WorldWideScience

Sample records for hard drive 8x

  1. 2TB hard disk drive

    CERN Multimedia

    This particular object was used up until 2012 in the Data Centre. It slots into one of the Disk Server trays. Hard disks were invented in the 1950s. They started as large disks up to 20 inches in diameter holding just a few megabytes (link is external). They were originally called "fixed disks" or "Winchesters" (a code name used for a popular IBM product). They later became known as "hard disks" to distinguish them from "floppy disks (link is external)." Hard disks have a hard platter that holds the magnetic medium, as opposed to the flexible plastic film found in tapes and floppies.

  2. Visual inspection technology in the hard disc drive industry

    CERN Document Server

    Muneesawang, Paisarn

    2015-01-01

    A presentation of the use of computer vision systems to control manufacturing processes and product quality in the hard disk drive industry. Visual Inspection Technology in the Hard Disk Drive Industry is an application-oriented book borne out of collaborative research with the world's leading hard disk drive companies. It covers the latest developments and important topics in computer vision technology in hard disk drive manufacturing, as well as offering a glimpse of future technologies.

  3. Failure analysis and shock protection of external hard disk drive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technology for processing and storage of data in portable external storage hard disks has increasingly improved over the years. Currently, terabytes of data can be stored in one portable external storage hard disk drive. Storing such amount of data on a single disk on itself is a risk. Several instances of data lost by big ...

  4. failure analysis and shock protection of external hard disk drive

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    model its structural responses to free fall drop-impact shock and vibration. Secondly, the hard ... Keywords: Free fall, impact force, Shock, Vibration, Stress, Reliability, Modeling, Simulation External Hard disk drive. 1. ..... on the disk, it could initiate process which could .... [19] Katta, P.: MATLAB Guide to Finite Elements - An.

  5. Sensorless optimal sinusoidal brushless direct current for hard disk drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, C. S.; Bi, C.

    2009-04-01

    Initiated by the availability of digital signal processors and emergence of new applications, market demands for permanent magnet synchronous motors have been surging. As its back-emf is sinusoidal, the drive current should also be sinusoidal for reducing the torque ripple. However, in applications like hard disk drives, brushless direct current (BLDC) drive is adopted instead of sinusoidal drive for simplification. The adoption, however, comes at the expense of increased harmonics, losses, torque pulsations, and acoustics. In this paper, we propose a sensorless optimal sinusoidal BLDC drive. First and foremost, the derivation for an optimal sinusoidal drive is presented, and a power angle control scheme is proposed to achieve an optimal sinusoidal BLDC. The scheme maintains linear relationship between the motor speed and drive voltage. In an attempt to execute the sensorless drive, an innovative power angle measurement scheme is devised, which takes advantage of the freewheeling diodes and measures the power angle through the detection of diode voltage drops. The objectives as laid out will be presented and discussed in this paper, supported by derivations, simulations, and experimental results. The proposed scheme is straightforward, brings about the benefits of sensorless sinusoidal drive, negates the need for current sensors by utilizing the freewheeling diodes, and does not incur additional cost.

  6. Robust design of head interconnect for hard disk drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X. K.; Liu, Q. H.; Liu, Z. J.

    2005-05-01

    Design of head interconnect is one of the important issues for hard disk drives with higher data rate and storage capacity. The impedance of interconnect and electromagnetic coupling influence the quality level of data communication. Thus an insightful study on how the trace configuration affects the impedance and crosstalk is necessary. An effective design approach based on Taguchi's robust design method is employed therefore in an attempt to realize impedance matching and crosstalk minimization with the effects of uncontrollable sources taken into consideration.

  7. An Evolutionary Algorithm for Feature Subset Selection in Hard Disk Drive Failure Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Harpreet

    2011-01-01

    Hard disk drives are used in everyday life to store critical data. Although they are reliable, failure of a hard disk drive can be catastrophic, especially in applications like medicine, banking, air traffic control systems, missile guidance systems, computer numerical controlled machines, and more. The use of Self-Monitoring, Analysis and…

  8. Use of Software Programs as Zero Fill Help in Overcoming the Problem Around Hard Drive

    OpenAIRE

    Eko Prasetyo Nugroho; Fivtatianti Fivtatianti, Skom, MM

    2003-01-01

    Zero Fill, is a software tool programs that are designed for hard disk drive specially branded Quantum. This software is a tool programs that function to format the hard drive. Where is the type of format here is the first format or in other words the software to format the hard drive is working under conditions of low- level or commonly referred to as a low- level format. The advantages of this software is able to fix and remove all existing data within the disk, such as files...

  9. Disposal of waste computer hard disk drive: data destruction and resources recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guoqing; Xue, Mianqiang; Xu, Zhenming

    2013-06-01

    An increasing quantity of discarded computers is accompanied by a sharp increase in the number of hard disk drives to be eliminated. A waste hard disk drive is a special form of waste electrical and electronic equipment because it holds large amounts of information that is closely connected with its user. Therefore, the treatment of waste hard disk drives is an urgent issue in terms of data security, environmental protection and sustainable development. In the present study the degaussing method was adopted to destroy the residual data on the waste hard disk drives and the housing of the disks was used as an example to explore the coating removal process, which is the most important pretreatment for aluminium alloy recycling. The key operation points of the degaussing determined were: (1) keep the platter plate parallel with the magnetic field direction; and (2) the enlargement of magnetic field intensity B and action time t can lead to a significant upgrade in the degaussing effect. The coating removal experiment indicated that heating the waste hard disk drives housing at a temperature of 400 °C for 24 min was the optimum condition. A novel integrated technique for the treatment of waste hard disk drives is proposed herein. This technique offers the possibility of destroying residual data, recycling the recovered resources and disposing of the disks in an environmentally friendly manner.

  10. Chemoreception drives plastic consumption in a hard coral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Austin S; Seymour, Alexander C; Rittschof, Daniel

    2017-11-15

    The drivers behind microplastic (up to 5mm in diameter) consumption by animals are uncertain and impacts on foundational species are poorly understood. We investigated consumption of weathered, unfouled, biofouled, pre-production and microbe-free National Institute of Standards plastic by a scleractinian coral that relies on chemosensory cues for feeding. Experiment one found that corals ingested many plastic types while mostly ignoring organic-free sand, suggesting that plastic contains phagostimulents. Experiment two found that corals ingested more plastic that wasn't covered in a microbial biofilm than plastics that were biofilmed. Additionally, corals retained ~8% of ingested plastic for 24h or more and retained particles appeared stuck in corals, with consequences for energetics, pollutant toxicity and trophic transfer. The potential for chemoreception to drive plastic consumption in marine taxa has implications for conservation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimization of Smart Structure for Improving Servo Performance of Hard Disk Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiwara, Itsuro; Takahashi, Masafumi; Arisaka, Toshihiro

    Head positioning accuracy of the hard disk drive should be improved to meet today's increasing performance demands. Vibration suppression of the arm in the hard disk drive is very important to enhance the servo bandwidth of the head positioning system. In this study, smart structure technology is introduced into the hard disk drive to suppress the vibration of the head actuator. It has been expected that the smart structure technology will contribute to the development of small and light-weight mechatronics devices with the required performance. First, modeling of the system is conducted with finite element method and modal analysis. Next, the actuator location and the control system are simultaneously optimized using genetic algorithm. Vibration control effect with the proposed vibration control mechanisms has been evaluated by some simulations.

  12. Note: A simple vibrating orifice monodisperse droplet generator using a hard drive actuator arm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosch, Sebastian, E-mail: skosch@mie.utoronto.ca, E-mail: ashgriz@mie.utoronto.ca; Ashgriz, Nasser, E-mail: skosch@mie.utoronto.ca, E-mail: ashgriz@mie.utoronto.ca [Department of Industrial and Mechanical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8 (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    We propose that the rotary voice coil actuators found in magnetic hard drives are fit to supercede loudspeakers as expedient vibration sources in the laboratory setting. A specific use case is the excitation of a liquid jet to induce controlled breakup into monodisperse droplets. Like loudspeakers, which are typically used for prototyping such devices, hard drive actuators are cheap and ubiquitous, but they are less unwieldy and supply greater amplitudes without producing noise. Frequencies between 0 and 17 kHz, and likely beyond, can be reproduced reliably. No machining tools or amplifying electronics are needed for the construction and operation of the presented droplet generator.

  13. 77 FR 8284 - Western Digital Technologies, Inc., Hard Drive Development Engineering Group Irvine (Formerly at...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... business model of the subject firm is to develop new products domestically and carry out the manufacturing... that the new designs are functional. SAR 8, 20, 26. The subject firm stated that prototype creation is... Technologies, Inc., Hard Drive Development Engineering Group Irvine (Formerly at Lake Forest), CA; Notice of...

  14. Analysis of a biphase-based servo format for hard-disk drives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makinwa, K.A.A.; Bergmans, J.W.M.; Voorman, J.O.

    2000-01-01

    Biphase modulation in an embedded-servo format for hard-disk drives is investigated. It is shown that for biphase, at the low linear densities typical of servo information, near-maximum-likelihood performance can be attained by a simple bit detector consisting of a full-response linear equalizer and

  15. On the Dynamics of Rocking Motion of the Hard-Disk Drive Spindle Motor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joseph

    Excessive rocking motion of the spindle motor system can cause track misregistration resulting in poor throughput or even drive failure. The chance of excessive disk stack rocking increases as a result of decreasing torsional stiffness of spindle motor bearing system due to the market demand for low profile hard drives. As the track density increases and the vibration specification becomes increasingly stringent, rocking motion of a spindle motor system deserves even more attention and has become a primary challenge for a spindle motor system designer. Lack of understanding of the rocking phenomenon combined with misleading paradox has presented a great difficulty in the effort of avoiding the rocking motion in the hard-disk drive industry. This paper aims to provide fundamental understanding of the rocking phenomenon of a rotating spindle motor system, to clarify the paradox in disk-drive industry and to provide a design guide to an optimized spindle system. This paper, theoretically and experimentally, covers a few important areas of industrial interest including the prediction of rocking natural frequencies and mode shape of a rotating spindle, free vibration, and frequency response under common forcing functions such as rotating and fixed-plane forcing functions. The theory presented here meets with agreeable experimental observation.

  16. A production throughput forecasting system in an automated hard disk drive test operation using GRNN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samattapapong, N.; Afzulpurkar, N.

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to develop a pragmatic system of a production throughput forecasting system for an automated test operation in a hard drive manufacturing plant. The accurate forecasting result is necessary for the management team to response to any changes in the production processes and the resources allocations. In this study, we design a production throughput forecasting system in an automated test operation in hard drive manufacturing plant. In the proposed system, consists of three main stages. In the first stage, a mutual information method was adopted for selecting the relevant inputs into the forecasting model. In the second stage, a generalized regression neural network (GRNN) was implemented in the forecasting model development phase. Finally, forecasting accuracy was improved by searching the optimal smoothing parameter which selected from comparisons result among three optimization algorithms: particle swarm optimization (PSO), unrestricted search optimization (USO) and interval halving optimization (IHO). The experimental result shows that (1) the developed production throughput forecasting system using GRNN is able to provide forecasted results close to actual values, and to projected the future trends of production throughput in an automated hard disk drive test operation; (2) An IHO algorithm performed as superiority appropriate optimization method than the other two algorithms. (3) Compared with current forecasting system in manufacturing, the results show that the proposed system’s performance is superior to the current system in prediction accuracy and suitable for real-world application. The production throughput volume is a key performance index of hard disk drive manufacturing systems that need to be forecast. Because of the production throughput forecasting result is useful information for management team to respond to any changing in production processes and resources allocation. However, a practically forecasting system for

  17. Low Molecular Weight Z-Tetraol Boundary Lubricant Films in Hard Disk Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Waltman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower molecular weight Z-Tetraol films exhibit increased mechanical spacing in the slider-disk interface due to a lower z-profile. An increased resistance to lubricant disturbance on the disk surface (e.g., lube moguls with decreasing film thickness is attributed to an increasing contribution from the polar component of the disjoining pressure. Evaporative loss at temperatures typically encountered in a hard-disk drive also increases with decreasing molecular weight but is strongly dependent on the initial bonded fraction.

  18. Finite Element Analysis of Flexural Vibrations in Hard Disk Drive Spindle Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIM, SEUNGCHUL

    2000-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the flexural vibration analysis of the hard disk drive (HDD) spindle system by means of the finite element method. In contrast to previous research, every system component is here analytically modelled taking into account its structural flexibility and also the centrifugal effect particularly on the disk. To prove the effectiveness and accuracy of the formulated models, commercial HDD systems with two and three identical disks are selected as examples. Then their major natural modes are computed with only a small number of element meshes as the shaft rotational speed is varied, and subsequently compared with the existing numerical results obtained using other methods and newly acquired experimental ones. Based on such a series of studies, the proposed method can be concluded as a very promising tool for the design of HDDs and various other high-performance computer disk drives such as floppy disk drives, CD ROM drives, and their variations having spindle mechanisms similar to those of HDDs.

  19. Neodymium as the main feature of permanent magnets from hard disk drives (HDDs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    München, Daniel Dotto; Veit, Hugo Marcelo

    2017-03-01

    As a way to manage neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets wasted in end-of-life hard disk drives (HDDs), a waste characterization is needed prior to a recycling process. Due to their magnetic properties, NdFeB magnets are essential in technological applications nowadays, thus causing an increase in the industrial demand for rare earth metals. However, these metals have a short supply, since they are difficult to obtain from ores, creating a critical market. In this work, a study of the characterization of sintered neodymium-iron-boron magnets was undertaken by qualitatively and quantitatively uncovering the neodymium recovery potential from this type of electronic waste. From the collection and disassembly of hard disk drives, in which the magnet represents less than 3% of the total weight, an efficient demagnetization process was proceeded at 320°C. Then, the magnet was ground and screened for an X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, which showed the Nd 2 Fe 14 B tetragonal phase as the dominant constituent of the sample. An analysis was also carried out in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES), where the magnet composition showed 21.5wt% of neodymium and 65.1wt% of iron, among other chemicals. This Nd content is higher than the one found in Nd ores, enhancing the recyclability and the importance of waste management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Recycling potential of neodymium: the case of computer hard disk drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprecher, Benjamin; Kleijn, Rene; Kramer, Gert Jan

    2014-08-19

    Neodymium, one of the more critically scarce rare earth metals, is often used in sustainable technologies. In this study, we investigate the potential contribution of neodymium recycling to reducing scarcity in supply, with a case study on computer hard disk drives (HDDs). We first review the literature on neodymium production and recycling potential. From this review, we find that recycling of computer HDDs is currently the most feasible pathway toward large-scale recycling of neodymium, even though HDDs do not represent the largest application of neodymium. We then use a combination of dynamic modeling and empirical experiments to conclude that within the application of NdFeB magnets for HDDs, the potential for loop-closing is significant: up to 57% in 2017. However, compared to the total NdFeB production capacity, the recovery potential from HDDs is relatively small (in the 1-3% range). The distributed nature of neodymium poses a significant challenge for recycling of neodymium.

  1. Reliability evaluation of hard disk drive failures based on counting processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Zhi-Sheng; Xie, Min; Tang, Loon-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Reliability assessment for hard disk drives (HDDs) is important yet difficult for manufacturers. Motivated by the fact that the particle accumulation in the HDDs, which accounts for most HDD catastrophic failures, is contributed from the internal and external sources, a counting process with two arrival sources is proposed to model the particle cumulative process in HDDs. This model successfully explains the collapse of traditional ALT approaches for accelerated life test data. Parameter estimation and hypothesis tests for the model are developed and illustrated with real data from a HDD test. A simulation study is conducted to examine the accuracy of large sample normal approximations that are used to test existence of the internal and external sources.

  2. Study of flow induce vibration inside 3.5 inch hard disk drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wichitpon Seepangmon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on flow induced vibration of head stack assembly (HSA in a 3.5 inch hard disk drive with 5 disks and 10 read/write heads. We studied the effects of air flow on gimbal flex and resonance on arm. The comparison of vibrations on slider between the normal model and the experiment has been done for verifying the model. The peaks of frequency in experiment match the normal model at 1,040 1,320 and 1,400 Hz respectively. After that, the RNG K-ε turbulence model was used to determine the turbulent air flow of 7,200 rpm hard disk drive. The comparison between the normal model and the model with spoiler was investigated by using, computational fluid dynamics software (ANSYS and FLUENT. The results shown velocity magnitudes at the arm were decreased by 0.725 - 57.689 % and pressure dropped by 74.028 - 87.222 %. The velocity magnitudes at the gimbal flex were decreased by 5.522 - 14.291 % and pressure dropped by 48.440 - 82.947 %. The peak of vibrations on arm and gimbal flex was occurred at the frequency 1200 Hz. The model with spoiler could reduce vibration at arm by 2.56 - 95.601 % and reduce vibration at gimbal flex by 4.065 - 95.503 %. In the conclusion, the model with a spoiler could decrease the vibration at all surface of the arm and gimbal flex due to the velocity and pressure reduction[1][4].

  3. Economic Assessment for Recycling Critical Metals From Hard Disk Drives Using a Comprehensive Recovery Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ruby Thuy; Diaz, Luis A.; Imholte, D. Devin; Lister, Tedd E.

    2017-09-01

    Since the 2011 price spike of rare earth elements (REEs), research on permanent magnet recycling has blossomed globally in an attempt to reduce future REE criticality. Hard disk drives (HDDs) have emerged as one feasible feedstock for recovering valuable REEs such as praseodymium, neodymium, and dysprosium. Nevertheless, current processes for recycling electronic waste only focus on certain metals as a result of feedstock and metal price uncertainties. In addition, there is a perception that recycling REEs is unprofitable. To shed some light on the economic viability of REE recycling from U.S. HDDs, this article combines techno-economic information of an electro-hydrometallurgical process with end-of-life HDD availability in a simulation model. The results showed that adding REE recovery to an HDD base and precious metal recovery process was profitable given current prices. Recovered REEs from U.S. HDDs could meet up to 5.2% rest-of-world (excluding China) neodymium magnet demand. Feedstock, aluminum, and gold prices are key factors to recycling profitability. REEs contributed 13% to the co-recycling profit.

  4. Active-passive hybrid piezoelectric actuators for high-precision hard disk drive servo systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwong Wah; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2006-03-01

    Positioning precision is crucial to today's increasingly high-speed, high-capacity, high data density, and miniaturized hard disk drives (HDDs). The demand for higher bandwidth servo systems that can quickly and precisely position the read/write head on a high track density becomes more pressing. Recently, the idea of applying dual-stage actuators to track servo systems has been studied. The push-pull piezoelectric actuated devices have been developed as micro actuators for fine and fast positioning, while the voice coil motor functions as a large but coarse seeking. However, the current dual-stage actuator design uses piezoelectric patches only without passive damping. In this paper, we propose a dual-stage servo system using enhanced active-passive hybrid piezoelectric actuators. The proposed actuators will improve the existing dual-stage actuators for higher precision and shock resistance, due to the incorporation of passive damping in the design. We aim to develop this hybrid servo system not only to increase speed of track seeking but also to improve precision of track following servos in HDDs. New piezoelectrically actuated suspensions with passive damping have been designed and fabricated. In order to evaluate positioning and track following performances for the dual-stage track servo systems, experimental efforts are carried out to implement the synthesized active-passive suspension structure with enhanced piezoelectric actuators using a composite nonlinear feedback controller.

  5. ServiceDesk Plus 8.x essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Ankush

    2013-01-01

    This is a practical, hands-on guide that assists you in setting up and efficiently managing ITSM.ServiceDesk Plus 8.x Essentials is for IT helpdesk managers, administrators, and staff, serving as a compendium for service management concepts useful for them.

  6. What drives the efficiency of hard coal fuelled electricity generation? : an empirical assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Tim; Voigt, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of electricity generation in hard coal fired power plants varies considerably from country to country and over time. These differences occur both between developing and developed countries and between industrialised nations. The econometric analysis presented in this paper tests for the reasons of these discrepancies. In this examination abundance of hard coal and the price of hard coal are the two variables of our major interest. We assume that countries with an abundance of h...

  7. Cleaner Technology in the Hard Disk Drive Manufacturing Industry: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolla, Premchai; Chompu-inwai, Rungchat

    2010-10-01

    The objectives of this research are to improve raw material and energy consumption efficiency, as well as reduce defects and the use of chemicals in the arm coil assembly process of hard disk drive manufacturing in the case study company by applying the Cleaner Technology concepts. The four main sequential steps used in this research were: (1) pre-assessment, (2) assessment, (3) feasibility study, and (4) implementation. In the first step, raw data, such as process flows, raw material usage and defects data were collected. In the second step, the loss during production and causes of loss were analyzed. Opportunities to reduce raw material, chemical and energy wastage could then be recommended. The next step was to evaluate the feasibility and potential benefits of a particular Cleaner Technology opportunity. Finally, in the last step, after a thorough evaluation and implementation of the opportunities to apply Cleaner Technology, the results showed that arm coil defects could be reduced by improving the production process using the ECRS technique. ECRS stands for Eliminate, Combine, Rearrange and Simplify. This improvement reduced arm coil defect rates from 0.48% to 0.15%, thus saving approximately 139,638 Thai Baht per month. In addition, production stoppage decision made by workers was used to increase employee involvement in defect detection. Allowing workers to participate in such a decision was an effective way to reduce defect rate and could motivate workers to produce a better quality job. This resulted in arm coil defects reducing from 0.41% to 0.025%, with about 74,562 Thai Baht per month saving. Additionally, an increase in the efficiency of electricity consumption occurred, by increasing the speed of the infrared oven conveyor belt, improving average productivity from 533 pieces/hour to 560 pieces/hour, without adversely affecting product costs and quality, thus producing products of up to the value of 206,242 Thai Baht per month. Furthermore, the new

  8. Deep machine learning based Image classification in hard disk drive manufacturing (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Narender; Chien, Chester

    2018-03-01

    A key sensor element in a Hard Disk Drive (HDD) is the read-write head device. The device is complex 3D shape and its fabrication requires over thousand process steps with many of them being various types of image inspection and critical dimension (CD) metrology steps. In order to have high yield of devices across a wafer, very tight inspection and metrology specifications are implemented. Many images are collected on a wafer and inspected for various types of defects and in CD metrology the quality of image impacts the CD measurements. Metrology noise need to be minimized in CD metrology to get better estimate of the process related variations for implementing robust process controls. Though there are specialized tools available for defect inspection and review allowing classification and statistics. However, due to unavailability of such advanced tools or other reasons, many times images need to be manually inspected. SEM Image inspection and CD-SEM metrology tools are different tools differing in software as well. SEM Image inspection and CD-SEM metrology tools are separate tools differing in software and purpose. There have been cases where a significant numbers of CD-SEM images are blurred or have some artefact and there is a need for image inspection along with the CD measurement. Tool may not report a practical metric highlighting the quality of image. Not filtering CD from these blurred images will add metrology noise to the CD measurement. An image classifier can be helpful here for filtering such data. This paper presents the use of artificial intelligence in classifying the SEM images. Deep machine learning is used to train a neural network which is then used to classify the new images as blurred and not blurred. Figure 1 shows the image blur artefact and contingency table of classification results from the trained deep neural network. Prediction accuracy of 94.9 % was achieved in the first model. Paper covers other such applications of the deep neural

  9. Hard X-ray intensity reduction during lower hybrid current drive experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlynar, J.; Stoeckel, J.; Magula, P.

    1993-01-01

    A strong hard X-ray intensity reduction during a standard LHCD at the CASTOR tokamak was studied. From discussion it followed that the magnetic fluctuations level decrease is likely to be responsible for this effect beside the loop voltage decrease. To verify this idea, the connection between the magnetic fluctuation level and the hard X-ray intensity was studied in a nonstandard LHCD regime with a zero loop voltage reduction. These measurements strongly supported the concept that magnetic fluctuations level substantially influences the runaway electrons cross-field transport. Though, more data and a good code for modelling the anomalous transport and hard X-rays production would be of high value. Similar measurements especially for higher RF power should be carried out soon. Besides, the reduction of hard X-rays was observed in the experiments with edge plasma polarization lately; therefore, the magnetic fluctuations level in these experiments should be studied soon. (author) 6 figs., 6 refs

  10. Simultaneous measurements of disk vibration and pressure fluctuation in turbulent flow developing in a model hard disk drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurashima, D.; Naka, Y.; Fukagata, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Obi, S., E-mail: obsn@mech.keio.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    The complex flow features inside hard disk drive models are investigated in an axisymmetric and a semi-open shroud configurations. For the axisymmetric case, we have employed both experimental and computational approaches. The experiment focuses on both flow dynamics and the disk vibration, where measurements of the fluctuating pressure and velocity are undertaken at some representative points. The correlation between the disk vibration and the fluctuating pressure in the turbulent flow between disks is evident from the spectral analysis. The experimentally observed fluctuating pressure and velocity are partly due to the disk vibration and its contribution could be estimated by comparing the experiment with the results of a large eddy simulation. For the semi-open shroud case, although the characteristic peaks attributable to the large-scale vortical structure are still observed in the power spectra, the pressure fluctuation and the disk vibration are suppressed when the arm is inserted.

  11. Impact of radius and skew angle on areal density in heat assisted magnetic recording hard disk drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordle, Michael; Rea, Chris; Jury, Jason; Rausch, Tim; Hardie, Cal; Gage, Edward; Victora, R. H.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to investigate the impact that factors such as skew, radius, and transition curvature have on areal density capability in heat-assisted magnetic recording hard disk drives. We explore a "ballistic seek" approach for capturing in-situ scan line images of the magnetization footprint on the recording media, and extract parametric results of recording characteristics such as transition curvature. We take full advantage of the significantly improved cycle time to apply a statistical treatment to relatively large samples of experimental curvature data to evaluate measurement capability. Quantitative analysis of factors that impact transition curvature reveals an asymmetry in the curvature profile that is strongly correlated to skew angle. Another less obvious skew-related effect is an overall decrease in curvature as skew angle increases. Using conventional perpendicular magnetic recording as the reference case, we characterize areal density capability as a function of recording position.

  12. Design and Analysis of Shock and Random Vibration Isolation of Operating Hard Disk Drive in Harsh Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendri Harmoko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An effective vibration isolation system is important for hard disk drives (HDD used in a harsh mechanical environment. This paper describes how to design, simulate, test and evaluate vibration isolation systems for operating HDD subjected to severe shock and random vibrations based on military specifications MIL-STD-810E. The well-defined evaluation criteria proposed in this paper can be used to effectively assess the performance of HDD vibration isolation system. Design concepts on how to achieve satisfactory shock and vibration isolation for HDD are described. The concepts are tested and further enhanced by the two design case studies presented here. It is shown that an effective vibration isolation system, that will allow a HDD to operate well when subjected to severe shock and random vibration, is feasible.

  13. The successful of finite element to invent particle cleaning system by air jet in hard disk drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jai-Ngam, Nualpun; Tangchaichit, Kaitfa

    2018-02-01

    Hard Disk Drive manufacturing has faced very challenging with the increasing demand of high capacity drives for Cloud-based storage. Particle adhesion has also become increasingly important in HDD to gain more reliability of storage capacity. The ability to clean on surfaces is more complicated in removing such particles without damaging the surface. This research is aim to improve the particle cleaning in HSA by using finite element to develop the air flow model then invent the prototype of air cleaning system to remove particle from surface. Surface cleaning by air pressure can be applied as alternative for the removal of solid particulate contaminants that is adhering on a solid surface. These technical and economic challenges have driven the process development from traditional way that chemical solvent cleaning. The focus of this study is to develop alternative way from scrub, ultrasonic, mega sonic on surface cleaning principles to serve as a foundation for the development of new processes to meet current state-of-the-art process requirements and minimize the waste from chemical cleaning for environment safety.

  14. Radial profiles of hard X-ray emission during steady state current drive in the TRIAM-1M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Takabatake, Y.; Jotaki, E.; Moriyama, S.; Nagao, A.; Nakamura, K.; Hiraki, N.; Itoh, S.

    1990-01-01

    The hard X-ray emission from the TRIAM-1M tokamak plasma during steady state lower hybrid current drive with a discharge duration of a few minutes was measured with sodium iodide scintillation spectrometers. The radial profiles of the X-ray emission were also measured and indicate that, in the low density regime (n e =(1-3)x10 12 cm -3 ), the current carrying high energy electrons are mainly in the inner region of the plasma column and their radial profile remains unchanged during current drive. On the other hand, high density discharges (n e =(3-6)x10 12 cm -3 ) are always accompanied by an abrupt drop of the plasma current, and the X-ray emission profile changes from peaked to broad. This change can be attributed to the conditions of wave accessibility. As the electron density increases, the accessibility of the plasma to lower hybrid waves with low values of the parallel wave number n parallel is significantly reduced and high energy electrons resonating with the waves are produced at the plasma periphery. Interaction of these electrons with the limiters causes an increase of the electron density in this region; waves with low n parallel then become completely excluded from the inner part of the plasma column. This interpretation is supported by measurements of the density profile and impurity radiation, and has been confirmed in an investigation of discharges with additional gas puffing. (author). 17 refs, 21 figs

  15. A simple method to prevent hard X-ray-induced preheating effects inside the cone tip in indirect-drive fast ignition implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Dongxiao; Shan, Lianqiang; Zhou, Weimin; Wu, Yuchi; Zhu, Bin; Zhang, Feng; Bi, Bi; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Zhimeng; Shui, Min; He, Yingling; Gu, Yuqiu; Zhang, Baohan; Peng, Xiaoshi; Xu, Tao; Wang, Feng; Yang, Zhiwen; Chen, Tao; Chen, Li; Chen, Ming

    2016-01-01

    During fast-ignition implosions, preheating of inside the cone tip caused by hard X-rays can strongly affect the generation and transport of hot electrons in the cone. Although indirect-drive implosions have a higher implosion symmetry, they cause stronger preheating effects than direct-drive implosions. To control the preheating of the cone tip, we propose the use of indirect-drive fast-ignition targets with thicker tips. Experiments carried out at the ShenGuang-III prototype laser facility confirmed that thicker tips are effective for controlling preheating. Moreover, these results were consistent with those of 1D radiation hydrodynamic simulations.

  16. A simple method to prevent hard X-ray-induced preheating effects inside the cone tip in indirect-drive fast ignition implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dongxiao; Shan, Lianqiang; Zhou, Weimin; Wu, Yuchi; Zhu, Bin; Zhang, Feng; Bi, Bi; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Zhimeng; Shui, Min; He, Yingling; Gu, Yuqiu, E-mail: yqgu@caep.cn; Zhang, Baohan [Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Peng, Xiaoshi; Xu, Tao; Wang, Feng; Yang, Zhiwen; Chen, Tao; Chen, Li; Chen, Ming [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); and others

    2016-06-15

    During fast-ignition implosions, preheating of inside the cone tip caused by hard X-rays can strongly affect the generation and transport of hot electrons in the cone. Although indirect-drive implosions have a higher implosion symmetry, they cause stronger preheating effects than direct-drive implosions. To control the preheating of the cone tip, we propose the use of indirect-drive fast-ignition targets with thicker tips. Experiments carried out at the ShenGuang-III prototype laser facility confirmed that thicker tips are effective for controlling preheating. Moreover, these results were consistent with those of 1D radiation hydrodynamic simulations.

  17. A three-dimensional model for lubricant depletion under sliding condition on bit patterned media of hard disk drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we model the depletion dynamics of the molecularly thin layer of lubricants on a bit patterned media disk of hard disk drives under a sliding air bearing head. The dominant physics and consequently, the lubricant depletion dynamics on a patterned disk are shown to be significantly different from the well-studied cases of a smooth disk. Our results indicate that the surface tension effect, which is negligible on a flat disk, apparently suppresses depletion by enforcing a bottleneck effect around the disk pattern peak regions to thwart the migration of lubricants. When the disjoining pressure is relatively small, it assists the depletion. But, when the disjoining pressure becomes dominant, the disjoining pressure resists depletion. Disk pattern orientation plays a critical role in the depletion process. The effect of disk pattern orientation on depletion originates from its complex interaction with other intermingled factors of external air shearing stress distribution and lubricant particle trajectory. Patterning a disk surface with nanostructures of high density, large height/pitch ratio, and particular orientation is demonstrated to be one efficient way to alleviate the formation of lubricant depletion tracks.

  18. Runaway electron studies with hard x-ray and microwave diagnostics in the FT-2 lower hybrid current drive discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevelev, A. E.; Khilkevitch, E. M.; Lashkul, S. I.; Rozhdestvensky, V. V.; Pandya, S. P.; Plyusnin, V. V.; Altukhov, A. B.; Kouprienko, D. V.; Chugunov, I. N.; Doinikov, D. N.; Esipov, L. A.; Gin, D. B.; Iliasova, M. V.; Naidenov, V. O.; Polunovsky, I. A.; Sidorov, A. V.; Kiptily, V. G.

    2018-01-01

    Studies of the super-thermal and runaway electron behavior in ohmic and lower hybrid current drive FT-2 tokamak plasmas have been carried out using information obtained from measurements of hard x-ray spectra and non-thermal microwave radiation intensity at the frequency of 10 GHz and in the range of (53 ÷ 78) GHz. A gamma-ray spectrometer based on a scintillation detector with a LaBr3(Ce) crystal was used, which provides measurements at counting rates up to 107 s-1. Reconstruction of the energy distribution of RE interacting with the poloidal limiter of the tokamak chamber was made with application of the DeGaSum code. Super-thermal electrons accelerated up to 2 MeV by the LH waves at the high-frequency pumping of the plasma with low density ≤ft ~ 2  ×  1013 cm-3 and then up to 7 MeV by vortex electric field have been found. Experimental analysis of the runaway electron beam generation and evolution of their energy distribution in the FT-2 plasmas is presented in the article and compared with the numerical calculation of the maximum energy gained by runaway electrons for given plasma parameters. In addition, possible mechanisms for limiting the maximum energy gained by the runaway electrons are also calculated and described for a FT-2 plasma discharge.

  19. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.

  20. A comparative approach for the investigation of biological information processing: An examination of the structure and function of computer hard drives and DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The robust storage, updating and utilization of information are necessary for the maintenance and perpetuation of dynamic systems. These systems can exist as constructs of metal-oxide semiconductors and silicon, as in a digital computer, or in the "wetware" of organic compounds, proteins and nucleic acids that make up biological organisms. We propose that there are essential functional properties of centralized information-processing systems; for digital computers these properties reside in the computer's hard drive, and for eukaryotic cells they are manifest in the DNA and associated structures. Methods Presented herein is a descriptive framework that compares DNA and its associated proteins and sub-nuclear structure with the structure and function of the computer hard drive. We identify four essential properties of information for a centralized storage and processing system: (1) orthogonal uniqueness, (2) low level formatting, (3) high level formatting and (4) translation of stored to usable form. The corresponding aspects of the DNA complex and a computer hard drive are categorized using this classification. This is intended to demonstrate a functional equivalence between the components of the two systems, and thus the systems themselves. Results Both the DNA complex and the computer hard drive contain components that fulfill the essential properties of a centralized information storage and processing system. The functional equivalence of these components provides insight into both the design process of engineered systems and the evolved solutions addressing similar system requirements. However, there are points where the comparison breaks down, particularly when there are externally imposed information-organizing structures on the computer hard drive. A specific example of this is the imposition of the File Allocation Table (FAT) during high level formatting of the computer hard drive and the subsequent loading of an operating system (OS). Biological

  1. A comparative approach for the investigation of biological information processing: an examination of the structure and function of computer hard drives and DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, David J; An, Gary

    2010-01-21

    The robust storage, updating and utilization of information are necessary for the maintenance and perpetuation of dynamic systems. These systems can exist as constructs of metal-oxide semiconductors and silicon, as in a digital computer, or in the "wetware" of organic compounds, proteins and nucleic acids that make up biological organisms. We propose that there are essential functional properties of centralized information-processing systems; for digital computers these properties reside in the computer's hard drive, and for eukaryotic cells they are manifest in the DNA and associated structures. Presented herein is a descriptive framework that compares DNA and its associated proteins and sub-nuclear structure with the structure and function of the computer hard drive. We identify four essential properties of information for a centralized storage and processing system: (1) orthogonal uniqueness, (2) low level formatting, (3) high level formatting and (4) translation of stored to usable form. The corresponding aspects of the DNA complex and a computer hard drive are categorized using this classification. This is intended to demonstrate a functional equivalence between the components of the two systems, and thus the systems themselves. Both the DNA complex and the computer hard drive contain components that fulfill the essential properties of a centralized information storage and processing system. The functional equivalence of these components provides insight into both the design process of engineered systems and the evolved solutions addressing similar system requirements. However, there are points where the comparison breaks down, particularly when there are externally imposed information-organizing structures on the computer hard drive. A specific example of this is the imposition of the File Allocation Table (FAT) during high level formatting of the computer hard drive and the subsequent loading of an operating system (OS). Biological systems do not have an

  2. A comparative approach for the investigation of biological information processing: An examination of the structure and function of computer hard drives and DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Onofrio David J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The robust storage, updating and utilization of information are necessary for the maintenance and perpetuation of dynamic systems. These systems can exist as constructs of metal-oxide semiconductors and silicon, as in a digital computer, or in the "wetware" of organic compounds, proteins and nucleic acids that make up biological organisms. We propose that there are essential functional properties of centralized information-processing systems; for digital computers these properties reside in the computer's hard drive, and for eukaryotic cells they are manifest in the DNA and associated structures. Methods Presented herein is a descriptive framework that compares DNA and its associated proteins and sub-nuclear structure with the structure and function of the computer hard drive. We identify four essential properties of information for a centralized storage and processing system: (1 orthogonal uniqueness, (2 low level formatting, (3 high level formatting and (4 translation of stored to usable form. The corresponding aspects of the DNA complex and a computer hard drive are categorized using this classification. This is intended to demonstrate a functional equivalence between the components of the two systems, and thus the systems themselves. Results Both the DNA complex and the computer hard drive contain components that fulfill the essential properties of a centralized information storage and processing system. The functional equivalence of these components provides insight into both the design process of engineered systems and the evolved solutions addressing similar system requirements. However, there are points where the comparison breaks down, particularly when there are externally imposed information-organizing structures on the computer hard drive. A specific example of this is the imposition of the File Allocation Table (FAT during high level formatting of the computer hard drive and the subsequent loading of an operating

  3. Macromolecular 'size' and 'hardness' drives structure in solvent-swollen blends of linear, cyclic, and star polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Thomas E; Jayaraman, Arthi

    2018-01-17

    In this paper, we apply molecular simulation and liquid state theory to uncover the structure and thermodynamics of homopolymer blends of the same chemistry and varying chain architecture in the presence of explicit solvent species. We use hybrid Monte Carlo (MC)/molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in the Gibbs ensemble to study the swelling of ∼12 000 g mol -1 linear, cyclic, and 4-arm star polystyrene chains in toluene. Our simulations show that the macroscopic swelling response is indistinguishable between the various architectures and matches published experimental data for the solvent annealing of linear polystyrene by toluene vapor. We then use standard MD simulations in the NPT ensemble along with polymer reference interaction site model (PRISM) theory to calculate effective polymer-solvent and polymer-polymer Flory-Huggins interaction parameters (χ eff ) in these systems. As seen in the macroscopic swelling results, there are no significant differences in the polymer-solvent and polymer-polymer χ eff between the various architectures. Despite similar macroscopic swelling and effective interaction parameters between various architectures, the pair correlation function between chain centers-of-mass indicates stronger correlations between cyclic or star chains in the linear-cyclic blends and linear-star blends, compared to linear chain-linear chain correlations. Furthermore, we note striking similarities in the chain-level correlations and the radius of gyration of cyclic and 4-arm star architectures of identical molecular weight. Our results indicate that the cyclic and star chains are 'smaller' and 'harder' than their linear counterparts, and through comparison with MD simulations of blends of soft spheres with varying hardness and size we suggest that these macromolecular characteristics are the source of the stronger cyclic-cyclic and star-star correlations.

  4. Rate dependent direct inverse hysteresis compensation of piezoelectric micro-actuator used in dual-stage hard disk drive head positioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Arifur; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Yao, Kui

    2015-08-01

    The head positioning servo system in hard disk drive is implemented nowadays using a dual-stage actuator—the primary stage consisting of a voice coil motor actuator providing long range motion and the secondary stage controlling the position of the read/write head with fine resolution. Piezoelectric micro-actuator made of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has been a popular choice for the secondary stage. However, PZT micro-actuator exhibits hysteresis—an inherent nonlinear characteristic of piezoelectric material. The advantage expected from using the secondary micro-actuator is somewhat lost by the hysteresis of the micro-actuator that contributes to tracking error. Hysteresis nonlinearity adversely affects the performance and, if not compensated, may cause inaccuracy and oscillation in the response. Compensation of hysteresis is therefore an important aspect for designing head-positioning servo system. This paper presents a new rate dependent model of hysteresis along with rigorous analysis and identification of the model. Parameters of the model are found using particle swarm optimization. Direct inverse of the proposed rate-dependent generalized Prandtl-Ishlinskii model is used as the hysteresis compensator. Effectiveness of the overall solution is underscored through experimental results.

  5. Work Hard / Play Hard

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, J.; Johnson, V.; Henckel, D.

    2016-01-01

    Work Hard / Play Hard was a participatory performance/workshop or CPD experience hosted by interdisciplinary arts atelier WeAreCodeX, in association with AntiUniversity.org. As a socially/economically engaged arts practice, Work Hard / Play Hard challenged employees/players to get playful, or go to work. 'The game changes you, you never change the game'. Employee PLAYER A 'The faster the better.' Employer PLAYER B

  6. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. Analysis of the development and performance of hard disks

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Davorin

    2010-01-01

    With the emergence of new technologies in the field of hard drives we can witness a significant increase of surface density and transfer rate of interfaces which, as a result, enables greater performance and reliability of hard disks. The reason for this are increasing needs for higher capacities and data transfer rate to or from the hard disk. This thesis presents the structure of hard drives, features, performance and reliability of hard drives and alternative data storage technologies. Par...

  8. Initial operation of the CW 8X H- ion source discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.V. Jr.; Allison, P.; Geisik, C.; Schmitt, D.R.; Schneider, J.D.; Stelzer, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    A pulsed 8X source was built and the H - beam current, emittance, and power efficiency were measured. These results were promising, so a cooled, dc version designed for operation at arc power levels up to 30 kW was built. Testing of the CW 8X source discharge is underway. The design dc power loading on the cathode surface is 900 W/cm 2 , considerably higher than achieved in any previous Penning surface-plasma source (SPS). Thus, the electrode surfaces are cooled with pressurized, hot water. The authors describe the source and present the initial operating experience and arc test results

  9. Hard X-Ray PHA System on the HT-7 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Shiyao; Shi Yuejiang; Wan Baonian; Chen Zhongyong; Hu Liqun

    2006-01-01

    A new hard X-ray pulse-height analysis (PHA) system has been established on HT-7 tokamak for long pulse steady-state operation. This PHA system consists of hard X-ray diagnostics and multi-channel analysers (MCA). The hard X-ray diagnostics consists of a vertical X-ray detector array (CdTe) and a horizontal X-ray detector array (NaI). The hard X-ray diagnostics can provide the profile of power deposition and the distribution function of fast electron during radio frequency (RF) current drive. The MCA system is the electronic part of the PHA system, which has been modularized and linked to PC through LAN. Each module of MCA can connect with 8 X-ray detectors. The embedded Ethernet adapter in the MCA module makes the data communication between PC and MCA very convenient. A computer can control several modules of MCA through certain software and a hub. The RAM in MCA can store 1024 or more spectra for each detector and therefore the PHA system can be applied in the long pulse discharge of several minutes

  10. 8x8 and 10x10 Hyperspace Representations of SU(3) and 10-fold Point-Symmetry Group of Quasicrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animalu, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    In order to further elucidate the unexpected 10-fold point-symmetry group structure of quasi-crystals for which the 2011 Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to Daniel Shechtman, we explore a correspondence principle between the number of (projective) geometric elements (points[vertices] + lines[edges] + planes[faces]) of primitive cells of periodic or quasi-periodic arrangement of hard or deformable spheres in 3-dimensional space of crystallography and elements of quantum field theory of particle physics [points ( particles, lines ( particles, planes ( currents] and hence construct 8x8 =64 = 28+36 = 26 + 38, and 10x10 =100= 64 + 36 = 74 + 26 hyperspace representations of the SU(3) symmetry of elementary particle physics and quasicrystals of condensed matter (solid state) physics respectively, As a result, we predict the Cabibbo-like angles in leptonic decay of hadrons in elementary-particle physics and the observed 10-fold symmetric diffraction pattern of quasi-crystals.

  11. Local anomaly cancellation in heterotic E8 x E8 orbifold compactifications with Wilson line backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, M.G.A.

    2004-02-01

    We consider several examples of a special class of heterotic compactifications, i.e. heterotic E 8 x E 8 orbifolds with Wilson line backgrounds. By developing a local perspective we show that a brane world like picture emerges. As an important result we prove that the local massless spectrum at such a brane can always be traced back to the global spectrum of a (different) orbifold without Wilson lines. One particular implication of this result is that the use of (discrete) Wilson lines for the construction of phenomenologically interesting models has to be rethought. We show that stringy constraints render the brane spectra consistent. Using our local picture we are able to compute the local anomalies appearing at the different branes for our examples and show that they can all be cancelled by a local version of the Green-Schwarz mechanism at the same time. (orig.)

  12. Subchannel analysis of a critical power test, using simulated BWR 8x8 fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsutake, T.; Terasaka, H.; Yoshimura, K.; Oishi, M.; Inoue, A.; Akiyama, M.

    1990-01-01

    Critical power predictions have been compared with the critical power test data obtained in simulated BWR 8x8 fuel rod assemblies. Two analytical methods for the critical power prediction in rod assemblies are used in the prediction, which are the subchannel analysis using the COBRA/BWR subchannel computer code with empirical critical heat flux (CHF) correlations and the liquid film dryout estimation using the CRIPP-3F 'multi-fluid' computer code. Improvements in both the analytical methods were made for spacer effect modeling, though they were specific for application to the current BWR rod assembly type. In general a reasonable agreement was obtained, though comparisons, between the prediction and the obtained test data. (orig.)

  13. An intelligent CAMAC I/O module based on the Signetics 8X300 microcontroller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, G. W.; Hendricks, R. W.

    1980-03-01

    An intelligent CAMAC I/O module based on the Signetics 8X300 microcontroller has been developed. Sixteen 8-bit I/O ports have been utilized; eight are dedicated to data transfer with external devices and/or processes and eight are dedicated to communication with the CAMAC dataway. Separate status and data registers are provided. The input status port (SIN) can receive up to seven individual signals from external devices or the host computer while the output status port (SOUT) can be used to provide up to seven internally graded LAMs and one bit can be used to generate a Q-response for termination of block transfers. Diagnostic software has been developed to operate on the host computer which fully tests all implemented instructions. In our application the device is used in a high-speed memory mapping scheme for data acquisition with a two-dimensional position-sensitive detector system.

  14. An intelligent CAMAC I/O module based on the signetics 8X300 microcontroller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, G.W.; Hendricks, R.W.; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN

    1980-01-01

    An intelligent CAMAC I/O module based on the Signetics 8X300 microcontroller has been developed. Sixteen 8-bit I/O ports have been utilized; eight are dedicated to data transfers with external devices and/or processes and eight are dedicated to communication with the CAMAC dataway. Separate status and data registers are provided. The input status port (SIN) can receive up to seven individual signals from external devices or the host computer while the output status port (SOUT) can be used to provide up to seven internally graded LAMs and one bit can be used to generate a Q-response for termination of block transfers. Diagnostic software has been developed to operate on the host computer which fully tests all implemented instructions. In our application the device is used in a high-speed memory mapping scheme for data acquisition with a two-dimensional position-sensitive detector system. (orig.)

  15. Analysis of 8 X-chromosomal markers in the population of central Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gršković, Branka; Zidkova, Anastassiya; Stenzl, Vlastimil; Popović, Maja; Primorac, Dragan; Mršić, Gordan

    2013-01-01

    Aim To analyze 8 X-linked short tandem repeat (STR) markers in the population of central Croatia and to evaluate their forensic efficiency. Methods We carried out a statistical analysis of the data from previously performed genetic analyses, collected during routine forensic work by the Forensic Science Centre ‘‘Ivan Vučetić.’’ Mentype® Argus X-8 PCR amplification kit was used for typing the data of 99 unrelated healthy women and 78 men from central Croatia. Haplotype frequencies were calculated only in male samples. Arlequin 3.5 software was used to assess Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), linkage disequilibrium (LD), observed and expected heterozygosity. Power of discrimination (PD) for men and women, polymorphism information content (PIC), power of exclusion, and mean exclusion chance for deficiency cases, normal trios, and duos were determined using online database ChrX-STR.org. Results In female samples, deviations from HWE (P = 0.006) for each locus were not found. LD test performed both on female and male samples revealed no significant association between markers (P = 0.002). DXS10135 was the most polymorphic locus (PIC = 0.931). PD varied from 0.692 to 0.935 in male and from 0.845 to 0.992 in female samples. Combined PD reached 99.999999% in men and 99.9999999999% in women. Conclusion Performed analyses revealed that the studied marker set contained polymorphic markers with high power of discrimination. We can conclude that Mentype® Argus X-8 PCR kit is suitable for application in the population of central Croatia. Results of this study, together with collected allele and haplotype frequencies, are the first step in establishing a national reference X-STR database based on 8 X-STR loci. PMID:23771754

  16. Metal-insulator transition in Si(111)-(4 x 1)/(8 x 2)-In studied by optical spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speiser, E.; Hinrichs, K.; Cobet, C.; Esser, N. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaften - ISAS - e.V., Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Chandola, S. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaften - ISAS - e.V., Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 12489 Berlin (Germany); School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin 2 (Ireland); Gensch, M. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (Germany); Wippermann, S.; Schmidt, W.G. [Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Paderborn (Germany); Bechstedt, F. [Institut fuer Festkoerpertheorie und -Optik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena (Germany); Richter, W. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Fleischer, K.; McGilp, J.F. [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2010-08-15

    Measurements of the surface vibrational modes and optical response of Si(111)-(4 x 1)/(8 x 2)-In are compiled and a comparison to ab initio calculations performed within DFT-LDA formalism is given. Surface resonant Raman spectroscopy allows identifying a number of surface phonons with high spectral precision. The phase transition of the (4 x 1)-(8 x 2) surface structure is found to be accompanied by characteristic changes of the surface phonons, which are discussed with respect to various structural models suggested. The optical anisotropy of the (8 x 2) phase shows that the anisotropic Drude tail of the (4 x 1) phase is replaced by two peaks at 0.50 and 0.72 eV. The spectroscopic signatures of the (4 x 1) and (8 x 2) phases agree with a metal-insulator transition. The mid-IR-anisotropic optical response of the insulating (8 x 2) phase is interpreted in terms of electronic single particle excitations between surface electronic bands related to the In-nanowire surface. Comparison of the measured optical transitions with DFT ab initio calculations for the hexagon model and the trimer model of the (8 x 2) structure shows evidence for the existence of the hexagon structure. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Standard hardness conversion tables for metals relationship among brinell hardness, vickers hardness, rockwell hardness, superficial hardness, knoop hardness, and scleroscope hardness

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 Conversion Table 1 presents data in the Rockwell C hardness range on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, Knoop hardness, and Scleroscope hardness of non-austenitic steels including carbon, alloy, and tool steels in the as-forged, annealed, normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions provided that they are homogeneous. 1.2 Conversion Table 2 presents data in the Rockwell B hardness range on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, Knoop hardness, and Scleroscope hardness of non-austenitic steels including carbon, alloy, and tool steels in the as-forged, annealed, normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions provided that they are homogeneous. 1.3 Conversion Table 3 presents data on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, and Knoop hardness of nickel and high-nickel alloys (nickel content o...

  18. Hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, J.P.; Boving, H.J.; Hintermann, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    Hard, wear resistant and low friction coatings are presently produced on a world-wide basis, by different processes such as electrochemical or electroless methods, spray technologies, thermochemical, CVD and PVD. Some of the most advanced processes, especially those dedicated to thin film depositions, basically belong to CVD or PVD technologies, and will be looked at in more detail. The hard coatings mainly consist of oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides or carbon. Over the years, many processes have been developed which are variations and/or combinations of the basic CVD and PVD methods. The main difference between these two families of deposition techniques is that the CVD is an elevated temperature process (≥ 700 C), while the PVD on the contrary, is rather a low temperature process (≤ 500 C); this of course influences the choice of substrates and properties of the coating/substrate systems. Fundamental aspects of the vapor phase deposition techniques and some of their influences on coating properties will be discussed, as well as the very important interactions between deposit and substrate: diffusions, internal stress, etc. Advantages and limitations of CVD and PVD respectively will briefly be reviewed and examples of applications of the layers will be given. Parallel to the development and permanent updating of surface modification technologies, an effort was made to create novel characterisation methods. A close look will be given to the coating adherence control by means of the scratch test, at the coating hardness measurement by means of nanoindentation, at the coating wear resistance by means of a pin-on-disc tribometer, and at the surface quality evaluation by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finally, main important trends will be highlighted. (orig.)

  19. OSO 8 X-ray spectra of clusters of galaxies. II - Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B. W.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    An observational description of X-ray clusters of galaxies is given based on OSO 8 X-ray results for spatially integrated spectra of 20 such clusters and various correlations obtained from these results. It is found from a correlation between temperature and velocity dispersion that the X-ray core radius should be less than the galaxy core radius or, alternatively, that the polytropic index is about 1.1 for most of the 20 clusters. Analysis of a correlation between temperature and emission integral yields evidence that more massive clusters accumulate a larger fraction of their mass as intracluster gas. Galaxy densities and optical morphology, as they correlate with X-ray properties, are reexamined for indications as to how mass injection by galaxies affects the density structure of the gas. The physical arguments used to derive iron abundances from observed equivalent widths of iron line features in X-ray spectra are critically evaluated, and the associated uncertainties in abundances derived in this manner are estimated to be quite large.

  20. Modifications to 8x8 dynamical theory: Polarizations redefined according to x-ray diffraction convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macrander, A.T.; Blasdell, R.C.

    1993-09-01

    Dynamical x-ray diffraction theory can be cast in matrix form. In recent years, an 8x8 matrix theory was developed that treated asymmetric reflections from strained crystals. The polarization of the incident, specularly reflected, reflected diffracted, transmitted diffracted, and transmitted electromagnetic wave fields were all defined as s or p. That is, polarizations were defined with respect to the plane containing the incident beam direction and the surface normal. The authors present modifications of the theory to treat σ and π polarizations for Bragg diffraction from asymmetric planes, that is, for polarizations defined with respect to the plane containing the incident beam direction and the reciprocal lattice vector for Bragg diffraction. They present results of this theory for unstrained crystals in the inclined geometry. In this geometry the incident beam wavevector, the reciprocal lattice vector, and the surface normal are not coplanar. The inclined crystal geometry appears promising for use in a high-heat-load monochromator for undulator radiation at the Advanced Photon Source. As expected, they find a weak π-polarization component in the diffracted beam when the polarization of the incident beam is pure σ

  1. Drive Stands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Systems Laboratory (ESL)houses numerous electrically driven drive stands. A drive stand consists of an electric motor driving a gearbox and a mounting...

  2. Hard Copy Market Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testan, Peter R.

    1987-04-01

    A number of Color Hard Copy (CHC) market drivers are currently indicating strong growth in the use of CHC technologies for the business graphics marketplace. These market drivers relate to product, software, color monitors and color copiers. The use of color in business graphics allows more information to be relayed than is normally the case in a monochrome format. The communicative powers of full-color computer generated output in the business graphics application area will continue to induce end users to desire and require color in their future applications. A number of color hard copy technologies will be utilized in the presentation graphics arena. Thermal transfer, ink jet, photographic and electrophotographic technologies are all expected to be utilized in the business graphics presentation application area in the future. Since the end of 1984, the availability of color application software packages has grown significantly. Sales revenue generated by business graphics software is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of just over 40 percent to 1990. Increased availability of packages to allow the integration of text and graphics is expected. Currently, the latest versions of page description languages such as Postscript, Interpress and DDL all support color output. The use of color monitors will also drive the demand for color hard copy in the business graphics market place. The availability of higher resolution screens is allowing color monitors to be easily used for both text and graphics applications in the office environment. During 1987, the sales of color monitors are expected to surpass the sales of monochrome monitors. Another major color hard copy market driver will be the color copier. In order to take advantage of the communications power of computer generated color output, multiple copies are required for distribution. Product introductions of a new generation of color copiers is now underway with additional introductions expected

  3. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of PrCo6.8-xCuxHf0.2 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, J; Liang, J K; Guo, Y Q; Liu, Q L; Liu, F S; Yang, L T; Zhang, Y; Rao, G H

    2004-01-01

    The effects of Cu substitution on the crystal structure and magnetic properties of PrCo 6.8-x Cu x Hf 0.2 (x = 0-1.0) compounds were investigated by means of x-ray powder diffraction and magnetic measurements. The as-cast PrCo 6.8-x Cu x Hf 0.2 compounds crystallize in the TbCu 7 -type structure with the space group P6/mmm. The Curie temperature and magnetic anisotropy field decrease with increasing Cu content. A spin reorientation behaviour has been observed in the PrCo 6.8-x Cu x Hf 0.2 compounds. The addition of Cu weakens the anisotropy of the Co sublattice, leading to an increase in the spin reorientation temperature with increasing content of Cu

  4. Dementia & Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have to give up driving. Many people associate driving with self-reliance and freedom; the loss of driving privileges ... familiar roads and avoid long distances. Avoid heavy traffic and heavily traveled roads. Avoid driving at night and in bad weather. Reduce the ...

  5. Pushing hard on the accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1987-09-15

    The quest for new techniques to drive future generations of particle accelerators has been pushed hard in recent years, efforts having been highlighted by workshops in Europe, organized by the European Committee for Future Accelerators, and in the US. The latest ECFA Workshop on New Developments in Particle Acceleration Techniques, held at Orsay from 29 June to 4 July, showed how the initial frantic search for innovation is now maturing.

  6. Distracted driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including maps) The Dangers of Talking on the Phone While Driving You are four times more likely to get ... of reach. If you are caught using a phone while driving, you may risk a ticket or fine. Most ...

  7. Distracted Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and increased awareness of distracted driving using radio advertisements, news stories, and similar media. After the projects ... available at www.trafficsafetymarketing.gov . Distracted Driving Enforcement – TV Ads (Paid). For re-tagging, go to: www. ...

  8. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  9. Pile Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Machine-oriented structural engineering firm TERA, Inc. is engaged in a project to evaluate the reliability of offshore pile driving prediction methods to eventually predict the best pile driving technique for each new offshore oil platform. Phase I Pile driving records of 48 offshore platforms including such information as blow counts, soil composition and pertinent construction details were digitized. In Phase II, pile driving records were statistically compared with current methods of prediction. Result was development of modular software, the CRIPS80 Software Design Analyzer System, that companies can use to evaluate other prediction procedures or other data bases.

  10. 8 x 8 fuel surveillance program at Monticello site - end of Cycle 6: fourth post-irradiation inspection, October 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarshaug, N.H.

    1980-09-01

    A fuel surveillance program for a lead 8 x 8 reload fuel assembly was implemented at the Monticello Nuclear Power Station in May 1974 prior to Reactor Cycle 3. Inspection results of the fourth post-irradiation inspection performed on this surveillance fuel assembly in October 1978 at EOC 6, after a bundle average exposure of 25,900 MWd/MT, are presented. The measurement techniques, results obtained and comparisons to previous measurements are discussed. The bundle and individual rods examined exhibited characteristics of normal operation and were approved for continued irradiation during Monticello operating Cycle 7

  11. Prepulse dependence in hard x-ray generation from microdroplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, M.; Kahaly, S.; Kumar, G. Ravindra; Sandhu, A. S.; Gibbon, P.; Krishnamurthy, M.

    2006-01-01

    We report on experiments which show that liquid microdroplets are very efficient in hard x-ray generation. We make a comparative study of hard x-ray emission from 15 μm methanol microdroplets and a plain slab target of similar atomic composition at similar laser intensities. The hard X-ray yield from droplet plasmas is about 35 times more than that obtained from solid plasmas. A prepulse that is about 10ns and at least 2% in intensity of the main pulse is essential for hard x-ray generation from the droplets at about 1015 W cm-2. A hot electron temperature of 36 keV is measured from the droplets at 8 x 1014 W cm-2; three times higher intensity is needed to obtain similar hot electron temperature from solid plasmas that have similar atomic composition. We use 1D-PIC simulation to obtain qualitative correlation to the experimental observations

  12. The k-space origins of scattering in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alldredge, Jacob W; Calleja, Eduardo M; Dai, Jixia; Eisaki, H; Uchida, S; McElroy, Kyle

    2013-08-21

    We demonstrate a general, computer automated procedure that inverts the reciprocal space scattering data (q-space) that are measured by spectroscopic imaging scanning tunnelling microscopy (SI-STM) in order to determine the momentum space (k-space) scattering structure. This allows a detailed examination of the k-space origins of the quasiparticle interference (QPI) pattern in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x within the theoretical constraints of the joint density of states (JDOS). Our new method allows measurement of the differences between the positive and negative energy dispersions, the gap structure and an energy dependent scattering length scale. Furthermore, it resolves the transition between the dispersive QPI and the checkerboard ([Formula: see text] excitation). We have measured the k-space scattering structure over a wide range of doping (p ∼ 0.22-0.08), including regions where the octet model is not applicable. Our technique allows the complete mapping of the k-space scattering origins of the spatial excitations in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x, which allows for better comparisons between SI-STM and other experimental probes of the band structure. By applying our new technique to such a heavily studied compound, we can validate our new general approach for determining the k-space scattering origins from SI-STM data.

  13. Impaired Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get the Facts What Works: Strategies to Increase Car Seat and Booster Seat ... narcotics. 3 That’s one percent of the 111 million self-reported episodes of alcohol-impaired driving among U.S. ...

  14. Incorporating solid state drives into distributed storage systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wacha, Rosie

    2012-01-01

    Big data stores are becoming increasingly important in a variety of domains including scientific computing, internet applications, and business applications. For price and performance reasons, such storage is comprised of magnetic hard drives. To achieve the necessary degree of performance and reliability, the drives are configured into storage subsystems based on RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks). Because of their mechanical nature, hard drives are relatively power-hungry and slow ...

  15. Local anomaly cancellation in heterotic E{sub 8} x E{sub 8} orbifold compactifications with Wilson line backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, M.G.A.

    2004-02-01

    We consider several examples of a special class of heterotic compactifications, i.e. heterotic E{sub 8} x E{sub 8} orbifolds with Wilson line backgrounds. By developing a local perspective we show that a brane world like picture emerges. As an important result we prove that the local massless spectrum at such a brane can always be traced back to the global spectrum of a (different) orbifold without Wilson lines. One particular implication of this result is that the use of (discrete) Wilson lines for the construction of phenomenologically interesting models has to be rethought. We show that stringy constraints render the brane spectra consistent. Using our local picture we are able to compute the local anomalies appearing at the different branes for our examples and show that they can all be cancelled by a local version of the Green-Schwarz mechanism at the same time. (orig.)

  16. Oxygen stoichiometry and its influence on superconductivity in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnaraj, P.; Lelovic, M.; Eror, N.G.; Balachandran, U.

    1994-01-01

    Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x (2212) was synthesized from freeze-dried precursors. The oxygen content of 2212 was determined as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure and the variation of Tc with oxygen content was determined. It was found that 2212 without excess oxygen (x = 0) is superconducting. This points to the role of the (Bi-O) ∞ layers as a source for holes in 2212. Four probe resistivity measurements were also performed on 2212. The nature of oxygen intercalation and oxygen removal in 2212 was studied by thermogravimetry and resistivity. It was also found that samples of 2212 with the same oxygen content had different T c 's depending on thermal history. This difference in T c is thought to arise from oxygen occupying different sites in the lattice while maintaining the same total oxygen content

  17. Effect of Anneal temperature and Time on Change of Texture and Hardness of Al-Cu-Mg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masrukan; Adolf Asih, S.

    2000-01-01

    Observation of the effect of annealing temperature to its texture and hardness of the Al-Cu-Mg has been done. In this experiments aluminium alloy powder and 5 pieces cubes of this alloy with size of 8 x 8 x 8 mm 3 were used. The powder was not annealed, 2 pieces cube were annealed for 20 hours at temperatures of 200 o C and 300 o respectively, finally 3 pieces cube were annealed at temperature of 400 o C. Texture measurement was done using x-ray diffraction with wave length of 1.78892 A using inverse pole figure method. The hardness testing results at constant temperature of 400 o C and various time indicated that the hardness values are decreased with increasing annealed time. Also, at hardness testing for constant time and various annealing temperatures indicated that the hardness values decreased with increasing annealing temperature

  18. Driving things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevile, Maurice Richard

    2015-01-01

    I explore how participants organise involvement with objects brought into the car, relative to the demands of driving and social activity. Objects in cars commonly include phones or other technologies, food, body care products, texts, clothing, bags and carry items, toys, and even animals...... 2004, Haddington et al. 2012). I focus here especially on how the practical and interactional work of locating, seeing, placing, handling, hearing, and relinquishing, is ordered and accomplished relative to the emerging and contingent demands of both driving and social participation......, such that involvement with objects is constituted as secondary to driving in a multiactivity setting (e.g. Haddington et al. 2014). We see how events with, for, of, and even by objects can occur as predictable, planned and even designed for (e.g. changing glasses, applying body lotion), or might be unexpected...

  19. Hard X-ray studies on the Castor tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlynar, J.

    1990-04-01

    The electron runaway processes in tokamaks are discussed with regard to hard X radiation measurements. The origin and confinement of runaway electrons, their bremsstrahlung spectra and the influence of lower hybrid current drive on the distribution of high-energy electrons are analyzed for the case of the Castor tokamak. The hard X-ray spectrometer designed for the Castor tokamak is also described and preliminary qualitative results of hard X-ray measurements are presented. The first series of integral measurements made it possible to map the azimuthal dependence of the hard X radiation

  20. Interfacial area transport in two-phase flows in a scaled 8X8 rod bundle geometry at elevated pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, X; Schlegel, J.P.; Paranjape, S.; Liu, Y.; Chen, S.W.; Hibiki, T.; Ishii, M.

    2011-01-01

    To improve the prediction accuracy and robustness of the next-generation thermal-hydraulics system analysis code, analytical and experimental research has been undertaken to develop the Interfacial Area Transport Equation (IATE) in a scaled 8x8 rod bundle geometry at elevated pressure conditions. The experiments performed include local measurements of void fraction, interfacial area concentration, and gas velocity at several axial locations using the innovative four-sensor conductivity probe. The test conditions cover a wide range of flow regimes from bubbly, cap-bubbly, cap-turbulent to churn-turbulent at 100 kPa and 300 kPa pressure conditions and the obtained data indicates some spacer effects on the flow parameters. The bubble groups are classified into two groups (Group-1: spherical and distorted bubbles, Group-2: cap and churn turbulent bubbles) based on the bubble transport characteristics. The area-averaged interfacial area transport data have been compared to the prediction by the one-dimensional two-group IATE with mechanistically modeled IAC source and sink terms. The one-group IATE is able to predict the bubbly-flow interfacial area within ±15% error under two pressure conditions. The two-group IATE performance is also very promising in the cap-bubbly flow and churn-turbulent flow regimes, with average error of about ±20%. (author)

  1. OSO 8 X-ray spectra of clusters of galaxies. I - Observations of twenty clusters: Physical correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, R. F.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Smith, B. W.

    1978-01-01

    OSO 8 X-ray spectra from 2 to 20 keV have been analyzed for 26 clusters of galaxies. For 20 clusters temperatures, emission integrals, iron abundances, and low-energy absorption measurements are presented. The data give, in general, better fits to thermal bremsstrahlung than to power-law models. Eight clusters have positive iron emission-line detections at the 90% confidence level, and all 20 cluster spectra are consistent with Fe/H = 0.000014 by number with the possible exception of Virgo. Thus it is confirmed that X-ray emission in this energy band is predominantly thermal radiation from hot intracluster gas rather than inverse Compton radiation. Physical correlations between X-ray spectral parameters and other cluster properties are examined. It is found that (1) the X-ray temperature is approximately proportional to the square of the velocity dispersion of the galaxies; (2) the emission integral is a strong function of the X-ray temperature; (3) the X-ray temperature and emission integral are better correlated with cluster central-galaxy density than with richness; and (4) the fraction of galaxies which are spirals is correlated with the observed ram pressure in the cluster core.

  2. Induction of resistance to blast disease (Pyricularia oryzae) in the high yielding variety, Ratna (IR8xTKM6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, S.; Padmanabhan, S.Y.; Kaur, P.

    1977-01-01

    The high yielding variety, Ratna (IR8 x TKM6), susceptible to blast disease (Pyricularia oryzae Cav.), was taken up for induction of resistance to the disease through EMS treatment. The seeds of individual M 1 plants were harvested and grown as M 2 generation in a ''uniform blast nursery''. The scoring and classification of blast reaction was done according to the method described by Padmanabhan and Ganguly. The seeds of ''resistant'' selections and ''susceptible'' selections were harvested, grown and tested again in the ''uniform blast nursery'' for M 3 , M 4 and M 5 generations. Ratna (untreated) developed 'B', 'C', and 'D' type of spots whereas the EMS-treated populations in all generations, i.e. M 2 -M 4 , developed 'O', 'A' and 'E' types of spot, in addition to 'B', 'C' and 'D' types, in both resistant and susceptible selections. This indicated that the chemical mutagen EMS induced variability in both negative and positive directions. In M 5 generation, 50 out of 1500 originally selected lines were found to be breeding true for disease resistance. Some mutants retain the grain characters of Ratna, and the high yield. The mutagen treatment also induced variability in grain characters. Ratna has a long slender grain. Some mutants have medium slender, short bold or long bold grain. (author)

  3. Community Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke

    2018-01-01

    Schools and educational institutions are challenged by not adequately educating students for independent knowledge collaboration and solving of complex societal challenges (Bundsgaard & Hansen, 2016; Slot et al., 2017). As an alternative strategy to formal learning has Community-driven research...... opportunity to break boundaries between research institutions and surrounding communities through the involvement of new types of actors, knowledge forms and institutions (OECD, 2011). This paper presents the project Community Drive a three year cross disciplinary community-driven game– and data-based project....... In the paper we present how the project Community Drive initiated in May 2018 is based on results from pilot projects conducted from 2014 – 2017. Overall these studies showed that it is a strong motivational factor for students to be given the task to change their living conditions through redesign...

  4. Comprehensive hard materials

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive Hard Materials deals with the production, uses and properties of the carbides, nitrides and borides of these metals and those of titanium, as well as tools of ceramics, the superhard boron nitrides and diamond and related compounds. Articles include the technologies of powder production (including their precursor materials), milling, granulation, cold and hot compaction, sintering, hot isostatic pressing, hot-pressing, injection moulding, as well as on the coating technologies for refractory metals, hard metals and hard materials. The characterization, testing, quality assurance and applications are also covered. Comprehensive Hard Materials provides meaningful insights on materials at the leading edge of technology. It aids continued research and development of these materials and as such it is a critical information resource to academics and industry professionals facing the technological challenges of the future. Hard materials operate at the leading edge of technology, and continued res...

  5. The effects of irradiation to 8x1026m-2 on the mechanical properties of 6061-T651 aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of irradiation on the mechanical properties of candidate structural materials are being examined. A key to the generation of useful neutron beams is allowing the neutrons produced in the core to escape. Therefore, an aluminum alloy has been selected for the first wall containment adjacent to the core, the Core Pressure Boundary Tube (CPBT), Alloy (6061 J651 Al 1.0Mg-0.6Si-0.3Cu-0.2Cr) with acceptable mechanical properties in unirradiated condition, low neutron cross-section, high thermal conductivity for heat removal. This alloy may also be used for the beam tubes and reflector tank. An irradiation program is underway to determine the effects of irradiation on the mechanical properties of 6061-T651 aluminium in particular the fracture toughness. This data will allow the operating lifetime of the CPBT to determined which will in turn determine its replacement schedule in the ANS. The first two capsules for the ANS Irradiation Effects program have been successfully irradiated to 10 26 and 8x10 26 m -2 (thermal flux), respectively, at a nominal irradiation temperature of 95 deg. C. The testing of the specimens of 6061-T651 aluminum has shown: 1. The yield and ultimate tensile strengths are increased by irradiation; 2. The uniform and total elongations are reduced, but useful ductility remains, even at the higher irradiation level; 3. The fracture toughness at 25 deg. C and 95 deg. C is unaffected by irradiation, but at 150 deg. C, it decreases with an increase in irradiation; 4. The tearing modulus of 6061-T651 is low in the unirradiated condition, and is reduced to very low values by irradiation. This alloy also shows a tendency for sudden unstable crack extension

  6. Electric drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-10-01

    Several electric vehicles have been tested in long-term tests, i.e. an electric passenger car (maximum speed 115 km/h) and several busses for use in pedestrians' zones, spas, airports, natural reserves, and urban transportation (DUO busses). The ICE high-speed train is discussed in some detail, i.e. its aeroacoustic and aerodynamic design, running gear, computer-controlled drives and brakes, diagnostic systems, and electrical equipment. The Berlin Maglev system is mentioned as well as current inverters in rail vehicles. (HWJ).

  7. Induced spherococcoid hard wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, Sh.

    1981-01-01

    A mutant has been obtained - a spheroccocoid line -through irradiation of hard wheat seed with fast neutrons. It is distinguished by semispherical glumes and smaller grain; the plants have low stem with erect leaves but with shorter spikes and with lesser number of spikelets than those of the initial cultivar. Good productive tillering and resistance to lodging contributed to 23.5% higher yield. The line was superior to the standard and the initial cultivars by 14.2% as regards protein content, and by up to 22.8% - as to flour gluten. It has been successfully used in hybridization producing high-yielding hard wheat lines resistant to lodging, with good technological and other indicators. The possibility stated is of obtaining a spherococcoid mutant in tetraploid (hard) wheat out of the D-genome as well as its being suited to hard wheat breeding to enhance protein content, resistance to lodging, etc. (author)

  8. Hard probes 2006 Asilomar

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "The second international conference on hard and electromagnetic probes of high-energy nuclear collisions was held June 9 to 16, 2006 at the Asilomar Conference grounds in Pacific Grove, California" (photo and 1/2 page)

  9. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V., Herne (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The year 2012 benefited from a growth of the consumption of hard coal at the national level as well as at the international level. Worldwide, the hard coal still is the number one energy source for power generation. This leads to an increasing demand for power plant coal. In this year, the conversion of hard coal into electricity also increases in this year. In contrast to this, the demand for coking coal as well as for coke of the steel industry is still declining depending on the market conditions. The enhanced utilization of coal for the domestic power generation is due to the reduction of the nuclear power from a relatively bad year for wind power as well as reduced import prices and low CO{sub 2} prices. Both justify a significant price advantage for coal in comparison to the utilisation of natural gas in power plants. This was mainly due to the price erosion of the inexpensive US coal which partly was replaced by the expansion of shale gas on the domestic market. As a result of this, the inexpensive US coal looked for an outlet for sales in Europe. The domestic hard coal has continued the process of adaptation and phase-out as scheduled. Two further hard coal mines were decommissioned in the year 2012. RAG Aktiengesellschaft (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) running the hard coal mining in this country begins with the preparations for the activities after the time of mining.

  10. Safe driving for teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driving and teenagers; Teens and safe driving; Automobile safety - teenage drivers ... months before taking friends as passengers. Teenage-related driving deaths occur more often in certain conditions. OTHER SAFETY TIPS FOR TEENS Reckless driving is still a ...

  11. The Hard X-ray Sky: Recent Observational Progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.

    2009-01-01

    The last fifty years have witnessed the birth, development, and maturation to full potential of hard X-ray astrophysics. The primary force driving the history of the field has been the development of space-based instrumentation optimized for getting the maximum science out of observations of high-energy photons from astrophysical sources. Hard X-ray telescopes are leading research in areas such as galactic diffuse emission, galactic transients, and active galactic nuclei.

  12. Soft and hard pomerons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maor, Uri; Tel Aviv Univ.

    1995-09-01

    The role of s-channel unitarity screening corrections, calculated in the eikonal approximation, is investigated for soft Pomeron exchange responsible for elastic and diffractive hadron scattering in the high energy limit. We examine the differences between our results and those obtained from the supercritical Pomeron-Regge model with no such corrections. It is shown that screening saturation is attained at different scales for different channels. We then proceed to discuss the new HERA data on hard (PQCD) Pomeron diffractive channels and discuss the relationship between the soft and hard Pomerons and the relevance of our analysis to this problem. (author). 18 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  13. Hard exclusive QCD processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, W.

    2007-01-15

    Hard exclusive processes in high energy electron proton scattering offer the opportunity to get access to a new generation of parton distributions, the so-called generalized parton distributions (GPDs). This functions provide more detailed informations about the structure of the nucleon than the usual PDFs obtained from DIS. In this work we present a detailed analysis of exclusive processes, especially of hard exclusive meson production. We investigated the influence of exclusive produced mesons on the semi-inclusive production of mesons at fixed target experiments like HERMES. Further we give a detailed analysis of higher order corrections (NLO) for the exclusive production of mesons in a very broad range of kinematics. (orig.)

  14. Hard-hat day

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    CERN will be organizing a special information day on Friday, 27th June, designed to promote the wearing of hard hats and ensure that they are worn correctly. A new prevention campaign will also be launched.The event will take place in the hall of the Main Building from 11.30 a.m. to 2.00 p.m., when you will be able to come and try on various models of hard hat, including some of the very latest innovative designs, ask questions and pass on any comments and suggestions.

  15. Smooth driving of Moessbauer electromechanical transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga, A., E-mail: veiga@fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Mayosky, M. A. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Facultad de Ingenieria (Argentina); Martinez, N.; Mendoza Zelis, P.; Pasquevich, G. A.; Sanchez, F. H. [Instituto de Fisica La Plata, CONICET (Argentina)

    2011-11-15

    Quality of Moessbauer spectra is strongly related to the performance of source velocity modulator. Traditional electromechanical driving techniques demand hard-edged square or triangular velocity waveforms that introduce long settling times and demand careful driver tuning. For this work, the behavior of commercial velocity transducers and drive units was studied under different working conditions. Different velocity reference waveforms in constant-acceleration, constant-velocity and programmable-velocity techniques were tested. Significant improvement in spectrometer efficiency and accuracy was achieved by replacing triangular and square hard edges with continuous smooth-shaped transitions. A criterion for best waveform selection and synchronization is presented and attainable enhancements are evaluated. In order to fully exploit this driving technique, a compact microprocessor-based architecture is proposed and a suitable data acquisition system implementation is presented. System linearity and efficiency characterization are also shown.

  16. Hard times; Schwere Zeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Markus

    2012-10-02

    The prices of silicon and solar wafers keep dropping. According to market research specialist IMS research, this is the result of weak traditional solar markets and global overcapacities. While many manufacturers are facing hard times, big producers of silicon are continuing to expand.

  17. Hardness of Clustering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Hardness of Clustering. Both k-means and k-medians intractable (when n and d are both inputs even for k =2). The best known deterministic algorithms. are based on Voronoi partitioning that. takes about time. Need for approximation – “close” to optimal.

  18. Rock-hard coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has signed an agreement with a number of parties to investigate this material further.

  19. Rock-hard coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has

  20. Hardness and excitation energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that the first excitation energy can be given by the Kohn-Sham hardness (i.e. the energy difference of the ground-state lowest unoccupied and highest occupied levels) plus an extra term coming from the partial derivative of the ensemble exchange-correlation energy with respect to the weighting factor in the ...

  1. Inside Solid State Drives (SSDs)

    CERN Document Server

    Micheloni, Rino; Eshghi, Kam

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Drives (SSDs) are gaining momentum in enterprise and client applications, replacing Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) by offering higher performance and lower power. In the enterprise, developers of data center server and storage systems have seen CPU performance growing exponentially for the past two decades, while HDD performance has improved linearly for the same period. Additionally, multi-core CPU designs and virtualization have increased randomness of storage I/Os. These trends have shifted performance bottlenecks to enterprise storage systems. Business critical applications such as online transaction processing, financial data processing and database mining are increasingly limited by storage performance. In client applications, small mobile platforms are leaving little room for batteries while demanding long life out of them. Therefore, reducing both idle and active power consumption has become critical. Additionally, client storage systems are in need of significant performance improvement as well ...

  2. Hard Electromagnetic Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, F.

    1987-09-01

    Among hard electromagnetic processes, I will use the most recent data and focus on quantitative test of QCD. More specifically, I will retain two items: - hadroproduction of direct photons, - Drell-Yan. In addition, I will briefly discuss a recent analysis of ISR data obtained with AFS (Axial Field Spectrometer) which sheds a new light on the e/π puzzle at low P T

  3. Extended driving impairs nocturnal driving performances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Sagaspe

    Full Text Available Though fatigue and sleepiness at the wheel are well-known risk factors for traffic accidents, many drivers combine extended driving and sleep deprivation. Fatigue-related accidents occur mainly at night but there is no experimental data available to determine if the duration of prior driving affects driving performance at night. Participants drove in 3 nocturnal driving sessions (3-5 am, 1-5 am and 9 pm-5 am on open highway. Fourteen young healthy men (mean age [+/-SD] = 23.4 [+/-1.7] years participated Inappropriate line crossings (ILC in the last hour of driving of each session, sleep variables, self-perceived fatigue and sleepiness were measured. Compared to the short (3-5 am driving session, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings increased by 2.6 (95% CI, 1.1 to 6.0; P<.05 for the intermediate (1-5 am driving session and by 4.0 (CI, 1.7 to 9.4; P<.001 for the long (9 pm-5 am driving session. Compared to the reference session (9-10 pm, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings were 6.0 (95% CI, 2.3 to 15.5; P<.001, 15.4 (CI, 4.6 to 51.5; P<.001 and 24.3 (CI, 7.4 to 79.5; P<.001, respectively, for the three different durations of driving. Self-rated fatigue and sleepiness scores were both positively correlated to driving impairment in the intermediate and long duration sessions (P<.05 and increased significantly during the nocturnal driving sessions compared to the reference session (P<.01. At night, extended driving impairs driving performances and therefore should be limited.

  4. The Role of the Goal in Solving Hard Computational Problems: Do People Really Optimize?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Sarah; Stege, Ulrike; Masson, Michael E. J.

    2018-01-01

    The role that the mental, or internal, representation plays when people are solving hard computational problems has largely been overlooked to date, despite the reality that this internal representation drives problem solving. In this work we investigate how performance on versions of two hard computational problems differs based on what internal…

  5. HARMONIC DRIVE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr FOLĘGA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The variety of types and sizes currently in production harmonic drive is a problem in their rational choice. Properly selected harmonic drive must meet certain requirements during operation, and achieve the anticipated service life. The paper discusses the problems associated with the selection of the harmonic drive. It also presents the algorithm correct choice of harmonic drive. The main objective of this study was to develop a computer program that allows the correct choice of harmonic drive by developed algorithm.

  6. Atomic structure determination of InSb(100)c(4x4) and c(8x2)phases by X-ray photoelectron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, V.E. de; Soares, E.A.; Magalhaes, M.R.P.; Paniago, R.; Siervo, A. de; Landers, R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The (100) surfaces of III-V compound semiconductors exhibit a variety of surface reconstructions that have attracted a lot of attention because of their importance in both homo epitaxial and heteroepitaxial growth. In the special case of the narrow bandgap InSb compound semiconductor its potential application in high-speed electronic and optoelectronic devices has encourage many studies of its (100) surface atomic structure. Among the reconstructions presented by the InSb(100) surface two of them have received more attention, that is, the observed well-ordered In-rich c(8x2) and Sb terminated c(4x4) surfaces. The c(8x2) structure can be obtained by exposing the surface to low energy ion bombardment and annealing, whereas the c(4x4) structure involves the chemisorption of Sb onto an already Sb-terminated surface. These two structures have been studied mainly by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and surface X-ray diffraction (SXRD) techniques and all the proposed models are based on the occurrence of group III (and/or V) blocks of dimmers occupying sites on the top or at subsurface layer. However, there are still difficulties in determining either the exact number of atoms in each dimmer or the number of dimmers in each block. With the goal of getting a better structure determination of the InSb(100) surface phases a photoelectron diffraction experiment (XPD) was carried out at LNLS where synchrotron and Al-K α radiations have been used. In the present work, the experimental and preliminary results of structure determination for both In Sn(100)c(8x2) and InSb(100)c(4x4) phases will be presented and discussed. (author)

  7. Burnout experiments with 6 x 6, 8 x 8 and 7 x 7 rod bundle test sections using freon as model fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulfs, H.; Katsaounis, A.; Minden, C.v.

    1976-01-01

    This paper reports on burnout experiments at staedy state condition using Freon12 as model fluid. The experiments were carried out with three test sections with 6 x 6, 8 x 8 and 7 x 7 rod bundles. The axial flux distribution of the rods is either constant or reactor like. The transformed measured points using STEVENS and BOURE scaling factors to equivalent water conditions respectively, were compared to the burnout correlation W3 using the reactor layout program DYNAMIT. The DYNAMIT code is a thermohydraulic lay-out reactor program without consideration of mixing flow between the subchannels. (orig.) [de

  8. Revisiting the definition of local hardness and hardness kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco-Ramírez, Carlos A; Franco-Pérez, Marco; Carmona-Espíndola, Javier; Gázquez, José L; Ayers, Paul W

    2017-05-17

    An analysis of the hardness kernel and local hardness is performed to propose new definitions for these quantities that follow a similar pattern to the one that characterizes the quantities associated with softness, that is, we have derived new definitions for which the integral of the hardness kernel over the whole space of one of the variables leads to local hardness, and the integral of local hardness over the whole space leads to global hardness. A basic aspect of the present approach is that global hardness keeps its identity as the second derivative of energy with respect to the number of electrons. Local hardness thus obtained depends on the first and second derivatives of energy and electron density with respect to the number of electrons. When these derivatives are approximated by a smooth quadratic interpolation of energy, the expression for local hardness reduces to the one intuitively proposed by Meneses, Tiznado, Contreras and Fuentealba. However, when one combines the first directional derivatives with smooth second derivatives one finds additional terms that allow one to differentiate local hardness for electrophilic attack from the one for nucleophilic attack. Numerical results related to electrophilic attacks on substituted pyridines, substituted benzenes and substituted ethenes are presented to show the overall performance of the new definition.

  9. The Impact of Hard Disk Firmware Steganography on Computer Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Sutherland

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The hard disk drive is probably the predominant form of storage media and is a primary data source in a forensic investigation. The majority of available software tools and literature relating to the investigation of the structure and content contained within a hard disk drive concerns the extraction and analysis of evidence from the various file systems which can reside in the user accessible area of the disk. It is known that there are other areas of the hard disk drive which could be used to conceal information, such as the Host Protected Area and the Device Configuration Overlay. There are recommended methods for the detection and forensic analysis of these areas using appropriate tools and techniques. However, there are additional areas of a disk that have currently been overlooked.  The Service Area or Platter Resident Firmware Area is used to store code and control structures responsible for the functionality of the drive and for logging failing or failed sectors.This paper provides an introduction into initial research into the investigation and identification of issues relating to the analysis of the Platter Resident Firmware Area. In particular, the possibility that the Platter Resident Firmware Area could be manipulated and exploited to facilitate a form of steganography, enabling information to be concealed by a user and potentially from a digital forensic investigator.

  10. Development of drift-flux model based on 8 x 8 BWR rod bundle geometry experiments under prototypic temperature and pressure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Tetsuhiro; Suzuki, Riichiro; Mashiko, Hiroyuki; Hibiki, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The drift-flux model is one of the imperative concepts used to consider the effects of phase coupling on two-phase flow dynamics. Several drift-flux models are available that apply to rod bundle geometries and some of these are implemented in several nuclear safety analysis codes. However, these models are not validated by well-designed prototypic full bundle test data, and therefore, the scalability of these models has not necessarily been verified. The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) conducted void fraction measurement tests in Japan with prototypic 8 x 8 BWR (boiling water reactor) rod bundles under prototypic temperature and pressure conditions. Based on these NUPEC data, a new drift-flux model applicable to predicting the void fraction in a rod bundle geometry has been developed. The newly developed drift-flux model is compared with the other existing data such as the two-phase flow test facility (TPTF) data taken at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) [currently, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA)] and low pressure adiabatic 8 x 8 bundle test data taken at Purdue University in the United States. The results of these comparisons show good agreement between the test data and the predictions. The effects of power distribution, spacer grids, and the bundle geometry on the newly developed drift-flux model have been discussed using the NUPEC data. (author)

  11. Synthesis, magnetism and electronic structure of YbNi{sub 2-x}Fe{sub x}Al{sub 8} (x=0.91) isolated from Al flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiuni, Wu [Department of Physical Sciences, Rhode Island College, Providence, RI 02908 (United States); Francisco, Melanie [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Rak, Zsolt [Department of Physics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Bakas, T [Department of Physics, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece); Mahanti, S D [Department of Physics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Kanatzidis, Mercouri G. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)], E-mail: m-kanatzidis@northwestern.edu

    2008-12-15

    The combination of ytterbium, nickel, iron in liquid aluminum resulted in the formation of the new intermetallic compound YbNi{sub 2-x}Fe{sub x}Al{sub 8} (x=0.91) which adopts the CaCo{sub 2}Al{sub 8} structure type with a=14.458(3) A, b=12.455(3) A, c=3.9818(8) A and space group Pbam. Its resistivity drops with decreasing temperature, saturating to a constant value at lower temperatures. Above 50 K, the inverse magnetic susceptibility data follows Curie-Weiss Law, with a calculated {mu}{sub eff}=2.19 {mu}{sub B}. Although the observed reduced moment in magnetic susceptibility measurement suggests that the Yb ions in this compound are of mixed-valent nature, ab initio electronic structure calculations within density functional theory using LDA+U approximation give an f{sup 13} configuration in the ground state. - Graphical abstract: The reaction of ytterbium, nickel, iron in aluminum flux gives crystals of the intermetallic compound YbNi{sub 2-x}Fe{sub x}Al{sub 8} (x=0.96) which adopts the CaCo{sub 2}Al{sub 8} structure, ab initio electronic structure calculations within density functional theory using LDA+U approximation suggest an f{sup 13} configuration in the ground state.

  12. Magnetic and electrical properties of (FeIn2S4)1−x(CuIn5S8)x solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trukhanov, S.V.; Bodnar, I.V.; Zhafar, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, single crystals of FeIn 2 S 4 and CuIn 5 S 8 compounds, and (FeIn 2 S 4 ) 1−x (CuIn 5 S 8 ) x solid solutions were grown using the Bridgman method. The magnetic and electrical properties of the samples obtained were investigated at temperatures of 5–300 K and in a magnetic field range of 0–14 T. It was established that all of the solid solutions were paramagnets down to low temperatures of ~10 K. It was shown that the ground state of the magnetic phase of the samples was a spin glass state, where the freezing temperature increased monotonically with the increase in the concentration of Fe 2+ cations. All of the samples exhibited semiconductor characteristics in terms of electrical resistivity. The concentration-dependent critical magnetic temperatures, magnetic moment, and activation energy were plotted, which are probably explained by the magnetic state formation of the (FeIn 2 S 4 ) 1−x (CuIn 5 S 8 ) x solid solution single crystals based on the empirical Goodenough–Kanamori rules

  13. Hard and Soft Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moos, Lejf

    2009-01-01

    of Denmark, and finally the third layer: the leadership used in Danish schools. The use of 'soft governance' is shifting the focus of governance and leadership from decisions towards influence and power and thus shifting the focus of the processes from the decision-making itself towards more focus......The governance and leadership at transnational, national and school level seem to be converging into a number of isomorphic forms as we see a tendency towards substituting 'hard' forms of governance, that are legally binding, with 'soft' forms based on persuasion and advice. This article analyses...... and discusses governance forms at several levels. The first layer is the global: the methods of 'soft governance' that are being utilised by transnational agencies. The second layer is the national and local: the shift in national and local governance seen in many countries, but here demonstrated in the case...

  14. Zirconium nitride hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Daiane; Amorim, Cintia Lugnani Gomes de; Soares, Gabriel Vieira; Figueroa, Carlos Alejandro; Baumvol, Israel Jacob Rabin; Basso, Rodrigo Leonardo de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium nitride (ZrN) nanometric films were deposited onto different substrates, in order to study the surface crystalline microstructure and also to investigate the electrochemical behavior to obtain a better composition that minimizes corrosion reactions. The coatings were produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD). The influence of the nitrogen partial pressure, deposition time and temperature over the surface properties was studied. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and corrosion experiments were performed to characterize the ZrN hard coatings. The ZrN films properties and microstructure changes according to the deposition parameters. The corrosion resistance increases with temperature used in the films deposition. Corrosion tests show that ZrN coating deposited by PVD onto titanium substrate can improve the corrosion resistance. (author)

  15. Electric Vehicle - Economical driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, VCE, Steen V.; Schøn, Henriette

    1999-01-01

    Instruct the reader in getting most satisfaction out of an EV, especially concerning driving and loading.......Instruct the reader in getting most satisfaction out of an EV, especially concerning driving and loading....

  16. Dementia and driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000028.htm Dementia and driving To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. If your loved one has dementia , deciding when they can no longer drive may ...

  17. Janka hardness using nonstandard specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Marshall Begel; William Nelson

    2006-01-01

    Janka hardness determined on 1.5- by 3.5-in. specimens (2×4s) was found to be equivalent to that determined using the 2- by 2-in. specimen specified in ASTM D 143. Data are presented on the relationship between Janka hardness and the strength of clear wood. Analysis of historical data determined using standard specimens indicated no difference between side hardness...

  18. Gear bearing drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor); Weinberg, Brian (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  19. Optical non-linearity tuning in Ca{sub 8-x}Pb{sub x}MBi(VO{sub 4}){sub 7} whitlockite-type systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beskorovaynaya, Daria A., E-mail: darya.beskorovajnaya@list.ru [Chemistry Department, Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Department of Physical and Colloid Chemistry, Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Deyneko, Dina V. [Chemistry Department, Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography RAS, 119333 Moscow (Russian Federation); Baryshnikova, Oksana V. [Chemistry Department, Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Stefanovich, Sergey Yu. [Chemistry Department, Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); L.Ya. Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry, 105064 Moscow (Russian Federation); Lazoryak, Bogdan I. [Chemistry Department, Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-25

    Ca{sub 8-x}Pb{sub x}MBi(VO{sub 4}){sub 7}, M{sup 2+} = Mg{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+} (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.5) and M{sup 2+} = Ca{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+} (0 ≤ x ≤ 2) solid solutions with whitlockite-type structure have been prepared by solid state reactions in the form of powders and ceramics. Ferroelectric phase transitions (FPT) are revealed in the cause of dielectric, calorimetric and temperature second harmonic generation (SHG) investigations. It is found that ferroelectric Curie points in solid solutions decrease with x from 1000–1070 K to 730–800 K. The intensity of SHG firstly increases with x and then decreases, the highest SHG signal belongs to Ca{sub 7}PbCdBi(VO{sub 4}){sub 7} and Ca{sub 6.5}Pb{sub 1.5}CdBi(VO{sub 4}){sub 7}. Variation of Pb{sup 2+} concentration is shown to have a minor influence on the coherence length, therefore the SHG augmentation in solid solutions is attributed to optical nonlinear coefficient . The structure of Ca{sub 6.5}Pb{sub 1.5}MgBi(VO{sub 4}){sub 7} is resolved and crystal structure changes in solid solutions are analyzed. The results are interpreted in view of site occupancy by two- and trivalent cations and their influence on formation of spare space essential for Pb{sup 2+} and Bi{sup 3+} non-bonded electrons stereo-activity in whitlockite-type crystal structures. For the first time contribution to optical nonlinearity from VO{sub 4}{sup 3−} anionic groups in different positions is also discussed. - Highlights: • The Curie temperatures of ferroelectric Ca{sub 8-x}Pb{sub x}MBi(VO{sub 4}){sub 7} solid solutions are chemically controlled from 1070 down to 730–800 K. • Optical SHG non-linear coefficient in Ca{sub 8-x}Pb{sub x}MBi(VO{sub 4}) strongly increase up to 3.3 pm/V at an optimized Pb and Bi concentration. • Structure-property correlations in the whitlockites includes crystal site positions occupancy by two- and trivalent cations.

  20. Antihistamines and driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlon, J F

    1988-10-27

    The results of two placebo-controlled driving performance studies confirm laboratory data showing that the nonsedating antihistamine terfenadine does not influence the driving performance of users. The amplitude of vehicle weaving calculated for drivers who received this agent did not differ from control values. Neither terfenadine nor loratadine, another nonsedating antihistamine, potentiated the adverse effects of alcohol on driving performance.

  1. Driving After a Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 23,2015 Can I drive after a stroke? Driving is often a major concern after someone has a stroke. It’s not unusual for stroke survivors to want to drive. Being able to get around after a stroke is important. Safety behind the wheel is even more important after ...

  2. Sequential Dependencies in Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Anup; Tran, Cuong; Wilder, Matthew H.; Mozer, Michael C.; Trivedi, Mohan M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of recent experience on current behavior has been studied extensively in simple laboratory tasks. We explore the nature of sequential effects in the more naturalistic setting of automobile driving. Driving is a safety-critical task in which delayed response times may have severe consequences. Using a realistic driving simulator, we find…

  3. Simple Driving Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    2002-01-01

    -like language. Our aim is to extract a simple notion of driving and show that even in this tamed form it has much of the power of more general notions of driving. Our driving technique may be used to simplify functional programs which use function composition and will often be able to remove intermediate data...

  4. Radiation hardness of CMS pixel barrel modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohe, T.; Bean, A.; Erdmann, W.; Kaestli, H.-C.; Khalatyan, S.; Meier, B.; Radicci, V.; Sibille, J.

    2010-01-01

    Pixel detectors are used in the innermost part of the multi purpose experiments at the LHC and are therefore exposed to the highest fluences of ionising radiation, which in this part of the detectors consists mainly of charged pions. The radiation hardness of all detector components has been thoroughly tested up to the fluences expected at the LHC. In case of an LHC upgrade, the fluence will be much higher and it is not yet clear how long the present pixel modules will stay operative in such a harsh environment. The aim of this study was to establish such a limit as a benchmark for other possible detector concepts considered for the upgrade. As the sensors and the readout chip are the parts most sensitive to radiation damage, samples consisting of a small pixel sensor bump-bonded to a CMS-readout chip (PSI46V2.1) have been irradiated with positive 200 MeV pions at PSI up to 6x10 14 n eq /cm 2 and with 21 GeV protons at CERN up to 5x10 15 n eq /cm 2 . After irradiation the response of the system to beta particles from a 90 Sr source was measured to characterise the charge collection efficiency of the sensor. Radiation induced changes in the readout chip were also measured. The results show that the present pixel modules can be expected to be still operational after a fluence of 2.8x10 15 n eq /cm 2 . Samples irradiated up to 5x10 15 n eq /cm 2 still see the beta particles. However, further tests are needed to confirm whether a stable operation with high particle detection efficiency is possible after such a high fluence.

  5. Hard processes. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, B.L.; Khoze, V.A.; Lipatov, L.N.

    1984-01-01

    Deep inelastic (hard) processes are now at the epicenter of modern high-energy physics. These processes are governed by short-distance dynamics, which reveals the intrinsic structure of elementary particles. The theory of deep inelastic processes is now sufficiently well settled. The authors' aim was to give an effective tool to theoreticians and experimentalists who are engaged in high-energy physics. This book is intended primarily for physicists who are only beginning to study the field. To read the book, one should be acquainted with the Feynman diagram technique and with some particular topics from elementary particle theory (symmetries, dispersion relations, Regge pole theory, etc.). Theoretical consideration of deep inelastic processes is now based on quantum chromodynamics (QCD). At the same time, analysis of relevant physical phenomena demands a synthesis of QCD notions (quarks, gluons) with certain empirical characteristics. Therefore, the phenomenological approaches presented are a necessary stage in a study of this range of phenomena which should undoubtedly be followed by a detailed description based on QCD and electroweak theory. The authors were naturally unable to dwell on experimental data accumulated during the past decade of intensive investigations. Priority was given to results which allow a direct comparison with theoretical predictions. (Auth.)

  6. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V. (GVSt), Herne (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    International the coal market in 2014 was the first time in a long time in a period of stagnation. In Germany, the coal consumption decreased even significantly, mainly due to the decrease in power generation. Here the national energy transition has now been noticable affected negative for coal use. The political guidances can expect a further significant downward movement for the future. In the present phase-out process of the German hard coal industry with still three active mines there was in 2014 no decommissioning. But the next is at the end of 2015, and the plans for the time after mining have been continued. [German] International war der Markt fuer Steinkohle 2014 erstmals seit langem wieder von einer Stagnation gekennzeichnet. In Deutschland ging der Steinkohlenverbrauch sogar deutlich zurueck, vor allem wegen des Rueckgangs in der Stromerzeugung. Hier hat sich die nationale Energiewende nun spuerbar und fuer die Steinkohlennutzung negativ ausgewirkt. Die politischen Weichenstellungen lassen fuer die Zukunft eine weitere erhebliche Abwaertsbewegung erwarten. Bei dem im Auslaufprozess befindlichen deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau mit noch drei aktiven Bergwerken gab es 2014 keine Stilllegung. Doch die naechste steht zum Jahresende 2015 an, und die Planungen fuer die Zeit nach dem Bergbau sind fortgefuehrt worden.

  7. Positron-annihilation 2D-ACAR measurements in the incommensurately modulated high-Tc superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mijnarends, P.E.; Melis, A.F.J.; Weeber, A.W.; Menovsky, A.A.; Kadowaki, K.; National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki

    1990-12-01

    Measurements are presented of the two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) in a single crystal of approximate composition Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x (T c =85 K) at 6 K and 92 K. Data taken with projection along the c axis show a strong C 2v symmetry due to the presence of an incommensurate modulation with wave vector q in the crystal structure, together with considerable fine-structure. It is shown theoretically that the modulation should cause images of the Fermi surface displaced over an integer times q relative to the usual high-momentum components. An analysis of the behaviour of the fine-structure in the 2D-ACAR distribution shows that many peaks change in intensity and width but little in position T is raised from 6 to 92 K. (author). 32 refs.; 6 figs

  8. Higgs Mode in the d -Wave Superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 +x Driven by an Intense Terahertz Pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumi, Kota; Tsuji, Naoto; Hamada, Yuki I.; Matsunaga, Ryusuke; Schneeloch, John; Zhong, Ruidan D.; Gu, Genda D.; Aoki, Hideo; Gallais, Yann; Shimano, Ryo

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the terahertz (THz)-pulse-driven nonlinear response in the d -wave cuprate superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 +x (Bi2212) using a THz pump near-infrared probe scheme in the time domain. We observe an oscillatory behavior of the optical reflectivity that follows the THz electric field squared and is markedly enhanced below Tc . The corresponding third-order nonlinear effect exhibits both A1 g and B1 g symmetry components, which are decomposed from polarization-resolved measurements. A comparison with a BCS calculation of the nonlinear susceptibility indicates that the A1 g component is associated with the Higgs mode of the d -wave order parameter.

  9. Melting of polydisperse hard disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, S.; Frenkel, D.

    2004-01-01

    The melting of a polydisperse hard-disk system is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations in the semigrand canonical ensemble. This is done in the context of possible continuous melting by a dislocation-unbinding mechanism, as an extension of the two-dimensional hard-disk melting problem. We find

  10. Processed Apple Product Marketing Analysis: Hard Cider and Apple Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Rowles, Kristin

    2000-01-01

    Hard cider and apple wine offer new value-added marketing opportunities to the apple industry. Both products are situated in rapidly growing categories of the beverage industry. The development of effective marketing strategies for these products requires an understanding of the forces driving competition in these markets. This paper provides background information to support competitive analysis and strategy development. Development of these markets will be positive for the apple industry, b...

  11. Control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okutani, Tetsuro.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a simple and economical control rod drive using a control circuit requiring no pulse circuit. Constitution: Control rods in a BWR type reactor are driven by hydraulic pressure and inserted or withdrawn in the direction of applying the hydraulic pressure. The direction of the hydraulic pressure is controlled by a direction control valve. Since the driving for the control rod is extremely important in view of the operation, a self diagnosis function is disposed for rapid inspection of possible abnormality. In the present invention, two driving contacts are disposed each by one between the both ends of a solenoid valve of the direction control valve for driving the control rod and the driving power source, and diagnosis is conducted by alternately operating them. Therefore, since it is only necessary that the control circuit issues a driving instruction only to one of the two driving contacts, the pulse circuit is no more required. Further, since the control rod driving is conducted upon alignment of the two driving instructions, the reliability of the control rod drive can be improved. (Horiuchi, T.)

  12. Hardness variability in commercial technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Sexton, F.W.; Roeske, S.B.; Knoll, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    The radiation hardness of commercial Floating Gate 256K E 2 PROMs from a single diffusion lot was observed to vary between 5 to 25 krad(Si) when irradiated at a low dose rate of 64 mrad(Si)/s. Additional variations in E 2 PROM hardness were found to depend on bias condition and failure mode (i.e., inability to read or write the memory), as well as the foundry at which the part was manufactured. This variability is related to system requirements, and it is shown that hardness level and variability affect the allowable mode of operation for E 2 PROMs in space applications. The radiation hardness of commercial 1-Mbit CMOS SRAMs from Micron, Hitachi, and Sony irradiated at 147 rad(Si)/s was approximately 12, 13, and 19 krad(Si), respectively. These failure levels appear to be related to increases in leakage current during irradiation. Hardness of SRAMs from each manufacturer varied by less than 20%, but differences between manufacturers are significant. The Qualified Manufacturer's List approach to radiation hardness assurance is suggested as a way to reduce variability and to improve the hardness level of commercial technologies

  13. Friction degradation and set-up effects in hard clays offshore Congo and Angola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colliat, J.L.; Vergobbi, P.; Puech, A.

    1993-01-01

    Piles driven into stiff to hard clays encountered offshore Congo and Angola clearly show both clay-type effects which are (1) friction degradation, with very low driving resistances during continuous driving, and (2) set-up after driving interruptions. Both phenomena were studied by back-analysis of driving records, including results of pile driving monitoring. It allowed one to deduce the friction distribution along the piles during driving; show how the shaft friction at any depth reduces as the pile is driven further into the ground; and show that the shaft friction after driving delays can be close to the estimated static friction capacity of the piles. The SRD calculation method proposed by the authors takes the friction degradation effect into account, leading to improved pile drivability predictions. Four case histories are presented to illustrate the results obtained

  14. Using driving simulators to assess driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Linda Ng; Lee, John D

    2010-05-01

    Changes in drivers, vehicles, and roadways pose substantial challenges to the transportation safety community. Crash records and naturalistic driving data are useful for examining the influence of past or existing technology on drivers, and the associations between risk factors and crashes. However, they are limited because causation cannot be established and technology not yet installed in production vehicles cannot be assessed. Driving simulators have become an increasingly widespread tool to understand evolving and novel technologies. The ability to manipulate independent variables in a randomized, controlled setting also provides the added benefit of identifying causal links. This paper introduces a special issue on simulator-based safety studies. The special issue comprises 25 papers that demonstrate the use of driving simulators to address pressing transportation safety problems and includes topics as diverse as neurological dysfunction, work zone design, and driver distraction. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. On scale dependence of hardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shorshorov, M.Kh.; Alekhin, V.P.; Bulychev, S.I.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of hardness as a structure-sensitive characteristic of a material is considered. It is shown that in conditions of a decreasing stress field under the inventor the hardness function is determined by the average distance, Lsub(a), between the stops (fixed and sessile dislocations, segregation particles, etc.). In the general case, Lsub(a) depends on the size of the impression and explains the great diversity of hardness functions. The concept of average true deformation rate on depression is introduced

  16. Superluminal warp drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F. [Colina de los Chopos, Centro de Fisica ' Miguel A. Catalan' , Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: p.gonzalezdiaz@imaff.cfmac.csic.es

    2007-09-20

    In this Letter we consider a warp drive spacetime resulting from that suggested by Alcubierre when the spaceship can only travel faster than light. Restricting to the two dimensions that retains most of the physics, we derive the thermodynamic properties of the warp drive and show that the temperature of the spaceship rises up as its apparent velocity increases. We also find that the warp drive spacetime can be exhibited in a manifestly cosmological form.

  17. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Research results of hard photon technology have been summarized as a part of novel technology development highly utilizing the quantum nature of photon. Hard photon technology refers to photon beam technologies which use photon in the 0.1 to 200 nm wavelength region. Hard photon has not been used in industry due to the lack of suitable photon sources and optical devices. However, hard photon in this wavelength region is expected to bring about innovations in such areas as ultrafine processing and material synthesis due to its atom selective reaction, inner shell excitation reaction, and spatially high resolution. Then, technological themes and possibility have been surveyed. Although there are principle proposes and their verification of individual technologies for the technologies of hard photon generation, regulation and utilization, they are still far from the practical applications. For the photon source technology, the laser diode pumped driver laser technology, laser plasma photon source technology, synchrotron radiation photon source technology, and vacuum ultraviolet photon source technology are presented. For the optical device technology, the multi-layer film technology for beam mirrors and the non-spherical lens processing technology are introduced. Also are described the reduction lithography technology, hard photon excitation process, and methods of analysis and measurement. 430 refs., 165 figs., 23 tabs.

  18. Medications and impaired driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, Amanda; Carr, David B

    2014-04-01

    To describe the association of specific medication classes with driving outcomes and provide clinical recommendations. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published from January 1973 to June 2013 on classes of medications associated with driving impairment. The search included outcome terms such as automobile driving, motor vehicle crash, driving simulator, and road tests. Only English-language articles that contained findings from observational or interventional designs with ≥ 10 participants were included in this review. Cross-sectional studies, case series, and case reports were excluded. Driving is an important task and activity for the majority of adults. Some commonly prescribed medications have been associated with driving impairment measured by road performance, driving simulation, and/or motor vehicle crashes. This review of 30 studies identified findings with barbiturates, benzodiazepines, hypnotics, antidepressants, opioid and nonsteroidal analgesics, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, antiparkinsonian agents, skeletal muscle relaxants, antihistamines, anticholinergic medications, and hypoglycemic agents. Additional studies of medication impact on sedation, sleep latency, and psychomotor function, as well as the role of alcohol, are also discussed. Psychotropic agents and those with central nervous system side effects were associated with measures of impaired driving performance. It is difficult to determine if such associations are actually a result of medication use or the medical diagnosis itself. Regardless, clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of impaired driving with specific classes of medications, educate their patients, and/or consider safer alternatives.

  19. Universal Drive Train Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This vehicle drive train research facility is capable of evaluating helicopter and ground vehicle power transmission technologies in a system level environment. The...

  20. Chevrel-phase solid solution Mo 6Se 8- xTe x. Study of its superconducting, magnetic and NMR properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamard1a, C.; Auffret, V.; Peña, O.; Le Floch, M.; Nowak, B.; Wojakowski, A.

    2000-09-01

    The Chevrel-phase solid solution Mo 6Se 8-Mo 6Te 8 was studied by X-ray diffraction, AC and DC magnetic susceptibility and 77Se and 125Te NMR spectroscopy. From the smooth evolution of the lattice parameters and superconducting critical temperatures, a progressive substitution of selenium atoms by tellurium is shown, on the whole range of composition 0⩽ x⩽8, in the formulation Mo 6Se 8- xTe x: the unit-cell volume increases linearly because of the larger ionic size of tellurium, while Tc decreases rapidly (from 6.45 down to 0 K) because of the different formal oxidation states of the anions and a probable evolution of the Fermi level in the density of states. Results of magnetic susceptibility support this model and suggest the inhibition of the intrinsic metallic behavior with increasing x. The NMR spectra of the binaries Mo 6Se 8 and Mo 6Te 8 reveal two significant features, attributed to two different chalcogen positions in the R 3¯ symmetry. At low Se contents in Mo 6Se 8- xTe x ( x=7.5, 7 and 6), selenium first fills the two X(2) sites along the three-fold axis (2c positions), and then it becomes statistically distributed over the general 6f positions, leading to broad 77Se NMR lines. On the other hand, substitution of Te atoms in Mo 6Se 8 seems to occur in a random way, creating large perturbations on the 125Te NMR spectra, over the whole range of x. Theoretical analysis based on the presence of two anisotropic lines (of axial and non-axial symmetries, respectively) allowed us to estimate their anisotropy factors and to perfectly simulate the frequency response of both Mo 6Se 8 and Mo 6Te 8 binaries. Analysis of the Knight shift anisotropy leads us to conclude about the importance of the molybdenum z 2 molecular orbital contribution which controls the Mo-X dipolar interactions.

  1. Single-crystalline Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x detectors for direct detection of microwave radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.; Winkler, D.; Yurgens, A.

    2015-01-01

    We test radiation detectors made from single-crystalline Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x flakes put on oxidized Si substrates. The 100-nm-thick flakes are lithographically patterned into 4×12 μm 2 large rectangles embedded in thin-film log-spiral antennas. The SiO 2 layer weakens the thermal link between the flakes and the bath. Two modes of radiation detection have been observed. For a bolometric type of sensors a responsivity of ∼300 V/W and a noise equivalent power of 30 nW/√(Hz) has been deduced at 70 K. Much more sensitive is the non-bolometric device showing characteristics similar to a Golay-type detector while being at least a thousand times faster. Making smaller (sub-μm) structures is expected to significantly improve the performance of these devices and makes them very competitive among other microwave and terahertz detectors

  2. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy studies of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x from the strongly underdoped to strongly overdoped regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, James

    2006-03-01

    Using atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy (STS), we investigate the electronic structure Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x across a range of doping levels from x ˜ 0.1 up to as high as ˜0.23, with significant changes in electronic structure observed above p˜0.21. New sample preparation processes [1] were used to produce heavily overdoped crystals suitable for the imaging of various forms of electronic heterogeneity. The evolution of the gap map δ(r), coherence peak height map A(r), the inelastic tunneling signatures φ(r), and the quasiparticle interference LDOS modulations, as well as their interrelations across this range of doping levels, will be presented. Additional authors: J. Lee, M. Wang, Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, U.S.A; K. Fujita, Department of Advanced Materials Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan; H. Eisaki, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Central 2, Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568; S. Uchida, Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033; and J. C. Davis, Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Department of Physics, Cornell University. [1] J. Slezak, K. Fujita, J. C. Davis, in preparation (2005)

  3. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, C.A. Jr.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes. 7 figs.

  4. Wrong-way driving.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    Wrong-way driving is a phenomenon that mainly happens on motorways. Although the number of wrong-way crashes is relatively limited, their consequences are much more severe than the consequences of other motorway injury crashes. The groups most often causing wrong-way driving accidents are young,

  5. Recognizing driving in haste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rendón-Vélez, E.

    2014-01-01

    One can often hear people discussing the reasons why a road accident has happened: “She had to pick up her kids in the school before four o’clock and she was driving in haste and careless”, “He was stressed, he wanted to reach the beginning of the football match, tried to drive faster and didn't

  6. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futatsugi, Masao.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To secure the reactor operation safety by the provision of a fluid pressure detecting section for control rod driving fluid and a control rod interlock at the midway of the flow pass for supplying driving fluid to the control rod drives. Constitution: Between a driving line and a direction control valve are provided a pressure detecting portion, an alarm generating device, and a control rod inhibition interlock. The driving fluid from a driving fluid source is discharged by way of a pump and a manual valve into the reactor in which the control rods and reactor fuels are contained. In addition, when the direction control valve is switched and the control rods are inserted and extracted by the control rod drives, the pressure in the driving line is always detected by the pressure detection section, whereby if abnormal pressure is resulted, the alarm generating device is actuated to warn the abnormality and the control rod inhibition interlock is actuated to lock the direction control valve thereby secure the safety operation of the reactor. (Seki, T.)

  7. Switched reluctance motor drives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Davis RM, Ray WF, Blake RJ 1981 Inverter drive for switched reluctance: circuits and component ratings. Inst. Elec. Eng. Proc. B128: 126-136. Ehsani M. 1991 Position Sensor elimination technique for the switched reluctance motor drive. US Patent No. 5,072,166. Ehsani M, Ramani K R 1993 Direct control strategies based ...

  8. Self-driving carsickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diels, C.; Bos, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and

  9. Self-driving carsickness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diels, C.; Bos, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and

  10. Fundamentals of electrical drives

    CERN Document Server

    Veltman, André; De Doncker, Rik W

    2007-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive introduction to various aspects of electrical drive systems. This volume provides a presentation of dynamic generic models that cover all major electrical machine types and modulation/control components of a drive as well as dynamic and steady state analysis of transformers and electrical machines.

  11. Electric Vehicle - Economical driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, VCE, Steen V.; Schøn, Henriette

    1999-01-01

    How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV......How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV...

  12. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Akira.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to monitor the coupling state between a control rod and a control rod drive. Constitution: After the completion of a control rod withdrawal, a coolant pressure is applied to a control rod drive being adjusted so as to raise only the control rod drive and, in a case where the coupling between the control rod drive and the control rod is detached, the former is elevated till it contacts the control rod and then stopped. The actual stopping position is detected by an actual position detection circuit and compared with a predetermined position stored in a predetermined position detection circuit. If both of the positions are not aligned with each other, it is judged by a judging circuit that the control rod and the control rod drives are not combined. (Sekiya, K.)

  13. Smooth driving of Mössbauer electromechanical transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, A.; Mayosky, M. A.; Martínez, N.; Mendoza Zélis, P.; Pasquevich, G. A.; Sánchez, F. H.

    2011-01-01

    Quality of Mössbauer spectra is strongly related to the performance of source velocity modulator. Traditional electromechanical driving techniques demand hard-edged square or triangular velocity waveforms that introduce long settling times and demand careful driver tuning. For this work, the behavior of commercial velocity transducers and drive units was studied under different working conditions. Different velocity reference waveforms in constant-acceleration, constant-velocity and programmable-velocity techniques were tested. Significant improvement in spectrometer efficiency and accuracy was achieved by replacing triangular and square hard edges with continuous smooth-shaped transitions. A criterion for best waveform selection and synchronization is presented and attainable enhancements are evaluated. In order to fully exploit this driving technique, a compact microprocessor-based architecture is proposed and a suitable data acquisition system implementation is presented. System linearity and efficiency characterization are also shown.

  14. Turbulent current drive mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua

    2017-08-01

    Mechanisms through which plasma microturbulence can drive a mean electron plasma current are derived. The efficiency through which these turbulent contributions can drive deviations from neoclassical predictions of the electron current profile is computed by employing a linearized Coulomb collision operator. It is found that a non-diffusive contribution to the electron momentum flux as well as an anomalous electron-ion momentum exchange term provide the most efficient means through which turbulence can modify the mean electron current for the cases considered. Such turbulent contributions appear as an effective EMF within Ohm's law and hence provide an ideal means for driving deviations from neoclassical predictions.

  15. Fast wave current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.

    1985-07-01

    Fast wave current drive is demonstrated in the Princeton ACT-I toroidal device. The fast Alfven wave, in the range of high ion-cyclotron harmonics, produced 40 A of current from 1 kW of rf power coupled into the plasma by fast wave loop antenna. This wave excites a steady current by damping on the energetic tail of the electron distribution function in the same way as lower-hybrid current drive, except that fast wave current drive is appropriate for higher plasma densities

  16. Identifying Method of Drunk Driving Based on Driving Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Drunk driving is one of the leading causes contributing to traffic crashes. There are numerous issues that need to be resolved with the current method of identifying drunk driving. Driving behavior, with the characteristic of real-time, was extensively researched to identify impaired driving behaviors. In this paper, the drives with BACs above 0.05% were defined as drunk driving state. A detailed comparison was made between normal driving and drunk driving. The experiment in driving simulator was designed to collect the driving performance data of the groups. According to the characteristics analysis for the effect of alcohol on driving performance, seven significant indicators were extracted and the drunk driving was identified by the Fisher Discriminant Method. The discriminant function demonstrated a high accuracy of classification. The optimal critical score to differentiate normal from drinking state was found to be 0. The evaluation result verifies the accuracy of classification method.

  17. Hard diffraction and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, A.

    1995-09-01

    The field of hard diffraction, which studies events with a rapidity gap and a hard scattering, has expanded dramatically recently. A review of new results from CDF, D OE, H1 and ZEUS will be given. These results include diffractive jet production, deep-inelastic scattering in large rapidity gap events, rapidity gaps between high transverse energy jets, and a search for diffractive W-boson production. The combination of these results gives new insight into the exchanged object, believed to be the pomeron. The results axe consistent with factorization and with a hard pomeron that contains both quarks and gluons. There is also evidence for the exchange of a strongly interacting color singlet in high momentum transfer (36 2 ) events

  18. Initiative hard coal; Initiative Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, J.

    2007-08-02

    In order to decrease the import dependence of hard coal in the European Union, the author has submitted suggestions to the director of conventional sources of energy (directorate general for energy and transport) of the European community, which found a positive resonance. These suggestions are summarized in an elaboration 'Initiative Hard Coal'. After clarifying the starting situation and defining the target the presupposition for a better use of hard coal deposits as raw material in the European Union are pointed out. On that basis concrete suggestions for measures are made. Apart from the conditions of the deposits it concerns thereby also new mining techniques and mining-economical developments, connected with tasks for the mining-machine industry. (orig.)

  19. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the application of photon to industrial technologies, in particular, a hard photon technology was surveyed which uses photon beams of 0.1-200nm in wavelength. Its features such as selective atom reaction, dense inner shell excitation and spacial high resolution by quantum energy are expected to provide innovative techniques for various field such as fine machining, material synthesis and advanced inspection technology. This wavelength region has been hardly utilized for industrial fields because of poor development of suitable photon sources and optical devices. The developmental meaning, usable time and issue of a hard photon reduction lithography were surveyed as lithography in ultra-fine region below 0.1{mu}m. On hard photon analysis/evaluation technology, the industrial use of analysis, measurement and evaluation technologies by micro-beam was viewed, and optimum photon sources and optical systems were surveyed. Prediction of surface and surface layer modification by inner shell excitation, the future trend of this process and development of a vacuum ultraviolet light source were also surveyed. 383 refs., 153 figs., 17 tabs.

  20. Linear step drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haniger, L.; Elger, R.; Kocandrle, L.; Zdebor, J.

    1986-01-01

    A linear step drive is described developed in Czechoslovak-Soviet cooperation and intended for driving WWER-1000 control rods. The functional principle is explained of the motor and the mechanical and electrical parts of the drive, power control, and the indicator of position are described. The motor has latches situated in the reactor at a distance of 3 m from magnetic armatures, it has a low structural height above the reactor cover, which suggests its suitability for seismic localities. Its magnetic circuits use counterpoles; the mechanical shocks at the completion of each step are damped using special design features. The position indicator is of a special design and evaluates motor position within ±1% of total travel. A drive diagram and the flow chart of both the control electronics and the position indicator are presented. (author) 4 figs

  1. Fundamentals of electrical drives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, A.; Pulle, D.W.J.; de Doncker, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive, user-friendly, color illustrated introductory text for electrical drive systems that simplifies the understanding of electrical machine principles Updated edition covers innovations in machine design, power semi-conductors, digital signal processors and simulation software Presents

  2. Science of driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The Science of Driving project focused on developing a collaborative relationship to develop curriculum units for middle school and high school students to engage them in exciting real-world scenarios. This effort involved faculty, staff, and student...

  3. Drugs and driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walsh, J. Michael; De Gier, Johan J.; Christopherson, Asbjørg S.; Verstraete, Alain G.

    The authors present a global overview on the issue of drugs and driving covering four major areas: (1) Epidemiology and Prevalence-which reviews epidemiological research, summarizes available information, discusses the methodological shortcomings of extant studies, and makes recommendations for

  4. Evaluation of hard fossil fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivkovic, S.; Nuic, J.

    1999-01-01

    Because of its inexhaustible supplies hard fossil fuel will represent the pillar of the power systems of the 21st century. Only high-calorie fossil fuels have the market value and participate in the world trade. Low-calorie fossil fuels ((brown coal and lignite) are fuels spent on the spot and their value is indirectly expressed through manufactured kWh. For the purpose of determining the real value of a tonne of low-calorie coal, the criteria that help in establishing the value of a tonne of hard coal have to be corrected and thus evaluated and assessed at the market. (author)

  5. Calorimeter triggers for hard collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landshoff, P.V.; Polkinghorne, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    We discuss the use of a forward calorimeter to trigger on hard hadron-hadron collisions. We give a derivation in the covariant parton model of the Ochs-Stodolsky scaling law for single-hard-scattering processes, and investigate the conditions when instead a multiple- scattering mechanism might dominate. With a proton beam, this mechanism results in six transverse jets, with a total average multiplicity about twice that seen in ordinary events. We estimate that its cross section is likely to be experimentally accessible at avalues of the beam energy in the region of 100 GeV/c

  6. Hardness of ion implanted ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, W.C.; McHargue, C.J.; Farlow, G.C.; White, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    It has been established that the wear behavior of ceramic materials can be modified through ion implantation. Studies have been done to characterize the effect of implantation on the structure and composition of ceramic surfaces. To understand how these changes affect the wear properties of the ceramic, other mechanical properties must be measured. To accomplish this, a commercially available ultra low load hardness tester has been used to characterize Al 2 O 3 with different implanted species and doses. The hardness of the base material is compared with the highly damaged crystalline state as well as the amorphous material

  7. Instant Google Drive starter

    CERN Document Server

    Procopio, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This book is a Starter which teaches you how to use Google Drive practically. This book is perfect for people of all skill levels who want to enjoy the benefits of using Google Drive to safely store their files online and in the cloud. It's also great for anyone looking to learn more about cloud computing in general. Readers are expected to have an Internet connection and basic knowledge of using the internet.

  8. Control rod driving mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooshima, Yoshio.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To perform reliable scram operation, even if abnormality should occur in a system instructing scram operation in FBR type reactors. Constitution: An aluminum alloy member to be melt at a predetermined temperature (about 600sup(o)C) is disposed to a connection part between a control rod and a driving mechanism, whereby the control rod is detached from the driving mechanism and gravitationally fallen to the reactor core. (Ikeda, J.)

  9. Modulated Current Drive Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C.C.; Lohr, J.; Luce, T.C.; Prater, R.; Cox, W.A.; Forest, C.B.; Jayakumar, R.J.; Makowski, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    A new measurement approach is presented which directly determines the noninductive current profile from the periodic response of the motional Stark effect (MSE) signals to the slow modulation of the external current drive source. A Fourier transform of the poloidal magnetic flux diffusion equation is used to analyze the MSE data. An example of this measurement technique is shown using modulated electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) discharges from the DIII-D tokamak

  10. Belt drive construction improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Yu. Khomenko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of the traction capacity increase of the belt drive TRK is examined. This was done for the purpose of air conditioning system of passenger car with double-generator system energy supplying. Belts XPC (made by the German firm «Continental ContiTech» testing were conducted. The results confirmed the possibility of their usage in order to improve belt drive TRK characteristics.

  11. Chemical hardness and density functional theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    RALPH G PEARSON. Chemistry Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA. Abstract. The concept of chemical hardness is reviewed from a personal point of view. Keywords. Hardness; softness; hard & soft acids bases (HSAB); principle of maximum hardness. (PMH) density functional theory (DFT) ...

  12. Self-driving carsickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diels, Cyriel; Bos, Jelte E

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and productivity. However, we here show that the envisaged scenarios all lead to an increased risk of motion sickness. As such, the benefits this technology is assumed to bring may not be capitalised on, in particular by those already susceptible to motion sickness. This can negatively affect user acceptance and uptake and, in turn, limit the potential socioeconomic benefits that this emerging technology may provide. Following a discussion on the causes of motion sickness in the context of self-driving cars, we present guidelines to steer the design and development of automated vehicle technologies. The aim is to limit or avoid the impact of motion sickness and ultimately promote the uptake of self-driving cars. Attention is also given to less well known consequences of motion sickness, in particular negative aftereffects such as postural instability, and detrimental effects on task performance and how this may impact the use and design of self-driving cars. We conclude that basic perceptual mechanisms need to be considered in the design process whereby self-driving cars cannot simply be thought of as living rooms, offices, or entertainment venues on wheels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Dementia and driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, D; Neubauer, K; Boyle, M; Gerrard, J; Surmon, D; Wilcock, G K

    1992-04-01

    Many European countries test cars, but not their drivers, as they age. There is evidence to suggest that human factors are more important than vehicular factors as causes of motor crashes. The elderly also are involved in more accidents per distance travelled than middle-aged drivers. As the UK relies on self-certification of health by drivers over the age of 70 years, we examined the driving practices of patients with dementia attending a Memory Clinic. Nearly one-fifth of 329 patients with documented dementia continued to drive after the onset of dementia, and impaired driving ability was noted in two-thirds of these. Their families experienced great difficulty in persuading patients to stop driving, and had to invoke outside help in many cases. Neuropsychological tests did not help to identify those who drove badly while activity of daily living scores were related to driving ability. These findings suggest that many patients with dementia drive in an unsafe fashion after the onset of the illness. The present system of self-certification of health by the elderly for driver-licensing purposes needs to be reassessed.

  14. Induction of resistance to bacterial leaf blight (Xanthomonas oryzae) disease in the high yielding variety Vijaya (IR 8 x T 90)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmanabhan, S.Y.; Kaur, S.; Rao, M.

    1976-01-01

    The high-yield variety Vijaya ( IR 8 x T 90), susceptible to bacterial leaf blight (Xanthomonas oryzae, Uyeda and Ishiyama Dawson), was treated with EMS to induce resistance. Dehusked seeds were pre-soaked in distilled water for 4 hrs, and subjected to 0.1% and 0.2% EMS for 6 hrs. Seed germination and survival was low in 0.2% EMS. Seedlings of M 1 were raised in pots, and panicles of individual plants harvested separately. The seeds of M 2 (8800 plants) generation were grown in nursery beds, and transplanted in field after 30 days. The plants were inoculated at the boot leaf stage with X.oryzae by the clipping method, and lesion length measured 15 days later. The frequency distribution of controls was bimodal, the EMS-treated population polymodal with new peaks. A wider range of variability was induced on the resistant and susceptible side. In M 2 0.36% resistant and 0.62% moderately resistant plants occurred. The seeds of (11) resistant and (20) moderately resistant plants of M 2 were sown for M 3 generation. These plants also segregated in the range of 0-31 and 0-32 cm lesion length. The frequency distribution curve was polymodal. M 2 from ''R'' showed 1.07% of resistant plants and 0.42% from ''MR'', against, 4.28% of moderately resistant plants from ''R'' and 3.22% from ''MR''. Susceptible plants of M 2 also segregated towards resistance (1.15%) and moderately resistant (6.96%) plants in M 3 generation. Resistant (25) and moderately resistant (147) plants of M 3 were carried forward to M 4 generation, and segregated in the range of 2.1-25 cm lesion length. The frequency curve was polymodal. No resistant plant (up to 2.0 cm lesion length) could be isolated in M 4 . The percentage of moderately resistant plants was 4.44% from ''R'' of M 3 and 4.82% from ''MR'' of M 3 and 4.77% from ''S'' of M 3 generation. The yield of resistant plants was low whereas the yield of moderately resistant plants equalled the parent; the yield of susceptible segregants equalled or

  15. Magneto-transport and thermoelectric properties of La0.8-xBixCa0.2MnO3 manganites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjunatha, S.O.; Rao, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, we report the studies on the magneto-transport and thermoelectric properties of La 0.8-x Bi x Ca 0.2 MnO 3 (x = 0.00, 0.05, 0.10) manganites. The samples were prepared using the conventional solid state reaction method. Structural characterization has done using XRD. Rietveld refinement technique has confirmed the single phase formation of the samples with no impurity peaks observed within experimental limits. SEM micrograph confirms the formation of grains with good intimacy. The cell parameters and the unit cell volume is observed to decrease with increasing Bi concentration. It is attributed to the smaller ionic size of Bi compare to La. Magneto-resistance of the samples are measured using standard four probe technique. The Metal-Insulator transition (TMI) is found to decrease upon doping with overall increase in the resistivity. The observed effect is due to the fact that the Ca ions possibly increases the tendency of screening of 6s 2 orbital of Bi 3+ ions. As orientation of the 6s 2 lone pair toward a surrounding anion (O 2- ) produces a local distortion and as a result, the movement of eg electrons through the Mn-O-Mn bridges, is severely reduced. Resistance of the samples is observed to reduce on application of magnetic field of 8Tesla due to the fact that the magnetic field induces spin alignment and suppress the spin fluctuation resulting in large decrease in resistance. Thermopower measurement shows that all the samples are exhibiting the anomaly of phase transition from metal like behavior in low temperature to insulator like behavior at high temperature. As the temperature increases from 5K the pristine sample exhibit a small positive and nearly constant value of S till 172K. Then the value of S start to increase sharply and reaches a maximum value of ≈41μV/K at 234K and decreases rather sharply on further increase in temperature. The analysis of thermoelectric power data confirmed the validity of small polaron type conduction

  16. Seismic signals hard clipping overcoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszowa, Paula; Sokolowski, Jakub

    2018-01-01

    In signal processing the clipping is understand as the phenomenon of limiting the signal beyond certain threshold. It is often related to overloading of a sensor. Two particular types of clipping are being recognized: soft and hard. Beyond the limiting value soft clipping reduces the signal real gain while the hard clipping stiffly sets the signal values at the limit. In both cases certain amount of signal information is lost. Obviously if one possess the model which describes the considered signal and the threshold value (which might be slightly more difficult to obtain in the soft clipping case), the attempt of restoring the signal can be made. Commonly it is assumed that the seismic signals take form of an impulse response of some specific system. This may lead to belief that the sine wave may be the most appropriate to fit in the clipping period. However, this should be tested. In this paper the possibility of overcoming the hard clipping in seismic signals originating from a geoseismic station belonging to an underground mine is considered. A set of raw signals will be hard-clipped manually and then couple different functions will be fitted and compared in terms of least squares. The results will be then analysed.

  17. Hard equality constrained integer knapsacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardal, K.I.; Lenstra, A.K.; Cook, W.J.; Schulz, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    We consider the following integer feasibility problem: "Given positive integer numbers a 0, a 1,..., a n, with gcd(a 1,..., a n) = 1 and a = (a 1,..., a n), does there exist a nonnegative integer vector x satisfying ax = a 0?" Some instances of this type have been found to be extremely hard to solve

  18. Stress in hard metal films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.C.A.M.; Kamminga, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    In the absence of thermal stress, tensile stress in hard metal films is caused by grain boundary shrinkage and compressive stress is caused by ion peening. It is shown that the two contributions are additive. Moreover tensile stress generated at the grain boundaries does not relax by ion

  19. Control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, B.C.

    1986-01-01

    A reactor core, one or more control rods, and a control rod drive are described for selectively inserting and withdrawing the one or more control rods into and from the reactor core, which consists of: a support structure secured beneath the reactor core; control rod positioning means supported by the support structure for movably supporting the control rod for movement between a lower position wherein the control rod is located substantially beneath the reactor core and an upper position wherein at least an upper portion of the control rod extends into the reactor core; transmission means; primary drive means connected with the control rod positioning means by the transmission means for positioning the control rod under normal operating conditions; emergency drive means for moving the control rod from the lower position to the upper position under emergency conditions, the emergency drive means including a weight movable between an upper and a lower position, means for movably supporting the weight, and means for transmitting gravitational force exerted on the weight to the control rod positioning means to move the control rod upwardly when the weight is pulled downwardly by gravity; the transmission means connecting the control rod positioning means with the emergency drive means so that the primary drive means effects movement of the weight and the control rod in opposite directions under normal conditions, thus providing counterbalancing to reduce the force required for upward movement of the control rod under normal conditions; and restraint means for restraining the fall of the weight under normal operating conditions and disengaging the primary drive means to release the weight under emergency conditions

  20. Hard processes in hadronic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satz, H.; Wang, X.N.

    1995-01-01

    Quantum chromodynamics is today accepted as the fundamental theory of strong interactions, even though most hadronic collisions lead to final states for which quantitative QCD predictions are still lacking. It therefore seems worthwhile to take stock of where we stand today and to what extent the presently available data on hard processes in hadronic collisions can be accounted for in terms of QCD. This is one reason for this work. The second reason - and in fact its original trigger - is the search for the quark-gluon plasma in high energy nuclear collisions. The hard processes to be considered here are the production of prompt photons, Drell-Yan dileptons, open charm, quarkonium states, and hard jets. For each of these, we discuss the present theoretical understanding, compare the resulting predictions to available data, and then show what behaviour it leads to at RHIC and LHC energies. All of these processes have the structure mentioned above: they contain a hard partonic interaction, calculable perturbatively, but also the non-perturbative parton distribution within a hadron. These parton distributions, however, can be studied theoretically in terms of counting rule arguments, and they can be checked independently by measurements of the parton structure functions in deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering. The present volume is the work of Hard Probe Collaboration, a group of theorists who are interested in the problem and were willing to dedicate a considerable amount of their time and work on it. The necessary preparation, planning and coordination of the project were carried out in two workshops of two weeks' duration each, in February 1994 at CERn in Geneva andin July 1994 at LBL in Berkeley

  1. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Hiroyasu.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To enable rapid control in a simple circuit by providing a motor control device having an electric capacity capable of simultaneously driving all of the control rods rapidly only in the inserting direction as well as a motor controlling device capable of fine control for the insertion and extraction at usual operation. Constitution: The control rod drives comprise a first motor control device capable of finely controlling the control rods both in inserting and extracting directions, a second motor control device capable of rapidly driving the control rods only in the inserting direction, and a first motor switching circuit and a second motor switching circuit switched by switches. Upon issue of a rapid insertion instruction for the control rods, the second motor switching circuit is closed by the switch and the second motor control circuit and driving motors are connected. Thus, each of the control rod driving motors is driven at a high speed in the inserting direction to rapidly insert all of the control rods. (Yoshino, Y.)

  2. Epilepsy and driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Mavrič

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy poses a risk for all participants in road traffic; therefore people with epilepsy do not meet the criteria for an unlimited driving license. Their driving is affected not only by epileptic seizures causing impaired consciousness and involuntary movements, but also by antiepileptic drugs with their many unwanted affects. The experts have not yet agreed on whether people with epilepsy have an increased risk of experiencing a road traffic accident. However, recent data suggests that the overall risk is lower compared to other medical conditions. Scientific evidence forms the basis of legislation, which by limiting people with epilepsy, enables all participants in road traffic to drive in the safest possible environment. The legislation that governs epilepsy and driving in Slovenia has been recently thoroughly reformed and thus allows a less discriminatory management of people with epilepsy. Although people with epilepsy experience many issues in their daily life, including their personal relationships and employment, they often list the need for driving as a top concern in surveys. General physicians play an important role in managing the issues of people with epilepsy.

  3. Økologisk risikovurdering af de genmodificerede raps MS8, RF3 og MS8xRF3 i anmeldelse til markedsføring under Forordning 1829/2003/EF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Strandberg, Morten Tune

    2012-01-01

    transportruterne. Kommentarer til EFSA: D.11.3 and D.11.4: Because there is a risk of accidental dispersal and possible adventitious presence of Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8xRf3-oilseed rape at import areas and along transport routes, these areas should be monitored for GM oilseed rape-plants from seed-spill. Furthermore GM...

  4. Økologisk risikovurdering af de genmodificerede raps MS8, RF3 og MS8xRF3 i anmeldelse til markedsføring under Forordning 1829/2003/EF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Strandberg, Morten Tune; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov

    2011-01-01

    transportruterne. Kommentarer til EFSA: D.11.3 and D.11.4: Because there is a risk of accidental dispersal and possible adventitious presence of Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8xRf3-oilseed rape at import areas and along transport routes, these areas should be monitored for GM oilseed rape-plants from seed-spill. Furthermore GM...

  5. Self-rated Driving and Driving Safety in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Lesley A.; Dodson, Joan; Edwards, Jerri D.; Ackerman, Michelle L.; Ball, Karlene

    2012-01-01

    Many U.S. states rely on older adults to self-regulate their driving and determine when driving is no longer a safe option. However, the relationship of older adults’ self-rated driving in terms of actual driving competency outcomes is unclear. The current study investigates self-rated driving in terms of (1) systematic differences between older adults with high (good/excellent) versus low (poor/fair/average) self-ratings, and (2) the predictive nature of self-rated driving to adverse driving...

  6. Radiation-hard/high-speed parallel optical links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, K.K., E-mail: gan@mps.ohio-state.edu [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Buchholz, P.; Heidbrink, S. [Fachbereich Physik, Universität Siegen, Siegen (Germany); Kagan, H.P.; Kass, R.D.; Moore, J.; Smith, D.S. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Vogt, M.; Ziolkowski, M. [Fachbereich Physik, Universität Siegen, Siegen (Germany)

    2016-09-21

    We have designed and fabricated a compact parallel optical engine for transmitting data at 5 Gb/s. The device consists of a 4-channel ASIC driving a VCSEL (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser) array in an optical package. The ASIC is designed using only core transistors in a 65 nm CMOS process to enhance the radiation-hardness. The ASIC contains an 8-bit DAC to control the bias and modulation currents of the individual channels in the VCSEL array. The performance of the optical engine up at 5 Gb/s is satisfactory.

  7. Managing Ethiopian Cities II: Informality in Ethiopia: Taxing the Hard to Tax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Bongwa (Aloysius)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractLarge informal (hard to tax) sectors are an integral part of the economies of developing countries (Ethiopia included). In much of Africa, the informal, or gray economy that escapes tax collectors and government regulators, is the hidden dynamic driving economic growth. The informal

  8. Gears and gear drives

    CERN Document Server

    Jelaska, Damir T

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how gears are formed and how they interact or 'mesh' with each other is essential when designing equipment that uses gears or gear trains. The way in which gear teeth are formed and how they mesh is determined by their geometry and kinematics, which is the topic of this book.  Gears and Gear Drives provides the reader with comprehensive coverage of gears and gear drives. Spur, helical, bevel, worm and planetary gears are all covered, with consideration given to their classification, geometry, kinematics, accuracy control, load capacity and manufacturing. Cylindric

  9. Toyota hybrid synergy drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, H.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Hannes Gautschi, director of service and training at the Toyota company in Switzerland, takes a look at Toyota's hybrid drive vehicles. The construction of the vehicles and their combined combustion engines and electric generators and drives is presented and the combined operation of these components is described. Braking and energy recovery are discussed. Figures on the performance, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} output of the hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles.

  10. Hard-to-fill vacancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ruth

    2010-09-29

    Skills for Health has launched a set of resources to help healthcare employers tackle hard-to-fill entry-level vacancies and provide sustainable employment for local unemployed people. The Sector Employability Toolkit aims to reduce recruitment and retention costs for entry-level posts and repare people for employment through pre-job training programmes, and support employers to develop local partnerships to gain access to wider pools of candidates and funding streams.

  11. CMS results on hard diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00107098

    2013-01-01

    In these proceedings we present CMS results on hard diffraction. Diffractive dijet production in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV is discussed. The cross section for dijet production is presented as a function of $\\tilde{\\xi}$, representing the fractional momentum loss of the scattered proton in single-diffractive events. The observation of W and Z boson production in events with a large pseudo-rapidity gap is also presented.

  12. Playing Moderately Hard to Get

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Reysen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In two studies, we examined the effect of different degrees of attraction reciprocation on ratings of attraction toward a potential romantic partner. Undergraduate college student participants imagined a potential romantic partner who reciprocated a low (reciprocating attraction one day a week, moderate (reciprocating attraction three days a week, high (reciprocating attraction five days a week, or unspecified degree of attraction (no mention of reciprocation. Participants then rated their degree of attraction toward the potential partner. The results of Study 1 provided only partial support for Brehm’s emotion intensity theory. However, after revising the high reciprocation condition vignette in Study 2, supporting Brehm’s emotion intensity theory, results show that a potential partners’ display of reciprocation of attraction acted as a deterrent to participants’ intensity of experienced attraction to the potential partner. The results support the notion that playing moderately hard to get elicits more intense feelings of attraction from potential suitors than playing too easy or too hard to get. Discussion of previous research examining playing hard to get is also re-examined through an emotion intensity theory theoretical lens.

  13. CMOS optimization for radiation hardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbenwick, G.F.; Fossum, J.G.

    1975-01-01

    Several approaches to the attainment of radiation-hardened MOS circuits have been investigated in the last few years. These have included implanting the SiO 2 gate insulator with aluminum, using chrome-aluminum layered gate metallization, using Al 2 O 3 as the gate insulator, and optimizing the MOS fabrication process. Earlier process optimization studies were restricted primarily to p-channel devices operating with negative gate biases. Since knowledge of the hardness dependence upon processing and design parameters is essential in producing hardened integrated circuits, a comprehensive investigation of the effects of both process and design optimization on radiation-hardened CMOS integrated circuits was undertaken. The goals are to define and establish a radiation-hardened processing sequence for CMOS integrated circuits and to formulate quantitative relationships between process and design parameters and the radiation hardness. Using these equations, the basic CMOS design can then be optimized for radiation hardness and some understanding of the basic physics responsible for the radiation damage can be gained. Results are presented

  14. The hard x-ray imager onboard IXO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Limousin, Olivier; Kokubun, Motohide; Watanabe, Shin; Laurent, Philippe; Arnaud, Monique; Tajima, Hiroyasu

    2010-07-01

    The Hard X-ray Imager (HXI) is one of the instruments onboard International X-ray Observatory (IXO), to be launched into orbit in 2020s. It covers the energy band of 10-40 keV, providing imaging-spectroscopy with a field of view of 8 x 8 arcmin2. The HXI is attached beneath the Wide Field Imager (WFI) covering 0.1-15 keV. Combined with the super-mirror coating on the mirror assembly, this configuration provides observation of X-ray source in wide energy band (0.1-40.0 keV) simultaneously, which is especially important for varying sources. The HXI sensor part consists of the semiconductor imaging spectrometer, using Si in the medium energy detector and CdTe in the high energy detector as its material, and an active shield covering its back to reduce background in orbit. The HXI technology is based on those of the Japanese-lead new generation X-ray observatory ASTRO-H, and partly from those developed for Simbol-X. Therefore, the technological development is in good progress. In the IXO mission, HXI will provide a major assets to identify the nature of the object by penetrating into thick absorbing materials and determined the inherent spectral shape in the energy band well above the structure around Fe-K lines and edges.

  15. Comparing Expert and Novice Driving Behavior in a Driving Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiran B. Ekanayake

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study focused on comparing driving behavior of expert and novice drivers in a mid-range driving simulator with the intention of evaluating the validity of driving simulators for driver training. For the investigation, measurements of performance, psychophysiological measurements, and self-reported user experience under different conditions of driving tracks and driving sessions were analyzed. We calculated correlations between quantitative and qualitative measures to enhance the reliability of the findings. The experiment was conducted involving 14 experienced drivers and 17 novice drivers. The results indicate that driving behaviors of expert and novice drivers differ from each other in several ways but it heavily depends on the characteristics of the task. Moreover, our belief is that the analytical framework proposed in this paper can be used as a tool for selecting appropriate driving tasks as well as for evaluating driving performance in driving simulators.

  16. Driving skills after whiplash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimse, R; Bjørgen, I A; Straume, A

    1997-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that some persons with longlasting problems after whiplash have changed eye movements. These changes have been related to disturbance of the posture control system. The question raised in the present study is whether such disturbances can influence daily life functions connected with balance, position and external movements, such as car driving. A group of 23 persons with disturbed eye movements due to whiplash injury, was tested in a driving simulator, together with a closely matched control group. The results revealed significant differences between the two groups with respect to response times to the traffic signs presented, identification of type of sign, as well as steering precision while the subjects' attention was directed to the process of identifying the signs. Alternative explanations such as driving experience, pain, medication or malingering are at least partly controlled for, but cannot completely be ruled out. A distorted posture control system leading to disturbance of eye movements seems to be the most likely primary causative factor, but these disturbances are most certainly complexly determined. Reduced attention capacity is considered to be a mediating secondary factor. Registration of eye movements may be a useful diagnostic tool to evaluate driving skill after whiplash.

  17. Gaze-controlled Driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tall, Martin; Alapetite, Alexandre; San Agustin, Javier

    2009-01-01

    We investigate if the gaze (point of regard) can control a remote vehicle driving on a racing track. Five different input devices (on-screen buttons, mouse-pointing low-cost webcam eye tracker and two commercial eye tracking systems) provide heading and speed control on the scene view transmitted...

  18. Gas turbine drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Developments in gas turbine drives are reviewed, e.g., low weight per unit power and thrust-weight ratio, fast availability of the maximum speed, absolute resistance to cold and to droplet formation vibrationeless run, and low exhaust gas temperatures. Applications in aeronautic engineering (turbofan), power stations, marine propulsion systems, railways and road transportation vehicles are mentioned.

  19. Chaos in drive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kratochvíl C.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide an elementary introduction to the subject of chaos in the electromechanical drive systems. In this article, we explore chaotic solutions of maps and continuous time systems. These solutions are also bounded like equilibrium, periodic and quasiperiodic solutions.

  20. Electric Drive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    compound promises to reduce weight of future permanent magnet motors by 20 to 30 percent; a similar reduction is expected in size (approximately 20...drive systems. The AC permanent magnet (brushless DC motor) is rapidly evolving and will replace most electrically excited machines. Permanent magnet motors using

  1. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  2. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  3. Driving While Intoxicated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, John

    Alcohol intoxication increases the risk of highway accidents, the relative risk of crash probability increasing as a function of blood alcohol content (BAC). Because alcohol use is more prevalent than use of other drugs, more is known about the relationship between alcohol use and driving. Most states presume a BAC of .10% to be evidence of drunk…

  4. Impact of aging on radiation hardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Fleetwood, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    Burn-in effects are used to demonstrate the potential impact of thermally activated aging effects on functional and parametric radiation hardness. These results have implications on hardness assurance testing. Techniques for characterizing aging effects are proposed

  5. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quitting drugs is hard because addiction is a brain disease. Your brain is like a control tower that sends out ... and choices. Addiction changes the signals in your brain and makes it hard to feel OK without ...

  6. Rod drive and latching mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronesi, L.; Sherwood, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    Hydraulic drive and latching mechanisms for driving reactivity control mechanisms in nuclear reactors are described. Preferably, the pressurized reactor coolant is utilized to raise the drive rod into contact with and to pivot the latching mechanism so as to allow the drive rod to pass the latching mechanism. The pressure in the housing may then be equalized which allows the drive rod to move downwardly into contact with the latching mechanism but to hold the shaft in a raised position with respect to the reactor core. Once again, the reactor coolant pressure may be utilized to raise the drive rod and thus pivot the latching mechanism so that the drive rod passes above the latching mechanism. Again, the mechanism pressure can be equalized which allows the drive rod to fall and pass by the latching mechanism so that the drive rod approaches the reactor core. (author)

  7. Predicting psychopharmacological drug effects on actual driving performance (SDLP) from psychometric tests measuring driving-related skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Roth, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    There are various methods to examine driving ability. Comparisons between these methods and their relationship with actual on-road driving is often not determined. The objective of this study was to determine whether laboratory tests measuring driving-related skills could adequately predict on-the-road driving performance during normal traffic. Ninety-six healthy volunteers performed a standardized on-the-road driving test. Subjects were instructed to drive with a constant speed and steady lateral position within the right traffic lane. Standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), i.e., the weaving of the car, was determined. The subjects also performed a psychometric test battery including the DSST, Sternberg memory scanning test, a tracking test, and a divided attention test. Difference scores from placebo for parameters of the psychometric tests and SDLP were computed and correlated with each other. A stepwise linear regression analysis determined the predictive validity of the laboratory test battery to SDLP. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that the combination of five parameters, hard tracking, tracking and reaction time of the divided attention test, and reaction time and percentage of errors of the Sternberg memory scanning test, together had a predictive validity of 33.4%. The psychometric tests in this test battery showed insufficient predictive validity to replace the on-the-road driving test during normal traffic.

  8. The hard problem of cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmo Eriksson

    Full Text Available Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the "hard problem of cooperation" as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior.

  9. The hard problem of cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Kimmo; Strimling, Pontus

    2012-01-01

    Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the "hard problem of cooperation" as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition) change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior.

  10. Electrical drives for direct drive renewable energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Wind turbine gearboxes present major reliability issues, leading to great interest in the current development of gearless direct-drive wind energy systems. Offering high reliability, high efficiency and low maintenance, developments in these direct-drive systems point the way to the next generation of wind power, and Electrical drives for direct drive renewable energy systems is an authoritative guide to their design, development and operation. Part one outlines electrical drive technology, beginning with an overview of electrical generators for direct drive systems. Principles of electrical design for permanent magnet generators are discussed, followed by electrical, thermal and structural generator design and systems integration. A review of power electronic converter technology and power electronic converter systems for direct drive renewable energy applications is then conducted. Part two then focuses on wind and marine applications, beginning with a commercial overview of wind turbine drive systems and a...

  11. Hard electroproduction of hybrid mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, I.V.; LPT Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay; Szymanowski, L.; Teryaev, O.V.; ); Wallon, S.

    2005-01-01

    We estimate the sizeable cross section for deep exclusive electroproduction of an exotic J PC = 1 -+ hybrid meson in the Bjorken regime. The production amplitude scales like the one for usual meson electroproduction, i.e. as 1/Q 2 . This is due to the non-vanishing leading twist distribution amplitude for the hybrid meson, which may be normalized thanks to its relation to the energy momentum tensor and to the QCD sum rules technique. The hard amplitude is considered up to next-to-leading order in as and we explore the consequences of fixing the renormalization scale ambiguity through the BLM procedure. (author)

  12. Hard Identity and Soft Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Rachik

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Often collective identities are classified depending on their contents and rarely depending on their forms. Differentiation between soft identity and hard identity is applied to diverse collective identities: religious, political, national, tribal ones, etc. This classification is made following the principal dimensions of collective identities: type of classification (univocal and exclusive or relative and contextual, the absence or presence of conflictsof loyalty, selective or totalitarian, objective or subjective conception, among others. The different characteristics analysed contribute to outlining an increasingly frequent type of identity: the authoritarian identity.

  13. Driving towards ecotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najjar, Devora A; Normandin, Avery M; Strait, Elizabeth A; Esvelt, Kevin M

    2017-12-01

    The prospect of using genetic methods to target vector, parasite, and reservoir species offers tremendous potential benefits to public health, but the use of genome editing to alter the shared environment will require special attention to public perception and community governance in order to benefit the world. Public skepticism combined with the media scrutiny of gene drive systems could easily derail unpopular projects entirely, especially given the potential for trade barriers to be raised against countries that employ self-propagating gene drives. Hence, open and community-guided development of thoughtfully chosen applications is not only the most ethical approach, but also the most likely to overcome the economic, social, and diplomatic barriers. Here we review current and past attempts to alter ecosystems using biological methods, identify key determinants of social acceptance, and chart a stepwise path for developers towards safe and widely supported use.

  14. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Hiromitsu.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To drive control rods at an optimum safety speed corresponding to the reactor core output. Constitution: The reactor power is detected by a neutron detector and the output signal is applied to a process computer. The process computer issues a signal representing the reactor core output, which is converted through a function generator into a signal representing the safety speed of control rods. The converted signal is further supplied to a V/F converter and converted into a pulse signal. The pulse signal is inputted to a step motor driving circuit, which actuates a step motor to operate the control rods always at a safety speed corresponding to the reactor core power. (Furukawa, Y.)

  15. Drive-by-Downloads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narvaez, Julia; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.; Seifert, Christian; Aval, Chiraag U.; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2010-02-01

    Abstract: Drive-by-downloads are malware that push, and then execute, malicious code on a client system without the user's consent. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a discussion of the usefulness of antivirus software for detecting the installation of such malware, providing groundwork for future studies. Client honeypots collected drive-by malware which was then evaluated using common antivirus products. Initial analysis showed that most of such antivirus products identified less than 70% of these highly polymorphic malware programs. Also, it was observed that the antivirus products tested, even when successfully detecting this malware, often failed to classify it, leading to the conclusion that further work could involve not only developing new behavioral detection technologies, but also empirical studies that improve general understanding of these threats. Toward that end, one example of malicious code was analyzed behaviorally to provide insight into next steps for the future direction of this research.

  16. Safety rod driving device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Kiyonobu; Kurosaki, Akira.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To rapidly insert safety rods for a criticality experiment device into a reactor core container to stop the criticality reaction thereby prevent reactivity accidents. Constitution: A cylinder device having a safety rod as a cylinder rod attached with a piston at one end is constituted. The piston is elevated by pressurized air and attracted and fixed by an electromagnet which is a stationary device disposed at the upper portion of the cylinder. If the current supply to the electromagnet is disconnected, the safety rod constituting the cylinder rod is fallen together with the piston to the lower portion of the cylinder. Since the cylinder rod driving device has neither electrical motor nor driving screw as in the conventional device, necessary space can be reduced and the weight is decreased. In addition, since the inside of the nuclear reactor can easily be shielded completely from the external atmosphere, leakage of radioactive materials can be prevented. (Horiuchi, T.)

  17. Control rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futatsugi, Masao; Goto, Mikihiko.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a control rod drive mechanism using water as an operating source, which prevents a phenomenon for forming two-layers of water in the neighbourhood of a return nozzle in a reactor to limit formation of excessive thermal stress to improve a safety. Constitution: In the control rod drive mechanism of the present invention, a heating device is installed in the neighbourhood of a pressure container for a reactor. This heating device is provided to heat return water in the reactor to a level equal to the temperature of reactor water thereby preventing a phenomenon for forming two-layers of water in the reactor. This limits formation of thermal stress in the return nozzle in the reactor. Accordingly, it is possible to minimize damages in the return nozzle portion and yet a possibility of failure in reactor water. (Kawakami, Y.)

  18. A rotary drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causer, R.

    1983-01-01

    A rotary drive for a manipulator or teleoperator comprises a ring member freely rotatable about an eccentric boss extending from an input driver shaft. The ring member has a tapered rim portion wedged between two resiliently biassed friction rings of larger diameter than the ring member and coaxial with the driver shaft, and the ring member is rotatably connected to an output driven shaft. The rotary drive provides a considerable velocity ratio, and also provides a safety feature in that friction between the rim portion and the friction rings only causes rotation of the driven shaft if the load on the driven shaft is less than a certain limiting value. This limiting value may be varied by adjusting the resilient bias on the friction rings. (author)

  19. Driving and engine cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Giakoumis, Evangelos G

    2017-01-01

    This book presents in detail the most important driving and engine cycles used for the certification and testing of new vehicles and engines around the world. It covers chassis and engine-dynamometer cycles for passenger cars, light-duty vans, heavy-duty engines, non-road engines and motorcycles, offering detailed historical information and critical review. The book also provides detailed examples from SI and diesel engines and vehicles operating during various cycles, with a focus on how the engine behaves during transients and how this is reflected in emitted pollutants, CO2 and after-treatment systems operation. It describes the measurement methods for the testing of new vehicles and essential information on the procedure for creating a driving cycle. Lastly, it presents detailed technical specifications on the most important chassis-dynamometer cycles around the world, together with a direct comparison of those cycles.

  20. Driving electrostatic transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic transducers represent a very interesting alternative to the traditional inefficient electrodynamic transducers. In order to establish the full potential of these transducers, power amplifiers which fulfill the strict requirements imposed by such loads (high impedance, frequency...... depended, nonlinear and high bias voltage for linearization) must be developed. This paper analyzes power stages and bias configurations suitable for driving an electrostatic transducer. Measurement results of a 300 V prototype amplifier are shown. Measuring THD across a high impedance source is discussed...

  1. Control rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Katsuyuki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To restrict the reduction in performance due to stress corrosion cracks by making use of condensate produced in a turbine steam condenser. Structure: Water produced in a turbine steam condenser is forced into a condensed water desalting unit by low pressure condensate pump. The condensate is purified and then forced by a high pressure condensate pump into a feedwater heater for heating before it is returned to the reactor by a feedwater pump. Part of the condensate issuing from the condensate desalting unit is branched from the remaining portion at a point upstream the pump and is withdrawn into a control rod drive water pump after passing through a motordriven bypass valve, an orifice and a condenser water level control valve, is pressurized in the control rod drive water desalting unit and supplied to a control rod drive water pressure system. The control rod is vertically moved by the valve operation of the water pressure system. Since water of high oxygen concentration does not enter during normal operation, it is possible to prevent the stress cracking of the stainless steel apparatus. (Nakamura, S.)

  2. Motor car driving; Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juergensohn, T. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). ISS-Fahrzeugtechnik; Timpe, K.P. (eds.) [Technische Univ. Berlin (DE). Zentrum Mensch-Maschine-Systeme (ZMMS)

    2001-07-01

    This is the first comprehensive book on motor car driving, i.e. all aspects of motor car technology that cannot be looked at separately from the needs, characteristics and limitations of the human driver. This includes ergonomics as well as the design of the driver interface in consideration of the findings of cognitive science, problems of driving simulation in the context of simulation of technical systems, problems relating to optimal car automation up to traffic psychology. The book is in honour of Prof. Dr. Willumeit who died in summer 2000. Prof. Willumeit was one of the few scientists in Germany who had been an expert on all aspects of motor car driving for many years. [German] Erstmalig wird das Thema der Fahrzeugfuehrung geschlossen dargestellt. Die Thematik der 'Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung' umfasst in diesem Zusammenhang alle Aspekte der Kraftfahrzeugtechnik, die nicht isoliert von den Erfordernissen, Eigenschaften und Grenzen des menschlichen Fahrers betrachtet werden koennen. Dies beinhaltet u.a. Probleme der Ergonomie, aber auch Fragen nach einer kognitionswissenschaftlich unterstuetzten Schnittstellengestaltung, Fragen der Simulation des Fahrverhalten im Kontext der Simulation technischer Systeme oder Fragen einer optimalen Fahrzeugautomatisierung bis hin zu verkehrspsychologischen Aspekten. Das Buch ist als Gedenkband fuer Prof. Dr. Willumeit konzipiert, der im Sommer 2000 verstarb. Prof. Willumeit war einer der wenigen Wissenschaftler in Deutschland, der ueber viele Jahre diese Thematik der Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung in ihrer vollen Breite verfolgte. (orig.)

  3. Control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watando, Kosaku; Tanaka, Yuzo; Mizumura, Yasuhiro; Hosono, Kazuya.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide a simple and compact construction of an apparatus for driving a drive shaft inside with a magnetic force from the outside of the primary system water side. Structure: The weight of a plunger provided with an attraction plate is supported by a plunger lift spring means so as to provide a buffer action at the time of momentary movement while also permitting the load on lift coil to be constituted solely by the load on the drive shaft. In addition, by arranging the attraction plate and lift coil so that they face each other with a small gap there-between, it is made possible to reduce the size and permit efficient utilization of the attracting force. Because of the small size, cooling can be simply carried out. Further, since there is no mechanical penetration portion, there is no possibility of leakage of the primary system water. Furthermore, concentration of load on a latch pin is prevented by arranging so that with a structure the load of the control rod to be directly beared through the scrum latch. (Kamimura, M.)

  4. A NICER Look at the Aql X-1 Hard State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bult, Peter; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Cackett, Edward M.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Gendreau, Keith C.; Guillot, Sebastien; Homan, Jeroen; Jaisawal, Gaurava K.; Keek, Laurens; Kenyon, Steve; Lamb, Frederick K.; Ludlam, Renee; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Markwardt, Craig; Miller, Jon M.; Prigozhin, Gregory; Soong, Yang; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Uttley, Phil

    2018-05-01

    We report on a spectral-timing analysis of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Aql X-1 with the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) on the International Space Station (ISS). Aql X-1 was observed with NICER during a dim outburst in 2017 July, collecting approximately 50 ks of good exposure. The spectral and timing properties of the source correspond to that of a (hard) extreme island state in the atoll classification. We find that the fractional amplitude of the low-frequency (soft thermal emission and the power-law emission. Additionally, we measure hard time lags, indicating the thermal emission at 0.5 keV leads the power-law emission at 10 keV on a timescale of ∼100 ms at 0.3 Hz to ∼10 ms at 3 Hz. Our results demonstrate that the thermal emission in the hard state is intrinsically variable, and is driving the modulation of the higher energy power-law. Interpreting the thermal spectrum as disk emission, we find that our results are consistent with the disk propagation model proposed for accretion onto black holes.

  5. Self-rated driving and driving safety in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lesley A; Dodson, Joan E; Edwards, Jerri D; Ackerman, Michelle L; Ball, Karlene

    2012-09-01

    Many U.S. states rely on older adults to self-regulate their driving and determine when driving is no longer a safe option. However, the relationship of older adults' self-rated driving in terms of actual driving competency outcomes is unclear. The current study investigates self-rated driving in terms of (1) systematic differences between older adults with high (good/excellent) versus low (poor/fair/average) self-ratings, and (2) the predictive nature of self-rated driving to adverse driving outcomes in older adults (n=350; mean age 73.9, SD=5.25, range 65-91). Adverse driving outcomes included self-reported incidences of (1) being pulled over by the police, (2) receiving a citation, (3) receiving a recommendation to cease or limit driving, (4) crashes, and (5) state-reported crashes. Results found that older drivers with low self-ratings reported more medical conditions, less driving frequency, and had been given more suggestions to stop/limit their driving; there were no other significant differences between low and high self-raters. Logistic regression revealed older drivers were more likely to have a state-reported crash and receive a suggestion to stop or limit driving. Men were more likely to report all adverse driving outcomes except for receiving a suggestion to stop or limit driving. Regarding self-rated driving, older adults with high ratings were 66% less likely (OR=0.34, 95% CI=0.14-0.85) to have received suggestions to limit or stop driving after accounting for demographics, health and driving frequency. Self-ratings were not predictive of other driving outcomes (being pulled over by the police, receiving a citation, self-reported crashes, or state-reported crashes, ps>0.05). Most older drivers (85.14%) rated themselves as either good or excellent drivers regardless of their actual previous citation or crash rates. Self-rated driving is likely not related to actual driving proficiency as indicated by previous crash involvement in older adults

  6. Aespoe hard rock laboratory Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the new Aespoe hard rock laboratory is to demonstrate state of the art of technology and evaluation methods before the start of actual construction work on the planned deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The nine country OECD/NEA project in the Stripa mine in Sweden has been an excellent example of high quality international research co-operation. In Sweden the new Aespoe hard rock laboratory will gradually take over and finalize this work. SKB very much appreciates the continued international participation in Aespoe which is of great value for the quality efficiency, and confidence in this kind of work. We have invited a number of leading experts to this first international seminar to summarize the current state of a number of key questions. The contributions show the great progress that has taken place during the years. The results show that there is a solid scientific basis for using this knowledge on site specific preparation and work on actual repositories. (au)

  7. Future Hard Disk Storage: Limits & Potential Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambeth, David N.

    2000-03-01

    For several years the hard disk drive technology pace has raced along at 60-100products this year and laboratory demonstrations approaching what has been estimated as a physical thermal stability limit of around 40 Gbit/in2. For sometime now the data storage industry has recogniz d that doing business as usually will not be viable for long and so both incremental evolutionary and revolutionary technologies are being explored. While new recording head materials or thermal recording techniques may allow higher coercivity materials to be recorded upon, and while high sensitivity spin transport transducer technology may provide sufficient signals to extend beyond the 100 Gigabit/in2 regime, conventional isotropic longitudinal media will show large data retention problems at less than 1/2 of this value. We have recently developed a simple model which indicates that while thermal instability issues may appear at different areal densities, they are non-discriminatory as to the magnetic recording modality: longitudinal, perpendicular, magnetooptic, near field, etc. The model indicates that a strong orientation of the media tends to abate the onset of the thermal limit. Hence, for the past few years we have taken an approach of controlled growth of the microstructure of thin film media. This knowledge has lead us to believe that epitaxial growth of multiple thin film layers on single crystalline Si may provide a pathway to nearly perfect crystallites of various, highly oriented, thin film textures. Here we provide an overview of the recording system media challenges, which are useful for the development of a future media design philosophy and then discuss materials issues and processing techniques for multi-layered thin film material structures which may be used to achieve media structures which can easy exceed the limits predicted for isotropic media.

  8. Low Sex Drive in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low sex drive in women Overview Women's sexual desires naturally fluctuate over the years. Highs and lows commonly coincide ... used for mood disorders also can cause low sex drive in women. If your lack of interest ...

  9. Marijuana and actual driving performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This report concerns the effects of marijuana smoking on actual driving performance. It presents the results of one pilot and three actual driving studies. The pilot study's major purpose was to establish the THC dose current marijuana users smoke to...

  10. Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this issue Health Capsule Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk En español Send us your comments Video technology ... distracted driving, especially among new drivers, raises the risk for car crashes and near crashes. The study ...

  11. Nuclear refueling platform drive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, F.R.; Faulstich, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a drive system. It comprises: a gantry including a bridge having longitudinal and transverse axes and supported by spaced first and second end frames joined to fist and second end frames joined to first and second drive trucks for moving the bridge along the transverse axis; first means for driving the first drive truck; second means for driving the second drive truck being independent from the first driving means; and means for controlling the first and second driving means for reducing differential transverse travel between the first and second drive trucks, due to a skewing torque acting on the bridge, to less than a predetermined maximum, the controlling means being in the form of an electrical central processing unit and including: a closed-loop first velocity control means for controlling velocity of the first drive truck by providing a first command signal to the first driver means; a close loop second velocity control means for controlling velocity of the second drive truck by providing a second command signal to the second driving means; and an auxiliary closed-loop travel control means

  12. LARGE AREA FILTERED ARC DEPOSITION OF CARBON AND BORON BASED HARD COATINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Rabi S.

    2003-12-05

    This document is a final report covering work performed under Contract No. DE-FG02-99ER82911 from the Department of Energy under a SBIR Phase II Program. Wear resistant, hard coatings can play a vital role in many engineering applications. The primary goal of this project was to develop coatings containing boron and carbon with hardness greater than 30 GPa and evaluate these coatings for machining applications. UES has developed a number of carbon and boron containing coatings with hardness in the range of 34 to 65 GPa using a combination of filtered cathodic arc and magnetron sputtering. The boron containing coatings were based on TiB2, TiBN, and TiBCN, while the carbon containing coatings ere TiC+C and hydrogen free diamond-like-carbon. Machining tests were performed with single and multilayer coated tools. The turning and milling tests were run at TechSolve Inc., under a subcontract at Ohio State University. Significant increases in tool lives were realized in end milling of H-13 die steel (8X) and titanium alloy (80%) using the TiBN coating. A multilayer TiBN/TiN performed the best in end-milling of highly abrasive Al-Si alloys. A 40% increase in life over the TiAlN benchmark coating was found. Further evaluations of these coatings with commercialization partners are currently in progress.

  13. Creating a driving profile for older adults using GPS devices and naturalistic driving methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babulal, Ganesh M; Traub, Cindy M; Webb, Mollie; Stout, Sarah H; Addison, Aaron; Carr, David B; Ott, Brian R; Morris, John C; Roe, Catherine M

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives : Road tests and driving simulators are most commonly used in research studies and clinical evaluations of older drivers. Our objective was to describe the process and associated challenges in adapting an existing, commercial, off-the-shelf (COTS), in-vehicle device for naturalistic, longitudinal research to better understand daily driving behavior in older drivers. Design : The Azuga G2 Tracking Device TM was installed in each participant's vehicle, and we collected data over 5 months (speed, latitude/longitude) every 30-seconds when the vehicle was driven.  Setting : The Knight Alzheimer's Disease Research Center at Washington University School of Medicine. Participants : Five individuals enrolled in a larger, longitudinal study assessing preclinical Alzheimer disease and driving performance.  Participants were aged 65+ years and had normal cognition. Measurements :  Spatial components included Primary Location(s), Driving Areas, Mean Centers and Unique Destinations.  Temporal components included number of trips taken during different times of the day.  Behavioral components included number of hard braking, speeding and sudden acceleration events. Methods :  Individual 30-second observations, each comprising one breadcrumb, and trip-level data were collected and analyzed in R and ArcGIS.  Results : Primary locations were confirmed to be 100% accurate when compared to known addresses.  Based on the locations of the breadcrumbs, we were able to successfully identify frequently visited locations and general travel patterns.  Based on the reported time from the breadcrumbs, we could assess number of trips driven in daylight vs. night.  Data on additional events while driving allowed us to compute the number of adverse driving alerts over the course of the 5-month period. Conclusions : Compared to cameras and highly instrumented vehicle in other naturalistic studies, the compact COTS device was quickly installed and transmitted high

  14. Offset Compound Gear Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.

  15. Development of radiation hard scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markley, F.; Woods, D.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Foster, G.; Blackburn, R.

    1992-05-01

    Substantial improvements have been made in the radiation hardness of plastic scintillators. Cylinders of scintillating materials 2.2 cm in diameter and 1 cm thick have been exposed to 10 Mrads of gamma rays at a dose rate of 1 Mrad/h in a nitrogen atmosphere. One of the formulations tested showed an immediate decrease in pulse height of only 4% and has remained stable for 12 days while annealing in air. By comparison a commercial PVT scintillator showed an immediate decrease of 58% and after 43 days of annealing in air it improved to a 14% loss. The formulated sample consisted of 70 parts by weight of Dow polystyrene, 30 pbw of pentaphenyltrimethyltrisiloxane (Dow Corning DC 705 oil), 2 pbw of p-terphenyl, 0.2 pbw of tetraphenylbutadiene, and 0.5 pbw of UVASIL299LM from Ferro

  16. Electrical machines and drives

    CERN Document Server

    Hindmarsh, John

    2002-01-01

    Recent years have brought substantial developments in electrical drive technology, with the appearance of highly rated, very-high-speed power-electronic switches, combined with microcomputer control systems.This popular textbook has been thoroughly revised and updated in the light of these changes. It retains its successful formula of teaching through worked examples, which are put in context with concise explanations of theory, revision of equations and discussion of the engineering implications. Numerous problems are also provided, with answers supplied.The third edition in

  17. Electrical machines & drives

    CERN Document Server

    Hammond, P

    1985-01-01

    Containing approximately 200 problems (100 worked), the text covers a wide range of topics concerning electrical machines, placing particular emphasis upon electrical-machine drive applications. The theory is concisely reviewed and focuses on features common to all machine types. The problems are arranged in order of increasing levels of complexity and discussions of the solutions are included where appropriate to illustrate the engineering implications. This second edition includes an important new chapter on mathematical and computer simulation of machine systems and revised discussions o

  18. Measurement of Driving Terms

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, F; Faus-Golfe, A

    2001-01-01

    In 2000 a series of MDs has been performed at the SPS to measure resonance driving terms. Theory predicts that these terms can be determined by harmonic analysis of BPM data recorded after applying single kicks at various amplitudes. Strong sextupoles were introduced to create a sizeable amount of nonlinearities. Experiments at injection energy (26 GeV) with single bunch as well as one experiment at 120 GeV with 84 bunches were carried out. The expected nonlinear content is compared to the experimenteal observation.

  19. Cognitive impairment and driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, David W; Molnar, Lisa J

    2012-11-01

    As the populations of many countries continue to age, cognitive impairment will likely become more common. Individuals with cognitive impairment pose special challenges for families, health professionals, driving safety professionals, and the larger community, particularly if these older adults depend on driving as their primary means of community mobility. It is vital that we continue to extend our knowledge about the driving behavior of individuals' with cognitive impairment, as well as try to develop effective means of screening and assessing these individuals for fitness to drive and help facilitate their transition to non-driving when appropriate. This special issue is intended to provide researchers and practitioners an opportunity to present the most recent research findings on driving-related issues among older adults with cognitive impairment. The issue contains 11 original contributions from seven countries. The topics covered by these papers are: crash risks; screening, assessment, and fitness to drive; driving performance using a driving simulator; and driving behaviors and driving-related decisions of people with cognitive impairments. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Parkinson's disease and driving ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajiv; Pentland, Brian; Hunter, John; Provan, Frances

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To explore the driving problems associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to ascertain whether any clinical features or tests predict driver safety. Methods The driving ability of 154 individuals with PD referred to a driving assessment centre was determined by a combination of clinical tests, reaction times on a test rig and an in‐car driving test. Results The majority of cases (104, 66%) were able to continue driving although 46 individuals required an automatic transmission and 10 others needed car modifications. Ability to drive was predicted by the severity of physical disease, age, presence of other associated medical conditions, particularly dementia, duration of disease, brake reaction, time on a test rig and score on a driving test (all pautomatic transmission. A combination of clinical tests and in‐car driving assessment will establish safety to drive, and a number of clinical correlates can be shown to predict the likely outcome and may assist in the decision process. This is the largest series of consecutive patients seen at a driving assessment centre reported to date, and the first to devise a scoring system for on‐road driving assessment. PMID:17178820

  1. Magnetic hard disks for audio-visual use; AV yo jiki disk baitai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tei, Y.; Sakaguchi, S.; Uwazumi, H. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-10

    Computers, consumer, and communications are converging and fusing. The key device in homes in the near future will be an audiovisual hard disk drive (AV-HDD). The reason is that there is no other AV cash memory with high capacity, high speed, and a low price than the HDD. Fuji Electric has early started developing an AV magnetic hard disk, a core-functional element of the AV-HDD, to take the initiative in the market. This paper describes the state of plastic medium development, which is regarded as a next-generation strategic commodity. (author)

  2. Glaucoma and Driving: On-Road Driving Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joanne M.; Black, Alex A.; Mallon, Kerry; Thomas, Ravi; Owsley, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To comprehensively investigate the types of driving errors and locations that are most problematic for older drivers with glaucoma compared to those without glaucoma using a standardized on-road assessment. Methods Participants included 75 drivers with glaucoma (mean = 73.2±6.0 years) with mild to moderate field loss (better-eye MD = -1.21 dB; worse-eye MD = -7.75 dB) and 70 age-matched controls without glaucoma (mean = 72.6 ± 5.0 years). On-road driving performance was assessed in a dual-brake vehicle by an occupational therapist using a standardized scoring system which assessed the types of driving errors and the locations where they were made and the number of critical errors that required an instructor intervention. Driving safety was rated on a 10-point scale. Self-reported driving ability and difficulties were recorded using the Driving Habits Questionnaire. Results Drivers with glaucoma were rated as significantly less safe, made more driving errors, and had almost double the rate of critical errors than those without glaucoma. Driving errors involved lane positioning and planning/approach, and were significantly more likely to occur at traffic lights and yield/give-way intersections. There were few between group differences in self-reported driving ability. Conclusions Older drivers with glaucoma with even mild to moderate field loss exhibit impairments in driving ability, particularly during complex driving situations that involve tactical problems with lane-position, planning ahead and observation. These results, together with the fact that these drivers self-report their driving to be relatively good, reinforce the need for evidence-based on-road assessments for evaluating driving fitness. PMID:27472221

  3. A qualitative exploration of driving stress and driving discourtesy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Parker, B; Jones, C M; Rune, K; Tucker, J

    2018-05-31

    Driving courtesy, and conversely driving discourtesy, recently has been of great interest in the public domain. In addition, there has been increasing recognition of the negative impact of stress upon the individual's health and wellbeing, with a plethora of interventions aimed at minimising stress more generally. The research literature regarding driving dis/courtesy, in comparison, is scant, with a handful of studies examining the dis/courteous driving behaviour of road users, and the relationship between driving discourtesy and driving stress. To examine courteous and discourteous driving experiences, and to explore the impact of stress associated with such driving experiences. Thirty-eight drivers (20 females) from the Sunshine Coast region volunteered to participate in one of four 1-1.5 h focus groups. Content analysis used the verbatim utterances captured via an Mp3 device. Three themes pertaining to stressful and discourteous interactions were identified. Theme one pertained to the driving context: road infrastructure (eg, roundabouts, roadwork), vehicles (eg, features), location (eg, country vs city, unfamiliar areas), and temporal aspects (eg, holidays). Theme two pertained to other road users: their behaviour (eg, tailgating, merging), and unknown factors (eg, illicit and licit drug use). Theme three pertained to the self as road user: their own behaviours (eg, deliberate intimidation), and their emotions (eg, angry reaction to other drivers, being in control). Driving dis/courtesy and driving stress is a complex phenomenon, suggesting complex intervention efforts are required. Driving discourtesy was reported as being highly stressful, therefore intervention efforts which encourage driving courtesy and which foster emotional capacity to cope with stressful circumstances appear warranted. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Glaucoma and Driving: On-Road Driving Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne M Wood

    Full Text Available To comprehensively investigate the types of driving errors and locations that are most problematic for older drivers with glaucoma compared to those without glaucoma using a standardized on-road assessment.Participants included 75 drivers with glaucoma (mean = 73.2±6.0 years with mild to moderate field loss (better-eye MD = -1.21 dB; worse-eye MD = -7.75 dB and 70 age-matched controls without glaucoma (mean = 72.6 ± 5.0 years. On-road driving performance was assessed in a dual-brake vehicle by an occupational therapist using a standardized scoring system which assessed the types of driving errors and the locations where they were made and the number of critical errors that required an instructor intervention. Driving safety was rated on a 10-point scale. Self-reported driving ability and difficulties were recorded using the Driving Habits Questionnaire.Drivers with glaucoma were rated as significantly less safe, made more driving errors, and had almost double the rate of critical errors than those without glaucoma. Driving errors involved lane positioning and planning/approach, and were significantly more likely to occur at traffic lights and yield/give-way intersections. There were few between group differences in self-reported driving ability.Older drivers with glaucoma with even mild to moderate field loss exhibit impairments in driving ability, particularly during complex driving situations that involve tactical problems with lane-position, planning ahead and observation. These results, together with the fact that these drivers self-report their driving to be relatively good, reinforce the need for evidence-based on-road assessments for evaluating driving fitness.

  5. Glaucoma and Driving: On-Road Driving Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joanne M; Black, Alex A; Mallon, Kerry; Thomas, Ravi; Owsley, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    To comprehensively investigate the types of driving errors and locations that are most problematic for older drivers with glaucoma compared to those without glaucoma using a standardized on-road assessment. Participants included 75 drivers with glaucoma (mean = 73.2±6.0 years) with mild to moderate field loss (better-eye MD = -1.21 dB; worse-eye MD = -7.75 dB) and 70 age-matched controls without glaucoma (mean = 72.6 ± 5.0 years). On-road driving performance was assessed in a dual-brake vehicle by an occupational therapist using a standardized scoring system which assessed the types of driving errors and the locations where they were made and the number of critical errors that required an instructor intervention. Driving safety was rated on a 10-point scale. Self-reported driving ability and difficulties were recorded using the Driving Habits Questionnaire. Drivers with glaucoma were rated as significantly less safe, made more driving errors, and had almost double the rate of critical errors than those without glaucoma. Driving errors involved lane positioning and planning/approach, and were significantly more likely to occur at traffic lights and yield/give-way intersections. There were few between group differences in self-reported driving ability. Older drivers with glaucoma with even mild to moderate field loss exhibit impairments in driving ability, particularly during complex driving situations that involve tactical problems with lane-position, planning ahead and observation. These results, together with the fact that these drivers self-report their driving to be relatively good, reinforce the need for evidence-based on-road assessments for evaluating driving fitness.

  6. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Hiroyasu; Kawamura, Atsuo.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce pellet-clad mechanical interactions, as well as improve the fuel safety. Constitution: In the rod drive of a bwr type reactor, an electric motor operated upon intermittent input such as of pulse signals is connected to a control rod. A resolver for converting the rotational angle of the motor to electric signals is connected to the rotational shaft of the motor and the phase difference between the output signal from the resolver and a reference signal is adapted to detect by a comparator. Based on the detection result, the controller is actuated to control a motor for control rod drive so that fine control for the movement of the control rod is made possible. This can reduce the moving distance of the control rod, decrease the thermal stress applied to the control rod and decrease the pellet clad mechanical interaction failures due to thermal expansion between the cladding tube and the pellets caused by abrupt changes in the generated power. (Furukawa, Y.)

  7. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oonuki, Koji.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the driving speed of control rods at rapid insertion with an elongate control rod and an extension pipe while ensuring sufficient buffering performance in a short buffering distance, by providing a plurality of buffers to an extension pipe between a control rod drive source and a control rod in LMFBR type reactor. Constitution: First, second and third buffers are respectively provided to an acceleration piston, an extension pipe and a control rod respectively and the insertion positions for each of the buffers are displaced orderly from above to below. Upon disconnection of energizing current for an electromagnet, the acceleration piston, the extension pipe and the control rod are rapidly inserted in one body. The first, second and third buffers are respectively actuated at each of their falling strokes upon rapid insertion respectively, and the acceleration piston, the extension pipe and the control rod receive the deceleration effect in the order correspondingly. Although the compression force is applied to the control rod only near the stroke end, it does not cause deformation. (Kawakami, Y.)

  8. Soft And Hard Skills of Social Worker

    OpenAIRE

    HANTOVÁ, Libuše

    2011-01-01

    The work deals with soft and hard skills relevant to the profession of social worker. The theoretical part at first evaluates and analyzes important soft and hard skills necessary for people working in the field of social work. Then these skills are compared. The practical part illustrates the use of soft and hard skills in practice by means of model scenes and deals with the preferences in three groups of people ? students of social work, social workers and people outside the sphere, namely ...

  9. Theory of hard diffraction and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Duca, V.

    1995-06-01

    In this talk we review the models describing the hard diffractive production of jets or more generally high-mass states in presence of rapidity gaps in hadron-hadron and lepton-hadron collisions. By rapidity gaps we mean regions on the lego plot in (pseudo)-rapidity and azimuthal angle where no hadrons are produced, between the jet(s) and an elastically scattered hadron (single hard diffraction) or between two jets (double hard diffraction). (orig.)

  10. Theory of hard diffraction and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Duca, V.

    1996-01-01

    In this talk we review the models describing the hard diffractive production of jets or more generally high-mass states in presence of rapidity gaps in hadron-hadron and lepton-hadron collisions. By rapidity gaps we mean regions on the lego plot in (pseudo)-rapidity and azimuthal angle where no hadrons are produced, between the jet(s) and an elastically scattered hadron (single hard diffraction) or between two jets (double hard diffraction). copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  11. Advances in hard nucleus cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cui

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Security and perfect vision and fewer complications are our goals in cataract surgery, and hard-nucleus cataract surgery is always a difficulty one. Many new studies indicate that micro-incision phacoemulsification in treating hard nucleus cataract is obviously effective. This article reviews the evolution process of hard nuclear cataract surgery, the new progress in the research of artificial intraocular lens for microincision, and analyse advantages and disadvantages of various surgical methods.

  12. Soft Dielectric Elastomer Oscillators Driving Bioinspired Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, E-F Markus; Schlatter, Samuel; Anderson, Iain A

    2017-12-01

    Entirely soft robots with animal-like behavior and integrated artificial nervous systems will open up totally new perspectives and applications. To produce them, we must integrate control and actuation in the same soft structure. Soft actuators (e.g., pneumatic and hydraulic) exist but electronics are hard and stiff and remotely located. We present novel soft, electronics-free dielectric elastomer oscillators, which are able to drive bioinspired robots. As a demonstrator, we present a robot that mimics the crawling motion of the caterpillar, with an integrated artificial nervous system, soft actuators and without any conventional stiff electronic parts. Supplied with an external DC voltage, the robot autonomously generates all signals that are necessary to drive its dielectric elastomer actuators, and it translates an in-plane electromechanical oscillation into a crawling locomotion movement. Therefore, all functional and supporting parts are made of polymer materials and carbon. Besides the basic design of this first electronic-free, biomimetic robot, we present prospects to control the general behavior of such robots. The absence of conventional stiff electronics and the exclusive use of polymeric materials will provide a large step toward real animal-like robots, compliant human machine interfaces, and a new class of distributed, neuron-like internal control for robotic systems.

  13. Phase-matched generation of coherent soft and hard X-rays using IR lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popmintchev, Tenio V.; Chen, Ming-Chang; Bahabad, Alon; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.

    2013-06-11

    Phase-matched high-order harmonic generation of soft and hard X-rays is accomplished using infrared driving lasers in a high-pressure non-linear medium. The pressure of the non-linear medium is increased to multi-atmospheres and a mid-IR (or higher) laser device provides the driving pulse. Based on this scaling, also a general method for global optimization of the flux of phase-matched high-order harmonic generation at a desired wavelength is designed.

  14. PELATIHAN LARI INTERVAL 8 X 100 M, LEBIH BAIK DARI PELATIHAN LARI INTERVAL 4 X 200 M DAN 2 X 400 M DALAM MENINGKATKAN KECEPATAN LARI 400 M SISWA SMK NEGERI 5 DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ketut Ayu Juliasih

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the increase of speed of the 400 m running obtained from a training of interval running of 800 m distance programmed  in three types of models and to find out which one of the three training models gave the greatest improvement of speed. The three models of training were interval sprint of 8 x 100 meters, 4 x 200 meters, and 2 x 400 meters, carried out in 4 sets, 3 times a week, for a 6 week duration. This study was an experimental study using the Randomized Pre and Post Test Group Design. The study subjects comprised 24 students of SMK Negeri 5 Denpasar, who were divided into 3 groups of 8 students each. Group 1 was assigned to 8 x 100 m run, group 2 to 4 x 200 m run, and group 3 to 2 x 400 m run training, respectively. The data were analyzed accordingly with the test of T-Paired, One-way Anova, and LSD. The result of the T-Paired test on each group before anf after training showed a significant mprovement of the running speed (p<0.05. Therefore, indicating an improvement of 400 m running speed was achieved in each group. The One-Way Anova test showed a significant difference was found among the three groups in the increase of running speed obtained after training (p<0.05. The LSD test showed there was a significant difference of the increase of running speed between Group 1 and 2, and between Group 1 and 3 (p<0.05. There was no significant difference of speed found between Group 2 and 3 (p>0.05. Therefore, the training of interval 8 x 100 meters run was more effective in increasing the running speed as compared with interval 4 x 200 meters and 2 x 400 meters run, respectively, among the students of SMK 5 Denpasar.

  15. Dimensions of driving anger and their relationships with aberrant driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingru; Chan, Alan H S; Zhang, Wei

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between driving anger and aberrant driving behaviours. An internet-based questionnaire survey was administered to a sample of Chinese drivers, with driving anger measured by a 14-item short Driving Anger Scale (DAS) and the aberrant driving behaviours measured by a 23-item Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ). The results of Confirmatory Factor Analysis demonstrated that the three-factor model (hostile gesture, arrival-blocking and safety-blocking) of the DAS fitted the driving anger data well. The Exploratory Factor Analysis on DBQ data differentiated four types of aberrant driving, viz. emotional violation, error, deliberate violation and maintaining progress violation. For the anger-aberration relation, it was found that only "arrival-blocking" anger was a significant positive predictor for all four types of aberrant driving behaviours. The "safety-blocking" anger revealed a negative impact on deliberate violations, a finding different from previously established positive anger-aberration relation. These results suggest that drivers with different patterns of driving anger would show different behavioural tendencies and as a result intervention strategies may be differentially effective for drivers of different profiles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Control rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Akira.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To ensure the scram operation of a control rod by the reliable detection for the position of control rods. Constitution: A permanent magnet is provided to the lower portion of a connecting rod in engagement with a control rod and a tube having a plurality of lead switches arranged axially therein in a predetermined pitch is disposed outside of the control rod drives. When the control rod moves upwardly in the scram operation, the lead switches are closed successively upon passage of the permanent magnet to operate the electrical circuit provided by way of each of the lead switches. Thus, the position for the control rod during the scram can reliably be determined and the scram characteristic of the control rod can be recognized. (Furukawa, Y.)

  17. [Epilepsy and driving].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Masato

    2014-05-01

    In Japan, the Road Traffic Act was amended in June 2013, including new penalty to false statement in a disease condition declaration form, and new voluntary notification system for a doctor who is aware that a person is at high risk for traffic accident and in possession of a driver license. Moreover, New Criminal Law Act was established in November 2013, including a prison sentence of up to 15 years for persons, who under the influence of specific drugs or diseases, causing death or injury to other persons by driving a motor vehicle. Both laws are supposed to be enforced during 2014, after additional resolutions including the review of the laws after five years, considerations so as not to create discrimination due to diseases, etc are examined.

  18. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furumitsu, Yutaka.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the reliability of a device for driving an LMFBR type reactor control rod by providing a buffer unit having a stationary electromagnetic coil and a movable electromagnetic coil in the device to thereby avord impact stress at scram time and to simplify the structure of the buffer unit. Constitution: A non-contact type buffer unit is constructed with a stationary electromagnetic coil, a cable for the stationary coil, a movable electromagnetic coil, a spring cable for the movable coil, and a backup coil spring or the like. Force produced at scram time is delivered without impact by the attracting or repelling force between the stationary coil and the movable coil of the buffer unit. Accordingly, since the buffer unit is of a non-contact type, there is no mechanical impact and thus no large impact stress, and as it has simple configuration, the reliability is improved and the maintenance can be conducted more easily. (Yoshihara, H.)

  19. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Toshikatsu.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To protect bellows against failures due to negative pressure to prevent the loss of pressure balance caused by the expansion of the bellows upon scram. Constitution: An expansion pipe connected to the control rod drive is driven along a guide pipe to insert a control rod into the reactor core. Expansible bellows are provided at the step between the expansion pipe and the guide pipe. Further, a plurality of bore holes or slits are formed on the side wall of the guide pipe corresponding to the expansion portion of the bellows. In such an arrangement, when the expansion pipe falls rapidly and the bellows are expanded upon scram, the volume between each of the pipes of the bellows and the guide pipe is increased to produce a negative pressure, but the effect of the negative pressure on the bellows can be eliminated by the flowing-in of coolants corresponding to that pressure through the bore holes or the slits. (Furukawa, Y.)

  20. Do emotions drive psychosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João G. Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: How important is the emotional life of persons who manifest psychotic symptoms? Aims: The aim of this paper is to review evidence on a causal role for emotions in psychotic processes. Methods: Selective review of literature on affective symptoms in psychoses, on emotions in the production of psychotic symptoms and on dopaminergic models of psychosis. Results: Affective symptoms are relevant across psychoses. Persons with schizophrenia have high levels of emotional reactivity and the intensification of negative affects not only is associated with but also precedes the intensification of psychotic symptoms, which is evidence that negative emotions drive the course of psychotic symptoms. Negative self‑representations are central in psychotic processes and can be the link between negative emotions and psychosis. Evidence favours the notion that persecutory delusions are consistent with negative affects and self‑representations, while grandiose delusions are consistent with a defensive amplification of positive affects and self‑representations. Shame has been proposed as the core emotional experience of psychosis, one in which the self becomes vulnerable to the external world, which is consistent with persecutory experiences. Assaults on the self, under the form of hostility in the family environment and society, are strong predictors of relapse and development of schizophrenia. Assaults on the self which induce social defeat are also strong stimulants of mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways, whose hyperactivity is associated with acute psychotic episodes and the experience of “aberrant salience”, put forward as a dopaminergic model of psychosis. Conclusions: The “defeat of the self” emerges as a central link that binds the experience of negative emotions to the expression of psychotic symptoms and its psychological and neurobiological correlates. The hypothesis gains support that the emotions related to that defeat control

  1. PELATIHAN LARI INTERVAL 8 X 100 M, LEBIH BAIK DARI PELATIHAN LARI INTERVAL 4 X 200 M DAN 2 X 400 M DALAM MENINGKATKAN KECEPATAN LARI 400 M SISWA SMK NEGERI 5 DENPASAR

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Ketut Ayu Juliasih

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the increase of speed of the 400 m running obtained from a training of interval running of 800 m distance programmed  in three types of models and to find out which one of the three training models gave the greatest improvement of speed. The three models of training were interval sprint of 8 x 100 meters, 4 x 200 meters, and 2 x 400 meters, carried out in 4 sets, 3 times a week, for a 6 week duration. This study was an experimental study using the Randomized Pre and...

  2. Characterization of Y1-xCaxBa2Cu4O8 (x=0.0˜ 0.1) with Double Cu-O Chains by Raman Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Yasuharu; Tanemura, Sakae; Ikeda, Teruki

    1991-08-01

    Raman spectra of Y1-xCaxBa2Cu4O8 (x=0.0, 0.02, 0.05 and 0.1) ceramic samples synthesized under high oxygen pressure were investigated. Seven clear peaks assigned to Ag modes were observed for the sample with x=0. With increasing x, the peaks at 238 cm-1, 332 cm-1, 430 cm-1 and 590 cm-1 were broadened. The origin of the broadening of the peaks at 238 cm-1 and 590 cm-1 is considered to be the destruction of the double Cu-O chains due to the substitution of Ca for Y.

  3. 30 CFR 75.1720-1 - Distinctively colored hard hats, or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distinctively colored hard hats, or hard caps... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1720-1 Distinctively colored hard hats, or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced miners. Hard hats or hard caps distinctively different in color...

  4. 30 CFR 77.1710-1 - Distinctively colored hard hats or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distinctively colored hard hats or hard caps... Distinctively colored hard hats or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced miners. Hard hats or hard caps distinctively different in color from those worn by experienced miners shall be worn at...

  5. Hard disks with SCSI interface

    CERN Document Server

    Denisov, O Yu

    1999-01-01

    The testing of 20 models of hard SCSI-disks is carried out: the Fujitsu MAE3091LP; the IBM DDRS-39130, DGHS-318220, DNES-318350, DRHS-36V and DRVS-18V; the Quantum Atlas VI 18.2; the Viking 11 9.1; the Seagate ST118202LW, ST118273LW, ST118273W, ST318203LW, ST318275LW, ST34520W, ST39140LW and ST39173W; and the Western Digital WDE9100-0007, WDE9100-AV0016, WDE9100-AV0030 and WDE9180-0048. All tests ran under the Windows NT 4.0 workstation operating system with Service Pack 4, under video mode with 1024*768 pixel resolution, 32- bit colour depth and V-frequency equal to 85 Hz. The detailed description and characteristics of SCSI stores are presented. Test results (ZD Winstone 99 and ZD WinBench 99 tests) are given in both table and diagram (disk transfer rate) forms. (0 refs).

  6. Development of a hard microcontroller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measel, P.R.; Sivo, L.L.; Quilitz, W.E.; Davidson, T.K.

    1976-01-01

    The applicability of commercially available microprocessors to certain systems requiring radiation survival was assessed. A microcontroller was designed and built to perform a monitor and control function of military operational ground equipment, and demonstrated to exceed the radiation hardness goal. The preparation of the microcontroller module required hardware and software design, selection of LSI and other piece part types, development of piece part and module electrical and radiation test techniques, and the performance of radiation tests on the LSI piece parts and the completed module. The microcontroller has a 16-bit central processor unit, a 4096 word read only memory, and a 256 word read-write memory. The module has circumvention circuitry, including a PIN diode radiation detector. The processor device used was the MMI 6701 T 2 L Schottky bipolar 4-bit slice. Electrical exerciser circuits were developed for in-situ electrical testing of microprocessors and memories during irradiation. A test program was developed for a Terradyne J283 microcircuit tester for more complete electrical characterization of the MMI 6701 microprocessor. A simple self-test algorithm was used in the microcontroller for performance testing during irradiation. For the operational demonstration of the microcontroller a TI 960A minicomputer was used to provide the required complex inputs to the module and verify the module outputs

  7. CLIC Drive Beam Phase Stabilisation

    CERN Document Server

    Gerbershagen, Alexander; Schulte, Daniel

    The thesis presents phase stability studies for the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) and focuses in particular on CLIC Drive Beam longitudinal phase stabilisation. This topic constitutes one of the main feasibility challenges for CLIC construction and is an essential component of the current CLIC stabilisation campaign. The studies are divided into two large interrelated sections: the simulation studies for the CLIC Drive Beam stability, and measurements, data analysis and simulations of the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) Drive Beam phase errors. A dedicated software tool has been developed for a step-by-step analysis of the error propagation through the CLIC Drive Beam. It uses realistic RF potential and beam loading amplitude functions for the Drive and Main Beam accelerating structures, complete models of the recombination scheme and compressor chicane as well as of further CLIC Drive Beam modules. The tool has been tested extensively and its functionality has been verified. The phase error propagation at CLIC h...

  8. H1 antihistamines and driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Florin Dan

    2008-01-01

    Driving performances depend on cognitive, psychomotor and perception functions. The CNS adverse effects of some H1 antihistamines can alter the patient ability to drive. Data from studies using standardized objective cognitive and psychomotor tests (Choice Reaction Time, Critical Flicker Fusion. Digital Symbol Substitution Test), functional brain imaging (Positron Emission Tomography, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging), neurophysiological studies (Multiple Sleep Latency Test, auditory and visual evoked potentials), experimental simulated driving (driving simulators) and real driving studies (the Highway Driving Test, with the evaluation of the Standard Deviation Lateral Position, and the Car Following Test, with the measurement of the Brake Reaction Time) must be discussed in order to classify a H1 antihistamine as a true non-sedating one.

  9. The High Aspect Ratio Design (HARD): A candidate ITER concept with improved technology phase performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevins, W.M.; Perkins, L.J.; Wesley, J.C.

    1992-10-01

    The High Aspect Ratio Design (HARD) International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) concept developed by the US ITER team is an alternate to the low-aspect-ratio ITER design developed by the ITER participants during the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA). The CDA design, referred to hereafter as ITER CDA, has an aspect ratio, A, of 2.79, a toroidal magnetic field, B T , of 4.85 T, and a plasma current, I p , of 22 MA for operation with an ignited plasma. In contrast, HARD employs higher aspect ratio, A = 4.0, higher toroidal field, B T = 7.11 T, and lower plasma current, I p = 14.8 MA for ignition operation. The cross sections of the two designs are compared in. The parameters and performance of HARD and ITER CDA for inductively driven ignition operation are compared in. The HARD parameters provide the same ignition performance (ignition margin evaluated against ITER-89P confinement scaling) as ITER CDA in a device with comparable size and cost. However, the reason for advancing HARD rather than ITER CDA as the ITER design concept is not inductively driven ignition performance but HARD's significantly enhanced potential to achieve the technology testing and steady-state operation goals of the ITER objectives with non-inductive current drive

  10. eHXI: a permanently installed, hard x-ray imager for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Döppner, T.; Bachmann, B.; Albert, F.; Bell, P.; Burns, S.; Celeste, J.; Chow, R.; Divol, L.; Dewald, E.L.; Huntington, C.M.; Izumi, N.; LaCaille, G.; Landen, O.L.; Palmer, N.; Park, H.-S.; Thomas, C.A.; Hohenberger, M.

    2016-01-01

    We have designed and built a multi-pinhole imaging system for high energy x-rays (≥ 50 keV) that is permanently installed in the equatorial plane outside of the target chamber at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). It records absolutely-calibrated, time-integrated x-ray images with the same line-of-sight as the multi-channel, spatially integrating hard x-ray detector FFLEX [McDonald et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75 (2004) 3753], having a side view of indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosion targets. The equatorial hard x-ray imager (eHXI) has recorded images on the majority of ICF implosion experiments since May 2011. eHXI provides valuable information on hot electron distribution in hohlraum experiments, target alignment, potential hohlraum drive asymmetries and serves as a long term reference for the FFLEX diagnostics.

  11. Time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy of flux beam formation in hard disk write heads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkass, Robert A. J.; Spicer, Timothy M.; Burgos Parra, Erick; Hicken, Robert J.; Bashir, Muhammad A.; Gubbins, Mark A.; Czoschke, Peter J.; Lopusnik, Radek

    2016-01-01

    To meet growing data storage needs, the density of data stored on hard disk drives must increase. In pursuit of this aim, the magnetodynamics of the hard disk write head must be characterized and understood, particularly the process of “flux beaming.” In this study, seven different configurations of perpendicular magnetic recording (PMR) write heads were imaged using time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy, revealing their detailed dynamic magnetic state during the write process. It was found that the precise position and number of driving coils can significantly alter the formation of flux beams during the write process. These results are applicable to the design and understanding of current PMR and next-generation heat-assisted magnetic recording devices, as well as being relevant to other magnetic devices.

  12. Failure Prediction for Autonomous Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Hecker, Simon; Dai, Dengxin; Van Gool, Luc

    2018-01-01

    The primary focus of autonomous driving research is to improve driving accuracy. While great progress has been made, state-of-the-art algorithms still fail at times. Such failures may have catastrophic consequences. It therefore is important that automated cars foresee problems ahead as early as possible. This is also of paramount importance if the driver will be asked to take over. We conjecture that failures do not occur randomly. For instance, driving models may fail more likely at places ...

  13. The Drive-Wise Project: Driving Simulator Training increases real driving performance in healthy older drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianclaudio eCasutt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Age-related cognitive decline is often associated with unsafe driving behavior. We hypothesized that 10 active training sessions in a driving simulator increase cognitive and on-road driving performance. In addition, driving simulator training should outperform cognitive training.Methods: Ninety-one healthy active drivers (62 – 87 years were randomly assigned to either (1 a driving simulator training group, (2 an attention training group (vigilance and selective attention, or (3 a control group. The main outcome variables were on-road driving and cognitive performance. Seventy-seven participants (85% completed the training and were included in the analyses. Training gains were analyzed using a multiple regression analysis with planned comparisons.Results: The driving simulator training group showed an improvement in on-road driving performance compared to the attention training group. In addition, both training groups increased cognitive performance compared to the control group. Conclusion: Driving simulator training offers the potential to enhance driving skills in older drivers. Compared to the attention training, the simulator training seems to be a more powerful program for increasing older drivers’ safety on the road.

  14. Complex technique for materials hardness measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krashchenko, V P; Oksametnaya, O B

    1984-01-01

    A review of existing methods of measurement of material hardness in national and foreign practice has been made. A necessity of improving the technique of material hardness measurement in a wide temperature range and insuring load change with indenting, continuity of imprint application, smooth changing of temperatures along a sample length, and deformation rate control has been noted.

  15. Hard scattering and a diffractive trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.L.; Collins, J.C.; Soper, D.E.; Sterman, G.

    1986-02-01

    Conclusions concerning the properties of hard scattering in diffractively produced systems are summarized. One motivation for studying diffractive hard scattering is to investigate the interface between Regge theory and perturbative QCD. Another is to see whether diffractive triggering can result in an improvement in the signal-to-background ratio of measurements of production of very heavy quarks. 5 refs

  16. ERRATUM: Work smart, wear your hard hat

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An error appeared in the article «Work smart, wear your hard hat» published in Weekly Bulletin 27/2003, page 5. The impact which pierced a hole in the hard hat worn by Gerd Fetchenhauer was the equivalent of a box weighing 5 kg and not 50 kg.

  17. 7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.57 Hard seeds. Seeds which remain hard at the end of the prescribed test because they have not absorbed water, due to an impermeable seed coat... percentage of germination. For flatpea, continue the swollen seed in test for 14 days when germinating at 15...

  18. Autonomous driving in NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The automatic analysis of NMR data has been a much-desired endeavour for the last six decades, as it is the case with any other analytical technique. This need for automation has only grown as advances in hardware; pulse sequences and automation have opened new research areas to NMR and increased the throughput of data. Full automatic analysis is a worthy, albeit hard, challenge, but in a world of artificial intelligence, instant communication and big data, it seems that this particular fight is happening with only one technique at a time (let this be NMR, MS, IR, UV or any other), when the reality of most laboratories is that there are several types of analytical instrumentation present. Data aggregation, verification and elucidation by using complementary techniques (e.g. MS and NMR) is a desirable outcome to pursue, although a time-consuming one if performed manually; hence, the use of automation to perform the heavy lifting for users is required to make the approach attractive for scientists. Many of the decisions and workflows that could be implemented under automation will depend on the two-way communication with databases that understand analytical data, because it is desirable not only to query these databases but also to grow them in as much of an automatic manner as possible. How these databases are designed, set up and the data inside classified will determine what workflows can be implemented. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Noninductive current drive in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.

    1985-01-01

    Various current drive mechanisms may be grouped into four classes: (1) injection of energetic particle beams; (2) launching of rf waves; (3) hybrid schemes, which are combinations of various rf schemes (rf plus beams, rf and/or beam plus ohmic heating, etc.); and (4) other schemes, some of which are specific to reactor plasma conditions requiring the presence of alpha particle or intense synchrotron radiation. Particle injection schemes include current drive by neutral beams and relativistic electron beams. The rf schemes include current drive by the lower hybrid (LH) waves, the electron waves, the waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies, etc. Only a few of these approaches, however, have been tested experimentally, with the broadest data base available for LH waves. Included in this report are (1) efficiency criteria for current drive, (2) current drive by neutral beam injection, (3) LH current drive, (4) electron cyclotron current drive, (5) current drive by ion cyclotron waves - minority species heating, and (6) current drive by other schemes (such as hybrids and low frequency waves)

  20. 76 FR 61746 - Western Digital Technologies, Inc.: Hard Drive Development Engineering Group Irvine (Formerly at...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... posted by the subject firm in Malaysia at the same time as the domestic layoffs. Additionally, the... imports of these articles from Malaysia. In a letter submitted to the Department on June 13, 2011, the... facilities overseas. AR 152, 212-218, 228-231, 244, 245-246, 271-279. After the design and development of the...

  1. A Hard Road: Driving Local Action against Alcohol Related Problems in a Rural Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julaine Allan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Context is important in developing strategies to address alcohol related violence. Knowledge of local conditions is critical to action in rural areas. The aim of this study was to gather information about context specific alcohol related problems experienced by frontline workers in a regional centre to inform the local alcohol action plan. Frontline workers were invited to participate in one of five focus group discussions that investigated problems experienced as a result of other people’s alcohol use. Alcohol related problems were more frequently associated with time periods than any single group in the community. Social media was used to incite arguments between groups in different venues during the lock-out periods. The focus groups identified that the location of licensed premises and a taxi rank; and previous relationships between protagonists were the key contextual factors causing alcohol related problems. A second taxi rank was identified as a useful local management strategy. Supply reduction was suggested as a key factor in long term solutions to alcohol related problems in rural towns. The local liquor accord did not want to reduce supply of alcohol by closing late night venues earlier. Local action to reduce alcohol related problems will be limited to pragmatic solutions because supply reduction is unacceptable to those in the business of selling alcohol.

  2. Study of the Radiation-Hardness of VCSEL and PIN

    CERN Document Server

    Gan, K K; Fernando, W; Kagan, H P; Kass, R D; Lebbai, M R M; Merritt, H; Moore, J R; Nagarkar, A; Rizatdinova, F; Skubic, P L; Smith, D S; Strang, M

    2009-01-01

    The silicon trackers of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva) use optical links for data transmission. An upgrade of the trackers is planned for the Super LHC (SLHC), an upgraded LHC with ten times higher luminosity. We study the radiation-hardness of VCSELs (Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser) and GaAs and silicon PINs using 24 GeV/c protons at CERN for possible application in the data transmission upgrade. The optical power of VCSEL arrays decreases significantly after the irradiation but can be partially annealed with high drive currents. The responsivities of the PIN diodes also decrease significantly after irradiation, but can be recovered by operating at higher bias voltage. This provides a simple mechanism to recover from the radiation damage.

  3. Thermal spray coatings replace hard chrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, M.; Unger, R.

    1997-01-01

    Hard chrome plating provides good wear and erosion resistance, as well as good corrosion protection and fine surface finishes. Until a few years ago, it could also be applied at a reasonable cost. However, because of the many environmental and financial sanctions that have been imposed on the process over the past several years, cost has been on a consistent upward trend, and is projected to continue to escalate. Therefore, it is very important to find a coating or a process that offers the same characteristics as hard chrome plating, but without the consequent risks. This article lists the benefits and limitations of hard chrome plating, and describes the performance of two thermal spray coatings (tungsten carbide and chromium carbide) that compared favorably with hard chrome plating in a series of tests. It also lists three criteria to determine whether plasma spray or hard chrome plating should be selected

  4. Correlating particle hardness with powder compaction performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoping; Morganti, Mikayla; Hancock, Bruno C; Masterson, Victoria M

    2010-10-01

    Assessing particle mechanical properties of pharmaceutical materials quickly and with little material can be very important to early stages of pharmaceutical research. In this study, a wide range of pharmaceutical materials were studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanoindentation. A significant amount of particle hardness and elastic modulus data were provided. Moreover, powder compact mechanical properties of these materials were investigated in order to build correlation between the particle hardness and powder compaction performance. It was found that the materials with very low or high particle hardness most likely exhibit poor compaction performance while the materials with medium particle hardness usually have good compaction behavior. Additionally, the results from this study enriched Hiestand's special case concept on particle hardness and powder compaction performance. This study suggests that the use of AFM nanoindentation can help to screen mechanical properties of pharmaceutical materials at early development stages of pharmaceutical research.

  5. Self-reported and observed risky driving behaviors among frequent and infrequent cell phone users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; D'Ambrosio, Lisa A; Coughlin, Joseph F

    2013-12-01

    The apparently higher crash risk among individuals who use cell phones while driving may be due both to the direct interference of cell phone use with the driving task and tendencies to engage in risky driving behaviors independent of cell phone use. Measurements of actual highway driving performance, self-reported aberrant driving behaviors as measured by the Manchester Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ), and attitudes toward speeding, passing behaviors and relative concern about being involved in a crash were assessed. Individuals who reported frequently using cell phones while driving were found to drive faster, change lanes more frequently, spend more time in the left lane, and engage in more instances of hard braking and high acceleration events. They also scored higher in self-reported driving violations on the DBQ and reported more positive attitudes toward speeding and passing than drivers who did not report using a cell phone regularly while driving. These results indicate that a greater reported frequency of cell phone use while driving is associated with a broader pattern of behaviors that are likely to increase the overall risk of crash involvement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hardness and wear properties of boron-implanted poly(ether-ether-ketone) and poly-ether-imide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Youngchul; Lee, E.H.; Mansur, L.K.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of boron beam irradiation on the hardness, friction, and wear of polymer surfaces were investigated. Typical high-performance thermoplastics, poly(ether-ether-ketone) (PEEK) and a poly-ether-imide (Ultem) were studied after 200 keV boron ion beam treatment at ambient temperature to doses of 2.3x10 14 , 6.8x10 14 , and 2.2x10 15 ions cm -2 . The hardnesses of pristine and boron-implanted materials were characterized by a conventional Knoop method and a load-depth sensing nanoindentation technique. Both measurements showed a significant increase in hardness with increasing dose. The increase in hardness was also found to depend on the penetration depth of the diamond indenter. Wear and friction properties were characterized by a reciprocating sliding friction tester with an SAE 52100 high-carbon, chrome steel ball at 0.5 and 1 N normal loads. Wear and frictional properties varied in a complex fashion with polymer type and dose, but not much with normal load. A substantial reduction in friction coefficient was observed for PEEK at the highest dose but no reduction was observed for Ultem. The wear damage was substantially reduced at the highest dose for both Ultem and PEEK. For the system studied, the highest dose, 2.2x10 15 ions cm -2 , appears to be optimum in improving wear resistance for both PEEK and Ultem. (orig.)

  7. Electric motor drive unit, especially adjustment drive for vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litterst, P

    1980-05-29

    An electric motor drive unit, particularly an adjustment drive for vehicles with at least two parallel drive shafts is described, which is compact and saves space, and whose manufacturing costs are low compared with those of well-known drive units of this type. The drive unit contains a suitable number of magnet systems, preferably permanent magnet systems, whose pole axes are spaced and run parallel. The two pole magnet systems have diametrically opposite shell-shaped segments, to which the poles are fixed. In at least one magnet system the two segments are connected by diametrically opposite flat walls parallel to the pole axes to form a single magnetic circuit pole housing. The segments of at least one other magnet system are arranged on this pole housing so that one of these flat walls is a magnetically conducting, connecting component of the magnetic circuit of the other magnet system.

  8. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikakura, Hiroaki.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to direct disconnection of control rods upon abnormal temperature rise in the reactor thereby improve the reliability for the disconnecting operation in control rod drives for FBR type reactors upon emergency. Constitution: A diaphragm is disposed to the upper opening of a sealing vessel inserted to the hollow portion of an electromagnet and a rod is secured to the central position of the upper surface. A spring contacts are attached by way of an insulator to the inner surface at the lower portion of an extension pipe and connected with cables for supplying electric power sources respectively to a magnet. If the temperature in the reactor abnormally rises, liquid metals in the sealing vessel are expanded tending to extend the bellows downwardly. However, since they are attracted by the electromagnet, the thermal expansion of the liquid metals exert on the diaphragm prior to the bellows. Thus, the switch between the spring contacts is made open to attain the deenergized state to thereby disconnect the control rod and shutdown the neclear reactor. (Horiuchi, T.)

  9. Driving for shorter outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritch, S.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear plant outages are necessary to complete activities that cannot be completed during the operating cycle, such as steam generator inspection and testing, refueling, installing modifications, and performing maintenance tests. The time devoted to performing outages is normally the largest contributor to plant unavailability. Similarly, outage costs are a sizable portion of the total plant budget. The scope and quality of work done during outages directly affects operating reliability and the number of unplanned outages. Improved management and planning of outages enhances the margin of safety during the outage and results in increased plant reliability. The detailed planning and in-depth preparation that has become a necessity for driving shorter outage durations has also produced safer outages and improved post-outage reliability. Short outages require both plant and vendor management to focus on all aspects of the outage. Short outage durations, such as 26 days at South Texas or 29 days at North Anna, require power plant inter-department and intra-department teamwork and communication and vendor participation. In this paper shorter and safer outage at the 3-loop plants in the United States are explained. (J.P.N.)

  10. Control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Akira.

    1989-01-01

    In the control rod drive for a BWR type reactor, etc., according to this invention, the lower limit flow rate is set so as to keep the restriction for stability upon spectral shift operation. The setting condition for keeping the restriction is the lowest pump speed and the lower limit for the automatic control of the flow rate, which are considered to be important in view of the stablility from the actual power state. In view of the above, it is possible to keep the reactor core stably even in a case where such a transient phenomenon occurs that the recycling flow rate has to be run back to the lowest pump speed during spectral shift opeeration or in a case where the load demand is reduced and the flow rate is decreased by an automatic mode as in night operation. Accordingly, in the case of conducting the spectral shift operation according to this invention, the operation region capable of keeping the reactor core state stably during operation can be extended. (I.S.)

  11. Disarming the Trolley Problem –Why Self-driving Cars do not Need to Choose Whom to Kill

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson , Rolf; Nilsson , Jonas

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Many claim that the “Trolley problem” is hindering the introduction of self-driving cars. Self-driving cars must, as all safety-critical products, be designed such that the probability of morally hard (“trolley”) situations is acceptably low. In this paper we argue that the introduction of self-driving cars can solve this ethical dilemma. In short the solution to the trolley problem is that a self-driving car must be able to estimate its own operational capability for ...

  12. Control rod drive shaft latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorp, A.G. II.

    1976-01-01

    A latch mechanism is operated by differential pressure on a piston to engage the drive shaft for a control rod in a nuclear reactor, thereby preventing the control rod from being ejected from the reactor in case of failure of the control rod drive mechanism housing which is subjected to the internal pressure in the reactor vessel. 6 claims, 4 drawing figures

  13. ECO-DRIVING MODELING ENVIRONMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This research project aims to examine the eco-driving modeling capabilities of different traffic modeling tools available and to develop a driver-simulator-based eco-driving modeling tool to evaluate driver behavior and to reliably estimate or measur...

  14. Real-world driving behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkeboer, R.C.; Hendriksen, P.; Gense, N.L.J.

    2001-01-01

    With increasing complexity of engine management system there is a tendency for traditional driving cyles to become further and further removed from reality. So for a sensible evaluation of emissions and fuel consumption of road vehicles in the field there is an urgent need for 'real-world' driving

  15. H1 antihistamines and driving

    OpenAIRE

    Florin-Dan, Popescu

    2008-01-01

    Driving performances depend on cognitive, psychomotor and perception functions. The CNS adverse effects of some H1 antihistamines can alter the patient ability to drive. Data from studies using standardized objective cognitive and psychomotor tests (Choice Reaction Time, Critical Flicker Fusion, Digital Symbol Substitution Test), functional brain imaging (Positron Emission Tomography, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging), neurophysiological studies (Multiple Sleep Latency Test, auditory and...

  16. [Driving and health at work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgio, Marie-Thérèse

    2015-09-01

    The role of the occupational physician is to prevent occupational accidents and diseases. Therefore, he is the one to decide if a worker is fit to drive in the context of his professional activity, including in cases where no specific driving license is required (e.g. forklift truck, mobile crane). This decision is an important one, as two thirds of fatal occupational accidents occur on the road. The decision is made on the basis of both a medical examination and the regulation, which indicates all contraindications to driving. The physician's responsibility is involved, as is the employer's, as he must ensure that his employee is fit to drive and possesses a valid driving license at all times. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of Hard Thin Film Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dashen

    1998-01-01

    MSFC is interested in developing hard thin film coating for bearings. The wearing of the bearing is an important problem for space flight engine. Hard thin film coating can drastically improve the surface of the bearing and improve the wear-endurance of the bearing. However, many fundamental problems in surface physics, plasma deposition, etc, need further research. The approach is using electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECRCVD) to deposit hard thin film an stainless steel bearing. The thin films in consideration include SiC, SiN and other materials. An ECRCVD deposition system is being assembled at MSFC.

  18. Driving the Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haff, P. K.

    2012-12-01

    Technological modification of the earth's surface (e.g., agriculture, urbanization) is an old story in human history, but what about the future? The future of landscape in an accelerating technological world, beyond a relatively short time horizon, lies hidden behind an impenetrable veil of complexity. Sufficiently complex dynamics generates not only the trajectory of a variable of interest (e.g., vegetation cover) but also the environment in which that variable evolves (e.g., background climate). There is no way to anticipate what variables will define that environment—the dynamics creates its own variables. We are always open to surprise by a change of conditions we thought or assumed were fixed or by the appearance of new phenomena of whose possible existence we had been unaware or thought unlikely. This is especially true under the influence of technology, where novelty is the rule. Lack of direct long-term predictability of landscape change does not, however, mean we cannot say anything about its future. The presence of persistence (finite time scales) in a system means that prediction by a calibrated numerical model should be good for a limited period of time barring bad luck or faulty implementation. Short-term prediction, despite its limitations, provides an option for dealing with the longer-term future. If a computer-controlled car tries to drive itself from New York to Los Angeles, no conceivable (or possible) stand-alone software can be constructed to predict a priori the space-time trajectory of the vehicle. Yet the drive is normally completed easily by most drivers. The trip is successfully completed because each in a series of very short (linear) steps can be "corrected" on the fly by the driver, who takes her cues from the environment to keep the car on the road and headed toward its destination. This metaphor differs in a fundamental way from the usual notion of predicting geomorphic change, because it involves a goal—to reach a desired

  19. Double hard scattering without double counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gaunt, Jonathan R. [VU Univ. Amsterdam (Netherlands). NIKHEF Theory Group; Schoenwald, Kay [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions includes kinematic regions in which two partons inside a proton originate from the perturbative splitting of a single parton. This leads to a double counting problem between single and double hard scattering. We present a solution to this problem, which allows for the definition of double parton distributions as operator matrix elements in a proton, and which can be used at higher orders in perturbation theory. We show how the evaluation of double hard scattering in this framework can provide a rough estimate for the size of the higher-order contributions to single hard scattering that are affected by double counting. In a numeric study, we identify situations in which these higher-order contributions must be explicitly calculated and included if one wants to attain an accuracy at which double hard scattering becomes relevant, and other situations where such contributions may be neglected.

  20. Hard X-ray Photoelectric Polarimeter

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our objective is to determine the gas mixtures and pressures that would enable a sensitive, hard X-ray polarimeter using existing flight components with the goal of...

  1. Methane in German hard coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, P.N.; Den Drijver, J.

    1995-01-01

    Worldwide, hard coal mining is being carried out at ever increasing depth, and has, therefore, to cope with correspondingly increasing methane emissions are caused by coal mining. Beside carbon dioxide, chloro-fluoro-carbons (CFCs) and nitrogen oxides, methane is one of the most significant 'greenhouse' gases. It is mainly through the release of such trace gases that the greenhouse effect is brought about. Reducing methane emissions is therefore an important problem to be solved by the coal mining industry. This paper begins by highlighting some of the fundamental principles of methane in hard coal mining. The methane problem in German hard coal mining and the industry's efforts to reduce methane emissions are presented. The future development in German hard coal mining is illustrated by an example which shows how large methane volumes can be managed, while still maintaining high outputs at increasing depth. (author). 7 tabs., 10 figs., 20 refs

  2. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it free Find out why Close Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit? National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA/NIH) Loading... Unsubscribe from National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA/NIH)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed ...

  3. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... YouTube Red. Working... Not now Try it free Find out why Close Why Are Drugs So Hard ... hotline to help you or a loved one find treatment. For more information, visit http://www.easyread. ...

  4. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... So Hard to Quit? National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA/NIH) Loading... Unsubscribe from National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA/NIH)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe ...

  5. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Feb 7, 2012 Quitting drugs is hard because addiction is a brain disease. Your brain is like ... out signals to direct your actions and choices. Addiction changes the signals in your brain and makes ...

  6. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs So Hard to Quit? National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA/NIH) Loading... Unsubscribe from National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA/NIH)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe ...

  7. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in your brain and makes it hard to feel OK without the drug. This video from NIDA ... Advertise Developers +YouTube Terms Privacy Policy & Safety Send feedback Test new features Loading... Working... Sign in to ...

  8. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... has been rented. This feature is not available right now. Please try again later. Published on Feb 7, 2012 Quitting drugs is hard because addiction is a brain disease. Your brain is like a control tower ...

  9. A theoretical overview on single hard diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuesthoff, M.

    1996-01-01

    The concept of the Pomeron structure function and its application in Single Hard Diffraction at hadron colliders and in diffractive Deep Inelastic Scattering is critically reviewed. Some alternative approaches are briefly surveyed with a focus on QCD inspired models

  10. Double hard scattering without double counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, Markus; Gaunt, Jonathan R.

    2017-02-01

    Double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions includes kinematic regions in which two partons inside a proton originate from the perturbative splitting of a single parton. This leads to a double counting problem between single and double hard scattering. We present a solution to this problem, which allows for the definition of double parton distributions as operator matrix elements in a proton, and which can be used at higher orders in perturbation theory. We show how the evaluation of double hard scattering in this framework can provide a rough estimate for the size of the higher-order contributions to single hard scattering that are affected by double counting. In a numeric study, we identify situations in which these higher-order contributions must be explicitly calculated and included if one wants to attain an accuracy at which double hard scattering becomes relevant, and other situations where such contributions may be neglected.

  11. Automated driving safer and more efficient future driving

    CERN Document Server

    Horn, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The main topics of this book include advanced control, cognitive data processing, high performance computing, functional safety, and comprehensive validation. These topics are seen as technological bricks to drive forward automated driving. The current state of the art of automated vehicle research, development and innovation is given. The book also addresses industry-driven roadmaps for major new technology advances as well as collaborative European initiatives supporting the evolvement of automated driving. Various examples highlight the state of development of automated driving as well as the way forward. The book will be of interest to academics and researchers within engineering, graduate students, automotive engineers at OEMs and suppliers, ICT and software engineers, managers, and other decision-makers.

  12. Testing of a direct drive generator for wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondergaard, L.M. [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    The normal drive train of a wind turbine consists a gearbox and a 4 to 8 poles asynchronous generator. The gearbox is an expensive and unreliable components and this paper deals with testing of a direct drive synchronous generator for a gearless wind turbine. The Danish company Belt Electric has constructed and manufactured a 27 kW prototype radial flux PM-generator (DD600). They have used cheap hard ferrite magnets in the rotor of this PM-generator. This generator has been tested at Riso and the test results are investigated and analyzed in this paper. The tests have been done with three different load types (1: resistance; 2: diode rectifier, DC-capacitor, resistance; 3: AC-capacitor, diode rectifier, DC-capacitor, resistance). 1 ref., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Hard scattering and gauge/string duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polchinski, Joseph; Strassler, Matthew J.

    2002-01-01

    We consider high-energy fixed-angle scattering of glueballs in confining gauge theories that have supergravity duals. Although the effective description is in terms of the scattering of strings, we find that the amplitudes are hard (power law). This is a consequence of the warped geometry of the dual theory, which has the effect that in an inertial frame the string process is never in the soft regime. At small angle we find hard and Regge behaviors in different kinematic regions

  14. Soft skills, hard skills, and individual innovativeness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendarman, Achmad Fajar; Cantner, Uwe

    2018-01-01

    of Indonesian firms from different industries are used from an online survey on manager and worker perceptions related to individual innovation performance on the one hand and individual skills on the other hand. The results show that soft skills and hard skills are significantly and positively associated...... with individual level innovativeness. However, no complementarity (positive interaction effect) is found between soft skills and hard skills....

  15. Hard template synthesis of metal nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamura, Go; Muto, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Atsunori

    2014-01-01

    Metal nanowires (NWs) have attracted much attention because of their high electron conductivity, optical transmittance, and tunable magnetic properties. Metal NWs have been synthesized using soft templates such as surface stabilizing molecules and polymers, and hard templates such as anodic aluminum oxide, mesoporous oxide, carbon nanotubes. NWs prepared from hard templates are composites of metals and the oxide/carbon matrix. Thus, selecting appropriate elements can simplify the production o...

  16. Radiation-Hard Quartz Cerenkov Calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akgun, U.; Onel, Y.

    2006-01-01

    New generation hadron colliders are going to reach unprecedented energies and radiation levels. Quartz has been identified as a radiation-hard material that can be used for Cerenkov calorimeters of the future experiments. We report from the radiation hardness tests performed on quartz fibers, as well as the characteristics of the quartz fiber and plate Cerenkov calorimeters that have been built, designed, and proposed for the CMS experiment

  17. Radiation hard memory cell and array thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunckel, T.L. II; Rovell, A.; Nielsen, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    A memory cell configuration that is implemented to be relatively hard to the adverse effects of a nuclear event is discussed. The presently disclosed memory cell can be interconnected with other like memory cells to form a high speed radiation hard register file. Information is selectively written into and read out of a memory cell comprising the register file, which memory cell preserves previously stored data without alteration in the event of exposure to high levels of nuclear radiation

  18. THE IMPACT OF TEXT DRIVING ON DRIVING SAFETY

    OpenAIRE

    Sanaz Motamedi; Jyh-Hone Wang

    2016-01-01

    In an increasingly mobile era, the wide availability of technology for texting and the prevalence of hands-free form have introduced a new safety concern for drivers. To assess this concern, a questionnaire was first deployed online to gain an understanding of drivers’ text driving experiences as well as their demographic information. The results from 232 people revealed that the majority of drivers are aware of the associated risks with texting while driving. However, more than one-fourth of...

  19. Semiclassical instability of warp drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcelo, C [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, IAA-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain); Finazzi, S; Liberati, S, E-mail: carlos@iaa.e, E-mail: finazzi@sissa.i, E-mail: liberati@sissa.i

    2010-05-01

    Warp drives, at least theoretically, provide a way to travel at superluminal speeds. However, even if one succeeded in providing the necessary exotic matter to construct them, it would still be necessary to check whether they would survive to the switching on of quantum effects. In this contribution we will report on the behaviour of the Renormalized Stress-Energy Tensor (RSET) in the spacetimes associated with superluminal warp drives. We find that the RSET will exponentially grow in time close to the front wall of the superluminal bubble, hence strongly supporting the conclusion that the warp-drive geometries are unstable against semiclassical back-reaction.

  20. Driving Safety and Fitness to Drive in Sleep Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippin, Jon; Dyken, Mark Eric

    2017-08-01

    Driving an automobile while sleepy increases the risk of crash-related injury and death. Neurologists see patients with sleepiness due to obstructive sleep apnea, narcolepsy, and a wide variety of neurologic disorders. When addressing fitness to drive, the physician must weigh patient and societal health risks and regional legal mandates. The Driver Fitness Medical Guidelines published by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators (AAMVA) provide assistance to clinicians. Drivers with obstructive sleep apnea may continue to drive if they have no excessive daytime sleepiness and their apnea-hypopnea index is less than 20 per hour. Those with excessive daytime sleepiness or an apnea-hypopnea index of 20 per hour or more may not drive until their condition is effectively treated. Drivers with sleep disorders amenable to pharmaceutical treatment (eg, narcolepsy) may resume driving as long as the therapy has eliminated excessive daytime sleepiness. Following these guidelines, documenting compliance to recommended therapy, and using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale to assess subjective sleepiness can be helpful in determining patients' fitness to drive.

  1. Standard test methods for rockwell hardness of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the Rockwell hardness and the Rockwell superficial hardness of metallic materials by the Rockwell indentation hardness principle. This standard provides the requirements for Rockwell hardness machines and the procedures for performing Rockwell hardness tests. 1.2 This standard includes additional requirements in annexes: Verification of Rockwell Hardness Testing Machines Annex A1 Rockwell Hardness Standardizing Machines Annex A2 Standardization of Rockwell Indenters Annex A3 Standardization of Rockwell Hardness Test Blocks Annex A4 Guidelines for Determining the Minimum Thickness of a Test Piece Annex A5 Hardness Value Corrections When Testing on Convex Cylindrical Surfaces Annex A6 1.3 This standard includes nonmandatory information in appendixes which relates to the Rockwell hardness test. List of ASTM Standards Giving Hardness Values Corresponding to Tensile Strength Appendix X1 Examples of Procedures for Determining Rockwell Hardness Uncertainty Appendix X...

  2. Standard test methods for rockwell hardness of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the Rockwell hardness and the Rockwell superficial hardness of metallic materials by the Rockwell indentation hardness principle. This standard provides the requirements for Rockwell hardness machines and the procedures for performing Rockwell hardness tests. 1.2 This standard includes additional requirements in annexes: Verification of Rockwell Hardness Testing Machines Annex A1 Rockwell Hardness Standardizing Machines Annex A2 Standardization of Rockwell Indenters Annex A3 Standardization of Rockwell Hardness Test Blocks Annex A4 Guidelines for Determining the Minimum Thickness of a Test Piece Annex A5 Hardness Value Corrections When Testing on Convex Cylindrical Surfaces Annex A6 1.3 This standard includes nonmandatory information in appendixes which relates to the Rockwell hardness test. List of ASTM Standards Giving Hardness Values Corresponding to Tensile Strength Appendix X1 Examples of Procedures for Determining Rockwell Hardness Uncertainty Appendix X...

  3. Quantum effects in warp drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finazzi Stefano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Warp drives are interesting configurations that, at least theoretically, provide a way to travel at superluminal speed. Unfortunately, several issues seem to forbid their realization. First, a huge amount of exotic matter is required to build them. Second, the presence of quantum fields propagating in superluminal warp-drive geometries makes them semiclassically unstable. Indeed, a Hawking-like high-temperature flux of particles is generated inside the warp-drive bubble, which causes an exponential growth of the energy density measured at the front wall of the bubble by freely falling observers. Moreover, superluminal warp drives remain unstable even if the Lorentz symmetry is broken by the introduction of regulating higher order terms in the Lagrangian of the quantum field. If the dispersion relation of the quantum field is subluminal, a black-hole laser phenomenon yields an exponential amplification of the emitted flux. If it is superluminal, infrared effects cause a linear growth of this flux.

  4. Multidisciplinary design of electrical drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaabjerg, F.; Rasmussen, P.O.; Pedersen, J.K.

    1999-07-01

    Traditionally, simulation tools for drives can simulate electrical parameters, torque and different loads. Those parameters are in many cases appropriate. However, power electronics in drives will also influence on torque ripple, temperature, vibration and acoustical noise from the motor and it is necessary to include those phenomena in the next generation of simulation tools for electrical drives. This paper describes a new design program where acoustic noise of electromagnetic origin can be simulated and even be heard by the motor and drives designer. The design program is based on a simple vibrational/acoustic model where the parameters can be calculated based on the geometry of the motor. Examples of vibrational/acoustical modelling are included and verified in both time and frequency domain. Special emphasis is on the switched reluctance motor. (au)

  5. Clinical Action against Drunk Driving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald A Redelmeier

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In advance of a safety campaign on 17 March 2017, Donald Redelmeier and Allan Detsky call on physicians and clinical colleagues to reduce the chances that patients will drive drunk.

  6. Driving safety in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zesiewicz, T A; Cimino, C R; Malek, A R; Gardner, N; Leaverton, P L; Dunne, P B; Hauser, R A

    2002-12-10

    In this study, 39 patients with PD and 25 control subjects without neurologic disease completed testing in a driving simulator. PD patients had more total collisions on the driving simulator than control subjects (t = -3.7, p < 0.01). In PD patients, collisions were associated with Hoehn and Yahr stage (chi(2) = 12.4, p = 0.006) and correlated with Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score (r = 0.5, p < 0.01).

  7. Warp drive with zero expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natario, Jose [Department of Mathematics, Instituto Superior Tecnico (Portugal)

    2002-03-21

    It is commonly believed that Alcubierre's warp drive works by contracting space in front of the warp bubble and expanding the space behind it. We show that this contraction/expansion is but a marginal consequence of the choice made by Alcubierre and explicitly construct a similar spacetime where no contraction/expansion occurs. Global and optical properties of warp-drive spacetimes are also discussed.

  8. Selective Perception for Robot Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    models are theories of human cognitive activity during driving. Van der Molen and Botticher recently reviewed several of these models [ van der Molen 871...how to represent driving knowledge, how to perceive traffic situations, or how to process information to obtain actions. Van der Molen and Botticher...attempted to compare the operations of various models objectively on the same task [Rothengatter 88, van der Molen 87], but the models could be

  9. Low backlash direct drive actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklo, Thomas C.

    1994-01-01

    A low backlash direct drive actuator is described which comprises a motor such as a stepper motor having at least 200 steps per revolution; a two part hub assembly comprising a drive hub coaxially attached to the shaft of the motor and having a plurality of drive pins; a driven hub having a plurality of bores in one end thereof in alignment with the drive pins in the drive hub and a threaded shaft coaxially mounted in an opposite end of the driven hub; and a housing having a central bore therein into which are fitted the drive hub and driven hub, the housing having a motor mount on one end thereof to which is mounted the stepper motor, and a closed end portion with a threaded opening therein coaxial with the central bore in the housing and receiving therein the threaded shaft attached to the driven hub. Limit switches mounted to the housing cooperate with an enlarged lip on the driven hub to limit the lateral travel of the driven hub in the housing, which also acts to limit the lateral travel of the threaded shaft which functions as a lead screw.

  10. An accelerated life test model for harmonic drives under a segmental stress history and its parameter optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Harmonic drives have various distinctive advantages and are widely used in space drive mechanisms. Accelerated life test (ALT is commonly conducted to shorten test time and reduce associated costs. An appropriate ALT model is needed to predict the lifetime of harmonic drives with ALT data. However, harmonic drives which are used in space usually work under a segmental stress history, and traditional ALT models can hardly be used in this situation. This paper proposes a dedicated ALT model for harmonic drives applied in space systems. A comprehensive ALT model is established and genetic algorithm (GA is adopted to obtain optimal parameters in the model using the Manson fatigue damage rule to describe the fatigue failure process and a cumulative damage method to calculate and accumulate the damage caused by each segment in the stress history. An ALT of harmonic drives was carried out and experimental results show that this model is acceptable and effective.

  11. High-power converters and AC drives

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This new edition reflects the recent technological advancements in the MV drive industry, such as advanced multilevel converters and drive configurations. It includes three new chapters, Control of Synchronous Motor Drives, Transformerless MV Drives, and Matrix Converter Fed Drives. In addition, there are extensively revised chapters on Multilevel Voltage Source Inverters and Voltage Source Inverter-Fed Drives. This book includes a systematic analysis on a variety of high-power multilevel converters, illustrates important concepts with simulations and experiments, introduces various megawatt drives produced by world leading drive manufacturers, and addresses practical problems and their mitigations methods.

  12. Efficient Driving of Piezoelectric Transducers Using a Biaxial Driving Technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Pichardo

    Full Text Available Efficient driving of piezoelectric materials is desirable when operating transducers for biomedical applications such as high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU or ultrasound imaging. More efficient operation reduces the electric power required to produce the desired bioeffect or contrast. Our preliminary work [Cole et al. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. 2014;26(13:135901.] suggested that driving transducers by applying orthogonal electric fields can significantly reduce the coercivity that opposes ferroelectric switching. We present here the experimental validation of this biaxial driving technique using piezoelectric ceramics typically used in HIFU. A set of narrow-band transducers was fabricated with two sets of electrodes placed in an orthogonal configuration (following the propagation and the lateral mode. The geometry of the ceramic was chosen to have a resonance frequency similar for the propagation and the lateral mode. The average (± s.d. resonance frequency of the samples was 465.1 (± 1.5 kHz. Experiments were conducted in which each pair of electrodes was driven independently and measurements of effective acoustic power were obtained using the radiation force method. The efficiency (acoustic/electric power of the biaxial driving method was compared to the results obtained when driving the ceramic using electrodes placed only in the pole direction. Our results indicate that the biaxial method increases efficiency from 50% to 125% relative to the using a single electric field.

  13. Novel hard compositions and methods of preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinberg, H.

    1983-08-23

    Novel very hard compositions of matter are prepared by using in all embodiments only a minor amount of a particular carbide (or materials which can form the carbide in situ when subjected to heat and pressure); and no strategic cobalt is needed. Under a particular range of conditions, densified compositions of matter of the invention are prepared having hardnesses on the Rockwell A test substantially equal to the hardness of pure tungsten carbide and to two of the hardest commercial cobalt-bonded tungsten carbides. Alternately, other compositions of the invention which have slightly lower hardnesses than those described above in one embodiment also possess the advantage of requiring no tungsten and in another embodiment possess the advantage of having a good fracture toughness value. Photomicrographs show that the shapes of the grains of the alloy mixture with which the minor amount of carbide (or carbide-formers) is mixed are radically altered from large, rounded to small, very angular by the addition of the carbide. Superiority of one of these hard compositions of matter over cobalt-bonded tungsten carbide for ultra-high pressure anvil applications was demonstrated. 3 figs.

  14. Motorcycle On-Road Driving Parameters Influencing Fuel Consumption and Emissions on Congested Signalized Urban Corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atthapol Seedam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find the on-road driving parameters influencing fuel consumption and emissions of motorcycle driving on a congested signalized urban corridor. A motorcycle onboard measurement system was developed to measure instantaneously and continuously record on-road driving data, including speed-time profile, emissions, and fuel consumption, by the second. The test motorcycles were driven by 30 sample motorcyclists on a signalized urban corridor in Khon Kaen City, Thailand, to collect their on-road driving behavior during the morning peak period. Cluster analysis was applied to analyze collected driving data and to categorize the drivers by level of fuel consumption and on-road driver behavior. The on-road driving parameter influencing fuel consumption and emissions was then determined. Results revealed that proportion of idle time significantly influenced fuel consumption and emissions of motorcycle driving on a congested signalized urban corridor, though aggressive driving behavior, hard acceleration and deceleration, did not have the same kind of influence.

  15. i3Drive, a 3D interactive driving simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroz, Miha; Prebil, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    i3Drive, a wheeled-vehicle simulator, can accurately simulate vehicles of various configurations with up to eight wheels in real time on a desktop PC. It presents the vehicle dynamics as an interactive animation in a virtual 3D environment. The application is fully GUI-controlled, giving users an easy overview of the simulation parameters and letting them adjust those parameters interactively. It models all relevant vehicle systems, including the mechanical models of the suspension, power train, and braking and steering systems. The simulation results generally correspond well with actual measurements, making the system useful for studying vehicle performance in various driving scenarios. i3Drive is thus a worthy complement to other, more complex tools for vehicle-dynamics simulation and analysis.

  16. Structure, production and properties of high-melting compounds and systems (hard materials and hard metals)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holleck, H.; Thuemmler, F.

    1979-07-01

    The report contains contributions by various authors to the research project on the production, structure, and physical properties of high-melting compounds and systems (hard metals and hard materials), in particular WC-, TaC-, and MoC-base materials. (GSCH) [de

  17. Analytical Modeling of Hard-Coating Cantilever Composite Plate considering the Material Nonlinearity of Hard Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the material nonlinearity of hard coating, the coated structure produces the nonlinear dynamical behaviors of variable stiffness and damping, which make the modeling of hard-coating composite structure become a challenging task. In this study, the polynomial was adopted to characterize this material nonlinearity and an analytical modeling method was developed for the hard-coating composite plate. Firstly, to relate the hard-coating material parameters obtained by test and the analytical model, the expression of equivalent strain of composite plate was derived. Then, the analytical model of hard-coating composite plate was created by energy method considering the material nonlinearity of hard coating. Next, using the Newton-Raphson method to solve the vibration response and resonant frequencies of composite plate and a specific calculation procedure was also proposed. Finally, a cantilever plate coated with MgO + Al2O3 hard coating was chosen as study case; the vibration response and resonant frequencies of composite plate were calculated using the proposed method. The calculation results were compared with the experiment and general linear calculation, and the correctness of the created model was verified. The study shows the proposed method can still maintain an acceptable precision when the material nonlinearity of hard coating is stronger.

  18. Driving performance at lateral system limits during partially automated driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naujoks, Frederik; Purucker, Christian; Wiedemann, Katharina; Neukum, Alexandra; Wolter, Stefan; Steiger, Reid

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated driver performance during system limits of partially automated driving. Using a motion-based driving simulator, drivers encountered different situations in which a partially automated vehicle could no longer safely keep the lateral guidance. Drivers were distracted by a non-driving related task on a touch display or driving without an additional secondary task. While driving in partially automated mode drivers could either take their hands off the steering wheel for only a short period of time (10s, so-called 'Hands-on' variant) or for an extended period of time (120s, so-called 'Hands-off' variant). When the system limit was reached (e.g., when entering a work zone with temporary lines), the lateral vehicle control by the automation was suddenly discontinued and a take-over request was issued to the drivers. Regardless of the hands-off interval and the availability of a secondary task, all drivers managed the transition to manual driving safely. No lane exceedances were observed and the situations were rated as 'harmless' by the drivers. The lack of difference between the hands-off intervals can be partly attributed to the fact that most of the drivers kept contact to the steering wheel, even in the hands-off condition. Although all drivers were able to control the system limits, most of them could not explain why exactly the take-over request was issued. The average helpfulness of the take-over request was rated on an intermediate level. Consequently, providing drivers with information about the reason for a system limit can be recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Exploring Forensic Implications of the Fusion Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Gupta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the forensic implications of Apple's Fusion Drive. The Fusion Drive is an example of auto-tiered storage. It uses a combination of a flash drive and a magnetic drive. Data is moved between the drives automatically to maximize system performance. This is different from traditional caches because data is moved and not simply copied. The research included understanding the drive structure, populating the drive, and then accessing data in a controlled setting to observe data migration strategies. It was observed that all the data is first written to the flash drive with 4 GB of free space always maintained. If data on the magnetic drive is frequently accessed, it is promoted to the flash drive while demoting other information. Data is moved at a block-level and not a file-level. The Fusion Drive didn't alter the timestamps of files with data migration.

  20. Erosion testing of hard materials and coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2005-04-29

    Erosion is the process by which unconstrained particles, usually hard, impact a surface, creating damage that leads to material removal and component failure. These particles are usually very small and entrained in fluid of some type, typically air. The damage that occurs as a result of erosion depends on the size of the particles, their physical characteristics, the velocity of the particle/fluid stream, and their angle of impact on the surface of interest. This talk will discuss the basics of jet erosion testing of hard materials, composites and coatings. The standard test methods will be discussed as well as alternative approaches to determining the erosion rate of materials. The damage that occurs will be characterized in genera1 terms, and examples will be presented for the erosion behavior of hard materials and coatings (both thick and thin).

  1. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory is being constructed in preparation for the deep geological repository of spent fuel in Sweden. This Annual Report 1993 for the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory contains an overview of the work conducted. Present work is focused on verification of pre-investigation methods and development of the detailed investigation methodology. Construction of the facility and investigation of the bedrock are carried out in parallel. As of December 1993, 2760 m of the tunnel had been excavated to a depth of 370 m below the surface. An important and integral part of the work is further refinement of conceptual and numerical models for groundwater flow and radionuclide migration. Detailed plans have been prepared for several experiments to be conducted after the end of the construction work. Eight organizations from seven countries are now participating in the work at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory and are contributing in different ways to the results being achieved

  2. Hard template synthesis of metal nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go eKawamura

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Metal nanowires (NWs have attracted much attention because of their high electron conductivity, optical transmittance and tunable magnetic properties. Metal NWs have been synthesized using soft templates such as surface stabilizing molecules and polymers, and hard templates such as anodic aluminum oxide, mesoporous oxide, carbon nanotubes. NWs prepared from hard templates are composites of metals and the oxide/carbon matrix. Thus, selecting appropriate elements can simplify the production of composite devices. The resulting NWs are immobilized and spatially arranged, as dictated by the ordered porous structure of the template. This avoids the NWs from aggregating, which is common for NWs prepared with soft templates in solution. Herein, the hard template synthesis of metal NWs is reviewed, and the resulting structures, properties and potential applications are discussed.

  3. Hard template synthesis of metal nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Go; Muto, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Atsunori

    2014-11-01

    Metal nanowires (NWs) have attracted much attention because of their high electron conductivity, optical transmittance and tunable magnetic properties. Metal NWs have been synthesized using soft templates such as surface stabilizing molecules and polymers, and hard templates such as anodic aluminum oxide, mesoporous oxide, carbon nanotubes. NWs prepared from hard templates are composites of metals and the oxide/carbon matrix. Thus, selecting appropriate elements can simplify the production of composite devices. The resulting NWs are immobilized and spatially arranged, as dictated by the ordered porous structure of the template. This avoids the NWs from aggregating, which is common for NWs prepared with soft templates in solution. Herein, the hard template synthesis of metal NWs is reviewed, and the resulting structures, properties and potential applications are discussed.

  4. Liquid agents for dispersion of hard alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putintseva, M.N.

    2006-01-01

    Effects of dispersant properties on granulometric, chemical, and phase composition of the products of WC hard alloy electroerosion are considered. It is established that an increase of liquid dispersant permittivity results in enhanced powder dispersity, and an increase of boiling temperature and kinematic viscosity of a hydrocarbon liquid promotes a carbon loss from WC and intensifies pyrolysis of the liquid.On electroerosion of WC base hard alloy in oil a powder particle consists of b-WC+W 2 C phases, in kerosine - of a-WC+b-WC, in distilled water - of W+W 2 C. The viscosity of liquid dispersants practically has no effect on powder particle size [ru

  5. Induction surface hardening of hard coated steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Kessler, Olaf; Hoffmann, Franz

    1999-01-01

    The deposition of hard coatings with CVD-processes is commonly used to improve the wear resistance e.g. of tool steels in forming. The advantages of CVD are undisputed (high deposition rates with simple equipment, excellent coating properties). Nevertheless, the disadvantage of the CVD-process is......The deposition of hard coatings with CVD-processes is commonly used to improve the wear resistance e.g. of tool steels in forming. The advantages of CVD are undisputed (high deposition rates with simple equipment, excellent coating properties). Nevertheless, the disadvantage of the CVD...

  6. Rad Hard Active Media For Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Norbeck, E; Möller, A; Onel, Y

    2006-01-01

    Zero-degree calorimeters have limited space and extreme levels of radiation. A simple, low cost, radiation hard design uses tungstenmetal as the absorber and a suitable liquid as the ˇCerenkov radiator. In other applications a PPAC (Parallel Plate Avalanche Counter) operatingwith a suitable atmosphericpressure gas is an attractive active material for a calorimeter. It can be made radiation hard and has sufficient gain in the gas that no electronic components are needed near the detector. It works well even with the highest concentration of shower particles. For this pressure range, R134A (used in auto air conditioners) has many desirable features.

  7. Hardness of basaltic glass-ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Estrup, Maja

    2009-01-01

    The dependence of the hardness of basaltic glass-ceramics on their degree of crystallisation has been explored by means of differential scanning calorimetry, optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Vickers indentation. Different degrees of crystallisation in the basaltic glasses were achieved...... by varying the temperature of heat treatment. The predominant crystalline phase in the glass was identified as augite. It was found that the hardness of the glass phase decreased slightly with an increase in the degree of crystallisation, while that of the augite phase drastically decreased....

  8. Effects of explosions in hard rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.; Walton, O.R.; Maddix, D.M.; Shaffer, R.J.; Butkovich, T.R.

    1993-01-01

    This work relates to explosions in hard rocks (ex: basalt, granite, limestone...). Hard rock masses typically have a blocky structure created by the existence of geologic discontinuities such as bedding contacts, faults, and joints. At very high pressure - hundreds of kilobars and above - these discontinuities do not act separately, and the rock appears to be an equivalent continuous medium. At stress of a few tens of kilobars and below, the geologic discontinuities control the kinematics of the rock masses. Hence, the simulation of rock dynamics, anywhere but in the very-near source region, should account for those kinematics

  9. Novel Aspects of Hard Diffraction in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2005-01-01

    Initial- and final-state interactions from gluon-exchange, normally neglected in the parton model have a profound effect in QCD hard-scattering reactions, leading to leading-twist single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, diffractive hard hadronic reactions, and nuclear shadowing and antishadowing--leading-twist physics not incorporated in the light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. I also discuss the use of diffraction to materialize the Fock states of a hadronic projectile and test QCD color transparency

  10. Radiation hardness of undoped BGO crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.K.; Peng, K.C.; Huang, H.C.; Wang, C.H.; Chang, Y.H.; Hou, W.S.; Ueno, K.; Chou, F.I.; Wei, Y.Y.

    1997-01-01

    We measured the radiation hardness of undoped BGO crystals from two different manufacturers. Such crystals are proposed to be used in a small-angle calorimeter of the BELLE detector of the KEK B-factory. Transparency and scintillation light output of the crystals were monitored to see the effect of radiation damage. The crystals show considerable radiation hardness up to 10.2 Mrad equivalent dose, which is much higher than the maximum expected dosage of 500 krad per year of running at BELLE. (orig.)

  11. Hardness of carbides, nitrides, and borides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeter, W.

    1981-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds of metals with non-metals such as C, N, and B show different hardness. Wagner's interaction parameter characterizes manner and extent of the interaction between the atoms of the substance dissolved and the additional elements in metallic mixed phases. An attempt has been made to correlate the hardness of carbides, nitrides, and borides (data taken from literature) with certain interaction parameters and associated thermodynamic quantities (ΔH, ΔG). For some metals of periods 4, 5, and 6 corresponding relations were found between microhardness, interaction parameters, heat of formation, and atomic number

  12. Diffusion corrections to the hard pomeron

    CERN Document Server

    Ciafaloni, Marcello; Müller, A H; Ciafaloni, Marcello; Taiuti, Martina

    2001-01-01

    The high-energy behaviour of two-scale hard processes is investigated in the framework of small-x models with running coupling, having the Airy diffusion model as prototype. We show that, in some intermediate high-energy regime, the perturbative hard Pomeron exponent determines the energy dependence, and we prove that diffusion corrections have the form hinted at before in particular cases. We also discuss the breakdown of such regime at very large energies, and the onset of the non-perturbative Pomeron behaviour.

  13. Study of fast electrons from hard-X radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslanbekov, R.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is the study of fast electron dynamics by means of the hard X-ray diagnosis installed in TORE SUPRA and numerical simulations. Fast electrons are generated in the plasma in the presence of the injected lower hybrid (LH) waves. Two aspects are studied in detail: the lower hybrid wave propagation and absorption in a periodically perturbed media and 2-D Fokker-Planck modelling of the fast electron dynamics in the presence of the LH power. Ripple effects on lower hybrid wave propagation and absorption are investigated using the ray tracing technique. A cylindrical equilibrium is first studied and a strong modification of the ray dynamics is predicted. Calculations are carried out in a real toroidal geometry corresponding to TORE SUPRA. It is shown that the lack of toroidal axisymmetry of the magnetic field may result in a modification of the ray evolution even if the global ray evolution is governed by the larger poloidal inhomogeneity. Simulation of LH experiments are performed for TORE SUPRA tokamak which has a large magnetic ripple (7% at the plasma edge). By considering ripple perturbation in LH current drive simulations, a better agreement is found with experimental results, in particular with the hard-X spectra and the current density profiles. In the second part of the thesis, a 2-D modeling of the fast electron dynamics in the velocity phase space is considered, based on the 2-D relativistic electron Fokker-Planck equation. Electron distribution functions obtained are used to calculate non-thermal Bremsstrahlung emission for different TORE SUPRA shots in a wide range of experimental conditions. (J.S.). 168 refs., 93 figs., 1 tab., 3 appendix

  14. Measurement of preheat in aluminium target in indirect drive using the SGIII prototype facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, C; Zheng, J; Wang, Z B; Liu, H; Peng, X S; Wang, F; Ding, Y K

    2016-01-01

    The velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) is used to demonstrate preheat effect in aluminium in indirect drive. The rear surface motion prior to shock front was observed and compared with a multi-group calculation. By properly adjusting the hard x-ray portion of the radiation source, the calculated rear surface motion fits well with the experimental results, which gives us confidence to predict the preheated temperature of the sample by hard x-rays. Further, the effect of hohlraum geometry is compared and discussed experimentally. The result suggests gas-filled hohlraum or hohlraum with low Z substrates should be considered to further reduce preheating. (paper)

  15. Strain gradient drives shear banding in metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhi-Li; Wang, Yun-Jiang; Chen, Yan; Dai, Lan-Hong

    2017-09-01

    Shear banding is a nucleation-controlled process in metallic glasses (MGs) involving multiple temporal-spatial scales, which hinders a concrete understanding of its structural origin down to the atomic scale. Here, inspired by the morphology of composite materials, we propose a different perspective of MGs as a hard particle-reinforced material based on atomic-scale structural heterogeneity. The local stable structures indicated by a high level of local fivefold symmetry (L5FS) act as hard "particles" which are embedded in the relatively soft matrix. We demonstrate this concept by performing atomistic simulations of shear banding in CuZr MG. A shear band is prone to form in a sample with a high degree of L5FS which is slowly quenched from the liquid. An atomic-scale analysis on strain and the structural evolution reveals that it is the strain gradient effect that has originated from structural heterogeneity that facilitates shear transformation zones (STZs) to mature shear bands. An artificial composite model with a high degree of strain gradient, generated by inserting hard MG strips into a soft MG matrix, demonstrates a great propensity for shear banding. It therefore confirms the critical role strain gradient plays in shear banding. The strain gradient effect on shear banding is further quantified with a continuum model and a mechanical instability analysis. These physical insights might highlight the strain gradient as the hidden driving force in transforming STZs into shear bands in MGs.

  16. Driving safety in elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marottoli, R A

    1993-05-01

    Driving safety in elderly individuals is becoming an increasingly important issue in geriatrics and in medical practice. The number of elderly drivers is increasing as the population ages, and especially as current generations of female drivers age. Concern is raised about their safe operation of motor vehicles because of the increasing likelihood with advancing age of developing conditions that may adversely affect the visual, cognitive, and motor abilities integral to driving. But this issue is not only a medical one, since there are social and political components as well. This discussion will describe the background of this issue, focus on the changes that may occur with aging and their potential relationship to driving ability, and, finally, will outline an approach that physicians may employ in their practice.

  17. Drive: Theory and Construct Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegling, Alex B; Petrides, K V

    2016-01-01

    This article explicates the theory of drive and describes the development and validation of two measures. A representative set of drive facets was derived from an extensive corpus of human attributes (Study 1). Operationalised using an International Personality Item Pool version (the Drive:IPIP), a three-factor model was extracted from the facets in two samples and confirmed on a third sample (Study 2). The multi-item IPIP measure showed congruence with a short form, based on single-item ratings of the facets, and both demonstrated cross-informant reliability. Evidence also supported the measures' convergent, discriminant, concurrent, and incremental validity (Study 3). Based on very promising findings, the authors hope to initiate a stream of research in what is argued to be a rather neglected niche of individual differences and non-cognitive assessment.

  18. CLIC Drive Beam Position Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, S; Gudkov, D; Soby, L; Syratchev, I

    2011-01-01

    CLIC, an electron-positron linear collider proposed to probe the TeV energy scale, is based on a two-beam scheme where RF power to accelerate a high energy luminosity beam is extracted from a high current drive beam. The drive beam is efficiently generated in a long train at modest frequency and current then compressed in length and multiplied in frequency via bunch interleaving. The drive beam decelerator requires >40000 quadrupoles, each holding a beam position monitor (BPM). Though resolution requirements are modest (2 microns) these BPMs face several challenges. They must be compact and inexpensive. They must operate below waveguide cutoff to insure locality of position signals, ruling out processing at the natural 12 GHz bunch spacing frequency. Wakefields must be kept low. We find compact conventional stripline BPM with signals processed below 40 MHz can meet requirements. Choices of mechanical design, operating frequency, bandwidth, calibration and processing algorithm are presented. Calculations of wa...

  19. Discovery of Diffuse Hard X-ray Emission associated with Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoe, Y.; Miyoshi, Y.; Ishikawa, K.; Ohashi, T.; Terada, N.; Uchiyama, Y.; Negoro, H.

    2009-12-01

    Our discovery of diffuse hard (1-5 keV) X-ray emission around Jupiter is reported. Recent Chandra and XMM-Newton observations revealed several types of X-rays in the vicinity of Jupiter such as auroral and disk emission from Jupiter and faint diffuse X-rays from the Io Plasma Torus (see Bhardwaj et al. 2007 for review). To investigate possible diffuse hard X-ray emission around Jupiter with the highest sensitivity, we conducted data analysis of Suzaku XIS observations of Jupiter on Feb 2006. After removing satellite and planetary orbital motions, we detected a significant diffuse X-ray emission extending to ~6 x 3 arcmin with the 1-5 keV X-ray luminosity of ~3e15 erg/s. The emitting region very well coincided with the Jupiter's radiation belts. The 1-5 keV X-ray spectrum was represented by a simple power law model with a photon index of 1.4. Such a flat continuum strongly suggests non-thermal origin. Although such an emission can be originated from multiple background point sources, its possibility is quite low. We hence examined three mechanisms, assuming that the emission is truly diffuse: bremsstrahlung by keV electrons, synchrotron emission by TeV electrons, and inverse Compton scattering of solar photons by MeV electrons. The former two can be rejected because of the X-ray spectral shape and implausible existence of TeV electrons around Jupiter, respectively. The last possibility was found to be possible because tens MeV electrons, which have been confirmed in inner radiation belts (Bolton et al. 2002), can kick solar photons to the keV energy range and provide a simple power-law continuum. We estimated an average electron density from the X-ray luminosity assuming the oblate spheroid shaped emitting region with 8 x 8 x 4 Jovian radii. The necessary density was 0.02 1/cm3 for 50 MeV electrons. Hence, our results may suggest a new particle acceleration phenomenon around Jupiter.

  20. Glare disability and driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhayev, M A

    2003-01-01

    Increasing investigation of the visual elements of safe driving environments may be of great benefit to society. Visual disability appears to be only one of many visual factors related to traffic accidents. The purpose of this article was to examine the type of visual impairment mediated by the increased glare sensitivity in adult drivers using the original halometer glare test. In this article, the visual sensory, cognitive and motor functions relevant to driving, their measurement, the epidemiology and prevention of age-associated functional impairments and the relationship of functional impairments to both self-reported driving and the imposition of legal restrictions are reviewed. The problem of night and tunnel driving is the most urgent in relation to the effects of glare from vehicle headlights on motion perception of drivers. The reduced mesopic vision and increased sensitivity to glare are accompanied by an increased risk of nighttime accidents. Elderly drivers and patients with beginning cataract cannot sufficiently fulfill the criteria for night driving ability because of contrast and glare sensitivity. It is indispensable for the parameters mentioned to be carefully measured and for drivers to be informed that night driving ability may be impaired, even if visual acuity is sufficient. It would be advisable for traffic safety if simple tests for contrast and glare sensitivity were implemented for vehicles and/or were regularly added to the requirements for a driver's licence, at least for older drivers. The age, functional status and test result limits should be defined to avoid a risk factor in traffic. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. Influence of roadside infrastructure on driving behavior: driving simulator study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.R.A. van der; Ridder, S. de

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a driving simulator study that focused on the influence of roadside infrastructure on speed choice and lateral placement of car drivers. A review of the RISER detailed accident database revealed that lateral positioning and speed of the vehicle were two of the

  2. Driving and Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the research literature on driving and age-related macular degeneration, which is motivated by the link between driving and the quality of life of older adults and their increased collision rate. It addresses the risk of crashes, driving performance, driving difficulty, self-regulation, and interventions to enhance, safety, and considers directions for future research.

  3. Digital control of electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Koziol, R; Szklarski, L

    1992-01-01

    The electromechanical systems employed in different branches of industry are utilized most often as drives of working machines which must be fed with electric energy in a continuous, periodic or even discrete way. Some of these machines operate at constant speed, others require wide and varying energy control. In many designs the synchronous cooperation of several electric drives is required in addition to the desired dynamic properties. For these reasons the control of the cooperation and dynamics of electromechanical systems requires the use of computers.This book adopts an unusual approach

  4. Control-rod driving mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jodoi, Takashi.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent falling of control rods due to malfunction. Constitution: The device of the present invention has a scram function in particular, and uses principally a fluid pressure as a scram accelerating means. The control rod is held by upper and lower holding devices, which are connected by a connecting mechanism. This connecting mechanism is designed to be detachable only at the lower limit of driving stroke of the control rod so that there occurs no erroneous scram resulting from careless disconnection of the connecting mechanism. Further, scramming operation due to own weight of the scram operating portion such as control rod driving shaft may be effected to increase freedom. (Kamimura, M.)

  5. Possible connections between hard and soft processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankenbecler, R.

    1977-10-01

    Three topics in constituent hadron models are reviewed: the connection between fixed angle and Regge behavior, the validity of the hard scattering expansion and restrictions on the effects of the transverse momentum of constituents, and the x distribution in the fragmentation region at low transverse momentum. 6 figures

  6. Parallel Narrative Structure in Paul Harding's "Tinkers"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çirakli, Mustafa Zeki

    2014-01-01

    The present paper explores the implications of parallel narrative structure in Paul Harding's "Tinkers" (2009). Besides primarily recounting the two sets of parallel narratives, "Tinkers" also comprises of seemingly unrelated fragments such as excerpts from clock repair manuals and diaries. The main stories, however, told…

  7. Registration of 'Prevail' hard red spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grower and end-user acceptance of new Hard Red Spring Wheat (HRSW; Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars is largely contingent upon satisfactory agronomic performance, end-use quality potential, and disease resistance levels. Additional characteristics, such as desirable plant height, can also contribute...

  8. Hard x-ray telescope mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorenstein, P.; Worrall, D.; Joensen, K.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Hard X-Ray Telescope was selected for study as a possible new intermediate size mission for the early 21st century. Its principal attributes are: (1) multiwavelength observing with a system of focussing telescopes that collectively observe from the UV to over 1 MeV, (2) much higher sensitivity...

  9. Systematic hardness studies on lithium niobate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    crystals with different growth origins, and a Fe-doped sample. The problem of load ... The true hardness of LiNbO3 is found to be 630 ± 30 kg/mm2. .... Experimental. Pure lithium ... the index of d strikes at this simple and meaningful defini-.

  10. "Work smart, wear your hard hat"

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Falling objects and collisions are frequent occurrences in work sites and hazardous areas. Hard hats can help prevent many types of accident and can even save lives. Just imagine an 800 g spanner falling from a 13 m high scaffold onto the head of someone standing below - a nightmare scenario! The impact to the head is equivalent to that of a 5 kg weight falling from 2 metres. That is just what happened to Gerd Fetchenhauer when he was working on the UA1 experiment. Fortunately, he was wearing a hard hat at the time. "That hat saved my life," he explains. "It punched a hole right through the hat and I was a bit dazed for a couple of hours but otherwise I was OK." Since that day, Gerd Fetchenhauer, now working on CMS, is never seen on a work site without his hard hat on. Work sites have proliferated at CERN with the construction of the LHC and its detectors, and the wearing of hard hats is compulsory (not to mention life-saving). In the underground caverns and experiment halls, where gantry cranes and other h...

  11. Cobalt allergy in hard metal workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, T; Rystedt, I

    1983-03-01

    Hard metal contains about 10% cobalt. 853 hard metal workers were examined and patch tested with substances from their environment. Initial patch tests with 1% cobalt chloride showed 62 positive reactions. By means of secondary serial dilution tests, allergic reactions to cobalt were reproduced in 9 men and 30 women. Weak reactions could not normally be reproduced. A history of hand eczema was found in 36 of the 39 individuals with reproducible positive test reactions to cobalt, while 21 of 23 with a positive initial patch test but negative serial dilution test had never had any skin problems. Hand etching and hand grinding, mainly female activities and traumatic to the hands, were found to involve the greatest risk of cobalt sensitization. 24 individuals had an isolated cobalt allergy. They had probably been sensitized by hard metal work, while the individuals, all women, who had simultaneous nickel allergy had probably been sensitized to nickel before their employment and then became sensitized to cobalt by hard metal work. A traumatic occupation, which causes irritant contact dermatitis and/or a previous contact allergy or atopy is probably a prerequisite for the development of cobalt allergy.

  12. Sustaining Transformation: "Resiliency in Hard Times"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarasci, Richard; Lieberman, Devorah

    2009-01-01

    The strategic, systemic, and encompassing evolution of a college or university spans a number of years, and the vagaries of economic cycles inevitably catch transforming institutions in mid-voyage. "Sustaining Transformation: Resiliency in Hard Times" presents a study of Wagner College as it moves into its second decade of purposeful…

  13. Induction surface hardening of hard coated steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantleon, K.; Kessler, O.; Hoffann, F.; Mayr, P. [Stiftung Inst. fuer Werkstofftechnik, Bremen (Germany)

    1999-11-01

    The properties of hard coatings deposited using CVD processes are usually excellent. However, high deposition temperatures negatively influence the substrate properties, especially in the case of low alloyed steels. Therefore, a subsequent heat treatment is necessary to restore the properties of steel substrates. Here, induction surface hardening is used as a method of heat treatment after the deposition of TiN hard coatings on AISI 4140 (DIN42CrMo4) substrates. The influences of the heat treatment on both the coating and the substrate properties are discussed in relation to the parameters of induction heating. Thereby, the heating time, heating atmosphere and the power input into the coating-substrate compounds are varied. As a result of induction surface hardening, the properties of the substrates are improved without losing good coating properties. High hardness values in the substrate near the interface allow the AISI 4140 substrates to support TiN hard coatings very well. Consequently, higher critical loads are measured in scratch tests after the heat treatment. Also, compressive residual stresses in the substrate are generated. In addition, only a very low distortion appears. (orig.)

  14. Hard scattering in γp interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, T.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.

    1992-10-01

    We report on the investigation of the final state in interactions of quasi-real photons with protons. The data were taken with the H1 detector at the HERA ep collider. Evidence for hard interactions is seen in both single particle spectra and jet formation. The data can best be described by inclusion of resolved photon processes as predicted by QCD. (orig.)

  15. Soft gluon contributions to hard processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciafaloni, M.

    1981-10-01

    The main concern of this paper is in trying to elucidate the origin of large QCD perturbative corrections and explain how to deal with them to all orders. They come essentially from the phase space regions close to the kinematical boundary of a hard process, in which one or many gluons become soft

  16. Hard Pseudocompact Spaces | Ghosh | Quaestiones Mathematicae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... which was absent in the literature. Finally, under smallness restrictions on hyper-real remainder of the Stone Cech compactification of a Tychonoff space we have achieved in producing a representation for hard pseudocompact space. Keywords: Compactification, Hewitt realcompactification, pseudocompact, realcompact

  17. Diffractive hard scattering and the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.L.; Collins, J.C.; Soper, D.E.; Sterman, G.

    1986-01-01

    Events in high energy hadron collisions are discussed that contain a hard scattering, in the sense that very heavy quarks or high P/sub T/ jets are produced, yet are diffractive, in the sense that one of the incident hadrons is scattered with only a small energy loss. 12 refs., 6 figs

  18. Effect of gum hardness on chewing pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesh, O; Bishop, B; McCall, W

    1986-06-01

    Chewing rhythms are set by a putative central pattern generator whose output is influenced by sensory feedback. In this study we assessed how an altered feedback imposed by changing the hardness of a gum bolus modifies the timing of chewing, the maximal gape, and the activity in the masseter muscle on the chewing side. Ten adult subjects with no orofacial dysfunction chewed a standard piece of soft or hard gum for at least 3 min in random order. Vertical jaw movements were recorded with a kinesiograph and activity of the masseter muscle was recorded and integrated from surface EMG electrodes. The subjects sat in a dental chair and viewed a video lecture to distract their attention from chewing; they were instructed to chew on the right molars. Cycle-by-cycle analysis showed that 9 of the 10 subjects chewed the hard gum more slowly than the soft with no significant change in gape. The increases in cycle duration were due to changes in the duration of the opening and occlusal phases. The duration of closing was not significantly changed even though the duration and level of masseter activity were both significantly increased. We conclude that gum hardness by altering proprioceptive feedback modifies the output of the masticatory central pattern generator in such a way that the temporal aspects of chewing and the output of the masseteric motor pool are affected.

  19. Decision-theoretic troubleshooting: Hardness of approximation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lín, Václav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2014), s. 977-988 ISSN 0888-613X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20012S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Decision-theoretic troubleshooting * Hardness of approximation * NP-completeness Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.451, year: 2014

  20. Remember Hard but Think Softly: Metaphorical Effects of Hardness/Softness on Cognitive Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiushu Xie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that bodily stimulation, such as hardness, biases social judgment and evaluation via metaphorical association; however, it remains unclear whether bodily stimulation also affects cognitive functions, such as memory and creativity. The current study used metaphorical associations between hard and rigid and between soft and flexible in Chinese, to investigate whether the experience of hardness affected cognitive functions requiring either rigidity (memory or flexibility (creativity. In Experiment 1, we found that Chinese-speaking participants performed better at recalling previously memorized words while sitting on a hard-surface stool (the hard condition than a cushioned one (the soft condition. In Experiment 2, participants sitting on a cushioned stool outperformed those sitting on a hard-surface stool on a Chinese riddle task, which required creative/flexible thinking, but not on an analogical reasoning task, which required both rigid and flexible thinking. The results suggest the hardness experience affects cognitive functions that are metaphorically associated with rigidity and flexibility. They support the embodiment proposition that cognitive functions and representations could be grounded via metaphorical association in bodily states.

  1. Lower hybrid current drive: an overview of simulation models, benchmarking with experiment, and predictions for future devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonoli, P.T.; Barbato, E.; Imbeaux, F.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) simulation and modeling. We first discuss modules used for wave propagation, absorption, and current drive with particular emphasis placed on comparing exact numerical solutions of the Fokker Planck equation in 2-dimension with solution methods that employ 1-dimensional and adjoint approaches. We also survey model predictions for LHCD in past and present experiments showing detailed comparisons between simulated and observed current drive efficiencies and hard X-ray profiles. Finally we discuss several model predictions for lower hybrid current profile control in proposed next step reactor options. (authors)

  2. Electrohydraulic drive system with planetary superposed gears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graetz, A.; Klimek, K.H.; Welz, H.

    1989-01-01

    To prevent drive problems in ploughs the drives must be designed in such a way as to compensate for asymmetries. If electromechanical drives are replaced by an electrohydraulic drive system with superposed planetary gears and hydrostatic torque reaction supports the following advantages occur: load-free acceleration, load equalisation between main and auxiliary drive, overload protection, and reduction of systems vibrations. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Hard Distraction and Deep Inelastic Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BJORKEN, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Since the advent of hard-collision physics, the study of diffractive processes- 'shadow physics' - has been less prominent than before. However, there is now a renewed interest in the subject, especially in that aspect which synthesizes the short-distance, hard-collision phenomena with the classical physics of large rapidity-gaps. This is especially stimulated by the recent data on deep-inelastic scattering from HERA, as well as the theoretical work which relates to it. The word 'diffraction' is sometimes used by high-energy physicists in a loose way. So I here begin by defining what I mean by the term: A diffractive process occurs if and only if there is a large rapidity gap in the produced-particle phase space which is not exponentially suppressed. Here a rapidity gap means essentially no hadrons produced into the rapidity gap (which operates in the 'lego' phase-space of pseudo-rapidity and azimuthal angle). And non-exponential suppression implies that the cross-section for creating a gap with width Δη does not have a power-law decrease with increasing sub energy Δη, but behaves at most like some power of pseudorapidity Δη∼ logs. The term 'hard diffraction' shall simply refer to those diffractive processes which have jets in the final-state phase-space. We may also distinguish, if desired, two subclasses, as suggested by Ingelman i) Diffractive hard processes have jets on only one side of the rapidity gap. ii) Hard diffractive processes have jets on both sides of the rapidity gap

  4. Seniors’ unmet mobility needs – how important is a driving licence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Siren, Anu Kristiina

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have come to different conclusions regarding how important a driving licence is for seniors to fulfil their mobility needs. We investigated this question based on three groups of Danish seniors: persons who were licensed as drivers (‘‘drivers’’); persons who have never been...... it became insignificant for unmet shopping needs. The effect of never having had a licence was hardly affected by the inclusion of control variables. The results emphasise the importance of a driving licence in fulfilling seniors’ mobility needs. Contrary to our hypotheses, more experience with, and better...

  5. Polarization and spectral features of the hard x-ray continuum from non-thermal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, M.; Platz, P.

    1989-12-01

    Starting from the cross-sections for the free-free radiation obtained within the relativistic Born-Elwert theory, we calculate the spectral and polarization properties of the hard X-ray continuum (hν > 50 KeV) for plasmas containing fast electrons with an anisotropic velocity distribution. The physical and geometrical quantities of our model are oriented towards the future lower-hybrid current drive (LHCD) experiments on Tore-Supra. Our parameter space covers parallel and perpendicular temperatures, the nuclear charge of the ions (mainly Z = 14 and 28), the cut-off energy of the electrons, the radial current profile and the viewing angle. Extensive calculations open on the optimum conditions for polarization measurements and also give guide-lines for the quantitative interpretation of data under real plasma conditions. A second part of this report will treat with the operational principles and expected performances of hard X-ray polarimeters

  6. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Document Server

    Relatiopns with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    1. PERSONS RESIDING IN SWITZERLAND 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D or E-type carte de légitimation For holders of B, C, D or E-type cartes de légitimation issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (Département fédéral suisse des Affaires étrangères, hereinafter called DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. Should they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant roads authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation ; for Geneva call 022/343 02 00, website: http://www.geneve.ch/san/welcome.html, for Vaud call 021/316 82 10, website: http://www.dse.vd.ch/auto/index.html) in order to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence. However, exchanges are not permitted if the driving licence was issued in a foreign country during a stay there of less than six months' duration while the person concerned was officially...

  7. Drive-By-Wire Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-29

    Symposium Intelligent Systems for the Objective Fleet uTransmission controls uSteering (both on-transmission and under-carriage) uBraking (service and...parking) uTransmission select uThrottle uOther Electromechanical Opportunities uTurret drives (elevation, traverse) uAutomatic propellant handling systems

  8. Foreign driving licences in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    1. Persons residing in Switzerland 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" For holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. If they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant road licensing authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation; for Geneva call + 41 22 388 30 30, website http://www.geneve.ch/san; for Vaud call + 41 21 316 82 10, website http://www.san.vd.ch/index.html) to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence (they must pass a test if they are not citizens of countries with which Switzerland has concluded an agreement on this matter, e.g. Member States of the European Union, the United States and Japan). However, such an exchange is not possible if the driving licence was issued in a foreign country during a...

  9. Synergy in RF Current Drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, R.J.; Giruzzi, G.

    2005-01-01

    Auxiliary methods for efficient non-inductive current drive in tokamaks generally involve the interaction of externally driven waves with superthermal electrons. Among the possible schemes, Lower Hybrid (LH) and Electron Cyclotron (EC) current drive have been so far the most successful. An interesting aspect of their combined use is the fact that since they involve possibly overlapping domains in velocity and configuration spaces, a synergy between them is expected for appropriate parameters. The signature of this effect, significant improvement of the EC current drive efficiency, results from a favorable interplay of the quasilinear diffusions induced by both waves. Recently, improvements of the EC current drive efficiency in the range of 2-4 have been measured in fully non-inductive discharges in the Tore Supra tokamak, providing the first clear evidence of this effect in steady-state conditions. We present here the experimental aspects of these discharges. The associated kinetic modeling and current state of understanding of the LH-EC synergy phenomenon are also discussed. (authors)

  10. Synergy in RF Current Drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, R.J.; Giruzzi, G.

    2005-01-01

    Auxiliary methods for efficient non-inductive current drive in tokamaks generally involve the interaction of externally driven waves with superthermal electrons. Among the possible schemes, Lower Hybrid (LH) and Electron Cyclotron (EC) current drive have been so far the most successful. An interesting aspect of their combined use is the fact that since they involve possibly overlapping domains in velocity and configuration spaces, a synergy between them is expected for appropriate parameters. The signature of this effect, significant improvement of the EC current drive efficiency, results from a favorable interplay of the quasilinear diffusions induced by both waves. Recently, improvements of the EC current drive efficiency in the range of 2-4 have been measured in fully non-inductive discharges in the Tore Supra tokamak, providing the first clear evidence of this effect in steady-state conditions. We present here the experimental aspects of these discharges. The associated kinetic modeling and current state of understanding of the LH-EC synergy phenomenon are also discussed

  11. Safe Driving After Propofol Sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerlin-Grady, Lee; Austin, Paul N; Gabaldon, Dion A

    2017-10-01

    Propofol is a short-acting medication with fast cognitive and psychomotor recovery. However, patients are usually instructed not to drive a motor vehicle for 24 hours after receiving propofol. The purpose of this article was to review the evidence examining when it is safe to drive after receiving propofol for sedation for diagnostic and surgical procedures. This is a systematic review of the literature. A search of the literature was conducted using Google Scholar, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library for the time period 1990 to 2015. Two randomized controlled trials and two observational studies met the inclusion criteria. Using a simulator, investigators examined driving ability of subjects who received modest doses (about 100 mg) of propofol for endoscopic procedures and surveyed subjects who drove immediately after discharge. There were methodological concerns with the studies such as small sample sizes, modest doses of propofol, and three of the four studies were done in Japan by the same group of investigators limiting generalizability. This limited research suggests that it may be safe for patients to drive sooner than 24 hours after receiving propofol. However, large multicenter trials using heterogenous samples using a range of propofol doses are needed to support an evidence-based revision to the current discharge guidelines for patients receiving propofol. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Driving When You Have Cataracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... asp Wear your safety belt Always wear your safety belt when you are driving or riding in a car. Make sure that every person who is riding with you also is buckled up. Wear your safety belt even if your car has air bags. ...

  13. Current drive for rotamak plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Experiments which have been undertaken over a number of years have shown that a rotating magnetic field can drive a significant non-linear Hall current in a plasma. Successful experiments of this concept have been made with a device called rotamak. In its original configuration this device was a field reversed ...

  14. Control rod driving hydraulic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, Hiroshi.

    1993-01-01

    In a control rod driving hydraulic device for an improved BWR type reactor, a bypass pipeline is disposed being branched from a scram pipeline, and a control orifice and a throttle valve are interposed to the bypass pipeline for restricting pressure. Upon occurrence of scram, about 1/2 of water quantity flowing from an accumulator of a hydraulic control unit to the lower surface of a piston of control rod drives by way of a scram pipeline is controlled by the restricting orifice and the throttle valve, by which the water is discharged to a pump suction pipeline or other pipelines by way of the bypass pipeline. With such procedures, a function capable of simultaneously conducting scram for two control rod drives can be attained by one hydraulic control unit. Further, an excessive peak pressure generated by a water hammer phenomenon in the scram pipeline or the control rod drives upon occurrence of scram can be reduced. Deformation and failure due to the excessive peak pressure can be prevented, as well as vibrations and degradation of performance of relevant portions can be prevented. (N.H.)

  15. Virtual Rewards for Driving Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Josh

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide from automobiles is a major contributor to global climate change. In "Virtual Rewards for Driving Green," Josh Pritchard proposes a computer application that will enable fuel-efficient drivers to earn "green" dollars with which to buy digital merchandise on the Web. Can getting items that exist only in cyberspace actually change a…

  16. Older drivers with cognitive impairment: Perceived changes in driving skills, driving-related discomfort and self-regulation of driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, A.; Siren, A.; Teasdale, Thomas William

    2013-01-01

    The results of a previous study indicate that in general, older drivers who recognise cognitive problems show realistic self-assessment of changes in their driving skills and that driving-related discomfort may function as an indirect monitoring of driving ability, contributing to their safe...... drivers may recognise cognitive problems, they tend not to recognise changes to their driving, which may reflect reluctance to acknowledge the impact of cognitive impairment on their driving. Furthermore, the results suggest that driving-related discomfort plays an important role in the self......-regulation of driving among cognitively impaired older drivers. However, it is less clear what triggers driving-related discomfort among cognitively impaired older drivers indicating that it may be a less reliable aspect of their self-monitoring of driving ability....

  17. Enhanced lower hybrid current drive experiments on HT-7 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Weici; Kuang Guangli; Liu Yuexiu; Ding Bojiang; Shi Yaojiang

    2003-01-01

    Effective Lower Hybrid Current Driving (LHCD) and improved confinement experiments in higher plasma parameters (I p >200 kA, n e >2 x 10 13 cm -3 , T e ≥1 keV) have been curried out in optimized LH wave spectrum and plasma parameters in HT-7 superconducting tokamak. The dependence of current driving efficiency on LH power spectrum, plasma density (anti n e ) and toroidal magnetic field B T has been obtained under optimal conditions. A good CD efficiency was obtained at higher plasma current and higher electron density. The improvement of the energy confinement time is accompanied with the increase in line averaged electron density, and in ion and electron temperatures. The highest current driving efficiency reached η CD =I p (anti n e )R/P RF ≅1.05 x 10 19 Am -2 /W. Wave-plasma coupling was sustained in a good state and the reflective coefficient was less than 5%. The experiments have also demonstrated the ability of LH wave in the start-up and ramp-up of the plasma current. The measurement of the temporal distribution of plasma parameter shows that lower hybrid leads to a broader profile in plasma parameter. The LH power deposition profile and the plasma current density profile were modeled with a 2D Fokker-Planck code corresponding to the evolution process of the hard x-ray detector array

  18. Current challenges in autonomous driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabás, I.; Todoruţ, A.; Cordoş, N.; Molea, A.

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays the automotive industry makes a quantum shift to a future, where the driver will have smaller and smaller role in driving his or her vehicle ending up being totally excluded. In this paper, we have investigated the different levels of driving automatization, the prospective effects of these new technologies on the environment and traffic safety, the importance of regulations and their current state, the moral aspects of introducing these technologies and the possible scenarios of deploying the autonomous vehicles. We have found that the self-driving technologies are facing many challenges: a) They must make decisions faster in very diverse conditions which can include many moral dilemmas as well; b) They have an important potential in reducing the environmental pollution by optimizing their routes, driving styles by communicating with other vehicles, infrastructures and their environment; c) There is a considerable gap between the self-drive technology level and the current regulations; fortunately, this gap shows a continuously decreasing trend; d) In case of many types of imminent accidents management there are many concerns about the ability of making the right decision. Considering that this field has an extraordinary speed of development, our study is up to date at the submission deadline. Self-driving technologies become increasingly sophisticated and technically accessible, and in some cases, they can be deployed for commercial vehicles as well. According to the current stage of research and development, it is still unclear how the self-driving technologies will be able to handle extreme and unexpected events including their moral aspects. Since most of the traffic accidents are caused by human error or omission, it is expected that the emergence of the autonomous technologies will reduce these accidents in their number and gravity, but the very few currently available test results have not been able to scientifically underpin this issue yet. The

  19. Automated driving functions giving control back to the driver: a simulator study on driver state dependent strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, D.M.C.; Stuiver, A.; Hogema, J.

    2015-01-01

    Many car companies and other organisations are working hard to get automated driving on the road. Where some prefer driverless cars, most foresee a future where control of the vehicle will be shared between the driver and automated functions in the coming years. Sharing tasks and responsibilities

  20. Nonequilibrium dynamics of one-dimensional hard-core anyons following a quench: complete relaxation of one-body observables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Tod M; Rigol, Marcos; Davis, Matthew J; Kheruntsyan, Karén V

    2014-08-01

    We demonstrate the role of interactions in driving the relaxation of an isolated integrable quantum system following a sudden quench. We consider a family of integrable hard-core lattice anyon models that continuously interpolates between noninteracting spinless fermions and strongly interacting hard-core bosons. A generalized Jordan-Wigner transformation maps the entire family to noninteracting fermions. We find that, aside from the singular free-fermion limit, the entire single-particle density matrix and, therefore, all one-body observables relax to the predictions of the generalized Gibbs ensemble (GGE). This demonstrates that, in the presence of interactions, correlations between particles in the many-body wave function provide the effective dissipation required to drive the relaxation of all one-body observables to the GGE. This relaxation does not depend on translational invariance or the tracing out of any spatial domain of the system.

  1. Driver headway choice : A comparison between driving simulator and real-road driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risto, M.; Martens, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Driving simulators have become an established tool in driver behaviour research by offering a controllable, safe and cost-effective alternative to real world driving. A challenge for using driving simulators as a research tool has been to elicit driving behaviour that equals real world driving. With

  2. Driver headway choice: a comparison between driving simulator and real-road driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risto, Malte; Martens, Marieke Hendrikje

    2014-01-01

    Driving simulators have become an established tool in driver behaviour research by offering a controllable, safe and cost-effective alternative to real world driving. A challenge for using driving simulators as a research tool has been to elicit driving behaviour that equals real world driving. With

  3. Cannabis effects on driving skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Rebecca L; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-03-01

    Cannabis is the most prevalent illicit drug identified in impaired drivers. The effects of cannabis on driving continue to be debated, making prosecution and legislation difficult. Historically, delays in sample collection, evaluating the inactive Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC, and polydrug use have complicated epidemiologic evaluations of driver impairment after cannabis use. We review and evaluate the current literature on cannabis' effects on driving, highlighting the epidemiologic and experimental data. Epidemiologic data show that the risk of involvement in a motor vehicle accident (MVA) increases approximately 2-fold after cannabis smoking. The adjusted risk of driver culpability also increases substantially, particularly with increased blood THC concentrations. Studies that have used urine as the biological matrix have not shown an association between cannabis and crash risk. Experimental data show that drivers attempt to compensate by driving more slowly after smoking cannabis, but control deteriorates with increasing task complexity. Cannabis smoking increases lane weaving and impaired cognitive function. Critical-tracking tests, reaction times, divided-attention tasks, and lane-position variability all show cannabis-induced impairment. Despite purported tolerance in frequent smokers, complex tasks still show impairment. Combining cannabis with alcohol enhances impairment, especially lane weaving. Differences in study designs frequently account for inconsistencies in results between studies. Participant-selection bias and confounding factors attenuate ostensible cannabis effects, but the association with MVA often retains significance. Evidence suggests recent smoking and/or blood THC concentrations 2-5 ng/mL are associated with substantial driving impairment, particularly in occasional smokers. Future cannabis-and-driving research should emphasize challenging tasks, such as divided attention, and include occasional and

  4. Cannabis Effects on Driving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Rebecca L.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cannabis is the most prevalent illicit drug identified in impaired drivers. The effects of cannabis on driving continue to be debated, making prosecution and legislation difficult. Historically, delays in sample collection, evaluating the inactive Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC, and polydrug use have complicated epidemiologic evaluations of driver impairment after cannabis use. CONTENT We review and evaluate the current literature on cannabis’ effects on driving, highlighting the epidemiologic and experimental data. Epidemiologic data show that the risk of involvement in a motor vehicle accident (MVA) increases approximately 2-fold after cannabis smoking. The adjusted risk of driver culpability also increases substantially, particularly with increased blood THC concentrations. Studies that have used urine as the biological matrix have not shown an association between cannabis and crash risk. Experimental data show that drivers attempt to compensate by driving more slowly after smoking cannabis, but control deteriorates with increasing task complexity. Cannabis smoking increases lane weaving and impaired cognitive function. Critical-tracking tests, reaction times, divided-attention tasks, and lane-position variability all show cannabis-induced impairment. Despite purported tolerance in frequent smokers, complex tasks still show impairment. Combining cannabis with alcohol enhances impairment, especially lane weaving. SUMMARY Differences in study designs frequently account for inconsistencies in results between studies. Participant-selection bias and confounding factors attenuate ostensible cannabis effects, but the association with MVA often retains significance. Evidence suggests recent smoking and/or blood THC concentrations 2–5 ng/mL are associated with substantial driving impairment, particularly in occasional smokers. Future cannabis-and-driving research should emphasize challenging tasks, such as divided attention

  5. Thermodynamic perturbation theory for fused hard-sphere and hard-disk chain fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Y.; Hall, C.K.; Stell, G.

    1995-01-01

    We find that first-order thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT1) which incorporates the reference monomer fluid used in the generalized Flory--AB (GF--AB) theory yields an equation of state for fused hard-sphere (FHS) chain fluids that has accuracy comparable to the GF--AB and GF--dimer--AC theories. The new TPT1 equation of state is significantly more accurate than other extensions of the TPT1 theory to FHS chain fluids. The TPT1 is also extended to two-dimensional fused hard-disk chain fluids. For the fused hard-disk dimer fluid, the extended TPT1 equation of state is found to be more accurate than the Boublik hard-disk dimer equation of state. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  6. Hard diffraction and small-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    In the United States, phrases such as ''small-x evolution'', ''the BFKL Pomeron'', ''deep-inelastic rapiditygap events'' and ''hard-diffraction'' do not generate the same intensity of discussion amongst high-energy physicists that they do in Europe. However, for three days in the fall such discussion filled the air at Fermilab. The ''2nd Workshop on Small-x and Diffractive Physics at the Tevatron'' was a review of the rapid theoretical and experimental progress taking place in this field. Although Quantum Chromo-dynamics (QCD) has been established as the theory of strong interactions for twenty years, as yet neither perturbative high-energy calculations nor low-energy non-perturbative techniques have been successfully extended to the mixture of high energy and low transverse momenta which characterize traditional ''soft'' diffractive processes. The simplest soft diffractive process is elastic scattering. In this case it is easiest to accept that there is an exchanged ''pomeron'', which can be pictured as a virtual entity with no electric charge or strong charge (colour), perhaps like an excitation of the vacuum. The same pomeron is expected to appear in all diffractive processes. Understanding the pomeron in QCD is a fundamental theoretical and experimental challenge. In the last two or three years the ''frontier'' in this challenging area of QCD has been pushed back significantly in both theory and experiment. Progress has been achieved by studying the evolution of hard collisions to relatively smaller constituent momenta (small x) and by studying ''hard'' diffractive collisions containing simultaneous signatures of diffraction and hard perturbative processes. The hard processes have included high transverse momentum jet production, deep inelastic lepton scattering, and (most recently) W

  7. Microbiological quality of soft, semi-hard and hard cheeses during the shelf-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Vrdoljak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheeses as ready-to-eat food should be considered as a potential source of foodborne pathogens, primarily Listeria monocytogenes. The aim of present study was to determine the microbiological quality of soft, semi-hard and hard cheeses during the shelf-life, with particular reference to L. monocytogenes. Five types of cheeses were sampled at different timepoints during the cold storage and analyzed for presence of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes, as well as lactic acid bacteria, Escherichia coli, coagulase-positive staphylococci, yeasts, molds, sulfite-reducing clostridia and L. monocytogenes counts. Water activity, pH and NaCl content were monitored in order to evaluate the possibility of L. monocytogenes growth. Challenge test for L. monocytogenes was performed in soft whey cheese, to determine the growth potential of pathogen during the shelf-life of product. All analyzed cheeses were compliant with microbiological criteria during the shelf-life. In soft cheeses, lactic acid bacteria increased in the course of the shelf-life period (1.2-2.6 log increase, while in semi-hard and hard cheeses it decreased (1.6 and 5.2 log decrease, respectively. Soft cheeses support the growth of L. monocytogenes according to determined pH values (5.8-6.5, water activity (0.99-0.94, and NaCl content (0.3-1.2%. Challenge test showed that L. monocytogenes growth potential in selected soft cheese was 0.43 log10 cfu/g during 8 days at 4°C. Water activity in semi-hard and hard cheeses was a limiting factor for Listeria growth during the shelf-life. Soft, semi-hard and hard cheeses were microbiologically stable during their defined shelf-life. Good manufacturing and hygienic practices must be strictly followed in the production of soft cheeses as Listeria-supporting food and be focused on preventing (recontamination.

  8. Bond-orientational analysis of hard-disk and hard-sphere structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil Kumar, V; Kumaran, V

    2006-05-28

    We report the bond-orientational analysis results for the thermodynamic, random, and homogeneously sheared inelastic structures of hard-disks and hard-spheres. The thermodynamic structures show a sharp rise in the order across the freezing transition. The random structures show the absence of crystallization. The homogeneously sheared structures get ordered at a packing fraction higher than the thermodynamic freezing packing fraction, due to the suppression of crystal nucleation. On shear ordering, strings of close-packed hard-disks in two dimensions and close-packed layers of hard-spheres in three dimensions, oriented along the velocity direction, slide past each other. Such a flow creates a considerable amount of fourfold order in two dimensions and body-centered-tetragonal (bct) structure in three dimensions. These transitions are the flow analogs of the martensitic transformations occurring in metals due to the stresses induced by a rapid quench. In hard-disk structures, using the bond-orientational analysis we show the presence of fourfold order. In sheared inelastic hard-sphere structures, even though the global bond-orientational analysis shows that the system is highly ordered, a third-order rotational invariant analysis shows that only about 40% of the spheres have face-centered-cubic (fcc) order, even in the dense and near-elastic limits, clearly indicating the coexistence of multiple crystalline orders. When layers of close-packed spheres slide past each other, in addition to the bct structure, the hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) structure is formed due to the random stacking faults. Using the Honeycutt-Andersen pair analysis and an analysis based on the 14-faceted polyhedra having six quadrilateral and eight hexagonal faces, we show the presence of bct and hcp signatures in shear ordered inelastic hard-spheres. Thus, our analysis shows that the dense sheared inelastic hard-spheres have a mixture of fcc, bct, and hcp structures.

  9. Efficient and selective heavy metal sequestration from water by using layered sulfide K 2x Sn 4-x S 8-x (x = 0.65–1; KTS-3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarma, Debajit; Islam, Saiful M.; Subrahmanyam, K. S.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2016-09-16

    Heavy metal ions (Cd2+, Hg2+, As3+ and Pb2+) are an important contributor to the contamination of groundwater and other water bodies in and around industrial areas. Herein, we demonstrate the rapid and efficient capacity of a layered metal sulfide material, K2xSn4-xS8-x (x = 0.65-1, KTS-3) for heavy metal ion removal from water. The effect of concentration, pH, kinetics, and competitive ions such as Na+/Ca2+ on the heavy metal ion removal capacity of KTS-3 was systematically investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), elemental analyses, and powder X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the heavy metal ion-exchange of KTS-3 is complete (quantitative replacement of all potassium ions) and topotactic. The heavy metal ion-exchange by using KTS-3 follows the Langmuir-Freundlich model with high exchange capacities, q(m) 205(17) mg g-1 for Cd2+, 372(21) mg g-1 for Hg2+ and 391(89) mg g-1 for Pb2+. KTS-3 retains excellent heavy metal ion-exchange capacity even in very high concentration (1 M) of competing ions (Na+/Ca2+) and also over a broad pH range (2-12). KTS-3 also exhibits very good ion-exchange capacity for precious Ag+ and toxic As3+ ions. The kinetics of heavy metal ion adsorption by KTS-3 are rapid (absorbs all ions within a few minutes). These properties and the environmentally friendly character of KTS-3 make it a promising candidate for sequestration of heavy metal ions from water.

  10. Remember Hard But Think Softly: Metaphorical Effects of Hardness/Softness on Cognitive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiushu; Lu, Zhi; Wang, Ruiming; Cai, Zhenguang G.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found that bodily stimulation, such as hardness biases social judgment and evaluation via metaphorical association; however, it remains unclear whether bodily stimulation also affects cognitive functions, such as memory and creativity. The current study used metaphorical associations between “hard” and “rigid” and between “soft” and “flexible” in Chinese, to investigate whether the experience of hardness affects cognitive functions whose performance depends prospectively on rigidity (memory) and flexibility (creativity). In Experiment 1, we found that Chinese-speaking participants performed better at recalling previously memorized words while sitting on a hard-surface stool (the hard condition) than a cushioned one (the soft condition). In Experiment 2, participants sitting on a cushioned stool outperformed those sitting on a hard-surface stool on a Chinese riddle task, which required creative/flexible thinking, but not on an analogical reasoning task, which required both rigid and flexible thinking. The results suggest the hardness experience affects cognitive functions that are metaphorically associated with rigidity or flexibility. They support the embodiment proposition that cognitive functions and representations can be grounded in bodily states via metaphorical associations. PMID:27672373

  11. Hard-on-hard lubrication in the artificial hip under dynamic loading conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sonntag

    Full Text Available The tribological performance of an artificial hip joint has a particularly strong influence on its success. The principle causes for failure are adverse short- and long-term reactions to wear debris and high frictional torque in the case of poor lubrication that may cause loosening of the implant. Therefore, using experimental and theoretical approaches models have been developed to evaluate lubrication under standardized conditions. A steady-state numerical model has been extended with dynamic experimental data for hard-on-hard bearings used in total hip replacements to verify the tribological relevance of the ISO 14242-1 gait cycle in comparison to experimental data from the Orthoload database and instrumented gait analysis for three additional loading conditions: normal walking, climbing stairs and descending stairs. Ceramic-on-ceramic bearing partners show superior lubrication potential compared to hard-on-hard bearings that work with at least one articulating metal component. Lubrication regimes during the investigated activities are shown to strongly depend on the kinematics and loading conditions. The outcome from the ISO gait is not fully confirmed by the normal walking data and more challenging conditions show evidence of inferior lubrication. These findings may help to explain the differences between the in vitro predictions using the ISO gait cycle and the clinical outcome of some hard-on-hard bearings, e.g., using metal-on-metal.

  12. Developing very hard nanostructured bainitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amel-Farzad, H., E-mail: hh_amel@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Engineering and Metallurgy, Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faridi, H.R., E-mail: faridihr@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Engineering and Metallurgy, Hamedan University of Technology, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rajabpour, F.; Abolhasani, A.; Kazemi, Sh.; Khaledzadeh, Y. [Department of Materials Engineering and Metallurgy, Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-01

    Novel nanostructured high carbon high silicon, carbide-free bainitic steels with very high strength and good ductility have been developed in the recent decade. In this work, an alloy with a high carbon content and no manganese was designed and cast. The prepared samples were heat treated through an austempering process in the range 200-350 Degree-Sign C. Optical and scanning electron microscopes and XRD were used to analyze the microstructures precisely. Bainitic ferrite plates of just a few tens of nanometer thickness were obtained with the hardness of 697{+-}6 HV. It is reasonable to say that the unprecedented hardness values obtained in this work are mostly caused by the extraordinary carbon content of the alloy.

  13. Nanoindentation hardness of banded Australian sedimentary opal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P S; Smallwood, A S; Ray, A S [Department of Chemistry, Material and Forensic Science, University of Technology Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway, NSW 2007 (Australia); Briscoe, B J; Parsonage, D [Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: paul.thomas@uts.edu.au

    2008-04-07

    Nanoindentation hardness data in continuous stiffness mode are reported for banded potch and play of colour opals sourced from Lightning Ridge in New South Wales and Andamooka in South Australia. Despite the significant visible heterogeneities observed and the significant differences in origin and microstructures, as observed by SEM, and subtle differences in the elemental distributions between bands within specimens, little difference was observed in the mechanical properties. Specimens were found to be mechanically homogeneous and values of the hardness and moduli were found to be similar between samples. The creep behaviour of the specimens was also observed to be similar. It was concluded that the similarities in mechanical properties were due to the similarities in the silica morphology of the specimens, formed in similar geological environments, as differences in microstructure and trace element distribution were found not to significantly influence the observed bulk mechanical properties.

  14. The underlying event in hard scattering processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, R.

    2002-01-01

    The authors study the behavior of the underlying event in hard scattering proton-antiproton collisions at 1.8 TeV and compare with the QCD Monte-Carlo models. The underlying event is everything except the two outgoing hard scattered jets and receives contributions from the beam-beam remnants plus initial and final-state radiation. The data indicate that neither ISAJET or HERWIG produce enough charged particles (with p T > 0.5 GeV/c) from the beam-beam remnant component and that ISAJET produces too many charged particles from initial-state radiation. PYTHIA which uses multiple parton scattering to enhance the underlying event does the best job describing the data

  15. Biological and ecological aspects of hard ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Nayibe Polanco Echeverry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hard ticks are blood-sucking ectoparasites of Ixodidae family. These mites have been always considered disrupting agents of livestock systems, where they are recognized as the cause of economic and production losses. However, their ecological role is important for the dynamic equilibrium of the production systems bovine meat or milk. Knowing their biolog y and ecolog y can shed light on the sanitary decisions made in relation to these organisms. This review article presents issues related to classification, characteristics, and life cycle of hard ticks and relations vector-parasite-host. In addition, it addresses the control of ectoparasites on conventional livestock systems and the implica-tions that these models of intervention might have on agro-ecosystem.

  16. Fixed target electroweak and hard scattering physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, R.; Brown, C.N.; Montgomery, H.E.; Corcoran, M.D.

    1990-02-01

    The possibilities for future physics and experiments involving weak and electromagnetic interactions, neutrino oscillations, general hard scattering and experiments involving nuclear targets were explored. The studies were limited to the physics accessible using fixed target experimentation. While some of the avenues explored turn out to be relatively unrewarding in the light of competition elsewhere in the world, there are a number of positive conclusions reached about experimentation in the energy range available to the Main Injector and Tevatron. Some of the experiments would benefit from the increased intensity available from the Tevatron utilizing the Main Injector, while some require this increase. Finally, some of the experiments would use the Main Injector low energy, high intensity extracted beams directly. A program of electroweak and hard scattering experiments at fixed target energies retains the potential for important contributions to physics. The key to major parts of this program would appear to be the existence of the Main Injector. 115 refs, 17 figs

  17. SURFACES OF HARD-SPHERE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Stoyan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In various situations surfaces appear that are formed by systems of hard spheres. Examples are porous layers as surfaces of sand heaps and biofilms or fracture surfaces of concrete. The present paper considers models where a statistically homogeneous system of hard spheres with random radii is intersected by a plane and the surface is formed by the spheres with centers close to this plane. Formulae are derived for various characteristics of such surfaces: for the porosity profile, i.e. the local porosity in dependence on the distance from the section plane and for the geometry of the sphere caps that look above the section plane.It turns out that these characteristics only depend on the first-order characteristics of the sphere system, its sphere density and the sphere radius distribution.Comparison with empirically studied biofilms shows that the model is realistic.

  18. Aespoe hard rock laboratory. Annual report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Aespoe hard rock laboratory is being constructed in preparation for the deep geological repository of spent fuel in Sweden. This Annual report 1992 for the Aespoe hard rock laboratory contains an overview of the work conducted. Present work is focused on verification of pre-investigation methods and development of the detailed investigation methodology. Construction of the facility and investigation of the bedrock are being carried out in parallel. December 1992 1925 m of the tunnel has been excavated to a depth of 255 m below surface. An important and integrated part of the work is further refinement of conceptual and numerical models for groundwater flow and radionuclide migration. This work is carried out in cooperation with seven organizations from six countries that participate in the project. (25 refs.)

  19. Hard Spheres on the Primitive Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotera, Tomonari; Takahashi, Yusuke

    2015-03-01

    Recently hierarchical structures associated with the gyroid in several soft-matter systems have been reported. One of fundamental questions is regular arrangement or tiling on minimal surfaces. We have found certain numbers of hard spheres per unit cell on the gyroid surface are entropically self-organized. Here, new results for the primitive surface are presented. 56/64/72 per unit cell on the primitive minimal surface are entropically self-organized. Numerical evidences for the fluid-solid transition as a function of hard sphere radius are obtained in terms of the acceptance ratio of Monte Carlo moves and order parameters. These arrangements, which are the extensions of the hexagonal arrangement on a flat surface, can be viewed as hyperbolic tiling on the Poincaré disk with a negative Gaussian curvature.

  20. Microfabrication of hard x-ray lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stöhr, Frederik

    This thesis deals with the development of silicon compound refractive lenses (Si-CRLs) for shaping hard x-ray beams. The CRLs are to be fabricated using state of the art microfabrication techniques. The primary goal of the thesis work is to produce Si-CRLs with considerably increased structure...... and characterized with respect to their shape. Their optical performances were tested at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). Two 1D-focusing Si-CRLs suitable as condensers in hard-XRM were developed utilizing the aforementioned two different strategies. The first Si-condenser showed focusing of a 56...... of space for sample surroundings and ensure low-divergent and wide x-ray beams with narrow waists. Both results are substantial improvements to what was available at the start of this thesis work. The challenge of making x-ray objectives in silicon by interdigitation of lenslets alternately focusing...

  1. Anomalous structural transition of confined hard squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurin, Péter; Varga, Szabolcs; Odriozola, Gerardo

    2016-11-01

    Structural transitions are examined in quasi-one-dimensional systems of freely rotating hard squares, which are confined between two parallel walls. We find two competing phases: one is a fluid where the squares have two sides parallel to the walls, while the second one is a solidlike structure with a zigzag arrangement of the squares. Using transfer matrix method we show that the configuration space consists of subspaces of fluidlike and solidlike phases, which are connected with low probability microstates of mixed structures. The existence of these connecting states makes the thermodynamic quantities continuous and precludes the possibility of a true phase transition. However, thermodynamic functions indicate strong tendency for the phase transition and our replica exchange Monte Carlo simulation study detects several important markers of the first order phase transition. The distinction of a phase transition from a structural change is practically impossible with simulations and experiments in such systems like the confined hard squares.

  2. The hardness test: a real mechanical test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezakhanlou, R.

    1993-02-01

    During the service life, the mechanical properties of the PWR components change. It is necessary to determine precisely this evolution, but it is not always possible to draw a sample with the adequate size for the characterization. For this latter case we intend to calculate the stress-strain curve of a material from a hardness test results, because it is appropriate for testing on site and do not need any particular sample shape. This paper is the first bibliographical part of a larger study on the relation between the values measured during a hardness test (applied load, indentation diameter) and the mechanical properties of a solid obtained by a traction test. We have treated the problem within the general setting of two solids in contact. Thus, we expose general elastic, elasto-plastic and plastic models describing the indentation of a solid by a rigid indenter

  3. Methodology for functional MRI of simulated driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Karen; Schweizer, Tom A; Tam, Fred; Graham, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    The developed world faces major socioeconomic and medical challenges associated with motor vehicle accidents caused by risky driving. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of individuals using virtual reality driving simulators may provide an important research tool to assess driving safety, based on brain activity and behavior. A fMRI-compatible driving simulator was developed and evaluated in the context of straight driving, turning, and stopping in 16 young healthy adults. Robust maps of brain activity were obtained, including activation of the primary motor cortex, cerebellum, visual cortex, and parietal lobe, with limited head motion (driving is a feasible undertaking.

  4. Magnetic hyperthermia with hard-magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashevsky, Bronislav E., E-mail: bekas@itmo.by [A.V Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute, Belarus Academy of Sciences, P. Brovka str. 15, Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Kashevsky, Sergey B.; Korenkov, Victor S. [A.V Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute, Belarus Academy of Sciences, P. Brovka str. 15, Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Istomin, Yuri P. [N. N. Alexandrov National Cancer Center of Belarus, Lesnoy-2, Minsk 223040 (Belarus); Terpinskaya, Tatyana I.; Ulashchik, Vladimir S. [Institute of Physiology, Belarus Academy of Sciences, Akademicheskaya str. 28, Minsk 220072 (Belarus)

    2015-04-15

    Recent clinical trials of magnetic hyperthermia have proved, and even hardened, the Ankinson-Brezovich restriction as upon magnetic field conditions applicable to any site of human body. Subject to this restriction, which is harshly violated in numerous laboratory and small animal studies, magnetic hyperthermia can relay on rather moderate heat source, so that optimization of the whole hyperthermia system remains, after all, the basic problem predetermining its clinical perspectives. We present short account of our complex (theoretical, laboratory and small animal) studies to demonstrate that such perspectives should be related with the hyperthermia system based on hard-magnetic (Stoner–Wohlfarth type) nanoparticles and strong low-frequency fields rather than with superparamagnetic (Brownian or Neél) nanoparticles and weak high-frequency fields. This conclusion is backed by an analytical evaluation of the maximum absorption rates possible under the field restriction in the ideal hard-magnetic (Stoner–Wohlarth) and the ideal superparamagnetic (single relaxation time) systems, by theoretical and experimental studies of the dynamic magnetic hysteresis in suspensions of movable hard-magnetic particles, by producing nanoparticles with adjusted coercivity and suspensions of such particles capable of effective energy absorption and intratumoral penetration, and finally, by successful treatment of a mice model tumor under field conditions acceptable for whole human body. - Highlights: • Hard-magnetic nanoparticles are shown superior for hyperthetmia to superparamagnetic. • Optimal system parameters are found from magnetic reversal model in movable particle. • Penetrating suspension of HM particles with aggregation-independent SAR is developed. • For the first time, mice with tumors are healed in AC field acceptable for human body.

  5. Mining technology development for hard rock excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hustrulid, W.; Cudnick, R.; Trent, R.; Holmberg, R.

    1980-01-01

    A research facility has been established in the granitic gneiss of the CSM Experimental Mine at Idaho Springs, Colorado, for the purpose of evaluating/developing mining, geologic and geotechnical procedures appropriate for use in establishing nuclear waste repositories in hard rock. An experimental room has been excavated using careful blasting procedures. The extent and magnitude of blast damage is being evaluated. Structural geology is being mapped to assess continuity

  6. Hard-tip, soft-spring lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Wooyoung; Braunschweig, Adam B; Liao, Xing; Chai, Jinan; Lim, Jong Kuk; Zheng, Gengfeng; Mirkin, Chad A

    2011-01-27

    Nanofabrication strategies are becoming increasingly expensive and equipment-intensive, and consequently less accessible to researchers. As an alternative, scanning probe lithography has become a popular means of preparing nanoscale structures, in part owing to its relatively low cost and high resolution, and a registration accuracy that exceeds most existing technologies. However, increasing the throughput of cantilever-based scanning probe systems while maintaining their resolution and registration advantages has from the outset been a significant challenge. Even with impressive recent advances in cantilever array design, such arrays tend to be highly specialized for a given application, expensive, and often difficult to implement. It is therefore difficult to imagine commercially viable production methods based on scanning probe systems that rely on conventional cantilevers. Here we describe a low-cost and scalable cantilever-free tip-based nanopatterning method that uses an array of hard silicon tips mounted onto an elastomeric backing. This method-which we term hard-tip, soft-spring lithography-overcomes the throughput problems of cantilever-based scanning probe systems and the resolution limits imposed by the use of elastomeric stamps and tips: it is capable of delivering materials or energy to a surface to create arbitrary patterns of features with sub-50-nm resolution over centimetre-scale areas. We argue that hard-tip, soft-spring lithography is a versatile nanolithography strategy that should be widely adopted by academic and industrial researchers for rapid prototyping applications.

  7. Hard Diffraction - from Blois 1985 to 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnar, Ingelman [Uppsala Univ., High Energy Physics (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    The idea of diffractive processes with a hard scale involved, to resolve the underlying parton dynamics, was presented at the first Blois conference in 1985 and experimentally verified a few years later. Today hard diffraction is an attractive research field with high-quality data and new theoretical models. The trend from Regge-based pomeron models to QCD-based parton level models has given insights on QCD dynamics involving perturbative gluon exchange mechanisms. In the new QCD-based models, the pomeron is not part of the proton wave function, but diffraction is an effect of the scattering process. Models based on interactions with a colour background field provide an interesting approach which avoids conceptual problems of pomeron-based models, such as the pomeron flux, and provide a basis for common theoretical framework for all final states, diffractive gap events as well as non-diffractive events. Finally, the new process of gaps between jets provides strong evidence for the BFKL dynamics as predicted since long by QCD, but so far hard to establish experimentally.

  8. Hard diffraction and deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    Since the advent of hard-collision physics, the study of diffractive processes - shadow physics - has been less prominent than before. However, there is now a renewed interest in the subject, especially in that aspect which synthesizes the short-distance, hard-collision phenomena with the classical physics of large rapidity-gaps. This is especially stimulated by the recent data on deep-inelastic scattering from HERA, as well as the theoretical work which relates to it. The word diffraction is sometimes used by high-energy physicists in a loose way. The author defines this term to mean: A diffractive process occurs if and only if there is a large rapidity gap in the produced-particle phase space which is not exponentially suppressed. Here a rapidity gap means essentially no hadrons produced into the rapidity gap (which operates in the open-quotes legoclose quotes phase-space of pseudo-rapidity and azimuthal angle). And non-exponential suppression implies that the cross-section for creating a gap with width Δη does not have a power-law decrease with increasing subenergy s=e Δη , but behaves at most like some power of pseudorapidity Δη∼log(s). The term hard diffraction shall simply refer to those diffractive process which have jets in the final-state phase-space

  9. Distributed seeding for narrow-line width hard x-ray free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Anisimov, Petr Mikhaylovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Buechler, Cynthia Eileen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lewellen, IV, John W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Marksteiner, Quinn R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-09

    We describe a new FEL line-narrowing technique called distributed seeding (DS), using Si(111) Bragg crystal monochromators to enhance the spectral brightness of the MaRIE hard X-ray freeelectron laser. DS differs from self-seeding in three important aspects. First, DS relies on spectral filtering of the radiation at multiple locations along the undulator, with a monochromator located every few power gain lengths. Second, DS performs filtering early in the exponential gain region before SASE spikes start to appear in the radiation longitudinal profile. Third, DS provides the option to select a wavelength longer than the peak of the SASE gain curve, which leads to improved spectral contrast of the seeded FEL over the SASE background. Timedependent Genesis simulations show the power-vs-z growth curves for DS exhibit behaviors of a seeded FEL amplifier, such as exponential growth region immediately after the filters. Of the seeding approaches considered, the two-stage DS spectra produce the highest contrast of seeded FEL over the SASE background and that the three-stage DS provides the narrowest linewidth with a relative spectral FWHM of 8 X 10-5 .

  10. Driving Style Analysis Using Primitive Driving Patterns With Bayesian Nonparametric Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wenshuo; Xi, Junqiang; Zhao, Ding

    2017-01-01

    Analysis and recognition of driving styles are profoundly important to intelligent transportation and vehicle calibration. This paper presents a novel driving style analysis framework using the primitive driving patterns learned from naturalistic driving data. In order to achieve this, first, a Bayesian nonparametric learning method based on a hidden semi-Markov model (HSMM) is introduced to extract primitive driving patterns from time series driving data without prior knowledge of the number...

  11. Creating a driving profile for older adults using GPS devices and naturalistic driving methodology [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh M. Babulal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives: Road tests and driving simulators are most commonly used in research studies and clinical evaluations of older drivers. We adapted an existing, commercial, off-the-shelf, in-vehicle device for naturalistic, longitudinal research to better understand daily driving behavior in older drivers. Design: The Azuga G2 Tracking DeviceTM was installed in each participant’s vehicle, and we collected data over 5 months (speed, latitude/longitude every 30-seconds when the vehicle was driven.  Setting: The Knight Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center at Washington University School of Medicine. Participants: Five individuals enrolled in a larger, longitudinal study assessing preclinical Alzheimer disease and driving performance.  Participants were aged 65+ years and had normal cognition. Measurements:  Spatial components included Primary Location(s, Driving Areas, Mean Centers and Unique Destinations.  Temporal components included number of trips taken during different times of the day.  Behavioral components included number of hard braking, speeding and sudden acceleration events. Methods:  Individual 30-second observations, each comprising one breadcrumb, and trip-level data were collected and analyzed in R and ArcGIS.  Results: Primary locations were confirmed to be 100% accurate when compared to known addresses.  Based on the locations of the breadcrumbs, we were able to successfully identify frequently visited locations and general travel patterns.  Based on the reported time from the breadcrumbs, we could assess number of trips driven in daylight vs. night.  Data on additional events while driving allowed us to compute the number of adverse driving alerts over the course of the 5-month period. Conclusions: This pilot study indicated that Driving Profiles for older adults can be created and compared month-to-month or year-to-year, allowing researchers to identify changes in driving patterns that are unavailable in

  12. Auto warranty and driving patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastasiadis, Simon; Anderson, Boyd; Chukova, Stefanka

    2013-01-01

    Automobile warranty coverage is typically limited by age as well as mileage. However, the age is known for all sold vehicles at all times, but mileage is only observed for a vehicle with a claim and only at the time of the claim. We study the relationship between the expected number/cost of warranty claims and the driving patterns. Within a nonparametric framework, we account for the rate of mileage accumulation and propose a measure for the variability of this rate over a vehicle's observable life. We illustrate the ideas with real warranty data and comment on the relationship between the expected number/cost of warranty claims and the driving patterns using results adjusted/unadjusted for withdrawals from the warranty coverage due to mileage accumulation

  13. Low frequency rf current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershkowitz, N.

    1992-01-01

    An unshielded antenna for rf heating has been developed and tested during this report period. In addition to design specifications being given, some experimental results are presented utilizing: (1) an unprotected Faraday shield, (2) insulating guard limiters, (3) unshielded antenna experiments, (4) method for detecting small rf driven currents, (5) rf fast wave current drive experiments, (6) alfven wave interactions with electrons, and (7) machine conditioning, impurity generation and density control

  14. Hard and soft acids and bases: atoms and atomic ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, James L

    2008-07-07

    The structural origin of hard-soft behavior in atomic acids and bases has been explored using a simple orbital model. The Pearson principle of hard and soft acids and bases has been taken to be the defining statement about hard-soft behavior and as a definition of chemical hardness. There are a number of conditions that are imposed on any candidate structure and associated property by the Pearson principle, which have been exploited. The Pearson principle itself has been used to generate a thermodynamically based scale of relative hardness and softness for acids and bases (operational chemical hardness), and a modified Slater model has been used to discern the electronic origin of hard-soft behavior. Whereas chemical hardness is a chemical property of an acid or base and the operational chemical hardness is an experimental measure of it, the absolute hardness is a physical property of an atom or molecule. A critical examination of chemical hardness, which has been based on a more rigorous application of the Pearson principle and the availability of quantitative measures of chemical hardness, suggests that the origin of hard-soft behavior for both acids and bases resides in the relaxation of the electrons not undergoing transfer during the acid-base interaction. Furthermore, the results suggest that the absolute hardness should not be taken as synonymous with chemical hardness but that the relationship is somewhat more complex. Finally, this work provides additional groundwork for a better understanding of chemical hardness that will inform the understanding of hardness in molecules.

  15. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    1. PERSONS RESIDING IN FRANCE1.1 National driving licences from countries belonging to the EEAa) ValidityCurrent national driving licences issued by a country belonging to the European Economic Area (here inafter called EEA) are, in principle, valid in France. N.B. : The countries belonging to the EEA are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.b)\tRegistrationTo ensure that all the conditions of validity in France have been met, holders of driving licences issued by a country belonging to the EEA, who reside in France (i.e. hold a residence permit issued by a Préfecture, or a carte spéciale issued by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which is equivalent to a residence permit), can have their licences registered with the Préfecture of the department where they live (for Ain, call 04 74 32 30 00, for Haute Savoie call 04 50 33 ...

  16. Factors That Drive Youth Specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padaki, Ajay S; Popkin, Charles A; Hodgins, Justin L; Kovacevic, David; Lynch, Thomas Sean; Ahmad, Christopher S

    Specialization in young athletes has been linked to overuse injuries, burnout, and decreased satisfaction. Despite continued opposition from the medical community, epidemiological studies suggest the frequency is increasing. Extrinsic pressures in addition to individual aspirations drive this national trend in sports specialization. Descriptive epidemiology study. Level 3. A novel instrument assessing the driving factors behind youth specialization was generated by an interdisciplinary team of medical professionals. Surveys were administered to patients and athletes in the department's sports medicine clinic. The survey was completed by 235 athletes between 7 and 18 years of age, with a mean age of 13.8 ± 3.0 years. Athletes specialized at a mean age of 8.1 years, and 31% of athletes played a single sport while 58% played multiple sports but had a preferred sport. More than 70% of athletes had collegiate or professional ambitions, and 60% played their primary sport for 9 or more months per year, with players who had an injury history more likely to play year-round ( P specialized athletes reporting this significantly more often ( P = 0.04). Half of the athletes reported that sports interfered with their academic performance, with older players stating this more frequently ( P specializing in a single sport before starting high school. While intrinsic drive may identify healthy aspirations, extrinsic influences are prevalent in specialized athletes. Extrinsic factors contributing to youth specialization were identified and compounded the deleterious sequelae of youth athlete specialization.

  17. Foreign driving licences in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    1. Persons residing in Switzerland 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" For holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. (see the official news about the new "Carte de légitimation P") If they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant road licensing authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation; for Geneva call + 41 22 388 30 30, website http://www.geneve.ch/san; for Vaud call + 41 21 316 82 10, website http://www.san.vd.ch/index.html) to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence (they must pass a test if they are not citizens of countries with which Switzerland has concluded an agreement on this matter, e.g. Member States of the European Union, the United States and Japan). However, such an exchange is not possible...

  18. Foreign driving licences in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The following information is subject to possible amendments decided by the competent French authorities. Those wishing to undertake the necessary steps with the prefectural services of the Departments of the Ain and Haute-Savoie may obtain information by calling the following numbers: + 33 4 74 32 30 65 for the Ain and + 33 4 50 33 60 00 for Haute-Savoie. 1. PERSONS RESIDING IN FRANCE 1.1 Driving licences issued by a State belonging to the EU or the EEA a) Recognition on French territory All currently valid driving licences issued by States belonging to the European Union (EU) or to the European Economic Area (EEA) are generally valid for driving on French territory. However, if the licence was originally obtained in exchange for a licence issued by a State not belonging to the EU or to the EEA and with which France has not concluded a reciprocity agreement, it will be recognised for a maximum of one year following the date of establishment of normal residence in France ...

  19. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    The following information is provided subject to possible amendments decided by the competent French authorities. Those wishing to undertake the necessary steps with the prefectural services of the Departments of Ain and Haute-Savoie may obtain information by calling the following numbers: + 33 474 32 30 65 for Ain and + 33 450 33 60 00 for Haute-Savoie. 1. PEOPLE RESIDING IN FRANCE 1.1 Driving licences issued by a state belonging to the EU or the EEA a) Recognition on French territory All currently valid driving licences issued by States belonging to the European Union (EU) or to the European Economic Area (EEA) are generally valid for driving on French territory. However, if the licence was originally obtained in exchange for a licence issued by a State not belonging to the EU or to the EEA with which France has not concluded a reciprocity agreement, it is recognised only up to one year following the date of establishment of normal residence in France (date of the first special residence permit issu...

  20. Implicit attitudes towards risky and safe driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Møller, Mette

    ; further, self-reports of the intention to drive safely (or not) are socially sensitive. Therefore, we examined automatic preferences towards safe and risky driving with a Go/No-go Association Task (GNAT). The results suggest that (1) implicit attitudes towards driving behavior can be measured reliably...... with the GNAT; (2) implicit attitudes towards safe driving versus towards risky driving may be separable constructs. We propose that research on driving behavior may benefit from routinely including measures of implicit cognition. A practical advantage is a lesser susceptibility to social desirability biases......, compared to self-report methods. Pending replication in future research, the apparent dissociation between implicit attitudes towards safe versus risky driving that we observed may contribute to a greater theoretical understanding of the causes of unsafe and risky driving behavior....

  1. 77 FR 61048 - Distracted Driving Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Distracted Driving Grant Program AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of... distracted driving grants on August 24, 2012. In this notice, DOT is extending the application submission...

  2. Low Vision Driving with Bioptics: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Chuck; Corn, Anne

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an overview of driving for adolescents and adults who meet their states' visual requirements for low vision driving using bioptic lenses. It also discusses the outcomes of two studies of bioptic driver education.

  3. Advisory and autonomous cooperative driving systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T.H.A. van den; Ploeg, J.; Netten, B.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the traffic efficiency of an advisory cooperative driving system, Advisory Acceleration Control is examined and compared to the efficiency of an autonomous cooperative driving system, Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control. The algorithms and implementation thereof are explained. The

  4. Determining the Effect of Material Hardness During the Hard Turning of AISI4340 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambagowni, Venkatasubbaiah; Chitla, Raju; Challa, Suresh

    2018-05-01

    In the present manufacturing industries hardened steels are most widely used in the applications like tool design and mould design. It enhances the application range of hard turning of hardened steels in manufacturing industries. This study discusses the impact of workpiece hardness, feed and depth of cut on Arithmetic mean roughness (Ra), root mean square roughness (Rq), mean depth of roughness (Rz) and total roughness (Rt) during the hard turning. Experiments have been planned according to the Box-Behnken design and conducted on hardened AISI4340 steel at 45, 50 and 55 HRC with wiper ceramic cutting inserts. Cutting speed is kept constant during this study. The analysis of variance was used to determine the effects of the machining parameters. 3-D response surface plots drawn based on RSM were utilized to set up the input-output relationships. The results indicated that the feed rate has the most significant parameter for Ra, Rq and Rz and hardness has the most critical parameter for the Rt. Further, hardness shows its influence over all the surface roughness characteristics.

  5. Development of method for evaluating cell hardness and correlation between bacterial spore hardness and durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakanishi Koichi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the availability of conventional devices for making single-cell manipulations, determining the hardness of a single cell remains difficult. Here, we consider the cell to be a linear elastic body and apply Young’s modulus (modulus of elasticity, which is defined as the ratio of the repulsive force (stress in response to the applied strain. In this new method, a scanning probe microscope (SPM is operated with a cantilever in the “contact-and-push” mode, and the cantilever is applied to the cell surface over a set distance (applied strain. Results We determined the hardness of the following bacterial cells: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and five Bacillus spp. In log phase, these strains had a similar Young’s modulus, but Bacillus spp. spores were significantly harder than the corresponding vegetative cells. There was a positive, linear correlation between the hardness of bacterial spores and heat or ultraviolet (UV resistance. Conclusions Using this technique, the hardness of a single vegetative bacterial cell or spore could be determined based on Young’s modulus. As an application of this technique, we demonstrated that the hardness of individual bacterial spores was directly proportional to heat and UV resistance, which are the conventional measures of physical durability. This technique allows the rapid and direct determination of spore durability and provides a valuable and innovative method for the evaluation of physical properties in the field of microbiology.

  6. Driving When You Have Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driving When You Have Parkinson’s Disease DRIVEWELL You have been a safe driver for years. For you, driving means freedom and control. As you get ... mental health can affect how safely you drive. Parkinson’s disease is a disorder of the central nervous ...

  7. 77 FR 51610 - Distracted Driving Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    .... (2) Prohibition on youth cell phone use while driving. The State statute must-- (a) Prohibit a driver... of texting or using a cell phone while driving; (2) for traffic signs that notify drivers about the... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Distracted Driving...

  8. Advanced health monitor for automated driving functions

    OpenAIRE

    Mikovski Iotov, I.

    2017-01-01

    There is a trend in the automotive domain where driving functions are taken from the driver by automated driving functions. In order to guarantee the correct behavior of these auto-mated driving functions, the report introduces an Advanced Health Monitor that uses Tem-poral Logic and Probabilistic Analysis to indicate the system’s health.

  9. Advanced health monitor for automated driving functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikovski Iotov, I.

    2017-01-01

    There is a trend in the automotive domain where driving functions are taken from the driver by automated driving functions. In order to guarantee the correct behavior of these auto-mated driving functions, the report introduces an Advanced Health Monitor that uses Tem-poral Logic and Probabilistic

  10. Modeling human learning involved in car driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wewerinke, P.H.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, car driving is considered at the level of human tracking and maneuvering in the context of other traffic. A model analysis revealed the most salient features determining driving performance and safety. Learning car driving is modelled based on a system theoretical approach and based

  11. Cooperative driving in platooning scenario’s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, M.J.G.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative driving enables a more efficient use of existing infrastructure which reduces the expenditures and land use for new roads. Cooperative driving is based on intelligent communication between vehicles and between vehicles and their environment. Vehicles can drive closer to each other due to

  12. Adjustable Speed Drives - Future Challenges and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Thoegersen, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The main trends within Adjustable Drives in industrial and appliance applications for the next decade are discussed based on the newest developments seen on the market and a few historical trends. Different drive configurations are presented and the general demands to adjustable speed drives...

  13. Diagnostic device for failures in control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okutani, Tetsuro.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to concretely point out a failure position when a failure might occur by diagnosing the failure without affecting the variation to the state of a reactor core. Constitution: A frequency switching circuit is provided in an inverter for controlling the rotating speed of a motor for discharging and charging a control rod. Then, a voltage detector is provided at asemiconductor switch provided between the inverter and the motor. When a high frequency control signal is input to the inverter in diagnosing a failure, the switching speed of the switch is accelerated, a current hardly flows through the motor, and even if the inverter is operated, the motor will not rotate. Thus, the failure of a control rod drive can be diagnosed without affecting any influence to the state of a reactor core. (Kamimura, M.)

  14. Determination of Formula for Vickers Hardness Measurements Uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purba, Asli

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of formula determination is to obtain the formula of Vickers hardness measurements uncertainty. The approach to determine the formula: influenced parameters identification, creating a cause and effect diagram, determination of sensitivity, determination of standard uncertainty and determination of formula for Vickers hardness measurements uncertainty. The results is a formula for determination of Vickers hardness measurements uncertainty. (author)

  15. Observation of cosmic hard x-ray by L-3H-9 rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Sachio; Makino, Fumiyoshi; Matsui, Yutaka; Fukada, Yutaka.

    1978-01-01

    It has been considered that the isotropic constituents of cosmic hard X-ray have their origins outside the galactic system. As the spectra are uncertain, the generation mechanism of X-ray has not been clearly known yet. It was attempted to make more reliable observation by shutter method and the technique removing charged particles, using the L-3H-8 rocket. The equipment consists of NaI scintillation counter, a front counter, a Xenon counter, a UV sensor, a collimator, a shutter and a shutter-driving device. The L-3H-9 rocket was launched on August 16, 1977, and reached height of 310 km in about 300 seconds. Then the observation was started, but it was not able to observe the isotropic constituents of hard X-ray which were aimed at, as the shutter didn't work normally. It is expected to make another observation with the K-9M-64 rocket in August, 1978, after investigating the action of the shutter and employing and improved driving device. (Kobatake, H.)

  16. CO2 laser milling of hard tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Martin; Ivanenko, Mikhail; Harbecke, Daniela; Klasing, Manfred; Steigerwald, Hendrik; Hering, Peter

    2007-02-01

    Drilling of bone and tooth tissue belongs to recurrent medical procedures (screw- and pin-bores, bores for implant inserting, trepanation etc.). Small round bores can be in general quickly produced with mechanical drills. Problems arise however by angled drilling, by the necessity to fulfill the drilling without damaging of sensitive soft tissue beneath the bone, or by the attempt to mill precisely noncircular small cavities. We present investigations on laser hard tissue "milling", which can be advantageous for solving these problems. The "milling" is done with a CO2 laser (10.6 μm) with pulse duration of 50 - 100 μs, combined with a PC-controlled galvanic beam scanner and with a fine water-spray, which helps to avoid thermal side-effects. The damaging of underlying soft tissue can be prevented through control of the optical or acoustical ablation signal. The ablation of hard tissue is accompanied with a strong glowing, which is absent during the laser beam action on soft tissue. The acoustic signals from the diverse tissue types exhibit distinct differences in the spectral composition. Also computer image analysis could be a useful tool to control the operation. Laser "milling" of noncircular cavities with 1 - 4 mm width and about 10 mm depth is particularly interesting for dental implantology. In ex-vivo investigations we found conditions for fast laser "milling" of the cavities without thermal damage and with minimal tapering. It included exploration of different filling patterns (concentric rings, crosshatch, parallel lines and their combinations), definition of maximal pulse duration, repetition rate and laser power, optimal position of the spray. The optimized results give evidences for the applicability of the CO2 laser for biologically tolerable "milling" of deep cavities in the hard tissue.

  17. Exact sampling hardness of Ising spin models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fefferman, B.; Foss-Feig, M.; Gorshkov, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    We study the complexity of classically sampling from the output distribution of an Ising spin model, which can be implemented naturally in a variety of atomic, molecular, and optical systems. In particular, we construct a specific example of an Ising Hamiltonian that, after time evolution starting from a trivial initial state, produces a particular output configuration with probability very nearly proportional to the square of the permanent of a matrix with arbitrary integer entries. In a similar spirit to boson sampling, the ability to sample classically from the probability distribution induced by time evolution under this Hamiltonian would imply unlikely complexity theoretic consequences, suggesting that the dynamics of such a spin model cannot be efficiently simulated with a classical computer. Physical Ising spin systems capable of achieving problem-size instances (i.e., qubit numbers) large enough so that classical sampling of the output distribution is classically difficult in practice may be achievable in the near future. Unlike boson sampling, our current results only imply hardness of exact classical sampling, leaving open the important question of whether a much stronger approximate-sampling hardness result holds in this context. The latter is most likely necessary to enable a convincing experimental demonstration of quantum supremacy. As referenced in a recent paper [A. Bouland, L. Mancinska, and X. Zhang, in Proceedings of the 31st Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2016), Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (Schloss Dagstuhl-Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik, Dagstuhl, 2016)], our result completes the sampling hardness classification of two-qubit commuting Hamiltonians.

  18. Seismic loads in modularized and unmodularized large pools located on hard or intermediate hard sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, R G [California Univ., Livermore (USA). Lawrence Livermore Lab.

    1977-12-01

    To augment the present capacity of pools for storing spent nuclear fuel elements, pools larger than those in current use are being planned. These pools may or may not be modularized into cells. Because of the large size of the pools, seismic loads are of significant interest. In particular, the effects of modularization and site hardness are of concern. The study presented in this paper reveals that modularization is generally unfavourable, because it creates the option of leaving one or more cells empty which in turn results in higher structural loads. The wall which separates a filled cell from an empty cell, or the wall which bears against earth on one side and faces an empty cell on the other, becomes very highly stressed. For the particular pool geometries examined, a hard site is generally preferred over an intermediate hard site in terms of structural loads.

  19. Driving patterns in older adults with glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Landingham, Suzanne W; Hochberg, Chad; Massof, Robert W; Chan, Emilie; Friedman, David S; Ramulu, Pradeep Y

    2013-02-21

    The ability to drive is important for ensuring quality of life for many older adults. Glaucoma is prevalent in this age group and may affect driving. The purpose of this study is to determine if glaucoma and glaucomatous visual field (VF) loss are associated with driving cessation, limitations, and deference to another driver in older adults. Cross-sectional study. Eighty-one glaucoma subjects and 58 glaucoma suspect controls between age 60 and 80 reported if they had ceased driving, limited their driving in various ways, or preferred another to drive. Twenty-three percent of glaucoma subjects and 6.9% of suspects had ceased driving (p = 0.01). Glaucoma subjects also had more driving limitations than suspects (2.0 vs. 1.1, p = 0.007). In multivariable models, driving cessation was more likely for glaucoma subjects as compared to suspects (OR = 4.0; 95% CI = 1.1-14.7; p = 0.03). The odds of driving cessation doubled with each 5 decibel (dB) decrement in the better-eye VF mean deviation (MD) (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.4-2.9; p driving limitations (OR = 4.7; 95% CI = 1.3-16.8; p = 0.02). The likelihood of reporting more limitations increased with the VF loss severity (OR = 1.6 per 5 dB decrement in the better-eye VF MD; 95% CI = 1.1-2.4; p = 0.02). Neither glaucoma nor VF MD was associated with other driver preference (p > 0.1 for both). Glaucoma and glaucomatous VF loss are associated with greater likelihood of driving cessation and greater limitation of driving in the elderly. Further prospective study is merited to assess when and why people with glaucoma change their driving habits, and to determine if their observed self-regulation of driving is adequate to ensure safety.

  20. Depression, antidepressants and driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Linda L; Lauzon, Vanessa L; Winbrock, Elise L; Li, Guohua; Chihuri, Stanford; Lee, Kelly C

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to review to review the reported associations of depression and antidepressants with motor vehicle crashes. A literature search for material published in the English language between January, 1995, and October, 2015, in bibliographic databases was combined with a search for other relevant material referenced in the retrieved articles. Retrieved articles were systematically reviewed for inclusion criteria: 19 epidemiological studies (17 case-control and 2 cohort studies) fulfilled the inclusion criteria by estimating the crash risk associated with depression and/or psychotropic medications in naturalistic settings. The estimates of the odds ratio (OR) of crash involvement associated with depression ranged from 1.78 to 3.99. All classes of antidepressants were reported to have side effects with the potential to affect driving safety. The majority of studies of antidepressant effects on driving reported an elevated crash risk, and ORs ranged from 1.19 to 2.03 for all crashes, and 3.19 for fatal crashes. In meta-analysis, depression was associated with approximately 2-fold increased crash risk (summary OR = 1.90; 95% CI, 1.06 to 3.39), and antidepressants were associated with approximately 40% increased crash risk (summary OR = 1.40; 95%CI, 1.18 to 1.66). Based on the findings of the studies reviewed, depression, antidepressants or the combination of depression and antidepressants may pose a potential hazard to driving safety. More research is needed to understand the individual contributions of depression and the medications used to treat depression.

  1. Hard production of exotic hybrid mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anikin, I.; Teryaev, O.V. [Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Pire, B.; Anikin, I. [Ecole Polytechnique, CPHT, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Szymanowski, I. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); Liege Univ. (Belgium); Anikin, I.; Wallon, S. [Paris-11 Univ., Lab. de Physique Theorique, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2005-07-01

    Exotic hybrid mesons H, with quantum numbers J{sup PC} = 1{sup -+} may be copiously produced in the hard exclusive processes {gamma}{sup *}(Q{sup 2}){gamma} {yields} H and {gamma}{sup *}(Q{sup 2})P(p) {yields} HP(p') because they have a leading twist distribution amplitude with a sizable coupling constant f{sub H}, which may be estimated through QCD sum rules. The reaction rates scale in the same way as the corresponding rates for usual mesons. (authors)

  2. Hardness and Approximation for Network Flow Interdiction

    OpenAIRE

    Chestnut, Stephen R.; Zenklusen, Rico

    2015-01-01

    In the Network Flow Interdiction problem an adversary attacks a network in order to minimize the maximum s-t-flow. Very little is known about the approximatibility of this problem despite decades of interest in it. We present the first approximation hardness, showing that Network Flow Interdiction and several of its variants cannot be much easier to approximate than Densest k-Subgraph. In particular, any $n^{o(1)}$-approximation algorithm for Network Flow Interdiction would imply an $n^{o(1)}...

  3. Nonvolatile Rad-Hard Holographic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Zhou, Han-Ying; Reyes, George; Dragoi, Danut; Hanna, Jay

    2001-01-01

    We are investigating a nonvolatile radiation-hardened (rad-hard) holographic memory technology. Recently, a compact holographic data storage (CHDS) breadboard utilizing an innovative electro-optic scanner has been built and demonstrated for high-speed holographic data storage and retrieval. The successful integration of this holographic memory breadboard has paved the way for follow-on radiation resistance test of the photorefractive (PR) crystal, Fe:LiNbO3. We have also started the investigation of using two-photon PR crystals that are doubly doped with atoms of iron group (Ti, Cr, Mn, Cu) and of rare-earth group (Nd, Tb) for nonvolatile holographic recordings.

  4. Hard target LIDAR calibration for SO2

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available calibration for SO2 A du Plessis, DE Roberts CSIR National Laser Centre, Pretoria Slide 2 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Project background • Las-R-MAP: Laser – Remote – Measurement of Atmospheric Pollutants • Mobile laser system....csir.co.za Hard target backscatter ∫ = − R dRRn p e R RcE RS 0 )(2 2 )()( λσ λ β S R Slide 10 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Las-R-MAP hardware: laser system Slide 11 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Las-R...

  5. Tomography for amplitudes of hard exclusive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, M.V.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss which part of information about hadron structure encoded in the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) [part of total GPD image] can be restored from the known amplitude of a hard exclusive process. The physics content of this partial image is analyzed. Among other things, we show that this partial image contains direct information about how the target hadron responses to the (string) quark-antiquark operator of arbitrary spin J. Explicit equations relating physics content of the partial image of GPDs directly to the data are derived. Also some new results concerning the dual parametrization of GPDs are presented

  6. Design of Vickers Hardness Loading Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihai Zhao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally Vickers testing needs manual works, as a result, it will induce low precision and automatization. So this paper design a new type of loading controlling system, it is based on single chip computer 89S52, used PZT as the force generator in micro Vickers hardness testing. It primarily includes the designing of hardware, software of collecting data and PZT signals by AD667. This article has given the sketch of electrical circuit and controlling software, it also offers the experiment data. The experiments have showed that using this system can exactly control the loading results, and the average tolerance is less than 0.43 %.

  7. Hard diffraction at HERA and Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaidalov, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    A relation between hard diffraction at HERA and Tevatron is discussed. A model, which takes into account unitarity effects is developed for interaction of high-energy virtual photons with nucleons. It is shown that this model gives a good description of HERA data on both total γ* p total cross section and diffractive dissociation of virtual photons in a broad region of Q 2 . It is shown how to describe the CDF data on diffractive jet production at Tevatron using an information on distribution of partons in the Pomeron from HERA experiments

  8. Sorption of radionuclides on hard rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.A.; Bourke, P.J.; Green, A.; Littleboy, A.K.

    1987-09-01

    Methods for measuring sorption on hard rocks, particularly of strontium, caesium, neptunium and americium on Darley Dale sandstone and Welsh slate have been investigated. The methods tried included batch tests with crushed rock and tests of simultaneous diffusion and convection with sorption on intact rock. High pressures (800m H 2 O) were used in the convective tests to pump water quickly through the rock samples and to measure high sorptivities in times shorter than those needed in the diffusive methods with intact samples. (author)

  9. Burning actinides in very hard spectrum reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.H.; Shirley, G.W.; Prichard, A.W.; Trapp, T.J.

    1978-01-01

    The major unresolved problem in the nuclear industry is the ultimate disposition of the waste products of light water reactors. The study demonstrates the feasibility of designing a very hard spectrum actinide burner reactor (ABR). A 1100 MW/sub t/ ABR design fueled entirely with actinides reprocessed from light water reactor (LWR) wastes is proposed as both an ultimate disposal mechanism for actinides and a means of concurrently producing usable power. Actinides from discharged ABR fuel are recycled to the ABR while fission products are routed to a permanent repository. As an integral part of a large energy park, each such ABR would dispose of the waste actinides from 2 LWRs

  10. Studying Hardness Meter Spring Strength to Understand Hardness Distribution on Body Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Yoshitaka

    2017-10-01

    For developing a hardness multipoint measurement system for understanding hardness distribution on biological body surfaces, we investigated the spring strength of the contact portion main axis of a biological tissue hardness meter (product name: PEK). We measured the hardness of three-layered sheets of six types of gel sheets (90 mm × 60 mm × 6 mm) constituting the acupuncture practice pads, with PEK measurements of 1.96 N, 2.94 N, 3.92 N, 4.90 N, 5.88 N, 6.86 N, 7.84 N, 8.82 N, and 9.81 N of the main axis spring strength. We obtained measurements 10 times for the gel sheets and simultaneously measured the load using a digital scale. We measured the hardness distribution of induration embedded and breast cancer palpation models, with a main axis with 1.96 N, 4.90 N, and 9.81 N spring strengths, to create a two-dimensional Contour Fill Chart. Using 4.90 N spring strength, we could obtain measurement loads of ≤3.0 N, and the mean hardness was 5.14 mm. This was close to the median of the total measurement range 0.0-10.0 mm, making the measurement range the largest for this spring strength. We could image the induration of the induration-embedded model regardless of the spring strength. Overall, 4.90 N spring strength was best suited for imaging cancer in the breast cancer palpation model. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Driving safety and adolescent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R C; Sanders, J M; Schonberg, S K

    1986-04-01

    Accidents, and mainly automotive accidents, are currently the leading cause of mortality and morbidity among young people. Understanding and addressing the issue of automotive accident prevention requires an awareness of the multiple psychodynamic, familial, and societal influences that affect the development and behavior of adolescents. Risk-taking behavior is the product of complex personal and environmental factors. As pediatricians, we have the obligation and the opportunity to improve the safety of our youth who drive and ride. This opportunity is available to us not only in our roles as counselors to youth and families, but also as we serve as role models, educators, and agents for change within our communities.

  12. Motor Integrated Variable Speed Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Yash Veer

    rectifier at the front end is presented in this thesis and requirements of a buffer stage in the form of ESI is explained in detail. An equivalent circuit and linear model are developed to give the transfer function and control of the ESI based three-phase rectifier. In this thesis a power converter...... with ESI is designed and tested with standard induction motor to verify functionality of a working drive. One modified version of the ESI based converter has also been looked into to reduce losses of converter, but because of difficulties in reducing the bus-bar inductance in that design, further...

  13. Heavy consumption and drink driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fynbo, Lars

    2010-01-01

    This paper is part of an ongoing mixed methods project about untreated heavy alcohol consumption amongst adult Danes. It is based upon 21 in-depth qualitative interviews with convicted drink drivers. All interviewees were contacted while attending mandatory courses in “Alcohol and Traffic safety...... on the interviewee’s risk behaviour, especially in relation to driving. The interviewees are first divided into 1) a group of young “edgeworkers” with pronounced general risk behaviour, 2) a group of middle-aged “post-edgeworkers”, most with criminal records, and 3) a group of middle-aged and older heavy consumers...

  14. Emerging role of HPV self-sampling in cervical cancer screening for hard-to-reach women: Focused literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzima, Tina R; Vahabi, Mandana; Lofters, Aisha

    2017-08-01

    To provide a focused critical review of the literature on the acceptability, feasibility, and uptake of human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling among hard-to-reach women. A focused search to obtain relevant literature published in English between 1997 and 2015 was done using PubMed and EMBASE using search terms including HPV self-test or HPV self-sample or HPV kit in combination with acceptability or feasibility . Only studies that focused on never-screened or underscreened populations were included in this review. Human papillomavirus self-sampling was found to be highly acceptable and feasible among these hard-to-reach women across most studies. Mailing of self-sampling kits has been shown to increase participation among hard-to reach women. Some concerns remain regarding adherence to further follow-up among high-risk women with positive test results for HPV after screening. There is a strong body of evidence to support the usefulness of HPV self-sampling in increasing participation of hard-to-reach women in screening programs (level I evidence). Convenience, privacy, ease of use, and, likely, cost-effectiveness of HPV self-sampling are driving forces in its emerging role in cervical cancer screening among hard-to-reach women. Key barriers to participation could be addressed by overcoming disparities in HPV-related knowledge and perceptions about cervical cancer screening. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  15. The impact of continuous driving time and rest time on commercial drivers' driving performance and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lianzhen; Pei, Yulong

    2014-09-01

    This real road driving study was conducted to investigate the effects of driving time and rest time on the driving performance and recovery of commercial coach drivers. Thirty-three commercial coach drivers participated in the study, and were divided into three groups according to driving time: (a) 2 h, (b) 3 h, and (c) 4 h. The Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) was used to assess the subjective fatigue level of the drivers. One-way ANOVA was employed to analyze the variation in driving performance. The statistical analysis revealed that driving time had a significant effect on the subjective fatigue and driving performance measures among the three groups. After 2 h of driving, both the subjective fatigue and driving performance measures began to deteriorate. After 4 h of driving, all of the driving performance indicators changed significantly except for depth perception. A certain amount of rest time eliminated the negative effects of fatigue. A 15-minute rest allowed drivers to recover from a two-hour driving task. This needed to be prolonged to 30 min for driving tasks of 3 to 4 h of continuous driving. Drivers' attention, reactions, operating ability, and perceptions are all affected in turn after over 2 h of continuous driving. Drivers should take a certain amount of rest to recover from the fatigue effects before they continue driving. Copyright © 2014 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Perceptual and Cognitive Impairments and Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korner-Bitensky, Nicol; Coopersmith, Henry; Mayo, Nancy; Leblanc, Ginette; Kaizer, Franceen

    1990-01-01

    Perceptual and cognitive disorders that frequently accompany stroke and head injury influence an individual's ability to drive a motor vehicle. Canadian physicians are legally responsible for identifying patients who are potentially unsafe to drive and, if they fail to do so, may be held liable in a civil action suit. The authors review the guidelines for physicians evaluating a patient's fitness to drive after brain injury. They also examine the actions a physician should take when a patient with perceptual and cognitive problems wants to drive. Ultimately, by taking these actions, physicians will help to prevent driving accidents. PMID:21234047

  17. Genetic analysis of kernel texture (grain hardness) in a hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) bi-parental population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain hardness is a very important trait in determining wheat market class and also influences milling and baking traits. At the grain Hardness (Ha) locus on chromosome 5DS, there are two primary mutations responsible for conveying a harder kernel texture among U.S. hard red spring wheats: (1) the P...

  18. Study of Cu-Al-Zn alloys hardness temperature dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurmanova, D.T.; Skakov, M.K.; Melikhov, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    In the paper the results of studies for the Cu-Al-Zn ternary alloys hardness temperature dependence are presented. The method of 'hot hardness' has been used during study of the solid state phase transformations and under determination of the hot stability boundaries. Due to the samples brittleness a hardness temperature dependence definition is possible only from 350-400 deg. C. Sensitivity of the 'hot hardness' method is decreasing within high plasticity range, so the measurements have been carried out only up to 700-800 deg. C. It is shown, that the alloys hardness dependence character from temperature is close to exponential one within the certain structure modification existence domain

  19. Smartphone Based Approach For Monitoring Inefficient And Unsafe Driving Behavior And Recognizing Drink And Drive Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Mane

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many automobile drivers having knowledge of the driving behaviours and habits that can lead to inefficient and unsafe driving. However it is often the case that these same drivers unknowingly manifest these inefficient and unsafe driving behaviours in their everyday driving activity. The proposed system proposes a practical and economical way to capture measure and alert drives of inefficient and unsafe driving as well as highly efficient system aimed at early detection and alert of dangerous vehicle maneuvers typically related to drunk driving. The upcoming solution consists of a mobile application running on a modern smartphone device paired with a compatible OBDII On-board diagnostics II reader.

  20. Measuring device for control rod driving time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Hanabusa, Masatoshi.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention concerns a measuring device for control driving time having a function capable of measuring a selected control rod driving time and measuring an entire control rod driving time simultaneously. A calculation means and a store means for the selected rod control rod driving time, and a calculation means and a store means for the entire control rod driving time are disposed individually. Each of them measures the driving time and stores the data independent of each other based on a selected control rod insert ion signal and an entire control rod insertion signal. Even if insertion of selected and entire control rods overlaps, each of the control rod driving times can be measured reliably to provide an advantageous effect capable of more accurately conducting safety evaluation for the nuclear reactor based on the result of the measurement. (N.H.)

  1. Hard And Soft QCD Physics In ATLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adomeit Stefanie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hard and soft QCD results using proton-proton collisions recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC are reported. Charged-particle distributions and forward-backward correlations have been studied in low-luminosity minimum bias data taken at centre-of-mass energies of √s = 0.9, 2.36 and 7 TeV. Recent measurements on underlying event characteristics using charged-particle jets are also presented. The results are tested against various phenomenological soft QCD models implemented in Monte-Carlo generators. A summary of hard QCD measurements involving high transverse momentum jets is also given. Inclusive jet and dijet cross-sections have been measured at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and are compared to expectations based on NLO pQCD calculations corrected for non-perturbative effects as well as to NLO Monte Carlo predictions. Recent studies exploiting jet substructure techniques to identify hadronic decays of boosted massive particles are reported.

  2. Hard processes in photon-photon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchovni, E.

    1985-03-01

    In this thesis, the existence of hard component in two-photon collisions is investigated. Due to the relative simplicity of the photon, such processes can be exactly calculated in QCD. Untagged (low Q 2 ) two-photon events are used. This leads to relatively high statistics, but to severe background problem due mainly to e + e - annihilation. The background contamination is reduced to a tolerable level using a special set of cuts. Moreover, the remaining contamination is shown to be calculable with a small systematic error. A large number of events of the hard ''γγ'' type is found. An attempt to explain these events using the simplest QCD diagram (the Born term) is done. This process is found to be capable of explaining only a 1/4 of the data. Other options like the constituent intercharge model, integer charged quarks, and higher order diagrams are therefore also discussed. The large cross-section for the production of ρ 0 ρ 0 pairs in ''γγ'' collisions has not been understood yet. Inorder to look at closely related processes, a search for φρ 0 and φφ was initiated. The cross-section for θπ + π - was found to be sizeable. Only upper limits for the production of φρ 0 and φφ are obtained

  3. Exotic hybrid mesons in hard electroproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, I.V.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Teryaev, O.V.; Wallon, S.

    2005-01-01

    We estimate the sizeable cross section for deep exclusive electroproduction of an exotic J PC =1 -+ hybrid meson in the Bjorken regime. The production amplitude scales like the one for usual meson electroproduction, i.e., as 1/Q 2 . This is due to the nonvanishing leading twist distribution amplitude for the hybrid meson, which may be normalized thanks to its relation to the energy-momentum tensor and to the QCD sum rules technique. The hard amplitude is considered up to next-to-leading order in α S and we explore the consequences of fixing the renormalization scale ambiguity through the Brodsky-Lepage-Mackenzie (BLM) procedure. We study the particular case where the hybrid meson decays through a πη meson pair. We discuss the πη generalized distribution amplitude and then calculate the production amplitude for this process. We propose a forward-backward asymmetry in the production of π and η mesons as a signal for the hybrid meson production. We briefly comment on hybrid electroproduction at very high energy, in the diffractive limit where a QCD Odderon exchange mechanism should dominate. The conclusion of our study is that hard electroproduction is a promising way to study exotic hybrid mesons, in particular, at JLAB, HERA (HERMES), or CERN (Compass)

  4. [Computer-assisted phacoemulsification for hard cataracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemba, M; Papadatu, Adriana-Camelia; Sîrbu, Laura-Nicoleta; Avram, Corina

    2012-01-01

    to evaluate the efficiency of new torsional phacoemulsification software (Ozil IP system) in hard nucleus cataract extraction. 45 eyes with hard senile cataract (degree III and IV) underwent phacoemulsification performed by the same surgeon, using the same technique (stop and chop). Infiniti (Alcon) platform was used, with Ozil IP software and Kelman phaco tip miniflared, 45 degrees. The nucleus was split into two and after that the first half was phacoemulsificated with IP-on (group 1) and the second half with IP-off (group 2). For every group we measured: cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), numbers of tip closure that needed manual desobstruction the amount of BSS used. The mean CDE was the same in group 1 and in group 2 (between 6.2 and 14.9). The incidence of occlusion that needed manual desobstruction was lower in group 1 (5 times) than in group 2 (13 times). Group 2 used more BSS compared to group 1. The new torsional software (IP system) significantly decreased occlusion time and balanced salt solution use over standard torsional software, particularly with denser cataracts.

  5. Statistical physics of hard optimization problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdeborova, L.

    2009-01-01

    Optimization is fundamental in many areas of science, from computer science and information theory to engineering and statistical physics, as well as to biology or social sciences. It typically involves a large number of variables and a cost function depending on these variables. Optimization problems in the non-deterministic polynomial (NP)-complete class are particularly difficult, it is believed that the number of operations required to minimize the cost function is in the most difficult cases exponential in the system size. However, even in an NP-complete problem the practically arising instances might, in fact, be easy to solve. The principal question we address in this article is: How to recognize if an NP-complete constraint satisfaction problem is typically hard and what are the main reasons for this? We adopt approaches from the statistical physics of disordered systems, in particular the cavity method developed originally to describe glassy systems. We describe new properties of the space of solutions in two of the most studied constraint satisfaction problems - random satisfy ability and random graph coloring. We suggest a relation between the existence of the so-called frozen variables and the algorithmic hardness of a problem. Based on these insights, we introduce a new class of problems which we named ”locked” constraint satisfaction, where the statistical description is easily solvable, but from the algorithmic point of view they are even more challenging than the canonical satisfy ability.

  6. Recent developments in hard magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asti, G.

    1989-01-01

    Hard magnetic materials find ever-increasing uses in modern technology. Their importance is mainly in the domain of permanent magnets, but a variety of other applications is being offered to this class of materials, especially for what regards the areas of information storage, telecommunications and special electronic devices. These developments are connected to the emphasis that is more and more given to thin films having high magnetic anisotropy. The recent advancement in the field of hard magnetic materials is among the best examples where technology depends to a great extent upon the continuous progress in the scientific knowledge. The research activity is characterized by the introduction of new classes of materials and continuous improvements in the preparation techniques both for what regards industrial processing and method for obtaining high quality materials in form of crystals, films or amorphous specimens. In this respect a special place must be reserved to rare earth transition metal compounds, a class of materials that attracted enormeous attention after the discovery by Hoffer and Strnat in 1966 of the large uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the compound YCo 5 . Beside the so called 1:5 phase, other compositions of technical importance are the 2:17 and the recently discovered Nd 2 Fe 14 B, which is a real new ternary phase having tetragonal crystal structure. Great efforts have been done to gain a better understanding of the magnetic anisotropy and its relationship to the coercivity is of leading importance for a further development in this important area of magnetism. (orig.)

  7. Statistical physics of hard optimization problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdeborova, L.

    2009-01-01

    Optimization is fundamental in many areas of science, from computer science and information theory to engineering and statistical physics, as well as to biology or social sciences. It typically involves a large number of variables and a cost function depending on these variables. Optimization problems in the non-deterministic polynomial-complete class are particularly difficult, it is believed that the number of operations required to minimize the cost function is in the most difficult cases exponential in the system size. However, even in an non-deterministic polynomial-complete problem the practically arising instances might, in fact, be easy to solve. The principal the question we address in the article is: How to recognize if an non-deterministic polynomial-complete constraint satisfaction problem is typically hard and what are the main reasons for this? We adopt approaches from the statistical physics of disordered systems, in particular the cavity method developed originally to describe glassy systems. We describe new properties of the space of solutions in two of the most studied constraint satisfaction problems - random satisfiability and random graph coloring. We suggest a relation between the existence of the so-called frozen variables and the algorithmic hardness of a problem. Based on these insights, we introduce a new class of problems which we named 'locked' constraint satisfaction, where the statistical description is easily solvable, but from the algorithmic point of view they are even more challenging than the canonical satisfiability (Authors)

  8. Statistical physics of hard optimization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdeborová, Lenka

    2009-06-01

    Optimization is fundamental in many areas of science, from computer science and information theory to engineering and statistical physics, as well as to biology or social sciences. It typically involves a large number of variables and a cost function depending on these variables. Optimization problems in the non-deterministic polynomial (NP)-complete class are particularly difficult, it is believed that the number of operations required to minimize the cost function is in the most difficult cases exponential in the system size. However, even in an NP-complete problem the practically arising instances might, in fact, be easy to solve. The principal question we address in this article is: How to recognize if an NP-complete constraint satisfaction problem is typically hard and what are the main reasons for this? We adopt approaches from the statistical physics of disordered systems, in particular the cavity method developed originally to describe glassy systems. We describe new properties of the space of solutions in two of the most studied constraint satisfaction problems - random satisfiability and random graph coloring. We suggest a relation between the existence of the so-called frozen variables and the algorithmic hardness of a problem. Based on these insights, we introduce a new class of problems which we named "locked" constraint satisfaction, where the statistical description is easily solvable, but from the algorithmic point of view they are even more challenging than the canonical satisfiability.

  9. Computer Security: drive-bye

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2016-01-01

    Like a lion waiting to ambush gazelles at a waterhole, malware can catch you by surprise.    As some of you might have noticed, the Computer Security Team had to block the news site “20min.ch” a while ago, as it was found to be distributing malware. This block comes after similar incidents at other Swiss organizations. Our blocking is protective in order to safeguard your computers, laptops, tablets and smartphones. Unfortunately, this is not the first time we have seen these so-called drive-by/waterhole attacks: once you have visited an affected website, embedded third-party malicious code is downloaded to your computer and subsequently infects it (if running Windows or Android as well as, less likely, Mac operating systems). Hence the name “drive-by”. As “20min.ch” is a very frequented website among CERN staff members and users, it makes it a perfect source for attacks against CERN (or other Geneva-based organisations): inste...

  10. PTAC driving safety survey results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, E. [Petroleum Technology Alliance Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The results of a survey conducted by the Petroleum Technology Alliance Canada were presented. The survey identified ways in which companies in the oil and gas industry can reduce the potential for vehicle incidents, as well as improve fleet management techniques. Respondents provided a list of over 60 relevant technologies with high potential for application. Top driving safety challenges included adverse weather and road conditions, as well as driver attitude and awareness. Driver speed and fatigue were also seen as significant challenges, as well as encounters with wildlife and road conditions. Poor site conditions were also identified as a challenge, along with poor hazard recognition training, and lack of experience. A total of 157 representatives responded, whose fleets collectively drive approximately 136,500,000 km per year. The fleets totalled 15,800 vehicles. Respondents' affiliations with the oil and gas industry were included, as well as ownership classifications and company fleet sizes. Total annual fleet kilometers were presented, as well as the number of incidents per company per year, along with the number of respondents' animal strikes per year. tabs, figs.

  11. Driving Extreme Efficiency to Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbesi, Karina

    2014-03-01

    The rapid development of extremely energy efficient appliances and equipment is essential to curtail catastrophic climate disruption. This will require the on-going development of products that apply all best-practices and that take advantage of the synergies of hybridization and building integration. Beyond that, it requires the development of new disruptive technologies and concepts. To facilitate these goals, in 2011 the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the U.S. Department of Energy launched the Max Tech and Beyond Design Competition for Ultra-Low-Energy-Use Appliances and Equipment. Now in its third year, the competition supports faculty-lead student design teams at U.S. universities to develop and test new technology prototypes. This talk describes what the competition and the Max Tech Program are doing to drive such rapid technology progress and to facilitate the entry to the market of successful Max Tech prototypes. The talk also initiates a discussion of physicists' unique role in driving that technology progress faster and farther. Emerging Technologies, Building Technologies Office, U.S. Department of Energy.

  12. Naturalistic drive cycle synthesis for pickup trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zifan; Ivanco, Andrej; Filipi, Zoran

    2015-09-01

    Future pick-up trucks are meeting much stricter fuel economy and exhaust emission standards. Design tradeoffs will have to be carefully evaluated to satisfy consumer expectations within the regulatory and cost constraints. Boundary conditions will obviously be critical for decision making: thus, the understanding of how customers are driving in naturalistic settings is indispensable. Federal driving schedules, while critical for certification, do not capture the richness of naturalistic cycles, particularly the aggressive maneuvers that often shape consumer perception of performance. While there are databases with large number of drive cycles, applying all of them directly in the design process is impractical. Therefore, representative drive cycles that capture the essence of the naturalistic driving should be synthesized from naturalistic driving data. Naturalistic drive cycles are firstly categorized by investigating their micro-trip components, defined as driving activities between successive stops. Micro-trips are expected to characterize underlying local traffic conditions, and separate different driving patterns. Next, the transitions from one vehicle state to another vehicle state in each cycle category are captured with Transition Probability Matrix (TPM). Candidate drive cycles can subsequently be synthesized using Markov Chain based on TPMs for each category. Finally, representative synthetic drive cycles are selected through assessment of significant cycle metrics to identify the ones with smallest errors. This paper provides a framework for synthesis of representative drive cycles from naturalistic driving data, which can subsequently be used for efficient optimization of design or control of pick-up truck powertrains. Manufacturers will benefit from representative drive cycles in several aspects, including quick assessments of vehicle performance and energy consumption in simulations, component sizing and design, optimization of control strategies, and

  13. A study on the effects of fatigue driving and drunk driving on drivers' physical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingjian; Zhao, Xiaohua; Du, Hongji; Rong, Jian

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of fatigue driving and drunk driving on drivers' physical characteristics; to analyze the differences in drivers' physical characteristics affected by different kinds of fatigue; and to compare the differences in the effects of the 2 driving states, fatigue driving and drunk driving. Twenty-five participants' physical characteristics were collected under 5 controlled situations: normal, tired driving, drowsy driving, drowsiness + tired driving, and drunk driving. In this article, fatigue driving refers to tiredness and drowsiness and includes 3 situations: tired driving, drowsy driving, and drowsiness + tired driving. The drivers' physical characteristics were measured in terms of 9 parameters: systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR), eyesight, dynamic visual acuity (DVA), time for dark adaption (TDA), reaction time to sound (RTS), reaction time to light (RTL), deviation of depth perception (DDP), and time deviation of speed anticipation (TDSA). They were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. Binary logistical regression analysis was used to explain the relationship between drivers' physical characteristics and the two driving states. Most of the drivers' physical characteristic parameters were found to be significantly different under the influence of different situations. Four indicators are significantly affected by fatigue driving during deep fatigue (in decreasing order of influence): HR, RTL, SBP and RTS. HR and RTL are significant in the logistical regression model of the drowsiness + tired driving situation and normal situations. Six indicators of the drivers' physical characteristics are significantly affected by drunk driving (in decreasing order of influence): SBP, RTL, DDP, eyesight, RTS, and TDSA. SBP and DDP have a significant effect in the logistical regression model of the drunk driving situation and the normal situation. Both fatigue driving and drunk driving

  14. Complexation-induced supramolecular assembly drives metal-ion extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Ross J; Meridiano, Yannick; Muller, Julie; Berthon, Laurence; Guilbaud, Philippe; Zorz, Nicole; Antonio, Mark R; Demars, Thomas; Zemb, Thomas

    2014-09-26

    Combining experiment with theory reveals the role of self-assembly and complexation in metal-ion transfer through the water-oil interface. The coordinating metal salt Eu(NO3)3 was extracted from water into oil by a lipophilic neutral amphiphile. Molecular dynamics simulations were coupled to experimental spectroscopic and X-ray scattering techniques to investigate how local coordination interactions between the metal ion and ligands in the organic phase combine with long-range interactions to produce spontaneous changes in the solvent microstructure. Extraction of the Eu(3+)-3(NO3(-)) ion pairs involves incorporation of the "hard" metal complex into the core of "soft" aggregates. This seeds the formation of reverse micelles that draw the water and "free" amphiphile into nanoscale hydrophilic domains. The reverse micelles interact through attractive van der Waals interactions and coalesce into rod-shaped polynuclear Eu(III) -containing aggregates with metal centers bridged by nitrate. These preorganized hydrophilic domains, containing high densities of O-donor ligands and anions, provide improved Eu(III) solvation environments that help drive interfacial transfer, as is reflected by the increasing Eu(III) partitioning ratios (oil/aqueous) despite the organic phase approaching saturation. For the first time, this multiscale approach links metal-ion coordination with nanoscale structure to reveal the free-energy balance that drives the phase transfer of neutral metal salts. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Hard-Boiled for Hard Times in Leonardo Padura Fuentes's Detective Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, H. Rosi

    2009-01-01

    Focusing on Leonardo Padura Fuentes's hard-boiled fiction, this essay traces the origin and evolution of the genre in Cuba. Padura Fuentes has challenged the officially sanctioned socialist "literatura policial" that became popular in the 1970s and 1980s. creating a new model of criticism that is not afraid to confront the island's socio-economic…

  16. Do aggressive driving and negative emotional driving mediate the link between impulsiveness and risky driving among young Italian drivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorti, Martina; Guarnieri, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the contribution of impulsiveness and aggressive and negative emotional driving to the prediction of traffic violations and accidents taking into account potential mediation effects. Three hundred and four young drivers completed self-report measures assessing impulsiveness, aggressive and negative emotional driving, driving violations, and accidents. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the direct and indirect effects of impulsiveness on violations and accidents among young drivers through aggressive and negative emotional driving. Impulsiveness only indirectly influenced drivers' violations on the road via both the behavioral and emotional states of the driver. On the contrary, impulsiveness was neither directly nor indirectly associated with traffic accidents. Therefore, impulsiveness modulates young drivers' behavioral and emotional states while driving, which in turn influences risky driving.

  17. Circuit for Driving Piezoelectric Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, David P.; Chapsky, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts an oscillator circuit for driving a piezoelectric transducer to excite vibrations in a mechanical structure. The circuit was designed and built to satisfy application-specific requirements to drive a selected one of 16 such transducers at a regulated amplitude and frequency chosen to optimize the amount of work performed by the transducer and to compensate for both (1) temporal variations of the resonance frequency and damping time of each transducer and (2) initially unknown differences among the resonance frequencies and damping times of different transducers. In other words, the circuit is designed to adjust itself to optimize the performance of whichever transducer is selected at any given time. The basic design concept may be adaptable to other applications that involve the use of piezoelectric transducers in ultrasonic cleaners and other apparatuses in which high-frequency mechanical drives are utilized. This circuit includes three resistor-capacitor networks that, together with the selected piezoelectric transducer, constitute a band-pass filter having a peak response at a frequency of about 2 kHz, which is approximately the resonance frequency of the piezoelectric transducers. Gain for generating oscillations is provided by a power hybrid operational amplifier (U1). A junction field-effect transistor (Q1) in combination with a resistor (R4) is used as a voltage-variable resistor to control the magnitude of the oscillation. The voltage-variable resistor is part of a feedback control loop: Part of the output of the oscillator is rectified and filtered for use as a slow negative feedback to the gate of Q1 to keep the output amplitude constant. The response of this control loop is much slower than 2 kHz and, therefore, does not introduce significant distortion of the oscillator output, which is a fairly clean sine wave. The positive AC feedback needed to sustain oscillations is derived from sampling the current through the

  18. Driving, brain injury and assistive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Amy K; Benoit, Dana

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with brain injury often present with cognitive, physical and emotional impairments which impact their ability to resume independence in activities of daily living. Of those activities, the resumption of driving privileges is cited as one of the greatest concerns by survivors of brain injury. The integration of driving fundamentals within the hierarchical model proposed by Keskinen represents the complexity of skills and behaviors necessary for driving. This paper provides a brief review of specific considerations concerning the driver with TBI and highlights current vehicle technology which has been developed by the automotive industry and by manufacturers of adaptive driving equipment that may facilitate the driving task. Adaptive equipment technology allows for compensation of a variety of operational deficits, whereas technological advances within the automotive industry provide drivers with improved safety and information systems. However, research has not yet supported the use of such intelligent transportation systems or advanced driving systems for drivers with brain injury. Although technologies are intended to improve the safety of drivers within the general population, the potential of negative consequences for drivers with brain injury must be considered. Ultimately, a comprehensive driving evaluation and training by a driving rehabilitation specialist is recommended for individuals with brain injury. An understanding of the potential impact of TBI on driving-related skills and knowledge of current adaptive equipment and technology is imperative to determine whether return-to-driving is a realistic and achievable goal for the individual with TBI.

  19. Studies on fast wave current drive in the JAERI tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Fujii, T.; Kawashima, H.; Tamai, H.; Saigusa, M.; Imai, T.; Hamamatsu, K.; Fukuyama, A.

    1991-01-01

    Fast wave electron heating experiment (FWEH) on JFT-2M and JT-60 and analysis of fast wave current drive (FWCD) ability on JT-60U are presented. In the JFT-2M, absorption of fast waves have been investigated by using a phased four-loop antenna array. The absorption of the fast waves has been studied for various plasma parameters by using combination of other additional heating methods such as electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and ion cyclotron heating. It is shown that the absorption efficiency estimated from various methods well correlates with one calculated theoretically in single pass damping. Interaction of the fast waves with fast electrons in combination with ECH has been examined through the measurement of non-thermal electron cyclotron emission (ECE). The observed ECE during FWEH is well explained by the theoretical model, which indicates generation of the appreciable energetic fast electrons by the fast waves. New four-loop array antennas have been employed to improve the absorption of unidirectionally-propagating waves. Characteristics of antenna loading resistance can be reproduced by a coupling calculation code. In JT-60, FWEH experiment in combination with lower hybrid current drive was performed. Power absorption efficiency of fast wave is substantially improved in combination with LHCD of relatively low power for both phasing modes. Bulk electron heating is observed with high-k // mode and coupling with fast electron is confirmed in hard X-ray emission with low-k // mode. The results are consistent with theoretical prediction based on 1.D full wave code. Synergetic effects between FWEH and LHCD are found. Coupling calculation indicates that eight-loop antenna is favourable for keeping high directivity in the required N // -range. Current drive efficiency is calculated with 1-D full wave code including trapped particle effects and higher harmonic ion cyclotron damping

  20. Technology as a driving force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torvund, T [Norsk Hydro A/S (Norway)

    1994-12-31

    The competitiveness of the Norwegian Continental shelf has been put firmly on the agenda in Norway since the report from a working group set up by the Ministry of Industry and Energy was released in February this year. If there is to be secured a long future for oil and gas activities, a reduction in the time and costs used in the projects of the order of 40-50%, without jeopardizing the high safety and environmental standards achieved in Norway. The paper addresses how technology can be a driving force in achieving these aims. But technology alone cannot do the job. Progress and changes in several other areas are also necessary, and the new scenario also calls for improved relations between all actors in the North Sea, authorities, oil companies, contractors and labour unions. 15 figs.