WorldWideScience

Sample records for hard metal manufacturing

  1. Additive manufacturing of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, Dirk; Seyda, Vanessa; Wycisk, Eric; Emmelmann, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM), the layer-by layer build-up of parts, has lately become an option for serial production. Today, several metallic materials including the important engineering materials steel, aluminium and titanium may be processed to full dense parts with outstanding properties. In this context, the present overview article describes the complex relationship between AM processes, microstructure and resulting properties for metals. It explains the fundamentals of Laser Beam Melting, Electron Beam Melting and Laser Metal Deposition, and introduces the commercially available materials for the different processes. Thereafter, typical microstructures for additively manufactured steel, aluminium and titanium are presented. Special attention is paid to AM specific grain structures, resulting from the complex thermal cycle and high cooling rates. The properties evolving as a consequence of the microstructure are elaborated under static and dynamic loading. According to these properties, typical applications are presented for the materials and methods for conclusion.

  2. Stress in hard metal films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.C.A.M.; Kamminga, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    In the absence of thermal stress, tensile stress in hard metal films is caused by grain boundary shrinkage and compressive stress is caused by ion peening. It is shown that the two contributions are additive. Moreover tensile stress generated at the grain boundaries does not relax by ion

  3. Hard template synthesis of metal nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamura, Go; Muto, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Atsunori

    2014-01-01

    Metal nanowires (NWs) have attracted much attention because of their high electron conductivity, optical transmittance, and tunable magnetic properties. Metal NWs have been synthesized using soft templates such as surface stabilizing molecules and polymers, and hard templates such as anodic aluminum oxide, mesoporous oxide, carbon nanotubes. NWs prepared from hard templates are composites of metals and the oxide/carbon matrix. Thus, selecting appropriate elements can simplify the production o...

  4. Examination of material manufactured by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dobránsky

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with assessing microstructural properties of metal component manufactured by additive DMLS technology. Two series of samples were assessed. The first one was manufactured without heat treatment. Samples in the second series were treated with heat in order to assess increase in hardness and influence on modification of microstructure. Subsequently, values of hardness were measured by Vickers Hardness Test and modification of microstructure was observed by optical microscope. Evaluations were carried out in three planes in order to assess the differences in layering of material during its processing. Differences in values of hardness and microstructural components were discovered by examination of changes in three planes.

  5. High performance sinter-HIP for hard metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongxia Chen; Deming Zhang; Yang Li; Jingping Chen

    2001-01-01

    The horizontal sinter-HIP equipment with great charge capacity and high performance, developed and manufactured by Central Iron and Steel Research Institute(CISRI), is mainly used for sintering and condensation of hard metals. This equipment is characterized by large hot zone, high heating speed, good temperature uniformity and fast cooling system. The equipment can provide uniform hot zone with temperature difference less than 6 o C at 1500-1600 o C and 6-10 MPa by controlling temperature, pressure and circulation of gas precisely. Using large scale horizontal sinter-HIP equipment to produce hard matals have many advantages such as stable quality, high efficiency of production, high rate of finished products and low production cost, so this equipment is a good choice for manufacturer of hard metals. (author)

  6. Hard template synthesis of metal nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go eKawamura

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Metal nanowires (NWs have attracted much attention because of their high electron conductivity, optical transmittance and tunable magnetic properties. Metal NWs have been synthesized using soft templates such as surface stabilizing molecules and polymers, and hard templates such as anodic aluminum oxide, mesoporous oxide, carbon nanotubes. NWs prepared from hard templates are composites of metals and the oxide/carbon matrix. Thus, selecting appropriate elements can simplify the production of composite devices. The resulting NWs are immobilized and spatially arranged, as dictated by the ordered porous structure of the template. This avoids the NWs from aggregating, which is common for NWs prepared with soft templates in solution. Herein, the hard template synthesis of metal NWs is reviewed, and the resulting structures, properties and potential applications are discussed.

  7. Hard template synthesis of metal nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Go; Muto, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Atsunori

    2014-11-01

    Metal nanowires (NWs) have attracted much attention because of their high electron conductivity, optical transmittance and tunable magnetic properties. Metal NWs have been synthesized using soft templates such as surface stabilizing molecules and polymers, and hard templates such as anodic aluminum oxide, mesoporous oxide, carbon nanotubes. NWs prepared from hard templates are composites of metals and the oxide/carbon matrix. Thus, selecting appropriate elements can simplify the production of composite devices. The resulting NWs are immobilized and spatially arranged, as dictated by the ordered porous structure of the template. This avoids the NWs from aggregating, which is common for NWs prepared with soft templates in solution. Herein, the hard template synthesis of metal NWs is reviewed, and the resulting structures, properties and potential applications are discussed.

  8. Cobalt allergy in hard metal workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, T; Rystedt, I

    1983-03-01

    Hard metal contains about 10% cobalt. 853 hard metal workers were examined and patch tested with substances from their environment. Initial patch tests with 1% cobalt chloride showed 62 positive reactions. By means of secondary serial dilution tests, allergic reactions to cobalt were reproduced in 9 men and 30 women. Weak reactions could not normally be reproduced. A history of hand eczema was found in 36 of the 39 individuals with reproducible positive test reactions to cobalt, while 21 of 23 with a positive initial patch test but negative serial dilution test had never had any skin problems. Hand etching and hand grinding, mainly female activities and traumatic to the hands, were found to involve the greatest risk of cobalt sensitization. 24 individuals had an isolated cobalt allergy. They had probably been sensitized by hard metal work, while the individuals, all women, who had simultaneous nickel allergy had probably been sensitized to nickel before their employment and then became sensitized to cobalt by hard metal work. A traumatic occupation, which causes irritant contact dermatitis and/or a previous contact allergy or atopy is probably a prerequisite for the development of cobalt allergy.

  9. Standard hardness conversion tables for metals relationship among brinell hardness, vickers hardness, rockwell hardness, superficial hardness, knoop hardness, and scleroscope hardness

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 Conversion Table 1 presents data in the Rockwell C hardness range on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, Knoop hardness, and Scleroscope hardness of non-austenitic steels including carbon, alloy, and tool steels in the as-forged, annealed, normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions provided that they are homogeneous. 1.2 Conversion Table 2 presents data in the Rockwell B hardness range on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, Knoop hardness, and Scleroscope hardness of non-austenitic steels including carbon, alloy, and tool steels in the as-forged, annealed, normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions provided that they are homogeneous. 1.3 Conversion Table 3 presents data on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, and Knoop hardness of nickel and high-nickel alloys (nickel content o...

  10. Laser-based additive manufacturing of metals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available For making metallic products through Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes, laser-based systems play very significant roles. Laser-based processes such as Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) are dominating processes...

  11. Standard test methods for rockwell hardness of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the Rockwell hardness and the Rockwell superficial hardness of metallic materials by the Rockwell indentation hardness principle. This standard provides the requirements for Rockwell hardness machines and the procedures for performing Rockwell hardness tests. 1.2 This standard includes additional requirements in annexes: Verification of Rockwell Hardness Testing Machines Annex A1 Rockwell Hardness Standardizing Machines Annex A2 Standardization of Rockwell Indenters Annex A3 Standardization of Rockwell Hardness Test Blocks Annex A4 Guidelines for Determining the Minimum Thickness of a Test Piece Annex A5 Hardness Value Corrections When Testing on Convex Cylindrical Surfaces Annex A6 1.3 This standard includes nonmandatory information in appendixes which relates to the Rockwell hardness test. List of ASTM Standards Giving Hardness Values Corresponding to Tensile Strength Appendix X1 Examples of Procedures for Determining Rockwell Hardness Uncertainty Appendix X...

  12. Standard test methods for rockwell hardness of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the Rockwell hardness and the Rockwell superficial hardness of metallic materials by the Rockwell indentation hardness principle. This standard provides the requirements for Rockwell hardness machines and the procedures for performing Rockwell hardness tests. 1.2 This standard includes additional requirements in annexes: Verification of Rockwell Hardness Testing Machines Annex A1 Rockwell Hardness Standardizing Machines Annex A2 Standardization of Rockwell Indenters Annex A3 Standardization of Rockwell Hardness Test Blocks Annex A4 Guidelines for Determining the Minimum Thickness of a Test Piece Annex A5 Hardness Value Corrections When Testing on Convex Cylindrical Surfaces Annex A6 1.3 This standard includes nonmandatory information in appendixes which relates to the Rockwell hardness test. List of ASTM Standards Giving Hardness Values Corresponding to Tensile Strength Appendix X1 Examples of Procedures for Determining Rockwell Hardness Uncertainty Appendix X...

  13. Materials and Manufacturing Processing; Special Issue on Hard Carbon Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    AZ 85721 G. SMOLIK, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 J.B. TERRELL, Reynolds Metals Company, P.O. Box 27003 ...18%Si alloy using inserts of ISO SPGN120308 and HEHN532FN. The damage to diamond films after cutting was examined by SEM and micro-laser Raman...uncoated cemented carbide insert corresponding to ISO K10 grade and sintered diamond insert were also used. Milling a hard carbon under dry condition The

  14. Hard metal lung disease: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Rafael Futoshi; Terra-Filho, Mário; Lima, Evelise; Freitas, Carolina Salim Gonçalves; Chate, Rodrigo Caruso; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib; Carvalho-Oliveira, Regiani; Santos, Ubiratan Paula

    2016-01-01

    To describe diagnostic and treatment aspects of hard metal lung disease (HMLD) and to review the current literature on the topic. This was a retrospective study based on the medical records of patients treated at the Occupational Respiratory Diseases Clinic of the Instituto do Coração, in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, between 2010 and 2013. Of 320 patients treated during the study period, 5 (1.56%) were diagnosed with HMLD. All of those 5 patients were male (mean age, 42.0 ± 13.6 years; mean duration of exposure to hard metals, 11.4 ± 8.0 years). Occupational histories were taken, after which the patients underwent clinical evaluation, chest HRCT, pulmonary function tests, bronchoscopy, BAL, and lung biopsy. Restrictive lung disease was found in all subjects. The most common chest HRCT finding was ground glass opacities (in 80%). In 4 patients, BALF revealed multinucleated giant cells. In 3 patients, lung biopsy revealed giant cell interstitial pneumonia. One patient was diagnosed with desquamative interstitial pneumonia associated with cellular bronchiolitis, and another was diagnosed with a hypersensitivity pneumonitis pattern. All patients were withdrawn from exposure and treated with corticosteroid. Clinical improvement occurred in 2 patients, whereas the disease progressed in 3. Although HMLD is a rare entity, it should always be included in the differential diagnosis of respiratory dysfunction in workers with a high occupational risk of exposure to hard metal particles. A relevant history (clinical and occupational) accompanied by chest HRCT and BAL findings suggestive of the disease might be sufficient for the diagnosis. Descrever aspectos relacionados ao diagnóstico e tratamento de pacientes com doença pulmonar por metal duro (DPMD) e realizar uma revisão da literatura. Estudo retrospectivo dos prontuários médicos de pacientes atendidos no Serviço de Doenças Respiratórias Ocupacionais do Instituto do Coração, localizado na cidade de S

  15. Development of Composite Grinding Wheels for Hard and Soft Metals

    OpenAIRE

    Pruti, Faruk

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates the performance of grinding wheel in terms of its internal granular particles and their effect on the surface finish for both soft and hard metals subjected to both dry and wet conditions of use. The study considers the properties of materials of construction including hardness of the granular particles and their size and distributions that affects the grinding wheel efficiency in abrading of soft and hard metal surfaces. Furthermore, in order to improve grinding pe...

  16. Additive manufacturing technologies of porous metal implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Quanzhan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical metal materials with good corrosion resistance and mechanical properties are widely used in orthopedic surgery and dental implant materials, but they can easily cause stress shielding due to the significant difference in elastic modulus between the implant and human bones. The elastic modulus of porous metals is lower than that of dense metals. Therefore, it is possible to adjust the pore parameters to make the elastic modulus of porous metals match or be comparable with that of the bone tissue. At the same time, the open porous metals with pores connected to each other could provide the structural condition for bone ingrowth, which is helpful in strengthening the biological combination of bone tissue with the implants. Therefore, the preparation technologies of porous metal implants and related research have been drawing more and more attention due to the excellent features of porous metals. Selective laser melting (SLM and electron beam melting technology (EBM are important research fields of additive manufacturing. They have the advantages of directly forming arbitrarily complex shaped metal parts which are suitable for the preparation of porous metal implants with complex shape and fine structure. As new manufacturing technologies, the applications of SLM and EBM for porous metal implants have just begun. This paper aims to understand the technology status of SLM and EBM, the research progress of porous metal implants preparation by using SLM and EBM, and the biological compatibility of the materials, individual design and manufacturing requirements. The existing problems and future research directions for porous metal implants prepared by SLM and EBM methods are discussed in the last paragraph.

  17. Additive Manufacturing of Porous Metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoff, Ryan R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kirka, Michael M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Currently, helium is obtained through separation from natural gas. The current industrial process incurs significant costs and requires large energy resources to successfully achieve separation. Through utilizing Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies it is possible to reduce both of these burdens when refining helium gas. The ability to engineer porosity levels within Inconel 718 discs for controlled separation of helium from natural gas was investigated. Arrays of samples fabricated using the electron beam melting process were analyzed for their relative porosity density. Based upon the measurements, full scale discs were fabricated, and subsequently tested to determine their effectiveness in separating helium from liquefied natural gas.

  18. Manufacture and study of osmotic metallic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschamps, Richard

    1970-01-01

    The manufacture of metallic membranes, which are semi-permeable to salt water, was investigated. The best results were obtained with nickel which had been deposited 'in situ' on sintered nickel, whose pore spectrum was sharp. The investigation showed that in the case of metallic membranes reverse osmosis is only a filtration. The large quantities of water produced and the low salt rejection rate compared to that with cellulose acetate membranes demonstrated that metallic membranes are better suited to depollution than desalination. (author) [fr

  19. Performance ratio hardness characteristics polystyrene-metal composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepikov, V.F.; Prokhorenko, E.M.; Lytvynenko, V.V.; Zakharchenko, A.A.; Hazhmuradov, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    The methods of measuring the hardness of layered polystyrene-metallic composite materials. It is proposed to use powder-like tungsten and powder-like steel as radiation-protective layer. A measurement of the hardness of composites of different composition, and given its dependence on the particle size and their form. The possibility of increasing the hardness of the composites reinforced with metallic additives. Radiation-protective characteristics were calculated for the studied species of composite materials. Influence of the quantitative composition of the metal components is studied on the change of the absorbed dose of gamma radiation

  20. Structure, production and properties of high-melting compounds and systems (hard materials and hard metals)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holleck, H.; Thuemmler, F.

    1979-07-01

    The report contains contributions by various authors to the research project on the production, structure, and physical properties of high-melting compounds and systems (hard metals and hard materials), in particular WC-, TaC-, and MoC-base materials. (GSCH) [de

  1. Micro Structure and Hardness Analysis of Brass Metal Welded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukman Faris, N.; Muljadi; Djuhana

    2018-01-01

    Brass metals are widely used for plumbing fittings. High tensile brasses are more highly alloyed and find uses in marine engineering. The welding of brass metal has been done by using electrical weld machine (SMAW). The microstructure of brass metal welded was observed by optical microscope. The result can see that the microstructure has been changed due to heat from welding. The microstructure of original brass metal is seen a fine laminar stucture, but the microstructure at HAZ appears bigger grains and some area at HAZ is seen coarser microstructure. The microstructure at weld zone can be seen that it was found some of agglomeration of materials from reaction between brass metal and electrode coating wire. According the hardness measurement, it is found highest hardness value about 301.92 HV at weld zone, and hardness value at base metal is 177.84 HV

  2. Fracture toughness measurements of WC-based hard metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, L.; Albert, B.

    1983-01-01

    The fracture toughness of WC-based cemented carbides was determined by different methods. The values obtained are dependent on the procedure of measurement. Each method thoughness of hard metals mutually. (orig.) [de

  3. Synthesis, Structure, and Properties of Refractory Hard-Metal Borides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Andrew Thomas

    As the limits of what can be achieved with conventional hard compounds, such as tungsten carbide, are nearing reach, super-hard materials are an area of increasing industrial interest. The refractory hard metal borides, such as ReB2 and WB4, offer an increasingly attractive alternative to diamond and cubic boron nitride as a next-generation tool material. In this Thesis, a thorough discussion is made of the progress achieved by our laboratory towards understanding the synthesis, structure, and properties of these extremely hard compounds. Particular emphasis is placed on structural manipulation, solid solution formation, and the unique crystallographic manifestations of what might also be called "super-hard metals".

  4. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review of Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, John J.; Seifi, Mohsen

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews published data on the mechanical properties of additively manufactured metallic materials. The additive manufacturing techniques utilized to generate samples covered in this review include powder bed fusion (e.g., EBM, SLM, DMLS) and directed energy deposition (e.g., LENS, EBF3). Although only a limited number of metallic alloy systems are currently available for additive manufacturing (e.g., Ti-6Al-4V, TiAl, stainless steel, Inconel 625/718, and Al-Si-10Mg), the bulk of the published mechanical properties information has been generated on Ti-6Al-4V. However, summary tables for published mechanical properties and/or key figures are included for each of the alloys listed above, grouped by the additive technique used to generate the data. Published values for mechanical properties obtained from hardness, tension/compression, fracture toughness, fatigue crack growth, and high cycle fatigue are included for as-built, heat-treated, and/or HIP conditions, when available. The effects of test orientation/build direction on properties, when available, are also provided, along with discussion of the potential source(s) (e.g., texture, microstructure changes, defects) of anisotropy in properties. Recommendations for additional work are also provided.

  5. Plasma spraying of refractory metals and refractory hard materials. State of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschnauer, H.; Lugscheider, E.; Jaeger, D.

    1989-01-01

    Suitable spraying processes for manufacturing refractory metals, refractory hard materials as well as spray materials with refractory components are the VPS- and IPS-spraying techniques. The advantages of these special spraying process variations are described. The reactive spraying materials are systematically organized. The characteristical properties used in purpose of improving the substrate surfaces are explained. Finally some examples of the latest results of research concerning plasma spraying of reactive materials are shown. 16 refs., 10 figs. (Author)

  6. Size effects in manufacturing of metallic components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollertsen, F; Biermann, D; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2009-01-01

    In manufacturing of metallic components, the size of the part plays an important role for the process behaviour. This is due to so called size effects, which lead to changes in the process behaviour even if the relationship between the main geometrical features is kept constant. The aim...... of this paper is to give a systematic review on Such effects and their potential use or remedy. First, the typology of size effects will be explained, followed by a description of size effects on strength and tribology. The last three sections describe size effects on formability, forming processes and cutting...... processes. (C) 2009 CIRP....

  7. Relationship between nickel and cobalt sensitization in hard metal workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rystedt, I; Fischer, T

    1983-05-01

    Eight hundred fifty-three hard metal workers were examined and patch tested with 20 substances from their environment, including nickel and cobalt. Nickel sensitivity was found in 2 men and 38 women. 88% of the nickel-sensitive individuals had developed a jewelry dermatitis prior to employment in the hard metal industry or before the appearance of hand eczema. 29% of the hard metal workers gave a history of slight irritant dermatitis. In the nickel sensitized group, 40% had had severe hand eczema which generally appeared 6-12 months after starting employment. In 25% of the cases, nickel sensitive individuals developed cobalt allergy, compared with 5% in the total population investigated. Most facts indicate that nickel sensitivity and irritant hand eczema precede cobalt sensitization. Hard metal workers with simultaneous nickel and cobalt sensitivity had a more severe hand eczema than those with isolated cobalt or nickel sensitivity or only irritant dermatitis. 64% of the female population had pierced ear lobes. Among the nickel allergic women, 95% had pierced ear lobes. The use of earrings containing nickel after piercing is strongly suspected of being the major cause of nickel sensitivity. Piercing at an early age seems to increase the risk of incurring nickel sensitivity.

  8. Commercial Implementation of Model-Based Manufacturing of Nanostructured Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, Terry C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-24

    Computational modeling is an essential tool for commercial production of nanostructured metals. Strength is limited by imperfections at the high strength levels that are achievable in nanostructured metals. Processing to achieve homogeneity at the micro- and nano-scales is critical. Manufacturing of nanostructured metals is intrinsically a multi-scale problem. Manufacturing of nanostructured metal products requires computer control, monitoring and modeling. Large scale manufacturing of bulk nanostructured metals by Severe Plastic Deformation is a multi-scale problem. Computational modeling at all scales is essential. Multiple scales of modeling must be integrated to predict and control nanostructural, microstructural, macrostructural product characteristics and production processes.

  9. The impact of the manufacturing process on the hardness and sensory properties of milk chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarić Danica B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine the impact of the manufacturing process on the textural characteristics and sensory properties of milk chocolate. The research was conducted on the samples of chocolate produced in a ball mill during 30, 60 and 90 minutes of refining, each of them being pre-crystallized at 26, 28 and 30°C. A chocolate mass of identical ingredient composition was also produced using a standard manufacturing process at the same pre-crystallization temperatures. Chocolate hardness was examined using a piece of equipment called Texture Analyser, measuring the stress intensity which leads to chocolate crushing. Sensory analysis was performed using the point scoring method. The new manufacturing process, i.e. the manufacturing of chocolate in a ball mill improves sensory properties and hardness of milk chocolate. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31014

  10. Metal oxide multilayer hard mask system for 3D nanofabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhongmei; Salmi, Emma; Vehkamäki, Marko; Leskelä, Markku; Ritala, Mikko

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate the preparation and exploitation of multilayer metal oxide hard masks for lithography and 3D nanofabrication. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) and focused ion beam (FIB) technologies are applied for mask deposition and mask patterning, respectively. A combination of ALD and FIB was used and a patterning procedure was developed to avoid the ion beam defects commonly met when using FIB alone for microfabrication. ALD grown Al2O3/Ta2O5/Al2O3 thin film stacks were FIB milled with 30 keV gallium ions and chemically etched in 5% tetramethylammonium hydroxide at 50 °C. With metal evaporation, multilayers consisting of amorphous oxides Al2O3 and Ta2O5 can be tailored for use in 2D lift-off processing, in preparation of embedded sub-100 nm metal lines and for multilevel electrical contacts. Good pattern transfer was achieved by lift-off process from the 2D hard mask for micro- and nano-scaled fabrication. As a demonstration of the applicability of this method to 3D structures, self-supporting 3D Ta2O5 masks were made from a film stack on gold particles. Finally, thin film resistors were fabricated by utilizing controlled stiction of suspended Ta2O5 structures.

  11. Hopper design for metallic powders used in additive manufacturing processes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Visagie, N

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of hopper geometry on the flow behaviour of typical metallic powders used in additive manufacturing processes is investigated. Bulk hopper theory provides a method of determining critical hopper parameters for bulk amounts...

  12. Exploring the mechanical strength of additively manufactured metal structures with embedded electrical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J., E-mail: J.Li5@lboro.ac.uk; Monaghan, T.; Masurtschak, S.; Bournias-Varotsis, A.; Friel, R.J.; Harris, R.A.

    2015-07-15

    Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM) enables the integration of a wide variety of components into solid metal matrices due to the process induced high degree of metal matrix plastic flow at low bulk temperatures. Exploitation of this phenomenon allows the fabrication of previously unobtainable novel engineered metal matrix components. The feasibility of directly embedding electrical materials within UAM metal matrices was investigated in this work. Three different dielectric materials were embedded into UAM fabricated aluminium metal-matrices with, research derived, optimal processing parameters. The effect of the dielectric material hardness on the final metal matrix mechanical strength after UAM processing was investigated systematically via mechanical peel testing and microscopy. It was found that when the Knoop hardness of the dielectric film was increased from 12.1 HK/0.01 kg to 27.3 HK/0.01 kg, the mechanical peel testing and linear weld density of the bond interface were enhanced by 15% and 16%, respectively, at UAM parameters of 1600 N weld force, 25 µm sonotrode amplitude, and 20 mm/s welding speed. This work uniquely identified that the mechanical strength of dielectric containing UAM metal matrices improved with increasing dielectric material hardness. It was therefore concluded that any UAM metal matrix mechanical strength degradation due to dielectric embedding could be restricted by employing a dielectric material with a suitable hardness (larger than 20 HK/0.01 kg). This result is of great interest and a vital step for realising electronic containing multifunctional smart metal composites for future industrial applications.

  13. Applications of Metal Additive Manufacturing in Veterinary Orthopedic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrysson, Ola L. A.; Marcellin-Little, Denis J.; Horn, Timothy J.

    2015-03-01

    Veterinary medicine has undergone a rapid increase in specialization over the last three decades. Veterinarians now routinely perform joint replacement, neurosurgery, limb-sparing surgery, interventional radiology, radiation therapy, and other complex medical procedures. Many procedures involve advanced imaging and surgical planning. Evidence-based medicine has also become part of the modus operandi of veterinary clinicians. Modeling and additive manufacturing can provide individualized or customized therapeutic solutions to support the management of companion animals with complex medical problems. The use of metal additive manufacturing is increasing in veterinary orthopedic surgery. This review describes and discusses current and potential applications of metal additive manufacturing in veterinary orthopedic surgery.

  14. Manufacturing processes of cellular metals. Part I. Liquid route processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, P.; Cruz, L. J.; Coleto, J.

    2008-01-01

    With its interesting and particular characteristics, cellular metals are taking part of the great family of new materials. They can have open or closed porosity. At the present time, the major challenge for the materials researchers is based in the manufacturing techniques improvement in order to obtain reproducible and reliable cellular metals with quality. In the present paper, the different production methods to manufacture cellular metals by liquid route are reviewed; making a short description about the main parameters involved and the advantages and drawbacks in each of them. (Author) 106 refs

  15. Metal fuel manufacturing and irradiation performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, D.R.; Walters, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    The advances in metal fuel by the Integral Fast Reactor Program at Argonne National Laboratory are the subject of this paper. The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an advanced liquid-metal-cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The advances stressed in the paper include fuel irradiation performance, and improved passive safety. The goals and the safety philosophy of the Integral Fast Reactor Program are stressed

  16. Process Modeling and Validation for Metal Big Area Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simunovic, Srdjan [ORNL; Nycz, Andrzej [ORNL; Noakes, Mark W. [ORNL; Chin, Charlie [Dassault Systemes; Oancea, Victor [Dassault Systemes

    2017-05-01

    Metal Big Area Additive Manufacturing (mBAAM) is a new additive manufacturing (AM) technology based on the metal arc welding. A continuously fed metal wire is melted by an electric arc that forms between the wire and the substrate, and deposited in the form of a bead of molten metal along the predetermined path. Objects are manufactured one layer at a time starting from the base plate. The final properties of the manufactured object are dependent on its geometry and the metal deposition path, in addition to depending on the basic welding process parameters. Computational modeling can be used to accelerate the development of the mBAAM technology as well as a design and optimization tool for the actual manufacturing process. We have developed a finite element method simulation framework for mBAAM using the new features of software ABAQUS. The computational simulation of material deposition with heat transfer is performed first, followed by the structural analysis based on the temperature history for predicting the final deformation and stress state. In this formulation, we assume that two physics phenomena are coupled in only one direction, i.e. the temperatures are driving the deformation and internal stresses, but their feedback on the temperatures is negligible. The experiment instrumentation (measurement types, sensor types, sensor locations, sensor placements, measurement intervals) and the measurements are presented. The temperatures and distortions from the simulations show good correlation with experimental measurements. Ongoing modeling work is also briefly discussed.

  17. Additive Manufacturing: Reproducibility of Metallic Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konda Gokuldoss Prashanth

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the properties of five different metals/alloys (Al-12Si, Cu-10Sn and 316L—face centered cubic structure, CoCrMo and commercially pure Ti (CP-Ti—hexagonal closed packed structure fabricated by selective laser melting. The room temperature tensile properties of Al-12Si samples show good consistency in results within the experimental errors. Similar reproducible results were observed for sliding wear and corrosion experiments. The other metal/alloy systems also show repeatable tensile properties, with the tensile curves overlapping until the yield point. The curves may then follow the same path or show a marginal deviation (~10 MPa until they reach the ultimate tensile strength and a negligible difference in ductility levels (of ~0.3% is observed between the samples. The results show that selective laser melting is a reliable fabrication method to produce metallic materials with consistent and reproducible properties.

  18. Reparatory and Manufacturing Hard-Facing of Working Parts Made of Stainless Steels in Confectionary Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rakic

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, for the sake of improving the reparatory hard-facing technology is especially analyzed reparatory hard-facing of tools for manufacturing compressed products in confectionary industry. Those products are being made of a mixture consisting of several powdery components, which is compressed under high pressure. In that way the connection between particles is realized, thus achieving certain hardness and strength of the confectionary product. The considered tool is made of high-alloyed stainless steel. The tool contains 30 identical working places. Besides the production process wear, on those tools, from time to time, appear mechanical damage on some of the products' shape punches, as cracks at the edges, where the products' final shapes are formed. Those damages are small, size wise, but they cause strong effect on the products' final shape. The aggravating circumstance is that the shape punch is extremely loaded in pressure, thus after the reparatory hard-facing, the additional heat treatment is necessary. Mechanical properties in the heat affected zone (HAZ are being leveled by annealing and what also partially reduces the residual internal stresses.

  19. Manufacturing method of the bronze metallic filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivij, N.; Suwardjo, W.; Garcia, L.; Cores, A.; Formoso, A.

    1997-01-01

    Granulated (spherical) powders of bronze have been produced by spraying molten metal with gas at high pressure in the experimental industrial installation belonging to the Metallurgical Research Centre (CIME) in Havana City. A physical-chemical and technological characterisation of the spherical bronze powder has been carried out and the optimum parameters have been determined from these powders. The mechanical properties of these filters can satisfactorily rival in applications such as in motor transport goods, in industry and agriculture. (AUthor)

  20. Radiation hardness of silicon detectors manufactured on wafers from various sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezillie, B.; Bates, S.; Glaser, M.; Lemeilleur, F.; Leroy, C.

    1997-01-01

    Impurity concentrations in the initial silicon material are expected to play an important role for the radiation hardness of silicon detectors, during their irradiation and for their evolution with time after irradiation. This work reports on the experimental results obtained with detectors manufactured using various float-zone (FZ) and epitaxial-grown material. Preliminary results comparing the changes in leakage current and full depletion voltage of FZ and epitaxial detectors as a function of fluence and of time after 10 14 cm -2 proton irradiation are given. The measurement of charge collection efficiency for epitaxial detectors is also presented. (orig.)

  1. Additively manufactured metallic porous biomaterials based on minimal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bobbert, F. S. L.; Lietaert, K.; Eftekhari, Ali Akbar

    2017-01-01

    Porous biomaterials that simultaneously mimic the topological, mechanical, and mass transport properties of bone are in great demand but are rarely found in the literature. In this study, we rationally designed and additively manufactured (AM) porous metallic biomaterials based on four different...... of bone properties is feasible, biomaterials that could simultaneously mimic all or most of the relevant bone properties are rare. We used rational design and additive manufacturing to develop porous metallic biomaterials that exhibit an interesting combination of topological, mechanical, and mass...

  2. Nanotoxicity: emerging concerns regarding nanomaterial safety and occupational hard metal (WC-Co) nanoparticle exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstead, Andrea L; Li, Bingyun

    As the number of commercial and consumer products containing engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) continually rises, the increased use and production of these ENMs presents an important toxicological concern. Although ENMs offer a number of advantages over traditional materials, their extremely small size and associated characteristics may also greatly enhance their toxic potentials. ENM exposure can occur in various consumer and industrial settings through inhalation, ingestion, or dermal routes. Although the importance of accurate ENM characterization, effective dosage metrics, and selection of appropriate cell or animal-based models are universally agreed upon as important factors in ENM research, at present, there is no "standardized" approach used to assess ENM toxicity in the research community. Of particular interest is occupational exposure to tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) "dusts," composed of nano- and micro-sized particles, in hard metal manufacturing facilities and mining and drilling industries. Inhalation of WC-Co dust is known to cause "hard metal lung disease" and an increased risk of lung cancer; however, the mechanisms underlying WC-Co toxicity, the inflammatory disease state and progression to cancer are poorly understood. Herein, a discussion of ENM toxicity is followed by a review of the known literature regarding the effects of WC-Co particle exposure. The risk of WC-Co exposure in occupational settings and the updates of in vitro and in vivo studies of both micro- and nano-WC-Co particles are discussed.

  3. Fluid Mechanics Of Molten Metal Droplets In Additive Manufacturing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav; Šonský, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 4 (2016), s. 403-412 ISSN 2046-0546 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23046S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : additive manufacturing * droplets * molten metal Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics http://www.witpress.com/elibrary/cmem-volumes/4/4/1545

  4. Development of strength-hardness relationships in additively manufactured titanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keist, Jayme S., E-mail: keist@psu.edu; Palmer, Todd A., E-mail: tap103@psu.edu

    2017-05-02

    A major concern for additively manufactured (AM) Ti-6Al-4V components is how AM processing parameters and post-process heat treatments impact the resulting mechanical behavior. The applicability of using microhardness measurements as a predictive tool for yield and tensile strengths of AM Ti-6Al-4V would provide a rapid and useful screening mechanism for ensuring that properties meet requirements in complex geometries. However, microhardness measurements on Ti-6Al-4V exhibit high levels of data variability due to the orientational impact of the α phase. In order to overcome this variability in hardness measurements, a methodology for aggregating microhardness data in individual builds has been developed and validated. By compiling mean microhardness values from various AM components produced by electron beam based directed energy deposition (DED), laser based DED, and laser based powder bed fusion (PBF) processes in the as-deposited and post-process heat treated conditions, strong linear correlations between strength and hardness can be developed in AM materials having a lamellar α+β microstructure. With the addition of strain hardening and α phase orientation contributions to the mean microhardness measurement, the strength-hardness correlations of AM Ti-6Al-4V followed empirically derived models, opening the possibility of using these models to predict strengths from AM components regardless of the AM process or post-process state.

  5. Quantitative Analysis of Electroplated Nickel Coating on Hard Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan A. Wahab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroplated nickel coating on cemented carbide is a potential pretreatment technique for providing an interlayer prior to diamond deposition on the hard metal substrate. The electroplated nickel coating is expected to be of high quality, for example, indicated by having adequate thickness and uniformity. Electroplating parameters should be set accordingly for this purpose. In this study, the gap distances between the electrodes and duration of electroplating process are the investigated variables. Their effect on the coating thickness and uniformity was analyzed and quantified using design of experiment. The nickel deposition was carried out by electroplating in a standard Watt’s solution keeping other plating parameters (current: 0.1 Amp, electric potential: 1.0 V, and pH: 3.5 constant. The gap distance between anode and cathode varied at 5, 10, and 15 mm, while the plating time was 10, 20, and 30 minutes. Coating thickness was found to be proportional to the plating time and inversely proportional to the electrode gap distance, while the uniformity tends to improve at a large electrode gap. Empirical models of both coating thickness and uniformity were developed within the ranges of the gap distance and plating time settings, and an optimized solution was determined using these models.

  6. Final Air Toxics Standards for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a December 2007 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources

  7. Microstructure-Based Counterfeit Detection in Metal Part Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachowicz, Adam; Chaduvula, Siva Chaitanya; Atallah, Mikhail; Panchal, Jitesh H.

    2017-11-01

    Counterfeiting in metal part manufacturing has become a major global concern. Although significant effort has been made in detecting the implementation of such counterfeits, modern approaches suffer from high expense during production, invasiveness during manufacture, and unreliability in practice if parts are damaged during use. In this paper, a practical microstructure-based counterfeit detection methodology is proposed, which draws on inherent randomness present in the microstructure as a result of the manufacturing process. An optical Physically Unclonable Function (PUF) protocol is developed which takes a micrograph as input and outputs a compact, unique string representation of the micrograph. The uniqueness of the outputs and their robustness to moderate wear and tear is demonstrated by application of the methodology to brass samples. The protocol is shown to have good discriminatory power even between samples manufactured in the same batch, and runs on the order of several seconds per part on inexpensive machines.

  8. Manufacture of high purity metal fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant has been developing technologies of many kinds since the early forties. The primary purpose of this R and D was to reduce the amount of electrical power and capital expense associated with the enrichment of uranium in the 235 isotope. One area that has received a lot of attention is the chemistry of fluorine and metal fluorides. The producing facility at ORGDP is a chemical pilot plant which has been used through the years to demonstrate new processes. Presently existing in this facility are: absorption columns which have been used to remove trace quantities of krypton and oxides of nitrogen and sulfur from gas streams; a flame reactor that is being used to reduce isotopically altered sulfur hexafluoride for conversion to SO 2 which will be used in acid rain studies; an environmental hold system in which methods were developed to remove or neutralize environmental insulting compounds; a fluid bed reactor, and of course the tungsten hexafluoride process. A rhenium hexafluoride facility is also located in the pilot plant. It is basically the same as the tungsten line with three small muffles being used in place of the large WF6 reactor. The product from each process is heated and transferred to approved 5-inch shipping cylinders and transported to the analytical chemistry laboratory for sampling and analysis. These cylinders must be used for shipment and may require modification of the customer facility to accommodate them. Liquid samples are obtained from the product cylinders and a visual examination of the samples for color and melting temperature provides a good indication of the conversion. X-ray fluorescence is utilized to determine the amount of tungsten and the percent conversion to the hexafluoride is calculated from the weighed sample. Infrared in addition to mass spectrometer analyses are performed to verify the findings. The material is then analyzed by spectrographic methods for contaminants

  9. Cleaning Process Development for Metallic Additively Manufactured Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramel, Terri L.; Welker, Roger; Lowery, Niki; Mitchell, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing of metallic components for aerospace applications offers many advantages over traditional manufacturing techniques. As a new technology, many aspects of its widespread utilization remain open to investigation. Among these are the cleaning processes that can be used for post finishing of parts and measurements to verify effectiveness of the cleaning processes. Many cleaning and drying processes and measurement methods that have been used for parts manufactured using conventional techniques are candidates that may be considered for cleaning and verification of additively manufactured parts. Among these are vapor degreasing, ultrasonic immersion and spray cleaning, followed by hot air drying, vacuum baking and solvent displacement drying. Differences in porosity, density, and surface finish of additively manufactured versus conventionally manufactured parts may introduce new considerations in the selection of cleaning and drying processes or the method used to verify their effectiveness. This presentation will review the relative strengths and weaknesses of different candidate cleaning and drying processes as they may apply to additively manufactured metal parts for aerospace applications. An ultrasonic cleaning technique for exploring the cleanability of parts will be presented along with an example using additively manufactured Inconel 718 test specimens to illustrate its use. The data analysis shows that this ultrasonic cleaning approach results in a well-behaved ultrasonic cleaning/extraction behavior. That is, it does not show signs of accelerated cavitation erosion of the base material, which was later confirmed by neutron imaging. In addition, the analysis indicated that complete cleaning would be achieved by ultrasonic immersion cleaning at approximately 5 minutes, which was verified by subsequent cleaning of additional parts.

  10. Theoretical calculations of hardness and metallicity for multibond hexagonal 5d transition metal diborides with ReB2 structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jun; Gao Fa-Ming; Liu Yong-Shan

    2017-01-01

    The hardness, electronic, and elastic properties of 5d transition metal diborides with ReB 2 structure are studied theoretically by using the first principles calculations. The calculated results are in good agreement with the previous experimental and theoretical results. Empirical formulas for estimating the hardness and partial number of effective free electrons for each bond in multibond compounds with metallicity are presented. Based on the formulas, IrB 2 has the largest hardness of 21.8 GPa, followed by OsB 2 (21.0 GPa) and ReB 2 (19.7 GPa), indicating that they are good candidates as hard materials. (paper)

  11. Characterization of Metal Powders Used for Additive Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotwinski, J A; Garboczi, E J; Stutzman, P E; Ferraris, C F; Watson, S S; Peltz, M A

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical parts, such as those found in aerospace components. The production of AM parts with consistent and predictable properties requires input materials (e.g., metal powders) with known and repeatable characteristics, which in turn requires standardized measurement methods for powder properties. First, based on our previous work, we assess the applicability of current standardized methods for powder characterization for metal AM powders. Then we present the results of systematic studies carried out on two different powder materials used for additive manufacturing: stainless steel and cobalt-chrome. The characterization of these powders is important in NIST efforts to develop appropriate measurements and standards for additive materials and to document the property of powders used in a NIST-led additive manufacturing material round robin. An extensive array of characterization techniques was applied to these two powders, in both virgin and recycled states. The physical techniques included laser diffraction particle size analysis, X-ray computed tomography for size and shape analysis, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. Techniques sensitive to structure and chemistry, including X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive analytical X-ray analysis using the X-rays generated during scanning electron microscopy, and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy were also employed. The results of these analyses show how virgin powder changes after being exposed to and recycled from one or more Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) additive manufacturing build cycles. In addition, these findings can give insight into the actual additive manufacturing process.

  12. Characterization of Metal Powders Used for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotwinski, JA; Garboczi, EJ; Stutzman, PE; Ferraris, CF; Watson, SS; Peltz, MA

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques1 can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical parts, such as those found in aerospace components. The production of AM parts with consistent and predictable properties requires input materials (e.g., metal powders) with known and repeatable characteristics, which in turn requires standardized measurement methods for powder properties. First, based on our previous work, we assess the applicability of current standardized methods for powder characterization for metal AM powders. Then we present the results of systematic studies carried out on two different powder materials used for additive manufacturing: stainless steel and cobalt-chrome. The characterization of these powders is important in NIST efforts to develop appropriate measurements and standards for additive materials and to document the property of powders used in a NIST-led additive manufacturing material round robin. An extensive array of characterization techniques was applied to these two powders, in both virgin and recycled states. The physical techniques included laser diffraction particle size analysis, X-ray computed tomography for size and shape analysis, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. Techniques sensitive to structure and chemistry, including X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive analytical X-ray analysis using the X-rays generated during scanning electron microscopy, and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy were also employed. The results of these analyses show how virgin powder changes after being exposed to and recycled from one or more Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) additive manufacturing build cycles. In addition, these findings can give insight into the actual additive manufacturing process. PMID:26601040

  13. Wear resistance of layers hard faced by the high-alloyed filler metal

    OpenAIRE

    Dušan Arsić; Vukić Lazić; Ruzica R. Nikolic; Milan Mutavdžić; Srbislav Aleksandrović; Milan Djordjević

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the wear resistance of layers hard faced by the high-alloyed filler metal, with or without the austenite inter-layer, on parts that operate at different sliding speeds in conditions without lubrication. The samples were hard faced with the filler metal E 10-UM-60-C with high content of C, Cr and W. Used filler metal belongs into group of alloys aimed for reparatory hard facing of parts damaged by abrasive and erosive wear and it is characterized by ...

  14. Porosity Measurements and Analysis for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotwinski, John A; Garboczi, Edward J; Hebenstreit, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical metal components such as those found in aerospace engines and as customized biomedical implants. Material porosity in these parts is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants - since surface-breaking pores allows for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part's porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the build process. Here, we present efforts to develop an ultrasonic sensor for monitoring changes in the porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system. The development of well-characterized reference samples, measurements of the porosity of these samples with multiple techniques, and correlation of ultrasonic measurements with the degree of porosity are presented. A proposed sensor design, measurement strategy, and future experimental plans on a metal powder bed fusion system are also presented.

  15. Additive manufacturing of metals the technology, materials, design and production

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Li; Baughman, Brian; Godfrey, Donald; Medina, Francisco; Menon, Mamballykalathil; Wiener, Soeren

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a unique guide to the three-dimensional (3D) printing of metals. It covers various aspects of additive, subtractive, and joining processes used to form three-dimensional parts with applications ranging from prototyping to production. Examining a variety of manufacturing technologies and their ability to produce both prototypes and functional production-quality parts, the individual chapters address metal components and discuss some of the important research challenges associated with the use of these technologies. As well as exploring the latest technologies currently under development, the book features unique sections on electron beam melting technology, material lifting, and the importance this science has in the engineering context. Presenting unique real-life case studies from industry, this book is also the first to offer the perspective of engineers who work in the field of aerospace and transportation systems, and who design components and manufacturing networks. Written by the leadin...

  16. Manufacturing method for hard x-ray focusing mirrors with ellipsoidal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumoto, Hirokatsu; Koyama, Takahisa; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to establishing the manufacturing method for hard x-ray nano-focusing mirrors with ellipsoidal surface. Ellipsoidal mirror optics, which can produce point focus with a mirror, has a noticeable feature of a high focusing efficiency, although an ultra-precise surface figure with an accuracy of a few nanometers is required for nano-focusing mirrors. Here, we examined the effectiveness of the manufacturing process for ellipsoidal mirrors, which is consisted of a precision grinding process, a removal process of surface roughness, and a computer-controlled shape correction. The precision processing machine for both a removal of surface roughness and a shape correction was developed. This validated the utility of removing surface roughness with a spatial wavelength of 40 μm, which is the tool mark of the grinding process. The developed process achieved the improvement of surface roughness from 1.6 nm to 0.1 nm (RMS), and the figure correction with a high accuracy of < 10 nm and a spatial resolution of < 2 mm. (author)

  17. Nanotoxicity: emerging concerns regarding nanomaterial safety and occupational hard metal (WC-Co nanoparticle exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstead AL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Andrea L Armstead,1,2 Bingyun Li1–3 1Department of Orthopaedics, School of Medicine, 2School of Pharmacy, West Virginia University, 3Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, Morgantown, WV, USA Abstract: As the number of commercial and consumer products containing engineered nanomaterials (ENMs continually rises, the increased use and production of these ENMs presents an important toxicological concern. Although ENMs offer a number of advantages over traditional materials, their extremely small size and associated characteristics may also greatly enhance their toxic potentials. ENM exposure can occur in various consumer and industrial settings through inhalation, ingestion, or dermal routes. Although the importance of accurate ENM characterization, effective dosage metrics, and selection of appropriate cell or animal-based models are universally agreed upon as important factors in ENM research, at present, there is no “standardized” approach used to assess ENM toxicity in the research community. Of particular interest is occupational exposure to tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co “dusts,” composed of nano- and micro-sized particles, in hard metal manufacturing facilities and mining and drilling industries. Inhalation of WC-Co dust is known to cause “hard metal lung disease” and an increased risk of lung cancer; however, the mechanisms underlying WC-Co toxicity, the inflammatory disease state and progression to cancer are poorly understood. Herein, a discussion of ENM toxicity is followed by a review of the known literature regarding the effects of WC-Co particle exposure. The risk of WC-Co exposure in occupational settings and the updates of in vitro and in vivo studies of both micro- and nano-WC-Co particles are discussed. Keywords: engineered nanomaterial, occupational exposure, lung disease, cancer, toxicity, particle

  18. Hard X-ray-induced optical luminescence via biomolecule-directed metal clusters†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratx, Guillem; Sun, Conroy; Sakamoto, Masanori; Ahmad, Moiz; Volotskova, Olga; Ong, Qunxiang; Teranishi, Toshiharu; Harada, Yoshie

    2014-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that biomolecule-directed metal clusters are applicable in the study of hard X-ray excited optical luminescence, promising a new direction in the development of novel X-ray-activated imaging probes. PMID:24463467

  19. Stress concentration factor and stress intensity factor on hard metals in connection with the wear characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawihl, W.; Altmeyer, G.

    1977-01-01

    Description of a method to determine stress intensity factors on hard metals by lapping in notches of different diameter. Dependence of the values of the stress intensity factors on the size of the notch base diameter. For tungsten carbide hard metals with 6% Co, determination of a final value of 250 Nmm -3 / 2 . Characterisation of the stress intensity factor governed by the surface roughness which is decisive for the assessment of the wear-resistant behaviour. (orig.) [de

  20. Manufacturing and Machining Challenges of Hybrid Aluminium Metal Matix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baburaja, Kammuluri; Sainadh Teja, S.; Karthik Sri, D.; Kuldeep, J.; Gowtham, V.

    2017-08-01

    Manufacturing which involves material removal processes or material addition processes or material transformation processes. One or all the processes to obtain the final desired properties for a material with desired shape which meets the required precision and accuracy values for the expected service life of a material in working conditions. Researchers found the utility of aluminium to be the second largest after steel. Aluminium and its metal matrix composite possess wide applications in various applications in aerospace industry, automobile industry, Constructions and even in kitchen utensils. Hybrid Al-MMCconsist of two different materials, and one will be from organic origin along with the base material. In this paper an attempt is made to bring out the importance of utilization of aluminium and the challenges concerned in manufacturing and machining of hybrid aluminium MMC.

  1. Accelerating Industrial Adoption of Metal Additive Manufacturing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Kenneth; McDonald, Tom

    2016-03-01

    While metal additive manufacturing (AM) technology has clear benefits, there are still factors preventing its adoption by industry. These factors include the high cost of metal AM systems, the difficulty for machinists to learn and operate metal AM machines, the long approval process for part qualification/certification, and the need for better process controls; however, the high AM system cost is the main barrier deterring adoption. In this paper, we will discuss an America Makes-funded program to reduce AM system cost by combining metal AM technology with conventional computerized numerical controlled (CNC) machine tools. Information will be provided on how an Optomec-led team retrofitted a legacy CNC vertical mill with laser engineered net shaping (LENS®—LENS is a registered trademark of Sandia National Labs) AM technology, dramatically lowering deployment cost. The upgraded system, dubbed LENS Hybrid Vertical Mill, enables metal additive and subtractive operations to be performed on the same machine tool and even on the same part. Information on the LENS Hybrid system architecture, learnings from initial system deployment and continuing development work will also be provided to help guide further development activities within the materials community.

  2. PM - processing for manufacturing of metals with cellular structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobl, S.; Danninger, H.

    2001-01-01

    In this review the major Processes about manufacturing of metals with cellular structure are described - based on powder metallurgy, chemical deposition and some other methods (without melting techniques). It can be shown that during the last decade many interesting innovations led to new production methods to design cellular materials. Some of them are used nowadays in industry. Also characterization and properties become more important and have therefore been carried out carefully, because of their strong influence on the functions and applications of such materials. (author)

  3. Innovations in Advanced Materials and Metals Manufacturing Project (IAM2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Elizabeth [Columbia River Economic Development Council, Vancouver, WA (United States)

    2017-01-06

    This project, under the Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge, Innovations in Advanced Materials and Metals Manufacturing Project, contracted with Cascade Energy to provide a shared energy project manager engineer to work with five different companies throughout the Portland metro grant region to implement ten energy efficiency projects and develop a case study to analyze the project model. As a part of the project, the energy project manager also looked into specific new technologies and methodologies that could change the way energy is consumed by manufacturers—from game-changing equipment and technology to monitor energy use to methodologies that change the way companies interact and use their machines to reduce energy consumption.

  4. Manufacturing process for the metal ceramic hybrid fuel cladding tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yang Il; Kim, Sun Han; Park, Jeong Yong

    2012-01-01

    For application in LWRs with suppressed hydrogen release, a metal-ceramic hybrid cladding tube has been proposed. The cladding consists of an inner zirconium tube and outer SiC fiber matrix SiC ceramic composite. The inner zirconium allows the matrix to remain fully sealed even if the ceramic matrix cracks through. The outer SiC composite can increase the safety margin by taking the merits of the SiC itself. However, it is a challenging task to fabricate the metal-ceramic hybrid tube. Processes such as filament winding, matrix impregnation, and surface costing are additionally required for the existing Zr based fuel cladding tubes. In the current paper, the development of the manufacturing process will be introduced

  5. Manufacturing process for the metal ceramic hybrid fuel cladding tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yang Il; Kim, Sun Han; Park, Jeong Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    For application in LWRs with suppressed hydrogen release, a metal-ceramic hybrid cladding tube has been proposed. The cladding consists of an inner zirconium tube and outer SiC fiber matrix SiC ceramic composite. The inner zirconium allows the matrix to remain fully sealed even if the ceramic matrix cracks through. The outer SiC composite can increase the safety margin by taking the merits of the SiC itself. However, it is a challenging task to fabricate the metal-ceramic hybrid tube. Processes such as filament winding, matrix impregnation, and surface costing are additionally required for the existing Zr based fuel cladding tubes. In the current paper, the development of the manufacturing process will be introduced.

  6. Additive Manufacturing of Metal Structures at the Micrometer Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, Luca; Reiser, Alain; Spolenak, Ralph; Zambelli, Tomaso

    2017-05-01

    Currently, the focus of additive manufacturing (AM) is shifting from simple prototyping to actual production. One driving factor of this process is the ability of AM to build geometries that are not accessible by subtractive fabrication techniques. While these techniques often call for a geometry that is easiest to manufacture, AM enables the geometry required for best performance to be built by freeing the design process from restrictions imposed by traditional machining. At the micrometer scale, the design limitations of standard fabrication techniques are even more severe. Microscale AM thus holds great potential, as confirmed by the rapid success of commercial micro-stereolithography tools as an enabling technology for a broad range of scientific applications. For metals, however, there is still no established AM solution at small scales. To tackle the limited resolution of standard metal AM methods (a few tens of micrometers at best), various new techniques aimed at the micrometer scale and below are presently under development. Here, we review these recent efforts. Specifically, we feature the techniques of direct ink writing, electrohydrodynamic printing, laser-assisted electrophoretic deposition, laser-induced forward transfer, local electroplating methods, laser-induced photoreduction and focused electron or ion beam induced deposition. Although these methods have proven to facilitate the AM of metals with feature sizes in the range of 0.1-10 µm, they are still in a prototype stage and their potential is not fully explored yet. For instance, comprehensive studies of material availability and material properties are often lacking, yet compulsory for actual applications. We address these items while critically discussing and comparing the potential of current microscale metal AM techniques. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Evaluation of workers exposed to dust containing hard metals and aluminum oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Y; Kivity, S; Fischbein, A; Abraham, J L; Fireman, E; Moshe, S; Dannon, Y; Topilsky, M; Greif, J

    1998-08-01

    Fourteen worker exposed to hard metals and aluminum oxide were evaluated. Six heavily exposed workers underwent bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage, and five workers underwent transbronchial biopsy. Microchemical analysis of transbronchial biopsies showed a high lung burden of exogenous particles, especially metal related to their hard metals exposure. Lung tissue and cellular changes, which were associated with exposure to hard metal and aluminum oxide, corresponded well with the microanalytic test results. Three workers had at biopsy diffuse interstitial inflammatory changes: two of them were asymptomatic with normal chest X-ray films, and one had clinically evident disease with severe giant cell inflammation. Two other workers showed focal inflammation. The worker showing clinical disease and one asymptomatic worker with interstitial inflammatory changes had evaluated bronchoalveolar lavage fluid-eosinophilia counts. These two were father (with clinical disease) and son (asymptomatic).

  8. 21 CFR 178.3910 - Surface lubricants used in the manufacture of metallic articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Surface lubricants used in the manufacture of... lubricants used in the manufacture of metallic articles. The substances listed in this section may be safely used in surface lubricants employed in the manufacture of metallic articles that contact food, subject...

  9. Workshop Report on Additive Manufacturing for Large-Scale Metal Components - Development and Deployment of Metal Big-Area-Additive-Manufacturing (Large-Scale Metals AM) System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility; Love, Lonnie J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility; Peter, William H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility; Dehoff, Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility

    2016-05-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is considered an emerging technology that is expected to transform the way industry can make low-volume, high value complex structures. This disruptive technology promises to replace legacy manufacturing methods for the fabrication of existing components in addition to bringing new innovation for new components with increased functional and mechanical properties. This report outlines the outcome of a workshop on large-scale metal additive manufacturing held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on March 11, 2016. The charter for the workshop was outlined by the Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office program manager. The status and impact of the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) for polymer matrix composites was presented as the background motivation for the workshop. Following, the extension of underlying technology to low-cost metals was proposed with the following goals: (i) High deposition rates (approaching 100 lbs/h); (ii) Low cost (<$10/lbs) for steel, iron, aluminum, nickel, as well as, higher cost titanium, (iii) large components (major axis greater than 6 ft) and (iv) compliance of property requirements. The above concept was discussed in depth by representatives from different industrial sectors including welding, metal fabrication machinery, energy, construction, aerospace and heavy manufacturing. In addition, DOE’s newly launched High Performance Computing for Manufacturing (HPC4MFG) program was reviewed. This program will apply thermo-mechanical models to elucidate deeper understanding of the interactions between design, process, and materials during additive manufacturing. Following these presentations, all the attendees took part in a brainstorming session where everyone identified the top 10 challenges in large-scale metal AM from their own perspective. The feedback was analyzed and grouped in different categories including, (i) CAD to PART software, (ii) selection of energy source, (iii

  10. Targeted Structural Optimization with Additive Manufacturing of Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Adam; Hull, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The recent advances in additive manufacturing (AM) of metals have now improved the state-of-the-art such that traditionally non-producible parts can be readily produced in a cost-effective way. Because of these advances in manufacturing technology, structural optimization techniques are well positioned to supplement and advance this new technology. The goal of this project is to develop a structural design, analysis, and optimization framework combined with AM to significantly light-weight the interior of metallic structures while maintaining the selected structural properties of the original solid. This is a new state-of-the-art capability to significantly reduce mass, while maintaining the structural integrity of the original design, something that can only be done with AM. In addition, this framework will couple the design, analysis, and fabrication process, meaning that what has been designed directly represents the produced part, thus closing the loop on the design cycle and removing human iteration between design and fabrication. This fundamental concept has applications from light-weighting launch vehicle components to in situ resource fabrication.

  11. Grain Structure Control of Additively Manufactured Metallic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyao Yan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Grain structure control is challenging for metal additive manufacturing (AM. Grain structure optimization requires the control of grain morphology with grain size refinement, which can improve the mechanical properties of additive manufactured components. This work summarizes methods to promote fine equiaxed grains in both the additive manufacturing process and subsequent heat treatment. Influences of temperature gradient, solidification velocity and alloy composition on grain morphology are discussed. Equiaxed solidification is greatly promoted by introducing a high density of heterogeneous nucleation sites via powder rate control in the direct energy deposition (DED technique or powder surface treatment for powder-bed techniques. Grain growth/coarsening during post-processing heat treatment can be restricted by presence of nano-scale oxide particles formed in-situ during AM. Grain refinement of martensitic steels can also be achieved by cyclic austenitizing in post-processing heat treatment. Evidently, new alloy powder design is another sustainable method enhancing the capability of AM for high-performance components with desirable microstructures.

  12. Assessment of the hardness of different orthodontic wires and brackets produced by metal injection molding and conventional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Shiva; Kachuie, Marzie

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the hardness of orthodontic brackets produced by metal injection molding (MIM) and conventional methods and different orthodontic wires (stainless steel, nickel-titanium [Ni-Ti], and beta-titanium alloys) for better clinical results. A total of 15 specimens from each brand of orthodontic brackets and wires were examined. The brackets (Elite Opti-Mim which is produced by MIM process and Ultratrimm which is produced by conventional brazing method) and the wires (stainless steel, Ni-Ti, and beta-titanium) were embedded in epoxy resin, followed by grinding, polishing, and coating. Then, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) microanalysis was applied to assess their elemental composition. The same specimen surfaces were repolished and used for Vickers microhardness assessment. Hardness was statistically analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Mann-Whitney test at the 0.05 level of significance. The X-ray EDS analysis revealed different ferrous or co-based alloys in each bracket. The maximum mean hardness values of the wires were achieved for stainless steel (SS) (529.85 Vickers hardness [VHN]) versus the minimum values for beta-titanium (334.65 VHN). Among the brackets, Elite Opti-Mim exhibited significantly higher VHN values (262.66 VHN) compared to Ultratrimm (206.59 VHN). VHN values of wire alloys were significantly higher than those of the brackets. MIM orthodontic brackets exhibited hardness values much lower than those of SS orthodontic archwires and were more compatible with NiTi and beta-titanium archwires. A wide range of microhardness values has been reported for conventional orthodontic brackets and it should be considered that the manufacturing method might be only one of the factors affecting the mechanical properties of orthodontic brackets including hardness.

  13. Applications for Gradient Metal Alloys Fabricated Using Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Douglas C.; Borgonia, John Paul C.; Dillon, Robert P.; Suh, Eric J.; Mulder, jerry L.; Gardner, Paul B.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, additive manufacturing (AM) techniques have been developed that may shift the paradigm of traditional metal production by allowing complex net-shaped hardware to be built up layer-by-layer, rather than being machined from a billet. The AM process is ubiquitous with polymers due to their low melting temperatures, fast curing, and controllable viscosity, and 3D printers are widely available as commercial or consumer products. 3D printing with metals is inherently more complicated than with polymers due to their higher melting temperatures and reactivity with air, particularly when heated or molten. The process generally requires a high-power laser or other focused heat source, like an electron beam, for precise melting and deposition. Several promising metal AM techniques have been developed, including laser deposition (also called laser engineered net shaping or LENS® and laser deposition technology (LDT)), direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), and electron beam free-form (EBF). These machines typically use powders or wire feedstock that are melted and deposited using a laser or electron beam. Complex net-shape parts have been widely demonstrated using these (and other) AM techniques and the process appears to be a promising alternative to machining in some cases. Rather than simply competing with traditional machining for cost and time savings, the true advantage of AM involves the fabrication of hardware that cannot be produced using other techniques. This could include parts with "blind" features (like foams or trusses), parts that are difficult to machine conventionally, or parts made from materials that do not exist in bulk forms. In this work, the inventors identify that several AM techniques can be used to develop metal parts that change composition from one location in the part to another, allowing for complete control over the mechanical or physical properties. This changes the paradigm for conventional metal fabrication, which relies on an

  14. Structural and electronic properties of OsB2 : A hard metallic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z. Y.; Xiang, H. J.; Yang, Jinlong; Hou, J. G.; Zhu, Qingshi

    2006-07-01

    We calculate the structural and electronic properties of OsB2 using density functional theory with or without taking into account the spin-orbit (SO) interaction. Our results show that the bulk modulus with and without SO interactions are 364 and 365GPa , respectively, both are in good agreement with experiment (365-395GPa) . The evidence of covalent bonding of Os-B, which plays an important role to form a hard material, is indicated both in charge density, atoms in molecules analysis, and density of states analysis. The good metallicity and hardness of OsB2 might suggest its potential application as hard conductors.

  15. Development of casting technology for manufacturing metal rods with simulated metallic spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. B.; Lee, Y. S.; Woo, Y. M.; Jang, S. J.; Kim, J. D; Kim, C. K.; Shin, Y. J.; Lee, J. H.

    1999-01-01

    The advanced casting equipment based on the directional solidification method was developed for manufacturing the uranium metal rod having 13.5 mm diameter and 1,200 mm length. In order to prevent surface-shrunk holes revealed easily in course of casting the small diameter and long rods, the vacuum casting furnace has the four pre-heaters equipped with temperature controller. On the other hand, the computer simulation to estimate the defective location and to analyze the solidus behavior of molten uranium in the mold were also performed by using MAGMA Code. As a result of the experimental and theoretical study, the sound rod has successfully been manufactured

  16. Manufacturing technology development of plasma/ion nitriding for improvement of hardness of machine components and tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suprapto; Tjipto Sujitno; Saminto

    2015-01-01

    The manufacturing technology development of plasma/ion nitriding to improve of hardness of machine components and tools has been done. The development of this technology aims to improve device performance plasma nitriding double chamber and conducted with the addition of thermal radiation shield. Testing was done by testing for preheating operation (start-up), test operation for conditions nitriding and test for nitriding process. The results show that: the plasma nitriding device can be operated for nitriding process at the temperature of about 500 °C for 6 hours, using the thermal radiation shield obtained outside wall temperature of about 65 °C and shorten start-up time to about 60 minutes. The use of thermal radiation shield can also improve the efficiency of the electric power supply and increase the operating temperature for nitriding process. Test for nitriding obtained increase of hardness 1.33 times for the original camshaft (genuine parts) and 1.8 times for the imitation camshaft (imitation parts), the results are compared with after the tempering process at a temperature of 600 °C. For sample SS 304 was 2.45 times compared with before nitrided These results indicate that the development of manufacturing technology of plasma/ion nitriding to increase hardness of machine components and tools have been successfully able to increase the hardness, although still need to be optimized. Besides that, these devices can be developed to use for the process of carburizing and carbonitriding. (author)

  17. Cleaner Technology in the Hard Disk Drive Manufacturing Industry: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolla, Premchai; Chompu-inwai, Rungchat

    2010-10-01

    The objectives of this research are to improve raw material and energy consumption efficiency, as well as reduce defects and the use of chemicals in the arm coil assembly process of hard disk drive manufacturing in the case study company by applying the Cleaner Technology concepts. The four main sequential steps used in this research were: (1) pre-assessment, (2) assessment, (3) feasibility study, and (4) implementation. In the first step, raw data, such as process flows, raw material usage and defects data were collected. In the second step, the loss during production and causes of loss were analyzed. Opportunities to reduce raw material, chemical and energy wastage could then be recommended. The next step was to evaluate the feasibility and potential benefits of a particular Cleaner Technology opportunity. Finally, in the last step, after a thorough evaluation and implementation of the opportunities to apply Cleaner Technology, the results showed that arm coil defects could be reduced by improving the production process using the ECRS technique. ECRS stands for Eliminate, Combine, Rearrange and Simplify. This improvement reduced arm coil defect rates from 0.48% to 0.15%, thus saving approximately 139,638 Thai Baht per month. In addition, production stoppage decision made by workers was used to increase employee involvement in defect detection. Allowing workers to participate in such a decision was an effective way to reduce defect rate and could motivate workers to produce a better quality job. This resulted in arm coil defects reducing from 0.41% to 0.025%, with about 74,562 Thai Baht per month saving. Additionally, an increase in the efficiency of electricity consumption occurred, by increasing the speed of the infrared oven conveyor belt, improving average productivity from 533 pieces/hour to 560 pieces/hour, without adversely affecting product costs and quality, thus producing products of up to the value of 206,242 Thai Baht per month. Furthermore, the new

  18. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Reporting Manufactured Chemical Substances from Metal Mining and Related Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides guidance on the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule requirements related to the reporting of mined metals, intermediates, and byproducts manufactured during metal mining and related activities.

  19. Metal Advanced Manufacturing Bot-Assisted Assembly (MAMBA) Process, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Tethers Unlimited, Inc. (TUI) proposes to develop the Metal Advanced Manufacturing Bot-Assisted Assembly (MAMBA) Process, a robotically managed metal press and...

  20. Mechanical and Fatigue Properties of Additively Manufactured Metallic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadollahi, Aref

    This study aims to investigate the mechanical and fatigue behavior of additively manufactured metallic materials. Several challenges associated with different metal additive manufacturing (AM) techniques (i.e. laser-powder bed fusion and direct laser deposition) have been addressed experimentally and numerically. Experiments have been carried out to study the effects of process inter-layer time interval--i.e. either building the samples one-at-a-time or multi-at-a-time (in-parallel)--on the microstructural features and mechanical properties of 316L stainless steel samples, fabricated via a direct laser deposition (DLD). Next, the effect of building orientation--i.e. the orientation in which AM parts are built--on microstructure, tensile, and fatigue behaviors of 17-4 PH stainless steel, fabricated via a laser-powder bed fusion (L-PBF) method was investigated. Afterwards, the effect of surface finishing--here, as-built versus machined--on uniaxial fatigue behavior and failure mechanisms of Inconel 718 fabricated via a laser-powder bed fusion technique was sought. The numerical studies, as part of this dissertation, aimed to model the mechanical behavior of AM materials, under monotonic and cyclic loading, based on the observations and findings from the experiments. Despite significant research efforts for optimizing process parameters, achieving a homogenous, defect-free AM product--immediately after fabrication--has not yet been fully demonstrated. Thus, one solution for ensuring the adoption of AM materials for application should center on predicting the variations in mechanical behavior of AM parts based on their resultant microstructure. In this regard, an internal state variable (ISV) plasticity-damage model was employed to quantify the damage evolution in DLD 316L SS, under tensile loading, using the microstructural features associated with the manufacturing process. Finally, fatigue behavior of AM parts has been modeled based on the crack-growth concept

  1. Casting technology for manufacturing metal rods from simulated metallic spent fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeand, Y. S.; Lee, D. B.; Kim, C. K.; Shin, Y. J.; Lee, J. H.

    2000-09-01

    A uranium metal rod 13.5 mm in diameter and 1,150 mm long was produced from simulated metallic spent fuels with advanced casting equipment using the directional-solidification method. A vacuum casting furnace equipped with a four-zone heater to prevent surface oxidation and the formation of surface shrinkage holes was designed. By controlling the axial temperature gradient of the casting furnace, deformation by the surface shrinkage phenomena was diminished, and a sound rod was manufactured. The cooling behavior of the molten uranium was analyzed using the computer software package MAGMAsoft.

  2. Influence of chemical pretreatment of hard metal substrates for diamond deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, V.; Kluwe, H.; Schmiler, B.; Deuerler, F.

    2001-01-01

    Diamond coated cutting tools are of increasing importance in the fields of high speed cutting, dry machining or machining of special materials such as metal-matrix-composites. A well known problem is the poor adhesion of diamond films on hard metals due to the Co- or Ni-binder that catalyzes the formation of graphite. Several methods - such as the application of intermediate layers or mechanical or chemical pretreatment of the hard metal substrate - have been developed to overcome this effect. Usually chemical pretreatment is used in order to reduce the concentration of binder phase on the surface that is to be coated. Surprisingly pretreatment with agents such as Murakami's solution result in improved adhesion and nucleation of diamond films while the concentration of the binder phase on the surface is enhanced. This 'contradiction' can be explained by proving that the surface is converted into a very thin oxide/hydroxide film. (author)

  3. 3D metal droplet printing development and advanced materials additive manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence E. Murr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While commercial additive manufacturing processes involving direct metal wire or powder deposition along with powder bed fusion technologies using laser and electron beam melting have proliferated over the past decade, inkjet printing using molten metal droplets for direct, 3D printing has been elusive. In this paper we review the more than three decades of development of metal droplet generation for precision additive manufacturing applications utilizing advanced, high-temperature metals and alloys. Issues concerning process optimization, including product structure and properties affected by oxidation are discussed and some comparisons of related additive manufactured microstructures are presented.

  4. Wear resistance of layers hard faced by the high-alloyed filler metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Arsić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the wear resistance of layers hard faced by the high-alloyed filler metal, with or without the austenite inter-layer, on parts that operate at different sliding speeds in conditions without lubrication. The samples were hard faced with the filler metal E 10-UM-60-C with high content of C, Cr and W. Used filler metal belongs into group of alloys aimed for reparatory hard facing of parts damaged by abrasive and erosive wear and it is characterized by high hardness and wear resistance. In experiments, the sliding speed and the normal loading were varied and the wear scar was monitored, based on which the volume of the worn material was calculated analytically. The contact duration time was monitored over the sliding path of 300 mm. The most intensive wear was established for the loading force of 100 N and the sliding speed of 1 m.s-1, though the significant wear was also noticed in conditions of the small loading and speed of 0.25 m.s-1, which was even greater that at larger speeds.

  5. Advanced optical modeling of TiN metal hard mask for scatterometric critical dimension metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersbach, Peter; Urbanowicz, Adam M.; Likhachev, Dmitriy; Hartig, Carsten

    2017-03-01

    The majority of scatterometric production control models assume constant optical properties of the materials and only dimensional parameters are allowed to vary. However, this assumption, especially in case of thin-metal films, negatively impacts model precision and accuracy. In this work we focus on optical modeling of the TiN metal hardmask for scatterometry applications. Since the dielectric function of TiN exhibits thickness dependence, we had to take this fact into account. Moreover, presence of the highly absorbing films influences extracted thicknesses of dielectric layers underneath the metal films. The later phenomenon is often not reflected by goodness of fit. We show that accurate optical modeling of metal is essential to achieve desired scatterometric model quality for automatic process control in microelectronic production. Presented modeling methodology can be applied to other TiN applications such as diffusion barriers and metal gates as well as for other metals used in microelectronic manufacturing for all technology nodes.

  6. Numerical simulation of metallic wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, M.; Pradjadhiana, K. P.; Hälsig, A.; Manurung, Y. H. P.; Awiszus, B.

    2018-05-01

    Additive-manufacturing technologies have been gaining tremendously in popularity for some years in the production of single-part series with complex, close-to-final-contour geometries and the processing of special or hybrid materials. In principle, the processes can be subdivided into wire-based and powder-based processes in accordance with the Association of German Engineers (VDI) Guideline 3405. A further subdivision is made with respect to the smelting technology. In all of the processes, the base material is applied in layers at the points where it is needed in accordance with the final contour. The process that was investigated was wire-based, multi-pass welding by means of gas-metal arc welding. This was accomplished in the present study by determining the material parameters (thermo-mechanical and thermo-physical characteristics) of the welding filler G3Si1 (material number: 1.5125) that were necessary for the numerical simulation and implementing them in a commercial FE program (MSC Marc Mentat). The focus of this paper was on simulation and validation with respect to geometry and microstructural development in the welding passes. The resulting minimal deviation between reality and simulation was a result of the measurement inertia of the thermocouples. In general, however, the FE model can be used to make a very good predetermination of the cooling behaviour, which affects the microstructural development and thus the mechanical properties of the joining zone, as well as the geometric design of the component (distortion, etc.).

  7. Flow characteristics of metallic powder grains for additive manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Directed energy deposition technologies for additive manufacturing such as laser selective melting (SLM or electron beam melting (EBM is a fast growing technique mainly due to its flexibility in product design. However, the process is a complex interaction of multi-physics on multiple length scales that are still not entirely understood. A particular challenging task are the flow characteristics of metallic powder ejected as jets from a nozzle and shielded by an inert turbulent gas flow. Therefore, the objective is to describe numerically the complex interaction between turbulent flow and powder grains. In order to include both several physical processes and length scales an Euler-Lagrange technology is applied. Within this framework powder is treated by the Discrete-Element-Method, while gas flow is described by Euler approaches as found in classical Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. The described method succeeded in delivering more accuracy and consistency than a standard approach based on the volume averaging technique and therefore, is suited for the solution of problems within an engineering framework.

  8. Application of Hard Metal Weld Deposit in the Area of Mixing Organic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Votava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Any machine part is subject to degradation processes. Intensive wear occurs either when two bearing surfaces come into contact or when loose particles rub the function surface of a machine part. Soil processing machines are a good example. A similar process of abrasive wear occurs also in mixing machines or lines for material transport, such as worm-conveyors. The experiment part of this paper analyses hard metal weld deposit dedicated for renovation of abrasive stressed surfaces. In order to prolong the service life of a blade disc in a mixing machine Kreis-Biogas-Dissolver, the technology of hard surfacing by an electric arc was used. Tested hard metal electrodes were applied on a steel tape class 11 373. To eliminate mixing with the base material, weld beads were applied in two layers. Firstly, the weld bead was visually analyzed on a binocular microscope. Further, weld bead as well as the base material was analyzed from the metallographic point of view, whose aim was to identify the structure of weld metal and the origin of microcracks in weld bead. Moreover, there was also measured microhardness of weld metal. Abrasive resistance was tested according to the norm ČSN 01 5084, which is an abrasive cloth test. As in the mixing process also erosion wear occurs, there was also processed a test on a Bond device simulating stress of test samples by loose abrasive particles. The abrading agents were formed by broken stones of 8–16 mm in size. Based on the results of the individual tests, the recommendation of usage hard metal electrodes for prolonging service life of machine parts will be made.

  9. Metallization of bacterial cellulose for electrical and electronic device manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara R [Oak Ridge, TN; O'Neill, Hugh M [Knoxville, TN; Jansen, Valerie Malyvanh [Memphis, TN; Woodward, Jonathan [Knoxville, TN

    2010-09-28

    A method for the deposition of metals in bacterial cellulose and for the employment of the metallized bacterial cellulose in the construction of fuel cells and other electronic devices is disclosed. The method for impregnating bacterial cellulose with a metal comprises placing a bacterial cellulose matrix in a solution of a metal salt such that the metal salt is reduced to metallic form and the metal precipitates in or on the matrix. The method for the construction of a fuel cell comprises placing a hydrated bacterial cellulose support structure in a solution of a metal salt such that the metal precipitates in or on the support structure, inserting contact wires into two pieces of the metal impregnated support structure, placing the two pieces of metal impregnated support structure on opposite sides of a layer of hydrated bacterial cellulose, and dehydrating the three layer structure to create a fuel cell.

  10. Hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy of transition-metal oxide thin films and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadati, H.; Fujimori, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Photoemission spectroscopy is a powerful technique to study the electronic structures of transition-metal oxides. •Hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HXPES) is a new type of photoemission spectroscopy which can probe bulk states. •HXPES is very suitable for studying oxide thin films such as the composition dependence and the film thickness dependence. -- Abstract: Photoemission spectroscopy is a powerful experimental technique to study the electronic structures of solids, especially of transition-metal oxides. Recently, hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HXPES) has emerged as a more relevant experimental technique to obtain clear information about bulk states. Here, we describe how HXPES can be conveniently applied to study the interesting subjects on oxide thin films such as the composition dependence and the film thickness dependence of the electronic structures and the interfacial electronic structure of multilayers

  11. Transcriptome response to copper heavy metal stress in hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiying Xu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus has considerably one of the most economically important marine shellfish worldwide and considered as a good invertebrate model for ecotoxicity study for a long time. In the present study, we used Illumina sequencing technology (HiSeq2000 to sequence, assemble and annotate the transcriptome of the hard-shelled mussel which challenged with copper pollution. A total of 21,723,913 paired-end clean reads (NCBI SRA database SRX1411195 were generated from HiSeq2000 sequencer and 96,403 contigs (with N50 = 1118 bp were obtained after de novo assembling with Trinity software. Digital gene expression analysis reveals 1156 unigenes are upregulated and 1681 unigenes are downregulated when challenged with copper. By KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, we found that unigenes in four KEGG pathways (aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, apoptosis, DNA replication and mismatch repair show significant differential expressed between control and copper treated groups. We hope that the gill transcriptome in copper treated hard-shelled mussel can give useful information to understand how mussel handles with heavy metal stress at molecular level. Keywords: Hard-shelled mussel, Heavy metal, Transcriptome, Ecotoxicity

  12. Hard X-ray nanoimaging method using local diffraction from metal wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, Hidekazu, E-mail: htakano@sci.u-hyogo.ac.jp; Konishi, Shigeki; Shimomura, Sho; Azuma, Hiroaki; Tsusaka, Yoshiyuki; Kagoshima, Yasushi [Center for Novel Material Science under Multi-Extreme Conditions, Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan)

    2014-01-13

    A simple hard X-ray imaging method achieving a high spatial resolution is proposed. Images are obtained by scanning a metal wire through the wave field to be measured and rotating the sample to collect data for back projection calculations; the local diffraction occurring at the edges of the metal wire operates as a narrow line probe. In-line holograms of a test sample were obtained with a spatial resolution of better than 100 nm. The potential high spatial resolution of this method is shown by calculations using diffraction theory.

  13. Feasibility Study on 3-D Printing of Metallic Structural Materials with Robotized Laser-Based Metal Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yaoyu; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2016-07-01

    Metallic structural materials continue to open new avenues in achieving exotic mechanical properties that are naturally unavailable. They hold great potential in developing novel products in diverse industries such as the automotive, aerospace, biomedical, oil and gas, and defense. Currently, the use of metallic structural materials in industry is still limited because of difficulties in their manufacturing. This article studied the feasibility of printing metallic structural materials with robotized laser-based metal additive manufacturing (RLMAM). In this study, two metallic structural materials characterized by an enlarged positive Poisson's ratio and a negative Poisson's ratio were designed and simulated, respectively. An RLMAM system developed at the Research Center for Advanced Manufacturing of Southern Methodist University was used to print them. The results of the tensile tests indicated that the printed samples successfully achieved the corresponding mechanical properties.

  14. Research on Computer Integrated Manufacturing of Sheet Metal Parts for Lithium Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Wei-Min

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium battery has been widely used as the main driving force of the new energy vehicle in recent years. Sheet metal parts are formed by means of pressure forming techniques with the characteristics of light weight, small size and high structural strength. The sheet metal forming has higher productivity and material utilization than the mechanical cutting, therefore sheet metal parts are widely used in many fields, such as modern automotive industry, aviation, aerospace, machine tools, instruments and household appliances. In this paper, taking a complex lithium battery box as an example, the integrated manufacturing of sheet metal parts is studied, and the digital integrated design and manufacturing process system is proposed. The technology is studied such as sheet metal design, unfolding, sheet nesting and laser cutting, CNC turret punch stamping programming, CNC bending etc. The feasibility of the method is verified through the examples of products and the integrated manufacturing of sheet metal box is completed.

  15. An In-Depth Review on Direct Additive Manufacturing of Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Farooq I.; Rani, Ahmad Majdi Abdul; Altaf, Khurram; Rao, T. V. V. L. N.; Aimi Zaharin, Haizum

    2018-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D Printing, is a revolutionary manufacturing technique which has been developing rapidly in the last 30 years. The evolution of this precision manufacturing process from rapid prototyping to ready-to-use parts has significantly alleviated manufacturing constraints and design freedom has been outstandingly widened. AM is a non-conventional manufacturing technique which utilizes a 3D CAD model data to build parts by adding one material layer at a time, rather than removing it and fulfills the demand for manufacturing parts with complex geometric shapes, great dimensional accuracy, and easy to assemble parts. Additive manufacturing of metals has become the area of extensive research, progressing towards the production of final products and replacing conventional manufacturing methods. This paper provides an insight to the available metal additive manufacturing technologies that can be used to produce end user products without using conventional manufacturing methods. The paper also includes the comparison of mechanical and physical properties of parts produced by AM with the parts manufactured using conventional processes.

  16. Structure changes in steels and hard metal induced by nanosecond and femtosecond laser processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, Gabriel; Romano, Valerio; Weber, Heinz P.; Haefke, Henry; Gerbig, Yvonne; Sentis, Marc L.; Hermann, Joerg; Bruneau, Sebastien

    2003-11-01

    Investigations on the occurrence of structure and hardness changes (for two sorts of steel and for a hard metal substrate) in the immediate vicinity of laser induced craters are presented in this work. Experiments with femtosecond pulses were performed in air with a Ti:sapphire laser (800 nm, 100 fs) at mean fluences of 2, 5 and 10 J/cm2. Series of microcraters were induced with 100 to 5,000 laser pulses per hole. Experiments with similar fluences, but 10 to 40 pules per hole, were performed on the same materials using a Nd:YAG delivering 100 ns pulese. After laser irradiation, cuts were made through the processed samples and the changes occurred in the crystalline structure of the target materials were evidenced by metallographical analysis of the resulting cross-sections. Hardness measurements were performed in points situated in the immediate vicinity of the laser-induced pores. Affected zones in the material surrounding laser induced pores were always found in the ns-regime, however with different properties for various laser parameters. In the fs-regime, zones of modified materials were also found and in such zones a significant hardness increasing was evidenced; the limit of the low fluences regime, where no structure changes occurred, was found to be slightly above 2 J/cm2.

  17. Microstructure and micro-hardness analyses of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V parts manufactured by selective laser melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lancea Camil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective Laser Melting (SLM is one of the powder based additive manufacturing technologies and it is, as well, the most rapidly growing technique in Rapid Prototyping. In this paper is presented a microstructure analysis using Scanning Electron Microscope (LEO 1525 SEM, of Ti6Al4V parts exposed into a corrosion environment. The corrosion environment was generated using a salt chamber with 5% and 10% NaCl concentration and an ACS-Sunrise climatic chamber. The parts were also subjected to tests in order to determine their micro-hardness, followed by a statistical processing of the obtained data. The parts, having a lattice structure, were built on a Selective Laser Melting machine.

  18. Radiation hardness tests with a demonstrator preamplifier circuit manufactured in silicon on sapphire (SOS) VLSI technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingefors, N.; Ekeloef, T.; Eriksson, C.; Paulsson, M.; Moerk, G.; Sjoelund, A.

    1992-01-01

    Samples of the preamplifier circuit, as well as of separate n and p channel transistors of the type contained in the circuit, were irradiated with gammas from a 60 Co source up to an integrated dose of 3 Mrad (30 kGy). The VLSI manufacturing technology used is the SOS4 process of ABB Hafo. A first analysis of the tests shows that the performance of the amplifier remains practically unaffected by the radiation for total doses up to 1 Mrad. At higher doses up to 3 Mrad the circuit amplification factor decreases by a factor between 4 and 5 whereas the output noise level remains unchanged. It is argued that it may be possible to reduce the decrease in amplification factor in future by optimizing the amplifier circuit design further. (orig.)

  19. Microstructure and hardness studies of Inconel 718 manufactured by selective laser melting before and after solution heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucho, Wakshum M., E-mail: wakshum.m.tucho@uis.no [Department of Mechanical and Structural Engineering and Materials Science, University of Stavanger, N-4036 Stavanger (Norway); Cuvillier, Priscille [Department of Mechanical and Structural Engineering and Materials Science, University of Stavanger, N-4036 Stavanger (Norway); Sjolyst-Kverneland, Atle [Roxar/Emerson Process Management, POB 112, 4065 Stavanger (Norway); Hansen, Vidar [Department of Mechanical and Structural Engineering and Materials Science, University of Stavanger, N-4036 Stavanger (Norway)

    2017-03-24

    The microstructure of Additive Manufactured (AM) Inconel 718 in general and Selective Laser Melting (SLM), in particular is different from the material produced by conventional methods due to the rapid solidification process associated with the former. As a result, the widely adapted standard solution heat treatment temperature (<1100 °C) for conventional material is found to be not high enough for materials fabricated with SLM method in order to dissolve Laves and other microsegregated phases for releasing the ageing constituents (Nb, Ti, Al) sufficiently into the alloy matrix. In this study, sample of Inconel 718 fabricated with SLM method were solution heat-treated to 1100 °C or 1250 °C at different hold times to investigate the dissolution of macro- and micro-segregated precipitates. Investigations of microstructure and segregation in as-printed and solution heat-treated states have been studied using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Optical Microscopy (OM). Measurement of material hardness was performed with Vickers hardness tests. The microstructure of the as-printed parts exhibit non-columnar grains, but contain well-shaped columnar/cellular sub-grains. The intergranular boundaries are decorated with high density of dislocations and segregated particles. Tremendous stress relief and grain coarsening were observed with solution heat treatment. In particular, at 1250 °C annealing, the sub-grains, including precipitates and dislocation networks along the sub-grain boundaries, were entirely dissolved. However, the 1100/1250 °C solution heat treatment scheme could not dissolve microsegregated precipitates and carbides completely. Details of the analysis on microstructure, dissolution of precipitates and hardness are presented.

  20. Microstructure and hardness studies of Inconel 718 manufactured by selective laser melting before and after solution heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucho, Wakshum M.; Cuvillier, Priscille; Sjolyst-Kverneland, Atle; Hansen, Vidar

    2017-01-01

    The microstructure of Additive Manufactured (AM) Inconel 718 in general and Selective Laser Melting (SLM), in particular is different from the material produced by conventional methods due to the rapid solidification process associated with the former. As a result, the widely adapted standard solution heat treatment temperature (<1100 °C) for conventional material is found to be not high enough for materials fabricated with SLM method in order to dissolve Laves and other microsegregated phases for releasing the ageing constituents (Nb, Ti, Al) sufficiently into the alloy matrix. In this study, sample of Inconel 718 fabricated with SLM method were solution heat-treated to 1100 °C or 1250 °C at different hold times to investigate the dissolution of macro- and micro-segregated precipitates. Investigations of microstructure and segregation in as-printed and solution heat-treated states have been studied using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Optical Microscopy (OM). Measurement of material hardness was performed with Vickers hardness tests. The microstructure of the as-printed parts exhibit non-columnar grains, but contain well-shaped columnar/cellular sub-grains. The intergranular boundaries are decorated with high density of dislocations and segregated particles. Tremendous stress relief and grain coarsening were observed with solution heat treatment. In particular, at 1250 °C annealing, the sub-grains, including precipitates and dislocation networks along the sub-grain boundaries, were entirely dissolved. However, the 1100/1250 °C solution heat treatment scheme could not dissolve microsegregated precipitates and carbides completely. Details of the analysis on microstructure, dissolution of precipitates and hardness are presented.

  1. Thermodynamics and structure of liquid alkali metals from the charged-hard-sphere reference fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, S.K.; Akinlade, O.; Tosi, M.P.

    1989-12-01

    The evaluation of thermodynamic properties of liquid alkali metals is re-examined in the approach based on the Gibbs-Bogoliubov inequality and using the fluid of charged hard spheres in the mean spherical approximation as reference system, with a view to achieving consistency with the liquid structure factor. The perturbative variational calculation of the Helmholtz free energy is based on an ab initio and highly reliable nonlocal pseudopotential. Only limited improvement is found in the calculated thermodynamic functions, even when full advantage is taken of the two variational parameters inherent in this approach. The role of thermodynamic self-consistency between the equations of state of the reference fluid derived from the routes of the internal energy and of the virial theorem is then discussed, using previous results by Hoye and Stell. An approximate evaluation of the corresponding contribution to the free energy of liquid alkali metals yields appreciable improvements in both the thermodynamic functions and the liquid structure factor. It thus appears that an accurate treatment of thermodynamic self-consistency in the charged-hard-sphere system may help to resolve some of the difficulties that are commonly met in the evaluation of thermodynamic and structural properties of liquid metals. (author). 55 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  2. Electronic transport properties of 4f shell elements of liquid metal using hard sphere Yukawa system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, H. P.; Sonvane, Y. A.; Thakor, P. B.

    2018-04-01

    The electronic transport properties are analyzed for 4f shell elements of liquid metals. To examine the electronic transport properties like electrical resistivity (ρ), thermal conductivity (σ) and thermo electrical power (Q), we used our own parameter free model potential with the Hard Sphere Yukawa (HSY) reference system. The screening effect on aforesaid properties has been examined by using different screening functions like Hartree (H), Taylor (T) and Sarkar (S). The correlations of our resultsand other data with available experimental values are intensely promising. Also, we conclude that our newly constructed parameter free model potential is capable of explaining the above mentioned electronic transport properties.

  3. Assessment of the hardness of different orthodontic wires and brackets produced by metal injection molding and conventional methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Alavi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: MIM orthodontic brackets exhibited hardness values much lower than those of SS orthodontic archwires and were more compatible with NiTi and beta-titanium archwires. A wide range of microhardness values has been reported for conventional orthodontic brackets and it should be considered that the manufacturing method might be only one of the factors affecting the mechanical properties of orthodontic brackets including hardness.

  4. Rapid die manufacturing using direct laser metal deposition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pereira, MFVT

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the work undertaken at the CSIR on the issue of rapid die manufacturing through the application and evaluation of a rapid prototyping technique and coating technologies applied to die components of a high pressure casting die...

  5. Transition radiation in metal-metal multilayer nanostructures as a medical source of hard x-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokrovsky, A. L.; Kaplan, A. E.; Shkolnikov, P. L.

    2006-01-01

    We show that a periodic metal-metal multilayer nanostructure can serve as an efficient source of hard x-ray transition radiation. Our research effort is aimed at developing an x-ray source for medical applications, which is based on using low-energy relativistic electrons. The approach toward choosing radiator-spacer couples for the generation of hard x-ray resonant transition radiation by few-MeV electrons traversing solid multilayer structures for the energies of interest to medicine (30-50 keV) changes dramatically compared with that for soft x-ray radiation. We show that one of the main factors in achieving the required resonant line is the absence of the contrast of the refractive indices between the spacer and the radiator at the far wings of the radiation line; for that purpose, the optimal spacer, as a rule, should have a higher atomic number than the radiator. Having experimental goals in mind, we have considered also the unwanted effects due to bremsstrahlung radiation, absorption and scattering of radiated photons, detector-related issues, and inhibited coherence of transition radiation due to random deviation of spacing between the layers. Choosing as a model example a Mo-Ag radiator-spacer pair of materials, we demonstrate that the x-ray transition radiation line can be well resolved with the use of spatial and frequency filtering

  6. Deep machine learning based Image classification in hard disk drive manufacturing (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Narender; Chien, Chester

    2018-03-01

    A key sensor element in a Hard Disk Drive (HDD) is the read-write head device. The device is complex 3D shape and its fabrication requires over thousand process steps with many of them being various types of image inspection and critical dimension (CD) metrology steps. In order to have high yield of devices across a wafer, very tight inspection and metrology specifications are implemented. Many images are collected on a wafer and inspected for various types of defects and in CD metrology the quality of image impacts the CD measurements. Metrology noise need to be minimized in CD metrology to get better estimate of the process related variations for implementing robust process controls. Though there are specialized tools available for defect inspection and review allowing classification and statistics. However, due to unavailability of such advanced tools or other reasons, many times images need to be manually inspected. SEM Image inspection and CD-SEM metrology tools are different tools differing in software as well. SEM Image inspection and CD-SEM metrology tools are separate tools differing in software and purpose. There have been cases where a significant numbers of CD-SEM images are blurred or have some artefact and there is a need for image inspection along with the CD measurement. Tool may not report a practical metric highlighting the quality of image. Not filtering CD from these blurred images will add metrology noise to the CD measurement. An image classifier can be helpful here for filtering such data. This paper presents the use of artificial intelligence in classifying the SEM images. Deep machine learning is used to train a neural network which is then used to classify the new images as blurred and not blurred. Figure 1 shows the image blur artefact and contingency table of classification results from the trained deep neural network. Prediction accuracy of 94.9 % was achieved in the first model. Paper covers other such applications of the deep neural

  7. Microstructural and hardness investigations on a dissimilar metal weld between low alloy steel and Alloy 82 weld metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.R.; Lu, Y.H.; Ding, X.F.; Shoji, T.

    2016-01-01

    The investigation on microstructure and hardness at the fusion boundary (FB) region of a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) between low alloy steel (LAS) A508-III and Alloy 82 weld metal (WM) was carried out. The results indicated that there were two kinds of FBs, martensite FB and sharp FB, with obvious different microstructures, alternately distributed in the same FB. The martensite FB region had a gradual change of elemental concentration across FB, columnar WM grains with high length/width ratios, a thick martensite layer and a wide heat affected zone (HAZ) with large prior austenite grains. By comparison, the sharp FB region had a relatively sharp change of elemental concentration across the FB, WM grains with low length/width ratios and a narrow HAZ with smaller prior austenite grains. The martensite possessed a K-S orientation relationship with WM grains, while no orientation relationship was found between the HAZ grains and WM grains at the sharp FB. Compared with sharp FB there were much more Σ3 boundaries in the HAZ beside martensite FB. The hardness maximum of the martensite FB was much higher than that of the sharp FB, which was attributed to the martensite layer at the martensite FB. - Highlights: •Martensite and sharp FBs with different microstructures were found in the same FB. •There were high length/width-ratio WM grains and a wide HAZ beside martensite FB. •There were low length/width-ratio WM grains and a narrow HAZ beside sharp FB. •Compared with sharp FB, there were much more Σ3 boundaries in HAZ of martensite FB. •Hardness maximium of martensite FB was much higher than that of sharp FB.

  8. Mechanical properties of open-cell metallic biomaterials manufactured using additive manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campoli, G.; Borleffs, M.S.; Amin Yavari, S.; Wauthle, R.; Weinans, H.; Zadpoor, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Finite element (FE) models were used to predict the mechanical properties of porous biomaterials. ► Porous materials were produced using additive manufacturing techniques. ► Manufacturing irregularities need to be implemented in FE models. ► FE models are more accurate than analytical models in predicting mechanical properties. - Abstract: An important practical problem in application of open-cell porous biomaterials is the prediction of the mechanical properties of the material given its micro-architecture and the properties of its matrix material. Although analytical methods can be used for this purpose, these models are often based on several simplifying assumptions with respect to the complex architecture and cannot provide accurate prediction results. The aim of the current study is to present finite element (FE) models that can predict the mechanical properties of porous titanium produced using selective laser melting or selective electron beam melting. The irregularities caused by the manufacturing process including structural variations of the architecture are implemented in the FE models using statistical models. The predictions of FE models are compared with those of analytical models and are tested against experimental data. It is shown that, as opposed to analytical models, the predictions of FE models are in agreement with experimental observations. It is concluded that manufacturing irregularities significantly affect the mechanical properties of porous biomaterials

  9. Indentation size effects in the nano- and micro-hardness of a Fe-based bulk metallic glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, F., E-mail: xufu@xtu.edu.cn; Ding, Y.H.; Deng, X.H.; Zhang, P.; Long, Z.L.

    2014-10-01

    Hardness of a Fe-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) was evaluated by both atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanoindentation (nano-hardness) and instrumented indentation with a traditional indenter setup (micro-hardness) under different maximum loads at room temperature. The nano-hardness and the micro-hardness were found to be comparable. For both of the indentation methods, indentation size effect (ISE) is detected as increase in hardness with decrease in indentation peak load. It is proposed that strain rate dependent softening, loading history and the lag between free volume creation and mechanical softening should be responsible for the ISE in this BMG. Furthermore, ISE is found to be more significant in AFM nanoindentation than in instrumented indentation. This can be explained by taking into account the effect of exerted peak load and the face angle of the indenter in a qualitative manner.

  10. Practical Aspects of CALS in Design and Manufacturing of Sheet Metal Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shpitalni, Moshe; Alting, Leo; Bilberg, Arne

    1998-01-01

    The transition from design to process planning and to the various stages of manufacturing is traditionally sequential. In many cases, practical problems associated with manufacturing cannot be resolved if only individual processes are examined. These problems can be overcome, however, by adopting...... with the design and manufacture of sheet metal parts. It is demonstrated that through implementation of the CALS approach, the overall process can be optimised and products can be manufactured significantly more accurately, faster and less expensively.......The transition from design to process planning and to the various stages of manufacturing is traditionally sequential. In many cases, practical problems associated with manufacturing cannot be resolved if only individual processes are examined. These problems can be overcome, however, by adopting...

  11. Evaluation of Metal Ion Concentration in Hard Tissues of Teeth in Residents of Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Wychowanski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the study was an assessment of the content of trace elements in enamel and dentin of teeth extracted in patients residing in urban and agricultural areas of Poland. Methods. The study included 30 generally healthy patients with retained third molars. 65 samples of enamel and dentin from individuals living in urban areas and 85 samples of enamel and dentin from individuals living in agricultural areas were prepared. The content of manganese, lead, cadmium, and chromium in the studied enamel and dentin samples from retained teeth was determined by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. In the process of statistical hypothesis testing, the level of significance was assumed at α=0.05. Results. A comparative analysis of the data showed that enamel and dentin of inhabitants of industrialized areas contain significantly higher amounts of lead and cadmium than hard tissues of teeth in residents of agricultural areas and comparable amounts of manganese and chromium. Significance. It appears that hard tissues of retained teeth may constitute valuable material for assessment of long-term environmental exposure to metal ions. The study confirms that the risk of exposure to heavy metals depends on the place of residence and environmental pollution.

  12. Electrochemical removal of metallic implants from Technovit 9100 New embedded hard and soft tissues prior to histological sectioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willbold, Elmar; Reebmann, Mattias; Jeffries, Richard; Witte, Frank

    2013-11-01

    Solid metallic implants in soft or hard tissues are serious challenges for histological processing. However, metallic implants are more frequently used in e.g. cardiovascular or orthopaedic therapies. Before clinical use, these devices need to be tested thoroughly in a biological environment and histological analysis of their biocompatibility is a major requirement. To allow the histological analysis of metallic implants in tissues especially in calcified hard tissues, we describe a method for embedding these tissues in the resin Technovit 9100 New and removing the metallic implants by electrochemical dissolution. With the combination of these two processes, we are able to achieve 5 μm thick sections from soft or hard tissues with a superior preservation of tissue architecture and especially the implant-tissue interface. These sections can be stained by classical stainings, immunohistochemical and enzymehistochemical as well as DNA-based staining methods.

  13. Manufacturing of Cast Metal Foams with Irregular Cell Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroupová I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metallic foams are materials of which the research is still on-going, with the broad applicability in many different areas (e.g. automotive industry, building industry, medicine, etc.. These metallic materials have specific properties, such as large rigidity at low density, high thermal conductivity, capability to absorb energy, etc. The work is focused on the preparation of these materials using conventional casting technology (infiltration method, which ensures rapid and economically feasible method for production of shaped components. In the experimental part we studied conditions of casting of metallic foams with open pores and irregular cell structure made of ferrous and nonferrous alloys by use of various types of filler material (precursors.

  14. Apoptosis induction in human lymphocytes after in vitro exposure to cobalt/hard metal compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, M. de; Decordier, I.; Lombaert, N.; Cundari, E.; Kirsch-Volders, M.; Lison, D.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: An increased risk of lung cancer is associated with occupational exposure to mixtures of cobalt metal (Co) and tungsten carbide (WC) particles, but apparently not when exposure is to cobalt alone. The mechanism for this increased cancer risk is not fully understood. The evaluation of the in vitro genotoxic effects in lymphocytes exposed to varying cobalt species demonstrated that the WC-Co hard metal mixture is more genotoxic (DNA damage, chromosome/genome mutations) than metallic Co alone. WC alone was not genotoxic. Thus, WC-Co represents a specific (geno)toxic entity. In order to assess the survival of human lymphocytes after in vitro exposure to metallic Co, CoCl 2 , WC and the WC-Co mixture, two apoptosis/necrosis detection methods were applied (annexin V staining and flow cytometry). Annexin-V staining of early apoptotic cells demonstrated a dose- and time dependent induction of apoptosis by metallic Co, CoCl 2 , WC and the WC-Co mixture. The time course of the process varied according to the metal species tested. Metallic Co and CoCl 2 caused a gradually increasing frequency of apoptotic cells with time (up to 24 h). WC-induced apoptosis displayed a typical 6 hour peak, which was not the case for the WC-Co mixture or for Co. Apoptosis induction by the WC-Co mixture was intermediate between that induced by Co and WC separately. Analysis of propidium iodide stained cells by flow cytometry was performed as a later marker for apoptosis induction. Preliminary data indicate similar tendencies of apoptosis induction as those detected by annexin-V. Identification of the apoptotic pathway triggered by the metal compounds was studied by inhibition of the ceramide-apoptosis pathway by fumonisin causing reduction of apoptosis induction for all compounds, but strongest after 6 hour exposure to WC. The use of specific caspase inhibitors will allow to further elucidate the different pathways involved. The current data demonstrating in vitro the apoptosis

  15. Apoptosis induction in human lymphocytes after in vitro exposure to cobalt/hard metal compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeck, M de; Decordier, I; Lombaert, N; Cundari, E; Kirsch-Volders, M [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laboratorium voor Cellulaire Genetica, Brussel (Belgium); Lison, D [Universite catholique de Louvain, Unite de Toxicologie industrielle et Medecine du Travail, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    Full text: An increased risk of lung cancer is associated with occupational exposure to mixtures of cobalt metal (Co) and tungsten carbide (WC) particles, but apparently not when exposure is to cobalt alone. The mechanism for this increased cancer risk is not fully understood. The evaluation of the in vitro genotoxic effects in lymphocytes exposed to varying cobalt species demonstrated that the WC-Co hard metal mixture is more genotoxic (DNA damage, chromosome/genome mutations) than metallic Co alone. WC alone was not genotoxic. Thus, WC-Co represents a specific (geno)toxic entity. In order to assess the survival of human lymphocytes after in vitro exposure to metallic Co, CoCl{sub 2}, WC and the WC-Co mixture, two apoptosis/necrosis detection methods were applied (annexin V staining and flow cytometry). Annexin-V staining of early apoptotic cells demonstrated a dose- and time dependent induction of apoptosis by metallic Co, CoCl{sub 2}, WC and the WC-Co mixture. The time course of the process varied according to the metal species tested. Metallic Co and CoCl{sub 2} caused a gradually increasing frequency of apoptotic cells with time (up to 24 h). WC-induced apoptosis displayed a typical 6 hour peak, which was not the case for the WC-Co mixture or for Co. Apoptosis induction by the WC-Co mixture was intermediate between that induced by Co and WC separately. Analysis of propidium iodide stained cells by flow cytometry was performed as a later marker for apoptosis induction. Preliminary data indicate similar tendencies of apoptosis induction as those detected by annexin-V. Identification of the apoptotic pathway triggered by the metal compounds was studied by inhibition of the ceramide-apoptosis pathway by fumonisin causing reduction of apoptosis induction for all compounds, but strongest after 6 hour exposure to WC. The use of specific caspase inhibitors will allow to further elucidate the different pathways involved. The current data demonstrating in vitro the

  16. Uruguay project - Metalic silicon manufacturing. Palmar location study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This work is about the Soriano town possibilities offered to Rima Industrial S.A in relation with the metallic silicon project in Uruguay. In this zone there is the Palmar hydroelectric plant with a capacity of 33 MW and its development is part of the Rio Negro river

  17. Metal organic frameworks as precursors for the manufacture of advanced catalytic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oar-Arteta Gonzalez, L.; Wezendonk, T.A.; Sun, X.; Kapteijn, F.; Gascon Sabate, J.

    The use of metal organic frameworks as hard templates for the preparation of heterogeneous catalysts is thoroughly reviewed. In this critical article, the main factors to consider when using a MOF as a sacrificial template are first discussed. Then, the existing literature on the topic is reviewed,

  18. Characterization and properties of sintered WC–Co and WC–Ni–Fe hard metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Shih-Hsien; Chen, Song-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • WC–Ni–Fe alloy sintered at 1400 °C had the highest hardness (HRA 85.3 ± 0.5). • The optimal WC–Ni–Fe sintered alloy possessed the highest TRS value (2524.5 ± 1.0 MPa). • The fracture toughness of the sintered WC–Ni–Fe alloys is mainly provided by the Ni–Fe binders. • WC–Ni–Fe sintered alloy possessed the highest fracture toughness of K IC (15.1 MPa m 1/2 ). • The WC–Ni–Fe sintered alloy had the much better corrosion resistance in 0.15 M HCl solution. -- Abstract: The aim of this study is to explore two different tungsten carbide binders (Co and Ni–Fe) and then impose various sintering temperature treatments. Experimental results show that the optimal sintering temperatures for WC–Co and WC–Ni–Fe hard metal alloys are 1350 °C and 1400 °C for 1 h, respectively. Meanwhile, the WC–Co and WC–Ni–Fe alloys undergo a well liquid-phase sintering and, thus, exhibit excellent mechanical properties. In addition, the sintered WC–Co and WC–Ni–Fe alloys show that when the relative density reached 99.76% and 99.68%, the hardness was enhanced to HRA 84.4 ± 0.5 and 85.3 ± 0.5, and the TRS increased to 2471.2 ± 1.0 and 2524.5 ± 1.0 MPa, respectively. Moreover, the corrosion test results show that the WC–Ni–Fe alloy sintered at 1400 °C had the lowest corrosion current (I corr ) of 1.11 × 10 −5 A cm −2 and the highest polarization resistance (R p ) of 2464.61 Ω cm 2 in 0.15 M HCl solution. Simultaneously, the fracture toughness of K IC increased to 15.1 MPa m 1/2 . Compared with sintered WC–Co alloys, the sintered WC–Ni–Fe hard metal alloys possessed much better corrosion resistance and mechanical properties

  19. Laser cladding: repairing and manufacturing metal parts and tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Leo

    2003-03-01

    Laser cladding is presently used to repair high volume aerospace, automotive, marine, rail or general engineering components where excessive wear has occurred. It can also be used if a one-off high value component is either required or has been accidentally over-machined. The ultimate application of laser cladding is to build components up from nothing, using a laser cladding system and a 3D CAD drawing of the component. It is thus emerging that laser cladding can be classified as a special case of Rapid Prototyping (RP). Up to this point in time RP was seen, and is still seen, as in intermediately step between the design stage of a component and a finished working product. This can now be extended so that laser cladding makes RP a one-stop shop and the finished component is made from tool-steel or some alloy-base material. The marriage of laser cladding with RP is an interesting one and offers an alternative to traditional tool builders, re-manufacturers and injection mould design/repair industries. The aim of this paper is to discuss the emergence of this new technology, along with the transference of the process out of the laboratory and into the industrial workplace and show it is finding its rightful place in the manufacturing/repair sector. It will be shown that it can be used as a cost cutting, strategic material saver and consequently a green technology.

  20. Economic Assessment for Recycling Critical Metals From Hard Disk Drives Using a Comprehensive Recovery Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ruby Thuy; Diaz, Luis A.; Imholte, D. Devin; Lister, Tedd E.

    2017-09-01

    Since the 2011 price spike of rare earth elements (REEs), research on permanent magnet recycling has blossomed globally in an attempt to reduce future REE criticality. Hard disk drives (HDDs) have emerged as one feasible feedstock for recovering valuable REEs such as praseodymium, neodymium, and dysprosium. Nevertheless, current processes for recycling electronic waste only focus on certain metals as a result of feedstock and metal price uncertainties. In addition, there is a perception that recycling REEs is unprofitable. To shed some light on the economic viability of REE recycling from U.S. HDDs, this article combines techno-economic information of an electro-hydrometallurgical process with end-of-life HDD availability in a simulation model. The results showed that adding REE recovery to an HDD base and precious metal recovery process was profitable given current prices. Recovered REEs from U.S. HDDs could meet up to 5.2% rest-of-world (excluding China) neodymium magnet demand. Feedstock, aluminum, and gold prices are key factors to recycling profitability. REEs contributed 13% to the co-recycling profit.

  1. Fluid mechanics of additive manufacturing of metal objects by accretion of droplets – a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesař Václav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents a survey of principles of additive manufacturing of metal objects by accretion of molten metal droplets, focusing on fluid-mechanical problems that deserve being investigated. The main problem is slowness of manufacturing due to necessarily small size of added droplets. Increase of droplet repetition rate calls for basic research of the phenomena that take place inside and around the droplets: ballistics of their flight, internal flowfield with heat and mass transfer, oscillation of surfaces, and the ways to elimination of satellite droplets.

  2. Fluid mechanics of additive manufacturing of metal objects by accretion of droplets - a survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesař, Václav

    2016-03-01

    Paper presents a survey of principles of additive manufacturing of metal objects by accretion of molten metal droplets, focusing on fluid-mechanical problems that deserve being investigated. The main problem is slowness of manufacturing due to necessarily small size of added droplets. Increase of droplet repetition rate calls for basic research of the phenomena that take place inside and around the droplets: ballistics of their flight, internal flowfield with heat and mass transfer, oscillation of surfaces, and the ways to elimination of satellite droplets.

  3. Manufacturing process and electrode properties of palladium-electroded ionic polymer–metal composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Longfei; Chen, Hualing; Zhu, Zicai; Li, Bo

    2012-01-01

    This paper primarily focuses on the manufacturing process of palladium-electroded ionic polymer–metal composite (IPMC). First, according to the special properties of Pd, many experiments were done to determine several specific procedures, including the addition of a reducing agent and the time consumed. Subsequently, the effects of the core manufacturing steps on the electrode morphology were revealed by scanning electron microscopy studies of 22 IPMC samples treated with different combinations of manufacturing steps. Finally, the effects of electrode characteristics on the electromechanical properties, including the sheet resistivity, the elastic modulus and the electro-active performance, of IPMCs were evaluated experimentally and analyzed according to the electrode morphology. (paper)

  4. A Method for Fabricating Additive Manufactured Lightweight Metallic Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-14

    machinable by diamond turning. It  has added optical advantages such as  temperature  stability,  high  reflectivity, and resistance to  corrosion.  The...manufacturing  cost and lead times are serious limitations. The cost is very  high  because of both the rarity of  beryllium and the  high  toxicity of...beryllium mirrors beyond the typical  isogrid design. One of those methods explores the bonding or  brazing  of aluminum face sheets  to aluminum foams

  5. Morphology Analysis and Process Research on Novel Metal Fused-coating Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Wei, Zheng ying; Du, Jun; Ren, Chuan qi; Zhang, Shan; Zhang, Zhitong; Bai, Hao

    2017-12-01

    Existing metal additive manufacturing equipment has high capital costs and slow throughput printing. In this paper, a new metal fused-coating additive manufacturing (MFCAM) was proposed. Experiments of single-track formation were conducted using MFCAM to validate the feasibility. The low melting alloy was selected as the forming material. Then, the effect of process parameters such as the flow rate, deposition velocity and initial distance on the forming morphology. There is a strong coupling effect between the single track forming morphology. Through the analysis of influencing factors to improve the forming quality of specimens. The experimental results show that the twice as forming efficiency as the metal droplet deposition. Additionally, the forming morphology and quality were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscope and X-ray. The results show that the metal fused-coating process can achieve good surface morphology and without internal tissue defect.

  6. Tridimensional ionic polymer metal composites: optimization of the manufacturing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonomo, C; Brunetto, P; Fortuna, L; Graziani, S; Bottino, M; Di Pasquale, G; Pollicino, A

    2010-01-01

    Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) belong to electroactive polymers (EAPs) and have been suggested for various applications due to their light weight and to the fact that they react mechanically when stimulated by an electrical signal and vice versa. Thick IPMCs (3D-IPMCs) have been fabricated by hot pressing several Nafion ® 117 films. Additional post-processes (more cycles of Pt electroless plating and dispersing agents) have been applied to improve the 3D-IPMC performance. The electromechanical response of 3D-IPMCs has been examined by applying electrical signals and measuring the displacement and blocking force produced

  7. Evaluation of the adhesion strength of diamond films brazed on K-10 type hard metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Sérgio Ivan dos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The coating of cutting tools with diamond films considerably increases the tool performance due to the combination of the unique tribological properties of diamond with the bulk properties of the substrate (toughness. The tool performance, however, is strongly related to the adhesion strength between the film and the substrate. In this work our main goal was to propose and to test a procedure, based on a tensile strength test, to evaluate the adhesion strength of a diamond wafer brazed on a hard metal substrate, taking into account the effect of the brazing temperature and time. The temperature range studied was from 800 to 980 °C and the brazing time ranged from 3 to 40 min. The obtained results could be used to optimize the costs and time required to the production of high performance cutting tools with brazed diamond wafers.

  8. Metal vapor micro-jet controls material redistribution in laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Ly, Sonny; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Khairallah, Saad A.; Guss, Gabe; Matthews, Manyalibo J.

    2017-01-01

    The results of detailed experiments and finite element modeling of metal micro-droplet motion associated with metal additive manufacturing (AM) processes are presented. Ultra high speed imaging of melt pool dynamics reveals that the dominant mechanism leading to micro-droplet ejection in a laser powder bed fusion AM is not from laser induced recoil pressure as is widely believed and found in laser welding processes, but rather from vapor driven entrainment of micro-particles by an ambient gas...

  9. Morphology, microstructure, and hardness of titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) blocks deposited by wire-feed additive layer manufacturing (ALM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandl, Erhard; Schoberth, Achim; Leyens, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The microstructure and hardness of deposited Ti-6Al-4V blocks are investigated. ► Hardness is influenced by post heat treatment rather than by process parameters. ► Microstructure within the prior β-grains varies to some extent from grain to grain. ► A 600 °C/4 h treatment significantly increased the average hardness. - Abstract: Additive layer manufacturing offers a potential for time and cost savings, especially for aerospace components made from costly titanium alloys. In this paper, the morphology, microstructure, chemical composition, and hardness of additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V blocks are investigated and discussed. Blocks (7 beads wide, 7 layers high) were deposited using Ti-6Al-4V wire and a Nd:YAG laser. Two different sets of parameters are used and three different post heat treatment conditions (as-built, 600 °C/4 h, 1200 °C/2 h) are investigated. The experiments reveal elementary properties of additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V material in correlation to process parameters and heat treatments, which are discussed comprehensively.

  10. Morphology, microstructure, and hardness of titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) blocks deposited by wire-feed additive layer manufacturing (ALM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandl, Erhard, E-mail: erhard.brandl@eads.net [EADS Innovation Works, Metallic Technologies and Surface Engineering, D-81663 Munich (Germany); Schoberth, Achim, E-mail: achim.schoberth@eads.net [EADS Innovation Works, Metallic Technologies and Surface Engineering, D-81663 Munich (Germany); Leyens, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.leyens@tu-dresden.de [Technical University of Dresden, Institute of Materials Science, Chair of Materials Technology, Berndt-Bau, Helmholtzstr. 7, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The microstructure and hardness of deposited Ti-6Al-4V blocks are investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hardness is influenced by post heat treatment rather than by process parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructure within the prior {beta}-grains varies to some extent from grain to grain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A 600 Degree-Sign C/4 h treatment significantly increased the average hardness. - Abstract: Additive layer manufacturing offers a potential for time and cost savings, especially for aerospace components made from costly titanium alloys. In this paper, the morphology, microstructure, chemical composition, and hardness of additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V blocks are investigated and discussed. Blocks (7 beads wide, 7 layers high) were deposited using Ti-6Al-4V wire and a Nd:YAG laser. Two different sets of parameters are used and three different post heat treatment conditions (as-built, 600 Degree-Sign C/4 h, 1200 Degree-Sign C/2 h) are investigated. The experiments reveal elementary properties of additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V material in correlation to process parameters and heat treatments, which are discussed comprehensively.

  11. Topological design and additive manufacturing of porous metals for bone scaffolds and orthopaedic implants: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojian; Xu, Shanqing; Zhou, Shiwei; Xu, Wei; Leary, Martin; Choong, Peter; Qian, M; Brandt, Milan; Xie, Yi Min

    2016-03-01

    One of the critical issues in orthopaedic regenerative medicine is the design of bone scaffolds and implants that replicate the biomechanical properties of the host bones. Porous metals have found themselves to be suitable candidates for repairing or replacing the damaged bones since their stiffness and porosity can be adjusted on demands. Another advantage of porous metals lies in their open space for the in-growth of bone tissue, hence accelerating the osseointegration process. The fabrication of porous metals has been extensively explored over decades, however only limited controls over the internal architecture can be achieved by the conventional processes. Recent advances in additive manufacturing have provided unprecedented opportunities for producing complex structures to meet the increasing demands for implants with customized mechanical performance. At the same time, topology optimization techniques have been developed to enable the internal architecture of porous metals to be designed to achieve specified mechanical properties at will. Thus implants designed via the topology optimization approach and produced by additive manufacturing are of great interest. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of topological design and manufacturing processes of various types of porous metals, in particular for titanium alloys, biodegradable metals and shape memory alloys. This review also identifies the limitations of current techniques and addresses the directions for future investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fluid Structure Interaction Analysis in Manufacturing Metal/Polymer Macro-Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baesso, R.; Lucchetta, G.

    2007-01-01

    Polymer Injection Forming (PIF) is a new manufacturing technology for sheet metal-polymer macro-composites, which results from the combination of injection moulding and sheet metal forming. This process consists on forming the sheet metal according to the boundary of the mould cavity by means of the injected polymer. After cooling, the polymer bonds permanently to the metal resulting in a sheet metal-polymer macro-composite product. Comparing this process to traditional ones (where the polymeric and metal parts are joined together after separate forming) the main advantages are both reduction of production costs and increase of part quality. This paper presents a multi-physics numerical simulation of the process performed in the Ansys/CFX environment

  13. Structure, properties and wear behaviour of multilayer coatings consisting of metallic and covalent hard materials, prepared by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schier, V.

    1995-12-01

    Novel multilayer coatings with metallic and covalent layer materials were prepared by magnetron sputtering and characterised concerning structure, properties and application behaviour. At first single layer coatings were deposited for the determination of the material properties. To evaluate relations between structure and properties of the multilayer coatings, different multilayer concepts were realised: - coatings consisting of at most 7 layers of metallic hard materials, - 100-layer coatings consisting of metallic and covalent hard materials, - TiN-TiC multilayer coatings with different numbers of layers (between 10 and 1000), - 150-layer coatings, based on TiN-TiC multilayers, with thin ( 4 C, AlN, SiC, a:C, Si 3 N 4 , SiAlON). X-rays and electron microscopic analysis indicate in spite of nonstoichiometric compositions single phase crystalline structures for nonreactively and reactively sputtered metastable single layer Ti(B,C)-, Ti(B,N)- and Ti(B,C,N)-coatings. These single layer coatings show excellent mechanical properties (e.g. hardness values up to 6000 HV0,05), caused by lattice stresses as well as by atomic bonding conditions similar to those in c:BN and B 4 C. The good tribological properties shown in pin-on-disk-tests can be attributed to the very high hardness of the coatings. The coatings consisting of at most 7 layers of metallic hard materials show good results mainly for the cutting of steel Ck45, due to the improved mechanical properties (e.g. hardness, toughness) of the multilayers compared to the single layer coatings. This improvement is caused by inserting the hard layer materials and the coherent reinforcement of the coatings. (orig.)

  14. A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2015-01-01

    In a NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI) sponsored program entitled "A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing", evaluation of emerging materials and additive manufacturing technologies was carried out. These technologies may enable fully non-metallic gas turbine engines in the future. This paper highlights the results of engine system trade studies which were carried out to estimate reduction in engine emissions and fuel burn enabled due to advanced materials and manufacturing processes. A number of key engine components were identified in which advanced materials and additive manufacturing processes would provide the most significant benefits to engine operation. In addition, feasibility of using additive manufacturing technologies to fabricate gas turbine engine components from polymer and ceramic matrix composite were demonstrated. A wide variety of prototype components (inlet guide vanes (IGV), acoustic liners, engine access door) were additively manufactured using high temperature polymer materials. Ceramic matrix composite components included first stage nozzle segments and high pressure turbine nozzle segments for a cooled doublet vane. In addition, IGVs and acoustic liners were tested in simulated engine conditions in test rigs. The test results are reported and discussed in detail.

  15. 3D Metal Printing - Additive Manufacturing Technologies for Frameworks of Implant-Borne Fixed Dental Prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla León, M; Klemm, I M; García-Arranz, J; Özcan, M

    2017-09-01

    An edentulous patient was rehabilitated with maxillary metal-ceramic and mandibular metal-resin implant-supported fixed dental prosthesis (FDP). Metal frameworks of the FDPs were fabricated using 3D additive manufacturing technologies utilizing selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM) processes. Both SLM and EBM technologies were employed in combination with computer numerical control (CNC) post-machining at the implant interface. This report highlights the technical and clinical protocol for fabrication of FDPs using SLM and EBM additive technologies. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  16. Development of a recovery process of scraps resulting from the manufacture of metallic uranium fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilo, Ruth L.; Kuada, Terezinha A.; Forbicini, Christina A.L.G.O.; Cohen, Victor H.; Araujo, Bertha F.; Lobao, Afonso S.T.

    1996-01-01

    The study of the dissolution of natural metallic uranium fuel samples with aluminium cladding is presented, in order to obtain optimized conditions for the system. The aluminium cladding was dissolved in an alkaline solution of Na OH/Na NO 3 and the metallic uranium with HNO 3 . A fumeless dissolution with total recovery of nitrous gases was achieved. The main purpose of this project was the recovery of uranium from scraps resulting from the manufacture of the metallic uranium fuel or other non specified fuels. (author)

  17. Platinum group metal recovery and catalyst manufacturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H. S.; Kim, Y. S.; Yoo, J. H.; Lee, H. S.; Ahn, D. H.; Kim, K. R.; Lee, S. H.; Paek, S. W.; Kang, H. S.

    1998-03-01

    The fission product nuclides generated during the irradiation of reactor fuel include many useful elements, among them platinum group metal such as ruthenium, rhodium and palladium which are of great industrial importance, occur rarely in nature and are highly valuable. In this research, the authors reviewed various PGM recovery methods. Recovery of palladium from seven-component simulated waste solution was conducted by selective precipitation method. The recovery yield was more than 99.5% and the purity of the product was more than 99%. Wet-proof catalyst was prepared with the recovered palladium. The specific surface area of the catalyst support was more than 400 m{sup 2}/g. The content of palladium impregnated on the support was 10 wt.%. Hydrogen isotope exchange efficiency of 93 % to equilibrium with small amount of the catalyst was obtained. It was turned out possible to consider using such palladium or other very low active PGM materials in applications where its actively is unimportant as in nuclear industries. (author). 63 refs., 38 tabs., 36 figs.

  18. Measurement of fracture toughness of metallic materials produced by additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quénard, O.; Dorival, O.; Guy, Ph.; Votié, A.; Brethome, K.

    2018-04-01

    This study focuses on the microstructure and mechanical properties of metallic materials produced by additive layer manufacturing (ALM), especially the laser beam melting process. The influence of the specimen orientation during the ALM process and that of two post-build thermal treatments were investigated. The identified metal powder is Ti-6Al-4V (titanium base). Metallographic analysis shows their effects on the microstructure of the metals. Mechanical experiments involving tensile tests as well as toughness tests were performed according to ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) norms. The results show that the main influence is that of the thermal treatments; however the manufacturing stacking direction may lead to some anisotropy in the mechanical properties.

  19. Structure and hardness of a hard metal alloy prepared with a WC powder synthesized at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, F.A. da [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais, UFRN, Campus Universitario, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil)], E-mail: francineac@yahoo.com; Medeiros, F.F.P. de [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais, UFRN, Campus Universitario, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Silva, A.G.P. da [Laboratorio de Materiais Avancados, UENF, 28015-620 Campos de Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Gomes, U.U. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Experimental, UFRN, Campus Universitario, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Filgueira, M. [Laboratorio de Materiais Avancados, UENF, 28015-620 Campos de Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Souza, C.P. de [Laboratorio de Termodinamica e Reatores, UFRN, Campus Universitario, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-06-25

    The structure and hardness of a WC-10 wt% Co alloy prepared with an experimental WC powder are compared with those of another alloy of the same composition produced under the same conditions and prepared with a commercial WC powder. The experimental WC powder was synthesized by a gas-solid reaction between APT and methane at low temperature and the commercial WC powder was conventionally produced by a solid-solid reaction between tungsten and carbon black. WC-10 wt% Co alloys with the two powders were prepared under the same conditions of milling and sintering. The structure of the sample prepared with the experimental WC powder is homogeneous and coarse grained. The structure of the sample prepared with the commercial powder is heterogeneous. Furthermore the size and shape of the WC grains are significantly different.

  20. Production of hard metal by HPHT using NB as a new binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.P.; Barros, R.A.; Pecanha Junior, L.A.F.; Guimaraes, R.S.; Filgueira, M.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Due to the growing metalworking sector, development of new materials for use as cutting tools is necessary, seeking the reduction of energy consumption, as well as the machining time. In this sense, carbide inserts are widely used as tools. Usually, these inserts are manufactured with the use of cobalt as a binder. However, this material is scarce in the market and its cost is very high, and has high toxicity. This paper aims to produce carbide inserts by sintering at high pressure and high temperature (HP-HT), using innovative alloying elements, more easily accessible and at a low cost, such as Nb and Ni. The inserts were produced as follows: powders were sintered under 7,7GPa pressure and temperatures between 1550 deg C and 1850 deg C. Excellent results of densification, hardness and fracture toughness of the inserts was achieved. The phases formed in the sintering were analyzed by XRD. Microstructure was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser microscopy (CONFOCAL). Machining tests were carried out according to the ISO-3685 standard, indicating improved performance for the produced inserts. (author)

  1. Production of hard metal by HPHT using NB as a new binder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.P.; Barros, R.A.; Pecanha Junior, L.A.F.; Guimaraes, R.S.; Filgueira, M. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Due to the growing metalworking sector, development of new materials for use as cutting tools is necessary, seeking the reduction of energy consumption, as well as the machining time. In this sense, carbide inserts are widely used as tools. Usually, these inserts are manufactured with the use of cobalt as a binder. However, this material is scarce in the market and its cost is very high, and has high toxicity. This paper aims to produce carbide inserts by sintering at high pressure and high temperature (HP-HT), using innovative alloying elements, more easily accessible and at a low cost, such as Nb and Ni. The inserts were produced as follows: powders were sintered under 7,7GPa pressure and temperatures between 1550 deg C and 1850 deg C. Excellent results of densification, hardness and fracture toughness of the inserts was achieved. The phases formed in the sintering were analyzed by XRD. Microstructure was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser microscopy (CONFOCAL). Machining tests were carried out according to the ISO-3685 standard, indicating improved performance for the produced inserts. (author)

  2. Contributions of hard and soft blocks in the self-healing of metal-ligand-containing block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bose, Ranjita K.; Enke, Marcel; Grande, Antonio M.; Zechel, Stefan; Schacher, Felix H.; Hager, Martin D.; Garcia, Santiago J.; Schubert, Ulrich S.; van der Zwaag, Sybrand

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this work is to study the respective contribution of the hard and soft blocks of a metal-ligand containing block copolymer to the self-healing behavior. To this aim, different block copolymers containing terpyridine were synthesized using reversible addition-fragmentation chain

  3. Contributions of hard and soft blocks in the self-healing of metal-ligand-containing block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bose, R.K.; Enke, Marcel; Grande, A.M.; Zechel, Stefan; Schacher, Felix H.; Hager, Martin D.; Garcia Espallargas, Santiago J.; Schubert, Ulrich S.; van der Zwaag, S.

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this work is to study the respective contribution of the hard and soft blocks of a metal-ligand containing block copolymer to the self-healing behavior. To this aim, different block copolymers containing terpyridine were synthesized using reversible addition-fragmentation chain

  4. Development of coatings for ultrasonic additive manufacturing sonotrode using laser direct metal deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niyanth S, Niyanth [ORNL; Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL; Jordan, Brian H [ORNL; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh [ORNL

    2016-10-01

    ORNL partnered with Fabrisonic, LLC to develop galling resistant hard facing coatings on sonotrodes used to fabricate 3D printed materials using ultrasonic additive manufacturing. The development and deployment of a coated sonotrode is expected to push the existing state of the art to facilitate the solidstate additive manufacturing of hard steels and titanium alloys. To this effect a structurally amorphous stainless steel material and cobalt chrome material were deposited on the sonotrode material. Both the deposits showed good adhesion to the substrate. The coatings made using the structurally amorphous steel materials showed cracking during the initial trials and cracking was eliminated by deposition on a preheated substrate. Both the coatings show hardness in excess of 600 HVN. Thus the phase 1 of this project has been used to identify suitable materials to use to coat the sonotrode. Despite the fact that successful deposits were obtained, the coatings need to be evaluated by performing detailed galling tests at various temperatures. In addition field tests are also necessary to test the stability of these coatings in a high cycle ultrasonic vibration mode. If awarded, phase 2 of the project would be used to optimize the composition of the deposit material to maximize galling resistance. The industrial partner would then use the coated sonotrode to fabricate builds made of austenitic stainless steel to test the viability of using a coated sonotrode.

  5. Surface modification of the hard metal tungsten carbide-cobalt by boron ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrotchek, I.

    2007-01-01

    In the present thesis ion beam implantation of boron is studied as method for the increasement of the hardness and for the improvement of the operational characteristics of cutting tools on the tungsten carbide-cobalt base. For the boron implantation with 40 keV energy and ∼5.10 17 ions/cm 2 fluence following topics were shown: The incoerporation of boron leads to a deformation and remaining strain of the WC lattice, which possesses different stregth in the different directions of the elementary cell. The maximum of the deformation is reached at an implantation temperature of 450 C. The segregation of the new phases CoWB and Co 3 W was detected at 900 C implantation temperature. At lower temperatures now new phases were found. The tribological characteristics of WC-Co are improved. Hereby the maxiaml effect was measured for implantation temperatures from 450 C to 700 C: Improvement of the microhardness by the factor 2..2.5, improvement of the wear resistance by the factor 4. The tribological effects extend to larger depths than the penetration depth of the boron implantation profile. The detected property improvements of the hard metal H3 show the possibility of a practical application of boron ion implantation in industry. The effects essential for a wer decreasement are a hardening of the carbide phase by deformation of the lattice, a hardening of the cobalt binding material and the phase boundaries because of the formation of a solid solution of the implanted boron atoms in Co and by this a blocking of the dislocation movement and the rupture spreading under load

  6. Comparative study of material loss at the taper interface in retrieved metal-on-polyethylene and metal-on-metal femoral components from a single manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bills, Paul; Racasan, Radu; Bhattacharya, Saugatta; Blunt, Liam; Isaac, Graham

    2017-08-01

    There have been a number of reports on the occurrence of taper corrosion and/or fretting and some have speculated on a link to the occurrence of adverse local tissue reaction specifically in relation to total hip replacement which have a metal-on-metal bearing. As such a study was carried out to compare the magnitude of material loss at the taper in a series of retrieved femoral heads used in metal-on-polyethylene bearings with that in a series of retrieved heads used in metal-on-metal bearings. A total of 36 metal-on-polyethylene and 21 metal-on-metal femoral components were included in the study all of which were received from a customer complaint database. Furthermore, a total of nine as-manufactured femoral components were included to provide a baseline for characterisation. All taper surfaces were assessed using an established corrosion scoring method and measurements were taken of the female taper surface using a contact profilometry. In the case of metal-on-metal components, the bearing wear was also assessed using coordinate metrology to determine whether or not there was a relationship between bearing and taper material loss in these cases. The study found that in this cohort the median value of metal-on-polyethylene taper loss was 1.25 mm 3 with the consequent median value for metal-on-metal taper loss being 1.75 mm 3 . This study also suggests that manufacturing form can result in an apparent loss of material from the taper surface determined to have a median value of 0.59 mm 3 . Therefore, it is clear that form variability is a significant confounding factor in the measurement of material loss from the tapers of femoral heads retrieved following revision surgery.

  7. Mechanical properties of sheet metal components with local reinforcement produced by additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünsal, Ismail; Hama-Saleh, R.; Sviridov, Alexander; Bambach, Markus; Weisheit, A.; Schleifenbaum, J. H.

    2018-05-01

    New technological challenges like electro-mobility pose an increasing demand for cost-efficient processes for the production of product variants. This demand opens the possibility to combine established die-based manufacturing methods and innovative, dieless technologies like additive manufacturing [1, 2]. In this context, additive manufacturing technologies allow for the weight-efficient local reinforcement of parts before and after forming, enabling manufacturers to produce product variants from series parts [3]. Previous work by the authors shows that the optimal shape of the reinforcing structure can be determined using sizing optimization. Sheet metal parts can then be reinforced using laser metal deposition. The material used is a pearlite-reduced, micro-alloyed steel (ZE 630). The aim of this paper is to determine the effect of the additive manufacturing process on the material behavior and the mechanical properties of the base material and the resulting composite material. The parameters of the AM process are optimized to reach similar material properties in the base material and the build-up volume. A metallographic analysis of the parts is presented, where the additive layers, the base material and also the bonding between the additive layers and the base material are analyzed. The paper shows the feasibility of the approach and details the resulting mechanical properties and performance.

  8. Effect of manufacturing process sequence on the corrosion resistance characteristics of coated metallic bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dur, Ender; Cora, Ömer Necati; Koç, Muammer

    2014-01-01

    Metallic bipolar plate (BPP) with high corrosion and low contact resistance, durability, strength, low cost, volume, and weight requirements is one of the critical parts of the PEMFC. This study is dedicated to understand the effect of the process sequence (manufacturing then coating vs. coating then manufacturing) on the corrosion resistance of coated metallic bipolar plates. To this goal, three different PVD coatings (titanium nitride (TiN), chromium nitride (CrN), zirconium nitride (ZrN)), with three thicknesses, (0.1, 0.5, 1 μm) were applied on BPPs made of 316L stainless steel alloy before and after two types of manufacturing (i.e., stamping or hydroforming). Corrosion test results indicated that ZrN coating exhibited the best corrosion protection while the performance of TiN coating was the lowest among the tested coatings and thicknesses. For most of the cases tested, in which coating was applied before manufacturing, occurrence of corrosion was found to be more profound than the case where coating was applied after manufacturing. Increasing the coating thickness was found to improve the corrosion resistance. It was also revealed that hydroformed BPPs performed slightly better than stamped BPPs in terms of the corrosion behavior.

  9. Effect of layered manufacturing techniques, alloy powders, and layer thickness on metal-ceramic bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekren, Orhun; Ozkomur, Ahmet; Ucar, Yurdanur

    2018-03-01

    Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) and direct metal laser melting (DMLM) have become popular for fabricating the metal frameworks of metal-ceramic restorations. How the type of layered manufacturing device, layer thickness, and alloy powder may affect the bond strength of ceramic to metal substructure is unclear. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bond strength of dental porcelain to metal frameworks fabricated using different layered manufacturing techniques (DMLS and DMLM), Co-Cr alloy powders, and layer thicknesses and to evaluate whether a correlation exists between the bond strength and the number of ceramic remnants on the metal surface. A total of 75 bar-shaped metal specimens (n=15) were fabricated using either DMLS or DMLM. The powder alloys used were Keramit NP-S and EOS-Cobalt-Chrome SP-2 with layer thicknesses of 20 μm and 30 μm. After ceramic application, the metal-ceramic bond strength was evaluated with a 3-point-bend test. Three-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey honest significance difference test were used for statistical analysis (α=.05). De-bonding surface microstructure was observed with scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis was conducted to evaluate the correlation between ceramic remnants on the metal surface and bond strength values. The mean bond strength value of DMLS was significantly higher than that of DMLM. While no statistically significant difference was found between layer thicknesses, alloy powders closely affected bond strength. Statistical comparisons revealed that the highest bond strength could be achieved with DMLS-Cobalt-Chrome SP2-20μm, and the lowest bond strength was observed in DMLS-Keramit NP-S-20μm (P≤.05). No correlation was found between porcelain remnants on the metal surface and bond strength values. The layered manufacturing device and the alloy powders evaluated in the current study closely affected the bond strength of dental porcelain to a metal framework

  10. Performance of Metal Cutting on Endmills Manufactured by Cooling-Air and Minimum Quantity Lubrication Grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Shigeru; Aoyama, Tojiro

    Grinding fluids have been commonly used during the grinding of tools for their cooling and lubricating effect since the hard, robust materials used for cutting tools are difficult to grind. Grinding fluids help prevent a drop in hardness due to burning of the cutting edge and keep chipping to an absolute minimum. However, there is a heightened awareness of the need to improve the work environment and protect the global environment. Thus, the present study is aimed at applying dry grinding, cooling-air grinding, cooling-air grinding with minimum quantity lubrication (MQL), and oil-based fluid grinding to manufacturing actual endmills (HSS-Co). Cutting tests were performed by a vertical machining center. The results indicated that the lowest surface inclination values and longest tool life were obtained by cooling-air grinding with MQL. Thus, cooling-air grinding with MQL has been demonstrated to be at least as effective as oil-based fluid grinding.

  11. Fabrication of hard cermets by in-situ synthesis and infiltration of metal melts into WC powder compacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghua Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hard carbide cermets are prepared by in-situ synthesis and infiltration of metal melts into WC powder compacts. Ni–W and Ni–W–Cr metal melts are in-situ synthesized from thermite reactions and infiltrated into WC powder compacts under high-gravity. During the infiltration, W in the metal melts reacts with WC to form W2C, and more W2C and W are observed at the upper parts of the cermets than the lower parts. The cermets show a maximum hardness of 15.4 GPa, which is higher than most commercial cemented carbides, although they are not fully dense and have a porosity of 15–20%.

  12. Phase stability, physical properties of rhenium diboride under high pressure and the effect of metallic bonding on its hardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Ming-Min; Kuang, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Shao, Peng; Ding, Li-Ping; Huang, Xiao-Fen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The transition pressure P t between the ReB 2 –ReB 2 and MoB 2 –ReB 2 phases is firstly determinate. •The single-bonded B–B feather remains in ReB 2 compounds. •A semiempirical method to evaluate the hardness of crystals with partial metallic bond is presented. •The large hardness (39.1 GPa) of ReB 2 –ReB 2 indicate that it is a superhard material. •The zigzag interconnected B–Re and B–B covalent bonds underlie the ultraincompressibilities. -- Abstract: Using first-principles calculations, the elastic constants, thermodynamic property and structural phase transition of rhenium diboride under pressure are investigated by means of the pseudopotential plane-waves method, as well as the effect of metallic bond on its hardness. Eight candidate structures of known transition-metal compounds are chosen to probe for rhenium diboride ReB 2 . The calculated lattice parameters are consistent with the experimental and theoretical values. Based on the third order Birch–Murnaghan equation of states, the transition pressure P t between the ReB 2 –ReB 2 and MoB 2 –ReB 2 phases is firstly determinate. Elastic constants, shear modulus, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio and Debye temperature are derived. The single-bonded B–B feather remains in ReB 2 compounds. Furthermore, according to Mulliken overlap population analysis, a semiempirical method to evaluate the hardness of multicomponent crystals with partial metallic bond is presented. Both strong covalency and a zigzag topology of interconnected bonds underlie the ultraincompressibilities. In addition, the superior performance and large hardness (39.1 GPa) of ReB 2 –ReB 2 indicate that it is a superhard material

  13. Manufacturing and Morphological Analysis of Composite Material of Polystyrene Nanospheres/Cadmium Metal Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratama Jujur Wibawa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A very simple nanocomposite material has been in-situ manufactured from an aqueous polystyrene nanospheres dispersion and cadmium (Cd metal nanoparticles. The manufacturing was performed by using a high frequency of 40 kHz ultrasonic (US agitation for 45 minute at atmospheric pressure and at room temperature 20 oC. No chemical reducing agent and surfactant added in this manufacturing technique due to the US could reduce Cd2+ ions of cadmium nitrate tetrahydrate to Cd atomic metals nanoparticles whereas water molecules could act as a pseudo stabilizer for the manufactured material. A thin film was manufactured from aqueous colloidal nanocomposite material of Polystyrene nanospheres/Cd metal nanoparticles (PSNs/CdMNp fabricated on a hydrophilic silicon wafer. The thin film was then characterized by a JEOL-FESEM for its surface morphology characteristic and by ATR-FTIR spectrometry for its molecular change investigation. It could be clearly observed that surface morphology of the thin film material was not significantly changed under 633 nm wavelength continuous laser radiation exposure for 20 minute. In addition, its ATR-FTIR spectra of wave number peaks around 3400 cm-1 have been totally disappeared under the laser exposure whereas that at around 699 cm-1 and 668 cm-1 have not been significantly changed. The first phenomenon indicated that the hydrogen bond existed in PSNs/CdMNp material was collapsed by the laser exposure. The second phenomena indicated that the PSNs phenyl ring moiety was not totally destroyed under the laser exposure. It was suspected due to the existence of Cd nanoparticles covered throughout the spherical surface of PSNs/CdMNp material particles. Therefore a nice model of material structure of the mentioned PSNs/CdMNp nanocomposite material could be suggested in this research. It could be concluded that this research have been performed since the material structure model of the manufactured PSNs/CdMNp nanocomposite could be

  14. Integrating Fiber Optic Strain Sensors into Metal Using Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehr, Adam; Norfolk, Mark; Wenning, Justin; Sheridan, John; Leser, Paul; Leser, Patrick; Newman, John A.

    2018-03-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing, a rather new three-dimensional (3D) printing technology, uses ultrasonic energy to produce metallurgical bonds between layers of metal foils near room temperature. This low temperature attribute of the process enables integration of temperature sensitive components, such as fiber optic strain sensors, directly into metal structures. This may be an enabling technology for Digital Twin applications, i.e., virtual model interaction and feedback with live load data. This study evaluates the consolidation quality, interface robustness, and load sensing limits of commercially available fiber optic strain sensors embedded into aluminum alloy 6061. Lastly, an outlook on the technology and its applications is described.

  15. TESTS METALLIC BIOMATERIALS FOR COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING OF FIXED PROSTHETIC RESTORATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. RYNIEWICZ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A direct metal laser sintering method (DMLS is a new technology used for getting structures by the CAD/CAM procedures. The aim of the elaboration was a question of structural identification and setting strength parameters of titanium (Ticp and its alloy (Ti6Al4V which are used to serve as base for those permanent prosthetic supplements which are later manufactured with the employment of CAD/CAM systems. The research work was performed on Ticp samples – those which were intended for manufacture of structures by decrement milling working, and Ti6Al4V samples that comes from laser increment sintering of powder. According to the results obtained, the following conclusion has been derived: when strength aspect is discussed, the DMLS method is a preferred one for manufacturing of load structures in dentistry and may be an alternate way for the CAD/CAM system used in decrement processing.

  16. Evaluation of Additively Manufactured Metals for Use in Oxygen Systems Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Jonathan; Cooper, Ken; Peralta, Stephen; Wilcutt, Terrence; Hughitt, Brian; Generazio, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Space Launch System, Commercial Resupply, and Commercial Crew programs have published intent to use additively manufactured (AM) components in propulsion systems and are likely to include various life support systems in the future. Parts produced by these types of additive manufacturing techniques have not been fully evaluated for use in oxygen systems and the inherent risks have not been fully identified. Some areas of primary concern in the SLS process with respect to oxygen compatibility may be the porosity of the printed parts, fundamental differences in microstructure of an AM part as compared to traditional materials, or increased risk of shed metal particulate into an oxygen system. If an ignition were to occur the printed material could be more flammable than components manufactured from a traditional billet of raw material and/or present a significant hazards if not identified and rigorously studied in advance of implementation into an oxygen system.

  17. Chemodynamics of metal ion complexation by charged nanoparticles: a dimensionless rationale for soft, core-shell and hard particle types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Jérôme F L

    2017-05-17

    Soft nanoparticulate complexants are defined by a spatial confinement of reactive sites and electric charges inside their 3D body. In turn, their reactivity with metal ions differs significantly from that of simple molecular ligands. A revisited form of the Eigen mechanism recently elucidated the processes leading to metal/soft particle pair formation. Depending on e.g. particle size and metal ion nature, chemodynamics of nanoparticulate metal complexes is controlled by metal conductive diffusion to/from the particles, by intraparticulate complex formation/dissociation kinetics, or by both. In this study, a formalism is elaborated to achieve a comprehensive and systematic identification of the rate-limiting step governing the overall formation and dissociation of nanoparticulate metal complexes. The theory covers the different types of spherical particulate complexants, i.e. 3D soft/permeable and core-shell particles, and hard particles with reactive sites at the surface. The nature of the rate-limiting step is formulated by a dynamical criterion involving a power law function of the ratio between particle radius and an intraparticulate reaction layer thickness defined by the key electrostatic, diffusional and kinetic components of metal complex formation/dissociation. The analysis clarifies the intertwined contributions of particle properties (size, soft or hard type, charge, density or number of reactive sites) and aqueous metal ion dehydration kinetics in defining the chemodynamic behavior of nanoparticulate metal complexes. For that purpose, fully parameterized chemodynamic portraits involving the defining features of particulate ligand and metal ion as well as the physicochemical conditions in the local intraparticulate environment, are constructed and thoroughly discussed under conditions of practical interest.

  18. Study on the Effect of Heavy metals toxicity according to changing Hardness concentration using D.magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun Sang, H.

    2016-12-01

    n order to determine and prevent the number of ecological effects of heavy metals in the materials, we have to accurately measure the heavy metals present in the water-based protection ecosystems and may determine the effects to humans. Heavy metals occurred in the industrial effluent which is a state in which the monitor, based on the emission standards are made by the Ministry of Environment and managed and waste water contained Copper, Zinc, lead, etc. These heavy metals are able to express the toxic effects only when present in the free-ions in the aqueous condition, which appears differently affected by the degree to hardness change in accordance with the season, precipitation. Generally changing hardness concentration can not precisely evaluate toxic effects of heavy metals in the water system. Anderson announced a study on bioassay for heavy metals from industrial waste water using Daphnia magna(Anderson, 1944, 1948). Breukelman published study the resitivity difference for the mercury Chloride(HgCl2). Braudouin(1974) compared the zooplankton(Daphnia sp.) acute toxicity of the different heavy metals and confirmed the sensitivity. Shcherban(1979) presented for toxicity evaluation results for the heavy metal of the Daphnia magna according to different temperature conditions. In the United States Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) established a standard test method for water fleas, managed and supervised water ecosystems, and announced the adoption of a bioassay standard method. This study was performed to evaluate acute inhibition using the Daphnia magna for the biological effect of heavy metal ions in water-based toxicity in the hardness change. Evaluation methods were conducted in EPA Water Quality process test criteria. TU(Toxic Unit), NOEC (No Observable Effect Concentration), LOEC (Lowest Observable Effect Concentration), EC50 (Median Effective Concentration) was calculated by Toxcalc 5.0 Program. Keywords : D. magna, Hardness, Toxic Unit, Heavy metal

  19. Manufacture and inspection of metal containers for the storage of waste contaminated with caesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, M.J.D.; Moreira, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    Several stages are described of the design and manufacture of a prototype unit and 15 metal cylindrical containers for the storage of contaminated waste generated by the radiological accident of Goiania in 1987. The tasks involved technicians from the Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN) of Belo Horizonte and the co-authors, who conducted inspections in the period between 10 March 1993 and 18 May 1993 at the foundry in Goiania. (author)

  20. Ultrafine Ceramic Grains Embedded in Metallic Glass Matrix: Achieving Superior Wear Resistance via Increase in Both Hardness and Toughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lina; Wen, Mao; Dai, Xuan; Cheng, Gang; Zhang, Kan

    2018-05-09

    As structural materials, crystalline or metallic glass materials have attracted scientific and practical interests. However, some mechanisms involving critical size and shear bands have adverse effects on their mechanical properties. Here, we counter these two effects by introducing a special structure with ultrafine ceramic grains (with a diameter of ∼2.0 nm) embedded into a metallic glass matrix, wherein the grains are mainly composed of a Ta-W-N solid solution structure in nature, surrounded by a W-based amorphous matrix that contains Ta and N atoms. Such a structure is in situ formed during preparation, which combines the merits of both phases to achieve simultaneous increase in hardness and toughness relative to references (pure TaN and W) and thus superior wear resistance. Even more remarkable, a favorable variation of increased hardness but reduced elasticity modulus can be induced by this structure. Intrinsically, ultrafine ceramic grains (free of dislocations), embedded in the metallic glass matrix, could prevent shear band propagation within the glass matrix and further improve the hardness of the matrix material. In return, such glass matrix allows for stiffness neutralization and structural relaxation to reduce the elasticity modulus of ceramic grains. This study will offer a new guidance to fabricate ultrahigh-performance metal-based composites.

  1. Surface coatings of mixed hard alloy powder metals sintered-on in vacuo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knotek, O.; Reimann, H.

    1980-01-01

    No technological difficulties are to be encountered in the processing of pseudo hard alloys in the form of powder compounds of conventional nickel base hard alloys with carbides. There is a great alloy influence on the resulting structures of the surface layers. Under some processing conditions the tungsten carbide is completely dissolved from molten matrix alloy. Hard phases on chromium carbide basis resulted upon cooling. Induced chromium carbide Cr 3 C 2 retains its structure while absorbing large amounts of iron into its grid. It can be concluded that not only alloying properties, but also eminently structural criterions are decisive for the stability of the applied supplementary hard phases. (orig.) [de

  2. A Comparative Study of Additively Manufactured Thin Wall and Block Structure with Al-6.3%Cu Alloy Using Cold Metal Transfer Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoqiang Cong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to build a better understanding of the relationship between depositing mode and porosity, microstructure, and properties in wire + arc additive manufacturing (WAAM 2319-Al components, several Al-6.3%Cu deposits were produced by WAAM technique with cold metal transfer (CMT variants, pulsed CMT (CMT-P and advanced CMT (CMT-ADV. Thin walls and blocks were selected as the depositing paths to make WAAM samples. Porosity, microstructure and micro hardness of these WAAM samples were investigated. Compared with CMT-P and thin wall mode, CMT-ADV and block process can effectively reduce the pores in WAAM aluminum alloy. The microstructure varied with different depositing paths and CMT variants. The micro hardness value of thin wall samples was around 75 HV from the bottom to the middle, and gradually decreased toward the top. Meanwhile, the micro hardness value ranged around 72–77 HV, and varied periodically in block samples. The variation in micro hardness is consistent with standard microstructure characteristics.

  3. Evaluation of marginal and internal gap of three-unit metal framework according to subtractive manufacturing and additive manufacturing of CAD/CAM systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Yeon; Kim, Eo-Bin; Kim, Hae-Young; Kim, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Woong-Chul

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the fit of a three-unit metal framework of fixed dental prostheses made by subtractive and additive manufacturing. One master model of metal was fabricated. Twenty silicone impressions were made on the master die, working die of 10 poured with Type 4 stone, and working die of 10 made of scannable stone. Ten three-unit wax frameworks were fabricated by wax-up from Type IV working die. Stereolithography files of 10 three-unit frameworks were obtained using a model scanner and three-dimensional design software on a scannable working die. The three-unit wax framework was fabricated using subtractive manufacturing (SM) by applying the prepared stereolithography file, and the resin framework was fabricated by additive manufacturing (AM); both used metal alloy castings for metal frameworks. Marginal and internal gap were measured using silicone replica technique and digital microscope. Measurement data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis H test and Mann-Whitney U-test (α=.05). The lowest and highest gaps between premolar and molar margins were in the SM group and the AM group, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in the marginal gap among the 3 groups ( P manufacturing are clinically applicable. However, additive manufacturing requires more research to be applied clinically.

  4. Dome style heavy wall steel casting manufactured by metallic core mould system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Shiro; Saeki, Keiji; Hirose, Yutaka; Takebayashi, Kazunari; Kawasaki, Masatoshi

    1986-01-01

    Semi-spherical thick walled steel castings are one of the main products of Nippon Chutanko K.K., but there have been the problems of internal defects peculiar to large thick walled steel castings, and the various improvements have been carried out so far for the manufacturing method, but still some of those remains. Based on the anxiety about the reliability of large steel castings, the conversion to forging has been studied. For the purpose of thoroughly improving the internal quality of thick walled steel castings to compete with forgings, on the basis of the operating experience of chills, the development of the casting techniques changing cores completely to metallic cores has been advanced. After the preliminary experiment using models, a semi-spherical thick walled steel casting mentioned before was manufactured by this metallic core casting method for trial, and the detailed investigation was carried out. As the result, the excellent internal quality was confirmed, accordingly at present, the production is made by this method. The form, dimensions and specification of the semi-spherical thick walled steel castings, the conventional casting plan, the metallic core casting plan, the design of metallic cores, molding and casting, and the examination of the castings made for trial are reported. (Kako, I.)

  5. A new electrothermal-chemical method for metals, carbides, and ceramics hard coating: Experiment and theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoler, D.; Bruma, C.; Cuperman, S.

    1999-07-01

    A new method and an experimental device for powders of metals, carbides and ceramics coating of various substrates are presented. The powder-particles are accelerated and heated by a mixture of plasma and gases resulted from the burning of an energetic (propellant). The operating prototype already allows one to obtain coatings of metals, carbides and ceramics. Some of the coatings obtained, especially those by carbides powders, indicate even at the present stage of research, properties (as hardness, porosity) which are comparable to those provided by the presently industrial methods in use. The accelerating-heating agent in the device (the plasma-gas mixture) is characterized by very high densities (up to 120 kg/m{sup 3}), temperatures (up to 20,000 K) and velocities (more than 1,500 m/s). Due to these characteristics, the powder particles are accelerated to velocities significantly higher than those reached in other coating devices as, for example, the detonation (D) gun. Some preliminary experimental data show that the accelerated particle can reach velocities higher than 1,000 m/s. In parallel, in order to better understand the phenomena taking place inside the device and to determine the optimal process parameters leading to high quality coatings an appropriate theoretical model was developed. The model is able to describe the complex processes of plasma-gas-propellant interaction, gas flow and powder particles heating and acceleration. The model gives a detailed description of the gas, propellant and accelerated particle parameters, their spatial distribution and temporal evolution; predicts their dependence on the values of some input quantities such as: the plasma energy, propellant characteristics and accelerated particles type and geometry. The computational results the authors obtained show that, indeed, during the acceleration process the particles are heated, melted and eventually vaporized. One of the most interesting theoretical results is that the

  6. Effect of Cryogenic Treatment on Microstructure and Micro Hardness of Aluminium (LM25 - SiC Metal Matrix Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Elango

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic aim of this paper is to increase awareness amongst the researchers and to draw their attention towards the present approach to deal with the cryogenic treatment for the nonferrous metals. Cryogenic treated nonferrous metals will exhibit longer wear and more durability. During metal making process, when solidification takes place, some molecules get caught in a random pattern. The molecules do move about at subzero and deep cryogenic treatment slowly. In this experimental study, the effect of cryogenic treatment on microstructure changes and the hardness properties varies for LM25 alloy and LM25-SiC metal matrix composite at -196°C. It is analyzed for different durations. The execution of cryogenic treatment on both alloy and MMCs changed the distribution of

  7. Statistical experiments using the multiple regression research for prediction of proper hardness in areas of phosphorus cast-iron brake shoes manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, I.; Cioată, V. G.; Ratiu, S. A.; Rackov, M.; Penčić, M.

    2018-01-01

    Multivariate research is important in areas of cast-iron brake shoes manufacturing, because many variables interact with each other simultaneously. This article focuses on expressing the multiple linear regression model related to the hardness assurance by the chemical composition of the phosphorous cast irons destined to the brake shoes, having in view that the regression coefficients will illustrate the unrelated contributions of each independent variable towards predicting the dependent variable. In order to settle the multiple correlations between the hardness of the cast-iron brake shoes, and their chemical compositions several regression equations has been proposed. Is searched a mathematical solution which can determine the optimum chemical composition for the hardness desirable values. Starting from the above-mentioned affirmations two new statistical experiments are effectuated related to the values of Phosphorus [P], Manganese [Mn] and Silicon [Si]. Therefore, the regression equations, which describe the mathematical dependency between the above-mentioned elements and the hardness, are determined. As result, several correlation charts will be revealed.

  8. Radiation hardness of silicon detectors manufactured on epitaxial material and FZ bulk enriched with oxygen, carbon, tin and platinum

    CERN Document Server

    Ruzin, A; Glaser, M; Lemeilleur, F; Talamonti, R; Watts, S; Zanet, A

    1999-01-01

    Recent results on the radiation hardness of silicon detectors fabricated on epitaxial and float zone bulk silicon enriched by various impurities, such as carbon, oxygen, tin and platinum are reported. A new methodology of measurements of electrical properties of the devices has been utilized in the experiment. It has been shown that in the case of irradiation by protons, oxygen enriched silicon has better radiation hardness than standard float zone silicon. The carbon enriched silicon detectors, on the other hand, exhibited significantly inferior radiation hardness compared to standard detectors. This study shows for the first time, a violation of the widely used normalization technique of the various particle irradiations by NIEL coefficients. The study has been carried out in the framework of the RD48 (ROSE) collaboration, which studies the radiation hardening of silicon detectors. (5 refs).

  9. Radiation hardness of CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors manufactured in a 0.18 μm CMOS process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linnik, Benjamin [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-MVD-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    CMOS Monolithic Active Pixels Sensors (MAPS) are considered as the technology of choice for various vertex detectors in particle and heavy-ion physics including the STAR HFT, the upgrade of the ALICE ITS, the future ILC detectors and the CBM experiment at FAIR. To match the requirements of those detectors, their hardness to radiation is being improved, among others in a joined research activity of the Goethe University Frankfurt and the IPHC Strasbourg. It was assumed that combining an improved high resistivity (1-8 kΩcm) sensitive medium with the features of a 0.18 μm CMOS process, is suited to reach substantial improvements in terms of radiation hardness as compared to earlier sensor designs. This strategy was tested with a novel generation of sensor prototypes named MIMOSA-32 and MIMOSA-34. We show results on the radiation hardness of those sensors and discuss its impact on the design of future vertex detectors.

  10. Progress of alternative sintering approaches of inkjet-printed metal inks and their application for manufacturing of flexible electronic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wünscher, S.; Abbel, R.; Perelaer, J.; Schubert, U.S.

    2014-01-01

    Well-defined high resolution structures with excellent electrical conductivities are key components of almost every electronic device. Producing these by printing metal based conductive inks on polymer foils represents an important step forward towards the manufacturing of plastic electronic

  11. Effects of Computer-Aided Manufacturing Technology on Precision of Clinical Metal-Free Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Hong Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to investigate the marginal fit of metal-free crowns made by three different computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM systems. Materials and Methods. The maxillary left first premolar of a dentiform was prepared for all-ceramic crown restoration. Thirty all-ceramic premolar crowns were made, ten each manufactured by the Lava system, Cercon, and Cerec. Ten metal ceramic gold (MCG crowns served as control. The marginal gap of each sample was measured under a stereoscopic microscope at 75x magnification after cementation. One-way ANOVA and the Duncan’s post hoc test were used for data analysis at the significance level of 0.05. Results. The mean (standard deviation marginal gaps were 70.5 (34.4 μm for the MCG crowns, 87.2 (22.8 μm for Lava, 58.5 (17.6 μm for Cercon, and 72.3 (30.8 μm for Cerec. There were no significant differences in the marginal fit among the groups except that the Cercon crowns had significantly smaller marginal gaps than the Lava crowns (P<0.001.  Conclusions. Within the limitation of this study, all the metal-free restorations made by the digital CAD/CAM systems had clinically acceptable marginal accuracy.

  12. Effects of Computer-Aided Manufacturing Technology on Precision of Clinical Metal-Free Restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Hong; Yeo, In-Sung; Wu, Benjamin M; Yang, Jae-Ho; Han, Jung-Suk; Kim, Sung-Hun; Yi, Yang-Jin; Kwon, Taek-Ka

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the marginal fit of metal-free crowns made by three different computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems. The maxillary left first premolar of a dentiform was prepared for all-ceramic crown restoration. Thirty all-ceramic premolar crowns were made, ten each manufactured by the Lava system, Cercon, and Cerec. Ten metal ceramic gold (MCG) crowns served as control. The marginal gap of each sample was measured under a stereoscopic microscope at 75x magnification after cementation. One-way ANOVA and the Duncan's post hoc test were used for data analysis at the significance level of 0.05. The mean (standard deviation) marginal gaps were 70.5 (34.4) μm for the MCG crowns, 87.2 (22.8) μm for Lava, 58.5 (17.6) μm for Cercon, and 72.3 (30.8) μm for Cerec. There were no significant differences in the marginal fit among the groups except that the Cercon crowns had significantly smaller marginal gaps than the Lava crowns (P < 0.001). Within the limitation of this study, all the metal-free restorations made by the digital CAD/CAM systems had clinically acceptable marginal accuracy.

  13. Sweeping total reflection X-ray fluorescence optimisation to monitor the metallic contamination into IC manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borde, Yannick; Danel, Adrien; Roche, Agnes; Veillerot, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Among the methods available on the market today to control as metallic contamination in integrated circuit manufacturing, Sweeping Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence mode appears a very good method, providing fast and entire wafer mapping. With the goal of a pertinent use of Sweeping Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence in advanced Integrated Circuit manufacturing this work discusses how acceptable levels of contamination specified by the production (low levels to be detected) can be taken into account. The relation between measurement results (surface coverage, throughput, low limit of detection, limit of quantification, quantification of localized contamination) and Sweeping Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence parameters (number of measurement points and integration time per point) is presented in details. In particular, a model is proposed to explain the mismatch between actual surface contamination in a localized spot on wafer and Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence reading. Both calibration and geometric issues have been taken into account

  14. Determination of pollutants in foundry during the manufacture of metal constructions for high buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Irina; Sushko, Elena; Lyshnikova, Anna; Prykina, Larisa

    2018-03-01

    Current developments are devoted to the environmental safety of the foundry. There is a significant amount of pollutants, according to dust, which is released in the working area, during the manufacture of metal structures for high buildings. From the point of dust extraction, the most unfavorable areas are shot blasting, sand-blasting chambers and knockout grills. The weight fraction of dust composition with diameters up to 20 μm reaches 43,8% by mass, according to experimental analysis. This kind of dust is the most dangerous to employees and also it creates problems for dust-cleaning in the air.

  15. Incremental electrohydraulic forming - A new approach for the manufacture of structured multifunctional sheet metal blanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djakow, Eugen; Springer, Robert; Homberg, Werner; Piper, Mark; Tran, Julian; Zibart, Alexander; Kenig, Eugeny

    2017-10-01

    Electrohydraulic Forming (EHF) processes permit the production of complex, sharp-edged geometries even when high-strength materials are used. Unfortunately, the forming zone is often limited as compared to other sheet metal forming processes. The use of a special industrial-robot-based tool setup and an incremental process strategy could provide a promising solution for this problem. This paper describes such an innovative approach using an electrohydraulic incremental forming machine, which can be employed to manufacture the large multifunctional and complex part geometries in steel, aluminium, magnesium and reinforced plastic that are employed in lightweight constructions or heating elements.

  16. Treatment of Wastewater from Electroplating, Metal Finishing and Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    One of four manuals dealing with the operation of wastewater plants, this document was designed to address the treatment of wastewater from electroplating, metal finishing, and printed circuit board manufacturing. It emphasizes how to operate and maintain facilities which neutralize acidic and basic waters; treat waters containing metals; destroy…

  17. High-rate production of micro- and nanostructured surfaces: Injection molding and novel process for metal tooling manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus Vega, Marisely

    Devices containing micro and nanostructured surfaces are developing and constantly finding new applications, especially for medical diagnostics, point-of-care applications, and microneedles. They are also employed in the functionalization of surfaces for superhydrophobicity, drag reduction, or reversible adhesion by mimicking bio-inspired surfaces. This research provides a thorough investigation on the effects of different polymeric materials and processing conditions on the replication of micro and nanostructured surfaces via injection molding. In addition, this dissertation also presents a novel approach for the production of durable microstructured metal tooling to be used for the production of surfaces with microchannels via injection molding. Materials such as thermoplastic vulcanizates are substituting regular thermoplastic materials and vulcanized elastomers in many applications due to their outstanding properties and ease of processability. These material properties broaden the scope of applications for microstructured surfaces. However, there is a need for understanding how these materials behave in microinjection molding since thermoplastic elastomers' behavior during injection molding have been shown to differ from that of the widely understood behavior of thermoplastics. Replication of microstructured surfaces using thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPV) was studied in the first part of this thesis. TPVs with different hardness's were molded using microinjection molding with various processing conditions and the replication and surface details of 20 microm pillars (aspect ratio of 1:1) were characterized. In the second part of this research liquid silicone rubber (LSR) was studied as a material for the production of micro and nanostructured surfaces. LSR is a silicone based material such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which is widely used for research and development of micro and nanostructured devices, and thus provides all the benefits of PDMS but can be

  18. Reduction of Surface Roughness by Means of Laser Processing over Additive Manufacturing Metal Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Vittorio; Argenio, Paolo; Caiazzo, Fabrizia; Sergi, Vincenzo

    2016-12-31

    Optimization of processing parameters and exposure strategies is usually performed in additive manufacturing to set up the process; nevertheless, standards for roughness may not be evenly matched on a single complex part, since surface features depend on the building direction of the part. This paper aims to evaluate post processing treating via laser surface modification by means of scanning optics and beam wobbling to process metal parts resulting from selective laser melting of stainless steel in order to improve surface topography. The results are discussed in terms of roughness, geometry of the fusion zone in the cross-section, microstructural modification, and microhardness so as to assess the effects of laser post processing. The benefits of beam wobbling over linear scanning processing are shown, as heat effects in the base metal are proven to be lower.

  19. A method for manufacturing kernels of metallic oxides and the thus obtained kernels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelievre Bernard; Feugier, Andre.

    1973-01-01

    A method is described for manufacturing fissile or fertile metal oxide kernels, consisting in adding at least a chemical compound capable of releasing ammonia to an aqueous solution of actinide nitrates dispersing the thus obtained solution dropwise in a hot organic phase so as to gelify the drops and transform them into solid particles, washing drying and treating said particles so as to transform them into oxide kernels. Such a method is characterized in that the organic phase used in the gel-forming reactions comprises a mixture of two organic liquids, one of which acts as a solvent, whereas the other is a product capable of extracting the metal-salt anions from the drops while the gel forming reaction is taking place. This can be applied to the so-called high temperature nuclear reactors [fr

  20. Process combinations for the manufacturing of metal-plastic hybrid parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drossel, W-G; Lies, C; Albert, A; Haase, R; Müller, R; Scholz, P

    2016-01-01

    The usage of innovative lightweight materials and processing technologies gains importance in manifold industrial scopes. Especially for moving parts and mobility products the weight is decisively. The aerospace and automotive industries use light and high-strength materials to reduce weight and energy consumption and thereby improve the performance of their products. Composites with reinforced plastics are of particular importance. They offer a low density in combination with high specific stiffness and strength. A pure material substitution through reinforced plastics is still not economical. The approach of using hybrid metal-plastic structures with the principle of “using the right material at the right place” is a promising solution for the economical realization of lightweight structures with a high achievement potential. The article shows four innovative manufacturing possibilities for the realization of metal-plastic-hybrid parts. (paper)

  1. Hard X-ray PhotoElectron Spectroscopy of transition metal oxides: Bulk compounds and device-ready metal-oxide interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgatti, F., E-mail: francesco.borgatti@cnr.it [Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati (ISMN), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), via P. Gobetti 101, Bologna I-40129 (Italy); Torelli, P.; Panaccione, G. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali (IOM)-CNR, Laboratorio TASC, Area Science Park, Trieste I-34149 (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Hard X-ray PhotoElectron Spectroscopy (HAXPES) applied to buried interfaces of systems involving Transition Metal Oxides. • Enhanced contribution of the s states at high kinetic energies both for valence and core level spectra. • Sensitivity to chemical changes promoted by electric field across metal-oxide interfaces in resistive switching devices. - Abstract: Photoelectron spectroscopy is one of the most powerful tool to unravel the electronic structure of strongly correlated materials also thanks to the extremely large dynamic range in energy, coupled to high energy resolution that this form of spectroscopy covers. The kinetic energy range typically used for photoelectron experiments corresponds often to a strong surface sensitivity, and this turns out to be a disadvantage for the study of transition metal oxides, systems where structural and electronic reconstruction, different oxidation state, and electronic correlation may significantly vary at the surface. We report here selected Hard X-ray PhotoElectron Spectroscopy (HAXPES) results from transition metal oxides, and from buried interfaces, where we highlight some of the important features that such bulk sensitive technique brings in the analysis of electronic properties of the solids.

  2. Hard X-ray PhotoElectron Spectroscopy of transition metal oxides: Bulk compounds and device-ready metal-oxide interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgatti, F.; Torelli, P.; Panaccione, G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hard X-ray PhotoElectron Spectroscopy (HAXPES) applied to buried interfaces of systems involving Transition Metal Oxides. • Enhanced contribution of the s states at high kinetic energies both for valence and core level spectra. • Sensitivity to chemical changes promoted by electric field across metal-oxide interfaces in resistive switching devices. - Abstract: Photoelectron spectroscopy is one of the most powerful tool to unravel the electronic structure of strongly correlated materials also thanks to the extremely large dynamic range in energy, coupled to high energy resolution that this form of spectroscopy covers. The kinetic energy range typically used for photoelectron experiments corresponds often to a strong surface sensitivity, and this turns out to be a disadvantage for the study of transition metal oxides, systems where structural and electronic reconstruction, different oxidation state, and electronic correlation may significantly vary at the surface. We report here selected Hard X-ray PhotoElectron Spectroscopy (HAXPES) results from transition metal oxides, and from buried interfaces, where we highlight some of the important features that such bulk sensitive technique brings in the analysis of electronic properties of the solids.

  3. Cathode-sputtered Ti-Zr-N-C-O base hard coatings and stability of said coatings on hard metals and working steels. Kathodenzerstaeubte Hartstoffschichten auf Basis Ti-Zr-N-C-O und deren Stabilitaet auf Hartmetall und Gebrauchsstaehlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmer, M.

    1986-02-26

    This paper deals with the examination of the metallurgical and thermal stability of the resistant material layers of titanium in connection with the substrate material influence. As substrate material were chosen: hard metal (81% WC, 12% TiC+TaC, 7% Co), high speed steel (DIN 1.3343), austenitic nickel chromium steel (X5 CrNi 18 9) and unalloyed tool steel (DIN 1.1545). The hard materials of titanium were deposited by means of cathode evaporation.

  4. Identifying the optimal HVOF spray parameters to attain minimum porosity and maximum hardness in iron based amorphous metallic coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vignesh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Flow based Erosion – corrosion problems are very common in fluid handling equipments such as propellers, impellers, pumps in warships, submarine. Though there are many coating materials available to combat erosion–corrosion damage in the above components, iron based amorphous coatings are considered to be more effective to combat erosion–corrosion problems. High velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF spray process is considered to be a better process to coat the iron based amorphous powders. In this investigation, iron based amorphous metallic coating was developed on 316 stainless steel substrate using HVOF spray technique. Empirical relationships were developed to predict the porosity and micro hardness of iron based amorphous coating incorporating HVOF spray parameters such as oxygen flow rate, fuel flow rate, powder feed rate, carrier gas flow rate, and spray distance. Response surface methodology (RSM was used to identify the optimal HVOF spray parameters to attain coating with minimum porosity and maximum hardness.

  5. Modification of WC-Co Hard Metal by Ion Implantation with Ti+, AI+, N+, C+ and B+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassoul, El.M.A.; Saleh, Z.A.; Waheed, A.F.; Abdel- Samad, S.M.; EI- Awadi, G.A.

    2010-01-01

    WC/Co hard metal was implanted by Ti + , AI + , N + , C + , and B + ions at a dose of 5x 10 17 ions/cm 2 at different energies ranging from 50 keV to 200 keV. The implanted layers were investigated by means of nano indentation, calotte measurements, SEM, X-ray diffraction XRD, tribometer and EDX. The maximum implanted zone was about 0.13 μm. The hardness of WC-Co was increased by a factor of 140% after its implantation by Ti, AI, and N and increased by a factor of 170 % after implantation by Ti + , AI + , C + , N + and B + ions as compared to the original value. Also friction coefficient of WC/Co was improved after ion implantation.

  6. Additive Manufacturing and Characterization of Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composites Containing Metal Reinforcements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuentz, Lily; Salem, Anton; Singh, M.; Halbig, M. C.; Salem, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing of polymeric systems using 3D printing has become quite popular recently due to rapid growth and availability of low cost and open source 3D printers. Two widely used 3D printing filaments are based on polylactic acid (PLA) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) systems. PLA is much more environmentally friendly in comparison to ABS since it is made from renewable resources such as corn, sugarcane, and other starches as precursors. Recently, polylactic acid-based metal powder containing composite filaments have emerged which could be utilized for multifunctional applications. The composite filaments have higher density than pure PLA, and the majority of the materials volume is made up of polylactic acid. In order to utilize functionalities of composite filaments, printing behavior and properties of 3-D printed composites need to be characterized and compared with the pure PLA materials. In this study, pure PLA and composite specimens with different metallic reinforcements (Copper, Bronze, Tungsten, Iron, etc) were 3D printed at various layer heights and resulting microstructures and properties were characterized. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) behavior of filaments with different reinforcements were studied. The microscopy results show an increase in porosity between 3-D printed regular PLA and the metal composite PLA samples, which could produce weaker mechanical properties in the metal composite materials. Tensile strength and fracture toughness behavior of specimens as a function of print layer height will be presented.

  7. Measurement of electromagnetic properties of powder and solid metal materials for additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Evgueni Iordanov

    2017-04-01

    The lack of validated nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for examination during and after additive manufacturing (AM) component fabrication is one of the obstacles in the way of broadening use of AM for critical applications. Knowledge of electromagnetic properties of powder (e.g. feedstock) and solid AM metal components is necessary to evaluate and deploy electromagnetic NDE modalities for examination of AM components. The objective of this research study was to develop and implement techniques for measurement of powder and solid metal electromagnetic properties. Three materials were selected - Inconel 625, duplex stainless steel 2205, and carbon steel 4140. The powder properties were measured with alternate current (AC) model based eddy current technique and direct current (DC) resistivity measurements. The solid metal properties were measured with DC resistivity measurements, DC magnetic techniques, and AC model based eddy current technique. Initial magnetic permeability and electrical conductivity were acquired for both powder and solid metal. Additional magnetic properties such as maximum permeability, coercivity, retentivity, and others were acquired for 2205 and 4140. Two groups of specimens were tested along the build length and width respectively to investigate for possible anisotropy. There was no significant difference or anisotropy when comparing measurements acquired along build length to those along the width. A trend in AC measurements might be associated with build geometry. Powder electrical conductivity was very low and difficult to estimate reliably with techniques used in the study. The agreement between various techniques was very good where adequate comparison was possible.

  8. Manufacturing of metallic porous structures to be used in capillary pumping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gonçalves Reimbrecht

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Sintered metallic porous structures have an application as capillary structures in two-phase heat transfer loops. In this work the manufacturing procedure of tubular porous structures for capillary pump application is discussed. The application of porous structures on capillary pumping systems requires porosity higher than 40% and pore size diameter lower than 20 µm. Carbonyl nickel powder with particle diameter between 3 and 7 µm and stainless steel AISI316L powder with particle diameter between 1 and 22 µm were used as raw material. Sintering under hydrogen atmosphere was performed both in a resistive furnace and in a plasma reactor. Temperature and time were the modified parameters to obtain suitable porosity and roundness on the samples. The porosity was measured using the Arquimedes Principle (MPIF-42, the roundness was evaluated using a simplified measurement technique of the sample diameter and the pore size distribution was determined by image analysis techniques. Images obtained by Scanning Electronic Microscopy were employed on the image analysis. The sintering parameters selected to manufacture nickel samples were 700 °C and 30 min resulting in a porosity of about 44%. The sintering parameters selected to manufacture stainless steel samples were 1000 °C and 30 min resulting in a porosity of about 40%.

  9. Circular Economy: Questions for Responsible Minerals, Additive Manufacturing and Recycling of Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Giurco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the circular economy proposes new patterns of production, consumption and use, based on circular flows of resources. Under a scenario where there is a global shift towards the circular economy, this paper discusses the advent of two parallel and yet-to-be-connected trends for Australia, namely: (i responsible minerals supply chains and (ii additive manufacturing, also known as 3D production systems. Acknowledging the current context for waste management, the paper explores future interlinked questions which arise in the circular economy for responsible supply chains, additive manufacturing, and metals recycling. For example, where do mined and recycled resources fit in responsible supply chains as inputs to responsible production? What is required to ensure 3D production systems are resource efficient? How could more distributed models of production, enabled by additive manufacturing, change the geographical scale at which it is economic or desirable to close the loop? Examples are given to highlight the need for an integrated research agenda to address these questions and to foster Australian opportunities in the circular economy.

  10. Hard chrome-coated and fullerene-doped metal surfaces in orthopedic bearings

    OpenAIRE

    Sonntag, Robert; Feige, Katja; Santos, Claudia Beatriz dos; Kretzer, Jan Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Metal-on-metal bearings for total hip replacements have been introduced as an alternative to polyethylene in young and more active patients. These have, however, been shown to be prone to implant malpositioning and have been limited by some specific design features. In that context, coatings present an option to increase wear resistance by keeping the high fracture strength of the metal substrate. A custom-made electroplating setup was designed for the coating of CoCr substrates using (a) an ...

  11. Short-term acute hypercapnia affects cellular responses to trace metals in the hard clams Mercenaria mercenaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanina, Anna V.; Beniash, Elia; Etzkorn, Markus; Meyers, Tiffany B.; Ringwood, Amy H.; Sokolova, Inna M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •P CO 2 alters accumulation of Cd and Cu in clam cells. •Accumulation of Cd induces release of free Zn 2+ . •Accumulation of Cu induces an increase in free Cu 2+ and Fe 2+ . •Metal-induced oxidative stress is alleviated at high P CO 2 . •Toxicity of Cu in likely enhanced while that of Cd alleviated by high P CO 2 . -- Abstract: Estuarine and coastal habitats experience large fluctuations of environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, partial pressure of CO 2 (P CO 2 ) and pH; they also serve as the natural sinks for trace metals. Benthic filter-feeding organisms such as bivalves are exposed to the elevated concentrations of metals in estuarine water and sediments that can strongly affect their physiology. The effects of metals on estuarine organisms may be exacerbated by other environmental factors. Thus, a decrease in pH caused by high P CO 2 (hypercapnia) can modulate the effects of trace metals by affecting metal bioavailability, accumulation or binding. To better understand the cellular mechanisms of interactions between P CO 2 and trace metals in marine bivalves, we exposed isolated mantle cells of the hard clams (Mercenaria mercenaria) to different levels of P CO 2 (0.05, 1.52 and 3.01 kPa) and two major trace metal pollutants – cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu). Elevated P CO 2 resulted in a decrease in intracellular pH (pH i ) of the isolated mantle cells from 7.8 to 7.4. Elevated P CO 2 significantly but differently affected the trace metal accumulation by the cells. Cd uptake was suppressed at elevated P CO 2 levels while Cu accumulation has greatly accelerated under hypercapnic conditions. Interestingly, at higher extracellular Cd levels, labile intracellular Cd 2+ concentration remained the same, while intracellular levels of free Zn 2+ increased suggesting that Cd 2+ substitutes bound Zn 2+ in these cells. In contrast, Cu exposure did not affect intracellular Zn 2+ but led to a profound increase in the intracellular levels

  12. Short-term acute hypercapnia affects cellular responses to trace metals in the hard clams Mercenaria mercenaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanina, Anna V; Beniash, Elia; Etzkorn, Markus; Meyers, Tiffany B; Ringwood, Amy H; Sokolova, Inna M

    2013-09-15

    Estuarine and coastal habitats experience large fluctuations of environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, partial pressure of CO2 ( [Formula: see text] ) and pH; they also serve as the natural sinks for trace metals. Benthic filter-feeding organisms such as bivalves are exposed to the elevated concentrations of metals in estuarine water and sediments that can strongly affect their physiology. The effects of metals on estuarine organisms may be exacerbated by other environmental factors. Thus, a decrease in pH caused by high [Formula: see text] (hypercapnia) can modulate the effects of trace metals by affecting metal bioavailability, accumulation or binding. To better understand the cellular mechanisms of interactions between [Formula: see text] and trace metals in marine bivalves, we exposed isolated mantle cells of the hard clams (Mercenaria mercenaria) to different levels of [Formula: see text] (0.05, 1.52 and 3.01 kPa) and two major trace metal pollutants - cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu). Elevated [Formula: see text] resulted in a decrease in intracellular pH (pHi) of the isolated mantle cells from 7.8 to 7.4. Elevated [Formula: see text] significantly but differently affected the trace metal accumulation by the cells. Cd uptake was suppressed at elevated [Formula: see text] levels while Cu accumulation has greatly accelerated under hypercapnic conditions. Interestingly, at higher extracellular Cd levels, labile intracellular Cd(2+) concentration remained the same, while intracellular levels of free Zn(2+) increased suggesting that Cd(2+) substitutes bound Zn(2+) in these cells. In contrast, Cu exposure did not affect intracellular Zn(2+) but led to a profound increase in the intracellular levels of labile Cu(2+) and Fe(2+). An increase in the extracellular concentrations of Cd and Cu led to the elevated production of reactive oxygen species under the normocapnic conditions (0.05 kPa [Formula: see text] ); surprisingly, this effect was mitigated in

  13. Development of in-Situ Al-Si/CuAl₂ Metal Matrix Composites: Microstructure, Hardness, and Wear Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tash, Mahmoud M; Mahmoud, Essam R I

    2016-06-02

    In the present work, in-situ metal matrix composites were fabricated through squeeze casting. The copper particles were dispersed with different weight percentages (3%, 6%, 10%, and 15%) into Al-12% Si piston alloy. Also, heat treatments were performed at 380 °C and 450 °C for holding times of 6 and 18 h. The microstructures, X-ray diffractometer (XRD) pattern, hardness, and wear characteristics were evaluated. The results showed that these copper particles have reacted with the aluminum under all of the aforementioned processing conditions resulting in the formation of fine copper aluminide intermetallics. Most of the intermetallics were CuAl₂, while AlCu appeared in a small ratio. Additionally, these intermetallics were homogenously distributed within the alloy matrix with up to 6% Cu addition. The amounts of those intermetallics increased after performing heat treatment. Most of these intermetallics were CuAl₂ at 380 °C, while the Cu-rich intermetallics appeared at 450 °C. Increasing the holding time to 18 h, however, led to grain coarsening and resulted in the formation of some cracks. The hardness of the resulting composite materials was improved. The hardness value reached to about 170 HV after heat treating at 380 °C for 8 h. The wear resistance of the resulting composite materials was remarkably improved, especially at lower additions of Cu and at the lower heat treatment temperature.

  14. Development of in-Situ Al-Si/CuAl2 Metal Matrix Composites: Microstructure, Hardness, and Wear Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud M. Tash

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, in-situ metal matrix composites were fabricated through squeeze casting. The copper particles were dispersed with different weight percentages (3%, 6%, 10%, and 15% into Al-12% Si piston alloy. Also, heat treatments were performed at 380 °C and 450 °C for holding times of 6 and 18 h. The microstructures, X-ray diffractometer (XRD pattern, hardness, and wear characteristics were evaluated. The results showed that these copper particles have reacted with the aluminum under all of the aforementioned processing conditions resulting in the formation of fine copper aluminide intermetallics. Most of the intermetallics were CuAl2, while AlCu appeared in a small ratio. Additionally, these intermetallics were homogenously distributed within the alloy matrix with up to 6% Cu addition. The amounts of those intermetallics increased after performing heat treatment. Most of these intermetallics were CuAl2 at 380 °C, while the Cu-rich intermetallics appeared at 450 °C. Increasing the holding time to 18 h, however, led to grain coarsening and resulted in the formation of some cracks. The hardness of the resulting composite materials was improved. The hardness value reached to about 170 HV after heat treating at 380 °C for 8 h. The wear resistance of the resulting composite materials was remarkably improved, especially at lower additions of Cu and at the lower heat treatment temperature.

  15. Production of fiberglass/metal composite material suitable for building habitat and manufacturing facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The production of a fiberglass/metal composite material suitable for building habitats and manufacturing facilities was the project for Clemson. The concept and development of the knowledge necessary to produce glass fibers originated in the spring semester. During the summer, while at Johnson Space Center, fiberglass from a rock composition similar to ones found at the Apollo 16 site on the moon was successfully produced. The project this year was a continuation of last year's studies. We addressed the following problems which emerged as the work progressed: (1) Methods for coating the fibers with a metal were explored. We manufactured composites in two stages: Glass fibers without any coating on them; and fibers coated with metals as they were made. This proved to be a difficult process. Future activities include using a chemical vapor deposition process on fibers which have been made. (2) A glass furnace was developed which relies primarily on solar energy for melting the glass. The temperature of the melted glass is maintained by electrical means. The design is for 250 kg of glass per day. An electrical engineering student developed a scheme for controlling the melting and manufacturing process from the earth. This was done to minimize the human risk. Graphite refractories are relied on to contain the melt. (3) The glass composition chosen for the project is a relatively pure anorthite which is available in the highland regions of the lunar surface. A major problems with this material is that it melts at a comparatively high temperature. This problem will be solved by using graphite refractory materials for the furnace. The advantage of this glass composition is that it is very stable and does not tend to crystallize. (4) We have also refined the experimental furnace and fiber making machinery which we will be using at Johnson Space Center this summer. We believe that we will be able to draw and coat glass fibers in a vacuum for use in composites. We intend to

  16. ASSESSMENT OF SURFACE FINISH AND DIMENSIONAL ACCURACY OF TOOLS MANUFACTURED BY METAL CASTING IN RAPID PROTOTYPING SAND MOULDS

    OpenAIRE

    Nyembwe, K.; De Beer, D. J.; Van der Walt, J. G.; Bhero, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an initial assessment of the quality parameters of the surface finish and dimensional accuracy of tools made by metal casting in rapid prototyping (RP) sand moulds is undertaken. A case study from a local tool room, dealing with the manufacturing of an aluminium die for the lost wax process, is employed. Modern techniques, including surface roughness analysis and three dimensional scanning, are used to determine and understand how each manufacturing step influences the final qu...

  17. Defect Characterization for Material Assurance in Metal Additive Manufacturing (FY15-0664)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salzbrenner, Bradley; Boyce, Brad; Jared, Bradley Howell; Rodelas, Jeffrey; Laing, John Robert

    2016-02-01

    No industry-wide standards yet exist for minimum properties in additively manufactured (AM) metals. While AM alloys such as 17-4 precipitation hardened stainless steel have been shown to have average properties that can be comparable to wrought or cast product, they suffer from inconsistent performance. Variability in the feedstock powder, feature sizes, thermal history, and laser performance can lead to unpredictable surface finish, chemistry, phase content, and defects. To address this issue, rapid, efficient, high-throughput mechanical testing and data analysis was developed, providing profound statistical insight into the stochastic variability in properties. With this new approach, 1000’s of comprehensive tensile tests can be performed for the cost of 10’s of conventional tests. This new high-throughput approach provides a material qualification pathway that is commensurate with the quick turn-around benefit of AM.

  18. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W. E., E-mail: weking@llnl.gov [Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; Hodge, N. E.; Khairallah, S. A. [Engineering Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Kamath, C. [Computation Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Rubenchik, A. M. [NIF and Photon Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In this paper, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process.

  19. Surface modification of additive manufactured metal products by an intense electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresov, A. D.; Koval, N. N.; Ivanov, Yu F.; Petrikova, E. A.; Krysina, O. V.

    2017-11-01

    On the example of VT6 titanium alloy it is shown that successive surface modification of additive manufactured metal specimens in vacuum at an argon pressure of 3.5·10-2 by ten pulses with 200 μs, 45 J/cm2 and then by three pulses with 50 μm, 20 J/cm2 provides a considerable decrease in their porosity and surface roughness (20 times for Ra) while their surface microhardness, friction coefficient, and wear level remain almost unchanged. After electron beam irradiation, the ultimate tensile strength of the material increases 1.33 times, and its tensile strain 1.18 times. For specimens obtained by conventional metallurgy and irradiated in the same modes, no such effects are observed.

  20. Key quality aspects for a new metallic composite pipe: corrosion testing, welding, weld inspection and manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conder, Robert J.; Felton, Peter [Xodus Group Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Smith, Richard [Shell Global Solutions Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Burke, Raymond [Pipestream Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Dikstra, Frits; Deleye, Xavier [Applus RTD Ltd., Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    XPipeTM is a new metallic composite pipe. This paper discusses three aspects of this new technology. The first subject is determination of the probability of hydrogen embrittlement by the XPipeTM manufacturing method. Two materials were analyzed in three tests: slow strain rate test, constant load test and notched tensile test. The results showed that the high strength steels used do not appear to be susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. The second subject of this article is weld inspection. A non-destructive testing method of girth welds is developed to allow inspection of the thin-walled austenitic liner pipe. The results demonstrated that the welds can be inspected using the creeping wave technique. The third subject is quality control systems using the SCADA system, which maintains traceability of the materials and monitors and records all parameters during the production process. This system appears to be efficient in ensuring that the product pipe meets recognized quality standards.

  1. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, W. E.; Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; Hodge, N. E.; Khairallah, S. A.; Kamath, C.; Rubenchik, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In this paper, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process

  2. Tungsten and other heavy metal contamination in aquatic environments receiving wastewater from semiconductor manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hsieh, Hwey-Lian; Chen, Chang-Po; Tseng, Chun-Mao; Huang, Shou-Chung; Huang, Chou-Hao; Huang, Yi-Tang; Radashevsky, Vasily; Lin, Shuen-Hsin

    2011-01-01

    Through analyses of water and sediments, we investigate tungsten and 14 other heavy metals in a stream receiving treated effluents from a semiconductor manufacturer-clustered science park in Taiwan. Treated effluents account for ∼50% of total annual river discharge and <1% of total sediment discharge. Dissolved tungsten concentrations in the effluents abnormally reach 400 μg/L, as compared to the world river average concentration of <0.1 μg/L. Particulate tungsten concentrations are up to 300 μg/g in suspended and deposited sediments, and the corresponding enrichment factors are three orders of magnitude higher than average crust composition. Surprisingly, the estimated amount of tungsten exported to the adjacent ocean is 23.5 t/yr, which can approximate the amount from the Yangtze River should it be unpolluted. This study highlights the urgency of investigating the biological effect of such contamination.

  3. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, W. E.; Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; Hodge, N. E.; Kamath, C.; Khairallah, S. A.; Rubenchik, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In this paper, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process.

  4. Depositing laser-generated nanoparticles on powders for additive manufacturing of oxide dispersed strengthened alloy parts via laser metal deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streubel, René; Wilms, Markus B.; Doñate-Buendía, Carlos; Weisheit, Andreas; Barcikowski, Stephan; Henrich Schleifenbaum, Johannes; Gökce, Bilal

    2018-04-01

    We present a novel route for the adsorption of pulsed laser-dispersed nanoparticles onto metal powders in aqueous solution without using any binders or surfactants. By electrostatic interaction, we deposit Y2O3 nanoparticles onto iron-chromium based powders and obtain a high dispersion of nano-sized particles on the metallic powders. Within the additively manufactured component, we show that the particle spacing of the oxide inclusion can be adjusted by the initial mass fraction of the adsorbed Y2O3 particles on the micropowder. Thus, our procedure constitutes a robust route for additive manufacturing of oxide dispersion-strengthened alloys via oxide nanoparticles supported on steel micropowders.

  5. Innovation and adoption of energy efficient technologies: An exploratory analysis of Italian primary metal manufacturing SMEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trianni, Andrea; Cagno, Enrico; Worrell, Ernst

    2013-01-01

    Additional efforts will be needed by European countries to improve the energy efficiency, as with current trends the 20% objective will be missed. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) manufacturing sector is a promising field, as SMEs are less energy-efficient than larger enterprises. Several studies investigated the barriers to the diffusion of technologies and practices for industrial energy efficiency, but little attention has been paid to understand the factors affecting the perception of such barriers by SMEs. In this multiple case-study, we have investigated 20 Primary Metal manufacturing SMEs in Northern Italy. Economic and information barriers are perceived as the major issues. Interestingly, firm's size, innovativeness of the market in which enterprises operate, as well as product and process innovation are factors affecting barriers to energy efficiency. Differences have been observed within SMEs, especially for information and competence-related barriers. In particular, a more innovative external context in which enterprises operate and a greater production process complexity seem to reduce barriers. Moreover, more product innovative enterprises seem to have a lower perception of behavioral and technology-related barriers. The results of this exploratory investigation provide useful suggestions for policy design and further research on industrial energy efficiency. - highlights: • Economic and Information emerge as the most relevant barriers to energy efficiency. • Market, product and process innovation seem relevant factors affecting barriers. • Firm's size is a factor affecting barriers' perception

  6. Modulating laser intensity profile ellipticity for microstructural control during metal additive manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehling, Tien T.; Wu, Sheldon S.Q.; Khairallah, Saad A.; Roehling, John D.; Soezeri, S. Stefan; Crumb, Michael F.; Matthews, Manyalibo J.

    2017-01-01

    Additively manufactured (AM) metals are often highly textured, containing large columnar grains that initiate epitaxially under steep temperature gradients and rapid solidification conditions. These unique microstructures partially account for the massive property disparity existing between AM and conventionally processed alloys. Although equiaxed grains are desirable for isotropic mechanical behavior, the columnar-to-equiaxed transition remains difficult to predict for conventional solidification processes, and much more so for AM. In this study, the effects of laser intensity profile ellipticity on melt track macrostructures and microstructures were studied in 316L stainless steel. Experimental results were supported by temperature gradients and melt velocities simulated using the ALE3D multi-physics code. As a general trend, columnar grains preferentially formed with increasing laser power and scan speed for all beam profiles. However, when conduction mode laser heating occurs, scan parameters that result in coarse columnar microstructures using Gaussian profiles produce equiaxed or mixed equiaxed-columnar microstructures using elliptical profiles. By modulating spatial laser intensity profiles on the fly, site-specific microstructures and properties can be directly engineered into additively manufactured parts.

  7. Optimization of Design and Manufacturing Process of Metal Foam Filled Anti-Intrusion Bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, Andrea; Mussi, Valerio; Strano, Matteo

    2011-01-01

    The role of an anti-intrusion bar for automotive use is to absorb the kinetic energy of the colliding bodies that is partially converted into internal work of the bodies involved in the crash. The aim of this paper is to investigate the performances of a new kind of anti-intrusion bars for automotive use, filled with metallic foams. The reason for using a cellular material as a filler deals with its capacity to absorb energy during plastic deformation, while being lightweight. The study is the evolution of a previous paper presented by the authors at Esaform 2010 and will present new results and findings. It is conducted by evaluating some key technical issues of the manufacturing problem and by conducting experimental and numerical analyses. The evaluation of materials and shapes of the closed sections to be filled is made in the perspective of a car manufacturer (production costs, weight reduction, space availability in a car door, etc.). Experimentally, foams are produced starting from an industrial aluminium precursor with a TiH 2 blowing agent. Bars are tested in three point bending, in order to evaluate their performances in terms of force-displacement response and other specific performance parameters. In order to understand the role of interface between the inner surface of the tube and the external surface of the foam, different kinds of interface are tested.

  8. Microchannel neural interface manufacture by stacking silicone and metal foil laminae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancashire, Henry T.; Vanhoestenberghe, Anne; Pendegrass, Catherine J.; Ajam, Yazan Al; Magee, Elliot; Donaldson, Nick; Blunn, Gordon W.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Microchannel neural interfaces (MNIs) overcome problems with recording from peripheral nerves by amplifying signals independent of node of Ranvier position. Selective recording and stimulation using an MNI requires good insulation between microchannels and a high electrode density. We propose that stacking microchannel laminae will improve selectivity over single layer MNI designs due to the increase in electrode number and an improvement in microchannel sealing. Approach. This paper describes a manufacturing method for creating MNIs which overcomes limitations on electrode connectivity and microchannel sealing. Laser cut silicone—metal foil laminae were stacked using plasma bonding to create an array of microchannels containing tripolar electrodes. Electrodes were DC etched and electrode impedance and cyclic voltammetry were tested. Main results. MNIs with 100 μm and 200 μm diameter microchannels were manufactured. High electrode density MNIs are achievable with electrodes present in every microchannel. Electrode impedances of 27.2 ± 19.8 kΩ at 1 kHz were achieved. Following two months of implantation in Lewis rat sciatic nerve, micro-fascicles were observed regenerating through the MNI microchannels. Significance. Selective MNIs with the peripheral nervous system may allow upper limb amputees to control prostheses intuitively.

  9. Contact-Free Support Structures for Part Overhangs in Powder-Bed Metal Additive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Cooper

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the feasibility of a novel concept, contact-free support structures, for part overhangs in powder-bed metal additive manufacturing. The intent is to develop alternative support designs that require no or little post-processing, and yet, maintain effectiveness in minimizing overhang distortions. The idea is to build, simultaneously during part fabrications, a heat sink (called “heat support”, underneath an overhang to alter adverse thermal behaviors. Thermomechanical modeling and simulations using finite element analysis were applied to numerically research the heat support effect on overhang distortions. Experimentally, a powder-bed electron beam additive manufacturing system was utilized to fabricate heat support designs and examine their functions. The results prove the concept and demonstrate the effectiveness of contact-free heat supports. Moreover, the method was tested with different heat support parameters and applied to various overhang geometries. It is concluded that the heat support proposed has the potential to be implemented in industrial applications.

  10. Anomalous metallic state with strong charge fluctuations in BaxTi8O16 +δ revealed by hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, S.; Kajita, T.; Okawa, M.; Saitoh, T.; Ikenaga, E.; Saini, N. L.; Katsufuji, T.; Mizokawa, T.

    2018-04-01

    We have studied a charge-orbital driven metal-insulator transition (MIT) in hollandite-type BaxTi8O16 +δ by means of hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HAXPES). The Ti 2 p HAXPES indicates strong Ti3 +/Ti4 + charge fluctuation in the metallic phase above the MIT temperature. The metallic phase is characterized by a power-law spectral function near the Fermi level which would be a signature of bad metal with non-Drude polaronic behavior. The power-law spectral shape is associated with the large Seebeck coefficient of the metallic phase in BaxTi8O16 +δ .

  11. The Measurement of Hardness and Elastic Modulus of non-Metallic Inclusions in Steely Welding Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatova Anna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trunk pipelines work under a cyclic dynamical mechanical load because when oil or gas is pumped, the pressure constantly changes - pulsates. Therefore, the fatigue phenomenon is a common reason of accidents. The fatigue phenomenon more often happens in the zone of non-metallic inclusions concentration. To know how the characteristics of nonmetallic inclusions influence the probability of an accident the most modern research methods should be used. It is determined with the help of the modern research methods that the accident rate of welded joints of pipelines is mostly influenced by their morphological type, composition and size of nonmetallic inclusions, this effect is more important than the common level of pollution by non-metallic inclusions. The article presents the results of the investigations of welded joints, obtained after the use of different common welding materials. We used the methods, described in the state standards: scanning electronic microscopy, spectral microprobe analysis and nano-indentation. We found out that non-metallic inclusions act like stress concentrators because they shrink, forming a blank space between metal and nonmetallic inclusions; it strengthens the differential properties on this boundary. Nonmetallic inclusion is not fixed, it can move. The data that we have received mean that during welded joints’ contamination (with non-metallic inclusions monitoring process, more attention should be paid to the content of definite inclusions, but not to total contamination.

  12. Laser brazing of hard metal on steel; Laserstrahlloeten von Hartmetall an Stahl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haferkamp, H.; Frohmann, A.; Block, B.; Goede, M. [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hannover (Germany); Muenz, U. [Forschungsgemeinschaft Werkzeuge und Werkstoffe e.V., Remscheid (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Topic of the investigations presented here is the laser beam brazing of hardmetal plates onto tool steel. Three different kinds of laser beam sources are comparatively used, a diode laser, a Nd:YAG laser and a CO{sub 2} laser. The investigations concentrate on the variation of two process parameters: brazing time and laser performance. Following the brazing process both visual observation as well as hardness measurements and shear tests are made. The investigations show that by brazing, high seam qualities can be achieved, which withstand the comparison with inductively brazed joints. (orig.)

  13. Design Process Control for Improved Surface Finish of Metal Additive Manufactured Parts of Complex Build Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikdam Jamal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Metal additive manufacturing (AM is increasingly used to create complex 3D components at near net shape. However, the surface finish (SF of the metal AM part is uneven, with surface roughness being variable over the facets of the design. Standard post-processing methods such as grinding and linishing often meet with major challenges in finishing parts of complex shape. This paper reports on research that demonstrated that mass finishing (MF processes are able to deliver high-quality surface finishes (Ra and Sa on AM-generated parts of a relatively complex geometry (both internal features and external facets under select conditions. Four processes were studied in this work: stream finishing, high-energy (HE centrifuge, drag finishing and disc finishing. Optimisation of the drag finishing process was then studied using a structured design of experiments (DOE. The effects of a range of finishing parameters were evaluated and optimal parameters and conditions were determined. The study established that the proposed method can be successfully applied in drag finishing to optimise the surface roughness in an industrial application and that it is an economical way of obtaining the maximum amount of information in a short period of time with a small number of tests. The study has also provided an important step in helping understand the requirements of MF to deliver AM-generated parts to a target quality finish and cycle time.

  14. Use of reliability engineering in development and manufacturing of metal parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Iqbal, M.A.; Asif, M.

    2005-01-01

    The reliability engineering predicts modes of failures and weak links before the system is built instead of failure case study. The reliability engineering analysis will help in the manufacturing economy, assembly accuracy and qualification by testing, leading to production of metal parts in an aerospace industry. This methodology will also minimize the performance constraints in any requirement for the application of metal components in aerospace systems. The reliability engineering predicts the life of the parts under loading conditions whether dynamic or static. Reliability predictions can help engineers in making decisions about design of components, materials selection and qualification under applied stress levels. Two methods of reliability prediction i.e. Part Stress Analysis and Part Count have been used in this study. In this paper we will discuss how these two methods can be used to measure reliability of a system during development phases, which includes the measuring effect of environmental and operational variables. The equations are used to measure the reliability of each type of component, as well as, integration for measuring system applied for the reliability analysis. (author)

  15. Multi-scale simulation of single crystal hollow turbine blade manufactured by liquid metal cooling process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewei Yan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Liquid metal cooling (LMC process as a powerful directional solidification (DS technique is prospectively used to manufacture single crystal (SC turbine blades. An understanding of the temperature distribution and microstructure evolution in LMC process is required in order to improve the properties of the blades. For this reason, a multi-scale model coupling with the temperature field, grain growth and solute diffusion was established. The temperature distribution and mushy zone evolution of the hollow blade was simulated and discussed. According to the simulation results, the mushy zone might be convex and ahead of the ceramic beads at a lower withdrawal rate, while it will be concave and laggard at a higher withdrawal rate, and a uniform and horizontal mushy zone will be formed at a medium withdrawal rate. Grain growth of the blade at different withdrawal rates was also investigated. Single crystal structures were all selected out at three different withdrawal rates. Moreover, mis-orientation of the grains at 8 mm/min reached ~30°, while it was ~5° and ~15° at 10 mm/min and 12 mm/min, respectively. The model for predicting dendritic morphology was verified by corresponding experiment. Large scale for 2D dendritic distribution in the whole sections was investigated by experiment and simulation, and they presented a well agreement with each other. Keywords: Hollow blade, Single crystal, Multi-scale simulation, Liquid metal cooling

  16. Trial manufacture of rotary friction tester and frictional force measurement of metals

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, T; Kanari, M; Tanzawa, S

    2002-01-01

    In the plasma confinement type fusion reactor, in-vessel structures such as a blanket module slide at the joints each other when plasma disruption occurs, and then frictional heat is generated there. Therefore, for the selection of material and the use as the design data, it is important to understand the frictional characteristics of metals and ceramic films in the vacuum. In the present study, we have manufactured a prototype of rotary friction tester and examined the performances of the tester. The frictional characteristics of metals in the room air was measured using the friction tester, and the results obtained are as follows. A drifting friction force for a constant time and a friction force during the idling were 98 mN and 225 mN, respectively. These values were sufficiently small as compared to pressing load (9.8 - 57.8 N) used in the friction test. In a friction force measurement of stainless steel, dynamic friction force obeyed Amontons' law which indicated that dynamic friction force is not depend...

  17. Direct Numerical Simulations of Microstructure Effects During High-Rate Loading of Additively Manufactured Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaile, Corbett; Owen, Steven; Moore, Nathan

    2017-06-01

    The properties of most engineering materials depend on the characteristics of internal microstructures and defects. In additively manufactured (AM) metals, these can include polycrystalline grains, impurities, phases, and significant porosity that qualitatively differ from conventional engineering materials. The microscopic details of the interactions between these internal defects, and the propagation of applied loads through the body, act in concert to dictate macro-observable properties like strength and compressibility. In this work, we used Sandia's ALEGRA finite element software to simulate the high-strain-rate loading of AM metals from laser engineered net shaping (LENS) and thermal spraying. The microstructural details of the material were represented explicitly, such that internal features like second phases and pores are captured and meshed as individual entities in the computational domain. We will discuss the dependence of the high-strain-rate mechanical properties on microstructural characteristics such as the shapes, sizes, and volume fractions of second phases and pores. In addition, we will examine how the details of the microstructural representation affect the microscopic material response to dynamic loads, and the effects of using ``stair-step'' versus conformal interfaces smoothed via the SCULPT tool in Sandia's CUBIT software. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the US DOE NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  18. State of the art in hard-on-hard bearings: how did we get here and what have we achieved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zywiel, Michael G; Sayeed, Siraj A; Johnson, Aaron J; Schmalzried, Thomas P; Mont, Michael A

    2011-03-01

    Total hip arthroplasty has shown excellent results in decreasing pain and improving function in patients with degenerative disease of the hip. Improvements in prosthetic materials, designs and implant fixation have now resulted in wear of the bearing surface being the limitation of this technology, and a number of hard-on-hard couples have been introduced to address this concern. The purpose of this article is to review the origins, development, survival rates and potential advantages and disadvantages of the following hard-on-hard bearings for total hip arthroplasty: metal-on-metal standard total hip arthroplasty; metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty, ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty; and ceramic-on-metal bearings. Improvements in the manufacturing of metal-on-metal bearings over the past 50 years have resulted in implants that provide low wear rates and allow for the use of large femoral heads. However, concerns remain regarding elevated serum metal ion levels, potential teratogenic effects and potentially devastating adverse local tissue reactions, whose incidence and pathogenesis remains unclear. Modern total hip resurfacing has shown excellent outcomes over 10 years in the hands of experienced surgeons. Current ceramic-on-ceramic bearings have demonstrated excellent survival with exceptionally low wear rates and virtually no local adverse effects. Concerns remain for insertional chipping, in vivo fracture and the variable incidence of squeaking. Contemporary ceramic-on-metal interfaces are in the early stages of clinical use, with little data reported to date. Hard-on-hard bearings for total hip arthroplasty have improved dramatically over the past 50 years. As bearing designs continue to improve with new and modified materials and improved manufacturing techniques, it is likely that the use of hard-on-hard bearings will continue to increase, especially in young and active patients.

  19. Novel manufacturing process of nanoparticle/Al composite filler metals of tungsten inert gas welding by accumulative roll bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fattahi, M., E-mail: fattahi.put@gmail.com [Technical Inspection Engineering Department, Petroleum University of Technology, Abadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Noei Aghaei, V. [Aerospace Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dabiri, A.R. [Technical Inspection Engineering Department, Petroleum University of Technology, Abadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amirkhanlou, S. [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akhavan, S.; Fattahi, Y. [Materials Engineering Department, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-11

    In the present work, accumulative roll bonding (ARB) was used as an effective method for manufacturing nanoparticle/Al composite filler metals of tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding. After welding, the distribution of ceramic nanoparticles and mechanical properties of welds were investigated. By applying ARB, ceramic nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed in the composite filler metals. Consequently, the welds produced by these filler metals had a uniform dispersion of ceramic nanoparticles in their compositions. The test results showed that the yield strength of welds was greatly increased when using the nanoparticle/Al composite filler metals. The improvement in the yield strength was attributed to the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch and Orowan strengthening mechanisms. Therefore, according to the results presented in this paper, it can be concluded that the nanoparticle/Al composite filler metals can serve as a novel filler metal for TIG welding of aluminum and its alloys.

  20. Hard Chrome-Coated and Fullerene-Doped Metal Surfaces in Orthopedic Bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Robert; Feige, Katja; Dos Santos, Claudia Beatriz; Kretzer, Jan Philippe

    2017-12-20

    Metal-on-metal bearings for total hip replacements have been introduced as an alternative to polyethylene in young and more active patients. These have, however, been shown to be prone to implant malpositioning and have been limited by some specific design features. In that context, coatings present an option to increase wear resistance by keeping the high fracture strength of the metal substrate. A custom-made electroplating setup was designed for the coating of CoCr substrates using (a) an industrial standard chromium electrolyte; (b) a custom-made hexavalent chromium (Cr 6+ ) electrolyte with a reduced chromium trioxide (CrO₃) content, both without solid additives and (c) with the addition of fullerene (C 60 ) nanoparticles; and (d) a trivalent chromium (Cr 3+ ) electrolyte with C 60 addition. All coatings showed an increase in microhardness compared with the metal substrate. Trivalent coatings were thinner (10 µm) than the hexavalent coatings (23-40 µm) and resulted in increased roughness and crack density. Wear was found to be reduced for the hexavalent chromium coatings by 70-84% compared with the CoCr-CoCr reference bearing while the trivalent chromium coating even increased wear by more than 300%. The addition of fullerenes to the electrolyte did not show any further tribological effect.

  1. Hard Chrome-Coated and Fullerene-Doped Metal Surfaces in Orthopedic Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sonntag

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Metal-on-metal bearings for total hip replacements have been introduced as an alternative to polyethylene in young and more active patients. These have, however, been shown to be prone to implant malpositioning and have been limited by some specific design features. In that context, coatings present an option to increase wear resistance by keeping the high fracture strength of the metal substrate. A custom-made electroplating setup was designed for the coating of CoCr substrates using (a an industrial standard chromium electrolyte; (b a custom-made hexavalent chromium (Cr6+ electrolyte with a reduced chromium trioxide (CrO3 content, both without solid additives and (c with the addition of fullerene (C60 nanoparticles; and (d a trivalent chromium (Cr3+ electrolyte with C60 addition. All coatings showed an increase in microhardness compared with the metal substrate. Trivalent coatings were thinner (10 µm than the hexavalent coatings (23–40 µm and resulted in increased roughness and crack density. Wear was found to be reduced for the hexavalent chromium coatings by 70–84% compared with the CoCr–CoCr reference bearing while the trivalent chromium coating even increased wear by more than 300%. The addition of fullerenes to the electrolyte did not show any further tribological effect.

  2. Application Of Artificial Neural Networks In Modeling Of Manufactured Front Metallization Contact Resistance For Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musztyfaga-Staszuk M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of artificial neural networks for prediction contact resistance of front metallization for silicon solar cells. The influence of the obtained front electrode features on electrical properties of solar cells was estimated. The front electrode of photovoltaic cells was deposited using screen printing (SP method and next to manufactured by two methods: convectional (1. co-fired in an infrared belt furnace and unconventional (2. Selective Laser Sintering. Resistance of front electrodes solar cells was investigated using Transmission Line Model (TLM. Artificial neural networks were obtained with the use of Statistica Neural Network by Statsoft. Created artificial neural networks makes possible the easy modelling of contact resistance of manufactured front metallization and allows the better selection of production parameters. The following technological recommendations for the screen printing connected with co-firing and selective laser sintering technology such as optimal paste composition, morphology of the silicon substrate, co-firing temperature and the power and scanning speed of the laser beam to manufacture the front electrode of silicon solar cells were experimentally selected in order to obtain uniformly melted structure well adhered to substrate, of a small front electrode substrate joint resistance value. The prediction possibility of contact resistance of manufactured front metallization is valuable for manufacturers and constructors. It allows preserving the customers’ quality requirements and bringing also measurable financial advantages.

  3. The mechanism of hard metal TiC-TiNi composite liquid-phase sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimov, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    The sintering conditions are investigated for hard alloys on their production from powders of titanium nickelide with particle size of 10-25 μ and titanium carbide with particles of 5-10 μ at temperatures of 1280-1350 deg C under pressure of 0.1 MPa with holding at heat for 180-900 s. The analysis of experimental data shows that optimum sintering conditions are determined by the quantity of a binding phase TiNi. In the systems with a binding phase content no more than 40 % a heterogeneous structure with nonuniform aggregates of TiC and TiNi phases is observed. With increasing a binding phase amount up to 50-70 % and a temperature up to 1350 deg C, titanium nickelide melts and spreads uniformly among carbide grains. This results in a low porosity of the composite material and in an increase of thermodynamic stability of the system [ru

  4. Development of procedures for the acquisition of metal Additive Manufacturing (AM) parts for use in the CSIR's wind tunnel models

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johnston, C

    2015-11-04

    Full Text Available The first Additive Manufacturing (AM) non-load-bearing, client furnished part was used in the CSIR’s wind tunnels in 2007. The advent of metal-grown materials, and the acquisition of machines to grow them in South Africa, has made it feasible...

  5. Additively manufactured metallic porous biomaterials based on minimal surfaces : A unique combination of topological, mechanical, and mass transport properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, F S L; Lietaert, K; Eftekhari, A A; Pouran, B; Ahmadi, S M; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2017-01-01

    Porous biomaterials that simultaneously mimic the topological, mechanical, and mass transport properties of bone are in great demand but are rarely found in the literature. In this study, we rationally designed and additively manufactured (AM) porous metallic biomaterials based on four different

  6. Effect of process parameters on hardness, temperature profile and solidification of different layers processed by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Sazzad Hossain; Mian, Ahsan; Srinivasan, Raghavan

    2016-01-01

    In DMLS process objects are fabricated layer by layer from powdered material by melting induced by a controlled laser beam. Metallic powder melts and solidifies to form a single layer. Solidification map during layer formation is an important route to characterize micro-structure and grain morphology of sintered layer. Generally, solidification leads to columnar, equiaxed or mixture of these two types grain morphology depending on solidification rate and thermal gradient. Eutectic or dendritic structure can be formed in fully equiaxed zone. This dendritic growth has a large effect on material properties. Smaller dendrites generally increase ductility of the layer. Thus, materials can be designed by creating desired grain morphology in certain regions using DMLS process. To accomplish this, hardness, temperature distribution, thermal gradient and solidification cooling rate in processed layers will be studied under change of process variables by using finite element analysis, with specific application to Ti-6Al-4V.

  7. Effect of process parameters on hardness, temperature profile and solidification of different layers processed by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sazzad Hossain; Mian, Ahsan; Srinivasan, Raghavan

    2016-07-01

    In DMLS process objects are fabricated layer by layer from powdered material by melting induced by a controlled laser beam. Metallic powder melts and solidifies to form a single layer. Solidification map during layer formation is an important route to characterize micro-structure and grain morphology of sintered layer. Generally, solidification leads to columnar, equiaxed or mixture of these two types grain morphology depending on solidification rate and thermal gradient. Eutectic or dendritic structure can be formed in fully equiaxed zone. This dendritic growth has a large effect on material properties. Smaller dendrites generally increase ductility of the layer. Thus, materials can be designed by creating desired grain morphology in certain regions using DMLS process. To accomplish this, hardness, temperature distribution, thermal gradient and solidification cooling rate in processed layers will be studied under change of process variables by using finite element analysis, with specific application to Ti-6Al-4V.

  8. Microjet formation and hard x-ray production from a liquid metal target irradiated by intense femtosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lar' kin, A., E-mail: alexeylarkin@yandex.ru; Uryupina, D.; Ivanov, K.; Savel' ev, A., E-mail: abst@physics.msu.ru [International Laser Center and Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Bonnet, T.; Gobet, F.; Hannachi, F.; Tarisien, M.; Versteegen, M. [Centre d' Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, University of Bordeaux-CNRS-IN2P3, 33170 Gradignan (France); Spohr, K. [School of Engineering, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, Scotland PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Breil, J.; Chimier, B.; Dorchies, F.; Fourment, C.; Leguay, P.-M.; Tikhonchuk, V. T. [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, University of Bordeaux-CNRS-CEA, Talence 33405 (France)

    2014-09-15

    By using a liquid metal as a target one may significantly enhance the yield of hard x-rays with a sequence of two intense femtosecond laser pulses. The influence of the time delay between the two pulses is studied experimentally and interpreted with numerical simulations. It was suggested that the first arbitrary weak pulse produces microjets from the target surface, while the second intense pulse provides an efficient electron heating and acceleration along the jet surface. These energetic electrons are the source of x-ray emission while striking the target surface. The microjet formation is explained based on the results given by both optical diagnostics and hydrodynamic modeling by a collision of shocks originated from two distinct zones of laser energy deposition.

  9. Microjet formation and hard x-ray production from a liquid metal target irradiated by intense femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lar'kin, A.; Uryupina, D.; Ivanov, K.; Savel'ev, A.; Bonnet, T.; Gobet, F.; Hannachi, F.; Tarisien, M.; Versteegen, M.; Spohr, K.; Breil, J.; Chimier, B.; Dorchies, F.; Fourment, C.; Leguay, P.-M.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.

    2014-01-01

    By using a liquid metal as a target one may significantly enhance the yield of hard x-rays with a sequence of two intense femtosecond laser pulses. The influence of the time delay between the two pulses is studied experimentally and interpreted with numerical simulations. It was suggested that the first arbitrary weak pulse produces microjets from the target surface, while the second intense pulse provides an efficient electron heating and acceleration along the jet surface. These energetic electrons are the source of x-ray emission while striking the target surface. The microjet formation is explained based on the results given by both optical diagnostics and hydrodynamic modeling by a collision of shocks originated from two distinct zones of laser energy deposition

  10. Microjet formation and hard x-ray production from a liquid metal target irradiated by intense femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lar'kin, A.; Uryupina, D.; Ivanov, K.; Savel'ev, A.; Bonnet, T.; Gobet, F.; Hannachi, F.; Tarisien, M.; Versteegen, M.; Spohr, K.; Breil, J.; Chimier, B.; Dorchies, F.; Fourment, C.; Leguay, P.-M.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.

    2014-09-01

    By using a liquid metal as a target one may significantly enhance the yield of hard x-rays with a sequence of two intense femtosecond laser pulses. The influence of the time delay between the two pulses is studied experimentally and interpreted with numerical simulations. It was suggested that the first arbitrary weak pulse produces microjets from the target surface, while the second intense pulse provides an efficient electron heating and acceleration along the jet surface. These energetic electrons are the source of x-ray emission while striking the target surface. The microjet formation is explained based on the results given by both optical diagnostics and hydrodynamic modeling by a collision of shocks originated from two distinct zones of laser energy deposition.

  11. Effect of process parameters on hardness, temperature profile and solidification of different layers processed by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Sazzad Hossain; Mian, Ahsan, E-mail: ahsan.mian@wright.edu; Srinivasan, Raghavan [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio 45435 (United States)

    2016-07-12

    In DMLS process objects are fabricated layer by layer from powdered material by melting induced by a controlled laser beam. Metallic powder melts and solidifies to form a single layer. Solidification map during layer formation is an important route to characterize micro-structure and grain morphology of sintered layer. Generally, solidification leads to columnar, equiaxed or mixture of these two types grain morphology depending on solidification rate and thermal gradient. Eutectic or dendritic structure can be formed in fully equiaxed zone. This dendritic growth has a large effect on material properties. Smaller dendrites generally increase ductility of the layer. Thus, materials can be designed by creating desired grain morphology in certain regions using DMLS process. To accomplish this, hardness, temperature distribution, thermal gradient and solidification cooling rate in processed layers will be studied under change of process variables by using finite element analysis, with specific application to Ti-6Al-4V.

  12. A New Ni-Based Metallic Glass with High Thermal Stability and Hardness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytekin Hitit

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Glass forming ability (GFA, thermal stability and microhardness of Ni51−xCuxW31.6B17.4 (x = 0, 5 metallic glasses have been investigated. For each alloy, thin sheets of samples having thickness of 20 µm and 100 µm were synthesized by piston and anvil method in a vacuum arc furnace. Also, 400 µm thick samples of the alloys were synthesized by suction casting method. The samples were investigated by X-ray diffractometry (XRD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Crystallization temperature of the base alloy, Ni51W31.6B17.4, is found to be 996 K and 5 at.% copper substitution for nickel increases the crystallization temperature to 1063 K, which is the highest value reported for Ni-based metallic glasses up to the present. In addition, critical casting thickness of alloy Ni51W31.6B17.4 is 100 µm and copper substitution does not have any effect on critical casting thickness of the alloys. Also, microhardness of the alloys are found to be around 1200 Hv, which is one of the highest microhardness values reported for a Ni-based metallic glass until now.

  13. A bis(3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone)-EDTA derivative as a strong chelator for M3+ hard metal ions: complexation ability and selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Sofia; Dron, Paul; Chaves, Silvia; Farkas, Etelka; Santos, M Amélia

    2009-08-21

    The study of chelating compounds is very important to solve problems related to human metal overload. 3-Hydroxy-3-pyridinones (HP), namely deferiprone, have been clinically used for chelating therapy of Fe and Al over the last decade. A multi-disciplinary search for alternative molecules led us to develop poly-(3-hydroxy-4-pyridinones) to increase metal chelation efficacy. We present herein a complexation study of a new bis-(3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone)-EDTA derivative with a set of M(3+) hard metal ions (M = Fe, Al, Ga), as well as Zn(2+), a biologically relevant metal ion. Thus a systematic aqueous solution equilibrium study was performed using potentiometric and spectroscopic techniques (UV-Vis, NMR methods). These set of results enables the establishment of specific models as well as the determination of thermodynamic stability constants and coordination modes of the metal complexes. The results indicate that this ligand has a higher affinity for chelating to these hard metal ions than deferiprone, and that the coordination occurs mostly through the HP moieties. Furthermore, it was also found that this ligand has a higher selectivity for chelating to M(3+) hard metal ions (M = Fe, Al, Ga) than Zn(2+).

  14. Utilisation of fly ash for the management of heavy metal containing primary chemical sludge generated in a leather manufacturing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekaran, G.; Rao, B.P.; Ghanamani, A.; Rajamani, S. [Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai (India). Dept. of Environmental Technology

    2003-07-01

    The present study aims at disposal of primary chemical sludge generated in the tanning industry by solidification and stabilization process using flyash generated from thermal power plant along with binders and also on evaluating the leachability of heavy metal from the solidified product. The primary chemical sludge containing heavy metals iron and chromium were obtained from a garment leather manufacturing company at Chennai in India. The sludge was dried in open environment and it was powdered to fine size in a grinder. Binding increases stabilization of heavy metal in calcined sludge with refractory binders such as clay, fly ash, lime and ordinary Portland cement. Fly ash can be considered as the additional binder for producing stronger bricks, with high metal fixation efficiency, and minimum rate of removal of heavy metal and minimum diffusion co-efficient. 15 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Work Hard / Play Hard

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, J.; Johnson, V.; Henckel, D.

    2016-01-01

    Work Hard / Play Hard was a participatory performance/workshop or CPD experience hosted by interdisciplinary arts atelier WeAreCodeX, in association with AntiUniversity.org. As a socially/economically engaged arts practice, Work Hard / Play Hard challenged employees/players to get playful, or go to work. 'The game changes you, you never change the game'. Employee PLAYER A 'The faster the better.' Employer PLAYER B

  16. Manufacture of highly loaded silica-supported cobalt Fischer–Tropsch catalysts from a metal organic framework

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiaohui

    2017-11-16

    The development of synthetic protocols for the preparation of highly loaded metal nanoparticle-supported catalysts has received a great deal of attention over the last few decades. Independently controlling metal loading, nanoparticle size, distribution, and accessibility has proven challenging because of the clear interdependence between these crucial performance parameters. Here we present a stepwise methodology that, making use of a cobalt-containing metal organic framework as hard template (ZIF-67), allows addressing this long-standing challenge. Condensation of silica in the Co-metal organic framework pore space followed by pyrolysis and subsequent calcination of these composites renders highly loaded cobalt nanocomposites (~ 50 wt.% Co), with cobalt oxide reducibility in the order of 80% and a good particle dispersion, that exhibit high activity, C5 + selectivity and stability in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.

  17. Weibull modulus of hardness, bend strength, and tensile strength of Ni−Ta−Co−X metallic glass ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilson, Henry J., E-mail: hjn2@case.edu [Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH (United States); Petersen, Alex S.; Cheung, Andrew M.; Poon, S. Joseph; Shiflet, Gary J. [University of Virginia, 395 McCormick Road, P.O. Box 400745, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Widom, Mike [Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Wean Hall 3325, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Lewandowski, John J. [Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2015-05-14

    In this study, the variations in mechanical properties of Ni−Co−Ta-based metallic glasses have been analyzed. Three different chemistries of metallic glass ribbons were analyzed: Ni{sub 45}Ta{sub 35}Co{sub 20}, Ni{sub 40}Ta{sub 35}Co{sub 20}Nb{sub 5}, and Ni{sub 30}Ta{sub 35}Co{sub 30}Nb{sub 5}. These alloys possess very high density (approximately 12.5 g/cm{sup 3}) and very high strength (e.g. >3 GPa). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the amorphicity of the ribbons. Mechanical properties were measured via a combination of Vickers hardness, bending strength, and tensile strength for each chemistry. At least 50 tests were conducted for each chemistry and each test technique in order to quantify the variability of properties using both 2- and 3-parameter Weibull statistics. The variability in properties and their source(s) were compared to that of other engineering materials, while the nature of deformation via shear bands as well as fracture surface features have been determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Toughness, the role of defects, and volume effects are also discussed.

  18. Quasi-static strength and fractography analysis of two dental implants manufactured by direct metal laser sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrke, Sergio Alexandre; Pérez-Díaz, Leticia; Dedavid, Berenice Anina

    2018-01-30

    New manufacturing methods was developed to improve the tissues integration with the titanium alloy pieces. The present in vitro study was to assess the resistance and fracture mode after applied a quasi-static compressive force on the two dental implants manufactured by direct metal laser sintering. Twenty dental implants manufactured by direct metal laser sintering, using titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) granules in two designs (n = 10 per group): Conventional dental implant (group Imp1) two-piece implant design, where the surgical implant and prosthetic abutment are two separate components and, the one-piece implant (group Imp2), where the surgical implant and prosthetic abutment are one integral piece. All samples were subjected to quasi-static loading at a 30° angle to the implant axis in a universal testing machine. The mean fracture strengths were 1269.2 ± 128.8 N for the group Imp1 and, 1259.5 ± 115.1 N for the group Imp2, without statistical differences (P = .8722). In both groups, the fracture surface does not present crack between the compact core and the superficial (less dense and porous) part of the implants. Based on the measured resistance data for the two implant models manufactured by direct metal laser sintering tested in the present study, we can suggest that they have adequate capacity to withstand the masticatory loads. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Manufacturing of ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) that can actuate into complex curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoimenov, Boyko L.; Rossiter, Jonathan M.; Mukai, Toshiharu

    2007-04-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMC) are soft actuators with potential applications in the fields of medicine and biologically inspired robotics. Typically, an IPMC bends with approximately constant curvature when voltage is applied to it. More complex shapes were achieved in the past by pre-shaping the actuator or by segmentation and separate actuation of each segment. There are many applications for which fully independent control of each segment of the IPMC is not required and the use of external wiring is objectionable. In this paper we propose two key elements needed to create an IPMC, which can actuate into a complex curve. The first is a connection between adjacent segments, which enables opposite curvature. This can be achieved by reversing the polarity applied on each side of the IPMC, for example by a through-hole connection. The second key element is a variable curvature segment. The segment is designed to bend with any fraction of its full bending ability under given electrical input by changing the overlap of opposite charge electrodes. We demonstrated the usefulness of these key elements in two devices. One is a bi-stable buckled IPMC beam, also used as a building block in a linear actuator device. The other one is an IPMC, actuating into an S-shaped curve with gradually increasing curvature near the ends. The proposed method of manufacturing holds promise for a wide range of new applications of IPMCs, including applications in which IPMCs are used for sensing.

  20. Manufacture of hypoeutectic Al-Si metal powders for dispersion matriz in nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffaeli, H A; Harri, S; Acosta, M; Castillo Guerra, R; Rossi, G; Fabro, J O; Rubiolo, G H

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of the development of low enriched nuclear fuels for research reactors, U.Mo/Al is the most promising option that has however to be optimized. Indeed at the U.Mo/Al interfaces between U.Mo particles and the Al matrix, an interaction layer grows under irradiation inducing an unacceptable fuel swelling. Adding silicon in limited content into the Al matrix has clearly improved the in-pile fuel behaviour. This breakthrough is attributed to an U.Mo/Al.Si protective layer around U.Mo particles appeared during fuel manufacturing. The present work deals with three techniques applied to produce metal powders of hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys: ball milling, centrifugal atomization and gas atomization. Size and microstructure of the particles are analyzed in the three techniques. The best result is found with the gas atomization system, flakes and rods morphology predominates in the produced powders, with particle sizes below 150 microns and the greater mass population (65%) is between 150 and 125 microns. The particle surface is smooth and the high solidification rate provides a good distribution of the α-Al primary and eutectic phase within each particle (author)

  1. Antimicrobial activity of thin metallic silver flakes, waste products of a manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzano, Manuela; Tosti, Alessandra; Lasagni, Marina; Campiglio, Alfredo; Pitea, Demetrio; Collina, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to develop new products and processes from a manufacturing waste from an Italian metallurgic company. The company produced thin silver metallic films and the production scraps were silver flakes. The possibility to use the silver flakes in water disinfection processes was studied. The antimicrobial activity of the flakes was investigated in batch using Escherichia coli as Gram-negative microorganism model. The flakes did not show any antimicrobial activity, so they were activated with two different processes: thermal activation in reducing atmosphere and chemical activation, obtaining, respectively, reduced flakes (RF) and chemical flakes (CF). The flakes, activated with either treatment, showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli. The kill rate was dependent on the type of activated flakes. The chemical flakes were more efficient than reduced flakes. The kill rate determined for 1 g of CF, 1.0 +/- 0.2 min(-1), was greater than the kill rate determined for 1 g of RF, 0.069 +/- 0.004 min(-1). This was confirmed also by the minimum inhibitory concentration values. It was demonstrated that the antimicrobial capability was dependent on flakes amount and on the type of aqueous medium. Furthermore, the flakes maintained their properties also when used a second time. Finally, the antimicrobial activities of flakes were tested in an effluent of a wastewater treatment plant where a variety of heterotrophic bacteria were present.

  2. In-Situ monitoring and modeling of metal additive manufacturing powder bed fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alldredge, Jacob; Slotwinski, John; Storck, Steven; Kim, Sam; Goldberg, Arnold; Montalbano, Timothy

    2018-04-01

    One of the major challenges in metal additive manufacturing is developing in-situ sensing and feedback control capabilities to eliminate build errors and allow qualified part creation without the need for costly and destructive external testing. Previously, many groups have focused on high fidelity numerical modeling and true temperature thermal imaging systems. These approaches require large computational resources or costly hardware that requires complex calibration and are difficult to integrate into commercial systems. In addition, due to the rapid change in the state of the material as well as its surface properties, getting true temperature is complicated and difficult. Here, we describe a different approach where we implement a low cost thermal imaging solution allowing for relative temperature measurements sufficient for detecting unwanted process variability. We match this with a faster than real time qualitative model that allows the process to be rapidly modeled during the build. The hope is to combine these two, allowing for the detection of anomalies in real time, enabling corrective action to potentially be taken, or parts to be stopped immediately after the error, saving material and time. Here we describe our sensor setup, its costs and abilities. We also show the ability to detect in real time unwanted process deviations. We also show that the output of our high speed model agrees qualitatively with experimental results. These results lay the groundwork for our vision of an integrated feedback and control scheme that combines low cost, easy to use sensors and fast modeling for process deviation monitoring.

  3. INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL AND VALUE CREATION IN THE METAL PRODUCTS MANUFACTURING SEGMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Francisco Aguiar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The historical evolution of the ratio of investments in intangible assets over GNP in the US economy from 1959 to 2007 – which reached 8 to 10% in 2007 - indicates a positive long term trend that is as relevant as the rate of investments in tangible assets in terms of the GNP, during the same timeframe.  The most surprising fact however, was the expansion beyond expectations over the last 40 years. According to international researchers, this trend is due to a combination of a series of causes, such as the financial globalization, market deregulation and exponential growth of technological changes, rousing the interest of entrepreneurs, scholars and researchers in becoming acquainted with indicators, classifying and ideating these so as to comprehend the value creation  process within companies. The purpose of this line of research was to test Pulic´s Value Added Intellectual Coefficient Model (2000, so as to evaluate its significance in creating value, as applied to the Metal Products Manufacturing segment, utilizing an adjusted data base obtained from the Brazilian Geography and Statistics Institute´s (IBGE Annual Industrial Research (PIA for the period 2000 to 2006, comprising companies with more than 100 employees throughout Brazil, resorting to a panel of static data. Results obtained demonstrate a positive relationship between VAIC and value creation as well as between the Calculated Intangible Value – CIV, (explanatory variable and value creation. Key-Words:  Intellectual Capital. VAIC. Value Creation. IBGE (Brazilian Geography and Statistics Institute.

  4. Synchrotron hard X-ray imaging of shock-compressed metal powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Michael E.; Chapman, David J.; Collinson, Mark A.; Jones, David R.; Music, Jasmina; Stafford, Samuel J. P.; Tear, Gareth R.; White, Thomas G.; Winters, John B. R.; Drakopoulos, Michael; Eakins, Daniel E.

    2015-06-01

    This poster will present the application of a new, high-energy (50 to 250 keV) synchrotron X-ray radiography technique to the study of shock-compressed granular materials. Following plate-impact loading, transmission radiography was used to quantitatively observe the compaction and release processes in a range of high-Z metal powders (e.g. Fe, Ni, Cu). By comparing the predictions of 3D numerical models initialized from X-ray tomograms-captured prior to loading-with experimental results, this research represents a new approach to refining mesoscopic compaction models. The authors gratefully acknowledge the ongoing support of Imperial College London, EPSRC, STFC and the Diamond Light Source, and AWE Plc.

  5. Manufacturing techniques for titanium aluminide based alloys and metal matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Kunal B.

    Dual phase titanium aluminides composed vastly of gamma phase (TiAl) with moderate amount of alpha2 phase (Ti3Al) have been considered for several high temperature aerospace and automobile applications. High specific strength coupled with good high temperature performance in the areas of creep and oxidation resistance makes titanium aluminides "materials of choice" for next generation propulsion systems. Titanium alumnides are primarily being considered as potential replacements for Ni-based superalloys in gas turbine engine components with aim of developing more efficient and leaner engines exhibiting high thrust-to-weight ratio. Thermo-mechanical treatments have shown to enhance the mechanical performance of titanium aluminides. Additionally, small additions of interstitial elements have shown further and significant improvement in the mechanical performance of titanium alumnide alloys. However, titanium aluminides lack considerably in room temperature ductility and as a result manufacturing processes of these aluminides have greatly suffered. Traditional ingot metallurgy and investment casting based methods to produce titanium aluminide parts in addition to being expensive, have also been unsuccessful in producing titanium aluminides with the desired mechanical properties. Hence, the manufacturing costs associated with these methods have completely outweighed the benefits offered by titanium aluminides. Over the last two decades, several powder metallurgy based manufacturing techniques have been studied to produce titanium aluminide parts. These techniques have been successful in producing titanium aluminide parts with a homogeneous and refined microstructure. These powder metallurgy techniques also hold the potential of significant cost reduction depending on the wide market acceptance of titanium aluminides. In the present study, a powder metallurgy based rapid consolidation technique has been used to produce near-net shape parts of titanium aluminides. Micron

  6. Investigation on the Accuracy of CT Porosity Analysis of Additive Manufactured Metallic Parts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanini, Filippo; Hermanek, Petr; Rathore, Jitendra; Wits, Wessel W; Carmignato, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is emerging as an important manufacturing sector, due to its almost unlimited design freedom, the capability to produce personalized parts and the efficient material use. A reliable knowledge about material porosity of manufactured parts is crucial for optimizing AM

  7. Structure, elastic stiffness, and hardness of Os 1- xRu xB 2 solid solution transition-metal diborides

    KAUST Repository

    Kanoun, Mohammed; Hermet, Patrick; Goumri-Said, Souraya

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of recent experiments, the solid solution transition-metal diborides were proposed to be new ultra-incompressible hard materials. We investigate using density functional theory based methods the structural and mechanical properties, electronic structure, and hardness of Os 1-xRu xB 2 solid solutions. A difference in chemical bonding occurs between OsB 2 and RuB 2 diborides, leading to significantly different elastic properties: a large bulk, shear moduli, and hardness for Os-rich diborides and relatively small bulk, shear moduli, and hardness for Ru-rich diborides. The electronic structure and bonding characterization are also analyzed as a function of Ru-dopant concentration in the OsB 2 lattice. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  8. Structure, elastic stiffness, and hardness of Os 1- xRu xB 2 solid solution transition-metal diborides

    KAUST Repository

    Kanoun, Mohammed

    2012-05-31

    On the basis of recent experiments, the solid solution transition-metal diborides were proposed to be new ultra-incompressible hard materials. We investigate using density functional theory based methods the structural and mechanical properties, electronic structure, and hardness of Os 1-xRu xB 2 solid solutions. A difference in chemical bonding occurs between OsB 2 and RuB 2 diborides, leading to significantly different elastic properties: a large bulk, shear moduli, and hardness for Os-rich diborides and relatively small bulk, shear moduli, and hardness for Ru-rich diborides. The electronic structure and bonding characterization are also analyzed as a function of Ru-dopant concentration in the OsB 2 lattice. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  9. Application of Semiempirical Methods to Transition Metal Complexes: Fast Results but Hard-to-Predict Accuracy.

    KAUST Repository

    Minenkov, Yury

    2018-05-22

    A series of semiempirical PM6* and PM7 methods has been tested in reproducing of relative conformational energies of 27 realistic-size complexes of 16 different transition metals (TMs). An analysis of relative energies derived from single-point energy evaluations on density functional theory (DFT) optimized conformers revealed pronounced deviations between semiempirical and DFT methods indicating fundamental difference in potential energy surfaces (PES). To identify the origin of the deviation, we compared fully optimized PM7 and respective DFT conformers. For many complexes, differences in PM7 and DFT conformational energies have been confirmed often manifesting themselves in false coordination of some atoms (H, O) to TMs and chemical transformations/distortion of coordination center geometry in PM7 structures. Despite geometry optimization with fixed coordination center geometry leads to some improvements in conformational energies, the resulting accuracy is still too low to recommend explored semiempirical methods for out-of-the-box conformational search/sampling: careful testing is always needed.

  10. Effect of Silicon Nitride Incorporation on Microstructure and Hardness of Ni-Co Metal Matrix Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ni-Co-Si3N4 nanocomposite coatings were prepared by electrodeposition technique. The deposition was performed at 50 mA cm-2 on copper substrate. The working temperature of electrodepostion was constant at 500C in an acidic environment of pH 4. The effects of silicon in the nickel-cobalt metal matrix composite were investigated. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used to determine the composition. The Co content in the coatings is in the range 27-49 at.%. The phase present in the Ni-Co-Si3N4 were examined with an X-ray diffraction analysis. All the reflection patterns indicate that the coatings are having face-centered cubic (fcc structure. The microhardness of the Ni-Co-Si3N4 nanocomposite coating increases with increasing silicon content. The microhardness of the Ni-Co-Si3N4 nanocomposite coating increased from 549 HV for Nickel-cobalt alloy coating to 641 HV for Ni-Co-Si3N4 nanocomposite coating with 5.47 at.% Si.

  11. A Novel 3D Printer to Support Additive Manufacturing of Gradient Metal Alloy Structures, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gradient metal alloy structures possess multi-functional properties that conventional monolithic metal counterparts do not have. Such structures can potentially...

  12. A Novel 3D Printer to Support Additive Manufacturing of Gradient Metal Alloy Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gradient metal alloy structures possess multi-functional properties that conventional monolithic metal counterparts do not have. Such structures can potentially...

  13. Hard magnetic properties and coercivity mechanism of melt-spun Misch Metal-Fe-B alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan, Ningtao; Luo, Yang, E-mail: eluoyang@foxmail.com; Yan, Wenlong; Yuan, Chao; Yu, Dunbo; Sun, Liang; Lu, Shuo; Li, Hongwei; Zhang, Hongbin

    2017-09-01

    Highlights: • Melt-spun MM{sub 13}Fe{sub 81}B{sub 6} alloy shows that the distributions of the La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Fe and B elements is uniformly distributed, and the grain size is in the range of 30–40 nm, it can be seen that Pr-rich and La-rich phases concentrated on grain boundaries, which resulted in the coercivity augment with the increase of MMFe{sub 2} content, and the grain size is around 40–50 nm in MM{sub 16}Fe{sub 78}B{sub 6}. • There is a significant formation of MMFe{sub 2} with abundant Pr and La, and a small amount of Ce and Nd enriched at the interfacial region in MM{sub 16}Fe{sub 78}B{sub 6}, thus an inhomogeneous region was formed. It is considered that the inhomogeneous region is effective in increasing the coercivity. • The optimum-quenched MM{sub 13}Fe{sub 81}B{sub 6} alloy have been shown to exhibit a coercive force of 6.9 kOe and an energy product of 8.5 MGOe, which is superior to anisotropic ferrite magnets of 4.5 MGOe. - Abstract: Magnetic and structural properties of Misch Metal (MM)-Fe-B alloys, were examined in the melt-spun ribbons. Melt-spun MM-Fe-B samples were prepared at the surface velocities of 18–30 m/s. Crystalline structure and their room-temperature magnetization characteristics were analyzed, and the optimum surface velocity of 20 m/s and nominal composition of MM{sub 13}Fe{sub 81}B{sub 6} were obtained. Microstructural analyses indicate that the grain size is approximately 30–50 nm in the alloys with the optimum characteristics. In the MM{sub 16}Fe{sub 78}B{sub 6} alloys, Pr-rich and La-rich phases concentrated on grain boundaries, which resulted in the coercivity augment with the increase of MMFe{sub 2} content. Dependence of coercivity on applied magnetic field suggested that the mechanism of coercivity in moderate MM-content samples was inhomogeneous domain wall pinning type. The melt-spun ribbons in the optimum condition exhibit a coercive force of 6.9 kOe and an energy product of 8.5 MGOe, which can be used as

  14. Compatibility of metal additive manufactured tungsten collimator for SPECT/MRI integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samudi, Amine M [INTEC, Ghent University/iMinds, Ghent (Belgium); Van Audenhaege, Karen [ELIS, Ghent University/iMinds, Gent (Belgium); Vermeeren, Gunter; Martens, Luc [INTEC, Ghent University/iMinds, Ghent (Belgium); Van Holen, Roel [ELIS, Ghent University/iMinds, Gent (Belgium); Joseph, Wout [INTEC, Ghent University/iMinds, Ghent (Belgium)

    2015-05-18

    We optimized the MR-compatibility of a novel tungsten collimator, produced with metal additive manufacturing that is part of a microSPECT insert for a preclinical SPECT/MRI scanner. We characterized the current density due to the gradient field and adapted the collimators by smart design to reduce the induced eddy currents. The z-gradient coil and the collimator were modeled with SEMCAD. The gradient strength was 510 mT/m, the gradient efficiency was about 3.4 mT/m/A. The setup was simulated with a working frequency of 10 kHz. The system consists of 7 identical collimators and digital silicon photomultipliers assembled in a ring. We evaluated the global reduction in current density J (reduction) based on the sum of all current densities in the collimator. We applied the following optimizations on the collimator: 1. We reduced the excessive material in the flanges. 2. We applied horizontal slits of 2 mm in the collimator surface. 3. We reduced material in the core; the photons are attenuated before they reach the core. The collimator will need a supporting structure. 4. The supporting structure can be avoided by using two vertical slits in the middle of the collimator. 5. We used a Z-shaped slit instead of the vertical slit. Results of simulations show that smaller flanges reduce the current density with 23%. The horizontal slits reduce the eddy currents with 6%. Using less material in the core or applying vertical slits results in the same reduction of current density. However, the vertical slits are cheaper because a hollow collimator requires supporting structures during production. Both can be combined if z-shaped slits are used to prevent attenuation problems. The reduction is then 27%. Finally, when all previous adaptations are combined, the reduction in eddy currents is about 56.3%.

  15. Compatibility of metal additive manufactured tungsten collimator for SPECT/MRI integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samudi, Amine M; Van Audenhaege, Karen; Vermeeren, Gunter; Martens, Luc; Van Holen, Roel; Joseph, Wout

    2015-01-01

    We optimized the MR-compatibility of a novel tungsten collimator, produced with metal additive manufacturing that is part of a microSPECT insert for a preclinical SPECT/MRI scanner. We characterized the current density due to the gradient field and adapted the collimators by smart design to reduce the induced eddy currents. The z-gradient coil and the collimator were modeled with SEMCAD. The gradient strength was 510 mT/m, the gradient efficiency was about 3.4 mT/m/A. The setup was simulated with a working frequency of 10 kHz. The system consists of 7 identical collimators and digital silicon photomultipliers assembled in a ring. We evaluated the global reduction in current density J (reduction) based on the sum of all current densities in the collimator. We applied the following optimizations on the collimator: 1. We reduced the excessive material in the flanges. 2. We applied horizontal slits of 2 mm in the collimator surface. 3. We reduced material in the core; the photons are attenuated before they reach the core. The collimator will need a supporting structure. 4. The supporting structure can be avoided by using two vertical slits in the middle of the collimator. 5. We used a Z-shaped slit instead of the vertical slit. Results of simulations show that smaller flanges reduce the current density with 23%. The horizontal slits reduce the eddy currents with 6%. Using less material in the core or applying vertical slits results in the same reduction of current density. However, the vertical slits are cheaper because a hollow collimator requires supporting structures during production. Both can be combined if z-shaped slits are used to prevent attenuation problems. The reduction is then 27%. Finally, when all previous adaptations are combined, the reduction in eddy currents is about 56.3%.

  16. Influence of initial microstructure of aluminium alloy charge after its melting on the hard metal inherited structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г. О. Іванов

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Metal properties heredity in the chain- initial hard state > liquid state > final solidified state has always been interesting for metallurgists. It is known that after the primary melting of charge there occurs microheterogenеous non-equilibrium melt with crystal-like groups of atoms and disordered area in it. With increase in temperature the melt approaches the equilibrium microhomogeneous state. The aim of this work is to study the charge microstructure influence on melt fluidity in the light of quasi-crystal model of liquid structure. Influence of isothermal heating on fluidity of aluminium melt, smelted from fine-grained and coarse-grained charge has been investigated. It has been stated that for coarse-grained metal additional melting of crystallization «genes» takes place in 1,4-quick time, as compared to fine-grained. The coefficients of exponential function for our experimental data have been calculated. It has been stated that the exponent depends on the charge microstructure, and multiplier depends on the soaking temperature. On the basis of A. Einstein equation for the calculation of liquid viscosity from the known fraction of admixtures and clean liquid viscosity an analogical equation for fluidity and calculation of quasi-crystals volume share in the melt have been derived. It has been found that the charge grain size affects the speed of quasi-crystals additional melting in the melt. The reference amount of quasi-crystals at the initial moment of large- and fine-grained charge melting has been calculated from our metallographic, experimental and estimated data

  17. Multiple High-Fidelity Modeling Tools for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Development, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Despite the rapid commercialization of additive manufacturing technology such as selective laser melting, SLM, there are gaps in process modeling and material...

  18. Multiple High-Fidelity Modeling Tools for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Development, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Despite the rapid commercialization of additive manufacturing technology such as selective laser melting, SLM, there are gaps in process modeling and material...

  19. A hard X-ray study of a manganese-terpyridine catalyst in a chromium-based Metal Organic Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, Alexandra V. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-28

    Hydrogen produced from water splitting is a promising source of clean energy. However, a robust catalyst is necessary to carry out the water oxidation step of water splitting. In this study, the catalyst studied was [(terpy)Mn(μ-O)2Mn(terpy)]3+ (MnTD) synthesized in the Metal Organic Framework (MOF) MIL-101(Cr), and the method used for analysis was hard X-ray powder diffraction. The diffraction data was used to detect the presence of MOF in different catalytic stages, and lattice parameters were assigned to the samples containing MOF. Fourier maps were constructed with GSAS II to determine the contents of the MOF as preliminary studies suggested that MnTD may not be present. Results showed that MOF is present before catalysis occurs but disappears by the time 45 minutes of catalysis has ensued. Changes in the MOF’s lattice parameters and location of electron density in the Fourier maps suggest attractions between the MOF and catalyst that may lead to MOF degradation. Fourier maps also revealed limited, if any, amounts of MnTD, even before catalysis occurred. Molecular manganese oxide may be the source of the high rate of water oxidation catalysis in the studied system.

  20. Effect of double ion implantation and irradiation by Ar and He ions on nano-indentation hardness of metallic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Mook, W. M.; Fu, E. G.; Wang, Y.-Q.; Carr, D. G.; Anderoglu, O.; Mara, N. A.; Misra, A.; Harrison, R. P.; Edwards, L.

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the authors have investigated the combined effect of a double layer of implantation on four different metallic alloys, ODS steel MA957, Zircaloy-4, Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy and stainless steel 316, by ions of two different species - He and Ar - on the hardening of the surface as measured by nano-indentation. The data was collected for a large number of indentations using the Continuous Stiffness Method or "CSM" mode, applying the indents on the implanted surface. Careful analysis of the data in the present investigations show that the relative hardening due to individual implantation layers can be used to obtain an estimate of the relative hardening effect of a combination of two separate implanted layers of two different species. This combined hardness was found to lie between the square root of the sum of the squares of individual hardening effects, (ΔHA2 + ΔHB2)0.5 as the lower limit and the sum of the individual hardening effects, (ΔHA + ΔHB) as the upper limit, within errors, for all depths measured. The hardening due to irradiation by different species of ions was calculated by subtracting the average hardness vs. depth curve of the un-irradiated or "virgin" material from that of the irradiated material. The combined hardening of the irradiated samples due to Ar and He irradiation was found to be described well by an approximate upper bound given by the simple linear sum of the individual hardening (L) and a lower bound given by the square root of the sum of the squares (R) of the individual hardening effects due to Ar and He irradiation along the full depth of the indentation. The peak of the combined hardness of Ar and He irradiated material appears at the depth predicted by both the R and the L curves, in all samples. The combined hardness increase due to Ar and He irradiation lies near the upper limit (L curve) for the ODS steel MA957, somewhere in between L and R curves for Zircaloy-4, and near the R curve for the stainless steel 316

  1. Design and development of a layer-based additive manufacturing process for the realization of metal parts of designed mesostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher Bryant

    Low-density cellular materials, metallic bodies with gaseous voids, are a unique class of materials that are characterized by their high strength, low mass, good energy absorption characteristics, and good thermal and acoustic insulation properties. In an effort to take advantage of this entire suite of positive mechanical traits, designers are tailoring the cellular mesostructure for multiple design objectives. Unfortunately, existing cellular material manufacturing technologies limit the design space as they are limited to certain part mesostructure, material type, and macrostructure. The opportunity that exists to improve the design of existing products, and the ability to reap the benefits of cellular materials in new applications is the driving force behind this research. As such, the primary research goal of this work is to design, embody, and analyze a manufacturing process that provides a designer the ability to specify the material type, material composition, void morphology, and mesostructure topology for any conceivable part geometry. The accomplishment of this goal is achieved in three phases of research: (1) Design---Following a systematic design process and a rigorous selection exercise, a layer-based additive manufacturing process is designed that is capable of meeting the unique requirements of fabricating cellular material geometry. Specifically, metal parts of designed mesostructure are fabricated via three-dimensional printing of metal oxide ceramic powder followed by post-processing in a reducing atmosphere. (2) Embodiment ---The primary research hypothesis is verified through the use of the designed manufacturing process chain to successfully realize metal parts of designed mesostructure. (3) Modeling & Evaluation ---The designed manufacturing process is modeled in this final research phase so as to increase understanding of experimental results and to establish a foundation for future analytical modeling research. In addition to an analysis of

  2. Manufacturing Challenges Associated with the Use of Metal Matrix Composites in Aerospace Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Tracie

    2014-01-01

    Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) consist of a metal alloy reinforced with ceramic particles or fibers. These materials possess a very high strength to weight ratio, good resistance to impact and wear, and a number of other properties which make them attractive for use in aerospace and defense applications. MMCs have found use in the space shuttle orbiter's structural tubing, the Hubble Space Telescope's antenna mast, control surfaces and propulsion systems for aircraft, and tank armors. The size of MMC components is severely limited by difficulties encountered in joining these materials using fusion welding. Melting of the material results in formation of an undesirable phase (formed when molten Aluminum reacts with the reinforcement) which leaves a strength depleted region along the joint line. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a relatively nascent solid state joining technique developed at The Welding Institute (TWI) in 1991. The process was first used at NASA to weld the super lightweight external tank for the Space Shuttle. Today FSW is used to join structural components of the Delta IV, Atlas V, and Falcon IX rockets as well as NASA's Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and Space Launch System. A current focus of FSW research is to extend the process to new materials, such as MMCs, which are difficult to weld using conventional fusion techniques. Since Friction Stir Welding occurs below the melting point of the workpiece material, this deleterious phase is absent in FSW-ed MMC joints. FSW of MMCs is, however, plagued by rapid wear of the welding tool, a consequence of the large discrepancy in hardness between the steel tool and the reinforcement material. This chapter summarizes the challenges encountered when joining MMCs to themselves or to other materials in structures. Specific attention is paid to the influence of process variables in Friction Stir Welding on the wear process characterizes the effect of process parameters (spindle speed, traverse rate, and length

  3. WHO water quality standards Vs Synergic effect(s) of fluoride, heavy metals and hardness in drinking water on kidney tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasana, Hewa M. S.; Perera, Gamage D. R. K.; Gunawardena, Panduka De S.; Fernando, Palika S.; Bandara, Jayasundera

    2017-02-01

    Despite WHO standards, waterborne diseases among the human being are rising alarmingly. It is known that the prolong exposure to contaminated water has major impact on public health. The effect of chemical contaminations in drinking water on human being is found to be chronic rather than acute and hence can be defined “consumption of contaminated drinking water could be a silent killer”. As the WHO recommended water quality standards are only for individual element and synergic effects of trace metals and anions have not been considered, investigation of synergic effects of trace metals and anions and their effect on human being is of prime important research. By an animal trial, we investigated the synergic effect(s) of heavy metals, aluminium, arsenic, fluoride and hardness in drinking water on kidney tissues of mice. Our investigation strongly suggests existing of a synergic effect especially among Cd, F and hardness of water which could lead to severe kidney damage in mice, even at WHO maximum recommended levels. Hence, the synergic effect(s) of trace metals, fluoride and hardness present in drinking water should be investigated meticulously when stipulating the water quality at WHO maximum recommended levels.

  4. Demonstration test on manufacturing 200 l drum inner shielding material for recycling of reactor operating metal scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umemura, A.; Kimura, K.; Ueno, H.

    1993-01-01

    Low-level reactor wastes should be safely recycled considering those resource values, the reduction of waste disposal volume and environmental effects. The reasonable recycling system of reactor operating metal scrap has been studied and it was concluded that the 200 liter drum inner shielding material is a very promising product for recycling within the nuclear industry. The drum inner shielding material does not require high quality and so it is expected to be easily manufactured by melting and casting from roughly sorted scrap metals. This means that the economical scrap metal recycling system can be achieved by introducing it. Furthermore its use will ensure safety because of being contained in a drum. In order to realize this recycling system with the drum inner shielding material, the demonstration test program is being conducted. The construction of the test facility, which consists of a melting and refining furnace, a casting apparatus, a machining apparatus etc., was finishing in September, 1992

  5. Photon Doppler Velocimeter to Measure Entrained Additive Manufactured Bulk Metal Powders in Hot Subsonic and Supersonic Oxygen Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Parts produced by additive manufacturing, particularly selective laser melting (SLM), have been shown to silt metal particulate even after undergoing stringent precision aerospace cleaning processes (Lowrey 2016). As printed parts are used in oxygen systems with increased pressures, temperatures, and gas velocity, the risk of ignition by particle impact, the most common direct ignition source of metals in oxygen, substantially increases. The White Sands Test Facility (WSTF), in collaboration with Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), desires to test the ignitability of SLM metals by particle impact in heated oxygen. The existing test systems rely on gas velocity calculations to infer particle velocity in both subsonic and supersonic particle impact systems. Until now, it was not possible to directly measure particle velocity. To increase the fidelity of planned SLM ignition studies, it is necessary to validate that the Photon Doppler Velocimetry(PDV) test system can accurately measure particle velocity.

  6. Geometrical accuracy of metallic objects produced with additive or subtractive manufacturing: A comparative in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braian, Michael; Jönsson, David; Kevci, Mir; Wennerberg, Ann

    2018-04-06

    To evaluate the accuracy and precision of objects produced by additive manufacturing systems (AM) for use in dentistry and to compare with subtractive manufacturing systems (SM). Ten specimens of two geometrical objects were produced by five different AM machines and one SM machine. Object A mimics an inlay-shaped object, while object B imitates a four-unit bridge model. All the objects were sorted into different measurement dimensions (x, y, z), linear distances, angles and corner radius. None of the additive manufacturing or subtractive manufacturing groups presented a perfect match to the CAD file with regard to all parameters included in the present study. Considering linear measurements, the precision for subtractive manufacturing group was consistent in all axes for object A, presenting results of additive manufacturing groups had consistent precision in the x-axis and y-axis but not in the z-axis. With regard to corner radius measurements, the SM group had the best overall accuracy and precision for both objects A and B when compared to the AM groups. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, the conclusion can be made that subtractive manufacturing presented overall precision on all measurements below 0.050mm. The AM machines also presented fairly good precision, additive techniques are now being implemented. Thus all these production techniques need to be tested, compared and validated. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  8. Nondestructive Testing of Additive Manufactured Metal Parts Used in Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Jess M.

    2018-01-01

    NDE inspectors, QA/QE professionals, and program managers responsible for the out-sourcing, procurement, fabrication, finishing, inspection, and qualification and certification of additively manufactured (AM) parts should attend this course.

  9. The effect of heat treatment on structure and properties of hard metals on a tungsten carbide basis with iron-nickel-binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaporova, I.N.; Kudryavtseva, V.I.; Sapronova, Z.N.; Sychkova, L.V.

    1980-06-01

    In the present paper the effect of storage and quenching on structure and properties of WC(Fe,Ni)-hardmetals was investigated. Starting materials were powders of tungsten carbide, iron and nickel, commonly used for the hard metal production. WC(Fe,Ni)-specimens (Fe: Ni = 80:20, 85:15) with 8, 11, 80, 85, 89 and 92 percent by weight were produced for the investigation. (orig.) [de

  10. Manufacturing And High Temperature Oxidation Properties Of Electro-Sprayed Fe-24.5% Cr-5%Al Powder Porous Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kee-Ahn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fe-Cr-Al based Powder porous metals were manufactured using a new electro-spray process, and the microstructures and high-temperature oxidation properties were examined. The porous materials were obtained at different sintering temperatures (1350°C, 1400°C, 1450°C, and 1500°C and with different pore sizes (500 μm, 450 μm, and 200 μm. High-temperature oxidation experiments (TGA, Thermal Gravimetry Analysis were conducted for 24 hours at 1000°C in a 79% N2+ 21% O2, 100 mL/min. atmosphere. The Fe-Cr-Al powder porous metals manufactured through the electro-spray process showed more-excellent oxidation resistance as sintering temperature and pore size increased. In addition, the fact that the densities and surface areas of the abovementioned powder porous metals had the largest effects on the metal’s oxidation properties could be identified.

  11. A Personal Desktop Liquid-Metal Printer as a Pervasive Electronics Manufacturing Tool for Society in the Near Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It has long been a dream in the electronics industry to be able to write out electronics directly, as simply as printing a picture onto paper with an office printer. The first-ever prototype of a liquid-metal printer has been invented and demonstrated by our lab, bringing this goal a key step closer. As part of a continuous endeavor, this work is dedicated to significantly extending such technology to the consumer level by making a very practical desktop liquid-metal printer for society in the near future. Through the industrial design and technical optimization of a series of key technical issues such as working reliability, printing resolution, automatic control, human-machine interface design, software, hardware, and integration between software and hardware, a high-quality personal desktop liquid-metal printer that is ready for mass production in industry was fabricated. Its basic features and important technical mechanisms are explained in this paper, along with demonstrations of several possible consumer end-uses for making functional devices such as light-emitting diode (LED displays. This liquid-metal printer is an automatic, easy-to-use, and low-cost personal electronics manufacturing tool with many possible applications. This paper discusses important roles that the new machine may play for a group of emerging needs. The prospective future of this cutting-edge technology is outlined, along with a comparative interpretation of several historical printing methods. This desktop liquid-metal printer is expected to become a basic electronics manufacturing tool for a wide variety of emerging practices in the academic realm, in industry, and in education as well as for individual end-users in the near future.

  12. Additive manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V components by shaped metal deposition: Microstructure and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baufeld, Bernd; Biest, Omer Van der; Gault, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    Shaped metal deposition (SMD) is a relatively new technology of additive manufacturing, which creates near-net shaped components by additive manufacture utilizing tungsten inert gas welding. Especially for Ti alloys, which are difficult to shape by traditional methods and for which the loss of material during machining is also very costly, SMD has great advantages. In the case of Ti-6Al-4V the dense SMD components exhibit large, columnar prior β grains, with a Widmanstaetten α/β microstructure. These prior β grains are slightly tilted in a direction following the temperature field resulting from the moving welding torch. The ultimate tensile strength is between 929 and 1014 MPa, depending on orientation and location of the tensile specimens. Tensile testing vertically to the deposition layers exhibits a strain at failure of 16 ± 3%, while testing parallel to the layers gives a lower value of about 9%.

  13. Laser and electron-beam powder-bed additive manufacturing of metallic implants: A review on processes, materials and designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, Swee Leong; An, Jia; Yeong, Wai Yee; Wiria, Florencia Edith

    2016-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM), also commonly known as 3D printing, allows the direct fabrication of functional parts with complex shapes from digital models. In this review, the current progress of two AM processes suitable for metallic orthopaedic implant applications, namely selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM) are presented. Several critical design factors such as the need for data acquisition for patient-specific design, design dependent porosity for osteo-inductive implants, surface topology of the implants and design for reduction of stress-shielding in implants are discussed. Additive manufactured biomaterials such as 316L stainless steel, titanium-6aluminium-4vanadium (Ti6Al4V) and cobalt-chromium (CoCr) are highlighted. Limitations and future potential of such technologies are also explored. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The Role of Laser Additive Manufacturing Methods of Metals in Repair, Refurbishment and Remanufacturing - Enabling Circular Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leino, Maija; Pekkarinen, Joonas; Soukka, Risto

    Circular economy is an economy model where products, components, and materials are aimed to be kept at their highest utility and value at all times. Repair, refurbishment and remanufacturing processes are procedures aiming at returning the value of the product during its life cycle. Additive manufacturing (AM) is expected to be an enabling technology in circular economy based business models. One of AM process that enables repair, refurbishment and remanufacturing is Directed Energy Deposition. Respectively Powder Bed Fusion enables manufacturing of replacement components on demand. The aim of this study is to identify the current research findings and state of art of utilizing AM in repair, refurbishment and remanufacturing processes of metallic products. The focus is in identifying possibilities of AM in promotion of circular economy and expected environmental benefits based on the found literature. Results of the study indicate significant potential in utilizing AM in repair, refurbishment and remanufacturing activities.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Properties and Microstructure of the Plastically Deformed Alloy Inconel®718, Manufactured by Plastic Working and Direct Metal Laser Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żaba K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nickel superalloys as Inconel® are materials widely used in the aerospace industry among others for diffusers, combustion chamber, shells of gas generators and other. In most cases, manufacturing process of those parts are used metal strips, produced by conventional plastic processing techniques, and thus by hot or cold rolling. An alternative technology allowing for manufacturing components for jet engines is the technique of 3D printing (additive manufacturing, and most of all Direct Metal Laser Sintering, which is one of the latest achievement in field of additive technologies.

  16. Comprehensive hard materials

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive Hard Materials deals with the production, uses and properties of the carbides, nitrides and borides of these metals and those of titanium, as well as tools of ceramics, the superhard boron nitrides and diamond and related compounds. Articles include the technologies of powder production (including their precursor materials), milling, granulation, cold and hot compaction, sintering, hot isostatic pressing, hot-pressing, injection moulding, as well as on the coating technologies for refractory metals, hard metals and hard materials. The characterization, testing, quality assurance and applications are also covered. Comprehensive Hard Materials provides meaningful insights on materials at the leading edge of technology. It aids continued research and development of these materials and as such it is a critical information resource to academics and industry professionals facing the technological challenges of the future. Hard materials operate at the leading edge of technology, and continued res...

  17. Validated Feasibility Study of Integrally Stiffened Metallic Fuselage Panels for Reducing Manufacturing Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, R. G.; Wang, J. J.; Toh, C.

    2000-01-01

    The continual need to reduce airframe cost and the emergence of high speed machining and other manufacturing technologies has brought about a renewed interest in large-scale integral structures for aircraft applications. Applications have been inhibited, however, because of the need to demonstrate damage tolerance, and by cost and manufacturing risks associated with the size and complexity of the parts. The Integral Airframe Structures (IAS) Program identified a feasible integrally stiffened fuselage concept and evaluated performance and manufacturing cost compared to conventional designs. An integral skin/stiffener concept was produced both by plate hog-out and near-net extrusion. Alloys evaluated included 7050-T7451 plate, 7050-T74511 extrusion, 6013-T6511 extrusion, and 7475-T7351 plate. Mechanical properties, structural details, and joint performance were evaluated as well as repair, static compression, and two-bay crack residual strength panels. Crack turning behavior was characterized through panel tests and improved methods for predicting crack turning were developed. Manufacturing cost was evaluated using COSTRAN. A hybrid design, made from high-speed machined extruded frames that are mechanically fastened to high-speed machined plate skin/stringer panels, was identified as the most cost-effective manufacturing solution. Recurring labor and material costs of the hybrid design are up to 61 percent less than the current technology baseline.

  18. Metal matrix coated fiber composites and the methods of manufacturing such composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, J.K. Jr.; Gensse, C.

    1993-09-14

    A fiber coating which allows ceramic or metal fibers to be wetted by molten metals is disclosed. The coating inhibits degradation of the physical properties caused by chemical reaction between the fiber and the coating itself or between the fiber and the metal matrix. The fiber coating preferably includes at least a wetting layer, and in some applications, a wetting layer and a barrier layer between the fiber and the wetting layer. The wetting layer promotes fiber wetting by the metal matrix. The barrier layer inhibits fiber degradation. The fiber coating permits the fibers to be infiltrated with the metal matrix resulting in composites having unique properties not obtainable in pure materials. 8 figures.

  19. An overview on the conventional and nonconventional methods for manufacturing the metallic glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axinte Eugen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallic glasses (MGs, first discovered in 1959 at Caltech are currently among the most studied metallic materials. MGs called also glassy metals, amorphous metals, liquid metals, are considered to be among the materials of the future. The “classic” methods for industrialization of MGs are : end-casting in copper molds and protected environment, die forging , atomization for obtaining MG powder ,selective laser melting , imprinting in molds, thermoplastic shaping in the super-cooled temperature region. These methods are suitable for producing high value-added precision components but the problems still exists: expensive tools, limited lifetime of tools and the occurring of crystallization. Actually methods (thermoplastic shaping, casting and die forging are limited by the low flexibility of production and by higher costs of tools and accessories. More suitable methods are greatly desired to machine MGs for their wider applications.

  20. Use of the gamma-ray absorption technique as a quality control procedure in the manufacture of powder metal shaped charge liners

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lawrie, JJ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of the gamma-ray absorption technique as a tool in evaluating the quality of manufactured powder metal liners was investigated. With powder metal liners, it is not only of interest to know whether the liner conforms geometrically...

  1. Method for matching customer and manufacturer positions for metal product parameters standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakova, Marina; Rubin, Gennadij; Danilova, Yulija

    2018-04-01

    Decision making is the main stage of regulation the relations between customer and manufacturer during the design the demands of norms in standards. It is necessary to match the positions of the negotiating sides in order to gain the consensus. In order to take into consideration the differences of customer and manufacturer estimation of the object under standardization process it is obvious to use special methods of analysis. It is proposed to establish relationships between product properties and its functions using functional-target analysis. The special feature of this type of functional analysis is the consideration of the research object functions and properties. It is shown on the example of hexagonal head crew the possibility to establish links between its functions and properties. Such approach allows obtaining a quantitative assessment of the closeness the positions of customer and manufacturer at decision making during the standard norms establishment.

  2. Laser, tungsten inert gas, and metal active gas welding of DP780 steel: Comparison of hardness, tensile properties and fatigue resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Hun; Park, Sung Hyuk; Kwon, Hyuk Sun; Kim, Gyo Sung; Lee, Chong Soo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We report the mechanical properties of DP780 steel welded by three methods. • The size of the welded zone increases with heat input (MAG > TIG > laser). • The hardness of the welded zone increases with cooling rate (laser > TIG > MAG). • Tensile and fatigue properties are strongly dependent on welding method. • Crack initiation sites depend on the microstructural features of the welded zone. - Abstract: The microstructural characteristics, tensile properties and low-cycle fatigue properties of a dual-phase steel (DP780) were investigated following its joining by three methods: laser welding, tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding, and metal active gas (MAG) welding. Through this, it was found that the size of the welded zone increases with greater heat input (MAG > TIG > laser), whereas the hardness of the weld metal (WM) and heat-affected zone (HAZ) increases with cooling rate (laser > TIG > MAG). Consequently, laser- and TIG-welded steels exhibit higher yield strength than the base metal due to a substantially harder WM. In contrast, the strength of MAG-welded steel is reduced by a broad and soft WM and HAZ. The fatigue life of laser-and TIG-welded steel was similar, with both being greater than that of MAG-welded steel; however, the fatigue resistance of all welds was inferior to that of the non-welded base metal. Finally, crack initiation sites were found to differ depending on the microstructural characteristics of the welded zone, as well as the tensile and cyclic loading

  3. New multifunctional lightweight materials based on cellular metals - manufacturing, properties and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephani, Guenter; Quadbeck, Peter; Andersen, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Cellular metallic materials are a new class of materials which have been the focus of numerous scientific studies over the past few years. The increasing interest in cellular metals is due to the fact that the introduction of pores into the materials significantly lowers the density. These highly porous materials also possess combinations of properties which are not possible to achieve with other materials. Besides the drastic weight and material savings that arise from the cell structure, there are also other application-specific benefits such as noise and energy absorption, heat insulation, mechanical damping, filtration effects and also catalytic properties. Cellular metallic materials are hence multi-functional lightweight materials.

  4. Computational prediction of the fatigue behavior of additively manufactured porous metallic biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hedayati, R.; Hosseini-Toudeshky, H; Sadighi, M.; Mohammadi-Aghdam, M; Zadpoor, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of additively manufactured porous biomaterials has recently received increasing attention. While there is a relatively large body of data available on the static mechanical properties of such biomaterials, their fatigue behavior is not yet well-understood. That is partly

  5. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  6. Applications of a Hybrid Manufacturing Process for Fabrication and Repair of Metallic Structures (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liou, Frank; Slattery, Kevin; Kinsella, Mary; Newkirk, Joseph; Chou, Hsin-Nan; Landers, Robert

    2006-01-01

    .... Coupled between the additive and the subtractive processes into a single workstation, the integrated process, or hybrid process, can produce a metal part with machining accuracy and surface finish...

  7. Determination of natural and artificial radionuclides and some trace metals in manufactured food of Syrian infant and their intake rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Nashawati, A.; Amin, Y.; Ibrahim, S.

    2001-06-01

    Natural and artificial radionuclides and some trace metals in some manufactured food of Syrian infant and their intake rates have been determined. Seventeen manufactured food and eleven types of canned milked, were collected from the local market, and chemically and radioactivity analyzed; radium-226, radium-228, potassium-40, lead-210, polonium-210 and trace metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn) being determined. Results have shown that 210 Po concentration varied between 0.38 and 2.89 Bq/Kg in canned milk while the highest concentration in infant food was found to be 1.69 Bq/Kg; other radionuclides concentration being below the limit of detection. Total uranium concentration varied between 2.2 and 10.5 μg/Kg in milk samples and 0.78-6.0 μg/Kg in food stuff samples. In addition, concentration of Pb and Cd in all samples were found to be very low and lower than the lower of limit of detection of the analytical method. (author)

  8. ASSESSMENT OF SURFACE FINISH AND DIMENSIONAL ACCURACY OF TOOLS MANUFACTURED BY METAL CASTING IN RAPID PROTOTYPING SAND MOULDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyembwe, K.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an initial assessment of the quality parameters of the surface finish and dimensional accuracy of tools made by metal casting in rapid prototyping (RP sand moulds is undertaken. A case study from a local tool room, dealing with the manufacturing of an aluminium die for the lost wax process, is employed. Modern techniques, including surface roughness analysis and three dimensional scanning, are used to determine and understand how each manufacturing step influences the final quality of the cast tool. The best surface finish obtained for the cast die had arithmetic average roughness (Ra and mean average roughness (Rz respectively equal to 3.23m and 11.38m. In terms of dimensional accuracy, 82% of cast-die points coincided with the Computer Aided Design (CAD data, which is within the typical tolerances of sand cast products. The investigation shows that mould coating contributes slightly to the improvement of the cast tool surface finish. The study also found that the additive manufacturing of the sand mould was the chief factor responsible for the loss of dimensional accuracy. These findings indicate that machining will always be required to improve the surface finish and the dimensional accuracy of cast tools in RP sand moulds.

  9. Microstructure, hardness, corrosion resistance and porcelain shear bond strength comparison between cast and hot pressed CoCrMo alloy for metal-ceramic dental restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, B; Soares, D; Silva, F S

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the microstructure, hardness, corrosion resistance and metal-porcelain bond strength of a CoCrMo dental alloy obtained by two routes, cast and hot pressing. CoCrMo alloy substrates were obtained by casting and hot pressing. Substrates' microstructure was examined by the means of Optical Microscopy (OM) and by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). Hardness tests were performed in a microhardness indenter. The electrochemical behavior of substrates was investigated through potentiodynamic tests in a saline solution (8g NaCl/L). Substrates were bonded to dental porcelain and metal-porcelain bond strength was assessed by the means of a shear test performed in a universal test machine (crosshead speed: 0.5 mm/min) until fracture. Fractured surfaces as well as undestroyed interface specimens were examined with Stereomicroscopy and SEM-EDS. Data was analyzed with Shapiro-Wilk test to test the assumption of normality. The t-test (pmicrostructures whereas hot pressed specimens exhibited a typical globular microstructure with a second phase spread through the matrix. The hardness registered for hot pressed substrates was greater than that of cast specimens, 438±24HV/1 and 324±8HV/1, respectively. Hot pressed substrates showed better corrosion properties than cast ones, i.e. higher OCP; higher corrosion potential (E(corr)) and lower current densities (i(corr)). No significant difference was found (p<0.05) in metal-ceramic bond strength between cast (116.5±6.9 MPa) and hot pressed (114.2±11.9 MPa) substrates. The failure type analysis revealed an adhesive failure for all specimens. Hot pressed products arise as an alternative to cast products in dental prosthetics, as they impart enhanced mechanical and electrochemical properties to prostheses without compromising the metal-ceramic bond strength. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Potential of direct metal deposition technology for manufacturing thick functionally graded coatings and parts for reactors components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thivillon, L.; Bertrand, Ph.; Laget, B.; Smurov, I.

    2009-01-01

    Direct metal deposition (DMD) is an automated 3D deposition process arising from laser cladding technology with co-axial powder injection to refine or refurbish parts. Recently DMD has been extended to manufacture large-size near-net-shape components. When applied for manufacturing new parts (or their refinement), DMD can provide tailored thermal properties, high corrosion resistance, tailored tribology, multifunctional performance and cost savings due to smart material combinations. In repair (refurbishment) operations, DMD can be applied for parts with a wide variety of geometries and sizes. In contrast to the current tool repair techniques such as tungsten inert gas (TIG), metal inert gas (MIG) and plasma welding, laser cladding technology by DMD offers a well-controlled heat-treated zone due to the high energy density of the laser beam. In addition, this technology may be used for preventative maintenance and design changes/up-grading. One of the advantages of DMD is the possibility to build functionally graded coatings (from 1 mm thickness and higher) and 3D multi-material objects (for example, 100 mm-sized monolithic rectangular) in a single-step manufacturing cycle by using up to 4-channel powder feeder. Approved materials are: Fe (including stainless steel), Ni and Co alloys, (Cu,Ni 10%), WC compounds, TiC compounds. The developed coatings/parts are characterized by low porosity (<1%), fine microstructure, and their microhardness is close to the benchmark value of wrought alloys after thermal treatment (Co-based alloy Stellite, Inox 316L, stainless steel 17-4PH). The intended applications concern cooling elements with complex geometry, friction joints under high temperature and load, light-weight mechanical support structures, hermetic joints, tubes with complex geometry, and tailored inside and outside surface properties, etc

  11. Potential of direct metal deposition technology for manufacturing thick functionally graded coatings and parts for reactors components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thivillon, L.; Bertrand, Ph.; Laget, B. [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Saint-Etienne (ENISE), DIPI Laboratory, 58 rue Jean Parot, 42023 Saint-Etienne cedex 2 (France); Smurov, I. [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Saint-Etienne (ENISE), DIPI Laboratory, 58 rue Jean Parot, 42023 Saint-Etienne cedex 2 (France)], E-mail: smurov@enise.fr

    2009-03-31

    Direct metal deposition (DMD) is an automated 3D deposition process arising from laser cladding technology with co-axial powder injection to refine or refurbish parts. Recently DMD has been extended to manufacture large-size near-net-shape components. When applied for manufacturing new parts (or their refinement), DMD can provide tailored thermal properties, high corrosion resistance, tailored tribology, multifunctional performance and cost savings due to smart material combinations. In repair (refurbishment) operations, DMD can be applied for parts with a wide variety of geometries and sizes. In contrast to the current tool repair techniques such as tungsten inert gas (TIG), metal inert gas (MIG) and plasma welding, laser cladding technology by DMD offers a well-controlled heat-treated zone due to the high energy density of the laser beam. In addition, this technology may be used for preventative maintenance and design changes/up-grading. One of the advantages of DMD is the possibility to build functionally graded coatings (from 1 mm thickness and higher) and 3D multi-material objects (for example, 100 mm-sized monolithic rectangular) in a single-step manufacturing cycle by using up to 4-channel powder feeder. Approved materials are: Fe (including stainless steel), Ni and Co alloys, (Cu,Ni 10%), WC compounds, TiC compounds. The developed coatings/parts are characterized by low porosity (<1%), fine microstructure, and their microhardness is close to the benchmark value of wrought alloys after thermal treatment (Co-based alloy Stellite, Inox 316L, stainless steel 17-4PH). The intended applications concern cooling elements with complex geometry, friction joints under high temperature and load, light-weight mechanical support structures, hermetic joints, tubes with complex geometry, and tailored inside and outside surface properties, etc.

  12. Potential of direct metal deposition technology for manufacturing thick functionally graded coatings and parts for reactors components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivillon, L.; Bertrand, Ph.; Laget, B.; Smurov, I.

    2009-03-01

    Direct metal deposition (DMD) is an automated 3D deposition process arising from laser cladding technology with co-axial powder injection to refine or refurbish parts. Recently DMD has been extended to manufacture large-size near-net-shape components. When applied for manufacturing new parts (or their refinement), DMD can provide tailored thermal properties, high corrosion resistance, tailored tribology, multifunctional performance and cost savings due to smart material combinations. In repair (refurbishment) operations, DMD can be applied for parts with a wide variety of geometries and sizes. In contrast to the current tool repair techniques such as tungsten inert gas (TIG), metal inert gas (MIG) and plasma welding, laser cladding technology by DMD offers a well-controlled heat-treated zone due to the high energy density of the laser beam. In addition, this technology may be used for preventative maintenance and design changes/up-grading. One of the advantages of DMD is the possibility to build functionally graded coatings (from 1 mm thickness and higher) and 3D multi-material objects (for example, 100 mm-sized monolithic rectangular) in a single-step manufacturing cycle by using up to 4-channel powder feeder. Approved materials are: Fe (including stainless steel), Ni and Co alloys, (Cu,Ni 10%), WC compounds, TiC compounds. The developed coatings/parts are characterized by low porosity (<1%), fine microstructure, and their microhardness is close to the benchmark value of wrought alloys after thermal treatment (Co-based alloy Stellite, Inox 316L, stainless steel 17-4PH). The intended applications concern cooling elements with complex geometry, friction joints under high temperature and load, light-weight mechanical support structures, hermetic joints, tubes with complex geometry, and tailored inside and outside surface properties, etc.

  13. Fabrication of a metallic roll stamp with low internal stress and high hardness for large area display applications by a pulse reverse current electroforming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joongeok; Han, Jungjin; Kim, Taekyung; Kang, Shinill

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing demand for large scale micro/nano components in the fields of display, energy and electrical devices, etc, the establishment of a roll imprinting process has become a priority. The fabrication of a roll stamp with high dimensional accuracy and uniformity is one of the key issues in the roll imprinting process, because the roll stamp determines the properties of the replicated micro/nano structures. In this study, a method to fabricate a metallic roll stamp with low internal stress, high flatness, and high hardness was proposed by a pulse reverse current (PRC) electroforming process. The effects of PRC electroforming processes on the internal stress, hardness, and grain size of the electroformed stamp were examined, and the optimum process conditions were suggested. As a practical example of the proposed method, various micro-patterns for electronic circuits were fabricated via the roll imprinting process using a PRC electroformed stamp. (paper)

  14. Radiation hardness of β-Ga2O3 metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors against gamma-ray irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Man Hoi; Takeyama, Akinori; Makino, Takahiro; Ohshima, Takeshi; Sasaki, Kohei; Kuramata, Akito; Yamakoshi, Shigenobu; Higashiwaki, Masataka

    2018-01-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation on β-Ga2O3 metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) were investigated. A gamma-ray tolerance as high as 1.6 MGy(SiO2) was demonstrated for the bulk Ga2O3 channel by virtue of weak radiation effects on the MOSFETs' output current and threshold voltage. The MOSFETs remained functional with insignificant hysteresis in their transfer characteristics after exposure to the maximum cumulative dose. Despite the intrinsic radiation hardness of Ga2O3, radiation-induced gate leakage and drain current dispersion ascribed respectively to dielectric damage and interface charge trapping were found to limit the overall radiation hardness of these devices.

  15. [Computer aided design and manufacture of the porcelain fused to metal crown].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xin; Cheng, Xiaosheng; Dai, Ning; Yu, Qing; Hao, Guodong; Sun, Quanping

    2009-04-01

    In order to satisfy the current demand for fast and high-quality prosthodontics, we have carried out a research in the fabrication process of the porcelain fused to metal crown on molar with CAD/CAM technology. Firstly, we get the data of the surface mesh on preparation teeth through a 3D-optical grating measuring system. Then, we reconstruct the 3D-model crown with the computer-aided design software which was developed by ourselves. Finally, with the 3D-model data, we produce a metallic crown on a high-speed CNC carving machine. The result has proved that the metallic crown can match the preparation teeth ideally. The fabrication process is reliable and efficient, and the restoration is precise and steady in quality.

  16. A study on the manufacturing conditions of metal matrix composites by low pressure infiltration process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Jo; Hessian, Md Anowar; Park, Sung Ho [Gyeongsang National University, Tongyoung (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Sun Chul [Gyeongsang National University, JinJu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    Metal fiber preform reinforced aluminum alloy composite as made by the infiltration of molten metal under low pressure casting process. The infiltration behavior of filling pattern and the velocity profile with low-pressure casting process was investigated. The thermocouple was inserted into the preform in order to observe the infiltration behavior. The infiltration of applied pressure time, 1, 2 and 5 s under constant pressure of 0.4 MPa was completely filled during 0.4 s. In these conditions, molten aluminum alloy has successfully infiltrated to FeCrSi metal fiber preform by low-pressure casting process. It was observed the porosity of composites for reliability of composites. The automobile piston was developed with FeCrSi reinforced aluminum alloy that is 0% porosity by the optimal applied pressure and applied pressure time.

  17. Glyphosate, Hard Water and Nephrotoxic Metals: Are They the Culprits Behind the Epidemic of Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Etiology in Sri Lanka?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasumana, Channa; Gunatilake, Sarath; Senanayake, Priyantha

    2014-01-01

    The current chronic kidney disease epidemic, the major health issue in the rice paddy farming areas in Sri Lanka has been the subject of many scientific and political debates over the last decade. Although there is no agreement among scientists about the etiology of the disease, a majority of them has concluded that this is a toxic nephropathy. None of the hypotheses put forward so far could explain coherently the totality of clinical, biochemical, histopathological findings, and the unique geographical distribution of the disease and its appearance in the mid-1990s. A strong association between the consumption of hard water and the occurrence of this special kidney disease has been observed, but the relationship has not been explained consistently. Here, we have hypothesized the association of using glyphosate, the most widely used herbicide in the disease endemic area and its unique metal chelating properties. The possible role played by glyphosate-metal complexes in this epidemic has not been given any serious consideration by investigators for the last two decades. Furthermore, it may explain similar kidney disease epidemics observed in Andra Pradesh (India) and Central America. Although glyphosate alone does not cause an epidemic of chronic kidney disease, it seems to have acquired the ability to destroy the renal tissues of thousands of farmers when it forms complexes with a localized geo environmental factor (hardness) and nephrotoxic metals. PMID:24562182

  18. Feasibility of biochar manufactured from organic wastes on the stabilization of heavy metals in a metal smelter contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhafez, Ahmed A; Li, Jianhua; Abbas, Mohamed H H

    2014-12-01

    The main objectives of the current study were to evaluate the potential effects of biochar derived from sugar cane bagasse (SC-BC) and orange peel (OP-BC) on improving the physicochemical properties of a metal smelter contaminated soil, and determining its potentiality for stabilizing Pb and As in soil. To achieve these goals, biochar was produced in a small-scale biochar producing plant, and an incubation experiment was conducted using a silt loam metal-contaminated soil treated with different application rates of biochar (0-10% w/w). The obtained results showed that, the addition of SC-BC and OP-BC increased significantly the soil aggregate stability, water-holding capacity, cation exchange capacity, organic matter and N-status in soil. SC-BC considerably decreased the solubility of Pb to values lower than the toxic regulatory level of the toxicity characteristics leaching procedure extraction (5 mg L(-1)). The rise in soil pH caused by biochar application, and the increase of soil organic matter transformed the labile Pb into less available fractions i.e. "Fe-Mn oxides" and "organic" bound fractions. On the other hand, As was desorbed from Fe-Mn oxides, which resulted in greater mobility of As in the treated soil. We concluded that SC-BC and OP-BC could be used successfully for remediating soils highly contaminated with Pb. However, considerable attention should be paid when using it in soil contaminated with As. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Metrology test object for dimensional verification in additive manufacturing of metals for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeter, Matthew G; Kopacz, Alexander J; Nikolov, Hristo N; Holdsworth, David W

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing continues to increase in popularity and is being used in applications such as biomaterial ingrowth that requires sub-millimeter dimensional accuracy. The purpose of this study was to design a metrology test object for determining the capabilities of additive manufacturing systems to produce common objects, with a focus on those relevant to medical applications. The test object was designed with a variety of features of varying dimensions, including holes, cylinders, rectangles, gaps, and lattices. The object was built using selective laser melting, and the produced dimensions were compared to the target dimensions. Location of the test objects on the build plate did not affect dimensions. Features with dimensions less than 0.300 mm did not build or were overbuilt to a minimum of 0.300 mm. The mean difference between target and measured dimensions was less than 0.100 mm in all cases. The test object is applicable to multiple systems and materials, tests the effect of location on the build, uses a minimum of material, and can be measured with a variety of efficient metrology tools (including measuring microscopes and micro-CT). Investigators can use this test object to determine the limits of systems and adjust build parameters to achieve maximum accuracy. © IMechE 2014.

  20. Alternative Processes for Manufacturing of Metal Oxide-based Potentiometric Chemosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winfried VONAU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available New possibilities for the preparation of partially selective redox electrodes based on passivated metals of the subgroups IV to VI of the periodic system are presented by the example of vanadium. The gas phase oxidation at controlled oxygen partial pressures (CPO and the pulsed laser deposition (PLD as an high-vacuum method are utilised as alternative methods beside the well- established chemical and electrochemical passivation which usually lead to the highest possible oxidation state of the passivated metal. These newly available methods enable in principle the tailoring of oxidation states in the sensitive layer and therefore the optimisation of the electrochemical sensitivity and selectivity of sensors equipped with it. The use of vanadium as basic electrode material is crucial because it shows in several matrices a remarkable corrosion susceptibility. This problem can be solved by the introduction of stable alloys with high vanadium contents. These materials can be efficiently produced by pulsed laser deposition (PLD.

  1. Quality assurance in the manufacture of metallic uranium fuel for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, B.K.; Kumar, Arbind; Nanekar, P.P.; Vaidya, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    Two Research Reactors viz. CIRUS and DHRUVA are operating at Trombay since 1960 and 1985 respectively. Cirus is a 40 MWth reactor using heavy water as moderator and light water as coolant. Dhruva is a 100 MWth reactor using heavy water as moderator and coolant. The maximum neutron flux of these reactors are 6.7 x 10 13 n/cm 2 /s (Cirus) and 1.8 x 10 14 n/cm 2 /s (Dhruva). Both these reactors are used for basic research, R and D in reactor technology, isotope production and operator training. Fuel material for these reactors is natural uranium metallic rods claded in finned aluminium (99.5%) tubes. This presentation will discuss various issues related to fabrication quality assurance and reactor behavior of metallic uranium fuel used in research reactors

  2. Towards Production of Additive Manufacturing Grade Metallic Powders on the Battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    costs due to reduced transportation costs, especially for well-established industries and, support of local businesses and resource bases [1...reduce the burden of these hindrances. ARL submitted a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) entitled, “Production of AM-Grade Metallic Powder on...the melt chamber to increase the duty cycle to 50% and thus achieve a melt rate of 1 kg/hour with the current coil design. It is anticipated that

  3. Rubber pad forming - Efficient approach for the manufacturing of complex structured sheet metal blanks for food industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoelstra, Paul; Djakow, Eugen; Homberg, Werner

    2017-10-01

    The production of complex organic shapes in sheet metals is gaining more importance in the food industry due to increasing functional and hygienic demands. Hence it is necessary to produce parts with complex geometries promoting cleanability and general sanitation leading to improvement of food safety. In this context, and especially when stainless steel has to be formed into highly complex geometries while maintaining desired surface properties, it is inevitable that alternative manufacturing processes will need to be used which meet these requirements. Rubber pad forming offers high potential when it comes to shaping complex parts with excellent surface quality, with virtually no tool marks and scratches. Especially in cases where only small series are to be produced, rubber pad forming processes offers both technological and economic advantages. Due to the flexible punch, variation in metal thickness can be used with the same forming tool. The investments to set-up Rubber pad forming is low in comparison to conventional sheet metal forming processes. The process facilitates production of shallow sheet metal parts with complex contours and bends. Different bending sequences in a multiple tool set-up can also be conducted. The planned contribution thus describes a brief overview of the rubber pad technology. It shows the prototype rubber pad forming machine which can be used to perform complex part geometries made from stainless steel (1.4301). Based on an analysis of the already existing systems and new machines for rubber pad forming processes, together with their process properties, influencing variables and areas of application, some relevant parts for the food industry are presented.

  4. Process for the manufacture of seamless metal-clad fiber-reinforced organic matrix composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluck, Raymond M. (Inventor); Bush, Harold G. (Inventor); Johnson, Robert R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A process for producing seamless metal-clad composite structures includes providing a hollow, metallic inner member and an outer sleeve to surround the inner member and define an inner space therebetween. A plurality of continuous reinforcing fibers is attached to the distal end of the outside diameter of the inner member, and the inner member is then introduced, distal end first, into one end of the outer sleeve. The inner member is then moved, distal end first, into the outer sleeve until the inner member is completely enveloped by the outer sleeve. A liquid matrix material is then injected into the space containing the reinforcing fibers between the inner member and the outer sleeve. Next a pressurized heat transfer medium is passed through the inner member to cure the liquid matrix material. Finally, the wall thickness of both the inner member and the outer sleeve are reduced to desired dimensions by chemical etching, which adjusts the thermal expansion coefficient of the metal-clad composite structure to a desired value.

  5. On the manufacturing of a gas turbine engine part through metal spinning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanin, A. El; Astarita, A.; Scherillo, F.; Velotti, C.; Squillace, A.; Liguori, A.

    2018-05-01

    Metal spinning processes represents an interesting alternative to traditional sheet metal forming processes in several industrial contexts, such as automotive and aerospace. In this work, the production of a combustion chamber liner top prototype using AISI 304L stainless steel is proposed, in order to evaluate the process feasibility for the required part geometry. The prototypes production was carried out using a two-stage semiautomatic spinning process. The effects in terms of wall thickness reduction were investigated. Using optical microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques, the microstructural behavior of the metal subjected to the forming process was investigated, while for an evaluation of the influence on the mechanical properties Vickers micro-indentation tests were performed. The main result of the process, as observed from all the investigation techniques adopted, is the formation of strain induced martensite due to the severe plastic deformation and cold reduction of the material, ranging in this case from 30% to 50%. In some areas of the part section, some rips indicating an excessive tensile stress were also detected.

  6. 3D Microstructural Architectures for Metal and Alloy Components Fabricated by 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, E.; Murr, L. E.; Amato, K. N.; Hernandez, J.; Shindo, P. W.; Gaytan, S. M.; Ramirez, D. A.; Medina, F.; Wicker, R. B.

    The layer-by-layer building of monolithic, 3D metal components from selectively melted powder layers using laser or electron beams is a novel form of 3D printing or additive manufacturing. Microstructures created in these 3D products can involve novel, directional solidification structures which can include crystallographically oriented grains containing columnar arrays of precipitates characteristic of a microstructural architecture. These microstructural architectures are advantageously rendered in 3D image constructions involving light optical microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy observations. Microstructural evolution can also be effectively examined through 3D image sequences which, along with x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis in the x-y and x-z planes, can effectively characterize related crystallographic/texture variances. This paper compares 3D microstructural architectures in Co-base and Ni-base superalloys, columnar martensitic grain structures in 17-4 PH alloy, and columnar copper oxides and dislocation arrays in copper.

  7. Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of a Custom-Built Implant Manufactured in Titanium Alloy by Direct Metal Laser Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Larosa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Custom-built implants manufacture has always presented difficulties which result in high cost and complex fabrication, mainly due to patients’ anatomical differences. The solution has been to produce prostheses with different sizes and use the one that best suits each patient. Additive manufacturing technology, incorporated into the medical field in the late 80's, has made it possible to obtain solid biomodels facilitating surgical procedures and reducing risks. Furthermore, this technology has been used to produce implants especially designed for a particular patient, with sizes, shapes, and mechanical properties optimized, for different areas of medicine such as craniomaxillofacial surgery. In this work, the microstructural and mechanical properties of Ti6Al4V samples produced by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS are studied. The microstructural and mechanical characterizations have been made by optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and microhardness and tensile tests. Samples produced by DMLS have a microstructure constituted by hexagonal α′ martensite with acicular morphology. An average microhardness of 370 HV was obtained and the tensile tests showed ultimate strength of 1172 MPa, yield strength of 957 MPa, and elongation at rupture of 11%.

  8. Characterization of metal additive manufacturing surfaces using synchrotron X-ray CT and micromechanical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantzos, C. A.; Cunningham, R. W.; Tari, V.; Rollett, A. D.

    2018-05-01

    Characterizing complex surface topologies is necessary to understand stress concentrations created by rough surfaces, particularly those made via laser power-bed additive manufacturing (AM). Synchrotron-based X-ray microtomography (μ XCT) of AM surfaces was shown to provide high resolution detail of surface features and near-surface porosity. Using the CT reconstructions to instantiate a micromechanical model indicated that surface notches and near-surface porosity both act as stress concentrators, while adhered powder carried little to no load. Differences in powder size distribution had no direct effect on the relevant surface features, nor on stress concentrations. Conventional measurements of surface roughness, which are highly influenced by adhered powder, are therefore unlikely to contain the information relevant to damage accumulation and crack initiation.

  9. Rapid die manufacturing - high pressure casting of low volume non ferrous metals components

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pereira, MFV

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available .csir.co.za Models of assembled Die Slide 12 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za 3. Die manufacture, assembly and data capturing 21.521.521.525.5total 4electrode 3Fitting3Fitting3Fitting3Fitting 2Polish2Polish2Polish2Polish 7SER 3F grind3F grind...3F grind4F grind Heat trHeat trHeat tr1Heat tr Jig boreJig boreJig boreJig bore GrindingGrindingGrinding2Grinding 13.5DMLS13.5DMLS13.5DMLS2.5Milling HrsCostProcessHrsCostProcessHrsCostProcessHrsCostProcess Core 4Core 3Core 2Core 1 NB. Times...

  10. Pressure-induced structural transition and thermodynamic properties of RhN2 and the effect of metallic bonding on its hardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jun; Kuang Xiao-Yu; Wang Zhen-Hua; Huang Xiao-Fen

    2012-01-01

    The elastic constant, structural phase transition, and effect of metallic bonding on the hardness of RhN 2 under high pressure are investigated through the first-principles calculation by means of the pseudopotential plane-wave method. Three structures are chosen to investigate for RhN 2 , namely, simple hexagonal P6/mmm (denoted as SH), orthorhombic Pnnm (marcasite), and simple tetragonal P4/mbm (denoted as ST). Our calculations show that the SH phase is energetically more stable than the other two phases at zero pressure. On the basis of the third-order Birch—Murnaghan equation of states, we find that the phase transition pressures from an SH to a marcasite structure and from a marcasite to an ST structure are 1.09 GPa and 354.57 GPa, respectively. Elastic constants, formation enthalpies, shear modulus, Young's modulus, and Debye temperature of RhN 2 are derived. The calculated values are, generally speaking, in good agreement with the previous theoretical results. Meanwhile, it is found that the pressure has an important influence on physical properties. Moreover, the effect of metallic bonding on the hardness of RhN 2 is investigated. This is a quantitative investigation on the structural properties of RhN 2 , and it still awaits experimental confirmation. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  11. Influencia de la tecnología de fabricación de las cuchillas de metal en el estado de las tensiones residuales // Influence of the metal cutters manufacturing technology in the state of the residual tensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rivas Santana

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se realiza un análisis cualitativo (y en algunos casos cuantitativos de las tensiones residuales, de primero ysegundo género, que surgen durante el proceso de soldadura y afilado de las cuchillas de metal duro.______________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this work is accomplished a qualitative analysis (in some instances quantitative of the residual tensions, of first and secondgender, that emerge during the welding process and sharpened of the hard metal cutters.

  12. Hard times; Schwere Zeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Markus

    2012-10-02

    The prices of silicon and solar wafers keep dropping. According to market research specialist IMS research, this is the result of weak traditional solar markets and global overcapacities. While many manufacturers are facing hard times, big producers of silicon are continuing to expand.

  13. A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing Part I: System Analysis, Component Identification, Additive Manufacturing, and Testing of Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Haller, William J.; Poinsatte, Philip E.; Halbig, Michael C.; Schnulo, Sydney L.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Weir, Don; Wali, Natalie; Vinup, Michael; Jones, Michael G.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The research and development activities reported in this publication were carried out under NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI) funded project entitled "A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing." The objective of the project was to conduct evaluation of emerging materials and manufacturing technologies that will enable fully nonmetallic gas turbine engines. The results of the activities are described in three part report. The first part of the report contains the data and analysis of engine system trade studies, which were carried out to estimate reduction in engine emissions and fuel burn enabled due to advanced materials and manufacturing processes. A number of key engine components were identified in which advanced materials and additive manufacturing processes would provide the most significant benefits to engine operation. The technical scope of activities included an assessment of the feasibility of using additive manufacturing technologies to fabricate gas turbine engine components from polymer and ceramic matrix composites, which were accomplished by fabricating prototype engine components and testing them in simulated engine operating conditions. The manufacturing process parameters were developed and optimized for polymer and ceramic composites (described in detail in the second and third part of the report). A number of prototype components (inlet guide vane (IGV), acoustic liners, engine access door) were additively manufactured using high temperature polymer materials. Ceramic matrix composite components included turbine nozzle components. In addition, IGVs and acoustic liners were tested in simulated engine conditions in test rigs. The test results are reported and discussed in detail.

  14. Additively manufactured metallic porous biomaterials based on minimal surfaces: A unique combination of topological, mechanical, and mass transport properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbert, F S L; Lietaert, K; Eftekhari, A A; Pouran, B; Ahmadi, S M; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2017-04-15

    Porous biomaterials that simultaneously mimic the topological, mechanical, and mass transport properties of bone are in great demand but are rarely found in the literature. In this study, we rationally designed and additively manufactured (AM) porous metallic biomaterials based on four different types of triply periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS) that mimic the properties of bone to an unprecedented level of multi-physics detail. Sixteen different types of porous biomaterials were rationally designed and fabricated using selective laser melting (SLM) from a titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). The topology, quasi-static mechanical properties, fatigue resistance, and permeability of the developed biomaterials were then characterized. In terms of topology, the biomaterials resembled the morphological properties of trabecular bone including mean surface curvatures close to zero. The biomaterials showed a favorable but rare combination of relatively low elastic properties in the range of those observed for trabecular bone and high yield strengths exceeding those reported for cortical bone. This combination allows for simultaneously avoiding stress shielding, while providing ample mechanical support for bone tissue regeneration and osseointegration. Furthermore, as opposed to other AM porous biomaterials developed to date for which the fatigue endurance limit has been found to be ≈20% of their yield (or plateau) stress, some of the biomaterials developed in the current study show extremely high fatigue resistance with endurance limits up to 60% of their yield stress. It was also found that the permeability values measured for the developed biomaterials were in the range of values reported for trabecular bone. In summary, the developed porous metallic biomaterials based on TPMS mimic the topological, mechanical, and physical properties of trabecular bone to a great degree. These properties make them potential candidates to be applied as parts of orthopedic implants and/or as bone

  15. Toward a Digital Thread and Data Package for Metals-Additive Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D B; Witherell, P; Lu, Y; Feng, S

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has been envisioned by many as a driving factor of the next industrial revolution. Potential benefits of AM adoption include the production of low-volume, customized, complicated parts/products, supply chain efficiencies, shortened time-to-market, and environmental sustainability. Work remains, however, for AM to reach the status of a full production-ready technology. Whereas the ability to create unique 3D geometries has been generally proven, production challenges remain, including lack of (1) data manageability through information management systems, (2) traceability to promote product producibility, process repeatability, and part-to-part reproducibility, and (3) accountability through mature certification and qualification methodologies. To address these challenges in part, this paper discusses the building of data models to support the development of validation and conformance methodologies in AM. We present an AM information map that leverages informatics to facilitate part producibility, process repeatability, and part-to-part reproducibility in an AM process. We present three separate case studies to demonstrate the importance of establishing baseline data structures and part provenance through an AM digital thread.

  16. Study on the sintered characteristics and properties of nanostructured WC–15 wt% (Fe–Ni–Co) and WC–15 wt% Co hard metal alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Shih-Hsien, E-mail: changsh@ntut.edu.tw [Department of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ming-Hung [Department of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Huang, Kuo-Tsung [Department of Auto-Mechanics, National Kangshan Agricultural Industrial Senior High School, Kaohsiung 82049, Taiwan (China)

    2015-11-15

    In this work, four different vacuum sintering temperatures (1250 °C, 1300 °C, 1350 °C and 1400 °C) were studied to determine the optimal process parameters of nano WC–15 wt% (Fe–Ni–Co) and WC–15 wt% Co sintered hard metal alloys. Experimental results showed that the optimal sintering temperatures for nano WC–(Fe–Ni–Co) and WC–Co alloys were 1300 °C and 1350 °C for 1 h, respectively. The sintered nano WC–(Fe–Ni–Co) and WC–Co hard metal alloys showed a good contiguity of 0.44 and 0.42; hardness was enhanced to HRA 90.83 and 90.92; the transverse rupture strength (TRS) increased to 2567.97 and 2860.08 MPa; and K{sub IC} was 16.23 and 12.33 MPa√m, respectively. Although the nano WC–(Fe–Ni–Co) alloys possessed a slightly lower TRS value, they exhibited superior fracture toughness (K{sub IC}) and hardness similar to that of the nano WC–Co material. Significantly, nano WC–(Fe–Ni–Co) alloys could be sintered at a lower temperature and still retained their excellent mechanical properties. - Graphical abstract: The following figure shows the fracture morphology of the WC–(Fe–Ni–Co) and WC–Co specimens by means of high-magnification SEM after the K{sub IC} tests. Fig. a shows that numerous binder phases (Fe–Ni–Co) existed in the crack areas, which resisted the penetration and extension of the cracks. Due to the bridging effect of the binder phase, the stress concentration of the crack tip will be resolved through plastic deformation; thus, the cracks did not continue to extend. Once the deformation reaches a critical value, the crack propagation occurs. Meanwhile, the binder phase can link together the two crack faces through the bridging process. Although parts of the cracked areas also showed the bridging effect in the WC–Co specimens, as shown by the arrows (Fig. b), the crack propagation path was not obviously affected. This result corresponds to the tortuosity phenomenon. Consequently, the bridging process

  17. Examination of structure and mechanical properties of hard-to-weld metal joints obtained with the laser method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czujko, T.; Przetakiewicz, W.; Jozwiak, S.; Hoffman, J.; Kalita, W.

    1995-01-01

    Metal joints of stainless of type X6CrNiMoTi1722 (according to DIN) and high conductivity (HC) copper, and joints of transformer steel containing about 3.5% of silicon were obtained using metal sheets 2 mm in thickness. The microstructure and the distribution of microhardness in the area of the joint, and the changes of the strength and elongation caused by the process of laser welding were examined with reference to the properties of the native metal; and, in the case of transformer steel-joints, the effects of welding by means of the TIG method were also analyzed. A probable mechanism of the formation of the steel-copper joint was presented, the strength of which is comparable with that of copper. The superiority of laser welding over TIG welding was also demonstrated. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  18. Micro-manufacturing: design and manufacturing of micro-products

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koç, Muammer; Özel, Tuğrul

    2011-01-01

    .... After addressing the fundamentals and non-metallic-based micro-manufacturing processes in the semiconductor industry, it goes on to address specific metallic-based micro-manufacturing processes...

  19. M551 metals melting experiment. [space manufacturing of aluminum alloys, tantalum alloys, stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C. H.; Busch, G.; Creter, C.

    1976-01-01

    The Metals Melting Skylab Experiment consisted of selectively melting, in sequence, three rotating discs made of aluminum alloy, stainless steel, and tantalum alloy. For comparison, three other discs of the same three materials were similarly melted or welded on the ground. The power source of the melting was an electron beam unit. Results are presented which support the concept that the major difference between ground base and Skylab samples (i.e., large elongated grains in ground base samples versus nearly equiaxed and equal sized grains in Skylab samples) can be explained on the basis of constitutional supercooling, and not on the basis of surface phenomena. Microstructural observations on the weld samples and present explanations for some of these observations are examined. In particular, ripples and their implications to weld solidification were studied. Evidence of pronounced copper segregation in the Skylab A1 weld samples, and the tantalum samples studied, indicates a weld microhardness (and hence strength) that is uniformly higher than the ground base results, which is in agreement with previous predictions. Photographs are shown of the microstructure of the various alloys.

  20. Histological and biomechanical analysis of porous additive manufactured implants made by direct metal laser sintering: a pilot study in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stübinger, Stefan; Mosch, Isabel; Robotti, Pierfrancesco; Sidler, Michéle; Klein, Karina; Ferguson, Stephen J; von Rechenberg, Brigitte

    2013-10-01

    It was the aim of this study to analyze osseointegrative properties of porous additive manufactured titanium implants made by direct metal laser sintering in a sheep model after an implantation period of 2 and 8 weeks. Three different types of implants were placed in the pelvis of six sheep. In each sheep were placed three standard machined (M), three sandblasted and etched (SE), and three porous additive manufactured (AM) implants. Of these three implants (one per type) were examined histologically and six implants were tested biomechanically. Additionally a semiquantitative histomorphometrical and qualitative fluorescent microscopic analysis were performed. After 2 and 8 weeks bone-to-implant-contact (BIC) values of the AM surface (2w: 20.49% ± 5.18%; 8w: 43.91% ± 9.69%) revealed no statistical significant differences in comparison to the M (2w: 20.33% ± 11.50%; 8w: 25.33% ± 4.61%) and SE (2w: 43.67 ± 12.22%; 8w: 53.33 ± 8.96%) surfaces. AM surface showed the highest increase of the BIC between the two observation time points. Considering the same implantation period histomorphometry and fluorescent labelling disclosed no significant differences in the bone surrounding the three implants groups. In contrast Removal-torque-test showed a significant improve in fixation strength (P ≤ 0.001) for the AM (1891.82 ± 308, 44 Nmm) surface after eight weeks in comparison to the M (198.93±88,04 Nmm) and SE (730.08 ± 151,89 Nmm) surfaces. All three surfaces (M, SE, and AM) showed sound osseointegration. AM implants may offer a possible treatment option in clinics for patients with compromised bone situations. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley Company.

  1. Microbial diversity and dynamics throughout manufacturing and ripening of surface ripened semi-hard Danish Danbo cheeses investigated by culture-independent techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryssel, Mia; Johansen, Pernille; Al-Soud, Waleed Abu; Sørensen, Søren; Arneborg, Nils; Jespersen, Lene

    2015-12-23

    Microbial successions on the surface and in the interior of surface ripened semi-hard Danish Danbo cheeses were investigated by culture-dependent and -independent techniques. Culture-independent detection of microorganisms was obtained by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing, using amplicons of 16S and 26S rRNA genes for prokaryotes and eukaryotes, respectively. With minor exceptions, the results from the culture-independent analyses correlated to the culture-dependent plating results. Even though the predominant microorganisms detected with the two culture-independent techniques correlated, a higher number of genera were detected by pyrosequencing compared to DGGE. Additionally, minor parts of the microbiota, i.e. comprising surface and the interior of the cheeses diverged. During cheese production pyrosequencing determined Lactococcus as the dominating genus on cheese surfaces, representing on average 94.7%±2.1% of the OTUs. At day 6 Lactococcus spp. declined to 10.0% of the OTUs, whereas Staphylococcus spp. went from 0.0% during cheese production to 75.5% of the OTUs at smearing. During ripening, i.e. from 4 to 18 weeks, Corynebacterium was the dominant genus on the cheese surface (55.1%±9.8% of the OTUs), with Staphylococcus (17.9%±11.2% of the OTUs) and Brevibacterium (10.4%±8.3% of the OTUs) being the second and third most abundant genera. Other detected bacterial genera included Clostridiisalibacter (5.0%±4.0% of the OTUs), as well as Pseudoclavibacter, Alkalibacterium and Marinilactibacillus, which represented surface ripened semi-hard cheeses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Correlation between the sub-structure parameters and the manufacturing technologies of metal threads in historical textiles using X-ray line profile analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csiszar, Gabor; Ungar, Tamas [Eoetvoes University Budapest, Department of Materials Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Jaro, Marta [Hungarian National Museum, Budapest (Hungary)

    2013-06-15

    Micro-structure can talk when documentation is missing. In ancient Roman or medieval periods, kings, queens, or just rich people decorated their clothes or even their horse covers richly with miniature jewels or metal threads. The origin or the fabrication techniques of these ancient threads is often unknown. Thirteen thread samples made of gold or gilt silver manufactured during the last sixteen hundred years are investigated for the micro-structure in terms of dislocation density, crystallite size, and planar defects. In a few cases, these features are compared with sub-structure of similar metallic threads prepared in modern, twentieth century workshops. The sub-structure is determined by X-ray line profile analysis, using high resolution diffractograms with negligible instrumental broadening. On the basis of the sub-structure parameters, we attempt to assess the metal-threads manufacturing procedures on samples stemming from the fourth century A.D. until now. (orig.)

  3. Design of a high power TM01 mode launcher optimized for manufacturing by milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dal Forno, Massimo [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Recent research on high-gradient rf acceleration found that hard metals, such as hard copper and hard copper-silver, have lower breakdown rate than soft metals. Traditional high-gradient accelerating structures are manufactured with parts joined by high-temperature brazing. The high temperature used in brazing makes the metal soft; therefore, this process cannot be used to manufacture structures out of hard metal alloys. In order to build the structure with hard metals, the components must be designed for joining without high-temperature brazing. One method is to build the accelerating structures out of two halves, and join them by using a low-temperature technique, at the symmetry plane along the beam axis. The structure has input and output rf power couplers. We use a TM01 mode launcher as a rf power coupler, which was introduced during the Next Linear Collider (NLC) work. The part of the mode launcher will be built in each half of the structure. This paper presents a novel geometry of a mode launcher, optimized for manufacturing by milling. The coupler was designed for the CERN CLIC working frequency f = 11.9942 GHz; the same geometry can be scaled to any other frequency.

  4. Experimental study for the feasibility of using hard x-rays for micro-XRF analysis of multilayered metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Polese

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Application of polycapillary optical systems to improve a spatial resolution for the μ-XRF analysis by focusing a primary x-ray beam and/or by collecting fluorescence emission is well known. The challenge is to optimize them in combination with x-ray source for exciting K-lines above 20 keV that could allow characterization of many materials composed by heavy elements. To pursue this goal, preliminary studies on possible polycapillary lens employment in thickness determination for multilayer metal materials will be presented in this work. In this paper, the results of first attempts of integrating PyMCA with Monte Carlo simulation code (XMI-MSIM that takes into account the secondary fluorescence effects on quantitative analysis of homogeneous matrices, in particular, metal alloys, are presented.

  5. Experimental study for the feasibility of using hard x-rays for micro-XRF analysis of multilayered metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polese, C., E-mail: claudia.polese@lnf.infn.it; Dabagov, S. B.; Esposito, A.; Hampai, D.; Gorghinian, A.; Liedl, A. [LNF - INFN, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Ferretti, M. [ITABC - CNR, Via Salaria km 29.300, 00016 Montelibretti (Italy)

    2014-07-15

    Application of polycapillary optical systems to improve a spatial resolution for the μ-XRF analysis by focusing a primary x-ray beam and/or by collecting fluorescence emission is well known. The challenge is to optimize them in combination with x-ray source for exciting K-lines above 20 keV that could allow characterization of many materials composed by heavy elements. To pursue this goal, preliminary studies on possible polycapillary lens employment in thickness determination for multilayer metal materials will be presented in this work. In this paper, the results of first attempts of integrating PyMCA with Monte Carlo simulation code (XMI-MSIM) that takes into account the secondary fluorescence effects on quantitative analysis of homogeneous matrices, in particular, metal alloys, are presented.

  6. Microstructure and High Temperature Mechanical Property of Fe-Cr-B Based Metal/Ceramic Composite Manufactured by Metal Injection Molding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kee-Ahn; Gwon, Jin-Han; Yoon, Tae-Sik

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the microstructure and the room and high temperature mechanical properties of Fe-Cr-B alloy manufactured by metal injection molding. In addition, hot isostatic pressing was performed to increase the density of the material, and a comparison of properties was made. Microstructural observation confirmed a bi-continuous structure composed of a three-dimensional network of α-Fe phase and (Cr,Fe)2B phase. The HIPed specimen featured a well-formed adhesion between the α-Fe phase and boride, and the number of fine pores was significantly reduced. The tensile results confirmed that the HIPed specimen (RT to 900 °C) had higher strengths compared to the as-sintered specimen, and the change of elongation starting from 700 °C was significantly greater in the HIPed specimen. Fractography suggested that cracks propagated mostly along the interface between the α-Fe matrix and boride in the as-sintered specimen, while direct fracture of boride was observed in addition to interface separation in the HIPed specimen.

  7. Combined Application of QEM-SEM and Hard X-ray Microscopy to Determine Mineralogical Associations and Chemcial Speciation of Trace Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Grafe; M Landers; R Tappero; P Austin; B Gan; A Grabsch; C Klauber

    2011-12-31

    We describe the application of quantitative evaluation of mineralogy by scanning electron microscopy in combination with techniques commonly available at hard X-ray microprobes to define the mineralogical environment of a bauxite residue core segment with the more specific aim of determining the speciation of trace metals (e.g., Ti, V, Cr, and Mn) within the mineral matrix. Successful trace metal speciation in heterogeneous matrices, such as those encountered in soils or mineral residues, relies on a combination of techniques including spectroscopy, microscopy, diffraction, and wet chemical and physical experiments. Of substantial interest is the ability to define the mineralogy of a sample to infer redox behavior, pH buffering, and mineral-water interfaces that are likely to interact with trace metals through adsorption, coprecipitation, dissolution, or electron transfer reactions. Quantitative evaluation of mineralogy by scanning electron microscopy coupled with micro-focused X-ray diffraction, micro-X-ray fluorescence, and micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (mXANES) spectroscopy provided detailed insights into the composition of mineral assemblages and their effect on trace metal speciation during this investigation. In the sample investigated, titanium occurs as poorly ordered ilmenite, as rutile, and is substituted in iron oxides. Manganese's spatial correlation to Ti is closely linked to ilmenite, where it appears to substitute for Fe and Ti in the ilmenite structure based on its mXANES signature. Vanadium is associated with ilmenite and goethite but always assumes the +4 oxidation state, whereas chromium is predominantly in the +3 oxidation state and solely associated with iron oxides (goethite and hematite) and appears to substitute for Fe in the goethite structure.

  8. Hardness variability in commercial technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Sexton, F.W.; Roeske, S.B.; Knoll, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    The radiation hardness of commercial Floating Gate 256K E 2 PROMs from a single diffusion lot was observed to vary between 5 to 25 krad(Si) when irradiated at a low dose rate of 64 mrad(Si)/s. Additional variations in E 2 PROM hardness were found to depend on bias condition and failure mode (i.e., inability to read or write the memory), as well as the foundry at which the part was manufactured. This variability is related to system requirements, and it is shown that hardness level and variability affect the allowable mode of operation for E 2 PROMs in space applications. The radiation hardness of commercial 1-Mbit CMOS SRAMs from Micron, Hitachi, and Sony irradiated at 147 rad(Si)/s was approximately 12, 13, and 19 krad(Si), respectively. These failure levels appear to be related to increases in leakage current during irradiation. Hardness of SRAMs from each manufacturer varied by less than 20%, but differences between manufacturers are significant. The Qualified Manufacturer's List approach to radiation hardness assurance is suggested as a way to reduce variability and to improve the hardness level of commercial technologies

  9. Reducing metal alloy powder costs for use in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing: Improving the economics for production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Fransisco

    AM. Alternative powders can be made by blending or re-spheroidizing HDH and CPTi powders. Machine modifications were performed to allow the testing and manufacturing with these low cost alternative powders. A comparison was made between alternative powders and gas atomized powders. Powders were compared in terms of morphology and at the microstructural level. Flowability of different powder blends was also measured. Finally, a comparison of parts fabricated from the multiple powder blends and gas atomized powder was made. It has been demonstrated that powder blending can produce fully dense parts in the Arcam system by utilizing the double melt technique or HIPing the built pars. The double melt technique increased the density of the sample part and modified the microstructure into finer martensitic grains. The HIP process can make a part fully dense regardless of what percentage of HDH powder blending is used. The HIP process yielded the same microstructure, regardless of the grain structure it started with. This research allows for the reduction of costs using titanium powders in the EBM system, but can also be implemented with more costly elements and alloys using other metal AM technologies. This includes niobium, tantalum, and nickel-based superalloys for use in various industries.

  10. In situ chemical state analysis of buried polymer/metal adhesive interface by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Kenichi; Kakubo, Takashi; Shimizu, Katsunori; Amino, Naoya; Mase, Kazuhiko; Ikenaga, Eiji; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Kinoshita, Toyohiko; Oji, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Chemical state analysis of the buried rubber/brass interface is conducted by HAXPES. • Ultrathin rubber films are prepared on the brass surface by two methods. • A high density of Cu 2 S is found on the rubber side of the buried adhesive layer. • The chemical states of the buried and exposed interfaces are compared. - Abstract: Chemical state analysis of adhesive interfaces is important to understand an adhesion mechanism between two different materials. Although photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) is an ideal tool for such an analysis, the adhesive interfaces must be exposed to the surface because PES is essentially a surface sensitive technique. However, an in situ observation is possible by hard X-ray PES (HAXPES) owing to its large probing depth. In the present study, HAXPES is applied to investigate the adhesive interface between rubber and brass without exposing the interface. It is demonstrated that copper sulfides formed at the buried rubber/brass interface are distinguished from S-containing species in the rubber overlayer. The chemical state of the buried interface is compared with that of the “exposed” interface prepared by so-called a filter-paper method

  11. Preparation and analysis of amorphous carbon films deposited from (C{sub 6}H{sub 12})/Ar/He chemistry for application as the dry etch hard mask in the semiconductor manufacturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seungmoo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); TC Technology Team, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Gyeounggi-Do, 446-711 (Korea, Republic of); Won, Jaihyung; Choi, Jongsik [TC Technology Team, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Gyeounggi-Do, 446-711 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Samseok [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jee, Yeonhong; Lee, Hyeondeok [TC Technology Team, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Gyeounggi-Do, 446-711 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Dongjin, E-mail: dbyun@korea.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-01

    Amorphous carbon layers (ACL) were deposited on Si (100) wafers by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) by using 1-hexene (C{sub 6}H{sub 12}) as a carbon source for dry etch hard mask of semiconductor devices manufacturing process. The deposition characteristics and film properties were investigated by means of ellipsometry, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) and stress analysis. Hardness, Young's modulus, and surface roughness of ACL deposited at 550 deg. C were investigated by using nano-indentation and AFM. The deposition rate was decreased from 5050 A/min to 2160 A/min, and dry etch rate was decreased from 2090 A/min to 1770 A/min, and extinction coefficient was increased from 0.1 to 0.5. Raman analysis revealed a higher shift of the G-peak and a lower shift of the D-peak and the increase of I(D)/I(G) ratio as the deposition temperature was increased from 350 deg. C to 550 deg. C. XPS results of ACL deposited at 550 deg. C revealed a carbon 1s binding energy of 284.4 eV. The compressive film stress was decreased from 2.95 GPa to 1.28 GPa with increasing deposition temperature. The hardness and Young's modulus of ACL deposited at 550 deg. C were 5.8 GPa and 48.7 GPa respectively. The surface roughness RMS of ACL deposited at 550 deg. C was 2.24 A, and that after cleaning in diluted HF solution (H{sub 2}O:HF = 200:1), SC1 (NH{sub 4}OH:H{sub 2}O{sub 2}:H{sub 2}O = 1:4:20) solution, and sulfuric acid solution (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}:H{sub 2}O{sub 2} = 6:1) was 2.28 A, 2.30 A and 7.34 A, respectively. The removal amount of ACL deposited at 550 deg. C in diluted HF solution, SC1 solution and sulfuric acid solution was 6 A, 36 A and 110 A, respectively. These results demonstrated the viability of ACL deposited by PECVD from C{sub 6}H{sub 12} at 550 deg. C for application as the dry etch hard mask in fabrication of semiconductor devices.

  12. Group D. Initiator paper. Implants--peri-implant (hard and soft tissue) interactions in health and disease: the impact of explosion of implant manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovski, Saso

    2015-01-01

    1. The best-documented implants have a threaded solid screw-type design and are manufactured from commercially pure (grade IV) titanium. There is good evidence to support implants ≥ 6 mm in length, and ≥ 3 mm in diameter. 2. Integrity of the seal between the abutment and the implant is important for several reasons, including minimization of mechanical and biological complications and maintaining marginal bone levels. Although the ideal design features of the implant-abutment connection have not been determined, an internal connection, micro-grooves at the implant collar, and horizontal offset of the implant-abutment junction (platform switch) appear to impart favorable properties. 3. Implants with moderately rough implant surfaces provide advantages over machined surfaces in terms of the speed and extent of osseointegration. While the favorable performances of both minimally and moderately rough surfaces are supported by long-term data, moderately rough surfaces provide superior outcomes in compromised sites, such as the posterior maxilla. 4. Although plaque is critical in the progression of peri-implantitis, the disease has a multi-factorial aetiology, and may be influenced by poor integrity of the abutment/implant connection. Iatrogenic factors, such as the introduction of a foreign body. (e.g., cement) below the mucosal margin, can be important contributors. 5. Clinicians should exercise caution when using a particular implant system, ensuring that the implant design is appropriate and supported by scientific evidence. Central to this is access to and participation in quality education on the impact that implant characteristics can have on clinical outcomes. Caution should be exercised in utilizing non-genuine restorative componentry that may lead to a poor implant-abutment fit and subsequent technical and biological complications.

  13. Procedures, manufacturing and inspection of metallic packages for containment of wastes from Cs-137; Procedimentos, fabricacao e inspecao de embalagens metalicas para contencao de rejeitos do Cs-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Mucio Jose Drummond de; Moreira, Marcilio Soares [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The participation of technicians from the Supervision of Test and Metrology of CDTN - Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, is described in several steps before the manufacturing of 16 (15 units + prototype) metallic packages for containment of wastes from Cs-137. The wastes were generated in the radiological accident that took place in Goiania in 1987. Inspections performed during the manufacturing of these packages in the period of March 10.th to May 18.th, 1993 in the Metalurgica Tocantins Ltda in Goiania are also described. Manufacturing and inspection criteria were performed according to rules and procedures specified in the bid number 03/91, presented in November 1991, by the environmental state secretary (Secretaria do Desenvolvimento Urbano e Meio Ambiente - SDUMA) from Goiania State. (author) 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Proliferation Resistance and Safeguardability Assessment of a SFR Metal Fuel Manufacturing Facility (SFMF) using the INPRO Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H. L.; Ko, W. I.; Park, S. H.; Kim, H. D.; Park, G. I. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To illustrate the proposed Prosta process, to demonstrate its usefulness, and to provide input to a revision of the INPRO manual in the area of proliferation resistance, a case study has been carried out with a conceptually designed sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) metal fuel manufacturing facility (SFMF), representing novel technology still in the conceptual design phase. A coarse acquisition path analysis has been carried out of the SFMF to demonstrate the assessment process with identified different target materials. The case study demonstrates the usefulness of the proposed PROSA PR assessment process and the interrelationship of the PR assessment with the safeguards-by-design process, identifying potential R and D needs. The PROSA process has been applied to a conceptually designed SFMF, representing novel technology that is still in the conceptual design phase at KAERI. The case study demonstrated that the proposed PROSA process is simpler and easier to perform than the original INPRO methodology and can be applied from the early stage of design showing the relationship of PR assessment to the safeguard-by-design process. New evaluation questionnaire for UR1 is more logical and comprehensive, and provides the legal basis enabling the IAEA to achieve its safeguards objectives including the detection of undeclared nuclear materials and activities. NES information catalogue replacing UR2 was a useful modification and supports safeguardability assessment at the NES and facility level. The proposed PROSA process is also capable to identify strengths and weaknesses of a system in the area of proliferation resistance in a generally understandable form, including R and D gaps that need to be filled in order to meet the criteria for proliferation resistance of a nuclear energy system.

  15. Evaluation of Superficial and Dimensional Quality Features in Metallic Micro-Channels Manufactured by Micro-End-Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Giardini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Miniaturization encourages the development of new manufacturing processes capable of fabricating features, like micro-channels, in order to use them for different applications, such as in fuel cells, heat exchangers, microfluidic devices and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS. Many studies have been conducted on heat and fluid transfer in micro-channels, and they appeared significantly deviated from conventional theory, due to measurement errors and fabrication methods. The present research, in order to deal with this opportunity, is focused on a set of experiments in the micro-milling of channels made of aluminum, titanium alloys and stainless steel, varying parameters, such as spindle speed, depth of cut per pass (ap, channel depth (d, feed per tooth (fz and coolant application. The experimental results were analyzed in terms of dimensional error, channel profile shape deviation from rectangular and surface quality (burr and roughness. The micro-milling process was capable of offering quality features required on the micro-channeled devices. Critical phenomena, like run-out, ploughing, minimum chip thickness and tool wear, were encountered as an explanation for the deviations in shape and for the surface quality of the micro-channels. The application of coolant and a low depth of cut per pass were significant to obtain better superficial quality features and a smaller dimensional error. In conclusion, the integration of superficial and geometrical features on the study of the quality of micro-channeled devices made of different metallic materials contributes to the understanding of the impact of calibrated cutting conditions in MEMS applications.

  16. Proposal for the Development of an Economic Operator's Socially Responsible Management, by Manufacturing Metallic Objects for the Children's Play, both Outdoors and Indoors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potincu L.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This scientific paper intends to practically approach aspects related to socially responsible management by relating it to the activity of an economic operator manufacturing metal objects. The development of the socially responsible management is approached in relation to the responsibilities which are part of the corporate social responsibility concept (CSR. Thus, in our research, we have especially used juridical analysis methods and juridical proposals (de lege ferenda proposals, but also several elements belonging to other research fields.

  17. Surface modification of the hard metal tungsten carbide-cobalt by boron ion implantation; Oberflaechenmodifikation des Hartmetalls Wolframkarbid-Kobalt durch Bor-Ionenimplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrotchek, I.

    2007-09-07

    In the present thesis ion beam implantation of boron is studied as method for the increasement of the hardness and for the improvement of the operational characteristics of cutting tools on the tungsten carbide-cobalt base. For the boron implantation with 40 keV energy and {approx}5.10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} fluence following topics were shown: The incoerporation of boron leads to a deformation and remaining strain of the WC lattice, which possesses different stregth in the different directions of the elementary cell. The maximum of the deformation is reached at an implantation temperature of 450 C. The segregation of the new phases CoWB and Co{sub 3}W was detected at 900 C implantation temperature. At lower temperatures now new phases were found. The tribological characteristics of WC-Co are improved. Hereby the maxiaml effect was measured for implantation temperatures from 450 C to 700 C: Improvement of the microhardness by the factor 2..2.5, improvement of the wear resistance by the factor 4. The tribological effects extend to larger depths than the penetration depth of the boron implantation profile. The detected property improvements of the hard metal H3 show the possibility of a practical application of boron ion implantation in industry. The effects essential for a wer decreasement are a hardening of the carbide phase by deformation of the lattice, a hardening of the cobalt binding material and the phase boundaries because of the formation of a solid solution of the implanted boron atoms in Co and by this a blocking of the dislocation movement and the rupture spreading under load.

  18. Synthesis, spectroscopic and biological activities studies of acyclic and macrocyclic mono and binuclear metal complexes containing a hard-soft Schiff base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Hussein, Azza A A; Linert, Wolfgang

    2012-09-01

    Mono- and bi-nuclear acyclic and macrocyclic complexes with hard-soft Schiff base, H(2)L, ligand derived from the reaction of 4,6-diacetylresorcinol and thiocabohydrazide, in the molar ratio 1:2 have been prepared. The H(2)L ligand reacts with Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Mn(II) and UO(2)(VI) nitrates, VO(IV) sulfate and Ru(III) chloride to get acyclic binuclear complexes except for VO(IV) and Ru(III) which gave acyclic mono-nuclear complexes. Reaction of the acyclic mono-nuclear VO(IV) and Ru(III) complexes with 4,6-diacetylresorcinol afforded the corresponding macrocyclic mono-nuclear VO(IV) and Ru(IIII) complexes. Template reactions of the 4,6-diacetylresorcinol and thiocarbohydrazide with either VO(IV) or Ru(III) salts afforded the macrocyclic binuclear VO(IV) and Ru(III) complexes. The Schiff base, H(2)L, ligand acts as dibasic with two NSO-tridentate sites and can coordinate with two metal ions to form binuclear complexes after the deprotonation of the hydrogen atoms of the phenolic groups in all the complexes, except in the case of the acyclic mononuclear Ru(III) and VO(IV) complexes, where the Schiff base behaves as neutral tetradentate chelate with N(2)S(2) donor atoms. The ligands and the metal complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-vis (1)H-NMR, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and ESR, as well as the measurements of conductivity and magnetic moments at room temperature. Electronic spectra and magnetic moments of the complexes indicate the geometries of the metal centers are either tetrahedral, square planar or octahedral. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were calculated using Coats-Redfern equation, for the different thermal decomposition steps of the complexes. The ligands and the metal complexes were screened for their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus as Gram-positive bacteria, and Pseudomonas fluorescens as Gram-negative bacteria in addition to Fusarium oxysporum fungus. Most of the complexes exhibit

  19. Technical cost modelling for a novel semi-solid metal (SSM) casting processes for automotive component manufacturing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlale, NS

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available to predict the cost structure of a newly developed manufacturing process if it is to be considered by manufacturing enterprises for development to substitute a process that is in use. The costs of the new SSM technologies was established by technical cost...

  20. Additive Manufacturing of Metallic and Ceramic Components by the Material Extrusion of Highly-Filled Polymers: A Review and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Santiago

    2018-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is the fabrication of real three-dimensional objects from metals, ceramics, or plastics by adding material, usually as layers. There are several variants of AM; among them material extrusion (ME) is one of the most versatile and widely used. In MEAM, molten or viscous materials are pushed through an orifice and are selectively deposited as strands to form stacked layers and subsequently a three-dimensional object. The commonly used materials for MEAM are thermoplastic polymers and particulate composites; however, recently innovative formulations of highly-filled polymers (HP) with metals or ceramics have also been made available. MEAM with HP is an indirect process, which uses sacrificial polymeric binders to shape metallic and ceramic components. After removing the binder, the powder particles are fused together in a conventional sintering step. In this review the different types of MEAM techniques and relevant industrial approaches for the fabrication of metallic and ceramic components are described. The composition of certain HP binder systems and powders are presented; the methods of compounding and filament making HP are explained; the stages of shaping, debinding, and sintering are discussed; and finally a comparison of the parts produced via MEAM-HP with those produced via other manufacturing techniques is presented. PMID:29783705

  1. Additive Manufacturing of Metallic and Ceramic Components by the Material Extrusion of Highly-Filled Polymers: A Review and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gutierrez, Joamin; Cano, Santiago; Schuschnigg, Stephan; Kukla, Christian; Sapkota, Janak; Holzer, Clemens

    2018-05-18

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is the fabrication of real three-dimensional objects from metals, ceramics, or plastics by adding material, usually as layers. There are several variants of AM; among them material extrusion (ME) is one of the most versatile and widely used. In MEAM, molten or viscous materials are pushed through an orifice and are selectively deposited as strands to form stacked layers and subsequently a three-dimensional object. The commonly used materials for MEAM are thermoplastic polymers and particulate composites; however, recently innovative formulations of highly-filled polymers (HP) with metals or ceramics have also been made available. MEAM with HP is an indirect process, which uses sacrificial polymeric binders to shape metallic and ceramic components. After removing the binder, the powder particles are fused together in a conventional sintering step. In this review the different types of MEAM techniques and relevant industrial approaches for the fabrication of metallic and ceramic components are described. The composition of certain HP binder systems and powders are presented; the methods of compounding and filament making HP are explained; the stages of shaping, debinding, and sintering are discussed; and finally a comparison of the parts produced via MEAM-HP with those produced via other manufacturing techniques is presented.

  2. Manufacture of highly loaded silica-supported cobalt Fischer–Tropsch catalysts from a metal organic framework

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiaohui; Suarez, Alma I. Olivos; Meijerink, Mark; van Deelen, Tom; Ould-Chikh, Samy; Zečević, Jovana; de Jong, Krijn P.; Kapteijn, Freek; Gascon, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    The development of synthetic protocols for the preparation of highly loaded metal nanoparticle-supported catalysts has received a great deal of attention over the last few decades. Independently controlling metal loading, nanoparticle size

  3. Steel, hard metal and diamonds. The history of drilling blast holes in mining and tunneling; Stahl, Hartmetall und Diamanten. Zur Geschichte des Sprenglochbohrens im Berg- und Tunnelbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feistkorn, E. [Inst. fuer Vortrieb und Gewinnung, DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Beginning of the blasting technique in mining and tunneling during the 17th century required drilling holes to take the explosive. Following the use of hammer and wedge, drilling was done over a long period of time by hand with mallet and drillsteel. Continuously, during the 19th century the handwork was replaced by drilling machines. Technically, the evolution of drilling equipment is marked by electrohydraulic control and automatization with the assistance of microelectronics. Regarding the material, the introduction of hard metal and - in addition for rotary drilling - the development of synthetic diamond material are the main features. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit der Einfuehrung der Sprengtechnik im Bergbau und Tunnelbau im 17. Jahrhundert mussten verfahrensbedingt Bohrloecher zur Aufnahme des Sprengstoffes hergestellt werden. In Anlehnung an die Arbeit mit Schlaegel und Eisen erfolgte dies lange Zeit manuell mit dem Bohrfaeustel und Stahlbohrern. Die Handarbeit wurde waehrend der 2. Haelfte des 19. Jahrhunderts kontinuierlich durch Bohrmaschinen verdraengt. Maschinentechnisch ist die weitere Entwicklung durch elektrohydraulische Steuerungen und die Automatisierung der Bohrgeraete mit Hilfe der Mikroelektronik gekennzeichnet. Materialtechnisch stellen die Einfuehrung des Hartmetalls und beim drehenden Bohren zusaetzlich die Entwicklung synthetischer Diamantwerkstoffe die herausragenden Marksteine dar. (orig.)

  4. Investigations on the corrosion resistance of metallic bipolar plates (BPP) in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) - understanding the effects of material, coating and manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dur, Ender

    Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) systems are promising technology for contributing to meet the deficiency of world`s clean and sustainable energy requirements in the near future. Metallic bipolar plate (BPP) as one of the most significant components of PEMFC device accounts for the largest part of the fuel cell`s stack. Corrosion for metallic bipolar plates is a critical issue, which influences the performance and durability of PEMFC. Corrosion causes adverse impacts on the PEMFC`s performance jeopardizing commercialization. This research is aimed at determining the corrosion resistance of metallic BPPs, particularly stainless steels, used in PEMFC from different aspects. Material selection, coating selection, manufacturing process development and cost considerations need to be addressed in terms of the corrosion behavior to justify the use of stainless steels as a BPP material in PEMFC and to make them commercially feasible in industrial applications. In this study, Ti, Ni, SS304, SS316L, and SS 430 blanks, and BPPs comprised of SS304 and SS316L were examined in terms of the corrosion behavior. SS316L plates were coated to investigate the effect of coatings on the corrosion resistance performance. Stamping and hydroforming as manufacturing processes, and three different coatings (TiN, CrN, ZrN) applied via the Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) method in three different thicknesses were selected to observe the effects of manufacturing processes, coating types and coating thicknesses on the corrosion resistance of BPP, respectively. Uncoated-coated blank and formed BPP were subjected to two different corrosion tests: potentiostatic and potentiodynamic. Some of the substantial results: 1- Manufacturing processes have an adverse impact on the corrosion resistance. 2- Hydroformed plates have slightly higher corrosion resistance than stamped samples. 3- BPPs with higher channel size showed better corrosion resistance. 4- Since none of the uncoated samples

  5. 3D FE simulation of semi-finishing machining of Ti6Al4V additively manufactured by direct metal laser sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbrogno, Stano; Rinaldi, Sergio; Raso, Antonio; Bordin, Alberto; Bruschi, Stefania; Umbrello, Domenico

    2018-05-01

    The Additive Manufacturing techniques are gaining more and more interest in various industrial fields due to the possibility of drastically reduce the material waste during the production processes, revolutionizing the standard scheme and strategies of the manufacturing processes. However, the metal parts shape produced, frequently do not satisfy the tolerances as well as the surface quality requirements. During the design phase, the finite element simulation results a fundamental tool to help the engineers in the correct decision of the most suitable process parameters, especially in manufacturing processes, in order to produce products of high quality. The aim of this work is to develop a 3D finite element model of semi-finishing turning operation of Ti6Al4V, produced via Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS). A customized user sub-routine was built-up in order to model the mechanical behavior of the material under machining operations to predict the main fundamental variables as cutting forces and temperature. Moreover, the machining induced alterations are also studied by the finite element model developed.

  6. Rheo-processing of semi-solid metal alloys: a new technology for manufacturing Automotive and aerospace components - Conference paper

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ivanchev, L

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available -solid forming processes. The CSIR in SA, developed and patented a rheocasting process and equipment for semi solid casting, which is in the commercialization stage and an automotive component will be manufactured soon....

  7. Friction Stir Additive Manufacturing: Route to High Structural Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanivel, S.; Sidhar, H.; Mishra, R. S.

    2015-03-01

    Aerospace and automotive industries provide the next big opportunities for additive manufacturing. Currently, the additive industry is confronted with four major challenges that have been identified in this article. These challenges need to be addressed for the additive technologies to march into new frontiers and create additional markets. Specific potential success in the transportation sectors is dependent on the ability to manufacture complicated structures with high performance. Most of the techniques used for metal-based additive manufacturing are fusion based because of their ability to fulfill the computer-aided design to component vision. Although these techniques aid in fabrication of complex shapes, achieving high structural performance is a key problem due to the liquid-solid phase transformation. In this article, friction stir additive manufacturing (FSAM) is shown as a potential solid-state process for attaining high-performance lightweight alloys for simpler geometrical applications. To illustrate FSAM as a high-performance route, manufactured builds of Mg-4Y-3Nd and AA5083 are shown as examples. In the Mg-based alloy, an average hardness of 120 HV was achieved in the built structure and was significantly higher than that of the base material (97 HV). Similarly for the Al-based alloy, compared with the base hardness of 88 HV, the average built hardness was 104 HV. A potential application of FSAM is illustrated by taking an example of a simple stiffener assembly.

  8. Additive manufacturing of metals: a brief review of the characteristic microstructures and properties of steels, Ti-6Al-4V and high-entropy alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsse, Stéphane; Hutchinson, Christopher; Gouné, Mohamed; Banerjee, Rajarshi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We present a brief review of the microstructures and mechanical properties of selected metallic alloys processed by additive manufacturing (AM). Three different alloys, covering a large range of technology readiness levels, are selected to illustrate particular microstructural features developed by AM and clarify the engineering paradigm relating process–microstructure–property. With Ti-6Al-4V the emphasis is placed on the formation of metallurgical defects and microstructures induced by AM and their role on mechanical properties. The effects of the large in-built dislocation density, surface roughness and build atmosphere on mechanical and damage properties are discussed using steels. The impact of rapid solidification inherent to AM on phase selection is highlighted for high-entropy alloys. Using property maps, published mechanical properties of additive manufactured alloys are graphically summarized and compared to conventionally processed counterparts. PMID:28970868

  9. Modelling of Mechanical Behavior at High Strain Rate of Ti-6al-4v Manufactured By Means of Direct Metal Laser Sintering Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannitti, Gianluca; Bonora, Nicola; Gentile, Domenico; Ruggiero, Andrew; Testa, Gabriel; Gubbioni, Simone

    2017-06-01

    In this work, the mechanical behavior of Ti-6Al-4V obtained by additive manufacturing technique was investigated, also considering the build direction. Dog-bone shaped specimens and Taylor cylinders were machined from rods manufactured by means of the EOSSINT M2 80 machine, based on Direct Metal Laser Sintering technique. Tensile tests were performed at strain rate ranging from 5E-4 s-1 to 1000 s-1 using an Instron electromechanical machine for quasistatic tests and a Direct-Tension Split Hopkinson Bar for dynamic tests. The mechanical strength of the material was described by a Johnson-Cook model modified to account for stress saturation occurring at high strain. Taylor cylinder tests and their corresponding numerical simulations were carried out in order to validate the constitutive model under a complex deformation path, high strain rates, and high temperatures.

  10. Qualification of laser based additive production for manufacturing of forging Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junker Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass customization leads to very short product life cycles, so the costs of a tool have to be amortized with a low number of workpieces. Especially for highly loaded tools, like those for forging, that leads to expensive products. Therefore more economical production processes for tool manufacturing have to be investigated. As laser additive manufacturing is already used for the production of moulds for injection moulding, this technology maybe could also improve the forging tool production. Within this paper laser metal deposition, which is industrially used for tool repair, will be investigated for the use in tool manufacturing. Therefore a mechanical characterization of parts built with different laser process parameters out of the hot work tool steel 1.2709 is made by upsetting tests and hardness measurements. So the influence of the additive manufacturing process on the hardness distribution is analysed.

  11. Visual inspection technology in the hard disc drive industry

    CERN Document Server

    Muneesawang, Paisarn

    2015-01-01

    A presentation of the use of computer vision systems to control manufacturing processes and product quality in the hard disk drive industry. Visual Inspection Technology in the Hard Disk Drive Industry is an application-oriented book borne out of collaborative research with the world's leading hard disk drive companies. It covers the latest developments and important topics in computer vision technology in hard disk drive manufacturing, as well as offering a glimpse of future technologies.

  12. Costing support and cost control in manufacturing. A cost estimation tool applied in the sheet metal domain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brinke, E.

    2002-01-01

    In the product development cycle several engineering tasks like design, process planning and production planning have to be executed. The execution of these tasks mainly involves information processing and decision-making. Because costs is an important factor in manufacturing, adequate information

  13. Technical cost modelling for a novel semi-solid metal (SSM) casting processes for automotive component manufacturing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlale, NS

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available . It has been well established that over 70% of the total development cost of a product and its manufacturing process is decided during the design phase, although this phase accounts for less than 7% of the total costs. It is thus important to be able...

  14. MicroCast: Additive Manufacturing of Metal Plus Insulator Structures with Sub-mm Features, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel method for fabricating electronics containing both metals and polymers can be adapted to quickly and effectively produce micro-well sensors. The process...

  15. Microstructure and High Temperature Oxidation Property of Fe-Cr-B Based Metal/Ceramic Composite Manufactured by Powder Injection Molding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Yeun-Ah; Kim, Young-Kyun; Yoon, Tae-Sik; Lee, Kee-Ahn

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the microstructure and high temperature oxidation property of Fe-Cr-B metal/ceramic composite manufactured using powder injection molding process. Observations of initial microstructure showed a unique structure where α-Fe and (Cr, Fe)2B form a continuous three-dimensional network. High temperature oxidation tests were performed at 900, 1000 and 1100 °C, for 24 h, and the oxidation weight gain according to each temperature condition was 0.13, 0.84 and 6.4 mg/cm2, respectively. The oxidation results according to time at 900 and 1000 °C conditions represented parabolic curves, and at 1100 °C condition formed a rectilinear curve. Observation and phase analysis results of the oxides identified Cr2O3 and SiO2 at 900 and 1000 °C. In addition to Cr2O3 and SiO2, CrBO3 and FeCr2O4 formed due to phase decomposition of boride were identified at 1100 °C. Based on the findings above, this study suggested the high temperature oxidation mechanism of Fe-Cr-B metal/ceramic composite manufactured using powder injection molding, and the possibility of its application as a high temperature component material was also discussed.

  16. Case Study to Illustrate the Potential of Conformal Cooling Channels for Hot Stamping Dies Manufactured Using Hybrid Process of Laser Metal Deposition (LMD and Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Cortina

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hot stamping dies include cooling channels to treat the formed sheet. The optimum cooling channels of dies and molds should adapt to the shape and surface of the dies, so that a homogeneous temperature distribution and cooling are guaranteed. Nevertheless, cooling ducts are conventionally manufactured by deep drilling, attaining straight channels unable to follow the geometry of the tool. Laser Metal Deposition (LMD is an additive manufacturing technique capable of fabricating nearly free-form integrated cooling channels and therefore shape the so-called conformal cooling. The present work investigates the design and manufacturing of conformal cooling ducts, which are additively built up on hot work steel and then milled in order to attain the final part. Their mechanical performance and heat transfer capability has been evaluated, both experimentally and by means of thermal simulation. Finally, conformal cooling conduits are evaluated and compared to traditional straight channels. The results show that LMD is a proper technology for the generation of cooling ducts, opening the possibility to produce new geometries on dies and molds and, therefore, new products.

  17. Hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, J.P.; Boving, H.J.; Hintermann, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    Hard, wear resistant and low friction coatings are presently produced on a world-wide basis, by different processes such as electrochemical or electroless methods, spray technologies, thermochemical, CVD and PVD. Some of the most advanced processes, especially those dedicated to thin film depositions, basically belong to CVD or PVD technologies, and will be looked at in more detail. The hard coatings mainly consist of oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides or carbon. Over the years, many processes have been developed which are variations and/or combinations of the basic CVD and PVD methods. The main difference between these two families of deposition techniques is that the CVD is an elevated temperature process (≥ 700 C), while the PVD on the contrary, is rather a low temperature process (≤ 500 C); this of course influences the choice of substrates and properties of the coating/substrate systems. Fundamental aspects of the vapor phase deposition techniques and some of their influences on coating properties will be discussed, as well as the very important interactions between deposit and substrate: diffusions, internal stress, etc. Advantages and limitations of CVD and PVD respectively will briefly be reviewed and examples of applications of the layers will be given. Parallel to the development and permanent updating of surface modification technologies, an effort was made to create novel characterisation methods. A close look will be given to the coating adherence control by means of the scratch test, at the coating hardness measurement by means of nanoindentation, at the coating wear resistance by means of a pin-on-disc tribometer, and at the surface quality evaluation by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finally, main important trends will be highlighted. (orig.)

  18. Variation behavior of residual stress distribution by manufacturing processes in welded pipes of austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, Ryohei; Hashimoto, Tadafumi; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2012-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has been observed near heat affected zone (HAZ) of primary loop recirculation pipes made of low-carbon austenitic stainless steel type 316L in the nuclear power plants. For the non-sensitization material, residual stress is the important factor of SCC, and it is generated by machining and welding. In the actual plants, welding is conducted after machining as manufacturing processes of welded pipes. It could be considered that residual stress generated by machining is varied by welding as a posterior process. This paper presents residual stress variation due to manufacturing processes of pipes using X-ray diffraction method. Residual stress distribution due to welding after machining had a local maximum stress in HAZ. Moreover, this value was higher than residual stress generated by welding or machining. Vickers hardness also had a local maximum hardness in HAZ. In order to clarify hardness variation, crystal orientation analysis with EBSD method was performed. Recovery and recrystallization were occurred by welding heat near the weld metal. These lead hardness decrease. The local maximum region showed no microstructure evolution. In this region, machined layer was remained. Therefore, the local maximum hardness was generated at machined layer. The local maximum stress was caused by the superposition effect of residual stress distributions due to machining and welding. Moreover, these local maximum residual stress and hardness are exceeded critical value of SCC initiation. In order to clarify the effect of residual stress on SCC initiation, evaluation including manufacturing processes is important. (author)

  19. Benefits of Hot Isostatic Pressure/Powdered Metal (HIP/PM) and Additive Manufacturing (AM) To Fabricate Advanced Energy System Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, Nancy [Energy Industries of Ohio, Cleveland, OH (United States); Sheppard, Roy [Energy Industries of Ohio, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2016-12-31

    Advanced Energy systems require large, complex components produced from materials capable of withstanding severe operating environments (high temperature, pressure, corrosivity). Such parts can be difficult to source, as conventional material processing technologies must be tailored to ensure a safe and cost effective approach to large-scale manufacture of quality structural advanced alloy components that meet the performance specifications of AE systems. (HIP/PM) has shown advantages over other manufacturing methods when working with these materials. For example, using HIP’ing in lieu of casting means significant savings in raw material costs, which for expensive, high-nickel alloys can be considerable for large-scale production. Use of HIP/PM also eliminates the difficulties resulting from reactivity of these materials in the molten state and facilitates manufacture of the large size requirements of the AE industry, producing a part that is defect and porosity free, thus further reducing or eliminating time and expense of post processing machining and weld repair. New advances in Additive Manufacturing (AM) techniques make it possible to further expand the benefits of HIP/PM in producing AE system components to create an even more robust manufacturing approach. Traditional techniques of welding and forming sheet metal to produce the HIP canisters can be time consuming and costly, with limitations on the complexity of part which can be achieved. A key benefit of AM is the freedom of design that it offers, so use of AM could overcome such challenges, ultimately enabling redesign of complete energy systems. A critical step toward this goal is material characterization of the required advanced alloys, for use in AM. Using Haynes 282, a high nickel alloy of interest to the Fossil Energy community, particularly for Advanced-UltraSuperCritical (AUSC) operating environments, as well as the crosscutting interests of the aerospace, defense and medical markets, this

  20. Rheo-processing of semi-solid metal alloys: a new technology for manufacturing automotive and aerospace components

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ivanchev, L

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The latest trend in the automotive industry to produce fuel-efficient vehicles has resulted in the increased use of aluminium and magnesium alloys. Liquid metal high pressure die-casting (HPDC) currently satisfies the bulk of the automotive industry...

  1. Titanium and zirconium metal powder spheroidization by thermal plasma processes

    OpenAIRE

    Bissett, H.; van der Walt, I.J.; Havenga, J.L.; Nel, J.T.

    2015-01-01

    New technologies used to manufacture high-quality components, such as direct laser sintering, require spherical powders of a narrow particle size distribution as this affects the packing density and sintering mechanism. The powder also has to be chemically pure as impurities such as H, O, C, N, and S causes brittleness, influence metal properties such as tensile strength, hardness, and ductility, and also increase surface tension during processing. Two new metal powder processes have been dev...

  2. Annealing of Co-Cr dental alloy: effects on nanostructure and Rockwell hardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyıldız, Simel; Soylu, Elif Hilal; Ide, Semra; Kılıç, Selim; Sipahi, Cumhur; Pişkin, Bulent; Gökçe, Hasan Suat

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of annealing on the nanostructure and hardness of Co-Cr metal ceramic samples that were fabricated with a direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) technique. Five groups of Co-Cr dental alloy samples were manufactured in a rectangular form measuring 4 × 2 × 2 mm. Samples fabricated by a conventional casting technique (Group I) and prefabricated milling blanks (Group II) were examined as conventional technique groups. The DMLS samples were randomly divided into three groups as not annealed (Group III), annealed in argon atmosphere (Group IV), or annealed in oxygen atmosphere (Group V). The nanostructure was examined with the small-angle X-ray scattering method. The Rockwell hardness test was used to measure the hardness changes in each group, and the means and standard deviations were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA for comparison of continuous variables and Tukey's HSD test was used for post hoc analysis. P values of directly affected both the nanostructure and hardness of the Co-Cr alloy. Group III exhibited a non-homogeneous structure and increased hardness (48.16 ± 3.02 HRC) because the annealing process was incomplete and the inner stress was not relieved. Annealing in argon atmosphere of Group IV not only relieved the inner stresses but also decreased the hardness (27.40 ± 3.98 HRC). The results of fitting function presented that Group IV was the most homogeneous product as the minimum bilayer thickness was measured (7.11 Å). After the manufacturing with DMLS technique, annealing in argon atmosphere is an essential process for Co-Cr metal ceramic substructures. The dentists should be familiar with the materials that are used in clinic for prosthodontics treatments.

  3. Sintering the beaks of the elevator manufactured by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process from Co - Cr alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Băilă, D. I.; Doicin, C. V.; Cotruț, C. M.; Ulmeanu, M. E.; Ghionea, I. G.; Tarbă, C. I.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, two prototypes of dental elevator was made by DMLS process, using a super alloy powder of Co – Cr (ST2724G), with Phenix Systems machine, type PXS & PXM Dental, one with a threaded tail and another with a cylindrical tail. The quality obtained for the elevator is better, thanks to the material used and to the manufacturing process. For the elevator prototypes there were performed some Finite element method (FEM) analysis to identify stress locations and displacements. It was re...

  4. Manufacture and evaluation of integrated metal-oxide electrode prototype for corrosion monitoring in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Yoshinori; Tani, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an integrated metal-oxide (M/O) electrode based on an yttria-stabilized-zirconia-(YSZ)-membrane M/O electrode, which was used as a reference electrode for corrosion monitoring in high temperature water. The YSZ-membrane M/O electrode can operate at high temperatures because of the conductivity of YSZ membrane tube. We cannot utilize it for long term monitoring at a wide range of temperatures. It also has a braze juncture between the YSZ membrane and metal tubes, which may corrode in high-temperature water. This corrosion should be prevented to improve the performance of the M/O electrode. An integrated M/O electrode was developed (i.e., integrated metal-oxide electrode, IMOE) to eliminate the braze juncture and increase the conductivity of YSZ. These issues should be overcome to improve the performance of M/O electrode. So we have developed two type of IMOE prototype with sputter - deposition or thermal oxidation. In this paper we will present and discuss the performance of our IMOEs in buffer solution at room temperature. (author)

  5. Manufacture and application of RuO2 solid-state metal-oxide pH sensor to common beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, W; Wajrak, M; Alameh, K

    2018-04-01

    A new reproducible solid-state metal-oxide pH sensor for beverage quality monitoring is developed and characterised. The working electrode of the developed pH sensor is based on the use of laser-etched sputter-deposited RuO 2 on Al 2 O 3 substrate, modified with thin layers of sputter-deposited Ta 2 O 5 and drop-cast Nafion for minimisation of redox interference. The reference electrode is manufactured by further modifying a working electrode with a porous polyvinyl butyral layer loaded with fumed SiO 2 . The developed pH sensor shows excellent performance when applied to a selection of beverage samples, with a measured accuracy within 0.08 pH of a commercial glass pH sensor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of hard fossil fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivkovic, S.; Nuic, J.

    1999-01-01

    Because of its inexhaustible supplies hard fossil fuel will represent the pillar of the power systems of the 21st century. Only high-calorie fossil fuels have the market value and participate in the world trade. Low-calorie fossil fuels ((brown coal and lignite) are fuels spent on the spot and their value is indirectly expressed through manufactured kWh. For the purpose of determining the real value of a tonne of low-calorie coal, the criteria that help in establishing the value of a tonne of hard coal have to be corrected and thus evaluated and assessed at the market. (author)

  7. Comparative analysis of quality assurance systems which effectively control, review and verify the quality of components manufactured for liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors within the EEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benn, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Comparative analyses are made of Quality Assurance Systems, by techniques and the methodology used, for the manufacture of component parts for the Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) within the EEC. Two differing alternative systems are presented in the analysis. First, a tabulated analytical treatment which analyses 14 codes and standards relating to Quality Assurance which can be applied to LMFBR's. The comparison equates equivalent clauses between codes and standards followed by an analysis of individual clauses in tabular form, the International Standard ISO 6215. A statistical summary and recommendations conclude this analysis. The second alternative system used in the comparison is a descriptive analytical method applied to 9 selected codes and standards relating to Quality Assurance based on the 13 criteria of the International IAEA Code of Practice no. 50 C.QA entitled ''Quality Assurance for Safety in Nuclear Power Plants''. An investigation is then made of the state of the art on the subject of classification of component parts bearing generally on Quality Assurance. The method of classification is segregated into General, Safety and Inspection categories. A summary of destructive and non destructive controls that may be applied during the manufacture of LMFBR components is given, together with tests that may be applied to selected components, namely Primary Tank, Secondary Sodium Pump and the Primary Cold Trap allocated to Safety Classes, 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The report concludes with a summary of typical records produced at the delivery of a component

  8. Sintering the beaks of the elevator manufactured by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS process from Co - Cr alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Băilă

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two prototypes of dental elevator was made by DMLS process, using a super alloy powder of Co – Cr (ST2724G, with Phenix Systems machine, type PXS & PXM Dental, one with a threaded tail and another with a cylindrical tail. The quality obtained for the elevator is better, thanks to the material used and to the manufacturing process. For the elevator prototypes there were performed some Finite element method (FEM analysis to identify stress locations and displacements. It was realized corrosion test in artificial saliva Fusayama Meyer (pH 5,5 at temperature of 37 ± 1 °C for 24 hours and remarks the importance of post treatment after DMLS process to obtain a better corrosion resistance in vitro.

  9. Application of Contact Mode AFM to Manufacturing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Michael A.; Schmid, Steven R.

    A review of the application of contact mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) to manufacturing processes is presented. A brief introduction to common experimental techniques including hardness, scratch, and wear testing is presented, with a discussion of challenges in the extension of manufacturing scale investigations to the AFM. Differences between the macro- and nanoscales tests are discussed, including indentation size effects and their importance in the simulation of processes such as grinding. The basics of lubrication theory are presented and friction force microscopy is introduced as a method of investigating metal forming lubrication on the nano- and microscales that directly simulates tooling/workpiece asperity interactions. These concepts are followed by a discussion of their application to macroscale industrial manufacturing processes and direct correlations are made.

  10. ESTABLISHING SUSTAINABLE US HEV/PHEV MANUFACTURING BASE: STABILIZED LITHIUM METAL POWDER, ENABLING MATERIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY TECHNOLOGY FOR HIGH ENERGY LI-ION BATTERIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovleva, Marina

    2012-12-31

    FMC Lithium Division has successfully completed the project “Establishing Sustainable US PHEV/EV Manufacturing Base: Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary Technology for High Energy Li-ion Batteries”. The project included design, acquisition and process development for the production scale units to 1) produce stabilized lithium dispersions in oil medium, 2) to produce dry stabilized lithium metal powders, 3) to evaluate, design and acquire pilot-scale unit for alternative production technology to further decrease the cost, and 4) to demonstrate concepts for integrating SLMP technology into the Li- ion batteries to increase energy density. It is very difficult to satisfy safety, cost and performance requirements for the PHEV and EV applications. As the initial step in SLMP Technology introduction, industry can use commercially available LiMn2O4 or LiFePO4, for example, that are the only proven safer and cheaper lithium providing cathodes available on the market. Unfortunately, these cathodes alone are inferior to the energy density of the conventional LiCoO2 cathode and, even when paired with the advanced anode materials, such as silicon composite material, the resulting cell will still not meet the energy density requirements. We have demonstrated, however, if SLMP Technology is used to compensate for the irreversible capacity in the anode, the efficiency of the cathode utilization will be improved and the cost of the cell, based on the materials, will decrease.

  11. Associations between employee and manager gender: impacts on gender-specific risk of acute occupational injury in metal manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior research has shown increased risk of injury for female employees compared to male employees after controlling for job and tasks, but have not explored whether this increased risk might be moderated by manager gender. The gender of one’s manager could in theory affect injury rates among male and female employees through their managers’ response to an employee’s psychosocial stress or through how employees differentially report injuries. Other explanations for the gender disparity in injury experience, such as ergonomic factors or differential training, are unlikely to be impacted by supervisor gender. This study seeks to explore whether an employee’s manager’s gender modifies the effect of employee gender with regards to risk of acute injury. Methods A cohort of employees and managers were identified using human resources and injury management data between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2007 for six facilities of a large US aluminum manufacturing company. Cox proportional hazards models were employed to examine the interaction between employee gender and whether the employee had female only manager(s), male only manager(s), or both male and female managers on injury risk. Manager gender category was included as a time varying covariate and reassessed for each employee at the midpoint of each year. Results The percentage of departments with both female and male managers increased dramatically during the study period due to corporate efforts to increase female representation in management. After adjustment for fixed effects at the facility level and shared frailty by department, manager gender category does not appear to moderate the effect of employee gender (p = 0.717). Manager category was not a significant predictor (p = 0.093) of time to first acute injury. Similarly, having at least one female manager did not modify the hazard of injury for female employees compared to males (p = 0.899) and was not a significant predictor

  12. Associations between employee and manager gender: impacts on gender-specific risk of acute occupational injury in metal manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Jessica T; Cullen, Mark R; Desai, Manisha; Modrek, Sepideh

    2013-11-08

    Prior research has shown increased risk of injury for female employees compared to male employees after controlling for job and tasks, but have not explored whether this increased risk might be moderated by manager gender. The gender of one's manager could in theory affect injury rates among male and female employees through their managers' response to an employee's psychosocial stress or through how employees differentially report injuries. Other explanations for the gender disparity in injury experience, such as ergonomic factors or differential training, are unlikely to be impacted by supervisor gender. This study seeks to explore whether an employee's manager's gender modifies the effect of employee gender with regards to risk of acute injury. A cohort of employees and managers were identified using human resources and injury management data between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2007 for six facilities of a large US aluminum manufacturing company. Cox proportional hazards models were employed to examine the interaction between employee gender and whether the employee had female only manager(s), male only manager(s), or both male and female managers on injury risk. Manager gender category was included as a time varying covariate and reassessed for each employee at the midpoint of each year. The percentage of departments with both female and male managers increased dramatically during the study period due to corporate efforts to increase female representation in management. After adjustment for fixed effects at the facility level and shared frailty by department, manager gender category does not appear to moderate the effect of employee gender (p = 0.717). Manager category was not a significant predictor (p = 0.093) of time to first acute injury. Similarly, having at least one female manager did not modify the hazard of injury for female employees compared to males (p = 0.899) and was not a significant predictor of time to first acute injury (p

  13. Manufacturing Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) Project supports multiple activities within the Administration's National Manufacturing Initiative. A key component of...

  14. In Vivo Damage of the Head-Neck Junction in Hard-on-Hard Total Hip Replacements: Effect of Femoral Head Size, Metal Combination, and 12/14 Taper Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Baleani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, concerns have been raised about the potential effect of head-neck junction damage products at the local and systemic levels. Factors that may affect this damage process have not been fully established yet. This study investigated the possible correlations among head-neck junction damage level, implant design, material combination, and patient characteristics. Head-neck junctions of 148 retrieved implants were analysed, including both ceramic-on-ceramic (N = 61 and metal-on-metal (N = 87 bearings. In all cases, the male taper was made of titanium alloy. Damage was evaluated using a four-point scoring system based on damage morphology and extension. Patient age at implantation, implantation time, damage risk factor, and serum ion concentration were considered as independent potential predicting variables. The damage risk factor summarises head-neck design characteristics and junction loading condition. Junction damage correlated with both implantation time and damage factor risk when the head was made of ceramic. A poor correlation was found when the head was made of cobalt alloy. The fretting-corrosion phenomenon seemed mainly mechanically regulated, at least when cobalt alloy components were not involved. When a component was made of cobalt alloy, the role of chemical phenomena increased, likely becoming, over implantation time, the damage driving phenomena of highly stressed junctions.

  15. Influencing Factors for the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Micro Porous Titanium Manufactured by Metal Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Lu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Porous titanium is a new structural and functional material. It is widely used in many fields since it integrates the properties of biomaterials with those of metallic foam. A new technology that combines both the preparation and forming of porous materials has been proposed in this paper. Moreover, a new solder was developed that could be employed in the joining of porous materials. Influencing factors for microstructure and mechanical properties of the parent material and joint interface are identified. Metal injection molding (MIM technology was used for fabricating porous materials. The feedstock for injection molding of porous titanium powders was prepared from titanium powders and a polymer-based binder system. In addition, the proportion of powder loading and binders was optimized. Through MIM technology, a porous titanium filter cartridge was prepared. For the purpose of investigating the thermal debinding technology of the filter cartridge, effects of the sintering temperature on the porosity, morphology of micropores and mechanical properties were analyzed. It could be found that when the sintering temperature increased, the relative density, bending and compression strength of the components also increased. Moreover, the porosity reached 32.28% when the sintering temperature was 1000 °C. The microstructure morphology indicated that micropores connected with each other. Meanwhile, the strength of the components was relatively high, i.e., the bending and compression strength was 65 and 60 MPa, respectively. By investigating the joining technology of porous filter cartridges, the ideal components of the solder and pressure were determined. Further research revealed that the micropore structure of the joint interface is the same as that of the parent material, and that the bending strength of the joint interface is 40 MPa.

  16. SEM and EBSD characterization of bi-layered functionally graded hard metal composites; REM- und EBSD-Charakterisierung von zweischichtigen, funktionell abgestuften Metallverbundwerkstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prat, Orlando; Sanhueza, Felipe [Univ. de Concepcion (Chile). Dept. de Ingenieria de Materiales; Suarez, Sebastian [Saarland Univ., Saarbruecken (Germany). Chair of Functional Materials; Garcia, Jose [AB Sandvik Coromant R and D, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-11-15

    WC-Co bi-layer functionally graded composites were produced by powder metallurgy techniques. The influence of WC particle size and the grain growth inhibitor on the formation of the functionally graded composite was investigated. SEM images show that all sintered samples present a graded microstructure after sintering, with two side regions of extra-coarse and coarse WC-Co and a clear, dense interface without defects or other phases. EBSD results showed a change of WC particle size depending on the processing and the addition of Mo{sub 2}C. Cobalt binder distribution corresponds to WC particle size. Hardness values correlate to WC particle size and binder content. It is shown that tailored hardness/toughness can be produced by adjusting the WC particle size and binder content on both sides of the bi-layer composite.

  17. Principle component analysis (PCA) and second-order global hard-modelling for the complete resolution of transition metal ions complex formation with 1,10-phenantroline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shariati-Rad, Masoud [Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan 65174 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hasani, Masoumeh, E-mail: hasani@basu.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan 65174 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-08-19

    Second-order global hard-modelling was applied to resolve the complex formation between Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Cd{sup 2+} cations and 1,10-phenantroline. The highly correlated spectral and concentration profiles of the species in these systems and low concentration of some species in the individual collected data matrices prevent the well-resolution of the profiles. Therefore, a collection of six equilibrium data matrices including series of absorption spectra taken with pH changes at different reactant ratios were analyzed. Firstly, a precise principle component analysis (PCA) of different augmented arrangements of the individual data matrices was used to distinguish the number of species involved in the equilibria. Based on the results of PCA, the equilibria included in the data were specified and second-order global hard-modelling of the appropriate arrangement of six collected equilibrium data matrices resulted in well-resolved profiles and equilibrium constants. The protonation constant of the ligand (1,10-phenantroline) and spectral profiles of its protonated and unprotonated forms are the additional information obtained by global analysis. For comparison, multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) was applied to the same data. The results showed that second-order global hard-modelling is more convenient compared with MCR-ALS especially for systems with completely known model. It can completely resolve the system and the concentration profiles which are closer to correct ones. Moreover, parameters showing the goodness of fit are better with second-order global hard-modelling.

  18. Principle component analysis (PCA) and second-order global hard-modelling for the complete resolution of transition metal ions complex formation with 1,10-phenantroline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shariati-Rad, Masoud; Hasani, Masoumeh

    2009-01-01

    Second-order global hard-modelling was applied to resolve the complex formation between Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , and Cd 2+ cations and 1,10-phenantroline. The highly correlated spectral and concentration profiles of the species in these systems and low concentration of some species in the individual collected data matrices prevent the well-resolution of the profiles. Therefore, a collection of six equilibrium data matrices including series of absorption spectra taken with pH changes at different reactant ratios were analyzed. Firstly, a precise principle component analysis (PCA) of different augmented arrangements of the individual data matrices was used to distinguish the number of species involved in the equilibria. Based on the results of PCA, the equilibria included in the data were specified and second-order global hard-modelling of the appropriate arrangement of six collected equilibrium data matrices resulted in well-resolved profiles and equilibrium constants. The protonation constant of the ligand (1,10-phenantroline) and spectral profiles of its protonated and unprotonated forms are the additional information obtained by global analysis. For comparison, multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) was applied to the same data. The results showed that second-order global hard-modelling is more convenient compared with MCR-ALS especially for systems with completely known model. It can completely resolve the system and the concentration profiles which are closer to correct ones. Moreover, parameters showing the goodness of fit are better with second-order global hard-modelling.

  19. Investigation on the effect of Friction Stir Processing Parameters on Micro-structure and Micro-hardness of Rice Husk Ash reinforced Al6061 Metal Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatchurrohman, N.; Farhana, N.; Marini, C. D.

    2018-03-01

    Friction stir processing (FSP) is an alternative way to produce the surface composites of aluminium alloy in order to modify the microstructure and improve the mechanical properties. In this experiment, Al6061 aluminium alloy has been chosen to be used as the matrix base plate for the FSP. Al606 has potential for the use in advanced application but it has low wear resistance. While, the reinforced used was rice husk ash (RHA) in order to produce surface composites which increased the micro hardness of the plate composites. The Al6061 was stirred individually and with 5 weight % of RHA at three different tool rotational speeds of 800 rpm, 1000 rpm and 1200 rpm. After running the FSP, the result in the distribution of particles and the micro hardness of the specimens were identified. The result showed that Al6061 plate with the existing 5 weight % of RHA reinforced at the highest of tool rotational speeds of 1200rpm has the best distribution of particles and the highest result in average of micro hardness with 80Hv.

  20. Hardness of carbides, nitrides, and borides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeter, W.

    1981-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds of metals with non-metals such as C, N, and B show different hardness. Wagner's interaction parameter characterizes manner and extent of the interaction between the atoms of the substance dissolved and the additional elements in metallic mixed phases. An attempt has been made to correlate the hardness of carbides, nitrides, and borides (data taken from literature) with certain interaction parameters and associated thermodynamic quantities (ΔH, ΔG). For some metals of periods 4, 5, and 6 corresponding relations were found between microhardness, interaction parameters, heat of formation, and atomic number

  1. Beyond packing of hard spheres: The effects of core softness, non-additivity, intermediate-range repulsion, and many-body interactions on the glass-forming ability of bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kai; Fan, Meng; Liu, Yanhui; Schroers, Jan [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Shattuck, Mark D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Department of Physics and Benjamin Levich Institute, The City College of the City University of New York, New York, New York 10031 (United States); O’Hern, Corey S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    2015-11-14

    When a liquid is cooled well below its melting temperature at a rate that exceeds the critical cooling rate R{sub c}, the crystalline state is bypassed and a metastable, amorphous glassy state forms instead. R{sub c} (or the corresponding critical casting thickness d{sub c}) characterizes the glass-forming ability (GFA) of each material. While silica is an excellent glass-former with small R{sub c} < 10{sup −2} K/s, pure metals and most alloys are typically poor glass-formers with large R{sub c} > 10{sup 10} K/s. Only in the past thirty years have bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) been identified with R{sub c} approaching that for silica. Recent simulations have shown that simple, hard-sphere models are able to identify the atomic size ratio and number fraction regime where BMGs exist with critical cooling rates more than 13 orders of magnitude smaller than those for pure metals. However, there are a number of other features of interatomic potentials beyond hard-core interactions. How do these other features affect the glass-forming ability of BMGs? In this manuscript, we perform molecular dynamics simulations to determine how variations in the softness and non-additivity of the repulsive core and form of the interatomic pair potential at intermediate distances affect the GFA of binary alloys. These variations in the interatomic pair potential allow us to introduce geometric frustration and change the crystal phases that compete with glass formation. We also investigate the effect of tuning the strength of the many-body interactions from zero to the full embedded atom model on the GFA for pure metals. We then employ the full embedded atom model for binary BMGs and show that hard-core interactions play the dominant role in setting the GFA of alloys, while other features of the interatomic potential only change the GFA by one to two orders of magnitude. Despite their perturbative effect, understanding the detailed form of the intermetallic potential is important for

  2. Social manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Hamalainen, Markko; Karjalainen, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    New business models harnessing the power of individuals have already revolutionized service industries and digital content production. In this study, we investigate whether a similar phenomenon is taking place in manufacturing industries. We start by conceptually defining two distinct forms of firm-individual collaboration in manufacturing industries: (1) social cloud manufacturing, in which firms outsource manufacturing to individuals, and (2) social platform manufacturing, in which firms pr...

  3. Size-selective pulmonary dose indices for metal-working fluid aerosols in machining and grinding operations in the automobile manufacturing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woskie, S R; Smith, T J; Hallock, M F; Hammond, S K; Rosenthal, F; Eisen, E A; Kriebel, D; Greaves, I A

    1994-01-01

    The current metal-working fluid exposures at three locations that manufacture automotive parts were assessed in conjunction with epidemiological studies of the mortality and respiratory morbidity experiences of workers at these plants. A rationale is presented for selecting and characterizing epidemiologic exposure groups in this environment. More than 475 full-shift personal aerosol samples were taken using a two-stage personal cascade impactor with median size cut-offs of 9.8 microns and 3.5 microns, plus a backup filter. For a sample of 403 workers exposed to aerosols of machining or grinding fluids, the mean total exposure was 706 micrograms/m3 (standard error (SE) = 21 micrograms/m3). Among 72 assemblers unexposed to machining fluids, the mean total exposure was 187 +/- 10 (SE) micrograms/m3. An analysis of variance model identified factors significantly associated with exposure level and permitted estimates of exposure for workers in the unsampled machine type/metal-working fluid groups. Comparison of the results obtained from personal impactor samples with predictions from an aerosol-deposition model for the human respiratory tract showed high correlation. However, the amount collected on the impactor stage underestimates extrathoracic deposition and overestimates tracheobronchial and alveolar deposition, as calculated by the deposition model. When both the impactor concentration and the deposition-model concentration were used to estimate cumulative thoracic concentrations for the worklives of a subset of auto workers, there was no significant difference in the rank order of the subjects' cumulative concentration. However, the cumulative impactor concentration values were significantly higher than the cumulative deposition-model concentration values for the subjects.

  4. Additive manufacturing technology (direct metal laser sintering) as a novel approach to fabricate functionally graded titanium implants: preliminary investigation of fabrication parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Shao; Starr, Thomas L; Harris, Bryan T; Zandinejad, Amirali; Morton, Dean

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the preliminary findings of the mechanical properties of functionally graded titanium with controlled distribution of porosity and a reduced Young's modulus on the basis of a computeraided design (CAD) file, using the rapid-prototyping, direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) technique. Sixty specimens of Ti-6Al-4V were created using a DMLS machine (M270) following the standard for tensile testing of metals. One group was fabricated with only 170 W of laser energy to create fully dense specimens (control group). The remaining specimens all featured an outer fully dense "skin" layer and a partially sintered porous inner "core" region. The outer "skin" of each specimen was scanned at 170 W and set at a thickness of 0.35, 1.00, or 1.50 mm for different specimen groups. The inner "core" of each specimen was scanned at a lower laser power (43 or 85 W). The partially sintered core was clearly visible in all specimens, with somewhat greater porosity with the lower laser power. However, the amount of porosity in the core region was not related to the laser power alone; thinner skin layers resulted in higher porosity for the same power values in the core structure. The lowest Young's modulus achieved, 35 GPa, is close to that of bone and was achieved with a laser power of 43 W and a skin thickness of 0.35 mm, producing a core that comprised 74% of the total volume. Additive manufacturing technology may provide an efficient alternative way to fabricate customized dental implants based on a CAD file with a functionally graded structure that may minimize stress shielding and improve the long-term performance of dental implants.

  5. Metallic powder-bed based 3D printing of cellular scaffolds for orthopaedic implants: A state-of-the-art review on manufacturing, topological design, mechanical properties and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, X P; Tan, Y J; Chow, C S L; Tor, S B; Yeong, W Y

    2017-07-01

    Metallic cellular scaffold is one of the best choices for orthopaedic implants as a replacement of human body parts, which could improve life quality and increase longevity for the people needed. Unlike conventional methods of making cellular scaffolds, three-dimensional (3D) printing or additive manufacturing opens up new possibilities to fabricate those customisable intricate designs with highly interconnected pores. In the past decade, metallic powder-bed based 3D printing methods emerged and the techniques are becoming increasingly mature recently, where selective laser melting (SLM) and selective electron beam melting (SEBM) are the two representatives. Due to the advantages of good dimensional accuracy, high build resolution, clean build environment, saving materials, high customisability, etc., SLM and SEBM show huge potential in direct customisable manufacturing of metallic cellular scaffolds for orthopaedic implants. Ti-6Al-4V to date is still considered to be the optimal materials for producing orthopaedic implants due to its best combination of biocompatibility, corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. This paper presents a state-of-the-art overview mainly on manufacturing, topological design, mechanical properties and biocompatibility of cellular Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds via SLM and SEBM methods. Current manufacturing limitations, topological shortcomings, uncertainty of biocompatible test were sufficiently discussed herein. Future perspectives and recommendations were given at the end. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Simulation of changes in heavy metal contamination in farmland soils of a typical manufacturing center through logistic-based cellular automata modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Menglong; Wang, Qi; Li, Fangbai; Chen, Junjian; Yang, Guoyi; Liu, Liming

    2016-01-01

    A customized logistic-based cellular automata (CA) model was developed to simulate changes in heavy metal contamination (HMC) in farmland soils of Dongguan, a manufacturing center in Southern China, and to discover the relationship between HMC and related explanatory variables (continuous and categorical). The model was calibrated through the simulation and validation of HMC in 2012. Thereafter, the model was implemented for the scenario simulation of development alternatives for HMC in 2022. The HMC in 2002 and 2012 was determined through soil tests and cokriging. Continuous variables were divided into two groups by odds ratios. Positive variables (odds ratios >1) included the Nemerow synthetic pollution index in 2002, linear drainage density, distance from the city center, distance from the railway, slope, and secondary industrial output per unit of land. Negative variables (odds ratios <1) included elevation, distance from the road, distance from the key polluting enterprises, distance from the town center, soil pH, and distance from bodies of water. Categorical variables, including soil type, parent material type, organic content grade, and land use type, also significantly influenced HMC according to Wald statistics. The relative operating characteristic and kappa coefficients were 0.91 and 0.64, respectively, which proved the validity and accuracy of the model. The scenario simulation shows that the government should not only implement stricter environmental regulation but also strengthen the remediation of the current polluted area to effectively mitigate HMC.

  7. Evaluation of marginal/internal fit of chrome-cobalt crowns: Direct laser metal sintering versus computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunsoy, S; Ulusoy, M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the internal and marginal fit of chrome cobalt (Co-Cr) crowns were fabricated with laser sintering, computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing, and conventional methods. Polyamide master and working models were designed and fabricated. The models were initially designed with a software application for three-dimensional (3D) CAD (Maya, Autodesk Inc.). All models were fabricated models were produced by a 3D printer (EOSINT P380 SLS, EOS). 128 1-unit Co-Cr fixed dental prostheses were fabricated with four different techniques: Conventional lost wax method, milled wax with lost-wax method (MWLW), direct laser metal sintering (DLMS), and milled Co-Cr (MCo-Cr). The cement film thickness of the marginal and internal gaps was measured by an observer using a stereomicroscope after taking digital photos in ×24. Best fit rates according to mean and standard deviations of all measurements was in DLMS both in premolar (65.84) and molar (58.38) models in μm. A significant difference was found DLMS and the rest of fabrication techniques (P 0.05). DMLS was best fitting fabrication techniques for single crown based on the results.The best fit was found in marginal; the larger gap was found in occlusal.All groups were within the clinically acceptable misfit range.

  8. Mechanical characterization of cemented carbide WC-6Co (%wt) manufactured by SPS (Spark Plasma Sintering; Caracterizacao mecanica de metal duro WC-6Co (%massa) sinterizado via SPS (Spark Plasma Sintering)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boidi, G.; Tertuliano, A.J.; Machado, I.F., E-mail: guido.boidi@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecatronica e Sistemas Mecanicos; Rodrigues, D. [BRATS- Filtros Sinterizados e Pos Metalicos, Cajamar, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    This work aimed to manufacture cemented carbide (WC-6%wtCo) obtained by SPS (Spark Plasma Sintering) process and to carry out the mechanical characterization by hardness and fracture toughness. The material was consolidated at 1100 deg C for different holding times (1 min, 5 min, 10 min), in order to evaluate the densification. A reference sample was also used to be compared to SPS. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were carried out to characterize the microstructural features of the samples and mechanical properties were obtained by hardness measurements (micro and macro) and instrumented indentation. The fracture toughness was calculated with the method of Palmqvist. Best results were found in the material sintered by SPS for 10 minutes of holding time, in which 97% of relative density and about 1600 HV{sub 10} was reached. (author)

  9. Dissolution rates and solubility of some metals in liquid gallium and aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsenko, S P; Sabirzyanov, N A; Yatsenko, A S

    2008-01-01

    The effect of liquid gallium and aluminum on some hard metals leading to dissolution and formation of intermetallic compounds (IMC) under static conditions and rotation of a specimen is studied. The solubility parameters from the Clapeyron-Clausius equation were considered to estimate the stability of still not studied metals. The presented experimental data on solubility and corrosion in a wide temperature range allow to calculate a number of parameters useful in manufacturing and application of master-alloys

  10. Effect of the metal concentration on the structural, mechanical and tribological properties of self-organized a-C:Cu hard nanocomposite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, A.; Buijnsters, J.G.; Endrino, J.L.; Gómez-Aleixandre, C.; Abrasonis, G.; Bonet, R.; Caro, J.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of the metal content (Cu: 0–28 at.%) on the structural, mechanical and tribological properties of amorphous carbon films grown by pulsed filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition is investigated. Silicon and AISI 301 stainless steel have been used as substrate materials. The microstructure, composition and bonding structure have been determined by scanning electron microscopy, combined Rutherford backscattered spectroscopy-nuclear reaction analysis, and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The mechanical and tribological properties have been assessed using nanoindentation and reciprocating sliding (fretting tests) and these have been correlated with the elemental composition of the films. A self-organized multilayered structure consisting of alternating carbon and copper metal nanolayers (thickness in the 25–50 nm range), whose formation is enhanced by the Cu content, is detected. The nanohardness and Young’s modulus decrease monotonically with increasing Cu content. A maximum value of the Young’s modulus of about 255 GPa is obtained for the metal-free film, whereas it drops to about 174 GPa for the film with a Cu content of 28 at.%. In parallel, a 50% drop in the nanohardness from about 28 GPa towards 14 GPa is observed for these coatings. An increase in the Cu content also produces an increment of the coefficient of friction in reciprocating sliding tests performed against a corundum ball counterbody. As compared to the metal free film, a nearly four times higher coefficient of friction value is detected in the case of a Cu content of 28 at.%. Nevertheless, the carbon–copper composite coatings produced a clear surface protection of the substrate despite an overall increase in wear loss with increasing Cu content in the range 3–28 at.%.

  11. Effect of the metal concentration on the structural, mechanical and tribological properties of self-organized a-C:Cu hard nanocomposite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, A.; Buijnsters, J. G.; Endrino, J. L.; Gómez-Aleixandre, C.; Abrasonis, G.; Bonet, R.; Caro, J.

    2013-09-01

    The influence of the metal content (Cu: 0-28 at.%) on the structural, mechanical and tribological properties of amorphous carbon films grown by pulsed filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition is investigated. Silicon and AISI 301 stainless steel have been used as substrate materials. The microstructure, composition and bonding structure have been determined by scanning electron microscopy, combined Rutherford backscattered spectroscopy-nuclear reaction analysis, and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The mechanical and tribological properties have been assessed using nanoindentation and reciprocating sliding (fretting tests) and these have been correlated with the elemental composition of the films. A self-organized multilayered structure consisting of alternating carbon and copper metal nanolayers (thickness in the 25-50 nm range), whose formation is enhanced by the Cu content, is detected. The nanohardness and Young’s modulus decrease monotonically with increasing Cu content. A maximum value of the Young’s modulus of about 255 GPa is obtained for the metal-free film, whereas it drops to about 174 GPa for the film with a Cu content of 28 at.%. In parallel, a 50% drop in the nanohardness from about 28 GPa towards 14 GPa is observed for these coatings. An increase in the Cu content also produces an increment of the coefficient of friction in reciprocating sliding tests performed against a corundum ball counterbody. As compared to the metal free film, a nearly four times higher coefficient of friction value is detected in the case of a Cu content of 28 at.%. Nevertheless, the carbon-copper composite coatings produced a clear surface protection of the substrate despite an overall increase in wear loss with increasing Cu content in the range 3-28 at.%.

  12. Precision manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01

    Today there is a high demand for high-precision products. The manufacturing processes are now highly sophisticated and derive from a specialized genre called precision engineering. Precision Manufacturing provides an introduction to precision engineering and manufacturing with an emphasis on the design and performance of precision machines and machine tools, metrology, tooling elements, machine structures, sources of error, precision machining processes and precision process planning. As well as discussing the critical role precision machine design for manufacturing has had in technological developments over the last few hundred years. In addition, the influence of sustainable manufacturing requirements in precision processes is introduced. Drawing upon years of practical experience and using numerous examples and illustrative applications, David Dornfeld and Dae-Eun Lee cover precision manufacturing as it applies to: The importance of measurement and metrology in the context of Precision Manufacturing. Th...

  13. Wire-based laser metal deposition for additive manufacturing of TiAl6V4: basic investigations of microstructure and mechanical properties from build up parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, Fritz; Arntz, Kristian; Klingbeil, Nils; Schulz, Martin

    2017-02-01

    The wire-based laser metal deposition (LMD-W) is a new technology which enables to produce complex parts made of titanium for the aerospace and automotive industry. For establishing the LMD-W as a new production process it has to be proven that the properties are comparable or superior to conventional produced parts. The mechanical properties were investigated by analysis of microstructure and tensile test. Therefore, specimens were generated using a 4.5 kW diode laser cladding system integrated in a 5-Axis-machining center. The structural mechanical properties are mainly influence by crystal structure and thereby the thermal history of the work piece. Especially the high affinity to oxide, distortion and dual phase microstructure make titanium grade 5 (TiAl6V4) one of the most challenging material for additive manufacturing. By using a proper local multi-nozzle shielding gas concept the negative influence of oxide in the process could be eliminated. The distortion being marginal at a single bead, accumulated to a macroscopic effect on the work piece. The third critical point for additive processing of titanium, the bimodal microstructure, could not be cleared by the laser process alone. All metallurgical probes showed α-martensitic-structure. Therefore, a thermal treatment became a necessary production step in the additive production chain. After the thermal treatment the microstructure as well as the distortion was analyzed and compared with the status before. Although not all technical issues could be solved, the investigation show that LMD-W of titanium grade 5 is a promising alternative to other additive techniques as electronic beam melting or plasma deposition welding.

  14. Additive manufacturing of Ti-Si-N ceramic coatings on titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanning; Sahasrabudhe, Himanshu; Bandyopadhyay, Amit, E-mail: amitband@wsu.edu

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • 3D Printing or additive manufacturing of hard Ti-Si-N based ceramics coating on Ti metal substrate. • Understanding of phase transformation as a function of compositional variation. • Evaluation of influence of processing parameters and composition on wear resistance. - Abstract: In this study, Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS{sup TM}) was employed towards Additive Manufacturing/3D Printing of Ti-Si-N coatings with three different Ti-Si ratios on commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) substrate. Microstructural analysis, phase analysis using X-ray diffraction, wear resistance and hardness measurements were done on LENS™ processed 3D printed coatings. Coatings showed graded microstructures and in situ formed phases. Results showed that microstructural variations and phase changes influence coating's hardness and wear resistance directly. High hardness values were obtained from all samples’ top surface where the hardness of coatings can be ranked as 90% Ti-10% Si-N coating (2093.67 ± 144 HV{sub 0.2}) > 100% Ti-N coating (1846 ± 68.5 HV{sub 0.2}) > 75% Ti-25% Si-N coating (1375.3 ± 61.4 HV{sub 0.2}). However, wear resistance was more dependent on inherent Si content, and samples with higher Si content showed better wear resistance.

  15. Additive manufacturing of Ti-Si-N ceramic coatings on titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yanning; Sahasrabudhe, Himanshu; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 3D Printing or additive manufacturing of hard Ti-Si-N based ceramics coating on Ti metal substrate. • Understanding of phase transformation as a function of compositional variation. • Evaluation of influence of processing parameters and composition on wear resistance. - Abstract: In this study, Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS TM ) was employed towards Additive Manufacturing/3D Printing of Ti-Si-N coatings with three different Ti-Si ratios on commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) substrate. Microstructural analysis, phase analysis using X-ray diffraction, wear resistance and hardness measurements were done on LENS™ processed 3D printed coatings. Coatings showed graded microstructures and in situ formed phases. Results showed that microstructural variations and phase changes influence coating's hardness and wear resistance directly. High hardness values were obtained from all samples’ top surface where the hardness of coatings can be ranked as 90% Ti-10% Si-N coating (2093.67 ± 144 HV 0.2 ) > 100% Ti-N coating (1846 ± 68.5 HV 0.2 ) > 75% Ti-25% Si-N coating (1375.3 ± 61.4 HV 0.2 ). However, wear resistance was more dependent on inherent Si content, and samples with higher Si content showed better wear resistance

  16. Femtosecond laser additive manufacturing of YSZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jian; Bai, Shuang [PolarOnyx, Inc., San Jose, CA (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) is investigated using femtosecond (fs) fiber lasers. Various processing conditions are studied, which leads to desired characteristics in terms of morphology, porosity, hardness, microstructural and mechanical properties of the processed components. High-density (>99%) YSZ part with refined grain and increased hardness was obtained. Microstructure features of fabricated specimens were studied with SEM, EDX, the measured micro hardness is achieved as high as 18.84 GPa. (orig.)

  17. Detection of lead (pb and aluminum (Al metal as contaminant in food prepared by using locally manufactured cooked pots (Hala in Kosti City, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EI Salah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to assess the quantities of Aluminu m; lead released into the food from locally manufactured cooked pots (Aluminium pots in Kosti market. Seven types of pots (Pistons, Cartels, Kettles, Kettles + trays, Pepsi cans, Atmonia and Steel which is locally manufactured cooked pots (Hala were used. Amount of Al and Pb that leaked into the food from locally manufactured cooked pots were assessed by using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The results were indicated that highly significance amount of Aluminum and lead which were leaked into the food that prepared by locally manufactured cooked pots (Hala.The analysis of urine for 10 selected randomly individuals that used locally manufactured cooked pots (Hala for preparation their food were indicated highly amount of Aluminum and Lead in their urine. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12621 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 19-26

  18. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wauthle, Ruben; Van Der Stok, Johan; Yavari, Saber Amin; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of

  19. Additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumith, A; Thomas, M; Shah, Z; Coathup, M; Blunn, G

    2018-04-01

    Increasing innovation in rapid prototyping (RP) and additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing, is bringing about major changes in translational surgical research. This review describes the current position in the use of additive manufacturing in orthopaedic surgery. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:455-60.

  20. Manufacturing technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

  1. Manufacturing processes 2 grinding, honing, lapping

    CERN Document Server

    Klocke, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    Presents a view of the most common machining and non-machining manufacturing processes. This volume describes the characteristics of abrasive tools, their design and manufacturing, followed by the fundamentals of grinding fluids. It also discusses grinding of different materials (steel, cast iron, hard and brittle materials, nickel and titanium).

  2. Advances in Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-14

    with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS...Hamilton • Beth Bimber Air Force Research Laboratory, Metals Branch • Eddie Schwalbach • Mike Groeber • Benjamin Leever • James Hardin...conducting more in-field, or point-of-need, manufacturing than ever before. Other areas of concentration include man- machine interface, capabilities

  3. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy based on data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey. The sample used in this report represented about 250,000 of the largest manufacturing establishments which account for approximately 98 percent of U.S. economic output from manufacturing, and an expected similar proportion of manufacturing energy use. The amount of energy use was collected for all operations of each establishment surveyed. Highlights of the report include profiles for the four major energy-consuming industries (petroleum refining, chemical, paper, and primary metal industries), and an analysis of the effects of changes in the natural gas and electricity markets on the manufacturing sector. Seven appendices are included to provide detailed background information. 10 figs., 51 tabs.

  4. Micro Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturing deals with systems that include products, processes, materials and production systems. These systems have functional requirements, constraints, design parameters and process variables. They must be decomposed in a systematic manner to achieve the best possible system performance....... If a micro manufacturing system isn’t designed rationally and correctly, it will be high-cost, unreliable, and not robust. For micro products and systems it is a continuously increasing challenge to create the operational basis for an industrial production. As the products through product development...... processes are made applicable to a large number of customers, the pressure in regard to developing production technologies that make it possible to produce the products at a reasonable price and in large numbers is growing. The micro/nano manufacturing programme at the Department of Manufacturing...

  5. Smart Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing.

  6. How to estimate hardness of crystals on a pocket calculator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simunek, Antonin

    2007-01-01

    A generalization of the semiempirical microscopic model of hardness is presented and applied to currently studied borides, carbides, and nitrides of heavy transition metals. The hardness of OsB, OsC, OsN, PtN, RuC, RuB 2 , ReB 2 , OsB 2 , IrN 2 , PtN 2 , and OsN 2 crystals in various structural phases is predicted. It is found that none of the transition metal crystals is superhard, i.e., with hardness greater than 40 GPa. The presented method provides materials researchers with a practical tool in the search for new hard materials

  7. Simulation of the infiltration process of a ceramic open-pore body with a metal alloy in semi-solid state to design the manufacturing of interpenetrating phase composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomer, Laura; Liewald, Mathias; Riedmüller, Kim Rouven

    2018-05-01

    Metal-ceramic Interpenetrating Phase Composites (IPC) belong to a special subcategory of composite materials and reveal enhanced properties compared to conventional composite materials. Currently, IPC are produced by infiltration of a ceramic open-pore body with liquid metal applying high pressure and I or high temperature to avoid residual porosity. However, these IPC are not able to gain their complete potential, because of structural damages and interface reactions occurring during the manufacturing process. Compared to this, the manufacturing of IPC using the semi-solid forming technology offers great perspectives due to relative low processing temperatures and reduced mechanical pressure. In this context, this paper is focusing on numerical investigations conducted by using the FLOW-3D software for gaining a deeper understanding of the infiltration of open-pore bodies with semi-solid materials. For flow simulation analysis, a geometric model and different porous media drag models have been used. They have been adjusted and compared to get a precise description of the infiltration process. Based on these fundamental numerical investigations, this paper also shows numerical investigations that were used for basically designing a semi-solid forming tool. Thereby, the development of the flow front and the pressure during the infiltration represent the basis of the evaluation. The use of an open and closed tool cavity combined with various geometries of the upper die shows different results relating to these evaluation arguments. Furthermore, different overflows were designed and its effects on the pressure at the end of the infiltration process were investigated. Thus, this paper provides a general guideline for a tool design for manufacturing of metal-ceramic IPC using semi-solid forming.

  8. Internal fit of three-unit fixed dental prostheses produced by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing and the lost-wax metal casting technique assessed using the triple-scan protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Bjørn E; Dahl, Jon E; Rønold, Hans J

    2018-02-01

    Suboptimal adaptation of fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) can lead to technical and biological complications. It is unclear if the computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique improves adaptation of FDPs compared with FDPs made using the lost-wax and metal casting technique. Three-unit FDPs were manufactured by CAD/CAM based on digital impression of a typodont model. The FDPs were made from one of five materials: pre-sintered zirconium dioxide; hot isostatic pressed zirconium dioxide; lithium disilicate glass-ceramic; milled cobalt-chromium; and laser-sintered cobalt-chromium. The FDPs made using the lost-wax and metal casting technique were used as reference. The fit of the FDPs was analysed using the triple-scan method. The fit was evaluated for both single abutments and three-unit FDPs. The average cement space varied between 50 μm and 300 μm. Insignificant differences in internal fit were observed between the CAD/CAM-manufactured FDPs, and none of the FPDs had cement spaces that were statistically significantly different from those of the reference FDP. For all FDPs, the cement space at a marginal band 0.5-1.0 mm from the preparation margin was less than 100 μm. The milled cobalt-chromium FDP had the closest fit. The cement space of FDPs produced using the CAD/CAM technique was similar to that of FDPs produced using the conventional lost-wax and metal casting technique. © 2017 Eur J Oral Sci.

  9. Unique opportunities in powder injection molding of refractory and hard materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    Powder injection molding (PIM) is a relatively new manufacturing process for the creation of complicated net-shapes outside the range usually possible via powder metallurgy technologies. This new process is now in production at more than 550 sites around the world. Although a small industry, PIM will soon pass $1 billion dollars (USA) in annual sales. This presentation overviews the PIM process, some of the new developments and some of the successes that have occurred with both refractory metals and hard metals. Example applications are seen in medical and dental devices, industrial components, wristwatches, jet engines, firearms, automotive components, and even hand tools. To help establish the novel growth opportunities, PIM is compared to other fabrication routes to better understand the design features arising with this new approach, providing a compelling case for substantial opportunities in the refractory and hard materials. Illustrations are provided of several components in production. New opportunities abound for the technology, since it eliminates the shape complexity barrier associated with die compaction and the cost of machining associated with complicated or dimensionally precise components. Further, a relative cost advantage exists for refractory and hard materials because PIM can use the same powders at the same prices as employed in alternative processes. Future successes will occur by early identification of candidate materials and designs. Early examples include tungsten heavy alloy components now reaching production rates of six million per month. (author)

  10. Radiation hardness of undoped BGO crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.K.; Peng, K.C.; Huang, H.C.; Wang, C.H.; Chang, Y.H.; Hou, W.S.; Ueno, K.; Chou, F.I.; Wei, Y.Y.

    1997-01-01

    We measured the radiation hardness of undoped BGO crystals from two different manufacturers. Such crystals are proposed to be used in a small-angle calorimeter of the BELLE detector of the KEK B-factory. Transparency and scintillation light output of the crystals were monitored to see the effect of radiation damage. The crystals show considerable radiation hardness up to 10.2 Mrad equivalent dose, which is much higher than the maximum expected dosage of 500 krad per year of running at BELLE. (orig.)

  11. Additive Manufacturing and Casting Technology Comparison: Mechanical Properties, Productivity and Cost Benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vevers, A.; Kromanis, A.; Gerins, E.; Ozolins, J.

    2018-04-01

    The casting technology is one of the oldest production technologies in the world but in the recent years metal additive manufacturing also known as metal 3D printing has been evolving with huge steps. Both technologies have capabilities to produce parts with internal holes and at first glance surface roughness is similar for both technologies, which means that for precise dimensions parts have to be machined in places where precise fit is necessary. Benchmark tests have been made to find out if parts which are produced with metal additive manufacturing can be used to replace parts which are produced with casting technology. Most of the comparative tests have been made with GJS-400-15 grade which is one of the most popular cast iron grades. To compare mechanical properties samples have been produced using additive manufacturing and tested for tensile strength, hardness, surface roughness and microstructure and then the results have been compared with the samples produced with casting technology. In addition, both technologies have been compared in terms of the production time and production costs to see if additive manufacturing is competitive with the casting technology. The original paper has been written in the Latvian language as part of the Master Thesis within the framework of the production technology study programme at Riga Technical University.

  12. Direct printed metal devices - The next level of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing applications in the orthodontic care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Graf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the whole world gets more digital, so do we. This article provides a basic know-how for the CAD/CAM-workflow for metallic orthodontic appliances. Demonstrating step-by-step how to design the appliance on a digital cast and laser-melting (3D metal printing it, till the final result, without any physical models.

  13. Power electronic modules design and manufacture

    CERN Document Server

    Sheng, William W

    2004-01-01

    IntroductionSelection ProcedureMaterialsInsulating Substrate and MetallizationBase PlateBonding MaterialPower Interconnection and TerminalEncapsulantPlastic Case and Cover Manufacturing of Power IGBT ModulesManufacturing Process Process Control/Long-Term ReliabilityManufacturing FacilitiesManufacturing Flow Charts DesignThermal ManagementCircuit PartitioningDesign Guidelines and ConsiderationsThermal Results of Different Samples

  14. CMOS optimization for radiation hardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbenwick, G.F.; Fossum, J.G.

    1975-01-01

    Several approaches to the attainment of radiation-hardened MOS circuits have been investigated in the last few years. These have included implanting the SiO 2 gate insulator with aluminum, using chrome-aluminum layered gate metallization, using Al 2 O 3 as the gate insulator, and optimizing the MOS fabrication process. Earlier process optimization studies were restricted primarily to p-channel devices operating with negative gate biases. Since knowledge of the hardness dependence upon processing and design parameters is essential in producing hardened integrated circuits, a comprehensive investigation of the effects of both process and design optimization on radiation-hardened CMOS integrated circuits was undertaken. The goals are to define and establish a radiation-hardened processing sequence for CMOS integrated circuits and to formulate quantitative relationships between process and design parameters and the radiation hardness. Using these equations, the basic CMOS design can then be optimized for radiation hardness and some understanding of the basic physics responsible for the radiation damage can be gained. Results are presented

  15. Experimental Investigation of White Layer formation in Hard Turning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbrello, D.; Rotella, G.; Crea, F.

    2011-05-01

    Hard turning with super hard cutting tools, like PCBN or Ceramics inserts, represents an interesting advance in the manufacturing industry, regarding the finishing of hardened steels. This innovative machining technique is considered an attractive alternative to traditional finish grinding operations because of the high flexibility, the ability to achieve higher metal removal rates, the possibility to operate without the use of coolants, and the capability to achieve comparable workpiece quality. However, the surface integrity effects of hard machining need to be taken into account due to their influence on the life of machined components. In particular, the formation of a usually undesirable white layer at the surface needs further investigation. Three different mechanisms have been proposed as main responsible of the white layer genesis: (i) microstructural phase transformation due to a rapid heating and quenching, (ii) severe plastic deformation resulting in a homogenous structure and/or a very fine grain size microstructure; (iii) surface reaction with the environment. In this research, an experimental campaign was carried out and several experimental techniques were used in order to analyzed the machined surface and to understand which of the above mentioned theories is the main cause of the white layer formation when AISI 52100 hardened steel is machined by PCBN inserts. In particular, the topography characterization has obtained by means of optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM) while microstructural phase composition and chemical characterization have been respectively detected using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. The results prove that the white layer is the result of microstructural alteration, i.e. the generation of a martensitic structure.

  16. Experimental investigation of new manufacturing process chains to create micro-metal structures on polymer substrates for lab-on-chip sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaon, Matteo; Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, lab-on-a-chip devices have emerged as a leading technology for life sciences, drug development, medical diagnostics, food safety, agricultural and environmental monitoring. The conventional methods used nowadays to manufacture these micro- and nano-functional surface...

  17. Are computer numerical control (CNC)-manufactured patient-specific metal templates available for posterior thoracic pedicle screw insertion? Feasibility and accuracy evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangxue; Tang, Lei; Ye, Qiang; Huang, Wenhua; Li, Jianyi

    2017-11-01

    Accurate and safe posterior thoracic pedicle insertion (PTPI) remains a challenge. Patient-specific drill templates (PDTs) created by rapid prototyping (RP) can assist in posterior thoracic pedicle insertion, but pose biocompatibility risks. The aims of this study were to develop alternative PDTs with computer numerical control (CNC) and assess their feasibility and accuracy in assisting PTPI. Preoperative CT images of 31 cadaveric thoracic vertebras were obtained and then the optimal pedicle screw trajectories were planned. The PDTs with optimal screw trajectories were randomly assigned to be designed and manufactured by CNC or RP in each vertebra. With the guide of the CNC- or RP-manufactured PDTs, the appropriate screws were inserted into the pedicles. Postoperative CT scans were performed to analyze any deviations at entry point and midpoint of the pedicles. The CNC group was found to be significant manufacture-time-shortening, and cost-decreasing, when compared with the RP group (P  0.05). The screw positions were grade 0 in 90.3% and grade 1 in 9.7% of the cases in the CNC group and grade 0 in 93.5% and grade 1 in 6.5% of the cases in the RP group (P = 0.641). CNC-manufactured PDTs are viable for assisting in PTPI with good feasibility and accuracy.

  18. Fiscal 2000 technology trend survey. Survey of technology trend relating to next-generation metal-based material compatible with inverse manufacturing leading to energy use rationalization; 2000 nendo gijutsu doko chosa hokokusho. Energy shiyo gorika ni kakawaru inverse manufacturing ni tekigoushita jisedai kinzoku kei zairyo ni kansuru gijutsu doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the construction of a recycling system consuming less energy and therefore higher in efficiency, studies were made about the feasibility of metallic material developing/recycling systems more congruent with the objective through the application of inverse manufacturing (IM). Concerning metallic materials and recycling technologies, steel, aluminum alloys, and magnesium alloys were taken up, and a survey was made of hazardous elements in steel materials, unification of materials to constitute aluminum alloy parts, yield of magnesium in die casting, and the like. In the survey of recycling of automobiles, it was pointed out that the treatment of resin-based shredder dust was posing problems and that the use of metallic materials high in recyclability was essential to IM. In conclusion, three propositions were presented, which involved technologies for the advanced use of magnesium alloys as materials leading to the realization of IM, the development of recycling-oriented general-purpose alloys (with Mg and Al as mother metals), and the development of functional bonding technology enabling debonding (debondable bonding technology). (NEDO)

  19. Hard-on-hard lubrication in the artificial hip under dynamic loading conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sonntag

    Full Text Available The tribological performance of an artificial hip joint has a particularly strong influence on its success. The principle causes for failure are adverse short- and long-term reactions to wear debris and high frictional torque in the case of poor lubrication that may cause loosening of the implant. Therefore, using experimental and theoretical approaches models have been developed to evaluate lubrication under standardized conditions. A steady-state numerical model has been extended with dynamic experimental data for hard-on-hard bearings used in total hip replacements to verify the tribological relevance of the ISO 14242-1 gait cycle in comparison to experimental data from the Orthoload database and instrumented gait analysis for three additional loading conditions: normal walking, climbing stairs and descending stairs. Ceramic-on-ceramic bearing partners show superior lubrication potential compared to hard-on-hard bearings that work with at least one articulating metal component. Lubrication regimes during the investigated activities are shown to strongly depend on the kinematics and loading conditions. The outcome from the ISO gait is not fully confirmed by the normal walking data and more challenging conditions show evidence of inferior lubrication. These findings may help to explain the differences between the in vitro predictions using the ISO gait cycle and the clinical outcome of some hard-on-hard bearings, e.g., using metal-on-metal.

  20. Hard missile impacts on metal tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The UKAEA has been conducting a programme of experiments at AEE Winfrith to determine the response of typical nuclear reactor structures to impact loads and provide data for the validation of numerical assessment methods. These structures include flat panels of steel representing, for example, specifically designed impact shields or sections of large pressure-vessels and also lengths of steel piping representing, for example, primary circuit pipes or penetrations into pressure vessels. In these cases impact velocities have been approximately 100 m/s and the experimental simulations have used a compressed-air-driven missile launcher. This paper describes the analytical work completed to date with the code DYNA3D for the impact of a billet on a pipe using the Boeing Computer Services CRAY-1S facility. With this facility it was possible to produce a 16 mm film of the impact as well as the more conventional 3D graphics and time-history plots. (author)

  1. Tensile stress in hard metal films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.C.A.M.; Dammers, A.J.; Sivel, V.G.M.; Wang, W.R.

    2003-01-01

    Thin films on substrates are usually in a stressed state. An important, but trivial, contribution to that stress stems from the difference in thermal expansion coefficient of substrate and film. Much more interesting are the intrinsic stresses, resulting from the growth and/or microstructure of the

  2. LEAN Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilberg, Arne

    . The mission with the strategy is to obtain competitive production in Denmark and in Western Europe based on the right combination of manufacturing principles, motivated and trained employees, level of automation, and cooperation with suppliers and customers worldwide. The strategy has resulted in technical...

  3. Highly Damping Hard Coatings for Protection of Titanium Blades

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Movchan, Boris A; Ustinov, Anatolii I

    2005-01-01

    Sn-Cr-MgO system is used as an example to show the basic capability to produce by EBPVD protective metal-ceramic coatings with a high adhesion strength, high values of hardness and damping capacity...

  4. Preliminary study on recycling of metallic waste from decommissioning of nuclear power plant for cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohe, Koichiro; Kato, Osamu; Saegusa, Toshiari

    1999-01-01

    Preliminary study was made on technology required to recycle of metallic waste from decommissioning for spent fuel storage cask and on quantity of the cask which can be produced by the metallic waste. The technical and institutional issues for the recycling were studied. The metallic waste from decommissioning may be technically used to a certain degree for manufacturing the casks. However, there were some technical issues to be solved. For example, the manufacturing factories should be established. The radioactive waste from the factories with radiation control should be handled and treated carefully. Quality of the cask should be properly controlled. The 'Clearance Levels' which allows to recycle decommissioning waste have been hardly enacted in Japan. Technical and economic evaluation on recycling of metallic waste from decommissioning for spent fuel storage cask should be conducted again after progress in recycling of radioactive waste of which radioactivity is below the 'Clearance Levels' in Japan. (author)

  5. Manufacturing of superconductive silver/ceramic composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifi, Behrouz; Bech, Jakob Ilsted; Eriksen, Morten

    2000-01-01

    Manufacturing of superconducting metal/ceramic composites is a rather new discipline within materials forming processes. High Temperature SuperConductors, HTSC, are manufactured applying the Oxide-Powder-In-Tube process, OPIT. A ceramic powder containing lead, calcium, bismuth, strontium, and cop......Manufacturing of superconducting metal/ceramic composites is a rather new discipline within materials forming processes. High Temperature SuperConductors, HTSC, are manufactured applying the Oxide-Powder-In-Tube process, OPIT. A ceramic powder containing lead, calcium, bismuth, strontium...

  6. Semiconductor Manufacturing equipment introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jong Sun

    2001-02-01

    This book deals with semiconductor manufacturing equipment. It is comprised of nine chapters, which are manufacturing process of semiconductor device, history of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, kinds and role of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, construction and method of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, introduction of various semiconductor manufacturing equipment, spots of semiconductor manufacturing, technical elements of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, road map of technology of semiconductor manufacturing equipment and semiconductor manufacturing equipment in the 21st century.

  7. Method and article of manufacture corresponding to a composite comprised of ultra nonacrystalline diamond, metal, and other nanocarbons useful for thermoelectric and other applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    2010-05-18

    One provides (101) disperse ultra-nanocrystalline diamond powder material that comprises a plurality of substantially ordered crystallites that are each sized no larger than about 10 nanometers. One then reacts (102) these crystallites with a metallic component. The resultant nanowire is then able to exhibit a desired increase with respect to its ability to conduct electricity while also substantially preserving the thermal conductivity behavior of the disperse ultra-nanocrystalline diamond powder material. The reaction process can comprise combining (201) the crystallites with one or more metal salts in an aqueous solution and then heating (203) that aqueous solution to remove the water. This heating can occur in a reducing atmosphere (comprising, for example, hydrogen and/or methane) to also reduce the salt to metal.

  8. Effect of Solution Treatment Process on Hardness of Alumina Reinforced Al-9Zn Composite Produced by Squeeze Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Rahmalina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of aluminium matrix composites reinforced by alumina have been developed to improve mechanical properties. One of the determining factors in the development of this material is parameter of solution treatment process. This study discusses the performance of the composite matrix of Al-9Zn-6Mg-3Si reinforced by alumina powder of 5 % volume fraction. Composite are manufactured by squeeze casting process with the pressure of 20 Ton in the metal mould. To improve mechanical properties, the precipitation hardening process is conducted through variation of temperature of solution treatment of 450, 475 and 500 °C and holding time of solution treatment of 30, 60 and 90 minutes. Materials are characterized by hardness testing and microstructure observation. The results showed that the optimum condition of hardness was produced by solution treatment temperature of 500 °C and 90 minutes holding time of 86 HRB.

  9. Manufacture of heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, J.E.; Tombs, R.W.T.

    1980-01-01

    A tube bundle for use in a heat exchanger has a series of spaced parallel tubes supported by tube plates and is manufactured by depositing welding material around the end of each tube, machining the deposited material to form an annular flange around the end of the tube and welding the flange into apertures in the tube plate. Preferably the tubes have a length which is slightly less than the distance between the outer surfaces of the tube plates and the deposited material is deposited so that it overlaps and protects the end surfaces of the tubes. A plug may be inserted in the bore of the tubes during the welding material deposition which, as described, is effected by manual metal arc welding. One use of heat exchangers incorporating a tube bundle manufactured as above is in apparatus for reducing the volume of, and recovering nitric acid from, radioactive effluents from a nuclear reprocessing plant. (author)

  10. Green Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  11. Induced spherococcoid hard wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, Sh.

    1981-01-01

    A mutant has been obtained - a spheroccocoid line -through irradiation of hard wheat seed with fast neutrons. It is distinguished by semispherical glumes and smaller grain; the plants have low stem with erect leaves but with shorter spikes and with lesser number of spikelets than those of the initial cultivar. Good productive tillering and resistance to lodging contributed to 23.5% higher yield. The line was superior to the standard and the initial cultivars by 14.2% as regards protein content, and by up to 22.8% - as to flour gluten. It has been successfully used in hybridization producing high-yielding hard wheat lines resistant to lodging, with good technological and other indicators. The possibility stated is of obtaining a spherococcoid mutant in tetraploid (hard) wheat out of the D-genome as well as its being suited to hard wheat breeding to enhance protein content, resistance to lodging, etc. (author)

  12. Hard probes 2006 Asilomar

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "The second international conference on hard and electromagnetic probes of high-energy nuclear collisions was held June 9 to 16, 2006 at the Asilomar Conference grounds in Pacific Grove, California" (photo and 1/2 page)

  13. Determining the Effect of Material Hardness During the Hard Turning of AISI4340 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambagowni, Venkatasubbaiah; Chitla, Raju; Challa, Suresh

    2018-05-01

    In the present manufacturing industries hardened steels are most widely used in the applications like tool design and mould design. It enhances the application range of hard turning of hardened steels in manufacturing industries. This study discusses the impact of workpiece hardness, feed and depth of cut on Arithmetic mean roughness (Ra), root mean square roughness (Rq), mean depth of roughness (Rz) and total roughness (Rt) during the hard turning. Experiments have been planned according to the Box-Behnken design and conducted on hardened AISI4340 steel at 45, 50 and 55 HRC with wiper ceramic cutting inserts. Cutting speed is kept constant during this study. The analysis of variance was used to determine the effects of the machining parameters. 3-D response surface plots drawn based on RSM were utilized to set up the input-output relationships. The results indicated that the feed rate has the most significant parameter for Ra, Rq and Rz and hardness has the most critical parameter for the Rt. Further, hardness shows its influence over all the surface roughness characteristics.

  14. Manufacturing of aluminum composite material using stir casting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokhio, M.H.; Panhwar, M.I.; Unar, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing of aluminum alloy based casting composite materials via stir casting is one of the prominent and economical route for development and processing of metal matrix composites materials. Properties of these materials depend upon many processing parameters and selection of matrix and reinforcements. Literature reveals that most of the researchers are using 2, 6 and 7 xxx aluminum matrix reinforced with SiC particles for high strength properties whereas, insufficient information is available on reinforcement of 'AI/sub 2/O/sub 3/' particles in 7 xxx aluminum matrix. The 7 xxx series aluminum matrix usually contains Cu-Zn-Mg; Therefore, the present research was conducted to investigate the effect of elemental metal such as Cu-Zn-Mg in aluminum matrix on mechanical properties of stir casting of aluminum composite materials reinforced with alpha 'AI/sub 2/O/sub 3/' particles using simple foundry melting alloying and casting route. The age hardening treatments were also applied to study the aging response of the aluminum matrix on strength, ductility and hardness. The experimental results indicate that aluminum matrix cast composite can be manufactured via conventional foundry method giving very good responses to the strength and ductility up to 10% 'AI/sub 2/O/sub 3/' particles reinforced in aluminum matrix. (author)

  15. Manufacturing of Aluminum Composite Material Using Stir Casting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hayat Jokhio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing of aluminum alloy based casting composite materials via stir casting is one of the prominent and economical route for development and processing of metal matrix composites materials. Properties of these materials depend upon many processing parameters and selection of matrix and reinforcements. Literature reveals that most of the researchers are using 2, 6 and 7xxx aluminum matrix reinforced with SiC particles for high strength properties whereas, insufficient information is available on reinforcement of \\"Al2O3\\" particles in 7xxx aluminum matrix. The 7xxx series aluminum matrix usually contains Cu-Zn-Mg. Therefore, the present research was conducted to investigate the effect of elemental metal such as Cu-Zn-Mg in aluminum matrix on mechanical properties of stir casting of aluminum composite materials reinforced with alpha \\"Al2O3\\" particles using simple foundry melting alloying and casting route. The age hardening treatments were also applied to study the aging response of the aluminum matrix on strength, ductility and hardness. The experimental results indicate that aluminum matrix cast composite can be manufactured via conventional foundry method giving very good responses to the strength and ductility up to 10% \\"Al2O3\\" particles reinforced in aluminum matrix.

  16. Laser additive manufacturing bulk graphene-copper nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zengrong; Chen, Feng; Lin, Dong; Nian, Qiong; Parandoush, Pedram; Zhu, Xing; Shao, Zhuqiang; Cheng, Gary J

    2017-11-03

    The exceptional mechanical properties of graphene make it an ideal nanofiller for reinforcing metal matrix composites (MMCs). In this work, graphene-copper (Gr-Cu) nanocomposites have been fabricated by a laser additive manufacturing process. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy were utilized to characterize the fabricated nanocomposites. The XRD, Raman spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and TEM results demonstrated the feasibility of laser additive manufacturing of Gr-Cu nanocomposites. The microstructures were characterized by high resolution TEM and the results further revealed the interface between the copper matrix and graphene. With the addition of graphene, the mechanical properties of the composites were enhanced significantly. Nanoindentation tests showed that the average modulus value and hardness of the composites were 118.9 GPa and 3 GPa respectively; 17.6% and 50% increases were achieved compared with pure copper, respectively. This work demonstrates a new way to manufacture graphene copper nanocomposites with ultra-strong mechanical properties and provides alternatives for applications in electrical and thermal conductors.

  17. Multiple Study of Case Involving Implementation of Lean Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delvio Venanzi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show some factors that can cause companies to succeed or fail in their attempts to use lean manufacturing, by performing a multiple case study which presents two successful cases and three conditions of failure, in a survey of five large companies, all belonging to the metal-mechanical sector, located in Campinas and Sorocaba, both in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The data were collected using exploratory research between the periods of January 2013 and February 2015. The results show that successful cases of lean manufacturing implementation are the result of a more organized work environment, standardization of production and service areas, employee satisfaction, productivity results and quality of the final product. Unsuccessful deployments result from poor execution and faulty planning, that has no benefit and ultimately decrease the morale of its employees, creating more distrust and frustration directly influencing the results and productivity. In other words, lean manufacturing implementation requires hard and continuous work and these procedures should be aligned with the mission and goals of companies and mainly focus on the maintenance result by using tools to monitor and track the process systematically and also making investments to eliminate waste.

  18. Hot stamping advanced manufacturing technology of lightweight car body

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Ping; He, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This book summarizes the advanced manufacturing technology of original innovations in hot stamping of lightweight car body. A detailed description of the technical system and basic knowledge of sheet metal forming is given, which helps readers quickly understand the relevant knowledge in the field. Emphasis has been placed on the independently developed hot stamping process and equipment, which help describe the theoretical and experimental research on key problems involving stress field, thermal field and phase transformation field in hot stamping process. Also, a description of the formability at elevated temperature and the numerical simulation algorithms for high strength steel hot stamping is given in combination with the experiments. Finally, the book presents some application cases of hot stamping technology such as the lightweight car body design using hot stamping components and gradient hardness components, and the cooling design of the stamping tool. This book is intended for researchers, engineers...

  19. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V., Herne (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The year 2012 benefited from a growth of the consumption of hard coal at the national level as well as at the international level. Worldwide, the hard coal still is the number one energy source for power generation. This leads to an increasing demand for power plant coal. In this year, the conversion of hard coal into electricity also increases in this year. In contrast to this, the demand for coking coal as well as for coke of the steel industry is still declining depending on the market conditions. The enhanced utilization of coal for the domestic power generation is due to the reduction of the nuclear power from a relatively bad year for wind power as well as reduced import prices and low CO{sub 2} prices. Both justify a significant price advantage for coal in comparison to the utilisation of natural gas in power plants. This was mainly due to the price erosion of the inexpensive US coal which partly was replaced by the expansion of shale gas on the domestic market. As a result of this, the inexpensive US coal looked for an outlet for sales in Europe. The domestic hard coal has continued the process of adaptation and phase-out as scheduled. Two further hard coal mines were decommissioned in the year 2012. RAG Aktiengesellschaft (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) running the hard coal mining in this country begins with the preparations for the activities after the time of mining.

  20. Self propagating high temperature synthesis of mixed carbide and boride powder systems for cutting tools manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallauri, D.; Cola, P.L. de; Piscone, F.; Amato, I.

    2001-01-01

    TiC-TiB 2 composites have been produced via SHS technique starting from low cost raw materials like TiO 2 , B 4 C, Mg. The influence of the diluent phase (Mg, TiC) content on combustion temperature has been investigated. The use of magnesium as the reductant phase allowed acid leaching of the undesired oxide product (MgO), leaving pure hard materials with fine particle size suitable to be employed in cutting tools manufacturing through cold pressing and sintering route. The densification has shown to be strongly dependent on the wetting additions. The influence of the metal binder and wetting additions on the sintering process has been investigated. A characterization of the obtained materials was performed by the point of view of cutting tools life (hardness, toughness, strength). (author)

  1. Direct laser metal sintering as a new approach to fabrication of an isoelastic functionally graded material for manufacture of porous titanium dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traini, T; Mangano, C; Sammons, R L; Mangano, F; Macchi, A; Piattelli, A

    2008-11-01

    This work focuses on a titanium alloy implants incorporating a gradient of porosity, from the inner core to the outer surface, obtained by laser sintering of metal powder. Surface appearance, microstructure, composition, mechanical properties and fractography were evaluated. All the specimens were prepared by a selective laser sintering procedure using a Ti-6Al-4V alloy powder with a particle size of 1-10 microm. The morphological and chemical analyses were performed by SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The flexure strength was determined by a three-point bend test using a universal testing machine. The surface roughness was investigated using a confocal scanning laser microscope. The surface roughness variation was statistically evaluated by use of a Chi square test. A p value of metal core consisted of columnar beta grains with alpha and beta laths within the grains. The alloy was composed of 90.08% Ti, 5.67% Al and 4.25% V. The Young's modulus of the inner core material was 104+/-7.7 GPa; while that of the outer porous material was 77+/-3.5 GPa. The fracture face showed a dimpled appearance typical of ductile fracture. In conclusion, laser metal sintering proved to be an efficient means of construction of dental implants with a functionally graded material which is better adapted to the elastic properties of the bone. Such implants should minimize stress shielding effects and improve long-term performance.

  2. A method for manufacturing monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, Jacqueline; Malmejac, Yves; Schaub, Bernard.

    1973-01-01

    Description is given of a method for manufacturing monocrystals, substantially free of disorder, of a metal showing an allotropic transformation at a temperature lower than its melting point. Monocrystals of the raw metal having undergone a uni-directional solidification are heated to a temperature between the allotropic transformation point and the metal melting point; the monocrystals are maintained in the vicinity of that temperature for a given period of time; they are cooled down to a temperature lower than the allotropic transformation point, then they are annealed and cooled down to room temperature. Such monocrystals are used in neutron monochromators [fr

  3. Powder metallurgy of refractory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eck, R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reports on the powder metallurgical methods for the production of high-melting materials, such as pure metals and their alloys, compound materials with a tungsten base and hard metals from liquid phase sintered carbides. (author)

  4. Experimental study on internal cooling system in hard turning of HCWCI using CBN tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, A. M.; Murigendrappa, S. M.

    2018-04-01

    In recent times, hard turning became most emerging technique in manufacturing processes, especially to cut high hard materials like high chrome white cast iron (HCWCI). Use of Cubic boron nitride (CBN), pCBN and Carbide tools are most appropriate to shear the metals but are uneconomical. Since hard turning carried out in dry condition, lowering the tool wear by minimizing tool temperature is the only solution. Study reveals, no effective cooling systems are available so for in order to enhance the tool life of the cutting tools and to improve machinability characteristics. The detrimental effect of cutting parameters on cutting temperature is generally controlled by proper selections. The objective of this paper is to develop a new cooling system to control tool tip temperature, thereby minimizing the cutting forces and the tool wear rates. The materials chosen for this work was HCWCI and cutting tools are CBN inserts. Intricate cavities were made on the periphery of the tool holder for easy flow of cold water. Taguchi techniques were adopted to carry out the experimentations. The experimental results confirm considerable reduction in the cutting forces and tool wear rates.

  5. Highly hard yet toughened bcc-W coating by doping unexpectedly low B content

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Lina

    2017-08-18

    Either hardness or toughness has been the core interest in scientific exploration and technological pursuit for a long time. However, it is still a big challenge to enhance the hardness and toughness at the same time, since the improvement of one side is always at the expense of the other one. Here, we have succeeded in dealing with this pair of conflict based on tungsten (W) coating by doping boron (B) via magnetron co-sputtering. The results reveal that the introduction of low concentrations of B (6.3 at. %), in the doping regime, leads to the formation of W(B) supersaturated solid solution with refined grains. Meanwhile, the doping-induced higher compressive stress, higher H/E* and denser microstructure result in a surprising combination of improved hardness (2 × larger than pure W) and superior toughness (higher crack formation threshold compared to pure W). We believe this is an innovative sight to design new generation of transition-metal-based multifunctional coatings. Besides, our results are applicable for industrial application because it can be realized by simple manufacturing approaches, e.g. magnetron sputtering technology.

  6. Emissions of metals and polychlorinated dibenzo(p)dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) from Portland cement manufacturing plants: inter-kiln variability and dependence on fuel-types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemba, Stephen; Ames, Michael; Green, Laura; Botelho, Maria João; Gossman, David; Linkov, Igor; Palma-Oliveira, José

    2011-09-15

    Emissions from Portland cement manufacturing facilities may increase health risks in nearby populations and are thus subject to stringent regulations. Direct testing of pollutant concentrations in exhaust gases provides the best basis for assessing the extent of these risks. However, these tests (i) are often conducted under stressed, rather than typical, operating conditions, (ii) may be limited in number and duration, and (iii) may be influenced by specific fuel-types and attributes of individual kilns. We report here on the results of more than 150 emissions-tests conducted of two kilns at a Portland cement manufacturing plant in Portugal. The tests measured various regulated metals and polychlorinated dibenzo(p)dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs). Stack-gas concentrations of pollutants were found to be highly variable, with standard deviations on the order of mean values. Emission rates of many pollutants were higher when coal was used as the main kiln fuel (instead of petroleum coke). Use of various supplemental fuels, however, had little effect on stack emissions, and few statistically significant differences were observed when hazardous waste was included in the fuel mix. Significant differences in emissions for some pollutants were observed between the two kilns despite their similar designs and uses of similar fuels. All measured values were found to be within applicable regulatory limits. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Development of Standard Approach for Sickle Blade Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Noordin, M. N. A; Hudzari, R. M; Azuan, H. N; Zainon, M. S; Mohamed, S. B; Wafi, S. A

    2016-01-01

    The sickle blade used in the motorised palm cutter known as “CANTAS” provides fast, easy and safe pruning and harvesting for those hard to reach applications. Jariz Technologies Company is experiencing problem in the consistency of sickle blade which was supplied by various blade manufacturers. Identifying the proper blade material with a certain hardness value would produce a consistent as well as long lasting sickle blade. A Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) in the manufacturing of the sic...

  8. FY 2000 report on the results of the regional consortium R and D project - Regional consortium field. Third year report. R and D of the manufacturing technology of hybrid type biocompatible hard tissue substituting materials; 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo - chiiki consortium bun'ya. Hybrid gata seitai yugo kinosei kososhiki daitai sozai seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (dai 3 nendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    As instrument materials substituting for hard tissue such as tooth root and artificial hip joint, the technology development is being proceeded with of the use of high-biocompatible {beta} Ti alloys coated by hydroxy apatite. Studies were made in the following 6 fields: 1) design of high-biocompatible {beta} Ti alloys, system control and dynamic evaluation; 2) development of high efficiency calcium phosphate ceramics (hydroxy apatite) and development of surface coating technology; 3) development of melting casting technology of high-biocompatible {beta} Ti alloys; 4) biological evaluation of biocompatibility of high-biocompatible {beta} Ti alloys and completion of dental precision casting technology; 5) basic research on affinity of low rigidity Ti alloys (trial manufacture); 6) development of technology of precision processing and precision finishing processing of alloys. In 5), in the test on affinity of the trial-manufactured alloys, stainless steel and existing Ti alloys, it was verified that the trial-manufactured alloys were excellent in affinity. (NEDO)

  9. A combined arc-melting and tilt-casting furnace for the manufacture of high-purity bulk metallic glass materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soinila, E; Pihlajamäki, T; Bossuyt, S; Hänninen, H

    2011-07-01

    An arc-melting furnace which includes a tilt-casting facility was designed and built, for the purpose of producing bulk metallic glass specimens. Tilt-casting was chosen because reportedly, in combination with high-purity processing, it produces the best fatigue endurance in Zr-based bulk metallic glasses. Incorporating the alloying and casting facilities in a single piece of equipment reduces the amount of laboratory space and capital investment needed. Eliminating the sample transfer step from the production process also saves time and reduces sample contamination. This is important because the glass forming ability in many alloy systems, such as Zr-based glass-forming alloys, deteriorates rapidly with increasing oxygen content of the specimen. The challenge was to create a versatile instrument, in which high purity conditions can be maintained throughout the process, even when melting alloys with high affinity for oxygen. Therefore, the design provides a high-vacuum chamber to be filled with a low-oxygen inert atmosphere, and takes special care to keep the system hermetically sealed throughout the process. In particular, movements of the arc-melting electrode and sample manipulator arm are accommodated by deformable metal bellows, rather than sliding O-ring seals, and the whole furnace is tilted for tilt-casting. This performance of the furnace is demonstrated by alloying and casting Zr(55)Cu(30)Al(10)Ni(5) directly into rods up to ø 10 mm which are verified to be amorphous by x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, and to exhibit locally ductile fracture at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  10. Soft and hard pomerons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maor, Uri; Tel Aviv Univ.

    1995-09-01

    The role of s-channel unitarity screening corrections, calculated in the eikonal approximation, is investigated for soft Pomeron exchange responsible for elastic and diffractive hadron scattering in the high energy limit. We examine the differences between our results and those obtained from the supercritical Pomeron-Regge model with no such corrections. It is shown that screening saturation is attained at different scales for different channels. We then proceed to discuss the new HERA data on hard (PQCD) Pomeron diffractive channels and discuss the relationship between the soft and hard Pomerons and the relevance of our analysis to this problem. (author). 18 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  11. Hard exclusive QCD processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, W.

    2007-01-15

    Hard exclusive processes in high energy electron proton scattering offer the opportunity to get access to a new generation of parton distributions, the so-called generalized parton distributions (GPDs). This functions provide more detailed informations about the structure of the nucleon than the usual PDFs obtained from DIS. In this work we present a detailed analysis of exclusive processes, especially of hard exclusive meson production. We investigated the influence of exclusive produced mesons on the semi-inclusive production of mesons at fixed target experiments like HERMES. Further we give a detailed analysis of higher order corrections (NLO) for the exclusive production of mesons in a very broad range of kinematics. (orig.)

  12. Hard-hat day

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    CERN will be organizing a special information day on Friday, 27th June, designed to promote the wearing of hard hats and ensure that they are worn correctly. A new prevention campaign will also be launched.The event will take place in the hall of the Main Building from 11.30 a.m. to 2.00 p.m., when you will be able to come and try on various models of hard hat, including some of the very latest innovative designs, ask questions and pass on any comments and suggestions.

  13. Three techniques for the fabrication of high precision, mm-sized metal components based on two-photon lithography, applied for manufacturing horn antennas for THz transceivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standaert, Alexander; Brancato, Luigi; Lips, Bram; Ceyssens, Frederik; Puers, Robert; Reynaert, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    This paper proposes a novel packaging solution which integrates micro-machined 3D horn antennas with millimeter-wave and THz tranceivers. This packaging solution is shown to be a valid competitor to existing technologies like metallic split-block waveguides and low temperature cofired ceramics. Three different fabrication methods based on two-photon lithography are presented to form the horn antennas. The first uses two-photon lithography to form the bulk of the antenna. This structure is then metalised through physical vapor deposition (PVD) and copper plating. The second fabrication method makes use of a soft polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold to easily replicate structures and the third method forms the horn antenna through electroforming. A prototype is accurately positioned on top of a 400 GHz 28 nm CMOS transmitter and glued in place with epoxy, thus providing a fully packaged solution. Measurement results show a 12 dB increase in the antenna gain when using the packaged solution. The fabrication processes are not limited to horn antennas alone and can be used to form a wide range of mm-sized metal components.

  14. Microbiological quality of soft, semi-hard and hard cheeses during the shelf-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Vrdoljak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheeses as ready-to-eat food should be considered as a potential source of foodborne pathogens, primarily Listeria monocytogenes. The aim of present study was to determine the microbiological quality of soft, semi-hard and hard cheeses during the shelf-life, with particular reference to L. monocytogenes. Five types of cheeses were sampled at different timepoints during the cold storage and analyzed for presence of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes, as well as lactic acid bacteria, Escherichia coli, coagulase-positive staphylococci, yeasts, molds, sulfite-reducing clostridia and L. monocytogenes counts. Water activity, pH and NaCl content were monitored in order to evaluate the possibility of L. monocytogenes growth. Challenge test for L. monocytogenes was performed in soft whey cheese, to determine the growth potential of pathogen during the shelf-life of product. All analyzed cheeses were compliant with microbiological criteria during the shelf-life. In soft cheeses, lactic acid bacteria increased in the course of the shelf-life period (1.2-2.6 log increase, while in semi-hard and hard cheeses it decreased (1.6 and 5.2 log decrease, respectively. Soft cheeses support the growth of L. monocytogenes according to determined pH values (5.8-6.5, water activity (0.99-0.94, and NaCl content (0.3-1.2%. Challenge test showed that L. monocytogenes growth potential in selected soft cheese was 0.43 log10 cfu/g during 8 days at 4°C. Water activity in semi-hard and hard cheeses was a limiting factor for Listeria growth during the shelf-life. Soft, semi-hard and hard cheeses were microbiologically stable during their defined shelf-life. Good manufacturing and hygienic practices must be strictly followed in the production of soft cheeses as Listeria-supporting food and be focused on preventing (recontamination.

  15. Hardness of Clustering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Hardness of Clustering. Both k-means and k-medians intractable (when n and d are both inputs even for k =2). The best known deterministic algorithms. are based on Voronoi partitioning that. takes about time. Need for approximation – “close” to optimal.

  16. Rock-hard coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has signed an agreement with a number of parties to investigate this material further.

  17. Rock-hard coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has

  18. Hardness and excitation energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that the first excitation energy can be given by the Kohn-Sham hardness (i.e. the energy difference of the ground-state lowest unoccupied and highest occupied levels) plus an extra term coming from the partial derivative of the ensemble exchange-correlation energy with respect to the weighting factor in the ...

  19. Advance on Al2O3 Particulates Reinforced Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites (Al-MMCs Manufactured by the Power Metallurgy(PM Methods- Improved PM Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Lina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum metal matrix composites (Al-MMCs with Al2O3 particulates as reinforcement fabricated by the power metallurgy (PM methods have gained much attention due to their unique characteristics of the wide range of Al2O3 particles addition, easy-operating process and effectiveness. The improved PM techniques, such as the high energy ball milling, powder extruder and high pressure torsion were applied to further strengthening the properties or/and diminishing the agglomeration of strength particles. The formation of liquid phase assisted densification of compacts to promote the sintering of composites. Complex design of Al2O3 particles with other particles was another efficient method to tailor the properties of Al-MMCs.

  20. A crossover from high stiffness to high hardness. The case of osmium and its borides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian, Yongming; Li, Anhu; Liu, Xiaomei; Shanghai Univ. of Engineering Science; Liang, Yongcheng

    2016-01-01

    Transition-metal light-element compounds are currently raising great expectations for hard and superhard materials. Using the widely attracting osmium (Os) and its borides (OsB, Os_2B_3 and OsB_2) as prototypes, we demonstrate by first-principles calculations that heavy transition metals, which possess high stiffness but low hardness, can be converted into highly hard materials by incorporating of light elements to form compounds. Such a crossover is a manifestation that the underlying sources of high stiffness and high hardness are fundamentally different. The stiffness is related to elastic deformation that is closely associated with valence electron density, whereas the hardness depends strongly on plastic deformation that is determined by bonding nature. Therefore, the incorporation of light atoms into transition metal should be a valid pathway of designing hard and superhard materials. This strategy is in principle also applicable to other transition-metal borides, carbides, and nitrides.

  1. A crossover from high stiffness to high hardness. The case of osmium and its borides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bian, Yongming; Li, Anhu [Tongji Univ., Shanghai (China). School of Mechanical Engineering; Liu, Xiaomei [Tongji Univ., Shanghai (China). School of Mechanical Engineering; Shanghai Univ. of Engineering Science (China). College of Mechanical Engineering; Liang, Yongcheng [Shanghai Ocean Univ. (China). College of Engineering Science and Technology

    2016-07-01

    Transition-metal light-element compounds are currently raising great expectations for hard and superhard materials. Using the widely attracting osmium (Os) and its borides (OsB, Os{sub 2}B{sub 3} and OsB{sub 2}) as prototypes, we demonstrate by first-principles calculations that heavy transition metals, which possess high stiffness but low hardness, can be converted into highly hard materials by incorporating of light elements to form compounds. Such a crossover is a manifestation that the underlying sources of high stiffness and high hardness are fundamentally different. The stiffness is related to elastic deformation that is closely associated with valence electron density, whereas the hardness depends strongly on plastic deformation that is determined by bonding nature. Therefore, the incorporation of light atoms into transition metal should be a valid pathway of designing hard and superhard materials. This strategy is in principle also applicable to other transition-metal borides, carbides, and nitrides.

  2. Manufactured volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweifel, Noemi; Meuli, Martin; Subotic, Ulrike; Moehrlen, Ueli; Mazzone, Luca; Arlettaz, Romaine

    2013-06-01

    Malrotation with a common mesentery is the classical pathology allowing midgut volvulus to occur. There are only a few reports of small bowel volvulus without malrotation or other pathology triggering volvulation. We describe three cases of small bowel volvulus in very premature newborns with a perfectly normal intra-abdominal anatomy and focus on the question, what might have set off volvulation. In 2005 to 2008, three patients developed small bowel volvulus without any underlying pathology. Retrospective patient chart review was performed with special focus on clinical presentation, preoperative management, intraoperative findings, and potential causative explanations. Mean follow-up period was 46 months. All patients were born between 27 and 31 weeks (mean 28 weeks) with a birth weight between 800 and 1,000 g (mean 887 g). They presented with an almost identical pattern of symptoms including sudden abdominal distension, abdominal tenderness, erythema of the abdominal wall, high gastric residuals, and radiographic signs of ileus. All of them were treated with intensive abdominal massage or pelvic rotation to improve bowel movement before becoming symptomatic. Properistaltic maneuvers including abdominal massage and pelvic rotation may cause what we term a "manufactured" volvulus in very premature newborns. Thus, this practice was stopped. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Optimization of Sintering Time and Holding Time for 3D Printing of Fe-Based Metallic Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzheng Wu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Fe-based metallic glasses are amorphous alloys with high strength, high hardness, and excellent corrosion resistance; however, the immaturity of processing methods has prevented their wide application in industrial production. Fe-based metallic glass parts were manufactured employing pneumatic injection additive manufacturing in this study. An evenly dispersed and stable Fe-based metallic glass powder slurry with a solids content of 50% was prepared firstly. Then the Fe-based metallic glass parts were printed. The printed parts were dried, debinded, and sintered for strengthening. The deformations of the printed parts and sintered parts relative to the original model were then analyzed by a 3D scanning reconstruction method. The slightly average bulging and sunken deformation of the printed parts and sintered parts confirmed the good printing accuracy of the pneumatic injection manufacture system. The effects of the sintering temperature and holding time on the properties of the sintered parts were studied. For a sintering temperature of 580 °C and holding time of 1 h, the surface quality of the sintered parts was better. The sintering of 3D-printed Fe-based metallic glass parts was preliminarily realized in this study, and the feasibility of preparing Fe-based metallic glass using pneumatic injection additive manufacture was verified.

  4. Manufacture of titanium and zirconium hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mares, F.; Hanslik, T.

    1973-01-01

    A method is described of manufacturing titanium and zirconium hydrides by hydrogenation of said metals characterized by the reaction temperature ranging between 250 to 500 degC, hydrogen pressure of 20 to 300 atm and possibly by the presence of a hydride of the respective metal. (V.V.)

  5. Hard Copy Market Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testan, Peter R.

    1987-04-01

    A number of Color Hard Copy (CHC) market drivers are currently indicating strong growth in the use of CHC technologies for the business graphics marketplace. These market drivers relate to product, software, color monitors and color copiers. The use of color in business graphics allows more information to be relayed than is normally the case in a monochrome format. The communicative powers of full-color computer generated output in the business graphics application area will continue to induce end users to desire and require color in their future applications. A number of color hard copy technologies will be utilized in the presentation graphics arena. Thermal transfer, ink jet, photographic and electrophotographic technologies are all expected to be utilized in the business graphics presentation application area in the future. Since the end of 1984, the availability of color application software packages has grown significantly. Sales revenue generated by business graphics software is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of just over 40 percent to 1990. Increased availability of packages to allow the integration of text and graphics is expected. Currently, the latest versions of page description languages such as Postscript, Interpress and DDL all support color output. The use of color monitors will also drive the demand for color hard copy in the business graphics market place. The availability of higher resolution screens is allowing color monitors to be easily used for both text and graphics applications in the office environment. During 1987, the sales of color monitors are expected to surpass the sales of monochrome monitors. Another major color hard copy market driver will be the color copier. In order to take advantage of the communications power of computer generated color output, multiple copies are required for distribution. Product introductions of a new generation of color copiers is now underway with additional introductions expected

  6. Hardness Assurance Techniques for New Generation COTS Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. I.; Rax, B. G.; Johnston, A. H.

    1996-01-01

    Hardness Assurance (HA) techniques and total dose radiation characterization data for new generation linear and COTS devices from various manufacturers are presented. A bipolar op amp showed significant degradation at HDR, not at low dose rate environment. New generation low-power op amps showed more degradation at low voltage applications. HA test techniques for COTS devices are presented in this paper.

  7. Development of non-destructive examination techniques for CFC-metal joints in annular geometry and their application to the manufacturing of plasma-facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Pietro, E.; Visca, E.; Orsini, A.; Sacchetti, M.; Borruto, T.M.R.; Varone, P.; Vesprini, R.

    1995-01-01

    The design of plasma-facing components for ITER, as for any of the envisaged next-step machines, relies heavily on the use of brazed junctions to couple armour materials to the heat sink and cooling tubes. Moreover, the typical number of brazed components and the envisaged effects of local overheating due to failure in a single brazed junction stress the importance of having a set of NDE techniques developed that can ensure the flawless quality of the joint. The qualification and application of two NDE techniques (ultrasonic and thermographic analysis) for inspection of CFC-to-metal joints is described with particular regard to the annular geometry typical of macroblock/monoblock solutions for divertor high-heat-flux components. The results of the eddy current inspection are not reported. The development has been focused specifically on the joint between carbon-fiber composite and TZM molybdenum alloy; techniques for the production of reference defect samples have been devised and a set of reference defect samples produced. The comparative results of the NDE inspections are reported and discussed, also on the basis of the destructive examination of the samples. The nature and size of relevant and detectable defects are discussed together with hints for a possible NDE strategy for divertor high-heat-flux components

  8. Structural characterization of biomedical Co–Cr–Mo components produced by direct metal laser sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barucca, G.; Santecchia, E.; Majni, G.; Girardin, E.; Bassoli, E.; Denti, L.; Gatto, A.; Iuliano, L.; Moskalewicz, T.; Mengucci, P.

    2015-01-01

    Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) is a technique to manufacture complex functional mechanical parts from a computer-aided design (CAD) model. Usually, the mechanical components produced by this procedure show higher residual porosity and poorer mechanical properties than those obtained by conventional manufacturing techniques. In this work, a Co–Cr–Mo alloy produced by DMLS with a composition suitable for biomedical applications was submitted to hardness measurements and structural characterization. The alloy showed a hardness value remarkably higher than those commonly obtained for the same cast or wrought alloys. In order to clarify the origin of this unexpected result, the sample microstructure was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) and energy dispersive microanalysis (EDX). For the first time, a homogeneous microstructure comprised of an intricate network of thin ε (hcp)-lamellae distributed inside a γ (fcc) phase was observed. The ε-lamellae grown on the {111} γ planes limit the dislocation slip inside the γ (fcc) phase, causing the measured hardness increase. The results suggest possible innovative applications of the DMLS technique to the production of mechanical parts in the medical and dental fields. - Highlights: • Samples of a Co–Cr–Mo biomedical alloy were produced by direct metal laser sintering. • Hardness values unexpectedly high were attributed to a peculiar microstructure. • Fine lamellae of the ε-phase alternated to the γ-phase were observed for the first time. • A nucleation and growth model for the observed microstructure is proposed

  9. Structural characterization of biomedical Co–Cr–Mo components produced by direct metal laser sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barucca, G., E-mail: g.barucca@univpm.it [SIMAU, Università Politecnica delle Marche, via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Santecchia, E.; Majni, G. [SIMAU, Università Politecnica delle Marche, via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Girardin, E. [DISCO, Università Politecnica delle Marche, via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Bassoli, E.; Denti, L.; Gatto, A. [DIMeC, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, via Vignolese 905/B, Modena 41125 (Italy); Iuliano, L. [DISPEA, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Moskalewicz, T. [Faculty of Metals Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Mengucci, P. [SIMAU, Università Politecnica delle Marche, via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)

    2015-03-01

    Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) is a technique to manufacture complex functional mechanical parts from a computer-aided design (CAD) model. Usually, the mechanical components produced by this procedure show higher residual porosity and poorer mechanical properties than those obtained by conventional manufacturing techniques. In this work, a Co–Cr–Mo alloy produced by DMLS with a composition suitable for biomedical applications was submitted to hardness measurements and structural characterization. The alloy showed a hardness value remarkably higher than those commonly obtained for the same cast or wrought alloys. In order to clarify the origin of this unexpected result, the sample microstructure was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) and energy dispersive microanalysis (EDX). For the first time, a homogeneous microstructure comprised of an intricate network of thin ε (hcp)-lamellae distributed inside a γ (fcc) phase was observed. The ε-lamellae grown on the {111}{sub γ} planes limit the dislocation slip inside the γ (fcc) phase, causing the measured hardness increase. The results suggest possible innovative applications of the DMLS technique to the production of mechanical parts in the medical and dental fields. - Highlights: • Samples of a Co–Cr–Mo biomedical alloy were produced by direct metal laser sintering. • Hardness values unexpectedly high were attributed to a peculiar microstructure. • Fine lamellae of the ε-phase alternated to the γ-phase were observed for the first time. • A nucleation and growth model for the observed microstructure is proposed.

  10. The impact of fit manufacturing on green manufacturing: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ang Nian; Sin, Tan Chan; Fathullah, M.; Lee, C. C.

    2017-09-01

    Fit manufacturing and Green manufacturing are a new trend principle and concept. They are getting popular in industrial. This paper is identifying the impact between Fit manufacturing and Green manufacturing. Besides Fit manufacturing, Lean manufacturing, Agile manufacturing and Sustainable manufacturing gives big impacts to Green Manufacturing. On top of that, this paper also discuss the benefits of applying Fit manufacturing and Green manufacturing in industrial as well as environment. Hence, applications of Fit manufacturing and Green Manufacturing are increasing year by year.

  11. Hard Electromagnetic Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, F.

    1987-09-01

    Among hard electromagnetic processes, I will use the most recent data and focus on quantitative test of QCD. More specifically, I will retain two items: - hadroproduction of direct photons, - Drell-Yan. In addition, I will briefly discuss a recent analysis of ISR data obtained with AFS (Axial Field Spectrometer) which sheds a new light on the e/π puzzle at low P T

  12. Bond-orientational analysis of hard-disk and hard-sphere structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil Kumar, V; Kumaran, V

    2006-05-28

    We report the bond-orientational analysis results for the thermodynamic, random, and homogeneously sheared inelastic structures of hard-disks and hard-spheres. The thermodynamic structures show a sharp rise in the order across the freezing transition. The random structures show the absence of crystallization. The homogeneously sheared structures get ordered at a packing fraction higher than the thermodynamic freezing packing fraction, due to the suppression of crystal nucleation. On shear ordering, strings of close-packed hard-disks in two dimensions and close-packed layers of hard-spheres in three dimensions, oriented along the velocity direction, slide past each other. Such a flow creates a considerable amount of fourfold order in two dimensions and body-centered-tetragonal (bct) structure in three dimensions. These transitions are the flow analogs of the martensitic transformations occurring in metals due to the stresses induced by a rapid quench. In hard-disk structures, using the bond-orientational analysis we show the presence of fourfold order. In sheared inelastic hard-sphere structures, even though the global bond-orientational analysis shows that the system is highly ordered, a third-order rotational invariant analysis shows that only about 40% of the spheres have face-centered-cubic (fcc) order, even in the dense and near-elastic limits, clearly indicating the coexistence of multiple crystalline orders. When layers of close-packed spheres slide past each other, in addition to the bct structure, the hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) structure is formed due to the random stacking faults. Using the Honeycutt-Andersen pair analysis and an analysis based on the 14-faceted polyhedra having six quadrilateral and eight hexagonal faces, we show the presence of bct and hcp signatures in shear ordered inelastic hard-spheres. Thus, our analysis shows that the dense sheared inelastic hard-spheres have a mixture of fcc, bct, and hcp structures.

  13. Acylinder and freeform optical manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fess, Edward; Wolfs, Frank; DeFisher, Scott; Ross, James

    2015-10-01

    Aspheric cylinders have the ability to improve optical performance over standard cylindrical surfaces. Over the last several years there has also been development into the application and functionality of utilizing freeform surfaces to improve optical performance. Freeforms have the ability to not only improve image quality over a greater field of view, but can open up the design space of an optical system making it more compact. Freeform geometries, much like aspheric cylinders, may not have an axis of rotation to spin the optic about during manufacturing. This leads to costly fabrication processes and custom metrology set ups, which may inhibit their use. Over the last several years, OptiPro Systems has developed and optimized our eSX grinding, UFF and USF polishing, UltraSurf metrology, and ProSurf software programming technologies to make the processing of these complex geometries much easier and deterministic. In this paper we will discuss the challenges associated with manufacturing complex shapes like aspheric cylinders as well as freeform geometries, and how several technologies working together can overcome them. The technologies focus on metrology feedback to a grinding and polishing machine that is controlled through an iterative computer aided manufacturing software system. We will also present examples of these hard to manufacture shapes with results.

  14. Five-Axis Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing for Nuclear Component Manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehr, Adam; Wenning, Justin; Terrani, Kurt; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Norfolk, Mark

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a three-dimensional metal printing technology which uses high-frequency vibrations to scrub and weld together both similar and dissimilar metal foils. There is no melting in the process and no special atmosphere requirements are needed. Consequently, dissimilar metals can be joined with little to no intermetallic compound formation, and large components can be manufactured. These attributes have the potential to transform manufacturing of nuclear reactor core components such as control elements for the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These components are hybrid structures consisting of an outer cladding layer in contact with the coolant with neutron-absorbing materials inside, such as neutron poisons for reactor control purposes. UAM systems are built into a computer numerical control (CNC) framework to utilize intermittent subtractive processes. These subtractive processes are used to introduce internal features as the component is being built and for net shaping. The CNC framework is also used for controlling the motion of the welding operation. It is demonstrated here that curved components with embedded features can be produced using a five-axis code for the welder for the first time.

  15. Ultrasonic-assisted manufacturing of new hydrogel nanocomposite biosorbent containing calcium carbonate nanoparticles and tragacanth gum for removal of heavy metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallakpour, Shadpour; Abdolmaleki, Amir; Tabesh, Farbod

    2018-03-01

    This article reports the first incorporation of calcium carbonate nanoparticles (CC NPs) into tragacanth gum (TG) to prepare a new hydrogel nanocomposite (HNC) system using a green, safe, and eco-friendly method, ultrasound irradiation as an efficient biosorbent of heavy metal ions from wastewater. Morphological studies revealed that the surface of obtained HNCs is rough, homogeneous, and porous-like due to the embedding of CC NPs as well as sonication in comparison to the neat TG which has a smooth surface. The particle size reduction was observed for CC NPs in the matrix (from 57 to 10 nm), which is owing to the extraordinary effect of sonication on this process. Thermal stability of HNCs has been increased after using CC NPs from 8.5 wt% for TG to about 22 wt% for HNCs. The optical band gap of TG/CC HNC 5 wt% calculated to be 4.46 eV which is less than that of CC NPs (5.58 eV) and even TG (6.28 eV) and this result indicated that TG/CC HNC 5 wt% is relatively more conductive than CC NPs and TG. The nitrogen adsorption-desorption disclosed an isotherm type III of Brunauer classification for TG/CC HNC 5 wt% and the surface area has been increased from 0.7 m 2 .g -1 for TG to 2.3 m 2 .g -1 for TG/CC HNC 5 wt%. Also, the BET surface area for TG/CC HNC 5 wt% calculated to be 7.8 nm which is classified into mesoporous materials. The Pb 2+ ions were significantly removed from water using TG/CC HNC 5 wt% and the removal efficiency was determined as 83% at optimized conditions (pH = 5, adsorbent dosage = 0.015 g, time = 3 h, and Pb 2+ concentration = 70 mg.L -1 ). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A new, bright and hard aluminum surface produced by anodization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Fengyan; Hu, Bo; Tay, See Leng; Wang, Yuxin; Xiong, Chao; Gao, Wei

    2017-07-01

    Anodized aluminum (Al) and Al alloys have a wide range of applications. However, certain anodized finishings have relatively low hardness, dull appearance and/or poor corrosion resistance, which limited their applications. In this research, Al was first electropolished in a phosphoric acid-based solution, then anodized in a sulfuric acid-based solution under controlled processing parameters. The anodized specimen was then sealed by two-step sealing method. A systematic study including microstructure, surface morphology, hardness and corrosion resistance of these anodized films has been conducted. Results show that the hardness of this new anodized film was increased by a factor of 10 compared with the pure Al metal. Salt spray corrosion testing also demonstrated the greatly improved corrosion resistance. Unlike the traditional hard anodized Al which presents a dull-colored surface, this newly developed anodized Al alloy possesses a very bright and shiny surface with good hardness and corrosion resistance.

  17. Further studies on gold alloys used in fabrication of porcelain-fused-to-metal restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civjan, S; Huget, E F; Dvivedi, N; Cosner, H J

    1975-03-01

    Composition, microstructure, castability, mechanical properties, and heat treatment characteristics of two gold-palladium-silver-based alloys were studied. The materials exhibited compositional as well as microstructural differences. Clinically acceptable castings could not be obtained when manufacturers' recommended casting temperatures were used. Ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, modulus of elasticity, and Brinell hardness values for the alloys were comparable. The elastic limit of Cameo, however, was significantly higher than that of vivo-star. Maximum rehardening of annealed castings occurred on reheat treatment at temperatures between 1,200 and 1,300 F. As-cast specimens, however, were not heat hardenable. The sequence of heat treatments used in the application of porcelain reduced slightly the hardness of both alloys. Hardness of the metal substructures was not increased by return of porcelain-coated specimens to a 1,250 F oven for final heat treatment.

  18. Tribology in Manufacturing Technology

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The present book aims to provide research advances on tribology in manufacturing technology for modern industry. This book can be used as a research book for final undergraduate engineering course (for example, mechanical, manufacturing, materials, etc) or as a subject on manufacturing at the postgraduate level. Also, this book can serve as a useful reference for academics, manufacturing and tribology researchers, mechanical, mechanical, manufacturing and materials engineers, professionals in related industries with manufacturing and tribology.

  19. Water soluble nano-scale transient material germanium oxide for zero toxic waste based environmentally benign nano-manufacturing

    KAUST Repository

    Almuslem, A. S.; Hanna, Amir; Yapici, Tahir; Wehbe, N.; Diallo, Elhadj; Kutbee, Arwa T.; Bahabry, Rabab R.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    , in addition to transiency, we also show an environmentally friendly manufacturing process for a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Every year, trillions of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics are manufactured

  20. Revisiting the definition of local hardness and hardness kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco-Ramírez, Carlos A; Franco-Pérez, Marco; Carmona-Espíndola, Javier; Gázquez, José L; Ayers, Paul W

    2017-05-17

    An analysis of the hardness kernel and local hardness is performed to propose new definitions for these quantities that follow a similar pattern to the one that characterizes the quantities associated with softness, that is, we have derived new definitions for which the integral of the hardness kernel over the whole space of one of the variables leads to local hardness, and the integral of local hardness over the whole space leads to global hardness. A basic aspect of the present approach is that global hardness keeps its identity as the second derivative of energy with respect to the number of electrons. Local hardness thus obtained depends on the first and second derivatives of energy and electron density with respect to the number of electrons. When these derivatives are approximated by a smooth quadratic interpolation of energy, the expression for local hardness reduces to the one intuitively proposed by Meneses, Tiznado, Contreras and Fuentealba. However, when one combines the first directional derivatives with smooth second derivatives one finds additional terms that allow one to differentiate local hardness for electrophilic attack from the one for nucleophilic attack. Numerical results related to electrophilic attacks on substituted pyridines, substituted benzenes and substituted ethenes are presented to show the overall performance of the new definition.

  1. Characterization of Ti and Co based biomaterials processed via laser based additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahasrabudhe, Himanshu

    Titanium and Cobalt based metallic materials are currently the most ideal materials for load-bearing metallic bio medical applications. However, the long term tribological degradation of these materials still remains a problem that needs a solution. To improve the tribological performance of these two metallic systems, three different research approaches were adapted, stemming out four different research projects. First, the simplicity of laser gas nitriding was utilized with a modern LENS(TM) technology to form an in situ nitride rich later in titanium substrate material. This nitride rich composite coating improved the hardness by as much as fifteen times and reduced the wear rate by more than a magnitude. The leaching of metallic ions during wear was also reduced by four times. In the second research project, a mixture of titanium and silicon were processed on a titanium substrate in a nitrogen rich environment. The results of this reactive, in situ additive manufacturing process were Ti-Si-Nitride coatings that were harder than the titanium substrate by more than twenty times. These coatings also reduced the wear rate by more than two magnitudes. In the third research approach, composites of CoCrMo alloy and Calcium phosphate (CaP) bio ceramic were processed using LENS(TM) based additive manufacturing. These composites were effective in reducing the wear in the CoCrMo alloy by more than three times as well as reduce the leaching of cobalt and chromium ions during wear. The novel composite materials were found to develop a tribofilm during wear. In the final project, a combination of hard nitride coating and addition of CaP bioceramic was investigated by processing a mixture of Ti6Al4V alloy and CaP in a nitrogen rich environment using the LENS(TM) technology. The resultant Ti64-CaP-Nitride coatings significantly reduced the wear damage on the substrate. There was also a drastic reduction in the metal ions leached during wear. The results indicate that the three

  2. Hard and Soft Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moos, Lejf

    2009-01-01

    of Denmark, and finally the third layer: the leadership used in Danish schools. The use of 'soft governance' is shifting the focus of governance and leadership from decisions towards influence and power and thus shifting the focus of the processes from the decision-making itself towards more focus......The governance and leadership at transnational, national and school level seem to be converging into a number of isomorphic forms as we see a tendency towards substituting 'hard' forms of governance, that are legally binding, with 'soft' forms based on persuasion and advice. This article analyses...... and discusses governance forms at several levels. The first layer is the global: the methods of 'soft governance' that are being utilised by transnational agencies. The second layer is the national and local: the shift in national and local governance seen in many countries, but here demonstrated in the case...

  3. Zirconium nitride hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Daiane; Amorim, Cintia Lugnani Gomes de; Soares, Gabriel Vieira; Figueroa, Carlos Alejandro; Baumvol, Israel Jacob Rabin; Basso, Rodrigo Leonardo de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium nitride (ZrN) nanometric films were deposited onto different substrates, in order to study the surface crystalline microstructure and also to investigate the electrochemical behavior to obtain a better composition that minimizes corrosion reactions. The coatings were produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD). The influence of the nitrogen partial pressure, deposition time and temperature over the surface properties was studied. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and corrosion experiments were performed to characterize the ZrN hard coatings. The ZrN films properties and microstructure changes according to the deposition parameters. The corrosion resistance increases with temperature used in the films deposition. Corrosion tests show that ZrN coating deposited by PVD onto titanium substrate can improve the corrosion resistance. (author)

  4. Process-Structure-Property Relationships for 316L Stainless Steel Fabricated by Additive Manufacturing and Its Implication for Component Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nancy; Yee, J.; Zheng, B.; Gaiser, K.; Reynolds, T.; Clemon, L.; Lu, W. Y.; Schoenung, J. M.; Lavernia, E. J.

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the process-structure-property relationships for 316L stainless steel prototyping utilizing 3-D laser engineered net shaping (LENS), a commercial direct energy deposition additive manufacturing process. The study concluded that the resultant physical metallurgy of 3-D LENS 316L prototypes is dictated by the interactive metallurgical reactions, during instantaneous powder feeding/melting, molten metal flow and liquid metal solidification. The study also showed 3-D LENS manufacturing is capable of building high strength and ductile 316L prototypes due to its fine cellular spacing from fast solidification cooling, and the well-fused epitaxial interfaces at metal flow trails and interpass boundaries. However, without further LENS process control and optimization, the deposits are vulnerable to localized hardness variation attributed to heterogeneous microstructure, i.e., the interpass heat-affected zone (HAZ) from repetitive thermal heating during successive layer depositions. Most significantly, the current deposits exhibit anisotropic tensile behavior, i.e., lower strain and/or premature interpass delamination parallel to build direction (axial). This anisotropic behavior is attributed to the presence of interpass HAZ, which coexists with flying feedstock inclusions and porosity from incomplete molten metal fusion. The current observations and findings contribute to the scientific basis for future process control and optimization necessary for material property control and defect mitigation.

  5. Surface flow in severe plastic deformation of metals by sliding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahato, A; Yeung, H; Chandrasekar, S; Guo, Y

    2014-01-01

    An in situ study of flow in severe plastic deformation (SPD) of surfaces by sliding is described. The model system – a hard wedge sliding against a metal surface – is representative of surface conditioning processes typical of manufacturing, and sliding wear. By combining high speed imaging and image analysis, important characteristics of unconstrained plastic flow inherent to this system are highlighted. These characteristics include development of large plastic strains on the surface and in the subsurface by laminar type flow, unusual fluid-like flow with vortex formation and surface folding, and defect and particle generation. Preferred conditions, as well as undesirable regimes, for surface SPD are demarcated. Implications for surface conditioning in manufacturing, modeling of surface deformation and wear are discussed

  6. Manufacturing network evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Farooq, Sami; Johansen, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper examines the effect of changes at the manufacturing plant level on other plants in the manufacturing network and also investigates the role of manufacturing plants on the evolution of a manufacturing network. Design/methodology/approach –The research questions are developed...... different manufacturing plants in the network and their impact on network transformation. Findings – The paper highlights the dominant role of manufacturing plants in the continuously changing shape of a manufacturing network. The paper demonstrates that a product or process change at one manufacturing...... by identifying the gaps in the reviewed literature. The paper is based on three case studies undertaken in Danish manufacturing companies to explore in detail their manufacturing plants and networks. The cases provide a sound basis for developing the research questions and explaining the interaction between...

  7. Janka hardness using nonstandard specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Marshall Begel; William Nelson

    2006-01-01

    Janka hardness determined on 1.5- by 3.5-in. specimens (2×4s) was found to be equivalent to that determined using the 2- by 2-in. specimen specified in ASTM D 143. Data are presented on the relationship between Janka hardness and the strength of clear wood. Analysis of historical data determined using standard specimens indicated no difference between side hardness...

  8. Additive Manufacturing of Fuel Injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadek Tadros, Dr. Alber Alphonse [Edison Welding Institute, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States); Ritter, Dr. George W. [Edison Welding Institute, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States); Drews, Charles Donald [Edison Welding Institute, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States); Ryan, Daniel [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2017-10-24

    Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D-printing, has been shifting from a novelty prototyping paradigm to a legitimate manufacturing tool capable of creating components for highly complex engineered products. An emerging AM technology for producing metal parts is the laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process; however, industry manufacturing specifications and component design practices for L-PBF have not yet been established. Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), an industrial gas turbine manufacturer, has been evaluating AM technology for development and production applications with the desire to enable accelerated product development cycle times, overall turbine efficiency improvements, and supply chain flexibility relative to conventional manufacturing processes (casting, brazing, welding). Accordingly, Solar teamed with EWI on a joint two-and-a-half-year project with the goal of developing a production L-PBF AM process capable of consistently producing high-nickel alloy material suitable for high temperature gas turbine engine fuel injector components. The project plan tasks were designed to understand the interaction of the process variables and their combined impact on the resultant AM material quality. The composition of the high-nickel alloy powders selected for this program met the conventional cast Hastelloy X compositional limits and were commercially available in different particle size distributions (PSD) from two suppliers. Solar produced all the test articles and both EWI and Solar shared responsibility for analyzing them. The effects of powder metal input stock, laser parameters, heat treatments, and post-finishing methods were evaluated. This process knowledge was then used to generate tensile, fatigue, and creep material properties data curves suitable for component design activities. The key process controls for ensuring consistent material properties were documented in AM powder and process specifications. The basic components of the project

  9. 2TB hard disk drive

    CERN Multimedia

    This particular object was used up until 2012 in the Data Centre. It slots into one of the Disk Server trays. Hard disks were invented in the 1950s. They started as large disks up to 20 inches in diameter holding just a few megabytes (link is external). They were originally called "fixed disks" or "Winchesters" (a code name used for a popular IBM product). They later became known as "hard disks" to distinguish them from "floppy disks (link is external)." Hard disks have a hard platter that holds the magnetic medium, as opposed to the flexible plastic film found in tapes and floppies.

  10. Correction of facial and mandibular asymmetry using a computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing prefabricated titanium implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jason; Hatamleh, Muhanad; Alwahadni, Ahed; Srinivasan, Dilip

    2014-05-01

    Patients with significant craniofacial asymmetry may have functional problems associated with their occlusion and aesthetic concerns related to the imbalance in soft and hard tissue profiles. This report details a case of facial asymmetry secondary to left mandible angle deficiency due to undergoing previous radiotherapy. We describe the correction of the bony deformity using computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing custom-made titanium onlay using novel direct metal laser sintering. The direct metal laser sintering onlay proved a very accurate operative fit and showed a good aesthetic correction of the bony defect with no reported complications postoperatively. It is a useful low-morbidity technique, and there is no resorption or associated donor-site complications.

  11. High speed metal removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, R. F.; Pohl, R. F.

    1982-10-01

    Four types of steel (AISI 1340, 4140, 4340, and HF-1) which are commonly used in large caliber projectile manufacture were machined at different hardness ranges representing the as-forged and the heat treated condition with various ceramic tools using ceramic coated tungsten carbide as a reference. Results show that machining speeds can be increased significantly using present available tooling.

  12. Progress in cold roll bonding of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Long; Nagai, Kotobu; Yin Fuxing

    2008-01-01

    Layered composite materials have become an increasingly interesting topic in industrial development. Cold roll bonding (CRB), as a solid phase method of bonding same or different metals by rolling at room temperature, has been widely used in manufacturing large layered composite sheets and foils. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of a technology using layered composite materials produced by CRB and discuss the suitability of this technology in the fabrication of layered composite materials. The effects of process parameters on bonding, mainly including process and surface preparation conditions, have been analyzed. Bonding between two sheets can be realized when deformation reduction reaches a threshold value. However, it is essential to remove surface contamination layers to produce a satisfactory bond in CRB. It has been suggested that the degreasing and then scratch brushing of surfaces create a strong bonding between the layers. Bonding mechanisms, in which the film theory is expressed as the major mechanism in CRB, as well as bonding theoretical models, have also been reviewed. It has also been showed that it is easy for fcc structure metals to bond compared with bcc and hcp structure metals. In addition, hardness on bonding same metals plays an important part in CRB. Applications of composites produced by CRB in industrial fields are briefly reviewed and possible developments of CRB in the future are also described. Corrections were made to the abstract and conclusion of this article on 18 June 2008. The corrected electronic version is identical to the print version. (topical review)

  13. Hard processes. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, B.L.; Khoze, V.A.; Lipatov, L.N.

    1984-01-01

    Deep inelastic (hard) processes are now at the epicenter of modern high-energy physics. These processes are governed by short-distance dynamics, which reveals the intrinsic structure of elementary particles. The theory of deep inelastic processes is now sufficiently well settled. The authors' aim was to give an effective tool to theoreticians and experimentalists who are engaged in high-energy physics. This book is intended primarily for physicists who are only beginning to study the field. To read the book, one should be acquainted with the Feynman diagram technique and with some particular topics from elementary particle theory (symmetries, dispersion relations, Regge pole theory, etc.). Theoretical consideration of deep inelastic processes is now based on quantum chromodynamics (QCD). At the same time, analysis of relevant physical phenomena demands a synthesis of QCD notions (quarks, gluons) with certain empirical characteristics. Therefore, the phenomenological approaches presented are a necessary stage in a study of this range of phenomena which should undoubtedly be followed by a detailed description based on QCD and electroweak theory. The authors were naturally unable to dwell on experimental data accumulated during the past decade of intensive investigations. Priority was given to results which allow a direct comparison with theoretical predictions. (Auth.)

  14. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V. (GVSt), Herne (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    International the coal market in 2014 was the first time in a long time in a period of stagnation. In Germany, the coal consumption decreased even significantly, mainly due to the decrease in power generation. Here the national energy transition has now been noticable affected negative for coal use. The political guidances can expect a further significant downward movement for the future. In the present phase-out process of the German hard coal industry with still three active mines there was in 2014 no decommissioning. But the next is at the end of 2015, and the plans for the time after mining have been continued. [German] International war der Markt fuer Steinkohle 2014 erstmals seit langem wieder von einer Stagnation gekennzeichnet. In Deutschland ging der Steinkohlenverbrauch sogar deutlich zurueck, vor allem wegen des Rueckgangs in der Stromerzeugung. Hier hat sich die nationale Energiewende nun spuerbar und fuer die Steinkohlennutzung negativ ausgewirkt. Die politischen Weichenstellungen lassen fuer die Zukunft eine weitere erhebliche Abwaertsbewegung erwarten. Bei dem im Auslaufprozess befindlichen deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau mit noch drei aktiven Bergwerken gab es 2014 keine Stilllegung. Doch die naechste steht zum Jahresende 2015 an, und die Planungen fuer die Zeit nach dem Bergbau sind fortgefuehrt worden.

  15. Melting of polydisperse hard disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, S.; Frenkel, D.

    2004-01-01

    The melting of a polydisperse hard-disk system is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations in the semigrand canonical ensemble. This is done in the context of possible continuous melting by a dislocation-unbinding mechanism, as an extension of the two-dimensional hard-disk melting problem. We find

  16. The Frontiers of Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-03

    Additive manufacturing, more commonly known as 3-D printing, has become a ubiquitous tool in science for its precise control over mechanical design. For additive manufacturing to work, a 3-D structure is split into thin 2D slices, and then different physical properties, such as photo-polymerization or melting, are used to grow the sequential layers. The level of control allows not only for devices to be made with a variety of materials: e.g. plastics, metals, and quantum dots, but to also have finely controlled structures leading to other novel properties. While 3-D printing is widely used by hobbyists for making models, it also has industrial applications in structural engineering, biological tissue scaffolding, customized electric circuitry, fuel cells, security, and more.

  17. Radiation hardness assurances categories for COTS technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hash, G.L.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Sexton, F.W.; Winokur, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    A comparison of the radiation tolerance of three commercial, and one radiation hardened SRAM is presented for four radiation environments. This work has shown the difficulty associated with strictly categorizing a device based solely on its radiation response, since its category depends on the specific radiation environment considered. For example, the 3.3-V Paradigm SRAM could be considered a radiation-tolerant device except for its SEU response. A more useful classification depends on the methods the manufacturer uses to ensure radiation hardness, i.e. whether specific design and process techniques have been used to harden the device. Finally, this work has shown that burned-in devices may fail functionally as much as 50% lower in total dose environments than non-burned-in devices. No burn-in effect was seen in dose-rate upset, latchup, or SEE environments. The user must ensure that total dose lot acceptance testing was performed on burned-in devices

  18. Influence of Scanning Speed on the Microhardness Property of Additive Manufactured Titanium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Mahamood

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ti6Al4V is an important aerospace alloy, and it is challenging processing this material through traditional manufacturing processes. Laser metal deposition, an additive manufacturing process offers lots of advantages for processing aerospace materials, the ability to increase buy-to-fly ratio by at least 80% amongst other things. An improved property is achievable through laser metal deposition. The Ti6Al4V powder of particle size 150-200 μm was deposited using a 4.0 kW Rofin Sinar Nd: YAG laser on 72x72x5 mm Ti6Al4V substrate. The powder was delivered using argon gas as a shield. The scanning speed was varied between 0.01 and 0.12 m/sec. The microstructures of the deposited layers were studied by optical microscope and the microhardness was also measured using the Vickers hardness tester. The properties of the deposited tracks were compared to that of the substrate. The microhardness was found to increase with increase in scanning speed.

  19. Additive Manufactured Superconducting Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Eric; Rosen, Yaniv; Woolleet, Nathan; Materise, Nicholas; Voisin, Thomas; Wang, Morris; Mireles, Jorge; Carosi, Gianpaolo; Dubois, Jonathan

    Superconducting radio frequency cavities provide an ultra-low dissipative environment, which has enabled fundamental investigations in quantum mechanics, materials properties, and the search for new particles in and beyond the standard model. However, resonator designs are constrained by limitations in conventional machining techniques. For example, current through a seam is a limiting factor in performance for many waveguide cavities. Development of highly reproducible methods for metallic parts through additive manufacturing, referred to colloquially as 3D printing\\x9D, opens the possibility for novel cavity designs which cannot be implemented through conventional methods. We present preliminary investigations of superconducting cavities made through a selective laser melting process, which compacts a granular powder via a high-power laser according to a digitally defined geometry. Initial work suggests that assuming a loss model and numerically optimizing a geometry to minimize dissipation results in modest improvements in device performance. Furthermore, a subset of titanium alloys, particularly, a titanium, aluminum, vanadium alloy (Ti - 6Al - 4V) exhibits properties indicative of a high kinetic inductance material. This work is supported by LDRD 16-SI-004.

  20. Appraising manufacturing location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    International location of manufacturing activities is an issue for managers of manufacturing companies as well as public policy makers. For managers, the issue is relevant because international locations offer opportunities for lowering costs due to productivity improvements. For governments the