WorldWideScience

Sample records for hard component

  1. Development of radiation hard components for remote maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Obara, Kenjiro; Kakudate, Satoshi; Tominaga, Ryuichiro; Akada, Tamio; Morita, Hirosuke.

    1997-01-01

    In International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), in-vessel remote-handling is inevitably required to assemble and maintain activated in-vessel components due to D-T operation. The components of the in-vessel remote-handling system must have sufficient radiation hardness to allow for operation under an intense gamma-ray radiation of over 30 kGy/h for periods up to more than 1,000 hours. To this end, extensive irradiation tests and quality improvements including the optimization of material composition have been conducted through the ITER R and D program in order to develop radiation hard components which satisfy radiation doses from 10 MGy to 100 MGy at the dose rate of 10 kGy/h. This paper outlines the latest status of the radiation hard component development that has been conducted as the Japan Home Team's contribution to ITER. The remote-handling components tested are categorized into either robotics, viewing systems or common components. The irradiation tests include commercial base products for screening both modified and newly developed products to improve their radiation hardness. (author)

  2. Development of radiation hardness components for ITER remote maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obara, Kenjiro; Kakudate, Satoshi; Oka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Yagi, Toshiaki; Morita, Yousuke

    1998-04-01

    In the ITER, in-vessel remote handling is required to assemble and maintain in-vessel components in DT operations. Since in-vessel remote handling systems must operate under intense gamma ray radiation exceeding 30 kGy/h, their components must have sufficiently high radiation hardness to allow maintenance long enough in ITER in-vessel environments. Thus, extensive radiation tests and quality improvement, including optimization of material compositions, have been conducted through the ITER R and D program to develop radiation hardness components that meet radiation doses from 10 to 100 MGy at 10 kGy/h. This paper presents the latest on radiation hardness component development conducted by the Japan Home Team as a contribution to the ITER. The remote handling components tested are categorized for use in robotic or viewing systems, or as common components. Radiation tests have been conducted on commercially available products for screening, on modified products, and on new products to improve the radiation hardness. (author)

  3. Development of radiation hardness components for ITER remote maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Kenjiro; Kakudate, Satoshi; Oka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Akira; Yagi, Toshiaki; Morita, Yousuke

    1998-01-01

    In the ITER, in-vessel remote handling is required to assemble and maintain in-vessel components in DT operations. Since in-vessel remote handling systems must operate under intense gamma ray radiation exceeding 30 kGy/h, their components must have sufficiently high radiation hardness to allow maintenance long enough in ITER in-vessel environments. Thus, extensive radiation tests and quality improvement, including optimization of material compositions, have been conducted through the ITER R and D program to develop radiation hardness components that meet radiation doses from 10 to 100 MGy at 10 kGy/h. This paper presents the latest on radiation hardness component development conducted by the Japan Home Team as a contribution to the ITER. The remote handling components tested are categorized for use in robotic or viewing systems, or as common components. Radiation tests have been conducted on commercially available products for screening, on modified products, and on new products to improve the radiation hardness. (author)

  4. Structure and effective interactions in three-component hard sphere liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, A; Ashcroft, N W

    2001-04-01

    Complete and simple analytical expressions for the partial structure factors of the ternary hard sphere mixture are obtained within the Percus-Yevick approximation and presented as functions of relative packing fractions and relative hard sphere diameters. These solutions follow from the Laplace transform method as applied to multicomponent systems by Lebowitz [Phys. Rev. 133, A895 (1964)]. As an important application, we examine effective interactions in hard sphere liquid mixtures using the microscopic information contained in their partial structure factors. Thus the ensuring pair potential for an effective one-component system is obtained from the correlation functions by using an approximate inversion, and examples of effective potentials for three-component hard sphere mixtures are given. These mixtures may be of particular interest for the study of the packing aspects of melts that form glasses or quasicrystals, since noncrystalline solids often emerge from melts with at least three atomic constituents.

  5. Development of radiation hard components for ITER blanket remote handling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Makiko, E-mail: saito.makiko@jaea.go.jp; Anzai, Katsunori; Maruyama, Takahito; Noguchi, Yuto; Ueno, Kenichi; Takeda, Nobukazu; Kakudate, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Clarify the components that will degrade by gamma ray irradiation. • Perform the irradiation tests to BRHS components. • Optimize the materials to increase the radiation hardness. - Abstract: The ITER blanket remote handling system (BRHS) will be operated in a high radiation environment (250 Gy/h max.) and must stably handle the blanket modules, which weigh 4.5 t and are more than 1.5 m in length, with a high degree of position and posture accuracy. The reliability of the system can be improved by reviewing the failure events of the system caused by high radiation. A failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) identified failure modes and determined that lubricants, O-rings, and electric insulation cables were the dominant components affecting radiation hardness. Accordingly, we tried to optimize the lubricants and cables of the AC servo motors by using polyphenyl ether (PPE)-based grease and polyether ether ketone (PEEK), respectively. Materials containing radiation protective agents were also selected for the cable sheaths and O-rings to improve radiation hardness. Gamma ray irradiation tests were performed on these components and as a result, a radiation hardness of 8 MGy was achieved for the AC servo motors. On the other hand, to develop the radiation hardness and BRHS compatibility furthermore, the improvement of materials of cable and O ring were performed.

  6. Statistical mechanics of a one-component fluid of charged hard rods in 1D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vericat, F.; Blum, L.

    1986-09-01

    The statistical mechanics of a classical one component system of charged hard rods in a neutralizing background is investigated in 1D stressing on the effects of the hard core interactions over the thermodynamic and the structure of the system. The crystalline status of the system at all temperatures and densities and the absence of phase transitions is shown by extending previous results of Baxter and Kunz on the one-component plasma of point particles. Explicit expressions for the thermodynamic functions and the one-particle correlation function are given in the limits of small and strong couplings. (author)

  7. The chemistry of two-component fluoride crystalline optical media for heavy, fast, radiation hard scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, B.P.; Krivandina, E.A.; Fedorov, P.P.; Vasilchenko, V.G.

    1994-01-01

    Prospects for preparation of two-component dense optical materials for scintillators are shown, using data on phase diagrams of about 300 MF m - RF n (m, n ≤ 4) type systems, formed by metal fluorides. Primary characteristics (decay time and light output of luminescence, radiation hardness, etc.) of some multicomponent crystals are reported

  8. Problems in accounting for the soft and hard components in transverse energy triggers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, J.C.; Santoro, A.F.S.; Souza, M.H.G.; Escobar, C.O.

    1983-01-01

    It is argued that for a transverse energy trigger, the cancellation theorem of DeTar, Ellis and Landshoff is not valid. As a consequence, the problem of accounting for soft and hard components in this kind of trigger becomes complicated and no simple separation between them is expected. (Author) [pt

  9. Uniform phases in fluids of hard isosceles triangles: One-component fluid and binary mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ratón, Yuri; Díaz-De Armas, Ariel; Velasco, Enrique

    2018-05-01

    We formulate the scaled particle theory for a general mixture of hard isosceles triangles and calculate different phase diagrams for the one-component fluid and for certain binary mixtures. The fluid of hard triangles exhibits a complex phase behavior: (i) the presence of a triatic phase with sixfold symmetry, (ii) the isotropic-uniaxial nematic transition is of first order for certain ranges of aspect ratios, and (iii) the one-component system exhibits nematic-nematic transitions ending in critical points. We found the triatic phase to be stable not only for equilateral triangles but also for triangles of similar aspect ratios. We focus the study of binary mixtures on the case of symmetric mixtures: equal particle areas with aspect ratios (κi) symmetric with respect to the equilateral one, κ1κ2=3 . For these mixtures we found, aside from first-order isotropic-nematic and nematic-nematic transitions (the latter ending in a critical point): (i) a region of triatic phase stability even for mixtures made of particles that do not form this phase at the one-component limit, and (ii) the presence of a Landau point at which two triatic-nematic first-order transitions and a nematic-nematic demixing transition coalesce. This phase behavior is analogous to that of a symmetric three-dimensional mixture of rods and plates.

  10. Development of a hard nano-structured multi-component ceramic coating by laser cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masanta, Manoj; Ganesh, P.; Kaul, Rakesh; Nath, A.K.; Roy Choudhury, A.

    2009-01-01

    The present paper reports laser-assisted synthesis of a multi-component ceramic composite coating consisting of aluminum oxide, titanium di-boride and titanium carbide (Al 2 O 3 -TiB 2 -TiC). A pre-placed powder mixture of aluminum (Al), titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) and boron carbide (B 4 C) was made to undergo self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) by laser triggering. Laser subsequently effected cladding of the products of SHS on the substrate. The effect of laser scanning speed on the hardness, microstructure and phase composition of the composite coating was investigated. The coating exhibited an increase in hardness and a decrease in grain size with increase in laser scanning speed. A maximum micro-hardness of 2500 HV 0.025 was obtained. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the top surface of the coating revealed the presence of aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ), titanium di-boride (TiB 2 ) and titanium carbide (TiC) along with some non-stoichiometric products of the Ti-Al-B-C-O system. Field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) analysis revealed some nano-structured TiB 2 and Al 2 O 3 , which are discussed in detail.

  11. Development of a hard nano-structured multi-component ceramic coating by laser cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masanta, Manoj [Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Ganesh, P.; Kaul, Rakesh [Laser Material Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore (India); Nath, A.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Roy Choudhury, A., E-mail: roychoudhuryasimava@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India)

    2009-05-20

    The present paper reports laser-assisted synthesis of a multi-component ceramic composite coating consisting of aluminum oxide, titanium di-boride and titanium carbide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiB{sub 2}-TiC). A pre-placed powder mixture of aluminum (Al), titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) and boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) was made to undergo self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) by laser triggering. Laser subsequently effected cladding of the products of SHS on the substrate. The effect of laser scanning speed on the hardness, microstructure and phase composition of the composite coating was investigated. The coating exhibited an increase in hardness and a decrease in grain size with increase in laser scanning speed. A maximum micro-hardness of 2500 HV{sub 0.025} was obtained. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the top surface of the coating revealed the presence of aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), titanium di-boride (TiB{sub 2}) and titanium carbide (TiC) along with some non-stoichiometric products of the Ti-Al-B-C-O system. Field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) analysis revealed some nano-structured TiB{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which are discussed in detail.

  12. Effects of lipophilic components on the compatibility of lipid-based formulations with hard gelatin capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng-Jing; Etzler, Frank M; Ubben, Johanna; Birch, Amy; Zhong, Li; Schwabe, Robert; Dudhedia, Mayur S

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of lipophilic components on the compatibility of propylene glycol (PG)-containing lipid-based drug delivery system (LBDDS) formulations with hard gelatin capsules. The presence of a lipophilic active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) (log P approximately 6.1) and an additional lipophilic excipient (Capmul MCM) significantly affected the activity of PG in the fills and the equilibrium of PG between capsule shells and fills. These changes in activity and equilibrium of PG were furthermore correlated to the mechanical and thermal properties of the liquid-filled capsules and subsequently linked to the shelf-life of the capsules on stability with respect to capsule deformation. The present study also investigated the mechanism by which lipophilic component(s) might affect the activity of PG in the fill formulations and the equilibrium of PG between capsule shells and fills. The activities of PG in two series of "binary" mixtures with Capmul MCM and with Cremophor EL were measured, respectively. The mixtures of PG containing Capmul MCM were found to be more nearly ideal than those containing Cremophor EL. The observed negative deviation from Rauolt's law indicates that the excess free energies of mixing are less then zero indicating favorable interaction between PG and the other component. It is speculated that enhanced hydrogen bonding opportunities with Cremophor EL are responsible for the decreased excess free energy of mixing. Replacement of Cremophor EL with lipophilic API also reduces the hydrogen bonding opportunities for PG in the mixtures. This hypothesis may further explain the increased activity of PG in the fills and the shifted equilibrium of PG toward the capsule shells. Activity determination utilizing headspace gas chromatography (GC) using short 30 min incubation time seems to be a time-efficient approach for assessing capsule-fill compatibility. Direct measurements of PG migration and other physical properties of

  13. Comparison of hard X-ray spectra obtained by spectrometers on Hinotori and SMM and detection of 'superhot' component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Nariaki

    1988-01-01

    Hard X-ray spectra in solar flares obtained by the broadband spectrometers aboard Hinotori and SMM are compared. Within the uncertainty brought about by assuming the typical energy of the background X-rays, spectra by the Hinotori spectrometer are usually consistent with those by the SMM spectrometer for flares in 1981. On the contrary, flares in 1982 persistently show 20-50-percent higher flux by Hinotori than by SMM. If this discrepancy is entirely attributable to errors in the calibration of energy ranges, the errors would be about 10 percent. Despite such a discrepancy in absolute flux, in the the decay phase of one flare, spectra revealed a hard X-ray component (probably a 'superhot' component) that could be explained neither by emission from a plasma at about 2 x 10 to the 7th K nor by a nonthermal power-law component. Imaging observations during this period show hard X-ray emission nearly cospatial with soft X-ray emission, in contrast with earlier times at which hard and soft X-rays come from different places.

  14. Chemical Characterization of Beer Aging Products Derived from Hard Resin Components in Hops (Humulus lupulus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Yamada, Makiko; Taniguchi, Harumi; Matsukura, Yasuko; Shindo, Kazutoshi

    2015-11-25

    The bitter taste of beer originates from resins in hops (Humulus lupulus L.), which are classified into two subtypes (soft and hard). Whereas the nature and reactivity of soft-resin-derived compounds, such as α-, β-, and iso-α-acids, are well studied, there is only a little information on the compounds in hard resin. For this work, hard resin was prepared from stored hops and investigated for its compositional changes in an experimental model of beer aging. The hard resin contained a series of α-acid oxides. Among them, 4'-hydroxyallohumulinones were unstable under beer storage conditions, and their transformation induced primary compositional changes of the hard resin during beer aging. The chemical structures of the products, including novel polycyclic compounds scorpiohumulinols A and B and dicyclohumulinols A and B, were determined by HRMS and NMR analyses. These compounds were proposed to be produced via proton-catalyzed cyclization reactions of 4'-hydroxyallohumulinones. Furthermore, they were more stable than their precursor 4'-hydroxyallohumulinones during prolonged storage periods.

  15. Manufacturing technology development of plasma/ion nitriding for improvement of hardness of machine components and tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suprapto; Tjipto Sujitno; Saminto

    2015-01-01

    The manufacturing technology development of plasma/ion nitriding to improve of hardness of machine components and tools has been done. The development of this technology aims to improve device performance plasma nitriding double chamber and conducted with the addition of thermal radiation shield. Testing was done by testing for preheating operation (start-up), test operation for conditions nitriding and test for nitriding process. The results show that: the plasma nitriding device can be operated for nitriding process at the temperature of about 500 °C for 6 hours, using the thermal radiation shield obtained outside wall temperature of about 65 °C and shorten start-up time to about 60 minutes. The use of thermal radiation shield can also improve the efficiency of the electric power supply and increase the operating temperature for nitriding process. Test for nitriding obtained increase of hardness 1.33 times for the original camshaft (genuine parts) and 1.8 times for the imitation camshaft (imitation parts), the results are compared with after the tempering process at a temperature of 600 °C. For sample SS 304 was 2.45 times compared with before nitrided These results indicate that the development of manufacturing technology of plasma/ion nitriding to increase hardness of machine components and tools have been successfully able to increase the hardness, although still need to be optimized. Besides that, these devices can be developed to use for the process of carburizing and carbonitriding. (author)

  16. Nano-metric Dust Particles as a Hardly Detectable Component of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sis of the TNO color index–orbital inclinations. We also .... In our view, during these two processes, their complementarities lead to a certain balance due to the .... dust will form a multi-mineral complex of the hardly detectable dust matter of the.

  17. Mechanical properties of lunar materials under anhydrous, hard vacuum conditions: applications of lunar glass structural components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blacic, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Lunar materials and derivatives such as glass may possess very high tensile strengths compared to equivalent materials on earth because of the absence of hydrolytic weakening processes on the moon and in the hard vacuum of free space. Hydrolyzation of Si-O bonds at crack tips or dislocations reduces the strength of silicates by about an order of magnitude in earth environments. However, lunar materials are extremely anhydrous and hydrolytic weakening will be suppressed in free space. Thus, the geomechanical properties of the moon and engineering properties of lunar silicate materials in space environments will be very different than equivalent materials under earth conditions where the action of water cannot be conveniently avoided. Possible substitution of lunar glass for structural metals in a variety of space engineering applications enhances the economic utilization of the moon. 26 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  18. Evidence for two hard X-ray components in double power-law fits to the 1980 June 7 flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dean F.; Orwig, Larry E.

    1988-01-01

    The June 7, 1980 flare at 0312 UT was analyzed with double power-law fits on the basis of SMM hard X-ray burst spectrometer data. The flare is found to consist of seven peaks of characteristic time scale of about 8 sec followed by seven valleys which may contain significant peak components because of overlap. It is suggested that the possibility of thermal spectra for the peaks is unlikely. An investigation of the double power-law parameters through the third and fourth peaks revealed a hysteresis effect in the fourth peak. The present results have been interpreted in terms of a trap plus precipitation model.

  19. Final Report: Safety of Plasma Components and Aerosol Transport During Hard Disruptions and Accidental Energy Release in Fusion Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourham, Mohamed A.; Gilligan, John G.

    1999-08-14

    Safety considerations in large future fusion reactors like ITER are important before licensing the reactor. Several scenarios are considered hazardous, which include safety of plasma-facing components during hard disruptions, high heat fluxes and thermal stresses during normal operation, accidental energy release, and aerosol formation and transport. Disruption events, in large tokamaks like ITER, are expected to produce local heat fluxes on plasma-facing components, which may exceed 100 GW/m{sup 2} over a period of about 0.1 ms. As a result, the surface temperature dramatically increases, which results in surface melting and vaporization, and produces thermal stresses and surface erosion. Plasma-facing components safety issues extends to cover a wide range of possible scenarios, including disruption severity and the impact of plasma-facing components on disruption parameters, accidental energy release and short/long term LOCA's, and formation of airborne particles by convective current transport during a LOVA (water/air ingress disruption) accident scenario. Study, and evaluation of, disruption-induced aerosol generation and mobilization is essential to characterize database on particulate formation and distribution for large future fusion tokamak reactor like ITER. In order to provide database relevant to ITER, the SIRENS electrothermal plasma facility at NCSU has been modified to closely simulate heat fluxes expected in ITER.

  20. GfW-handbook for irradiation test guidelines for radiation hardness of electronic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braeunig, D.; Wulf, F.; Gaebler, W.; Boden, A.

    1982-12-01

    The purpose of the report is to propose irradiation test methods so that a standardized application of the methods can lead to a better comparison of test results. The interaction of different radiation species with matter - ionization and displacement - is described. Application of appropriate radiation sources, dosimetry problems, and shielding for simulating space radiation effects by laboratory testing is discussed. The description and characteristics of the irradiation sources are presented. Flowcharts of the planning and running of irradiation tests are given. Guidelines for running the tests are established, test methods and test circuits are proposed. The test system offers the capability of measuring devices also of high complexity up to microprocessors. The test results are collected regularly and are published in GfW-Handbook TN53/08, 'Data Compilation of Irradiation Tested Electronic Components'. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Gelation in a model 1-component system with adhesive hard-sphere interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Min; Eberle, Aaron; Fang, Jun; Wagner, Norman

    2012-02-01

    Colloidal dispersions can undergo a dynamical arrest of the disperse phase leading to a system with solid-like properties when either the volume fraction or the interparticle potential is varied. Systems that contain low to moderate particulate concentrations form gels whereas higher concentrations lead to glassy states in which caging by nearest neighbors can be a significant contributor to the arrested long-time dynamics. Colloid polymer mixtures have been the prevalent model system for studying the effect of attraction, where attractions are entropically driven by depletion effects, in which gelation has been shown to be a result of phase separation [1]. Using the model 1-component octadecyl coated silica nanoparticle system, Eberle et al. [2] found the gel-line to intersect the spinodal to the left of the critical point, and at higher concentrations extended toward the mode coupling theory attractive driven glass line. . We continue this study by varying the particle diameter and find quantitative differences which we explain by gravity. 1. Lu, P.J., et al., Nature, 2008. 453(7194): p. 499-504.2. Eberle, A.P.R., N.J. Wagner, and R. Castaneda-Priego, Physical Review Letters, 2011. 106(10).

  2. Work Hard / Play Hard

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, J.; Johnson, V.; Henckel, D.

    2016-01-01

    Work Hard / Play Hard was a participatory performance/workshop or CPD experience hosted by interdisciplinary arts atelier WeAreCodeX, in association with AntiUniversity.org. As a socially/economically engaged arts practice, Work Hard / Play Hard challenged employees/players to get playful, or go to work. 'The game changes you, you never change the game'. Employee PLAYER A 'The faster the better.' Employer PLAYER B

  3. FERMI OBSERVATIONS OF GRB 090510: A SHORT-HARD GAMMA-RAY BURST WITH AN ADDITIONAL, HARD POWER-LAW COMPONENT FROM 10 keV TO GeV ENERGIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Asano, K.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, E.; Bonamente, E.

    2010-01-01

    We present detailed observations of the bright short-hard gamma-ray burst GRB 090510 made with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi observatory. GRB 090510 is the first burst detected by the LAT that shows strong evidence for a deviation from a Band spectral fitting function during the prompt emission phase. The time-integrated spectrum is fit by the sum of a Band function with E peak = 3.9 ± 0.3 MeV, which is the highest yet measured, and a hard power-law component with photon index -1.62 ± 0.03 that dominates the emission below ∼20 keV and above ∼100 MeV. The onset of the high-energy spectral component appears to be delayed by ∼0.1 s with respect to the onset of a component well fit with a single Band function. A faint GBM pulse and a LAT photon are detected 0.5 s before the main pulse. During the prompt phase, the LAT detected a photon with energy 30.5 +5.8 -2.6 GeV, the highest ever measured from a short GRB. Observation of this photon sets a minimum bulk outflow Lorentz factor, Γ∼> 1200, using simple γγ opacity arguments for this GRB at redshift z = 0.903 and a variability timescale on the order of tens of ms for the ∼100 keV-few MeV flux. Stricter high confidence estimates imply Γ ∼> 1000 and still require that the outflows powering short GRBs are at least as highly relativistic as those of long-duration GRBs. Implications of the temporal behavior and power-law shape of the additional component on synchrotron/synchrotron self-Compton, external-shock synchrotron, and hadronic models are considered.

  4. Principle component analysis (PCA) and second-order global hard-modelling for the complete resolution of transition metal ions complex formation with 1,10-phenantroline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shariati-Rad, Masoud [Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan 65174 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hasani, Masoumeh, E-mail: hasani@basu.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan 65174 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-08-19

    Second-order global hard-modelling was applied to resolve the complex formation between Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Cd{sup 2+} cations and 1,10-phenantroline. The highly correlated spectral and concentration profiles of the species in these systems and low concentration of some species in the individual collected data matrices prevent the well-resolution of the profiles. Therefore, a collection of six equilibrium data matrices including series of absorption spectra taken with pH changes at different reactant ratios were analyzed. Firstly, a precise principle component analysis (PCA) of different augmented arrangements of the individual data matrices was used to distinguish the number of species involved in the equilibria. Based on the results of PCA, the equilibria included in the data were specified and second-order global hard-modelling of the appropriate arrangement of six collected equilibrium data matrices resulted in well-resolved profiles and equilibrium constants. The protonation constant of the ligand (1,10-phenantroline) and spectral profiles of its protonated and unprotonated forms are the additional information obtained by global analysis. For comparison, multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) was applied to the same data. The results showed that second-order global hard-modelling is more convenient compared with MCR-ALS especially for systems with completely known model. It can completely resolve the system and the concentration profiles which are closer to correct ones. Moreover, parameters showing the goodness of fit are better with second-order global hard-modelling.

  5. Principle component analysis (PCA) and second-order global hard-modelling for the complete resolution of transition metal ions complex formation with 1,10-phenantroline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shariati-Rad, Masoud; Hasani, Masoumeh

    2009-01-01

    Second-order global hard-modelling was applied to resolve the complex formation between Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , and Cd 2+ cations and 1,10-phenantroline. The highly correlated spectral and concentration profiles of the species in these systems and low concentration of some species in the individual collected data matrices prevent the well-resolution of the profiles. Therefore, a collection of six equilibrium data matrices including series of absorption spectra taken with pH changes at different reactant ratios were analyzed. Firstly, a precise principle component analysis (PCA) of different augmented arrangements of the individual data matrices was used to distinguish the number of species involved in the equilibria. Based on the results of PCA, the equilibria included in the data were specified and second-order global hard-modelling of the appropriate arrangement of six collected equilibrium data matrices resulted in well-resolved profiles and equilibrium constants. The protonation constant of the ligand (1,10-phenantroline) and spectral profiles of its protonated and unprotonated forms are the additional information obtained by global analysis. For comparison, multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) was applied to the same data. The results showed that second-order global hard-modelling is more convenient compared with MCR-ALS especially for systems with completely known model. It can completely resolve the system and the concentration profiles which are closer to correct ones. Moreover, parameters showing the goodness of fit are better with second-order global hard-modelling.

  6. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. Remote maintenance of future fusion reactors - a challenge for rad-hard components and smart control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.; Geeter, J. De

    1996-01-01

    The future fusion reactor will need frequent maintenance turns, involving inspection, repair and parts replacement inside the vacuum vessel. These operations will require high payload manipulations in constrained space under very high gamma-radiation dose-rates and temperature. Present research is being undertaken to qualify the components of the handling machine under representative conditions, in the framework of the ITER international consortium. Simultaneously, challenging control strategies will be needed to achieve reliable tasking under very poor viewing conditions and elementary sensing help. The paper reviews the present state of the art on both issues and present results of the ongoing research themes among the partners of the ITER programme. In particular, SCK''centre-dot''CEN coordinates the ITER T252 task on Radiation Tolerance Assessment of Remote Handling Components. (UK)

  8. A new pair of hard-soft plastic combination for precision manufacturing of two component plastic parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Marhöfer, David Maximilian

    2011-01-01

    the pressure developed inside the socket house and finally could detect the leak of the fluid due to the sealing ring leakage. All the test procedures and results presented in this paper can be a valuable source of information for researchers and scientists who work with two component micro injection moulding....... sequential and simultaneous injection of two materials and afterwards by using a precision tensile testing machine. To characterize the sealing properties of the sealing ring material, a sealing test device was developed. It could provide hydraulic pressure inside the socket house and precisely detect...

  9. Final Report: Safety of Plasma-Facing Components and Aerosol Transport During Hard Disruptions and Accidental Energy Release in Fusion Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourham, Mohamed A.; Gilligan, John G.

    1999-01-01

    Safety considerations in large future fusion reactors like ITER are important before licensing the reactor. Several scenarios are considered hazardous, which include safety of plasma-facing components during hard disruptions, high heat fluxes and thermal stresses during normal operation, accidental energy release, and aerosol formation and transport. Disruption events, in large tokamaks like ITER, are expected to produce local heat fluxes on plasma-facing components, which may exceed 100 GW/m 2 over a period of about 0.1 ms. As a result, the surface temperature dramatically increases, which results in surface melting and vaporization, and produces thermal stresses and surface erosion. Plasma-facing components safety issues extends to cover a wide range of possible scenarios, including disruption severity and the impact of plasma-facing components on disruption parameters, accidental energy release and short/long term LOCA's, and formation of airborne particles by convective current transport during a LOVA (water/air ingress disruption) accident scenario. Study, and evaluation of, disruption-induced aerosol generation and mobilization is essential to characterize database on particulate formation and distribution for large future fusion tokamak reactor like ITER. In order to provide database relevant to ITER, the SIRENS electrothermal plasma facility at NCSU has been modified to closely simulate heat fluxes expected in ITER

  10. Standard hardness conversion tables for metals relationship among brinell hardness, vickers hardness, rockwell hardness, superficial hardness, knoop hardness, and scleroscope hardness

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 Conversion Table 1 presents data in the Rockwell C hardness range on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, Knoop hardness, and Scleroscope hardness of non-austenitic steels including carbon, alloy, and tool steels in the as-forged, annealed, normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions provided that they are homogeneous. 1.2 Conversion Table 2 presents data in the Rockwell B hardness range on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, Knoop hardness, and Scleroscope hardness of non-austenitic steels including carbon, alloy, and tool steels in the as-forged, annealed, normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions provided that they are homogeneous. 1.3 Conversion Table 3 presents data on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, and Knoop hardness of nickel and high-nickel alloys (nickel content o...

  11. Hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, J.P.; Boving, H.J.; Hintermann, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    Hard, wear resistant and low friction coatings are presently produced on a world-wide basis, by different processes such as electrochemical or electroless methods, spray technologies, thermochemical, CVD and PVD. Some of the most advanced processes, especially those dedicated to thin film depositions, basically belong to CVD or PVD technologies, and will be looked at in more detail. The hard coatings mainly consist of oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides or carbon. Over the years, many processes have been developed which are variations and/or combinations of the basic CVD and PVD methods. The main difference between these two families of deposition techniques is that the CVD is an elevated temperature process (≥ 700 C), while the PVD on the contrary, is rather a low temperature process (≤ 500 C); this of course influences the choice of substrates and properties of the coating/substrate systems. Fundamental aspects of the vapor phase deposition techniques and some of their influences on coating properties will be discussed, as well as the very important interactions between deposit and substrate: diffusions, internal stress, etc. Advantages and limitations of CVD and PVD respectively will briefly be reviewed and examples of applications of the layers will be given. Parallel to the development and permanent updating of surface modification technologies, an effort was made to create novel characterisation methods. A close look will be given to the coating adherence control by means of the scratch test, at the coating hardness measurement by means of nanoindentation, at the coating wear resistance by means of a pin-on-disc tribometer, and at the surface quality evaluation by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finally, main important trends will be highlighted. (orig.)

  12. Standard Test Method for Application of Ionization Chambers to Assess the Low Energy Gamma Component of Cobalt-60 Irradiators Used in Radiation-Hardness Testing of Silicon Electronic Devices

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 Low energy components in the photon energy spectrum of Co-60 irradiators lead to absorbed dose enhancement effects in the radiation-hardness testing of silicon electronic devices. These low energy components may lead to errors in determining the absorbed dose in a specific device under test. This method covers procedures for the use of a specialized ionization chamber to determine a figure of merit for the relative importance of such effects. It also gives the design and instructions for assembling this chamber. 1.2 This method is applicable to measurements in Co-60 radiation fields where the range of exposure rates is 7 × 10 −6 to 3 × 10−2 C kg −1 s−1 (approximately 100 R/h to 100 R/s). For guidance in applying this method to radiation fields where the exposure rate is >100 R/s, see Appendix X1. Note 1—See Terminology E170 for definition of exposure and its units. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information onl...

  13. Hard X-ray Photoelectric Polarimeter

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our objective is to determine the gas mixtures and pressures that would enable a sensitive, hard X-ray polarimeter using existing flight components with the goal of...

  14. Comprehensive hard materials

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive Hard Materials deals with the production, uses and properties of the carbides, nitrides and borides of these metals and those of titanium, as well as tools of ceramics, the superhard boron nitrides and diamond and related compounds. Articles include the technologies of powder production (including their precursor materials), milling, granulation, cold and hot compaction, sintering, hot isostatic pressing, hot-pressing, injection moulding, as well as on the coating technologies for refractory metals, hard metals and hard materials. The characterization, testing, quality assurance and applications are also covered. Comprehensive Hard Materials provides meaningful insights on materials at the leading edge of technology. It aids continued research and development of these materials and as such it is a critical information resource to academics and industry professionals facing the technological challenges of the future. Hard materials operate at the leading edge of technology, and continued res...

  15. Induced spherococcoid hard wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, Sh.

    1981-01-01

    A mutant has been obtained - a spheroccocoid line -through irradiation of hard wheat seed with fast neutrons. It is distinguished by semispherical glumes and smaller grain; the plants have low stem with erect leaves but with shorter spikes and with lesser number of spikelets than those of the initial cultivar. Good productive tillering and resistance to lodging contributed to 23.5% higher yield. The line was superior to the standard and the initial cultivars by 14.2% as regards protein content, and by up to 22.8% - as to flour gluten. It has been successfully used in hybridization producing high-yielding hard wheat lines resistant to lodging, with good technological and other indicators. The possibility stated is of obtaining a spherococcoid mutant in tetraploid (hard) wheat out of the D-genome as well as its being suited to hard wheat breeding to enhance protein content, resistance to lodging, etc. (author)

  16. Hard probes 2006 Asilomar

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "The second international conference on hard and electromagnetic probes of high-energy nuclear collisions was held June 9 to 16, 2006 at the Asilomar Conference grounds in Pacific Grove, California" (photo and 1/2 page)

  17. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V., Herne (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The year 2012 benefited from a growth of the consumption of hard coal at the national level as well as at the international level. Worldwide, the hard coal still is the number one energy source for power generation. This leads to an increasing demand for power plant coal. In this year, the conversion of hard coal into electricity also increases in this year. In contrast to this, the demand for coking coal as well as for coke of the steel industry is still declining depending on the market conditions. The enhanced utilization of coal for the domestic power generation is due to the reduction of the nuclear power from a relatively bad year for wind power as well as reduced import prices and low CO{sub 2} prices. Both justify a significant price advantage for coal in comparison to the utilisation of natural gas in power plants. This was mainly due to the price erosion of the inexpensive US coal which partly was replaced by the expansion of shale gas on the domestic market. As a result of this, the inexpensive US coal looked for an outlet for sales in Europe. The domestic hard coal has continued the process of adaptation and phase-out as scheduled. Two further hard coal mines were decommissioned in the year 2012. RAG Aktiengesellschaft (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) running the hard coal mining in this country begins with the preparations for the activities after the time of mining.

  18. Soft and hard pomerons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maor, Uri; Tel Aviv Univ.

    1995-09-01

    The role of s-channel unitarity screening corrections, calculated in the eikonal approximation, is investigated for soft Pomeron exchange responsible for elastic and diffractive hadron scattering in the high energy limit. We examine the differences between our results and those obtained from the supercritical Pomeron-Regge model with no such corrections. It is shown that screening saturation is attained at different scales for different channels. We then proceed to discuss the new HERA data on hard (PQCD) Pomeron diffractive channels and discuss the relationship between the soft and hard Pomerons and the relevance of our analysis to this problem. (author). 18 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  19. Hard exclusive QCD processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, W.

    2007-01-15

    Hard exclusive processes in high energy electron proton scattering offer the opportunity to get access to a new generation of parton distributions, the so-called generalized parton distributions (GPDs). This functions provide more detailed informations about the structure of the nucleon than the usual PDFs obtained from DIS. In this work we present a detailed analysis of exclusive processes, especially of hard exclusive meson production. We investigated the influence of exclusive produced mesons on the semi-inclusive production of mesons at fixed target experiments like HERMES. Further we give a detailed analysis of higher order corrections (NLO) for the exclusive production of mesons in a very broad range of kinematics. (orig.)

  20. Hard-hat day

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    CERN will be organizing a special information day on Friday, 27th June, designed to promote the wearing of hard hats and ensure that they are worn correctly. A new prevention campaign will also be launched.The event will take place in the hall of the Main Building from 11.30 a.m. to 2.00 p.m., when you will be able to come and try on various models of hard hat, including some of the very latest innovative designs, ask questions and pass on any comments and suggestions.

  1. Hard times; Schwere Zeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Markus

    2012-10-02

    The prices of silicon and solar wafers keep dropping. According to market research specialist IMS research, this is the result of weak traditional solar markets and global overcapacities. While many manufacturers are facing hard times, big producers of silicon are continuing to expand.

  2. Hardness of Clustering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Hardness of Clustering. Both k-means and k-medians intractable (when n and d are both inputs even for k =2). The best known deterministic algorithms. are based on Voronoi partitioning that. takes about time. Need for approximation – “close” to optimal.

  3. Rock-hard coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has signed an agreement with a number of parties to investigate this material further.

  4. Rock-hard coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has

  5. Hardness and excitation energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that the first excitation energy can be given by the Kohn-Sham hardness (i.e. the energy difference of the ground-state lowest unoccupied and highest occupied levels) plus an extra term coming from the partial derivative of the ensemble exchange-correlation energy with respect to the weighting factor in the ...

  6. Rad Hard Active Media For Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Norbeck, E; Möller, A; Onel, Y

    2006-01-01

    Zero-degree calorimeters have limited space and extreme levels of radiation. A simple, low cost, radiation hard design uses tungstenmetal as the absorber and a suitable liquid as the ˇCerenkov radiator. In other applications a PPAC (Parallel Plate Avalanche Counter) operatingwith a suitable atmosphericpressure gas is an attractive active material for a calorimeter. It can be made radiation hard and has sufficient gain in the gas that no electronic components are needed near the detector. It works well even with the highest concentration of shower particles. For this pressure range, R134A (used in auto air conditioners) has many desirable features.

  7. Hard Copy Market Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testan, Peter R.

    1987-04-01

    A number of Color Hard Copy (CHC) market drivers are currently indicating strong growth in the use of CHC technologies for the business graphics marketplace. These market drivers relate to product, software, color monitors and color copiers. The use of color in business graphics allows more information to be relayed than is normally the case in a monochrome format. The communicative powers of full-color computer generated output in the business graphics application area will continue to induce end users to desire and require color in their future applications. A number of color hard copy technologies will be utilized in the presentation graphics arena. Thermal transfer, ink jet, photographic and electrophotographic technologies are all expected to be utilized in the business graphics presentation application area in the future. Since the end of 1984, the availability of color application software packages has grown significantly. Sales revenue generated by business graphics software is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of just over 40 percent to 1990. Increased availability of packages to allow the integration of text and graphics is expected. Currently, the latest versions of page description languages such as Postscript, Interpress and DDL all support color output. The use of color monitors will also drive the demand for color hard copy in the business graphics market place. The availability of higher resolution screens is allowing color monitors to be easily used for both text and graphics applications in the office environment. During 1987, the sales of color monitors are expected to surpass the sales of monochrome monitors. Another major color hard copy market driver will be the color copier. In order to take advantage of the communications power of computer generated color output, multiple copies are required for distribution. Product introductions of a new generation of color copiers is now underway with additional introductions expected

  8. Erosion testing of hard materials and coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2005-04-29

    Erosion is the process by which unconstrained particles, usually hard, impact a surface, creating damage that leads to material removal and component failure. These particles are usually very small and entrained in fluid of some type, typically air. The damage that occurs as a result of erosion depends on the size of the particles, their physical characteristics, the velocity of the particle/fluid stream, and their angle of impact on the surface of interest. This talk will discuss the basics of jet erosion testing of hard materials, composites and coatings. The standard test methods will be discussed as well as alternative approaches to determining the erosion rate of materials. The damage that occurs will be characterized in genera1 terms, and examples will be presented for the erosion behavior of hard materials and coatings (both thick and thin).

  9. Hard Electromagnetic Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, F.

    1987-09-01

    Among hard electromagnetic processes, I will use the most recent data and focus on quantitative test of QCD. More specifically, I will retain two items: - hadroproduction of direct photons, - Drell-Yan. In addition, I will briefly discuss a recent analysis of ISR data obtained with AFS (Axial Field Spectrometer) which sheds a new light on the e/π puzzle at low P T

  10. Hard-on-hard lubrication in the artificial hip under dynamic loading conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sonntag

    Full Text Available The tribological performance of an artificial hip joint has a particularly strong influence on its success. The principle causes for failure are adverse short- and long-term reactions to wear debris and high frictional torque in the case of poor lubrication that may cause loosening of the implant. Therefore, using experimental and theoretical approaches models have been developed to evaluate lubrication under standardized conditions. A steady-state numerical model has been extended with dynamic experimental data for hard-on-hard bearings used in total hip replacements to verify the tribological relevance of the ISO 14242-1 gait cycle in comparison to experimental data from the Orthoload database and instrumented gait analysis for three additional loading conditions: normal walking, climbing stairs and descending stairs. Ceramic-on-ceramic bearing partners show superior lubrication potential compared to hard-on-hard bearings that work with at least one articulating metal component. Lubrication regimes during the investigated activities are shown to strongly depend on the kinematics and loading conditions. The outcome from the ISO gait is not fully confirmed by the normal walking data and more challenging conditions show evidence of inferior lubrication. These findings may help to explain the differences between the in vitro predictions using the ISO gait cycle and the clinical outcome of some hard-on-hard bearings, e.g., using metal-on-metal.

  11. Revisiting the definition of local hardness and hardness kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco-Ramírez, Carlos A; Franco-Pérez, Marco; Carmona-Espíndola, Javier; Gázquez, José L; Ayers, Paul W

    2017-05-17

    An analysis of the hardness kernel and local hardness is performed to propose new definitions for these quantities that follow a similar pattern to the one that characterizes the quantities associated with softness, that is, we have derived new definitions for which the integral of the hardness kernel over the whole space of one of the variables leads to local hardness, and the integral of local hardness over the whole space leads to global hardness. A basic aspect of the present approach is that global hardness keeps its identity as the second derivative of energy with respect to the number of electrons. Local hardness thus obtained depends on the first and second derivatives of energy and electron density with respect to the number of electrons. When these derivatives are approximated by a smooth quadratic interpolation of energy, the expression for local hardness reduces to the one intuitively proposed by Meneses, Tiznado, Contreras and Fuentealba. However, when one combines the first directional derivatives with smooth second derivatives one finds additional terms that allow one to differentiate local hardness for electrophilic attack from the one for nucleophilic attack. Numerical results related to electrophilic attacks on substituted pyridines, substituted benzenes and substituted ethenes are presented to show the overall performance of the new definition.

  12. Hard and soft acids and bases: structure and process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, James L

    2012-07-05

    Under investigation is the structure and process that gives rise to hard-soft behavior in simple anionic atomic bases. That for simple atomic bases the chemical hardness is expected to be the only extrinsic component of acid-base strength, has been substantiated in the current study. A thermochemically based operational scale of chemical hardness was used to identify the structure within anionic atomic bases that is responsible for chemical hardness. The base's responding electrons have been identified as the structure, and the relaxation that occurs during charge transfer has been identified as the process giving rise to hard-soft behavior. This is in contrast the commonly accepted explanations that attribute hard-soft behavior to varying degrees of electrostatic and covalent contributions to the acid-base interaction. The ability of the atomic ion's responding electrons to cause hard-soft behavior has been assessed by examining the correlation of the estimated relaxation energies of the responding electrons with the operational chemical hardness. It has been demonstrated that the responding electrons are able to give rise to hard-soft behavior in simple anionic bases.

  13. Hard and Soft Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moos, Lejf

    2009-01-01

    of Denmark, and finally the third layer: the leadership used in Danish schools. The use of 'soft governance' is shifting the focus of governance and leadership from decisions towards influence and power and thus shifting the focus of the processes from the decision-making itself towards more focus......The governance and leadership at transnational, national and school level seem to be converging into a number of isomorphic forms as we see a tendency towards substituting 'hard' forms of governance, that are legally binding, with 'soft' forms based on persuasion and advice. This article analyses...... and discusses governance forms at several levels. The first layer is the global: the methods of 'soft governance' that are being utilised by transnational agencies. The second layer is the national and local: the shift in national and local governance seen in many countries, but here demonstrated in the case...

  14. Zirconium nitride hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Daiane; Amorim, Cintia Lugnani Gomes de; Soares, Gabriel Vieira; Figueroa, Carlos Alejandro; Baumvol, Israel Jacob Rabin; Basso, Rodrigo Leonardo de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium nitride (ZrN) nanometric films were deposited onto different substrates, in order to study the surface crystalline microstructure and also to investigate the electrochemical behavior to obtain a better composition that minimizes corrosion reactions. The coatings were produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD). The influence of the nitrogen partial pressure, deposition time and temperature over the surface properties was studied. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and corrosion experiments were performed to characterize the ZrN hard coatings. The ZrN films properties and microstructure changes according to the deposition parameters. The corrosion resistance increases with temperature used in the films deposition. Corrosion tests show that ZrN coating deposited by PVD onto titanium substrate can improve the corrosion resistance. (author)

  15. The hard gluon component of the QCD Pomeron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A.R.

    1996-01-01

    The authors argue that deep-inelastic diffractive scaling provides fundamental insight into the QCD Pomeron. The logarithmic scaling violations seen experimentally are in conflict with the scale-invariance of the BFKL Pomeron and with phenomenological two-gluon models. Instead the Pomeron appears as a single gluon at short-distances, indicating the appearance of a Super-Critical phase of Reggeon Field Theory. That the color compensation takes place at a longer distance is consistent with the Pomeron carrying odd color charge parity

  16. Janka hardness using nonstandard specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Marshall Begel; William Nelson

    2006-01-01

    Janka hardness determined on 1.5- by 3.5-in. specimens (2×4s) was found to be equivalent to that determined using the 2- by 2-in. specimen specified in ASTM D 143. Data are presented on the relationship between Janka hardness and the strength of clear wood. Analysis of historical data determined using standard specimens indicated no difference between side hardness...

  17. 2TB hard disk drive

    CERN Multimedia

    This particular object was used up until 2012 in the Data Centre. It slots into one of the Disk Server trays. Hard disks were invented in the 1950s. They started as large disks up to 20 inches in diameter holding just a few megabytes (link is external). They were originally called "fixed disks" or "Winchesters" (a code name used for a popular IBM product). They later became known as "hard disks" to distinguish them from "floppy disks (link is external)." Hard disks have a hard platter that holds the magnetic medium, as opposed to the flexible plastic film found in tapes and floppies.

  18. Performance ratio hardness characteristics polystyrene-metal composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepikov, V.F.; Prokhorenko, E.M.; Lytvynenko, V.V.; Zakharchenko, A.A.; Hazhmuradov, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    The methods of measuring the hardness of layered polystyrene-metallic composite materials. It is proposed to use powder-like tungsten and powder-like steel as radiation-protective layer. A measurement of the hardness of composites of different composition, and given its dependence on the particle size and their form. The possibility of increasing the hardness of the composites reinforced with metallic additives. Radiation-protective characteristics were calculated for the studied species of composite materials. Influence of the quantitative composition of the metal components is studied on the change of the absorbed dose of gamma radiation

  19. Hard processes. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, B.L.; Khoze, V.A.; Lipatov, L.N.

    1984-01-01

    Deep inelastic (hard) processes are now at the epicenter of modern high-energy physics. These processes are governed by short-distance dynamics, which reveals the intrinsic structure of elementary particles. The theory of deep inelastic processes is now sufficiently well settled. The authors' aim was to give an effective tool to theoreticians and experimentalists who are engaged in high-energy physics. This book is intended primarily for physicists who are only beginning to study the field. To read the book, one should be acquainted with the Feynman diagram technique and with some particular topics from elementary particle theory (symmetries, dispersion relations, Regge pole theory, etc.). Theoretical consideration of deep inelastic processes is now based on quantum chromodynamics (QCD). At the same time, analysis of relevant physical phenomena demands a synthesis of QCD notions (quarks, gluons) with certain empirical characteristics. Therefore, the phenomenological approaches presented are a necessary stage in a study of this range of phenomena which should undoubtedly be followed by a detailed description based on QCD and electroweak theory. The authors were naturally unable to dwell on experimental data accumulated during the past decade of intensive investigations. Priority was given to results which allow a direct comparison with theoretical predictions. (Auth.)

  20. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V. (GVSt), Herne (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    International the coal market in 2014 was the first time in a long time in a period of stagnation. In Germany, the coal consumption decreased even significantly, mainly due to the decrease in power generation. Here the national energy transition has now been noticable affected negative for coal use. The political guidances can expect a further significant downward movement for the future. In the present phase-out process of the German hard coal industry with still three active mines there was in 2014 no decommissioning. But the next is at the end of 2015, and the plans for the time after mining have been continued. [German] International war der Markt fuer Steinkohle 2014 erstmals seit langem wieder von einer Stagnation gekennzeichnet. In Deutschland ging der Steinkohlenverbrauch sogar deutlich zurueck, vor allem wegen des Rueckgangs in der Stromerzeugung. Hier hat sich die nationale Energiewende nun spuerbar und fuer die Steinkohlennutzung negativ ausgewirkt. Die politischen Weichenstellungen lassen fuer die Zukunft eine weitere erhebliche Abwaertsbewegung erwarten. Bei dem im Auslaufprozess befindlichen deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau mit noch drei aktiven Bergwerken gab es 2014 keine Stilllegung. Doch die naechste steht zum Jahresende 2015 an, und die Planungen fuer die Zeit nach dem Bergbau sind fortgefuehrt worden.

  1. The underlying event in hard scattering processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, R.

    2002-01-01

    The authors study the behavior of the underlying event in hard scattering proton-antiproton collisions at 1.8 TeV and compare with the QCD Monte-Carlo models. The underlying event is everything except the two outgoing hard scattered jets and receives contributions from the beam-beam remnants plus initial and final-state radiation. The data indicate that neither ISAJET or HERWIG produce enough charged particles (with p T > 0.5 GeV/c) from the beam-beam remnant component and that ISAJET produces too many charged particles from initial-state radiation. PYTHIA which uses multiple parton scattering to enhance the underlying event does the best job describing the data

  2. The hardness test: a real mechanical test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezakhanlou, R.

    1993-02-01

    During the service life, the mechanical properties of the PWR components change. It is necessary to determine precisely this evolution, but it is not always possible to draw a sample with the adequate size for the characterization. For this latter case we intend to calculate the stress-strain curve of a material from a hardness test results, because it is appropriate for testing on site and do not need any particular sample shape. This paper is the first bibliographical part of a larger study on the relation between the values measured during a hardness test (applied load, indentation diameter) and the mechanical properties of a solid obtained by a traction test. We have treated the problem within the general setting of two solids in contact. Thus, we expose general elastic, elasto-plastic and plastic models describing the indentation of a solid by a rigid indenter

  3. Melting of polydisperse hard disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, S.; Frenkel, D.

    2004-01-01

    The melting of a polydisperse hard-disk system is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations in the semigrand canonical ensemble. This is done in the context of possible continuous melting by a dislocation-unbinding mechanism, as an extension of the two-dimensional hard-disk melting problem. We find

  4. Hardness variability in commercial technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Sexton, F.W.; Roeske, S.B.; Knoll, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    The radiation hardness of commercial Floating Gate 256K E 2 PROMs from a single diffusion lot was observed to vary between 5 to 25 krad(Si) when irradiated at a low dose rate of 64 mrad(Si)/s. Additional variations in E 2 PROM hardness were found to depend on bias condition and failure mode (i.e., inability to read or write the memory), as well as the foundry at which the part was manufactured. This variability is related to system requirements, and it is shown that hardness level and variability affect the allowable mode of operation for E 2 PROMs in space applications. The radiation hardness of commercial 1-Mbit CMOS SRAMs from Micron, Hitachi, and Sony irradiated at 147 rad(Si)/s was approximately 12, 13, and 19 krad(Si), respectively. These failure levels appear to be related to increases in leakage current during irradiation. Hardness of SRAMs from each manufacturer varied by less than 20%, but differences between manufacturers are significant. The Qualified Manufacturer's List approach to radiation hardness assurance is suggested as a way to reduce variability and to improve the hardness level of commercial technologies

  5. Hot hardness studies on zircaloy 2 pressure tube along three orientations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutty, T.R.G.; Ravi, K.; Jarvis, T.; Sengupta, A.K.; Majumdar, S.; Tewari, R.; Shrivastava, D.; Dey, G.K.

    2002-01-01

    Zirconium based alloys are the natural choice for both the fuel element cans and in-core structural components in water cooled nuclear reactors. In this paper, the hot hardness behaviour of zircaloy 2 pressure tubes has been examined from room temperature to 400 degC using a hot hardness tester. For the purpose of comparison, the hardness of the as cast and room temperature rolled specimens has also been carried out. For this, the samples were cut along three orientations and hardness was measured in each of these directions using Vickers diamond pyramid indenter. The variation in hardness of the pressure tube samples show that the hardness was highest along circumferential direction and least along the axial direction. The room temperature rolled samples showed highest hardness along the rolling planes. These variations in hardness could be explained in terms of development of texture during working on the material. (author)

  6. On scale dependence of hardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shorshorov, M.Kh.; Alekhin, V.P.; Bulychev, S.I.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of hardness as a structure-sensitive characteristic of a material is considered. It is shown that in conditions of a decreasing stress field under the inventor the hardness function is determined by the average distance, Lsub(a), between the stops (fixed and sessile dislocations, segregation particles, etc.). In the general case, Lsub(a) depends on the size of the impression and explains the great diversity of hardness functions. The concept of average true deformation rate on depression is introduced

  7. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Research results of hard photon technology have been summarized as a part of novel technology development highly utilizing the quantum nature of photon. Hard photon technology refers to photon beam technologies which use photon in the 0.1 to 200 nm wavelength region. Hard photon has not been used in industry due to the lack of suitable photon sources and optical devices. However, hard photon in this wavelength region is expected to bring about innovations in such areas as ultrafine processing and material synthesis due to its atom selective reaction, inner shell excitation reaction, and spatially high resolution. Then, technological themes and possibility have been surveyed. Although there are principle proposes and their verification of individual technologies for the technologies of hard photon generation, regulation and utilization, they are still far from the practical applications. For the photon source technology, the laser diode pumped driver laser technology, laser plasma photon source technology, synchrotron radiation photon source technology, and vacuum ultraviolet photon source technology are presented. For the optical device technology, the multi-layer film technology for beam mirrors and the non-spherical lens processing technology are introduced. Also are described the reduction lithography technology, hard photon excitation process, and methods of analysis and measurement. 430 refs., 165 figs., 23 tabs.

  8. Comparative study of carp otolith hardness: lapillus and asteriscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dongni; Meyers, Marc André; Zhou, Bo; Feng, Qingling

    2013-05-01

    Otoliths are calcium carbonate biominerals in the inner ear of vertebrates; they play a role in balance, movement, and sound perception. Two types of otoliths in freshwater carp are investigated using nano- and micro-indentation: asteriscus and lapillus. The hardness, modulus, and creep of asteriscus (vaterite crystals) and lapillus (aragonite crystals) are compared. The hardness and modulus of lapillus are higher than those of asteriscus both in nano- and micro-testing, which is attributed to the different crystal polymorphs. Both materials exhibit a certain degree of creep, which indicates some time dependence of the mechanical behavior and is attributed to the organic components. The nano-indentation hardnesses are higher than micro-hardnesses for both otoliths, a direct result of the scale dependence of strength; fewer flaws are encountered by the nano than by the microindenter. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. NuSTAR Hard X-ray Survey of the Galactic Center Region. I. Hard X-ray Morphology and Spectroscopy of the Diffuse Emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Kaya; Hailey, Charles J.; Krivonos, Roman

    2015-01-01

    We present the first sub-arcminute images of the Galactic Center above 10 keV, obtained with NuSTAR. NuSTAR resolves the hard X-ray source IGR J17456-2901 into non-thermal X-ray filaments, molecular clouds, point sources, and a previously unknown central component of hard X-ray emission (CHXE). Nu...

  10. Other components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter includes descriptions of electronic and mechanical components which do not merit a chapter to themselves. Other hardware requires mention because of particularly high tolerance or intolerance of exposure to radiation. A more systematic analysis of radiation responses of structures which are definable by material was given in section 3.8. The components discussed here are field effect transistors, transducers, temperature sensors, magnetic components, superconductors, mechanical sensors, and miscellaneous electronic components

  11. RTnet -- A Flexible Hard Real-Time Networking Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiszka, Jan; Wagner, Bernardo; Zhang, Yuchen; Broenink, Johannes F.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the open source project RTnet is presented. RTnet provides a customisable and extensible framework for hard real-time communication over Ethernet and other transport media. The paper describes architecture, core components, and protocols of RTnet. FireWire is introduced as a powerful

  12. Soft versus hard nanoparticles in the delivery of aromatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: Previous literature and various scientific search engines were used for the review. Results: A classification of the nanoparticles based on the nature of their components, 'hard'-inorganic and 'soft'-organic, is made and several advantages and disadvantages about their uses are pointed out. Also ...

  13. Hard diffraction and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, A.

    1995-09-01

    The field of hard diffraction, which studies events with a rapidity gap and a hard scattering, has expanded dramatically recently. A review of new results from CDF, D OE, H1 and ZEUS will be given. These results include diffractive jet production, deep-inelastic scattering in large rapidity gap events, rapidity gaps between high transverse energy jets, and a search for diffractive W-boson production. The combination of these results gives new insight into the exchanged object, believed to be the pomeron. The results axe consistent with factorization and with a hard pomeron that contains both quarks and gluons. There is also evidence for the exchange of a strongly interacting color singlet in high momentum transfer (36 2 ) events

  14. Initiative hard coal; Initiative Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, J.

    2007-08-02

    In order to decrease the import dependence of hard coal in the European Union, the author has submitted suggestions to the director of conventional sources of energy (directorate general for energy and transport) of the European community, which found a positive resonance. These suggestions are summarized in an elaboration 'Initiative Hard Coal'. After clarifying the starting situation and defining the target the presupposition for a better use of hard coal deposits as raw material in the European Union are pointed out. On that basis concrete suggestions for measures are made. Apart from the conditions of the deposits it concerns thereby also new mining techniques and mining-economical developments, connected with tasks for the mining-machine industry. (orig.)

  15. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the application of photon to industrial technologies, in particular, a hard photon technology was surveyed which uses photon beams of 0.1-200nm in wavelength. Its features such as selective atom reaction, dense inner shell excitation and spacial high resolution by quantum energy are expected to provide innovative techniques for various field such as fine machining, material synthesis and advanced inspection technology. This wavelength region has been hardly utilized for industrial fields because of poor development of suitable photon sources and optical devices. The developmental meaning, usable time and issue of a hard photon reduction lithography were surveyed as lithography in ultra-fine region below 0.1{mu}m. On hard photon analysis/evaluation technology, the industrial use of analysis, measurement and evaluation technologies by micro-beam was viewed, and optimum photon sources and optical systems were surveyed. Prediction of surface and surface layer modification by inner shell excitation, the future trend of this process and development of a vacuum ultraviolet light source were also surveyed. 383 refs., 153 figs., 17 tabs.

  16. Evaluation of hard fossil fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivkovic, S.; Nuic, J.

    1999-01-01

    Because of its inexhaustible supplies hard fossil fuel will represent the pillar of the power systems of the 21st century. Only high-calorie fossil fuels have the market value and participate in the world trade. Low-calorie fossil fuels ((brown coal and lignite) are fuels spent on the spot and their value is indirectly expressed through manufactured kWh. For the purpose of determining the real value of a tonne of low-calorie coal, the criteria that help in establishing the value of a tonne of hard coal have to be corrected and thus evaluated and assessed at the market. (author)

  17. Calorimeter triggers for hard collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landshoff, P.V.; Polkinghorne, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    We discuss the use of a forward calorimeter to trigger on hard hadron-hadron collisions. We give a derivation in the covariant parton model of the Ochs-Stodolsky scaling law for single-hard-scattering processes, and investigate the conditions when instead a multiple- scattering mechanism might dominate. With a proton beam, this mechanism results in six transverse jets, with a total average multiplicity about twice that seen in ordinary events. We estimate that its cross section is likely to be experimentally accessible at avalues of the beam energy in the region of 100 GeV/c

  18. Hardness of ion implanted ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, W.C.; McHargue, C.J.; Farlow, G.C.; White, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    It has been established that the wear behavior of ceramic materials can be modified through ion implantation. Studies have been done to characterize the effect of implantation on the structure and composition of ceramic surfaces. To understand how these changes affect the wear properties of the ceramic, other mechanical properties must be measured. To accomplish this, a commercially available ultra low load hardness tester has been used to characterize Al 2 O 3 with different implanted species and doses. The hardness of the base material is compared with the highly damaged crystalline state as well as the amorphous material

  19. Unified Research on Network-Based Hard/Soft Information Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-02

    3.2.1 Hard +Soft Data Association Data gathered during various Counterinsurgency (or COIN) operations is in different formats . For example, the...characteristic, observation time, and related data. Figure 45: Sample snapshot frame from hard sensor data TML formats were developed and...160 Figure 54: Penn State components of overall hard and soft fusion process Summary of Year 1 Accomplishments • Team formation • Initial

  20. Obtention of high hardness multilayer systems by laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia T, I.S.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis work the synthesis of thin films of titanium nitride (TiN), amorphous carbon nitride (CN x ) amorphous carbon (a-C) and Ti/TiN/CNx multilayers and Ti/TiN/a-C by means of the laser ablation technique, with the objective of obtaining films of high hardness is studied, as well as to produce multilayer coatings with superior properties to the individual layers. The effect that has the laser fluence used for ablationing the targets in the structure and mechanical properties of the films deposited of TiN was investigated. It was found that the hardness is increased in lineal way approximately with the fluence increment up to 19 J/cm 2 . Thin films of a-C with hardness of the order of 12 GPa. likewise CN x films with high hardness (18.4 GPa) were obtained. The hardness of the deposited films was analyzed and it was related with its microstructure and deposit conditions. It was concluded that the Ti/TiN/CNx and Ti/TiN/a-C systems presented bigger hardness that of its individual components. (Author)

  1. Chemical hardness and density functional theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    RALPH G PEARSON. Chemistry Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA. Abstract. The concept of chemical hardness is reviewed from a personal point of view. Keywords. Hardness; softness; hard & soft acids bases (HSAB); principle of maximum hardness. (PMH) density functional theory (DFT) ...

  2. Seismic signals hard clipping overcoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszowa, Paula; Sokolowski, Jakub

    2018-01-01

    In signal processing the clipping is understand as the phenomenon of limiting the signal beyond certain threshold. It is often related to overloading of a sensor. Two particular types of clipping are being recognized: soft and hard. Beyond the limiting value soft clipping reduces the signal real gain while the hard clipping stiffly sets the signal values at the limit. In both cases certain amount of signal information is lost. Obviously if one possess the model which describes the considered signal and the threshold value (which might be slightly more difficult to obtain in the soft clipping case), the attempt of restoring the signal can be made. Commonly it is assumed that the seismic signals take form of an impulse response of some specific system. This may lead to belief that the sine wave may be the most appropriate to fit in the clipping period. However, this should be tested. In this paper the possibility of overcoming the hard clipping in seismic signals originating from a geoseismic station belonging to an underground mine is considered. A set of raw signals will be hard-clipped manually and then couple different functions will be fitted and compared in terms of least squares. The results will be then analysed.

  3. Hard equality constrained integer knapsacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardal, K.I.; Lenstra, A.K.; Cook, W.J.; Schulz, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    We consider the following integer feasibility problem: "Given positive integer numbers a 0, a 1,..., a n, with gcd(a 1,..., a n) = 1 and a = (a 1,..., a n), does there exist a nonnegative integer vector x satisfying ax = a 0?" Some instances of this type have been found to be extremely hard to solve

  4. Stress in hard metal films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.C.A.M.; Kamminga, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    In the absence of thermal stress, tensile stress in hard metal films is caused by grain boundary shrinkage and compressive stress is caused by ion peening. It is shown that the two contributions are additive. Moreover tensile stress generated at the grain boundaries does not relax by ion

  5. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  6. Equilibrium distribution of hard-sphere systems and revised Enskog theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijeren, H. van

    1983-01-01

    A revised Enskog theory (RET) is shown to lead to a correct equilibrium distribution in hard-sphere systems in a stationary external potential, while the standard Enskog theory (SET) does not. Attention is given to the s-component hard-sphere mixture with constant external potential acting on

  7. Hard processes in hadronic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satz, H.; Wang, X.N.

    1995-01-01

    Quantum chromodynamics is today accepted as the fundamental theory of strong interactions, even though most hadronic collisions lead to final states for which quantitative QCD predictions are still lacking. It therefore seems worthwhile to take stock of where we stand today and to what extent the presently available data on hard processes in hadronic collisions can be accounted for in terms of QCD. This is one reason for this work. The second reason - and in fact its original trigger - is the search for the quark-gluon plasma in high energy nuclear collisions. The hard processes to be considered here are the production of prompt photons, Drell-Yan dileptons, open charm, quarkonium states, and hard jets. For each of these, we discuss the present theoretical understanding, compare the resulting predictions to available data, and then show what behaviour it leads to at RHIC and LHC energies. All of these processes have the structure mentioned above: they contain a hard partonic interaction, calculable perturbatively, but also the non-perturbative parton distribution within a hadron. These parton distributions, however, can be studied theoretically in terms of counting rule arguments, and they can be checked independently by measurements of the parton structure functions in deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering. The present volume is the work of Hard Probe Collaboration, a group of theorists who are interested in the problem and were willing to dedicate a considerable amount of their time and work on it. The necessary preparation, planning and coordination of the project were carried out in two workshops of two weeks' duration each, in February 1994 at CERn in Geneva andin July 1994 at LBL in Berkeley

  8. Hard processes in photon-photon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchovni, E.

    1985-03-01

    In this thesis, the existence of hard component in two-photon collisions is investigated. Due to the relative simplicity of the photon, such processes can be exactly calculated in QCD. Untagged (low Q 2 ) two-photon events are used. This leads to relatively high statistics, but to severe background problem due mainly to e + e - annihilation. The background contamination is reduced to a tolerable level using a special set of cuts. Moreover, the remaining contamination is shown to be calculable with a small systematic error. A large number of events of the hard ''γγ'' type is found. An attempt to explain these events using the simplest QCD diagram (the Born term) is done. This process is found to be capable of explaining only a 1/4 of the data. Other options like the constituent intercharge model, integer charged quarks, and higher order diagrams are therefore also discussed. The large cross-section for the production of ρ 0 ρ 0 pairs in ''γγ'' collisions has not been understood yet. Inorder to look at closely related processes, a search for φρ 0 and φφ was initiated. The cross-section for θπ + π - was found to be sizeable. Only upper limits for the production of φρ 0 and φφ are obtained

  9. Hard-to-fill vacancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ruth

    2010-09-29

    Skills for Health has launched a set of resources to help healthcare employers tackle hard-to-fill entry-level vacancies and provide sustainable employment for local unemployed people. The Sector Employability Toolkit aims to reduce recruitment and retention costs for entry-level posts and repare people for employment through pre-job training programmes, and support employers to develop local partnerships to gain access to wider pools of candidates and funding streams.

  10. Pushing hard on the accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1987-09-15

    The quest for new techniques to drive future generations of particle accelerators has been pushed hard in recent years, efforts having been highlighted by workshops in Europe, organized by the European Committee for Future Accelerators, and in the US. The latest ECFA Workshop on New Developments in Particle Acceleration Techniques, held at Orsay from 29 June to 4 July, showed how the initial frantic search for innovation is now maturing.

  11. CMS results on hard diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00107098

    2013-01-01

    In these proceedings we present CMS results on hard diffraction. Diffractive dijet production in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV is discussed. The cross section for dijet production is presented as a function of $\\tilde{\\xi}$, representing the fractional momentum loss of the scattered proton in single-diffractive events. The observation of W and Z boson production in events with a large pseudo-rapidity gap is also presented.

  12. Vector meson dominance and pointlike coupling of the photon in soft and hard processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, E.

    1990-05-01

    Recent experimental results on photoproduction of hadrons probe the nature of the interacting photon over a wide kinematical range from soft to hard processes. Single inclusive spectra and energy flows of the final state charged particles are well described by assuming that photon production data are built up by an incoherent superposition of a soft Vector-Meson-Dominance component and a hard pointlike photon component. (orig.)

  13. Playing Moderately Hard to Get

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Reysen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In two studies, we examined the effect of different degrees of attraction reciprocation on ratings of attraction toward a potential romantic partner. Undergraduate college student participants imagined a potential romantic partner who reciprocated a low (reciprocating attraction one day a week, moderate (reciprocating attraction three days a week, high (reciprocating attraction five days a week, or unspecified degree of attraction (no mention of reciprocation. Participants then rated their degree of attraction toward the potential partner. The results of Study 1 provided only partial support for Brehm’s emotion intensity theory. However, after revising the high reciprocation condition vignette in Study 2, supporting Brehm’s emotion intensity theory, results show that a potential partners’ display of reciprocation of attraction acted as a deterrent to participants’ intensity of experienced attraction to the potential partner. The results support the notion that playing moderately hard to get elicits more intense feelings of attraction from potential suitors than playing too easy or too hard to get. Discussion of previous research examining playing hard to get is also re-examined through an emotion intensity theory theoretical lens.

  14. CMOS optimization for radiation hardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbenwick, G.F.; Fossum, J.G.

    1975-01-01

    Several approaches to the attainment of radiation-hardened MOS circuits have been investigated in the last few years. These have included implanting the SiO 2 gate insulator with aluminum, using chrome-aluminum layered gate metallization, using Al 2 O 3 as the gate insulator, and optimizing the MOS fabrication process. Earlier process optimization studies were restricted primarily to p-channel devices operating with negative gate biases. Since knowledge of the hardness dependence upon processing and design parameters is essential in producing hardened integrated circuits, a comprehensive investigation of the effects of both process and design optimization on radiation-hardened CMOS integrated circuits was undertaken. The goals are to define and establish a radiation-hardened processing sequence for CMOS integrated circuits and to formulate quantitative relationships between process and design parameters and the radiation hardness. Using these equations, the basic CMOS design can then be optimized for radiation hardness and some understanding of the basic physics responsible for the radiation damage can be gained. Results are presented

  15. Impact of aging on radiation hardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Fleetwood, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    Burn-in effects are used to demonstrate the potential impact of thermally activated aging effects on functional and parametric radiation hardness. These results have implications on hardness assurance testing. Techniques for characterizing aging effects are proposed

  16. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quitting drugs is hard because addiction is a brain disease. Your brain is like a control tower that sends out ... and choices. Addiction changes the signals in your brain and makes it hard to feel OK without ...

  17. Computational Modeling Develops Ultra-Hard Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Glenn Research Center's Mechanical Components Branch developed a spiral bevel or face gear test rig for testing thermal behavior, surface fatigue, strain, vibration, and noise; a full-scale, 500-horsepower helicopter main-rotor transmission testing stand; a gear rig that allows fundamental studies of the dynamic behavior of gear systems and gear noise; and a high-speed helical gear test for analyzing thermal behavior for rotorcraft. The test rig provides accelerated fatigue life testing for standard spur gears at speeds of up to 10,000 rotations per minute. The test rig enables engineers to investigate the effects of materials, heat treat, shot peen, lubricants, and other factors on the gear's performance. QuesTek Innovations LLC, based in Evanston, Illinois, recently developed a carburized, martensitic gear steel with an ultra-hard case using its computational design methodology, but needed to verify surface fatigue, lifecycle performance, and overall reliability. The Battelle Memorial Institute introduced the company to researchers at Glenn's Mechanical Components Branch and facilitated a partnership allowing researchers at the NASA Center to conduct spur gear fatigue testing for the company. Testing revealed that QuesTek's gear steel outperforms the current state-of-the-art alloys used for aviation gears in contact fatigue by almost 300 percent. With the confidence and credibility provided by the NASA testing, QuesTek is commercializing two new steel alloys. Uses for this new class of steel are limitless in areas that demand exceptional strength for high throughput applications.

  18. The hard problem of cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmo Eriksson

    Full Text Available Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the "hard problem of cooperation" as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior.

  19. The hard problem of cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Kimmo; Strimling, Pontus

    2012-01-01

    Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the "hard problem of cooperation" as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition) change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior.

  20. Hard electroproduction of hybrid mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, I.V.; LPT Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay; Szymanowski, L.; Teryaev, O.V.; ); Wallon, S.

    2005-01-01

    We estimate the sizeable cross section for deep exclusive electroproduction of an exotic J PC = 1 -+ hybrid meson in the Bjorken regime. The production amplitude scales like the one for usual meson electroproduction, i.e. as 1/Q 2 . This is due to the non-vanishing leading twist distribution amplitude for the hybrid meson, which may be normalized thanks to its relation to the energy momentum tensor and to the QCD sum rules technique. The hard amplitude is considered up to next-to-leading order in as and we explore the consequences of fixing the renormalization scale ambiguity through the BLM procedure. (author)

  1. Hard Identity and Soft Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Rachik

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Often collective identities are classified depending on their contents and rarely depending on their forms. Differentiation between soft identity and hard identity is applied to diverse collective identities: religious, political, national, tribal ones, etc. This classification is made following the principal dimensions of collective identities: type of classification (univocal and exclusive or relative and contextual, the absence or presence of conflictsof loyalty, selective or totalitarian, objective or subjective conception, among others. The different characteristics analysed contribute to outlining an increasingly frequent type of identity: the authoritarian identity.

  2. Principal components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallin, M.; Hörmann, S.; Piegorsch, W.; El Shaarawi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Principal Components are probably the best known and most widely used of all multivariate analysis techniques. The essential idea consists in performing a linear transformation of the observed k-dimensional variables in such a way that the new variables are vectors of k mutually orthogonal

  3. High thermal load component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuse, Toshiaki; Tachikawa, Nobuo.

    1996-01-01

    A cooling tube made of a pure copper is connected to the inner portion of an armour (heat resistant member) made of an anisotropic carbon/carbon composite (CFC) material. The CFC material has a high heat conductivity in longitudinal direction of fibers and has low conductivity in perpendicular thereto. Fibers extending in the armour from a heat receiving surface just above the cooling tube are directly connected to the cooling tube. A portion of the fibers extending from a heat receiving surface other than portions not just above the cooling tube is directly bonded to the cooling tube. Remaining fibers are disposed so as to surround the cooling tube. The armour and the cooling tube are soldered using an active metal flux. With such procedures, high thermal load components for use in a thermonuclear reactor are formed, which are excellent in a heat removing characteristic and hardly causes defects such as crackings and peeling. (I.N.)

  4. Diffractive hard scattering at ep and p antip colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruni, P.; Ingelman, G.; Uppsala Univ.

    1993-12-01

    Models for diffractive scattering based on the exchange of a pomeron with a parton structure are analysed in terms of hard scattering processes and the resulting characteristics of the final state. Diffractive deep inelastic ep scattering is considered in connection with the recently observed rapidity gap events at HERA. Heavy flavour and W, Z production in p anti p interactions are interesting measures of the gluon and quark component, respectively, in the pomeron. (orig.)

  5. MAGNESIUM, DRINKING WATER HARDNESS AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Nikic

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many different countries suggest and justify an integrated laboratory and epidemiological research program with an aim to reject or accept the magnesium – CVD (cardiovascular disease hypothesis. The studies shown in this paper that have investigated the relationship between water hardness, especially magnesium and CVD indicate that, even though there has been an ongoing research for nearly half a century (1957-2004, it has not been completed yet. Different study designs (obductional, clinical, ecological, case-control and cohort restrict an adequate comparison of their results as well as the deduction of results applicable on each territorial level.The majority of researchers around the world, using populational and individual studies, have found an inverse (protective association between mortality and morbidity from CVD and the increase in water hardness, especially the increase in the concentration of magnesium. The most frequent benefit of the water with an optimal mineral composition is the reduction of mortality from ischemic heart disease.It was suggested that Mg from water is a supplementary source of Mg of high biological value, because magnesium from water is absorbed around 30% better than Mg in a diet. The vast majority of studies consider lower concentrations of Mg in the water, in the range of 10% of the total daily intake of Mg.Future research efforts must give better answers to low Mg concentrations in the drinking water, before any concrete recommendations are given to the public. Moreover, the researchers must also determine which chemical form of Mg is most easily absorbed and has the greatest impact.Additional research is necessary in order to further investigate the interrelation between different water and food components as well as individual risk factors in the pathogenesis of CVD.

  6. Aespoe hard rock laboratory Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the new Aespoe hard rock laboratory is to demonstrate state of the art of technology and evaluation methods before the start of actual construction work on the planned deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The nine country OECD/NEA project in the Stripa mine in Sweden has been an excellent example of high quality international research co-operation. In Sweden the new Aespoe hard rock laboratory will gradually take over and finalize this work. SKB very much appreciates the continued international participation in Aespoe which is of great value for the quality efficiency, and confidence in this kind of work. We have invited a number of leading experts to this first international seminar to summarize the current state of a number of key questions. The contributions show the great progress that has taken place during the years. The results show that there is a solid scientific basis for using this knowledge on site specific preparation and work on actual repositories. (au)

  7. Development of radiation hard scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markley, F.; Woods, D.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Foster, G.; Blackburn, R.

    1992-05-01

    Substantial improvements have been made in the radiation hardness of plastic scintillators. Cylinders of scintillating materials 2.2 cm in diameter and 1 cm thick have been exposed to 10 Mrads of gamma rays at a dose rate of 1 Mrad/h in a nitrogen atmosphere. One of the formulations tested showed an immediate decrease in pulse height of only 4% and has remained stable for 12 days while annealing in air. By comparison a commercial PVT scintillator showed an immediate decrease of 58% and after 43 days of annealing in air it improved to a 14% loss. The formulated sample consisted of 70 parts by weight of Dow polystyrene, 30 pbw of pentaphenyltrimethyltrisiloxane (Dow Corning DC 705 oil), 2 pbw of p-terphenyl, 0.2 pbw of tetraphenylbutadiene, and 0.5 pbw of UVASIL299LM from Ferro

  8. Nanostructural Evolution of Hard Turning Layers in Carburized Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedekar, Vikram

    The mechanisms of failure for components subjected to contact fatigue are sensitive to the structure and properties of the material surface. Although, the bulk material properties are determined by the steel making, forming and the heat treatment; the near surface material properties are altered during final material removal processes such as hard turning or grinding. Therefore, the ability to optimize, modulate and predict the near surface properties during final metal removal operations would be extremely useful in the enhancement of service life of a component. Hard machining is known to induce severely deformed layers causing dramatic microstructural transformations. These transformations occur via grain refinement or thermal phenomena depending upon cutting conditions. The aim of this work is to engineer the near surface nanoscale structure and properties during hard turning by altering strain, strain rate, temperature and incoming microstructure. The near surface material transformations due to hard turning were studied on carburized SAE 8620 bearing steel. Variations in parent material microstructures were introduced by altering the retained austenite content. The strain, strain rate and temperature achieved during final metal cutting were altered by varying insert geometry, insert wear and cutting speed. The subsurface evolution was quantified by a series of advanced characterization techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD), X-ray stress evaluation and nanoindentation which were coupled with numerical modeling. Results showed that the grain size of the nanocrystalline near surface microstructure can be effectively controlled by altering the insert geometry, insert wear, cutting speed and the incoming microstructure. It was also evident that the near surface retained austenite decreased at lower cutting speed indicating transformation due to plastic deformation, while it increased at higher cutting

  9. Nanomechanics of hard films on compliant substrates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedy, Earl David, Jr. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Emerson, John Allen (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Bahr, David F. (Washington State University, Pullman, WA); Moody, Neville Reid; Zhou, Xiao Wang; Hales, Lucas (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Adams, David Price (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Yeager,John (Washington State University, Pullman, WA); Nyugen, Thao D. (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD); Corona, Edmundo (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Kennedy, Marian S. (Clemson University, Clemson, SC); Cordill, Megan J. (Erich Schmid Institute, Leoben, Austria)

    2009-09-01

    Development of flexible thin film systems for biomedical, homeland security and environmental sensing applications has increased dramatically in recent years [1,2,3,4]. These systems typically combine traditional semiconductor technology with new flexible substrates, allowing for both the high electron mobility of semiconductors and the flexibility of polymers. The devices have the ability to be easily integrated into components and show promise for advanced design concepts, ranging from innovative microelectronics to MEMS and NEMS devices. These devices often contain layers of thin polymer, ceramic and metallic films where differing properties can lead to large residual stresses [5]. As long as the films remain substrate-bonded, they may deform far beyond their freestanding counterpart. Once debonded, substrate constraint disappears leading to film failure where compressive stresses can lead to wrinkling, delamination, and buckling [6,7,8] while tensile stresses can lead to film fracture and decohesion [9,10,11]. In all cases, performance depends on film adhesion. Experimentally it is difficult to measure adhesion. It is often studied using tape [12], pull off [13,14,15], and peel tests [16,17]. More recent techniques for measuring adhesion include scratch testing [18,19,20,21], four point bending [22,23,24], indentation [25,26,27], spontaneous blisters [28,29] and stressed overlayers [7,26,30,31,32,33]. Nevertheless, sample design and test techniques must be tailored for each system. There is a large body of elastic thin film fracture and elastic contact mechanics solutions for elastic films on rigid substrates in the published literature [5,7,34,35,36]. More recent work has extended these solutions to films on compliant substrates and show that increasing compliance markedly changes fracture energies compared with rigid elastic solution results [37,38]. However, the introduction of inelastic substrate response significantly complicates the problem [10,39,40]. As

  10. Multiple sine wave excitation of a hard spring oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curreri, J.R.; Bezler, P.

    1976-06-01

    The vibration testing of non-linear systems has not received much attention in the literature. Frequently, linear procedures are used in the hope that large differences between the linear and non-linear responses will not occur. This may be valid for certain small ranges of the non-linearity and for a single harmonic component excitation. However, for multi-component periodic inputs, there is very little guidance in the literature for even a qualitative evaluation of the probable response. With multi-component periodic inputs, it has been shown that sub-combination frequencies can occur in cubic non-linear systems. Under these conditions, large responses can develop. The critical nature of the development of the large response has not been discussed. This is the subject of this paper. The qualitative response of a two component sine wave applied to a hard spring oscillator is shown

  11. Soft And Hard Skills of Social Worker

    OpenAIRE

    HANTOVÁ, Libuše

    2011-01-01

    The work deals with soft and hard skills relevant to the profession of social worker. The theoretical part at first evaluates and analyzes important soft and hard skills necessary for people working in the field of social work. Then these skills are compared. The practical part illustrates the use of soft and hard skills in practice by means of model scenes and deals with the preferences in three groups of people ? students of social work, social workers and people outside the sphere, namely ...

  12. Theory of hard diffraction and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Duca, V.

    1995-06-01

    In this talk we review the models describing the hard diffractive production of jets or more generally high-mass states in presence of rapidity gaps in hadron-hadron and lepton-hadron collisions. By rapidity gaps we mean regions on the lego plot in (pseudo)-rapidity and azimuthal angle where no hadrons are produced, between the jet(s) and an elastically scattered hadron (single hard diffraction) or between two jets (double hard diffraction). (orig.)

  13. Theory of hard diffraction and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Duca, V.

    1996-01-01

    In this talk we review the models describing the hard diffractive production of jets or more generally high-mass states in presence of rapidity gaps in hadron-hadron and lepton-hadron collisions. By rapidity gaps we mean regions on the lego plot in (pseudo)-rapidity and azimuthal angle where no hadrons are produced, between the jet(s) and an elastically scattered hadron (single hard diffraction) or between two jets (double hard diffraction). copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  14. Advances in hard nucleus cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cui

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Security and perfect vision and fewer complications are our goals in cataract surgery, and hard-nucleus cataract surgery is always a difficulty one. Many new studies indicate that micro-incision phacoemulsification in treating hard nucleus cataract is obviously effective. This article reviews the evolution process of hard nuclear cataract surgery, the new progress in the research of artificial intraocular lens for microincision, and analyse advantages and disadvantages of various surgical methods.

  15. Radiation hardness of CMS pixel barrel modules

    CERN Document Server

    Rohe, T; Erdmann, W; Kästli, H C; Khalatyan, S; Meier, B; Radicci, V; Sibille, J

    2010-01-01

    Pixel detectors are used in the innermost part of the multi purpose experiments at LHC and are therefore exposed to the highest fluences of ionising radiation, which in this part of the detectors consists mainly of charged pions. The radiation hardness of all detector components has thoroughly been tested up to the fluences expected at the LHC. In case of an LHC upgrade, the fluence will be much higher and it is not yet clear how long the present pixel modules will stay operative in such a harsh environment. The aim of this study was to establish such a limit as a benchmark for other possible detector concepts considered for the upgrade. As the sensors and the readout chip are the parts most sensitive to radiation damage, samples consisting of a small pixel sensor bump-bonded to a CMS-readout chip (PSI46V2.1) have been irradiated with positive 200 MeV pions at PSI up to 6E14 Neq and with 21 GeV protons at CERN up to 5E15 Neq. After irradiation the response of the system to beta particles from a Sr-90 source w...

  16. Structural properties of hard disks in a narrow tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, S; Gurin, P; Balló, G

    2011-01-01

    Positional ordering of a two-dimensional fluid of hard disks is examined in tubes so narrow that only nearest neighbor interactions take place. Using the exact transfer-matrix method the transverse and longitudinal pressure components and the correlation function are determined numerically. Fluid–solid phase transition does not occur even in the widest tube, where the method just loses its exactness, but the appearance of a dramatic change in the equation of state and the longitudinal correlation function shows that the system undergoes a structural change from a fluid to a solid-like order. The pressure components show that the collisions are dominantly longitudinal at low densities, while they are transverse in the vicinity of the close packing density. The transverse correlation function shows that the size of solid-like domains grows exponentially with increasing pressure and the correlation length diverges at close packing. It is possible to find an analytically solvable model by expanding the contact distance up to first order. The approximate model, which corresponds to a system of hard parallel rhombuses, behaves very similarly to the system of hard disks

  17. 30 CFR 75.1720-1 - Distinctively colored hard hats, or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distinctively colored hard hats, or hard caps... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1720-1 Distinctively colored hard hats, or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced miners. Hard hats or hard caps distinctively different in color...

  18. 30 CFR 77.1710-1 - Distinctively colored hard hats or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distinctively colored hard hats or hard caps... Distinctively colored hard hats or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced miners. Hard hats or hard caps distinctively different in color from those worn by experienced miners shall be worn at...

  19. Hard disks with SCSI interface

    CERN Document Server

    Denisov, O Yu

    1999-01-01

    The testing of 20 models of hard SCSI-disks is carried out: the Fujitsu MAE3091LP; the IBM DDRS-39130, DGHS-318220, DNES-318350, DRHS-36V and DRVS-18V; the Quantum Atlas VI 18.2; the Viking 11 9.1; the Seagate ST118202LW, ST118273LW, ST118273W, ST318203LW, ST318275LW, ST34520W, ST39140LW and ST39173W; and the Western Digital WDE9100-0007, WDE9100-AV0016, WDE9100-AV0030 and WDE9180-0048. All tests ran under the Windows NT 4.0 workstation operating system with Service Pack 4, under video mode with 1024*768 pixel resolution, 32- bit colour depth and V-frequency equal to 85 Hz. The detailed description and characteristics of SCSI stores are presented. Test results (ZD Winstone 99 and ZD WinBench 99 tests) are given in both table and diagram (disk transfer rate) forms. (0 refs).

  20. Development of a hard microcontroller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measel, P.R.; Sivo, L.L.; Quilitz, W.E.; Davidson, T.K.

    1976-01-01

    The applicability of commercially available microprocessors to certain systems requiring radiation survival was assessed. A microcontroller was designed and built to perform a monitor and control function of military operational ground equipment, and demonstrated to exceed the radiation hardness goal. The preparation of the microcontroller module required hardware and software design, selection of LSI and other piece part types, development of piece part and module electrical and radiation test techniques, and the performance of radiation tests on the LSI piece parts and the completed module. The microcontroller has a 16-bit central processor unit, a 4096 word read only memory, and a 256 word read-write memory. The module has circumvention circuitry, including a PIN diode radiation detector. The processor device used was the MMI 6701 T 2 L Schottky bipolar 4-bit slice. Electrical exerciser circuits were developed for in-situ electrical testing of microprocessors and memories during irradiation. A test program was developed for a Terradyne J283 microcircuit tester for more complete electrical characterization of the MMI 6701 microprocessor. A simple self-test algorithm was used in the microcontroller for performance testing during irradiation. For the operational demonstration of the microcontroller a TI 960A minicomputer was used to provide the required complex inputs to the module and verify the module outputs

  1. Elasticity of Hard-Spheres-And-Tether Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farago, O.; Kantor, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Physical properties of a large class of systems ranging from noble gases to polymers and rubber are primarily determined by entropy, while the internal energy plays a minor role. Such systems can be conveniently modeled and numerically studied using ''hard' (i.e., ''infinity-or-zero'') potentials, such as hard sphere repulsive interactions, or inextensible (''tether'') bonds which limit the distance between the bonded monomers, but have zero energy at all permitted distances. The knowledge of elastic constants is very important for understanding the behavior of entropy-dominated systems. Computational methods for determination of the elastic constants in such systems are broadly classified into ''strain'' methods and (fluctuation methods. In the former, the elastic constants are extracted from stress-strain relations, while in the latter they are determined from measurements of stress fluctuations. The fluctuation technique usually enables more accurate and well-controlled determination of the elastic constants since in this method the elastic constants are computed directly from simulations of the un strained system with no need to deform the simulation cell and perform numerical differentiations. For central forces systems, the original ''fluctuation'' formalism can be applied provided the pair potential is twice differentiable. We have extended this formalism to apply to hard-spheres-and-tether models in which this requirement is not fulfilled. We found that for such models the components of the tensor of elastic constants can be related to (two-, three- and four-point) probability densities of contacts between hard spheres and stretched bonds. We have tested our formalism on simple (phantom networks and three-dimensional hard spheres systems

  2. Rock mechanics for hard rock nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1981-09-01

    The mined geologic burial of high level nuclear waste is now the favored option for disposal. The US National Waste Terminal Storage Program designed to achieve this disposal includes an extensive rock mechanics component related to the design of the wastes repositories. The plan currently considers five candidate rock types. This paper deals with the three hard rocks among them: basalt, granite, and tuff. Their behavior is governed by geological discontinuities. Salt and shale, which exhibit behavior closer to that of a continuum, are not considered here. This paper discusses both the generic rock mechanics R and D, which are required for repository design, as well as examples of projects related to hard rock waste storage. The examples include programs in basalt (Hanford/Washington), in granitic rocks (Climax/Nevada Test Site, Idaho Springs/Colorado, Pinawa/Canada, Oracle/Arizona, and Stripa/Sweden), and in tuff

  3. Complex technique for materials hardness measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krashchenko, V P; Oksametnaya, O B

    1984-01-01

    A review of existing methods of measurement of material hardness in national and foreign practice has been made. A necessity of improving the technique of material hardness measurement in a wide temperature range and insuring load change with indenting, continuity of imprint application, smooth changing of temperatures along a sample length, and deformation rate control has been noted.

  4. Hard scattering and a diffractive trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.L.; Collins, J.C.; Soper, D.E.; Sterman, G.

    1986-02-01

    Conclusions concerning the properties of hard scattering in diffractively produced systems are summarized. One motivation for studying diffractive hard scattering is to investigate the interface between Regge theory and perturbative QCD. Another is to see whether diffractive triggering can result in an improvement in the signal-to-background ratio of measurements of production of very heavy quarks. 5 refs

  5. ERRATUM: Work smart, wear your hard hat

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An error appeared in the article «Work smart, wear your hard hat» published in Weekly Bulletin 27/2003, page 5. The impact which pierced a hole in the hard hat worn by Gerd Fetchenhauer was the equivalent of a box weighing 5 kg and not 50 kg.

  6. 7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.57 Hard seeds. Seeds which remain hard at the end of the prescribed test because they have not absorbed water, due to an impermeable seed coat... percentage of germination. For flatpea, continue the swollen seed in test for 14 days when germinating at 15...

  7. Thermal spray coatings replace hard chrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, M.; Unger, R.

    1997-01-01

    Hard chrome plating provides good wear and erosion resistance, as well as good corrosion protection and fine surface finishes. Until a few years ago, it could also be applied at a reasonable cost. However, because of the many environmental and financial sanctions that have been imposed on the process over the past several years, cost has been on a consistent upward trend, and is projected to continue to escalate. Therefore, it is very important to find a coating or a process that offers the same characteristics as hard chrome plating, but without the consequent risks. This article lists the benefits and limitations of hard chrome plating, and describes the performance of two thermal spray coatings (tungsten carbide and chromium carbide) that compared favorably with hard chrome plating in a series of tests. It also lists three criteria to determine whether plasma spray or hard chrome plating should be selected

  8. Correlating particle hardness with powder compaction performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoping; Morganti, Mikayla; Hancock, Bruno C; Masterson, Victoria M

    2010-10-01

    Assessing particle mechanical properties of pharmaceutical materials quickly and with little material can be very important to early stages of pharmaceutical research. In this study, a wide range of pharmaceutical materials were studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanoindentation. A significant amount of particle hardness and elastic modulus data were provided. Moreover, powder compact mechanical properties of these materials were investigated in order to build correlation between the particle hardness and powder compaction performance. It was found that the materials with very low or high particle hardness most likely exhibit poor compaction performance while the materials with medium particle hardness usually have good compaction behavior. Additionally, the results from this study enriched Hiestand's special case concept on particle hardness and powder compaction performance. This study suggests that the use of AFM nanoindentation can help to screen mechanical properties of pharmaceutical materials at early development stages of pharmaceutical research.

  9. Validation of HVOF WC/Co Thermal Spray Coatings as a Replacement for Hard Chrome Plating on Aircraft Landing Gear

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sartwell, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    .... This document constitutes the final report on a project to quality high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray WC/Co coatings as a replacement for hard chrome plating on landing gear components...

  10. The Elusive Soft Emission from Hard X-ray Symbiotic System RT Cru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karovska, Margarita

    2014-09-01

    RT Cru is a fascinating member of a new class of hard X-ray emitting symbiotic binaries showing X-ray emission extending to over 50keV. While its hard X-ray emission has been studied in detail, the soft component of the spectrum, including flares, remains elusive, since previous observations have focused on the high-energy regime. We propose Chandra HRC-S/LETG observations to determine the spatial, spectral, and temporal characteristics of the source of the soft X-ray emission with a goal to establish the origin of the soft component, and determine whether and how it is tied to the hard component. Determining the origin of the soft emission is a crucial piece of the puzzle to understanding the geometry, energetics, and the environment of WD accretion in this class of symbiotic systems.

  11. Radiation hardness of CMS pixel barrel modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohe, T.; Bean, A.; Erdmann, W.; Kaestli, H.-C.; Khalatyan, S.; Meier, B.; Radicci, V.; Sibille, J.

    2010-01-01

    Pixel detectors are used in the innermost part of the multi purpose experiments at the LHC and are therefore exposed to the highest fluences of ionising radiation, which in this part of the detectors consists mainly of charged pions. The radiation hardness of all detector components has been thoroughly tested up to the fluences expected at the LHC. In case of an LHC upgrade, the fluence will be much higher and it is not yet clear how long the present pixel modules will stay operative in such a harsh environment. The aim of this study was to establish such a limit as a benchmark for other possible detector concepts considered for the upgrade. As the sensors and the readout chip are the parts most sensitive to radiation damage, samples consisting of a small pixel sensor bump-bonded to a CMS-readout chip (PSI46V2.1) have been irradiated with positive 200 MeV pions at PSI up to 6x10 14 n eq /cm 2 and with 21 GeV protons at CERN up to 5x10 15 n eq /cm 2 . After irradiation the response of the system to beta particles from a 90 Sr source was measured to characterise the charge collection efficiency of the sensor. Radiation induced changes in the readout chip were also measured. The results show that the present pixel modules can be expected to be still operational after a fluence of 2.8x10 15 n eq /cm 2 . Samples irradiated up to 5x10 15 n eq /cm 2 still see the beta particles. However, further tests are needed to confirm whether a stable operation with high particle detection efficiency is possible after such a high fluence.

  12. NuSTAR Hard X-ray Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koglin, Jason E.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Craig, William W.

    2005-01-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is a small explorer (SMEX) mission currently under an extended Phase A study by NASA. NuSTAR will be the first satellite mission to employ focusing optics in the hard X-ray band (8- 80 keV). Its design eliminates high detector backgrounds, allows...... and production process. We also describe the progress of several components of our independent optics development program that are beginning to reach maturity and could possibly be incorporated into the NuSTAR production scheme. We then present environmental test results that are being conducted in preparation...... of full space qualification of the NuSTAR optics....

  13. Analysis of Hard Thin Film Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dashen

    1998-01-01

    MSFC is interested in developing hard thin film coating for bearings. The wearing of the bearing is an important problem for space flight engine. Hard thin film coating can drastically improve the surface of the bearing and improve the wear-endurance of the bearing. However, many fundamental problems in surface physics, plasma deposition, etc, need further research. The approach is using electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECRCVD) to deposit hard thin film an stainless steel bearing. The thin films in consideration include SiC, SiN and other materials. An ECRCVD deposition system is being assembled at MSFC.

  14. Hard breakup of the deuteron into two Δ isobars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, Carlos G.; Sargsian, Misak M.

    2011-01-01

    We study high-energy photodisintegration of the deuteron into two Δ isobars at large center of mass angles within the QCD hard rescattering model (HRM). According to the HRM, the process develops in three main steps: the photon knocks a quark from one of the nucleons in the deuteron; the struck quark rescatters off a quark from the other nucleon sharing the high energy of the photon; then the energetic quarks recombine into two outgoing baryons which have large transverse momenta. Within the HRM, the cross section is expressed through the amplitude of pn→ΔΔ scattering which we evaluated based on the quark-interchange model of hard hadronic scattering. Calculations show that the angular distribution and the strength of the photodisintegration is mainly determined by the properties of the pn→ΔΔ scattering. We predict that the cross section of the deuteron breakup to Δ ++ Δ - is 4-5 times larger than that of the breakup to the Δ + Δ 0 channel. Also, the angular distributions for these two channels are markedly different. These can be compared with the predictions based on the assumption that two hard Δ isobars are the result of the disintegration of the preexisting ΔΔ components of the deuteron wave function. In this case, one expects the angular distributions and cross sections of the breakup in both Δ ++ Δ - and Δ + Δ 0 channels to be similar.

  15. Hard copies for digital medical images: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Hartwig R.; Muka, Edward

    1995-04-01

    This paper is a condensed version of an invited overview on the technology of film hard-copies used in radiology. Because the overview was given to an essentially nonmedical audience, the reliance on film hard-copies in radiology is outlined in greater detail. The overview is concerned with laser image recorders generating monochrome prints on silver-halide films. The basic components of laser image recorders are sketched. The paper concentrates on the physical parameters - characteristic function, dynamic range, digitization resolution, modulation transfer function, and noise power spectrum - which define image quality and information transfer capability of the printed image. A preliminary approach is presented to compare the printed image quality with noise in the acquired image as well as with the noise of state-of- the-art cathode-ray-tube display systems. High-performance laser-image- recorder/silver-halide-film/light-box systems are well capable of reproducing acquired radiologic information. Most recently development was begun toward a display function standard for soft-copy display systems to facilitate similarity of image presentation between different soft-copy displays as well as between soft- and hard-copy displays. The standard display function is based on perceptional linearization. The standard is briefly reviewed to encourage the printer industry to adopt it, too.

  16. Modelling human hard palate shape with Bézier curves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Janssen

    Full Text Available People vary at most levels, from the molecular to the cognitive, and the shape of the hard palate (the bony roof of the mouth is no exception. The patterns of variation in the hard palate are important for the forensic sciences and (palaeoanthropology, and might also play a role in speech production, both in pathological cases and normal variation. Here we describe a method based on Bézier curves, whose main aim is to generate possible shapes of the hard palate in humans for use in computer simulations of speech production and language evolution. Moreover, our method can also capture existing patterns of variation using few and easy-to-interpret parameters, and fits actual data obtained from MRI traces very well with as little as two or three free parameters. When compared to the widely-used Principal Component Analysis (PCA, our method fits actual data slightly worse for the same number of degrees of freedom. However, it is much better at generating new shapes without requiring a calibration sample, its parameters have clearer interpretations, and their ranges are grounded in geometrical considerations.

  17. Double hard scattering without double counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gaunt, Jonathan R. [VU Univ. Amsterdam (Netherlands). NIKHEF Theory Group; Schoenwald, Kay [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions includes kinematic regions in which two partons inside a proton originate from the perturbative splitting of a single parton. This leads to a double counting problem between single and double hard scattering. We present a solution to this problem, which allows for the definition of double parton distributions as operator matrix elements in a proton, and which can be used at higher orders in perturbation theory. We show how the evaluation of double hard scattering in this framework can provide a rough estimate for the size of the higher-order contributions to single hard scattering that are affected by double counting. In a numeric study, we identify situations in which these higher-order contributions must be explicitly calculated and included if one wants to attain an accuracy at which double hard scattering becomes relevant, and other situations where such contributions may be neglected.

  18. Methane in German hard coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, P.N.; Den Drijver, J.

    1995-01-01

    Worldwide, hard coal mining is being carried out at ever increasing depth, and has, therefore, to cope with correspondingly increasing methane emissions are caused by coal mining. Beside carbon dioxide, chloro-fluoro-carbons (CFCs) and nitrogen oxides, methane is one of the most significant 'greenhouse' gases. It is mainly through the release of such trace gases that the greenhouse effect is brought about. Reducing methane emissions is therefore an important problem to be solved by the coal mining industry. This paper begins by highlighting some of the fundamental principles of methane in hard coal mining. The methane problem in German hard coal mining and the industry's efforts to reduce methane emissions are presented. The future development in German hard coal mining is illustrated by an example which shows how large methane volumes can be managed, while still maintaining high outputs at increasing depth. (author). 7 tabs., 10 figs., 20 refs

  19. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

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  20. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

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    Full Text Available ... YouTube Red. Working... Not now Try it free Find out why Close Why Are Drugs So Hard ... hotline to help you or a loved one find treatment. For more information, visit http://www.easyread. ...

  1. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

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  2. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

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    Full Text Available ... Feb 7, 2012 Quitting drugs is hard because addiction is a brain disease. Your brain is like ... out signals to direct your actions and choices. Addiction changes the signals in your brain and makes ...

  3. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

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  4. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

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    Full Text Available ... in your brain and makes it hard to feel OK without the drug. This video from NIDA ... Advertise Developers +YouTube Terms Privacy Policy & Safety Send feedback Test new features Loading... Working... Sign in to ...

  5. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... has been rented. This feature is not available right now. Please try again later. Published on Feb 7, 2012 Quitting drugs is hard because addiction is a brain disease. Your brain is like a control tower ...

  6. A theoretical overview on single hard diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuesthoff, M.

    1996-01-01

    The concept of the Pomeron structure function and its application in Single Hard Diffraction at hadron colliders and in diffractive Deep Inelastic Scattering is critically reviewed. Some alternative approaches are briefly surveyed with a focus on QCD inspired models

  7. Double hard scattering without double counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, Markus; Gaunt, Jonathan R.

    2017-02-01

    Double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions includes kinematic regions in which two partons inside a proton originate from the perturbative splitting of a single parton. This leads to a double counting problem between single and double hard scattering. We present a solution to this problem, which allows for the definition of double parton distributions as operator matrix elements in a proton, and which can be used at higher orders in perturbation theory. We show how the evaluation of double hard scattering in this framework can provide a rough estimate for the size of the higher-order contributions to single hard scattering that are affected by double counting. In a numeric study, we identify situations in which these higher-order contributions must be explicitly calculated and included if one wants to attain an accuracy at which double hard scattering becomes relevant, and other situations where such contributions may be neglected.

  8. Hardness and microstructure analysis of damaged gear caused by adhesive wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra, Rizky Budi; Nugroho, Sri; Ismail, Rifky

    2018-03-01

    This study was a result from research on repairing project of damaged elevator gear box. The objective of this research is to analyze the failure part on elevator gearbox at flourmill factory. The equipment was damaged after one year installed and running on factory. Severe wear was occurred on high speed helical gear. These helical gear was one of main part of elevator gearbox in flour mill manufacture. Visually, plastic deformation didn't occurred and not visible on the failure helical gear shaft. Some test would be performed to check the chemical composition, microstructure and hardness of failure helical gear. The material of failure helical gear shaft was a medium carbon steel alloy. The microstructure was showed a martensitic phase formed on the surface to the center area of gear shaft. Otherwise, the depth of hardness layer slight formed on surface and lack depth of hardness layer was a main trigger of severe wear. It was not enough to resist wear due to friction caused by rolling and sliding on surface between high speed gear and low speed gear. Enhancement of hardness layer on surface and depth of hardness layer will make the component has more long life time. Furthermore, to perform next research is needed to analyze the reliability of enhanced hardness on layer and depth of hardness layer on helical gear shaft.

  9. Hard breakup of two nucleons from the 3He nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargsian, Misak M.; Granados, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    We investigate a large angle photodisintegration of two nucleons from the 3 He nucleus within the framework of the hard rescattering model (HRM). In the HRM a quark of one nucleon knocked out by an incoming photon rescatters with a quark of the other nucleon leading to the production of two nucleons with large relative momentum. Assuming the dominance of the quark-interchange mechanism in a hard nucleon-nucleon scattering, the HRM allows the expression of the amplitude of a two-nucleon breakup reaction through the convolution of photon-quark scattering, NN hard scattering amplitude, and nuclear spectral function, which can be calculated using a nonrelativistic 3 He wave function. The photon-quark scattering amplitude can be explicitly calculated in the high energy regime, whereas for NN scattering one uses the fit of the available experimental data. The HRM predicts several specific features for the hard breakup reaction. First, the cross section will approximately scale as s -11 . Second, the s 11 weighted cross section will have the shape of energy dependence similar to that of s 10 weighted NN elastic scattering cross section. Also one predicts an enhancement of the pp breakup relative to the pn breakup cross section as compared to the results from low energy kinematics. Another result is the prediction of different spectator momentum dependencies of pp and pn breakup cross sections. This is due to the fact that the same-helicity pp-component is strongly suppressed in the ground state wave function of 3 He. Because of this suppression the HRM predicts significantly different asymmetries for the cross section of polarization transfer NN breakup reactions for circularly polarized photons. For the pp breakup this asymmetry is predicted to be zero while for the pn it is close to (2/3).

  10. Hard scattering and gauge/string duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polchinski, Joseph; Strassler, Matthew J.

    2002-01-01

    We consider high-energy fixed-angle scattering of glueballs in confining gauge theories that have supergravity duals. Although the effective description is in terms of the scattering of strings, we find that the amplitudes are hard (power law). This is a consequence of the warped geometry of the dual theory, which has the effect that in an inertial frame the string process is never in the soft regime. At small angle we find hard and Regge behaviors in different kinematic regions

  11. Soft skills, hard skills, and individual innovativeness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendarman, Achmad Fajar; Cantner, Uwe

    2018-01-01

    of Indonesian firms from different industries are used from an online survey on manager and worker perceptions related to individual innovation performance on the one hand and individual skills on the other hand. The results show that soft skills and hard skills are significantly and positively associated...... with individual level innovativeness. However, no complementarity (positive interaction effect) is found between soft skills and hard skills....

  12. Hard template synthesis of metal nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamura, Go; Muto, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Atsunori

    2014-01-01

    Metal nanowires (NWs) have attracted much attention because of their high electron conductivity, optical transmittance, and tunable magnetic properties. Metal NWs have been synthesized using soft templates such as surface stabilizing molecules and polymers, and hard templates such as anodic aluminum oxide, mesoporous oxide, carbon nanotubes. NWs prepared from hard templates are composites of metals and the oxide/carbon matrix. Thus, selecting appropriate elements can simplify the production o...

  13. Radiation-Hard Quartz Cerenkov Calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akgun, U.; Onel, Y.

    2006-01-01

    New generation hadron colliders are going to reach unprecedented energies and radiation levels. Quartz has been identified as a radiation-hard material that can be used for Cerenkov calorimeters of the future experiments. We report from the radiation hardness tests performed on quartz fibers, as well as the characteristics of the quartz fiber and plate Cerenkov calorimeters that have been built, designed, and proposed for the CMS experiment

  14. Radiation hard memory cell and array thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunckel, T.L. II; Rovell, A.; Nielsen, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    A memory cell configuration that is implemented to be relatively hard to the adverse effects of a nuclear event is discussed. The presently disclosed memory cell can be interconnected with other like memory cells to form a high speed radiation hard register file. Information is selectively written into and read out of a memory cell comprising the register file, which memory cell preserves previously stored data without alteration in the event of exposure to high levels of nuclear radiation

  15. Standard test methods for rockwell hardness of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the Rockwell hardness and the Rockwell superficial hardness of metallic materials by the Rockwell indentation hardness principle. This standard provides the requirements for Rockwell hardness machines and the procedures for performing Rockwell hardness tests. 1.2 This standard includes additional requirements in annexes: Verification of Rockwell Hardness Testing Machines Annex A1 Rockwell Hardness Standardizing Machines Annex A2 Standardization of Rockwell Indenters Annex A3 Standardization of Rockwell Hardness Test Blocks Annex A4 Guidelines for Determining the Minimum Thickness of a Test Piece Annex A5 Hardness Value Corrections When Testing on Convex Cylindrical Surfaces Annex A6 1.3 This standard includes nonmandatory information in appendixes which relates to the Rockwell hardness test. List of ASTM Standards Giving Hardness Values Corresponding to Tensile Strength Appendix X1 Examples of Procedures for Determining Rockwell Hardness Uncertainty Appendix X...

  16. Standard test methods for rockwell hardness of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the Rockwell hardness and the Rockwell superficial hardness of metallic materials by the Rockwell indentation hardness principle. This standard provides the requirements for Rockwell hardness machines and the procedures for performing Rockwell hardness tests. 1.2 This standard includes additional requirements in annexes: Verification of Rockwell Hardness Testing Machines Annex A1 Rockwell Hardness Standardizing Machines Annex A2 Standardization of Rockwell Indenters Annex A3 Standardization of Rockwell Hardness Test Blocks Annex A4 Guidelines for Determining the Minimum Thickness of a Test Piece Annex A5 Hardness Value Corrections When Testing on Convex Cylindrical Surfaces Annex A6 1.3 This standard includes nonmandatory information in appendixes which relates to the Rockwell hardness test. List of ASTM Standards Giving Hardness Values Corresponding to Tensile Strength Appendix X1 Examples of Procedures for Determining Rockwell Hardness Uncertainty Appendix X...

  17. Detectability of rotation-powered pulsars in future hard X-ray surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei

    2009-01-01

    Recent INTEGRAL/IBIS hard X-ray surveys have detected about 10 young pulsars. We show hard X-ray properties of these 10 young pulsars, which have a luminosity of 10 33 -10 37 erg s -1 and a photon index of 1.6-2.1 in the energy range of 20-100 keV. The correlation between X-ray luminosity and spin-down power of L X ∝ L sd 1.31 suggests that the hard X-ray emission in rotation-powered pulsars is dominated by the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) component. Assuming spectral properties are similar in 20-100 keV and 2-10 keV for both the pulsar and PWN components, the hard X-ray luminosity and flux of 39 known young X-ray pulsars and 8 millisecond pulsars are obtained, and a correlation of L X ∝ L sd 1.5 is derived. About 20 known young X-ray pulsars and 1 millisecond pulsars could be detected with future INTEGRAL and HXMT surveys. We also carry out Monte Carlo simulations of hard X-ray pulsars in the Galaxy and the Gould Belt, assuming values for the pulsar birth rate, initial position, proper motion velocity, period, and magnetic field distribution and evolution based on observational statistics and the L X - L sd relations: L X ∝ L sd 1.31 and L X ∝ L sd 1.5 . More than 40 young pulsars (mostly in the Galactic plane) could be detected after ten years of INTEGRAL surveys and the launch of HXMT. So, the young pulsars would be a significant part of the hard X-ray source population in the sky, and will contribute to unidentified hard X-ray sources in present and future hard X-ray surveys by INTEGRAL and HXMT.

  18. Mathematical modeling for surface hardness in investment casting applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rupinder

    2012-01-01

    Investment casting (IC) has many potential engineering applications. Not much work hitherto has been reported for modeling the surface hardness (SH) in IC of industrial components. In the present study, outcome of Taguchi based macro model has been used for developing a mathematical model for SH; using Buckingham's π theorem. Three input parameters namely volume/surface area (V/A) ratio of cast components, slurry layer's combination (LC) and molten metal pouring temperature were selected to give output in form of SH. This study will provide main effects of these variables on SH and will shed light on the SH mechanism in IC. The comparison with experimental results will also serve as further validation of model

  19. Too hard to swallow: a secret secondary defence of an aposematic insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu-Yi; Huang, Wen-San; Tang, Hsin-Chieh; Huang, Lung-Chun; Lin, Chung-Ping

    2018-01-25

    Anti-predator strategies are significant components of adaptation in prey species. Aposematic prey are expected to possess effective defences that have evolved simultaneously with their warning colours. This study tested the hypothesis of the defensive function and ecological significance of the hard body in aposematic Pachyrhynchus weevils pioneered by Alfred Russel Wallace nearly 150 years ago. We used predation trials with Japalura tree lizards to assess the survivorship of 'hard' (mature) versus 'soft' (teneral) and 'clawed' (intact) versus 'clawless' (surgically removed) weevils. The ecological significance of the weevil's hard body was evaluated by assessing the hardness of the weevils, the local prey insects, and the bite forces of the lizard populations. The existence of toxins or deterrents in the weevil was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All 'hard' weevils were instantly spat out after being bitten once and survived attacks by the lizards. In contrast, the 'soft' weevils were chewed and subsequently swallowed. The results were the same regardless of the presence or absence of the weevil's tarsal claws. The hardness of 'hard' Pachyrhynchus weevils was significantly higher than the average hardness of other prey insects in the same habitat and the mean bite forces of the local lizards. The four candidate compounds of the weevil identified by GC-MS had no known toxic or repellent functions against vertebrates. These results reveal that the hardness of aposematic prey functions as an effective secondary defence, and they provide a framework for understanding the spatio-temporal interactions between vertebrate predators and aposematic insect prey. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. On chlorination of WC-Co, WC-TiC-Co and TiC-Mo-Ni solid alloys components in electroerosion process conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satyvaldiev, A.S.; Asanov, U.A.; Dronov, E.O.

    1996-01-01

    Potentialities of electroerosion processing of industrial wastes of hard alloys containing W and Ti carbides have been considered. The optimal dielectric medium for prevailing chlorination of the hard alloys metallic components has been ascertained. 8 refs., 1 tab

  1. DETECTION OF VERY HARD γ -RAY SPECTRUM FROM THE TEV BLAZAR MRK 501

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, A.; Chitnis, V. R.; Acharya, B. S. [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Mannheim, K.; Dorner, D. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Universität Würzburg, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Roy, J. [UM-DAE Center for Excellence in Basic Sciences, Mumbai 400098 (India); Hughes, G.; Biland, A. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Particle Physics, Otto-Stern-Weg 5, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-12-01

    The occasional hardening of the GeV-to-TeV spectrum observed from the blazar Mrk 501 has reopened the debate on the physical origin of radiation and particle acceleration processes in TeV blazars. We have used the ∼7 years of Fermi -LAT data to search for the time intervals with unusually hard spectra from the nearby TeV blazar Mrk 501. We detected hard spectral components above 10 GeV with photon index <1.5 at a significance level of more than 5 sigma on 17 occasions, each with 30 day integration time. The photon index of the hardest component reached a value of 0.89 ± 0.29. We interpret these hard spectra as signatures of intermittent injection of sharply peaked and localized particle distributions from the base of the jet.

  2. Novel hard compositions and methods of preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinberg, H.

    1983-08-23

    Novel very hard compositions of matter are prepared by using in all embodiments only a minor amount of a particular carbide (or materials which can form the carbide in situ when subjected to heat and pressure); and no strategic cobalt is needed. Under a particular range of conditions, densified compositions of matter of the invention are prepared having hardnesses on the Rockwell A test substantially equal to the hardness of pure tungsten carbide and to two of the hardest commercial cobalt-bonded tungsten carbides. Alternately, other compositions of the invention which have slightly lower hardnesses than those described above in one embodiment also possess the advantage of requiring no tungsten and in another embodiment possess the advantage of having a good fracture toughness value. Photomicrographs show that the shapes of the grains of the alloy mixture with which the minor amount of carbide (or carbide-formers) is mixed are radically altered from large, rounded to small, very angular by the addition of the carbide. Superiority of one of these hard compositions of matter over cobalt-bonded tungsten carbide for ultra-high pressure anvil applications was demonstrated. 3 figs.

  3. Hard and soft processes in small p/sub T/ inclusive reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanki, T [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Coll. of General Education; Okamoto, Y; Ryang, S

    1977-12-01

    Small p/sub T/ inclusive single-hadron spectra in high-energy hadron-hadron collisions are discussed in view of the two-component structure; each component corresponds to the contribution from the incoherent hard process or the coherent soft process among the partons. The clustered parton model, where each constituent quark is considered a cluster of the partons, gives the theoretical basis and certain regularities for both components. The various experimental spectra are shown to be well described by the two-component formula with these regularities. It is also argued that the CIM approach to small p sub(T) shows some disagreement with the data.

  4. The Impact of Incentives to Recruit and Retain Teachers in "Hard-to-Staff" Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li; Sass, Tim R.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the effects of a statewide program designed to increase the supply of teachers in designated "hard-to-staff" areas, such as special education, math, and science. Employing a difference-in-difference estimator we find that the loan forgiveness component of the program was effective, reducing mean attrition rates for middle…

  5. Online measurement of mental representations of complex spatial decision problems : comparison of CNET and hard laddering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horeni, O.; Arentze, T.A.; Dellaert, B.G.C.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the online Causal Network Elicitation Technique (CNET), as a technique for measuring components of mental representations of choice tasks and compares it with the more common technique of online 'hard' laddering (HL). While CNET works in basically two phases, one in open

  6. Genome-wide Association Analysis of Kernel Weight in Hard Winter Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat kernel weight is an important and heritable component of wheat grain yield and a key predictor of flour extraction. Genome-wide association analysis was conducted to identify genomic regions associated with kernel weight and kernel weight environmental response in 8 trials of 299 hard winter ...

  7. Structure, production and properties of high-melting compounds and systems (hard materials and hard metals)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holleck, H.; Thuemmler, F.

    1979-07-01

    The report contains contributions by various authors to the research project on the production, structure, and physical properties of high-melting compounds and systems (hard metals and hard materials), in particular WC-, TaC-, and MoC-base materials. (GSCH) [de

  8. Analytical Modeling of Hard-Coating Cantilever Composite Plate considering the Material Nonlinearity of Hard Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the material nonlinearity of hard coating, the coated structure produces the nonlinear dynamical behaviors of variable stiffness and damping, which make the modeling of hard-coating composite structure become a challenging task. In this study, the polynomial was adopted to characterize this material nonlinearity and an analytical modeling method was developed for the hard-coating composite plate. Firstly, to relate the hard-coating material parameters obtained by test and the analytical model, the expression of equivalent strain of composite plate was derived. Then, the analytical model of hard-coating composite plate was created by energy method considering the material nonlinearity of hard coating. Next, using the Newton-Raphson method to solve the vibration response and resonant frequencies of composite plate and a specific calculation procedure was also proposed. Finally, a cantilever plate coated with MgO + Al2O3 hard coating was chosen as study case; the vibration response and resonant frequencies of composite plate were calculated using the proposed method. The calculation results were compared with the experiment and general linear calculation, and the correctness of the created model was verified. The study shows the proposed method can still maintain an acceptable precision when the material nonlinearity of hard coating is stronger.

  9. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory is being constructed in preparation for the deep geological repository of spent fuel in Sweden. This Annual Report 1993 for the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory contains an overview of the work conducted. Present work is focused on verification of pre-investigation methods and development of the detailed investigation methodology. Construction of the facility and investigation of the bedrock are carried out in parallel. As of December 1993, 2760 m of the tunnel had been excavated to a depth of 370 m below the surface. An important and integral part of the work is further refinement of conceptual and numerical models for groundwater flow and radionuclide migration. Detailed plans have been prepared for several experiments to be conducted after the end of the construction work. Eight organizations from seven countries are now participating in the work at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory and are contributing in different ways to the results being achieved

  10. Hard template synthesis of metal nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go eKawamura

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Metal nanowires (NWs have attracted much attention because of their high electron conductivity, optical transmittance and tunable magnetic properties. Metal NWs have been synthesized using soft templates such as surface stabilizing molecules and polymers, and hard templates such as anodic aluminum oxide, mesoporous oxide, carbon nanotubes. NWs prepared from hard templates are composites of metals and the oxide/carbon matrix. Thus, selecting appropriate elements can simplify the production of composite devices. The resulting NWs are immobilized and spatially arranged, as dictated by the ordered porous structure of the template. This avoids the NWs from aggregating, which is common for NWs prepared with soft templates in solution. Herein, the hard template synthesis of metal NWs is reviewed, and the resulting structures, properties and potential applications are discussed.

  11. Hard template synthesis of metal nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Go; Muto, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Atsunori

    2014-11-01

    Metal nanowires (NWs) have attracted much attention because of their high electron conductivity, optical transmittance and tunable magnetic properties. Metal NWs have been synthesized using soft templates such as surface stabilizing molecules and polymers, and hard templates such as anodic aluminum oxide, mesoporous oxide, carbon nanotubes. NWs prepared from hard templates are composites of metals and the oxide/carbon matrix. Thus, selecting appropriate elements can simplify the production of composite devices. The resulting NWs are immobilized and spatially arranged, as dictated by the ordered porous structure of the template. This avoids the NWs from aggregating, which is common for NWs prepared with soft templates in solution. Herein, the hard template synthesis of metal NWs is reviewed, and the resulting structures, properties and potential applications are discussed.

  12. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn constitutes an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create an opportunity for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its associated research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. Most of the research is focused on processes of importance for the long-term safety of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. Demonstration addresses the performance of the engineered barriers and practical means of constructing and operating a repository for spent fuel. To meet the overall time schedule for SKB's RD and D work, the following stage goals were initially defined for the work at the Aespoe HRL: 1. Verify pre-investigation methods. Demonstrate that investigations on the ground surface and in boreholes provide sufficient data on essential safety-related properties of the rock at repository level. 2. Finalise detailed investigation methodology. Refine and verify the methods and the technology needed for characterisation of the rock in the detailed site investigations. 3. Test models for description of the barrier functions at natural conditions. Further develop, and at repository depth, test methods and models for description of groundwater flow, radionuclide migration and chemical conditions during operation of a repository and after closure. 4. Demonstrate technology for and function of important

  13. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn constitutes an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create an opportunity for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its associated research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. Most of the research is focused on processes of importance for the long-term safety of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. Demonstration addresses the performance of the engineered barriers and practical means of constructing and operating a repository for spent fuel. To meet the overall time schedule for SKB's RD and D work, the following stage goals were initially defined for the work at the Aespoe HRL: 1. Verify pre-investigation methods. Demonstrate that investigations on the ground surface and in boreholes provide sufficient data on essential safety-related properties of the rock at repository level. 2. Finalise detailed investigation methodology. Refine and verify the methods and the technology needed for characterisation of the rock in the detailed site investigations. 3. Test models for description of the barrier functions at natural conditions. Further develop, and at repository depth, test methods and models for description of groundwater flow, radionuclide migration and chemical conditions during operation of a repository and after closure. 4. Demonstrate technology for and function of important parts of the

  14. Effect of feed rate, workpiece hardness and cutting edge on subsurface residual stress in the hard turning of bearing steel using chamfer + hone cutting edge geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Jiang; Shivpuri, Rajiv; Cheng Xiaomin; Bedekar, Vikram; Matsumoto, Yoichi; Hashimoto, Fukuo; Watkins, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    Residual stress on the machined surface and the subsurface is known to influence the service quality of a component, such as fatigue life, tribological properties, and distortion. Therefore, it is essential to predict and control it for enhanced performance. In this paper, a newly proposed hardness based flow stress model is incorporated into an elastic-viscoplastic finite element model of hard turning to analyze process variables that affect the residual stress profile of the machined surface. The effects of cutting edge geometry and workpiece hardness as well as cutting conditions, such as feed rate and cutting speed, are investigated. Numerical analysis shows that hone edge plus chamfer cutting edge and aggressive feed rate help to increase both compressive residual stress and penetration depth. These predictions are validated by face turning experiments which were conducted using a chamfer with hone cutting edge for different material hardness and cutting parameters. The residual stresses under the machined surface are measured by X-ray diffraction/electropolishing method. A maximum circumferential residual stress of about 1700 MPa at a depth of 40 μm is reached for hardness of 62 HRc and feed rate of 0.56 mm/rev. This represents a significant increase from previously reported results in literatures. It is found from this analysis that using medium hone radius (0.02-0.05 mm) plus chamfer is good for keeping tool temperature and cutting force low, while obtaining desired residual stress profile

  15. Liquid agents for dispersion of hard alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putintseva, M.N.

    2006-01-01

    Effects of dispersant properties on granulometric, chemical, and phase composition of the products of WC hard alloy electroerosion are considered. It is established that an increase of liquid dispersant permittivity results in enhanced powder dispersity, and an increase of boiling temperature and kinematic viscosity of a hydrocarbon liquid promotes a carbon loss from WC and intensifies pyrolysis of the liquid.On electroerosion of WC base hard alloy in oil a powder particle consists of b-WC+W 2 C phases, in kerosine - of a-WC+b-WC, in distilled water - of W+W 2 C. The viscosity of liquid dispersants practically has no effect on powder particle size [ru

  16. Induction surface hardening of hard coated steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Kessler, Olaf; Hoffmann, Franz

    1999-01-01

    The deposition of hard coatings with CVD-processes is commonly used to improve the wear resistance e.g. of tool steels in forming. The advantages of CVD are undisputed (high deposition rates with simple equipment, excellent coating properties). Nevertheless, the disadvantage of the CVD-process is......The deposition of hard coatings with CVD-processes is commonly used to improve the wear resistance e.g. of tool steels in forming. The advantages of CVD are undisputed (high deposition rates with simple equipment, excellent coating properties). Nevertheless, the disadvantage of the CVD...

  17. Hardness of basaltic glass-ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Estrup, Maja

    2009-01-01

    The dependence of the hardness of basaltic glass-ceramics on their degree of crystallisation has been explored by means of differential scanning calorimetry, optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Vickers indentation. Different degrees of crystallisation in the basaltic glasses were achieved...... by varying the temperature of heat treatment. The predominant crystalline phase in the glass was identified as augite. It was found that the hardness of the glass phase decreased slightly with an increase in the degree of crystallisation, while that of the augite phase drastically decreased....

  18. Effects of explosions in hard rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.; Walton, O.R.; Maddix, D.M.; Shaffer, R.J.; Butkovich, T.R.

    1993-01-01

    This work relates to explosions in hard rocks (ex: basalt, granite, limestone...). Hard rock masses typically have a blocky structure created by the existence of geologic discontinuities such as bedding contacts, faults, and joints. At very high pressure - hundreds of kilobars and above - these discontinuities do not act separately, and the rock appears to be an equivalent continuous medium. At stress of a few tens of kilobars and below, the geologic discontinuities control the kinematics of the rock masses. Hence, the simulation of rock dynamics, anywhere but in the very-near source region, should account for those kinematics

  19. Novel Aspects of Hard Diffraction in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2005-01-01

    Initial- and final-state interactions from gluon-exchange, normally neglected in the parton model have a profound effect in QCD hard-scattering reactions, leading to leading-twist single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, diffractive hard hadronic reactions, and nuclear shadowing and antishadowing--leading-twist physics not incorporated in the light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. I also discuss the use of diffraction to materialize the Fock states of a hadronic projectile and test QCD color transparency

  20. Radiation hardness of undoped BGO crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.K.; Peng, K.C.; Huang, H.C.; Wang, C.H.; Chang, Y.H.; Hou, W.S.; Ueno, K.; Chou, F.I.; Wei, Y.Y.

    1997-01-01

    We measured the radiation hardness of undoped BGO crystals from two different manufacturers. Such crystals are proposed to be used in a small-angle calorimeter of the BELLE detector of the KEK B-factory. Transparency and scintillation light output of the crystals were monitored to see the effect of radiation damage. The crystals show considerable radiation hardness up to 10.2 Mrad equivalent dose, which is much higher than the maximum expected dosage of 500 krad per year of running at BELLE. (orig.)

  1. Hardness of carbides, nitrides, and borides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeter, W.

    1981-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds of metals with non-metals such as C, N, and B show different hardness. Wagner's interaction parameter characterizes manner and extent of the interaction between the atoms of the substance dissolved and the additional elements in metallic mixed phases. An attempt has been made to correlate the hardness of carbides, nitrides, and borides (data taken from literature) with certain interaction parameters and associated thermodynamic quantities (ΔH, ΔG). For some metals of periods 4, 5, and 6 corresponding relations were found between microhardness, interaction parameters, heat of formation, and atomic number

  2. Diffusion corrections to the hard pomeron

    CERN Document Server

    Ciafaloni, Marcello; Müller, A H; Ciafaloni, Marcello; Taiuti, Martina

    2001-01-01

    The high-energy behaviour of two-scale hard processes is investigated in the framework of small-x models with running coupling, having the Airy diffusion model as prototype. We show that, in some intermediate high-energy regime, the perturbative hard Pomeron exponent determines the energy dependence, and we prove that diffusion corrections have the form hinted at before in particular cases. We also discuss the breakdown of such regime at very large energies, and the onset of the non-perturbative Pomeron behaviour.

  3. Cold Spray for Repair of Magnesium Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Readiness Center East GM General Motors He helium hex-Cr hexavalent chromium HP-Al High Purity Aluminum HVOF High Velocity Oxygen Fuel ID inner...process is the hexavalent chromium (hex-Cr) permissible exposure limit (PEL) as established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA...project related to replacement of hard chrome plating on helicopter dynamic components using HVOF thermal spray coatings. FRC-E has a thermal spray

  4. Co-electrodeposition of hard Ni-W/diamond nanocomposite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Qin, Jiaqian; Das, Malay Kumar; Hao, Ruru; Zhong, Hua; Thueploy, Adisak; Limpanart, Sarintorn; Boonyongmaneerat, Yuttanant; Ma, Mingzhen; Liu, Riping

    2016-02-01

    Electroplated hard chrome coating is widely used as a wear resistant coating to prolong the life of mechanical components. However, the electroplating process generates hexavalent chromium ion which is known carcinogen. Hence, there is a major effort throughout the electroplating industry to replace hard chrome coating. Composite coating has been identified as suitable materials for replacement of hard chrome coating, while deposition coating prepared using traditional co-deposition techniques have relatively low particles content, but the content of particles incorporated into a coating may fundamentally affect its properties. In the present work, Ni-W/diamond composite coatings were prepared by sediment co-electrodeposition from Ni-W plating bath, containing suspended diamond particles. This study indicates that higher diamond contents could be successfully co-deposited and uniformly distributed in the Ni-W alloy matrix. The maximum hardness of Ni-W/diamond composite coatings is found to be 2249 ± 23 Hv due to the highest diamond content of 64 wt.%. The hardness could be further enhanced up to 2647 ± 25 Hv with heat treatment at 873 K for 1 h in Ar gas, which is comparable to hard chrome coatings. Moreover, the addition of diamond particles could significantly enhance the wear resistance of the coatings.

  5. High spectral resolution measurements of a solar flare hard X-ray burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, R.P.; Schwartz, R.A.; NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD)

    1987-01-01

    Observations are reported of an intense solar flare hard X-ray burst on June 27, 1980, made with a balloon-borne array of liquid nitrogen-cooled Ge detector which provided unprecedented spectral resolution (no more than 1 keV FWHM). The hard X-ray spectra throughout the impulsive phase burst fitted well to a double power-law form, and emission from an isothermal 0.1-1 billion K plasma can be specifically excluded. The temporal variations of the spectrum indicate that the hard X-ray burst is made up of two superposed components: individual spikes lasting about 3-15 sec, which have a hard spectrum and a break energy of 30-65 keV; and a slowly varying component characterized by a soft spectrum with a constant low-energy slope and a break energy which increases from 25 kev to at least 100 keV through the event. The double power-law shape indicates that DC electric field acceleration, similar to that occurring in the earth's auroral zone, may be the source of the energetic electrons which produce the hard X-ray emission. 39 references

  6. Galactic Black Holes in the Hard State: A Multi-Wavelength View of Accretion and Ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalemci; Tomsick, John A.; Migliari; Corbel; Markoff

    2010-01-01

    The canonical hard state is associated with emission from all three fundamental accretion components: the accretion disk, the hot accretion disk corona and the jet. On top of these, the hard state also hosts very rich temporal variability properties (low frequency QPOs in the PDS, time lags, long time scale evolution). Our group has been working on the major questions of the hard state both observationally (with mult i-wavelength campaigns using RXTE, Swift, Suzaku, Spitzer, VLA, ATCA, SMARTS) and theoretically (through jet models that can fit entire SEDs). Through spectral and temporal analysis we seek to determine the geometry of accretion components, and relate the geometry to the formation and emission from a jet. In this presentation I will review the recent contributions of our group to the field, including the Swift results on the disk geometry at low accretion rates, the jet model fits to the hard state SEDs (including Spitzer data) of GRO J1655-40, and the final results on the evolution of spectral (including X-ray, radio and infrared) and temporal properties of elected black holes in the hard states. I will also talk about impact of ASTROSAT to the science objective of our group.

  7. Analysis of the development and performance of hard disks

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Davorin

    2010-01-01

    With the emergence of new technologies in the field of hard drives we can witness a significant increase of surface density and transfer rate of interfaces which, as a result, enables greater performance and reliability of hard disks. The reason for this are increasing needs for higher capacities and data transfer rate to or from the hard disk. This thesis presents the structure of hard drives, features, performance and reliability of hard drives and alternative data storage technologies. Par...

  8. Experimental Investigation of White Layer formation in Hard Turning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbrello, D.; Rotella, G.; Crea, F.

    2011-05-01

    Hard turning with super hard cutting tools, like PCBN or Ceramics inserts, represents an interesting advance in the manufacturing industry, regarding the finishing of hardened steels. This innovative machining technique is considered an attractive alternative to traditional finish grinding operations because of the high flexibility, the ability to achieve higher metal removal rates, the possibility to operate without the use of coolants, and the capability to achieve comparable workpiece quality. However, the surface integrity effects of hard machining need to be taken into account due to their influence on the life of machined components. In particular, the formation of a usually undesirable white layer at the surface needs further investigation. Three different mechanisms have been proposed as main responsible of the white layer genesis: (i) microstructural phase transformation due to a rapid heating and quenching, (ii) severe plastic deformation resulting in a homogenous structure and/or a very fine grain size microstructure; (iii) surface reaction with the environment. In this research, an experimental campaign was carried out and several experimental techniques were used in order to analyzed the machined surface and to understand which of the above mentioned theories is the main cause of the white layer formation when AISI 52100 hardened steel is machined by PCBN inserts. In particular, the topography characterization has obtained by means of optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM) while microstructural phase composition and chemical characterization have been respectively detected using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. The results prove that the white layer is the result of microstructural alteration, i.e. the generation of a martensitic structure.

  9. Development of ITER diagnostics: Neutronic analysis and radiation hardness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukolov, Konstantin, E-mail: vukolov_KY@nrcki.ru; Borisov, Andrey; Deryabina, Natalya; Orlovskiy, Ilya

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Problems of ITER diagnostics caused by neutron radiation from hot DT plasma considered. • Careful neutronic analysis is necessary for ITER diagnostics development. • Effective nuclear shielding for ITER diagnostics in the 11th equatorial port plug proposed. • Requirements for study of radiation hardness of diagnostic elements defined. • Results of optical glasses irradiation tests in a fission reactor given. - Abstract: The paper is dedicated to the problems of ITER diagnostics caused by effects of radiation from hot DT plasma. An effective nuclear shielding must be arranged in diagnostic port plugs to meet the nuclear safety requirements and to provide reliable operation of the diagnostics. This task can be solved with the help of neutronic analysis of the diagnostics environment within the port plugs at the design stage. Problems of neutronic calculations are demonstrated for the 11th equatorial port plug. The numerical simulation includes the calculations of neutron fluxes in the port-plug and in the interspace. Options for nuclear shielding, such as tungsten collimator, boron carbide and water moderators, stainless steel and lead screens are considered. Data on neutron fluxes along diagnostic labyrinths allow to define radiation hardness requirements for the diagnostic components and to specify their materials. Options for windows and lenses materials for optical diagnostics are described. The results of irradiation of flint and silica glasses in nuclear reactor have shown that silica KU-1 and KS-4V retain transparency in visible range after neutron fluence of 10{sup 17} cm{sup −2}. Flints required for achromatic objectives have much less radiation hardness about 5 × 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}.

  10. Possible connections between hard and soft processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankenbecler, R.

    1977-10-01

    Three topics in constituent hadron models are reviewed: the connection between fixed angle and Regge behavior, the validity of the hard scattering expansion and restrictions on the effects of the transverse momentum of constituents, and the x distribution in the fragmentation region at low transverse momentum. 6 figures

  11. Parallel Narrative Structure in Paul Harding's "Tinkers"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çirakli, Mustafa Zeki

    2014-01-01

    The present paper explores the implications of parallel narrative structure in Paul Harding's "Tinkers" (2009). Besides primarily recounting the two sets of parallel narratives, "Tinkers" also comprises of seemingly unrelated fragments such as excerpts from clock repair manuals and diaries. The main stories, however, told…

  12. Registration of 'Prevail' hard red spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grower and end-user acceptance of new Hard Red Spring Wheat (HRSW; Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars is largely contingent upon satisfactory agronomic performance, end-use quality potential, and disease resistance levels. Additional characteristics, such as desirable plant height, can also contribute...

  13. Hard x-ray telescope mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorenstein, P.; Worrall, D.; Joensen, K.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Hard X-Ray Telescope was selected for study as a possible new intermediate size mission for the early 21st century. Its principal attributes are: (1) multiwavelength observing with a system of focussing telescopes that collectively observe from the UV to over 1 MeV, (2) much higher sensitivity...

  14. Systematic hardness studies on lithium niobate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    crystals with different growth origins, and a Fe-doped sample. The problem of load ... The true hardness of LiNbO3 is found to be 630 ± 30 kg/mm2. .... Experimental. Pure lithium ... the index of d strikes at this simple and meaningful defini-.

  15. "Work smart, wear your hard hat"

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Falling objects and collisions are frequent occurrences in work sites and hazardous areas. Hard hats can help prevent many types of accident and can even save lives. Just imagine an 800 g spanner falling from a 13 m high scaffold onto the head of someone standing below - a nightmare scenario! The impact to the head is equivalent to that of a 5 kg weight falling from 2 metres. That is just what happened to Gerd Fetchenhauer when he was working on the UA1 experiment. Fortunately, he was wearing a hard hat at the time. "That hat saved my life," he explains. "It punched a hole right through the hat and I was a bit dazed for a couple of hours but otherwise I was OK." Since that day, Gerd Fetchenhauer, now working on CMS, is never seen on a work site without his hard hat on. Work sites have proliferated at CERN with the construction of the LHC and its detectors, and the wearing of hard hats is compulsory (not to mention life-saving). In the underground caverns and experiment halls, where gantry cranes and other h...

  16. Cobalt allergy in hard metal workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, T; Rystedt, I

    1983-03-01

    Hard metal contains about 10% cobalt. 853 hard metal workers were examined and patch tested with substances from their environment. Initial patch tests with 1% cobalt chloride showed 62 positive reactions. By means of secondary serial dilution tests, allergic reactions to cobalt were reproduced in 9 men and 30 women. Weak reactions could not normally be reproduced. A history of hand eczema was found in 36 of the 39 individuals with reproducible positive test reactions to cobalt, while 21 of 23 with a positive initial patch test but negative serial dilution test had never had any skin problems. Hand etching and hand grinding, mainly female activities and traumatic to the hands, were found to involve the greatest risk of cobalt sensitization. 24 individuals had an isolated cobalt allergy. They had probably been sensitized by hard metal work, while the individuals, all women, who had simultaneous nickel allergy had probably been sensitized to nickel before their employment and then became sensitized to cobalt by hard metal work. A traumatic occupation, which causes irritant contact dermatitis and/or a previous contact allergy or atopy is probably a prerequisite for the development of cobalt allergy.

  17. Sustaining Transformation: "Resiliency in Hard Times"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarasci, Richard; Lieberman, Devorah

    2009-01-01

    The strategic, systemic, and encompassing evolution of a college or university spans a number of years, and the vagaries of economic cycles inevitably catch transforming institutions in mid-voyage. "Sustaining Transformation: Resiliency in Hard Times" presents a study of Wagner College as it moves into its second decade of purposeful…

  18. Induction surface hardening of hard coated steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantleon, K.; Kessler, O.; Hoffann, F.; Mayr, P. [Stiftung Inst. fuer Werkstofftechnik, Bremen (Germany)

    1999-11-01

    The properties of hard coatings deposited using CVD processes are usually excellent. However, high deposition temperatures negatively influence the substrate properties, especially in the case of low alloyed steels. Therefore, a subsequent heat treatment is necessary to restore the properties of steel substrates. Here, induction surface hardening is used as a method of heat treatment after the deposition of TiN hard coatings on AISI 4140 (DIN42CrMo4) substrates. The influences of the heat treatment on both the coating and the substrate properties are discussed in relation to the parameters of induction heating. Thereby, the heating time, heating atmosphere and the power input into the coating-substrate compounds are varied. As a result of induction surface hardening, the properties of the substrates are improved without losing good coating properties. High hardness values in the substrate near the interface allow the AISI 4140 substrates to support TiN hard coatings very well. Consequently, higher critical loads are measured in scratch tests after the heat treatment. Also, compressive residual stresses in the substrate are generated. In addition, only a very low distortion appears. (orig.)

  19. Hard scattering in γp interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, T.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.

    1992-10-01

    We report on the investigation of the final state in interactions of quasi-real photons with protons. The data were taken with the H1 detector at the HERA ep collider. Evidence for hard interactions is seen in both single particle spectra and jet formation. The data can best be described by inclusion of resolved photon processes as predicted by QCD. (orig.)

  20. Soft gluon contributions to hard processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciafaloni, M.

    1981-10-01

    The main concern of this paper is in trying to elucidate the origin of large QCD perturbative corrections and explain how to deal with them to all orders. They come essentially from the phase space regions close to the kinematical boundary of a hard process, in which one or many gluons become soft

  1. Hard Pseudocompact Spaces | Ghosh | Quaestiones Mathematicae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... which was absent in the literature. Finally, under smallness restrictions on hyper-real remainder of the Stone Cech compactification of a Tychonoff space we have achieved in producing a representation for hard pseudocompact space. Keywords: Compactification, Hewitt realcompactification, pseudocompact, realcompact

  2. Diffractive hard scattering and the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.L.; Collins, J.C.; Soper, D.E.; Sterman, G.

    1986-01-01

    Events in high energy hadron collisions are discussed that contain a hard scattering, in the sense that very heavy quarks or high P/sub T/ jets are produced, yet are diffractive, in the sense that one of the incident hadrons is scattered with only a small energy loss. 12 refs., 6 figs

  3. Effect of gum hardness on chewing pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesh, O; Bishop, B; McCall, W

    1986-06-01

    Chewing rhythms are set by a putative central pattern generator whose output is influenced by sensory feedback. In this study we assessed how an altered feedback imposed by changing the hardness of a gum bolus modifies the timing of chewing, the maximal gape, and the activity in the masseter muscle on the chewing side. Ten adult subjects with no orofacial dysfunction chewed a standard piece of soft or hard gum for at least 3 min in random order. Vertical jaw movements were recorded with a kinesiograph and activity of the masseter muscle was recorded and integrated from surface EMG electrodes. The subjects sat in a dental chair and viewed a video lecture to distract their attention from chewing; they were instructed to chew on the right molars. Cycle-by-cycle analysis showed that 9 of the 10 subjects chewed the hard gum more slowly than the soft with no significant change in gape. The increases in cycle duration were due to changes in the duration of the opening and occlusal phases. The duration of closing was not significantly changed even though the duration and level of masseter activity were both significantly increased. We conclude that gum hardness by altering proprioceptive feedback modifies the output of the masticatory central pattern generator in such a way that the temporal aspects of chewing and the output of the masseteric motor pool are affected.

  4. Decision-theoretic troubleshooting: Hardness of approximation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lín, Václav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2014), s. 977-988 ISSN 0888-613X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20012S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Decision-theoretic troubleshooting * Hardness of approximation * NP-completeness Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.451, year: 2014

  5. Remember Hard but Think Softly: Metaphorical Effects of Hardness/Softness on Cognitive Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiushu Xie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that bodily stimulation, such as hardness, biases social judgment and evaluation via metaphorical association; however, it remains unclear whether bodily stimulation also affects cognitive functions, such as memory and creativity. The current study used metaphorical associations between hard and rigid and between soft and flexible in Chinese, to investigate whether the experience of hardness affected cognitive functions requiring either rigidity (memory or flexibility (creativity. In Experiment 1, we found that Chinese-speaking participants performed better at recalling previously memorized words while sitting on a hard-surface stool (the hard condition than a cushioned one (the soft condition. In Experiment 2, participants sitting on a cushioned stool outperformed those sitting on a hard-surface stool on a Chinese riddle task, which required creative/flexible thinking, but not on an analogical reasoning task, which required both rigid and flexible thinking. The results suggest the hardness experience affects cognitive functions that are metaphorically associated with rigidity and flexibility. They support the embodiment proposition that cognitive functions and representations could be grounded via metaphorical association in bodily states.

  6. Hard Distraction and Deep Inelastic Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BJORKEN, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Since the advent of hard-collision physics, the study of diffractive processes- 'shadow physics' - has been less prominent than before. However, there is now a renewed interest in the subject, especially in that aspect which synthesizes the short-distance, hard-collision phenomena with the classical physics of large rapidity-gaps. This is especially stimulated by the recent data on deep-inelastic scattering from HERA, as well as the theoretical work which relates to it. The word 'diffraction' is sometimes used by high-energy physicists in a loose way. So I here begin by defining what I mean by the term: A diffractive process occurs if and only if there is a large rapidity gap in the produced-particle phase space which is not exponentially suppressed. Here a rapidity gap means essentially no hadrons produced into the rapidity gap (which operates in the 'lego' phase-space of pseudo-rapidity and azimuthal angle). And non-exponential suppression implies that the cross-section for creating a gap with width Δη does not have a power-law decrease with increasing sub energy Δη, but behaves at most like some power of pseudorapidity Δη∼ logs. The term 'hard diffraction' shall simply refer to those diffractive processes which have jets in the final-state phase-space. We may also distinguish, if desired, two subclasses, as suggested by Ingelman i) Diffractive hard processes have jets on only one side of the rapidity gap. ii) Hard diffractive processes have jets on both sides of the rapidity gap

  7. Unique opportunities in powder injection molding of refractory and hard materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    Powder injection molding (PIM) is a relatively new manufacturing process for the creation of complicated net-shapes outside the range usually possible via powder metallurgy technologies. This new process is now in production at more than 550 sites around the world. Although a small industry, PIM will soon pass $1 billion dollars (USA) in annual sales. This presentation overviews the PIM process, some of the new developments and some of the successes that have occurred with both refractory metals and hard metals. Example applications are seen in medical and dental devices, industrial components, wristwatches, jet engines, firearms, automotive components, and even hand tools. To help establish the novel growth opportunities, PIM is compared to other fabrication routes to better understand the design features arising with this new approach, providing a compelling case for substantial opportunities in the refractory and hard materials. Illustrations are provided of several components in production. New opportunities abound for the technology, since it eliminates the shape complexity barrier associated with die compaction and the cost of machining associated with complicated or dimensionally precise components. Further, a relative cost advantage exists for refractory and hard materials because PIM can use the same powders at the same prices as employed in alternative processes. Future successes will occur by early identification of candidate materials and designs. Early examples include tungsten heavy alloy components now reaching production rates of six million per month. (author)

  8. Thermodynamic perturbation theory for fused hard-sphere and hard-disk chain fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Y.; Hall, C.K.; Stell, G.

    1995-01-01

    We find that first-order thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT1) which incorporates the reference monomer fluid used in the generalized Flory--AB (GF--AB) theory yields an equation of state for fused hard-sphere (FHS) chain fluids that has accuracy comparable to the GF--AB and GF--dimer--AC theories. The new TPT1 equation of state is significantly more accurate than other extensions of the TPT1 theory to FHS chain fluids. The TPT1 is also extended to two-dimensional fused hard-disk chain fluids. For the fused hard-disk dimer fluid, the extended TPT1 equation of state is found to be more accurate than the Boublik hard-disk dimer equation of state. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  9. Hard diffraction and small-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    In the United States, phrases such as ''small-x evolution'', ''the BFKL Pomeron'', ''deep-inelastic rapiditygap events'' and ''hard-diffraction'' do not generate the same intensity of discussion amongst high-energy physicists that they do in Europe. However, for three days in the fall such discussion filled the air at Fermilab. The ''2nd Workshop on Small-x and Diffractive Physics at the Tevatron'' was a review of the rapid theoretical and experimental progress taking place in this field. Although Quantum Chromo-dynamics (QCD) has been established as the theory of strong interactions for twenty years, as yet neither perturbative high-energy calculations nor low-energy non-perturbative techniques have been successfully extended to the mixture of high energy and low transverse momenta which characterize traditional ''soft'' diffractive processes. The simplest soft diffractive process is elastic scattering. In this case it is easiest to accept that there is an exchanged ''pomeron'', which can be pictured as a virtual entity with no electric charge or strong charge (colour), perhaps like an excitation of the vacuum. The same pomeron is expected to appear in all diffractive processes. Understanding the pomeron in QCD is a fundamental theoretical and experimental challenge. In the last two or three years the ''frontier'' in this challenging area of QCD has been pushed back significantly in both theory and experiment. Progress has been achieved by studying the evolution of hard collisions to relatively smaller constituent momenta (small x) and by studying ''hard'' diffractive collisions containing simultaneous signatures of diffraction and hard perturbative processes. The hard processes have included high transverse momentum jet production, deep inelastic lepton scattering, and (most recently) W

  10. Microbiological quality of soft, semi-hard and hard cheeses during the shelf-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Vrdoljak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheeses as ready-to-eat food should be considered as a potential source of foodborne pathogens, primarily Listeria monocytogenes. The aim of present study was to determine the microbiological quality of soft, semi-hard and hard cheeses during the shelf-life, with particular reference to L. monocytogenes. Five types of cheeses were sampled at different timepoints during the cold storage and analyzed for presence of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes, as well as lactic acid bacteria, Escherichia coli, coagulase-positive staphylococci, yeasts, molds, sulfite-reducing clostridia and L. monocytogenes counts. Water activity, pH and NaCl content were monitored in order to evaluate the possibility of L. monocytogenes growth. Challenge test for L. monocytogenes was performed in soft whey cheese, to determine the growth potential of pathogen during the shelf-life of product. All analyzed cheeses were compliant with microbiological criteria during the shelf-life. In soft cheeses, lactic acid bacteria increased in the course of the shelf-life period (1.2-2.6 log increase, while in semi-hard and hard cheeses it decreased (1.6 and 5.2 log decrease, respectively. Soft cheeses support the growth of L. monocytogenes according to determined pH values (5.8-6.5, water activity (0.99-0.94, and NaCl content (0.3-1.2%. Challenge test showed that L. monocytogenes growth potential in selected soft cheese was 0.43 log10 cfu/g during 8 days at 4°C. Water activity in semi-hard and hard cheeses was a limiting factor for Listeria growth during the shelf-life. Soft, semi-hard and hard cheeses were microbiologically stable during their defined shelf-life. Good manufacturing and hygienic practices must be strictly followed in the production of soft cheeses as Listeria-supporting food and be focused on preventing (recontamination.

  11. Bond-orientational analysis of hard-disk and hard-sphere structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil Kumar, V; Kumaran, V

    2006-05-28

    We report the bond-orientational analysis results for the thermodynamic, random, and homogeneously sheared inelastic structures of hard-disks and hard-spheres. The thermodynamic structures show a sharp rise in the order across the freezing transition. The random structures show the absence of crystallization. The homogeneously sheared structures get ordered at a packing fraction higher than the thermodynamic freezing packing fraction, due to the suppression of crystal nucleation. On shear ordering, strings of close-packed hard-disks in two dimensions and close-packed layers of hard-spheres in three dimensions, oriented along the velocity direction, slide past each other. Such a flow creates a considerable amount of fourfold order in two dimensions and body-centered-tetragonal (bct) structure in three dimensions. These transitions are the flow analogs of the martensitic transformations occurring in metals due to the stresses induced by a rapid quench. In hard-disk structures, using the bond-orientational analysis we show the presence of fourfold order. In sheared inelastic hard-sphere structures, even though the global bond-orientational analysis shows that the system is highly ordered, a third-order rotational invariant analysis shows that only about 40% of the spheres have face-centered-cubic (fcc) order, even in the dense and near-elastic limits, clearly indicating the coexistence of multiple crystalline orders. When layers of close-packed spheres slide past each other, in addition to the bct structure, the hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) structure is formed due to the random stacking faults. Using the Honeycutt-Andersen pair analysis and an analysis based on the 14-faceted polyhedra having six quadrilateral and eight hexagonal faces, we show the presence of bct and hcp signatures in shear ordered inelastic hard-spheres. Thus, our analysis shows that the dense sheared inelastic hard-spheres have a mixture of fcc, bct, and hcp structures.

  12. Remember Hard But Think Softly: Metaphorical Effects of Hardness/Softness on Cognitive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiushu; Lu, Zhi; Wang, Ruiming; Cai, Zhenguang G.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found that bodily stimulation, such as hardness biases social judgment and evaluation via metaphorical association; however, it remains unclear whether bodily stimulation also affects cognitive functions, such as memory and creativity. The current study used metaphorical associations between “hard” and “rigid” and between “soft” and “flexible” in Chinese, to investigate whether the experience of hardness affects cognitive functions whose performance depends prospectively on rigidity (memory) and flexibility (creativity). In Experiment 1, we found that Chinese-speaking participants performed better at recalling previously memorized words while sitting on a hard-surface stool (the hard condition) than a cushioned one (the soft condition). In Experiment 2, participants sitting on a cushioned stool outperformed those sitting on a hard-surface stool on a Chinese riddle task, which required creative/flexible thinking, but not on an analogical reasoning task, which required both rigid and flexible thinking. The results suggest the hardness experience affects cognitive functions that are metaphorically associated with rigidity or flexibility. They support the embodiment proposition that cognitive functions and representations can be grounded in bodily states via metaphorical associations. PMID:27672373

  13. Effect of heat-treatment on the hardness and mechanical properties of Boron Alloyed Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    bin Khiyon Mohammad Raffik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In an automotive industry, hot stamped, die quenched structural components have been widely used to provide extra protection against crash intrusion. Boron alloyed steel exhibit limited ductility, but it also promotes improvement in impact performance. This study analyzed the effect of cooling rate on the hardness and energy absorption. Self-quenched specimens were heated to 850°C and cooled in air of room temperature, water at room temperature and cold water. Vickers hardness test and tensile test was then carried out to analyze the effect of different quenching rate. Self-quenched specimens were compared to the properties of the die-quenched specimens obtained from commercial automobile body. Result shows that boron steel with the highest cooling rate has the highest value of hardness but low in strength.

  14. Induced supersolidity in a mixture of normal and hard-core bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Tapan; Das, B. P.; Pai, Ramesh V.

    2010-01-01

    We present a scenario where a supersolid is induced in one of the components of a mixture of two species bosonic atoms where there are no long-range interactions. We study a system of normal and hard-core boson mixture with only the former possessing long-range interactions. We consider three cases: the first where the total density is commensurate and the other two where it is incommensurate to the lattice. By suitable choices of the densities of normal and hard-core bosons and the interaction strengths between them, we predict that the charge density wave and the supersolid orders can be induced in the hard-core species as a result of the competing interatomic interactions.

  15. Developing very hard nanostructured bainitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amel-Farzad, H., E-mail: hh_amel@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Engineering and Metallurgy, Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faridi, H.R., E-mail: faridihr@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Engineering and Metallurgy, Hamedan University of Technology, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rajabpour, F.; Abolhasani, A.; Kazemi, Sh.; Khaledzadeh, Y. [Department of Materials Engineering and Metallurgy, Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-01

    Novel nanostructured high carbon high silicon, carbide-free bainitic steels with very high strength and good ductility have been developed in the recent decade. In this work, an alloy with a high carbon content and no manganese was designed and cast. The prepared samples were heat treated through an austempering process in the range 200-350 Degree-Sign C. Optical and scanning electron microscopes and XRD were used to analyze the microstructures precisely. Bainitic ferrite plates of just a few tens of nanometer thickness were obtained with the hardness of 697{+-}6 HV. It is reasonable to say that the unprecedented hardness values obtained in this work are mostly caused by the extraordinary carbon content of the alloy.

  16. Nanoindentation hardness of banded Australian sedimentary opal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P S; Smallwood, A S; Ray, A S [Department of Chemistry, Material and Forensic Science, University of Technology Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway, NSW 2007 (Australia); Briscoe, B J; Parsonage, D [Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: paul.thomas@uts.edu.au

    2008-04-07

    Nanoindentation hardness data in continuous stiffness mode are reported for banded potch and play of colour opals sourced from Lightning Ridge in New South Wales and Andamooka in South Australia. Despite the significant visible heterogeneities observed and the significant differences in origin and microstructures, as observed by SEM, and subtle differences in the elemental distributions between bands within specimens, little difference was observed in the mechanical properties. Specimens were found to be mechanically homogeneous and values of the hardness and moduli were found to be similar between samples. The creep behaviour of the specimens was also observed to be similar. It was concluded that the similarities in mechanical properties were due to the similarities in the silica morphology of the specimens, formed in similar geological environments, as differences in microstructure and trace element distribution were found not to significantly influence the observed bulk mechanical properties.

  17. Biological and ecological aspects of hard ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Nayibe Polanco Echeverry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hard ticks are blood-sucking ectoparasites of Ixodidae family. These mites have been always considered disrupting agents of livestock systems, where they are recognized as the cause of economic and production losses. However, their ecological role is important for the dynamic equilibrium of the production systems bovine meat or milk. Knowing their biolog y and ecolog y can shed light on the sanitary decisions made in relation to these organisms. This review article presents issues related to classification, characteristics, and life cycle of hard ticks and relations vector-parasite-host. In addition, it addresses the control of ectoparasites on conventional livestock systems and the implica-tions that these models of intervention might have on agro-ecosystem.

  18. Fixed target electroweak and hard scattering physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, R.; Brown, C.N.; Montgomery, H.E.; Corcoran, M.D.

    1990-02-01

    The possibilities for future physics and experiments involving weak and electromagnetic interactions, neutrino oscillations, general hard scattering and experiments involving nuclear targets were explored. The studies were limited to the physics accessible using fixed target experimentation. While some of the avenues explored turn out to be relatively unrewarding in the light of competition elsewhere in the world, there are a number of positive conclusions reached about experimentation in the energy range available to the Main Injector and Tevatron. Some of the experiments would benefit from the increased intensity available from the Tevatron utilizing the Main Injector, while some require this increase. Finally, some of the experiments would use the Main Injector low energy, high intensity extracted beams directly. A program of electroweak and hard scattering experiments at fixed target energies retains the potential for important contributions to physics. The key to major parts of this program would appear to be the existence of the Main Injector. 115 refs, 17 figs

  19. SURFACES OF HARD-SPHERE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Stoyan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In various situations surfaces appear that are formed by systems of hard spheres. Examples are porous layers as surfaces of sand heaps and biofilms or fracture surfaces of concrete. The present paper considers models where a statistically homogeneous system of hard spheres with random radii is intersected by a plane and the surface is formed by the spheres with centers close to this plane. Formulae are derived for various characteristics of such surfaces: for the porosity profile, i.e. the local porosity in dependence on the distance from the section plane and for the geometry of the sphere caps that look above the section plane.It turns out that these characteristics only depend on the first-order characteristics of the sphere system, its sphere density and the sphere radius distribution.Comparison with empirically studied biofilms shows that the model is realistic.

  20. Aespoe hard rock laboratory. Annual report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Aespoe hard rock laboratory is being constructed in preparation for the deep geological repository of spent fuel in Sweden. This Annual report 1992 for the Aespoe hard rock laboratory contains an overview of the work conducted. Present work is focused on verification of pre-investigation methods and development of the detailed investigation methodology. Construction of the facility and investigation of the bedrock are being carried out in parallel. December 1992 1925 m of the tunnel has been excavated to a depth of 255 m below surface. An important and integrated part of the work is further refinement of conceptual and numerical models for groundwater flow and radionuclide migration. This work is carried out in cooperation with seven organizations from six countries that participate in the project. (25 refs.)

  1. Hard Spheres on the Primitive Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotera, Tomonari; Takahashi, Yusuke

    2015-03-01

    Recently hierarchical structures associated with the gyroid in several soft-matter systems have been reported. One of fundamental questions is regular arrangement or tiling on minimal surfaces. We have found certain numbers of hard spheres per unit cell on the gyroid surface are entropically self-organized. Here, new results for the primitive surface are presented. 56/64/72 per unit cell on the primitive minimal surface are entropically self-organized. Numerical evidences for the fluid-solid transition as a function of hard sphere radius are obtained in terms of the acceptance ratio of Monte Carlo moves and order parameters. These arrangements, which are the extensions of the hexagonal arrangement on a flat surface, can be viewed as hyperbolic tiling on the Poincaré disk with a negative Gaussian curvature.

  2. Microfabrication of hard x-ray lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stöhr, Frederik

    This thesis deals with the development of silicon compound refractive lenses (Si-CRLs) for shaping hard x-ray beams. The CRLs are to be fabricated using state of the art microfabrication techniques. The primary goal of the thesis work is to produce Si-CRLs with considerably increased structure...... and characterized with respect to their shape. Their optical performances were tested at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). Two 1D-focusing Si-CRLs suitable as condensers in hard-XRM were developed utilizing the aforementioned two different strategies. The first Si-condenser showed focusing of a 56...... of space for sample surroundings and ensure low-divergent and wide x-ray beams with narrow waists. Both results are substantial improvements to what was available at the start of this thesis work. The challenge of making x-ray objectives in silicon by interdigitation of lenslets alternately focusing...

  3. Anomalous structural transition of confined hard squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurin, Péter; Varga, Szabolcs; Odriozola, Gerardo

    2016-11-01

    Structural transitions are examined in quasi-one-dimensional systems of freely rotating hard squares, which are confined between two parallel walls. We find two competing phases: one is a fluid where the squares have two sides parallel to the walls, while the second one is a solidlike structure with a zigzag arrangement of the squares. Using transfer matrix method we show that the configuration space consists of subspaces of fluidlike and solidlike phases, which are connected with low probability microstates of mixed structures. The existence of these connecting states makes the thermodynamic quantities continuous and precludes the possibility of a true phase transition. However, thermodynamic functions indicate strong tendency for the phase transition and our replica exchange Monte Carlo simulation study detects several important markers of the first order phase transition. The distinction of a phase transition from a structural change is practically impossible with simulations and experiments in such systems like the confined hard squares.

  4. Magnetic hyperthermia with hard-magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashevsky, Bronislav E., E-mail: bekas@itmo.by [A.V Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute, Belarus Academy of Sciences, P. Brovka str. 15, Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Kashevsky, Sergey B.; Korenkov, Victor S. [A.V Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute, Belarus Academy of Sciences, P. Brovka str. 15, Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Istomin, Yuri P. [N. N. Alexandrov National Cancer Center of Belarus, Lesnoy-2, Minsk 223040 (Belarus); Terpinskaya, Tatyana I.; Ulashchik, Vladimir S. [Institute of Physiology, Belarus Academy of Sciences, Akademicheskaya str. 28, Minsk 220072 (Belarus)

    2015-04-15

    Recent clinical trials of magnetic hyperthermia have proved, and even hardened, the Ankinson-Brezovich restriction as upon magnetic field conditions applicable to any site of human body. Subject to this restriction, which is harshly violated in numerous laboratory and small animal studies, magnetic hyperthermia can relay on rather moderate heat source, so that optimization of the whole hyperthermia system remains, after all, the basic problem predetermining its clinical perspectives. We present short account of our complex (theoretical, laboratory and small animal) studies to demonstrate that such perspectives should be related with the hyperthermia system based on hard-magnetic (Stoner–Wohlfarth type) nanoparticles and strong low-frequency fields rather than with superparamagnetic (Brownian or Neél) nanoparticles and weak high-frequency fields. This conclusion is backed by an analytical evaluation of the maximum absorption rates possible under the field restriction in the ideal hard-magnetic (Stoner–Wohlarth) and the ideal superparamagnetic (single relaxation time) systems, by theoretical and experimental studies of the dynamic magnetic hysteresis in suspensions of movable hard-magnetic particles, by producing nanoparticles with adjusted coercivity and suspensions of such particles capable of effective energy absorption and intratumoral penetration, and finally, by successful treatment of a mice model tumor under field conditions acceptable for whole human body. - Highlights: • Hard-magnetic nanoparticles are shown superior for hyperthetmia to superparamagnetic. • Optimal system parameters are found from magnetic reversal model in movable particle. • Penetrating suspension of HM particles with aggregation-independent SAR is developed. • For the first time, mice with tumors are healed in AC field acceptable for human body.

  5. Mining technology development for hard rock excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hustrulid, W.; Cudnick, R.; Trent, R.; Holmberg, R.

    1980-01-01

    A research facility has been established in the granitic gneiss of the CSM Experimental Mine at Idaho Springs, Colorado, for the purpose of evaluating/developing mining, geologic and geotechnical procedures appropriate for use in establishing nuclear waste repositories in hard rock. An experimental room has been excavated using careful blasting procedures. The extent and magnitude of blast damage is being evaluated. Structural geology is being mapped to assess continuity

  6. Hard-tip, soft-spring lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Wooyoung; Braunschweig, Adam B; Liao, Xing; Chai, Jinan; Lim, Jong Kuk; Zheng, Gengfeng; Mirkin, Chad A

    2011-01-27

    Nanofabrication strategies are becoming increasingly expensive and equipment-intensive, and consequently less accessible to researchers. As an alternative, scanning probe lithography has become a popular means of preparing nanoscale structures, in part owing to its relatively low cost and high resolution, and a registration accuracy that exceeds most existing technologies. However, increasing the throughput of cantilever-based scanning probe systems while maintaining their resolution and registration advantages has from the outset been a significant challenge. Even with impressive recent advances in cantilever array design, such arrays tend to be highly specialized for a given application, expensive, and often difficult to implement. It is therefore difficult to imagine commercially viable production methods based on scanning probe systems that rely on conventional cantilevers. Here we describe a low-cost and scalable cantilever-free tip-based nanopatterning method that uses an array of hard silicon tips mounted onto an elastomeric backing. This method-which we term hard-tip, soft-spring lithography-overcomes the throughput problems of cantilever-based scanning probe systems and the resolution limits imposed by the use of elastomeric stamps and tips: it is capable of delivering materials or energy to a surface to create arbitrary patterns of features with sub-50-nm resolution over centimetre-scale areas. We argue that hard-tip, soft-spring lithography is a versatile nanolithography strategy that should be widely adopted by academic and industrial researchers for rapid prototyping applications.

  7. Hard Diffraction - from Blois 1985 to 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnar, Ingelman [Uppsala Univ., High Energy Physics (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    The idea of diffractive processes with a hard scale involved, to resolve the underlying parton dynamics, was presented at the first Blois conference in 1985 and experimentally verified a few years later. Today hard diffraction is an attractive research field with high-quality data and new theoretical models. The trend from Regge-based pomeron models to QCD-based parton level models has given insights on QCD dynamics involving perturbative gluon exchange mechanisms. In the new QCD-based models, the pomeron is not part of the proton wave function, but diffraction is an effect of the scattering process. Models based on interactions with a colour background field provide an interesting approach which avoids conceptual problems of pomeron-based models, such as the pomeron flux, and provide a basis for common theoretical framework for all final states, diffractive gap events as well as non-diffractive events. Finally, the new process of gaps between jets provides strong evidence for the BFKL dynamics as predicted since long by QCD, but so far hard to establish experimentally.

  8. Hard diffraction and deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    Since the advent of hard-collision physics, the study of diffractive processes - shadow physics - has been less prominent than before. However, there is now a renewed interest in the subject, especially in that aspect which synthesizes the short-distance, hard-collision phenomena with the classical physics of large rapidity-gaps. This is especially stimulated by the recent data on deep-inelastic scattering from HERA, as well as the theoretical work which relates to it. The word diffraction is sometimes used by high-energy physicists in a loose way. The author defines this term to mean: A diffractive process occurs if and only if there is a large rapidity gap in the produced-particle phase space which is not exponentially suppressed. Here a rapidity gap means essentially no hadrons produced into the rapidity gap (which operates in the open-quotes legoclose quotes phase-space of pseudo-rapidity and azimuthal angle). And non-exponential suppression implies that the cross-section for creating a gap with width Δη does not have a power-law decrease with increasing subenergy s=e Δη , but behaves at most like some power of pseudorapidity Δη∼log(s). The term hard diffraction shall simply refer to those diffractive process which have jets in the final-state phase-space

  9. Carbon 1s photoelectron spectroscopy of halomethanes. Effects of electronegativity, hardness, charge distribution, and relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saethre, L.J.; Borve, K.J.; Thomas, T.D.; Bozek, J.D.; Huttula, M.; Kukk, E.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The concept of electronegativity - the ability of an atom (or functional group) to attract electrons to itself - plays an important role in chemistry. A related concept is the hardness, which has been defined to be half the derivative of electronegativity with respect to charge. It is inversely related to polarizibility. A number of quantitative definitions of electronegativity have been given and a number of tables of electronegativity and hardness have been presented. In spite of this extensive activity the quantitative nature of both of these remains elusive. Inner-shell ionization energies reflect both the charge distribution in a molecule (and, hence, the electronegativity of its component atoms) and the polarizibility of the molecule (and, hence, the hardness of the component atoms). It is not surprising, therefore, that the core-ionization energies of a central atom correlate with the electronegativities of the substituents attached to the atom. It has been our goal to use these correlations to obtain a better insight into the nature of electronegativity and to develop a method for assigning group electronegativities on the basis of core-ionization energies. Carbon 1s ionization energies have been measured for 12 halomethanes. These together with earlier measurements provide 27 compounds for investigating the relationship between core-ionization energies and the electronegativity and hardness of the halogens. The ionization energies correlate nearly linearly with the sum of the electronegativities of the halogens attached to the central carbon. Both electronegativity and hardness play important roles in determining the ionization energy, and it is found that the linear relationship between ionization energy and electronegativity arises from an interplay of the electronegativity and hardness of the halogens and the length and ionicity of the carbon-halogen bond

  10. Aespoe hard rock laboratory. Annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory constitutes an important component of SKB's work to design, construct, and implement a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel and to develop and test methods for characterisation of selected repository sites. The retention effect of the rock has been studied by tracer tests in the Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments (TRUE) and the TRUE Block Scale (TRUE BS). These tests are supplemented by the new Long Term Diffusion Experiment (LTDE). During year 2000 the field experiments of TRUE BS (50 m scale) were completed and preparations made for the LTDE (migration through a fracture wall and into the rock), including boring of approximately 10 m deep hole with 300 mm diameter. Laboratory investigations have difficulties in simulating natural conditions and need supplementary field studies to support validation exercises. A special borehole probe, CHEMLAB, has therefore been designed for different kinds of validation experiments where data can be obtained representative for the in-situ properties of groundwater at repository depth. During 2000 migration experiments were made with actinides (Am, Np and Pu) in CHEMLAB 2, the simplified supplement to CHEMLAB 1. Colloids of nuclides as well as of bentonite might affect the migration of released radionuclides and a separate project was planned during 2000 to assess the existence, stability and mobility of colloids. The development of numerical modelling tools continues with the general objective to improve the numerical models in terms of flow and transport and to update the site-scale and laboratory scale models for the Aespoe HRL. The Matrix Fluid Chemistry project aims at determining the origin and age of matrix fluids and the experiment has been designed to sample matrix fluids from predetermined, isolated borehole sections by specialised equipment. The Aespoe HRL also has the task to demonstrate and perform full scale tests of the function of different components of the

  11. Aespoe hard rock laboratory. Annual report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory constitutes an important component of SKB's work to design, construct, and implement a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel and to develop and test methods for characterisation of selected repository sites. The retention effect of the rock has been studied by tracer tests in the Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments (TRUE) and the TRUE Block Scale (TRUE BS). These tests are supplemented by the new Long Term Diffusion Experiment (LTDE). During year 2000 the field experiments of TRUE BS (50 m scale) were completed and preparations made for the LTDE (migration through a fracture wall and into the rock), including boring of approximately 10 m deep hole with 300 mm diameter. Laboratory investigations have difficulties in simulating natural conditions and need supplementary field studies to support validation exercises. A special borehole probe, CHEMLAB, has therefore been designed for different kinds of validation experiments where data can be obtained representative for the in-situ properties of groundwater at repository depth. During 2000 migration experiments were made with actinides (Am, Np and Pu) in CHEMLAB 2, the simplified supplement to CHEMLAB 1. Colloids of nuclides as well as of bentonite might affect the migration of released radionuclides and a separate project was planned during 2000 to assess the existence, stability and mobility of colloids. The development of numerical modelling tools continues with the general objective to improve the numerical models in terms of flow and transport and to update the site-scale and laboratory scale models for the Aespoe HRL. The Matrix Fluid Chemistry project aims at determining the origin and age of matrix fluids and the experiment has been designed to sample matrix fluids from predetermined, isolated borehole sections by specialised equipment. The Aespoe HRL also has the task to demonstrate and perform full scale tests of the function of different components of

  12. Hard and soft acids and bases: atoms and atomic ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, James L

    2008-07-07

    The structural origin of hard-soft behavior in atomic acids and bases has been explored using a simple orbital model. The Pearson principle of hard and soft acids and bases has been taken to be the defining statement about hard-soft behavior and as a definition of chemical hardness. There are a number of conditions that are imposed on any candidate structure and associated property by the Pearson principle, which have been exploited. The Pearson principle itself has been used to generate a thermodynamically based scale of relative hardness and softness for acids and bases (operational chemical hardness), and a modified Slater model has been used to discern the electronic origin of hard-soft behavior. Whereas chemical hardness is a chemical property of an acid or base and the operational chemical hardness is an experimental measure of it, the absolute hardness is a physical property of an atom or molecule. A critical examination of chemical hardness, which has been based on a more rigorous application of the Pearson principle and the availability of quantitative measures of chemical hardness, suggests that the origin of hard-soft behavior for both acids and bases resides in the relaxation of the electrons not undergoing transfer during the acid-base interaction. Furthermore, the results suggest that the absolute hardness should not be taken as synonymous with chemical hardness but that the relationship is somewhat more complex. Finally, this work provides additional groundwork for a better understanding of chemical hardness that will inform the understanding of hardness in molecules.

  13. Analysis of Iterated Hard Decision Decoding of Product Codes with Reed-Solomon Component Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Products of Reed-Solomon codes are important in applications because they offer a combination of large blocks, low decoding complexity, and good performance. A recent result on random graphs can be used to show that with high probability a large number of errors can be corrected by iterating...... minimum distance decoding. We present an analysis related to density evolution which gives the exact asymptotic value of the decoding threshold and also provides a closed form approximation to the distribution of errors in each step of the decoding of finite length codes....

  14. Radiation Hard Wide Temperature Range Mixed-Signal Components, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Low temperature survivability, high performance and radiation tolerance of electronics in combination is required for NASA's surface missions. Modern sub-micron CMOS...

  15. Electrospark Deposition for Depot- and Field-Level Component Repair and Replacement of Hard Chromium Plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-07

    ducted away and removed by scrubbers . Wastes generated from plating operations must be disposed of as hazardous waste and plating operations must...specimens were austentized at 1875o F, held for approximately 45 minutes, quenched in dissociated ammonia to approximately 150o F, and tempered for two...Lab analysis labor no change Estimated based on previous plating CBAs Scrubber maintenance captured elsewhere Captured in total scrubber costs

  16. Alternate approach for calculating hardness based on residual indentation depth: Comparison with experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthakrishna, G.; K, Srikanth

    2018-03-01

    It is well known that plastic deformation is a highly nonlinear dissipative irreversible phenomenon of considerable complexity. As a consequence, little progress has been made in modeling some well-known size-dependent properties of plastic deformation, for instance, calculating hardness as a function of indentation depth independently. Here, we devise a method of calculating hardness by calculating the residual indentation depth and then calculate the hardness as the ratio of the load to the residual imprint area. Recognizing the fact that dislocations are the basic defects controlling the plastic component of the indentation depth, we set up a system of coupled nonlinear time evolution equations for the mobile, forest, and geometrically necessary dislocation densities. Within our approach, we consider the geometrically necessary dislocations to be immobile since they contribute to additional hardness. The model includes dislocation multiplication, storage, and recovery mechanisms. The growth of the geometrically necessary dislocation density is controlled by the number of loops that can be activated under the contact area and the mean strain gradient. The equations are then coupled to the load rate equation. Our approach has the ability to adopt experimental parameters such as the indentation rates, the geometrical parameters defining the Berkovich indenter, including the nominal tip radius. The residual indentation depth is obtained by integrating the Orowan expression for the plastic strain rate, which is then used to calculate the hardness. Consistent with the experimental observations, the increasing hardness with decreasing indentation depth in our model arises from limited dislocation sources at small indentation depths and therefore avoids divergence in the limit of small depths reported in the Nix-Gao model. We demonstrate that for a range of parameter values that physically represent different materials, the model predicts the three characteristic

  17. Effect of Heat treatment on Hardness and Corrosion Resistance of Super Cast Iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Roun; Kim, Young Sik [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    In fossil-fuel-fired power plants, a variety of pollutants are produced from the combustion of conventional fuels such as coal, oil and gas. Major component of such pollution are ash and corrosive chemicals, which also destroy pumps and piping; by causing erosion/corrosion, pitting, and wear. In order to over come such damage, materials with high hardness and high corrosion resistance are needed. In this work, we melted super-cast-iron with excellent corrosion resistance and high hardness. To elucidate the effect of heat treatment, microstructural analysis, hardness measurement, and corrosion tests were performed. Test results revealed that the super-cast-iron had several tens better corrosion resistance than 316 L stainless steel, and it also had a high surface hardness (> HRC45). High hardness, in spite of its low carbon content (0.74%C), could resulted from a hardening heat treatment to precipitate sufficient Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3} and Cr{sub 2}3C{sub 6}. Also, it was concluded that the excellent corrosion resistance of the super-cast-iron was due to the increase of the relative chromium content by minimizing the carbon content, and by the enhancement of passive film by the addition of Cr, Mo, Cu, and W.

  18. Interpretable functional principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhenhua; Wang, Liangliang; Cao, Jiguo

    2016-09-01

    Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) is a popular approach to explore major sources of variation in a sample of random curves. These major sources of variation are represented by functional principal components (FPCs). The intervals where the values of FPCs are significant are interpreted as where sample curves have major variations. However, these intervals are often hard for naïve users to identify, because of the vague definition of "significant values". In this article, we develop a novel penalty-based method to derive FPCs that are only nonzero precisely in the intervals where the values of FPCs are significant, whence the derived FPCs possess better interpretability than the FPCs derived from existing methods. To compute the proposed FPCs, we devise an efficient algorithm based on projection deflation techniques. We show that the proposed interpretable FPCs are strongly consistent and asymptotically normal under mild conditions. Simulation studies confirm that with a competitive performance in explaining variations of sample curves, the proposed FPCs are more interpretable than the traditional counterparts. This advantage is demonstrated by analyzing two real datasets, namely, electroencephalography data and Canadian weather data. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  19. Mitigating component performance variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G.; Sylvester, Steve S.; Eastep, Jonathan M.; Nagappan, Ramkumar; Cantalupo, Christopher M.

    2018-01-09

    Apparatus and methods may provide for characterizing a plurality of similar components of a distributed computing system based on a maximum safe operation level associated with each component and storing characterization data in a database and allocating non-uniform power to each similar component based at least in part on the characterization data in the database to substantially equalize performance of the components.

  20. Replacement of Chromium Electroplating on Gas Turbine Engine Components Using Thermal Spray Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sartwell, Bruce D; Legg, Keith O; Schell, Jerry; Bondaruk, Bob; Alford, Charles; Natishan, Paul; Lawrence, Steven; Shubert, Gary; Bretz, Philip; Kaltenhauser, Anne

    2005-01-01

    .... This document constitutes the final report on a project to qualify high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) and plasma thermal spray coatings as a replacement for hard chrome plating on gas turbine engine components...

  1. Radiation hardness of superconducting magnet insulation materials for FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidl, Tim

    2013-03-01

    This thesis focuses on radiation degradation studies of polyimide, polyepoxy/glass-fiber composites and other technical components used, for example, in the superconducting magnets of new ion accelerators such as the planned International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at the GSI Helmholtz Center of Heavy Ion Research (GSI) in Darmstadt. As accelerators are becoming more powerful, i.e., providing larger energies and beam intensities, the potential risk of radiation damage to the components increases. Reliable data of the radiation hardness of accelerator materials and components concerning electrical, thermal and other technical relevant properties are of great interest also for other facilities such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of CERN. Dependent on the position of the different components, induced radiation due to beam losses consists of a cocktail of gammas, neutrons, protons, and heavier particles. Although the number of heavy fragments of the initial projectiles is small compared to neutrons, protons, or light fragments (e.g. ? particles), their large energy deposition can induce extensive damage at rather low fluences (dose calculations show that the contribution of heavy ions to the total accumulated dose can reach 80 %). For this reason, defined radiation experiments were conducted using different energetic ion beams (from protons to uranium) and gamma radiation from a Co-60 source. The induced changes were analyzed by means of in-situ and ex-situ analytical methods, e.g. ultraviolet-visible and infrared spectroscopy, residual gas analysis, thermal gravimetric analysis, dielectric strength measurements, measurements of low temperature thermal properties, and performance tests. In all cases, the radiation induces a change in molecular structure as well as loss of functional material properties. The amount of radiation damage is found to be sensitive to the used type of ionizing radiation and the long term stability of the materials is

  2. Visual inspection technology in the hard disc drive industry

    CERN Document Server

    Muneesawang, Paisarn

    2015-01-01

    A presentation of the use of computer vision systems to control manufacturing processes and product quality in the hard disk drive industry. Visual Inspection Technology in the Hard Disk Drive Industry is an application-oriented book borne out of collaborative research with the world's leading hard disk drive companies. It covers the latest developments and important topics in computer vision technology in hard disk drive manufacturing, as well as offering a glimpse of future technologies.

  3. Determining the Effect of Material Hardness During the Hard Turning of AISI4340 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambagowni, Venkatasubbaiah; Chitla, Raju; Challa, Suresh

    2018-05-01

    In the present manufacturing industries hardened steels are most widely used in the applications like tool design and mould design. It enhances the application range of hard turning of hardened steels in manufacturing industries. This study discusses the impact of workpiece hardness, feed and depth of cut on Arithmetic mean roughness (Ra), root mean square roughness (Rq), mean depth of roughness (Rz) and total roughness (Rt) during the hard turning. Experiments have been planned according to the Box-Behnken design and conducted on hardened AISI4340 steel at 45, 50 and 55 HRC with wiper ceramic cutting inserts. Cutting speed is kept constant during this study. The analysis of variance was used to determine the effects of the machining parameters. 3-D response surface plots drawn based on RSM were utilized to set up the input-output relationships. The results indicated that the feed rate has the most significant parameter for Ra, Rq and Rz and hardness has the most critical parameter for the Rt. Further, hardness shows its influence over all the surface roughness characteristics.

  4. Development of method for evaluating cell hardness and correlation between bacterial spore hardness and durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakanishi Koichi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the availability of conventional devices for making single-cell manipulations, determining the hardness of a single cell remains difficult. Here, we consider the cell to be a linear elastic body and apply Young’s modulus (modulus of elasticity, which is defined as the ratio of the repulsive force (stress in response to the applied strain. In this new method, a scanning probe microscope (SPM is operated with a cantilever in the “contact-and-push” mode, and the cantilever is applied to the cell surface over a set distance (applied strain. Results We determined the hardness of the following bacterial cells: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and five Bacillus spp. In log phase, these strains had a similar Young’s modulus, but Bacillus spp. spores were significantly harder than the corresponding vegetative cells. There was a positive, linear correlation between the hardness of bacterial spores and heat or ultraviolet (UV resistance. Conclusions Using this technique, the hardness of a single vegetative bacterial cell or spore could be determined based on Young’s modulus. As an application of this technique, we demonstrated that the hardness of individual bacterial spores was directly proportional to heat and UV resistance, which are the conventional measures of physical durability. This technique allows the rapid and direct determination of spore durability and provides a valuable and innovative method for the evaluation of physical properties in the field of microbiology.

  5. Determination of Formula for Vickers Hardness Measurements Uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purba, Asli

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of formula determination is to obtain the formula of Vickers hardness measurements uncertainty. The approach to determine the formula: influenced parameters identification, creating a cause and effect diagram, determination of sensitivity, determination of standard uncertainty and determination of formula for Vickers hardness measurements uncertainty. The results is a formula for determination of Vickers hardness measurements uncertainty. (author)

  6. CO2 laser milling of hard tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Martin; Ivanenko, Mikhail; Harbecke, Daniela; Klasing, Manfred; Steigerwald, Hendrik; Hering, Peter

    2007-02-01

    Drilling of bone and tooth tissue belongs to recurrent medical procedures (screw- and pin-bores, bores for implant inserting, trepanation etc.). Small round bores can be in general quickly produced with mechanical drills. Problems arise however by angled drilling, by the necessity to fulfill the drilling without damaging of sensitive soft tissue beneath the bone, or by the attempt to mill precisely noncircular small cavities. We present investigations on laser hard tissue "milling", which can be advantageous for solving these problems. The "milling" is done with a CO2 laser (10.6 μm) with pulse duration of 50 - 100 μs, combined with a PC-controlled galvanic beam scanner and with a fine water-spray, which helps to avoid thermal side-effects. The damaging of underlying soft tissue can be prevented through control of the optical or acoustical ablation signal. The ablation of hard tissue is accompanied with a strong glowing, which is absent during the laser beam action on soft tissue. The acoustic signals from the diverse tissue types exhibit distinct differences in the spectral composition. Also computer image analysis could be a useful tool to control the operation. Laser "milling" of noncircular cavities with 1 - 4 mm width and about 10 mm depth is particularly interesting for dental implantology. In ex-vivo investigations we found conditions for fast laser "milling" of the cavities without thermal damage and with minimal tapering. It included exploration of different filling patterns (concentric rings, crosshatch, parallel lines and their combinations), definition of maximal pulse duration, repetition rate and laser power, optimal position of the spray. The optimized results give evidences for the applicability of the CO2 laser for biologically tolerable "milling" of deep cavities in the hard tissue.

  7. Exact sampling hardness of Ising spin models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fefferman, B.; Foss-Feig, M.; Gorshkov, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    We study the complexity of classically sampling from the output distribution of an Ising spin model, which can be implemented naturally in a variety of atomic, molecular, and optical systems. In particular, we construct a specific example of an Ising Hamiltonian that, after time evolution starting from a trivial initial state, produces a particular output configuration with probability very nearly proportional to the square of the permanent of a matrix with arbitrary integer entries. In a similar spirit to boson sampling, the ability to sample classically from the probability distribution induced by time evolution under this Hamiltonian would imply unlikely complexity theoretic consequences, suggesting that the dynamics of such a spin model cannot be efficiently simulated with a classical computer. Physical Ising spin systems capable of achieving problem-size instances (i.e., qubit numbers) large enough so that classical sampling of the output distribution is classically difficult in practice may be achievable in the near future. Unlike boson sampling, our current results only imply hardness of exact classical sampling, leaving open the important question of whether a much stronger approximate-sampling hardness result holds in this context. The latter is most likely necessary to enable a convincing experimental demonstration of quantum supremacy. As referenced in a recent paper [A. Bouland, L. Mancinska, and X. Zhang, in Proceedings of the 31st Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2016), Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (Schloss Dagstuhl-Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik, Dagstuhl, 2016)], our result completes the sampling hardness classification of two-qubit commuting Hamiltonians.

  8. Seismic loads in modularized and unmodularized large pools located on hard or intermediate hard sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, R G [California Univ., Livermore (USA). Lawrence Livermore Lab.

    1977-12-01

    To augment the present capacity of pools for storing spent nuclear fuel elements, pools larger than those in current use are being planned. These pools may or may not be modularized into cells. Because of the large size of the pools, seismic loads are of significant interest. In particular, the effects of modularization and site hardness are of concern. The study presented in this paper reveals that modularization is generally unfavourable, because it creates the option of leaving one or more cells empty which in turn results in higher structural loads. The wall which separates a filled cell from an empty cell, or the wall which bears against earth on one side and faces an empty cell on the other, becomes very highly stressed. For the particular pool geometries examined, a hard site is generally preferred over an intermediate hard site in terms of structural loads.

  9. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) constitutes an important part of SKB's work to design and construct a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel and to develop and test methods for characterisation of a suitable site for a deep repository. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create an opportunity for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The bedrock with available fractures and fracture zones, its properties and on-going physical, chemical and biological processes which affect the integrity of the engineered barriers and the transport of radionuclides are denoted the natural barriers of a deep repository. Experiments are performed at Aespoe HRL at conditions that are expected to prevail at repository depth, with the aim to increase the knowledge of the long term function of the repository barriers. Another aim with the Aespoe HRL is testing of models for groundwater flow, radionuclide migration, chemical and biological processes. The programme for the testing of models includes evaluation of the usefulness and reliability of different models and the development and testing of methods for determination of parameters required as input to conceptual and numerical models. Ongoing projects are Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments, Long Term Diffusion Experiment, Radionuclide Retention Experiment, Microbial Project, Colloid Project, and Matrix Water Chemistry Experiments. The activities at Aespoe HRL include the evaluation of the usefulness and reliability of different calculation models and the development and testing of methods for determination of parameters required as input to the models. An important part of this work is performed in the Aespoe Task Force on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Transport of Solutes, an international co-operation project. The work within the Tasks 4 and 5 were reported during 2001

  10. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-09-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) constitutes an important part of SKB's work to design and construct a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel and to develop and test methods for characterisation of a suitable site for a deep repository. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create an opportunity for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The bedrock with available fractures and fracture zones, its properties and on-going physical, chemical and biological processes which affect the integrity of the engineered barriers and the transport of radionuclides are denoted the natural barriers of a deep repository. Experiments are performed at Aespoe HRL at conditions that are expected to prevail at repository depth, with the aim to increase the knowledge of the long term function of the repository barriers. Another aim with the Aespoe HRL is testing of models for groundwater flow, radionuclide migration, chemical and biological processes. The programme for the testing of models includes evaluation of the usefulness and reliability of different models and the development and testing of methods for determination of parameters required as input to conceptual and numerical models. Ongoing projects are Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments, Long Term Diffusion Experiment, Radionuclide Retention Experiment, Microbial Project, Colloid Project, and Matrix Water Chemistry Experiments. The activities at Aespoe HRL include the evaluation of the usefulness and reliability of different calculation models and the development and testing of methods for determination of parameters required as input to the models. An important part of this work is performed in the Aespoe Task Force on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Transport of Solutes, an international co-operation project. The work within the Tasks 4 and 5 were reported

  11. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The main activities in the geoscientific fields have been: (1) Geology - completion of the feasibility study concerning geological mapping techniques and mapping of rock surfaces in the new tunnel, (2) Hydrogeology - monitoring and storage of data in the computerised Hydro Monitoring System, (3) Geochemistry - sampling of groundwater in the yearly campaign and for specific experiments and (4) Rock Mechanics - field tests to evaluate the counterforce needed to prevent thermally-induced spalling in deposition holes. At Aespoe HRL, experiments are performed under the conditions that are expected to prevail at repository depth. The aim is to provide information about the long-term function of natural and repository barriers. Experiments are performed to develop and test methods and models for the description of groundwater flow, radionuclide migration, and chemical conditions at repository depth. The programme includes projects which aim to determine parameter values that are required as input to the conceptual and numerical models. A number of large-scale field experiments and supporting activities concerning Engineered barriers are carried out at Aespoe HRL. The experiments focus on different aspects of engineering technology and performance testing: The Prototype Repository is a demonstration of the integrated function of the repository and provides a full-scale reference for tests of predictive models concerning individual components as well as the complete repository system; The Long Term Test of Buffer Material (Lot-experiment) aims at validating models and hypotheses concerning physical properties in a bentonite buffer material and of related processes regarding microbiology, radionuclide transport, copper corrosion and gas transport; The objective of the project Alternative Buffer

  12. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The main activities in the geoscientific fields have been: (1) Geology - completion of the feasibility study concerning geological mapping techniques and mapping of rock surfaces in the new tunnel, (2) Hydrogeology - monitoring and storage of data in the computerised Hydro Monitoring System, (3) Geochemistry - sampling of groundwater in the yearly campaign and for specific experiments and (4) Rock Mechanics - field tests to evaluate the counterforce needed to prevent thermally-induced spalling in deposition holes. At Aespoe HRL, experiments are performed under the conditions that are expected to prevail at repository depth. The aim is to provide information about the long-term function of natural and repository barriers. Experiments are performed to develop and test methods and models for the description of groundwater flow, radionuclide migration, and chemical conditions at repository depth. The programme includes projects which aim to determine parameter values that are required as input to the conceptual and numerical models. A number of large-scale field experiments and supporting activities concerning Engineered barriers are carried out at Aespoe HRL. The experiments focus on different aspects of engineering technology and performance testing: The Prototype Repository is a demonstration of the integrated function of the repository and provides a full-scale reference for tests of predictive models concerning individual components as well as the complete repository system; The Long Term Test of Buffer Material (Lot-experiment) aims at validating models and hypotheses concerning physical properties in a bentonite buffer material and of related processes regarding microbiology, radionuclide transport, copper corrosion and gas transport; The objective of the project Alternative

  13. Hard production of exotic hybrid mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anikin, I.; Teryaev, O.V. [Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Pire, B.; Anikin, I. [Ecole Polytechnique, CPHT, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Szymanowski, I. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); Liege Univ. (Belgium); Anikin, I.; Wallon, S. [Paris-11 Univ., Lab. de Physique Theorique, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2005-07-01

    Exotic hybrid mesons H, with quantum numbers J{sup PC} = 1{sup -+} may be copiously produced in the hard exclusive processes {gamma}{sup *}(Q{sup 2}){gamma} {yields} H and {gamma}{sup *}(Q{sup 2})P(p) {yields} HP(p') because they have a leading twist distribution amplitude with a sizable coupling constant f{sub H}, which may be estimated through QCD sum rules. The reaction rates scale in the same way as the corresponding rates for usual mesons. (authors)

  14. Hardness and Approximation for Network Flow Interdiction

    OpenAIRE

    Chestnut, Stephen R.; Zenklusen, Rico

    2015-01-01

    In the Network Flow Interdiction problem an adversary attacks a network in order to minimize the maximum s-t-flow. Very little is known about the approximatibility of this problem despite decades of interest in it. We present the first approximation hardness, showing that Network Flow Interdiction and several of its variants cannot be much easier to approximate than Densest k-Subgraph. In particular, any $n^{o(1)}$-approximation algorithm for Network Flow Interdiction would imply an $n^{o(1)}...

  15. Nonvolatile Rad-Hard Holographic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Zhou, Han-Ying; Reyes, George; Dragoi, Danut; Hanna, Jay

    2001-01-01

    We are investigating a nonvolatile radiation-hardened (rad-hard) holographic memory technology. Recently, a compact holographic data storage (CHDS) breadboard utilizing an innovative electro-optic scanner has been built and demonstrated for high-speed holographic data storage and retrieval. The successful integration of this holographic memory breadboard has paved the way for follow-on radiation resistance test of the photorefractive (PR) crystal, Fe:LiNbO3. We have also started the investigation of using two-photon PR crystals that are doubly doped with atoms of iron group (Ti, Cr, Mn, Cu) and of rare-earth group (Nd, Tb) for nonvolatile holographic recordings.

  16. Hard target LIDAR calibration for SO2

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available calibration for SO2 A du Plessis, DE Roberts CSIR National Laser Centre, Pretoria Slide 2 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Project background • Las-R-MAP: Laser – Remote – Measurement of Atmospheric Pollutants • Mobile laser system....csir.co.za Hard target backscatter ∫ = − R dRRn p e R RcE RS 0 )(2 2 )()( λσ λ β S R Slide 10 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Las-R-MAP hardware: laser system Slide 11 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Las-R...

  17. Tomography for amplitudes of hard exclusive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, M.V.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss which part of information about hadron structure encoded in the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) [part of total GPD image] can be restored from the known amplitude of a hard exclusive process. The physics content of this partial image is analyzed. Among other things, we show that this partial image contains direct information about how the target hadron responses to the (string) quark-antiquark operator of arbitrary spin J. Explicit equations relating physics content of the partial image of GPDs directly to the data are derived. Also some new results concerning the dual parametrization of GPDs are presented

  18. Design of Vickers Hardness Loading Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihai Zhao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally Vickers testing needs manual works, as a result, it will induce low precision and automatization. So this paper design a new type of loading controlling system, it is based on single chip computer 89S52, used PZT as the force generator in micro Vickers hardness testing. It primarily includes the designing of hardware, software of collecting data and PZT signals by AD667. This article has given the sketch of electrical circuit and controlling software, it also offers the experiment data. The experiments have showed that using this system can exactly control the loading results, and the average tolerance is less than 0.43 %.

  19. Hard diffraction at HERA and Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaidalov, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    A relation between hard diffraction at HERA and Tevatron is discussed. A model, which takes into account unitarity effects is developed for interaction of high-energy virtual photons with nucleons. It is shown that this model gives a good description of HERA data on both total γ* p total cross section and diffractive dissociation of virtual photons in a broad region of Q 2 . It is shown how to describe the CDF data on diffractive jet production at Tevatron using an information on distribution of partons in the Pomeron from HERA experiments

  20. Sorption of radionuclides on hard rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.A.; Bourke, P.J.; Green, A.; Littleboy, A.K.

    1987-09-01

    Methods for measuring sorption on hard rocks, particularly of strontium, caesium, neptunium and americium on Darley Dale sandstone and Welsh slate have been investigated. The methods tried included batch tests with crushed rock and tests of simultaneous diffusion and convection with sorption on intact rock. High pressures (800m H 2 O) were used in the convective tests to pump water quickly through the rock samples and to measure high sorptivities in times shorter than those needed in the diffusive methods with intact samples. (author)

  1. Burning actinides in very hard spectrum reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.H.; Shirley, G.W.; Prichard, A.W.; Trapp, T.J.

    1978-01-01

    The major unresolved problem in the nuclear industry is the ultimate disposition of the waste products of light water reactors. The study demonstrates the feasibility of designing a very hard spectrum actinide burner reactor (ABR). A 1100 MW/sub t/ ABR design fueled entirely with actinides reprocessed from light water reactor (LWR) wastes is proposed as both an ultimate disposal mechanism for actinides and a means of concurrently producing usable power. Actinides from discharged ABR fuel are recycled to the ABR while fission products are routed to a permanent repository. As an integral part of a large energy park, each such ABR would dispose of the waste actinides from 2 LWRs

  2. Studying Hardness Meter Spring Strength to Understand Hardness Distribution on Body Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Yoshitaka

    2017-10-01

    For developing a hardness multipoint measurement system for understanding hardness distribution on biological body surfaces, we investigated the spring strength of the contact portion main axis of a biological tissue hardness meter (product name: PEK). We measured the hardness of three-layered sheets of six types of gel sheets (90 mm × 60 mm × 6 mm) constituting the acupuncture practice pads, with PEK measurements of 1.96 N, 2.94 N, 3.92 N, 4.90 N, 5.88 N, 6.86 N, 7.84 N, 8.82 N, and 9.81 N of the main axis spring strength. We obtained measurements 10 times for the gel sheets and simultaneously measured the load using a digital scale. We measured the hardness distribution of induration embedded and breast cancer palpation models, with a main axis with 1.96 N, 4.90 N, and 9.81 N spring strengths, to create a two-dimensional Contour Fill Chart. Using 4.90 N spring strength, we could obtain measurement loads of ≤3.0 N, and the mean hardness was 5.14 mm. This was close to the median of the total measurement range 0.0-10.0 mm, making the measurement range the largest for this spring strength. We could image the induration of the induration-embedded model regardless of the spring strength. Overall, 4.90 N spring strength was best suited for imaging cancer in the breast cancer palpation model. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Genetic analysis of kernel texture (grain hardness) in a hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) bi-parental population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain hardness is a very important trait in determining wheat market class and also influences milling and baking traits. At the grain Hardness (Ha) locus on chromosome 5DS, there are two primary mutations responsible for conveying a harder kernel texture among U.S. hard red spring wheats: (1) the P...

  4. TRACING THE REVERBERATION LAG IN THE HARD STATE OF BLACK HOLE X-RAY BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marco, B.; Ponti, G.; Nandra, K.; Muñoz-Darias, T.

    2015-01-01

    We report results obtained from a systematic analysis of X-ray lags in a sample of black hole X-ray binaries, with the aim of assessing the presence of reverberation lags and studying their evolution during outburst. We used XMM-Newton and simultaneous Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations to obtain broadband energy coverage of both the disk and the hard X-ray Comptonization components. In most cases the detection of reverberation lags is hampered by low levels of variability-power signal-to-noise ratio (typically when the source is in a soft state) and/or short exposure times. The most detailed study was possible for GX 339-4 in the hard state, which allowed us to characterize the evolution of X-ray lags as a function of luminosity in a single source. Over all the sampled frequencies (∼0.05–9 Hz), we observe the hard lags intrinsic to the power-law component, already well known from previous RXTE studies. The XMM-Newton soft X-ray response allows us to detail the disk variability. At low frequencies (long timescales) the disk component always leads the power-law component. On the other hand, a soft reverberation lag (ascribable to thermal reprocessing) is always detected at high frequencies (short timescales). The intrinsic amplitude of the reverberation lag decreases as the source luminosity and the disk fraction increase. This suggests that the distance between the X-ray source and the region of the optically thick disk where reprocessing occurs gradually decreases as GX 339-4 rises in luminosity through the hard state, possibly as a consequence of reduced disk truncation

  5. Plasma spraying of refractory metals and refractory hard materials. State of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschnauer, H.; Lugscheider, E.; Jaeger, D.

    1989-01-01

    Suitable spraying processes for manufacturing refractory metals, refractory hard materials as well as spray materials with refractory components are the VPS- and IPS-spraying techniques. The advantages of these special spraying process variations are described. The reactive spraying materials are systematically organized. The characteristical properties used in purpose of improving the substrate surfaces are explained. Finally some examples of the latest results of research concerning plasma spraying of reactive materials are shown. 16 refs., 10 figs. (Author)

  6. Hard and soft supersymmetry breaking for ‘graphinos’ in uniform magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Ortíz, S; Raya, A; Murguía, G

    2012-01-01

    Using irreducible and reducible representations of the Dirac matrices, we study the two- and four-component quantum mechanical supersymmetric (SUSY) theories for ultrarelativistic fermions in (2 + 1) dimensions (‘graphinos’) in a background uniform magnetic field perpendicular to their plane of motion. We then consider ordinary and parity-violating mass terms and identify the former as a soft SUSY breaking term and the latter as the hard SUSY breaking one. (paper)

  7. Radiation hard silicon microstrip detectors for Tevatron experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korjenevski, Sergey

    2004-01-01

    The Silicon Microstrip Tracking detectors at the CDF and D0 experiments have now been operating for almost three years at Fermilab. These detectors were designed originally for an integrated luminosity of 2fb -1 . As the expected luminosity for Run IIb at the Tevatron collider was initially envisioned to reach 15fb -1 , radiation tolerances of both devices were revisited, culminating in proposals for new systems. With reduced expectations for total luminosity at ∼6fb -1 , the full detector-replacement projects were terminated. The CDF detector is expected nevertheless to cope efficiently with the lower anticipated dose, however, the D0 experiment is planning a smaller-scale project: a Layer-0 (L0) upgrade of the silicon tracker (D0SMT). The new device will fit between the beam line and the inner layer of the current Tracker. Built of single-sided sensors, this upgrade is expected to perform well in the harsh radiation environment, and be able to withstand an integrated luminosity of 15fb -1 . Prototypes of Run IIb sensors were irradiated using 10MeV protons at the tandem Van de Graaff at the James R. McDonald Laboratory at Kansas State University. A fit to the 10MeV proton data yields a damage parameter αp=11x10-17Acm. This is consistent with results from RD48 (αp=9.9x10-17Acm). The scaling of damage to 1MeV neutron fluence uses a hardness factor (κ) derived from the non-ionizing components of the energy loss (NEIL). NEIL predicts a hardness factor of 3.87 for 10MeV protons. We obtained an experimental value of this factor of 2.54, or 34% smaller than scaling predictions from NEIL

  8. Study of Cu-Al-Zn alloys hardness temperature dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurmanova, D.T.; Skakov, M.K.; Melikhov, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    In the paper the results of studies for the Cu-Al-Zn ternary alloys hardness temperature dependence are presented. The method of 'hot hardness' has been used during study of the solid state phase transformations and under determination of the hot stability boundaries. Due to the samples brittleness a hardness temperature dependence definition is possible only from 350-400 deg. C. Sensitivity of the 'hot hardness' method is decreasing within high plasticity range, so the measurements have been carried out only up to 700-800 deg. C. It is shown, that the alloys hardness dependence character from temperature is close to exponential one within the certain structure modification existence domain

  9. Hard And Soft QCD Physics In ATLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adomeit Stefanie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hard and soft QCD results using proton-proton collisions recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC are reported. Charged-particle distributions and forward-backward correlations have been studied in low-luminosity minimum bias data taken at centre-of-mass energies of √s = 0.9, 2.36 and 7 TeV. Recent measurements on underlying event characteristics using charged-particle jets are also presented. The results are tested against various phenomenological soft QCD models implemented in Monte-Carlo generators. A summary of hard QCD measurements involving high transverse momentum jets is also given. Inclusive jet and dijet cross-sections have been measured at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and are compared to expectations based on NLO pQCD calculations corrected for non-perturbative effects as well as to NLO Monte Carlo predictions. Recent studies exploiting jet substructure techniques to identify hadronic decays of boosted massive particles are reported.

  10. Exotic hybrid mesons in hard electroproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, I.V.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Teryaev, O.V.; Wallon, S.

    2005-01-01

    We estimate the sizeable cross section for deep exclusive electroproduction of an exotic J PC =1 -+ hybrid meson in the Bjorken regime. The production amplitude scales like the one for usual meson electroproduction, i.e., as 1/Q 2 . This is due to the nonvanishing leading twist distribution amplitude for the hybrid meson, which may be normalized thanks to its relation to the energy-momentum tensor and to the QCD sum rules technique. The hard amplitude is considered up to next-to-leading order in α S and we explore the consequences of fixing the renormalization scale ambiguity through the Brodsky-Lepage-Mackenzie (BLM) procedure. We study the particular case where the hybrid meson decays through a πη meson pair. We discuss the πη generalized distribution amplitude and then calculate the production amplitude for this process. We propose a forward-backward asymmetry in the production of π and η mesons as a signal for the hybrid meson production. We briefly comment on hybrid electroproduction at very high energy, in the diffractive limit where a QCD Odderon exchange mechanism should dominate. The conclusion of our study is that hard electroproduction is a promising way to study exotic hybrid mesons, in particular, at JLAB, HERA (HERMES), or CERN (Compass)

  11. [Computer-assisted phacoemulsification for hard cataracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemba, M; Papadatu, Adriana-Camelia; Sîrbu, Laura-Nicoleta; Avram, Corina

    2012-01-01

    to evaluate the efficiency of new torsional phacoemulsification software (Ozil IP system) in hard nucleus cataract extraction. 45 eyes with hard senile cataract (degree III and IV) underwent phacoemulsification performed by the same surgeon, using the same technique (stop and chop). Infiniti (Alcon) platform was used, with Ozil IP software and Kelman phaco tip miniflared, 45 degrees. The nucleus was split into two and after that the first half was phacoemulsificated with IP-on (group 1) and the second half with IP-off (group 2). For every group we measured: cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), numbers of tip closure that needed manual desobstruction the amount of BSS used. The mean CDE was the same in group 1 and in group 2 (between 6.2 and 14.9). The incidence of occlusion that needed manual desobstruction was lower in group 1 (5 times) than in group 2 (13 times). Group 2 used more BSS compared to group 1. The new torsional software (IP system) significantly decreased occlusion time and balanced salt solution use over standard torsional software, particularly with denser cataracts.

  12. Statistical physics of hard optimization problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdeborova, L.

    2009-01-01

    Optimization is fundamental in many areas of science, from computer science and information theory to engineering and statistical physics, as well as to biology or social sciences. It typically involves a large number of variables and a cost function depending on these variables. Optimization problems in the non-deterministic polynomial (NP)-complete class are particularly difficult, it is believed that the number of operations required to minimize the cost function is in the most difficult cases exponential in the system size. However, even in an NP-complete problem the practically arising instances might, in fact, be easy to solve. The principal question we address in this article is: How to recognize if an NP-complete constraint satisfaction problem is typically hard and what are the main reasons for this? We adopt approaches from the statistical physics of disordered systems, in particular the cavity method developed originally to describe glassy systems. We describe new properties of the space of solutions in two of the most studied constraint satisfaction problems - random satisfy ability and random graph coloring. We suggest a relation between the existence of the so-called frozen variables and the algorithmic hardness of a problem. Based on these insights, we introduce a new class of problems which we named ”locked” constraint satisfaction, where the statistical description is easily solvable, but from the algorithmic point of view they are even more challenging than the canonical satisfy ability.

  13. Recent developments in hard magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asti, G.

    1989-01-01

    Hard magnetic materials find ever-increasing uses in modern technology. Their importance is mainly in the domain of permanent magnets, but a variety of other applications is being offered to this class of materials, especially for what regards the areas of information storage, telecommunications and special electronic devices. These developments are connected to the emphasis that is more and more given to thin films having high magnetic anisotropy. The recent advancement in the field of hard magnetic materials is among the best examples where technology depends to a great extent upon the continuous progress in the scientific knowledge. The research activity is characterized by the introduction of new classes of materials and continuous improvements in the preparation techniques both for what regards industrial processing and method for obtaining high quality materials in form of crystals, films or amorphous specimens. In this respect a special place must be reserved to rare earth transition metal compounds, a class of materials that attracted enormeous attention after the discovery by Hoffer and Strnat in 1966 of the large uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the compound YCo 5 . Beside the so called 1:5 phase, other compositions of technical importance are the 2:17 and the recently discovered Nd 2 Fe 14 B, which is a real new ternary phase having tetragonal crystal structure. Great efforts have been done to gain a better understanding of the magnetic anisotropy and its relationship to the coercivity is of leading importance for a further development in this important area of magnetism. (orig.)

  14. Statistical physics of hard optimization problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdeborova, L.

    2009-01-01

    Optimization is fundamental in many areas of science, from computer science and information theory to engineering and statistical physics, as well as to biology or social sciences. It typically involves a large number of variables and a cost function depending on these variables. Optimization problems in the non-deterministic polynomial-complete class are particularly difficult, it is believed that the number of operations required to minimize the cost function is in the most difficult cases exponential in the system size. However, even in an non-deterministic polynomial-complete problem the practically arising instances might, in fact, be easy to solve. The principal the question we address in the article is: How to recognize if an non-deterministic polynomial-complete constraint satisfaction problem is typically hard and what are the main reasons for this? We adopt approaches from the statistical physics of disordered systems, in particular the cavity method developed originally to describe glassy systems. We describe new properties of the space of solutions in two of the most studied constraint satisfaction problems - random satisfiability and random graph coloring. We suggest a relation between the existence of the so-called frozen variables and the algorithmic hardness of a problem. Based on these insights, we introduce a new class of problems which we named 'locked' constraint satisfaction, where the statistical description is easily solvable, but from the algorithmic point of view they are even more challenging than the canonical satisfiability (Authors)

  15. Statistical physics of hard optimization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdeborová, Lenka

    2009-06-01

    Optimization is fundamental in many areas of science, from computer science and information theory to engineering and statistical physics, as well as to biology or social sciences. It typically involves a large number of variables and a cost function depending on these variables. Optimization problems in the non-deterministic polynomial (NP)-complete class are particularly difficult, it is believed that the number of operations required to minimize the cost function is in the most difficult cases exponential in the system size. However, even in an NP-complete problem the practically arising instances might, in fact, be easy to solve. The principal question we address in this article is: How to recognize if an NP-complete constraint satisfaction problem is typically hard and what are the main reasons for this? We adopt approaches from the statistical physics of disordered systems, in particular the cavity method developed originally to describe glassy systems. We describe new properties of the space of solutions in two of the most studied constraint satisfaction problems - random satisfiability and random graph coloring. We suggest a relation between the existence of the so-called frozen variables and the algorithmic hardness of a problem. Based on these insights, we introduce a new class of problems which we named "locked" constraint satisfaction, where the statistical description is easily solvable, but from the algorithmic point of view they are even more challenging than the canonical satisfiability.

  16. Study of runaway electrons using dosimetry of hard x-ray radiations in Damavand tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasouli, C.; Pourshahab, B.; Rasouli, H. [Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini Pooya, S. M.; Orouji, T. [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this work several studies have been conducted on hard x-ray emissions of Damavand tokamak based on radiation dosimetry using the Thermoluminescence method. The goal was to understand interactions of runaway electrons with plasma particles, vessel wall, and plasma facing components. Total of 354 GR-200 (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) crystals have been placed on 118 points – three TLDs per point – to map hard x-ray radiation doses on the exterior of the vacuum vessel. Results show two distinctive levels of x-ray radiations doses on the exterior of the vessel. The low-dose area on which measured dose is about 0.5 mSv/shot. In the low-dose area there is no particular component inside the vessel. On the contrary, on high-dose area of the vessel, x-ray radiations dose exceeds 30 mSv/shot. The high-dose area coincides with the position of limiters, magnetic probe ducts, and vacuum vessel intersections. Among the high-dose areas, the highest level of dose is measured in the position of the limiter, which could be due to its direct contact with the plasma column and with runaway electrons. Direct collisions of runaway electrons with the vessel wall and plasma facing components make a major contribution for production of hard x-ray photons in Damavand tokamak.

  17. Development of strength-hardness relationships in additively manufactured titanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keist, Jayme S., E-mail: keist@psu.edu; Palmer, Todd A., E-mail: tap103@psu.edu

    2017-05-02

    A major concern for additively manufactured (AM) Ti-6Al-4V components is how AM processing parameters and post-process heat treatments impact the resulting mechanical behavior. The applicability of using microhardness measurements as a predictive tool for yield and tensile strengths of AM Ti-6Al-4V would provide a rapid and useful screening mechanism for ensuring that properties meet requirements in complex geometries. However, microhardness measurements on Ti-6Al-4V exhibit high levels of data variability due to the orientational impact of the α phase. In order to overcome this variability in hardness measurements, a methodology for aggregating microhardness data in individual builds has been developed and validated. By compiling mean microhardness values from various AM components produced by electron beam based directed energy deposition (DED), laser based DED, and laser based powder bed fusion (PBF) processes in the as-deposited and post-process heat treated conditions, strong linear correlations between strength and hardness can be developed in AM materials having a lamellar α+β microstructure. With the addition of strain hardening and α phase orientation contributions to the mean microhardness measurement, the strength-hardness correlations of AM Ti-6Al-4V followed empirically derived models, opening the possibility of using these models to predict strengths from AM components regardless of the AM process or post-process state.

  18. Reusable Component Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reusable Component Services (RCS) is a super-catalog of components, services, solutions and technologies that facilitates search, discovery and collaboration in...

  19. Categorization of psychoactive substances into "hard drugs" and "soft drugs": a critical review of terminology used in current scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Peter; Kosticova, Michaela; Pecenak, Jan; Turcek, Michal

    2017-11-01

    Precise terminology and definitions are important components of scientific language. Although the terms "hard drugs" and "soft drugs" are used widely by professionals, neither the International Classification of Diseases nor the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual classify psychoactive substances into the categories "hard" and "soft." To analyze the occurrence of the terms "hard drugs" and "soft drugs" in recent scientific literature and to establish the degree of consensus in labeling psychoactive substances as "hard" or "soft." A critical review of scientific papers listed in PubMed and Scopus between 2011 and 2015. Three hundred thirty-four articles were initially identified as potentially relevant for review, 132 of which were included in the final analysis. One hundred twenty-four articles used the term "hard drugs" and 84.7% provided examples of substances considered "hard." Forty-four articles used the term "soft drugs" and 90.9% provided examples of substances considered "soft." Citations of relevant articles supporting categorization as "hard" or "soft" were not given in 90% of the articles. The authors often provided no or only very sparse information on their reasons for considering specific drugs as "hard" or "soft." Although it initially appeared that there is substantial agreement as to which psychoactive substances should be regarded as "hard" and "soft," closer inspection shows that the dividing line is blurred without clear criteria for categorization. At this time, it remains uncertain whether these terms should persist in the scientific literature. We therefore recommend these terms should be avoided or, if used, be clearly and precisely defined.

  20. Software component quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a software inspection process that can be used to evaluate the quality of software components. Quality criteria, process application, independent testing of the process and proposed associated tool support are covered. Early results indicate that this technique is well suited for assessing software component quality in a standardized fashion. With automated machine assistance to facilitate both the evaluation and selection of software components, such a technique should promote effective reuse of software components.

  1. A HARD X-RAY POWER-LAW SPECTRAL CUTOFF IN CENTAURUS X-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarty, Deepto; Nowak, Michael A. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Tomsick, John A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Grefenstette, Brian W.; Fürst, Felix; Harrison, Fiona A.; Rana, Vikram [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Psaltis, Dimitrios [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier [Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Christensen, Finn E. [Division of Astrophysics, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Kaspi, Victoria M. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, PQ H3A 2T8 (Canada); Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wik, Daniel R.; Zhang, William W. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Wilms, Jörn, E-mail: deepto@mit.edu [Dr. Karl-Remeis-Sternwarte and Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, D-96049 Bamberg (Germany)

    2014-12-20

    The low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Cen X-4 is the brightest and closest (<1.2 kpc) quiescent neutron star transient. Previous 0.5-10 keV X-ray observations of Cen X-4 in quiescence identified two spectral components: soft thermal emission from the neutron star atmosphere and a hard power-law tail of unknown origin. We report here on a simultaneous observation of Cen X-4 with NuSTAR (3-79 keV) and XMM-Newton (0.3-10 keV) in 2013 January, providing the first sensitive hard X-ray spectrum of a quiescent neutron star transient. The 0.3-79 keV luminosity was 1.1×10{sup 33} D{sub kpc}{sup 2} erg s{sup –1}, with ≅60% in the thermal component. We clearly detect a cutoff of the hard spectral tail above 10 keV, the first time such a feature has been detected in this source class. We show that thermal Comptonization and synchrotron shock origins for the hard X-ray emission are ruled out on physical grounds. However, the hard X-ray spectrum is well fit by a thermal bremsstrahlung model with kT{sub e} = 18 keV, which can be understood as arising either in a hot layer above the neutron star atmosphere or in a radiatively inefficient accretion flow. The power-law cutoff energy may be set by the degree of Compton cooling of the bremsstrahlung electrons by thermal seed photons from the neutron star surface. Lower thermal luminosities should lead to higher (possibly undetectable) cutoff energies. We compare Cen X-4's behavior with PSR J1023+0038, IGR J18245–2452, and XSS J12270–4859, which have shown transitions between LMXB and radio pulsar modes at a similar X-ray luminosity.

  2. Reactor component automatic grapple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenaway, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment. (author)

  3. Repurposing learning object components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbert, K.; Jovanovic, J.; Gasevic, D.; Duval, E.; Meersman, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an ontology-based framework for repurposing learning object components. Unlike the usual practice where learning object components are assembled manually, the proposed framework enables on-the-fly access and repurposing of learning object components. The framework supports two

  4. Hard-Boiled for Hard Times in Leonardo Padura Fuentes's Detective Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, H. Rosi

    2009-01-01

    Focusing on Leonardo Padura Fuentes's hard-boiled fiction, this essay traces the origin and evolution of the genre in Cuba. Padura Fuentes has challenged the officially sanctioned socialist "literatura policial" that became popular in the 1970s and 1980s. creating a new model of criticism that is not afraid to confront the island's socio-economic…

  5. Soft and hard natures of Nd2Fe14B permanent magnet explored by first-order-reversal-curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Po-An; Yang, Chao-Yao; Chang, Shu-Jui; Lee, Min-Han; Tang, Nai-Kuang; Yen, Sheng-Chan; Tseng, Yuan-Chieh

    2014-01-01

    Two commercial Nd 2 Fe 14 B samples, MQP-B and sintered-NdFeB were investigated using synchrotron-based x-ray diffraction and first-order-reversal-curves (FORCs). Despite differing in magnetic and structural properties, the two samples were found to comprise two major ferromagnetic components in FORCs. For the sintered-NdFeB case, the soft component may originate from the intrinsically soft Nd-f site which was coupled with its local Fe atomic environment that differs in magnetic anisotropy from the Nd-g site (intrinsically hard). It may directly originate from the Nd-rich phase or microstructural imperfection, while the former possibility (Nd-f site) appears greater than the latter. While for the MQP-B, the minor second phase resulting from high structural disorder was likely in charge of the presence of the soft component. Sophisticated FORCs analyses revealed the natures of the soft and hard components, soft–hard coupling and switching reversibility of the two cases, irrespective of the origins of their two components. This provides insights to the origin of magnetic stability and reversal dynamics of Nd 2 Fe 14 B that have not been fully understood by conventional magnetic analyses. The coexistence of the two components led to an incoherent reversal undermining the magnetic stability of Nd 2 Fe 14 B. This is a fundamental problem as to why the performance extremity can only be improved finitely through extrinsic tuning. From FORCs simulation we understand that the soft–hard coupling was moderate in a real Nd 2 Fe 14 B compound. A stronger soft–hard coupling is necessary to conquer the anisotropic competition to enable a coherent reversal that will promote the magnetic hardness. - Highlights: • We investigated two commercially available Nd 2 Fe 14 B compounds with FORCs. • The two compounds were found to comprise soft and hard natures. • The coupling between the soft and hard phases is moderate in a real Nd 2 Fe 14 B

  6. Optical fiber composition and radiation hardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, J.A.; Loretz, T.J.

    1982-01-01

    Germanium phosphosilicate and germanium borosilicate fibers doped with cerium were fabricated and tested for their responses to steady-state Co-60 radiation at -55 C, +20 C and +125 C. A fiber with germanium, boron and phosphorous in the silicate core and doped with antimony in the core and clad was similarly tested. All of the fibers showed significant improvements in radiation hardness at 20 C compared to undoped fibers of the same base composition. At -55 C, however, all except the cerium doped germanium phosphosilicate were very radiation sensitive and also showed increases in the rate of induced loss at +125 C. The cerium doped germanium phosphosilicate fiber showed virtually no change in radiation sensitivity at the temperature extremes and could prove useful in applications requiring relatively short lengths of fiber

  7. Imaging the hard/soft tissue interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerman, Alistair; Paxton, Jennifer Z; Grover, Liam M

    2014-03-01

    Interfaces between different tissues play an essential role in the biomechanics of native tissues and their recapitulation is now recognized as critical to function. As a consequence, imaging the hard/soft tissue interface has become increasingly important in the area of tissue engineering. Particularly as several biotechnology based products have made it onto the market or are close to human trials and an understanding of their function and development is essential. A range of imaging modalities have been developed that allow a wealth of information on the morphological and physical properties of samples to be obtained non-destructively in vivo or via destructive means. This review summarizes the use of a selection of imaging modalities on interfaces to date considering the strengths and weaknesses of each. We will also consider techniques which have not yet been utilized to their full potential or are likely to play a role in future work in the area.

  8. Controlling grass weeds on hard surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Anne Merete; Kristoffersen, Palle; Andreasen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted on a specially designed hard surface to study the impact of time interval between flaming treatments on the regrowth and flower production of two grass weeds. The goal of this experiment was to optimize the control of annual bluegrass and perennial ryegrass, both species...... that are very difficult to control without herbicides. Aboveground biomass from 72 plants per treatment was harvested and dry weights were recorded at regular intervals to investigate how the plants responded to flaming. Regrowth of the grasses was measured by harvesting aboveground biomass 2 wk after......, as they did not increase the reduction of aboveground biomass compared with the 7-d treatment interval. Knowledge on the regrowth of grass weeds after flaming treatments provided by this study can help improve recommendations given to road keepers and park managers for management on these weeds. Nomenclature...

  9. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-03-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. A summary of the work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2011 is given below.

  10. Aespoe hard rock laboratory. Annual report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. A summary of the work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2010 is given below

  11. Hard Probes in Heavy-Ion Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Renk, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    The aim of ultrarelativistic heavy ion physics is to study collectivity and thermodynamics of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) by creating a transient small volume of matter with extreme density and temperature. There is experimental evidence that most of the particles created in such a collision form indeed a thermalized system characterized by collective response to pressure gradients. However, a numerically small subset of high transverse momentum ($P_T$) processes takes place independent of the bulk, with the outgoing partons subsequently propagating through the bulk medium. Understanding the modification of such 'hard probes' by the bulk medium is an important part of the efforts to determine the properties of hot and dense QCD matter. In this paper, current developments are reviewed.

  12. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-03-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. A summary of the work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2011 is given below

  13. Blazars in Hard X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisellini, Gabriele

    2009-05-01

    Although blazars are thought to emit most of their luminosity in the γ-ray band, there are subclasses of them very prominent in hard X-rays. These are the best candidates to be studied by Simbol-X. They are at the extremes of the blazar sequence, having very small or very high jet powers. The former are the class of TeV emitting BL Lacs, whose synchrotron emission often peaks at tens of keV or more. The latter are the blazars with the most powerful jets, have high black hole masses accreting at high (i.e. close to Eddington) rates. These sources are predicted to have their high energy peak even below the MeV band, and therefore are very promising candidates to be studied with Simbol-X.

  14. Static structure of active Brownian hard disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo Biniossek, N.; Löwen, H.; Voigtmann, Th; Smallenburg, F.

    2018-02-01

    We explore the changes in static structure of a two-dimensional system of active Brownian particles (ABP) with hard-disk interactions, using event-driven Brownian dynamics simulations. In particular, the effect of the self-propulsion velocity and the rotational diffusivity on the orientationally-averaged fluid structure factor is discussed. Typically activity increases structural ordering and generates a structure factor peak at zero wave vector which is a precursor of motility-induced phase separation. Our results provide reference data to test future statistical theories for the fluid structure of active Brownian systems. This manuscript was submitted for the special issue of the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter associated with the Liquid Matter Conference 2017.

  15. Aespoe hard rock laboratory. Annual report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. A summary of the work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2010 is given below

  16. Shock compression synthesis of hard materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willson, C.G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to adapt the high explosives technology that was developed in conjunction with nuclear weapons programs to subjecting materials to ultra-high pressures and to explore the utility of this technique for the synthesis of hard materials. The research was conducted in collaboration with researchers at the University of Texas, Texas Tech University and Pantex (Mason and Hanger Corp.). The group designed, modeled, built, and tested a new device that allows quantitative recovery of grams of material that have been subjected to unprecedented pressures. The modeling work was done at Texas Tech and Pantex. The metal parts and material samples were made at the University of Texas, and Pantex machined the explosives, assembled the devices and conducted the detonations. Sample characterization was carried out at the University of Texas and Texas Tech.

  17. Radiation hardness assurances categories for COTS technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hash, G.L.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Sexton, F.W.; Winokur, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    A comparison of the radiation tolerance of three commercial, and one radiation hardened SRAM is presented for four radiation environments. This work has shown the difficulty associated with strictly categorizing a device based solely on its radiation response, since its category depends on the specific radiation environment considered. For example, the 3.3-V Paradigm SRAM could be considered a radiation-tolerant device except for its SEU response. A more useful classification depends on the methods the manufacturer uses to ensure radiation hardness, i.e. whether specific design and process techniques have been used to harden the device. Finally, this work has shown that burned-in devices may fail functionally as much as 50% lower in total dose environments than non-burned-in devices. No burn-in effect was seen in dose-rate upset, latchup, or SEE environments. The user must ensure that total dose lot acceptance testing was performed on burned-in devices

  18. Toxicity removal from hard board wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawar, S.S.; El Kamah, H.

    1984-01-01

    The rapid growth of industry in Egypt in recent years has made industrial pollution an important issue. During the past decade fish production in some canals and lakes have virtually ceased due to the discharge of industrial and agricultural wastewater. The alternatives under study include effluent treatment before discharge to receiving water. Highly polluted waste from a hard board mill was treated using the activated sludge process. Factors affecting the efficiency of the treatment were detention time and organic loading rate. The results indicated that BOD and phenol reduction reached 82% and 94% respectively, when the organic loading rate was 0.1 (kg BOD/kg SS). The process proved to be successful in completely eliminating the toxicity effect of the waste on Nile fish (Tilapia nilotica). 14 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  19. Hard exclusive meson production to constrain GPDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolbeek, Johannes ter; Fischer, Horst; Gorzellik, Matthias; Gross, Arne; Joerg, Philipp; Koenigsmann, Kay; Malm, Pasquale; Regali, Christopher; Schmidt, Katharina; Sirtl, Stefan; Szameitat, Tobias [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Collaboration: COMPASS Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The concept of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) combines the two-dimensional spatial information, given by form factors, with the longitudinal momentum information from the PDFs. Thus, GPDs provide a three-dimensional 'tomography' of the nucleon. Furthermore, according to Ji's sum rule, the GPDs H and E enable access to the total angular momenta of quarks, antiquarks and gluons. While H can be approached using electroproduction cross section, hard exclusive meson production off a transversely polarized target can help to constrain the GPD E. At the COMPASS experiment at CERN, two periods of data taking were performed in 2007 and 2010, using a longitudinally polarized 160 GeV/c muon beam and a transversely polarized NH{sub 3} target. This talk introduces the data analysis of the process μ + p → μ' + p' + V, and recent results are presented.

  20. Aespoe hard rock laboratory. Annual report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. A summary of the work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2010 is given below

  1. Gloss evaluation from soft and hard metrologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zihao; Xu, Lihao; Hu, Yu; Mirjalili, Fereshteh; Luo, Ming Ronnier

    2017-09-01

    Recent advances in bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) acquisitions have provided a novel approach for appearance measurement and analysis. In particular, since gloss appearance is dependent on the directional reflective properties of surfaces, it is reasonable to leverage the BRDF for gloss evaluation. In this paper, we investigate gloss appearance from both soft metrology and hard metrology. A psychophysical experiment was conducted for the gloss assessment of 47 neutral-color samples. In the evaluation of gloss perception from gloss meter measurements, we report several ambiguous correspondences in the medium gloss range. In order to analyze and explain this phenomenon, the BRDF was acquired and examined using a commercial BRDF measuring device. With an improved correlation-to-visual perception, we propose a two-dimensional gloss model by combining a parameter, the standard deviation of the specular lobe, from Ward's BRDF model with measured gloss values.

  2. The Component-Based Application for GAMESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Fang [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    GAMESS, a quantum chetnistry program for electronic structure calculations, has been freely shared by high-performance application scientists for over twenty years. It provides a rich set of functionalities and can be run on a variety of parallel platforms through a distributed data interface. While a chemistry computation is sophisticated and hard to develop, the resource sharing among different chemistry packages will accelerate the development of new computations and encourage the cooperation of scientists from universities and laboratories. Common Component Architecture (CCA) offers an enviromnent that allows scientific packages to dynamically interact with each other through components, which enable dynamic coupling of GAMESS with other chetnistry packages, such as MPQC and NWChem. Conceptually, a cotnputation can be constructed with "plug-and-play" components from scientific packages and require more than componentizing functions/subroutines of interest, especially for large-scale scientific packages with a long development history. In this research, we present our efforts to construct cotnponents for GAMESS that conform to the CCA specification. The goal is to enable the fine-grained interoperability between three quantum chemistry programs, GAMESS, MPQC and NWChem, via components. We focus on one of the three packages, GAMESS; delineate the structure of GAMESS computations, followed by our approaches to its component development. Then we use GAMESS as the driver to interoperate integral components from the other tw"o packages, arid show the solutions for interoperability problems along with preliminary results. To justify the versatility of the design, the Tuning and Analysis Utility (TAU) components have been coupled with GAMESS and its components, so that the performance of GAMESS and its components may be analyzed for a wide range of systetn parameters.

  3. Coendangered hard-ticks: threatened or threatening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cozma Vasile

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The overwhelming majority of animal conservation projects are focused on vertebrates, despite most of the species on Earth being invertebrates. Estimates state that about half of all named species of invertebrates are parasitic in at least one stage of their development. The dilemma of viewing parasites as biodiversity or pest has been discussed by several authors. However, ticks were omitted. The latest taxonomic synopses of non-fossil Ixodidae consider valid 700 species. Though, how many of them are still extant is almost impossible to tell, as many of them are known only from type specimens in museums and were never collected since their original description. Moreover, many hosts are endangered and as part of conservation efforts of threatened vertebrates, a common practice is the removal of, and treatment for external parasites, with devastating impact on tick populations. There are several known cases when the host became extinct with subsequent coextinction of their ectoparasites. For our synoptic approach we have used the IUCN status of the host in order to evaluate the status of specifically associated hard-ticks. As a result, we propose a number of 63 coendangered and one extinct hard-tick species. On the other side of the coin, the most important issue regarding tick-host associations is vectorial transmission of microbial pathogens (i.e. viruses, bacteria, protozoans. Tick-borne diseases of threatened vertebrates are sometimes fatal to their hosts. Mortality associated with pathogens acquired from ticks has been documented in several cases, mostly after translocations. Are ticks a real threat to their coendangered host and should they be eliminated? Up to date, there are no reliable proofs that ticks listed by us as coendangered are competent vectors for pathogens of endangered animals.

  4. Germanium content in Polish hard coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makowska Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the policy of the European Union, it is necessary to search for new sources of scarce raw materials. One of these materials is germanium, listed as a critical element. This semi-metal is widely used in the electronics industry, for example in the production of semiconductors, fibre optics and solar cells. Coal and fly ash from its combustion and gasification for a long time have been considered as a potential source of many critical elements, particularly germanium. The paper presents the results of germanium content determination in the Polish hard coal. 23 coal samples of various coal ranks were analysed. The samples were collected from 15 mines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin and from one mine of the Lublin Coal Basin. The determination of germanium content was performed with the use of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Electrothermal Atomization (GFAAS. The investigation showed that germanium content in the analysed samples was at least twice lower than the average content of this element in the hard coals analysed so far and was in the range of 0.08 ÷ 1.28 mg/kg. Moreover, the content of Ge in the ashes from the studied coals does not exceed 15 mg/kg, which is lower than the average value of Ge content in the coal ashes. The highest content of this element characterizes coals of the Lublin Coal Basin and young coals type 31 from the Vistula region. The results indicate a low utility of the analysed coal ashes as a source of the recovery of germanium. On the basis of the analyses, the lack of the relationship between the content of the element and the ash content in the tested coals was noted. For coals of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, the relationship between the content of germanium in the ashes and the depth of the seam was observed.

  5. Resolving the hard X-ray emission of GX 5-1 with INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paizis, A.; Ebisawa, K.; Tikkanen, T.

    2005-01-01

    We present the study of one year of INTEGRAL data on the neutron star low mass X-ray binary GX 5-1. Thanks to the excellent angular resolution and sensitivity of INTEGRAL, we are able to obtain a high quality spectrum of GX 5-1 from similar to 5keV to similar to 100 keV, for the first time without...... contamination from the nearby black hole candidate GRS 1758-258 above 20 keV. During our observations, GX 5-1 was mostly found in the horizontal and normal branch of its hardness intensity diagram. A clear hard X-ray emission is observed above similar to 30 keV which exceeds the exponential cut-off spectrum...... expected from lower energies. This spectral flattening may have the same origin of the hard components observed in other Z sources as it shares the property of being characteristic to the horizontal branch. The hard excess is explained by introducing Compton up-scattering of soft photons from the neutron...

  6. Reparatory and Manufacturing Hard-Facing of Working Parts Made of Stainless Steels in Confectionary Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rakic

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, for the sake of improving the reparatory hard-facing technology is especially analyzed reparatory hard-facing of tools for manufacturing compressed products in confectionary industry. Those products are being made of a mixture consisting of several powdery components, which is compressed under high pressure. In that way the connection between particles is realized, thus achieving certain hardness and strength of the confectionary product. The considered tool is made of high-alloyed stainless steel. The tool contains 30 identical working places. Besides the production process wear, on those tools, from time to time, appear mechanical damage on some of the products' shape punches, as cracks at the edges, where the products' final shapes are formed. Those damages are small, size wise, but they cause strong effect on the products' final shape. The aggravating circumstance is that the shape punch is extremely loaded in pressure, thus after the reparatory hard-facing, the additional heat treatment is necessary. Mechanical properties in the heat affected zone (HAZ are being leveled by annealing and what also partially reduces the residual internal stresses.

  7. Evaluation of variables which affect the hardness of nickel plate deposited from watts-type baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, G.S.; Wright, R.R.; Neff, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    In the course of the Cascade Improvement Program, many component equipment parts will be electroplated with nickel for corrosion protection. The maximum hardness which will be acceptable in the electroplated deposit is specified in Union Carbide's Job Specification JS-1396, Revision 3, entitled Electroplated Nickel Coatings on Steel Parts. The hardness specification is intended primarily as a control over both organic and inorganic impurities in the deposit. This report covers a study evaluating several of the numerous controllable variables which influence the hardness of the nickel plate deposited from a Watts-type bath. The variables tested were: 1) bath composition, 2) pH, 3) current density, 4) anode-cathode area ratio, and 5) bath temperature. Within the tested ranges of the variables studied, the pH and current density had the most influence on the plate hardness. The softest deposit was obtained with a bath pH of 1.5, a current density of 30 to 40 amperes/square foot, and with the anode-cathode area ratio in the range of 3:1 to 1:1

  8. The Effectiveness of Hard Martial Arts in People over Forty: An Attempted Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaby Pons van Dijk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to assess the effect of hard martial arts on the physical fitness components such as balance, flexibility, gait, strength, cardiorespiratory function and several mental functions in people over forty. A computerized literature search was carried out. Studies were selected when they had an experimental design, the age of the study population was >40, one of the interventions was a hard martial art, and when at least balance and cardiorespiratory functions were used as an outcome measure. We included four studies, with, in total, 112 participants, aged between 51 and 93 years. The intervention consisted of Taekwondo or Karate. Total training duration varied from 17 to 234 h. All four studies reported beneficial effects, such as improvement in balance, in reaction tests, and in duration of single leg stance. We conclude that because of serious methodological shortcomings in all four studies, currently there is suggestive, but insufficient evidence, that hard martial arts practice improves physical fitness functions in healthy people over 40. However, considering the importance of such effects, and the low costs of the intervention, the potential of beneficial health effects of age-adapted, hard martial arts training, in people over 40, warrants further study.

  9. Mechanism by Which Magnesium Oxide Suppresses Tablet Hardness Reduction during Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Takatoshi; Kachi, Shigeto; Nakamura, Shohei; Miki, Shinsuke; Kitajima, Hideaki; Yuasa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how the inclusion of magnesium oxide (MgO) maintained tablet hardness during storage in an unpackaged state. Tablets were prepared with a range of MgO levels and stored at 40°C with 75% relative humidity for up to 14 d. The hardness of tablets prepared without MgO decreased over time. The amount of added MgO was positively associated with tablet hardness and mass from an early stage during storage. Investigation of the water sorption properties of the tablet components showed that carmellose water sorption correlated positively with the relative humidity, while MgO absorbed and retained moisture, even when the relative humidity was reduced. In tablets prepared using only MgO, a petal- or plate-like material was observed during storage. Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry showed that this material was hydromagnesite, produced when MgO reacts with water and CO2. The estimated level of hydromagnesite at each time-point showed a significant negative correlation with tablet porosity. These results suggested that MgO suppressed storage-associated softening by absorbing moisture from the environment. The conversion of MgO to hydromagnesite results in solid bridge formation between the powder particles comprising the tablets, suppressing the storage-related increase in volume and increasing tablet hardness.

  10. 3D Bioprinting Technologies for Hard Tissue and Organ Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Ao, Qiang; Tian, Xiaohong; Fan, Jun; Wei, Yujun; Hou, Weijian; Tong, Hao; Bai, Shuling

    2016-01-01

    Hard tissues and organs, including the bones, teeth and cartilage, are the most extensively exploited and rapidly developed areas in regenerative medicine field. One prominent character of hard tissues and organs is that their extracellular matrices mineralize to withstand weight and pressure. Over the last two decades, a wide variety of 3D printing technologies have been adapted to hard tissue and organ engineering. These 3D printing technologies have been defined as 3D bioprinting. Especially for hard organ regeneration, a series of new theories, strategies and protocols have been proposed. Some of the technologies have been applied in medical therapies with some successes. Each of the technologies has pros and cons in hard tissue and organ engineering. In this review, we summarize the advantages and disadvantages of the historical available innovative 3D bioprinting technologies for used as special tools for hard tissue and organ engineering. PMID:28773924

  11. 3D Bioprinting Technologies for Hard Tissue and Organ Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hard tissues and organs, including the bones, teeth and cartilage, are the most extensively exploited and rapidly developed areas in regenerative medicine field. One prominent character of hard tissues and organs is that their extracellular matrices mineralize to withstand weight and pressure. Over the last two decades, a wide variety of 3D printing technologies have been adapted to hard tissue and organ engineering. These 3D printing technologies have been defined as 3D bioprinting. Especially for hard organ regeneration, a series of new theories, strategies and protocols have been proposed. Some of the technologies have been applied in medical therapies with some successes. Each of the technologies has pros and cons in hard tissue and organ engineering. In this review, we summarize the advantages and disadvantages of the historical available innovative 3D bioprinting technologies for used as special tools for hard tissue and organ engineering.

  12. 3D Bioprinting Technologies for Hard Tissue and Organ Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Ao, Qiang; Tian, Xiaohong; Fan, Jun; Wei, Yujun; Hou, Weijian; Tong, Hao; Bai, Shuling

    2016-09-27

    Hard tissues and organs, including the bones, teeth and cartilage, are the most extensively exploited and rapidly developed areas in regenerative medicine field. One prominent character of hard tissues and organs is that their extracellular matrices mineralize to withstand weight and pressure. Over the last two decades, a wide variety of 3D printing technologies have been adapted to hard tissue and organ engineering. These 3D printing technologies have been defined as 3D bioprinting. Especially for hard organ regeneration, a series of new theories, strategies and protocols have been proposed. Some of the technologies have been applied in medical therapies with some successes. Each of the technologies has pros and cons in hard tissue and organ engineering. In this review, we summarize the advantages and disadvantages of the historical available innovative 3D bioprinting technologies for used as special tools for hard tissue and organ engineering.

  13. Obtention of high hardness multilayer systems by laser ablation; Obtencion de sistemas multicapa de alta dureza por ablacion laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia T, I.S

    2007-07-01

    In this thesis work the synthesis of thin films of titanium nitride (TiN), amorphous carbon nitride (CN{sub x}) amorphous carbon (a-C) and Ti/TiN/CNx multilayers and Ti/TiN/a-C by means of the laser ablation technique, with the objective of obtaining films of high hardness is studied, as well as to produce multilayer coatings with superior properties to the individual layers. The effect that has the laser fluence used for ablationing the targets in the structure and mechanical properties of the films deposited of TiN was investigated. It was found that the hardness is increased in lineal way approximately with the fluence increment up to 19 J/cm{sup 2}. Thin films of a-C with hardness of the order of 12 GPa. likewise CN{sub x} films with high hardness (18.4 GPa) were obtained. The hardness of the deposited films was analyzed and it was related with its microstructure and deposit conditions. It was concluded that the Ti/TiN/CNx and Ti/TiN/a-C systems presented bigger hardness that of its individual components. (Author)

  14. Supply chain components

    OpenAIRE

    Vieraşu, T.; Bălăşescu, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  15. Supply chain components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieraşu, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  16. Control component retainer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, L.A.; King, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus is described for retaining an undriven control component assembly disposed in a fuel assembly in a nuclear reactor of the type having a core grid plate. The first part of the mechanism involves a housing for the control component and the second part is a brace with a number of arms that reach under the grid plate. The brace and the housing are coupled together to firmly hold the control components in place even under strong flows of th coolant

  17. Factorization and non-factorization in diffractive hard scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berera, Arjun

    1997-01-01

    Factorization, in the sense defined for inclusive hard scattering, is discussed for diffractive hard scattering. A factorization theorem similar to its inclusive counterpart is presented for diffractive DIS. For hadron-hadron diffractive hard scattering, in contrast to its inclusive counterpart, the expected breakdown of factorization is discussed. Cross section estimates are given from a simple field theory model for non-factorizing double-pomeron-exchange (DPE) dijet production with and without account for Sudakov suppression

  18. Development of Composite Grinding Wheels for Hard and Soft Metals

    OpenAIRE

    Pruti, Faruk

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates the performance of grinding wheel in terms of its internal granular particles and their effect on the surface finish for both soft and hard metals subjected to both dry and wet conditions of use. The study considers the properties of materials of construction including hardness of the granular particles and their size and distributions that affects the grinding wheel efficiency in abrading of soft and hard metal surfaces. Furthermore, in order to improve grinding pe...

  19. 3D Bioprinting Technologies for Hard Tissue and Organ Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaohong; Ao, Qiang; Tian, Xiaohong; Fan, Jun; Wei, Yujun; Hou, Weijian; Tong, Hao; Bai, Shuling

    2016-01-01

    Hard tissues and organs, including the bones, teeth and cartilage, are the most extensively exploited and rapidly developed areas in regenerative medicine field. One prominent character of hard tissues and organs is that their extracellular matrices mineralize to withstand weight and pressure. Over the last two decades, a wide variety of 3D printing technologies have been adapted to hard tissue and organ engineering. These 3D printing technologies have been defined as 3D bioprinting. Especial...

  20. Component design for LMFBR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillnow, R.H.; France, L.L.; Zerinvary, M.C.; Fox, R.O.

    1975-01-01

    Just as FFTF has prototype components to confirm their design, FFTF is serving as a prototype for the design of the commercial LMFBR's. Design and manufacture of critical components for the FFTF system have been accomplished primarily using vendors with little or no previous experience in supplying components for high temperature sodium systems. The exposure of these suppliers, and through them a multitude of subcontractors, to the requirements of this program has been a necessary and significant step in preparing American industry for the task of supplying the large mechanical components required for commercial LMFBR's

  1. Hot gas path component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Kottilingam, Srikanth Chandrudu; Porter, Christopher Donald; Schick, David Edward

    2017-09-12

    Various embodiments of the disclosure include a turbomachine component. and methods of forming such a component. Some embodiments include a turbomachine component including: a first portion including at least one of a stainless steel or an alloy steel; and a second portion joined with the first portion, the second portion including a nickel alloy including an arced cooling feature extending therethrough, the second portion having a thermal expansion coefficient substantially similar to a thermal expansion coefficient of the first portion, wherein the arced cooling feature is located within the second portion to direct a portion of a coolant to a leakage area of the turbomachine component.

  2. Soft is hard and hard is easy: learning technologies and social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Dron

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Questo articolo riguarda principalmente la natura delle tecnologie per apprendere, con una particolare attenzione ai social media. Muovendo dalla definizione fornita da W. Brian Arthur delle tecnologie come un insieme di fenomeni orchestrati per un qualche uso, l’articolo amplia la teoria di Arthur ridefinendo e allargando la distinzione comunemente accettata tra tecnologie soft e hard, laddove le tecnologie soft sono intese come quelle che richiedono l’orchestrazione di fenomeni da parte degli esseri umani, mentre le tecnologie hard sono quelle per le quali l’orchestrazione è predeterminata o incorporata. Le tecnologie per apprendere sono quelle in cui le pedagogie (anch’esse tecnologie sono parte dell’insieme. Le conseguenze di questa prospettiva vengono esplorate nel quadro di diversi modelli pedagogici e in relazione agli approcci basati sul social learning in una varietà di contesti, dai corsi per corrispondenza ai MOOC.

  3. Short Hard Gamma Ray Bursts And Their Afterglows

    CERN Document Server

    Dado, Shlomo

    2009-01-01

    Long duration gamma ray bursts (GRBs) and X-ray flashes (XRFs) are produced by highly- relativistic jets ejected in core-collapse supernova explosions. The origin of short hard gamma-ray bursts (SHBs) has not been established. They may be produced by highly relativistic jets ejected in various processes: mergers of compact stellar objects; large-mass accretion episodes onto compact stars in close binaries or onto intermediate-mass black holes in dense stellar regions; phase transition of compact stars. Natural environments of such events are the dense cores of globular clusters, superstar clusters and young supernova remnants. We have used the cannonball model of GRBs to analyze all Swift SHBs with a well-sampled X-ray afterglow. We show that their prompt gamma-ray emission can be explained by inverse Compton scattering (ICS) of the progenitor's glory light, and their extended soft emission component by ICS of high density light or synchrotron radiation (SR) in a high density interstellar medium within the cl...

  4. How to estimate hardness of crystals on a pocket calculator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simunek, Antonin

    2007-01-01

    A generalization of the semiempirical microscopic model of hardness is presented and applied to currently studied borides, carbides, and nitrides of heavy transition metals. The hardness of OsB, OsC, OsN, PtN, RuC, RuB 2 , ReB 2 , OsB 2 , IrN 2 , PtN 2 , and OsN 2 crystals in various structural phases is predicted. It is found that none of the transition metal crystals is superhard, i.e., with hardness greater than 40 GPa. The presented method provides materials researchers with a practical tool in the search for new hard materials

  5. Flour quality and kernel hardness connection in winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabó B. P.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kernel hardness is controlled by friabilin protein and it depends on the relation between protein matrix and starch granules. Friabilin is present in high concentration in soft grain varieties and in low concentration in hard grain varieties. The high gluten, hard wheat our generally contains about 12.0–13.0% crude protein under Mid-European conditions. The relationship between wheat protein content and kernel texture is usually positive and kernel texture influences the power consumption during milling. Hard-textured wheat grains require more grinding energy than soft-textured grains.

  6. Micro-hardness of non-irradiated uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung-Sik; Takagi, Osamu; Obata, Naomi; Kirihara, Tomoo.

    1983-01-01

    In order to obtain the optimum conditions for micro-hardness measurements of sintered UO 2 , two kinds of hardness tests (Vickers and Knoop) were examined with non-irradiated UO 2 of 2.5 and 5 μm in grain size. The hardness values were obtained as a function of the applied load in the load range of 25 -- 1,000 g. In the Vickers test, cracks were generated around the periphery of an indentation even at lower load of 50 g, which means the Vickers hardness is not suitable for UO 2 specimens. In the Knoop test, three stages of load dependence were observed for sintered pellet as well as for a single crystal by Bates. Load dependence of Knoop hardness and crack formation were discussed. In the range of applied load around 70 -- 100 g there were plateau region where hardness values were nearly unchanged and did not contain any cracks in the indentation. The plateau region represents a hardness of a specimen. From a comparison between the hardness values of 2.5 μm and those of 5 μm UO 2 , it was approved that the degree of sintering controls the hardness in the plateau region. (author)

  7. Hard X-ray studies on the Castor tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlynar, J.

    1990-04-01

    The electron runaway processes in tokamaks are discussed with regard to hard X radiation measurements. The origin and confinement of runaway electrons, their bremsstrahlung spectra and the influence of lower hybrid current drive on the distribution of high-energy electrons are analyzed for the case of the Castor tokamak. The hard X-ray spectrometer designed for the Castor tokamak is also described and preliminary qualitative results of hard X-ray measurements are presented. The first series of integral measurements made it possible to map the azimuthal dependence of the hard X radiation

  8. Hard metal lung disease: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Rafael Futoshi; Terra-Filho, Mário; Lima, Evelise; Freitas, Carolina Salim Gonçalves; Chate, Rodrigo Caruso; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib; Carvalho-Oliveira, Regiani; Santos, Ubiratan Paula

    2016-01-01

    To describe diagnostic and treatment aspects of hard metal lung disease (HMLD) and to review the current literature on the topic. This was a retrospective study based on the medical records of patients treated at the Occupational Respiratory Diseases Clinic of the Instituto do Coração, in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, between 2010 and 2013. Of 320 patients treated during the study period, 5 (1.56%) were diagnosed with HMLD. All of those 5 patients were male (mean age, 42.0 ± 13.6 years; mean duration of exposure to hard metals, 11.4 ± 8.0 years). Occupational histories were taken, after which the patients underwent clinical evaluation, chest HRCT, pulmonary function tests, bronchoscopy, BAL, and lung biopsy. Restrictive lung disease was found in all subjects. The most common chest HRCT finding was ground glass opacities (in 80%). In 4 patients, BALF revealed multinucleated giant cells. In 3 patients, lung biopsy revealed giant cell interstitial pneumonia. One patient was diagnosed with desquamative interstitial pneumonia associated with cellular bronchiolitis, and another was diagnosed with a hypersensitivity pneumonitis pattern. All patients were withdrawn from exposure and treated with corticosteroid. Clinical improvement occurred in 2 patients, whereas the disease progressed in 3. Although HMLD is a rare entity, it should always be included in the differential diagnosis of respiratory dysfunction in workers with a high occupational risk of exposure to hard metal particles. A relevant history (clinical and occupational) accompanied by chest HRCT and BAL findings suggestive of the disease might be sufficient for the diagnosis. Descrever aspectos relacionados ao diagnóstico e tratamento de pacientes com doença pulmonar por metal duro (DPMD) e realizar uma revisão da literatura. Estudo retrospectivo dos prontuários médicos de pacientes atendidos no Serviço de Doenças Respiratórias Ocupacionais do Instituto do Coração, localizado na cidade de S

  9. The radial hardness-profile and the microstructure of railroad car axle materials treated by surface rolling, determined by novel examination methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, Tibor; Balogh, Levente; Mészáros, István; Steinbach, Ágoston

    2014-01-01

    Surface rolling is a cold-working technique used for hardening the surface of steel and ductile cast iron components. This process increases the surface hardness and improves the fatigue properties of components, so it is commonly used to treat railroad car wheel axles. The present paper examines the influence of this surface strengthening technique on the microstructure of the railroad car wheel axle material by hardness tests, optical microscopy (OM), and other novel examination methods, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray line profile analysis (XLPA), non-destructive magnetic evaluation (NDE) and automated electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The results show that surface rolling causes an increase in hardness down to a depth of ∼10 mm. It is also shown, that the increase in hardness is not due to grain refinement or change in grain morphology; thus it is likely to be caused by an increase in dislocation density

  10. The radial hardness-profile and the microstructure of railroad car axle materials treated by surface rolling, determined by novel examination methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berecz, Tibor, E-mail: berecz@eik.bme.hu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1111 Budapest, Bertalan Lajos utca 7 (Hungary); Balogh, Levente, E-mail: levente@metal.elte.hu [Department of Materials Physics, Eötvös Loránd University, 1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/a (Hungary); Mészáros, István, E-mail: meszaros@eik.bme.hu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1111 Budapest, Bertalan Lajos utca 7 (Hungary); Steinbach, Ágoston, E-mail: sa984@hszk.bme.hu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1111 Budapest, Bertalan Lajos utca 7 (Hungary)

    2014-01-13

    Surface rolling is a cold-working technique used for hardening the surface of steel and ductile cast iron components. This process increases the surface hardness and improves the fatigue properties of components, so it is commonly used to treat railroad car wheel axles. The present paper examines the influence of this surface strengthening technique on the microstructure of the railroad car wheel axle material by hardness tests, optical microscopy (OM), and other novel examination methods, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray line profile analysis (XLPA), non-destructive magnetic evaluation (NDE) and automated electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The results show that surface rolling causes an increase in hardness down to a depth of ∼10 mm. It is also shown, that the increase in hardness is not due to grain refinement or change in grain morphology; thus it is likely to be caused by an increase in dislocation density.

  11. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory has been constructed as part of the preparations for the deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. The surface and borehole investigations and the research work performed in parallel with construction have provided a thorough test of methods for investigation and evaluation of bedrock conditions for construction of a deep repository. The Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments are made to gain a better understanding of radionuclide retention in the rock and create confidence in the radionuclide transport models that are intended to be used in the licensing of a deep repository for spent fuel. The experimental results of the first tracer test with sorbing radioactive tracers have been obtained. These tests have been subject to blind predictions by the Aespoe Task Force on groundwater flow and transports of solutes. The manufacturing of the CHEMLAB probe was completed during 1996, and the first experiments were started early in 1997. During 1997 three experiments on diffusion in bentonite using 57 Co, 114 Cs, 85 Sr, 99 Tc, and 131 I were conducted. The Prototype Repository Test is focused on testing and demonstrating repository system function. A full scale prototype including six deposition holes with canisters with electric heaters surrounded by highly compacted bentonite will be built and instrumented. The characterization of the rock mass in the area of the prototype repository is in progress. The objectives of the Demonstration of Repository Technology are to develop, test, and demonstrate methodology and equipment for encapsulation and deposition of spent nuclear fuel. The demonstration of handling and deposition will be made in a new drift. The Backfill and Plug Test includes tests of backfill materials and emplacement methods and a test of a full scale plug. The backfill and rock will be instrumented with about 230 transducers for measuring the thermo-hydro-mechanical processes. The Retrieval Test is

  12. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory Annual Report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-08-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory has been constructed as part of the preparations for the deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. The Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments are made to gain a better understanding of radionuclide retention in the rock and create confidence in the radionuclide transport models that are intended to be used in the licensing of a deep repository for spent fuel. The TRUE -1 experiment including tests with sorbing radioactive tracers in a single fracture over a distance of about 5 m has been completed. Diffusion and sorption in the rock matrix is the dominant retention mechanism over the time scales of the experiments. The main objective of the TRUE Block Scale Experiment is to increase understanding and our ability to predict tracer transport in a fracture network over spatial scales of 10 to 50 m. In total six boreholes have been drilled into the experimental volume located at the 450 m level. The Long-Term Diffusion Experiment is intended as a complement to the dynamic in-situ experiments and the laboratory experiments performed in the TRUE Programme. Diffusion from a fracture into the rock matrix will be studied in situ. The REX project focuses on the reduction of oxygen in a repository after closure due to reactions with rock minerals and microbial activity. Results show that oxygen is consumed within a few days both for the field and laboratory experiments. A new site for the CHEMLAB experiments was selected and prepared during 1999. All future experiment will be conducted in the J niche at 450 m depth. The Prototype Repository Test is focused on testing and demonstrating repository system function. A full-scale prototype including six deposition holes with canisters with electric heaters surrounded by highly compacted bentonite will be built and instrumented. Characterisation of the rock mass in the area of the Prototype repository is completed and the six deposition holes have been drilled. The Backfill and

  13. Non-hard sphere thermodynamic perturbation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiqi

    2011-08-21

    A non-hard sphere (HS) perturbation scheme, recently advanced by the present author, is elaborated for several technical matters, which are key mathematical details for implementation of the non-HS perturbation scheme in a coupling parameter expansion (CPE) thermodynamic perturbation framework. NVT-Monte Carlo simulation is carried out for a generalized Lennard-Jones (LJ) 2n-n potential to obtain routine thermodynamic quantities such as excess internal energy, pressure, excess chemical potential, excess Helmholtz free energy, and excess constant volume heat capacity. Then, these new simulation data, and available simulation data in literatures about a hard core attractive Yukawa fluid and a Sutherland fluid, are used to test the non-HS CPE 3rd-order thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT) and give a comparison between the non-HS CPE 3rd-order TPT and other theoretical approaches. It is indicated that the non-HS CPE 3rd-order TPT is superior to other traditional TPT such as van der Waals/HS (vdW/HS), perturbation theory 2 (PT2)/HS, and vdW/Yukawa (vdW/Y) theory or analytical equation of state such as mean spherical approximation (MSA)-equation of state and is at least comparable to several currently the most accurate Ornstein-Zernike integral equation theories. It is discovered that three technical issues, i.e., opening up new bridge function approximation for the reference potential, choosing proper reference potential, and/or using proper thermodynamic route for calculation of f(ex-ref), chiefly decide the quality of the non-HS CPE TPT. Considering that the non-HS perturbation scheme applies for a wide variety of model fluids, and its implementation in the CPE thermodynamic perturbation framework is amenable to high-order truncation, the non-HS CPE 3rd-order or higher order TPT will be more promising once the above-mentioned three technological advances are established. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  14. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory has been constructed as part of the preparations for the deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. The surface and borehole investigations and the research work performed in parallel with construction have provided a thorough test of methods for investigation and evaluation of bedrock conditions for construction of a deep repository. The Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments are made to gain a better understanding of radionuclide retention in the rock and create confidence in the radionuclide transport models that are intended to be used in the licensing of a deep repository for spent fuel. The experimental results of the first tracer test with sorbing radioactive tracers have been obtained. These tests have been subject to blind predictions by the Aespoe Task Force on groundwater flow and transports of solutes. The manufacturing of the CHEMLAB probe was completed during 1996, and the first experiments were started early in 1997. During 1997 three experiments on diffusion in bentonite using {sup 57}Co, {sup 114}Cs,{sup 85}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 131}I were conducted. The Prototype Repository Test is focused on testing and demonstrating repository system function. A full scale prototype including six deposition holes with canisters with electric heaters surrounded by highly compacted bentonite will be built and instrumented. The characterization of the rock mass in the area of the prototype repository is in progress. The objectives of the Demonstration of Repository Technology are to develop, test, and demonstrate methodology and equipment for encapsulation and deposition of spent nuclear fuel. The demonstration of handling and deposition will be made in a new drift. The Backfill and Plug Test includes tests of backfill materials and emplacement methods and a test of a full scale plug. The backfill and rock will be instrumented with about 230 transducers for measuring the thermo-hydro-mechanical processes. The

  15. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory Annual Report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory has been constructed as part of the preparations for the deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. The Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments are made to gain a better understanding of radionuclide retention in the rock and create confidence in the radionuclide transport models that are intended to be used in the licensing of a deep repository for spent fuel. The TRUE -1 experiment including tests with sorbing radioactive tracers in a single fracture over a distance of about 5 m has been completed. Diffusion and sorption in the rock matrix is the dominant retention mechanism over the time scales of the experiments. The main objective of the TRUE Block Scale Experiment is to increase understanding and our ability to predict tracer transport in a fracture network over spatial scales of 10 to 50 m. In total six boreholes have been drilled into the experimental volume located at the 450 m level. The Long-Term Diffusion Experiment is intended as a complement to the dynamic in-situ experiments and the laboratory experiments performed in the TRUE Programme. Diffusion from a fracture into the rock matrix will be studied in situ. The REX project focuses on the reduction of oxygen in a repository after closure due to reactions with rock minerals and microbial activity. Results show that oxygen is consumed within a few days both for the field and laboratory experiments. A new site for the CHEMLAB experiments was selected and prepared during 1999. All future experiment will be conducted in the J niche at 450 m depth. The Prototype Repository Test is focused on testing and demonstrating repository system function. A full-scale prototype including six deposition holes with canisters with electric heaters surrounded by highly compacted bentonite will be built and instrumented. Characterisation of the rock mass in the area of the Prototype repository is completed and the six deposition holes have been drilled. The Backfill and

  16. Components of Sexual Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Michael G.; DeCecco, John P.

    1977-01-01

    This paper examines the four components of sexual identity: biological sex, gender identity, social sex-role, and sexual orientation. Theories about the development of each component and how they combine and conflict to form the individual's sexual identity are discussed. (Author)

  17. Towards Cognitive Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Ahrendt, Peter; Larsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive component analysis (COCA) is here defined as the process of unsupervised grouping of data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. We have earlier demonstrated that independent components analysis is relevant for representing...

  18. Develop guidelines for the design of pillar systems for shallow and intermediate depth, tabular, hard rock mines and provide a methodology for assessing hangingwall stability and support requirements for the panels between pillars

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    York, G

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The design of hard rock pillars, in shallow to intermediate depth hard rock mines, has been redefined as the determination of the pillar system load bearing capacity. This entails the ability to design each of the components of the pillar system...

  19. Hard facts for radiation curing of elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyall, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is covered under the headings: introduction; outline of chemistry (differences between conventional and radiation curing); compounding; green strength; response of rubbers to electron beam treatment; electron beam cured applications:(a) wire and cable applications;(b) rubber tyre components;(c) heat shrinkable materials;(d) roofing materials. (U.K.)

  20. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory Annual Report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory is being constructed as part of the preparations for the deep geological repository of spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. The annual report 1994 contains an overview of the work conducted. Present work is focused on verification of pre-investigation methods and development of detailed investigation methodology which is applied during tunnel construction. Construction of the facility and detailed characterization of the bedrock are performed in parallel. Excavation of the main access tunnel was completed during 1994 and at the end of the year only minor excavation work remained. The last 400 m of the main tunnel, which has a total length of 3600 m, was excavated by a 5 m diameter boring machine. The tunnel reaches a depth of 450 m below ground. Preparations for the operating phase have started and detailed plans have been prepared for several experiments. Nine organizations, including SKB, from eight countries are now participating in the work at the laboratory. 50 refs, 28 figs

  1. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. The work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2006 is in this report described in six chapters: Geo-science - experiments, analysis and modelling to increase the knowledge of the surrounding rock; Natural barriers - experiments, analysis and modelling to increase the knowledge of the repository barriers under natural conditions; Engineered barriers - demonstration of technology for and function of important engineered parts of the repository barrier system; Aespoe facility - operation, maintenance, data management, monitoring, public relations etc; Environmental research; and finally, International co-operation.

  2. Unraveling Quantum Annealers using Classical Hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Mayor, Victor; Hen, Itay

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in quantum technology have led to the development and manufacturing of experimental programmable quantum annealing optimizers that contain hundreds of quantum bits. These optimizers, commonly referred to as ‘D-Wave’ chips, promise to solve practical optimization problems potentially faster than conventional ‘classical’ computers. Attempts to quantify the quantum nature of these chips have been met with both excitement and skepticism but have also brought up numerous fundamental questions pertaining to the distinguishability of experimental quantum annealers from their classical thermal counterparts. Inspired by recent results in spin-glass theory that recognize ‘temperature chaos’ as the underlying mechanism responsible for the computational intractability of hard optimization problems, we devise a general method to quantify the performance of quantum annealers on optimization problems suffering from varying degrees of temperature chaos: A superior performance of quantum annealers over classical algorithms on these may allude to the role that quantum effects play in providing speedup. We utilize our method to experimentally study the D-Wave Two chip on different temperature-chaotic problems and find, surprisingly, that its performance scales unfavorably as compared to several analogous classical algorithms. We detect, quantify and discuss several purely classical effects that possibly mask the quantum behavior of the chip. PMID:26483257

  3. Exotic hybrid mesons in hard electroproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Anikin, I V; Szymanowski, L; Teryaev, O V; Wallon, S

    2005-01-01

    We estimate the sizeable cross section for deep exclusive electroproduction of an exotic $J^{PC}=1^{-+}$ hybrid meson in the Bjorken regime. The production amplitude scales like the one for usual meson electroproduction, i.e. as $1/Q^2$. This is due to the non-vanishing leading twist distribution amplitude for the hybrid meson, which may be normalized thanks to its relation to the energy momentum tensor and to the QCD sum rules technique. The hard amplitude is considered up to next-to-leading order in $\\alpha_{S}$ and we explore the consequences of fixing the renormalization scale ambiguity through the BLM procedure. We study the particular case where the hybrid meson decays through a $\\pi\\eta $ meson pair. We discuss the $\\pi\\eta$ generalized distribution amplitude and then calculate the production amplitude for this process. We propose a forward-backward asymmetry in the production of $\\pi$ and $\\eta$ mesons as a signal for the hybrid meson production. We briefly comment on hybrid electroproduction at very ...

  4. From hard thermal loops to Langevin dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boedeker, Dietrich

    1999-01-01

    In hot non-Abelian gauge theories, processes characterized by the momentum scale g 2 T (such as electroweak baryon number violation in the very early universe) are non-perturbative. An effective theory for the soft (vertical bar p vertical bar ∼ g 2 T) field modes is obtained by integrating out momenta larger than than g 2 T. Starting from the hard thermal loop effective theory, which is the result of integrating out the scale T, it is shown how to integrate out the scale gT in an expansion in the gauge coupling g. At leading order in g, one obtains Vlasov-Boltzmann equations for the soft field modes, which contain a Gaussian noise and a collision term. The 2-point function of the noise and the collision term are explicitly calculated in a leading logarithmic approximation. In this approximation the Boltzmann equation is solved. The resulting effective theory for the soft field modes is described by a Langevin equation. It determines the parametric form of the hot baryon number violation rate as Γ = κg 10 log(1/g)gT 4 , and it allows for a calculation for κ on the lattice

  5. Integrated Planning: Why is it so hard?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesser, A.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the Manager of Planning integration at DOE-Richland and the Program Manager for Hanford Mission Planning at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Westinghouse Hanford Company describe some of the reasons why integrated planning is so hard and what can be done to correct the situation. The authors use experiences from the last three years at Hanford to illustrate some of the difficulties in site integrated planning. The authors argue that integrated planning was not a major part of the previous diverse Site missions, but the change of mission has not resulted in a corresponding change of attitude about the need for such planning. Moreover, the DOE-RL staff is not structured or manned for planning, and a site perspective is the exception, rather than the norm. Contributing to this situation is the compartmentalization of funding and decision making and the diffusion of responsibility. The decision-making process at DOE sites is often not clear because of the evolving role of stakeholders, and agencies outside the DOE, especially regulators, are co-decision makers. The regulatory process and the requirements of environmental impact statements contribute to the diffusion of authority

  6. Hard X ray lines from neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polcaro, V.F.; Bazzano, A.; La Padula, C.; Ubertini, P.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental evidence is presented and evaluated concerning the features of the hard X-ray spectra detected in a number of cosmic X-ray sources which contain a neutron star. The strong emission line at cyclotron resonance detected in the spectrum of Her XI at an energy of 58 keV is evaluated and the implications of this finding are discussed. Also examined is the presence of spectral features in the energy range 20-80 keV found in the spectra of gamma-ray bursts, which have been interpreted as cyclotron resonance from interstellar-gas-accreting neutron stars. The less understood finding of a variable emission line at approximately 70 keV in the spectrum of the Crab Pulsar is considered. It is determined that several features varying with time are present in the spectra of cosmic X-ray sources associated with neutron stars. If these features are due to cyclotron resonance, it is suggested that they provide a direct measurement of neutron star magnetic fields on the order of 10 to the 11th-10 to the 13th Gauss. However, the physical condition of the emitting region and its geometry are still quite obscure.

  7. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. The work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2006 is in this report described in six chapters: Geo-science - experiments, analysis and modelling to increase the knowledge of the surrounding rock; Natural barriers - experiments, analysis and modelling to increase the knowledge of the repository barriers under natural conditions; Engineered barriers - demonstration of technology for and function of important engineered parts of the repository barrier system; Aespoe facility - operation, maintenance, data management, monitoring, public relations etc; Environmental research; and finally, International co-operation

  8. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory Annual report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) constitutes an important part of SKB's work to design and construct a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel and to develop and test methods for characterisation of a suitable site for a deep repository. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create an opportunity for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and the associated research, development, and demonstration tasks, have so far attracted considerable interest. A summary of work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2003 is given below. Seven organisations from six countries participated in the co-operation at Aespoe HRL during 2003 in addition to SKB. Most of the organisations are interested in groundwater flow, radionuclide transport and rock characterisation. Several of the organisations are participating in the experimental work as well as in the Aespoe Task Force on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Transport of Solutes. SKB is through Repository Technology co-ordinating three EC contracts and takes part in several EC projects of which the representation in five projects is channelled through Repository Technology. SKB takes also part in work within the IAEA framework.

  9. Traumatic Foot Fractures in Hard Working Donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Semieka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out on 45 hard working donkeys suffering from different types of traumatic foot fractures. These animals were selected from the clinical cases admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Assiut University during the period of 2007-2010. Based on history, clinical signs and radiographic examination, various types of traumatic foot fractures were diagnosed and recorded. These fractures were affect metacarpal bones (N. =16, metatarsal bones (N. =9, proximal phalanx (N. = 13, middle phalanx (N. = 3, distal phalanx (N. = 2 and proximal sesamoid bones (N. = 2. It could be concluded that fractures of the large metacarpal bones are the most common types followed by fractures of the proximal phalanx of the thoracic limb then fractures of the metatarsal bones. Fractures of the middle phalanx, distal phalanx and proximal sesamoid bone are less common in donkeys. Single fractures of the metacarpal and metatarsal bones are more common than comminuted one, in addition diaphyseal fractures of these bones are more common than metaphyseal or epiphyseal fractures. In the proximal phalanx, comminuted fractures are more common than single fractures.

  10. Hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Keisuke

    2009-01-01

    Except in the very early stage of the development of X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) by Kai Siegbahn and his coworkers, the excitation sources for XPS studies have predominantly been the Al Kα and Mg Kα emission lines. The advent of synchrotron radiation sources opened up the possibility of tuning the excitation photon energy with much higher throughputs for photoemission spectroscopy, however the excitation energy range was limited to the vacuum ultra violet and soft X-ray regions. Over the past 5-6 years, bulk-sensitive hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy using high-brilliance high-flux X-rays from third generation synchrotron radiation facilities has been developed. This article reviews the history of HXPES covering the period from Kai Siegbahn and his coworkers' pioneering works to the present, and describes the fundamental aspects, instrumentation, applications to solid state physics, applied physics, materials science, and industrial applications of HXPES. Finally, several challenging new developments which have been conducted at SPring-8 by collaborations among several groups are introduced.

  11. Hazards of the 'hard cash': hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupeli, Elif; Karnak, Demet; Sak, Serpil Dizbay; Kayacan, Oya

    2010-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a nonimmunoglobulin E-related immune-mediated parenchymal lung disease. A 45-year-old woman who was a lifelong nonsmoker with a six-month history of frequent episodes of cough and dyspnea was admitted to hospital. She had been working as a money counter for 20 years at a central bank. Bibasilar crackles on lung auscultation, ground-glass opacities and a mosaic pattern on high-resolution computed tomography, restrictive abnormality on pulmonary function tests and mild hypoxemia were the prominent findings. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis revealed a predominance of CD4-positive T cells, and she tested positive on her natural challenge test. She was diagnosed with subacute HP based on established criteria. She was advised to discontinue counting fresh banknotes. Prednisolone was commenced, then tapered to discontinue in the ensuing six months. Clinical and radiological improvement was achieved within two months. To the authors' knowledge, the present report is the first to describe 'hard cash HP', possibly caused by chipping dust or printing dye.

  12. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory Annual Report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory is being constructed as part of the preparations for the deep geological repository of spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. The annual report 1994 contains an overview of the work conducted. Present work is focused on verification of pre-investigation methods and development of detailed investigation methodology which is applied during tunnel construction. Construction of the facility and detailed characterization of the bedrock are performed in parallel. Excavation of the main access tunnel was completed during 1994 and at the end of the year only minor excavation work remained. The last 400 m of the main tunnel, which has a total length of 3600 m, was excavated by a 5 m diameter boring machine. The tunnel reaches a depth of 450 m below ground. Preparations for the operating phase have started and detailed plans have been prepared for several experiments. Nine organizations, including SKB, from eight countries are now participating in the work at the laboratory. 50 refs, 28 figs.

  13. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) constitutes an important part of SKB's work to design and construct a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel and to develop and test methods for characterisation of a suitable site for a deep repository. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create an opportunity for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and the associated research, development, and demonstration tasks, have so far attracted considerable interest. A summary of work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2003 is given below. Seven organisations from six countries participated in the co-operation at Aespoe HRL during 2003 in addition to SKB. Most of the organisations are interested in groundwater flow, radionuclide transport and rock characterisation. Several of the organisations are participating in the experimental work as well as in the Aespoe Task Force on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Transport of Solutes. SKB is through Repository Technology co-ordinating three EC contracts and takes part in several EC projects of which the representation in five projects is channelled through Repository Technology. SKB takes also part in work within the IAEA framework

  14. Teasing apart the contributions of hard dietary items on 3D dental microtextures in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandra, Ivan; Schulz, Ellen; Pinnow, Mona; Krohn, Susanne; Kaiser, Thomas M

    2012-07-01

    3D dental microtexture analysis is a powerful tool for reconstructing the diets of extinct primates. This method is based on the comparison of fossils with extant species of known diet. The diets of primates are highly diversified and include fruits, seeds, grass, tree leaves, bark, roots, tubers, and animal resources. Fruits remain the main component in the diets of most primates. We tested whether the proportion of fruit consumed is correlated with dental microtexture. Two methods of microtexture analysis, the scale-sensitive fractal analysis (SSFA) and the Dental Areal Surface Texture Analysis (DASTA; after ISO/FDIS 25178-2), were applied to specimens of eight primate species (Alouatta seniculus, Gorilla gorilla, Lophocebus albigena, Macaca fascicularis, Pan troglodytes, Papio cynocephalus, Pongo abelii, Theropithecus gelada). These species largely differ in the mean annual proportion of fruit (from 0 to 90%) in their diet, as well as in their consumption of other hard items (seeds, bark, and insect cuticles) and of abrasive plants. We find the complexity and heterogeneity of textures (SSFA) to correlate with the proportion of fruits consumed. Textural fill volume (SSFA) indicates the proportion of both fruits and other hard items processed. Furthermore, anisotropy (SSFA) relates to the consumption of abrasive plants like grass and other monocots. ISO parameters valley height, root mean square height, material volume, density of peaks, and closed hill and dale areas (DASTA) describe the functional interaction between food items and enamel facets during mastication. The shallow, plastic deformation of enamel surfaces induced by small hard particles, such as phytoliths or dust, results in flat microtexture relief, whereas the brittle, deep fracture caused by large hard items such as hard seeds creates larger relief. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of hard-seal gate valve and fast shutter for JT-60 neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuribayashi, S.; Minami, M.; Matsuoka, T.; Takeshita, K.; Morita, H.; Kuriyama, M.; Matsuda, S.; Shirakata, H.

    1983-01-01

    A 600 mm hard-seal valve and a fast shutter for the JT-60 Neutral Beam Injector were developed. The 600 mm hard-seal gate valve was fabricated and tested for 500 cycles at various temperatures of up to 250 0 C. In consequence, requirements of the endurance and vacuum tightness were satisfied. Major components of the fast shutter, i.e., swing action bellows and a high-speed pneumatic cylinder, were tested for 30,000 cycles, and their reliability was confirmed. Then the fast shutter was fabricated and tested. The test result indicated that the fast shutter fully satisfied the requirements of the molecular gas flow conductance and opening/closing speed. (author)

  16. Extended hard-X-ray emission in the inner few parsecs of the Galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Kerstin; Hailey, Charles J.; Bauer, Franz E.

    2015-01-01

    of objects emitting soft X-rays (less than 10 kiloelectronvolts) within the surrounding hundreds of parsecs, as well as the population responsible for unresolved X-ray emission extending along the Galactic plane, is dominated by accreting white dwarf systems. Observations of diffuse hard-X-ray (more than 10...... kiloelectronvolts) emission in the inner 10 parsecs, however, have been hampered by the limited spatial resolution of previous instruments. Here we report the presence of a distinct hard-X-ray component within the central 4 × 8 parsecs, as revealed by subarcminute-resolution images in the 20-40 kiloelectronvolt...... outflows interacting with the surrounding radiation field, dense molecular material or magnetic fields. However, all these interpretations pose significant challenges to our understanding of stellar evolution, binary formation, and cosmic-ray production in the Galactic Centre....

  17. Hard x-ray nanoprobe of beamline P06 at PETRA III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroer, C. G., E-mail: christian.schroer@desy.de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Department Physik, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Baumbach, C. [Institute of Optics and Photonics of Condensed Matter, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Döhrmann, R.; Kahnt, M.; Reinhardt, J.; Scholz, M.; Schropp, A.; Seyrich, M.; Wittwer, F.; Falkenberg, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Klare, S.; Hoppe, R.; Patommel, J.; Ritter, S.; Samberg, D.; Seiboth, F. [Institut für Strukturphysik, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-07-27

    The hard x-ray scanning microscope at beamline P06 of PETRA III at DESY in Hamburg serves a large user community, from physics, chemistry, and nanotechnology to the bio-medical, materials, environmental, and geosciences. It has been in user operation since 2012, and is mainly based on nanofocusing refractive x-ray lenses. Using refractive optics, nearly gaussian-limited nanobeams in the range from 50 to 100 nm can be generated in the hard x-ray energy range from 8 to 30 keV. The degree of coherence can be traded off against the flux in the nanobeam by a two-stage focusing scheme. We give a brief overview on published results from this instrument and describe its most important components and parameters.

  18. The application of cast SiC/Al to rotary engine components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, H. M.; Carluccio, J. R.; Norman, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    A silicon carbide reinforced aluminum (SiC/Al) material fabricated by Dural Aluminum Composites Corporation was tested for various components of rotary engines. Properties investigated included hardness, high temperature strength, wear resistance, fatigue resistance, thermal conductivity, and expansion. SiC/Al appears to be a viable candidate for cast rotors, and may be applicable to other components, primarily housings.

  19. The NuSTAR view on Hard-TeV BL Lacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costamante, L.; Bonnoli, G.; Tavecchio, F.; Ghisellini, G.; Tagliaferri, G.; Khangulyan, D.

    2018-05-01

    Hard-TeV BL Lacs are a new type of blazars characterized by a hard intrinsic TeV spectrum, locating the peak of their gamma-ray emission in the spectral energy distribution (SED) above 2-10 TeV. Such high energies are problematic for the Compton emission, using a standard one-zone leptonic model. We study six examples of this new type of BL Lacs in the hard X-ray band with NuSTAR. Together with simultaneous observations with the Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory, we fully constrain the peak of the synchrotron emission in their SED, and test the leptonic synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model. We confirm the extreme nature of 5 objects also in the synchrotron emission. We do not find evidence of additional emission components in the hard X-ray band. We find that a one-zone SSC model can in principle reproduce the extreme properties of both peaks in the SED, from X-ray up to TeV energies, but at the cost of i) extreme electron energies with very low radiative efficiency, ii) conditions heavily out of equipartition (by 3 to 5 orders of magnitude), and iii) not accounting for the simultaneous UV data, which then should belong to a different emission component, possibly the same as the far-IR (WISE) data. We find evidence of this separation of the UV and X-ray emission in at least two objects. In any case, the TeV electrons must not "see" the UV or lower-energy photons, even if coming from different zones/populations, or the increased radiative cooling would steepen the VHE spectrum.

  20. GCS component development cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Jose A.; Macias, Rosa; Molgo, Jordi; Guerra, Dailos; Pi, Marti

    2012-09-01

    The GTC1 is an optical-infrared 10-meter segmented mirror telescope at the ORM observatory in Canary Islands (Spain). First light was at 13/07/2007 and since them it is in the operation phase. The GTC control system (GCS) is a distributed object & component oriented system based on RT-CORBA8 and it is responsible for the management and operation of the telescope, including its instrumentation. GCS has used the Rational Unified process (RUP9) in its development. RUP is an iterative software development process framework. After analysing (use cases) and designing (UML10) any of GCS subsystems, an initial component description of its interface is obtained and from that information a component specification is written. In order to improve the code productivity, GCS has adopted the code generation to transform this component specification into the skeleton of component classes based on a software framework, called Device Component Framework. Using the GCS development tools, based on javadoc and gcc, in only one step, the component is generated, compiled and deployed to be tested for the first time through our GUI inspector. The main advantages of this approach are the following: It reduces the learning curve of new developers and the development error rate, allows a systematic use of design patterns in the development and software reuse, speeds up the deliverables of the software product and massively increase the timescale, design consistency and design quality, and eliminates the future refactoring process required for the code.

  1. 2-component heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, W

    1987-03-01

    The knowledge accumulated only recently of the damage to buildings and the hazards of formaldehyde, radon and hydrocarbons has been inducing louder calls for ventilation, which, on their part, account for the fact that increasing importance is being attached to the controlled ventilation of buildings. Two-component heating systems provide for fresh air and thermal comfort in one. While the first component uses fresh air blown directly and controllably into the rooms, the second component is similar to the Roman hypocaustic heating systems, meaning that heated outer air is circulating under the floor, thus providing for hot surfaces and thermal comfort. Details concerning the two-component heating system are presented along with systems diagrams, diagrams of the heating system and tables identifying the respective costs. Descriptions are given of the two systems components, the fast heat-up, the two-component made, the change of air, heat recovery and control systems. Comparative evaluations determine the differences between two-component heating systems and other heating systems. Conclusive remarks are dedicated to energy conservation and comparative evaluations of costs. (HWJ).

  2. Vapour-liquid equilibria of the hard core Yukawa fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, B.; Frenkel, D.

    1991-01-01

    Techniques which extend the range of applicability of the Gibbs ensemble technique for particles which interact with a hard core potential are described. The power of the new technique is demonstrated in a numerical study of the vapour-liquid coexistence curve of the hard core Yukawa fluid.

  3. Failure analysis and shock protection of external hard disk drive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technology for processing and storage of data in portable external storage hard disks has increasingly improved over the years. Currently, terabytes of data can be stored in one portable external storage hard disk drive. Storing such amount of data on a single disk on itself is a risk. Several instances of data lost by big ...

  4. Hard gap in epitaxial semiconductor-superconductor nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, W.; Albrecht, S. M.; Jespersen, T. S.

    2015-01-01

    a continuum of subgap states---a situation that nullifies topological protection. Here, we report a hard superconducting gap induced by proximity effect in a semiconductor, using epitaxial Al-InAs superconductor-semiconductor nanowires. The hard gap, along with favorable material properties and gate...

  5. Hard facings used in welded joints. Industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delair, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this article, two industrial application cases of special hard facings used in offshore and nuclear fabrications are described into details. These hard facings concern more particularly 1)the heterogeneous joints of a martensitic steel on an ordinary carbon steel 2)the homogeneous joints of a high resistive low alloy carbon steel. (O.M.)

  6. Car sequencing is NP-hard: a short proof

    OpenAIRE

    B Estellon; F Gardi

    2013-01-01

    In this note, a new proof is given that the car sequencing (CS) problem is NP-hard. Established from the Hamiltonian Path problem, the reduction is direct while closing some gaps remaining in the previous NP-hardness results. Since CS is studied in many operational research courses, this result and its proof are particularly interesting for teaching purposes.

  7. Wheat Quality Council, Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee, 2017 Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nine experimental lines of hard spring wheat were grown at up to six locations in 2017 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Wheat samples were submitted through the Wheat Quality Council and processed and milled at the USDA-ARS Hard Red Spring...

  8. Adaptation policy in hard coal mining. Die Anpassungspolitik im Steinkohlenbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, H J; Haas, H; Jochum, E; Muellendorff, R; Rolshoven, H

    1981-01-01

    The book points out the necessity of balancing the output of hard coal mines. Detailed analyses of marketing conditions serve as a decision aid for business policy. Production and sales trends in German hard coal mining, instruments of adaptation to quantitative changes in sales, and empirical investigations of adaptation instruments in the underground part of the Goettelborn mine are reviewed.

  9. failure analysis and shock protection of external hard disk drive

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    model its structural responses to free fall drop-impact shock and vibration. Secondly, the hard ... Keywords: Free fall, impact force, Shock, Vibration, Stress, Reliability, Modeling, Simulation External Hard disk drive. 1. ..... on the disk, it could initiate process which could .... [19] Katta, P.: MATLAB Guide to Finite Elements - An.

  10. Thermodynamics and vibrational modes of hard sphere colloidal systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zargar, R.

    2014-01-01

    The central question that we address in this thesis is the thermodynamics of colloidal glasses. The thermodynamics of colloidal hard sphere glasses are directly related to the entropy of the system, since the phase behavior of hard sphere systems is dictated only by entropic contributions, and also

  11. Influence of skin hardness on dehydration kinetics of wine grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolle, Luca; Caudana, Alberto; Giacosa, Simone; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Río Segade, Susana

    2011-02-01

    Knowledge of the influence of initial mechanical properties on the evolution of the weight loss of berries through the drying process is scarce. Therefore, the main purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of skin hardness at two different physiological stages of off-vine drying kinetics of grapes. Skin hardness was evaluated as the berry skin-break force parameter, measured by the texture analysis test. The decrease of berry weight as a function of the drying time was linear, indicating that the drying rates were constant within each cultivar studied (Moscato bianco and Erbaluce), and for each ripening stage and berry skin hardness. The drying rates decreased as berry skin hardness increased for the ripest grapes in the cultivars studied. The study allowed the assessment of the correlation between the skin hardness of fresh berries and the weight loss determined for different drying days. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. A new, bright and hard aluminum surface produced by anodization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Fengyan; Hu, Bo; Tay, See Leng; Wang, Yuxin; Xiong, Chao; Gao, Wei

    2017-07-01

    Anodized aluminum (Al) and Al alloys have a wide range of applications. However, certain anodized finishings have relatively low hardness, dull appearance and/or poor corrosion resistance, which limited their applications. In this research, Al was first electropolished in a phosphoric acid-based solution, then anodized in a sulfuric acid-based solution under controlled processing parameters. The anodized specimen was then sealed by two-step sealing method. A systematic study including microstructure, surface morphology, hardness and corrosion resistance of these anodized films has been conducted. Results show that the hardness of this new anodized film was increased by a factor of 10 compared with the pure Al metal. Salt spray corrosion testing also demonstrated the greatly improved corrosion resistance. Unlike the traditional hard anodized Al which presents a dull-colored surface, this newly developed anodized Al alloy possesses a very bright and shiny surface with good hardness and corrosion resistance.

  13. Particle production at large transverse momentum and hard collision models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranft, G.; Ranft, J.

    1977-04-01

    The majority of the presently available experimental data is consistent with hard scattering models. Therefore the hard scattering model seems to be well established. There is good evidence for jets in large transverse momentum reactions as predicted by these models. The overall picture is however not yet well enough understood. We mention only the empirical hard scattering cross section introduced in most of the models, the lack of a deep theoretical understanding of the interplay between quark confinement and jet production, and the fact that we are not yet able to discriminate conclusively between the many proposed hard scattering models. The status of different hard collision models discussed in this paper is summarized. (author)

  14. Sampling from a polytope and hard-disk Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapfer, Sebastian C; Krauth, Werner

    2013-01-01

    The hard-disk problem, the statics and the dynamics of equal two-dimensional hard spheres in a periodic box, has had a profound influence on statistical and computational physics. Markov-chain Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics were first discussed for this model. Here we reformulate hard-disk Monte Carlo algorithms in terms of another classic problem, namely the sampling from a polytope. Local Markov-chain Monte Carlo, as proposed by Metropolis et al. in 1953, appears as a sequence of random walks in high-dimensional polytopes, while the moves of the more powerful event-chain algorithm correspond to molecular dynamics evolution. We determine the convergence properties of Monte Carlo methods in a special invariant polytope associated with hard-disk configurations, and the implications for convergence of hard-disk sampling. Finally, we discuss parallelization strategies for event-chain Monte Carlo and present results for a multicore implementation

  15. Synthesis, Structure, and Properties of Refractory Hard-Metal Borides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Andrew Thomas

    As the limits of what can be achieved with conventional hard compounds, such as tungsten carbide, are nearing reach, super-hard materials are an area of increasing industrial interest. The refractory hard metal borides, such as ReB2 and WB4, offer an increasingly attractive alternative to diamond and cubic boron nitride as a next-generation tool material. In this Thesis, a thorough discussion is made of the progress achieved by our laboratory towards understanding the synthesis, structure, and properties of these extremely hard compounds. Particular emphasis is placed on structural manipulation, solid solution formation, and the unique crystallographic manifestations of what might also be called "super-hard metals".

  16. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory has been constructed as part of the preparations for the deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. The Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments are made to gain a better understanding of radionuclide retention in the rock and create confidence in the radionuclide transport models that are intended to be used in the licensing of a deep repository for spent fuel. Experiments with sorbing radioactive tracers have been completed in a single fracture over a distance of about 5 m. These tests have been subject to blind predictions by the Aespoe Task Force on groundwater flow and transports of solutes. Breakthrough of sorbing tracers in the TRUE-I tests is retarded more strongly than would be expected based on laboratory data alone. Results are consistent for all tracers and tracer tests. The main objective of the TRUE Block Scale Experiment is to increase understanding and our ability to predict tracer transport in a fracture network over spatial scales of 10 to 50 m. The total duration of the project is approximately 4.5 years with a scheduled finish at the end of the year 2000. The REX project focuses on the reduction of oxygen in a repository after closure due to reactions with rock minerals and microbial activity. Results show that oxygen is consumed within a few days both for the field and laboratory experiments. The project Degassing of groundwater and two phase flow was initiated to improve our understanding of observations of hydraulic conditions made in drifts and interpretation of experiments performed close to drifts. The analysis performed so far shows that the experimentally observed flow reductions indeed are consistent with the degassing hypothesis. The Prototype Repository Test is focused on testing and demonstrating repository system function. A full-scale prototype including six deposition holes with canisters with electric heaters surrounded by highly compacted bentonite will be built and

  17. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual report 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory has been constructed as part of the preparations for the deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. The Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments are made to gain a better understanding of radionuclide retention in the rock and create confidence in the radionuclide transport models that are intended to be used in the licensing of a deep repository for spent fuel. Experiments with sorbing radioactive tracers have been completed in a single fracture over a distance of about 5 m. These tests have been subject to blind predictions by the Aespoe Task Force on groundwater flow and transports of solutes. Breakthrough of sorbing tracers in the TRUE-I tests is retarded more strongly than would be expected based on laboratory data alone. Results are consistent for all tracers and tracer tests. The main objective of the TRUE Block Scale Experiment is to increase understanding and our ability to predict tracer transport in a fracture network over spatial scales of 10 to 50 m. The total duration of the project is approximately 4.5 years with a scheduled finish at the end of the year 2000. The REX project focuses on the reduction of oxygen in a repository after closure due to reactions with rock minerals and microbial activity. Results show that oxygen is consumed within a few days both for the field and laboratory experiments. The project Degassing of groundwater and two phase flow was initiated to improve our understanding of observations of hydraulic conditions made in drifts and interpretation of experiments performed close to drifts. The analysis performed so far shows that the experimentally observed flow reductions indeed are consistent with the degassing hypothesis. The Prototype Repository Test is focused on testing and demonstrating repository system function. A full-scale prototype including six deposition holes with canisters with electric heaters surrounded by highly compacted bentonite will be built and

  18. Mapping residual stress fields from Vickers hardness indents using Raman microprobe spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, R.G.; Enloe, W.S.; Paesler, M.A.

    1988-12-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy is used to map the residual stress fields in the vicinity of Vickers hardness indents. Both 514.5 and 488.0 nm, light is used to excite the effect and the resulting shifted and broadened Raman peaks are analyzed using computer deconvolution. Half-wave plates are used to vary the orientation of the incident later light`s polarization state with respect to crystal orientation. The Raman scattered light is then analyzed for polarization dependences which are indicative of the various components of the Raman scattering tensor. Such studies can yield valuable information about the orientation of stress components in a well known stress field. The results can then be applied to the determination of stress components in machined semiconductor materials.

  19. Ethiopia: hard work for successful AIDS prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    An innovative AIDS control program targeting sex workers and clients in Ethiopia has shown that hard work and government support are essential for the success of a program. Serosurveys conducted in 1988 and 1989 had shown that certain groups were particularly vulnerable to HIV infection: women who engage in formal or informal prostitution and their clients -- often migrant workers or truck drivers. So in mid-1990, Ethiopia's Department of AIDS Control (DAC) launched an intervention effort targeting these high-risk groups, a program entitled the Multiple Partner Sexual Contact (MPSC) Female and Male Mobilization and Condom Promotion Project. The program had a 3-layer strategy: 1) establishing a "trickle down" training process, which would create a network of MPSC peer educators and organizers; 2) identifying MPSC men to serve as educators for other men; and 3) ensuring the widespread availability of condoms for both men and women. As site for its pilot project, DAC selected Nazareth, a trading city of more than 30% among MPSC females. After 6 months of operation, the program's effectiveness convinced DAC to expand the project to 9 additional sites. An evaluation of the project has revealed several important findings: 1) retraining and motivation sessions must be constantly maintained; 2) men's resistance to condom use may be diminished by targeting them with education at the same time as the women; 3) interventions that take into account the socioeconomic issues faced by MPSC women make the program more effective; 4) it is important to develop new educational materials periodically; and 5) involving the owners and managers of sex-related businesses makes the program more effective.

  20. Converting hard copy documents for electronic dissemination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, F.

    1994-12-31

    Since the advent of computer systems, the goal of a paperless office, and even a paperless society, has been pursued. While the normal paper flow in an organization is far from totally automated, particularly for items requiring signatures or authorizations, electronic information dissemination is becoming an almost simple task. The reasons for providing on-line documents are many and include faster and easier access for everyone, elimination of printing costs, reduction of wasted shelf and desk space, and the security of having a centrally-located, always up-to-date document. New computer software even provides the user with the ability to annotate documents and to have bookmarks so that the old scribbled-in and dog-eared manual can be replaced without loosing this `customizability`. Moreover, new hypermedia capabilities mean that documents can be read in a non-linear fashion and can include color figures and photographs, audio, and even animation sequences, capabilities which exceed those of paper. The proliferation of network-based information servers, coupled with the growth of the Internet, has enticed academic, governmental, and even commercial organizations to provide increasing numbers of documents and data bases in electronic form via the network, not just to internal staff, but to the public as well. Much of this information, which includes everything from mundane company procedures to spiffy marketing brochures, was previously published only in hard copy. Converting existing documents to electronic form and producing only electronic versions of new documents poses some interesting challenges to the maintainer or author.

  1. Future Hard Disk Storage: Limits & Potential Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambeth, David N.

    2000-03-01

    For several years the hard disk drive technology pace has raced along at 60-100products this year and laboratory demonstrations approaching what has been estimated as a physical thermal stability limit of around 40 Gbit/in2. For sometime now the data storage industry has recogniz d that doing business as usually will not be viable for long and so both incremental evolutionary and revolutionary technologies are being explored. While new recording head materials or thermal recording techniques may allow higher coercivity materials to be recorded upon, and while high sensitivity spin transport transducer technology may provide sufficient signals to extend beyond the 100 Gigabit/in2 regime, conventional isotropic longitudinal media will show large data retention problems at less than 1/2 of this value. We have recently developed a simple model which indicates that while thermal instability issues may appear at different areal densities, they are non-discriminatory as to the magnetic recording modality: longitudinal, perpendicular, magnetooptic, near field, etc. The model indicates that a strong orientation of the media tends to abate the onset of the thermal limit. Hence, for the past few years we have taken an approach of controlled growth of the microstructure of thin film media. This knowledge has lead us to believe that epitaxial growth of multiple thin film layers on single crystalline Si may provide a pathway to nearly perfect crystallites of various, highly oriented, thin film textures. Here we provide an overview of the recording system media challenges, which are useful for the development of a future media design philosophy and then discuss materials issues and processing techniques for multi-layered thin film material structures which may be used to achieve media structures which can easy exceed the limits predicted for isotropic media.

  2. Replaceable LMFBR core components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.A.; Cunningham, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    Much progress has been made in understanding material and component performance in the high temperature, fast neutron environment of the LMFBR. Current data have provided strong assurance that the initial core component lifetime objectives of FFTF and CRBR can be met. At the same time, this knowledge translates directly into the need for improved core designs that utilize improved materials and advanced fuels required to meet objectives of low doubling times and extended core component lifetimes. An industrial base for the manufacture of quality core components has been developed in the US, and all procurements for the first two core equivalents for FFTF will be completed this year. However, the problem of fabricating recycled plutonium while dramatically reducing fabrication costs, minimizing personnel exposure, and protecting public health and safety must be addressed

  3. Explosive Components Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 98,000 square foot Explosive Components Facility (ECF) is a state-of-the-art facility that provides a full-range of chemical, material, and performance analysis...

  4. Component fragility research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, N.C.; Mochizuki, G.L.; Holman, G.S.

    1989-11-01

    To demonstrate how ''high-level'' qualification test data can be used to estimate the ultimate seismic capacity of nuclear power plant equipment, we assessed in detail various electrical components tested by the Pacific Gas ampersand Electric Company for its Diablo Canyon plant. As part of our Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, we evaluated seismic fragility for five Diablo Canyon components: medium-voltage (4kV) switchgear; safeguard relay board; emergency light battery pack; potential transformer; and station battery and racks. This report discusses our Phase II fragility evaluation of a single Westinghouse Type W motor control center column, a fan cooler motor controller, and three local starters at the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. These components were seismically qualified by means of biaxial random motion tests on a shaker table, and the test response spectra formed the basis for the estimate of the seismic capacity of the components. The seismic capacity of each component is referenced to the zero period acceleration (ZPA) and, in our Phase II study only, to the average spectral acceleration (ASA) of the motion at its base. For the motor control center, the seismic capacity was compared to the capacity of a Westinghouse Five-Star MCC subjected to actual fragility tests by LLNL during the Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, and to generic capacities developed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory for motor control center. Except for the medium-voltage switchgear, all of the components considered in both our Phase I and Phase II evaluations were qualified in their standard commercial configurations or with only relatively minor modifications such as top bracing of cabinets. 8 refs., 67 figs., 7 tabs

  5. Refractory alloy component fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe joining procedures, primarily welding techniques, which were developed to construct reliable refractory alloy components and systems for advanced space power systems. Two systems, the Nb-1Zr Brayton Cycle Heat Receiver and the T-111 Alloy Potassium Boiler Development Program, are used to illustrate typical systems and components. Particular emphasis is given to specific problems which were eliminated during the development efforts. Finally, some thoughts on application of more recent joining technology are presented. 78 figures

  6. Impact test of components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsoi, L.; Buland, P.; Labbe, P.

    1987-01-01

    Stops with gaps are currently used to support components and piping: it is simple, low cost, efficient and permits free thermal expansion. In order to keep the nonlinear nature of stops, such design is often modeled by beam elements (for the component) and nonlinear springs (for the stops). This paper deals with the validity and the limits of these models through the comparison of computational and experimental results. The experimental results come from impact laboratory tests on a simplified mockup. (orig.)

  7. Orientational Ordering and Phase Behaviour of Binary Mixtures of Hard Spheres and Hard Spherocylinders.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wu, L.; Malijevský, Alexandr; Jackson, G.; Muller, E.A.; Avendano, C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 143, č. 4 (2015), s. 044906 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-02938S Grant - others:EPSRC(GB) GR/T17595; EPSRC(GB) GR/N35991; EPSRC(GB) EP/E016340; EPSRC(GB) EP/J014958; JREI(GB) GR/M94426 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : phase behaviour * liquid crystals * hard spheres Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.894, year: 2015

  8. Study of surface integrity AISI 4140 as result of hard, dry and high speed machining using CBN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, B.; Sembiring, R. W.; Manurung, N.

    2017-09-01

    The concept of hard, dry and high speed machining can be combined, to produce high productivity, with lower production costs in manufacturing industry. Hard lathe process can be a solution to reduce production time. In lathe hard alloy steels reported problems relating to the integrity of such surface roughness, residual stress, the white layer and the surface integrity. AISI 4140 material is used for high reliable hydraulic system components. This material includes in cold work tool steel. Consideration election is because this material is able to be hardened up to 55 HRC. In this research, the experimental design using CCD model fit with three factors, each factor is composed of two levels, and six central point, experiments were conducted with 1 replications. The experimental design research using CCD model fit.

  9. Computer-assisted acoustic emission analysis in alternating current magnetization and hardness testing of reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blochwitz, M.; Kretzschmar, F.; Rattke, R.

    1985-01-01

    Non-destructive determination of material characteristics such as nilductility transition temperature is of high importance in component monitoring during long-term operation. An attempt has been made to obtain characteristics correlating with mechanico-technological material characteristics by both acoustic resonance through magnetization (ARDM) and acoustic emission analysis in Vickers hardness tests. Taking into account the excitation mechanism of acoustic emission generation, which has a quasistationary stochastic character in a.c. magnetization and a transient nature in hardness testing, a microcomputerized device has been constructed for frequency analysis of the body sound level in ARDM evaluation and for measuring the pulse sum and/or pulse rate during indentation of the test specimen in hardness evaluation. Prerequisite for evaluating the measured values is the knowledge of the frequency dependence of the sensors and the instrument system. The results obtained are presented. (author)

  10. Qualitative Outcomes of Participation in Fishing Components of NOLS Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Soule

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous fishing education programs in the United States strive to impart hard skill development, as well as life values to youth. This study employs utilizing semi-structured interviewing techniques and means-end analysis to evaluate the effects of youth participation in fishing components of NOLS courses. Interviews were conducted over five years to study benefit retention across time. The fishing component led to thirteen consequences, most frequently to youth feeling a sense of fun and excitement, developing hard skills, and having a new experience/opportunity. In turn, these consequences led youth to a number of values, including transference of information learned or benefits to other areas of their lives, an increased self-respect/esteem/confidence, self-fulfillment, a sense of accomplishment, and self-awareness. These results provide educators and program managers with information to direct programming development for youth attainment and retention of specific participation outcomes.

  11. Critical state of anisotropic hard superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Salazar, C; Perez-RodrIguez, F [Instituto de FIsica, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo Post J-48, Puebla, Pue 72570 (Mexico)

    2003-11-01

    The magnetic response of anisotropic irreversible type-II superconductors is investigated theoretically. Using an elliptic vertical law for the electric field E as a function of the current density J, we have reproduced available experimental magnetization curves of YBCO samples with the c axis lying in the sample plane. Specifically, we could reproduce quantitatively and interpret correctly the appearance of additional extrema and segments with relatively small slopes of the virgin magnetization curves when the direction of the applied magnetic field differs from the principal axes. The notable deformation of magnetization curves in a tilted magnetic field is connected to the strong coupling between the components of the magnetic induction.

  12. Layout of 'hard' and 'soft' control panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    Large control panels, containing hundreds of indicators and controls, have long been used in process plants. The general arrangement of instruments on the panel should reflect ergonomic principles to help operators to quickly and accurately locate, identify and select controls and displays as they monitor and supervise plant systems and processes. For the multiplexed systems now displacing dedicated components, there is a corresponding set of design problems involving display-page formats and the design of display ensembles. A list of alternative organizing principles is presented, with particular emphasis on those based on plant function. Methodologies for selecting and applying the principles are discussed

  13. Specific Energy of Hard Coal Under Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusz Anna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of experimental tests of energy parameters of hard coals under loading, collected from research sites located within five main geologic structures of Upper Silesian Coal Basin (GZW - Main Trough, Main Anticline, Bytom Trough, Rybnik Trough and Chwałowice Trough. Coals from12 mines were analysed, starting with seams of group 200, through groups 400, 500, 600 and, finally, seams of group 700. Coal of each of the groups of seams underwent uniaxial compression stress of the energy parameters, in a servo-controlled testing machine MTS-810NEW, for the full range of strain of the tested coal samples. Based on the tests the dependence of different types of specific energy of longitudinal strain of coals on the value of uniaxial compression strength was determined. The dependence of the value of dissipated energy and kinetic energy of coals on the uniaxial compression strength was described with a linear function, both for coals which due to their age belong to various bed sand for various lithotypes of coal. An increase in the value of dissipated energy and in kinetic energy was observed, which was correlated with an increase in uniaxial compression strength of coal. The share of dissipated energy is dominant in the total energy of strain. Share of recoverable energy in the total energy of strain is small, independent of the compression strength of coals and is at most a few per cent high. In coals of low strength and dominant share of dissipated energy, share of recoverable energy is the biggest among the tested coals. It was shown that following an increase in compression strength the share of recoverable energy decreases, while the share of dissipated energy in the total energy increases. Further studies of specific energy of longitudinal strain of rocks in the full-range strain will be the next step inperfecting methodology of research into natural rock burst susceptibility of Carboniferous rock mass and changes in the

  14. Analysis of surface hardness of artificially aged resin composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cremonezzi Tornavoi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of artificially accelerated aging (AAA on the surface hardness of eight composite resins: Filtek Z250, Filtek Supreme, 4 Seasons, Herculite, P60, Tetric Ceram, Charisma, and Filtek Z100. Sixteen specimens were made from the test piece of each material, using an 8.0 × 2.0 mm teflon matrix. After 24 hours, eight specimens from each material were submitted to three surface hardness readings using a Shimadzu Microhardness Tester for 5 seconds at a load of 50 gf. The other eight specimens remained in the artificially accelerated aging machine for 382 hours and were submitted to the same surface hardness analysis. The means of each test specimen were submitted to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (p > 0.05, ANOVA and Tukey test (p < 0.05. With regard to hardness (F = 86.74, p < 0.0001 the analysis showed significant differences among the resin composite brands. But aging did not influence the hardness of any of the resin composites (F = 0.39, p = 0.53. In this study, there was interaction between the resin composite brand and the aging factors (F = 4.51, p < 0.0002. It was concluded that notwithstanding the type of resin, AAA did not influence surface hardness. However, with regard to hardness there was a significant difference among the resin brands.

  15. Simulating the DIRCM engagement: component and system level performance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Willers, CJ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available , spectrally matched, pyrophoric. Jammers with arc lamps and steered (directional) beams. Early directional laser beams: soft- kill - jamming & dazzling. Single head, complex gimbals. Advanced direction- al laser beams: hard kill - power levels cause damage... countermeasures (DIRCM), employing high power lamps or lasers as sources of infrared energy. The larger aircraft self-protection scenario, comprising the missile, aircraft and DIRCM hardware is a complex system. In this system, each component presents major...

  16. Multiscale principal component analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinduko, A A; Gorban, A N

    2014-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is an important tool in exploring data. The conventional approach to PCA leads to a solution which favours the structures with large variances. This is sensitive to outliers and could obfuscate interesting underlying structures. One of the equivalent definitions of PCA is that it seeks the subspaces that maximize the sum of squared pairwise distances between data projections. This definition opens up more flexibility in the analysis of principal components which is useful in enhancing PCA. In this paper we introduce scales into PCA by maximizing only the sum of pairwise distances between projections for pairs of datapoints with distances within a chosen interval of values [l,u]. The resulting principal component decompositions in Multiscale PCA depend on point (l,u) on the plane and for each point we define projectors onto principal components. Cluster analysis of these projectors reveals the structures in the data at various scales. Each structure is described by the eigenvectors at the medoid point of the cluster which represent the structure. We also use the distortion of projections as a criterion for choosing an appropriate scale especially for data with outliers. This method was tested on both artificial distribution of data and real data. For data with multiscale structures, the method was able to reveal the different structures of the data and also to reduce the effect of outliers in the principal component analysis

  17. Nanopatterned ferroelectrics for ultrahigh density rad-hard nonvolatile memories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennecka, Geoffrey L.; Stevens, Jeffrey; Scrymgeour, David; Gin, Aaron V.; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew

    2010-09-01

    Radiation hard nonvolatile random access memory (NVRAM) is a crucial component for DOE and DOD surveillance and defense applications. NVRAMs based upon ferroelectric materials (also known as FERAMs) are proven to work in radiation-rich environments and inherently require less power than many other NVRAM technologies. However, fabrication and integration challenges have led to state-of-the-art FERAMs still being fabricated using a 130nm process while competing phase-change memory (PRAM) has been demonstrated with a 20nm process. Use of block copolymer lithography is a promising approach to patterning at the sub-32nm scale, but is currently limited to self-assembly directly on Si or SiO{sub 2} layers. Successful integration of ferroelectrics with discrete and addressable features of {approx}15-20nm would represent a 100-fold improvement in areal memory density and would enable more highly integrated electronic devices required for systems advances. Towards this end, we have developed a technique that allows us to carry out block copolymer self-assembly directly on a huge variety of different materials and have investigated the fabrication, integration, and characterization of electroceramic materials - primarily focused on solution-derived ferroelectrics - with discrete features of {approx}20nm and below. Significant challenges remain before such techniques will be capable of fabricating fully integrated NVRAM devices, but the tools developed for this effort are already finding broader use. This report introduces the nanopatterned NVRAM device concept as a mechanism for motivating the subsequent studies, but the bulk of the document will focus on the platform and technology development.

  18. Direct fault dating trials at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddock, R.H.; Hailwood, E.A.

    1993-10-01

    Over seventy rock samples were collected from fault and fracture zones in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory tunnel for a study of direct fault dating techniques. Following microstructural and mineralogical analysis, isotopic, palaeomagnetic and electron spin resonance (ESR) methods were employed in an attempt to determine the age of the most recent movements on the sampled faults. The larger fracture zones contain faultrock assemblages and microstructures which are consistent with a prolonged and polyphase movement history, although the cumulative displacements involved formation of fault gouge cemented by authigenic 'illite'. Dating studies were targeted particularly at the gouge but also at older fault rock and vein phases. ESR dating of quartz graines, separated from gouge from fracture zones NE-4 and NE-3, strongly indicates that the ESR signals have not been reset by fault movements for a minimum time period of several hundred thousand to one million years. Palaeomagnetic dating of gouge from fracture zone NE-4 shows that a stable component of magnetisation overlaps both Precambrian and Permo-Triassic parts of the apparent polar wander curve. The younger age of magnetisation is preferred on geological grounds and by comparison with the isotopic dating results. The magnetisation may correspond to a diagenetic event following fault movement. Palaeomagnetic ages determined on countryrock and epidote vein samples are largely consistent with independent age constraints. K-Ar dating of clay fractions (<2 to <0.05μm) separated from gouge from four faults, including fracture zones NE-4 and NE-3, gave model ages in the range 706-301Ma. Accounting for the effects of contamination by potassium-bearing porphyroclasts, it is likely that authigenic 'illite' was formed at least 250 million years ago, after the most recent significant fault movements. 100 refs., 60 figs., 26 tabs

  19. Quantitative Modelling of Trace Elements in Hard Coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoliński, Adam; Howaniec, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The significance of coal in the world economy remains unquestionable for decades. It is also expected to be the dominant fossil fuel in the foreseeable future. The increased awareness of sustainable development reflected in the relevant regulations implies, however, the need for the development and implementation of clean coal technologies on the one hand, and adequate analytical tools on the other. The paper presents the application of the quantitative Partial Least Squares method in modeling the concentrations of trace elements (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, V and Zn) in hard coal based on the physical and chemical parameters of coal, and coal ash components. The study was focused on trace elements potentially hazardous to the environment when emitted from coal processing systems. The studied data included 24 parameters determined for 132 coal samples provided by 17 coal mines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland. Since the data set contained outliers, the construction of robust Partial Least Squares models for contaminated data set and the correct identification of outlying objects based on the robust scales were required. These enabled the development of the correct Partial Least Squares models, characterized by good fit and prediction abilities. The root mean square error was below 10% for all except for one the final Partial Least Squares models constructed, and the prediction error (root mean square error of cross-validation) exceeded 10% only for three models constructed. The study is of both cognitive and applicative importance. It presents the unique application of the chemometric methods of data exploration in modeling the content of trace elements in coal. In this way it contributes to the development of useful tools of coal quality assessment.

  20. Rotation of hard particles in a soft matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weizhu; Liu, Qingchang; Yue, Zhufeng; Li, Xiaodong; Xu, Baoxing

    Soft-hard materials integration is ubiquitous in biological materials and structures in nature and has also attracted growing attention in the bio-inspired design of advanced functional materials, structures and devices. Due to the distinct difference in their mechanical properties, the rotation of hard phases in soft matrixes upon deformation has been acknowledged, yet is lack of theory in mechanics. In this work, we propose a theoretical mechanics framework that can describe the rotation of hard particles in a soft matrix. The rotation of multiple arbitrarily shaped, located and oriented particles with perfectly bonded interfaces in an elastic soft matrix subjected to a far-field tensile loading is established and analytical solutions are derived by using complex potentials and conformal mapping methods. Strong couplings and competitions of the rotation of hard particles among each other are discussed by investigating numbers, relative locations and orientations of particles in the matrix at different loading directions. Extensive finite element analyses are performed to validate theoretical solutions and good agreement of both rotation and stress field between them are achieved. Possible extensions of the present theory to non-rigid particles, viscoelastic matrix and imperfect bonding are also discussed. Finally, by taking advantage of the rotation of hard particles, we exemplify an application in a conceptual design of soft-hard material integrated phononic crystal and demonstrate that phononic band gaps can be successfully tuned with a high accuracy through the mechanical tension-induced rotation of hard particles. The present theory established herein is expected to be of immediate interests to the design of soft-hard materials integration based functional materials, structures and devices with tunable performance via mechanical rotation of hard phases.

  1. Spectro-Timing Study of GX 339-4 in a Hard Intermediate State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, F.; Grinberg, V.; Tomsick, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array observations of a hard intermediate state of the transient black hole GX 339-4 taken in 2015 January. With the source softening significantly over the course of the 1.3 day long observation we split the data into 21 sub-sets and find...... that the spectrum of all of them can be well described by a power-law continuum with an additional relativistically blurred reflection component. The photon index increases from ∼1.69 to ∼1.77 over the course of the observation. The accretion disk is truncated at around nine gravitational radii in all spectra. We...

  2. The thermal expansion of hard magnetic materials of the Nd-Fe-B system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, Igor; Kozlovskii, Yurii; Samoshkin, Dmitriy; Yatsuk, Oleg

    2017-10-01

    The results of dilatometric measurement of the thermal expansion of hard magnetic materials brands N35M, N35H and N35SH containing as a main component the crystalline phase of Nd2Fe14B type are presented. The temperature range from 200 to 750 K has been investigated by the method of dilatometry with an error of 1.5-2×10-7 K-1. The approximation dependences of the linear thermal expansion coefficient have been obtained. The character of changes of the thermal coefficient of linear expansion in the region of the Curie point has been specified, its critical indices and critical amplitudes have been defined.

  3. Charged hard spheres in a uniform neutralizing background: The role of thermodynamics selfconsistence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badirkhan, Z.; Pastore, G.; Tosi, M.P.

    1991-06-01

    Calculations of the thermodynamic properties and pair distribution function of a one-component classical fluid of charged hard spheres in a uniform neutralizing background are reported and compared with Monte Carlo results of Hansen and Weis. Thermodynamic selfconsistence between the virial pressure and the fluctuations formula for the isothermal compressibility is enforced in the calculations by various alternative approaches. The role of thermodynamic selfconsistence is crucial to obtain a satisfactory quantitative description of this model fluid, in view of its applications in the theory of liquid metals and of dispersions of charged colloidal particles. (author). 23 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  4. Low Molecular Weight Z-Tetraol Boundary Lubricant Films in Hard Disk Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Waltman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower molecular weight Z-Tetraol films exhibit increased mechanical spacing in the slider-disk interface due to a lower z-profile. An increased resistance to lubricant disturbance on the disk surface (e.g., lube moguls with decreasing film thickness is attributed to an increasing contribution from the polar component of the disjoining pressure. Evaporative loss at temperatures typically encountered in a hard-disk drive also increases with decreasing molecular weight but is strongly dependent on the initial bonded fraction.

  5. A Hard X-Ray Power-Law Spectral Cutoff in Centaurus X-4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarty, Deepto; Tomsick, John A.; Grefenstette, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    The low-mass X-ray binary Cen X-4 is the brightest and closest (<1.2 kpc) quiescent neutron star transient. Previous 0.5-10 keV X-ray observations of Cen X-4 in quiescence identified two spectral components: soft thermal emission from the neutron star atmosphere and a hard power-law tail of unkno...... behavior with PSR J1023+0038, IGR J18245-2452, and XSS J12270-4859, which have shown transitions between LMXB and radio pulsar modes at a similar X-ray luminosity....

  6. Monitoring system for testing the radiation hardness of a KINTEX-7 FPGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cojocariu, L. N., E-mail: lucian.cojocariu@cern.ch [Horia Hulubei National Institute for R& D in Physics and Nuclear Engineering (Reactorului 30, MG, Romania) (Romania); Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava (Universitatii 13, Suceava, Romania) (Romania); Placinta, V. M., E-mail: vlad-mihai.placinta@cern.ch [Horia Hulubei National Institute for R& D in Physics and Nuclear Engineering (Reactorului 30, MG, Romania) (Romania); University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest (Splaiul Independentei 313, Bucharest, Romania) (Romania); Dumitru, L., E-mail: dlaur@nipne.ro [Horia Hulubei National Institute for R& D in Physics and Nuclear Engineering (Reactorului 30, MG, Romania) (Romania)

    2016-03-25

    A much more efficient Ring Imaging Cherenkov sub-detector system will be rebuilt in the second long shutdown of Large Hadron Collider for the LHCb experiment. Radiation-hard electronic components together with Commercial Off-The-Shelf ones will be used in the new Cherenkov photon detection system architecture. An irradiation program was foreseen to determine the radiation tolerance for the new electronic devices, including a Field Programmable Gate Array from KINTEX-7 family of XILINX. An automated test bench for online monitoring of the XC7K70T KINTEX-7 device operation in radiation conditions was designed and implemented by the LHCb Romanian group.

  7. Hard X-ray imaging with a slat collimated telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhuguo; Kotov, Yu.D.; Suslov, A.Yu.

    1995-01-01

    Imaging experiments with a slat collimated hard X-ray telescope are described in this paper demonstrating the feasibility of the direct demodulation imaging method used in hard X-ray scanning modulation experiments. On 25 September 1993 an X-ray raster scan observation of Cyg X-1 was performed in a balloon flight with the hard X-ray telescope HAPI-4. An experiment to image radioactive X-ray sources was performed in the laboratory before. In both experiments the expected X-ray images were obtained, confirming the imaging capability of this method. (orig.)

  8. Dispersion representations for hard exclusive processes. Beyond the born approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, M.; Ivanov, D.Yu.

    2007-07-01

    Several hard exclusive scattering processes admit a description in terms of generalized parton distributions and perturbative hard-scattering kernels. Both the physical amplitude and the hard-scattering kernels fulfill dispersion relations. We give a detailed investigation of their consistency at all orders in perturbation theory. The results shed light on the information about generalized parton distributions that can be extracted from the real and imaginary parts of exclusive amplitudes. They also provide a practical consistency check for models of these distributions in which Lorentz invariance is not exactly satisfied. (orig.)

  9. Electroerosion micro- and nanopowders for the production of hard alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latypov, R. A.; Ageeva, E. V.; Kruglyakov, O. V.; Latypova, G. R.

    2016-06-01

    The shape and the surface morphology of the powder particles fabricated by the electroerosion dispersion of tungsten-containing wastes in illuminating oil are studied. The hard alloy fabricated from these powder particles is analyzed by electron-probe microanalysis. The powder synthesized by the electroerosion dispersion of the wastes of sintered hard alloys is found to consist of particles of a spherical or elliptical shape, an irregular shape (conglomerates), and a fragment shape. It is shown that W, Ti, and Co are the main elements in the hard alloy fabricated from the powder synthesized by electroerosion dispersion in illuminating oil.

  10. Excavation Technology for Hard Rock - Problems and Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillani, S.T.A.; Butt, N.

    2009-01-01

    Civil engineering projects have greatly benefited from the mechanical excavation of hard rock technology. Mining industry, on the other hand, is still searching for major breakthroughs to mechanize and then automate the winning of ore and drivage of access tunnels in its metalliferous sector. The aim of this study is to extend the scope of drag bits for road headers in hard rock cutting. Various factors that can impose limitations on the potential applications of drag bits in hard rock mining are investigated and discussed along with alternative technology options. (author)

  11. Application of hard coatings for blanking and piercing tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podgornik, B.; Zajec, B.; Bay, Niels

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to examine the possibility of reducing lubrication and replacing expensive tungsten carbide material in blanking/piercing through introduction of hard tool coatings. Results show that hard PVD coatings can be successfully used in blanking/piercing...... critical value under dry friction conditions and leads to tool failure. Therefore, at present oxidation and temperature resistant hard coatings can give improved wear resistance of stamping tools, but elimination of lubricants in blanking and piercing processes is still not feasible....

  12. Micro-computer cards for hard industrial environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breton, J M

    1984-03-15

    Approximately 60% of present or future distributed systems have, or will have, operational units installed in hard environments. In these applications, which include canalization and industrial motor control, robotics and process control, systems must be easily applied in environments not made for electronic use. The development of card systems in this hard industrial environment, which is found in petrochemical industry and mines is described. National semiconductor CIM card system CMOS technology allows the real time micro computer application to be efficient and functional in hard industrial environments.

  13. Microstructure and hardness of bovine enamel in roselle extract solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dame, M. T.; Noerdin, A.; Indrani, D. J.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of roselle extract solution on the microstructure and hardness of bovine enamel. Ten bovine teeth and a 5% concentration of roselle extract solution were prepared. Immersions of each bovine tooth in roselle extract solution were conducted up to 60 minutes. The bovine enamel surface was characterized in hardness and microscopy. It was apparent that the initial hardness was 328 KHN, and after immersion in 15 and 60 min, the values decrease to 57.4 KHN and 11 KHN, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed changes in enamel rods after immersion in the roselle extract solution.

  14. Changes in hardness of magnesium alloys due to precipitation hardening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Oršulová

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of changes in hardness of magnesium alloys during precipitation hardening that are nowadays widely used in different fields of industry. It focuses exactly on AZ31, AZ61 and AZ91 alloys. Observing material hardness changes serves as an effective tool for determining precipitation hardening parameters, such as temperature and time. Brinell hardness measurement was chosen based on experimental needs. There was also necessary to make chemical composition analysis and to observe the microstructures of tested materials. The obtained results are presented and discussed in this paper.

  15. Optical CDMA components requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, James K.

    1998-08-01

    Optical CDMA is a complementary multiple access technology to WDMA. Optical CDMA potentially provides a large number of virtual optical channels for IXC, LEC and CLEC or supports a large number of high-speed users in LAN. In a network, it provides asynchronous, multi-rate, multi-user communication with network scalability, re-configurability (bandwidth on demand), and network security (provided by inherent CDMA coding). However, optical CDMA technology is less mature in comparison to WDMA. The components requirements are also different from WDMA. We have demonstrated a video transport/switching system over a distance of 40 Km using discrete optical components in our laboratory. We are currently pursuing PIC implementation. In this paper, we will describe the optical CDMA concept/features, the demonstration system, and the requirements of some critical optical components such as broadband optical source, broadband optical amplifier, spectral spreading/de- spreading, and fixed/programmable mask.

  16. Solid state lighting component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Thomas; Keller, Bernd; Tarsa, Eric; Ibbetson, James; Morgan, Frederick; Dowling, Kevin; Lys, Ihor

    2017-10-17

    An LED component according to the present invention comprising an array of LED chips mounted on a submount with the LED chips capable of emitting light in response to an electrical signal. The array can comprise LED chips emitting at two colors of light wherein the LED component emits light comprising the combination of the two colors of light. A single lens is included over the array of LED chips. The LED chip array can emit light of greater than 800 lumens with a drive current of less than 150 milli-Amps. The LED chip component can also operate at temperatures less than 3000 degrees K. In one embodiment, the LED array is in a substantially circular pattern on the submount.

  17. An integrated magnetics component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an integrated magnetics component comprising a magnetically permeable core comprising a base member extending in a horizontal plane and first, second, third and fourth legs protruding substantially perpendicularly from the base member. First, second, third...... and fourth output inductor windings are wound around the first, second, third and fourth legs, respectively. A first input conductor of the integrated magnetics component has a first conductor axis and extends in-between the first, second, third and fourth legs to induce a first magnetic flux through a first...... flux path of the magnetically permeable core. A second input conductor of the integrated magnetics component has a second coil axis extending substantially perpendicularly to the first conductor axis to induce a second magnetic flux through a second flux path of the magnetically permeable core...

  18. Cognitive Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation concerns the investigation of the consistency of statistical regularities in a signaling ecology and human cognition, while inferring appropriate actions for a speech-based perceptual task. It is based on unsupervised Independent Component Analysis providing a rich spectrum...... of audio contexts along with pattern recognition methods to map components to known contexts. It also involves looking for the right representations for auditory inputs, i.e. the data analytic processing pipelines invoked by human brains. The main ideas refer to Cognitive Component Analysis, defined...... as the process of unsupervised grouping of generic data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. Its hypothesis runs ecologically: features which are essentially independent in a context defined ensemble, can be efficiently coded as sparse...

  19. Electronic components and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, W H

    2013-01-01

    Electronic Components and Systems focuses on the principles and processes in the field of electronics and the integrated circuit. Covered in the book are basic aspects and physical fundamentals; different types of materials involved in the field; and passive and active electronic components such as capacitors, inductors, diodes, and transistors. Also covered in the book are topics such as the fabrication of semiconductors and integrated circuits; analog circuitry; digital logic technology; and microprocessors. The monograph is recommended for beginning electrical engineers who would like to kn

  20. A methodology for hard/soft information fusion in the condition monitoring of aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Joseph T.

    2013-05-01

    Condition-based maintenance (CBM) refers to the philosophy of performing maintenance when the need arises, based upon indicators of deterioration in the condition of the machinery. Traditionally, CBM involves equipping machinery with electronic sensors that continuously monitor components and collect data for analysis. The addition of the multisensory capability of human cognitive functions (i.e., sensemaking, problem detection, planning, adaptation, coordination, naturalistic decision making) to traditional CBM may create a fuller picture of machinery condition. Cognitive systems engineering techniques provide an opportunity to utilize a dynamic resource—people acting as soft sensors. The literature is extensive on techniques to fuse data from electronic sensors, but little work exists on fusing data from humans with that from electronic sensors (i.e., hard/soft fusion). The purpose of my research is to explore, observe, investigate, analyze, and evaluate the fusion of pilot and maintainer knowledge, experiences, and sensory perceptions with digital maintenance resources. Hard/soft information fusion has the potential to increase problem detection capability, improve flight safety, and increase mission readiness. This proposed project consists the creation of a methodology that is based upon the Living Laboratories framework, a research methodology that is built upon cognitive engineering principles1. This study performs a critical assessment of concept, which will support development of activities to demonstrate hard/soft information fusion in operationally relevant scenarios of aircraft maintenance. It consists of fieldwork, knowledge elicitation to inform a simulation and a prototype.

  1. How hard were the Jura mountains pushed?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D

    2008-09-15

    The mechanical twinning of calcite is believed to record past differential stress values, but validating results in the context of past tectonic situations has been rarely attempted. Using assumptions of linear gradients of stress components with depth, a stress gradient based on twinning palaeopiezometry is derived for the Swiss Molasse Basin, the indenter region to the Jura fold and thrust belt. When integrated into a model of the retrodeformed Jura-Molasse system, allowing horizontal stress concentration and conservation along the original taper geometry, the stress profile proves consistent with the position of the Jura-Molasse (ftb-indenter) transition. The model demonstrates mechanically why the Plateau Molasse portion of the Molasse Basin remained relatively undeformed when transmitting tectonic forces applied to the Jura mountains. (author)

  2. How hard were the Jura mountains pushed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, D.

    2008-01-01

    The mechanical twinning of calcite is believed to record past differential stress values, but validating results in the context of past tectonic situations has been rarely attempted. Using assumptions of linear gradients of stress components with depth, a stress gradient based on twinning palaeopiezometry is derived for the Swiss Molasse Basin, the indenter region to the Jura fold and thrust belt. When integrated into a model of the retrodeformed Jura-Molasse system, allowing horizontal stress concentration and conservation along the original taper geometry, the stress profile proves consistent with the position of the Jura-Molasse (ftb-indenter) transition. The model demonstrates mechanically why the Plateau Molasse portion of the Molasse Basin remained relatively undeformed when transmitting tectonic forces applied to the Jura mountains. (author)

  3. Residual stress control and design of next-generation ultra-hard gear steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yana

    optimized for desired carbon content profiles using carbon diffusion simulation in the multi-component system. After cyclic tempering with intermediate cryogenic treatment, a case hardness of 68.5 +/- 0.3Rc at 0.72 +/- 0.2wt% carbon content was achieved. The design demonstrated the effectiveness of cryogenic deformation in promoting martensite transformation for high carbon and high alloy steels. Good agreement between achieved and predicted case and core hardness supports the effectiveness of the computational design approach.

  4. Experiments at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    A dress rehearsal is being held in preparation for the construction of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel at SKB's underground Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) on Aespoe, outside Oskarshamn. Here we can test different technical solutions on a full scale and in a realistic environment. The Aespoe HRL is also used for field research. We are conducting a number of experiments here in collaboration with Swedish and international experts. In the Zedex experiment we have compared how the rock is affected around a drill-and-blast tunnel versus a bored tunnel. In a new experiment we will investigate how much the rock can take. A narrow pillar between two boreholes will be loaded to the point that the rock's ultimate strength is exceeded (Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment). In the Demo Test we are demonstrating emplacement of the copper canisters and the surrounding bentonite in the deposition holes. In the Prototype Repository we study what long-term changes occur in the barriers under the conditions prevailing in a deep repository. Horizontal deposition: Is it possible to deposit the canisters horizontally without compromising safety? Backfill and Plug Test: The tunnels in the future deep repository for spent nuclear fuel will be filled with clay and crushed rock and then plugged. Canister Retrieval Test: If the deep repository should not perform satisfactorily for some reason, we want to be able to retrieve the spent fuel. The Lot test is intended to show how the bentonite behaves in an environment similar to that in the future deep repository. The purpose of the TBT test is to determine how the bentonite clay in the buffer is affected by high temperatures. Two-phase flow means that liberated gas in the groundwater flows separately in the fractures in the rock. This reduces the capacity of the rock to conduct water. Lasgit: By pressurizing a canister with helium, we can measure how the gas moves through the surrounding buffer. Colloid Project: Can very small particles

  5. Validating Timed Component Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Liu, Shaoying; Olsen, Petur

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for testing software components with contracts that specify functional behavior, synchronization, as well as timing behavior. The approach combines elements from unit testing with model-based testing techniques for timed automata. The technique is implemented...... in an online testing tool, and we demonstrate its use on a concrete use case....

  6. Euler principal component analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liwicki, Stephan; Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is perhaps the most prominent learning tool for dimensionality reduction in pattern recognition and computer vision. However, the ℓ 2-norm employed by standard PCA is not robust to outliers. In this paper, we propose a kernel PCA method for fast and robust PCA,

  7. Hybrid wars’ information component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Nevskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The war of the new generation - hybrid war, the information component which is directed not so much on the direct destruction of the enemy, how to achieve the goals without warfare. Fighting in the information field is no less important than immediate military action.

  8. ITER plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, T.; Vieider, G.; Akiba, M.

    1991-01-01

    This document summarizes results of the Conceptual Design Activities (1988-1990) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project, namely those that pertain to the plasma facing components of the reactor vessel, of which the main components are the first wall and the divertor plates. After an introduction and an executive summary, the principal functions of the plasma-facing components are delineated, i.e., (i) define the low-impurity region within which the plasma is produced, (ii) absorb the electromagnetic radiation and charged-particle flux from the plasma, and (iii) protect the blanket/shield components from the plasma. A list of critical design issues for the divertor plates and the first wall is given, followed by discussions of the divertor plate design (including the issues of material selection, erosion lifetime, design concepts, thermal and mechanical analysis, operating limits and overall lifetime, tritium inventory, baking and conditioning, safety analysis, manufacture and testing, and advanced divertor concepts) and the first wall design (armor material and design, erosion lifetime, overall design concepts, thermal and mechanical analysis, lifetime and operating limits, tritium inventory, baking and conditioning, safety analysis, manufacture and testing, an alternative first wall design, and the limiters used instead of the divertor plates during start-up). Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Spain's nuclear components industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaibel, E.

    1985-01-01

    Spanish industrial participation in supply of components for nuclear power plants has grown steadily over the last fifteen years. The share of Spanish companies in work for the five second generation nuclear power plants increased to 50% of total capital investments. The necessity to maintain Spanish technology and production in the nuclear field is emphasized

  10. The market for components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, M.; Stoelzl, D.

    1986-01-01

    The offers of the German nuclear components industry are shown at the examples of some masterpieces of engineering and their delivery capacities. Then, the success achieved with exports up to now are referred to. The forecast includes the demand, the side conditions of the technical competition, and the pricing and financing situation. (UA) [de

  11. Bayesian Independent Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ole; Petersen, Kaare Brandt

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an empirical Bayesian framework for independent component analysis. The framework provides estimates of the sources, the mixing matrix and the noise parameters, and is flexible with respect to choice of source prior and the number of sources and sensors. Inside the engine...

  12. Component-oriented programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, J; Szyperski, C; Weck, W; Buschmann, F; Buchmann, AP; Cilia, MA

    2003-01-01

    This report covers the eighth Workshop on Component-Oriented Programming (WCOP). WCOP has been affiliated with ECOOP since its inception in 1996. The report summarizes the contributions made by authors of accepted position papers as well as those made by all attendees of the workshop sessions.

  13. Mechanical Components from Highly Recoverable, Low Apparent Modulus Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Santo, II (Inventor); Noebe, Ronald D. (Inventor); Stanford, Malcolm K. (Inventor); DellaCorte, Christopher (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A material for use as a mechanical component is formed of a superelastic intermetallic material having a low apparent modulus and a high hardness. The superelastic intermetallic material is conditioned to be dimensionally stable, devoid of any shape memory effect and have a stable superelastic response without irrecoverable deformation while exhibiting strains of at least 3%. The method of conditioning the superelastic intermetallic material is described. Another embodiment relates to lightweight materials known as ordered intermetallics that perform well in sliding wear applications using conventional liquid lubricants and are therefore suitable for resilient, high performance mechanical components such as gears and bearings.

  14. Isotropic-nematic transition in a mixture of hard spheres and hard spherocylinders: scaled particle theory description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Holovko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The scaled particle theory is developed for the description of thermodynamical properties of a mixture of hard spheres and hard spherocylinders. Analytical expressions for free energy, pressure and chemical potentials are derived. From the minimization of free energy, a nonlinear integral equation for the orientational singlet distribution function is formulated. An isotropic-nematic phase transition in this mixture is investigated from the bifurcation analysis of this equation. It is shown that with an increase of concentration of hard spheres, the total packing fraction of a mixture on phase boundaries slightly increases. The obtained results are compared with computer simulations data.

  15. Excluded-volume effects in the diffusion of hard spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Bruna, Maria; Chapman, S. Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Excluded-volume effects can play an important role in determining transport properties in diffusion of particles. Here, the diffusion of finite-sized hard-core interacting particles in two or three dimensions is considered systematically using

  16. Prepulse dependence in hard x-ray generation from microdroplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, M.; Kahaly, S.; Kumar, G. Ravindra; Sandhu, A. S.; Gibbon, P.; Krishnamurthy, M.

    2006-01-01

    We report on experiments which show that liquid microdroplets are very efficient in hard x-ray generation. We make a comparative study of hard x-ray emission from 15 μm methanol microdroplets and a plain slab target of similar atomic composition at similar laser intensities. The hard X-ray yield from droplet plasmas is about 35 times more than that obtained from solid plasmas. A prepulse that is about 10ns and at least 2% in intensity of the main pulse is essential for hard x-ray generation from the droplets at about 1015 W cm-2. A hot electron temperature of 36 keV is measured from the droplets at 8 x 1014 W cm-2; three times higher intensity is needed to obtain similar hot electron temperature from solid plasmas that have similar atomic composition. We use 1D-PIC simulation to obtain qualitative correlation to the experimental observations

  17. The over-the-limb hard X-ray events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, H. S.

    Over-the-limb hard X-ray events offer a uniquely direct view of the hard X-ray emission from the solar corona during a major flare. Limb occultation at angles greater than about 10 deg (an arbitrary definition of this class of events) excludes any confusion with brighter chromospheric sources. Published observations of seven over-the-limb events, beginning with the prototype flare of March 30, 1969, are reviewed. The hard X-ray spectra appear to fall into two classes: hard events, with power-law index of about 2.0; and soft events, with power-law index about 5.4. This tendency towards bimodality is only significant at the 90-percent confidence level due to the smallness of the number of events observed to date. If borne out by future data, the bimodality would suggest the existence of two different acceleration mechanisms.

  18. Extreme Temperature, Rad-Hard Power Management ASIC, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ridgetop Group will design a rad-hard Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) for spacecraft power management that is functional over a temperature range of...

  19. Hardness and Microstructure of Binary and Ternary Nitinol Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2016-01-01

    The hardness and microstructure of twenty-six binary and ternary Nitinol (nickel titanium, nickel titanium hafnium, nickel titanium zirconium and nickel titanium tantalum) compounds were studied. A small (50g) ingot of each compound was produced by vacuum arc remelting. Each ingot was homogenized in vacuum for 48 hr followed by furnace cooling. Specimens from the ingots were then heat treated at 800, 900, 1000 or 1100 degree C for 2 hr followed by water quenching. The hardness and microstructure of each specimen was compared to the baseline material (55-Nitinol, 55 at.% nickel - 45 at.% titanium, after heat treatment at 900 degC). The results show that eleven of the studied compounds had higher hardness values than the baseline material. Moreover, twelve of the studied compounds had measured hardness values greater 600HV at heat treatments from 800 to 900 degree C.

  20. Baking and coking properties of hard coal under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, H.D.

    1981-09-01

    For a better assessment of the baking and coking properties of hard coal under high pressure as in modern coal beneficiation processes, the determination of the swelling index and the dilatation curve are investigated.

  1. Fracture toughness measurements of WC-based hard metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, L.; Albert, B.

    1983-01-01

    The fracture toughness of WC-based cemented carbides was determined by different methods. The values obtained are dependent on the procedure of measurement. Each method thoughness of hard metals mutually. (orig.) [de

  2. A Short Review of the Theory of Hard Exclusive Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallon, S.

    2012-01-01

    We first present an introduction to the theory of hard exclusive processes. We then illustrate this theory by a few selected examples. The last part is devoted to the most recent developments in the asymptotical energy limit. (author)

  3. HARD - The High Assurance Remote Authentication Device Project

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The HARD project will build and evaluate a high assurance network access device. The purpose of this device is to provide an unforgeable trusted path with which network clients can securely interact with security-enabled remote servers.

  4. Constraint satisfaction problems with isolated solutions are hard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdeborová, Lenka; Mézard, Marc

    2008-01-01

    We study the phase diagram and the algorithmic hardness of the random 'locked' constraint satisfaction problems, and compare them to the commonly studied 'non-locked' problems like satisfiability of Boolean formulae or graph coloring. The special property of the locked problems is that clusters of solutions are isolated points. This simplifies significantly the determination of the phase diagram, which makes the locked problems particularly appealing from the mathematical point of view. On the other hand, we show empirically that the clustered phase of these problems is extremely hard from the algorithmic point of view: the best known algorithms all fail to find solutions. Our results suggest that the easy/hard transition (for currently known algorithms) in the locked problems coincides with the clustering transition. These should thus be regarded as new benchmarks of really hard constraint satisfaction problems

  5. Towards Radiation Hard Sensor Materials for the CMS Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Steinbrueck, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Many measurements are described in literature, performed on a variety of silicon materials and technologies, but they are often hard to compare, because they were done under different conditions. To systematically compare the prope...

  6. Hard-real-time resource management for autonomous spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gat, E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes tickets, a computational mechanism for hard-real-time autonomous resource management. Autonomous spacecraftcontrol can be considered abstractly as a computational process whose outputs are spacecraft commands.

  7. Rad-hard embedded computers for nuclear robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, A.; Joffre, F.; Marceau, M.; Robiolle, M.; Brunet, J.P.; Mijuin, D.

    1993-01-01

    For requirements of nuclear industries, it is necessary to use robots with embedded rad hard electronics and high level safety. The computer developed for french research program SYROCO is presented in this paper. (authors). 8 refs., 5 figs

  8. Highly Damping Hard Coatings for Protection of Titanium Blades

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Movchan, Boris A; Ustinov, Anatolii I

    2005-01-01

    Sn-Cr-MgO system is used as an example to show the basic capability to produce by EBPVD protective metal-ceramic coatings with a high adhesion strength, high values of hardness and damping capacity...

  9. Large component deformation studies using videogrammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Fermilab has the responsibility for developing certain components for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), to be commissioned at CERN in 2005. As part of the development process, a referencing strategy must be created such that the position of internal active components may be known relative to external targeting. One question to be answered is the issue of dimensional stability of a part that will be transported over long distances; another is whether the external framework is coherent. This paper reviews the efforts of the designers of the component and the Lab's Alignment and Metrology Group to understand the behavior of a moderately large part, in this case a pie-shaped CSC chamber of dimensions 2 x 3 x 0.3 m , as it is positioned in various orientations relative to gravity. All measurements were made using a Geodetic Services, Inc. INCA 6.3 camera with an 18 min Nikon lens (Fig. 1) and were processed using GSI's V-STARS 4.1 software. Photogrammetry, more particularly digital videogrammetry, has shown that it can effectively service projects of this nature. When compared to optical tooling and laser tracker approaches, it is hard to imagine the full complement of difficulties videogrammetry allows one to avoid. Certainly the fact that neither the camera nor the part need to be stationary makes, photogrammetry an obvious choice. (author)

  10. The reflection component in NS LMXBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Aí A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the good spectral resolution and large effective area of the EPIC/PN instrument on board of XMM-Newton, we have at hand a large number of observations of accreting low-mass X-ray binaries, that allow for the fist time a comprehensive view on the characteristics of the reflection component at different accretion regimes and to probe the effects of a magnetosphere on its formation. We focus here on a comparative analysis of the reflection component from a series of spectroscopic studies on selected sources: 4U 1705-44, observed both in the soft and hard state, the pulsating ms pulsars SAX J1808.4-3658 and IGR J17511-3057, and the intermittent pulsar HETE J1900-2455. Although the sources can present very similar accretion rates and continuum shapes, the reflection parameters do not generally result the same, moreover the effect of a magnetosphere on the formation of the reflection component appears elusive.

  11. Developing a Model Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) Simulation Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) is responsible for providing simulations to support test and verification of SCCS hardware and software. The Universal Coolant Transporter System (UCTS) was a Space Shuttle Orbiter support piece of the Ground Servicing Equipment (GSE). The initial purpose of the UCTS was to provide two support services to the Space Shuttle Orbiter immediately after landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The UCTS is designed with the capability of servicing future space vehicles; including all Space Station Requirements necessary for the MPLM Modules. The Simulation uses GSE Models to stand in for the actual systems to support testing of SCCS systems during their development. As an intern at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), my assignment was to develop a model component for the UCTS. I was given a fluid component (dryer) to model in Simulink. I completed training for UNIX and Simulink. The dryer is a Catch All replaceable core type filter-dryer. The filter-dryer provides maximum protection for the thermostatic expansion valve and solenoid valve from dirt that may be in the system. The filter-dryer also protects the valves from freezing up. I researched fluid dynamics to understand the function of my component. The filter-dryer was modeled by determining affects it has on the pressure and velocity of the system. I used Bernoulli's Equation to calculate the pressure and velocity differential through the dryer. I created my filter-dryer model in Simulink and wrote the test script to test the component. I completed component testing and captured test data. The finalized model was sent for peer review for any improvements. I participated in Simulation meetings and was involved in the subsystem design process and team collaborations. I gained valuable work experience and insight into a career path as an engineer.

  12. HARD X-RAY TAIL DISCOVERED IN THE CLOCKED BURSTER GS 1826–238

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodi, J.; Jourdain, E.; Roques, J. P., E-mail: jrodi@irap.omp.eu [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France)

    2016-02-01

    The low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) neutron star (NS) GS 1826–238 was discovered by Ginga in 1988 September. Due to the presence of quasi-periodicity in the type I X-ray burst rate, the source has been a frequent target of X-ray observations for almost 30 years. Though the bursts were too soft to be detected by INTEGRAL/SPI, the persistent emission from GS 1826–238 was detected over 150 keV during the ∼10 years of observations. Spectral analysis found a significant high-energy excess above a Comptonization model that is well fit by a power law, indicating an additional spectral component. Most previously reported spectra with hard tails in LMXB NS have had an electron temperature of a few keV and a hard tail dominating above ∼50 keV with an index of Γ ∼ 2–3. GS 1826–238 was found to have a markedly different spectrum with kT{sub e} ∼ 20 keV and a hard tail dominating above ∼150 keV with an index of Γ ∼ 1.8, more similar to black hole X-ray binaries. We report on our search for long-term spectral variability over the 25–370 keV energy range and on a comparison of the GS 1826–238 average spectrum to the spectra of other LMXB NSs with hard tails.

  13. Radiation hardness of new Kuraray double cladded optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedeschi, F.; Menzione, A.; Budagov, Yu.; Chirikov-Zorin, I.; Solov'ev, A.; Turchanovich, L.; Vasil'chenko, V.

    1996-01-01

    The radiation hardness of the new plastic scintillating and clear fibers irradiated by 137 Cs γ-flux and by pulsed reactor fast neutrons were investigated. All the studied fibers were of S-type (with S=70) and had a double cladding. Optical fibers degradation study after irradiation shows that the level of radiation hardness lower that what is expected from results of previous studies. 9 refs., 6 figs

  14. Hard, Soft or Smart Power: Conceptual Discussion or Strategic Definition?

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Brígida

    2010-01-01

    The reflection presented here summarizes the discussions around conceptual differences, advantages, and risks associated with strategies inherent to Hard Power and Soft Power, as well as the emergent concept of Smart Power. The opportunity for this reflection was provided by the participation in the conference “Hard Vs. Soft Power: Foreign Policy Strategies in Contemporary International Relations” organised by the Academy for Cultural Diplomacy, at Cambridge University, in June 2010.

  15. Comparison of disposal concepts for rock salt and hard rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, R.

    1998-01-01

    The study was carried out in the period 1994-1996. The goals were to prepare a draft on spent fuel disposal in hard rock and additionally a comparison with existing disposal concepts for rock salt. A cask for direct disposal of spent fuel and a repository for hard rock including a safeguards concept were conceptually designed. The results of the study confirm, that the early German decision to employ rock salt was reasonable. (orig.)

  16. Caring for patients who are deaf or hard of hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Heather L; Hughes-Bell, Aileen; McDuffie, Anna W

    2015-12-01

    Patients who are deaf and hard of hearing often find the American healthcare system to be inaccessible due to communication barriers. This article describes facilities' and providers' requirements under the Americans with Disabilities Act to provide qualified interpreters and other assistive devices to patients who are deaf or hard of hearing. Removing communication barriers can protect healthcare providers from potential legal action and lets them deliver consistent, quality healthcare to all patients.

  17. The Hard X-ray Sky: Recent Observational Progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.

    2009-01-01

    The last fifty years have witnessed the birth, development, and maturation to full potential of hard X-ray astrophysics. The primary force driving the history of the field has been the development of space-based instrumentation optimized for getting the maximum science out of observations of high-energy photons from astrophysical sources. Hard X-ray telescopes are leading research in areas such as galactic diffuse emission, galactic transients, and active galactic nuclei.

  18. Subgroup report on hard x-ray microprobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice, G.E.; Barbee, T.; Bionta, R.; Howells, M.; Thompson, A.C.; Yun, W.

    1994-01-01

    The increasing availability of synchrotron x-ray sources has stimulated the development of advanced hard x-ray (E≥5 keV) microprobes. New x-ray optics have been demonstrated which show promise for achieving intense submicron hard x-ray probes. These probes will be used for extraordinary elemental detection by x-ray fluorescence/absorption and for microdiffraction to identify phase and strain. The inherent elemental and crystallographic sensitivity of an x-ray microprobe and its inherently nondestructive and penetrating nature makes the development of an advanced hard x-ray microprobe an important national goal. In this workshop state-of-the-art hard x-ray microprobe optics were described and future directions were discussed. Gene Ice, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), presented an overview of the current status of hard x-ray microprobe optics and described the use of crystal spectrometers to improve minimum detectable limits in fluorescent microprobe experiments. Al Thompson, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), described work at the Center for X-ray Optics to develop a hard x-ray microprobe based on Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) optics. Al Thompson also showed the results of some experimental measurements with their KB optics. Malcolm Howells presented a method for bending elliptical mirrors and Troy Barbee commented on the use of graded d spacings to achieve highest efficiency in KB multilayer microfocusing. Richard Bionta, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), described the development of the first hard x-ray zone plates and future promise of so called open-quotes jelly rollclose quotes or sputter slice zone plates. Wenbing Yun, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), described characterization of jelly roll and lithographically produced zone plates and described the application of zone plates to focus extremely narrow bandwidths by nuclear resonance. This report summarizes the presentations of the workshop subgroup on hard x-ray microprobes

  19. Mechanical design of multiple zone plates precision alignment apparatus for hard X-ray focusing in twenty-nanometer scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Deming; Liu, Jie; Gleber, Sophie C.; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Lai, Barry; Maser, Jorg M.; Roehrig, Christian; Wojcik, Michael J.; Vogt, Franz Stefan

    2017-04-04

    An enhanced mechanical design of multiple zone plates precision alignment apparatus for hard x-ray focusing in a twenty-nanometer scale is provided. The precision alignment apparatus includes a zone plate alignment base frame; a plurality of zone plates; and a plurality of zone plate holders, each said zone plate holder for mounting and aligning a respective zone plate for hard x-ray focusing. At least one respective positioning stage drives and positions each respective zone plate holder. Each respective positioning stage is mounted on the zone plate alignment base frame. A respective linkage component connects each respective positioning stage and the respective zone plate holder. The zone plate alignment base frame, each zone plate holder and each linkage component is formed of a selected material for providing thermal expansion stability and positioning stability for the precision alignment apparatus.

  20. Mongoose: Creation of a Rad-Hard MIPS R3000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Dan; Smith, Brian

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a 32 Bit, full MIPS R3000 code-compatible Rad-Hard CPU, code named Mongoose. Mongoose progressed from contract award, through the design cycle, to operational silicon in 12 months to meet a space mission for NASA. The goal was the creation of a fully static device capable of operation to the maximum Mil-883 derated speed, worst-case post-rad exposure with full operational integrity. This included consideration of features for functional enhancements relating to mission compatibility and removal of commercial practices not supported by Rad-Hard technology. 'Mongoose' developed from an evolution of LSI Logic's MIPS-I embedded processor, LR33000, code named Cobra, to its Rad-Hard 'equivalent', Mongoose. The term 'equivalent' is used to infer that the core of the processor is functionally identical, allowing the same use and optimizations of the MIPS-I Instruction Set software tool suite for compilation, software program trace, etc. This activity was started in September of 1991 under a contract from NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)-Flight Data Systems. The approach affected a teaming of NASA-GSFC for program development, LSI Logic for system and ASIC design coupled with the Rad-Hard process technology, and Harris (GASD) for Rad-Hard microprocessor design expertise. The program culminated with the generation of Rad-Hard Mongoose prototypes one year later.

  1. Determination of adhesion between thermoplastic and liquid silicone rubbers in hard-soft-combinations via mechanical peeling test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühr, C.; Spörrer, A.; Altstädt, V.

    2014-05-01

    The production of hard-soft-combinations via multi injection molding gained more and more importance in the last years. This is attributed to different factors. One principle reason is that the use of two-component injection molding technique has many advantages such as cancelling subsequent and complex steps and shortening the process chain. Furthermore this technique allows the combination of the properties of the single components like the high stiffness of the hard component and the elastic properties of the soft component. Because of the incompatibility of some polymers the adhesion on the interface has to be determined. Thereby adhesion is not only influenced by the applied polymers, but also by the injection molding parameters and the characteristics of the mold. Besides already known combinations of thermoplastics with thermoplastic elastomers (TPE), there consists the possibility to apply liquid silicone rubber (LSR) as soft component. A thermoplastic/LSR combination gains in importance due to the specific advantages of LSR to TPE. The faintly adhesion between LSR and thermoplastics is currently one of the key challenges when dealing with those combinations. So it is coercively necessary to improve adhesion between the two components by adding an adhesion promoter. To determine the promoters influence, it is necessary to develop a suitable testing method to investigate e.g. the peel resistance. The current German standard "VDI Richtlinie 2019', which is actually only employed for thermoplastic/TPE combinations, can serve as a model to determine the adhesion of thermoplastic/LSR combinations.

  2. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. A summary of the work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2009 is given below. Geoscience Geoscientific research is a basic activity at Aespoe HRL. The aim of the current studies is to develop geoscientific models of the Aespoe HRL and increase the understanding of the rock mass properties as well as knowledge of applicable methods of measurement. A main task within the geoscientific field is the development of the Aespoe Site Descriptive Model (SDM) integrating information from the different fields. The main activities in the geoscientific fields have been: (1) Geology evaluation of geological mapping techniques leading to the decision to develop a SKB mapping system and finalization of the mapping of rock surfaces in the new tunnel, (2) Hydrogeology monitoring and storage of data in the computerised Hydro Monitoring System, (3) Geochemistry sampling of groundwater in the yearly campaign and for specific experiments and (4) Rock Mechanics finalised the field tests on thermally-induced spalling in deposition holes and evaluated the effect of counterforce in the deposition holes. Natural barriers At Aespoe HRL, experiments are

  3. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. A summary of the work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2009 is given below. Geoscience Geoscientific research is a basic activity at Aespoe HRL. The aim of the current studies is to develop geoscientific models of the Aespoe HRL and increase the understanding of the rock mass properties as well as knowledge of applicable methods of measurement. A main task within the geoscientific field is the development of the Aespoe Site Descriptive Model (SDM) integrating information from the different fields. The main activities in the geoscientific fields have been: (1) Geology evaluation of geological mapping techniques leading to the decision to develop a SKB mapping system and finalization of the mapping of rock surfaces in the new tunnel, (2) Hydrogeology monitoring and storage of data in the computerised Hydro Monitoring System, (3) Geochemistry sampling of groundwater in the yearly campaign and for specific experiments and (4) Rock Mechanics finalised the field tests on thermally-induced spalling in deposition holes and evaluated the effect of counterforce in the deposition holes. Natural barriers At Aespoe HRL

  4. Adaptable component frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki; Simonsen, Bo

    2009-01-01

    The CPH STL is a special edition of the STL, the containers and algorithms part of the C++ standard library. The specification of the generic components of the STL is given in the C++ standard. Any implementation of the STL, e.g. the one that ships with your standard-compliant C++ compiler, should...... for vector, which is undoubtedly the most used container of the C++ standard library. In particular, we specify the details of a vector implementation that is safe with respect to referential integrity and strong exception safety. Additionally, we report the experiences and lessons learnt from...... the development of component frameworks which we hope to be of benefit to persons engaged in the design and implementation of generic software libraries....

  5. Raman microscopic studies of PVD deposited hard ceramic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constable, C.P.

    2000-01-01

    successful. This was then expanded to real wear situations in which tools were monitored after 3,6,12,64,120 and 130 minutes-in-cut. A PCA chemometrics model able to distinguish between component layers and oxides was developed. Raman microscopy was found to provide structural and compositional information on oxide scales formed on the surfaces of heat-treated coatings. Wear debris, generated as a consequence of sliding wear tests on various coatings, was also found to be primarily oxide products. The comparison of the oxide types within the debris to those formed on the surface of the same coating statically oxidised, facilitated a contact temperature during sliding to be estimated. Raman microscopy, owing to the piezo-spectroscopic effect, is sensitive to stress levels. The application of Raman microscopy for the determination of residual compressive stresses within PVD coatings was evaluated. TiAIN/VN superlattice coatings with engineered stresses ranging -3 to -11.3 GPa were deposited onto SS and HSS substrates. Subsequent Raman measurements found a correlation coefficient of 0.996 between Raman band position and stress (determined via XRD methods). In addition, there was also a similar correlation coefficient observed between hardness and Raman shift (cm -1 ). The application of mechanical stresses on a TiAICrN coating via a stress rig was investigated and tensile and compressive shifts were observed. (author)

  6. Components of laboratory accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, P D

    1995-12-01

    Accreditation or certification is a recognition given to an operation or product that has been evaluated against a standard; be it regulatory or voluntary. The purpose of accreditation is to provide the consumer with a level of confidence in the quality of operation (process) and the product of an organization. Environmental Protection Agency/OCM has proposed the development of an accreditation program under National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Program for Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) laboratories as a supplement to the current program. This proposal was the result of the Inspector General Office reports that identified weaknesses in the current operation. Several accreditation programs can be evaluated and common components identified when proposing a structure for accrediting a GLP system. An understanding of these components is useful in building that structure. Internationally accepted accreditation programs provide a template for building a U.S. GLP accreditation program. This presentation will discuss the traditional structure of accreditation as presented in the Organization of Economic Cooperative Development/GLP program, ISO-9000 Accreditation and ISO/IEC Guide 25 Standard, and the Canadian Association for Environmental Analytical Laboratories, which has a biological component. Most accreditation programs are managed by a recognized third party, either privately or with government oversight. Common components often include a formal review of required credentials to evaluate organizational structure, a site visit to evaluate the facility, and a performance evaluation to assess technical competence. Laboratory performance is measured against written standards and scored. A formal report is then sent to the laboratory indicating accreditation status. Usually, there is a scheduled reevaluation built into the program. Fee structures vary considerably and will need to be examined closely when building a GLP program.

  7. Fabricating nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Activities of the Nuclear Engineering Division of Vickers Ltd., particularly fabrication of long slim tubular components for power reactors and the construction of irradiation loops and rigs, are outlined. The processes include hydraulic forming for fabrication of various types of tubes and outer cases of fuel transfer buckets, various specialised welding operations including some applications of the TIG process, and induction brazing of specialised assemblies. (U.K.)

  8. Components of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    This report of the Ministry of the Environment of the Slovak Republic deals with the components of the environment. The results of monitoring of air (emission situation), ambient air quality, atmospheric precipitation, tropospheric ozone, water (surface water, groundwater resources, waste water and drinking water), geological factors (geothermal energy, fuel deposits, ore deposits, non-metallic ore deposits), soil (area statistics, soil contamination. soil reaction and active extractable aluminium, soil erosion), flora and fauna (national strategy of biodiversity protection) are presented

  9. Ionitriding of Weapon Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    and documented tho production sequences required for the case- hardening of AISI 4140 and Nitralloy 13514 steels. Determination of processina...depths were established experimentally for Nitralloy 135M and for AISI 4140 steels. These steels are commonly used for the manufacture of nitrlded...weapons components. A temperature of 050F, upper limit for lonitrlding, was selected for the Nitralloy 135M to keep treatment times short. Since AISI 4140

  10. Components of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivers, D.

    1979-10-01

    Some aspects of a simple strategy for testing the validity of QCD perturbation theory are examined. The importance of explicit evaluation of higher-order contributions is illustrated by considering Z 0 decays. The recent progress toward understanding exclusive processes in QCD is discussed and some simple examples are given of how to isolate and test the separate components of the perturbation expansion in a hypothetical series of jet experiments

  11. Optimized Kernel Entropy Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Verdiguier, Emma; Laparra, Valero; Jenssen, Robert; Gomez-Chova, Luis; Camps-Valls, Gustau

    2017-06-01

    This brief addresses two main issues of the standard kernel entropy component analysis (KECA) algorithm: the optimization of the kernel decomposition and the optimization of the Gaussian kernel parameter. KECA roughly reduces to a sorting of the importance of kernel eigenvectors by entropy instead of variance, as in the kernel principal components analysis. In this brief, we propose an extension of the KECA method, named optimized KECA (OKECA), that directly extracts the optimal features retaining most of the data entropy by means of compacting the information in very few features (often in just one or two). The proposed method produces features which have higher expressive power. In particular, it is based on the independent component analysis framework, and introduces an extra rotation to the eigen decomposition, which is optimized via gradient-ascent search. This maximum entropy preservation suggests that OKECA features are more efficient than KECA features for density estimation. In addition, a critical issue in both the methods is the selection of the kernel parameter, since it critically affects the resulting performance. Here, we analyze the most common kernel length-scale selection criteria. The results of both the methods are illustrated in different synthetic and real problems. Results show that OKECA returns projections with more expressive power than KECA, the most successful rule for estimating the kernel parameter is based on maximum likelihood, and OKECA is more robust to the selection of the length-scale parameter in kernel density estimation.

  12. State of the art in hard-on-hard bearings: how did we get here and what have we achieved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zywiel, Michael G; Sayeed, Siraj A; Johnson, Aaron J; Schmalzried, Thomas P; Mont, Michael A

    2011-03-01

    Total hip arthroplasty has shown excellent results in decreasing pain and improving function in patients with degenerative disease of the hip. Improvements in prosthetic materials, designs and implant fixation have now resulted in wear of the bearing surface being the limitation of this technology, and a number of hard-on-hard couples have been introduced to address this concern. The purpose of this article is to review the origins, development, survival rates and potential advantages and disadvantages of the following hard-on-hard bearings for total hip arthroplasty: metal-on-metal standard total hip arthroplasty; metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty, ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty; and ceramic-on-metal bearings. Improvements in the manufacturing of metal-on-metal bearings over the past 50 years have resulted in implants that provide low wear rates and allow for the use of large femoral heads. However, concerns remain regarding elevated serum metal ion levels, potential teratogenic effects and potentially devastating adverse local tissue reactions, whose incidence and pathogenesis remains unclear. Modern total hip resurfacing has shown excellent outcomes over 10 years in the hands of experienced surgeons. Current ceramic-on-ceramic bearings have demonstrated excellent survival with exceptionally low wear rates and virtually no local adverse effects. Concerns remain for insertional chipping, in vivo fracture and the variable incidence of squeaking. Contemporary ceramic-on-metal interfaces are in the early stages of clinical use, with little data reported to date. Hard-on-hard bearings for total hip arthroplasty have improved dramatically over the past 50 years. As bearing designs continue to improve with new and modified materials and improved manufacturing techniques, it is likely that the use of hard-on-hard bearings will continue to increase, especially in young and active patients.

  13. Hardness of AISI type 410 martensitic steels after high temperature irradiation via nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Owais Ahmed; Jeong, Jong-Ryul; Park, Byong-Guk; Maeng, Cheol-Soo; Lee, Myoung-Goo; Ryu, Ho Jin

    2017-11-01

    The hardness of irradiated AISI type 410 martensitic steel, which is utilized in structural and magnetic components of nuclear power plants, is investigated in this study. Proton irradiation of AISI type 410 martensitic steel samples was carried out by exposing the samples to 3 MeV protons up to a 1.0 × 1017 p/cm2 fluence level at a representative nuclear reactor coolant temperature of 350 °C. The assessment of deleterious effects of irradiation on the micro-structure and mechanical behavior of the AISI type 410 martensitic steel samples via transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy and cross-sectional nano-indentation showed no significant variation in the microscopic or mechanical characteristics. These results ensure the integrity of the structural and magnetic components of nuclear reactors made of AISI type 410 martensitic steel under high-temperature irradiation damage levels up to approximately 5.2 × 10-3 dpa.

  14. The phase behavior of a hard sphere chain model of a binary n-alkane mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malanoski, A. P.; Monson, P. A.

    2000-01-01

    Monte Carlo computer simulations have been used to study the solid and fluid phase properties as well as phase equilibrium in a flexible, united atom, hard sphere chain model of n-heptane/n-octane mixtures. We describe a methodology for calculating the chemical potentials for the components in the mixture based on a technique used previously for atomic mixtures. The mixture was found to conform accurately to ideal solution behavior in the fluid phase. However, much greater nonidealities were seen in the solid phase. Phase equilibrium calculations indicate a phase diagram with solid-fluid phase equilibrium and a eutectic point. The components are only miscible in the solid phase for dilute solutions of the shorter chains in the longer chains. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  15. THE STUDY OF STRUCTURE AND HARDNESS OF STEEL-MOLIBDENUMAL COVERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOLSHAKOV V. I.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The new methods of surface hardening and creation of special materials are appealed for problem solving of the increasing of exploitation characteristic of materials. Among them a special place is gas-thermal coating. They are used in the different branches of machine-building for protection of the surface of details and machine assemblies from abrasion wearout. In addition, these parts and components during operation can be restored by repeatedly re-coating, that significantly reduces the cost of repair of equipment, reduces the consumption of materials to manufacture new details. Purpose of the work is to establish the influence of the gas-thermal spraying on the hardness of surface coating and to determine the connection between microhardness and structural state. The results. The value of measurements of the microhardness of molybdenum and steel in the surface layer are consistent with character of structural components. The major characteristic of the deposited layer, determining the success work of the coating is its relationship with the substrate surface. Rapid crystallization under the pressure help to create of fine-grained structure. Scientific novelty. The mechanism of formation of the coating by sequentially packaging of greatly deformed particles and the formation of the layered structure are shown. High hardness of the particles of molybdenum of sprayed layer is stipulated by several factors: the ultrafine grain, hardening particles and change of their chemical composition, being created the conditions for senescence hardening. The hardness of steel parts is determined by micro dispersive carbides and hardening of austenite.

  16. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory Annual Report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-08-01

    At Aespoe HRL, methods for characterising a suitable site for a deep repository are being developed and tested. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995. Most of the research is focused on processes of importance for the long-term safety of a future deep repository. To meet the overall time schedule for SKB's RDandD work, the following stage goals were initially defined for the work at the Aespoe HRL. 1. Verify pre-investigation methods. Demonstrate that investigations on the ground surface and in boreholes provide sufficient data on essential safety-related properties of the rock at repository level. 2. Finalise detailed investigation methodology. Refine and verify the methods and the technology needed for characterisation of the rock in the detailed site investigations. 3. Test models for description of the barrier functions at natural conditions. Further develop and at repository depth test methods and models for description of groundwater flow, radionuclide migration, and chemical conditions during operation of a repository and after closure. 4. Demonstrate technology for and function of important parts of the repository system. Test, investigate and demonstrate on full-scale different components of importance for the long-term safety of a deep repository and to show that high quality can be achieved in design, construction, and operation of repository components. Stage goals 1 and 2 have been concluded at Aespoe HRL and the tasks have been transferred to the Site Investigation Department of SKB which performs site investigations at two sites, Simpevarp/Laxemar in the municipality of Oskarshamn and Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar. In order to reach present goals the following important tasks are performed at the Aespoe HRL: Develop, test, evaluate and demonstrate

  17. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-08-01

    At Aespoe HRL, methods for characterising a suitable site for a deep repository are being developed and tested. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995. Most of the research is focused on processes of importance for the long-term safety of a future deep repository. To meet the overall time schedule for SKB's RDandD work, the following stage goals were initially defined for the work at the Aespoe HRL. 1. Verify pre-investigation methods. Demonstrate that investigations on the ground surface and in boreholes provide sufficient data on essential safety-related properties of the rock at repository level. 2. Finalise detailed investigation methodology. Refine and verify the methods and the technology needed for characterisation of the rock in the detailed site investigations. 3. Test models for description of the barrier functions at natural conditions. Further develop and at repository depth test methods and models for description of groundwater flow, radionuclide migration, and chemical conditions during operation of a repository and after closure. 4. Demonstrate technology for and function of important parts of the repository system. Test, investigate and demonstrate on full-scale different components of importance for the long-term safety of a deep repository and to show that high quality can be achieved in design, construction, and operation of repository components. Stage goals 1 and 2 have been concluded at Aespoe HRL and the tasks have been transferred to the Site Investigation Department of SKB which performs site investigations at two sites, Simpevarp/Laxemar in the municipality of Oskarshamn and Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar. In order to reach present goals the following important tasks are performed at the Aespoe HRL: Develop, test, evaluate and

  18. The influence of hard segment content on mechanical and thermal properties of polycarbonate-based polyurethane materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budinski-Simendić Jaroslava

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aliphatic segmented polyurethanes were prepared by one-step procedure in catalytic reaction between polycarbonate diol, hexamethylene-diisocyanate and 1,4-butandiol (as chain extender. The hard segment content TS was varied (17, 24, 30 and 42 wt. % by changing the ratio of starting compounds. The soft segment is made from flexible aliphatic polycarbonate diol, while hard segments consist of chain extender and diisocyanate component. In order to study the hydrogen bonding formation and phase separation, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR was used. Wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS was performed to determine a degree of crystallinity and to investigate the phase behavior of prepared elastomers. The effect of TS content on mechanical properties (tensile strength, elongation at break and hardness was tested. Thermal behavior of prepared novel polycarbonate-based polyurethanes was investigated using differential scanning callorimetry (DSC. It was determined that the elastomer which contains the highest amount of urethane groups in its structure (TS content of 42 wt. % exhibits the most pronounced phase separation and the highest degree of crystallinity. All prepared polyurethanes exhibit high elongation at break (over 700%. The glass transition temperature Tg of prepared samples was in the temperature region from −39 to −36°C, and it was found to be slightly influenced by the soft segment content. The enthalpy of chain segments relaxation in diffused region between hard and soft domains (detected in the temperature range from 35 to 55 °C was decreased with the increase of hard segment content. The multiple melting of hard segments (connected with the dissruption of physical crosslinks appeared above 100 °C. It was found that the melting enthalpy linearly increases with the increase of urethane group content. Sample with 42 wt. % of TS has the highest value of melting enthalpy (41.5 J/g.

  19. Soft and Hard Textured Wheat Differ in Starch Properties as Indicated by Trimodal Distribution, Morphology, Thermal and Crystalline Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Kumar

    Full Text Available Starch and proteins are major components in the wheat endosperm that affect its end product quality. Between the two textural classes of wheat i.e. hard and soft, starch granules are loosely bound with the lipids and proteins in soft wheat due to higher expression of interfering grain softness proteins. It might have impact on starch granules properties. In this work for the first time the physiochemical and structural properties of different sized starch granules (A-, B- and C-granules were studied to understand the differences in starches with respect to soft and hard wheat. A-, B- and C-type granules were separated with >95% purity. Average number and proportion of A-, B-, and C-type granules was 18%, 56%, 26% and 76%, 19%, 5% respectively. All had symmetrical birefringence pattern with varied intensity. All displayed typical A-type crystallites. A-type granules also showed V-type crystallinity that is indicative of starch complexes with lipids and proteins. Granules differing in gelatinization temperature (ΔH and transition temperature (ΔT, showed different enthalpy changes during heating. Substitution analysis indicated differences in relative substitution pattern of different starch granules. Birefringence, percentage crystallinity, transmittance, gelatinization enthalpy and substitution decreased in order of A>B>C being higher in hard wheat than soft wheat. Amylose content decreased in order of A>B>C being higher in soft wheat than hard wheat. Reconstitution experiment showed that starch properties could be manipulated by changing the composition of starch granules. Addition of A-granules to total starch significantly affected its thermal properties. Effect of A-granule addition was higher than B- and C-granules. Transmittance of the starch granules paste showed that starch granules of hard wheat formed clear paste. These results suggested that in addition to differences in protein concentration, hard and soft wheat lines have

  20. NuSTAR HARD X-RAY SURVEY OF THE GALACTIC CENTER REGION. I. HARD X-RAY MORPHOLOGY AND SPECTROSCOPY OF THE DIFFUSE EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Kaya; Hailey, Charles J.; Perez, Kerstin; Nynka, Melania; Zhang, Shuo; Canipe, Alicia M. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Krivonos, Roman; Tomsick, John A.; Barrière, Nicolas; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hong, Jaesub [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ponti, Gabriele [Max-Planck-Institut f. extraterrestrische Physik, HEG, Garching (Germany); Bauer, Franz [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Alexander, David M. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Baganoff, Frederick K. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusets Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Barret, Didier [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space—National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Forster, Karl [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Giommi, Paolo, E-mail: kaya@astro.columbia.edu [ASI Science Data Center, Via del Politecnico snc I-00133, Roma (Italy); and others

    2015-12-01

    We present the first sub-arcminute images of the Galactic Center above 10 keV, obtained with NuSTAR. NuSTAR resolves the hard X-ray source IGR J17456–2901 into non-thermal X-ray filaments, molecular clouds, point sources, and a previously unknown central component of hard X-ray emission (CHXE). NuSTAR detects four non-thermal X-ray filaments, extending the detection of their power-law spectra with Γ ∼ 1.3–2.3 up to ∼50 keV. A morphological and spectral study of the filaments suggests that their origin may be heterogeneous, where previous studies suggested a common origin in young pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). NuSTAR detects non-thermal X-ray continuum emission spatially correlated with the 6.4 keV Fe Kα fluorescence line emission associated with two Sgr A molecular clouds: MC1 and the Bridge. Broadband X-ray spectral analysis with a Monte-Carlo based X-ray reflection model self-consistently determined their intrinsic column density (∼10{sup 23} cm{sup −2}), primary X-ray spectra (power-laws with Γ ∼ 2) and set a lower limit of the X-ray luminosity of Sgr A* flare illuminating the Sgr A clouds to L{sub X} ≳ 10{sup 38} erg s{sup −1}. Above ∼20 keV, hard X-ray emission in the central 10 pc region around Sgr A* consists of the candidate PWN G359.95–0.04 and the CHXE, possibly resulting from an unresolved population of massive CVs with white dwarf masses M{sub WD} ∼ 0.9 M{sub ⊙}. Spectral energy distribution analysis suggests that G359.95–0.04 is likely the hard X-ray counterpart of the ultra-high gamma-ray source HESS J1745–290, strongly favoring a leptonic origin of the GC TeV emission.

  1. Optimization of lipid profile and hardness of low-fat mortadella following a sequential strategy of experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña, Erick; Siche, Raúl; da Silva Pinto, Jair Sebastião; de Almeida, Marcio Aurélio; Selani, Miriam Mabel; Rios-Mera, Juan; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to optimize simultaneously the lipid profile and instrumental hardness of low-fat mortadella. For lipid mixture optimization, the overlapping of surface boundaries was used to select the quantities of canola, olive, and fish oils, in order to maximize PUFAs, specifically the long-chain n-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic-EPA, docosahexaenoic acids-DHA) using the minimum content of fish oil. Increased quantities of canola oil were associated with higher PUFA/SFA ratios. The presence of fish oil, even in small amounts, was effective in improving the nutritional quality of the mixture, showing lower n-6/n-3 ratios and significant levels of EPA and DHA. Thus, the optimal lipid mixture comprised of 20, 30 and 50% fish, olive and canola oils, respectively, which present PUFA/SFA (2.28) and n-6/n-3 (2.30) ratios within the recommendations of a healthy diet. Once the lipid mixture was optimized, components of the pre-emulsion used as fat replacer in the mortadella, such as lipid mixture (LM), sodium alginate (SA), and milk protein concentrate (PC), were studied to optimize hardness and springiness to target ranges of 13-16 N and 0.86-0.87, respectively. Results showed that springiness was not significantly affected by these variables. However, as the concentration of the three components increased, hardness decreased. Through the desirability function, the optimal proportions were 30% LM, 0.5% SA, and 0.5% PC. This study showed that the pre-emulsion decreases hardness of mortadella. In addition, response surface methodology was efficient to model lipid mixture and hardness, resulting in a product with improved texture and lipid quality.

  2. Soft and hard natures of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B permanent magnet explored by first-order-reversal-curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Po-An; Yang, Chao-Yao; Chang, Shu-Jui [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, Min-Han [Undergraduate Honors Program of Nano Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tang, Nai-Kuang; Yen, Sheng-Chan [Metal Industries Research and Development Center, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Yuan-Chieh, E-mail: yctseng21@mail.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-12-15

    Two commercial Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B samples, MQP-B and sintered-NdFeB were investigated using synchrotron-based x-ray diffraction and first-order-reversal-curves (FORCs). Despite differing in magnetic and structural properties, the two samples were found to comprise two major ferromagnetic components in FORCs. For the sintered-NdFeB case, the soft component may originate from the intrinsically soft Nd-f site which was coupled with its local Fe atomic environment that differs in magnetic anisotropy from the Nd-g site (intrinsically hard). It may directly originate from the Nd-rich phase or microstructural imperfection, while the former possibility (Nd-f site) appears greater than the latter. While for the MQP-B, the minor second phase resulting from high structural disorder was likely in charge of the presence of the soft component. Sophisticated FORCs analyses revealed the natures of the soft and hard components, soft–hard coupling and switching reversibility of the two cases, irrespective of the origins of their two components. This provides insights to the origin of magnetic stability and reversal dynamics of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B that have not been fully understood by conventional magnetic analyses. The coexistence of the two components led to an incoherent reversal undermining the magnetic stability of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B. This is a fundamental problem as to why the performance extremity can only be improved finitely through extrinsic tuning. From FORCs simulation we understand that the soft–hard coupling was moderate in a real Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound. A stronger soft–hard coupling is necessary to conquer the anisotropic competition to enable a coherent reversal that will promote the magnetic hardness. - Highlights: • We investigated two commercially available Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compounds with FORCs. • The two compounds were found to comprise soft and hard natures. • The coupling between the soft and hard phases is moderate in a real Nd

  3. Dynamic leaching test of personal computer components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yadong; Richardson, Jay B; Niu, Xiaojun; Jackson, Ollie J; Laster, Jeremy D; Walker, Aaron K

    2009-11-15

    A dynamic leaching test (DLT) was developed and used to evaluate the leaching of toxic substances for electronic waste in the environment. The major components in personal computers (PCs) including motherboards, hard disc drives, floppy disc drives, and compact disc drives were tested. The tests lasted for 2 years for motherboards and 1.5 year for the disc drives. The extraction fluids for the standard toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) were used as the DLT leaching solutions. A total of 18 elements including Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Ni, Pd, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, and Zn were analyzed in the DLT leachates. Only Al, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn were commonly found in the DLT leachates of the PC components. Their leaching levels were much higher in TCLP extraction fluid than in SPLP extraction fluid. The toxic heavy metal Pb was found to continuously leach out of the components over the entire test periods. The cumulative amounts of Pb leached out of the motherboards in TCLP extraction fluid reached 2.0 g per motherboard over the 2-year test period, and that in SPLP extraction fluid were 75-90% less. The leaching rates or levels of Pb were largely affected by the content of galvanized steel in the PC components. The higher was the steel content, the lower the Pb leaching rate would be. The findings suggest that the obsolete PCs disposed of in landfills or discarded in the environment continuously release Pb for years when subjected to landfill leachate or rains.

  4. Reinforced seal component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanson, G.M.; Odent, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    The invention concerns a seal component of the kind comprising a soft sheath and a flexible reinforcement housed throughout the entire length of the sheath. The invention enables O ring seals to be made capable of providing a radial seal, that is to say between two sides or flat collars of two cylindrical mechanical parts, or an axial seal, that is to say between two co-axial axisymmetrical areas. The seal so ensured is relative, but it remains adequately sufficient for many uses, for instance, to ensure the separation of two successive fixed blading compartments of axial compressors used in gas diffusion isotope concentration facilities [fr

  5. Electronic components and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sangwine, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Most introductory textbooks in electronics focus on the theory while leaving the practical aspects to be covered in laboratory courses. However, the sooner such matters are introduced, the better able students will be to include such important concerns as parasitic effects and reliability at the very earliest stages of design. This philosophy has kept Electronic Components and Technology thriving for two decades, and this completely updated third edition continues the approach with a more international outlook.Not only does this textbook introduce the properties, behavior, fabrication, and use

  6. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    management and efficient system operation. Due to the expected large number of user-deployed cells, centralized network planning becomes unpractical and new scalable alternatives must be sought. In this article, we propose a fully distributed and scalable solution to the interference management problem...... in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...... the experience of all users and not just the few best ones; while overall cell capacity is not compromised....

  7. Impedance of accelerator components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlett, J.N.

    1996-05-01

    As demands for high luminosity and low emittance particle beams increase, an understanding of the electromagnetic interaction of these beams with their vacuum chamber environment becomes more important in order to maintain the quality of the beam. This interaction is described in terms of the wake field in time domain, and the beam impedance in frequency domain. These concepts are introduced, and related quantities such as the loss factor are presented. The broadband Q = 1 resonator impedance model is discussed. Perturbation and coaxial wire methods of measurement of real components are reviewed

  8. HARD X-RAY AND MICROWAVE EMISSIONS FROM SOLAR FLARES WITH HARD SPECTRAL INDICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawate, T. [Kwasan and Hida Observatory, Kitashirakawa-oiwakecho, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Nishizuka, N. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Oi, A. [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Ohyama, M. [Faculty of Education, Shiga University, 2-5-1 Hiratsu, Otsu, Shiga 1-1, Baba Hikone city, Siga 522-8522 (Japan); Nakajima, H., E-mail: kawate@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Nobeyama Solar Radio Observatory, NAOJ, Nobeyama, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan)

    2012-03-10

    We analyze 10 flare events that radiate intense hard X-ray (HXR) emission with significant photons over 300 keV to verify that the electrons that have a common origin of acceleration mechanism and energy power-law distribution with solar flares emit HXRs and microwaves. Most of these events have the following characteristics. HXRs emanate from the footpoints of flare loops, while microwaves emanate from the tops of flare loops. The time profiles of the microwave emission show delays of peak with respect to those of the corresponding HXR emission. The spectral indices of microwave emissions show gradual hardening in all events, while the spectral indices of the corresponding HXR emissions are roughly constant in most of the events, though rather rapid hardening is simultaneously observed in some for both indices during the onset time and the peak time. These characteristics suggest that the microwave emission emanates from the trapped electrons. Then, taking into account the role of the trapping of electrons for the microwave emission, we compare the observed microwave spectra with the model spectra calculated by a gyrosynchrotron code. As a result, we successfully reproduce the eight microwave spectra. From this result, we conclude that the electrons that have a common acceleration and a common energy distribution with solar flares emit both HXR and microwave emissions in the eight events, though microwave emission is contributed to by electrons with much higher energy than HXR emission.

  9. DETERMINATION OF CRYSTALLINITY INDEX OF CARBOHYDRATE COMPONENTS IN HEMP (CANNABIS SATIVA L. WOODY CORE BY MEANS OF FT-IR SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esat Gümüşkaya

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study; it was investigated chemical compositions of hemp woody core and changes in crystallinity index of its carbohydrate components by using FT-IR spectroscopy was investigated. It was determined that carbohyrate components ratio in hemp woody core were similar to that in hard wood, but lignin content in hemp woody core was higher than in hard wood. Crystallinity index of carbohydrate components in hemp woody core increased by removing amorphous components. It was designated that monoclinic structure in hemp woody core and its carbohydrate components was dominant, but triclinic ratio increased by treated chemical isolation of carbohydrate from hemp woody core.

  10. Tactile sensor of hardness recognition based on magnetic anomaly detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lingyun; Zhang, Dongfang; Chen, Qingguang; Rao, Huanle; Xu, Ping

    2018-03-01

    Hardness, as one kind of tactile sensing, plays an important role in the field of intelligent robot application such as gripping, agricultural harvesting, prosthetic hand and so on. Recently, with the rapid development of magnetic field sensing technology with high performance, a number of magnetic sensors have been developed for intelligent application. The tunnel Magnetoresistance(TMR) based on magnetoresistance principal works as the sensitive element to detect the magnetic field and it has proven its excellent ability of weak magnetic detection. In the paper, a new method based on magnetic anomaly detection was proposed to detect the hardness in the tactile way. The sensor is composed of elastic body, ferrous probe, TMR element, permanent magnet. When the elastic body embedded with ferrous probe touches the object under the certain size of force, deformation of elastic body will produce. Correspondingly, the ferrous probe will be forced to displace and the background magnetic field will be distorted. The distorted magnetic field was detected by TMR elements and the output signal at different time can be sampled. The slope of magnetic signal with the sampling time is different for object with different hardness. The result indicated that the magnetic anomaly sensor can recognize the hardness rapidly within 150ms after the tactile moment. The hardness sensor based on magnetic anomaly detection principal proposed in the paper has the advantages of simple structure, low cost, rapid response and it has shown great application potential in the field of intelligent robot.

  11. An overview on polynomial approximation of NP-hard problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschos Vangelis Th.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The fact that polynomial time algorithm is very unlikely to be devised for an optimal solving of the NP-hard problems strongly motivates both the researchers and the practitioners to try to solve such problems heuristically, by making a trade-off between computational time and solution's quality. In other words, heuristic computation consists of trying to find not the best solution but one solution which is 'close to' the optimal one in reasonable time. Among the classes of heuristic methods for NP-hard problems, the polynomial approximation algorithms aim at solving a given NP-hard problem in poly-nomial time by computing feasible solutions that are, under some predefined criterion, as near to the optimal ones as possible. The polynomial approximation theory deals with the study of such algorithms. This survey first presents and analyzes time approximation algorithms for some classical examples of NP-hard problems. Secondly, it shows how classical notions and tools of complexity theory, such as polynomial reductions, can be matched with polynomial approximation in order to devise structural results for NP-hard optimization problems. Finally, it presents a quick description of what is commonly called inapproximability results. Such results provide limits on the approximability of the problems tackled.

  12. Study on indium leaching from mechanically activated hard zinc residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, changes in physicochemical properties and leachability of indium from mechanically activated hard zinc residue by planetary mill were investigated. The results showed that mechanical activation increased specific surface area, reaction activity of hard zinc residue, and decreased its particle size, which had a positive effect on indium extraction from hard zinc residue in hydrochloric acid solution. Kinetics of indium leaching from unmilled and activated hard zinc residue were also investigated, respectively. It was found that temperature had an obvious effect on indium leaching rate. Two different kinetic models corresponding to reactions which are diffusion controlled, [1-(1- x1/3]2=kt and (1-2x/3-(1-x2/3=kt were used to describe the kinetics of indium leaching from unmilled sample and activated sample, respectively. Their activation energies were determined to be 17.89 kJ/mol (umilled and 11.65 kJ/mol (activated within the temperature range of 30°C to 90°C, which is characteristic for a diffusion controlled process. The values of activation energy demonstrated that the leaching reaction of indium became less sensitive to temperature after hard zinc residue mechanically activated by planetary mill.

  13. Does trampoline or hard surface jumping influence lower extremity alignment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasaka, Kiyokazu; Tamura, Akihiro; Katsuta, Aoi; Sagawa, Ayako; Otsudo, Takahiro; Okubo, Yu; Sawada, Yutaka; Hall, Toby

    2017-12-01

    [Purpose] To determine whether repetitive trampoline or hard surface jumping affects lower extremity alignment on jump landing. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy females participated in this study. All subjects performed a drop vertical jump before and after repeated maximum effort trampoline or hard surface jumping. A three-dimensional motion analysis system and two force plates were used to record lower extremity angles, moments, and vertical ground reaction force during drop vertical jumps. [Results] Knee extensor moment after trampoline jumping was greater than that after hard surface jumping. There were no significant differences between trials in vertical ground reaction force and lower extremity joint angles following each form of exercise. Repeated jumping on a trampoline increased peak vertical ground reaction force, hip extensor, knee extensor moments, and hip adduction angle, while decreasing hip flexion angle during drop vertical jumps. In contrast, repeated jumping on a hard surface increased peak vertical ground reaction force, ankle dorsiflexion angle, and hip extensor moment during drop vertical jumps. [Conclusion] Repeated jumping on the trampoline compared to jumping on a hard surface has different effects on lower limb kinetics and kinematics. Knowledge of these effects may be useful in designing exercise programs for different clinical presentations.

  14. Hard decoding algorithm for optimizing thresholds under general Markovian noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberland, Christopher; Wallman, Joel; Beale, Stefanie; Laflamme, Raymond

    2017-04-01

    Quantum error correction is instrumental in protecting quantum systems from noise in quantum computing and communication settings. Pauli channels can be efficiently simulated and threshold values for Pauli error rates under a variety of error-correcting codes have been obtained. However, realistic quantum systems can undergo noise processes that differ significantly from Pauli noise. In this paper, we present an efficient hard decoding algorithm for optimizing thresholds and lowering failure rates of an error-correcting code under general completely positive and trace-preserving (i.e., Markovian) noise. We use our hard decoding algorithm to study the performance of several error-correcting codes under various non-Pauli noise models by computing threshold values and failure rates for these codes. We compare the performance of our hard decoding algorithm to decoders optimized for depolarizing noise and show improvements in thresholds and reductions in failure rates by several orders of magnitude. Our hard decoding algorithm can also be adapted to take advantage of a code's non-Pauli transversal gates to further suppress noise. For example, we show that using the transversal gates of the 5-qubit code allows arbitrary rotations around certain axes to be perfectly corrected. Furthermore, we show that Pauli twirling can increase or decrease the threshold depending upon the code properties. Lastly, we show that even if the physical noise model differs slightly from the hypothesized noise model used to determine an optimized decoder, failure rates can still be reduced by applying our hard decoding algorithm.

  15. Interactions between photodegradation components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi Yadollah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interactions of p-cresol photocatalytic degradation components were studied by response surface methodology. The study was designed by central composite design using the irradiation time, pH, the amount of photocatalyst and the p-cresol concentration as variables. The design was performed to obtain photodegradation % as actual responses. The actual responses were fitted with linear, two factor interactions, cubic and quadratic model to select an appropriate model. The selected model was validated by analysis of variance which provided evidences such as high F-value (845.09, very low P-value (2 = 0.999, adjusted R-squared (Radj2 = 0.998, predicted R-squared (Rpred2 = 0.994 and the adequate precision (95.94. Results From the validated model demonstrated that the component had interaction with irradiation time under 180 min of the time while the interaction with pH was above pH 9. Moreover, photocatalyst and p-cresol had interaction at minimal amount of photocatalyst (p-cresol. Conclusion These variables are interdependent and should be simultaneously considered during the photodegradation process, which is one of the advantages of the response surface methodology over the traditional laboratory method.

  16. Prognostics for Microgrid Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Abhinav

    2012-01-01

    Prognostics is the science of predicting future performance and potential failures based on targeted condition monitoring. Moving away from the traditional reliability centric view, prognostics aims at detecting and quantifying the time to impending failures. This advance warning provides the opportunity to take actions that can preserve uptime, reduce cost of damage, or extend the life of the component. The talk will focus on the concepts and basics of prognostics from the viewpoint of condition-based systems health management. Differences with other techniques used in systems health management and philosophies of prognostics used in other domains will be shown. Examples relevant to micro grid systems and subsystems will be used to illustrate various types of prediction scenarios and the resources it take to set up a desired prognostic system. Specifically, the implementation results for power storage and power semiconductor components will demonstrate specific solution approaches of prognostics. The role of constituent elements of prognostics, such as model, prediction algorithms, failure threshold, run-to-failure data, requirements and specifications, and post-prognostic reasoning will be explained. A discussion on performance evaluation and performance metrics will conclude the technical discussion followed by general comments on open research problems and challenges in prognostics.

  17. Hard exudates segmentation based on learned initial seeds and iterative graph cut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusakunniran, Worapan; Wu, Qiang; Ritthipravat, Panrasee; Zhang, Jian

    2018-05-01

    (Background and Objective): The occurrence of hard exudates is one of the early signs of diabetic retinopathy which is one of the leading causes of the blindness. Many patients with diabetic retinopathy lose their vision because of the late detection of the disease. Thus, this paper is to propose a novel method of hard exudates segmentation in retinal images in an automatic way. (Methods): The existing methods are based on either supervised or unsupervised learning techniques. In addition, the learned segmentation models may often cause miss-detection and/or fault-detection of hard exudates, due to the lack of rich characteristics, the intra-variations, and the similarity with other components in the retinal image. Thus, in this paper, the supervised learning based on the multilayer perceptron (MLP) is only used to identify initial seeds with high confidences to be hard exudates. Then, the segmentation is finalized by unsupervised learning based on the iterative graph cut (GC) using clusters of initial seeds. Also, in order to reduce color intra-variations of hard exudates in different retinal images, the color transfer (CT) is applied to normalize their color information, in the pre-processing step. (Results): The experiments and comparisons with the other existing methods are based on the two well-known datasets, e_ophtha EX and DIARETDB1. It can be seen that the proposed method outperforms the other existing methods in the literature, with the sensitivity in the pixel-level of 0.891 for the DIARETDB1 dataset and 0.564 for the e_ophtha EX dataset. The cross datasets validation where the training process is performed on one dataset and the testing process is performed on another dataset is also evaluated in this paper, in order to illustrate the robustness of the proposed method. (Conclusions): This newly proposed method integrates the supervised learning and unsupervised learning based techniques. It achieves the improved performance, when compared with the

  18. Evaluation of aging degradation of structural components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, O.K.; Shack, W.J.

    1992-03-01

    Irradiation embrittlement of the neutron shield tank (NST) A212 Grade B steel from the Shippingport reactor, as well as thermal embrittlement of CF-8 cast stainless steel components from the Shippingport and KRB reactors, has been characterized. Increases in Charpy transition temperature (CTT), yield stress, and hardness of the NST material in the low-temperature low-flux environment are consistent with the test reactor data for irradiations at 8 n/cm 2 ·s at the low operating temperature of the Shippingport NST, i.e., 55 degrees C. This suggest that radiation damage in Shippingport NST and HFIR surveillance samples may be different because of the neutron spectra and/or Cu and Ni content of the two materials. Cast stainless steel components show relatively modest decreases in fracture toughness and Charpy-impact properties and a small increase in tensile strength. Correlations for estimating mechanical properties of cast stainless steels predict accurate or slightly conservative values for Charpy-impact energy, tensile flow stress, fracture toughness J-R curve, and J IC of the materials. The kinetics of thermal embrittlement and degree of embrittlement at saturation, i.e., the minimum impact energy achieved after long-term aging, were established from materials that were aged further in the laboratory. The results were consistent with the estimates. The correlations successfully predict the mechanical properties of the Ringhals 2 reactor hot- and crossover-leg elbows (CF-8M steel) after service of ∼15 y

  19. Tuning hardness in calcite by incorporation of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yi-Yeoun; Carloni, Joseph D; Demarchi, Beatrice; Sparks, David; Reid, David G; Kunitake, Miki E; Tang, Chiu C; Duer, Melinda J; Freeman, Colin L; Pokroy, Boaz; Penkman, Kirsty; Harding, John H; Estroff, Lara A; Baker, Shefford P; Meldrum, Fiona C

    2016-08-01

    Structural biominerals are inorganic/organic composites that exhibit remarkable mechanical properties. However, the structure-property relationships of even the simplest building unit-mineral single crystals containing embedded macromolecules-remain poorly understood. Here, by means of a model biomineral made from calcite single crystals containing glycine (0-7 mol%) or aspartic acid (0-4 mol%), we elucidate the origin of the superior hardness of biogenic calcite. We analysed lattice distortions in these model crystals by using X-ray diffraction and molecular dynamics simulations, and by means of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance show that the amino acids are incorporated as individual molecules. We also demonstrate that nanoindentation hardness increased with amino acid content, reaching values equivalent to their biogenic counterparts. A dislocation pinning model reveals that the enhanced hardness is determined by the force required to cut covalent bonds in the molecules.

  20. Using hardness to model yield and tensile strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Dogan, Omer N.; Schrems, Karol K.

    2005-02-01

    The current direction in hardness research is towards smaller and smaller loads as nano-scale materials are developed. There remains, however, a need to investigate the mechanical behavior of complex alloys for severe environment service. In many instances this entails casting large ingots and making numerous tensile samples as the bounds of the operating environment are explored. It is possible to gain an understanding of the tensile strength of these alloys using room and elevated temperature hardness in conjunction with selected tensile tests. The approach outlined here has its roots in the work done by Tabor for metals and low alloy and carbon steels. This research seeks to extend the work to elevated temperatures for multi-phase, complex alloys. A review of the approach will be given after which the experimental data will be examined. In particular, the yield stress and tensile strength will be compared to their corresponding hardness based values.