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Sample records for hard exclusive diffractive

  1. Imaging the proton via hard exclusive production in diffractive pp scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles Hyde; Leonid Frankfurt; Mark Strikman; Christian Weiss

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for probing Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) via exclusive production of a high-mass system (H = heavy quarkonium, di-photon, di-jet, Higgs boson) in diffractive pp scattering, pp -> p + H + p. In such processes the interplay of hard and soft interactions gives rise to a diffraction pattern in the final-state proton transverse momenta, which is sensitive to the transverse spatial distribution of partons in the colliding protons. We comment on the plans for diffractive pp measurements at RHIC and LHC. Such studies could complement future measurements of GPDs in hard exclusive ep scattering (JLab, COMPASS, EIC)

  2. Hard exclusive QCD processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, W.

    2007-01-15

    Hard exclusive processes in high energy electron proton scattering offer the opportunity to get access to a new generation of parton distributions, the so-called generalized parton distributions (GPDs). This functions provide more detailed informations about the structure of the nucleon than the usual PDFs obtained from DIS. In this work we present a detailed analysis of exclusive processes, especially of hard exclusive meson production. We investigated the influence of exclusive produced mesons on the semi-inclusive production of mesons at fixed target experiments like HERMES. Further we give a detailed analysis of higher order corrections (NLO) for the exclusive production of mesons in a very broad range of kinematics. (orig.)

  3. CMS results on hard diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00107098

    2013-01-01

    In these proceedings we present CMS results on hard diffraction. Diffractive dijet production in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV is discussed. The cross section for dijet production is presented as a function of $\\tilde{\\xi}$, representing the fractional momentum loss of the scattered proton in single-diffractive events. The observation of W and Z boson production in events with a large pseudo-rapidity gap is also presented.

  4. Hard diffraction and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, A.

    1995-09-01

    The field of hard diffraction, which studies events with a rapidity gap and a hard scattering, has expanded dramatically recently. A review of new results from CDF, D OE, H1 and ZEUS will be given. These results include diffractive jet production, deep-inelastic scattering in large rapidity gap events, rapidity gaps between high transverse energy jets, and a search for diffractive W-boson production. The combination of these results gives new insight into the exchanged object, believed to be the pomeron. The results axe consistent with factorization and with a hard pomeron that contains both quarks and gluons. There is also evidence for the exchange of a strongly interacting color singlet in high momentum transfer (36 2 ) events

  5. Hard scattering and a diffractive trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.L.; Collins, J.C.; Soper, D.E.; Sterman, G.

    1986-02-01

    Conclusions concerning the properties of hard scattering in diffractively produced systems are summarized. One motivation for studying diffractive hard scattering is to investigate the interface between Regge theory and perturbative QCD. Another is to see whether diffractive triggering can result in an improvement in the signal-to-background ratio of measurements of production of very heavy quarks. 5 refs

  6. Theory of hard diffraction and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Duca, V.

    1995-06-01

    In this talk we review the models describing the hard diffractive production of jets or more generally high-mass states in presence of rapidity gaps in hadron-hadron and lepton-hadron collisions. By rapidity gaps we mean regions on the lego plot in (pseudo)-rapidity and azimuthal angle where no hadrons are produced, between the jet(s) and an elastically scattered hadron (single hard diffraction) or between two jets (double hard diffraction). (orig.)

  7. Theory of hard diffraction and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Duca, V.

    1996-01-01

    In this talk we review the models describing the hard diffractive production of jets or more generally high-mass states in presence of rapidity gaps in hadron-hadron and lepton-hadron collisions. By rapidity gaps we mean regions on the lego plot in (pseudo)-rapidity and azimuthal angle where no hadrons are produced, between the jet(s) and an elastically scattered hadron (single hard diffraction) or between two jets (double hard diffraction). copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  8. A theoretical overview on single hard diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuesthoff, M.

    1996-01-01

    The concept of the Pomeron structure function and its application in Single Hard Diffraction at hadron colliders and in diffractive Deep Inelastic Scattering is critically reviewed. Some alternative approaches are briefly surveyed with a focus on QCD inspired models

  9. Novel Aspects of Hard Diffraction in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2005-01-01

    Initial- and final-state interactions from gluon-exchange, normally neglected in the parton model have a profound effect in QCD hard-scattering reactions, leading to leading-twist single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, diffractive hard hadronic reactions, and nuclear shadowing and antishadowing--leading-twist physics not incorporated in the light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. I also discuss the use of diffraction to materialize the Fock states of a hadronic projectile and test QCD color transparency

  10. ATLAS results on diffraction and exclusive production

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00224260; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Various aspects of forward physics have been studied by the ATLAS collaboration using data from Run I at the LHC. In this text, main results of three published analyses are summarized, based on data from proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ or 8 TeV collected between 2010 and 2012. One analysis deals with diffractive signature with at least two jets in the final state, the other two study exclusive production of a pair of leptons or W bosons.

  11. Transverse Imaging of the Proton in Exclusive Diffractive pp Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian Weiss; Leonid Frankfurt; Charles Hyde-Wright; Mark Strikman

    2006-01-01

    In a forthcoming paper we describe a new approach to rapidity gap survival (RGS) in the production of high-mass systems (H = dijet, Higgs, etc.) in exclusive double-gap diffractive pp scattering, pp -> p + H + p. It is based on the idea that hard and soft interactions are approximately independent (QCD factorization), and allows us to calculate the RGS probability in a model-independent way in terms of the gluon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) in the colliding protons and the pp elastic scattering amplitude. Here we focus on the transverse momentum dependence of the cross section. By measuring the ''diffraction pattern'', one can perform detailed tests of the interplay of hard and soft interactions, and even extract information about the gluon GPD in the proton from the data

  12. Hard diffraction at HERA and Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaidalov, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    A relation between hard diffraction at HERA and Tevatron is discussed. A model, which takes into account unitarity effects is developed for interaction of high-energy virtual photons with nucleons. It is shown that this model gives a good description of HERA data on both total γ* p total cross section and diffractive dissociation of virtual photons in a broad region of Q 2 . It is shown how to describe the CDF data on diffractive jet production at Tevatron using an information on distribution of partons in the Pomeron from HERA experiments

  13. Diffractive hard scattering and the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.L.; Collins, J.C.; Soper, D.E.; Sterman, G.

    1986-01-01

    Events in high energy hadron collisions are discussed that contain a hard scattering, in the sense that very heavy quarks or high P/sub T/ jets are produced, yet are diffractive, in the sense that one of the incident hadrons is scattered with only a small energy loss. 12 refs., 6 figs

  14. Hard Diffraction - from Blois 1985 to 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnar, Ingelman [Uppsala Univ., High Energy Physics (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    The idea of diffractive processes with a hard scale involved, to resolve the underlying parton dynamics, was presented at the first Blois conference in 1985 and experimentally verified a few years later. Today hard diffraction is an attractive research field with high-quality data and new theoretical models. The trend from Regge-based pomeron models to QCD-based parton level models has given insights on QCD dynamics involving perturbative gluon exchange mechanisms. In the new QCD-based models, the pomeron is not part of the proton wave function, but diffraction is an effect of the scattering process. Models based on interactions with a colour background field provide an interesting approach which avoids conceptual problems of pomeron-based models, such as the pomeron flux, and provide a basis for common theoretical framework for all final states, diffractive gap events as well as non-diffractive events. Finally, the new process of gaps between jets provides strong evidence for the BFKL dynamics as predicted since long by QCD, but so far hard to establish experimentally.

  15. Hard diffraction and deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    Since the advent of hard-collision physics, the study of diffractive processes - shadow physics - has been less prominent than before. However, there is now a renewed interest in the subject, especially in that aspect which synthesizes the short-distance, hard-collision phenomena with the classical physics of large rapidity-gaps. This is especially stimulated by the recent data on deep-inelastic scattering from HERA, as well as the theoretical work which relates to it. The word diffraction is sometimes used by high-energy physicists in a loose way. The author defines this term to mean: A diffractive process occurs if and only if there is a large rapidity gap in the produced-particle phase space which is not exponentially suppressed. Here a rapidity gap means essentially no hadrons produced into the rapidity gap (which operates in the open-quotes legoclose quotes phase-space of pseudo-rapidity and azimuthal angle). And non-exponential suppression implies that the cross-section for creating a gap with width Δη does not have a power-law decrease with increasing subenergy s=e Δη , but behaves at most like some power of pseudorapidity Δη∼log(s). The term hard diffraction shall simply refer to those diffractive process which have jets in the final-state phase-space

  16. Hard diffraction and small-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    In the United States, phrases such as ''small-x evolution'', ''the BFKL Pomeron'', ''deep-inelastic rapiditygap events'' and ''hard-diffraction'' do not generate the same intensity of discussion amongst high-energy physicists that they do in Europe. However, for three days in the fall such discussion filled the air at Fermilab. The ''2nd Workshop on Small-x and Diffractive Physics at the Tevatron'' was a review of the rapid theoretical and experimental progress taking place in this field. Although Quantum Chromo-dynamics (QCD) has been established as the theory of strong interactions for twenty years, as yet neither perturbative high-energy calculations nor low-energy non-perturbative techniques have been successfully extended to the mixture of high energy and low transverse momenta which characterize traditional ''soft'' diffractive processes. The simplest soft diffractive process is elastic scattering. In this case it is easiest to accept that there is an exchanged ''pomeron'', which can be pictured as a virtual entity with no electric charge or strong charge (colour), perhaps like an excitation of the vacuum. The same pomeron is expected to appear in all diffractive processes. Understanding the pomeron in QCD is a fundamental theoretical and experimental challenge. In the last two or three years the ''frontier'' in this challenging area of QCD has been pushed back significantly in both theory and experiment. Progress has been achieved by studying the evolution of hard collisions to relatively smaller constituent momenta (small x) and by studying ''hard'' diffractive collisions containing simultaneous signatures of diffraction and hard perturbative processes. The hard processes have included high transverse momentum jet production, deep inelastic lepton scattering, and (most recently) W

  17. Tomography for amplitudes of hard exclusive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, M.V.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss which part of information about hadron structure encoded in the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) [part of total GPD image] can be restored from the known amplitude of a hard exclusive process. The physics content of this partial image is analyzed. Among other things, we show that this partial image contains direct information about how the target hadron responses to the (string) quark-antiquark operator of arbitrary spin J. Explicit equations relating physics content of the partial image of GPDs directly to the data are derived. Also some new results concerning the dual parametrization of GPDs are presented

  18. QCD and hard diffraction at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrow, Michael G.; Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    As an introduction to QCD at the LHC I given an overview of QCD at the Tevatron, emphasizing the high Q 2 frontier which will be taken over by the LHC. After describing briefly the LHC detectors I discuss high mass diffraction, in particular central exclusive production of Higgs and vector boson pairs. I introduce the FP420 project to measure the scattered protons 420 m downstream of ATLAS and CMS

  19. Recent diffractive and exclusive results from CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bylinkin, Alexandr

    2017-01-01

    A measurement of the exclusive and semi-exclusive production of charged pion pairs in proton-proton collisions, $pp\\rightarrow p(p^{*})+ \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}+ p (p^{*})$, where the $ \\pi^+\\pi^-$ pair is emitted at central rapidities,and the scattered protons stay intact (p) or diffractively dissociate ($p^*$) without detection is presented in these proceedings.The measurement is performed with the CMS detector at the LHC, using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 450$\\mu b^{-1}$ collected at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The dipion cross section, measured for single-pion transverse momentum $p_T > 0.2$ GeV and rapidity $\\mid y\\mid < 2$, is $26.5\\pm0.3(stat.)\\pm5.0(syst.)\\pm1.1\\mu b$. The differential cross sections measured as a function of the invariant mass and $p_T$ of the pion pair are compared to phenomenological predictions.

  20. Hard exclusive meson production to constrain GPDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolbeek, Johannes ter; Fischer, Horst; Gorzellik, Matthias; Gross, Arne; Joerg, Philipp; Koenigsmann, Kay; Malm, Pasquale; Regali, Christopher; Schmidt, Katharina; Sirtl, Stefan; Szameitat, Tobias [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Collaboration: COMPASS Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The concept of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) combines the two-dimensional spatial information, given by form factors, with the longitudinal momentum information from the PDFs. Thus, GPDs provide a three-dimensional 'tomography' of the nucleon. Furthermore, according to Ji's sum rule, the GPDs H and E enable access to the total angular momenta of quarks, antiquarks and gluons. While H can be approached using electroproduction cross section, hard exclusive meson production off a transversely polarized target can help to constrain the GPD E. At the COMPASS experiment at CERN, two periods of data taking were performed in 2007 and 2010, using a longitudinally polarized 160 GeV/c muon beam and a transversely polarized NH{sub 3} target. This talk introduces the data analysis of the process μ + p → μ' + p' + V, and recent results are presented.

  1. Factorization and non-factorization in diffractive hard scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berera, Arjun

    1997-01-01

    Factorization, in the sense defined for inclusive hard scattering, is discussed for diffractive hard scattering. A factorization theorem similar to its inclusive counterpart is presented for diffractive DIS. For hadron-hadron diffractive hard scattering, in contrast to its inclusive counterpart, the expected breakdown of factorization is discussed. Cross section estimates are given from a simple field theory model for non-factorizing double-pomeron-exchange (DPE) dijet production with and without account for Sudakov suppression

  2. A Short Review of the Theory of Hard Exclusive Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallon, S.

    2012-01-01

    We first present an introduction to the theory of hard exclusive processes. We then illustrate this theory by a few selected examples. The last part is devoted to the most recent developments in the asymptotical energy limit. (author)

  3. Dispersion representations for hard exclusive processes. Beyond the born approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, M.; Ivanov, D.Yu.

    2007-07-01

    Several hard exclusive scattering processes admit a description in terms of generalized parton distributions and perturbative hard-scattering kernels. Both the physical amplitude and the hard-scattering kernels fulfill dispersion relations. We give a detailed investigation of their consistency at all orders in perturbation theory. The results shed light on the information about generalized parton distributions that can be extracted from the real and imaginary parts of exclusive amplitudes. They also provide a practical consistency check for models of these distributions in which Lorentz invariance is not exactly satisfied. (orig.)

  4. Exclusive Double Diffractive Higgs Boson Production at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, V; 10.1140/epjc/s2004-01972-4

    2004-01-01

    Exclusive double diffractive (EDD) Higgs boson production is analyzed in the framework of the Regge-eikonal approach. Total and differential cross-sections for the process $p+p\\to p+H+p$ are calculated. Experimental possibilities to find Higgs boson at LHC are discussed.

  5. Generalized parton distributions and rapidity gap survival in exclusive diffractive pp scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonid Frankfurt; Charles Hyde-Wright; Mark Strikman; Christian Weiss

    2007-03-01

    We propose a new approach to the problem of rapidity gap survival (RGS) in the production of high-mass systems (H = dijet, heavy quarkonium, Higgs boson) in double-gap exclusive diffractive pp scattering, pp-->p + (gap) + H + (gap) + p. It is based on the idea that hard and soft interactions proceed over widely different time- and distance scales and are thus approximately independent. The high-mass system is produced in a hard scattering process with exchange of two gluons between the protons. Its amplitude is calculable in terms of the gluon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) in the protons, which can be measured in J= production in exclusive ep scattering. The hard scattering process is modified by soft spectator interactions, which we calculate in a model-independent way in terms of the pp elastic scattering amplitude. Contributions from inelastic intermediate states are suppressed. A simple geometric picture of the interplay of hard and soft interactions in diffraction is obtained. The onset of the black-disk limit in pp scattering at TeV energies strongly suppresses diffraction at small impact parameters and is the main factor in determining the RGS probability. Correlations between hard and soft interactions (e.g. due to scattering from the long-range pion field of the proton, or due to possible short-range transverse correlations between partons) further decrease the RGS probability. We also investigate the dependence of the diffractive cross section on the transverse momenta of the final-state protons (''diffraction pattern''). By measuring this dependence one can perform detailed tests of the interplay of hard and soft interactions, and even extract information about the gluon GPD in the proton. Such studies appear to be feasible with the planned forward detectors at the LHC.

  6. Generalized parton distributions and rapidity gap survival in exclusive diffractive pp scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonid Frankfurt; Charles Hyde-Wright; Mark Strikman; Christian Weiss

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new approach to the problem of rapidity gap survival (RGS) in the production of high-mass systems (H = dijet, heavy quarkonium, Higgs boson) in double-gap exclusive diffractive pp scattering, pp-->p + (gap) + H + (gap) + p. It is based on the idea that hard and soft interactions proceed over widely different time- and distance scales and are thus approximately independent. The high-mass system is produced in a hard scattering process with exchange of two gluons between the protons. Its amplitude is calculable in terms of the gluon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) in the protons, which can be measured in J= production in exclusive ep scattering. The hard scattering process is modified by soft spectator interactions, which we calculate in a model-independent way in terms of the pp elastic scattering amplitude. Contributions from inelastic intermediate states are suppressed. A simple geometric picture of the interplay of hard and soft interactions in diffraction is obtained. The onset of the black-disk limit in pp scattering at TeV energies strongly suppresses diffraction at small impact parameters and is the main factor in determining the RGS probability. Correlations between hard and soft interactions (e.g. due to scattering from the long-range pion field of the proton, or due to possible short-range transverse correlations between partons) further decrease the RGS probability. We also investigate the dependence of the diffractive cross section on the transverse momenta of the final-state protons (''diffraction pattern''). By measuring this dependence one can perform detailed tests of the interplay of hard and soft interactions, and even extract information about the gluon GPD in the proton. Such studies appear to be feasible with the planned forward detectors at the LHC

  7. Measurement of diffractive and exclusive processes with the ATLAS detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gach Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ATLAS Collaboration has carried out a study of diffractive dijet production in proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of √s = 7 TeV at the LHC. The data distributions are compared with Monte Carlo models and the rapidity gap survival probability has been estimated in the kinematic region with high diffractive contribution. Prospects for exclusive jet production studies with the forward proton tagging capability of the AFP sub-detector of ATLAS are also discussed. First results based on data taken jointly with the ATLAS and the LHCf detectors in a p+Pb run will also be shown. In addition, the measurement of the cross-section for the exclusive production of di-lepton pairs in pp collisions at √s = 7 TeV is discussed.

  8. Diffractive hard scattering at ep and p antip colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruni, P.; Ingelman, G.; Uppsala Univ.

    1993-12-01

    Models for diffractive scattering based on the exchange of a pomeron with a parton structure are analysed in terms of hard scattering processes and the resulting characteristics of the final state. Diffractive deep inelastic ep scattering is considered in connection with the recently observed rapidity gap events at HERA. Heavy flavour and W, Z production in p anti p interactions are interesting measures of the gluon and quark component, respectively, in the pomeron. (orig.)

  9. Rapidity gap survival in central exclusive diffraction: Dynamical mechanisms and uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strikman, Mark; Weiss, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We summarize our understanding of the dynamical mechanisms governing rapidity gap survival in central exclusive diffraction, pp -> p + H + p (H = high-mass system), and discuss the uncertainties in present estimates of the survival probability. The main suppression of diffractive scattering is due to inelastic soft spectator interactions at small pp impact parameters and can be described in a mean-field approximation (independent hard and soft interactions). Moderate extra suppression results from fluctuations of the partonic configurations of the colliding protons. At LHC energies absorptive interactions of hard spectator partons associated with the gg -> H process reach the black-disk regime and cause substantial additional suppression, pushing the survival probability below 0.01.

  10. Exclusive diffractive processes at HERA within the dipole picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, H.; Motkyka, L.; Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Krakow; Watt, G.; Univ. College London

    2006-08-01

    We present a simultaneous analysis, within an impact parameter dependent saturated dipole model, of exclusive diffractive vector meson (J/ψ, φ and ρ) production, deeply virtual Compton scattering and the total γ * p cross section data measured at HERA. Various cross sections measured as a function of the kinematic variables Q 2 , W and t are well described, with little sensitivity to the details of the vector meson wave functions. We determine the properties of the gluon density in the proton in both longitudinal and transverse dimensions, including the impact parameter dependent saturation scale. The overall success of the description indicates universality of the emerging gluon distribution and proton shape. (orig.)

  11. Hard single diffractive jet production at D0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abachi, S.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.

    1996-08-01

    Preliminary results from the D null experiment on jet production with forward rapidity gaps in p anti p collisions are presented. A class of dijet events with a forward rapidity gap is observed at center-of-mass energies √s = 1800 GeV and 630 GeV. The number of events with rapidity gaps at both center-of-mass energies is significantly greater than the expectation from multiplicity fluctuations and is consistent with a hard single diffractive process. A small class of events with two forward gaps and central dijets is also observed at 1800 GeV. This topology is consistent with hard double pomeron exchange

  12. Exclusive central diffractive production of scalar, pseudoscalar and vector mesons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebiedowicz P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss exclusive central diffractive production of scalar (ƒ0(980, ƒ0(1370, ƒ0(1500, pseudoscalar (η, η′(958, and vector (ρ0 mesons in proton-proton collisions. The amplitudes are formulated in terms of effective vertices required to respect standard rules of Quantum Field Theory and propagators for the exchanged pomeron and reggeons. Different pomeron-pomeron-meson tensorial (vectorial coupling structures are possible in general. In most cases two lowest orbital angular momentum - spin couplings are necessary to describe experimental differential distributions. For the ƒ0(980 and η production the reggeon-pomeron, pomeron-reggeon, and reggeon-reggeon exchanges are included in addition, which seems to be necessary at relatively low energies. The theoretical results are compared with the WA102 experimental data, in order to determine the model parameters. For the ρ0 production the photon-pomeron and pomeron-photon exchanges are considered. The coupling parameters of tensor pomeron and/or reggeon are fixed from the H1 and ZEUS experimental data of the γp → ρ0 p reaction. We present first predictions of this mechanism for pp → ppπ+π− reaction being studied at COMPASS, RHIC, Tevatron, and LHC. Correlation in azimuthal angle between outgoing protons and distribution in pion rapidities at √s = 7 TeV are presented. We show that high-energy central production of mesons could provide crucial information on the spin structure of the soft pomeron.

  13. Reggeon and pion contributions in exclusive diffractive processes at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golec-Biernat, K.; Kwiecinski, J.; Szczurek, A.

    1997-01-01

    The contribution of subleading f 2 , ω, a 2 and ρ reggeons to the diffractive structure function F 2 D(3) (x P , β, Q 2 )are estimated. In addition we include the pion exchange which was recently found to be responsible for the violation of the Gottfried Sum Rule. The reggeon and pion contribution lead to a violation of the factorization of the diffractive structure function. The diffractive structure function is separated into the contributions with leading proton Δ (n) F 2 D /Δ (p) F 2 D as a function ox x P in the interval 10 -2 P -1 . The effect is due to the exchange of the isovector a 2 and ρ reggeons at smaller x P and the pion exchange at x P > 10 -2 . (author). 27 refs, 4 figs

  14. Looking for the diffractive exclusive signal in the dijet mass fraction measurement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kepka, Oldřich; Royon, C.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 9 (2008), s. 2533-2538 ISSN 0587-4254. [ School on QCD, Low-x Physics, Saturation and Diffraction. Copanello, Calabria, 01.07.2007-14.07.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC527 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : exclusive diffractive production * diffraction Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 0.767, year: 2008

  15. Hard exclusive pion electroproduction at backward angles with CLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K.; Guidal, M.; Gothe, R. W.; Pire, B.; Semenov-Tian-Shansky, K.; Laget, J.-M.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adhikari, S.; Akbar, Z.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Balossino, I.; Baltzell, N. A.; Barion, L.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Cao, F. T.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Charles, G.; Chetry, T.; Ciullo, G.; Clark, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Defurne, M.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fersch, R.; Filippi, A.; Garçon, M.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Girod, F. X.; Golovatch, E.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Heddle, D.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jenkins, D.; Johnston, S.; Joo, K.; Kabir, M. L.; Keller, D.; Khachatryan, G.; Khachatryan, M.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Lanza, L.; Livingston, K.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; McKinnon, B.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Osipenko, M.; Paolone, M.; Paremuzyan, R.; Pasyuk, E.; Phelps, W.; Pogorelko, O.; Poudel, J.; Price, J. W.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schumacher, R. A.; Sharabian, Y.; Skorodumina, Iu.; Smith, G. D.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tan, J. A.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Wei, X.; Zachariou, N.; Zhang, J.

    2018-05-01

    We report on the first measurement of cross sections for exclusive deeply virtual pion electroproduction off the proton, ep →e‧ nπ+, above the resonance region at backward pion center-of-mass angles. The φπ* -dependent cross sections were measured, from which we extracted three combinations of structure functions of the proton. Our results are compatible with calculations based on nucleon-to-pion transition distribution amplitudes (TDAs). These non-perturbative objects are defined as matrix elements of three-quark-light-cone-operators and characterize partonic correlations with a particular emphasis on baryon charge distribution inside a nucleon.

  16. Status and prospects of measurements of exclusive and diffractive processes with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Fiducial and differential cross-sections are presented for the exclusive production of pairs of leptons and W bosons, measured across a range of centre-of-mass energies by the ATLAS Collaboration at the LHC. All measurements are compatible with Standard Model predictions. A measurement of the dijet production cross-section is presented differentially in variables which distinguish between diffractive and non-diffractive scattering. The first analysis utilising the new AFP detectors at ATLAS is detailed.

  17. Soft color interactions and diffractive hard scattering at the Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enberg, R.; Timneanu, N.; Ingelman, G.; Uppsala Univ.

    2001-06-01

    An improved understanding of nonperturbative QCD can be obtained by the recently developed soft color interaction models. Their essence is the variation of color string-field topologies, giving a unified description of final states in high energy interactions, e.g., diffractive and nondiffractive events in ep and pp. Here we present a detailed study of such models (the soft color interaction model and the generalized area law model) applied to pp, considering also the general problem of the underlying event including beam particle remnants. With models turned to HERA ep data, we find a good description also of Tevatron data on production of W, bottom and jets in diffractive events defined either by leading antiprotons or by one or two rapidity gaps in the forward or backward regions. We also give predictions for diffractive J/ψ production where the soft exchange mechanism produces both a gap and a color singlet cc state in the same event. This soft color interaction approach is also compared with Pomeron-based models for diffraction, and some possibilities to experimentally discriminate between these different approaches are discussed. (orig.)

  18. From HERA to the Tevatron: A scaling law in hard diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulianos, K.

    1997-01-01

    Results on hard diffraction from CDF are reviewed and compared with predictions based on the diffractive structure function of the proton measured in deep inelastic scattering at HERA. The predictions are generally larger than the measured rates by a factor of ∼ 6, suggesting a breakdown of conventional factorization. Correct predictions are obtained by scaling the rapidity gap probability distribution of the diffractive structure function to the total integrated gap probability. The scaling of the gap probability is traced back to the pomeron flux renormalization hypothesis, which was introduced to unitarize the soft diffraction amplitude

  19. Status and Prospects of measurements of exclusive and diffractive processes with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    In the absence of forward proton tagging, exclusive processes can be distinguished in the central part of the ATLAS detector exploiting the large rapidity gap in the central region and the absence of charged particles reconstructed in the inner tracking detector. This strategy has been exploited to study the exclusive production of dilepton pairs in the data taken at centre-of-mass energies of 7 TeV and the exclusive production of W pairs in the 8 TeV data. We also present the latest results on exclusive dimuon production at 13 TeV. Moreover, the ATLAS collaboration has carried out a study of diffractive dijet production. The data distributions are compared with Monte Carlo models and the rapidity gap survival probability has been estimated in the kinematic region with high diffractive contribution. The talk will conclude with prospects of the upcoming physics program with the Atlas Forward Proton detector. Recent results demonstrate its capabilities to distinguish single diffractive events via forward proton...

  20. Production of exclusive dijets in diffractive deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.

    2015-05-01

    Production of exclusive dijets in diffractive deep inelastic e ± p scattering has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 372 pb -1 . The measurement was performed for γ * -p centre-of-mass energies in the range 9025 GeV 2 . Energy and transverse-energy flows around the jet axis are presented. The cross section is presented as a function of β and φ, where β=x/x P , x is the Bjorken variable and x P is the proton fractional longitudinal momentum loss. The angle φ is defined by the γ * -dijet plane and the γ * -e ± plane in the rest frame of the diffractive final state. The φ cross section is measured in bins of β. The results are compared to predictions from models based on different assumptions about the nature of the diffractive exchange.

  1. Production of exclusive dijets in diffractive deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Gueta, O.; Kananov, S.; Levy, A.; Stern, A.; Abt, I.; Caldwell, A.; Schmidke, W.B.; Verbytskyi, A.; Adamczyk, L.; Gach, G.; Guzik, M.; Kisielewska, D.; Przybycien, M.; Adamus, M.; Tymieniecka, T.; Antonelli, S.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Iudin, A.; Kadenko, I.; Kondrashova, N.; Kononenko, O.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Shevchenko, R.; Shkola, O.; Trofymov, A.; Viazlo, O.; Zakharchuk, N.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Borras, K.; Ciesielski, R.; Dolinska, G.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Hain, W.; Januschek, F.; Klein, U.; Korol, I.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Kuprash, O.; Libov, V.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loehr, B.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Makarenko, I.; Malka, J.; Myronenko, V.; Notz, D.; Roloff, P.; Rubinsky, I.; Schneekloth, U.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Stefaniuk, N.; Szuba, J.; Turkot, O.; Wichmann, K.; Wolf, G.; Zenaiev, O.; Bertolin, A.; Dusini, S.; Longhin, A.; Stanco, L.; Bloch, I.; Boos, E.G.; Pokrovskiy, N.S.; Zhautykov, B.O.; Brock, I.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Paul, E.; Brook, N.H.; Wing, M.; Brugnera, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Limentani, S.; Bruni, A.; Corradi, M.; Bussey, P.J.; Saxon, D.H.; Skillicorn, I.O.; Capua, M.; Schioppa, M.; Tassi, E.; Catterall, C.D.; Chwastowski, J.; Figiel, J.; Krupa, B.; Stopa, P.; Zawiejski, L.; Ciborowski, J.; Grzelak, G.; Nowak, R.J.; Perlanski, W.; Tomaszewska, J.; Zarnecki, A.F.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Devenish, R.C.E.; Walczak, R.; Corriveau, F.; Dementiev, R.K.; Gladilin, L.K.; Golubkov, Yu.A.; Korzhavina, I.A.; Levchenko, B.B.; Lukina, O.Yu.; Shcheglova, L.M.; Zotkin, D.S.; Foster, B.; Gallo, E.; Klanner, R.; Kovalchuk, N.; Lohrmann, E.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Szuba, D.; Turcato, M.; Hochman, D.; Karshon, U.; Hori, R.; Nagano, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Ibrahim, Z.A.; Jomhari, N.Z.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Mohammad Nasir, N.; Wan Abdullah, W.A.T.; Iga, Y.; Ishitsuka, M.; Kuze, M.; Nobe, T.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Singh, I.; Kotanski, A.; Slominski, W.; Ruspa, M.; Shyrma, Yu.; Zhmak, N.; Solano, A.; Tsurugai, T.

    2016-01-01

    Production of exclusive dijets in diffractive deep inelastic e ± p scattering has been measured with the ZEUS detector atHERAusing an integrated luminosity of 372 pb -1 . The measurement was performed for γ* - p centre-of-mass energies in the range 90 < W < 250 GeV and for photon virtualities Q 2 > 25 GeV 2 . Energy flows around the jet axis are presented. The cross section is presented as a function of β and φ, where β = x/x P , x is the Bjorken variable and x P is the proton fractional longitudinal momentum loss. The angle φ is defined by the γ*-dijet plane and the γ*-e ± plane in the rest frame of the diffractive final state. The φ cross section is measured in bins of β. The results are compared to predictions from models based on different assumptions about the nature of the diffractive exchange. (orig.)

  2. Diffractive Production of Jets and Weak Bosons, and Tests of Hard-Scattering Factorization

    CERN Document Server

    Alvero, L; Terrón, J; Whitmore, J; Alvero, Lyndon; Collins, John C.; Terron, Juan; Whitmore, Jim

    1999-01-01

    We extract diffractive parton densities from diffractive, deep inelastic (DIS) ep data from the ZEUS experiment. Then we use these fits to predict the diffractive production of jets and of W's and Z's in p\\bar p collisions at the Tevatron. Although the DIS data require a hard quark density in the pomeron, we find fairly low rates for the Tevatron processes (a few percent of the inclusive cross section). This results from the combined effects of Q^{2} evolution and of a normalization of the parton densities to the data. The calculated rates for W production are generally consistent with the preliminary data from the Tevatron. However, the jet data from CDF with a ``Roman pot'' trigger are substantially lower than the results of our calculations; if confirmed, this would signal a breakdown of hard-scattering factorization.

  3. Investigation of the exclusive light-ion disintegration processes on the basis of a diffraction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evlanov, M.V.; Sokolov, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    A diffraction approach is developed for description of kinematically complete experiments on the disintegration on nuclei with diffuse edges of light, weakly bound ions consisting of one neutral and one charged cluster. The theoretical formalism is used to analyze exclusive experiments on deuteron disintegration in the region of intermediate energies and for a broad range of nuclear mass numbers with a view to studying the structural characteristics of the nuclei and the mechanisms underlying the disintegration process. The possibility of the occurrence of the Nemets effect in the case of the disintegration of other (not only deuterons) light, weakly bound ions on nuclei is discussed

  4. Study on exclusive processes of light ion disintegration in the framework of diffraction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evlanov, M.V.; Sokolov, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    A diffraction approach is developed for description of kinematically complete experiments on disintegration of light weakly-bound ions formed by two clusters (one being charged) on nuclei with diffused edge. The theoretical formalism is applied to analyze exclusive deuteron disintegration experiments at intermediate energies for a wide nuclear mass numbers. The aim of the analysis is to study structure peculiarities of nuclei and disintegration mechanisms. Possible existence of the Nemets effect is discussed for disintegration of other than deuterons weakly-bound ions by nuclei

  5. Hard X-ray nanoimaging method using local diffraction from metal wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, Hidekazu, E-mail: htakano@sci.u-hyogo.ac.jp; Konishi, Shigeki; Shimomura, Sho; Azuma, Hiroaki; Tsusaka, Yoshiyuki; Kagoshima, Yasushi [Center for Novel Material Science under Multi-Extreme Conditions, Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan)

    2014-01-13

    A simple hard X-ray imaging method achieving a high spatial resolution is proposed. Images are obtained by scanning a metal wire through the wave field to be measured and rotating the sample to collect data for back projection calculations; the local diffraction occurring at the edges of the metal wire operates as a narrow line probe. In-line holograms of a test sample were obtained with a spatial resolution of better than 100 nm. The potential high spatial resolution of this method is shown by calculations using diffraction theory.

  6. Diffractive hard photoproduction at HERA and evidence for the gluon content of the pomeron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.

    1995-01-01

    Inclusive jet cross sections for events with a large rapidity gap with respect to the proton direction from the reaction ep→jet+X with quasi-real photons have been measured with the ZEUS detector. The cross sections refer to jets with transverse energies E T jet >8 GeV. The data show the characteristics of a diffractive process mediated by pomeron exchange. Assuming that the events are due to the exchange of a pomeron with partonic structure, the quark and gluon content of the pomeron is probed at a scale ∼(E T jet ) 2 . A comparison of the measurements with model predictions based on QCD plus Regge phenomenology requires a contribution of partons with a hard momentum density in the pomeron. A combined analysis of the jet cross sections and recent ZEUS measurements of the diffractive structure function in deep inelastic scattering gives the first experimental evidence for the gluon content of the pomeron in diffractive hard scattering processes. The data indicate that between 30% and 80% of the momentum of the pomeron carried by partons is due to hard gluons. (orig.)

  7. Studies of semi-inclusive and hard exclusive processes at Jlab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harutyun Avagyan

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of experiments proposed for the CLAS12 detector in conjunction with the 12-GeV CEBAF accelerator is the study of the nucleon through hard exclusive, semi-inclusive, and inclusive processes. This will provide new insights into nucleon dynamics at the elementary quark and gluon level. In this contribution we provide an overview of ongoing studies of the structure of nucleon in terms of quark and gluon degrees of freedom and future physics program planned with CLAS and CLAS12

  8. Production of exclusive dijets in diffractive deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H.; Gueta, O.; Kananov, S.; Levy, A.; Stern, A. [Tel Aviv University, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics, Tel Aviv (Israel); Abt, I.; Caldwell, A.; Schmidke, W.B.; Verbytskyi, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Adamczyk, L.; Gach, G.; Guzik, M.; Kisielewska, D.; Przybycien, M. [AGH-University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Krakow (Poland); Adamus, M.; Tymieniecka, T. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Warsaw (Poland); Antonelli, S. [University, Bologna (Italy); INFN Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Aushev, V. [National Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research, Kiev (Ukraine); National Taras Shevchenko University of Kyiv, Department of Nuclear Physics, Kiev (Ukraine); Aushev, Y.; Iudin, A.; Kadenko, I.; Kondrashova, N.; Kononenko, O.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Shevchenko, R.; Shkola, O.; Trofymov, A.; Viazlo, O.; Zakharchuk, N. [National Taras Shevchenko University of Kyiv, Department of Nuclear Physics, Kiev (Ukraine); Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Borras, K.; Ciesielski, R.; Dolinska, G.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Hain, W.; Januschek, F.; Klein, U.; Korol, I.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Kuprash, O.; Libov, V.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loehr, B.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Makarenko, I.; Malka, J.; Myronenko, V.; Notz, D.; Roloff, P.; Rubinsky, I.; Schneekloth, U.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Stefaniuk, N.; Szuba, J.; Turkot, O.; Wichmann, K.; Wolf, G.; Zenaiev, O. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Bertolin, A.; Dusini, S.; Longhin, A.; Stanco, L. [INFN Padova, Padua (Italy); Bloch, I. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Boos, E.G.; Pokrovskiy, N.S.; Zhautykov, B.O. [Institute of Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education and Science of Kazakhstan, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Brock, I.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Paul, E. [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Brook, N.H.; Wing, M. [University College London, Physics and Astronomy Department, London (United Kingdom); Brugnera, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Limentani, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Univ., Padua (Italy); INFN, Padua (Italy); Bruni, A.; Corradi, M. [INFN Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Bussey, P.J.; Saxon, D.H.; Skillicorn, I.O. [University of Glasgow, School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Capua, M.; Schioppa, M.; Tassi, E. [Calabria University, Physics Department, Cosenza (Italy); INFN, Cosenza (Italy); Catterall, C.D. [York University, Department of Physics, Ontario (Canada); Chwastowski, J.; Figiel, J.; Krupa, B.; Stopa, P.; Zawiejski, L. [Polish Academy of Sciences, The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Ciborowski, J.; Grzelak, G.; Nowak, R.J.; Perlanski, W.; Tomaszewska, J.; Zarnecki, A.F. [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Devenish, R.C.E.; Walczak, R. [University of Oxford, Department of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Corriveau, F. [McGill University, Department of Physics, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Dementiev, R.K.; Gladilin, L.K.; Golubkov, Yu.A.; Korzhavina, I.A.; Levchenko, B.B.; Lukina, O.Yu.; Shcheglova, L.M.; Zotkin, D.S. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Foster, B.; Gallo, E.; Klanner, R.; Kovalchuk, N.; Lohrmann, E.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Szuba, D.; Turcato, M. [Hamburg University, Institute of Experimental Physics, Hamburg (Germany); Hochman, D.; Karshon, U. [Weizmann Institute, Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Rehovot (Israel); Hori, R.; Nagano, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK, Tsukuba (Japan); Ibrahim, Z.A.; Jomhari, N.Z.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Mohammad Nasir, N.; Wan Abdullah, W.A.T. [Universiti Malaya, National Centre for Particle Physics, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Iga, Y. [Polytechnic University, Tokyo (Japan); Ishitsuka, M.; Kuze, M.; Nobe, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Tokyo (JP); Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Singh, I. [Panjab University, Department of Physics, Chandigarh (IN); Kotanski, A.; Slominski, W. [Jagellonian University, Department of Physics, Krakow (PL); Ruspa, M. [Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Novara (IT); INFN, Turin (IT); Shyrma, Yu.; Zhmak, N. [National Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research, Kiev (UA); Solano, A. [Universita di Torino (IT); INFN, Turin (IT); Tsurugai, T. [Meiji Gakuin University, Faculty of General Education, Yokohama (JP); Collaboration: ZEUS Collaboration

    2016-01-15

    Production of exclusive dijets in diffractive deep inelastic e{sup ±}p scattering has been measured with the ZEUS detector atHERAusing an integrated luminosity of 372 pb{sup -1}. The measurement was performed for γ* - p centre-of-mass energies in the range 90 < W < 250 GeV and for photon virtualities Q{sup 2} > 25 GeV{sup 2}. Energy flows around the jet axis are presented. The cross section is presented as a function of β and φ, where β = x/x{sub P}, x is the Bjorken variable and x{sub P} is the proton fractional longitudinal momentum loss. The angle φ is defined by the γ*-dijet plane and the γ*-e{sup ±} plane in the rest frame of the diffractive final state. The φ cross section is measured in bins of β. The results are compared to predictions from models based on different assumptions about the nature of the diffractive exchange. (orig.)

  9. Crystallization and diffraction analysis of the serpin IRS-2 from the hard tick Ixodes ricinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovářová, Zuzana; Chmelař, Jindřich; Šanda, Miloslav; Brynda, Jiří; Mareš, Michael; Řezáčová, Pavlína

    2010-01-01

    Cleavage of the serpin IRS-2 from the hard tick I. ricinus by contaminating proteolytic activity mimicked the specific processing of the serpin by its target protease and resulted in a more stable form of the serpin which produced crystals that diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution. IRS-2 from the hard tick Ixodes ricinus belongs to the serpin family of protease inhibitors. It is produced in the salivary glands of the tick and its anti-inflammatory activity suggests that it plays a role in parasite–host interaction. Recombinant IRS-2 prepared by heterologous expression in a bacterial system was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to the primitive tetragonal space group P4 3 and diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution. Mass-spectrometric and electrophoretic analyses revealed that IRS-2 was cleaved by contaminating proteases during crystallization. This processing of IRS-2 mimicked the specific cleavage of the serpin by its target protease and resulted in a more stable form (the so-called relaxed conformation), which produced well diffracting crystals. Activity profiling with specific substrates and inhibitors demonstrated traces of serine and cysteine proteases in the protein stock solution

  10. Azimuthal asymmetries in hard exclusive meson muoproduction off transversely polarized protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolbeek, Johannes ter

    2015-04-15

    In 2010, the COMPASS experiment at CERN took data with a 160 GeV μ{sup +} beam and a transversely polarized NH{sub 3} target. In this thesis, this data is analyzed for azimuthal target spin asymmetries, including five single spin and three double spin asymmetries in hard exclusive ω meson production. This thesis is the worldwide first analysis investigating on azimuthal asymmetries in exclusive ω muoproduction (μ'p→μ'+p'+ω→μ'+p'+π{sup +}π{sup -}π{sup 0}). The analysis is confronted with several challenges beside the small cross section of the examined process. The detection of two photons in the final state requires an excellent performance of the electromagnetic calorimeters as well as a good understanding of the detector. To increase the yield of reconstructed γ pairs from a decaying π{sup 0} meson, a decay product of the ω meson, extensive studies relating to performance of the calorimeters were necessary. Firstly the time information of the calorimeters had to be parametrized in dependence of the cluster energy to ensure the assignment of beam particle and photon due to a correlation in time. Secondly, a parametrization of the invariant mass of the photon pair was performed in terms of the energy of the reconstructed π{sup 0}, for the better discrimination of signal and background. In the setup with the transversely polarized target, the recoiled proton cannot be detected. Thus in order to ensure the exclusivity of the process, the missing energy is calculated. The signal region, defined at vertical stroke E{sub miss} vertical stroke < 3GeV, contains ω mesons from exclusive events as well as from semi-inclusive production. Hence the understanding of non-exclusive background is essential for the further analysis. For this purpose, a semiinclusive Monte Carlo sample is studied. In order to reach a better agreement of the Monte Carlo and data, like-sign samples from both, real data and Monte Carlo, are compared and the

  11. Hard X-ray diffraction enhanced imaging only using two crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gang; WANG Nan; WU Ziyu

    2004-01-01

    Different configurations for the monochromator crystals and the analyzer crystals have been used in hard X-ray diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) methods to overcome the complex task to adjust each of them to the ideal position. Here we present a very compact DEI configuration, and preliminary results of experiments performed at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) using only two crystals: the first one acting as monochromator and the second one as analyzer in the Bragg geometry. Refraction contrast images characterized by high contrast and spatial resolution are obtained and compared with absorption images. Differences among these images will be outlined and discussed emphasizing the potential capabilities of this very simple layout that guarantees a high transmission efficiency.

  12. Wave packet autocorrelation functions for quantum hard-disk and hard-sphere billiards in the high-energy, diffraction regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goussev, Arseni; Dorfman, J R

    2006-07-01

    We consider the time evolution of a wave packet representing a quantum particle moving in a geometrically open billiard that consists of a number of fixed hard-disk or hard-sphere scatterers. Using the technique of multiple collision expansions we provide a first-principle analytical calculation of the time-dependent autocorrelation function for the wave packet in the high-energy diffraction regime, in which the particle's de Broglie wavelength, while being small compared to the size of the scatterers, is large enough to prevent the formation of geometric shadow over distances of the order of the particle's free flight path. The hard-disk or hard-sphere scattering system must be sufficiently dilute in order for this high-energy diffraction regime to be achievable. Apart from the overall exponential decay, the autocorrelation function exhibits a generally complicated sequence of relatively strong peaks corresponding to partial revivals of the wave packet. Both the exponential decay (or escape) rate and the revival peak structure are predominantly determined by the underlying classical dynamics. A relation between the escape rate, and the Lyapunov exponents and Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy of the counterpart classical system, previously known for hard-disk billiards, is strengthened by generalization to three spatial dimensions. The results of the quantum mechanical calculation of the time-dependent autocorrelation function agree with predictions of the semiclassical periodic orbit theory.

  13. Novel QCD Aspects of Hard Diffraction,Antishadowing, and Single-Spin Asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.

    2004-10-15

    It is usually assumed--following the parton model--that the leading-twist structure functions measured in deep inelastic lepton-proton scattering are simply the probability distributions for finding quarks and gluons in the target nucleon. In fact, gluon exchange between the outgoing quarks and the target spectators effects the leading-twist structure functions in a profound way, leading to diffractive leptoproduction processes, shadowing and antishadowing of nuclear structure functions, and target spin asymmetries, physics not incorporated in the light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. In particular, final-state interactions from gluon exchange lead to single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic lepton-proton scattering which are not power-law suppressed in the Bjorken limit. The shadowing and antishadowing of nuclear structure functions in the Gribov-Glauber picture is due respectively to the destructive and constructive interference of amplitudes arising from the multiple-scattering of quarks in the nucleus. The effective quark-nucleon scattering amplitude includes Pomeron and Odderon contributions from multi-gluon exchange as well as Reggeon quark-exchange contributions. Part of the anomalous NuTeV result for sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} could be due to the non-universality of nuclear antishadowing for charged and neutral currents. Detailed measurements of the nuclear dependence of individual quark structure functions are thus needed to establish the distinctive phenomenology of shadowing and antishadowing and to make the NuTeV results definitive. I also discuss diffraction dissociation as a tool for resolving hadron substructure Fock state by Fock state and for producing leading heavy quark systems.

  14. Transverse-target single-spin azimuthal asymmetry in hard exclusive electroproduction of single pions at HERMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hristova, I.

    2007-12-15

    We present the analysis of data taken in the years 2002-2004 with the 27.56 GeV positron beam of the HERA storage ring at DESY and the internal transversely polarised hydrogen fixed target of the HERMES experiment. Events with a scattered positron and a produced pion are selected. Exclusive production of single pions, e{sup +}p{yields}e{sup +'}n{pi}{sup +}, is ensured by requiring the missing mass in the event to be equal to the mass of the neutron, which is not detected. The cross section for this process depends on the Bjorken scaling variable, the four-momentum transfer, and the transverse four-momentum transfer, whose average values for our sample are left angle x right angle =0.12, left angle Q{sup 2} right angle =2.3 GeV{sup 2}, left angle t' right angle =-0.18 GeV{sup 2}, respectively, and two azimuthal angles: the angle {phi} between the scattering and production planes (their common line contains the virtual photon), and the angle {phi}{sub S} between the scattering plane and the target polarisation vector. The hard scattering is selected by requiring Q{sup 2}>1 GeV{sup 2}. The asymmetry, also called transverse-target single-spin azimuthal asymmetry, is defined as the ratio of the difference to the sum of the cross sections for positive and negative target polarisation. It is characterised by six azimuthal sine modulations, whose amplitudes can vary from -1 to 1. We measure the asymmetry from a sample of 2093 events with a signal-to-background ratio of 1: 1. At average kinematics, the values of the amplitudes are found to be small or consistent with zero, except for the amplitude A{sup sin{phi}{sub SUT,meas}}=0.38{+-}0.06(stat){sup +0.12}{sub -0.06}(syst). The amplitude of main interest for comparison with theory, A{sup sin({phi}-{phi}{sub S})}{sub UT,meas}=0.09{+-}0.05(stat){sup +0.10}{sub -0.03}(syst), after correction for the background contribution becomes A{sup sin({phi}-{phi}{sub S})}{sub UT,bg.cor}=0.22 {+-}0.13(stat){sup +0.10}{sub -0

  15. Transverse-target single-spin azimuthal asymmetry in hard exclusive electroproduction of single pions at HERMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristova, I.

    2007-12-01

    We present the analysis of data taken in the years 2002-2004 with the 27.56 GeV positron beam of the HERA storage ring at DESY and the internal transversely polarised hydrogen fixed target of the HERMES experiment. Events with a scattered positron and a produced pion are selected. Exclusive production of single pions, e + p→e +' nπ + , is ensured by requiring the missing mass in the event to be equal to the mass of the neutron, which is not detected. The cross section for this process depends on the Bjorken scaling variable, the four-momentum transfer, and the transverse four-momentum transfer, whose average values for our sample are left angle x right angle =0.12, left angle Q 2 right angle =2.3 GeV 2 , left angle t' right angle =-0.18 GeV 2 , respectively, and two azimuthal angles: the angle φ between the scattering and production planes (their common line contains the virtual photon), and the angle φ S between the scattering plane and the target polarisation vector. The hard scattering is selected by requiring Q 2 >1 GeV 2 . The asymmetry, also called transverse-target single-spin azimuthal asymmetry, is defined as the ratio of the difference to the sum of the cross sections for positive and negative target polarisation. It is characterised by six azimuthal sine modulations, whose amplitudes can vary from -1 to 1. We measure the asymmetry from a sample of 2093 events with a signal-to-background ratio of 1: 1. At average kinematics, the values of the amplitudes are found to be small or consistent with zero, except for the amplitude A sinφ S UT,meas =0.38±0.06(stat) +0.12 -0.06 (syst). The amplitude of main interest for comparison with theory, A sin(φ-φ S ) UT,meas =0.09±0.05(stat) +0.10 -0.03 (syst), after correction for the background contribution becomes A sin(φ-φ S ) UT,bg.cor =0.22 ±0.13(stat) +0.10 -0.04 (syst). As a function of t', the measured values of this amplitude increase as √(-t') and at larger vertical stroke t' vertical stroke the

  16. High mass exclusive diffractive dijet production in ppˉ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B.S.; Kupčo, Alexander; Lokajíček, Miloš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 705, č. 3 (2011), s. 193-199 ISSN 0370-2693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08047 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : pair production * diffraction * Batavia TEVATRON Coll * anti-p p: exclusive reaction * mass spectrum: (2jet) * DZERO * experimental results Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.955, year: 2011 http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1009.2444

  17. Next-to-Leading Order Computation of Exclusive Diffractive Light Vector Meson Production in a Saturation Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussarie, R; Grabovsky, A V; Ivanov, D Yu; Szymanowski, L; Wallon, S

    2017-08-18

    We perform the first next-to-leading order computation of the γ^{(*)}→V (ρ,ϕ,ω) exclusive impact factor in the QCD shock-wave approach and in the most general kinematics. This paves the way to the very first quantitative study of high-energy nucleon and nucleus saturation beyond the leading order for a whole range of small-x exclusive processes, to be measured in ep, eA, pp, and pA collisions at existing and future colliders.

  18. On the one loop γ{sup (∗)}→qq̄ impact factor and the exclusive diffractive cross sections for the production of two or three jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussarie, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, UMR 8627, CNRS, University Paris-Sud, CNRS,Université Paris-Saclay,91405, Orsay (France); Grabovsky, A.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics,11, Lavrenteva avenue, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University,630090, 2, Pirogova street, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Department of Physics, University of Minnesota,Duluth, Minnesota, 55812 (United States); Szymanowski, L. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ),Warsaw (Poland); Wallon, S. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, UMR 8627, CNRS, University Paris-Sud, CNRS,Université Paris-Saclay,91405, Orsay (France); UPMC University Paris 06, faculté de physique,4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2016-11-24

    We present the calculation of the impact factor for the γ{sup (∗)}→qq̄ transition with one loop accuracy in arbitrary kinematics. The calculation was done within Balitsky’s high energy operator expansion. Together with our previous result for the γ{sup (∗)}→qq̄g Born impact factor it allows one to derive cross sections for 2- (one loop) and 3-jet (Born) difractive electroproduction. We write such cross sections for the 2 and 3 jet exclusive diffractive electroproduction off a proton in terms of hadronic matrix elements of Wilson lines. For the 2-jet cross section we demonstrate the cancellation of infrared, collinear and rapidity singularities. Our result can be directly exploited to describe the recently analyzed data on exclusive dijet production at HERA and used for the study of jet photoproduction in ultraperipheral proton or nuclear scattering.

  19. On the one loop γ(∗)→qq̄ impact factor and the exclusive diffractive cross sections for the production of two or three jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussarie, R.; Grabovsky, A.V.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present the calculation of the impact factor for the γ (∗) →qq̄ transition with one loop accuracy in arbitrary kinematics. The calculation was done within Balitsky’s high energy operator expansion. Together with our previous result for the γ (∗) →qq̄g Born impact factor it allows one to derive cross sections for 2- (one loop) and 3-jet (Born) difractive electroproduction. We write such cross sections for the 2 and 3 jet exclusive diffractive electroproduction off a proton in terms of hadronic matrix elements of Wilson lines. For the 2-jet cross section we demonstrate the cancellation of infrared, collinear and rapidity singularities. Our result can be directly exploited to describe the recently analyzed data on exclusive dijet production at HERA and used for the study of jet photoproduction in ultraperipheral proton or nuclear scattering.

  20. Hard x-ray monochromator with milli-electron volt bandwidth for high-resolution diffraction studies of diamond crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoupin, Stanislav; Shvyd' ko, Yuri; Shu Deming; Khachatryan, Ruben; Xiao, Xianghui; DeCarlo, Francesco; Goetze, Kurt; Roberts, Timothy; Roehrig, Christian; Deriy, Alexey [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    We report on design and performance of a high-resolution x-ray monochromator with a spectral bandwidth of {Delta}E{sub X}{approx_equal} 1.5 meV, which operates at x-ray energies in the vicinity of the backscattering (Bragg) energy E{sub H} = 13.903 keV of the (008) reflection in diamond. The monochromator is utilized for high-energy-resolution diffraction characterization of diamond crystals as elements of advanced x-ray crystal optics for synchrotrons and x-ray free-electron lasers. The monochromator and the related controls are made portable such that they can be installed and operated at any appropriate synchrotron beamline equipped with a pre-monochromator.

  1. Investigation of the near-surface structures of polar InN films by chemical-state-discriminated hard X-ray photoelectron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, A. L.; Yamashita, Y.; Kobata, M.; Yoshikawa, H.; Sakata, O.; Kobayashi, K.; Matsushita, T.; Píš, I.; Imura, M.; Yamaguchi, T.; Nanishi, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Near-surface structures of polar InN films were investigated by laboratory-based hard X-ray photoelectron diffraction (HXPD) with chemical-state-discrimination. HXPD patterns from In 3d 5/2 and N 1s core levels of the In-polar and N-polar InN films were different from each other and compared with the simulation results using a multiple-scattering cluster model. It was found that the near-surface structure of the In-polar InN film was close to the ideal wurtzite structure. On the other hand, on the N-polar InN film, defects-rich surface was formed. In addition, the existence of the In-polar domains was observed in the HXPD patterns.

  2. Unraveling double stranded alpha-helical coiled coils: an x-ray diffraction study on hard alpha-keratin fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreplak, L; Doucet, J; Briki, F

    2001-04-15

    Transformations of proteins secondary and tertiary structures are generally studied in globular proteins in solution. In fibrous proteins, such as hard alpha-keratin, that contain long and well-defined double stranded alpha-helical coiled coil domains, such study can be directly done on the native fibrous tissue. In order to assess the structural behavior of the coiled coil domains under an axial mechanical stress, wide angle x-ray scattering and small angle x-ray scattering experiments have been carried out on stretched horse hair fibers at relative humidity around 30%. Our observations of the three major axial spacings as a function of the applied macroscopic strain have shown two rates. Up to 4% macroscopic strain the coiled coils were slightly distorted but retained their overall conformation. Above 4% the proportion of coiled coil domains progressively decreased. The main and new result of our study is the observation of the transition from alpha-helical coiled coils to disordered chains instead of the alpha-helical coiled coil to beta-sheet transition that occurs in wet fibers.

  3. Determination of electronic and atomic properties of surface, bulk and buried interfaces: Simultaneous combination of hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio-Zuazo, J., E-mail: rubio@esrf.fr [SpLine, Spanish CRG BM25 Beamline at the ESRF, ESRF, B.P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, ICMM, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Castro, G.R. [SpLine, Spanish CRG BM25 Beamline at the ESRF, ESRF, B.P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, ICMM, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •We have developed a novel and exceptional tool for non-destructive characterization of bulk and buried interfaces that combine XRD and HAXPES. •We studied the correlation between the atomic, electronic and transport properties of oxygen deficient manganite thin films. •The diffraction data showed a cooperative tilt of the MnO{sub 6} block along the out-of-plane direction. •We shown the absence of the conventional basal plane rotation for the oxygen deficient samples. -- Abstract: Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) is a powerful novel emerging technique for bulk compositional, chemical and electronic properties determination in a non-destructive way. It benefits from the exceptionally large escape depth of high kinetic energy photoelectrons enabling the study of bulk and buried interfaces up to several tens of nanometres depth. Its advantage over conventional XPS is based on the long mean free path of high kinetic energetic photoelectrons. Using the advantage of tuneable X-ray radiation provided by synchrotron sources the photoelectron kinetic energy, i.e. the information depth can be changed and consequently electronic and compositional depth profiles can be obtained. The combination of HAXPES with an atomic structure sensitive technique, as X-ray diffraction, opens a new research field with great potential for many systems in which their electronic properties are intimately linked to their crystallographic structure. At SpLine, the Spanish CRG Beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) we have developed a novel and exceptional set-up that combine grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and HAXPES. Both techniques can be operated simultaneously on the same sample and using the same excitation source. The set-up includes a heavy 2S+3D diffractometer and UHV chamber equipped with an electrostatic analyzer. The UHV chamber has also MBE evaporation sources, an ion gun, a LEED optic, a sample heating and cooling

  4. CGC/saturation approach for soft interactions at high energy: survival probability of central exclusive production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotsman, E.; Maor, U. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv (Israel); Levin, E. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv (Israel); Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Departemento de Fisica, Centro Cientifico-Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2016-04-15

    We estimate the value of the survival probability for central exclusive production in a model which is based on the CGC/saturation approach. Hard and soft processes are described in the same framework. At LHC energies, we obtain a small value for the survival probability. The source of the small value is the impact parameter dependence of the hard amplitude. Our model has successfully described a large body of soft data: elastic, inelastic and diffractive cross sections, inclusive production and rapidity correlations, as well as the t-dependence of deep inelastic diffractive production of vector mesons. (orig.)

  5. Diffraction at TOTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Giani, S; Niewiadomski, H; Antchev, G; Aspell, P; Avati, V; Bagliesi, M G; Berardi, V; Berretti, M; Besta, M; Bozzo, M; Brücken, E; Buzzo, A; Cafagna, F; Calicchio, M; Catanesi, M G

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of the TOTEM experiment at the LHC is the measurement of the total proton-proton cross section with the luminosity-independent method and the study of elastic proton-proton cross-section over a wide |t|-range. In addition TOTEM also performs a comprehensive study of diffraction, spanning from cross-section measurements of individual diffractive processes to the analysis of their event topologies. Hard diffraction will be studied in collaboration with CMS taking advantage...

  6. Diffraction at TOTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Antchev, G.; Aspell, P.; Avati, V.; Bagliesi, M.G.; Berardi, V.; Berretti, M.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzo, M.; Brucken, E.; Buzzo, A.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Catanesi, M.G.; Catastini, P.L.; Cecchi, R.

    2008-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment at the LHC measures the total proton-proton cross section with the luminosity-independent method and the elastic proton-proton cross-section over a wide |t|-range. It also performs a comprehensive study of diffraction, spanning from cross-section measurements of individual diffractive processes to the analysis of their event topologies. Hard diffraction will be studied in collaboration with CMS taking advantage of the large common rapidity coverage for charged and neutral...

  7. Work Hard / Play Hard

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, J.; Johnson, V.; Henckel, D.

    2016-01-01

    Work Hard / Play Hard was a participatory performance/workshop or CPD experience hosted by interdisciplinary arts atelier WeAreCodeX, in association with AntiUniversity.org. As a socially/economically engaged arts practice, Work Hard / Play Hard challenged employees/players to get playful, or go to work. 'The game changes you, you never change the game'. Employee PLAYER A 'The faster the better.' Employer PLAYER B

  8. Studies of diffraction with the ATLAS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trzebinski, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    The thesis is devoted to the study of diffractive physics with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. After a short introduction to diffractive physics including soft and hard diffraction, we discuss Jet-Gap-Jet production at the LHC which is particularly interesting for testing the Balitski Fadin Kuraev Lipatov QCD evolution equation. Using the signal selection requirements and a gap definition based on tracks reconstructed in the ATLAS Inner Detector, we observe a clear signal of Jet-Gap-Jet events in the data. Starting from the half-gap size of 0.8 the data cannot be properly described using only the Jet Monte Carlo sample without gaps. Furthermore, we demonstrated that DPE JGJ production, with both protons tagged in the AFP stations, should provide a significant test of the BFKL theory, once the 300 pb -1 of integrated luminosity is collected. In the last part of the thesis, we discussed the processes of Central Exclusive Jet and Exclusive π + π - production. After the data selection, the signal to background ratio is found to be of about 5/9 (1/13) for μ= 23 (46). For a collected integrated luminosity of 40(300) fb -1 (for pile-up of 23(46)) this measurement will deliver ten times better constraints on the theoretical models than the most recent ones. The additional measurement of exclusive pion production, relying on the use of the ALFA stations, allows to constrain further the exclusive models. We demonstrated that a data sample collected by the ALFA detectors should be sufficient to measure the cross section and to study various distributions, especially the invariant mass of the pion-pion system. (author) [fr

  9. Diffractive DIS: Where are we?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, N.N.

    2001-01-01

    A brief review of the modern QCD theory of diffractive DIS is given. The recent progress has been remarkably rapid, all the principal predictions from the color dipole approach to diffraction - the (Q 2 + m V 2 ) scaling, the pattern of SCHNC, shrinkage of the diffraction cone in hard diffractive DIS, the strong impact of longitudinal gluons in inclusive J/Ψ production at Tevatron - have been confirmed experimentally

  10. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. Diffraction at collider energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankfurt, L.L.

    1992-01-01

    Lessons with ''soft'' hadron physics to explain (a) feasibility to observe and to investigate color transparency, color opacity effects at colliders; (b) significant probability and specific features of hard diffractive processes; (c) feasibility to investigate components of parton wave functions of hadrons with minimal number of constituents. This new physics would be more important with increase of collision energy

  12. Soft and hard pomerons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maor, Uri; Tel Aviv Univ.

    1995-09-01

    The role of s-channel unitarity screening corrections, calculated in the eikonal approximation, is investigated for soft Pomeron exchange responsible for elastic and diffractive hadron scattering in the high energy limit. We examine the differences between our results and those obtained from the supercritical Pomeron-Regge model with no such corrections. It is shown that screening saturation is attained at different scales for different channels. We then proceed to discuss the new HERA data on hard (PQCD) Pomeron diffractive channels and discuss the relationship between the soft and hard Pomerons and the relevance of our analysis to this problem. (author). 18 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  13. Diffraction at TOTEM

    CERN Document Server

    Antchev, G.; Avati, V.; Bagliesi, M.G.; Berardi, V.; Berretti, M.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzo, M.; Brucken, E.; Buzzo, A.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Catanesi, M.G.; Catastini, P.L.; Cecchi, R.; Ciocci, M.A.; Deile, M.; Dimovasili, E.; Eggert, K.; Eremin, V.; Ferro, F.; Garcia, F.; Giani, S.; Greco, V.; Heino, J.; Hilden, T.; Kaspar, J.; Kopal, J.; Kundrat, V.; Kurvinen, K.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Lauhakangas, R.; Lippmaa, E.; Lokajicek, M.; Lo Vetere, M.; Lucas Rodriguez, F.; Macri, M.; Magazzu, G.; Meucci, M.; Minutoli, S.; Niewiadomski, H.; Noschis, E.; Notarnicola, G.; Oliveri, E.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Oriunno, M.; Osterberg, K.; Palazzi, P.; Pedreschi, E.; Petajajarvi, J.; Quinto, M.; Radermacher, E.; Radicioni, E.; Ravotti, F.; Rella, G.; Robutti, E.; Ropelewski, L.; Ruggiero, G.; Rummel, A.; Saarikko, H.; Sanguinetti, G.; Santroni, A.; Scribano, A.; Sette, G.; Snoeys, W.; Spinella, F.; Squillacioti, P.; Ster, A.; Taylor, C.; Trummal, A.; Turini, N.; Whitmore, J.; Wu, J.

    2009-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment at the LHC measures the total proton-proton cross section with the luminosity-independent method and the elastic proton-proton cross-section over a wide |t|-range. It also performs a comprehensive study of diffraction, spanning from cross-section measurements of individual diffractive processes to the analysis of their event topologies. Hard diffraction will be studied in collaboration with CMS taking advantage of the large common rapidity coverage for charged and neutral particle detection and the large variety of trigger possibilities even at large luminosities. TOTEM will take data under all LHC beam conditions including standard high luminosity runs to maximize its physics reach. This contribution describes the main features of the TOTEM physics programme including measurements to be made in the early LHC runs. In addition, a novel scheme to extend the diffractive proton acceptance for high luminosity runs by installing proton detectors at IP3 is described.

  14. Diffraction at TOTEM

    CERN Document Server

    Giani, S; Antchev, G; Aspell, P; Avati, V; Bagliesi, M G; Berardi, V; Berretti, M; Besta, M; Bozzo, M; Brücken, E; Buzzo, A; Cafagna, F; Calicchio, M; Catanesi, M G; Cecchi, R; Ciocci, M A; Dadel, P; Deile, M; Dimovasili, E; Eggert, K; Eremin, V; Ferro, F; Fiergolski, A; García, F; Greco, V; Grzanka, L; Heino, J; Hildén, T; Kaspar, J; Kopal, J; Kundrát, V; Kurvinen, K; Lami, S; Latino, G; Lauhakangas, R; Leszko, R; Lippmaa, E; Lokajícek, M; Lo Vetere, M; Lucas Rodriguez, F; Macrí, M; Magazzù, G; Meucci, M; Minutoli, S; Notarnicola, G; Oliveri, E; Oljemark, F; Orava, R; Oriunno, M; Österberg, K; Pedreschi, E; Petäjäjärvi, J; Prochazka, J; Quinto, M; Radermacher, E; Radicioni, E; Ravotti, F; Rella, G; Robutti, E; Ropelewski, L; Rostkowski, M; Ruggiero, G; Rummel, A; Saarikko, H; Sanguinetti, G; Santroni, A; Scribano, A; Sette, G; Snoeys, W; Spinella, F; Ster, A; Taylor, C; Trummal, A; Turini, N; Whitmore, J; Wu, J; Zalewski, M

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of the TOTEM experiment at the LHC is the measurement of the total proton-proton cross section with the luminosity-independent method and the study of elastic proton-proton cross-section over a wide |t|-range. In addition TOTEM also performs a comprehensive study of diffraction, spanning from cross-section measurements of individual diffractive processes to the analysis of their event topologies. Hard diffraction will be studied in collaboration with CMS taking advantage of the large common rapidity coverage for charged and neutral particle detection and the large variety of trigger possibilities even at large luminosities. TOTEM will take data under all LHC beam conditions including standard high luminosity runs to maximise its physics reach. This contribution describes the main features of the TOTEM diffractive physics programme including measurements to be made in the early LHC runs.

  15. Diffractive interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Duca, V.; Marage, P.

    1996-08-01

    The general framework of diffractive deep inelastic scattering is introduced and reports given in the session on diffractive interactions at the international workshop on deep-inelastic scattering and related phenomena, Rome, April 1996, are presented. (orig.)

  16. New diffractive results from the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallinaro, Michele; /Rockefeller U.

    2005-05-01

    Experimental results in diffractive processes are summarized and a few notable characteristics described in terms of Quantum Chromodynamics. Exclusive dijet production is used to establish a benchmark for future experiments in the quest for diffractive Higgs production at the Large Hadron Collider. Using new data from the Tevatron and dedicated diffractive triggers, no excess over a smooth falling distribution for exclusive dijet events could be found. Stringent upper limits on the exclusive dijet production cross section are presented. The quark/gluon composition of dijet final states is used to provide additional hints on exclusive dijet production.

  17. Diffraction theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwkamp, C.J.

    1954-01-01

    A critical review is presented of recent progress in classical diffraction theory. Both scalar and electromagnetic problems are discussed. The report may serve as an introduction to general diffraction theory although the main emphasis is on diffraction by plane obstacles. Various modifications of

  18. Exclusive meson production at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Pochodzalla, Josef; Moinester, Murray; Piller, Gunther; Sandacz, Andrzej; Vanderhaeghen, Marc; Pochodzalla, Josef; Mankiewicz, Lech; Moinester, Murray; Piller, Gunther; Sandacz, Andrzej; Vanderhaeghen, Marc

    1999-01-01

    We explore the feasibility to study exclusive meson production (EMP) in hard muon-proton scattering at the COMPASS experiment. These measurements constrain the off-forward parton distributions (OFPD's) of the proton, which are related to the quark orbital contribution to the proton spin.

  19. CONFERENCE: Elastic and diffractive scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Alan

    1989-09-15

    Elastic scattering, when particles appear to 'bounce' off each other, and the related phenomena of diffractive scattering are currently less fashionable than the study of hard scattering processes. However this could change rapidly if unexpected results from the UA4 experiment at the CERN Collider are confirmed and their implications tested. These questions were highlighted at the third 'Blois Workshop' on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering, held early in May on the Evanston campus of Northwestern University, near Chicago.

  20. Exclusive Higgs production at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dechambre, Alice [Universite de Liege, Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Allee du 6 aout, 17 - Bat. B5c, B-4000 Liege 1 - Sart-Tilman (Belgium); Staszewski, Rafal [IRFU/SPP, CEA-Saclay, bat. 141, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Henryk Niewodniczanski, Institute of Nuclear Physics - PAN, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Royon, Christophe [IRFU/SPP, CEA-Saclay, bat. 141, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2010-07-01

    After a brief description of the models of exclusive diffractive Higgs production, we first evaluate the theoretical uncertainties that affect the calculation of exclusive cross section (jets, Higgs...). In addition, in view of the recent measurement of exclusive di-jet at CDF and the new implementation of the corresponding cross section in FPMC (Forward Physics Monte-Carlo), we developed an analysis strategy that can be used to narrow down these uncertainties with the help of early LHC measurement. (authors)

  1. Diffraction dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abarbanel, H.

    1972-01-01

    An attempt is made to analyse the present theoretical situation in the field of diffraction scattering. Two not yet fully answered questions related with a typical diffraction process AB→CD, namely: what is the structure of the transition matrix elements, and what is the structure of the exchange mechanism responsible for the scattering, are formulated and various proposals for answers are reviewed. Interesting general statement that the products (-1)sup(J)P, where J and P are respectively spin and parity, is conserved at each vertex has been discussed. The exchange mechanism in diffractive scattering has been considered using the language of the complex J-plane as the most appropriate. The known facts about the exchange mechanism are recalled and several routs to way out are proposed. The idea to consider the moving pole and associated branch points as like a particle and the associated two and many particle unitarity cuts is described in more details. (S.B.)

  2. Exclusive electroproduction of pion pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warkentin, N.; Schaefer, A.; Diehl, M.; Ivanov, D. Yu.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate electroproduction of pion pairs on the nucleon in the framework of QCD factorization for hard exclusive processes. We extend previous analyses by taking the hard-scattering coefficients at next-to-leading order in α s . The dynamics of the produced pion pair is described by two-pion distribution amplitudes, for which we perform a detailed theoretical and phenomenological analysis. In particular, we obtain constraints on these quantities by comparing our results with measurements of angular observables that are sensitive to the interference between two-pion production in the isoscalar and isovector channels. (orig.)

  3. Diffraction attraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Elastic scattering – when colliding particles 'bounce' off each other like billiard balls – has always had a special interest for high energy physicists. While its simplicity makes for deep analogies with classical ideas like diffraction, its jbtle details also test our understanding of the intricate inner mechanisms which drive particle interactions. With a new stock of elastic scattering data now available thanks to experiments at the CERN proton-antiproton Collider, and with studies at higher energies imminent or planned, some seventy physicists gathered in the magnificent chateau at Blois, France, for a 'Workshop on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering at the Collider and Beyond'

  4. Diffractive scattering

    CERN Document Server

    De Wolf, E.A.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss basic concepts and properties of diffractive phenomena in soft hadron collisions and in deep-inelastic scattering at low Bjorken-x. The paper is not a review of the rapidly developing field but presents an attempt to show in simple terms the close inter-relationship between the dynamics of high-energy hadronic and deep-inelastic diffraction. Using the saturation model of Golec-Biernat and Wusthoff as an example, a simple explanation of geometrical scaling is presented. The relation between the QCD anomalous multiplicity dimension and the Pomeron intercept is discussed.

  5. Diffractive Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, E.A. de

    2002-01-01

    We discuss basic concepts and properties of diffractive phenomena in soft hadron collisions and in deep-inelastic scattering at low Bjorken - x. The paper is not a review of the rapidly developing field but presents an attempt to show in simple terms the close inter-relationship between the dynamics of high-energy hadronic and deep-inelastic diffraction. Using the saturation model of Golec-Biernat and Wuesthoff as an example, a simple explanation of geometrical scaling is presented. The relation between the QCD anomalous multiplicity dimension and the Pomeron intercept is discussed. (author)

  6. Diffraction attraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-03-15

    Elastic scattering – when colliding particles 'bounce' off each other like billiard balls – has always had a special interest for high energy physicists. While its simplicity makes for deep analogies with classical ideas like diffraction, its jbtle details also test our understanding of the intricate inner mechanisms which drive particle interactions. With a new stock of elastic scattering data now available thanks to experiments at the CERN proton-antiproton Collider, and with studies at higher energies imminent or planned, some seventy physicists gathered in the magnificent chateau at Blois, France, for a 'Workshop on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering at the Collider and Beyond'.

  7. Exotic hybrid mesons in hard electroproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, I.V.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Teryaev, O.V.; Wallon, S.

    2005-01-01

    We estimate the sizeable cross section for deep exclusive electroproduction of an exotic J PC =1 -+ hybrid meson in the Bjorken regime. The production amplitude scales like the one for usual meson electroproduction, i.e., as 1/Q 2 . This is due to the nonvanishing leading twist distribution amplitude for the hybrid meson, which may be normalized thanks to its relation to the energy-momentum tensor and to the QCD sum rules technique. The hard amplitude is considered up to next-to-leading order in α S and we explore the consequences of fixing the renormalization scale ambiguity through the Brodsky-Lepage-Mackenzie (BLM) procedure. We study the particular case where the hybrid meson decays through a πη meson pair. We discuss the πη generalized distribution amplitude and then calculate the production amplitude for this process. We propose a forward-backward asymmetry in the production of π and η mesons as a signal for the hybrid meson production. We briefly comment on hybrid electroproduction at very high energy, in the diffractive limit where a QCD Odderon exchange mechanism should dominate. The conclusion of our study is that hard electroproduction is a promising way to study exotic hybrid mesons, in particular, at JLAB, HERA (HERMES), or CERN (Compass)

  8. Inelastic nucleon diffraction at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goggi, G.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments carried out at ISR and at FNAL which have yielded a substantial amount of data on double diffraction processes, which were unambiguously indentified and measured and which provide new tools to study the dynamical properties shared by different classes of diffractive reactions are identified. In this review interest is focused on the experimental aspects of inclusive and exclusive results both on single and double diffraction and on the problems arising from their comparison. Problems covered include; inclusive and semi-inclusive diffraction, multiparticle inclusive studies, single-particle inclusive studies, resonance region, high mass region, exclusive single diffractive reactions, mass spectra, cross sections, t-dependence, decay angular properties, and double diffraction. (U.K.)

  9. Powder diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, M.

    1995-12-31

    the importance of x-ray powder diffraction as an analytical tool for phase identification of materials was first pointed out by Debye and Scherrer in Germany and, quite independently, by Hull in the US. Three distinct periods of evolution lead to ubiquitous application in many fields of science and technology. In the first period, until the mid-1940`s, applications were and developed covering broad categories of materials including inorganic materials, minerals, ceramics, metals, alloys, organic materials and polymers. During this formative period, the concept of quantitative phase analysis was demonstrated. In the second period there followed the blossoming of technology and commercial instruments became widely used. The history is well summarized by Parrish and by Langford and Loueer. By 1980 there were probably 10,000 powder diffractometers in routine use, making it the most widely used of all x-ray crystallographic instruments. In the third, present, period data bases became firmly established and sophisticated pattern fitting and recognition software made many aspects of powder diffraction analysis routine. High resolution, tunable powder diffractometers were developed at sources of synchrotron radiation. The tunability of the spectrum made it possible to exploit all the subtleties of x-ray spectroscopy in diffraction experiments.

  10. Powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, M.

    1995-01-01

    The importance of x-ray powder diffraction as an analytical tool for phase identification of materials was first pointed out by Debye and Scherrer in Germany and, quite independently, by Hull in the US. Three distinct periods of evolution lead to ubiquitous application in many fields of science and technology. In the first period, until the mid-1940's, applications were and developed covering broad categories of materials including inorganic materials, minerals, ceramics, metals, alloys, organic materials and polymers. During this formative period, the concept of quantitative phase analysis was demonstrated. In the second period there followed the blossoming of technology and commercial instruments became widely used. The history is well summarized by Parrish and by Langford and Loueer. By 1980 there were probably 10,000 powder diffractometers in routine use, making it the most widely used of all x-ray crystallographic instruments. In the third, present, period data bases became firmly established and sophisticated pattern fitting and recognition software made many aspects of powder diffraction analysis routine. High resolution, tunable powder diffractometers were developed at sources of synchrotron radiation. The tunability of the spectrum made it possible to exploit all the subtleties of x-ray spectroscopy in diffraction experiments

  11. Twenty years of diffraction at the Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulianos, K.; Rockefeller U.

    2005-01-01

    Results on diffractive particle interactions from the Fermilab Tevatron (bar p)p collider are placed in perspective through a QCD inspired phenomenological approach, which exploits scaling and factorization properties observed in data. The results discussed are those obtained by the CDF Collaboration from a comprehensive set of single, double, and multigap soft and hard diffraction processes studied during the twenty year period since 1985, when the CDF diffractive program was proposed and the first Blois Workshop was held

  12. Study of QCD and Diffraction with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Trzebinski, M; Royon, Christophe

    The thesis is devoted to the study of diffractive physics with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. After a short introduction to diffractive physics including soft and hard diffraction, the Jet-Gap-Jet production at the LHC, which is particularly interesting for testing the BFKL theory, is discussed. Using the signal selection cuts and a gap definition based on tracks reconstructed in the ATLAS Inner Detector, a clear signal of Jet-Gap-Jet events in the data was observed. Starting from the half-gap size of 0.8 the data cannot be properly described using only the Non-Diffractive Jet sample. Furthermore, the DPE JGJ production, with both protons tagged in the AFP stations, was demonstrated to provide a significant test of the BFKL theory, once the 300~pb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity is collected. In the last part of the thesis, the processes of Central Exclusive Jet and Exclusive $\\pi^+\\pi^-$ production was discussed. After the postulated data selection, the signal to background ratio was found to be of about 5/9...

  13. Diffraction gauging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkens, P.H.

    1978-01-01

    This system of gauging is now being designed to fit on an Excello NC lathe to measure the form, accuracy, and size of external contoured surfaces as they approach the finish machined size. A template profile of the finished workpiece, but 0.003 in. bigger on radius, will be aligned with the workpiece using a reference diameter and face on the machining fixture to leave a gap between the profile of the template and workpiece. A helium--neon laser beam will be projected through this gap using a rotating retroreflector and a fixed laser. The resulting diffraction pattern produced by the laser beam passing through the template to workpiece gap will be reflected and focused on a fixed diode array via a second retroreflector which moves and remains in optical alignment with the first. These retroreflectors will be rotated about a center that will enable the laser beam, which is shaped in a long slit, to scan the template workpiece gap from the pole to the equator of the workpiece. The characteristic diffraction pattern will be detected by the fixed diode array, and the signal levels from this array will be processed in a mini-computer programmed to produce a best fit through the two minima of the diode signals. The separation of the two minima will yield the size of the workpiece to template gap and this information will be presented to the machine tool operator

  14. Proton diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Besten, J.L.; Jamieson, D.N.; Allen, L.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Lindhard theory on ion channeling in crystals has been widely accepted throughout ion beam analysis for use in simulating such experiments. The simulations use a Monte Carlo method developed by Barret, which utilises the classical 'billiard ball' theory of ions 'bouncing' between planes or tubes of atoms in the crystal. This theory is not valid for 'thin' crystals where the planes or strings of atoms can no longer be assumed to be of infinite proportions. We propose that a theory similar to that used for high energy electron diffraction can be applied to MeV ions, especially protons, in thin crystals to simulate the intensities of transmission channeling and of RBS spectra. The diffraction theory is based on a Bloch wave solution of the Schroedinger equation for an ion passing through the periodic crystal potential. The widely used universal potential for proton-nucleus scattering is used to construct the crystal potential. Absorption due to thermal diffuse scattering is included. Experimental parameters such as convergence angle, beam tilt and scanning directions are considered in our calculations. Comparison between theory and experiment is encouraging and suggests that further work is justified. (authors)

  15. CONFERENCE: Elastic and diffractive scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Alan

    1989-01-01

    Elastic scattering, when particles appear to 'bounce' off each other, and the related phenomena of diffractive scattering are currently less fashionable than the study of hard scattering processes. However this could change rapidly if unexpected results from the UA4 experiment at the CERN Collider are confirmed and their implications tested. These questions were highlighted at the third 'Blois Workshop' on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering, held early in May on the Evanston campus of Northwestern University, near Chicago

  16. Diffractive charm and jet production at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savin, Alexander A.

    2003-01-01

    A new high precision inclusive measurement of the diffractive production of D* ± (2010) mesons in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) in the kinematic region Q 2 >1.5 GeV 2 , 0.02 IP 2 2 , 165 2 , χ IP < 0.03 are presented. Diffractive parton densities extracted using a NLO DGLAP QCD fit are used for comparisons with diffractive DIS and PHP dijet and open charm cross sections at HERA and the Tevatron, thus testing the factorization properties of hard diffraction

  17. High-energy particle diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barone, V.; Predazzi, E.

    2002-01-01

    This monograph gives a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of soft and hard diffraction processes in strong interaction physics. The first part covers the general formalism (the optical analogy, the eikonal picture, high-energy kinematics, S-matrix theory) and soft hadron-hadron scattering (including the Regge theory) in a complete and mature presentation. It can be used as a textbook in particle physics classes. The remainder of the book is devoted to the 'new diffraction': the pomeron in QCD, low-x physics, diffractive deep inelastic scattering and related processes, jet production etc. It presents recent results and experimental findings and their phenomenological interpretations. This part addresses graduate students as well as researchers. (orig.)

  18. Standard hardness conversion tables for metals relationship among brinell hardness, vickers hardness, rockwell hardness, superficial hardness, knoop hardness, and scleroscope hardness

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 Conversion Table 1 presents data in the Rockwell C hardness range on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, Knoop hardness, and Scleroscope hardness of non-austenitic steels including carbon, alloy, and tool steels in the as-forged, annealed, normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions provided that they are homogeneous. 1.2 Conversion Table 2 presents data in the Rockwell B hardness range on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, Knoop hardness, and Scleroscope hardness of non-austenitic steels including carbon, alloy, and tool steels in the as-forged, annealed, normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions provided that they are homogeneous. 1.3 Conversion Table 3 presents data on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, and Knoop hardness of nickel and high-nickel alloys (nickel content o...

  19. Hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, J.P.; Boving, H.J.; Hintermann, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    Hard, wear resistant and low friction coatings are presently produced on a world-wide basis, by different processes such as electrochemical or electroless methods, spray technologies, thermochemical, CVD and PVD. Some of the most advanced processes, especially those dedicated to thin film depositions, basically belong to CVD or PVD technologies, and will be looked at in more detail. The hard coatings mainly consist of oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides or carbon. Over the years, many processes have been developed which are variations and/or combinations of the basic CVD and PVD methods. The main difference between these two families of deposition techniques is that the CVD is an elevated temperature process (≥ 700 C), while the PVD on the contrary, is rather a low temperature process (≤ 500 C); this of course influences the choice of substrates and properties of the coating/substrate systems. Fundamental aspects of the vapor phase deposition techniques and some of their influences on coating properties will be discussed, as well as the very important interactions between deposit and substrate: diffusions, internal stress, etc. Advantages and limitations of CVD and PVD respectively will briefly be reviewed and examples of applications of the layers will be given. Parallel to the development and permanent updating of surface modification technologies, an effort was made to create novel characterisation methods. A close look will be given to the coating adherence control by means of the scratch test, at the coating hardness measurement by means of nanoindentation, at the coating wear resistance by means of a pin-on-disc tribometer, and at the surface quality evaluation by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finally, main important trends will be highlighted. (orig.)

  20. 5-dimensional quantum gravity effects in exclusive double diffractive events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisselev, A.V.; Petrov, V.A.; Ryutin, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    The experimentally measurable effects related to extra dimensional gravity in a RS-type brane world are estimated. Two options of the RS framework (with small and large curvature) are considered. It is shown that physical signals of both can be detected by the joint experiment of the CMS and TOTEM Collaborations at the LHC

  1. Zirconium nitride hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Daiane; Amorim, Cintia Lugnani Gomes de; Soares, Gabriel Vieira; Figueroa, Carlos Alejandro; Baumvol, Israel Jacob Rabin; Basso, Rodrigo Leonardo de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium nitride (ZrN) nanometric films were deposited onto different substrates, in order to study the surface crystalline microstructure and also to investigate the electrochemical behavior to obtain a better composition that minimizes corrosion reactions. The coatings were produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD). The influence of the nitrogen partial pressure, deposition time and temperature over the surface properties was studied. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and corrosion experiments were performed to characterize the ZrN hard coatings. The ZrN films properties and microstructure changes according to the deposition parameters. The corrosion resistance increases with temperature used in the films deposition. Corrosion tests show that ZrN coating deposited by PVD onto titanium substrate can improve the corrosion resistance. (author)

  2. Interplay of hard and soft physics in small x deep inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.

    1995-01-01

    Coherence phenomena, the increase with energy of coherence length and the nonuniversality of parton structure of the effective pomeron are explained. New hard phenomena directly calculable in QCD such as diffractive electroproduction of states with M 2 2 and the color transparency phenomenon as well as new options to measure the light-cone wave functions of various hadrons are considered. An analogue of Bjorken scaling is predicted for the diffractive electroproduction of ρ mesons at large momentum transfers and for the production of large rapidity gap events, as observed at HERA. A phenomenological QCD evolution equation is suggested to calculate the basic characteristics of the large rapidity gap events. The increase of parton densities at small x as well as new means to disentangle experimentally soft and hard physics are considered. We discuss constraints on the increase of deep inelastic amplitudes with Q 2 derived from the inconsistency of QCD predictions for inclusive and exclusive processes and from unitarity of the S matrix for collisions of wave packets. New ways to probe QCD physics of hard processes at large longitudinal distances and to answer the long standing problems on the origin of the pomeron are suggested. Unresolved problems and perspectives of small x physics are also outlined. (orig.)

  3. Hard Distraction and Deep Inelastic Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BJORKEN, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Since the advent of hard-collision physics, the study of diffractive processes- 'shadow physics' - has been less prominent than before. However, there is now a renewed interest in the subject, especially in that aspect which synthesizes the short-distance, hard-collision phenomena with the classical physics of large rapidity-gaps. This is especially stimulated by the recent data on deep-inelastic scattering from HERA, as well as the theoretical work which relates to it. The word 'diffraction' is sometimes used by high-energy physicists in a loose way. So I here begin by defining what I mean by the term: A diffractive process occurs if and only if there is a large rapidity gap in the produced-particle phase space which is not exponentially suppressed. Here a rapidity gap means essentially no hadrons produced into the rapidity gap (which operates in the 'lego' phase-space of pseudo-rapidity and azimuthal angle). And non-exponential suppression implies that the cross-section for creating a gap with width Δη does not have a power-law decrease with increasing sub energy Δη, but behaves at most like some power of pseudorapidity Δη∼ logs. The term 'hard diffraction' shall simply refer to those diffractive processes which have jets in the final-state phase-space. We may also distinguish, if desired, two subclasses, as suggested by Ingelman i) Diffractive hard processes have jets on only one side of the rapidity gap. ii) Hard diffractive processes have jets on both sides of the rapidity gap

  4. Hard Exclusive Processes at COMPASS and COMPASS-II

    CERN Document Server

    D'Hose, N

    2012-01-01

    A major part of the future COMPASS program [1] is dedicated to the study of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and Meson Production (DVMP) to investigate nucleon structure through Generalised Parton Distributions (GPD). The high energy of the muon beam allows us to measure the xB-dependence of the t-slope of the pure DVCS cross section and to study nucleon tomography. In a first phase the use of positive and negative polarised muon beams and of an unpolarised proton target allow measurements of the Beam Charge and Spin Difference of the DVCS cross sections to access the Compton form factor related to the dominant GPD H. In a second phase we consider to use a transversely polarized proton target to constrain the GPD E.

  5. Power corrections to exclusive processes in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankiewicz, Lech

    2002-02-01

    In practice applicability of twist expansion crucially depends on the magnitude to power corrections to the leading-twist amplitude. I illustrate this point by considering explicit examples of two hard exclusive processes in QCD. In the case of {gamma}{sup *}{gamma} {yields} {pi}{pi} amplitude power corrections are small enough such that it should be possible to describe current experimental data by the leading-twist QCD prediction. The photon helicity-flip amplitude in DVCS on a nucleon receives large kinematical power corrections which screen the leading-twist prediction up to large values of the hard photon virtuality.

  6. Exclusive Dealing and Entry

    OpenAIRE

    João Leão

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the use of exclusive dealing agreements to prevent the entry of rival firms. An exclusive dealing agreement is a contract between a buyer and a seller where the buyer commits to buy a good exclusively from the seller. One main concern of the literature is to explain how an incumbent seller is able to persuade the buyers to sign an exclusive dealing agreement that deters the entry of a more efficient rival seller. We propose a new explanation when the buyers are downstream ...

  7. Model of reversible vesicular transport with exclusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressloff, Paul C; Karamched, Bhargav R

    2016-01-01

    A major question in neurobiology concerns the mechanics behind the motor-driven transport and delivery of vesicles to synaptic targets along the axon of a neuron. Experimental evidence suggests that the distribution of vesicles along the axon is relatively uniform and that vesicular delivery to synapses is reversible. A recent modeling study has made explicit the crucial role that reversibility in vesicular delivery to synapses plays in achieving uniformity in vesicle distribution, so called synaptic democracy (Bressloff et al 2015 Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 168101). In this paper we generalize the previous model by accounting for exclusion effects (hard-core repulsion) that may occur between molecular motor-cargo complexes (particles) moving along the same microtubule track. The resulting model takes the form of an exclusion process with four internal states, which distinguish between motile and stationary particles, and whether or not a particle is carrying vesicles. By applying a mean field approximation and an adiabatic approximation we reduce the system of ODEs describing the evolution of occupation numbers of the sites on a 1D lattice to a system of hydrodynamic equations in the continuum limit. We find that reversibility in vesicular delivery allows for synaptic democracy even in the presence of exclusion effects, although exclusion does exacerbate nonuniform distributions of vesicles in an axon when compared with a model without exclusion. We also uncover the relationship between our model and other models of exclusion processes with internal states. (paper)

  8. Hard electroproduction of hybrid mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, I.V.; LPT Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay; Szymanowski, L.; Teryaev, O.V.; ); Wallon, S.

    2005-01-01

    We estimate the sizeable cross section for deep exclusive electroproduction of an exotic J PC = 1 -+ hybrid meson in the Bjorken regime. The production amplitude scales like the one for usual meson electroproduction, i.e. as 1/Q 2 . This is due to the non-vanishing leading twist distribution amplitude for the hybrid meson, which may be normalized thanks to its relation to the energy momentum tensor and to the QCD sum rules technique. The hard amplitude is considered up to next-to-leading order in as and we explore the consequences of fixing the renormalization scale ambiguity through the BLM procedure. (author)

  9. Hard Identity and Soft Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Rachik

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Often collective identities are classified depending on their contents and rarely depending on their forms. Differentiation between soft identity and hard identity is applied to diverse collective identities: religious, political, national, tribal ones, etc. This classification is made following the principal dimensions of collective identities: type of classification (univocal and exclusive or relative and contextual, the absence or presence of conflictsof loyalty, selective or totalitarian, objective or subjective conception, among others. The different characteristics analysed contribute to outlining an increasingly frequent type of identity: the authoritarian identity.

  10. Diffraction coherence in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Françon, M; Green, L L

    2013-01-01

    Diffraction: Coherence in Optics presents a detailed account of the course on Fraunhofer diffraction phenomena, studied at the Faculty of Science in Paris. The publication first elaborates on Huygens' principle and diffraction phenomena for a monochromatic point source and diffraction by an aperture of simple form. Discussions focus on diffraction at infinity and at a finite distance, simplified expressions for the field, calculation of the path difference, diffraction by a rectangular aperture, narrow slit, and circular aperture, and distribution of luminous flux in the airy spot. The book th

  11. Exclusive vector meson production at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szuba, Dorota [Hamburg University, Hamburg (Germany); Collaboration: H1 Collaboration; ZEUS Collaboration

    2013-04-15

    The exclusive photoproduction of {Upsilon} has been studied with the ZEUS detector in ep collisions at HERA. The exponential slope, b, of the |t|-dependence of the cross section, where t is the squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex, has been measured. This constitutes the first measurement of the |t|-dependence of the {gamma}p{yields}{Upsilon}p cross section. The differential crosssections as a function of t at lower energies of {gamma}p centre-of-mass has been studied in exclusive diffractive photoproduction of J/{psi} mesons with the H1 detector. The exclusive electroproduction of two pions has been measured by the ZEUS experiment. The two-pion invariant-mass distribution is interpreted in terms of the pion electromagnetic form factor, assuming that the studied mass range includes the contributions of the {rho}, {rho} Prime and . {rho}'' vector-meson states.

  12. Exclusive vector meson production at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szuba, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    The exclusive photoproduction of Υ has been studied with the ZEUS detector in ep collisions at HERA. The exponential slope, b, of the |t|-dependence of the cross section, where t is the squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex, has been measured. This constitutes the first measurement of the |t|-dependence of the γp→Υp cross section. The differential crosssections as a function of t at lower energies of γp centre-of-mass has been studied in exclusive diffractive photoproduction of J/ψ mesons with the H1 detector. The exclusive electroproduction of two pions has been measured by the ZEUS experiment. The two-pion invariant-mass distribution is interpreted in terms of the pion electromagnetic form factor, assuming that the studied mass range includes the contributions of the ρ, ρ′ and . ρ'' vector-meson states.

  13. Jets and diffraction results from HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buniatyan, A.

    2014-01-01

    The latest results on precision measurements of jet and diffractive cross sections obtained by the H1 and ZEUS experiments at HERA are reported. The inclusive jet and multi-jet cross-sections are used in QCD calculations at next-to-leading order (NLO) to determine the strong coupling α s . The cross-section measurements for diffractive inclusive DIS processes with a leading proton in the final state are combined for the H1 and ZEUS experiments in order to improve the precision and extend the kinematic range. The di-jet cross sections are measured in diffractive DIS with a leading proton and compared with QCD predictions based on diffractive parton densities in the proton. The cross sections for exclusive heavy vector meson photoproduction are studied in terms of the momentum transfer at the proton vertex and of the photon-proton centre-of-mass energy. (author)

  14. Submicron X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDowell, Alastair; Celestre, Richard; Tamura, Nobumichi; Spolenak, Ralph; Valek, Bryan; Brown, Walter; Bravman, John; Padmore, Howard; Batterman, Boris; Patel, Jamshed

    2000-01-01

    At the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley the authors have instrumented a beam line that is devoted exclusively to x-ray micro diffraction problems. By micro diffraction they mean those classes of problems in Physics and Materials Science that require x-ray beam sizes in the sub-micron range. The instrument is for instance, capable of probing a sub-micron size volume inside micron sized aluminum metal grains buried under a silicon dioxide insulating layer. The resulting Laue pattern is collected on a large area CCD detector and automatically indexed to yield the grain orientation and deviatoric (distortional) strain tensor of this sub-micron volume. A four-crystal monochromator is then inserted into the beam, which allows monochromatic light to illuminate the same part of the sample. Measurement of diffracted photon energy allows for the determination of d spacings. The combination of white and monochromatic beam measurements allow for the determination of the total strain/stress tensor (6 components) inside each sub-micron sized illuminated volume of the sample

  15. Neutron diffraction and lattice defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, Yoshikazu

    1974-01-01

    Study on lattice defects by neutron diffraction technique is described. Wave length of neutron wave is longer than that of X-ray, and absorption cross-section is small. Number of defects observed by ESR is up to several defects, and the number studied with electron microscopes is more than 100. Information obtained by neutron diffraction concerns the number of defects between these two ranges. For practical analysis, several probable models are selected from the data of ESR or electron microscopes, and most probable one is determined by calculation. Then, defect concentration is obtained from scattering cross section. It is possible to measure elastic scattering exclusively by neutron diffraction. Minimum detectable concentration estimated is about 0.5% and 10 20 - 10 21 defects per unit volume. A chopper and a time of flight system are used as a measuring system. Cold neutrons are obtained from the neutron sources inserted into reactors. Examples of measurements by using similar equipments to PTNS-I system of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute are presented. Interstitial concentration in the graphite irradiated by fast neutrons is shown. Defects in irradiated MgO were also investigated by measuring scattering cross section. Study of defects in Ge was made by measuring total cross section, and model analysis was performed in comparison with various models. (Kato, T.)

  16. The logarithmic slope in diffractive DIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay Ducati, M.B.; Goncalves, V.P.; Machado, M.V.T.

    2002-01-01

    The logarithmic slope of diffractive structure function is a potential observable to separate the hard and soft contributions in diffraction, allowing to disentangle the QCD dynamics at small-x region. In this paper we extend our previous analyzes and calculate the diffractive logarithmic slope for three current approaches in the literature: (i) the Bartels-Wusthoff model, based on perturbative QCD, (ii) the CKMT model, based on Regge theory and (iii) the Golec-Biernat-Wusthoff model which assumes that the saturation phenomena is present in the HERA kinematic region. We analyze the transition region of small to large momentum transfer and verify that future experimental results on the diffractive logarithmic slope could discriminate between these approaches

  17. Phase behavior in diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Checon, A.

    1983-01-01

    Theoretical formulation of a straight edge diffraction shows a phase difference of π/2 between the incoming and diffracted waves. Experiments using two straight edges do not confirm the π/2 difference but suggest that the incoming wave is in phase with the wave diffracted into the shadowed region of the edge and out of phase by a factor of π with the wave diffracted into the illuminated region. (Author) [pt

  18. Social Exclusion Anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2017-01-01

    Social exclusion anxiety is a term which builds on a social-psychological concept of human beings as existentially dependent on social embeddedness. This entry explores the concept in relation to bullying among children, which is a widespread and serious problem in schools and institutions. Social...... exclusion anxiety and longing for belonging are both central aspects of the affects and processes that enact and challenge social groups. Social exclusion anxiety should not be confused with ‘social phobia’, which is a concept within clinical psychology that focuses on the individual and refers to a phobic...... psychological condition. Social exclusion anxiety instead points to a distributed affect which circulates and smolders in all social groups. This is the result of an ever-present risk of someone being judged unworthy to belong to, or deemed not a legitimate participant in, a social group. Such anxiety may...

  19. ''Follow that quark!'' (and other exclusive stories)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Quarks are considered to be the basic constituents of matter. In a series of recent experiments, Carroll studied exclusive reactions as a means of determining the interactions between quarks. Quantum Chromo-dynamics (QCD) is the modern theory of the interaction of quarks. This theory explains how quarks are held together via the strong interaction in particles known as hadrons. Hadrons consisting of three quarks are called baryons. Hadrons made up of a quark and an antiquark are called mesons. In his lecture, Carroll describes what happens when two hadrons collide and scatter to large angles. The violence of the collision causes the gluons that bind the quarks in a particular hadron to temporarily lose their grip on particular quarks. Quarks scramble toward renewed unity with other quarks, and they undergo rearrangement, which generally results in additional new particles. A two-body exclusive reaction has occurred when the same number of particles exist before and after the collisions. At large angles these exclusive reactions are very rare. The labels on the quarks known as flavor enable the experimenter to follow the history of individual quarks in detail during these exclusive reactions. Carroll describes the equipment used in the experiment to measure short distance, hard collisions at large angles. The collisions he discusses occur when a known beam of mesons or protons collide with a stationary proton target. Finally, Carroll summarizes what the experiments have shown from the study of exclusive reactions and what light some of their results shed on the theory of QCD

  20. Diffractive processes at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, A D; Ryskin, M G

    2009-01-01

    We present a model of high energy soft $pp$ interactions that has multi s- and t-channel components, which has been tuned to describe all the available data. The t-channel components allow matching of the soft to the hard (QCD) Pomeron. Absorptive effects are found to be large, and, for example, suppress the prediction of the total $pp$ cross section to about 90 mb at the LHC. We use the model to calculate the survival probability, S^2, of the rapidity gaps in the exclusive process pp \\to p+H+p, a process with great advantages for searching for the H \\to \\bb signal. We consider both eikonal and enhanced rescattering.

  1. Hardness of basaltic glass-ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Estrup, Maja

    2009-01-01

    The dependence of the hardness of basaltic glass-ceramics on their degree of crystallisation has been explored by means of differential scanning calorimetry, optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Vickers indentation. Different degrees of crystallisation in the basaltic glasses were achieved...... by varying the temperature of heat treatment. The predominant crystalline phase in the glass was identified as augite. It was found that the hardness of the glass phase decreased slightly with an increase in the degree of crystallisation, while that of the augite phase drastically decreased....

  2. The Pauli Exclusion Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    his exclusion principle, the quantum theory was a mess. Moreover, it could ... This is a function of all the coordinates and 'internal variables' such as spin, of all the ... must remain basically the same (ie change by a phase factor at most) if we ...

  3. Exclusive Production at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Walczak, Marek

    2016-01-01

    I briefly introduce so-called central exclusive production. I mainly focus on the example analyses that have been performed in the CMS experiment at CERN. I conclude with ideas and perspectives for future work that will be done during Run 2 of the LHC. I pay special attention to the ultraperipheral collisions.

  4. Ombuds' Corner: Social exclusion

    CERN Document Server

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2012-01-01

    In this special video edition of the Ombuds' Corner, Vincent Vuillemin takes a look at a social exclusion at CERN. Please note that the characters and situations appearing in this work are fictitious, and any resemblance to real persons or events is purely coincidental.   Contact the Ombuds Early!

  5. Social exclusion of children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annette Roest; Anne Marike Lokhorst; Cok Vrooman

    2010-01-01

    Original title: Sociale uitsluiting bij kinderen. Combating social exclusion of children is a subject that has received growing attention in Dutch government policy in recent years. To date, however, no analysis has been performed to ascertain the extent and origins of this phenomenon. This

  6. Diffractive corrections to the muon Bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kel'ner, S.R.; Fedotov, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    The corrections to the muon Bremsstrahlung cross section due to diffraction of hard photons on nuclei are obtained. In this process the momentum is transmitted to a nucleus not by a charged particle but by the photon the interaction of which with the nucleus can be considered as diffraction on weakly absorbing ball. The amplitude of the process interferes with the usual Bremsstrahlung amplitude, therefore in the cross section together with the diffraction correction the interference term also appears, possessing different sings for μ + and μ - . The photon emission cross section also depends on the sing of muon charge and for muon energy about 10 TeV the difference between the cross section may reach 10%. The corrections to the radiation energy loss are also calculated [ru

  7. Observables of QCD diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieskolainen, Mikael; Orava, Risto

    2017-03-01

    A new combinatorial vector space measurement model is introduced for soft QCD diffraction. The model independent mathematical construction resolves experimental complications; the theoretical framework of the approach includes the Good-Walker view of diffraction, Regge phenomenology together with AGK cutting rules and random fluctuations.

  8. Spin structure of nucleon in QCD: inclusive and exclusive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teryaev, O.V.

    2001-01-01

    There are two basically independent ways to describe the nucleon spin structure. One is related to quark and gluon spins and another one to their total angular momenta. The latter spin structure may be studied, in principle, in hard exclusive processes

  9. Exclusive processes in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    In this talk I concentrate on purely exclusive processes. In Sec. II form factors and exclusive decays of heavy quarkonium states will be discussed. In Sec. III elastic wide angle elastic scattering will be considered with emphasis placed on the energy dependence for a fixed angle. The x → 1 limit of structure functions is discussed in Sec. IV. This is a limit which matches on, in a rather complicated way, with transition form factors. In Sec. V the idea of intrinsic charm is considered, mostly from a conceptual viewpoint as to its definition and possible existence. In Sec. VI there is a brief discussion of calculations of matrix elements which occur in deeply inelastic scattering by use of a bag model. In Sec. VII wee parton cancellations and Sudakov corrections for μ-pair production are considered. Sec. VIII concerns soft particle production and the mutliplicity of hadrons in a jet. (orig./HSI)

  10. Borehole radar diffraction tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seong Jun; Kim, Jung Ho; Yi, Myeong Jong; Chung, Seung Hwan; Lee, Hee Il [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    Tomography is widely used as imaging method for determining subsurface structure. Among the reconstruction algorithms for tomographic imaging, travel time tomography is almost applied to imaging subsurface. But isolated small body comparable with the wavelength could not be well recognized by travel time tomography. Other tomographic method are need to improve the imaging process. In the study of this year, diffraction tomography was investigated. The theory for diffraction tomography is based on the 1st-order Born approximation. Multisource holography, which is similar to Kirchihoff migration, is compared with diffraction tomography. To improve 1st-order Born diffraction tomography, two kinds of filter designed from multisource holography and 2-D green function, respectively, applied on the reconstructed image. The algorithm was tested for the numerical modeling data of which algorithm consists of the analytic computation of radar signal in transmitter and receiver regions and 2-D FDM scheme for the propagation of electromagnetic waves in media. The air-filled cavity model to show a typical diffraction pattern was applied to diffraction tomography imaging, and the result shows accurate location and area of cavity. But the calculated object function is not well matched the real object function, because the air-filled cavity model is not satisfied week scattered inhomogeneity for 1st born approximation, and the error term is included in estimating source wavelet from received signals. In spite of the object function error, the diffraction tomography assist for interpretation of subsurface as if conducted with travel time tomography. And the fracture model was tested, 1st born diffraction tomographic image is poor because of limited view angle coverage and violation of week scatter assumption, but the filtered image resolve the fracture somewhat better. The tested diffraction tomography image confirms effectiveness of filter for enhancing resolution. (author). 14

  11. Diffraction. Powder, amorphous, liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnowska, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron powder diffraction is a unique tool to observe all possible diffraction effects appearing in crystal. High-resolution neutron diffractometers have to be used in this study. Analysis of the magnetic structure of polycrystalline materials requires the use of high-resolution neutron diffraction in the range of large interplanar distances. As distinguished from the double axis diffractometers (DAS), which show high resolution only at small interplanar distances, TOF (time-of-flight) diffractometry offers the best resolution at large interplanar distances. (K.A.)

  12. Non-diffractive waves

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez-Figueroa, Hugo E; Recami, Erasmo

    2013-01-01

    This continuation and extension of the successful book ""Localized Waves"" by the same editors brings together leading researchers in non-diffractive waves to cover the most important results in their field and as such is the first to present the current state.The well-balanced presentation of theory and experiments guides readers through the background of different types of non-diffractive waves, their generation, propagation, and possible applications. The authors include a historical account of the development of the field, and cover different types of non-diffractive waves, including Airy

  13. The psychology of exclusivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Jollimore

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Friendship and romantic love are, by their very nature, exclusive relationships. This paper suggests that we can better understand the nature of the exclusivity in question by understanding what is wrong with the view of practical reasoning I call the Comprehensive Surveyor View. The CSV claims that practical reasoning, in order to be rational, must be a process of choosing the best available alternative from a perspective that is as detached and objective as possible. But this view, while it means to be neutral between various value-bearers, in fact incorporates a bias against those value-bearers that can only be appreciated from a perspective that is not detached—that can only be appreciated, for instance, by agents who bear long-term commitments to the values in question. In the realm of personal relationships, such commitments tend to give rise to the sort of exclusivity that characterizes friendship and romantic love; they prevent the agent from being impartial between her beloved’s needs, interests, etc., and those of other persons. In such contexts, I suggest, needs and claims of other persons may be silenced in much the way that, as John McDowell has suggested, the temptations of immorality are silenced for the virtuous agent.

  14. Quark-antiquark production in DIS diffractive dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, J.; Lotter, H.; Wuesthoff, M.

    1996-02-01

    We calculate the cross section for the production of two jets with large transverse momenta k 2 in DIS diffractive dissociation for both transverse and longitudinally polarized photons. The scale which defines the hardness of the Pomeron is found to be k 2 (Q 2 +M 2 )/M 2 . We present analytic expressions and discuss numerical results relevant for the diffractive dissociation at HERA. (orig.)

  15. High energy diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.

    1995-11-01

    Recent experiments on total hadronic cross sections are reviewed together with results on photo- and electroproduction of vector mesons. New data on diffractive deep inelastic scattering shed light on the nature of the pomeron. (orig.)

  16. Duality in diffraction dissociations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, Alberto.

    1977-01-01

    Diffractive dissociations (aN→a*πN) are naturally explained and a model that accounts for the three-variable correlation (mass-transfer-Jackson angle correlation) is presented. This model takes into account the three possible exchanges: t (pion), u(a*) and s(a) channel exchanger. The physical consequences of the model are: a strong mass-slope correlation due to the zeros of the amplitude, a factorization of diffractive dissociations (factorization of the Pomeron), the possibility of extending this model to double diffractive dissociation and diffraction by nuclei. This model was applied to the NN→NπN reaction. Using the usual parameters of the Deck model, a comparison is made with experiments for all available distributions. the strong slope of the peak at 1400 MeV is naturally explained [fr

  17. DIFFRACTION SYNCHRONIZATION OF LASERS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    semiconductor lasers while suppressing parasitic generation in the plane of the mirror. The diffraction coupling coefficient of open resonators is calculated, and the stability conditions of the synchronized system is determined.

  18. X-ray diffraction 2 - diffraction principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, B.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The computation of powder diffraction intensities is based on the principle that the powder pattern comprises the summation of the intensity contributions from each of the crystallites (or single crystals) in the material. Therefore, it is of value for powder diffractionists to appreciate the form of the expression for calculating single crystal diffraction pattern intensities. This knowledge is especially important for Rietveld analysis practitioners in terms of the (i) mathematics of the method and (ii) retrieving single crystal structure data from the literature. We consider the integrated intensity from a small single crystal being rotated at velocity ω through the Bragg angle θ for reflection (hkl).... I(hkl) = [l o /ω]. [e 4 /m 2 c 4 ]. [λ 3 δV F(hkl) 2 /υ 2 ].[(1+cos 2 2θ)/2sin2θ] where e, m and c are the usual fundamental constants; λ is the x-ray wavelength, δV is the crystallite volume; F(hkl) is the structure factor; υ is the unit cell volume; and (1+cos 2 θ)/2sin2θ] is the Lorentz-polarisation factor for an unpolarised incident beam. The expression does not include a contribution for extinction. The influence of factors λ, δV, F(hkl) and υ on the intensities should be appreciated by powder diffractionists, especially the structure factor, F(hkl), which is responsible for the fingerprint nature of diffraction patterns, such as the rise and fall of intensity from peak to peak. The structure factor expression represents the summation of the scattered waves from each of the j scattering centres (i e atoms) in the unit cell: F(hkl) Σ f j exp[2πi (h.x j +k.y i +l. z i )] T j . Symbol f is the scattering factor (representing the atom-type scattering efficiency); (x, y, z) are the fractional position coordinates of atom j within the unit cell; and T is the thermal vibration factor for the atom given by: T j = 8π 2 2 > sin 2 θ/λ 2 with 2 > being the mean-square vibration amplitude of the atom (assumed to be isotropic). The

  19. Search for exclusive or semi-exclusive γγ production and observation of exclusive and semi-exclusive e+e- production in pp collisions at $ \\sqrt{s}=7 $ TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Wagner, P.; Waltenberger, W.; Walzel, G.; Widl, E.; Wulz, C. -E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Maes, T.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Staykova, Z.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D’Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Vanelderen, L.; Verwilligen, P.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Schul, N.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins, M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Oguri, V.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, S.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, S.; Zhu, B.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Khalil, S.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Azzolini, V.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Karjalainen, A.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Shreyber, I.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dobrzynski, L.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J. -L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J. -M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Ferro, C.; Fontaine, J. -C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A. -C.; Van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sordini, V.; Tosi, S.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Anagnostou, G.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Jussen, R.; Klein, K.; Merz, J.; Ostapchuk, A.; Perieanu, A.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Sprenger, D.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Caudron, J.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Erdmann, M.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Kreuzer, P.; Lingemann, J.; Magass, C.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Olschewski, M.; Papacz, P.; Pieta, H.; Reithler, H.; Schmitz, S. A.; Sonnenschein, L.; Steggemann, J.; Teyssier, D.; Weber, M.; Bontenackels, M.; Cherepanov, V.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Haj Ahmad, W.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Nowack, A.; Perchalla, L.; Pooth, O.; Rennefeld, J.; Sauerland, P.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Behr, J.; Behrenhoff, W.; Behrens, U.; Bergholz, M.; Bethani, A.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Castro, E.; Costanza, F.; Dammann, D.; Diez Pardos, C.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Flucke, G.; Geiser, A.; Glushkov, I.; Gunnellini, P.; Habib, S.; Hauk, J.; Hellwig, G.; Jung, H.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, H.; Knutsson, A.; Krämer, M.; Krücker, D.; Kuznetsova, E.; Lange, W.; Lohmann, W.; Lutz, B.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Marienfeld, M.; Melzer-Pellmann, I. -A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Olzem, J.; Perrey, H.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Raspereza, A.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Riedl, C.; Ron, E.; Rosin, M.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Schmidt, R.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Sen, N.; Spiridonov, A.; Stein, M.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Autermann, C.; Blobel, V.; Bobrovskyi, S.; Draeger, J.; Enderle, H.; Erfle, J.; Gebbert, U.; Görner, M.; Hermanns, T.; Höing, R. S.; Kaschube, K.; Kaussen, G.; Kirschenmann, H.; Klanner, R.; Lange, J.; Mura, B.; Nowak, F.; Peiffer, T.; Pietsch, N.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schröder, M.; Schum, T.; Seidel, M.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Thomsen, J.; Barth, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Chwalek, T.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Feindt, M.; Guthoff, M.; Hackstein, C.; Hartmann, F.; Hauth, T.; Heinrich, M.; Held, H.; Hoffmann, K. H.; Honc, S.; Katkov, I.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Martschei, D.; Mueller, S.; Müller, Th.; Niegel, M.; Nürnberg, A.; Oberst, O.; Oehler, A.; Ott, J.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Ratnikov, F.; Ratnikova, N.; Röcker, S.; Scheurer, A.; Schilling, F. -P.; Schott, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Troendle, D.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weiler, T.; Zeise, M.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Kesisoglou, S.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Manolakos, I.; Markou, A.; Markou, C.; Mavrommatis, C.; Ntomari, E.; Gouskos, L.; Mertzimekis, T. J.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Evangelou, I.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Patras, V.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Molnar, J.; Palinkas, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Karancsi, J.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Bansal, M.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Dhingra, N.; Gupta, R.; Kaur, M.; Mehta, M. Z.; Nishu, N.; Saini, L. K.; Sharma, A.; Singh, J. B.; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, S.; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, V.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Dutta, S.; Gomber, B.; Jain, Sa.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Choudhury, R. K.; Dutta, D.; Kailas, S.; Kumar, V.; Mehta, P.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Aziz, T.; Ganguly, S.; Guchait, M.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sudhakar, K.; Wickramage, N.; Banerjee, S.; Dugad, S.; Arfaei, H.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Hashemi, M.; Jafari, A.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi, A.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Barbone, L.; Calabria, C.; Chhibra, S. S.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Lusito, L.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pacifico, N.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Singh, G.; Venditti, R.; Zito, G.; Abbiendi, G.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Meneghelli, M.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Odorici, F.; Perrotta, A.; Primavera, F.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Travaglini, R.; Albergo, S.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D’Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Frosali, S.; Gallo, E.; Gonzi, S.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Colafranceschi, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Fabbricatore, P.; Musenich, R.; Benaglia, A.; De Guio, F.; Di Matteo, L.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Ghezzi, A.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Martelli, A.; Massironi, A.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Sala, S.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Cavallo, N.; De Cosa, A.; Dogangun, O.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Branca, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dorigo, T.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Gulmini, M.; Kanishchev, K.; Lacaprara, S.; Lazzizzera, I.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Vanini, S.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Gabusi, M.; Ratti, S. P.; Riccardi, C.; Torre, P.; Vitulo, P.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Lucaroni, A.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Nappi, A.; Romeo, F.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Taroni, S.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Boccali, T.; Broccolo, G.; Castaldi, R.; D’Agnolo, R. T.; Dell’Orso, R.; Fiori, F.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Kraan, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Grassi, M.; Longo, E.; Meridiani, P.; Micheli, F.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Rahatlou, S.; Sigamani, M.; Soffi, L.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Costa, M.; Demaria, N.; Graziano, A.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Musich, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Potenza, A.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; Marone, M.; Montanino, D.; Penzo, A.; Schizzi, A.; Heo, S. G.; Kim, T. Y.; Nam, S. K.; Chang, S.; Chung, J.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kong, D. J.; Park, H.; Ro, S. R.; Son, D. C.; Son, T.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, Zero J.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Lee, K. S.; Moon, D. H.; Park, S. K.; Choi, M.; Kang, S.; Kim, J. H.; Park, C.; Park, I. C.; Park, S.; Ryu, G.; Cho, Y.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Goh, J.; Kim, M. S.; Kwon, E.; Lee, B.; Lee, J.; Lee, S.; Seo, H.; Yu, I.; Bilinskas, M. J.; Grigelionis, I.; Janulis, M.; Juodagalvis, A.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-de La Cruz, I.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Magaña Villalba, R.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Villasenor-Cendejas, L. M.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Reyes-Santos, M. A.; Krofcheck, D.; Bell, A. J.; Butler, P. H.; Doesburg, R.; Reucroft, S.; Silverwood, H.; Ahmad, M.; Asghar, M. I.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khalid, S.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Qazi, S.; Shah, M. A.; Shoaib, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Gokieli, R.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Wrochna, G.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Cwiok, M.; Dominik, W.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Almeida, N.; Bargassa, P.; David, A.; Faccioli, P.; Fernandes, M.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Seixas, J.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Belotelov, I.; Bunin, P.; Gavrilenko, M.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, I.; Kamenev, A.; Karjavin, V.; Kozlov, G.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Shmatov, S.; Smirnov, V.; Volodko, A.; Zarubin, A.; Evstyukhin, S.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, An.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Matveev, V.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Erofeeva, M.; Gavrilov, V.; Kossov, M.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Safronov, G.; Semenov, S.; Stolin, V.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Khein, L.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Markina, A.; Obraztsov, S.; Perfilov, M.; Petrushanko, S.; Popov, A.; Proskuryakov, A.; Sarycheva, L.; Savrin, V.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. V.; Vinogradov, A.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Grishin, V.; Kachanov, V.; Konstantinov, D.; Korablev, A.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Djordjevic, M.; Ekmedzic, M.; Krpic, D.; Milosevic, J.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Arce, P.; Battilana, C.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Domínguez Vázquez, D.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Ferrando, A.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Merino, G.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Santaolalla, J.; Soares, M. S.; Willmott, C.; Albajar, C.; Codispoti, G.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Brun, H.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Folgueras, S.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Chuang, S. H.; Duarte Campderros, J.; Felcini, M.; Fernandez, M.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez Sanchez, J.; Jorda, C.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Munoz Sanchez, F. J.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodríguez-Marrero, A. Y.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Sobron Sanudo, M.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Bernet, C.; Bianchi, G.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Cerminara, G.; Christiansen, T.; Coarasa Perez, J. 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U.; Mulders, M.; Musella, P.; Nesvold, E.; Orimoto, T.; Orsini, L.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Perez, E.; Perrozzi, L.; Petrilli, A.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Pimiä, M.; Piparo, D.; Polese, G.; Quertenmont, L.; Racz, A.; Reece, W.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Rolandi, G.; Rommerskirchen, T.; Rovelli, C.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Santanastasio, F.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Segoni, I.; Sekmen, S.; Sharma, A.; Siegrist, P.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Spiga, D.; Spiropulu, M.; Stoye, M.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Vlimant, J. R.; Wöhri, H. K.; Worm, S. D.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Gabathuler, K.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; König, S.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Meier, F.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Sibille, J.; Bäni, L.; Bortignon, P.; Buchmann, M. A.; Casal, B.; Chanon, N.; Deisher, A.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Dünser, M.; Eugster, J.; Freudenreich, K.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Lecomte, P.; Lustermann, W.; Marini, A. 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W.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Tomalin, I. R.; Womersley, W. J.; Bainbridge, R.; Ball, G.; Beuselinck, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Colling, D.; Cripps, N.; Cutajar, M.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; Della Negra, M.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Futyan, D.; Gilbert, A.; Guneratne Bryer, A.; Hall, G.; Hatherell, Z.; Hays, J.; Iles, G.; Jarvis, M.; Karapostoli, G.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A. -M.; Marrouche, J.; Mathias, B.; Nandi, R.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Papageorgiou, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Pioppi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Rogerson, S.; Rose, A.; Ryan, M. J.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Sparrow, A.; Tapper, A.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Wakefield, S.; Wardle, N.; Whyntie, T.; Chadwick, M.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Martin, W.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Scarborough, T.; Charaf, O.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Heister, A.; St. John, J.; Lawson, P.; Lazic, D.; Rohlf, J.; Sperka, D.; Sulak, L.; Alimena, J.; Bhattacharya, S.; Cutts, D.; Ferapontov, A.; Heintz, U.; Jabeen, S.; Kukartsev, G.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Luk, M.; Narain, M.; Nguyen, D.; Segala, M.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Speer, T.; Tsang, K. V.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Dolen, J.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Houtz, R.; Ko, W.; Kopecky, A.; Lander, R.; Miceli, T.; Pellett, D.; Rutherford, B.; Searle, M.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Tripathi, M.; Vasquez Sierra, R.; Andreev, V.; Cline, D.; Cousins, R.; Duris, J.; Erhan, S.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Jarvis, C.; Plager, C.; Rakness, G.; Schlein, P.; Tucker, J.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Babb, J.; Clare, R.; Dinardo, M. E.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Giordano, F.; Hanson, G.; Jeng, G. Y.; Liu, H.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Nguyen, H.; Paramesvaran, S.; Sturdy, J.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Wilken, R.; Wimpenny, S.; Andrews, W.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; Evans, D.; Golf, F.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Lebourgeois, M.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Mangano, B.; Padhi, S.; Palmer, C.; Petrucciani, G.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Sudano, E.; Tadel, M.; Tu, Y.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Yoo, J.; Barge, D.; Bellan, R.; Campagnari, C.; D’Alfonso, M.; Danielson, T.; Flowers, K.; Geffert, P.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; Kalavase, P.; Koay, S. A.; Kovalskyi, D.; Krutelyov, V.; Lowette, S.; Mccoll, N.; Pavlunin, V.; Rebassoo, F.; Ribnik, J.; Richman, J.; Rossin, R.; Stuart, D.; To, W.; West, C.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Chen, Y.; Di Marco, E.; Duarte, J.; Gataullin, M.; Ma, Y.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Rogan, C.; Timciuc, V.; Traczyk, P.; Veverka, J.; Wilkinson, R.; Yang, Y.; Zhu, R. Y.; Akgun, B.; Carroll, R.; Ferguson, T.; Iiyama, Y.; Jang, D. W.; Liu, Y. F.; Paulini, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Drell, B. R.; Edelmaier, C. J.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Heyburn, B.; Luiggi Lopez, E.; Smith, J. G.; Stenson, K.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Eggert, N.; Gibbons, L. K.; Heltsley, B.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Kreis, B.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Sun, W.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Vaughan, J.; Weng, Y.; Winstrom, L.; Wittich, P.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bloch, I.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Chetluru, V.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gao, Y.; Green, D.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Harris, R. M.; Hirschauer, J.; Hooberman, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Kilminster, B.; Klima, B.; Kunori, S.; Kwan, S.; Leonidopoulos, C.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. 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V.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Jenkins, M.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Dorney, B.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Vodopiyanov, I.; Adams, M. R.; Anghel, I. M.; Apanasevich, L.; Bai, Y.; Bazterra, V. E.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Callner, J.; Cavanaugh, R.; Dragoiu, C.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Khalatyan, S.; Lacroix, F.; Malek, M.; O’Brien, C.; Silkworth, C.; Strom, D.; Varelas, N.; Akgun, U.; Albayrak, E. A.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Duru, F.; Griffiths, S.; Merlo, J. -P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Newsom, C. R.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Sen, S.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yetkin, T.; Yi, K.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bolognesi, S.; Fehling, D.; Giurgiu, G.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Hu, G.; Maksimovic, P.; Rappoccio, S.; Swartz, M.; Whitbeck, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Grachov, O.; Kenny, R. 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I.; Dahmes, B.; De Benedetti, A.; Franzoni, G.; Gude, A.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Pastika, N.; Rusack, R.; Sasseville, M.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Kroeger, R.; Perera, L.; Rahmat, R.; Sanders, D. A.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Butt, J.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Eads, M.; Keller, J.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Malbouisson, H.; Malik, S.; Snow, G. R.; Baur, U.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Jain, S.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Shipkowski, S. P.; Smith, K.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Haley, J.; Nash, D.; Trocino, D.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Anastassov, A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Ofierzynski, R. A.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Antonelli, L.; Berry, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kolb, J.; Lannon, K.; Luo, W.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Morse, D. M.; Pearson, T.; Ruchti, R.; Slaunwhite, J.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Vuosalo, C.; Williams, G.; Winer, B. L.; Adam, N.; Berry, E.; Elmer, P.; Gerbaudo, D.; Halyo, V.; Hebda, P.; Hegeman, J.; Hunt, A.; Jindal, P.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Raval, A.; Safdi, B.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Acosta, J. G.; Brownson, E.; Huang, X. T.; Lopez, A.; Mendez, H.; Oliveros, S.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Zatserklyaniy, A.; Alagoz, E.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; De Mattia, M.; Everett, A.; Hu, Z.; Jones, M.; Koybasi, O.; Kress, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Leonardo, N.; Maroussov, V.; Merkel, P.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Vidal Marono, M.; Yoo, H. D.; Zablocki, J.; Zheng, Y.; Guragain, S.; Parashar, N.; Adair, A.; Boulahouache, C.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Chung, Y. S.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Miner, D. C.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Zielinski, M.; Bhatti, A.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Lungu, G.; Malik, S.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Rekovic, V.; Robles, J.; Rose, K.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Seitz, C.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Cerizza, G.; Hollingsworth, M.; Spanier, S.; Yang, Z. C.; York, A.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Safonov, A.; Sakuma, T.; Sengupta, S.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Toback, D.; Akchurin, N.; Damgov, J.; Dudero, P. R.; Jeong, C.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Roh, Y.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Florez, C.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Johnston, C.; Kurt, P.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Balazs, M.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Yohay, R.; Gollapinni, S.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sakharov, A.; Anderson, M.; Bachtis, M.; Belknap, D.; Borrello, L.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Friis, E.; Gray, L.; Grogg, K. S.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Klukas, J.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Leonard, J.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Palmonari, F.; Pierro, G. A.; Ross, I.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Swanson, J.

    2012-11-15

    A search for exclusive or semi-exclusive photon pair production, pp to p(*) + photon pair + p(*) (where p(*) stands for a diffractively-dissociated proton), and the observation of exclusive and semi-exclusive electron pair production, pp to p(*) + ee + p(*), in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV, are presented. The analysis is based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 inverse picobarns recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC at low instantaneous luminosities. Candidate photon pair or electron pair events are selected by requiring the presence of two photons or a positron and an electron, each with transverse energy ET > 5.5 GeV and pseudorapidity abs(eta) < 2.5, and no other particles in the region abs(eta) < 5.2. No exclusive or semi-exclusive diphoton candidates are found in the data. An upper limit on the cross section for the reaction pp to p(*) + photon pair + p(*), within the above kinematic selections, is set at 1.18 pb at 95% confidence level. Seventeen exclusive or semi-exclusive dielectron candidates are observed, with an estimated background of 0.85 +/- 0.28 (stat.) events, in agreement with the QED-based prediction of 16.3 +/- 1.3 (syst.) events.

  20. Exclusion and authorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    'Everyone in the world is exposed to radiation from natural and artificial sources. Any realistic system of radiological protection must have a clearly defined scope if it is not to apply to the whole of mankind's activities'. This quote, from ICRP Publication 60 (ICRP, 1991), remains apposite. The main tool for defining scope is the concept of exclusion: situations, sources or exposures that are excluded from the system of radiological protection are, to all intents and purposes, ignored. Sources and exposures that are not excluded are within the scope of the system of protection and by inference within regulatory systems implementing ICRP recommendations. These sources and exposures should be subject to appropriate authorization by the relevant regulatory authority. In order to avoid excessive regulatory procedures, however, provisions should be made for granting an exemption in cases where it is clear that regulatory provisions are unnecessary. Exemption is a regulatory tool intended to facilitate efficient use of regulatory resources. Nevertheless, the regulatory act of granting exemptions is, in itself, a form of authorization and the material or situation so exempted remains within the regulatory system. This distinction between exclusion and exemption is an important one. Historically, the concept of exclusion has been applied to sources or exposures that are essentially unamenable to control because of their widespread nature. The usually quoted examples are cosmic radiation at ground level and 40 K in the body. Clearly, many exposures from natural sources could fall into this category. The challenges are firstly to establish a sound basis for deciding which should be excluded and which should be controlled, and secondly to see if the concept could or should be applied to artificial sources and exposures. These two questions are the subject of this paper. (author)

  1. Social exclusion anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2014-01-01

    . The concepts I work with are the need for belonging, social exclusion anxiety and the production of contempt and dignity by both children and adults. I develop a new definition of bullying, drawing upon Judith Butler’s (1999) concept of ‘abjection’ as well as Karen Barad’s concept of ‘intra-acting forces......’ (Barad 2007). My definition in this chapter contributed to the shorter definition of bullying in the Introduction (see page XX), but it is more fully developed here in relation to the types of mechanisms and processes involved. Barad’s term ‘intra-action’ helps draw attention to the mutually...

  2. Comprehensive hard materials

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive Hard Materials deals with the production, uses and properties of the carbides, nitrides and borides of these metals and those of titanium, as well as tools of ceramics, the superhard boron nitrides and diamond and related compounds. Articles include the technologies of powder production (including their precursor materials), milling, granulation, cold and hot compaction, sintering, hot isostatic pressing, hot-pressing, injection moulding, as well as on the coating technologies for refractory metals, hard metals and hard materials. The characterization, testing, quality assurance and applications are also covered. Comprehensive Hard Materials provides meaningful insights on materials at the leading edge of technology. It aids continued research and development of these materials and as such it is a critical information resource to academics and industry professionals facing the technological challenges of the future. Hard materials operate at the leading edge of technology, and continued res...

  3. Social exclusion and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić Vesna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Social exclusion is a process whereby certain individuals are pushed to the edge of society and prevented from participating fully by virtue of their poverty, or lack of basic competencies and lifelong learning opportunities or as a result of discrimination. This distances them from job, income and education opportunities as well as social and community networks and activities. Quality education (conditions and access/accessibility/availability is one of the factors that significantly influence the reduced social exclusion. In other words, education has is key role key role in ensuring social inclusion (equal opportunities and active social participation. At the same time, education and lifelong learning is established as the basis for achieving the goals of sustainable economic development (economy based on knowledge and to achieve social cohesion. Quality education is a prerequisite for progress, development and well-being of the community. Conditions and accessibility to education have become priorities of national reforms in most European countries. The subject of this paper is the educational structure of population of Serbia and the accessibility of education. The analysis covers the educational structure with regard to age, gender and type of settlement (city and other/villages settlements.

  4. Two-channel totally asymmetric simple exclusion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronina, Ekaterina; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B

    2004-01-01

    Totally asymmetric simple exclusion processes, consisting of two coupled parallel lattice chains with particles interacting with hard-core exclusion and moving along the channels and between them, are considered. In the limit of strong coupling between the channels, the particle currents, density profiles and a phase diagram are calculated exactly by mapping the system into an effective one-channel totally asymmetric exclusion model. For intermediate couplings, a simple approximate theory, that describes the particle dynamics in vertical clusters of two corresponding parallel sites exactly and neglects the correlations between different vertical clusters, is developed. It is found that, similarly to the case of one-channel totally asymmetric simple exclusion processes, there are three stationary state phases, although the phase boundaries and stationary properties strongly depend on inter-channel coupling. Extensive computer Monte Carlo simulations fully support the theoretical predictions

  5. 100 years of discovery of X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tao

    2012-01-01

    X-ray diffraction was discovered by Max von Laue a hundred years ago. Later, through the work of William H. Bragg and William L. Bragg, an experimental analysis method was developed to solve the structure of molecules at the atomic level. Over the past hundred years, science and technology has been dramatically changed by X-ray diffraction analysis, which has also undergone considerable development. The recent emergence of hard X-ray free electron lasers has provided a new dimension for X-ray diffraction analysis, promising even greater progress in the fields of physics, chemistry and biology. (author)

  6. Diffraction. Single crystal, magnetic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heger, G.

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of crystal structure and magnetic ordering is usually based on diffraction phenomena caused by the interaction of matter with X-rays, neutrons, or electrons. Complementary information is achieved due to the different character of X-rays, neutrons and electrons, and hence their different interactions with matter and further practical aspects. X-ray diffraction using conventional laboratory equipment and/or synchrotron installations is the most important method for structure analyses. The purpose of this paper is to discuss special cases, for which, in addition to this indispensable part, neutrons are required to solve structural problems. Even though the huge intensity of modern synchrotron sources allows in principle the study of magnetic X-ray scattering the investigation of magnetic structures is still one of the most important applications of neutron diffraction. (K.A.)

  7. Remarks on diffractive production of the Higgs boson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peschanski, R. [CEA Saclay, Service de Physique Theorique, URA 2306, Unite de Recherche Associee au CNRS, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2005-07-01

    Central diffractive production of the Higgs boson has recently received much attention as a potentially interesting production mode at the LHC (large hadron collider). While the standard production of Higgs boson via gluon-gluon fusion can reach high cross-sections, the study of the Higgs boson will be uneasy due to accompanying particles and background. The original guiding line for central diffractive production is to compensate the weak cross-sections by a cleaner signal, and precise production kinematics thanks to the tagging of diffracted protons. We shall review some of the wishes and realities encountered in this field. Theoretical open problems of diffractive dynamics are involved in making accurate predictions for the LHC, among which the most crucial is understanding factorization breaking in hard diffraction.

  8. Diffraction in nuclear scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojciechowski, H.

    1986-01-01

    The elastic scattering amplitudes for charged and neutral particles have been decomposed into diffractive and refractive parts by splitting the nuclear elastic scattering matrix elements into components responsible for these effects. It has been shown that the pure geometrical diffractive effect which carries no information about the nuclear interaction is always predominant at forward angle of elastic angular distributions. This fact suggests that for strongly absorbed particles only elastic cross section at backward angles, i.e. the refractive cross section, can give us basic information about the central nuclear potential. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  9. Dynamics from diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, Andrew L.; Tucker, Matthew G.; Cope, Elizabeth R.; Dove, Martin T.; Keen, David A.

    2006-01-01

    We explore the possibility that detailed dynamical information might be extracted from powder diffraction data. Our focus is a recently reported technique that employs statistical analysis of atomistic configurations to calculate dynamical properties from neutron total scattering data. We show that it is possible to access the phonon dispersion of low-frequency modes using such an approach, without constraining the results in terms of some pre-defined dynamical model. The high-frequency regions of the phonon spectrum are found to be less well preserved in the diffraction data

  10. The photon structure function and hard scattering in two-photon reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolanoski, H.

    1984-09-01

    This report summarizes experimental results obtained by the CELLO, JADE, PLUTO and TASSO collaborations on the following topics: the structure function of the photon; hard scattering and jet production and exclusive hadron pair production. (orig.)

  11. Diffraction in ALICE and trigger efficiencies

    CERN Document Server

    Navin, Sparsh; Lietava, Roman

    ALICE is built to measure the properties of strongly interacting matter created in heavy-ion collisions. In addition, taking advantage of the low pT acceptance in the central barrel, ALICE is playing an important role in understanding pp collisions with minimum bias triggers at LHC energies. The work presented in this thesis is based on pp data simulated by the ALICE collaboration and early data collected at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. A procedure to calculate trigger efficiencies and an estimate of the systematic uncertainty due to the limited acceptance of the detector are shown. A kinematic comparison between Monte Carlo event generators, PYTHIA 6, PYTHIA 8 and PHOJET is also presented. To improve the description of diffraction in PYTHIA, a hard diffractive component was added to PYTHIA 8 in 2009, which is described. Finally a trigger with a high efficiency for picking diffractive events is used to select a sample with an enhanced diffractive component from pp data. These data are compared to Monte ...

  12. Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Hanfei; Maser, Joerg; Macrander, Albert; Shen Qun; Vogt, Stefan; Stephenson, G. Brian; Kang, Hyon Chol

    2007-01-01

    We present a formalism of x-ray dynamical diffraction from volume diffractive optics with large numerical aperture and high aspect ratio, in an analogy to the Takagi-Taupin equations [Acta Crystallogr. 15, 1311 (1962); Bull. Soc. Fr. Mineral. Crystallogr. 87, 469 (1964)] for strained single crystals. We derive a set of basic equations for dynamical diffraction from volume diffractive optics, which enable us to study the focusing property of these optics with various grating profiles. We study volume diffractive optics that satisfy the Bragg condition to various degrees, namely, flat, tilted, and wedged geometries, and derive the curved geometries required for ultimate focusing. We show that the curved geometries satisfy both the Bragg condition everywhere and phase requirement for point focusing and effectively focus hard x rays to a scale close to the wavelength. Our calculations were made for an x-ray wavelength of 0.064 nm (19.5 keV)

  13. Diffraction through partial identity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, W.

    1981-06-01

    A model of diffraction dissociation is proposed in which the quantum-mechanical interference between the incoming and the outgoing wave determines the cross-section. This interference occurs due to the finite life-time of the excited state. (orig.)

  14. Diffractive optics for industrial and commercial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turunen, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland); Wyrowski, F. [eds.] [Jena Univ. (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The following topics were dealt with: diffractive optics, diffraction gratings, optical system design with diffractive optics, continuous-relief diffractive lenses and microlens arrays, diffractive bifocal intraocular lenses, diffractive laser resonators, diffractive optics for semiconductor lasers, diffractive elements for optical image processing, photorefractive crystals in optical measurement systems, subwavelenth-structured elements, security applications, diffractive optics for solar cells, holographic microlithography. 999 refs.

  15. Induced spherococcoid hard wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, Sh.

    1981-01-01

    A mutant has been obtained - a spheroccocoid line -through irradiation of hard wheat seed with fast neutrons. It is distinguished by semispherical glumes and smaller grain; the plants have low stem with erect leaves but with shorter spikes and with lesser number of spikelets than those of the initial cultivar. Good productive tillering and resistance to lodging contributed to 23.5% higher yield. The line was superior to the standard and the initial cultivars by 14.2% as regards protein content, and by up to 22.8% - as to flour gluten. It has been successfully used in hybridization producing high-yielding hard wheat lines resistant to lodging, with good technological and other indicators. The possibility stated is of obtaining a spherococcoid mutant in tetraploid (hard) wheat out of the D-genome as well as its being suited to hard wheat breeding to enhance protein content, resistance to lodging, etc. (author)

  16. Hard probes 2006 Asilomar

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "The second international conference on hard and electromagnetic probes of high-energy nuclear collisions was held June 9 to 16, 2006 at the Asilomar Conference grounds in Pacific Grove, California" (photo and 1/2 page)

  17. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V., Herne (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The year 2012 benefited from a growth of the consumption of hard coal at the national level as well as at the international level. Worldwide, the hard coal still is the number one energy source for power generation. This leads to an increasing demand for power plant coal. In this year, the conversion of hard coal into electricity also increases in this year. In contrast to this, the demand for coking coal as well as for coke of the steel industry is still declining depending on the market conditions. The enhanced utilization of coal for the domestic power generation is due to the reduction of the nuclear power from a relatively bad year for wind power as well as reduced import prices and low CO{sub 2} prices. Both justify a significant price advantage for coal in comparison to the utilisation of natural gas in power plants. This was mainly due to the price erosion of the inexpensive US coal which partly was replaced by the expansion of shale gas on the domestic market. As a result of this, the inexpensive US coal looked for an outlet for sales in Europe. The domestic hard coal has continued the process of adaptation and phase-out as scheduled. Two further hard coal mines were decommissioned in the year 2012. RAG Aktiengesellschaft (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) running the hard coal mining in this country begins with the preparations for the activities after the time of mining.

  18. Contribution to diffraction theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chako, N.

    1966-11-01

    In a first part, we have given a general and detailed treatment of the modern theory of diffraction. The rigorous theory is formulated as a boundary value problem of the wave equation or Maxwell equations. However, up to the present time, such a program of treating diffraction by optical systems, even for simple optical instruments, has not been realized due to the complicated character of the boundary conditions. The recent developments show clearly the nature of the approximation of the classical theories originally due to Fresnel and Young, later formulated in a rigorous manner by Kirchhoff and Rubinowicz, respectively and, at the same time the insufficiency of these theories in explaining a number of diffraction phenomena. Furthermore, we have made a study of the limitations of the approximate theories and the recent attempts to improve these. The second part is devoted to a general mathematical treatment of the theory of diffraction of optical systems including aberrations. After a general and specific analysis of geometrical and wave aberrations along classical and modern (Nijboer) lines, we have been able to evaluate the diffraction integrals representing the image field at any point in image space explicitly, when the aberrations are small. Our formulas are the generalisations of all anterior results obtained by previous investigators. Moreover, we have discussed the Zernike-Nijboer theory of aberration and generalised it not only for rotational systems, but also for non-symmetric systems as well, including the case of non circular apertures. The extension to non-circular apertures is done by introducing orthogonal functions or polynomials over such aperture shapes. So far the results are valid for small aberrations, that is to say, where the deformation of the real wave front emerging from the optical system is less than a wave length of light or of the electromagnetic wave from the ideal wave front. If the aberrations are large, then one must employ the

  19. Hard production of exotic hybrid mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anikin, I.; Teryaev, O.V. [Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Pire, B.; Anikin, I. [Ecole Polytechnique, CPHT, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Szymanowski, I. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); Liege Univ. (Belgium); Anikin, I.; Wallon, S. [Paris-11 Univ., Lab. de Physique Theorique, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2005-07-01

    Exotic hybrid mesons H, with quantum numbers J{sup PC} = 1{sup -+} may be copiously produced in the hard exclusive processes {gamma}{sup *}(Q{sup 2}){gamma} {yields} H and {gamma}{sup *}(Q{sup 2})P(p) {yields} HP(p') because they have a leading twist distribution amplitude with a sizable coupling constant f{sub H}, which may be estimated through QCD sum rules. The reaction rates scale in the same way as the corresponding rates for usual mesons. (authors)

  20. X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einstein, J.R.; Wei, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    We have been interested in structural elucidation by x-ray diffraction of compounds of biological interest. Understanding exactly how atoms are arranged in three-dimensional arrays as molecules can help explain the relationship between structure and functions. The species investigated may vary in size and shape; our recent studies included such diverse substances as antischistosomal drugs, a complex of cadmium with nucleic acid base, nitrate salts of adenine, and proteins

  1. Exact results for the one dimensional asymmetric exclusion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrida, B.; Evans, M.R.; Pasquier, V.

    1993-01-01

    The asymmetric exclusion model describes a system of particles hopping in a preferred direction with hard core repulsion. These particles can be thought of as charged particles in a field, as steps of an interface, as cars in a queue. Several exact results concerning the steady state of this system have been obtained recently. The solution consists of representing the weights of the configurations in the steady state as products of non-commuting matrices. (author)

  2. Hardness and thermal stability of cubic silicon nitride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Kragh, Flemming; Frost, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    The hardness and thermal stability of cubic spinel silicon nitride (c-Si3N4), synthesized under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions, have been studied by microindentation measurements, and x-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively The phase at ambient...

  3. Generalized exclusion and Hopf algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildiz, A

    2002-01-01

    We propose a generalized oscillator algebra at the roots of unity with generalized exclusion and we investigate the braided Hopf structure. We find that there are two solutions: these are the generalized exclusions of the bosonic and fermionic types. We also discuss the covariance properties of these oscillators

  4. Evaluating Alternatives to Exclusive "He."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd-Mancillas, William R.

    A study was conducted to determine the effects on reading comprehension of the use of the exclusive pronoun "he" and more or less contrived alternatives. Subjects, 358 students enrolled in an introduction to human communication at a large northeastern university, read three different forms of the same essay. One essay form exclusively used "he,"…

  5. Search for exclusive or semi-exclusive $\\gamma\\gamma$ production and observation of exclusive and semi-exclusive $e^+e^−$ production in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Wagner, Philipp; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Staykova, Zlatka; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Reis, Thomas; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Siguang; Zhu, Bo; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Karjalainen, Ahti; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Millischer, Laurent; Nayak, Aruna; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Anagnostou, Georgios; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Lingemann, Joschka; Magass, Carsten; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Weber, Martin; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Rennefeld, Jörg; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Costanza, Francesco; Dammann, Dirk; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Gunnellini, Paolo; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Olzem, Jan; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Ron, Elias; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Blobel, Volker; Bobrovskyi, Sergei; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Hermanns, Thomas; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Nowak, Friederike; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Seidel, Markus; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Barth, Christian; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Röcker, Steffen; Scheurer, Armin; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bansal, Monika; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Kaur, Manjit; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mehta, Pourus; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Gulmini, Michele; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Taroni, Silvia; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Sigamani, Michael; Soffi, Livia; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Heo, Seong Gu; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dong-Chul; Son, Taejin; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Choi, Minkyoo; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Cho, Yongjin; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Fernandes, Miguel; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Khein, Lev; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Popov, Andrey; Proskuryakov, Alexander; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Georgiou, Georgios; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Hinzmann, Andreas; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Lecoq, Paul; Lee, Yen-Jie; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Lourenco, Carlos; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Nesvold, Erik; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sekmen, Sezen; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Spiropulu, Maria; Stoye, Markus; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Bäni, Lukas; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Dünser, Marc; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Mohr, Niklas; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Wehrli, Lukas; Aguilo, Ernest; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Tupputi, Salvatore; Verzetti, Mauro; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Singh, Anil; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wan, Xia; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Cankocak, Kerem; Levchuk, Leonid; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Whyntie, Tom; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Houtz, Rachel; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Miceli, Tia; Pellett, Dave; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Andreev, Valeri; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Timciuc, Vladlen; Traczyk, Piotr; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bloch, Ingo; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kilminster, Benjamin; Klima, Boaz; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Jordon Rowe; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Griffiths, Scott; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tinti, Gemma; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Peterman, Alison; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Krajczar, Krisztian; Li, Wei; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Xie, Si; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cooper, Seth; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Shipkowski, Simon Peter; Smith, Kenneth; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Nash, David; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Vuosalo, Carl; Williams, Grayson; Winer, Brian L; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Jindal, Pratima; Lopes Pegna, David; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Safdi, Ben; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Brownson, Eric; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Guragain, Samir; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Rekovic, Vladimir; Robles, Jorge; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Roh, Youn; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Florez, Carlos; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Johnston, Cody; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Belknap, Donald; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Friis, Evan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Palmonari, Francesco; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    A search for exclusive or semi-exclusive photon pair production, pp to p* + photon pair + p(*) (where p* stands for a diffractively-dissociated proton), and the observation of exclusive and semi-exclusive electron pair production, pp to p(*) + ee + p(*), in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV, are presented. The analysis is based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 inverse picobarns recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC at low instantaneous luminosities. Candidate photon pair or electron pair events are selected by requiring the presence of two photons or a positron and an electron, each with transverse energy ET > 5.5 GeV and pseudorapidity abs(eta) < 2.5, and no other particles in the region abs(eta) < 5.2. No exclusive or semi-exclusive diphoton candidates are found in the data. An upper limit on the cross section for the reaction pp to p(*) + photon pair + p(*), within the above kinematic selections, is set at 1.18 pb at 95% confidence level. Seventeen exclu...

  6. Hard-hat day

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    CERN will be organizing a special information day on Friday, 27th June, designed to promote the wearing of hard hats and ensure that they are worn correctly. A new prevention campaign will also be launched.The event will take place in the hall of the Main Building from 11.30 a.m. to 2.00 p.m., when you will be able to come and try on various models of hard hat, including some of the very latest innovative designs, ask questions and pass on any comments and suggestions.

  7. Reciprocity in electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunning, J.; Goodman, P.

    1991-01-01

    The symmetry of reciprocity is reviewed in the context of relativistic quantum mechanics with the specific aim of relating to P-C-T invariances. From this investigation global time reversal is found to be sufficient condition for reciprocity to hold in scattering from a vector potential. Elastic scattering is assumed. The paper also deals exclusively with the scattering of a charged particle by an electromagnetic field. The present proof is free from assumptions of small angle scattering and from restrictions on z-dependent terms in the scattering equation, and by avoiding S-matrix theory is thought to be accessible to undergraduate teaching. 9 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  8. Exclusive ρ0 production measured with the HERMES recoil detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Benito, Roberto Francisco

    2010-12-01

    The Hermes experiment (HERa MEasurement of Spin) at Desy was designed to study the spin structure of the nucleon in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. The internal structure of the nucleon has been investigated in detail and it has been measured that the intrinsic quark spin contribution is only about 30% of the total spin of the nucleon. A formalism to describe the internal structure of the nucleon called Generalised Patron Distributions (GPDs) was developed recently to understand the fundamental structure of the nucleon. These GPDs can be accessed by the measurement of hard exclusive reactions and hard exclusive processes that can be understood in terms of GPDs. The accumulated Hermes data offer access to GPDs in different combinations of beam charge and beam and target helicity asymmetries. To improve exclusivity and to enhance the resolution of kinematic variables to study hard exclusive processes which provide access to the GPDs and hence to the orbital angular momentum of the quarks, in January 2006 a Recoil Detector was installed that surrounded the internal gas target of the Hermes experiment. The Hermes Recoil Detector consisted of three components: a silicon strip detector inside the vacuum, a scintillating fiber tracker and the photon detector. All three detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnet which provided a 1T longitudinal magnetic field. The Recoil Detector improves the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the momentum and track position of the recoiling particle as well as by rejecting non-exclusive background. This detector was an ideal novel tool to combine energy and position measurements for charged particles in a momentum range of 0.1 to 1.4 GeV/c. The Recoil Detector was fully commissioned and operating. Data was taken continuously until the final Hera shutdown in July of 2007. In this thesis we report on the performance of the Recoil Detector and more specifically about the scintillating fiber tracker

  9. Diffraction by disordered polycrystalline fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroud, W.J.; Millane, R.P.

    1995-01-01

    X-ray diffraction patterns from some polycrystalline fibers show that the constituent microcrystallites are disordered. The relationship between the crystal structure and the diffracted intensities is then quite complicated and depends on the precise kind and degree of disorder present. The effects of disorder on diffracted intensities must be included in structure determinations using diffraction data from such specimens. Theory and algorithms are developed here that allow the full diffraction pattern to be calculated for a disordered polycrystalline fiber made up of helical molecules. The model accommodates various kinds of disorder and includes the effects of finite crystallite size and cylindrical averaging of the diffracted intensities from a fiber. Simulations using these methods show how different kinds, or components, of disorder produce particular diffraction effects. General properties of disordered arrays of helical molecules and their effects on diffraction patterns are described. Implications for structure determination are discussed. (orig.)

  10. New focus for elastic and diffractive scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiecinski, J.

    1995-01-01

    A regular feature of the international physics calendar is the International Conference on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering, known also as the Blois Workshops, after their 1985 birthplace in France. The content of this year's meeting embraced a broad spectrum of problems ranging from the classical analysis of elastic scattering and total cross-sections to the ''hard'' or deep inelastic phenomena which test the underlying quark-gluon structure of hadrons. These meetings have traditionally concentrated on broad questions of elastic and diffractive scattering, however the shift of emphasis in physics is now reflected at Blois by interest in the wide range of 'soft' hadronic processes which dominate reaction cross-sections. On the traditional side, a substantial part of the conference was devoted to analysis of forward scattering parameters like total cross-sections, real parts etc, using dispersion relations and fundamental asymptotic theorems which bound the possible growth of those parameters with energy. The present experimental situation in this field was summarized by S. Pruss, followed by theoretical presentations by B. Nicolescu, A. Donnachie, T.T. Wu, A. Martin and others. The data for proton-proton and proton-antiproton scattering seem to support dominance of the 'crossing-even' part of the scattering amplitude (which contributes equally to both proton-proton and protonantiproton scattering), with little evidence for a substantial 'odderon' term which contributes with opposite sign in the two cases. The 'pomeron' physics of high energy behaviour was a central feature of the conference. The experimental data seem to suggest that behaviour with increasing energy depends on the magnitude of the scale which characterizes the process - i.e. whether the process is ''soft'' or ''hard''. Hard processes, in general, show a much more rapid increase with increasing

  11. X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, J.L. de.

    1976-01-01

    The seventh edition of Philips' Review of literature on X-ray diffraction begins with a list of conference proceedings on the subject, organised by the Philips' organisation at regular intervals in various European countries. This is followed by a list of bulletins. The bibliography is divided according to the equipment (cameras, diffractometers, monochromators) and its applications. The applications are subdivided into sections for high/low temperature and pressure, effects due to the equipment, small angle scattering and a part for stress, texture and phase analyses of metals and quantitative analysis of minerals

  12. Developments in diffraction databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, R.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: There are a number of databases available to the diffraction community. Two of the more important of these are the Powder Diffraction File (PDF) maintained by the International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD), and the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD) maintained by Fachsinformationzentrum (FIZ, Karlsruhe). In application, the PDF has been used as an indispensable tool in phase identification and identification of unknowns. The ICSD database has extensive and explicit reference to the structures of compounds: atomic coordinates, space group and even thermal vibration parameters. A similar database, but for organic compounds, is maintained by the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre. These databases are often used as independent sources of information. However, little thought has been given on how to exploit the combined properties of structural database tools. A recently completed agreement between ICDD and FIZ, plus ICDD and Cambridge, provides a first step in complementary use of the PDF and the ICSD databases. The focus of this paper (as indicated below) is to examine ways of exploiting the combined properties of both databases. In 1996, there were approximately 76,000 entries in the PDF and approximately 43,000 entries in the ICSD database. The ICSD database has now been used to calculate entries in the PDF. Thus, to derive d-spacing and peak intensity data requires the synthesis of full diffraction patterns, i.e., we use the structural data in the ICSD database and then add instrumental resolution information. The combined data from PDF and ICSD can be effectively used in many ways. For example, we can calculate PDF data for an ideally random crystal distribution and also in the absence of preferred orientation. Again, we can use systematic studies of intermediate members in solid solutions series to help produce reliable quantitative phase analyses. In some cases, we can study how solid solution properties vary with composition and

  13. Shock Wave Diffraction Phenomena around Slotted Splitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Gnani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field of aerospace engineering, the study of the characteristics of vortical flows and their unsteady phenomena finds numerous engineering applications related to improvements in the design of tip devices, enhancement of combustor performance, and control of noise generation. A large amount of work has been carried out in the analysis of the shock wave diffraction around conventional geometries such as sharp and rounded corners, but the employment of splitters with lateral variation has hardly attracted the attention of researchers. The investigation of this phenomenon around two-dimensional wedges has allowed the understanding of the basic physical principles of the flow features. On the other hand, important aspects that appear in the third dimension due to the turbulent nature of the vortices are omitted. The lack of studies that use three-dimensional geometries has motivated the current work to experimentally investigate the evolution of the shock wave diffraction around two splitters with spike-shaped structures for Mach numbers of 1.31 and 1.59. Schlieren photography was used to obtain an insight into the sequential diffraction processes that take place in different planes. Interacting among them, these phenomena generate a complicated turbulent cloud with a vortical arrangement.

  14. Hard times; Schwere Zeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Markus

    2012-10-02

    The prices of silicon and solar wafers keep dropping. According to market research specialist IMS research, this is the result of weak traditional solar markets and global overcapacities. While many manufacturers are facing hard times, big producers of silicon are continuing to expand.

  15. Hardness of Clustering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Hardness of Clustering. Both k-means and k-medians intractable (when n and d are both inputs even for k =2). The best known deterministic algorithms. are based on Voronoi partitioning that. takes about time. Need for approximation – “close” to optimal.

  16. Rock-hard coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has signed an agreement with a number of parties to investigate this material further.

  17. Rock-hard coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has

  18. Hardness and excitation energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that the first excitation energy can be given by the Kohn-Sham hardness (i.e. the energy difference of the ground-state lowest unoccupied and highest occupied levels) plus an extra term coming from the partial derivative of the ensemble exchange-correlation energy with respect to the weighting factor in the ...

  19. Bragg concentrators for hard (> 10 keV) X-ray astronomy: Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareschi, G.; Pasqualini, G. [Ferrara, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Frontera, F. [CNR, Bologna (Italy). Istituto di TESRE]|[Ferrara, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica

    1997-09-01

    The use of focusing telescopes in hard X-ray (E > 10 keV) astronomy will provide better flux sensitivity and imaging performances with respect to the direct-viewing detectors, utilized until now. They present recent results obtained from their group regarding the possible use of Bragg-diffraction technique to design hard X-ray focusing telescopes.

  20. Bragg concentrators for hard (> 10 keV) X-ray astronomy: Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareschi, G.; Pasqualini, G.; Frontera, F.; Ferrara, Univ.

    1997-01-01

    The use of focusing telescopes in hard X-ray (E > 10 keV) astronomy will provide better flux sensitivity and imaging performances with respect to the direct-viewing detectors, utilized until now. They present recent results obtained from their group regarding the possible use of Bragg-diffraction technique to design hard X-ray focusing telescopes

  1. Problems of Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholosha, V.Yi.

    2014-01-01

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone, aimed at the development of technologies, equipment and devices for radioactive waste management and ChNPP accident clean-up, at studying the composition and structure of the Exclusion zone soil activity solid bearers, form transformation of the fission products of fuel fallout radionuclide composition in the ChNPP near zone, the spatial distribution of radionuclides and other radioecological issues.. Much attention is paid to medical and biological aspects of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health, labour conditions and incidence of the workers of the Exclusion zone

  2. Exclusive channels in semi-inclusive production of pions and kaons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markus Diehl; Wolfgang Kugler; Andreas Schaefer; Christian Weiss

    2005-06-01

    We investigate the role of exclusive channels in semi-inclusive electroproduction of pions and kaons. Using the QCD factorization theorem for hard exclusive processes we evaluate the cross sections for exclusive pseudoscalar and vector meson production in terms of generalized parton distributions and meson distribution amplitudes. We investigate the uncertainties arising from the modeling of the nonperturbative input quantities. Combining these results with available experimental data, we compare the cross sections for exclusive channels to that obtained from quark fragmentation in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. We find that rho0 production is the only exclusive channel with significant contributions to semi-inclusive pion production at large z and moderate Q2. The corresponding contribution to kaon production from the decay of exclusively produced phi and Kstar is rather small.

  3. Exclusive channels in semi-inclusive production of pions and kaons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markus Diehl; Wolfgang Kugler; Andreas Schaefer; Christian Weiss

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the role of exclusive channels in semi-inclusive electroproduction of pions and kaons. Using the QCD factorization theorem for hard exclusive processes we evaluate the cross sections for exclusive pseudoscalar and vector meson production in terms of generalized parton distributions and meson distribution amplitudes. We investigate the uncertainties arising from the modeling of the nonperturbative input quantities. Combining these results with available experimental data, we compare the cross sections for exclusive channels to that obtained from quark fragmentation in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. We find that rho0 production is the only exclusive channel with significant contributions to semi-inclusive pion production at large z and moderate Q2. The corresponding contribution to kaon production from the decay of exclusively produced phi and Kstar is rather small

  4. Exclusive Rights and State Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2017-01-01

    Exclusive rights are granted in order to regulate markets as one of several possible tools of public intervention. The article considers the role of State aid law in the regulation of exclusive rights. Whereas the right of Member States to organise markets as monopolies and the choice of provider...... are regulated by free movement rules and Article 106 TFEU, State aid law regulates the terms of the right to ensure that the beneficiary is not granted an economic advantage. Exclusive rights may be granted on various terms: for a payment, in combination with compensation or as compensation. The two former...... kinds of terms are regulated under State aid law which requires market terms. The granting of exclusive rights as compensation is analysed on the basis of the Eventech judgment, and it is found that when no financial transaction is included in the grant, it resembles a decision to organise a market...

  5. Exclusive processes at Jefferson Lab

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There is no clear guidance from theory as to the limits of the transition region; .... behavior in exclusive photoreactions with hadrons in the final state at large t may provide .... The planned medium acceptance detector (MAD) system in Hall A.

  6. Central Exclusive Production at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00106463

    2015-01-01

    Central Exclusive Production is a unique QCD process in which particles are produced via colourless propagators. Several results have been obtained at LHCb for the production of single charmonia, pairs of charmonia, and single bottomonia.

  7. Hard Copy Market Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testan, Peter R.

    1987-04-01

    A number of Color Hard Copy (CHC) market drivers are currently indicating strong growth in the use of CHC technologies for the business graphics marketplace. These market drivers relate to product, software, color monitors and color copiers. The use of color in business graphics allows more information to be relayed than is normally the case in a monochrome format. The communicative powers of full-color computer generated output in the business graphics application area will continue to induce end users to desire and require color in their future applications. A number of color hard copy technologies will be utilized in the presentation graphics arena. Thermal transfer, ink jet, photographic and electrophotographic technologies are all expected to be utilized in the business graphics presentation application area in the future. Since the end of 1984, the availability of color application software packages has grown significantly. Sales revenue generated by business graphics software is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of just over 40 percent to 1990. Increased availability of packages to allow the integration of text and graphics is expected. Currently, the latest versions of page description languages such as Postscript, Interpress and DDL all support color output. The use of color monitors will also drive the demand for color hard copy in the business graphics market place. The availability of higher resolution screens is allowing color monitors to be easily used for both text and graphics applications in the office environment. During 1987, the sales of color monitors are expected to surpass the sales of monochrome monitors. Another major color hard copy market driver will be the color copier. In order to take advantage of the communications power of computer generated color output, multiple copies are required for distribution. Product introductions of a new generation of color copiers is now underway with additional introductions expected

  8. Central Exclusive Production at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00392425

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb detector, with its excellent momentum resolution and flexible trigger strategy, is ideally suited for measuring particles produced exclusively. In addition, a new system of forward shower counters has been installed upstream and downstream of the detector, and has been used to facilitate studies of Central Exclusive Production. Such measurements of integrated and differential cross-section in both Run 1 and Run 2 of the LHC, are summarised here.

  9. Exclusive Territories and Manufacturers’ Collusion

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Piccolo; Markus Reisinger

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights the rationale for exclusive territories in a model of repeated interaction between competing supply chains. We show that with observable contracts exclusive territories have two countervailing effects on manufacturers' incentives to sustain tacit collusion. First, granting local monopolies to retailers distributing a given brand softens inter- and intrabrand competition in a one-shot game. Hence, punishment profits are larger, thereby rendering deviation more profitable....

  10. Exclusion statistics and integrable models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashkevich, S.

    1998-01-01

    The definition of exclusion statistics, as given by Haldane, allows for a statistical interaction between distinguishable particles (multi-species statistics). The thermodynamic quantities for such statistics ca be evaluated exactly. The explicit expressions for the cluster coefficients are presented. Furthermore, single-species exclusion statistics is realized in one-dimensional integrable models. The interesting questions of generalizing this correspondence onto the higher-dimensional and the multi-species cases remain essentially open

  11. Birefringent coherent diffraction imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, Dmitry; dos Santos Rolo, Tomy; Rich, Hannah; Kryuchkov, Yuriy; Kiefer, Boris; Fohtung, E.

    2016-10-01

    Directional dependence of the index of refraction contains a wealth of information about anisotropic optical properties in semiconducting and insulating materials. Here we present a novel high-resolution lens-less technique that uses birefringence as a contrast mechanism to map the index of refraction and dielectric permittivity in optically anisotropic materials. We applied this approach successfully to a liquid crystal polymer film using polarized light from helium neon laser. This approach is scalable to imaging with diffraction-limited resolution, a prospect rapidly becoming a reality in view of emergent brilliant X-ray sources. Applications of this novel imaging technique are in disruptive technologies, including novel electronic devices, in which both charge and spin carry information as in multiferroic materials and photonic materials such as light modulators and optical storage.

  12. Diffraction and Unitarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dremin, I. M.

    I begin with a tribute to V.N. Gribov and then come to a particular problem which would be of interest for him. His first paper on reggeology was devoted to elastic scatterings of hadrons. Here, using the unitarity relation in combination with experimental data about the elastic scattering in the diffraction cone, I show how the shape and the darkness of the interaction region of colliding protons change with the increase of their energies. In particular, the collisions become fully absorptive at small impact parameters at LHC energies that results in some special features of inelastic processes as well. The possible evolution with increasing energy of the shape from the dark core at the LHC to the fully transparent one at higher energies is discussed. It implies that the terminology of the black disk would be replaced by the black torus.

  13. Hard Electromagnetic Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, F.

    1987-09-01

    Among hard electromagnetic processes, I will use the most recent data and focus on quantitative test of QCD. More specifically, I will retain two items: - hadroproduction of direct photons, - Drell-Yan. In addition, I will briefly discuss a recent analysis of ISR data obtained with AFS (Axial Field Spectrometer) which sheds a new light on the e/π puzzle at low P T

  14. Boundary diffraction wave integrals for diffraction modeling of external occulters

    OpenAIRE

    Cady, E.

    2012-01-01

    An occulter is a large diffracting screen which may be flown in conjunction with a telescope to image extrasolar planets. The edge is shaped to minimize the diffracted light in a region beyond the occulter, and a telescope may be placed in this dark shadow to view an extrasolar system with the starlight removed. Errors in position, orientation, and shape of the occulter will diffract additional light into this region, and a challenge of modeling an occulter system is to accurately and quickly...

  15. Diffractive bremsstrahlung at high-β{sup *} LHC. Case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chwastowski, Janusz J.; Czekierda, Sabina; Staszewski, Rafal; Trzebinski, Maciej [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland)

    2017-04-15

    Feasibility studies of the measurement of the exclusive diffractive bremsstrahlung cross-section in proton-proton scattering at the centre of mass energy of 13 TeV at the LHC are reported. Present studies were performed for the low luminosity LHC running with the betatron function value of 90 m using the ATLAS associated forward detectors ALFA and ZDC. A simplified approach to the event simulation and reconstruction is used. The background influence is also discussed. (orig.)

  16. Interpretation of small-angle diffraction experiments on opal-like photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, F.; Muldarisnur, M.; Sharifi, P.; Zabel, H.

    2011-08-01

    Comprehensive structural information on artificial opals involving the deviations from the strongly dominating face-centered cubic structure is still missing. Recent structure investigations with neutrons and synchrotron sources have shown a high degree of order but also a number of unexpected scattering features. Here, we point out that the exclusion of the allowed 002-type diffraction peaks by a small atomic form factor is not obvious and that surface scattering has to be included as a possible source for the diffraction peaks. Our neutron diffraction data indicate that surface scattering is the main reason for the smallest-angle peaks in the diffraction patterns.

  17. Diffraction radiation from relativistic particles

    CERN Document Server

    Potylitsyn, Alexander Petrovich; Strikhanov, Mikhail Nikolaevich; Tishchenko, Alexey Alexandrovich

    2010-01-01

    This book deals with diffraction radiation, which implies the boundary problems of electromagnetic radiation theory. Diffraction radiation is generated when a charged particle moves in a vacuum near a target edge. Diffraction radiation of non-relativistic particles is widely used to design intense emitters in the cm wavelength range. Diffraction radiation from relativistic charged particles is important for noninvasive beam diagnostics and design of free electron lasers based on Smith-Purcell radiation which is diffraction radiation from periodic structures. Different analytical models of diffraction radiation and results of recent experimental studies are presented in this book. The book may also serve as guide to classical electrodynamics applications in beam physics and electrodynamics. It can be of great use for young researchers to develop skills and for experienced scientists to obtain new results.

  18. Diffraction radiation from relativistic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potylitsyn, Alexander Petrovich; Ryazanov, Mikhail Ivanovich; Strikhanov, Mikhail Nikolaevich; Tishchenko, Alexey Alexandrovich

    2010-01-01

    This book deals with diffraction radiation, which implies the boundary problems of electromagnetic radiation theory. Diffraction radiation is generated when a charged particle moves in a vacuum near a target edge. Diffraction radiation of non-relativistic particles is widely used to design intense emitters in the cm wavelength range. Diffraction radiation from relativistic charged particles is important for noninvasive beam diagnostics and design of free electron lasers based on Smith-Purcell radiation which is diffraction radiation from periodic structures. Different analytical models of diffraction radiation and results of recent experimental studies are presented in this book. The book may also serve as guide to classical electrodynamics applications in beam physics and electrodynamics. It can be of great use for young researchers to develop skills and for experienced scientists to obtain new results. (orig.)

  19. 11. international conference on elastic and diffractive scattering: towards high energy frontiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This conference is held every 2 years. Every time these conferences on elastic and diffractive scattering adapt their content to the most recent experimental and theoretical results concerning not only quantum chromodynamics (QCD) but also other fields of particle physics where diffractive physics is present. This year, besides classical themes such as: -) forward scattering, -) total cross-sections, -) real parts, and -) pomeron and odderon, the participants have addressed many other subjects such as: -) LHC physics, -) non-perturbative approaches to high-energy scattering, -) the dipole model, -) small-x evolution, -) hard diffraction in QCD, -) nuclear shadowing, -) diffractive Higgs studies, -) spin effects, -) 4-quarks and 5-quarks, or -) B-physics.

  20. 11. international conference on elastic and diffractive scattering: towards high energy frontiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This conference is held every 2 years. Every time these conferences on elastic and diffractive scattering adapt their content to the most recent experimental and theoretical results concerning not only quantum chromodynamics (QCD) but also other fields of particle physics where diffractive physics is present. This year, besides classical themes such as: -) forward scattering, -) total cross-sections, -) real parts, and -) pomeron and odderon, the participants have addressed many other subjects such as: -) LHC physics, -) non-perturbative approaches to high-energy scattering, -) the dipole model, -) small-x evolution, -) hard diffraction in QCD, -) nuclear shadowing, -) diffractive Higgs studies, -) spin effects, -) 4-quarks and 5-quarks, or -) B-physics

  1. Diffractive heavy quark production in AA collisions at the LHC at NLO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, M. M.; Ducati, M. B. Gay; Machado, M. V. T.

    2011-07-01

    The single and double diffractive cross sections for heavy quarks production are evaluated at NLO accuracy for hadronic and heavy ion collisions at the LHC. Diffractive charm and bottom production is the main subject of this work, providing predictions for CaCa, PbPb and pPb collisions. The hard diffraction formalism is considered using the Ingelman-Schlein model where a recent parametrization for the Pomeron structure function (DPDF) is applied. Absorptive corrections are taken into account as well. The diffractive ratios are estimated and theoretical uncertainties are discussed. Comparison with competing production channels is also presented.

  2. Women in Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balashevska, Y.; Kireev, S.; Navalikhin, V.

    2015-01-01

    Today, 29 years after the Chernobyl accident, the Exclusion Zone still remains an areal unsealed radiation source of around 2600 km"2. It is not just a gigantic radioactive waste storage facility (the amount of radioactive waste accumulated within the Zone, except for the Shelter, is estimated at about 2.8 million m"3), but also a unique research and engineering platform for biologists, radiologists, chemists and physicists. Taking into account the amount of the radionuclides released during the accident, it becomes quite understood that the radiological environment in the Exclusion Zone is far from favorable. However, among the Exclusion Zone personnel who numbers 5000, there are female workers. The poster represents the results of the research performed among the female employees of the largest enterprise of the Exclusion Zone, “Chornobyl Spetskombinat”. The survey was performed with the view to knowing what makes women work in the most radioactively contaminated area in Europe, and what their role is, to revealing their fears and hopes, and to estimating the chances of the brave women of Chernobyl Exclusion Zone to succeed in their careers. (author)

  3. RELIGIOUS EXCLUSIVITY AND PSYCHOSOCIAL FUNCTIONING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegelashvili, M; Meca, A; Schwartz, S J

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we sought to clarify links between religious exclusivity, as form of intergroup favoritism, and indices of psychosocial functioning. The study of in group favoritism has generally been invoked within Social Identity Theory and related perspectives. However, there is a lack of literature regarding religious exclusivity from the standpoint of social identity. In particular, the ways in which religious exclusivity is linked with other dimensions of religious belief and practice, and with psychosocial functioning, among individuals from different religious backgrounds are not well understood. A sample of 8545 emerging-adult students from 30 U.S. universities completed special measures. Measure of religious exclusivity was developed and validated for this group. The results suggest that exclusivity appears as predictor for impaired psychosocial functioning, low self-esteem and low psychosocial well-being for individuals from organized faiths, as well as for those identifying as agnostic, atheist, or spiritual/nonreligious. These findings are discussed in terms of Social Identity Theory and Terror Management Theory (TMT).

  4. Causal aspects of diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, G.N.

    1981-01-01

    The analysis is directed at a causal description of photon diffraction, which is explained in terms of a wave exerting real forces and providing actual guidance to each quantum of energy. An undulatory PSI wave is associated with each photon, and this wave is assumed to imply more than an informative probability function, so that it actually carries real energy, in much the same way as does an electro-magnetic wave. Whether or not it may be in some way related to the electromagnetic wave is left as a matter of on-going concern. A novel application of the concept of a minimum energy configuration is utilized; that is, a system of energy quanta seeks out relative positions and orientations of least mutual energy, much as an electron seeks its Bohr radius as a position of least mutual energy. Thus the concept implies more a guiding interaction of the PSI waves than an interfering cancellation of these waves. Similar concepts have been suggested by L. de Broglie and D. Bohm

  5. Study of optical Laue diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarthy, Giridhar; Allam, Srinivasa Rao; Satyanarayana, S. V. M.; Sharan, Alok

    2014-01-01

    We present the study of the optical diffraction pattern of one and two-dimensional gratings with defects, designed using desktop pc and printed on OHP sheet using laser printer. Gratings so prepared, using novel low cost technique provides good visual aid in teaching. Diffraction pattern of the monochromatic light (632.8nm) from the grating so designed is similar to that of x-ray diffraction pattern of crystal lattice with point defects in one and two-dimensions. Here both optical and x-ray diffractions are Fraunhofer. The information about the crystalline lattice structure and the defect size can be known

  6. Gluon radiation in diffractive electroproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmueller, W.; McDermott, M.F.; Hebecker, A.

    1996-07-01

    Order α s -correlations to the diffractive structure functions F L D and F 2 D at large Q 2 and small x are evaluated in the semiclassical approach, where the initial proton is treated as a classical colour field. The diffractive final state contains a fast gluon in addition to a quark-antiquark pair. Two of these partons may have large transverse momentum. Our calculations lead to an intuitive picture of deep-inelastic diffractive processes which is very similar to Bjorken's aligned-jet model. Both diffractive structure functions contain leading twist contributions from high-p perpendicular to jets. (orig.)

  7. Study of optical Laue diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakravarthy, Giridhar, E-mail: cgiridhar84@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@email.com; Allam, Srinivasa Rao, E-mail: cgiridhar84@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@email.com; Satyanarayana, S. V. M., E-mail: cgiridhar84@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@email.com; Sharan, Alok, E-mail: cgiridhar84@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@email.com [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, Puducherry-605014 (India)

    2014-10-15

    We present the study of the optical diffraction pattern of one and two-dimensional gratings with defects, designed using desktop pc and printed on OHP sheet using laser printer. Gratings so prepared, using novel low cost technique provides good visual aid in teaching. Diffraction pattern of the monochromatic light (632.8nm) from the grating so designed is similar to that of x-ray diffraction pattern of crystal lattice with point defects in one and two-dimensions. Here both optical and x-ray diffractions are Fraunhofer. The information about the crystalline lattice structure and the defect size can be known.

  8. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The collection reflects the results of researches and test-design activities in the exclusion area of the Chernobyl NPP directed to elaborate the equipment and devices for scientific researches and elimination of the accident after effects at the Chernobyl NPP and to study composition and structure of solid-phase bearers of the activity in the soil of the exclusion area, form transformation of decay products, radionuclide composition of the fuel precipitation in the nearest zone of the Chernobyl NPP. Special attention is paid to medical-biological problems of the accident after effects influence on flora, fauna and human health, labour conditions and sick rate of people working in the exclusion area

  9. Diffractive optics and nanophotonics resolution below the diffraction limit

    CERN Document Server

    Minin, Igor

    2016-01-01

    In this book the authors present several examples of techniques used to overcome the Abby diffraction limit using flat and 3D diffractive optical elements, photonic crystal lenses, photonic jets, and surface plasmon diffractive optics. The structures discussed can be used in the microwave and THz range and also as scaled models for optical frequencies. Such nano-optical microlenses can be integrated, for example, into existing semiconductor heterostructure platforms for next-generation optoelectronic applications. Chapter 1 considers flat diffractive lenses and innovative 3D radiating structures including a conical millimeter-wave Fresnel zone plate (FZP) lens proposed for subwavelength focusing. In chapter 2 the subwavelength focusing properties of diffractive photonic crystal lenses are considered and it is shown that at least three different types of photonic crystal lens are possible.  With the aim of achieving subwavelength focusing, in chapter 3 an alternative mechanism to produce photonic jets at Tera...

  10. Prediction of hardness for Al-Cu-Zn alloys in as-cast and quenching conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas-Cardenas, J. D.; Saucedo-Munoz, M. L.; Lopez-Hirata, V. M.; Dorantes Rosales, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a new experimental and numerical methodology in order to predict the hardness in the as-cast, and solution treated and quenched Al-Cu-Zn alloys. Chemical composition of alloys is located inside two straight lines represented by two equations. Eight different compositions were selected from each line. All the alloys were characterized for light microscope, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and Rockwell B hardness test. The equilibrium phases were obtained at different temperatures by Thermo-Calc. The microstructure characterization and regression analysis enabled to determine the phase transformations and two equations of hardness assessment. The combination of hardness equations and composition line equations permitted to estimate the hardness of any alloy composition inside this zone. This was verified by calculating hardness with the information reported in other works, with an error lower than 7% in the estimated hardness. (Author)

  11. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone with the aim to develop technology, equipment and instruments for RAW management and accident clean-up, studying of the composition and structure of the activity solid bearers in the soil of the exclusion zone and transformation of the radionuclides in the nearest zone of ChNPP. Much attention is paid to medical and biological problems of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health labour conditions and incidence of the people involved

  12. Problems of Chornobyl Exclusion Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashparov, V.A.

    2009-01-01

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone with the aim to develop technology, equipment and instruments for RAW management and accident clean-up, studying of the composition and structure of the activity solid bearers in the soil of the exclusion zone and transformation of the radionuclides in the nearest zone of ChNPP. Much attention is paid to medical and biological problems of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health, labour conditions and incidence of the people involved.

  13. Exclusion statistics and integrable models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashkevich, S.

    1998-01-01

    The definition of exclusion statistics that was given by Haldane admits a 'statistical interaction' between distinguishable particles (multispecies statistics). For such statistics, thermodynamic quantities can be evaluated exactly; explicit expressions are presented here for cluster coefficients. Furthermore, single-species exclusion statistics is realized in one-dimensional integrable models of the Calogero-Sutherland type. The interesting questions of generalizing this correspondence to the higher-dimensional and the multispecies cases remain essentially open; however, our results provide some hints as to searches for the models in question

  14. Electron diffraction from carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, L-C

    2006-01-01

    The properties of a carbon nanotube are dependent on its atomic structure. The atomic structure of a carbon nanotube can be defined by specifying its chiral indices (u, v), that specify its perimeter vector (chiral vector), with which the diameter and helicity are also determined. The fine electron beam available in a modern transmission electron microscope (TEM) offers a unique probe to reveal the atomic structure of individual nanotubes. This review covers two aspects related to the use of the electron probe in the TEM for the study of carbon nanotubes: (a) to understand the electron diffraction phenomena for inter-pretation of the electron diffraction patterns of carbon nanotubes and (b) to obtain the chiral indices (u, v), of the carbon nanotubes from the electron diffraction patterns. For a nanotube of a given structure, the electron scattering amplitude from the carbon nanotube is first described analytically in closed form using the helical diffraction theory. From a known structure as given by the chiral indices (u, v), its electron diffraction pattern can be calculated and understood. The reverse problem, i.e. assignment of the chiral indices from an electron diffraction pattern of a carbon nanotube, is approached from the relationship between the electron scattering intensity distribution and the chiral indices (u, v). We show that electron diffraction patterns can provide an accurate and unambiguous assignment of the chiral indices of carbon nanotubes. The chiral indices (u, v) can be read indiscriminately with a high accuracy from the intensity distribution on the principal layer lines in an electron diffraction pattern. The symmetry properties of electron diffraction from carbon nanotubes and the electron diffraction from deformed carbon nanotubes are also discussed in detail. It is shown that 2mm symmetry is always preserved for single-walled carbon nanotubes, but it can break down for multiwalled carbon nanotubes under some special circumstances

  15. Drell-Yan diffraction: breakdown of QCD factorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasechnik, R.S.; Kopeliovich, B.Z.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the diffractive Drell-Yan process in proton-(anti)proton collisions at high energies in the color dipole approach. The calculations are performed at forward rapidities of the leptonic pair. The effect of eikonalization of the universal ''bare'' dipole-target elastic amplitude in the saturation regime takes into account the principal part of the gap survival probability. We present predictions for the total and differential cross sections of the single-diffractive lepton-pair production at RHIC and LHC energies. We analyze implications of the QCD factorization breakdown in the diffractive Drell-Yan process, which is caused by a specific interplay of the soft and hard interactions, resulting in rather unusual properties of the corresponding observables. (orig.)

  16. Tolerance analysis on diffraction efficiency and polychromatic integral diffraction efficiency for harmonic diffractive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Mao

    2016-10-01

    In this dissertation, the mathematical model of effect of manufacturing errors including microstructure relative height error and relative width error on diffraction efficiency for the harmonic diffractive optical elements (HDEs) is set up. According to the expression of the phase delay and diffraction efficiency of the HDEs, the expression of diffraction efficiency of refraction and diffractive optical element with the microstructure height and periodic width errors in fabrication process is presented in this paper. Furthermore, the effect of manufacturing errors on diffraction efficiency for the harmonic diffractive optical elements is studied, and diffraction efficiency change is analyzed as the relative microstructure height-error in the same and in the opposite sign as well as relative width-error in the same and in the opposite sign. Example including infrared wavelength with materials GE has been discussed in this paper. Two kinds of manufacturing errors applied in 3.7 4.3um middle infrared and 8.7-11.5um far infrared optical system which results in diffraction efficiency and PIDE of HDEs are studied. The analysis results can be used for manufacturing error control in micro-structure height and periodic width. Results can be used for HDEs processing.

  17. Revisiting the definition of local hardness and hardness kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco-Ramírez, Carlos A; Franco-Pérez, Marco; Carmona-Espíndola, Javier; Gázquez, José L; Ayers, Paul W

    2017-05-17

    An analysis of the hardness kernel and local hardness is performed to propose new definitions for these quantities that follow a similar pattern to the one that characterizes the quantities associated with softness, that is, we have derived new definitions for which the integral of the hardness kernel over the whole space of one of the variables leads to local hardness, and the integral of local hardness over the whole space leads to global hardness. A basic aspect of the present approach is that global hardness keeps its identity as the second derivative of energy with respect to the number of electrons. Local hardness thus obtained depends on the first and second derivatives of energy and electron density with respect to the number of electrons. When these derivatives are approximated by a smooth quadratic interpolation of energy, the expression for local hardness reduces to the one intuitively proposed by Meneses, Tiznado, Contreras and Fuentealba. However, when one combines the first directional derivatives with smooth second derivatives one finds additional terms that allow one to differentiate local hardness for electrophilic attack from the one for nucleophilic attack. Numerical results related to electrophilic attacks on substituted pyridines, substituted benzenes and substituted ethenes are presented to show the overall performance of the new definition.

  18. Computer Simulation of Diffraction Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, N. A.

    1983-01-01

    Describes an Apple computer program (listing available from author) which simulates Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction using vector addition techniques (vector chaining) and allows user to experiment with different shaped multiple apertures. Graphics output include vector resultants, phase difference, diffraction patterns, and the Cornu spiral…

  19. Exclusive processes in quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.; Lepage, G.P.

    1981-06-01

    Large momentum transfer exclusive processes and the short distance structure of hadronic wave functions can be systematically analyzed within the context of perturbative QCD. Predictions for meson form factors, two-photon processes γγ → M anti M, hadronic decays of heavy quark systems, and a number of other related QCD phenomena are reviewed

  20. Nanolaminated TiN/Mo2N hard multilayer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martev, I N; Dechev, D A; Ivanov, N P; Uzunov, T S D; Kashchieva, E P

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results on the synthesis of hard multilayer coatings consisting of titanium nitride and molybdenum nitride thin films with thickness of several nm. The TiN and Mo 2 N films were successively deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering. These multilayer structures were investigated by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cross-section scanning electron microscopy (CSSEM) and cross-section electron probe microanalysis (CSEPMA). The mechanical properties of the multilayer coatings, namely, hardness, Young's modulus and the coefficient of plastic deformation were measured. The adhesion was evaluated by the Rockwell-C-impact test. Coatings with different total thickness were examined with respect to adhesion to substrates of tool materials.

  1. Meson Form Factors and Deep Exclusive Meson Production Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Tanja [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Pion and kaon electroproduction data play a unique role in Nature and our understanding of them is essential for explaining hadron structure. Precision longitudinaltransverse separated pion and kaon cross sections are of particular interest. They allow for the extraction of meson form factors and validation of understanding of hard exclusive and semi-inclusive reactions (π+, K+, π0, γ) towards 3D hadron imaging and potential future flavor decomposition. We review recent data and present prospects for deep exclusive pion and kaon electroproduction at the 12 GeV Jefferson Lab including the prospects to use projected charged- and neutral pion data to further determine the spin, charge-parity and flavor of GPDs, including the helicity-flip GPDs.

  2. Report of the Working Group on Diffractive Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartel, W.; Bartels, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Pomeron. The other contributions to the diffractive working group, which are included in the proceedings, refer to the coherent Pomeron and hard diffractive processes in QCD involving a coherent Pomeron by M. Strikman and L. Frankfurt, respectively. Furthermore N.N. Nikolaev introduced a dipole picture to describe deep inelastic processes, and J. Bartels presented a perturbative approach to diffraction dissociation

  3. Hard and Soft Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moos, Lejf

    2009-01-01

    of Denmark, and finally the third layer: the leadership used in Danish schools. The use of 'soft governance' is shifting the focus of governance and leadership from decisions towards influence and power and thus shifting the focus of the processes from the decision-making itself towards more focus......The governance and leadership at transnational, national and school level seem to be converging into a number of isomorphic forms as we see a tendency towards substituting 'hard' forms of governance, that are legally binding, with 'soft' forms based on persuasion and advice. This article analyses...... and discusses governance forms at several levels. The first layer is the global: the methods of 'soft governance' that are being utilised by transnational agencies. The second layer is the national and local: the shift in national and local governance seen in many countries, but here demonstrated in the case...

  4. Higher twist effects in QCD description of light meson exclusive formfactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorskij, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    The general approach to a quantitative description of higher twist effects in hard exclusive processes in QCD is proposed. The consistent calculations in coordinate space and the choice of special gauges for quantum and classical gluon fields are essential ingradients of this method. The self consistent system of twist three wave functions for π-meson has been built

  5. Grazing incidence diffraction : A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilles, B [LTPCM, ENSEEG. St. Martin d` Heres. (France)

    1996-09-01

    Different Grazing Incidence Diffraction (GID) methods for the analysis of thin films and multilayer structures are reviewed in three sections: the reflectivity is developed in the first one, which includes the non-specular diffuse scattering. The second one is devoted to the extremely asymmetric Bragg diffraction and the third one to the in-plane Bragg diffraction. Analytical formulations of the scattered intensities are developed for each geometry, in the framework of the kinetical analysis as well as the dynamical theory. Experimental examples are given to illustrate the quantitative possibility of the GID techniques.

  6. Diffraction dissociation at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkovszky, Laszlo [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (BITP), Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences 14-b, Metrolohichna str., Kiev, 03680, Ukraine and Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences 1525 Budapest, POB 49 (Hungary); Orava, Risto [Institute of Physics, Division of Elementary Particle Physics, P.O. Box 64 (Gustaf Haellstroeminkatu 2a), FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland and CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Salii, Andrii [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (BITP), Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences 14-b, Metrolohichna str., Kiev, 03680 (Ukraine)

    2013-04-15

    We report on recent calculations of low missing mass single (SD) and double (DD) diffractive dissociation at LHC energies. The calculations are based on a dual-Regge model, dominated by a single Pomeron exchange. The diffractively excited states lie on the nucleon trajectory N*, appended by the isolated Roper resonance. Detailed predictions for the squared momentum transfer and missing mass dependence of the differential and integrated single-and double diffraction dissociation in the kinematical range of present and future LHC measurements are given.

  7. Diffraction dissociation at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkovszky, László; Orava, Risto; Salii, Andrii

    2013-01-01

    We report on recent calculations of low missing mass single (SD) and double (DD) diffractive dissociation at LHC energies. The calculations are based on a dual-Regge model, dominated by a single Pomeron exchange. The diffractively excited states lie on the nucleon trajectory N*, appended by the isolated Roper resonance. Detailed predictions for the squared momentum transfer and missing mass dependence of the differential and integrated single-and double diffraction dissociation in the kinematical range of present and future LHC measurements are given.

  8. The diffractive achromat full spectrum computational imaging with diffractive optics

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Yifan

    2016-07-11

    Diffractive optical elements (DOEs) have recently drawn great attention in computational imaging because they can drastically reduce the size and weight of imaging devices compared to their refractive counterparts. However, the inherent strong dispersion is a tremendous obstacle that limits the use of DOEs in full spectrum imaging, causing unacceptable loss of color fidelity in the images. In particular, metamerism introduces a data dependency in the image blur, which has been neglected in computational imaging methods so far. We introduce both a diffractive achromat based on computational optimization, as well as a corresponding algorithm for correction of residual aberrations. Using this approach, we demonstrate high fidelity color diffractive-only imaging over the full visible spectrum. In the optical design, the height profile of a diffractive lens is optimized to balance the focusing contributions of different wavelengths for a specific focal length. The spectral point spread functions (PSFs) become nearly identical to each other, creating approximately spectrally invariant blur kernels. This property guarantees good color preservation in the captured image and facilitates the correction of residual aberrations in our fast two-step deconvolution without additional color priors. We demonstrate our design of diffractive achromat on a 0.5mm ultrathin substrate by photolithography techniques. Experimental results show that our achromatic diffractive lens produces high color fidelity and better image quality in the full visible spectrum. © 2016 ACM.

  9. Janka hardness using nonstandard specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Marshall Begel; William Nelson

    2006-01-01

    Janka hardness determined on 1.5- by 3.5-in. specimens (2×4s) was found to be equivalent to that determined using the 2- by 2-in. specimen specified in ASTM D 143. Data are presented on the relationship between Janka hardness and the strength of clear wood. Analysis of historical data determined using standard specimens indicated no difference between side hardness...

  10. 2TB hard disk drive

    CERN Multimedia

    This particular object was used up until 2012 in the Data Centre. It slots into one of the Disk Server trays. Hard disks were invented in the 1950s. They started as large disks up to 20 inches in diameter holding just a few megabytes (link is external). They were originally called "fixed disks" or "Winchesters" (a code name used for a popular IBM product). They later became known as "hard disks" to distinguish them from "floppy disks (link is external)." Hard disks have a hard platter that holds the magnetic medium, as opposed to the flexible plastic film found in tapes and floppies.

  11. Tuning hardness in calcite by incorporation of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yi-Yeoun; Carloni, Joseph D; Demarchi, Beatrice; Sparks, David; Reid, David G; Kunitake, Miki E; Tang, Chiu C; Duer, Melinda J; Freeman, Colin L; Pokroy, Boaz; Penkman, Kirsty; Harding, John H; Estroff, Lara A; Baker, Shefford P; Meldrum, Fiona C

    2016-08-01

    Structural biominerals are inorganic/organic composites that exhibit remarkable mechanical properties. However, the structure-property relationships of even the simplest building unit-mineral single crystals containing embedded macromolecules-remain poorly understood. Here, by means of a model biomineral made from calcite single crystals containing glycine (0-7 mol%) or aspartic acid (0-4 mol%), we elucidate the origin of the superior hardness of biogenic calcite. We analysed lattice distortions in these model crystals by using X-ray diffraction and molecular dynamics simulations, and by means of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance show that the amino acids are incorporated as individual molecules. We also demonstrate that nanoindentation hardness increased with amino acid content, reaching values equivalent to their biogenic counterparts. A dislocation pinning model reveals that the enhanced hardness is determined by the force required to cut covalent bonds in the molecules.

  12. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone with the aim to develop technology, equipment and instruments for RAW management and accident clean-up, studying of the composition and structure of the activity solid bearers in the soil of the exclusion zone and transformation of the radionuclides in the nearest zone of ChNPP. Much attention is paid to medical and biological problems of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health, labour conditions and incidence of the people involved. The collection comprises the information for scientists, experts, postgraduates and students in gaged in ecology, radioecology, nuclear engineering, radiology, radiochemistry and radiobiology

  13. Exclusive photoreactions on light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, K.

    1989-08-01

    The mechanism of photon absorption on light nuclei in the Δ-resonance region is discussed. The present status of experimental results is briefly summarized. A recent data from 1.3-GeV Tokyo ES using a π sr spectrometer is introduced. Exclusive measurements of the photodisintegration of 3 He and 4 He may be a clear way to identify 2N, 3N and 4N absorptions. (author)

  14. Gender, Marginalisation and Social Exclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D. Munk, Martin

    The paper is focused on the fact that marginalisation and social exclusion are gender-related in the EU. Even when boys and girls experience the same kinds of strain and social inheritance, they react socially different. Likewise women and men are marginalised in different ways. The differing...... access to the five ressources: cultural, financial, mental, social and powerrelated resources is highlighted. It is demonstrated how gender involves living in different realities, and requires different solutions to create equal possibilities....

  15. Neutron diffraction studies of glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    A survey is given of the application of neutron diffraction to structural studies of oxide and halide glasses. As with crystalline materials, neutron and X-ray diffraction are the major structural probes for glasses and other amorphous solids, particularly in respect of intermediate range order. The glasses discussed mostly have structures which are dominated by a network in which the bonding is predominantly covalent. The examples discussed demonstrate the power of the neutron diffraction technique in the investigation of the structures of inorganic glasses. The best modern diffraction experiments are capable of providing accurate data with high real space resolution, which if used correctly, are an extremely fine filter for the various structural models proposed in the literature. 42 refs

  16. Diffraction at a Straight Edge

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 5. Diffraction at a Straight Edge: A Gem from Sommerfeld's Work in Classical Physics. Rajaram Nityananda. General Article Volume 20 Issue 5 May 2015 pp 389-400 ...

  17. Neutron Powder Diffraction in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellgren, R.

    1986-01-01

    Neutron powder diffraction in Sweden has developed around the research reactor R2 in Studsvik. The article describes this facility and presents a historical review of research results obtained. It also gives some ideas of plans for future development

  18. Tomography with energy dispersive diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, S. R.; Okasinski, J. S.; Woods, R.; Baldwin, J.; Madden, T.; Quaranta, O.; Rumaiz, A.; Kuczewski, T.; Mead, J.; Krings, T.; Siddons, P.; Miceli, A.; Almer, J. D.

    2017-09-01

    X-ray diffraction can be used as the signal for tomographic reconstruction and provides a cross-sectional map of the crystallographic phases and related quantities. Diffraction tomography has been developed over the last decade using monochromatic x-radiation and an area detector. This paper reports tomographic reconstruction with polychromatic radiation and an energy sensitive detector array. The energy dispersive diffraction (EDD) geometry, the instrumentation and the reconstruction process are described and related to the expected resolution. Results of EDD tomography are presented for two samples containing hydroxyapatite (hAp). The first is a 3D-printed sample with an elliptical crosssection and contains synthetic hAp. The second is a human second metacarpal bone from the Roman-era cemetery at Ancaster, UK and contains bio-hAp which may have been altered by diagenesis. Reconstructions with different diffraction peaks are compared. Prospects for future EDD tomography are also discussed.

  19. Diffraction at a Straight Edge

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    teaching and understanding physics. ... and mathematical footing, using electromagnetic theory and the proper ... this article, we will use the word diffraction to cover all experiments ..... PES Institute of Technology. Campus ... communication!)

  20. Experimental studies of diffractive phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cool, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    The coherent inelastic scattering process, usually called inclusive diffraction dissociation, is discussed. Topics include: t and M/sub x/ dependence, factorization, finite mass sum rule and charged particle multiplicities. 6 references, 14 figures

  1. Diffractive production and hadron structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussinov, S.; Szwed, J.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of diffractive production on nuclei implied cross sections of the diffractively produced system on nucleons which are smaller than the corresponding projectile nucleon cross sections. A natural explanation for this feature is provided in the Good-Walker coherent production formalism. A specific realization of the Good-Walker formalism stated in terms of quarks and connecting electric flux tubes and some ensuing consequences are also discussed briefly. (Auth.)

  2. Theoretical review of diffractive phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golec-Biernat, K.

    2005-01-01

    We review QCD based descriptions of diffractive deep inelastic scattering emphasising the role of models with parton saturation. These models provide natural explanation of such experimentally observed facts as the constant ratio of σ diff /σ tot as a function of the Bjorken variable x, and Regge factorization of diffractive parton distributions. The Ingelman-Schlein model and the soft color interaction model are also presented

  3. The Diffraction Response Interpolation Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Søren Kragh; Wilhjelm, Jens Erik; Pedersen, Peder C.

    1998-01-01

    Computer modeling of the output voltage in a pulse-echo system is computationally very demanding, particularly whenconsidering reflector surfaces of arbitrary geometry. A new, efficient computational tool, the diffraction response interpolationmethod (DRIM), for modeling of reflectors in a fluid...... medium, is presented. The DRIM is based on the velocity potential impulseresponse method, adapted to pulse-echo applications by the use of acoustical reciprocity. Specifically, the DRIM operates bydividing the reflector surface into planar elements, finding the diffraction response at the corners...

  4. Hard processes. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, B.L.; Khoze, V.A.; Lipatov, L.N.

    1984-01-01

    Deep inelastic (hard) processes are now at the epicenter of modern high-energy physics. These processes are governed by short-distance dynamics, which reveals the intrinsic structure of elementary particles. The theory of deep inelastic processes is now sufficiently well settled. The authors' aim was to give an effective tool to theoreticians and experimentalists who are engaged in high-energy physics. This book is intended primarily for physicists who are only beginning to study the field. To read the book, one should be acquainted with the Feynman diagram technique and with some particular topics from elementary particle theory (symmetries, dispersion relations, Regge pole theory, etc.). Theoretical consideration of deep inelastic processes is now based on quantum chromodynamics (QCD). At the same time, analysis of relevant physical phenomena demands a synthesis of QCD notions (quarks, gluons) with certain empirical characteristics. Therefore, the phenomenological approaches presented are a necessary stage in a study of this range of phenomena which should undoubtedly be followed by a detailed description based on QCD and electroweak theory. The authors were naturally unable to dwell on experimental data accumulated during the past decade of intensive investigations. Priority was given to results which allow a direct comparison with theoretical predictions. (Auth.)

  5. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V. (GVSt), Herne (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    International the coal market in 2014 was the first time in a long time in a period of stagnation. In Germany, the coal consumption decreased even significantly, mainly due to the decrease in power generation. Here the national energy transition has now been noticable affected negative for coal use. The political guidances can expect a further significant downward movement for the future. In the present phase-out process of the German hard coal industry with still three active mines there was in 2014 no decommissioning. But the next is at the end of 2015, and the plans for the time after mining have been continued. [German] International war der Markt fuer Steinkohle 2014 erstmals seit langem wieder von einer Stagnation gekennzeichnet. In Deutschland ging der Steinkohlenverbrauch sogar deutlich zurueck, vor allem wegen des Rueckgangs in der Stromerzeugung. Hier hat sich die nationale Energiewende nun spuerbar und fuer die Steinkohlennutzung negativ ausgewirkt. Die politischen Weichenstellungen lassen fuer die Zukunft eine weitere erhebliche Abwaertsbewegung erwarten. Bei dem im Auslaufprozess befindlichen deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau mit noch drei aktiven Bergwerken gab es 2014 keine Stilllegung. Doch die naechste steht zum Jahresende 2015 an, und die Planungen fuer die Zeit nach dem Bergbau sind fortgefuehrt worden.

  6. Ultrafast lattice dynamics in photoexcited nanostructures. Femtosecond X-ray diffraction with optimized evaluation schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schick, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Within the course of this thesis, I have investigated the complex interplay between electron and lattice dynamics in nanostructures of perovskite oxides. Femtosecond hard X-ray pulses were utilized to probe the evolution of atomic rearrangement directly, which is driven by ultrafast optical excitation of electrons. The physics of complex materials with a large number of degrees of freedom can be interpreted once the exact fingerprint of ultrafast lattice dynamics in time-resolved X-ray diffraction experiments for a simple model system is well known. The motion of atoms in a crystal can be probed directly and in real-time by femtosecond pulses of hard X-ray radiation in a pump-probe scheme. In order to provide such ultrashort X-ray pulses, I have built up a laser-driven plasma X-ray source. The setup was extended by a stable goniometer, a two-dimensional X-ray detector and a cryogen-free cryostat. The data acquisition routines of the diffractometer for these ultrafast X-ray diffraction experiments were further improved in terms of signal-to-noise ratio and angular resolution. The implementation of a high-speed reciprocal-space mapping technique allowed for a two-dimensional structural analysis with femtosecond temporal resolution. I have studied the ultrafast lattice dynamics, namely the excitation and propagation of coherent phonons, in photoexcited thin films and superlattice structures of the metallic perovskite SrRuO 3 . Due to the quasi-instantaneous coupling of the lattice to the optically excited electrons in this material a spatially and temporally well-defined thermal stress profile is generated in SrRuO 3 . This enables understanding the effect of the resulting coherent lattice dynamics in time-resolved X-ray diffraction data in great detail, e.g. the appearance of a transient Bragg peak splitting in both thin films and superlattice structures of SrRuO 3 . In addition, a comprehensive simulation toolbox to calculate the ultrafast lattice dynamics and the

  7. ATLAS Forward Proton: Measurements and Prospects for Exclusive Diffraction, BSM Physics and Pomeron Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Sbarra, Carla; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The installation of the second arm of the Atlas Forward Proton (AFP) detector system has been completed in time for the 2017 running of LHC, opening the road for measurements of processes with two forward protons. This talk will describe the status of the project, its rich physics programme, as well as first perfomance and measurements with beams. Further ATLAS results with just one or without proton tags will be presented as well

  8. Melting of polydisperse hard disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, S.; Frenkel, D.

    2004-01-01

    The melting of a polydisperse hard-disk system is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations in the semigrand canonical ensemble. This is done in the context of possible continuous melting by a dislocation-unbinding mechanism, as an extension of the two-dimensional hard-disk melting problem. We find

  9. Diffractive and non-diffractive wounded nucleons and final states in pA collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierlich, Christian; Gustafson, Gösta; Lönnblad, Leif [Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics,Sölvegatan 14A, S-223 62 Lund (Sweden)

    2016-10-25

    We review the state-of-the-art of Glauber-inspired models for estimating the distribution of the number of participating nucleons in pA and AA collisions. We argue that there is room for improvement in these model when it comes to the treatment of diffractive excitation processes, and present a new simple Glauber-like model where these processes are better taken into account. We also suggest a new way of using the number of participating, or wounded, nucleons to extrapolate event characteristics from pp collisions, and hence get an estimate of basic hadronic final-state properties in pA collisions, which may be used to extract possible nuclear effects. The new method is inspired by the Fritiof model, but based on the full, semi-hard multiparton interaction model of PYTHIA8.

  10. Photon diffractive dissociation in deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuesthoff, M.

    1995-09-01

    The cross section of the Photon Diffractive Dissociation in Deep Inelastic Scattering is calculated in the frame work of perturbative QCD. In the triple Regge region the BFKL-approximation is used to evaluate the leading contributions of the corresponding Feynman diagrams with a subsequent resummation in terms of integral equations. These equations are partly solved leading to an effective two to four gluons transition vertex. This exhibits remarkable properties like the total symmetry under the interchange of gluons, the conformal invariance and a simple colour structure. The presence of four interacting gluons in the t-channel does not support the simple triple Pomeron picture with solely a local vertex. A dimensional conservation law is found for zero momentum transfer with the consequence that a direct coupling of the three BFKL-singularities is absent. Another consequence is the dominance of small transverse momenta at the triple Pomeron vertex. Beyond the triple Regge limit a slightly different approach is used in which the diagrams are calculated with leading log(Q 2 ) accuracy. Higher twist contributions are neglected except for the longitudinal part of the cross section which dominates at small invariant masses M in accordance with QCD-predictions and measurements for the exclusive production of vector mesons. For the comparison with the recently measured Photon Diffractive Dissociation-data from H1 and ZEUS a model for the Pomeron is introduced based on the F 2 -data. In the spirit of the k t -factorization theorem this model is inserted in place of the BFKL-Pomeron. Considering the fact that this approach does not contain free parameters the agreement between the theoretical prediction and the data is found to be good. (orig.)

  11. Factors influencing knowledge and practice of exclusive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing knowledge and practice of exclusive breastfeeding in Nyando ... The overall objective of this study was to determine factors influencing the ... EBF and its benefits), pre lacteal feeds and exclusive breastfeeding consistency.

  12. Tartrazine exclusion for allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardern, K D; Ram, F S

    2001-01-01

    Tartrazine is the best known and one of the most commonly used food additives. Food colorants are also used in many medications as well as foods. There has been conflicting evidence as to whether tartrazine causes exacerbations of asthma with some studies finding a positive association especially in individuals with cross-sensitivity to aspirin. To assess the overall effect of tartrazine (exclusion or challenge) in the management of asthma. A search was carried out using the Cochrane Airways Group specialised register. Bibliographies of each RCT was searched for additional papers. Authors of identified RCTs were contacted for further information for their trials and details of other studies. RCTs of oral administration of tartrazine (as a challenge) versus placebo or dietary avoidance of tartrazine versus normal diet were considered. Studies which focused upon allergic asthma, were also included. Studies of tartrazine exclusion for other allergic conditions such as hay fever, allergic rhinitis and eczema were only considered if the results for subjects with asthma were separately identified. Trials could be in either adults or children with asthma or allergic asthma (e.g. sensitivity to aspirin or food items known to contain tartrazine). Study quality was assessed and data abstracted by two reviewers independently. Outcomes were analysed using RevMan 4.1.1. Ninety abstracts were found, of which 18 were potentially relevant. Six met the inclusion criteria, but only three presented results in a format that permitted analysis and none could be combined in a meta-analysis. In none of the studies did tartrazine challenge or avoidance in diet significantly alter asthma outcomes. Due to the paucity of available evidence, it is not possible to provide firm conclusions as to the effects of tartrazine on asthma control. However, the six RCTs that could be included in this review all arrived at the same conclusion. Routine tartrazine exclusion may not benefit most patients

  13. Observation of hard processes in rapidity gap events in {gamma}p interactions at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, T.; Aid, S.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Appuhn, R.D.; Arpagaus, M.; Babaev, A.; Baehr, J.; Ban, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Barth, M.; Bassler, U.; Beck, H.P.; Behrend, H.J.; Belousov, A.; Berger, C.; Bergstein, H.; Bernardi, G.; Bernet, R.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Besancon, M.; Beyer, R.; Biddulph, P.; Bizot, J.C.; Blobel, V.; Borras, K.; Botterweck, F.; Boudry, V.; Braemer, A.; Brasse, F.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Brune, C.; Buchholz, R.; Buengener, L.; Buerger, J.; Buesser, F.W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A.J.; Carli, T.; Charles, F.; Clarke, D.; Clegg, A.B.; Clerbaux, B.; Colombo, M.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Courau, A.; Coutures, C.; Cozzika, G.; Criegee, L.; Cussans, D.G.; Cvach, J.; Dagoret, S.; Dainton, J.B.; Danilov, M.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; David, M.; Deffur, E.; Delcourt, B.; Del Buono, L.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Di Nezza, P.; Dollfus, C.; Dowell, J.D.; Dreis, H.B.; Droutskoi, V.; Duboc, J.; Duellmann, D.; Duenger, O.; Duhm, H.; Ebert, J.; Ebert, T.R.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Ehrlichmann, H.; Eichenberger, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellison, R.J.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Evrard, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feeken, D.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Flamm, K.; Fleischer, M.; Flieser, M.; Fluegge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Fominykh, B.; Forbush, M.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J.M.; Franke, G.; Fretwurst, E.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Gamerdinger, K.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gebauer, M.; Gellrich, A.; Genzel, H.; Gerhards, R.; Goerlach, U.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goldner, D.; Gonzalez-Pineiro, B.; Goodall, A.M.; Gorelov, I.; Goritchev, P.; Grab, C.; Graessler, H.; Graessler, R.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, G.; Gruber, A.; Gruber, C.; Haack, J.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hamon, O.; Hampel, M.; Hanlon, E.M.; Hapke, M.; Haynes, W.J.; Heatherington, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; H1 Collaboration

    1995-02-06

    Events with no hadronic energy flow in a large interval of pseudo-rapidity in the proton direction are observed in photon-proton interactions at an average centre of mass energy left angle {radical}(s{sub {gamma}p}) right angle of 200 GeV. These events are interpreted as photon diffractive dissociation. Evidence for hard scattering in photon diffractive dissociation is demonstrated using inclusive single particle spectra, thrust as a function of transverse energy, and the observation of jet production. The data can be described by a Monte Carlo calculation including hard photon-pomeron scattering. ((orig.))

  14. Exclusion Bounds for Extended Anyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Simon; Lundholm, Douglas

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a rigorous approach to the many-body spectral theory of extended anyons, that is quantum particles confined to two dimensions that interact via attached magnetic fluxes of finite extent. Our main results are many-body magnetic Hardy inequalities and local exclusion principles for these particles, leading to estimates for the ground-state energy of the anyon gas over the full range of the parameters. This brings out further non-trivial aspects in the dependence on the anyonic statistics parameter, and also gives improvements in the ideal (non-extended) case.

  15. Transverse energy circulation and the edge diffraction of an optical vortex beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekshaev, Aleksandr Ya; Mohammed, Kadhim A; Kurka, Ivan A

    2014-04-01

    Edge diffraction of a circular Laguerre-Gaussian beam represents an example of the optical vortex symmetry breakdown in which the hidden "vortex" energy circulation is partially transformed into the visible "asymmetry" form. The diffracted beam evolution is studied in terms of the irradiance moments and the moment-based parameters. In spite of the limited applicability of the moment-based formalism, we show that the "vortex" and "asymmetry" parts of the orbital angular momentum can still be reasonably defined for the hard-edge diffracted beams and retain their physical role of quantifying the corresponding forms of the transverse energy circulation.

  16. Mechanical characterisation of surface layers by x-ray diffraction -application to tribology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrahi, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    The results presented in this paper show that X-ray diffraction can be employed for the characterisation of surface layer damage through residual stresses and work hardening by some tribological actions such as fretting and dry sliding. X-ray diffraction technique can also be employed for a rapid and non-destructive measurement of hardness of hardened steel. The diffraction profile analysis can offer a good indication about the materials characteristics and the microstructural evolution caused by heat treatment or by mechanical loading

  17. Neutron diffraction and oxide research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, B.; Howard, C.J.; Kennedy, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    Oxide compounds form a large class of interesting materials that have a diverse range of mechanical and electronic properties. This diversity and its commercial implications has had a significant impact on physics research. This is particularly evident in the fields of superconductivity magnetoresistivity and ferroelectricity, where discoveries in the last 15 years have given rise to significant shifts in research activities. Historically, oxides have been studied for many years, but it is only recently that significant effort has been diverted to the study of oxide materials for their application to mechanical and electronic devices. An important property of such materials is the atomic structure, for the determination of which diffraction techniques are ideally suited. Recent examples of structure determinations using neutron diffraction in oxide based systems are high temperature superconductors, where oxygen defects are a key factor. Here, neutron diffraction played a major role in determining the effect of oxygen on the superconducting properties. Similarly, neutron diffraction has enjoyed much success in the determination of the structures of the manganate based colossal magnetoresistive (CMR) materials. In both these cases the structure plays a pivotal role in determining theoretical models of the electronic properties. The neutron scattering group at ANSTO has investigated several oxide systems using neutron powder diffraction. Two such systems are presented in this paper; the zirconia-based materials that are used as engineering materials, and the perovskite-based oxides that include the well known cuprate superconductors and the manganate CMR materials

  18. Hard synchrotron radiation scattering from a nonideal surface grating from multilayer X-ray mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punegov, V.I.; Nesterets, Ya.I.; Mytnichenko, S.V.; Kovalenko, N.V.; Chernov, V.A.

    2003-01-01

    The hard synchrotron radiation scattering from a multilayer surface grating is theoretically and experimentally investigated. The numerical calculations of angular distribution of scattering intensity from X-ray mirror Ni/C are executed with use of recurrence formulae and statistical dynamical theory of diffraction. It is shown, that the essential role in formation of a diffraction pattern plays a diffuse scattering caused by structure imperfection of a multilayer grating [ru

  19. Self-standing quasi-mosaic crystals for focusing hard X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camattari, Riccardo; Guidi, Vincenzo; Bellucci, Valerio; Neri, Ilaria; Frontera, Filippo; Jentschel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A quasi mosaic bent crystal for high-resolution diffraction of X and γ rays has been realized. A net curvature was imprinted to the crystal thanks to a series of superficial grooves to keep the curvature without external devices. The crystal highlights very high diffraction efficiency due to quasi mosaic curvature. Quasi mosaic crystals of this kind are proposed for the realization of a high-resolution focusing Laue lens for hard X-rays.

  20. Implementation of mutual exclusion in VHDL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, M.V.; Benders, L.P.M.; Stevens, M.P.J.; Wilsey, P.A.; Rhodes, D.

    1994-01-01

    In VHDL it is difficult to implement mutual exclusion at an abstract level since atomic actions are required. A local status model and an arbiter model are presented to achieve mutual exclusion in VHDL. Shared data, protected by a mutual exclusion mechanism, cannot be modelled as a simple, resolved

  1. Surfactant-aided size exclusion chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horneman, D.A.; Wolbers, M.; Zomerdijk, M.; Ottens, M.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.; Wielen, van der L.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The flexibility and selectivity of size exclusion chromatog. (SEC) for protein purifn. can be modified by adding non-ionic micelle-forming surfactants to the mobile phase. The micelles exclude proteins from a liq. phase similar to the exclusion effect of the polymer fibers of the size exclusion

  2. Hardness variability in commercial technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Sexton, F.W.; Roeske, S.B.; Knoll, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    The radiation hardness of commercial Floating Gate 256K E 2 PROMs from a single diffusion lot was observed to vary between 5 to 25 krad(Si) when irradiated at a low dose rate of 64 mrad(Si)/s. Additional variations in E 2 PROM hardness were found to depend on bias condition and failure mode (i.e., inability to read or write the memory), as well as the foundry at which the part was manufactured. This variability is related to system requirements, and it is shown that hardness level and variability affect the allowable mode of operation for E 2 PROMs in space applications. The radiation hardness of commercial 1-Mbit CMOS SRAMs from Micron, Hitachi, and Sony irradiated at 147 rad(Si)/s was approximately 12, 13, and 19 krad(Si), respectively. These failure levels appear to be related to increases in leakage current during irradiation. Hardness of SRAMs from each manufacturer varied by less than 20%, but differences between manufacturers are significant. The Qualified Manufacturer's List approach to radiation hardness assurance is suggested as a way to reduce variability and to improve the hardness level of commercial technologies

  3. Implementation of exclusive truck facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fekpe, E. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States). Transportation Market Sector

    2007-07-01

    This paper discussed the issue of highway congestion, safety, and efficiency in freight movement on highways, with particular reference to the challenge of supporting increasing capacity demand from truck traffic. Innovative and practical solutions are needed to address the growing need for more efficient freight movement while maintaining acceptable levels of safety on highways. The concept of exclusive truck facilities (ETFs) is becoming an attractive option as a feasible strategy to help stabilize traffic flow, reduce congestion, improve safety, enhance transportation system management, improve access to freight facilities, and improve efficiency in freight movement along corridors of national importance. ETFs can either be truck only lanes or truckways. Passenger cars may not use ETFs. However, the use of ETFs could involve high costs of construction, maintenance, and acquisition of additional right of way. A cost-benefit analysis was performed for alternative ETF configurations under different traffic and site characteristics. A set of criteria was then proposed for identifying suitable locations for exclusive truck lanes. It was proposed that ETFs are economically feasible at locations with traffic volume of 100,000 vehicles per day or more and with a truck volume of at least 25 per cent of the traffic. In addition, the rate of truck-involved fatal crashes and level of service should be used to prioritize preliminary candidate locations that satisfy the traffic criteria. Consideration should also be given to the existence of freight terminals, ports, processing centers or regional distribution centres that are close to highways. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Exclusive scattering off the deuteron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amrath, D.

    2007-12-15

    Exclusive processes are a special class of processes giving insight into the inner structure of hadrons. In this thesis we consider two exclusive processes and compute their total cross sections as well as the beam charge and beam polarization asymmetries for different kinematical constraints. These calculations o er the opportunity to get access to the nonperturbative GPDs. Theoretically they can be described with the help of models. The rst process we investigate contains a GPD of the pion, which is basically unknown so far. We include different models and make predictions for observables that could in principle be measured at HERMES at DESY and CLAS at JLab. The second process we consider is electron-deuteron scattering in the kinematical range where the deuteron breaks up into a proton and a neutron. This can be used to investigate the neutron, which cannot be taken as a target due to its lifetime of approximately 15 minutes. For the calculation of the electron-deuteron cross section we implement models for the proton and neutron GPDs. Once there are experimental data available our calculations are ready for comparison. (orig.)

  5. Diffraction of high energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourret, A.

    1981-10-01

    The diffraction of electrons by a crystal is examined to study its structure. As the electron-substance interaction is strong, it must be treated in a dynamic manner. Using the N waves theory and physical optics the base equations giving the wave at the outlet are deduced for a perfect crystal and their equivalence is shown. The more complex case of an imperfect crystal is then envisaged in these two approaches. In both cases, only the diffraction of high energy electrons ( > 50 KeV) are considered since in the diffraction of slow electrons back scattering cannot be ignored. Taking into account an increasingly greater number of beams, through fast calculations computer techniques, enables images to be simulated in very varied conditions. The general use of the Fast Fourier Transform has given a clear cut practical advantage to the multi-layer method [fr

  6. On scale dependence of hardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shorshorov, M.Kh.; Alekhin, V.P.; Bulychev, S.I.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of hardness as a structure-sensitive characteristic of a material is considered. It is shown that in conditions of a decreasing stress field under the inventor the hardness function is determined by the average distance, Lsub(a), between the stops (fixed and sessile dislocations, segregation particles, etc.). In the general case, Lsub(a) depends on the size of the impression and explains the great diversity of hardness functions. The concept of average true deformation rate on depression is introduced

  7. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Research results of hard photon technology have been summarized as a part of novel technology development highly utilizing the quantum nature of photon. Hard photon technology refers to photon beam technologies which use photon in the 0.1 to 200 nm wavelength region. Hard photon has not been used in industry due to the lack of suitable photon sources and optical devices. However, hard photon in this wavelength region is expected to bring about innovations in such areas as ultrafine processing and material synthesis due to its atom selective reaction, inner shell excitation reaction, and spatially high resolution. Then, technological themes and possibility have been surveyed. Although there are principle proposes and their verification of individual technologies for the technologies of hard photon generation, regulation and utilization, they are still far from the practical applications. For the photon source technology, the laser diode pumped driver laser technology, laser plasma photon source technology, synchrotron radiation photon source technology, and vacuum ultraviolet photon source technology are presented. For the optical device technology, the multi-layer film technology for beam mirrors and the non-spherical lens processing technology are introduced. Also are described the reduction lithography technology, hard photon excitation process, and methods of analysis and measurement. 430 refs., 165 figs., 23 tabs.

  8. Light diffraction through a feather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez García, Hugo;

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have used a feather to study light diffraction, in a qualitative as well as in a quantitative manner. Experimental measurement of the separation between the bright spots obtained with a laser pointer allowed the determination of the space between feather's barbs and barbules. The results we have obtained agree satisfactorily with those corresponding to a typical feather. Due to the kind of materials, the related concepts and the experimental results, this activity becomes an excellent didactic resource suitable for studying diffraction, both in introductory undergraduate as well as in secondary school physics courses.

  9. Dynamical theory of neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, V.F.

    1978-01-01

    We present a review of the dynamical theory of neutron diffraction by macroscopic bodies which provides the theoretical basis for the study of neutron optics. We consider both the theory of dispersion, in which it is shown that the coherent wave in the medium satisfies a macroscopic one-body Schroedinger equation, and the theory of reflection, refraction, and diffraction in which the above equation is solved for a number of special cases of interest. The theory is illustrated with the help of experimental results obtained over the past 10 years by a number of new techniques such as neutron gravity refractometry. Pendelloesung interference, and neutron interferometry. (author)

  10. Diffractive dissociation and new quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A.R.

    1983-04-01

    We argue that the chiral limit of QCD can be identified with the strong (diffractive dissociation) coupling limit of reggeon field theory. Critical Pomeron scaling at high energy must then be directly related to an infra-red fixed-point of massless QCD and so requires a large number of flavors. This gives a direct argument that the emergence of diffraction-peak scaling, KNO scaling etc. at anti p-p colliders are evidence of a substantial quark structure still to be discovered

  11. Design and construction of a scintillating fibre tracker for measuring hard exclusive reactions at HERMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoek, M.

    2006-07-01

    In the framework of this thesis the planning and the construction of a track-reconstruction detector consisting of scintillating fibers (SFT) for the HERMES recoil detector is described. The SFT as one of the main components of the recoil detector serves for the momentum determination for charged particles in the momentum range of 250-1400 MeV/c. Furthermore it contributes to the particle identification of protons and charged pions. The optical readout of the fibers pursues with secondary-electron multipliers, which must be positioned beyond the magnetic field of the recoil-detector magnet

  12. Design and construction of a scintillating fibre tracker for measuring hard exclusive reactions at HERMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoek, M.

    2006-09-15

    In the framework of this thesis the planning and the construction of a track-reconstruction detector consisting of scintillating fibers (SFT) for the HERMES recoil detector is described. The SFT as one of the main components of the recoil detector serves for the momentum determination for charged particles in the momentum range of 250-1400 MeV/c. Furthermore it contributes to the particle identification of protons and charged pions. The optical readout of the fibers pursues with secondary-electron multipliers, which must be positioned beyond the magnetic field of the recoil-detector magnet.

  13. Analysis of hard exclusive scattering processes of the HERMES recoil experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodski, Irina

    2014-11-01

    Deeply virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS), ep → epγ is the simplest reaction giving indication of generalized parton distributions (GPD) of the nucleon. The DVCS process has the same final state as the Bethe-Heitler process (BH). For this reason the access is taken not through the cross-sections directly but through asymmetries between DVCS events depending on charge and polarization of the 27.6 GeV beam. For the first time the azimuthal asymmetry amplitudes according the charge of the lepton beam are extracted using a kinematically complete reconstruction method at the HERMES experiment. The recoil detector installed in 2006 allows the reconstruction of recoiling protons that completes the measurements of the forward detector to cover almost the complete angle range around the vertex. This approach allows suppressing the background processes by almost a complete magnitude compared to the traditional method using only the information of the forward spectrometer. The analysis of the asymmetries was carried out at different values of the kinematic variables t c' x B and Q 2 to investigate the dependence of these variables. This work pushes the limits of the readability of data and shows which periods have been found to be unstable in the data acquisition. It points out the impact of this finding to previous HERMES publications.

  14. Recent forward physics and diffraction results from CMS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2074117

    2016-01-01

    Recent CMS results on forward physics and diffraction are reviewed. The differential diffractive cross section is measured as a function of $\\xi= M_X^2/s$ in the region dominated by single dissociation (SD) and double dissociation (DD), where $M_X$ is the mass of one of the two final-state hadronic systems separated by the largest rapidity gap in the event. The total SD and DD cross sections are extracted. The observation of a hard color-singlet exchange process in events with a large rapidity gap between two leading jets (jet-gap-jet) is reported. The fraction of jet-gap-jet to all dijet events is measured as a function of the second leading jet transverse momentum and the size of the pseudorapidity gap. The measured fractions are compared with predictions as well as Tevatron data.

  15. Exclusive Breastfeeding Determinants in Breastfeeding Mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Mustika

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 month is very important for baby. The proportion of mothers who exclusively breastfeed their babies up to 6 months remains low. Factors influencing the exclusive breastfeeding namely sociodemograph factors , factors pre / post delivery , and psychosocial factors. This aims of this study to identify determinant factors of exclusive breastfeeding on mother. This research method is a systematic review , by analyzing the various studies on exclusive breastfeeding. There are 17 studies. The results obtained occupational factors most studied with significant results ( median OR = 1.265 . Psychosocial factors that have significant relationship is support of her husband (average OR = 4.716 and family support ( average OR = 1.770 . Conclusions : factors influencing the exclusive breastfeeding is occupational factor. Socialization and support from people nearby, health workers, and all parties is needed for exclusive breastfeeding for six months can be achieved.

  16. X-ray diffraction microscopy based on refractive optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henning Friis; Jakobsen, A. C.; Simons, Hugh

    2017-01-01

    A formalism is presented for dark‐field X‐ray microscopy using refractive optics. The new technique can produce three‐dimensional maps of lattice orientation and axial strain within millimetre‐sized sampling volumes and is particularly suited to in situ studies of materials at hard X‐ray energies....... An objective lens in the diffracted beam magnifies the image and acts as a very efficient filter in reciprocal space, enabling the imaging of individual domains of interest with a resolution of 100 nm. Analytical expressions for optical parameters such as numerical aperture, vignetting, and the resolution...

  17. CMS results on soft diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00086121

    2013-01-01

    We present measurements of soft single- and double-diffractive cross sections, as well as of forward rapidity gap cross sections at 7 TeV at the LHC, and compare the results to other measurements and to theoretical predictions implemented in various Monte Carlo simulations.

  18. LEED (Low Energy Electron Diffraction)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberdam, M.

    1973-01-01

    The various types of systems studied by LEED, and for which the geometry of diffraction patterns is exploited, are reviewed, intensity profiles being another source of information. Two representative approaches of the scattering phenomenon are examined; the band structure theory and the T matrix approach [fr

  19. A QCD analysis of ZEUS diffractive data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2009-11-15

    ZEUS inclusive diffractive cross-section measurements have been used in a DGLAP next-to-leading-order QCD analysis to extract the diffractive parton distribution functions. Data on diffractive dijet production in deep inelastic scattering have also been included to constrain the gluon density. Predictions based on the extracted parton densities are compared to diffractive charm and dijet photoproduction data. (orig.)

  20. A QCD analysis of ZEUS diffractive data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.

    2009-11-01

    ZEUS inclusive diffractive cross-section measurements have been used in a DGLAP next-to-leading-order QCD analysis to extract the diffractive parton distribution functions. Data on diffractive dijet production in deep inelastic scattering have also been included to constrain the gluon density. Predictions based on the extracted parton densities are compared to diffractive charm and dijet photoproduction data. (orig.)

  1. Electro-optic diffraction grating tuned laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    An electro-optic diffraction grating tuned laser comprising a laser medium, output mirror, retro-reflective grating and an electro-optic diffraction grating beam deflector positioned between the laser medium and the reflective diffraction grating is described. An optional angle multiplier may be used between the electro-optic diffraction grating and the reflective grating. (auth)

  2. Crystallographic Analysis of Nucleation at Hardness Indentations in High-Purity Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chaoling; Zhang, Yubin; Lin, Fengxiang

    2016-01-01

    Nucleation at Vickers hardness indentations has been studied in high-purity aluminum cold-rolled 12 pct. Electron channeling contrast was used to measure the size of the indentations and to detect nuclei, while electron backscattering diffraction was used to determine crystallographic orientations....... It is found that indentations are preferential nucleation sites. The crystallographic orientations of the deformed grains affect the hardness and the nucleation potentials at the indentations. Higher hardness gives increased nucleation probabilities. Orientation relationships between nuclei developed...... they form. Finally, possible nucleation mechanisms are briefly discussed....

  3. The AdS/QCD Correspondence and Exclusive Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    The AdS/CFT correspondence between theories in AdS space and conformal field theories in physical space-time provides an analytic, semi-classical, color-confining model for strongly-coupled QCD. The soft-wall AdS/QCD model modified by a positive-sign dilaton metric leads to a remarkable one-parameter description of nonperturbative hadron dynamics at zero quark mass, including a zero-mass pion and a Regge spectrum of linear trajectories with the same slope in orbital angular momentum L and radial quantum number n for both mesons and baryons. One also predicts the form of the non-perturbative effective coupling α s AdS (q) and its β-function which agrees with the effective coupling α ga extracted from the Bjorken sum rule. Light-front holography, which connects the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z to an invariant impact separation variable ζ, allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties as well as decay constants, form factors, deeply virtual Compton scattering, exclusive heavy hadron decays and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. One thus obtains a relativistic description of hadrons in QCD at the amplitude level with dimensional counting for hard exclusive reactions at high momentum transfer. As specific examples we discuss the behavior of the pion and nucleon form factors in the space-like and time-like regions. We also review the phenomenology of exclusive processes including some anomalous empirical results.

  4. Parallel coupling of symmetric and asymmetric exclusion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsekouras, K; Kolomeisky, A B

    2008-01-01

    A system consisting of two parallel coupled channels where particles in one of them follow the rules of totally asymmetric exclusion processes (TASEP) and in another one move as in symmetric simple exclusion processes (SSEP) is investigated theoretically. Particles interact with each other via hard-core exclusion potential, and in the asymmetric channel they can only hop in one direction, while on the symmetric lattice particles jump in both directions with equal probabilities. Inter-channel transitions are also allowed at every site of both lattices. Stationary state properties of the system are solved exactly in the limit of strong couplings between the channels. It is shown that strong symmetric couplings between totally asymmetric and symmetric channels lead to an effective partially asymmetric simple exclusion process (PASEP) and properties of both channels become almost identical. However, strong asymmetric couplings between symmetric and asymmetric channels yield an effective TASEP with nonzero particle flux in the asymmetric channel and zero flux on the symmetric lattice. For intermediate strength of couplings between the lattices a vertical-cluster mean-field method is developed. This approximate approach treats exactly particle dynamics during the vertical transitions between the channels and it neglects the correlations along the channels. Our calculations show that in all cases there are three stationary phases defined by particle dynamics at entrances, at exits or in the bulk of the system, while phase boundaries depend on the strength and symmetry of couplings between the channels. Extensive Monte Carlo computer simulations strongly support our theoretical predictions. Theoretical calculations and computer simulations predict that inter-channel couplings have a strong effect on stationary properties. It is also argued that our results might be relevant for understanding multi-particle dynamics of motor proteins

  5. Diffraction efficiency calculations of polarization diffraction gratings with surface relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarova, D.; Sharlandjiev, P.; Berberova, N.; Blagoeva, B.; Stoykova, E.; Nedelchev, L.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the optical response of a stack of two diffraction gratings of equal one-dimensional periodicity. The first one is a surface-relief grating structure; the second, a volume polarization grating. This model is based on our experimental results from polarization holographic recordings in azopolymer films. We used films of commercially available azopolymer (poly[1-[4-(3-carboxy-4-hydroxyphenylazo) benzenesulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt]), shortly denoted as PAZO. During the recording process, a polarization grating in the volume of the material and a relief grating on the film surface are formed simultaneously. In order to evaluate numerically the optical response of this “hybrid” diffraction structure, we used the rigorous coupled-wave approach (RCWA). It yields stable numerical solutions of Maxwell’s vector equations using the algebraic eigenvalue method.

  6. Digital diffractive optics: Have diffractive optics entered mainstream industry yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Bernard; Hejmadi, Vic

    2010-05-01

    When a new technology is integrated into industry commodity products and consumer electronic devices, and sold worldwide in retail stores, it is usually understood that this technology has then entered the realm of mainstream technology and therefore mainstream industry. Such a leap however does not come cheap, as it has a double edge sword effect: first it becomes democratized and thus massively developed by numerous companies for various applications, but also it becomes a commodity, and thus gets under tremendous pressure to cut down its production and integration costs while not sacrificing to performance. We will show, based on numerous examples extracted from recent industry history, that the field of Diffractive Optics is about to undergo such a major transformation. Such a move has many impacts on all facets of digital diffractive optics technology, from the optical design houses to the micro-optics foundries (for both mastering and volume replication), to the final product integrators or contract manufacturers. The main causes of such a transformation are, as they have been for many other technologies in industry, successive technological bubbles which have carried and lifted up diffractive optics technology within the last decades. These various technological bubbles have been triggered either by real industry needs or by virtual investment hype. Both of these causes will be discussed in the paper. The adjective ""digital"" in "digital diffractive optics" does not refer only, as it is done in digital electronics, to the digital functionality of the element (digital signal processing), but rather to the digital way they are designed (by a digital computer) and fabricated (as wafer level optics using digital masking techniques). However, we can still trace a very strong similarity between the emergence of micro-electronics from analog electronics half a century ago, and the emergence of digital optics from conventional optics today.

  7. Effect of plasma nitriding time on surface properties of hard chromium electroplated AISI 1010 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocabas, Mustafa; Uelker, Suekrue

    2015-01-01

    Properties of steel can be enhanced by surface treatments such as coating. In some cases, further treatments such as nitriding can also be used in order to get even better results. In order to investigate the properties of nitride layer on hard Cr coated AISI 1010 steel, substrates were electroplated to form hard Cr coatings. Then hard Cr coatings were plasma nitrided at 700 C for 3 h, 5 h and 7 h and nitride phases on the coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis. The layer thickness and surface properties of nitride films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The hardness and adhesion properties of Cr-N phases were examined using nano indentation and Daimler-Benz Rockwell C adhesion tests. The highest measured hardness was 24.1 GPa and all the three samples exhibited poor adhesion.

  8. Effect of plasma nitriding time on surface properties of hard chromium electroplated AISI 1010 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocabas, Mustafa [Yildiz Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Dept.; Danisman, Murat [Gedik Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Electrical and Electronic Engineering Dept.; Cansever, Nurhan [Yildiz Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey); Uelker, Suekrue [Afyon Kocatepe Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2015-06-01

    Properties of steel can be enhanced by surface treatments such as coating. In some cases, further treatments such as nitriding can also be used in order to get even better results. In order to investigate the properties of nitride layer on hard Cr coated AISI 1010 steel, substrates were electroplated to form hard Cr coatings. Then hard Cr coatings were plasma nitrided at 700 C for 3 h, 5 h and 7 h and nitride phases on the coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis. The layer thickness and surface properties of nitride films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The hardness and adhesion properties of Cr-N phases were examined using nano indentation and Daimler-Benz Rockwell C adhesion tests. The highest measured hardness was 24.1 GPa and all the three samples exhibited poor adhesion.

  9. Neutron diffraction on pulsed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, V.L.; Balagurov, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The possibilities currently offered and major scientific problems solved by time-of-flight neutron diffraction are reviewed. The reasons for the rapid development of the method over the last two decades has been mainly the emergence of third generation pulsed sources with a MW time-averaged power and advances in neutron-optical devices and detector systems. The paper discusses some historical aspects of time-of-flight neutron diffraction and examines the contribution to this method by F.L.Shapiro whose 100th birth anniversary was celebrated in 2015. The state of the art with respect to neutron sources for studies on output beams is reviewed in a special section. [ru

  10. Negotiations and Exclusivity Contracts for Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Dukes; Esther Gal–Or

    2003-01-01

    Exclusive advertising on a given media outlet is usually profitable for an advertiser because consumers are less aware of competing products. However, for such arrangements to exist, media must benefit as well. We examine conditions under which such exclusive advertising contracts benefit both advertisers and media outlets (referred to as ) by illustrating that exclusive equilibria arise in a theoretical model of the media, advertisers, and consumers who participate in both the product and me...

  11. Coherent hard x-ray focusing optics and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, W.B.; Viccaro, P.J.; Chrzas, J.; Lai, B.

    1991-01-01

    Coherent hard x-ray beams with a flux exceeding 10{sup 9} photons/second with a bandwidth of 0.1% will be provided by the undulator at the third generation synchrotron radiation sources such as APS, ESRF, and Spring-8. The availability of such high flux coherent x-ray beams offers excellent opportunities for extending the coherence-based techniques developed in the visible and soft x-ray part of the electromagnetic spectrum to the hard x-rays. These x-ray techniques (e.g., diffraction limited microfocusing, holography, interferometry, phase contrast imaging and signal enhancement), may offer substantial advantages over non-coherence-based x-ray techniques currently used. For example, the signal enhancement technique may be used to enhance an anomalous x-ray or magnetic x-ray scattering signal by several orders of magnitude. Coherent x-rays can be focused to a very small (diffraction-limited) spot size, thus allowing high spatial resolution microprobes to be constructed. The paper will discuss the feasibility of the extension of some coherence-based techniques to the hard x-ray range and the significant progress that has been made in the development of diffraction-limited focusing optics. Specific experimental results for a transmission Fresnel phase zone plate that can focus 8.2 keV x-rays to a spot size of about 2 microns will be briefly discussed. The comparison of measured focusing efficiency of the zone plate with that calculated will be made. Some specific applications of zone plates as coherent x-ray optics will be discussed. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Industrial applications of neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felcher, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    Neutron diffraction (or, to be more general, neutron scattering) is a most versatile and universal tool, which has been widely employed to probe the structure, the dynamics and the magnetism of condensed matter. Traditionally used for fundamental research in solid state physics, this technique more recently has been applied to problems of immediate industrial interest, as illustrated in examples covering the main fields of endeavour. 14 refs., 14 figs

  13. Neutron diffraction and Vitamin E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harroun, T A; Marquardt, D; Katsaras, J; Atkinson, J, E-mail: tharroun@brocku.ca

    2010-11-01

    It is generally accepted that neutron diffraction from model membrane systems is an effective biophysical technique for determining membrane structure. Here we describe an example of how deuterium labelling can elucidate the location of specific membrane soluble molecules, including a brief discussion of the technique itself. We show that deuterium labelled {alpha}-tocopherol sits upright in the bilayer, as might be expected, but at very different locations within the bilayer, depending on the degree of lipid chain unsaturation.

  14. Diffraction dissociation and elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verebryusov, V.S.; Ponomarev, L.A.; Smorodinskaya, N.Ya.

    1987-01-01

    In the framework of Regge scheme with supercritical pomeron a model is suggested for the NN-scattering amplitude which takes into account the contribution introduced to the intermediate state by diffraction dissociation (DD) processes. The DD amplitude is written in terms of the Deck model which has been previously applied to describing the main DD features. The calculated NN cross sections are compared with those obtained experimentally. Theoretical predictions for higher energy are presented

  15. On a possible test of the hard-Pomeron theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, B.L.

    1992-01-01

    In the last few years there have been discussions of the fact that the Pomeron-the Regge pole responsible for high-energy scattering-has in reality a double role: a soft Pomeron built of multiperipheral hadron exchange and a hard Pomeron described by gluon exchanges in QCD. Recently, Bjorken emphasized the need to distinguish these two forms of the Pomeron. The question arises of whether it is possible to distinguish the hard and soft Pomeron experimentally. According to the hard-Pomeron concept, the hadron-hadron total cross section is determined by the imaginary part of the forward scattering amplitude corresponding to two-gluon exchange with ladder corrections. This mechanism dominates in the case of scattering of particles built from heavy quarks (a good example is γγ scattering) and also in the case of virtual-particle scattering (for example, virtual photons, where quark pairs must also be included in the ladder). These processes are hard (γ virt γ virt scattering) or impossible (γγ scattering) to observe experimentally. Bjorken suggested another process whose cross section is determined by hard-Pomeron exchange - double diffractional hadron-hadron (e.g., pp) scattering at high energies with jet production in the projectile and target fragmentation regions. If the momentum transfer from the projectile to the target is in the intermediate region, |t|∼1 GeV, and events are selected with a rapidity gap in the rapidity distribution of produced particles between the two fragmentation regions, then, according to Bjorken, a process determined by the hard Pomeron will be observed. The author addresses this proposal

  16. Inclusive education and social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Bissoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is critically examining assumptions underlying the Inclusive Education concept, arguing that this can only be effectively considered when understood in a broader context of social inclusion and exclusion. Methodologically, this article relies on international documents and bibliographic references about Inclusive Education, that have been chosen by systematize and characterize different social and educational inclusive practices, encouraging the elaboration of a general overview on this topic. The results of this analysis conclude that it is essential for Inclusive Education that educational institutions review their goals and reasons of social existence. In the concluding remarks it is argued that education is better understood as the act of encouraging and welcoming the efforts of individuals in their attempts to engage in social networking, which sustains life. This includes the acceptance of other reality interpretations and understanding that educational action cannot be restricted by the walls of institutions. It requires the participation of the whole community. Action perspectives likely to promote social inclusion and inclusive education are suggested.

  17. Perturbative QCD and exclusive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.; Hawes, F.; Zhao, M.; Zyla, P.

    1991-01-01

    The authors discuss perturbation theory as applied to particle physics calculations. In particle physics one is generally interested in the scattering amplitude for a system going from some initial state to a final state. The intermediate state or states are unknown. To get the scattering amplitude it is necessary to sum the contributions from processes which pass through all possible intermediate states. Intermediate states involve the exchange of intermediate vector bosons between the particles, and with this interaction is associated a coupling constant α. Each additional boson exchange involves an additional contribution of α to the coupling. If α is less than 1, one can see that the relative contribution of higher order processes is less and less important as α falls. In QCD the gluons serve as the intermediate vector bosons exchanged by quarks and gluons, and the interaction constant is not really a constant, but depends upon the distance between the particles. At short distances the coupling is small, and one can assume perturbative expansions may converge rapidly. Exclusive scattering processes, as opposed to inclusive, are those in which all of the final state products are detected. The authors then discuss the application of perturbative QCD to the deuteron. The issues of chiral conservation and color transparancy are also discussed, in the scheme of large Q 2 interations, where perturbative QCD should be applicable

  18. Diffraction Techniques in Structural Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A detailed understanding of chemical and biological function and the mechanisms underlying the molecular activities ultimately requires atomic-resolution structural data. Diffraction-based techniques such as single-crystal X-ray crystallography, electron microscopy, and neutron diffraction are well established and they have paved the road to the stunning successes of modern-day structural biology. The major advances achieved in the last 20 years in all aspects of structural research, including sample preparation, crystallization, the construction of synchrotron and spallation sources, phasing approaches, and high-speed computing and visualization, now provide specialists and nonspecialists alike with a steady flow of molecular images of unprecedented detail. The present unit combines a general overview of diffraction methods with a detailed description of the process of a single-crystal X-ray structure determination experiment, from chemical synthesis or expression to phasing and refinement, analysis, and quality control. For novices it may serve as a stepping-stone to more in-depth treatises of the individual topics. Readers relying on structural information for interpreting functional data may find it a useful consumer guide. PMID:27248784

  19. Exclusive processes in pp collisions in CMS

    OpenAIRE

    da Silveira, Gustavo G.; Collaboration, for the CMS

    2013-01-01

    We report the results on the searches of exclusive production of low- and high-mass pairs with the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV. The analyses comprise the central exclusive $\\gamma\\gamma$ production, the exclusive two-photon production of dileptons, $e^{+}e^{-}$ and $\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$, and the exclusive two-photon production of $W$ pairs in the asymmetric $e^{\\pm}\\mu^{\\mp}$ decay channel. No diphotons candidates are observed in data and ...

  20. Crystallization and diffraction analysis of the serpin IRS-2 from the hard tick Ixodes ricinus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářová, Zuzana; Chmelař, Jindřich; Šanda, Miloslav; Brynda, Jiří; Mareš, Michael; Řezáčová, Pavlína

    F66, č. 11 (2010), s. 1453-1457 ISSN 1744-3091 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/10/2183; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : protease inhibitor * serpin * tick * proteolysis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.563, year: 2010

  1. Initiative hard coal; Initiative Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, J.

    2007-08-02

    In order to decrease the import dependence of hard coal in the European Union, the author has submitted suggestions to the director of conventional sources of energy (directorate general for energy and transport) of the European community, which found a positive resonance. These suggestions are summarized in an elaboration 'Initiative Hard Coal'. After clarifying the starting situation and defining the target the presupposition for a better use of hard coal deposits as raw material in the European Union are pointed out. On that basis concrete suggestions for measures are made. Apart from the conditions of the deposits it concerns thereby also new mining techniques and mining-economical developments, connected with tasks for the mining-machine industry. (orig.)

  2. Exotic hybrid mesons in hard electroproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Anikin, I V; Szymanowski, L; Teryaev, O V; Wallon, S

    2005-01-01

    We estimate the sizeable cross section for deep exclusive electroproduction of an exotic $J^{PC}=1^{-+}$ hybrid meson in the Bjorken regime. The production amplitude scales like the one for usual meson electroproduction, i.e. as $1/Q^2$. This is due to the non-vanishing leading twist distribution amplitude for the hybrid meson, which may be normalized thanks to its relation to the energy momentum tensor and to the QCD sum rules technique. The hard amplitude is considered up to next-to-leading order in $\\alpha_{S}$ and we explore the consequences of fixing the renormalization scale ambiguity through the BLM procedure. We study the particular case where the hybrid meson decays through a $\\pi\\eta $ meson pair. We discuss the $\\pi\\eta$ generalized distribution amplitude and then calculate the production amplitude for this process. We propose a forward-backward asymmetry in the production of $\\pi$ and $\\eta$ mesons as a signal for the hybrid meson production. We briefly comment on hybrid electroproduction at very ...

  3. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the application of photon to industrial technologies, in particular, a hard photon technology was surveyed which uses photon beams of 0.1-200nm in wavelength. Its features such as selective atom reaction, dense inner shell excitation and spacial high resolution by quantum energy are expected to provide innovative techniques for various field such as fine machining, material synthesis and advanced inspection technology. This wavelength region has been hardly utilized for industrial fields because of poor development of suitable photon sources and optical devices. The developmental meaning, usable time and issue of a hard photon reduction lithography were surveyed as lithography in ultra-fine region below 0.1{mu}m. On hard photon analysis/evaluation technology, the industrial use of analysis, measurement and evaluation technologies by micro-beam was viewed, and optimum photon sources and optical systems were surveyed. Prediction of surface and surface layer modification by inner shell excitation, the future trend of this process and development of a vacuum ultraviolet light source were also surveyed. 383 refs., 153 figs., 17 tabs.

  4. Evaluation of hard fossil fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivkovic, S.; Nuic, J.

    1999-01-01

    Because of its inexhaustible supplies hard fossil fuel will represent the pillar of the power systems of the 21st century. Only high-calorie fossil fuels have the market value and participate in the world trade. Low-calorie fossil fuels ((brown coal and lignite) are fuels spent on the spot and their value is indirectly expressed through manufactured kWh. For the purpose of determining the real value of a tonne of low-calorie coal, the criteria that help in establishing the value of a tonne of hard coal have to be corrected and thus evaluated and assessed at the market. (author)

  5. Calorimeter triggers for hard collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landshoff, P.V.; Polkinghorne, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    We discuss the use of a forward calorimeter to trigger on hard hadron-hadron collisions. We give a derivation in the covariant parton model of the Ochs-Stodolsky scaling law for single-hard-scattering processes, and investigate the conditions when instead a multiple- scattering mechanism might dominate. With a proton beam, this mechanism results in six transverse jets, with a total average multiplicity about twice that seen in ordinary events. We estimate that its cross section is likely to be experimentally accessible at avalues of the beam energy in the region of 100 GeV/c

  6. Hardness of ion implanted ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, W.C.; McHargue, C.J.; Farlow, G.C.; White, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    It has been established that the wear behavior of ceramic materials can be modified through ion implantation. Studies have been done to characterize the effect of implantation on the structure and composition of ceramic surfaces. To understand how these changes affect the wear properties of the ceramic, other mechanical properties must be measured. To accomplish this, a commercially available ultra low load hardness tester has been used to characterize Al 2 O 3 with different implanted species and doses. The hardness of the base material is compared with the highly damaged crystalline state as well as the amorphous material

  7. Fermionic ground state at unitarity and Haldane exclusion statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaduri, R K; Murthy, M V N [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai 600 113 (India); Brack, M [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany)

    2008-06-14

    We consider a few-particle system of trapped neutral fermionic atoms at ultra-low temperatures, with the attractive interaction tuned to Feshbach resonance. We calculate the energies and the spatial densities of the few-body systems using a generalization of the extended Thomas-Fermi (ETF) method, and assuming the particles obey the Haldane-Wu fractional exclusion statistics (FES) at unitarity. This method is different from the scaled ETF version given by Chang and Bertsch (2007 Phys. Rev. A 76 021603). Our semiclassical FES results are consistent with the Monte Carlo calculations of the above authors, but can hardly be distinguished from their overall scaling of the ETF result at unitarity.

  8. Fermionic ground state at unitarity and Haldane exclusion statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaduri, R K; Murthy, M V N; Brack, M

    2008-01-01

    We consider a few-particle system of trapped neutral fermionic atoms at ultra-low temperatures, with the attractive interaction tuned to Feshbach resonance. We calculate the energies and the spatial densities of the few-body systems using a generalization of the extended Thomas-Fermi (ETF) method, and assuming the particles obey the Haldane-Wu fractional exclusion statistics (FES) at unitarity. This method is different from the scaled ETF version given by Chang and Bertsch (2007 Phys. Rev. A 76 021603). Our semiclassical FES results are consistent with the Monte Carlo calculations of the above authors, but can hardly be distinguished from their overall scaling of the ETF result at unitarity

  9. Exclusive $\\rho^0$ muoproduction on transversely polarised protons and deuterons

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C.; Alexakhin, V.Yu.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Antonov, A.A.; Austregesilo, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Bicker, K.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Buchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Dalla Torre, S.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dunnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Guthorl, T.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Hoppner, Ch.; d'Hose, N.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Jegou, G.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kramer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Lauser, L.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Moinester, M.A.; Morreale, A.; Mutter, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Negrini, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Nowak, W.D.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Perevalova, E.; Pesaro, G.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.F.; Ramos, S.; Rapatsky, V.; Reicherz, G.; Richter, A.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schluter, T.; Schmidt, K.; Schmitt, L.; Schonning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Schroder, W.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.N.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.I.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Ter Wolbeek, J.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Tkatchev, L.G.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.V.; Wang, L.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wislicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zhuravlev, N.; Zvyagin, A.

    2012-01-01

    The transverse target spin azimuthal asymmetry A_UT in hard exclusive production of rho^0 mesons was measured at COMPASS by scattering 160 GeV/c muons off transversely polarised protons and deuterons. The measured asymmetry is sensitive to the nucleon helicity-flip generalised parton distributions E^q, which are related to the orbital angular momentum of quarks in the nucleon. The Q^2, x_B and p_t^2 dependence of A_UT is presented in a wide kinematic range. Results for deuterons are obtained for the first time. The measured asymmetry is small in the whole kinematic range for both protons and deuterons, which is consistent with the theoretical interpretation that contributions from GPDs E^u and E^d approximately cancel.

  10. Chemical hardness and density functional theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    RALPH G PEARSON. Chemistry Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA. Abstract. The concept of chemical hardness is reviewed from a personal point of view. Keywords. Hardness; softness; hard & soft acids bases (HSAB); principle of maximum hardness. (PMH) density functional theory (DFT) ...

  11. On the description of exclusive processes beyond the leading twist approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, I.V.; Ivanov, D.Yu.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2010-01-01

    We describe hard exclusive processes beyond the leading twist approximation in a framework based on the Taylor expansion of the amplitude around the dominant light-cone directions. This naturally introduces an appropriate set of non-perturbative correlators whose number is minimalized after taking into account QCD equations of motion and the invariance under rotation on the light-cone. We exemplify this method at the twist 3 level and show that the coordinate and momentum space descriptions are fully equivalent.

  12. On the description of exclusive processes beyond the leading twist approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anikin, I.V. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, JINR, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Ivanov, D.Yu. [Institute of Mathematics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Pire, B., E-mail: pire@cpht.polytechnique.f [CPhT, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Szymanowski, L. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Wallon, S. [LPT, Universite d' Orsay, CNRS, 91404 Orsay (France); UPMC Univ. Paris 6, Faculte de Physique, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2010-01-04

    We describe hard exclusive processes beyond the leading twist approximation in a framework based on the Taylor expansion of the amplitude around the dominant light-cone directions. This naturally introduces an appropriate set of non-perturbative correlators whose number is minimalized after taking into account QCD equations of motion and the invariance under rotation on the light-cone. We exemplify this method at the twist 3 level and show that the coordinate and momentum space descriptions are fully equivalent.

  13. Hard Facts and Soft Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terego, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The argument now raging in academic circles pits those who espouse teaching 21st century skills against those who believe that schools should be teaching explicit and well-sequenced content. This debate has largely been framed as an either-or proposition. In this author's view, portraying this debate as one between two mutually exclusive sides…

  14. 10 CFR 1009.4 - Exclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exclusions. 1009.4 Section 1009.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) GENERAL POLICY FOR PRICING AND CHARGING FOR MATERIALS AND SERVICES SOLD BY DOE § 1009.4 Exclusions. This part shall not apply when the amount to be priced or charged is...

  15. Fighting poverty and exclusion through social investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon

    The fight against poverty and social exclusion is at the heart of the Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. With more than 120 million people in the EU at risk of poverty or social exclusion, EU leaders have pledged to bring at least 20 million people out of poverty an...

  16. 18 CFR 1308.3 - Exclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusions. 1308.3... General Matters § 1308.3 Exclusions. (a) This part does not apply to any TVA contract which does not contain a disputes clause. (b) Except as otherwise specifically provided, this part does not apply to any...

  17. Subspace exclusion zones for damage localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernal, Dionisio; Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard

    2018-01-01

    , this is exploited in the context of structural damage localization to cast the Subspace Exclusion Zone (SEZ) scheme, which locates damage by reconstructing the captured field quantity shifts from analytical subspaces indexed by postulated boundaries, the so-called exclusion zones (EZs), in a model of the structure...

  18. Seismic signals hard clipping overcoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszowa, Paula; Sokolowski, Jakub

    2018-01-01

    In signal processing the clipping is understand as the phenomenon of limiting the signal beyond certain threshold. It is often related to overloading of a sensor. Two particular types of clipping are being recognized: soft and hard. Beyond the limiting value soft clipping reduces the signal real gain while the hard clipping stiffly sets the signal values at the limit. In both cases certain amount of signal information is lost. Obviously if one possess the model which describes the considered signal and the threshold value (which might be slightly more difficult to obtain in the soft clipping case), the attempt of restoring the signal can be made. Commonly it is assumed that the seismic signals take form of an impulse response of some specific system. This may lead to belief that the sine wave may be the most appropriate to fit in the clipping period. However, this should be tested. In this paper the possibility of overcoming the hard clipping in seismic signals originating from a geoseismic station belonging to an underground mine is considered. A set of raw signals will be hard-clipped manually and then couple different functions will be fitted and compared in terms of least squares. The results will be then analysed.

  19. Hard equality constrained integer knapsacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardal, K.I.; Lenstra, A.K.; Cook, W.J.; Schulz, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    We consider the following integer feasibility problem: "Given positive integer numbers a 0, a 1,..., a n, with gcd(a 1,..., a n) = 1 and a = (a 1,..., a n), does there exist a nonnegative integer vector x satisfying ax = a 0?" Some instances of this type have been found to be extremely hard to solve

  20. Stress in hard metal films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.C.A.M.; Kamminga, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    In the absence of thermal stress, tensile stress in hard metal films is caused by grain boundary shrinkage and compressive stress is caused by ion peening. It is shown that the two contributions are additive. Moreover tensile stress generated at the grain boundaries does not relax by ion

  1. Unitarized model of inclusive and diffractive DIS with Q2 evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armesto, Nestor; Salgado, Carlos A.; Tywoniuk, Konrad; Kaidalov, Alexei B.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the interplay of low-x physics and QCD scaling violations by extending the unified approach describing inclusive structure functions and diffractive production in γ*p interactions proposed in previous papers to large values of Q 2 . We describe the procedure of extracting, from the nonperturbative model, initial conditions for the QCD evolution that respect unitarity. Assuming Regge factorization of the diffractive structure function, a similar procedure is proposed for the calculation of hard diffraction. The results are in good agreement with experimental data on the proton structure function F 2 and the most recent data on the reduced diffractive cross section, x P σ r D(3) . Predictions for both F 2 and F L are presented in a wide kinematical range and compared to calculations within high-energy QCD.

  2. Diffractive dijet and W production in CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulianos, K.

    1998-01-01

    Results on diffractive dijet and W-boson production from CDF are reviewed and compared with predictions based on factorization of the diffractive structure function of the proton measured in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

  3. Coherent Diffractive Imaging at LCLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Joachim

    2010-03-01

    Soft x-ray FEL light sources produce ultrafast x-ray pulses with outstanding high peak brilliance. This might enable the structure determination of proteins that cannot be crystallized. The deposited energy would destroy the molecules completely, but owing to the short pulses the destruction will ideally only happen after the termination of the pulse. In order to address the many challenges that we face in attempting molecular diffraction, we have carried out experiments in coherent diffraction from protein nanocrystals at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC. The periodicity of these objects gives us much higher scattering signals than uncrystallized proteins would. The crystals are filtered to sizes less than 2 micron, and delivered to the pulsed X-ray beam in a liquid jet. The effects of pulse duration and fluence on the high-resolution structure of the crystals have been studied. Diffraction patterns are recorded at a repetition rate of 30 Hz with pnCCD detectors. This allows us to take 108,000 images per hour. With 2-mega-pixel-detectors this gives a data-rate of more than 400 GB per hour. The automated sorting and evaluation of hundreds of thousands images is another challenge of this kind of experiments. Preliminary results will be presented on our first LCLS experiments. This work was carried out as part of a collaboration, for which Henry Chapman is the spokesperson. The collaboration consists of CFEL DESY, Arizona State University, SLAC, Uppsala University, LLNL, The University of Melbourne, LBNL, the Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, and the Max Planck Advanced Study Group (ASG) at the CFEL. The experiments were carried out using the CAMP apparatus, which was designed and built by the Max Planck ASG at CFEL. The LCLS is operated by Stanford University on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  4. Time-resolved x-ray diffraction measurement of C60 under high pressure and temperature using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horikawa, T; Suito, K; Kobayashi, M; Onodera, A

    2002-01-01

    C 60 has been studied by means of time-resolved x-ray diffraction measurements using synchrotron radiation. Diffraction patterns were recorded at intervals of 1-10 min for samples under high pressure (12.5 and 14.3 GPa) and high temperature (up to 800 deg. C) for, at the longest, 3 h. Time, pressure, and temperature dependences of the C 60 structure are presented and the relevance to the hardness of materials derived from C 60 is discussed

  5. An experiment in diffractive physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, Alberto

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this talk is to show one of the next future experiment in diffractive Physics which will be installed at the DO experiment at Tevatron/Fermilab for run II, and the importance for Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) as the theory of the strong interactions. The apparatus that we have developed is the Forward Proton Detector (FPD) to be introduced on the beam line of the Tevatron at both sides of the DO detector. The FPD is composed by a set of Roman Pots as we will see in the text below

  6. Magnetic structures: neutron diffraction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouree-Vigneron, F.

    1990-01-01

    Neutron diffraction is often an unequivocal method for determining magnetic structures. Here we present some typical examples, stressing the sequence through experiments, data analysis, interpretation and modelisation. Two series of compounds are chosen: Tb Ni 2 Ge 2 and RBe 13 (R = Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er). Depending on the nature of the elements, the magnetic structures produced can be commensurate, incommensurate or even show a transition between two such phases as a function of temperature. A model, taking magnetic exchange and anisotropy into account, will be presented in the case of commensurate-incommensurate magnetic transitions in RBe 13

  7. Hard processes in hadronic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satz, H.; Wang, X.N.

    1995-01-01

    Quantum chromodynamics is today accepted as the fundamental theory of strong interactions, even though most hadronic collisions lead to final states for which quantitative QCD predictions are still lacking. It therefore seems worthwhile to take stock of where we stand today and to what extent the presently available data on hard processes in hadronic collisions can be accounted for in terms of QCD. This is one reason for this work. The second reason - and in fact its original trigger - is the search for the quark-gluon plasma in high energy nuclear collisions. The hard processes to be considered here are the production of prompt photons, Drell-Yan dileptons, open charm, quarkonium states, and hard jets. For each of these, we discuss the present theoretical understanding, compare the resulting predictions to available data, and then show what behaviour it leads to at RHIC and LHC energies. All of these processes have the structure mentioned above: they contain a hard partonic interaction, calculable perturbatively, but also the non-perturbative parton distribution within a hadron. These parton distributions, however, can be studied theoretically in terms of counting rule arguments, and they can be checked independently by measurements of the parton structure functions in deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering. The present volume is the work of Hard Probe Collaboration, a group of theorists who are interested in the problem and were willing to dedicate a considerable amount of their time and work on it. The necessary preparation, planning and coordination of the project were carried out in two workshops of two weeks' duration each, in February 1994 at CERn in Geneva andin July 1994 at LBL in Berkeley

  8. Diffractive production in deep inelastic scattering and hadronic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaidalow, A.

    1996-01-01

    Diffractive processes in hadronic interactions are considered and important role of multi-Pomeron exchanges is emphasized. It is argued that in deep inelastic scattering these contributions are much less important and energy behavior of structure functions at Q 2 ≥ 1 GeV 2 is determined mostly by bare Pomeron intercept. It is shown that the model based on these ideas is in a perfect agreement with recent results from HERA. Diffractive production in DIS is discussed and theoretical predictions for the structure function of the Pomeron are compared with experimental observations. It is emphasized that both quarks and gluons in the Pomeron have hard distributions. Shadowing corrections to structure function of a nucleon are calculated and found to small in the region of x > 10 -4 . A good agreement with experimental data on the shadowing of structure functions of nuclei is obtained. Energy dependence for the cross sections of the diffractive production of vector mesons by real and virtual photons is calculated in the same approach and is found to be in an excellent agreement with experiment. (author)

  9. Exclusive {rho}{sup 0} production measured with the HERMES recoil detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Benito, Roberto Francisco

    2010-12-15

    The Hermes experiment (HERa MEasurement of Spin) at Desy was designed to study the spin structure of the nucleon in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. The internal structure of the nucleon has been investigated in detail and it has been measured that the intrinsic quark spin contribution is only about 30% of the total spin of the nucleon. A formalism to describe the internal structure of the nucleon called Generalised Patron Distributions (GPDs) was developed recently to understand the fundamental structure of the nucleon. These GPDs can be accessed by the measurement of hard exclusive reactions and hard exclusive processes that can be understood in terms of GPDs. The accumulated Hermes data offer access to GPDs in different combinations of beam charge and beam and target helicity asymmetries. To improve exclusivity and to enhance the resolution of kinematic variables to study hard exclusive processes which provide access to the GPDs and hence to the orbital angular momentum of the quarks, in January 2006 a Recoil Detector was installed that surrounded the internal gas target of the Hermes experiment. The Hermes Recoil Detector consisted of three components: a silicon strip detector inside the vacuum, a scintillating fiber tracker and the photon detector. All three detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnet which provided a 1T longitudinal magnetic field. The Recoil Detector improves the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the momentum and track position of the recoiling particle as well as by rejecting non-exclusive background. This detector was an ideal novel tool to combine energy and position measurements for charged particles in a momentum range of 0.1 to 1.4 GeV/c. The Recoil Detector was fully commissioned and operating. Data was taken continuously until the final Hera shutdown in July of 2007. In this thesis we report on the performance of the Recoil Detector and more specifically about the scintillating fiber tracker

  10. Diffractive optical elements for space communication terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Herzig, Hans-Peter; Ehbets, Peter; Teijido, Juan M.; Weible, Kenneth J.; Heimbeck, Hans-Joerg

    2007-01-01

    The potential of diffractive optical elements for advanced laser communication terminals has been investigated. Applications include beam shaping of high- power laser diode arrays, optical filter elements for position detection and hybrid (refractive/diffractive) elements. In addition, we present a design example of a miniaturized terminal including diffractive optics.

  11. Undergraduate Experiment with Fractal Diffraction Gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsoriu, Juan A.; Furlan, Walter D.; Pons, Amparo; Barreiro, Juan C.; Gimenez, Marcos H.

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple diffraction experiment with fractal gratings based on the triadic Cantor set. Diffraction by fractals is proposed as a motivating strategy for students of optics in the potential applications of optical processing. Fraunhofer diffraction patterns are obtained using standard equipment present in most undergraduate physics…

  12. Grain characterization and milling behaviour of near-isogenic lines differing by hardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greffeuille, V; Abecassis, J; Rousset, M; Oury, F-X; Faye, A; L'Helgouac'h, C Bar; Lullien-Pellerin, V

    2006-12-01

    Wheat grain hardness is a major factor affecting the milling behaviour and end-product quality although its exact structural and biochemical basis is still not understood. This study describes the development of new near-isogenic lines selected on hardness. Hard and soft sister lines were characterised by near infrared reflectance (NIR) and particle size index (PSI) hardness index, grain protein content, thousand kernel weight and vitreousness. The milling behaviour of these wheat lines was evaluated on an instrumented micromill which also measures the grinding energy and flour particle size distribution was investigated by laser diffraction. Endosperm mechanical properties were measured using compression tests. Results pointed out the respective effect of hardness and vitreousness on those characteristics. Hardness was shown to influence both the mode of fracture and the mechanical properties of the whole grain and endosperm. Thus, this parameter also acts on milling behaviour. On the other hand, vitreousness was found to mainly play a role on the energy required to break the grain. This study allows us to distinguish between consequences of hardness and vitreousness. Hardness is suggested to influence the adhesion forces between starch granules and protein matrix whereas vitreousness would rather be related to the endosperm microstructure.

  13. Systematics of 2-body diffractive dissociations and search of double diffractive dissociation in K-p interactions at 14.3 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, Yvette.

    1977-12-01

    The diffractive dissociation mechanism is shown to be general when looking at 22 mesonic or baryonic threshold enhancements. The dissociation systems are all produced peripherally and present the property of slope-mass correlation. The production slopes and cross-sections mainly depend on the diffractive excitation mass. The comparison of the results with those from the I.S.R. shows that dissociation systems are very similar in their effective mass shape, momentum transfer structure and angular distributions at center-of-mass energies differing by a factor of ten. Evidence for double diffractive dissociation mechanism is found in 2 exclusive reactions at a cross section level of 5-10+-2 μb. The factorisation hypothesis seems well verified [fr

  14. BSM Higgs physics in the exclusive forward proton mode at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemeyer, S. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Santander (Spain); Khoze, V.A. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). IPPP; Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Ryskin, M.G. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). IPPP; Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Tasevsky, M. [Institute of Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Weiglein, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    We investigate the prospects for Central Exclusive Diffractive (CED) production of BSM Higgs bosons at the LHC using forward proton detectors installed at 220 m and 420 m distance around ATLAS and/or CMS. We update a previous analysis for the MSSM taking into account improvements in the theoretical calculations and the most recent exclusion bounds from the Tevatron. We extend the MSSM analysis to new benchmark scenarios that are in agreement with the cold dark matter relic abundance and other precision measurements. We analyse the exclusive production of Higgs bosons in a model with a fourth generation of fermions. Finally, we comment on the determination of Higgs spin-parity and coupling structures at the LHC and show that the forward proton mode could provide crucial information on the CP properties of the Higgs bosons. (orig.)

  15. BSM Higgs physics in the exclusive forward proton mode at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinemeyer, S.; Khoze, V.A.; Tasevsky, M.; Weiglein, G.

    2010-12-01

    We investigate the prospects for Central Exclusive Diffractive (CED) production of BSM Higgs bosons at the LHC using forward proton detectors installed at 220 m and 420 m distance around ATLAS and/or CMS. We update a previous analysis for the MSSM taking into account improvements in the theoretical calculations and the most recent exclusion bounds from the Tevatron. We extend the MSSM analysis to new benchmark scenarios that are in agreement with the cold dark matter relic abundance and other precision measurements. We analyse the exclusive production of Higgs bosons in a model with a fourth generation of fermions. Finally, we comment on the determination of Higgs spin-parity and coupling structures at the LHC and show that the forward proton mode could provide crucial information on the CP properties of the Higgs bosons. (orig.)

  16. Dynamical diffraction in periodic multilayers

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, V F

    1997-01-01

    Exact reflectivity curves are calculated numerically for various periodic multilayers using the optical matrix method in order to test the dynamical theory of diffraction. The theory is generally valid for values of the bilayer thickness d up to about 100 A. For somewhat larger values of d, where the theory begins to break down, the initial discrepancy is in the phase of the oscillations in the wings of the peaks. For very large values of d, where the first-order Bragg peak approaches the edge of the mirror reflection, two general types of multilayers can be distinguished. In the first (typified in the present work by Ni/Ti), there is a large (30% or more) reduction in the actual value of the critical wave vector for total reflection while, in the second (typified here by Fe/Ge), there is very little reduction (3 % or so). The origin of these two very different types of behavior is explained. It is also shown that, within the dynamical theory of diffraction, the change in the position of the center of the Dar...

  17. Measurements of the Total, Elastic, Inelastic and Diffractive Cross Sections with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00237700; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The main results of the total, elastic and inelastic cross sections measurements performed by the ATLAS ALFA detectors are presented. The independent inelastic cross section measurement done using Minimum Bias Trigger Scintillators is also shown. Next, the single diffractive di-jet production and gap survival probability are briefly described. After the event selection, it was found that the diffractive component is needed for a more complete description of data. Finally, the exclusive lepton pair production analysis in electron and muon channels is also described. The measured cross sections were found to be consistent with the theory prediction.

  18. The analysis of powder diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, W.I.F.; Harrison, W.T.A.

    1986-01-01

    The paper reviews neutron powder diffraction data analysis, with emphasis on the structural aspects of powder diffraction and the future possibilities afforded by the latest generation of very high resolution neutron and x-ray powder diffractometers. Traditional x-ray powder diffraction techniques are outlined. Structural studies by powder diffraction are discussed with respect to the Rietveld method, and a case study in the Rietveld refinement method and developments of the Rietveld method are described. Finally studies using high resolution powder diffraction at the Spallation Neutron Source, ISIS at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory are summarized. (U.K.)

  19. Diffraction and interference–-a standard teaching topic using non-standard diffracting objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gröber, S; Vetter, M; Eckert, B; Jodl, H-J

    2014-01-01

    This topic-–diffraction and interference-–is a standard topic in teaching wave optics in schools and universities as well as in physics practical labs. The theoretical presentation needs some knowledge in mathematics; the final formula for the intensity pattern as a function of all parameters such as number of slits N, slit width b, slit distance d, wavelength λ of light used is not too complicated. The experimental setup is standard and well known. In our opinion the shortage comes here from the relatively poor quality of scattering objects produced by photolithography and by the small number of various objects in N, b and d. We on the contrary offer objects produced by electron beam lithography with much higher contrast and larger resolution. As a consequence, students are allowed to study not only positions of a few maxima and minima of the interference pattern, but determine relative intensities of maxima and minima with respect to central maximum, details around sub-maxima, band shape and bandwidth. In addition, we generated 150 objects with a variety in N, b and d and also offer five different wavelengths. Since these objects are hardly available and not so easy to copy we offer this experiment as a remotely controlled laboratory experiment which means the real experiment located in A can be used by everyone with his or her computer located in B via the Internet. (paper)

  20. Deep Inelastic Exclusive $\\rho^0$ Production using 485-GeV Muons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Michael Henry [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Neutral vector mesons share the quantum numbers as the photon, consequently, they are produced copiously in diffractive interactions of photons. The lightest of these, the $p^0$ meson, have been studied in the absorption of high energy virtual photons on hydrogen and deuterium. The mass spectrum, decay distribution, and momentum transfer to the target nucleon has been studied as a function of the kinematic variables. The interference of the two-pion resonance and continuum is constant as a function of the virtual photon mass, $Q^2$ • The $p^0$ polarization changes from purely transverse at low $Q^2$ to predominantly longitudinal at high $Q^2$. The azimuthal decay distribution conforms to the expected form, including terms for transverse-transverse and transverse-longitudinal interference. The diffractive slope parameter declines only slightly with $Q^2$ , indicating that for $Q^2$ up to approximately 4 Ge$V^2$ , production of exclusive p0 mesons is_ a diffractive process .

  1. Dijet Cross Sections and Parton Densities in Diffractive DIS at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A.; Andreev, V.; Anthonis, T.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J.C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M.E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Prideaux, P.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Utkin, D.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2007-01-01

    Differential dijet cross sections in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering are measured with the H1 detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 51.5 pb-1. The selected events are of the type ep --> eXY, where the system X contains at least two jets and is well separated in rapidity from the low mass proton dissociation system Y. The dijet data are compared with QCD predictions at next-to-leading order based on diffractive parton distribution functions previously extracted from measurements of inclusive diffractive deep-inelastic scattering. The prediction describes the dijet data well at low and intermediate zpom (the fraction of the momentum of the diffractive exchange carried by the parton entering the hard interaction) where the gluon density is well determined from the inclusive diffractive data, supporting QCD factorisation. A new set of diffractive parton distribution functions is obtained through a simultaneous fit to the diffractive inclusive and dijet cross sections. This allows for a precise ...

  2. Bainitic transformation behavior studied by simultaneous neutron diffraction and dilatometric measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Minseo; Xu, Pingguang; Tomota, Yo; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Bainitic transformation behavior has firstly been observed using in situ neutron diffraction with an angular dispersive method for a hard bainite steel. The dilatometric measurement was carried out simultaneously with the neutron experiment where changes in (1 1 1) austenite and (1 1 0) ferrite diffraction profiles were monitored during heating, cooling and holding at a transformation temperature. The neutron experiments results agree with dilatometry results. They appear to have found that the austenite peak broadening occurs after the onset of bainitic transformation but not before.

  3. An introduction to three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henning Friis

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy is a fast and nondestructive structural characterization technique aimed at studies of the individual crystalline elements (grains or subgrains) within millimetre-sized polycrystalline specimens. It is based on two principles: the use of highly...... penetrating hard X-rays from a synchrotron source and the application of tomographic reconstruction algorithms for the analysis of the diffraction data. In favourable cases, the position, morphology, phase and crystallographic orientation can be derived for up to 1000 elements simultaneously. For each grain...

  4. Hard-to-fill vacancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ruth

    2010-09-29

    Skills for Health has launched a set of resources to help healthcare employers tackle hard-to-fill entry-level vacancies and provide sustainable employment for local unemployed people. The Sector Employability Toolkit aims to reduce recruitment and retention costs for entry-level posts and repare people for employment through pre-job training programmes, and support employers to develop local partnerships to gain access to wider pools of candidates and funding streams.

  5. Pushing hard on the accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1987-09-15

    The quest for new techniques to drive future generations of particle accelerators has been pushed hard in recent years, efforts having been highlighted by workshops in Europe, organized by the European Committee for Future Accelerators, and in the US. The latest ECFA Workshop on New Developments in Particle Acceleration Techniques, held at Orsay from 29 June to 4 July, showed how the initial frantic search for innovation is now maturing.

  6. Playing Moderately Hard to Get

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Reysen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In two studies, we examined the effect of different degrees of attraction reciprocation on ratings of attraction toward a potential romantic partner. Undergraduate college student participants imagined a potential romantic partner who reciprocated a low (reciprocating attraction one day a week, moderate (reciprocating attraction three days a week, high (reciprocating attraction five days a week, or unspecified degree of attraction (no mention of reciprocation. Participants then rated their degree of attraction toward the potential partner. The results of Study 1 provided only partial support for Brehm’s emotion intensity theory. However, after revising the high reciprocation condition vignette in Study 2, supporting Brehm’s emotion intensity theory, results show that a potential partners’ display of reciprocation of attraction acted as a deterrent to participants’ intensity of experienced attraction to the potential partner. The results support the notion that playing moderately hard to get elicits more intense feelings of attraction from potential suitors than playing too easy or too hard to get. Discussion of previous research examining playing hard to get is also re-examined through an emotion intensity theory theoretical lens.

  7. CMOS optimization for radiation hardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbenwick, G.F.; Fossum, J.G.

    1975-01-01

    Several approaches to the attainment of radiation-hardened MOS circuits have been investigated in the last few years. These have included implanting the SiO 2 gate insulator with aluminum, using chrome-aluminum layered gate metallization, using Al 2 O 3 as the gate insulator, and optimizing the MOS fabrication process. Earlier process optimization studies were restricted primarily to p-channel devices operating with negative gate biases. Since knowledge of the hardness dependence upon processing and design parameters is essential in producing hardened integrated circuits, a comprehensive investigation of the effects of both process and design optimization on radiation-hardened CMOS integrated circuits was undertaken. The goals are to define and establish a radiation-hardened processing sequence for CMOS integrated circuits and to formulate quantitative relationships between process and design parameters and the radiation hardness. Using these equations, the basic CMOS design can then be optimized for radiation hardness and some understanding of the basic physics responsible for the radiation damage can be gained. Results are presented

  8. Axial channeling in electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimiya, A.; Lehmpfuhl, G.

    1978-01-01

    Kossel patterns from Silicon and Niobium were obtained with a convergent electron beam. An intensity maximum in the direction of the zone axes [001] and [111] of Nb was interpreted as axial channeling. The intensity distribution in Kossel patterns was calculated by means of the Bloch wave picture of the dynamical theory of electron diffraction. Particularly zone axis patterns were calculated for different substance-energy combinations and they were compared with experimental observations. The intensity distribution in the calculated Kossel patterns was very sensitive to the model of absorption and it was found that a treatment of the absorption close to the model of Humphreys and Hirsch [Phil. Mag. 18, 115 (1968)] gave the best agreement with the experimental observations. Furthermore it is shown which Bloch waves are important for the intensity distribution in the Kossel patterns, how they are absorbed and how they change with energy. (orig.) [de

  9. Diffractive X-Ray Telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, G.K.; Skinner, G.K

    2010-01-01

    Diffractive X-ray telescopes using zone plates, phase Fresnel lenses, or related optical elements have the potential to provide astronomers with true imaging capability with resolution several orders of magnitude better than available in any other waveband. Lenses that would be relatively easy to fabricate could have an angular resolution of the order of micro arc seconds or even better, that would allow, for example, imaging of the distorted spacetime in the immediate vicinity of the supermassive black holes in the center of active galaxies What then is precluding their immediate adoption Extremely long focal lengths, very limited bandwidth, and difficulty stabilizing the image are the main problems. The history and status of the development of such lenses is reviewed here and the prospects for managing the challenges that they present are discussed atmospheric absorption

  10. Encapsulation process for diffraction gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzsch, Stephan; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas; Szeghalmi, Adriana

    2015-07-13

    Encapsulation of grating structures facilitates an improvement of the optical functionality and/or adds mechanical stability to the fragile structure. Here, we introduce novel encapsulation process of nanoscale patterns based on atomic layer deposition and micro structuring. The overall size of the encapsulated structured surface area is only restricted by the size of the available microstructuring and coating devices; thus, overcoming inherent limitations of existing bonding processes concerning cleanliness, roughness, and curvature of the components. Finally, the process is demonstrated for a transmission grating. The encapsulated grating has 97.5% transmission efficiency in the -1st diffraction order for TM-polarized light, and is being limited by the experimental grating parameters as confirmed by rigorous coupled wave analysis.

  11. Recent developments in the area of SoftQCD and Diffractive Physics at the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Astalos, Robert; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS Collaboration released several new measurements in the area of SoftQCD and diffractive physics, ranging from the exclusive production of dimuons, over the total pp cross section measurement to studies of correlated hadron production. An overview of these most recent developments will be given in this talk: The total inelastic proton-proton cross section and the diffractive part of the inelastic cross section has been measured at 8 and 13 TeV in special data sets taken with low beam currents and using forward scintillators. More precise measurements of the total pp cross section and the elastic and inelastic contributions have been extracted from measurements of the differential elastic cross section using the optical theorem. In the absence of forward proton tagging, exclusive processes can be distinguished in the central part of the ATLAS detector exploiting the large rapidity gap in the central region and the absence of charged particles reconstructed in the inner tracking detector. This strategy ...

  12. Robust Visual Tracking via Exclusive Context Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tianzhu; Ghanem, Bernard; Liu, Si; Xu, Changsheng; Ahuja, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    appearances as linear combinations of dictionary templates that are updated dynamically. Learning the representation of each particle is formulated as an exclusive sparse representation problem, where the overall dictionary is composed of multiple {group

  13. Exclusive hadronic processes and color transparency

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is known that at asymptotically large momentum transfer certain exclusive hadronic ... indicates that the Brodsky–Lepage factorization scheme fails, independent of ..... A basic feature of *-initiated reactions is that most events are knocked out.

  14. Exclusion, exemption, clearance European Union approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, A.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation overviews the following issues: Euratom Basic Safety Standards; administrative requirements; radiation protection of the population. Scope of the Standards: natural radiation sources; exclusion. Exemption; Clearance; Import of radioactive scrap metal

  15. Exclusion of pneumothorax by radionuclide lung scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    A case is reported in which ventilation lung imaging was useful in excluding a large pneumothorax. This technique may be helpful in patients with emphysema in whom exclusion of pneumothorax by radiographic criteria might be difficult

  16. Imaging partons in exclusive scattering processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus

    2012-06-15

    The spatial distribution of partons in the proton can be probed in suitable exclusive scattering processes. I report on recent performance estimates for parton imaging at a proposed Electron-Ion Collider.

  17. Nonlinear Cross-Diffusion with Size Exclusion

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin; Di Francesco, Marco; Pietschmann, Jan-Frederik; Schlake, Bä rbel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the mathematical properties of a continuum model for diffusion of multiple species incorporating size exclusion effects. The system for two species leads to nonlinear cross-diffusion terms with double

  18. Definition of Exclusion Zones Using Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartal, Y.; Villagran, M.; Ben Horin, Y.; Leonard, G.; Joswig, M.

    - In verifying compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), there is a motivation to be effective, efficient and economical and to prevent abuse of the right to conduct an On-site Inspection (OSI) in the territory of a challenged State Party. In particular, it is in the interest of a State Party to avoid irrelevant search in specific areas. In this study we propose several techniques to determine `exclusion zones', which are defined as areas where an event could not have possibly occurred. All techniques are based on simple ideas of arrival time differences between seismic stations and thus are less prone to modeling errors compared to standard event location methods. The techniques proposed are: angular sector exclusion based on a tripartite micro array, half-space exclusion based on a station pair, and closed area exclusion based on circumferential networks.

  19. Exclusion, Violence, and Community Responses in Central ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Personal

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... similar conditions of social exclusion, different levels of violence can be explained because communities capacities to face violence. • Methodology: ... in El Salvador. • Mix of quantitative and qualitative techniques of research.

  20. Exclusive processes at high momentum transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Radyushkin, Anatoly; Stoker, Paul

    2002-01-01

    This book focuses on the physics of exclusive processes at high momentum transfer and their description in terms of generalized parton distributions, perturbative QCD, and relativistic quark models. It covers recent developments in the field, both theoretical and experimental.

  1. Diffractive dijet production in deep inelastic scattering at ZEUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonato, A.

    2008-03-15

    This thesis presents a measurement of dijet production of diffractive deep inelastic scattering ep collisions. This type of process is specially relevant for the experimental validity of the perturbative QCD approach to diffractive physics. The measurement was based on an integrated luminosity of 61 pb{sup -1} collected at the HERA collider with the ZEUS experiment. The events were selected for virtualities of the photon, {gamma}*, 54 GeV. The jet with the highest transverse energy was required to have E{sub T} {sub jet}*>5 GeV. All jets were required to be in the pseudorapidity range -3.5<{eta}{sub jet}*<0 as measured in the {gamma}*p frame. The selection of diffractive events was carried out by requiring a large rapidity gap in the direction of the scattered proton. The value of the fraction of initial proton momentum entering in the hard process, x{sub P}, was required to be x{sub P}<0.03. The total cross section for the process was measured to be {sigma}{sub TOT}{sup D}(ep{yields}ep jet{sub 1}jet{sub 2} X')=9.15{+-}1.2 (stat.){sub 5.4}{sup 3.3} (syst.){sub -5.3}{sup +6.4} (corr.)pb. Single and double differential cross sections were extracted and compared to leading-order predictions and next-to-leading-order QCD calculations. The latter used several diffractive parton densities extracted from inclusive diffractive deep inelastic scattering data. The agreement with the leading and next-to-leading order predictions is good and no hints of factorisation breaking are observed. The double differential measurement can be a previous input for the extraction of more accurate diffractive parton densities. (orig.)

  2. Nanostructural Evolution of Hard Turning Layers in Carburized Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedekar, Vikram

    The mechanisms of failure for components subjected to contact fatigue are sensitive to the structure and properties of the material surface. Although, the bulk material properties are determined by the steel making, forming and the heat treatment; the near surface material properties are altered during final material removal processes such as hard turning or grinding. Therefore, the ability to optimize, modulate and predict the near surface properties during final metal removal operations would be extremely useful in the enhancement of service life of a component. Hard machining is known to induce severely deformed layers causing dramatic microstructural transformations. These transformations occur via grain refinement or thermal phenomena depending upon cutting conditions. The aim of this work is to engineer the near surface nanoscale structure and properties during hard turning by altering strain, strain rate, temperature and incoming microstructure. The near surface material transformations due to hard turning were studied on carburized SAE 8620 bearing steel. Variations in parent material microstructures were introduced by altering the retained austenite content. The strain, strain rate and temperature achieved during final metal cutting were altered by varying insert geometry, insert wear and cutting speed. The subsurface evolution was quantified by a series of advanced characterization techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD), X-ray stress evaluation and nanoindentation which were coupled with numerical modeling. Results showed that the grain size of the nanocrystalline near surface microstructure can be effectively controlled by altering the insert geometry, insert wear, cutting speed and the incoming microstructure. It was also evident that the near surface retained austenite decreased at lower cutting speed indicating transformation due to plastic deformation, while it increased at higher cutting

  3. Impact of aging on radiation hardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Fleetwood, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    Burn-in effects are used to demonstrate the potential impact of thermally activated aging effects on functional and parametric radiation hardness. These results have implications on hardness assurance testing. Techniques for characterizing aging effects are proposed

  4. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quitting drugs is hard because addiction is a brain disease. Your brain is like a control tower that sends out ... and choices. Addiction changes the signals in your brain and makes it hard to feel OK without ...

  5. Full Multilayer Laue Lens for Focusing Hard X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chian; Shi, B.; Qian, J.; Conley, R.; Yan, H.; Wieczorek, M.; Macrander, A. T.; Maser, J.; Stephenson, G. B.

    2010-01-01

    Multilayer Laue Lenses (MLLs) were developed by us using dynamic diffraction effects to efficiently focus hard x-rays to very small spots. Using a partial MLL we were able to focus 19.5-keV hard x-rays to a line focus of 16 nm with an efficiency of 31%. A full MLL is a complete linear MLL structure. It can be fabricated by bonding two partial MLL wafers, or by growing the full structure using magnetron sputtering without bonding. A 40-μm full MLL, with a total of 5166 layers of WSi 2 and Si, has been successfully grown by sputter deposition. The layer thicknesses gradually vary from 4 nm to ∼400 nm and then back to 4 nm. Two coating runs were used to grow the full structure, one for each half. It took over 56 h for each run. A 100-μm nearly-full MLL was constructed by bonding. Each 50-μm half-structure has 1788 WSi 2 and Si layers with 12-nm to ∼32-nm thicknesses and ∼32-μm total thickness, followed by a thick WSi 2 layer of ∼17 μm, and an AuSn layer of ∼1 μm. Both full MLL structures survived dicing and polishing. The primary results demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a full MLL with a doubled numerical aperture and large beam acceptance for hard x-rays.

  6. A hard X-ray nanoprobe beamline for nanoscale microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winarski, Robert P., E-mail: winarski@anl.gov; Holt, Martin V. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60441 (United States); Rose, Volker [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60441 (United States); Fuesz, Peter; Carbaugh, Dean; Benson, Christa; Shu, Deming; Kline, David; Stephenson, G. Brian; McNulty, Ian [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60441 (United States); Maser, Jörg [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60441 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Beamline is a precision platform for scanning probe and full-field microscopy with 3–30 keV X-rays. A combination of high-stability X-ray optics and precision motion sensing and control enables detailed studies of the internal features of samples with resolutions approaching 30 nm. The Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Beamline (or Nanoprobe Beamline) is an X-ray microscopy facility incorporating diffraction, fluorescence and full-field imaging capabilities designed and operated by the Center for Nanoscale Materials and the Advanced Photon Source at Sector 26 of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. This facility was constructed to probe the nanoscale structure of biological, environmental and material sciences samples. The beamline provides intense focused X-rays to the Hard X-ray Nanoprobe (or Nanoprobe) which incorporates Fresnel zone plate optics and a precision laser sensing and control system. The beamline operates over X-ray energies from 3 to 30 keV, enabling studies of most elements in the periodic table, with a particular emphasis on imaging transition metals.

  7. Double diffractive ρ -production in γ*γ* collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2005-01-01

    We present a first estimate of the cross-section for the exclusive process γ * L (Q 1 2 )γ * L (Q 2 2 )→ρ L 0 ρ L 0 , which will be studied in the future high energy e + e - -linear collider. As a first step, we calculate the Born order approximation of the amplitude for longitudinally polarized virtual photons and mesons, in the kinematical region s >>-t, Q 1 2 , Q 2 2 . This process is completely calculable in the hard region Q 1 2 , Q 2 2 >>Λ 2 QCD . We perform most of the steps in an analytical way. The resulting cross-section turns out to be large enough for this process to be measurable with foreseen luminosity and energy, for Q 1 2 and Q 2 2 in the range of a few GeV 2 . (orig.)

  8. Association between Exclusive Breastfeeding and Child Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaniyyatul Khudri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child development highly correlates with child’s quality. The fastest child development period is during the first three years, also called golden period. This research was aimed to discover correlation between exclussive breastfeeding and child development in Cipacing Village Jatinangor, district of Sumedang. Methods: This research was conducted using cross-sectional method in thirteen Pos Pelayanan Terpadu (Posyandu Cipacing Village in Jatinangor. One hundred and two children aged 12−24 months with their caregiver were recruited as respondents by using cluster sampling method. Hist ory of exclusive breastfeeding was assessed with questionnaire while child development status was assesed with Kuesioner Pra Skrining Perkembangan (KPSP in September 2013 after informed consent was obtained. Chi-square test analysis was performed to determine correlation between exclusive breastfeeding and child development status. Results: Overall, children in Cipacing Village had non-exclusive breastfeeding history (83.3%, and only 16.7% respondents had exclusive breastfeeding history. Meanwhile, 89.2% of children had normal development status, and 10.8% had delayed development status. Statistic analysis using chi-square test in the level of 95% confidence between exclusive breastfeeding and child development showed p=0.686 and odds ratio 2.133. Conclusions: There is no significant relationship between history of exclusive breastfeeding and child development status.

  9. Bragg's Law diffraction simulations for electron backscatter diffraction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacher, Josh; Landon, Colin; Adams, Brent L.; Fullwood, David

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, Angus Wilkinson introduced a cross-correlation-based electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) texture analysis system capable of measuring lattice rotations and elastic strains to high resolution. A variation of the cross-correlation method is introduced using Bragg's Law-based simulated EBSD patterns as strain free reference patterns that facilitates the use of the cross-correlation method with polycrystalline materials. The lattice state is found by comparing simulated patterns to collected patterns at a number of regions on the pattern using the cross-correlation function and calculating the deformation from the measured shifts of each region. A new pattern can be simulated at the deformed state, and the process can be iterated a number of times to converge on the absolute lattice state. By analyzing an iteratively rotated single crystal silicon sample and recovering the rotation, this method is shown to have an angular resolution of ∼0.04 o and an elastic strain resolution of ∼7e-4. As an example of applications, elastic strain and curvature measurements are used to estimate the dislocation density in a single grain of a compressed polycrystalline Mg-based AZ91 alloy.

  10. Diffractive pion dissociation into 5 pion final states at COMPASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubert, Sebastian; Friedrich, Jan; Grabmueller, Stefanie; Haas, Florian; Ketzer, Bernhard; Paul, Stephan; Weitzel, Quirin [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E18, 85748 Garching (Germany); Chung, Suh-Urk [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E18, 85748 Garching (Germany); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Ryabchikov, Dimitry [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E18, 85748 Garching (Germany); Institute for High Ernergy Physics, 142284 Protvino (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    COMPASS is a fixed-target experiment at the CERN SPS, which investigates the structure and spectroscopy of hadrons. In 2004, a first run with a 190 GeV/c {pi}{sup -} beam took place using nuclear targets. Diffractive dissociation reactions observed in this run provide clean access to meson resonances with masses up to 3 GeV/c{sup 2}. Exclusive final states with 5 charged pions have been extracted. The covered range in momentum transfer extends from threshold to a few GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2} allowing to study resonance production in different regimes. We report on the status of the analysis of this unique data set.

  11. Diffraction efficiency enhancement of femtosecond laser-engraved diffraction gratings due to CO2 laser polishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hun-Kook; Jung, Deok; Sohn, Ik-Bu; Noh, Young-Chul; Lee, Yong-Tak; Kim, Jin-Tae; Ahsan, Shamim

    2014-01-01

    This research demonstrates laser-assisted fabrication of high-efficiency diffraction gratings in fused-silica glass samples. Initially, femtosecond laser pulses are used to engrave diffraction gratings on the glass surfaces. Then, these micro-patterned glass samples undergo CO 2 laser polishing process. unpolished diffraction gratings encoded in the glass samples show an overall diffraction efficiency of 18.1%. diffraction gratings imprinted on the glass samples and then polished four times by using a CO 2 laser beam attain a diffraction efficiency of 32.7%. We also investigate the diffraction patterns of the diffraction gratings encoded on fused-silica glass surfaces. The proposed CO 2 laser polishing technique shows great potential in patterning high-efficiency diffraction gratings on the surfaces of various transparent materials.

  12. Diffraction of polarized light on periodic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukanina, V; Divakov, D; Tyutyunnik, A; Hohlov, A

    2012-01-01

    Periodic structures as photonic crystals are widely used in modern laser devices, communication technologies and for creating various beam splitters and filters. Diffraction gratings are applied for creating 3D television sets, DVD and Blu-ray drives and reflective structures (Berkley mirror). It is important to simulate diffraction on such structures to design optical systems with predetermined properties based on photonic crystals and diffraction gratings. Methods of simulating diffraction on periodic structures uses theory of Floquet-Bloch and rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA). Current work is dedicated to analysis of photonic band gaps and simulating diffraction on one-dimensional binary diffraction grating using RCWA. The Maxwell's equations for isotropic media and constitutive relations based on the cgs system were used as a model.

  13. The hard problem of cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmo Eriksson

    Full Text Available Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the "hard problem of cooperation" as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior.

  14. The hard problem of cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Kimmo; Strimling, Pontus

    2012-01-01

    Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the "hard problem of cooperation" as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition) change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior.

  15. Theory of edge diffraction in electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Ufimtsev, Pyotr

    2009-01-01

    This book is an essential resource for researchers involved in designing antennas and RCS calculations. It is also useful for students studying high frequency diffraction techniques. It contains basic original ideas of the Physical Theory of Diffraction (PTD), examples of its practical application, and its validation by the mathematical theory of diffraction. The derived analytic expressions are convenient for numerical calculations and clearly illustrate the physical structure of the scattered field.

  16. Nonlinear diffraction from a virtual beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saltiel, Solomon M.; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2010-01-01

    We observe experimentally a novel type of nonlinear diffraction in the process of two-wave mixing on a nonlinear quadratic grating.We demonstrate that when the nonlinear grating is illuminated simultaneously by two noncollinear beams, a second-harmonic diffraction pattern is generated by a virtual...... beam propagating along the bisector of the two pump beams. The observed iffraction phenomena is a purely nonlinear effect that has no analogue in linear diffraction...

  17. Diffraction limit of refractive compound lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolchevsky, N.N.; Petrov, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    A compound X-ray and neutron lenses is an array of lenses with a common axis. The resolution limited by aberration and by diffraction. Diffraction limit comes from theory based on absorption aperture of the compound refractive lenses. Beam passing through transparent lenses form Airy pattern. Results of calculation of diffraction resolution limit for non-transparent X-ray and neutron lenses are discussed. (authors)

  18. Diffractive variable beam splitter: optimal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, R; Cincotti, G; Santarsiero, M

    2000-01-01

    The analytical expression of the phase profile of the optimum diffractive beam splitter with an arbitrary power ratio between the two output beams is derived. The phase function is obtained by an analytical optimization procedure such that the diffraction efficiency of the resulting optical element is the highest for an actual device. Comparisons are presented with the efficiency of a diffractive beam splitter specified by a sawtooth phase function and with the pertinent theoretical upper bound for this type of element.

  19. High-energy electron diffraction and microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, L M; Whelan, M J

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to high energy electron diffraction and elastic and inelastic scattering of high energy electrons, with particular emphasis on applications to modern electron microscopy. Starting from a survey of fundamental phenomena, the authors introduce the most important concepts underlying modern understanding of high energy electron diffraction. Dynamical diffraction in transmission (THEED) and reflection (RHEED) geometries is treated using ageneral matrix theory, where computer programs and worked examples are provided to illustrate the concepts and to f

  20. Effect of substitutional element in the microstructure and hardness of Ti-Zr system alloys used as biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, D.R.N.; Vicente, F.B.; Grandini, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    New titanium alloys had been developed with the aim of obtaining materials with improved properties for application as biomaterial, and alloys of the Ti-Zr system are among those most promising. The objective of this study is to analyze the influence of the zirconium concentration on microstructure and hardness of the Ti-5Zr, Ti-10Zr and Ti-15Zr alloys. After arc-melting melting, the samples were analyzed by chemical and gas composition, and characterized by density measurements, optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction and hardness. The results showed a microstructure formed by alpha phase (hexagonal close-packed structure) and increased of hardness. (author)

  1. Mesoporous carbon prepared from carbohydrate as hard template for hierarchical zeolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Kresten; Christensen, Claus H.

    2007-01-01

    treatment of a mixture of sucrose and ammonia followed by carbonization of the mixture in N-2 at high temperatures. The porous carbon produced by this method was subsequently applied as a hard template in the synthesis of mesoporous silicalite-1 and removed by combustion after synthesis. X-ray diffraction......A mesoporous carbon prepared from sucrose was successfully employed as a hard template to produce hierarchical silicalite-1, thus providing a very simple and inexpensive route to desirable zeolite catalysts from widely available raw materials. The porous carbon was prepared by hydrothermal...... the porous carbon template as well as the mesoporous zeolite single-crystal material....

  2. Bragg concentrators for hard (> 10keV) x-ray astronomy: Status report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareschi, G.; Frontera, F.; Pasqualini, G.

    1997-01-01

    The use of focusing telescopes in hard X-ray (E > 10 keV) astronomy will provide better flux sensitivity and imaging performances with respect to the direct-viewing detectors, utilized until now. We present recent results obtained from our group regarding the possible use of Bragg-diffraction tec......The use of focusing telescopes in hard X-ray (E > 10 keV) astronomy will provide better flux sensitivity and imaging performances with respect to the direct-viewing detectors, utilized until now. We present recent results obtained from our group regarding the possible use of Bragg...

  3. Future of Electron Scattering and Diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Ernest [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Stemmer, Susanne [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Zheng, Haimei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhu, Yimei [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Maracas, George [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science

    2014-02-25

    , momentum space, and energy space for visualizing dopants, interstitials, and light elements; for imaging localized vibrational modes and the motion of charged particles and vacancies; for correlating lattice, spin, orbital, and charge; and for determining the structure and molecular chemistry of organic and soft matter. The instrument will be uniquely suited to answer fundamental questions in condensed matter physics that require understanding the physical and electronic structure at the atomic scale. Key developments include stable cryogenic capabilities that will allow access to emergent electronic phases, as well as hard/soft interfaces and radiation- sensitive materials. B. Ultrafast Electron Diffraction and Microscopy Instrument: This instrument would be capable of nano-diffraction with 10 fs temporal resolution in stroboscopic mode, and better than 100 fs temporal resolution in single shot mode. The instrument would also achieve single- shot real-space imaging with a spatial/temporal resolution of 10 nm/10 ps, representing a thousand fold improvement over current microscopes. Such a capability would be complementary to x-ray free electron lasers due to the difference in the nature of electron and x-ray scattering, enabling space-time mapping of lattice vibrations and energy transport, facilitating the understanding of molecular dynamics of chemical reactions, the photonic control of emergence in quantum materials, and the dynamics of mesoscopic materials. C. Lab-In-Gap Dynamic Microscope: This instrument would enable quantitative measurements of materials structure, composition, and bonding evolution in technologically relevant environments, including liquids, gases and plasmas, thereby assuring the understanding of structure function relationship at the atomic scale with up to nanosecond temporal resolution. This instrument would employ a versatile, modular sample stage and holder geometry to allow the multi-modal (e.g., optical, thermal, mechanical, electrical, and

  4. Improved self-exclusion program: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Nicole; Boutin, Claude; Ladouceur, Robert

    2008-12-01

    The gambling industry has offered self-exclusion programs for quite a long time. Such measures are designed to limit access to gaming opportunities and provide problem gamblers with the help they need to cease or limit their gambling behaviour. However, few studies have empirically evaluated these programs. This study has three objectives: (1) to observe the participation in an improved self-exclusion program that includes an initial voluntary evaluation, phone support, and a mandatory meeting, (2) to evaluate satisfaction and usefulness of this service as perceived by self-excluders, (3) to measure the preliminary impact of this improved program. One hundred sixteen self-excluders completed a questionnaire about their satisfaction and their perception of the usefulness during the mandatory meeting. Among those participants, 39 attended an initial meeting. Comparisons between data collected at the initial meeting and data taken at the final meeting were made for those 39 participants. Data showed that gamblers chose the improved self-exclusion program 75% of the time; 25% preferred to sign a regular self-exclusion contract. Among those who chose the improved service, 40% wanted an initial voluntary evaluation and 37% of these individuals actually attended that meeting. Seventy percent of gamblers came to the mandatory meeting, which was a required condition to end their self-exclusion. The majority of participants were satisfied with the improved self-exclusion service and perceived it as useful. Major improvements were observed between the final and the initial evaluation on time and money spent, consequences of gambling, DSM-IV score, and psychological distress. The applicability of an improved self-exclusion program is discussed and, as shown in our study, the inclusion of a final mandatory meeting might not be so repulsive for self-excluders. Future research directives are also proposed.

  5. Undergraduate experiment with fractal diffraction gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsoriu, Juan A; Furlan, Walter D; Pons, Amparo; Barreiro, Juan C; Gimenez, Marcos H

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple diffraction experiment with fractal gratings based on the triadic Cantor set. Diffraction by fractals is proposed as a motivating strategy for students of optics in the potential applications of optical processing. Fraunhofer diffraction patterns are obtained using standard equipment present in most undergraduate physics laboratories and compared with those obtained with conventional periodic gratings. It is shown that fractal gratings produce self-similar diffraction patterns which can be evaluated analytically. Good agreement is obtained between experimental and numerical results.

  6. Diffractive interactions of hadrons at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulianos, K.

    1982-01-01

    Elastic scattering, inclusive single diffraction dissociation and total cross section results are reviewed, with emphasis on the inter-relationship among the parameters that characterize these processes

  7. Study of diffractive dissociation especially into strange and charmed particles with EHS

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The diffractive production of heavy quark-antiquark pairs leading to strangeness-antistrangeness and charm-anticharm systems is intended to be measured in this experiment. The use of the rapid cycling bubble chamber (RCBC) with a volume of 100 x 40 x 40 cm$^{3}$ and a picture taking rate of 15 Hz as vertex detector and EHS as forward spectrometer is suitable for the first step of this physics programme. Inclusive cross-sections for diffraction dissociation into $s\\bar{s}$ are lacking whereas diffractive $c\\bar{c}$ production is already better known. The gain of more insight into the mechanism of heavy quark-antiquark production, exclusive diffractive reactions with $\\pi^{0}$'s, diffractive resonance production and also the extraction of data for the double Pomeron exchange mechanism are envisaged. \\\\\\\\ This experiment will be run in two parts, the first one recording the entire unbiased sample of $pp$ and $\\pi^{-}p$ interactions, the second however using triggering for beam and high mass target diffraction di...

  8. Deep Exclusive Pseudoscalar Meson Production at Jefferson Lab Hall C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basnet, Samip [Univ. of Regina, SK (Canada)

    2017-09-01

    Measurements of exclusive meson production are a useful tool in the study of hadronic structure. In particular, one can discern the relevant degrees of freedom at different distance scales through these studies. In the transition region between low momentum transfer (where a description of hadronic degrees of freedom in terms of effective hadronic Lagrangians is valid) and high momentum transfer (where the degrees of freedom are quarks and gluons), the predictive power of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the theory of the strong interaction, is limited due to the absence of a complete solution. Thus, one has to rely upon experimental data from the non-perturbative intermediate-energy regime to thoroughly understand the onset of perturbative QCD (pQCD) as the momentum transfer is increased. This work involves two deep exclusive meson electroproduction experiments at Jefferson Lab (JLab). The p(e,e'pi+)n reaction is studied at fixed Q^2 and W of 2.5 GeV2 and 2.0 GeV, respectively, while varying the four momentum transfer to the nucleon -t from 0.2 to 2.1 GeV2 . As -t is increased, the hadronic interaction scale is reduced independently of the observation scale of the virtual photon, providing valuable information about the hard- scattering process in general. The data was taken at JLab Hall C in 2003, as a part of the experiment E01-004, Fpi-2, using the High Momentum Spectrometer (HMS) and Short Orbit Spectrometer (SOS), and in this work, the results of the differential cross section analysis are presented and compared to prior data, as well as two theoretical models. Using these results over a wide -t range, the transition from hard to soft QCD is also studied. In addition, the p(e,e'K+)Lambda(Sigma0) reactions are also studied. Despite their importance in elucidating the reaction mechanism underlying strangeness production, we still do not have complete understanding of these reactions above the resonance region. The experiment, E12- 09-011, intends to

  9. Double-diffractive processes in high-resolution missing-mass experiments at the Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoze, V.A.; Martin, A.D.

    2001-01-01

    We evaluate, in a model-independent way, the signal-to-background ratio for Higgs→b anti b detection in exclusive double-diffractive events at the Tevatron and the LHC. For the missing-mass approach to be able to identify the Higgs boson, it will be necessary to use a central jet detector and to tag b quark jets. The signal is predicted to be very small at the Tevatron, but observable at the LHC. However we note that the background, that is double-diffractive dijet production, may serve as a unique gluon factory. We also give estimates for the double-diffractive production of χ c and χ b mesons at the Tevatron. We emphasize that a high-resolution missing-mass measurement, on its own, is insufficient to identify rare processes. (orig.)

  10. Aespoe hard rock laboratory Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the new Aespoe hard rock laboratory is to demonstrate state of the art of technology and evaluation methods before the start of actual construction work on the planned deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The nine country OECD/NEA project in the Stripa mine in Sweden has been an excellent example of high quality international research co-operation. In Sweden the new Aespoe hard rock laboratory will gradually take over and finalize this work. SKB very much appreciates the continued international participation in Aespoe which is of great value for the quality efficiency, and confidence in this kind of work. We have invited a number of leading experts to this first international seminar to summarize the current state of a number of key questions. The contributions show the great progress that has taken place during the years. The results show that there is a solid scientific basis for using this knowledge on site specific preparation and work on actual repositories. (au)

  11. Effect of Anneal temperature and Time on Change of Texture and Hardness of Al-Cu-Mg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masrukan; Adolf Asih, S.

    2000-01-01

    Observation of the effect of annealing temperature to its texture and hardness of the Al-Cu-Mg has been done. In this experiments aluminium alloy powder and 5 pieces cubes of this alloy with size of 8 x 8 x 8 mm 3 were used. The powder was not annealed, 2 pieces cube were annealed for 20 hours at temperatures of 200 o C and 300 o respectively, finally 3 pieces cube were annealed at temperature of 400 o C. Texture measurement was done using x-ray diffraction with wave length of 1.78892 A using inverse pole figure method. The hardness testing results at constant temperature of 400 o C and various time indicated that the hardness values are decreased with increasing annealed time. Also, at hardness testing for constant time and various annealing temperatures indicated that the hardness values decreased with increasing annealing temperature

  12. Evaluating diffraction-based overlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Tan, Asher; Jung, JinWoo; Goelzer, Gary; Smith, Nigel; Hu, Jiangtao; Ham, Boo-Hyun; Kwak, Min-Cheol; Kim, Cheol-Hong; Nam, Suk-Woo

    2012-03-01

    We evaluate diffraction-based overlay (DBO) metrology using two test wafers. The test wafers have different film stacks designed to test the quality of DBO data under a range of film conditions. We present DBO results using traditional empirical approach (eDBO). eDBO relies on linear response of the reflectance with respect to the overlay displacement within a small range. It requires specially designed targets that consist of multiple pads with programmed shifts. It offers convenience of quick recipe setup since there is no need to establish a model. We measure five DBO targets designed with different pitches and programmed shifts. The correlations of five eDBO targets and the correlation of eDBO to image-based overlay are excellent. The targets of 800nm and 600nm pitches have better dynamic precision than targets of 400nm pitch, which agrees with simulated results on signal/noise ratio. 3σ of less than 0.1nm is achieved for both wafers using the best configured targets. We further investigate the linearity assumption of eDBO algorithm. Simulation results indicate that as the pitch of DBO targets gets smaller, the nonlinearity error, i.e., the error in the overlay measurement results caused by deviation from ideal linear response, becomes bigger. We propose a nonlinearity correction (NLC) by including higher order terms in the optical response. The new algorithm with NLC improves measurement consistency for DBO targets of same pitch but different programmed shift, due to improved accuracy. The results from targets with different pitches, however, are improved marginally, indicating the presence of other error sources.

  13. Diffractive dijet photoproduction in ep collisions at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Alexa, C. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (RU)] (and others)

    2010-03-15

    Measurements are presented of single and double-differential dijet cross sections in diffractive photoproduction based on a data sample with an integrated luminosity of 47 pb{sup -1}. The events are of the type ep{yields}eXY, where the hadronic system X contains at least two jets and is separated by a large rapidity gap from the system Y, which consists of a leading proton or low-mass proton excitation. The dijet cross sections are compared with QCD calculations at next-to-leading order and with a Monte Carlo model based on leading order matrix elements with parton showers. The measured cross sections are smaller than those obtained from the next-to-leading order calculations by a factor of about 0.6. This suppression factor has no significant dependence on the fraction x{sub {gamma}} of the photon four-momentum entering the hard subprocess. Ratios of the diffractive to the inclusive dijet cross sections are measured for the first time and are compared with Monte Carlo models. (orig.)

  14. A credit card verifier structure using diffraction and spectroscopy concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Intaravanne, Yuttana

    2008-04-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an angle-multiplexing based optical structure for verifying a credit card. Our key idea comes from the fact that the fine detail of the embossed hologram stamped on the credit card is hard to duplicate and therefore its key color features can be used for distinguishing between the real and counterfeit ones. As the embossed hologram is a diffractive optical element, we choose to shine one at a time a number of broadband lightsources, each at different incident angle, on the embossed hologram of the credit card in such a way that different color spectra per incident angle beam is diffracted and separated in space. In this way, the number of pixels of each color plane is investigated. Then we apply a feed forward back propagation neural network configuration to separate the counterfeit credit card from the real one. Our experimental demonstration using two off-the-shelf broadband white light emitting diodes, one digital camera, a 3-layer neural network, and a notebook computer can identify all 69 counterfeit credit cards from eight real credit cards.

  15. Diffractive Dijet Photoproduction in ep Collisions at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Andreev, V.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delvax, J.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dobre, M.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Falkiewicz, A.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Grebenyuk, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Huber, F.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, A.W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, M.U.; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Radescu, V.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Tabasco, J.E.Ruiz; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Urban, K.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Trevino, A.Vargas; Vazdik, Y.; von den Driesch, M.; Wegener, D.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements are presented of single and double-differential dijet cross sections in diffractive photoproduction based on a data sample with an integrated luminosity of 47 pb^-1. The events are of the type ep -> eXY, where the hadronic system X contains at least two jets and is separated by a large rapidity gap from the system Y, which consists of a leading proton or low-mass proton excitation. The dijet cross sections are compared with QCD calculations at next-to-leading order and with a Monte Carlo model based on leading order matrix elements with parton showers. The measured cross sections are smaller than those obtained from the next-to-leading order calculations by a factor of about 0.6. This suppression factor has no significant dependence on the fraction x_gamma of the photon four-momentum entering the hard subprocess. Ratios of the diffractive to the inclusive dijet cross sections are measured for the first time and are compared with Monte Carlo models.

  16. Diffractive Electroproduction of rho and phi Mesons at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Asmone, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Falkiewicz, A.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M.E.; Janssen, X.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, A.W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, M.U.; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Pejchal, O.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Urban, K.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; von den Driesch, M.; Wegener, D.; Wissing, Ch.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.; Zus, R.

    2010-01-01

    Diffractive electroproduction of rho and phi mesons is measured at HERA with the H1 detector in the elastic and proton dissociative channels. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 51 pb^-1. About 10500 rho and 2000 phi events are analysed in the kinematic range of squared photon virtuality 2.5 < Q^2 < 60 GeV^2, photon-proton centre of mass energy 35 < W < 180 GeV and squared four-momentum transfer to the proton |t| < 3 GeV^2. The total, longitudinal and transverse cross sections are measured as a function of Q^2, W and |t|. The measurements show a transition to a dominantly "hard" behaviour, typical of high gluon densities and small q\\bar{q} dipoles, for Q^2 larger than 10 to 20 GeV^2. They support flavour independence of the diffractive exchange, expressed in terms of the scaling variable (Q^2 + M_V^2)/4, and proton vertex factorisation. The spin density matrix elements are measured as a function of kinematic variables. The ratio of the longitudinal to transverse cross sections, t...

  17. Diffractive dijet photoproduction in ep collisions at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Rotaru, M.; Stoicea, G. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Eliseev, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Loktionova, N.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Soloviev, Y.; Vazdik, Y. [Lebedev Physical Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Backovic, S.; Dubak, A.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N. [Univ. of Montenegro, Faculty of Science, Podgorica (ME); Baghdasaryan, A.; Zohrabyan, H. [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); Barrelet, E. [CNRS/IN2P3, LPNHE, Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Univ. Denis Diderot Paris 7, Paris (France); Bartel, W.; Brandt, G.; Campbell, A.J.; Cholewa, A.; Deak, M.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Felst, R.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grebenyuk, A.; Grell, B.R.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Katzy, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Knutsson, A.; Kraemer, M.; Kutak, K.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, J.; Marti, Ll.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Olsson, J.E.; Pahl, P.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Petrukhin, A.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Toll, T.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Driesch, M. von den; Wuensch, E. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T.; Tseepeldorj, B. [Inst. of Physics and Technology of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Bizot, J.C.; Brisson, V.; Delcourt, B.; Jacquet, M.; Pascaud, C.; Tran, T.H.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F. [CNRS/IN2P3, LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Boudry, V.; Moreau, F.; Specka, A. [CNRS/IN2P3, LLR, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Mudrinic, M.; Pandurovic, M.; Smiljanic, I. [Vinca Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (RS); Bracinik, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Newman, P.R.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Thompson, P.D. [Univ. of Birmingham (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy] (and others)

    2010-11-15

    Measurements are presented of single and double-differential dijet cross sections in diffractive photoproduction based on a data sample with an integrated luminosity of 47 pb{sup -1}. The events are of the type ep{yields}eXY, where the hadronic system X contains at least two jets and is separated by a large rapidity gap from the system Y, which consists of a leading proton or low-mass proton excitation. The dijet cross sections are compared with QCD calculations at next-to-leading order and with a Monte Carlo model based on leading order matrix elements with parton showers. The measured cross sections are smaller than those obtained from the next-to-leading order calculations by a factor of about 0.6. This suppression factor has no significant dependence on the fraction x{sub {gamma}} of the photon four-momentum entering the hard subprocess. Ratios of the diffractive to the inclusive dijet cross sections are measured for the first time and are compared with Monte Carlo models. (orig.)

  18. Diffractive dijet photoproduction in ep collisions at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Rotaru, M.; Stoicea, G.; Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Eliseev, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Loktionova, N.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Soloviev, Y.; Vazdik, Y.; Backovic, S.; Dubak, A.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Zohrabyan, H.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Brandt, G.; Campbell, A.J.; Cholewa, A.; Deak, M.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Felst, R.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grebenyuk, A.; Grell, B.R.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Katzy, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Knutsson, A.; Kraemer, M.; Kutak, K.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, J.; Marti, Ll.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Olsson, J.E.; Pahl, P.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Petrukhin, A.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Toll, T.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Driesch, M. von den; Wuensch, E.; Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Bizot, J.C.; Brisson, V.; Delcourt, B.; Jacquet, M.; Pascaud, C.; Tran, T.H.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F.; Boudry, V.; Moreau, F.; Specka, A.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Mudrinic, M.; Pandurovic, M.; Smiljanic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Newman, P.R.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Thompson, P.D.; Brinkmann, M.; Dobre, M.; List, B.; Bruncko, D.; Cerny, V.; Ferencei, J.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Chekelian, V.; Dossanov, A.; Grindhammer, G.; Kiesling, C.; Kogler, R.; Raspiareza, A.; Shushkevich, S.; Bystritskaya, L.; Efremenko, V.; Fedotov, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Lubimov, V.; Ozerov, D.; Rostovtsev, A.; Zhokin, A.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Contreras, J.G.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Cerny, K.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Salek, D.; Valkarova, A.; Zacek, J.; Coughlan, J.A.; Morris, J.V.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Cvach, J.; Reimer, P.; Zalesak, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Gabathuler, E.; Greenshaw, T.; Klein, M.; Kluge, T.; Kretzschmar, J.; Laycock, P.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Patel, G.D.; Daum, K.; Meyer, H.; Delvax, J.; Wolf, E.A. de; Favart, L.; Hreus, T.; Janssen, X.; Marage, P.; Mozer, M.U.; Roosen, R.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Mechelen, P. van; Diaconu, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Sauvan, E.; Vallee, C.; Dodonov, V.; Povh, B.; Egli, S.; Hildebrandt, M.; Horisberger, R.; Falkiewicz, A.; Goerlich, L.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Nowak, G.; Sopicki, P.; Turnau, J.; Feltesse, J.; Perez, E.; Schoeffel, L.; Grab, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Sloan, T.; Hennekemper, E.; Herbst, M.; Jung, A.W.; Krueger, K.; Lendermann, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Urban, K.; Henschel, H.; Hiller, K.H.; Kostka, P.; Lange, W.; Naumann, T.; Herrera, G.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Huber, F.; Pirumov, H.; Radescu, V.; Sauter, M.; Schoening, A.; Joensson, L.; Osman, S.; Jung, H.; DESY, Hamburg; Landon, M.P.J.; Rizvi, E.; Thompson, G.; Traynor, D.; Martyn, H.U.; Mueller, K.; Nowak, K.; Robmann, P.; Straumann, U.; Truoel, P.; South, D.; Wegener, D.; Stella, B.; INFN Roma 3, Rome

    2010-01-01

    Measurements are presented of single and double-differential dijet cross sections in diffractive photoproduction based on a data sample with an integrated luminosity of 47 pb -1 . The events are of the type ep→eXY, where the hadronic system X contains at least two jets and is separated by a large rapidity gap from the system Y, which consists of a leading proton or low-mass proton excitation. The dijet cross sections are compared with QCD calculations at next-to-leading order and with a Monte Carlo model based on leading order matrix elements with parton showers. The measured cross sections are smaller than those obtained from the next-to-leading order calculations by a factor of about 0.6. This suppression factor has no significant dependence on the fraction x γ of the photon four-momentum entering the hard subprocess. Ratios of the diffractive to the inclusive dijet cross sections are measured for the first time and are compared with Monte Carlo models. (orig.)

  19. Factorization of exclusive processes in perturbative quantum-chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segond, M.

    2007-12-01

    The work carried out in this thesis presents various theoretical and phenomenological studies of the exclusive production of longitudinally polarized neutral vector rho mesons in virtual photons collisions, within the framework of quantum-chromodynamics (QCD). The virtuality of the photons makes it possible to locate our approach in the perturbative area of the theory. The kinematical regimes considered allow the use of varied theoretical tools which reveal various properties of factorization of the scattering amplitude: two types of collinear factorization (at short distance) for this process are discussed in chapter 1, revealing - according to the polarization of the virtual photons and the kinematical limit considered- Generalized Distribution Amplitudes (GDA) or Transition Distribution Amplitudes (TDA), tools commonly used in the description of exclusive processes. We introduce into the Chapter 2 in a self-consistent way, the foundations of the BFKL (Balitskii, Fadin, Kuraev and Lipatov) formalism valid within the high energy limit (Regge limit) of QCD, for its phenomenological use detailed in Chapter 3: the scattering amplitude of the process is described in this formalism by exploiting the factorization in the two-dimensional transverse momentum space, or kT-factorization. We predict the value of the cross section of the process at Born order of the BFKL resummation and we discuss its possible observation at the future international linear collider (ILC). We consider also the differential cross sections of the process without momentum transfer with complete BFKL evolution at the order of the leading logarithms (Leading-Order) and also at the Next-to-Leading-Order to establish a fine test of this process with hard BFKL Pomeron exchange, observable at the future ILC. (author)

  20. Testing the Pauli Exclusion Principle for Electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marton, J; Berucci, C; Cargnelli, M; Ishiwatari, T; Bartalucci, S; Bragadireanu, M; Curceanu, C; Guaraldo, C; Iliescu, M; Pietreanu, D; Piscicchia, K; Ponta, T; Vidal, A Romero; Scordo, A; Sirghi, D L; Bertolucci, S; Matteo, S Di; Egger, J-P; Laubenstein, M; Milotti, E

    2013-01-01

    One of the fundamental rules of nature and a pillar in the foundation of quantum theory and thus of modern physics is represented by the Pauli Exclusion Principle. We know that this principle is extremely well fulfilled due to many observations. Numerous experiments were performed to search for tiny violation of this rule in various systems. The experiment VIP at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory is searching for possible small violations of the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons leading to forbidden X-ray transitions in copper atoms. VIP is aiming at a test of the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons with high accuracy, down to the level of 10 −29 – 10 −30 , thus improving the previous limit by 3–4 orders of magnitude. The experimental method, results obtained so far and new developments within VIP2 (follow-up experiment at Gran Sasso, in preparation) to further increase the precision by 2 orders of magnitude will be presented

  1. Digital exclusion in higher education contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Pedersen, Mette Jun Lykkegaard

    2016-01-01

    The integration and adoption of digital technologies have enabled improvements in the quality of and inclusion in higher education. However, a significant proportion of the population has either remained or become digitally excluded. This systematic literature review elucidates the factors...... underlying the concepts of “digital exclusion” and the “digital divide” in higher education. The identified factors are grouped into three categories: social exclusion (i.e., low income, ICT-avoidance as the norm, lack of motivation and commitment, and physical or mental disability), digital exclusion (i.......e., lack of hardware devices and Internet services) and accessibility (which include the division between rural and urban areas, as well as disparities in ICT literacy and information literacy). These factors are multi-tiered and overlapping. Studies on the digital divide, digital exclusion, and barriers...

  2. Structure determination of modulated structures by powder X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhou, Z.Y.; Palatinus, Lukáš; Sun, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 11 (2016), s. 1351-1362 ISSN 2052-1553 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : electron diffraction * incommensurate structure * powder diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.036, year: 2016

  3. Teenage pregnancy and exclusive breastfeeding rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puapompong, Pawin; Raungrongmorakot, Kasem; Manolerdtewan, Wichian; Ketsuwan, Sukwadee; Wongin, Sinutchanan

    2014-09-01

    Teenage pregnancy is an important health issue globally and in Thailand Younger age mothers decide on the breastfeeding practices ofthe first 6-month. To find the rates of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding practices of teenage mothers and compare them with the rates of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding practices in mothers who are 20 years of age or more. Three thousand five hundred sixty three normal, postpartum women, who delivered without complications at the HRH Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Medical Center in the Nakhon Nayok Province between 2010 and2013 were included in this study. At the second daypostpartum, the data of latch scores and the data of the practice of exclusive breastfeeding were collected Telephone follow-ups on the seventh, fourteenth, and forty-fifth postpartum days and at the second, fourth, and sixth month postpartum month were collected and used for exclusive breastfeeding data following discharge. Demographic data included the maternal age, parity, gestational age, marital status, occupation, religion, route ofdelivery, estimated blood loss, body mass index, nipple length, and the childs birth weight. The collected data was analyzed by the t-test, Chi-square, and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. The percentage of teenage pregnancies was at 14.8% (527 cases). On postpartum day 2, the percentage of latch scores of 8 or less was 66.4%. At the seventh, fourteenth, and forty-fifth day and at the second, fourth, and sixth months postpartum, the exclusive breastfeeding rates were 88.5, 78.5, 57.6, 43.1, 32.9, and27.0%, respectively. Comparison of the 6-month exclusive breastfeeding rates between teenage mothers and mothers 20 years ofage or older were not statistically significant (pteenage mothers was at 27.0% and had no significant differences from the rates of mothers 20 years of age or more.

  4. Barriers to Exclusive Breastfeeding among Urban Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazina Sharmin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding is the unique source of nutrition and it plays an important role in the growth, development and survival of the infants. The initiation of breastfeeding within one hour and continuation of only breast milk up to six months ensure maximum benefits. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in Bangladesh is 56% which is low. We designed this study to find out the factors influencing the duration of breastfeeding in Bangladeshi population. Objective: To study the factors influencing noncompliance to exclusive breastfeeding. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in Dhaka Shishu Hospital during the period January to June 2011. It includes 125 infant (1–12 months-mother pairs randomly selected from the inpatient and outpatient departments of Dhaka Shishu Hospital. Mother-infant pairs were divided into two groups based on continuation of only breastfeeding up to six months. Outcomes were compared between two groups. Results: In this study exclusive breastfeeding was found in 27.2% and nonexclusive breastfeeding was in 72.8% cases. It was found that in most cases (40% termination of breastfeeding was at 3--4 months. The study revealed that insufficient milk production due to poor position and attachment, social factors such as influence of husband and other family members, joining to service etc act as barrier to exclusive breastfeeding. Mass media and advice from health professionals had a higher influence on lower rate of exclusive breastfeeding. Women who were multiparous, housewives were more likely to maintain optimal breastfeeding. Conclusion: The present study reveals some important factors contributing to low rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Bangladesh.

  5. X-ray topography and multiple diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.-L.

    1983-01-01

    A short summary on X-ray topography, which is based on the dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction, is made. The applications and properties related to the use of the multiple diffraction technique are analized and discussed. (L.C.) [pt

  6. Diffraction of radiation from channelled charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baryshevskij, V.G.; Grubich, A.O.; Dubovskaya, I.Ya.

    1978-01-01

    An explicit expression for cross-section and radiation spectrum at diffraction is calculated. It is shown that photons emitted by channelled particles form a typical diffraction pattern which contains information about the crystal structure. It is also shown that the change of the longitudinal energy of the particle caused by the radiation braking becomes important when the particle energy is increased. (author)

  7. Classical system underlying a diffracting quantum billiard

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manan Jain

    2018-01-05

    Jan 5, 2018 ... Wave equation; rays; quantum chaos. PACS Nos 03.65.Ge; 05.45.Mt; 42.25.Fx. 1. Introduction. Diffraction [1] is a complex wave phenomenon which manifests classically and quantum mechanically. Among a wide range of systems where diffraction becomes important, there is an interesting situation of.

  8. Non-diffractive optically variable security devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renesse, R.L. van

    1991-01-01

    At the past optical security conferences attention was focused on diffractive structures, e.g. holograms, embossed gratings and thin—film devices, as security elements on valuable documents. The main reasons for this emphasis are, that the iridescent effect of such diffractive optically variable

  9. Correlations in the hadronic double diffractive dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldegol, Alexandre.

    1991-05-01

    A given reaction of double diffractive dissociation is studied based on the three-component Deck Model. The correlations among the diffractive slope, the effective mass of the dissociated particle sub-system and the dissociation angle in the Gottfried-Jackson are studied based in this model. 9 refs, 19 figs

  10. Uniform asymptotic theory of edge diffraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis, R.M.; Boersma, J.; Oughstun, K.E.

    1992-01-01

    Geometrical optics fails to account for the phenomenon of diffraction, i.e., the existence of nonzero fields in the geometrical shadow. Keller's geometrical theory of diffraction accounts for this phenomenon by providing correction terms to the geometrical optics field, in the form of a

  11. Uniform asymptotic theory of edge diffraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis, R.M.; Boersma, J.

    1969-01-01

    Geometrical optics fails to account for the phenomenon of diffraction, i.e., the existence of nonzero fields in the geometrical shadow. Keller's geometrical theory of diffraction accounts for this phenomenon by providing correction terms to the geometrical optics field, in the form of a

  12. Restoration of diffracted far field at the output of circular diffraction waveplate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovhannisyan, D; Margaryan, H; Abrahamyan, V; Hakobyan, N; Tabiryan, N

    2014-01-01

    The light propagation in an anisotropic periodic media, such us circular diffraction waveplate (CDW) by a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique is studied. The FDTD numerical simulation and the subsequent Fourier transform of the diffracted electric near field was been used for study of ability of CDW to diffract a laser beam and simultaneously convert polarization state. The FDTD simulation results used to restore the diffracted electric far field at the CDW output. an abstract

  13. 78 FR 55687 - Notice of Intent To Grant an Exclusive, Partially Exclusive or Non-Exclusive License of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Notice of Intent To Grant an Exclusive, Partially..., 2012 Entitled ''Tie-Down and Jack Fitting Assembly for Helicopter'' AGENCY: Department of the Army, [email protected]us.army.mil . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The patent application relates to the aviation platforms...

  14. Exclusive B Decays to Charmonium Final States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, Barbara

    2000-10-13

    We report on exclusive decays of B mesons into final states containing charmonium using data collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage rings. The charmonium states considered here are J/{psi}, {psi}(2S), and {chi}{sub c1}. Branching fractions for several exclusive final states, a measurement of the decay amplitudes for the B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi} K* decay, and measurements of the B{sup 0} and B{sup +} masses are presented. All of the results we present here are preliminary.

  15. Exclusive hadronic and nuclear processes in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1985-12-01

    Hadronic and nuclear processes are covered, in which all final particles are measured at large invariant masses compared with each other, i.e., large momentum transfer exclusive reactions. Hadronic wave functions in QCD and QCD sum rule constraints on hadron wave functions are discussed. The question of the range of applicability of the factorization formula and perturbation theory for exclusive processes is considered. Some consequences of quark and gluon degrees of freedom in nuclei are discussed which are outside the usual domain of traditional nuclear physics. 44 refs., 7 figs

  16. Exclusion Statistics in Conformal Field Theory Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoutens, K.

    1997-01-01

    We propose a new method for investigating the exclusion statistics of quasiparticles in conformal field theory (CFT) spectra. The method leads to one-particle distribution functions, which generalize the Fermi-Dirac distribution. For the simplest SU(n) invariant CFTs we find a generalization of Gentile parafermions, and we obtain new distributions for the simplest Z N -invariant CFTs. In special examples, our approach reproduces distributions based on 'fractional exclusion statistics' in the sense of Haldane. We comment on applications to fractional quantum Hall effect edge theories. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  17. Optical system storage design with diffractive optical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostuk, Raymond K.; Haggans, Charles W.

    1993-01-01

    Optical data storage systems are gaining widespread acceptance due to their high areal density and the ability to remove the high capacity hard disk from the system. In magneto-optical read-write systems, a small rotation of the polarization state in the return signal from the MO media is the signal which must be sensed. A typical arrangement used for detecting these signals and correcting for errors in tracking and focusing on the disk is illustrated. The components required to achieve these functions are listed. The assembly and alignment of this complex system has a direct impact on cost, and also affects the size, weight, and corresponding data access rates. As a result, integrating these optical components and improving packaging techniques is an active area of research and development. Most designs of binary optic elements have been concerned with optimizing grating efficiency. However, rigorous coupled wave models for vector field diffraction from grating surfaces can be extended to determine the phase and polarization state of the diffracted field, and the design of polarization components. A typical grating geometry and the phase and polarization angles associated with the incident and diffracted fields are shown. In our current stage of work, we are examining system configurations which cascade several polarization functions on a single substrate. In this design, the beam returning from the MO disk illuminates a cascaded grating element which first couples light into the substrate, then introduces a quarter wave retardation, then a polarization rotation, and finally separates s- and p-polarized fields through a polarization beam splitter. The input coupler and polarization beam splitter are formed in volume gratings, and the two intermediate elements are zero-order elements.

  18. Trapezoidal diffraction grating beam splitters in single crystal diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Marcell; Graziosi, Teodoro; Quack, Niels

    2018-02-01

    Single Crystal Diamond has been recognized as a prime material for optical components in high power applications due to low absorption and high thermal conductivity. However, diamond microstructuring remains challenging. Here, we report on the fabrication and characterization of optical diffraction gratings exhibiting a symmetric trapezoidal profile etched into a single crystal diamond substrate. The optimized grating geometry diffracts the transmitted optical power into precisely defined proportions, performing as an effective beam splitter. We fabricate our gratings in commercially available single crystal CVD diamond plates (2.6mm x 2.6mm x 0.3mm). Using a sputter deposited hard mask and patterning by contact lithography, the diamond is etched in an inductively coupled oxygen plasma with zero platen power. The etch process effectively reveals the characteristic {111} diamond crystal planes, creating a precisely defined angled (54.7°) profile. SEM and AFM measurements of the fabricated gratings evidence the trapezoidal shape with a pitch of 3.82μm, depth of 170 nm and duty cycle of 35.5%. Optical characterization is performed in transmission using a 650nm laser source perpendicular to the sample. The recorded transmitted optical power as function of detector rotation angle shows a distribution of 21.1% in the 0th order and 23.6% in each +/-1st order (16.1% reflected, 16.6% in higher orders). To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of diffraction gratings with trapezoidal profile in single crystal diamond. The fabrication process will enable beam splitter gratings of custom defined optical power distribution profiles, while antireflection coatings can increase the efficiency.

  19. Diffractive electroproduction of {rho} and {phi} mesons at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Aldaya Martin, M. [DESY Hamburg (Germany); Alexa, C. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (RO)] (and others)

    2009-06-15

    Diffractive electroproduction of {rho} and {phi} mesons is measured at HERA with the H1 detector in the elastic and proton dissociative channels. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 51 pb{sup -1}. About 10500 {rho} and 2000 {phi} events are analysed in the kinematic range of squared photon virtuality 2.5{<=}Q{sup 2}{<=}60 GeV{sup 2}, photon-proton centre of mass energy 35{<=}W{<=}180 GeV and squared four-momentum transfer to the proton vertical stroke 3 vertical stroke {<=} GeV{sup 2}. The total, longitudinal and transverse cross sections are measured as a function of Q{sup 2}, W and vertical stroke 3 vertical stroke. The measurements show a transition to a dominantly ''hard'' behaviour, typical of high gluon densities and small q anti q dipoles, for Q{sup 2} larger than 10 to 20 GeV{sup 2}. They support flavour independence of the diffractive exchange, expressed in terms of the scaling variable (Q{sup 2}+M{sub V}{sup 2})/4, and proton vertex factorisation. The spin density matrix elements are measured as a function of kinematic variables. The ratio of the longitudinal to transverse cross sections, the ratio of the helicity amplitudes and their relative phases are extracted. Several of these measurements have not been performed before and bring new information on the dynamics of diffraction in a QCD framework. The measurements are discussed in the context of models using generalised parton distributions or universal dipole cross sections. (orig.)

  20. Towards an analytical theory for charged hard spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Blum

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Ion mixtures require an exclusion core to avoid collapse. The Debye Hueckel (DH theory, where ions are point charges, is accurate only in the limit of infinite dilution. The mean spherical approximation (MSA is the embedding of hard cores into DH, and is valid for higher densities. The properties of any ionic mixture can be represented by the single screening parameter Γ which for the equal ionic size restricted model is obtained from the Debye parameter κ. This Γ representation, the binding mean spherical approximation (BIMSA, is also valid for complex/associating systems, such as the general n-polyelectrolytes. The BIMSA is the only theory that satisfies the infinite dilution limit of the DH theory for any chain length. Furthermore, the contact pair distribution function calculated from our theory agrees with the Monte Carlo of Bresmeea. (Phys. Rev. E, 1995, 51, 289.

  1. Uniting Electron Crystallography and Powder Diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Shankland, Kenneth; Meshi, Louisa; Avilov, Anatoly; David, William

    2012-01-01

    The polycrystalline and nanocrystalline states play an increasingly important role in exploiting the properties of materials, encompassing applications as diverse as pharmaceuticals, catalysts, solar cells and energy storage. A knowledge of the three-dimensional atomic and molecular structure of materials is essential for understanding and controlling their properties, yet traditional single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods lose their power when only polycrystalline and nanocrystalline samples are available. It is here that powder diffraction and single-crystal electron diffraction techniques take over, substantially extending the range of applicability of the crystallographic principles of structure determination.  This volume, a collection of teaching contributions presented at the Crystallographic Course in Erice in 2011, clearly describes the fundamentals and the state-of-the-art of powder diffraction and electron diffraction methods in materials characterisation, encompassing a diverse range of discipl...

  2. Development of radiation hard scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markley, F.; Woods, D.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Foster, G.; Blackburn, R.

    1992-05-01

    Substantial improvements have been made in the radiation hardness of plastic scintillators. Cylinders of scintillating materials 2.2 cm in diameter and 1 cm thick have been exposed to 10 Mrads of gamma rays at a dose rate of 1 Mrad/h in a nitrogen atmosphere. One of the formulations tested showed an immediate decrease in pulse height of only 4% and has remained stable for 12 days while annealing in air. By comparison a commercial PVT scintillator showed an immediate decrease of 58% and after 43 days of annealing in air it improved to a 14% loss. The formulated sample consisted of 70 parts by weight of Dow polystyrene, 30 pbw of pentaphenyltrimethyltrisiloxane (Dow Corning DC 705 oil), 2 pbw of p-terphenyl, 0.2 pbw of tetraphenylbutadiene, and 0.5 pbw of UVASIL299LM from Ferro

  3. Optimization of a multilayer Laue lens system for a hard x-ray nanoprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Hui; Wang, Hua; Mao, Chengwen; Li, Aiguo; He, Yan; Dong, Zhaohui; Zheng, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Detailed designs of a multilayer Laue lens system for a hard x-ray nanoprobe, including flat and wedged types, are presented, to realize nanoscale point focus and high diffraction efficiency simultaneously. The difficulty of movement and alignment for lens, aperture and sample are considered in the optimization process. Considering the practical requirements of future experiments, the features of the beamline and the structural imperfections, the working energy range, the beam vibration and structural errors are estimated and discussed. (paper)

  4. Effect of feed rate, workpiece hardness and cutting edge on subsurface residual stress in the hard turning of bearing steel using chamfer + hone cutting edge geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Jiang; Shivpuri, Rajiv; Cheng Xiaomin; Bedekar, Vikram; Matsumoto, Yoichi; Hashimoto, Fukuo; Watkins, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    Residual stress on the machined surface and the subsurface is known to influence the service quality of a component, such as fatigue life, tribological properties, and distortion. Therefore, it is essential to predict and control it for enhanced performance. In this paper, a newly proposed hardness based flow stress model is incorporated into an elastic-viscoplastic finite element model of hard turning to analyze process variables that affect the residual stress profile of the machined surface. The effects of cutting edge geometry and workpiece hardness as well as cutting conditions, such as feed rate and cutting speed, are investigated. Numerical analysis shows that hone edge plus chamfer cutting edge and aggressive feed rate help to increase both compressive residual stress and penetration depth. These predictions are validated by face turning experiments which were conducted using a chamfer with hone cutting edge for different material hardness and cutting parameters. The residual stresses under the machined surface are measured by X-ray diffraction/electropolishing method. A maximum circumferential residual stress of about 1700 MPa at a depth of 40 μm is reached for hardness of 62 HRc and feed rate of 0.56 mm/rev. This represents a significant increase from previously reported results in literatures. It is found from this analysis that using medium hone radius (0.02-0.05 mm) plus chamfer is good for keeping tool temperature and cutting force low, while obtaining desired residual stress profile

  5. Structure, hardness and fracture features of nanostructural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noskova, N.I.; Korznikov, A.V.; Idrisova, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    A study is made into nanocrystalline metals Cu and Mo, nanocrystalline intermetallic compound Ni 3 Al produced using severe plastic deformation; nanophase alloys Fe 73.5 Cu 1 Nb 3 Si 1.35 B 9 and Pd 81 Cu 7 Si 12 produced by crystallization from amorphous state as well as nanophase materials TiN and Al 2 O 3 produced by nano powder compacting in the temperature range of 273-573 K. Methods of transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, mechanical testing and microhardness measurement are applied to study structure, internal elastic stress, phase composition, hardness, strength and plastic properties, surface fracture mode of nanostructural materials [ru

  6. Exclusive breastfeedingand postnatal changes in maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate the impact of exclusive breastfeeding (EBFing) practice on maternal anthropometry during the first 6months of birth. Measurement of weight, height, triceps skin-fold thickness (TST), and mid-arm circumference (MAC) was carried out in a matched cohort of women practicing EBFing and those using other ...

  7. Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding practices in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite the demonstrated benefits of breast milk, the prevalence of breastfeeding, in-particular exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), in many developing countries including Ethiopia is lower than the international recommendation of EBF for the first six months of life. Objective: To assess the practice of EBF and ...

  8. 40 CFR 503.6 - Exclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works. (i) Drinking water treatment sludge. This part does not... water or ground water used for drinking water. (j) Commercial and industrial septage. This part does not... DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503.6 Exclusions. (a) Treatment processes. This part does...

  9. Sexism and Permanent Exclusion from School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlile, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Focussing on narratives collected during a two year participant observation research project in the children's services department of an urban local authority, this article addresses the intersection between incidents of permanent exclusion from school and assumptions made on the basis of a young person's gender. The article considers gendered…

  10. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Towards Exclusive Breast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Towards Exclusive Breast-Feeding At Jimma, Ethiopia. Teklebrhan Tema. Abstract. No abstract - Available on PDF. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  11. Exclusive production of W pairs in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00002838

    2014-01-01

    We report the results on the search for exclusive production of $W$ pairs in the LHC with data collected by the Compact Muon Solenoid detector in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$~=~7~TeV. The analysis comprises the two-photon production of a $W$ pairs, ${pp\\to p\\,W^{+}W^{-}\\,p\\to p\\,\

  12. Exclusive processes in pp collisions in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil

    2013-01-01

    We report the results on the searches of exclusive production of low- and high-mass pairs with the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV. The analyses comprise the central exclusive $\\gamma\\gamma$ production, the exclusive two-photon production of dileptons, $e^{+}e^{-}$ and $\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$, and the exclusive two-photon production of $W$ pairs in the asymmetric $e^{\\pm}\\mu^{\\mp}$ decay channel. No diphotons candidates are observed in data and an upper limit on the cross section is set to 1.18 pb with 95% confidence level for $E_{T}(\\gamma)>$ 5.5 GeV and $|\\eta(\\gamma)|$ 5.5 GeV and $|\\eta(e)|$ 11.5 GeV, $p_{\\textrm{T}}(\\mu)>$ 4 GeV and $|\\eta(\\mu)|$ 4 GeV, $|\\eta(\\mu)|$ 20 GeV. Moreover, the study of the tail of the dilepton transverse momentum distribution resulted in model-independent upper limits for the anomalous quartic gauge couplings, which are of the order of 10$^{-4}$.

  13. Exclusive production of $W$ pairs in CMS

    OpenAIRE

    Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; CMS

    2014-01-01

    We report the results on the search for exclusive production of $W$ pairs in the LHC with data collected by the Compact Muon Solenoid detector in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$~=~7~TeV. The analysis comprises the two-photon production of a $W$ pairs, ${pp\\to p\\,W^{+}W^{-}\\,p\\to p\\,\

  14. Starvation-free mutual exclusion with semaphores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.; IJbema, Mark

    The standard implementation of mutual exclusion by means of a semaphore allows starvation of processes. Between 1979 and 1986, three algorithms were proposed that preclude starvation. These algorithms use a special kind of semaphore. We model this so-called buffered semaphore rigorously and provide

  15. Deadlocks and dihomotopy in mutual exclusion models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    spaces, the directed ($d$-spaces) of M.Grandis and the flows of P. Gaucher. All models invite to use or modify ideas from algebraic topology, notably homotopy. In specific semaphore models for mutual exclusion, we have developed methods and algorithms that can detect deadlocks and unsafe regions and give...

  16. Counterfactual overdetermination vs. the causal exclusion problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparber, Georg

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to show that a counterfactual approach to causation is not sufficient to provide a solution to the causal exclusion problem in the form of systematic overdetermination. Taking into account the truthmakers of causal counterfactuals provides a strong argument in favour of the identity of causes in situations of translevel, causation.

  17. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding among mothers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study could help mothers, Ministry of Health and other nongovernmental organisations working with child health programmes, in likely interventions and supporting the ongoing child survival programmes, by taking appropriate steps in enhancing exclusive breastfeeding. As mothers attend antenatal and ...

  18. 46 CFR 504.4 - Categorical exclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS PROCEDURES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ANALYSIS § 504.4 Categorical exclusions. (a) No environmental analyses need be undertaken or environmental... foreign country. (19) Action taken on special docket applications pursuant to § 502.271 of this chapter...

  19. 10 CFR 830.2 - Exclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... by the Department of Transportation; (d) Activities conducted under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of... ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT § 830.2 Exclusions. This part does not apply to: (a) Activities that are regulated through a license by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or a State under an Agreement with...

  20. Testing the exclusivity effect in location memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel P A; Dunn, Andrew K; Baguley, Thom

    2013-01-01

    There is growing literature exploring the possibility of parallel retrieval of location memories, although this literature focuses primarily on the speed of retrieval with little attention to the accuracy of location memory recall. Baguley, Lansdale, Lines, and Parkin (2006) found that when a person has two or more memories for an object's location, their recall accuracy suggests that only one representation can be retrieved at a time (exclusivity). This finding is counterintuitive given evidence of non-exclusive recall in the wider memory literature. The current experiment explored the exclusivity effect further and aimed to promote an alternative outcome (i.e., independence or superadditivity) by encouraging the participants to combine multiple representations of space at encoding or retrieval. This was encouraged by using anchor (points of reference) labels that could be combined to form a single strongly associated combination. It was hypothesised that the ability to combine the anchor labels would allow the two representations to be retrieved concurrently, generating higher levels of recall accuracy. The results demonstrate further support for the exclusivity hypothesis, showing no significant improvement in recall accuracy when there are multiple representations of a target object's location as compared to a single representation.

  1. Bitcoin and Beyond: Exclusively Informational Money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; de Leeuw, K.

    2013-01-01

    The famous new money Bitcoin is classified as a technical informational money (TIM). Besides introducing the idea of a TIM, a more extreme notion of informational money will be developed: exclusively informational money (EXIM). The informational coins (INCOs) of an EXIM can be in control of an agent

  2. Urban violence and exclusion in the DRC

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    support, children from impoverished households, many of whom are uneducated, are adding to the ... The goal of this study was to identify the dynamic interplay among poverty/exclusion ... The lack of public lighting and access points to water exposes girls to .... work together to develop more inclusive economic and social.

  3. 40 CFR 68.126 - Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Regulated Substances for Accidental Release Prevention § 68.126 Exclusion. Flammable Substances Used as Fuel or Held for Sale as Fuel at Retail Facilities. A flammable substance... substance is used as a fuel or held for sale as a fuel at a retail facility. [65 FR 13250, Mar. 13, 2000] ...

  4. The Exclusive Pursuit of Social Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Ivor

    2005-01-01

    Despite its best intentions, social exclusion has grown rather than diminished under New Labour's education policies. In order to understand this, Ivor Goodson argues that we need to engage with the history of the formal curriculum and the long and continuing fight over what counts as proper knowledge. Taking science and environmental science as…

  5. 27 CFR 8.51 - Exclusion, in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXCLUSIVE OUTLETS Exclusion § 8.51 Exclusion, in general. (a) Exclusion, in whole or in part occurs: (1) When a practice by an industry member, whether direct, indirect, or... tie or link between the industry member and retailer or by any other means of industry member control...

  6. Soft And Hard Skills of Social Worker

    OpenAIRE

    HANTOVÁ, Libuše

    2011-01-01

    The work deals with soft and hard skills relevant to the profession of social worker. The theoretical part at first evaluates and analyzes important soft and hard skills necessary for people working in the field of social work. Then these skills are compared. The practical part illustrates the use of soft and hard skills in practice by means of model scenes and deals with the preferences in three groups of people ? students of social work, social workers and people outside the sphere, namely ...

  7. Advances in hard nucleus cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cui

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Security and perfect vision and fewer complications are our goals in cataract surgery, and hard-nucleus cataract surgery is always a difficulty one. Many new studies indicate that micro-incision phacoemulsification in treating hard nucleus cataract is obviously effective. This article reviews the evolution process of hard nuclear cataract surgery, the new progress in the research of artificial intraocular lens for microincision, and analyse advantages and disadvantages of various surgical methods.

  8. Diffraction contrast imaging using virtual apertures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammer, Christoph; Burak Ozdol, V.; Liebscher, Christian H.; Minor, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Two methods on how to obtain the full diffraction information from a sample region and the associated reconstruction of images or diffraction patterns using virtual apertures are demonstrated. In a STEM-based approach, diffraction patterns are recorded for each beam position using a small probe convergence angle. Similarly, a tilt series of TEM dark-field images is acquired. The resulting datasets allow the reconstruction of either electron diffraction patterns, or bright-, dark- or annular dark-field images using virtual apertures. The experimental procedures of both methods are presented in the paper and are applied to a precipitation strengthened and creep deformed ferritic alloy with a complex microstructure. The reconstructed virtual images are compared with conventional TEM images. The major advantage is that arbitrarily shaped virtual apertures generated with image processing software can be designed without facing any physical limitations. In addition, any virtual detector that is specifically designed according to the underlying crystal structure can be created to optimize image contrast. - Highlights: • A dataset containing all structural information of a given position is recorded. • The dataset allows reconstruction of virtual diffraction patterns or images. • Specific virtual apertures are designed to image precipitates in a complex alloy. • Virtual diffraction patterns from arbitrarily small regions can be established. • Using STEM diffraction to record the dataset is more efficient than TEM dark-field

  9. Asymmetric exclusion processes with site sharing in a one-channel transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Mingzhe; Hawick, Ken; Marsland, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This Letter investigates two-species totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) with site sharing in a one-channel transport system. In the model, different species of particles may share the same sites, while particles of the same species may not (hard-core exclusion). The site-sharing mechanism is applied to the bulk as well as the boundaries. Such sharing mechanism within the framework of the TASEP has been largely ignored so far. The steady-state phase diagrams, currents and bulk densities are obtained using a mean-field approximation and computer simulations. The presence of three stationary phases (low-density, high-density, and maximal current) are identified. A comparison on the stationary current with the Bridge model [M.R. Evans, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 74 (1995) 208] has shown that our model can enhance the current. The theoretical calculations are well supported by Monte Carlo simulations.

  10. Hardness optimization of boride diffusion layer on Astm F-75 alloy using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arguelles O, J. L.; Corona R, M. A. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Doctorado Institucional en Ingenieria y Ciencia de Materiales, San Luis Potosi 78000, SLP (Mexico); Marquez H, A.; Saldana R, A. L.; Saldana R, A. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Ingenieria Mecanica Agricola DICIVA, Irapuato, Guanajuato 36500 (Mexico); Moreno P, J., E-mail: amarquez@ugto.mx [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Minas, Metalurgia y Geologia, Ex-Hacienda San Matias s/n, Guanajuato, Guanajuato 36020 (Mexico)

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the Response Surface Methodology (Rsm) and Central Composite Design (Ccd) were used to optimize the hardness of boride diffusion layer on Astm F-75 alloy (also called Haynes alloy). A boronizing thermochemical treatment was carried out at different temperatures and for different time periods. Hardness tests were conducted. The boride diffusion layer was verified by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicating the formation of Co B, Co{sub 2}B, Cr B and Mo{sub 2}B phases. An optimal hardness of 3139.7 Hv was obtained for the samples subjected to the boriding process for a duration of 6.86 h at 802.4 degrees Celsius. (Author)

  11. Hardness of high-pressure high-temperature treated single-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, S.; Nojima, Y.; Yokomae, T.; Okino, F.; Touhara, H.

    2007-01-01

    We have performed high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) treatments of high quality single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) over a wide pressure-temperature range up to 13 GPa-873 K and have investigated the hardness of the HPHT-treated SWCNTs using a nanoindentation technique. It was found that the hardness of the SWCNTs treated at pressures greater than 11 GPa and at temperatures higher than 773 K is about 10 times greater than that of the SWCNTs treated at low temperature. It was also found that the hardness change of the SWCNTs is related to the structural change by the HPHT treatments which was based on synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements

  12. Effect of Crystallisation Degree on Hardness of Basaltic Glass-Ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The dependence of hardness of basaltic glass-ceramics on their crystallisation degree has been explored by means of differential scanning calorimetry, optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Vickers indentation. Different degrees of crystallisation in the basaltic glasses have been obtained...... by varying the temperature of heat treatment. The change of the relative degree of crystallisation with the heat treatment temperature can be described by an empirical model established in this work. The predominant crystalline phase in the glass has been identified as the pyroxene augite. The hardness...... principle calculations. It is found that the hardness of the glass phase decreases slightly with an increase in the degree of crystallisation, while that of the augite phase drastically decreases....

  13. Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bob B

    2009-01-01

    Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to resea

  14. A scattering approach to sea wave diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, M. L., E-mail: letizia.corradini@unicam.it; Garbuglia, M., E-mail: milena.garbuglia@unicam.it; Maponi, P., E-mail: pierluigi.maponi@unicam.it [University of Camerino, via Madonna delle Carceri, 9, 62032, Camerino (Italy); Ruggeri, M., E-mail: ru.marco@faggiolatipumps.it [Faggiolati Pumps S.p.A., Z.Ind Sforzacosta, 62100, Macerata (Italy)

    2016-06-08

    This paper intends to show a model for the diffraction of sea waves approaching an OWC device, which converts the sea waves motion into mechanical energy and then electrical energy. This is a preliminary study to the optimisation of the device, in fact the computation of sea waves diffraction around the device allows the estimation of the sea waves energy which enters into the device. The computation of the diffraction phenomenon is the result of a sea waves scattering problem, solved with an integral equation method.

  15. Ultrafast electron diffraction using an ultracold source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. van Mourik

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of structural dynamics of complex macromolecular crystals using electrons requires bunches of sufficient coherence and charge. We present diffraction patterns from graphite, obtained with bunches from an ultracold electron source, based on femtosecond near-threshold photoionization of a laser-cooled atomic gas. By varying the photoionization wavelength, we change the effective source temperature from 300 K to 10 K, resulting in a concomitant change in the width of the diffraction peaks, which is consistent with independently measured source parameters. This constitutes a direct measurement of the beam coherence of this ultracold source and confirms its suitability for protein crystal diffraction.

  16. Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomlinson, W.; Zhong, Z.; Johnston, R.E.; Sayers, D.

    1997-09-01

    Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) is a new x-ray radiographic imaging modality using synchrotron x-rays which produces images of thick absorbing objects that are almost completely free of scatter. They show dramatically improved contrast over standard imaging applied to the same phantoms. The contrast is based not only on attenuation but also the refraction and diffraction properties of the sample. The diffraction component and the apparent absorption component (absorption plus extinction contrast) can each be determined independently. This imaging method may improve the image quality for medical applications such as mammography

  17. Accurate Charge Densities from Powder Diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindzus, Niels; Wahlberg, Nanna; Becker, Jacob

    Synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction has in recent years advanced to a level, where it has become realistic to probe extremely subtle electronic features. Compared to single-crystal diffraction, it may be superior for simple, high-symmetry crystals owing to negligible extinction effects and minimal...... peak overlap. Additionally, it offers the opportunity for collecting data on a single scale. For charge densities studies, the critical task is to recover accurate and bias-free structure factors from the diffraction pattern. This is the focal point of the present study, scrutinizing the performance...

  18. Diffraction and diffusion in room acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger; Rasmussen, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    Diffraction and diffusion are two phenomena that are both related to the wave nature of sound. Diffraction due to the finite size of reflecting surfaces and the design of single reflectors and reflector arrays are discussed. Diffusion is the result of scattering of sound reflected from surfaces...... that are not plane but curved or irregular. The importance of diffusion has been demonstrated in concert halls. Methods for the design of diffusing surfaces and the development of new types of diffusers are reviewed. Finally, the importance of diffraction and diffusion in room acoustic computer models is discussed....

  19. Diffraction tomography for plasma refractive index measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, J.; Nazikian, R.; Sharp, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    Measurement of the properties of probing beams of coherent electromagnetic radiation yields essential information about the line of sight integrated plasma refractive index. Presented is a scalar diffraction treatment of forward angle scattering plasma diagnostics based on the diffraction projection theorem first presented by E. Wolf in 1969. New results are obtained for near field scattering from probing Gaussian beams and it is demonstrated that the effects of diffraction need to be addressed for tomographic inversion of near field scattering and interferometry data. 33 refs., 10 figs

  20. Sub-100 nm hard X-ray microbeam generation with Fresnel zone plate optics

    CERN Document Server

    Takano, H; Takeuchi, A

    2003-01-01

    A hard X-ray focusing test of a Fresnel zone plate has been performed with a synchrotron radiation source at the undulator beamline 20XU of SPring-8. Fresnel zone plate with a radius of 150 mu m, and an outermost zone width of 100 nm was used for the X-ray focusing device. The 248-m-long beamline provides fully coherent illumination for the focusing device. The focused beam evaluated by the knife-edge-scan method and scanning microscope test using test charts. Nearly diffraction- limited focusing with a size of 120 nm was achieved for the first-order diffraction at 10 keV X-ray. Evaluation for the third order diffraction was also performed at 8 keV X-ray, and a focal size of 50 m has been obtained. (author)

  1. A Exclusão e a Inclusão Social e o Turismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Neide Menezes Teixeira Coriolano

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This text analyzes the inclusion and the social exclusion in the development of the Tourism. Shows that in spite of all they be included in the same model of development economical partner, denominated neoliberal. The process it happens in an excluding way. Tourism is one of the newest modalities of the accumulation process, that is producing new geographical configurations and materializing the space in a contradictory way for the action of the State, companies, residents and tourists. To understand that dynamics means to understand the productive relationships of the space and the exercise of power of the State, managerial and hard-working classes in movement and conflict

  2. The microstructure of mechanically alloyed Al-Mg determined by X-ray diffraction peak profile analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubicza, J.; Kassem, M.; Ribarik, G.; Ungar, T

    2004-05-15

    The effect of the nominal Mg content and the milling time on the microstructure and the hardness of mechanically alloyed Al-rich Al-Mg solid solutions is studied. The crystallite size distribution and the dislocation structure are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) peak profile analysis and the hardness is obtained from depth-sensing indentation tests. Magnesium gradually goes into solid solution during ball milling and after 3 h an almost complete solid solution is attained. With increasing milling time, the Mg concentration in solid solution, the dislocation density and the hardness increase, whereas the crystallite size decreases. A similar tendency of these parameters is observed at a particular duration of ball milling with increasing nominal Mg content. After 3 h milling there are no changes in both the microstructure and the hardness.

  3. Hard photons a probe of the heavy ion collision dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutz, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy-ion collisions have proven to be a unique tool to study the nucleus in extreme states, with values of energy, spin and isospin far away from those encountered in the nucleus in its ground state. Heavy-ion collisions provide also the only mean to form and study in the laboratory nuclear matter under conditions of density and temperature which could otherwise only be found in stellar objects like neutron stars and super-novae. the goal of such studies is to establish the equation of state of nuclear matter and the method consist in searching the collective behaviour in which heavy-ion collisions differ from a superposition of many nucleon-nucleon collisions. Among the various probes of collective effects, like flow, multifragmentation, or subthreshold particles, we have selected hard photons because they provide, together with dileptons, the only unperturbed probe of a phase of the collision well localized in space and time. The origin of hard photons, defined as the photons building up the spectrum beyond the energy of the giant dipole resonance (E γ > 30∼MeV), is attributed predominantly to the bremsstrahlung radiation emitted incoherently in individual neutron-proton collisions. Their energy reflects the combination of the beam momentum and the momenta induced by the Fermi motion of the nucleons within the collision zone. Therefore, at intermediate energies, hard photons probe the dynamical phase space distribution of participant nucleons and they convey information on the densities reached in heavy-ion collisions, the size and life time of the dense photon source and the compressibility of nuclear matter. The techniques we have developed include intensity interferometry and exclusive measurements scanning with high resolution the whole range of impact parameters. The interpretation of our data is guided by dynamical phase space calculations of the BUU type

  4. Improvement of Strength-Toughness-Hardness Balance in Large Cross-Section 718H Pre-Hardened Mold Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanghang; Fu, Paixian; Liu, Hongwei; Li, Dianzhong

    2018-01-01

    The strength-toughness combination and hardness uniformity in large cross-section 718H pre-hardened mold steel from a 20 ton ingot were investigated with three different heat treatments for industrial applications. The different microstructures, including tempered martensite, lower bainite, and retained austenite, were obtained at equivalent hardness. The microstructures were characterized by using metallographic observations, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD). The mechanical properties were compared by tensile, Charpy U-notch impact and hardness uniformity tests at room temperature. The results showed that the test steels after normalizing-quenching-tempering (N-QT) possessed the best strength-toughness combination and hardness uniformity compared with the conventional quenched-tempered (QT) steel. In addition, the test steel after austempering-tempering (A-T) demonstrated the worse hardness uniformity and lower yield strength while possessing relatively higher elongation (17%) compared with the samples after N-QT (14.5%) treatments. The better ductility of A-T steel mainly depended on the amount and morphology of retained austenite and thermal/deformation-induced twined martensite. This work elucidates the mechanisms of microstructure evolution during heat treatments and will highly improve the strength-toughness-hardness trade-off in large cross-section steels. PMID:29642642

  5. Improvement of Strength-Toughness-Hardness Balance in Large Cross-Section 718H Pre-Hardened Mold Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanghang Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The strength-toughness combination and hardness uniformity in large cross-section 718H pre-hardened mold steel from a 20 ton ingot were investigated with three different heat treatments for industrial applications. The different microstructures, including tempered martensite, lower bainite, and retained austenite, were obtained at equivalent hardness. The microstructures were characterized by using metallographic observations, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD. The mechanical properties were compared by tensile, Charpy U-notch impact and hardness uniformity tests at room temperature. The results showed that the test steels after normalizing-quenching-tempering (N-QT possessed the best strength-toughness combination and hardness uniformity compared with the conventional quenched-tempered (QT steel. In addition, the test steel after austempering-tempering (A-T demonstrated the worse hardness uniformity and lower yield strength while possessing relatively higher elongation (17% compared with the samples after N-QT (14.5% treatments. The better ductility of A-T steel mainly depended on the amount and morphology of retained austenite and thermal/deformation-induced twined martensite. This work elucidates the mechanisms of microstructure evolution during heat treatments and will highly improve the strength-toughness-hardness trade-off in large cross-section steels.

  6. Dijet production in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering in next-to-next-to-leading order QCD arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Britzger, D.; Gehrmann, T.; Huss, A.; Niehues, J.; Žlebčík, R.

    Hard processes in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering can be described by a factorisation into parton-level subprocesses and diffractive parton distributions. In this framework, cross sections for inclusive dijet production in diffractive deep-inelastic electron-proton scattering (DIS) are computed to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) QCD accuracy and compared to a comprehensive selection of data. Predictions for the total cross sections, 39 single-differential and four double-differential distributions for six measurements at HERA by the H1 and ZEUS collaborations are calculated. In the studied kinematical range, the NNLO corrections are found to be sizeable and positive. The NNLO predictions typically exceed the data, while the kinematical shape of the data is described better at NNLO than at next-to-leading order (NLO). A significant reduction of the scale uncertainty is achieved in comparison to NLO predictions. Our results use the currently available NLO diffractive parton distributions, and the dis...

  7. Exclusive and restricted inclusive reactions involving the 11Be one-neutron halo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anne, R.; Emling, H.; Hansen, P.G.; Hornshoj, P.; Bimbot, R.; Dogny, S.

    1993-01-01

    Reactions of a 41 MeV/u beam of the radioactive halo nucleus 11 Be have been studied with a counter telescope coupled to an array of neutron detectors. The technique allows to determine single-neutron inclusive and exclusive angular distributions. The targets (Be, Ti and Au) were chosen to illustrate the relative roles played by nuclear and Coulomb mechanisms. It is shown that for the dissociation process it is possible to account almost quantitatively for the integral, single- and double-differential cross-sections from models without free parameters including the Coulomb, Serber and Glauber (diffraction dissociation) mechanisms. (K.A.). 56 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  8. 30 CFR 75.1720-1 - Distinctively colored hard hats, or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distinctively colored hard hats, or hard caps... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1720-1 Distinctively colored hard hats, or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced miners. Hard hats or hard caps distinctively different in color...

  9. 30 CFR 77.1710-1 - Distinctively colored hard hats or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distinctively colored hard hats or hard caps... Distinctively colored hard hats or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced miners. Hard hats or hard caps distinctively different in color from those worn by experienced miners shall be worn at...

  10. Hard disks with SCSI interface

    CERN Document Server

    Denisov, O Yu

    1999-01-01

    The testing of 20 models of hard SCSI-disks is carried out: the Fujitsu MAE3091LP; the IBM DDRS-39130, DGHS-318220, DNES-318350, DRHS-36V and DRVS-18V; the Quantum Atlas VI 18.2; the Viking 11 9.1; the Seagate ST118202LW, ST118273LW, ST118273W, ST318203LW, ST318275LW, ST34520W, ST39140LW and ST39173W; and the Western Digital WDE9100-0007, WDE9100-AV0016, WDE9100-AV0030 and WDE9180-0048. All tests ran under the Windows NT 4.0 workstation operating system with Service Pack 4, under video mode with 1024*768 pixel resolution, 32- bit colour depth and V-frequency equal to 85 Hz. The detailed description and characteristics of SCSI stores are presented. Test results (ZD Winstone 99 and ZD WinBench 99 tests) are given in both table and diagram (disk transfer rate) forms. (0 refs).

  11. Development of a hard microcontroller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measel, P.R.; Sivo, L.L.; Quilitz, W.E.; Davidson, T.K.

    1976-01-01

    The applicability of commercially available microprocessors to certain systems requiring radiation survival was assessed. A microcontroller was designed and built to perform a monitor and control function of military operational ground equipment, and demonstrated to exceed the radiation hardness goal. The preparation of the microcontroller module required hardware and software design, selection of LSI and other piece part types, development of piece part and module electrical and radiation test techniques, and the performance of radiation tests on the LSI piece parts and the completed module. The microcontroller has a 16-bit central processor unit, a 4096 word read only memory, and a 256 word read-write memory. The module has circumvention circuitry, including a PIN diode radiation detector. The processor device used was the MMI 6701 T 2 L Schottky bipolar 4-bit slice. Electrical exerciser circuits were developed for in-situ electrical testing of microprocessors and memories during irradiation. A test program was developed for a Terradyne J283 microcircuit tester for more complete electrical characterization of the MMI 6701 microprocessor. A simple self-test algorithm was used in the microcontroller for performance testing during irradiation. For the operational demonstration of the microcontroller a TI 960A minicomputer was used to provide the required complex inputs to the module and verify the module outputs

  12. Hardness and electrochemical behavior of ceramic coatings on Inconel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. SUJAYA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of ceramic materials like alumina and silicon carbide are deposited on Inconel substrate by pulsed laser deposition technique using Q-switched Nd: YAG laser. Deposited films are characterized using UV-visible spectrophotometry and X-ray diffraction. Composite microhardness of ceramic coated Inconel system is measured using Knoop indenter and its film hardness is separated using a mathematical model based on area-law of mixture. It is then compared with values obtained using nanoindentation method. Film hardness of the ceramic coating is found to be high compared to the substrates. Corrosion behavior of substrates after ceramic coating is studied in 3.5% NaCl solution by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The Nyquist and the Bode plots obtained from the EIS data are fitted by appropriate equivalent circuits. The pore resistance, the charge transfer resistance, the coating capacitance and the double layer capacitance of the coatings are obtained from the equivalent circuit. Experimental results show an increase in corrosion resistance of Inconel after ceramic coating. Alumina coated Inconel showed higher corrosion resistance than silicon carbide coated Inconel. After the corrosion testing, the surface topography of the uncoated and the coated systems are examined by scanning electron microscopy.

  13. Soft and hard pomerons: Is there a distinction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1991-07-01

    One of the big unsolved problems of QCD remains the problem of the Pomeron: what is the relation of high energy elastic and diffractive phenomena to the underlying theory? This is not a subject in which I have actively worked. But my interest in it has in this year increased greatly. The reason has to do with ideas for experimentation at SSC/LHC which either directly address the problem or which require the understanding of strong-interaction diffractive phenomena as backgrounds for discovery-physics processes involving electroweak boson exchanges. I will in this talk omit these motivations, which can be found elsewhere, and instead concentrate on some personal veiwpoints regarding the Pomeron which may or may not be conventional. The main question has to do with the distinction between the original, old-fashioned ''soft'' Pomeron of the 1960s, built out of multiperipheral hadron-exchanges, and the more modern perturbative-QCD ''hard'' Pomeron, built out of multiperipheral gluon exchanges. The perspective I offer comes mainly from two sources: one is heavy-flavor physics, and the other is the Manohar-Georgi view of constituent quark physics. 27 refs., 5 figs

  14. Neutron Larmor diffraction measurements for materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repper, J.; Keller, T.; Hofmann, M.; Krempaszky, C.; Petry, W.; Werner, E.

    2010-01-01

    Neutron Larmor diffraction (LD) is a high-resolution diffraction technique based on the Larmor precession of polarized neutrons. In contrast to conventional diffraction, LD does not depend on the accurate measurement of Bragg angles, and thus the resolution is independent of the beam collimation and monochromaticity. At present, a relative resolution for the determination of the crystal lattice spacing d of Δd/d∼10 -6 is achieved, i.e. at least one order of magnitude superior to conventional neutron or X-ray techniques. This work is a first step to explore the application of LD to high-resolution problems in the analysis of residual stresses, where both the accurate measurement of absolute d values and the possibility of measuring type II and III stresses may provide additional information beyond those accessible by conventional diffraction techniques. Data obtained from Inconel 718 samples are presented.

  15. ALADIN - Advanced Laue Diffraction Instruments using Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemee-Cailleau, M.H.; Ouladdiaf, B.; McIntyre, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Laue diffraction techniques have proven to be very attractive to a broad user community interested in obtaining detailed structural information on very small single-crystal samples or needing data collection speeds comparable to those available with the powder diffraction technique. However our experience has clearly demonstrated the negative effect of up-stream monochromatic instruments on the quality of Laue data. In order to obtain Laue diffraction data with a statistical accuracy similar to that achieved on a monochromatic instrument (neutron or X-rays), the project ALADIN (for Advanced Laue Diffraction Instruments using Neutrons) aims to: -) construct a Laue-dedicated thermal neutron guide, with m=2 super-mirror coating, providing access to the desirable wavelength bandwidth; -) installation of one of the ILL Laue diffractometers (VIVALDI or CYCLOPS) on this new guide. (authors)

  16. Diffraction analysis of the microstructure of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Scardi, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    Diffraction Analysis of the Microstructure of Materials provides an overview of diffraction methods applied to the analysis of the microstructure of materials. Since crystallite size and the presence of lattice defects have a decisive influence on the properties of many engineering materials, information about this microstructure is of vital importance in developing and assessing materials for practical applications. The most powerful and usually non-destructive evaluation techniques available are X-ray and neutron diffraction. The book details, among other things, diffraction-line broadening methods for determining crystallite size and atomic-scale strain due, e.g. to dislocations, and methods for the analysis of residual (macroscale) stress. The book assumes only a basic knowledge of solid-state physics and supplies readers sufficient information to apply the methods themselves.

  17. Nonlinearity management and diffraction management for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Variational equations and partial differential equation have been simulated numerically. Analytical and numerical studies have shown that nonlinearity management and diffraction management stabilize the pulse against decay or collapse providing undisturbed propagation even for larger energies of the incident beam.

  18. Diffractive optics: design, fabrication, and test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Shea, Donald C

    2004-01-01

    This book provides the reader with the broad range of materials that were discussed in a series of short courses presented at Georgia Tech on the design, fabrication, and testing of diffractive optical elements (DOEs...

  19. Neutron Larmor diffraction measurements for materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repper, J., E-mail: julia_repper@web.de [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), TU Muenchen, 85747 Garching (Germany); Keller, T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)] [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), TU Muenchen, 85747 Garching (Germany); Hofmann, M. [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), TU Muenchen, 85747 Garching (Germany); Krempaszky, C. [Christian-Doppler-Labor fuer Werkstoffmechanik von Hochleistungslegierungen, TU Muenchen, 85747 Garching (Germany); Petry, W. [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), TU Muenchen, 85747 Garching (Germany); Werner, E. [Lehrstuhl fuer Werkstoffkunde und Werkstoffmechanik, TU Muenchen, 85747 Garching (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Neutron Larmor diffraction (LD) is a high-resolution diffraction technique based on the Larmor precession of polarized neutrons. In contrast to conventional diffraction, LD does not depend on the accurate measurement of Bragg angles, and thus the resolution is independent of the beam collimation and monochromaticity. At present, a relative resolution for the determination of the crystal lattice spacing d of {Delta}d/d{approx}10{sup -6} is achieved, i.e. at least one order of magnitude superior to conventional neutron or X-ray techniques. This work is a first step to explore the application of LD to high-resolution problems in the analysis of residual stresses, where both the accurate measurement of absolute d values and the possibility of measuring type II and III stresses may provide additional information beyond those accessible by conventional diffraction techniques. Data obtained from Inconel 718 samples are presented.

  20. Diffraction analysis of customized illumination technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chang-Moon; Kim, Seo-Min; Eom, Tae-Seung; Moon, Seung Chan; Shin, Ki S.

    2004-05-01

    Various enhancement techniques such as alternating PSM, chrome-less phase lithography, double exposure, etc. have been considered as driving forces to lead the production k1 factor towards below 0.35. Among them, a layer specific optimization of illumination mode, so-called customized illumination technique receives deep attentions from lithographers recently. A new approach for illumination customization based on diffraction spectrum analysis is suggested in this paper. Illumination pupil is divided into various diffraction domains by comparing the similarity of the confined diffraction spectrum. Singular imaging property of individual diffraction domain makes it easier to build and understand the customized illumination shape. By comparing the goodness of image in each domain, it was possible to achieve the customized shape of illumination. With the help from this technique, it was found that the layout change would not gives the change in the shape of customized illumination mode.

  1. Diffraction by m-bonacci gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsoriu, Juan A; Giménez, Marcos H; Furlan, Walter D; Barreiro, Juan C; Saavedra, Genaro

    2015-01-01

    We present a simple diffraction experiment with m-bonacci gratings as a new interesting generalization of the Fibonacci ones. Diffraction by these non-conventional structures is proposed as a motivational strategy to introduce students to basic research activities. The Fraunhofer diffraction patterns are obtained with the standard equipment present in most undergraduate physics labs and are compared with those obtained with regular periodic gratings. We show that m-bonacci gratings produce discrete Fraunhofer patterns characterized by a set of diffraction peaks which positions are related to the concept of a generalized golden mean. A very good agreement is obtained between experimental and numerical results and the students’ feedback is discussed. (paper)

  2. Diffractive beauty production at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggert, K.; Morsch, A.

    1994-01-01

    Using the framework of Pomeron exchange to describe diffractive pp collisions at the LHC we discuss beauty production in those events. The cross sections for beauty production at different diffractive masses and the topology for the beauty particles and the underlying event are given. When triggering on large diffractive masses, the beauty system is boosted into the Pomeron hemisphere opposite the underlying event, which tends to follow the excited proton direction. This may offer some advantages for the acceptance of beauty and its reconstruction in forward spectrometers. For the identification of diffractive events at the LHC collider, we present a scheme to measure the momentum loss of forward protons in the range 2x10 -3 < Δp/p <0.1. This momentum loss can be determined with a precision of about 10%. ((orig.))

  3. Diffraction enhanced imaging: a simple model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Peiping; Yuan Qingxi; Huang Wanxia; Wang Junyue; Shu Hang; Chen Bo; Liu Yijin; Li Enrong; Wu Ziyu

    2006-01-01

    Based on pinhole imaging and conventional x-ray projection imaging, a more general DEI (diffraction enhanced imaging) equation is derived using simple concepts in this paper. Not only can the new DEI equation explain all the same problems as with the DEI equation proposed by Chapman, but also some problems that cannot be explained with the old DEI equation, such as the noise background caused by small angle scattering diffracted by the analyser

  4. Diffraction enhanced imaging: a simple model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Peiping; Yuan Qingxi; Huang Wanxia; Wang Junyue; Shu Hang; Chen Bo; Liu Yijin; Li Enrong; Wu Ziyu [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2006-10-07

    Based on pinhole imaging and conventional x-ray projection imaging, a more general DEI (diffraction enhanced imaging) equation is derived using simple concepts in this paper. Not only can the new DEI equation explain all the same problems as with the DEI equation proposed by Chapman, but also some problems that cannot be explained with the old DEI equation, such as the noise background caused by small angle scattering diffracted by the analyser.

  5. Tunable Beam Diffraction in Infiltrated Microstructured Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosberg, Christian Romer; Bennet, Francis H.; Neshev, Dragomir N.

    We experimentally study beam propagation in two dimensional photonic lattices in microstructured optical fibers infiltrated with high index liquids. We demonstrate strongly tunable beam diffraction by dynamically varying the coupling between individual lattice sites.......We experimentally study beam propagation in two dimensional photonic lattices in microstructured optical fibers infiltrated with high index liquids. We demonstrate strongly tunable beam diffraction by dynamically varying the coupling between individual lattice sites....

  6. Experimental Investigation of White Layer formation in Hard Turning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbrello, D.; Rotella, G.; Crea, F.

    2011-05-01

    Hard turning with super hard cutting tools, like PCBN or Ceramics inserts, represents an interesting advance in the manufacturing industry, regarding the finishing of hardened steels. This innovative machining technique is considered an attractive alternative to traditional finish grinding operations because of the high flexibility, the ability to achieve higher metal removal rates, the possibility to operate without the use of coolants, and the capability to achieve comparable workpiece quality. However, the surface integrity effects of hard machining need to be taken into account due to their influence on the life of machined components. In particular, the formation of a usually undesirable white layer at the surface needs further investigation. Three different mechanisms have been proposed as main responsible of the white layer genesis: (i) microstructural phase transformation due to a rapid heating and quenching, (ii) severe plastic deformation resulting in a homogenous structure and/or a very fine grain size microstructure; (iii) surface reaction with the environment. In this research, an experimental campaign was carried out and several experimental techniques were used in order to analyzed the machined surface and to understand which of the above mentioned theories is the main cause of the white layer formation when AISI 52100 hardened steel is machined by PCBN inserts. In particular, the topography characterization has obtained by means of optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM) while microstructural phase composition and chemical characterization have been respectively detected using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. The results prove that the white layer is the result of microstructural alteration, i.e. the generation of a martensitic structure.

  7. A Fabry-Perot interferometer for hard X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caticha, A.; Caticha-Ellis, S.

    1990-01-01

    Reflection and transmission coefficients are calculated of a sequence of N thin parallel crystals diffracting close to normal incidence and separated by thin non-diffracting gaps. From the study of the particular case N=2 a new Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) is proposed for hard X-rays (wavelengths of the order of Angstroms). It is found that the FPI plates do not need to be carved from a single perfect crystal block but may be grown or cleaved by other methods. This interesting possibility is suggested by two facts. First, it is known that for incidence close to normal various features of dynamical diffraction are much less sensitive to crystal defects and crystal orientation. Second, the existence of a mismatch between the lattices of the two FPI plates may affect but does not qualitatively alter the performance of the FPI. It is shown that the optimal thickness of the plates is of the order of a few microns or less. The plates may be built from a wide variety of materials. The transmission of X-rays is studied as a function of the energy and direction of the incident photons for various values of the plate thickness, of the gap, of the lattice mismatch, and also for different materials in the gap. The transmission profile exhibits a peak which is spectrally very sharp (about 10 -3 eV for low order reflections and even less for higher ones) and which can be easily tuned by changing either the lattice mismatch or the temperature. FPI plates built of materials with low absorption such as graphite seem to be particularly convenient. Several possible applications are suggested. (author)

  8. Bragg diffraction of fermions at optical potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deh, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the Bragg diffraction of ultracold fermions at an optical potential. A moving optical lattice was created, by overlaying two slightly detuned lasers. Atoms can be diffracted at this lattice if the detuning fulfills the Bragg condition for resting atoms. This Bragg diffraction is analyzed systematically in this thesis. To this end Rabi oscillations between the diffraction states were driven, as well in the weakly interacting Bragg regime, as in the strongly interacting Kapitza-Dirac regime. Simulations, based on a driven two-, respectively multilevel-system describe the observed effects rather well. Furthermore, the temporal evolution of the diffracted states in the magnetic trapping potential was studied. The anharmonicity of the trap in use and the scattering cross section for p-wave collisions in a 6 Li system was determined from the movement of these states. Moreover the momentum distribution of the fermions was measured with Bragg spectroscopy and first signs of Fermi degeneracy were found. Finally an interferometer with fermions was build, exhibiting a coherence time of more than 100 μs. With this, the possibility for measurement and manipulation of ultracold fermions with Bragg diffraction could bee shown. (orig.)

  9. When fast atom diffraction turns 3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zugarramurdi, Asier; Borisov, Andrei G.

    2013-01-01

    Fast atom diffraction at surfaces (FAD) in grazing incidence geometry is characterized by the slow motion in the direction perpendicular to the surface and fast motion parallel to the surface plane along a low index direction. It is established experimentally that for the typical surfaces the FAD reveals the 2D diffraction patterns associated with exchange of the reciprocal lattice vector perpendicular to the direction of fast motion. The reciprocal lattice vector exchange along the direction of fast motion is negligible. The usual approximation made in the description of the experimental data is then to assume that the effective potential leading to the diffraction results from the averaging of the 3D surface potential along the atomic strings forming the axial channel. In this work we use full quantum wave packet propagation calculations to study theoretically the possibility to observe the 3D diffraction in FAD experiments. We show that for the surfaces with large unit cell, such as can be the case for reconstructed or vicinal surfaces, the 3D diffraction can be observed. The reciprocal lattice vector exchange along the direction of fast motion leads to several Laue circles in the diffraction pattern

  10. Report from the neutron diffraction work group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    This progress report of the neutron diffraction group at the Hahn Meitner Institute in Berlin comprises the following contributions: Three-dimensional critical properties of CsNiF 3 around the Neel point; Spin waves in CsNiF 3 with an applied magnetic field; Solitons in CsNiF 3 : Their experimental evidence and their thermodynamics; Neutron diffraction study of DAG at very low temperatures and in external magnetic field; Neutron diffraction investigation of tricritical behaviour in DyPO 4 ; Crystalline modifications and structural phase transitions of NaOH; Gitterdynamik von Cerhydrid; Investigation of the ferroelectric-ferroelastic phase transition in KH 2 PO 4 and RbH 2 PO 4 by means of γ-ray diffractometry; A γ-ray diffractometer for systematic measurements of absolute structure factors; Electron density in pyrite by combined γ-ray and neutron diffraction measurements: Thermal parameters from short wavelength neutron data; Accurate determination of temperature parameters from neutron diffraction data: Direct observation of the thermal diffuse scattering from silicon using perfect crystals; A Compton spectrometer for momentum density studies using 412 keV γ-radiation; Investigation of the electronic structure of Niobiumhydrides by means of gamma-ray Compton scattering; Interpretation of Compton profile data in position space; High resolution neutron scattering measurements on single crystals using a horizontally bent monochromator and a multidetecter; Statistical analysis of neutron diffraction studies of proteins. (orig.) [de

  11. The dynamics of diffracted rays in foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufaile, A., E-mail: tufaile@usp.br; Tufaile, A.P.B.

    2015-12-18

    We have studied some aspects of the optics of the light scattering in foams. This paper describes the difference between rays and diffracted rays from the point of view of geometrical theory of diffraction. We have represented some bifurcations of light rays using dynamical systems. Based on our observations of foams, we created a solid optical device. The interference patterns of light scattering in foams forming Airy fringes were explored observing the pattern named as the eye of Horus. In the cases we examine, these Airy fringes are associated with light scattering in curved surfaces, while the halo formation is related to the law of edge diffraction. We are proposing a Pohl interferometer using a three-sided bubble/Plateau border system. - Highlights: • We obtained halos scattering light in foams. • We model the light scattering in foams using the geometrical theory of diffraction. • We examine the difference between rays and the diffracted rays. • We developed optical devices for diffracted rays.

  12. Complex technique for materials hardness measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krashchenko, V P; Oksametnaya, O B

    1984-01-01

    A review of existing methods of measurement of material hardness in national and foreign practice has been made. A necessity of improving the technique of material hardness measurement in a wide temperature range and insuring load change with indenting, continuity of imprint application, smooth changing of temperatures along a sample length, and deformation rate control has been noted.

  13. ERRATUM: Work smart, wear your hard hat

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An error appeared in the article «Work smart, wear your hard hat» published in Weekly Bulletin 27/2003, page 5. The impact which pierced a hole in the hard hat worn by Gerd Fetchenhauer was the equivalent of a box weighing 5 kg and not 50 kg.

  14. 7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.57 Hard seeds. Seeds which remain hard at the end of the prescribed test because they have not absorbed water, due to an impermeable seed coat... percentage of germination. For flatpea, continue the swollen seed in test for 14 days when germinating at 15...

  15. "Exclusive Dealing Contract and Inefficient Entry Threat"

    OpenAIRE

    Noriyuki Yanagawa; Ryoko Oki

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of exclusive dealing contracts in a simple model with manufacturers-distributors relations. We consider entrants in both manufacturing and distribution sectors. It is well-known that a potential entry threat is welfare increasing under homogenous price competition, even though the potential entrant is less productive. This paper reexamines this intuition by employing the above model. We show that the entry threat of a less-productive manufacturer is welfare dec...

  16. Poverty and Social Exclusion in India : Women

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Maitreyi Bordia; Mehta, Soumya Kapoor

    2012-01-01

    This brief describes the poverty and social exclusion of Women in India. The last few decades have seen remarkable progress in the status of women and girls, yet the cultural roots of gender inequality are still strong and affect a range of outcomes. The high salaries and independent lifestyles of women in urban India have captured public imagination. Yet progress has been very uneven and ...

  17. Exclusive ω meson production at COMPASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Wolf-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exclusive ω meson production is studied by the COMPASS Collaboration using the CERN 160 GeV/c muon beam and a transversely polarised proton target. Single-spin and double-spin asymmetries are measured, some of which are sensitive to the Generalised Parton Distributions E that are related to quark orbital angular momenta. The results, which are sensitive also to the pion-pole contribution to the production mechanism, are compared to the predictions of a phenomenological model.

  18. Exclusive nonleptonic B→VV decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barik, N.; Naimuddin, Sk.; Dash, P. C.; Kar, Susmita

    2009-01-01

    The exclusive two-body nonleptonic B→VV decays are investigated, within the factorization approximation, in the relativistic independent quark model based on a confining potential in the scalar-vector harmonic form. The branching ratios and the longitudinal polarization fraction (R L ) are calculated yielding the model predictions in agreement with experiment. Our predicted CP-odd fraction (R perpendicular ) for B→D*D (s) * decays are in general agreement with other model predictions and within the existing experimental limit.

  19. Exclusive photoproduction of Υ mesons at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.

    2009-03-01

    The exclusive photoproduction reaction γ p → Υ p has been studied with the ZEUS experiment in ep collisions at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 468 pb -1 . The measurement covers the kinematic range 60 2 2 , where W is the photon-proton centre-of-mass energy and Q 2 is the photon virtuality. These results, which represent the analysis of the full ZEUS data sample for this channel, are compared to predictions based on perturbative QCD. (orig.)

  20. Exclusive hadron production in two photon reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppe, M.

    1986-02-01

    This paper summarises experimental results on exclusive hadron production in two photon collisions at electron positron storage rings and attempts some interpretation. Experimental know how is described and new suggestions are made for future analyses. New model calculations on resonance form factors and pair production amplitudes are presented. The two photon vertex is decomposed such that experiments can be parameterised with the minimal number of free parameters. Selection rules for off shell photon collisions are given in addition to Yang's theorems. (orig.)