable employment for local unemployed people. The Sector Employability Toolkit aims to reduce recruitment and retention costs for entry-level posts and repare people for employment through pre-job training programmes, and support employers to develop local partnerships to gain access to wider pools of candidates and funding streams.

  4. Pushing hard on the accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1987-09-15

    The quest for new techniques to drive future generations of particle accelerators has been pushed hard in recent years, efforts having been highlighted by workshops in Europe, organized by the European Committee for Future Accelerators, and in the US. The latest ECFA Workshop on New Developments in Particle Acceleration Techniques, held at Orsay from 29 June to 4 July, showed how the initial frantic search for innovation is now maturing.

  5. CMS results on hard diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00107098

    2013-01-01

    In these proceedings we present CMS results on hard diffraction. Diffractive dijet production in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV is discussed. The cross section for dijet production is presented as a function of $\\tilde{\\xi}$, representing the fractional momentum loss of the scattered proton in single-diffractive events. The observation of W and Z boson production in events with a large pseudo-rapidity gap is also presented.

  6. LAMBDA 2M GaAs—A multi-megapixel hard X-ray detector for synchrotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennicard, D.; Smoljanin, S.; Pithan, F.; Sarajlic, M.; Rothkirch, A.; Yu, Y.; Liermann, H. P.; Morgenroth, W.; Winkler, B.; Jenei, Z.; Stawitz, H.; Becker, J.; Graafsma, H.

    2018-01-01

    Synchrotrons can provide very intense and focused X-ray beams, which can be used to study the structure of matter down to the atomic scale. In many experiments, the quality of the results depends strongly on detector performance; in particular, experiments studying dynamics of samples require fast, sensitive X-ray detectors. "LAMBDA" is a photon-counting hybrid pixel detector system for experiments at synchrotrons, based on the Medipix3 readout chip. Its main features are a combination of comparatively small pixel size (55 μm), high readout speed at up to 2000 frames per second with no time gap between images, a large tileable module design, and compatibility with high-Z sensors for efficient detection of higher X-ray energies. A large LAMBDA system for hard X-ray detection has been built using Cr-compensated GaAs as a sensor material. The system is composed of 6 GaAs tiles, each of 768 by 512 pixels, giving a system with approximately 2 megapixels and an area of 8.5 by 8.5 cm2. While the sensor uniformity of GaAs is not as high as that of silicon, its behaviour is stable over time, and it is possible to correct nonuniformities effectively by postprocessing of images. By using multiple 10 Gigabit Ethernet data links, the system can be read out at the full speed of 2000 frames per second. The system has been used in hard X-ray diffraction experiments studying the structure of samples under extreme pressure in diamond anvil cells. These experiments can provide insight into geological processes. Thanks to the combination of high speed readout, large area and high sensitivity to hard X-rays, it is possible to obtain previously unattainable information in these experiments about atomic-scale structure on a millisecond timescale during rapid changes of pressure or temperature.

  7. Playing Moderately Hard to Get

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Reysen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In two studies, we examined the effect of different degrees of attraction reciprocation on ratings of attraction toward a potential romantic partner. Undergraduate college student participants imagined a potential romantic partner who reciprocated a low (reciprocating attraction one day a week, moderate (reciprocating attraction three days a week, high (reciprocating attraction five days a week, or unspecified degree of attraction (no mention of reciprocation. Participants then rated their degree of attraction toward the potential partner. The results of Study 1 provided only partial support for Brehm’s emotion intensity theory. However, after revising the high reciprocation condition vignette in Study 2, supporting Brehm’s emotion intensity theory, results show that a potential partners’ display of reciprocation of attraction acted as a deterrent to participants’ intensity of experienced attraction to the potential partner. The results support the notion that playing moderately hard to get elicits more intense feelings of attraction from potential suitors than playing too easy or too hard to get. Discussion of previous research examining playing hard to get is also re-examined through an emotion intensity theory theoretical lens.

  8. CMOS optimization for radiation hardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbenwick, G.F.; Fossum, J.G.

    1975-01-01

    Several approaches to the attainment of radiation-hardened MOS circuits have been investigated in the last few years. These have included implanting the SiO 2 gate insulator with aluminum, using chrome-aluminum layered gate metallization, using Al 2 O 3 as the gate insulator, and optimizing the MOS fabrication process. Earlier process optimization studies were restricted primarily to p-channel devices operating with negative gate biases. Since knowledge of the hardness dependence upon processing and design parameters is essential in producing hardened integrated circuits, a comprehensive investigation of the effects of both process and design optimization on radiation-hardened CMOS integrated circuits was undertaken. The goals are to define and establish a radiation-hardened processing sequence for CMOS integrated circuits and to formulate quantitative relationships between process and design parameters and the radiation hardness. Using these equations, the basic CMOS design can then be optimized for radiation hardness and some understanding of the basic physics responsible for the radiation damage can be gained. Results are presented

  9. Automatic readout for nuclear emulsions in muon radiography of volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, A.; Bozza, C.; Consiglio, L.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Marco, N.; Kose, U.; Lauria, A.; Medinaceli, E.; Miyamoto, S.; Montesi, C.; Pupilli, F.; Rescigno, R.; Russo, A.; Sirignano, C.; Stellacci, S. M.; Strolin, P.; Tioukov, V.

    2012-04-01

    Nuclear emulsions are an effective choice in many scenarios of volcano radiography by cosmic-ray muons. They are cheap and emulsion-based detectors require no on-site power supply. Nuclear emulsion films provide sub-micrometric tracking precision and intrinsic angular accuracy better than 1 mrad. Imaging the inner structure of a volcano requires that the cosmic-ray absorption map be measured on wide angular range. High-absorption directions can be probed by allowing for large statistics, which implies a large overall flux, i.e. wide surface for the detector. A total area of the order of a few m2 is nowadays typical, thanks to the automatic readout tools originally developed for high-energy physics experiments such as CHORUS, PEANUT, OPERA. The European Scanning System is now being used to read out nuclear emulsion films exposed to cosmic rays on the side of volcanoes. The structure of the system is described in detail with respect to both hardware and software. Its present scanning speed of 20 cm2/h/side/microscope is suitable to fulfil the needs of the current exposures of nuclear emulsion films for muon radiograph, but it is worth to notice that applications in volcano imaging are among the driving forces pushing to increase the performances of the system. Preliminary results for the Unzen volcano of a joint effort by research groups in Italy and Japan show that the current system is already able to provide signal/background ratio in the range 100÷10000:1, depending on the quality cuts set in the off-line data analysis. The size of the smallest detectable structures in that experimental setup is constrained by the available statistics in the region of highest absorption to about 50 mrad, or 22 m under the top of the mountain. Another exposure is currently taking data at the Stromboli volcano. Readout of the exposed films is expected to begin in March 2012, and preliminary results will be available soon after. An effort by several universities and INFN has

  10. Biochemical systems approaches for the analysis of histone modification readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldi, Monica; Bremang, Michael; Bonaldi, Tiziana

    2014-08-01

    Chromatin is the macromolecular nucleoprotein complex that governs the organization of genetic material in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. In chromatin, DNA is packed with histone proteins into nucleosomes. Core histones are prototypes of hyper-modified proteins, being decorated by a large number of site-specific reversible and irreversible post-translational modifications (PTMs), which contribute to the maintenance and modulation of chromatin plasticity, gene activation, and a variety of other biological processes and disease states. The observations of the variety, frequency and co-occurrence of histone modifications in distinct patterns at specific genomic loci have led to the idea that hPTMs can create a molecular barcode, read by effector proteins that translate it into a specific transcriptional state, or process, on the underlying DNA. However, despite the fact that this histone-code hypothesis was proposed more than 10 years ago, the molecular details of its working mechanisms are only partially characterized. In particular, two questions deserve specific investigation: how the different modifications associate and synergize into patterns and how these PTM configurations are read and translated by multi-protein complexes into a specific functional outcome on the genome. Mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as a versatile tool to investigate chromatin biology, useful for both identifying and validating hPTMs, and to dissect the molecular determinants of histone modification readout systems. We review here the MS techniques and the proteomics methods that have been developed to address these fundamental questions in epigenetics research, emphasizing approaches based on the proteomic dissection of distinct native chromatin regions, with a critical evaluation of their present challenges and future potential. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Molecular mechanisms of histone modification function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Local readout enhancement for detuned signal-recycling interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehbein, Henning; Mueller-Ebhardt, Helge; Schnabel, Roman; Danzmann, Karsten; Somiya, Kentaro; Chen Yanbei; Li Chao

    2007-01-01

    High power detuned signal-recycling interferometers currently planned for second-generation interferometric gravitational-wave detectors (for example Advanced LIGO) are characterized by two resonances in the detection band, an optical resonance and an optomechanical resonance which is upshifted from the suspension pendulum frequency due to the so-called optical-spring effect. The detector's sensitivity is enhanced around these two resonances. However, at frequencies below the optomechanical resonance frequency, the sensitivity of such interferometers is significantly lower than non-optical-spring configurations with comparable circulating power; such a drawback can also compromise high-frequency sensitivity, when an optimization is performed on the overall sensitivity of the interferometer to a class of sources. In this paper, we clarify the reason for such a low sensitivity, and propose a way to fix this problem. Motivated by the optical-bar scheme of Braginsky, Gorodetsky, and Khalili, we propose to add a local readout scheme which measures the motion of the arm-cavity front mirror, which at low frequencies moves together with the arm-cavity end mirror, under the influence of gravitational waves. This scheme improves the low-frequency quantum-noise-limited sensitivity of optical-spring interferometers significantly and can be considered as an incorporation of the optical-bar scheme into currently planned second-generation interferometers. On the other hand it can be regarded as an extension of the optical-bar scheme. Taking compact binary inspiral signals as an example, we illustrate how this scheme can be used to improve the sensitivity of the planned Advanced LIGO interferometer, in various scenarios, using a realistic classical-noise budget. We also discuss how this scheme can be implemented in Advanced LIGO with relative ease

  12. An edge-readout, multilayer detector for positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Ruiz-Gonzalez, Maria; Furenlid, Lars R

    2018-04-10

    We present a novel gamma-ray-detector design based on total internal reflection (TIR) of scintillation photons within a crystal that addresses many limitations of traditional PET detectors. Our approach has appealing features, including submillimeter lateral resolution, DOI positioning from layer thickness, and excellent energy resolution. The design places light sensors on the edges of a stack of scintillator slabs separated by small air gaps and exploits the phenomenon that more than 80% of scintillation light emitted during a gamma-ray event reaches the edges of a thin crystal with polished faces due to TIR. Gamma-ray stopping power is achieved by stacking multiple layers, and DOI is determined by which layer the gamma ray interacts in. The concept of edge readouts of a thin slab was verified by Monte Carlo simulation of scintillation light transport. An LYSO crystal of dimensions 50.8 mm × 50.8 mm × 3.0 mm was modeled with five rectangular SiPMs placed along each edge face. The mean-detector-response functions (MDRFs) were calculated by simulating signals from 511 keV gamma-ray interactions in a grid of locations. Simulations were carried out to study the influence of choice of scintillator material and dimensions, gamma-ray photon energies, introduction of laser or mechanically induced optical barriers (LIOBs, MIOBs), and refractive indices of optical-coupling media and SiPM windows. We also analyzed timing performance including influence of gamma-ray interaction position and presence of optical barriers. We also modeled and built a prototype detector, a 27.4 mm × 27.4 mm × 3.0 mm CsI(Tl) crystal with 4 SiPMs per edge to experimentally validate the results predicted by the simulations. The prototype detector used CsI(Tl) crystals from Proteus outfitted with 16 Hamamatsu model S13360-6050PE MPPCs read out by an AiT-16-channel readout. The MDRFs were measured by scanning the detector with a collimated beam of 662-keV photons from a 137 Cs

  13. Test of an albedo neutron dosimetry system: TLD calibration and readout procedure, neutron calibration, dosimetry properties, routine application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piesch, E.; Burgkhardt, B.

    1988-03-01

    The two-component albedo dosemeter in use consists of an universal boron-loaded plastic encapsulation, the beta and albedo neutron windows of which are adopted to the corresponding TLD system of the manufacturers Alnor, Harshaw, Panasonic and Vinten. Beside the TLD detectors the capsule may contain also track etch detectors. Within a BMU project the system was investigated by four governmental measurement services in the FRG with respect to its qualification for personnel monitoring with emphasis in the readout and calibration procedures for the TLD system, the evaluation technique for the estimation of the photon and neutron dose equivalent in routine monitoring and the calibration of the personnel dosemeter in stray neutron fields. The test has shown the readiness of the system to act in the application areas of nuclear power reactors and linacs behind heavy shieldings, in the fuel element cycle, use of fissile materials, criticality, use of radionuclide sources, high energy particle accelerators. The uncertainty due to energy dependence was found to be within a factor of 2 for a single application area. In the case of irradiations from the front half space the dose equivalent H'(10) is indicated sufficiently independent of the direction of the radiation incidence. After completion of the test the albedo dosemeter became the official neutron personnel dosemeter in the FRG. It allows the separate estimation of the dose equivalent of hard beta radiation, photon radiation and neutrons. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Evaluation of local radiation damage in silicon sensor via charge collection mapping with the Timepix read-out chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platkevic, M; Jakubek, J; Jakubek, M; Pospisil, S; Zemlicka, J; Havranek, V; Semian, V

    2013-01-01

    Studies of radiation hardness of silicon sensors are standardly performed with single-pad detectors evaluating their global electrical properties. In this work we introduce a technique to visualize and determine the spatial distribution of radiation damage across the area of a semiconductor sensor. The sensor properties such as charge collection efficiency and charge diffusion were evaluated locally at many points of the sensor creating 2D maps. For this purpose we used a silicon sensor bump bonded to the pixelated Timepix read-out chip. This device, operated in Time-over-threshold (TOT) mode, allows for the direct energy measurement in each pixel. Selected regions of the sensor were intentionally damaged by defined doses (up to 10 12 particles/cm 2 ) of energetic protons (of 2.5 and 4 MeV). The extent of the damage was measured in terms of the detector response to the same ions. This procedure was performed either on-line during irradiation or off-line after it. The response of the detector to each single particle was analyzed determining the charge collection efficiency and lateral charge diffusion. We evaluated the changes of these parameters as a function of radiation dose. These features are related to the local properties such as the spatial homogeneity of the sensor. The effect of radiation damage was also independently investigated measuring local changes of signal response to γ, and X rays and alpha particles.

  15. Impact of aging on radiation hardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Fleetwood, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    Burn-in effects are used to demonstrate the potential impact of thermally activated aging effects on functional and parametric radiation hardness. These results have implications on hardness assurance testing. Techniques for characterizing aging effects are proposed

  16. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quitting drugs is hard because addiction is a brain disease. Your brain is like a control tower that sends out ... and choices. Addiction changes the signals in your brain and makes it hard to feel OK without ...

  17. Central FPGA-based destination and load control in the LHCb MHz event readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsson, R.

    2012-10-01

    The readout strategy of the LHCb experiment is based on complete event readout at 1 MHz. A set of 320 sub-detector readout boards transmit event fragments at total rate of 24.6 MHz at a bandwidth usage of up to 70 GB/s over a commercial switching network based on Gigabit Ethernet to a distributed event building and high-level trigger processing farm with 1470 individual multi-core computer nodes. In the original specifications, the readout was based on a pure push protocol. This paper describes the proposal, implementation, and experience of a non-conventional mixture of a push and a pull protocol, akin to credit-based flow control. An FPGA-based central master module, partly operating at the LHC bunch clock frequency of 40.08 MHz and partly at a double clock speed, is in charge of the entire trigger and readout control from the front-end electronics up to the high-level trigger farm. One FPGA is dedicated to controlling the event fragment packing in the readout boards, the assignment of the farm node destination for each event, and controls the farm load based on an asynchronous pull mechanism from each farm node. This dynamic readout scheme relies on generic event requests and the concept of node credit allowing load control and trigger rate regulation as a function of the global farm load. It also allows the vital task of fast central monitoring and automatic recovery in-flight of failing nodes while maintaining dead-time and event loss at a minimum. This paper demonstrates the strength and suitability of implementing this real-time task for a very large distributed system in an FPGA where no random delays are introduced, and where extreme reliability and accurate event accounting are fundamental requirements. It was in use during the entire commissioning phase of LHCb and has been in faultless operation during the first two years of physics luminosity data taking.

  18. Central FPGA-based destination and load control in the LHCb MHz event readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, R.

    2012-01-01

    The readout strategy of the LHCb experiment is based on complete event readout at 1 MHz. A set of 320 sub-detector readout boards transmit event fragments at total rate of 24.6 MHz at a bandwidth usage of up to 70 GB/s over a commercial switching network based on Gigabit Ethernet to a distributed event building and high-level trigger processing farm with 1470 individual multi-core computer nodes. In the original specifications, the readout was based on a pure push protocol. This paper describes the proposal, implementation, and experience of a non-conventional mixture of a push and a pull protocol, akin to credit-based flow control. An FPGA-based central master module, partly operating at the LHC bunch clock frequency of 40.08 MHz and partly at a double clock speed, is in charge of the entire trigger and readout control from the front-end electronics up to the high-level trigger farm. One FPGA is dedicated to controlling the event fragment packing in the readout boards, the assignment of the farm node destination for each event, and controls the farm load based on an asynchronous pull mechanism from each farm node. This dynamic readout scheme relies on generic event requests and the concept of node credit allowing load control and trigger rate regulation as a function of the global farm load. It also allows the vital task of fast central monitoring and automatic recovery in-flight of failing nodes while maintaining dead-time and event loss at a minimum. This paper demonstrates the strength and suitability of implementing this real-time task for a very large distributed system in an FPGA where no random delays are introduced, and where extreme reliability and accurate event accounting are fundamental requirements. It was in use during the entire commissioning phase of LHCb and has been in faultless operation during the first two years of physics luminosity data taking.

  19. The hard problem of cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmo Eriksson

    Full Text Available Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the "hard problem of cooperation" as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior.

  20. The hard problem of cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Kimmo; Strimling, Pontus

    2012-01-01

    Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the "hard problem of cooperation" as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition) change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior.