WorldWideScience

Sample records for harbour porpoise population

  1. Effects of wind farms on harbour porpoise behaviour and population dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Tougaard, Jakob; Teilmann, Jonas

    We developed an individual-based simulation model in order to study the cumulative impacts of wind farms and ship traffic on the long-term survival and population dynamics of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in Kattegat and the Belt Seas. The model is based on knowl- edge of the porpoises...... at distances >1 km. Our simulations suggest that operating wind farms and wind farms under construction do not affect the size or dynamics of the harbour porpoise population in Kattegat. Ship traffic may, in contrast, cause the population size to decrease.......We developed an individual-based simulation model in order to study the cumulative impacts of wind farms and ship traffic on the long-term survival and population dynamics of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in Kattegat and the Belt Seas. The model is based on knowl- edge of the porpoises......’ fine-scale foraging behaviour, dispersal between areas where porpoises are commonly observed in nature and their reproductive patterns. It assumes that individual porpoises turn away more steeply from objects the more noisy they are, and that they react to the noise emitted from large ships...

  2. Source of Aegean Sea harbour porpoises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lockyer, Christina; Rosel, P. E.; Frantzis, A.

    2003-01-01

    Documented sightings of harbour porpoises in the Mediterranean are rare, although the species is common in the neighbouring North Atlantic and Black Sea. However, in the past 2 decades, 4 harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena have been recorded in the northern Aegean Sea in the eastern Mediterranean...... Basin. Samples were taken from 2 of these. Both have a genetic signature indicative of the Black Sea and their age and small size further suggest they originated from the Black Sea rather than the Atlantic population. These results are the first to indicate probable movement of porpoises out...... of the Black Sea and into the Mediterranean Sea....

  3. Comparison of the iPCoD and DEPONS models for modelling population consequences of noise on harbour porpoises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Harwood, John

    Two different frameworks have been developed to assess the potential effects of noise associated with offshore renewable energy developments on harbour porpoise populations: The Interim Population Consequences of Disturbance (iPCoD) and Disturbance Effects of Noise on the Harbour Porpoise...... Population in the North Sea (DEPONS). Although both models simulate population dynamics based on the birth and survival rates of individual animals, they model survival in a different way. iPCoD uses average survival rates derived from data from North Sea animals. In the DEPONS model, survival emerges from...

  4. Rise of oceanographic barriers in continuous populations of a cetacean: the genetic structure of harbour porpoises in Old World waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Michaël C; Baird, Stuart J E; Piry, Sylvain; Ray, Nicolas; Tolley, Krystal A; Duke, Sarah; Birkun, Alexei; Ferreira, Marisa; Jauniaux, Thierry; Llavona, Angela; Oztürk, Bayram; A Oztürk, Ayaka; Ridoux, Vincent; Rogan, Emer; Sequeira, Marina; Siebert, Ursula; Vikingsson, Gísli A; Bouquegneau, Jean-Marie; Michaux, Johan R

    2007-07-25

    Understanding the role of seascape in shaping genetic and demographic population structure is highly challenging for marine pelagic species such as cetaceans for which there is generally little evidence of what could effectively restrict their dispersal. In the present work, we applied a combination of recent individual-based landscape genetic approaches to investigate the population genetic structure of a highly mobile extensive range cetacean, the harbour porpoise in the eastern North Atlantic, with regards to oceanographic characteristics that could constrain its dispersal. Analyses of 10 microsatellite loci for 752 individuals revealed that most of the sampled range in the eastern North Atlantic behaves as a 'continuous' population that widely extends over thousands of kilometres with significant isolation by distance (IBD). However, strong barriers to gene flow were detected in the south-eastern part of the range. These barriers coincided with profound changes in environmental characteristics and isolated, on a relatively small scale, porpoises from Iberian waters and on a larger scale porpoises from the Black Sea. The presence of these barriers to gene flow that coincide with profound changes in oceanographic features, together with the spatial variation in IBD strength, provide for the first time strong evidence that physical processes have a major impact on the demographic and genetic structure of a cetacean. This genetic pattern further suggests habitat-related fragmentation of the porpoise range that is likely to intensify with predicted surface ocean warming.

  5. The stranding anomaly as population indicator: the case of harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena in North-Western Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Peltier

    Full Text Available Ecological indicators for monitoring strategies are expected to combine three major characteristics: ecological significance, statistical credibility, and cost-effectiveness. Strategies based on stranding networks rank highly in cost-effectiveness, but their ecological significance and statistical credibility are disputed. Our present goal is to improve the value of stranding data as population indicator as part of monitoring strategies by constructing the spatial and temporal null hypothesis for strandings. The null hypothesis is defined as: small cetacean distribution and mortality are uniform in space and constant in time. We used a drift model to map stranding probabilities and predict stranding patterns of cetacean carcasses under H0 across the North Sea, the Channel and the Bay of Biscay, for the period 1990-2009. As the most common cetacean occurring in this area, we chose the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena for our modelling. The difference between these strandings expected under H0 and observed strandings is defined as the stranding anomaly. It constituted the stranding data series corrected for drift conditions. Seasonal decomposition of stranding anomaly suggested that drift conditions did not explain observed seasonal variations of porpoise strandings. Long-term stranding anomalies increased first in the southern North Sea, the Channel and Bay of Biscay coasts, and finally the eastern North Sea. The hypothesis of changes in porpoise distribution was consistent with local visual surveys, mostly SCANS surveys (1994 and 2005. This new indicator could be applied to cetacean populations across the world and more widely to marine megafauna.

  6. Effects of noise and by-catch on a Danish harbour porpoise population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Sibly, Richard M.; Tougaard, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Ships and wind turbines generate noise, which can have a negative impact on marine mammal popu- lations by scaring animals away. Effective modelling of how this affects the populations has to take account of the location and timing of disturbances. Here we construct an individual-based model of har...... population declines. The population is however sensitive to variations in mortality resulting from by-catch and to the speed at which food recovers after being depleted. If food recovers slowly the effect of wind turbines becomes negligible, whereas ships are estimated to have a significant negative impact...... produces plausible patterns of population dynamics and matches well the age distribution of porpoises caught in by-catch. It estimates the effect of existing wind farms as a 10% reduction in population size when food recovers fast (after two days). Proposed new wind farms and ships do not result in further...

  7. Prey capture by harbour porpoises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verfuss, Ursula; Miller, Lee; Pilz, Peter

    (2007)] have been used.  For studying captive animals, arrays and video techniques [Verfuß et al. J.Exp.Biol. 208 (2005)] as well as miniature acoustic-behavioral tags [Deruiter et al. JASA 123 (2008)] have been used.  While searching for prey, harbor porpoises use clicks at long intervals (>50 ms......) that progressively decrease when closing on a landmark.  The source levels of captive animals reduce by about half for each halving of the distance to the target.  After detecting the prey, the click interval first stabilizes at about 50 ms and then becomes progressively shorter while approaching the prey......The harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) is a small toothed whale living mostly in coastal waters.  There are large, but unknown, numbers in the inner Danish waters.  Four are in captivity at Fjord & Bælt, Kerteminde, Denmark, one of which was born here in 2007.  Harbor porpoises use...

  8. Dietary overlap and niche partitioning of sympatric harbour porpoises and Dall's porpoises in the Salish Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, Linda M.; Hall, Anna M.; Ellis, Graeme M.; Stredulinsky, Eva; Boogaards, Melissa; Ford, John K. B.

    2013-08-01

    Ecological theory regarding the coexistence of similar species predicts resource partitioning will arise through competition and lead to different ecological niches. The diets of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and Dall's porpoises (Phocoenoides dalli) in the Salish Sea were investigated for evidence of resource partitioning between these ecologically similar species. Stomach contents of 36 harbour porpoises and 11 Dall's porpoises were analysed and ten and six fish taxa were identified in each, respectively. Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) was important in the diet of both porpoise species and walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) was second in importance in the Dall's porpoises. Pacific herring was estimated to contribute 60% to the total caloric intake of harbour porpoises. In addition to herring, Pacific hake (Merluccius productus), walleye pollock and a species of Pyschrolutidae were present in the diet of both porpoise species. Pianka's Index of niche overlap indicated substantial dietary overlap between the porpoise species based on measures of prey frequency of occurrence and prey percent numerical abundance. These results seem contrary to predictions from ecological theory. However, habitat and activity pattern differences between the two porpoise species exist and represent other dimensions of niche that likely contribute to resource partitioning in ways that were not strongly evident in stomach contents. Dall's porpoises, which prefer deeper water habitat in the Salish Sea than harbour porpoises, may feed more on walleye pollock which spawn in deep water. Dall's porpoises are also known to feed at night when lipid-rich mesopelagic prey such as Myctophidae and Bathylagidae, both present in the Dall's porpoise samples, migrate upwards from depths in excess of 200 m. In contrast shiner perch, present only in harbour porpoise samples, is a species associated with shallow nearshore habitats. Resource partitioning is also likely to occur in accordance

  9. A visual and acoustic survey for harbour porpoises off North-West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena in southern Europe and along the Atlantic African coast is poorly understood, with tentative assessments suggesting a discrete West African population with a northern limit around the Straits of Gibraltar. This study describes visual and acoustic surveys for porpoises ...

  10. Monitoring effects of offshore windfarms on harbour porpoises using PODs (porpoise detectors)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teilmann, J.; Damsgaard Henriksen, O. [National Environmental Res. Inst., Dept. of Arctic Enviroment, Roskilde (Denmark); Carstensen, Jacob [National Environmental Res. Lab., Dept. of Marine Ecology, Roskilde (Denmark); Skov, H. [Ornis Consult A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2002-02-15

    The areas designated for offshore windfarms in Denmark, are all known habitats for harbour porpoises. It is possible that some of the activities involved in erection and operation of offshore windfarms will have a negative impact on the harbour porpoises in and around the windfarms. The most significant sources of these effects are thought to be the physical presence and the noise from ships and construction work as well as temporary and even permanent loss of suitable habitats near the windfarms. The noise from existing offshore windturbines has been measured and a detection distance of 20 m was calculated in the EIA study regarding the Roedsand windfarm. In order to study possible effects from the erection and operation of windfarms on harbour porpoises a number of studies were suggested as part of the EIA background study on harbour porpoises. Among these suggestions was the use of acoustic dataloggers (PODs). The POD is recording click sounds of short duration. It is programmable and can be set to specifically record the echolocation signals that harbour porpoises uses for orientation and foraging. This method will potentially give data on harbour porpoise activity in a specific area on a diurnal and year-round basis. The construction work will take place over several months and since there is no available information on the seasonal sensitivity of porpoises to disturbance, the data necessary to detect and evaluate the effect of the windfarm would need to cover all seasons. No other method is feasible to provide data on the presence of harbour porpoises year round in a particular area. However, this method has its limitations in that only porpoises echolocating are recorded. No data exists on the seasonal, diurnal and area specific use of echolocation but since echolocation is believed to be the primary sense for porpoises we expect that porpoises used their echolocation most of the time and that it is correlated to the density of porpoises. However, the actual

  11. Don?t forget the porpoise: acoustic monitoring reveals fine scale temporal variation between bottlenose dolphin and harbour porpoise in Cardigan Bay SAC

    OpenAIRE

    Nuuttila, Hanna K.; Courtene-Jones, Winnie; Baulch, Sarah; Simon, Malene; Evans, Peter G. H.

    2017-01-01

    Populations of bottlenose dolphin and harbour porpoise inhabit Cardigan Bay, which was designated a Special Area of Conservation (SAC), with bottlenose dolphin listed as a primary feature for its conservation status. Understanding the abundance, distribution and habitat use of species is fundamental for conservation and the implementation of management. Bottlenose dolphin and harbour porpoise usage of feeding sites within Cardigan Bay SAC was examined using passive acoustic monitoring. Acoust...

  12. Marine debris in harbour porpoises and seals from German waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, B; Herr, H; Benke, H; Böhmert, M; Burkhardt-Holm, P; Dähne, M; Hillmann, M; Wolff-Schmidt, K; Wohlsein, P; Siebert, U

    2017-09-01

    Records of marine debris in and attached to stranded harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) were studied comprising information on 6587 carcasses collected along the German coast between 1990 and 2014, the decomposition state allowed for necropsy in 1622 cases. Marine debris items were recorded in 31 carcasses including 14 entanglements (5 harbour porpoises, 6 harbour seals, 3 grey seals) and 17 cases of ingestion (4 harbour porpoises, 10 harbour seals, 3 grey seals). Objects comprised general debris (35.1%) and fishing related debris (64.9%). Injuries associated with marine debris included lesions, suppurative ulcerative dermatitis, perforation of the digestive tract, abscessation, suppurative peritonitis and septicaemia. This study is the first investigation of marine debris findings in all three marine mammal species from German waters. It demonstrates the health impacts marine debris can have, including severe suffering and death. The results provide needed information on debris burdens in the North and Baltic Seas for implementing management directives, such as the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Don't forget the porpoise: acoustic monitoring reveals fine scale temporal variation between bottlenose dolphin and harbour porpoise in Cardigan Bay SAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuuttila, Hanna K; Courtene-Jones, Winnie; Baulch, Sarah; Simon, Malene; Evans, Peter G H

    2017-01-01

    Populations of bottlenose dolphin and harbour porpoise inhabit Cardigan Bay, which was designated a Special Area of Conservation (SAC), with bottlenose dolphin listed as a primary feature for its conservation status. Understanding the abundance, distribution and habitat use of species is fundamental for conservation and the implementation of management. Bottlenose dolphin and harbour porpoise usage of feeding sites within Cardigan Bay SAC was examined using passive acoustic monitoring. Acoustic detections recorded with calibrated T-PODs (acoustic data loggers) indicated harbour porpoise to be present year round and in greater relative abundance than bottlenose dolphin. Fine-scale temporal partitioning between the species occurred at three levels: (1) seasonal differences, consistent between years, with porpoise detections peaking in winter months and dolphin detections in summer months; (2) diel variation, consistent across sites, seasons and years, with porpoise detections highest at night and dolphin detections highest shortly after sunrise; and (3) tidal variation was observed with peak dolphin detections occurring during ebb at the middle of the tidal cycle and before low tide, whereas harbour porpoise detections were highest at slack water, during and after high water with a secondary peak recorded during and after low water. General Additive Models (GAMs) were applied to better understand the effects of each covariate. The reported abundance and distribution of the two species, along with the temporal variation observed, have implications for the design and management of protected areas. Currently, in the UK, no SACs have been formally designated for harbour porpoise while three exist for bottlenose dolphins. Here, we demonstrate a need for increased protection and species-specific mitigation measures for harbour porpoise.

  14. No serological evidence that harbour porpoises are additional hosts of influenza B viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogier Bodewes

    Full Text Available Influenza A and B viruses circulate among humans causing epidemics almost annually. While various hosts for influenza A viruses exist, influenza B viruses have been detected only in humans and seals. However, recurrent infections of seals in Dutch coastal waters with influenza B viruses that are antigenetically distinct from influenza B viruses circulating among humans suggest that influenza B viruses have been introduced into this seal population by another, non-human, host. Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena are sympatric with seals in these waters and are also occasionally in close contact with humans after stranding and subsequent rehabilitation. In addition, virus attachment studies demonstrated that influenza B viruses can bind to cells of the respiratory tract of these animals. Therefore, we hypothesized that harbour porpoises might be a reservoir of influenza B viruses. In the present study, an unique set of serum samples from 79 harbour porpoises, stranded alive on the Dutch coast between 2003 and 2013, was tested for the presence of antibodies against influenza B viruses by use of the hemagglutination inhibition test and for antibodies against influenza A viruses by use of a competitive influenza A nucleoprotein ELISA. No antibodies were detected against either virus, suggesting that influenza A and B virus infections of harbour porpoises in Dutch coastal waters are not common, which was supported by statistical analysis of the dataset.

  15. Echolocation by the harbour porpoise: Life in coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Anton Miller

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The harbour porpoise is one of the smallest and most widely spread of all toothed whales. They are found abundantly in coastal waters all around the northern hemisphere. They are among the 11 species known to use high frequency sonar of relative narrow bandwidth. Their narrow biosonar beam helps isolate echoes from prey among those from unwanted items and noise. Obtaining echoes from small objects like net mesh, net floats and small prey is facilitated by the very high peak frequency around 130 kHz with a wavelength of about 12 mm. We argue that such echolocation signals and narrow band auditory filters give the harbour porpoise a selective advantage in a coastal environment. Predation by killer whales and a minimum noise region in the ocean around 130 kHz may have provided selection pressures for using this frequency band for biosonar signals.

  16. Differences In Skull Size Of Harbour Porpoises, Phocoena phocoena (Cetacea, In The Sea Of Azov And The Black Sea: Evidence For Different Morphotypes And Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldin P. E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There are two porpoise stocks in the northern Black Sea: the north-western (Odessa Gulf and northeastern (Crimean and Caucasian waters; in addition, another stock is in the Sea of Azov. The Azov porpoises are distinct in their body size and biology. This research was conducted on the skulls of stranded sexually mature porpoises from the north-eastern Black Sea, north-western Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. In the north-eastern Black Sea samples, both present-day and old-time, the sexual dimorphism of the skull size was not significant, whereas in the Sea of Azov the females were significantly larger than males. The Azov skulls were strongly different from those from the Black Sea: they were larger, proportionally wider and had the wider rostra; also, there was no significant chronological variation within the Black Sea. The Azov and Black Sea samples were classified with the 100 % success with four variables. The northwestern Black Sea skulls were somewhat intermediate in their characteristics between the Azov and northeastern Black Sea samples, but they were classify ed together with other Black Sea specimens. The difference between the Azov and Black Sea skulls was greater than between many North Atlantic populations, despite the extreme geographical proximity of the two stocks. The low variation within the Black Sea supports the earlier conclusions on the lack of genetic variation: all the Black Sea stocks are expected to be genetically similar sub-populations, whereas the Azov and Marmara stocks possibly represent the genetically distant populations. The porpoises from the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov equally show the traits which characterize the subspecies Phocoena phocoena relicta, but the Black Sea porpoises appear to be more paedomorphic in terms of ontogenetic trajectories.

  17. Correlation between the seasonal distribution of harbour porpoises and their prey in the Sound, Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveegaard, Signe; Andreasen, Heidi; Mouritsen, Kim N.

    2012-01-01

    Low densities of harbour porpoises in winter (November–March) and high densities in summer (April–October) were found in the Sound, connecting the Baltic Sea and Kattegat. Due to their high energy requirements, it is hypothesized that the density of harbour porpoises is related to local prey...

  18. Telemetry studies in harbour porpoises - An overview of the technical and practical state of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucke, K.

    2013-01-01

    Information on the life functions and ecology of harbour porpoises is still scarce. Only a limited number of animals are available for research in controlled situations. Satellite tracking allows to gather information on individual movements of harbour porpoises, hence providing direct insight into

  19. Management of fisheries in harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) marine protected areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindt-Larsen, Lotte

    , Member States are obliged to nominate candidate protected areas in their waters to the EU Commission and within six years establish legislation to implement them as special areas of conservation and prepare management plans. Up to this point in time, however, no such management plans exist. This Ph......The harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) is the focus of a range of conservation efforts and policies aiming at reducing bycatch of the species in gillnet fisheries. In European waters, the harbour porpoise is protected within the Habitats Directive (Annexes II and IV), implying that the population...... has to be maintained at a favourable conservation status and the deliberate actions of killing and disturbance and habitat deterioration shall be prohibited in accordance with the directive’s aims. A spatial network, Natura2000, will further protect all Annex II species. According to Natura2000...

  20. Rise of oceanographic barriers in continuous populations of a cetacean: The genetic structure of harbour porpoises in Old World waters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fontaine, Michaël C; Baird, Stuart J E; Piry, Sylvain; Ray, Nicolas; Tolley, Krystal A; Duke, Sarah; Birkun, Alexei; Ferreira, Marisa; Jauniaux, Thierry; Llavona, Angela; Oztürk, Bayram; A Oztürk, Ayaka; Ridoux, Vincent; Rogan, Emer; Sequeira, Marina; Siebert, Ursula; Vikingsson, Gísli A; Bouquegneau, Jean-Marie; Michaux, Johan R

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Understanding the role of seascape in shaping genetic and demographic population structure is highly challenging for marine pelagic species such as cetaceans for which there is generally little...

  1. Rise of oceanographic barriers in continuous populations of a cetacean : The genetic structure of harbour porpoises in Old World waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontaine, Michaël C; Baird, Stuart J E; Piry, Sylvain; Ray, Nicolas; Tolley, Krystal A; Duke, Sarah; Birkun, Alexei; Ferreira, Marisa; Jauniaux, Thierry; Llavona, Angela; Oztürk, Bayram; A Oztürk, Ayaka; Ridoux, Vincent; Rogan, Emer; Sequeira, Marina; Siebert, Ursula; Vikingsson, Gísli A; Bouquegneau, Jean-Marie; Michaux, Johan R

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Understanding the role of seascape in shaping genetic and demographic population structure is highly challenging for marine pelagic species such as cetaceans for which there is generally little evidence of what could effectively restrict their dispersal. In the present work, we applied a

  2. Acoustic tags on wild harbour porpoises reveal context-specific reactions to ship noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Jonas; Wisniewska, Danuta Maria; Johnson, Mark

    on harbour porpoises is primarily based on presence-absence studies before-during-after industrial activities. Little is known about the noise free-ranging animals are exposed to and how individuals react to specific noise sources. We deployed archival multi-sensor DTag3 tags on six wild harbour porpoises......Pa m-weighted rms sound pressure level. At 125 kHz, received third-octave rms levels reached 121 dB re 1μPa, which suggests potential for masking porpoise echolocation and communication. The animals showed context-dependent reactions to noise including cessation of foraging and echolocation, logging...

  3. Identification of high-risk areas for harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena bycatch using remote electronic monitoring and satellite telemetry data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindt-Larsen, Lotte; Berg, Casper Willestofte; Tougaard, J.

    2016-01-01

    The bycatch of harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena is an issue of major concern for fisheries management and for porpoise conservation. We used high-resolution spatial and temporal data on porpoise abundance and fishing effort from the Danish Skagerrak Sea to identify areas with potentially higher...

  4. Identification and typing of Brucella spp. in stranded harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) on the Dutch coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maio, Elisa; Begeman, Lineke; Bisselink, Yvette; van Tulden, Peter; Wiersma, Lidewij; Hiemstra, Sjoukje; Ruuls, Robin; Gröne, Andrea; Roest, Hendrik-Ido-Jan; Willemsen, Peter; van der Giessen, Joke

    2014-09-17

    The presence of Brucella (B.) spp. in harbour porpoises stranded between 2008 and 2011 along the Dutch coast was studied. A selection of 265 tissue samples from 112 animals was analysed using conventional and molecular methods. In total, 4.5% (5/112) of the animals corresponding with 2.3% (6/265) Brucella positive tissue samples were Brucella positive by culture and these were all confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) based on the insertion element 711 (IS711). In addition, two more Brucella-positive tissue samples from two animals collected in 2011 were identified using real-time PCR resulting in an overall Brucella prevalence of 6.3% (7/112 animals). Brucella spp. were obtained from lungs (n=3), pulmonary lymph node (n=3) and lungworms (n=2). Multi Locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) Analysis (MLVA) typing based on the MLVA-16 showed that the Brucella isolates were B. ceti. Additional in silico Multi Locus Sequence typing (MLST) after whole genome sequencing of the 6 Brucella isolates confirmed B. ceti ST 23. According to the Brucella 2010 MLVA database, the isolated Brucella strains encountered were of five genotypes, in two distinct subclusters divided in two different time periods of harbour porpoises collection. This study is the first population based analyses for Brucella spp. infections in cetaceans stranded along the Dutch coast. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fishing for food : feeding ecology of harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena and white-beaked dolphins Lagenorhynchus albirostris in Dutch waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, O.E.

    2013-01-01

    Harbour porpoises and white-beaked dolphins are the most common small cetaceans in the North Sea and Dutch coastal waters. The distribution and relative abundance of harbour porpoises and white-beaked dolphins from the Dutch coastal waters has changed significantly over the past decades. This thesis

  6. Year-round spatiotemporal distribution of harbour porpoises within and around the Maryland wind energy area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E Wingfield

    Full Text Available Offshore windfarms provide renewable energy, but activities during the construction phase can affect marine mammals. To understand how the construction of an offshore windfarm in the Maryland Wind Energy Area (WEA off Maryland, USA, might impact harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena, it is essential to determine their poorly understood year-round distribution. Although habitat-based models can help predict the occurrence of species in areas with limited or no sampling, they require validation to determine the accuracy of the predictions. Incorporating more than 18 months of harbour porpoise detection data from passive acoustic monitoring, generalized auto-regressive moving average and generalized additive models were used to investigate harbour porpoise occurrence within and around the Maryland WEA in relation to temporal and environmental variables. Acoustic detection metrics were compared to habitat-based density estimates derived from aerial and boat-based sightings to validate the model predictions. Harbour porpoises occurred significantly more frequently during January to May, and foraged significantly more often in the evenings to early mornings at sites within and outside the Maryland WEA. Harbour porpoise occurrence peaked at sea surface temperatures of 5°C and chlorophyll a concentrations of 4.5 to 7.4 mg m-3. The acoustic detections were significantly correlated with the predicted densities, except at the most inshore site. This study provides insight into previously unknown fine-scale spatial and temporal patterns in distribution of harbour porpoises offshore of Maryland. The results can be used to help inform future monitoring and mitigate the impacts of windfarm construction and other human activities.

  7. Year-round spatiotemporal distribution of harbour porpoises within and around the Maryland wind energy area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Jessica E; O'Brien, Michael; Lyubchich, Vyacheslav; Roberts, Jason J; Halpin, Patrick N; Rice, Aaron N; Bailey, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Offshore windfarms provide renewable energy, but activities during the construction phase can affect marine mammals. To understand how the construction of an offshore windfarm in the Maryland Wind Energy Area (WEA) off Maryland, USA, might impact harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), it is essential to determine their poorly understood year-round distribution. Although habitat-based models can help predict the occurrence of species in areas with limited or no sampling, they require validation to determine the accuracy of the predictions. Incorporating more than 18 months of harbour porpoise detection data from passive acoustic monitoring, generalized auto-regressive moving average and generalized additive models were used to investigate harbour porpoise occurrence within and around the Maryland WEA in relation to temporal and environmental variables. Acoustic detection metrics were compared to habitat-based density estimates derived from aerial and boat-based sightings to validate the model predictions. Harbour porpoises occurred significantly more frequently during January to May, and foraged significantly more often in the evenings to early mornings at sites within and outside the Maryland WEA. Harbour porpoise occurrence peaked at sea surface temperatures of 5°C and chlorophyll a concentrations of 4.5 to 7.4 mg m-3. The acoustic detections were significantly correlated with the predicted densities, except at the most inshore site. This study provides insight into previously unknown fine-scale spatial and temporal patterns in distribution of harbour porpoises offshore of Maryland. The results can be used to help inform future monitoring and mitigate the impacts of windfarm construction and other human activities.

  8. Clicking in a killer whale habitat: narrow-band, high-frequency biosonar clicks of harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena and Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line A Kyhn

    Full Text Available Odontocetes produce a range of different echolocation clicks but four groups in different families have converged on producing the same stereotyped narrow band high frequency (NBHF click. In microchiropteran bats, sympatric species have evolved the use of different acoustic niches and subtly different echolocation signals to avoid competition among species. In this study, we examined whether similar adaptations are at play among sympatric porpoise species that use NBHF echolocation clicks. We used a six-element hydrophone array to record harbour and Dall's porpoises in British Columbia (BC, Canada, and harbour porpoises in Denmark. The click source properties of all porpoise groups were remarkably similar and had an average directivity index of 25 dB. Yet there was a small, but consistent and significant 4 kHz difference in centroid frequency between sympatric Dall's (137±3 kHz and Canadian harbour porpoises (141±2 kHz. Danish harbour porpoise clicks (136±3 kHz were more similar to Dall's porpoise than to their conspecifics in Canada. We suggest that the spectral differences in echolocation clicks between the sympatric porpoises are consistent with evolution of a prezygotic isolating barrier (i.e., character displacement to avoid hybridization of sympatric species. In practical terms, these spectral differences have immediate application to passive acoustic monitoring.

  9. Echolocation signals of wild harbour porpoises, Phocoena phocoena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsgaard, A.; Wahlberg, Magnus; Tougaard, J.

    2007-01-01

    level was more than 30 dB above what has been measured from captive animals, while the spectral and temporal properties were comparable. Calculations based on the sonar equation indicate that harbour porpoises, using these high click intensities, should be capable of detecting fish and nets and should...

  10. Identification and typing of Brucella spp. in stranded harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) on the Dutch coast.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maio, E.; Begeman, L.; Bisselink, Y.J.W.M.; Tulden, van P.W.; Wiersma, L.; Hiemstra, S.; Ruuls, R.; Gröne, A.; Roest, H.I.J.; Willemsen, P.T.J.; Giessen, van der J.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of Brucella (B.) spp. in harbour porpoises stranded between 2008 and 2011 along the Dutch coast was studied. A selection of 265 tissue samples from 112 animals was analysed using conventional and molecular methods. In total, 4.5% (5/112) of the animals corresponding with 2.3% (6/265)

  11. Identification and typing of Brucella spp. in stranded harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) on the Dutch coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maio, Elisa; Begeman, Lineke; Bisselink, Yvette; van Tulden, Peter; Wiersma, Lidewij; Hiemstra, Sjoukje; Ruuls, Robin; Gröne, Andrea; Roest, Hendrik-Ido-Jan; Willemsen, Peter; van der Giessen, Joke

    2014-01-01

    The presence of Brucella (B.) spp. in harbour porpoises stranded between 2008 and 2011 along the Dutch coast was studied. A selection of 265 tissue samples from 112 animals was analysed using conventional and molecular methods. In total, 4.5% (5/112) of the animals corresponding with 2.3% (6/265)

  12. Exposing the grey seal as a major predator of harbour porpoises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leopold, M.F.; Begeman, L.; Bleijswijk, van J.; IJsseldijk, L.; Witte, H.J.; Grone, A.

    2015-01-01

    Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) stranding in large numbers around the southern North Sea with fatal, sharp-edged mutilations have spurred controversy among scientists, the fishing industry and conservationists, whose views about the likely cause differ. The recent detection of grey seal

  13. Identification of a novel gammaherpesvirus associated with (muco)cutaneous lesions in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beurden, Steven J; IJsseldijk, Lonneke L; Ordonez Alvarez, Soledad; Förster, Christine; de Vrieze, Geert; Gröne, Andrea; Verheije, M Hélène; Kik, Marja

    2015-01-01

    Herpesviruses infect a wide range of vertebrates, including toothed whales of the order Cetacea. One of the smallest toothed whales is the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), which is widespread in the coastal waters of the northern hemisphere, including the North Sea. Here, we describe the

  14. The first case of conjoined twin harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena (Mammalia, Cetacea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompanje, Erwin J.O.; Camphuysen, K.C.J.; Leopold, M.F.

    2017-01-01

    The harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) is the smallest and most abundant cetacean in NW European continental shelf waters. Their global abundance numbers at least ~700,000 individuals. Within the North Sea, total abundance has recently been estimated at approximately 345,000 animals. The species

  15. Detection of grey seal Halichoerus grypus DNA in attack wounds on stranded harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Blijswijk, Judith; Begeman, Lineke; Witte, H.; IJsseldijk, Lonneke; Brasseur, Sophie; Gröne, Andrea; Leopold, Mardik F

    2014-01-01

    DNA was analysed from external wounds on 3 dead harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena that were stranded in the Netherlands. Puncture wounds as well as the edges of large open wounds were sampled with sterile cotton swabs. With specific primers that target the mtDNA control region of grey seal

  16. Growth of the skull of the Harbour Porpoise, Phocoena Phocoena (Linnaeus, 1758), in the North Sea, after age determination based on dentinal growth layer groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noldus, L.P.J.J.; Klerk, De R.J.J.

    1984-01-01

    This study of the Harbour Porpoise Phocoena phocoena (Linnaeus, 1758) has been undertaken in order to find out whether differences in size and growth rate between the skulls of males and females could be demonstrated. Stuart & Morejohn (1980) have established this phenomenon in the population of the

  17. Harbour porpoises on Horns Reef - Effects of the Horns Reef wind farm. Annual status report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougaard, J.; Carstensen, J.; Henriksen, Oluf. D.; Teilmann, J. [National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark); Rye Hansen, J. [DDH Consulting A/S, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2004-06-15

    Occurrence and distribution of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in and around the off-shore wind farm on Horns Reef, Denmark, was investigated. This report describes data collected in 2003 as part of an ongoing monitoring program, covering a period before construction of the wind farm (baseline), the construction period in 2002 and one year following construction of the wind farm. Data from acoustic dataloggers (T-PODs) and visual surveys conducted from ships confirmed the presence of harbour porpoises inside the wind farm area during all periods investigated. Comparison with baseline data from 1999-2001 and with control areas outside the wind farm did not show a statistical significant change in sighting rates inside the wind farm area in the first year following construction relative to baseline. T-POD data showed a pronounced effect of the construction of the wind farm on the indicators 'encounter duration' (measure of how long porpoises remain close to the POD) and 'waiting time' (measure of time interval between porpoise encounters). Both parameters seem to indicate higher levels of porpoise activity during construction (encounter duration went up, waiting time went down) compared to baseline. A partial return to baseline levels was seen for these two indicators in 2003. (au)

  18. Harbour porpoises on Horns Reef - Effects of the Horns Reef wind farm. Annual status report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougaard, J.; Carstensen, J.; Wisz, M.S.; Teilmann, J.; Bech, N.I. [National Environmental Res. Inst., Roskilde (Denmark); Skov, H. [DHI - Water and Environment, Hoersholm (Denmark); Henriksen, Oluf, D. [DDH-Consulting A/S, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2005-07-15

    This report describes the monitoring of harbour porpoises at Horns Reef Offshore Wind Farm, Denmark, with emphasis on data collected in 2004. Three 2-day surveys with line transect observations of porpoises were conducted in 2004 and data from acoustic data loggers (TPODs) were collected from January through July. Although new data from 2004 was included in the analysis there were no significant additions to conclusions from previous years' reports. On the contrary, the general conclusions regarding effects of construction and operation of the wind farm on porpoise abundance inside and outside the wind farm area have been weakened somewhat compared to previous reports. The specific conclusions regarding short-time effects of construction activities (especially pile drivings) has not been changed, however. Modelling of the spatial distribution of porpoises in the area demonstrated very weak correlations with static environmental variables (water depth, change in water depth and distance to 6 m depth contour). This highlights the importance of dynamic environmental variables, in particular tide and salinity, in determining the fine-scale distribution of porpoises and their prey in the area. a strong correlation between tide and porpoise abundance observed in the T-POD data on some parts of the reef (high abundance at high tide, low at low tide) supports the importance of this variable. Tide and salinity will be included in a forthcoming analysis of the entire dataset from the monitoring program. (au)

  19. Echolocation by the harbour porpoise: Life in coastal waters

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Anton Miller; Magnus eWahlberg

    2013-01-01

    The harbor porpoise is one of the smallest and most widely spread of all toothed whales. They are found abundantly in coastal waters all around the northern hemisphere. They are among the 11 species known to use high frequency sonar of relative narrow bandwidth. Their narrow biosonar beam helps isolate echoes from prey among those from unwanted items and noise. Obtaining echoes from small objects like net mesh, net floats, and small prey is facilitated by the very high peak frequency around 1...

  20. Fine-scale hydrodynamics influence the spatio-temporal distribution of harbour porpoises at a coastal hotspot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, A.R.; Hosegood, P.; Wynn, R.B.; Boer, de M.N.; Butler-Cowdry, S.; Embling, C.B.

    2014-01-01

    The coastal Runnelstone Reef, off southwest Cornwall (UK), is characterised by complex topography and strong tidal flows and is a known high-density site for harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena); a European protected species. Using a multidisciplinary dataset including: porpoise sightings from a

  1. Seasonal distribution of harbour porpoises and possible intereference of offshore wind farms in the German North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilles, A.; Scheidat, M.; Siebert, U.

    2009-01-01

    The seasonal distribution of harbour porpoises in the German North Sea was investigated, hot spot areas were identified and the proportion of porpoises potentially affected by the imminent construction of offshore wind farms was estimated. Data were collected during dedicated aerial surveys

  2. Acoustic alarms reduce bycatch of harbour porpoises in Danish North Sea gillnet fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau

    2014-01-01

    A double-blind experiment in the Danish gillnet fishery for cod (Gadus morhua) demonstrated that pingers can substantially reduce bycatch of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). Fourteen vessels fished a total of 168 days in the North Sea in 1997. In the wreck fishery the total effort was 1052...... nets with active pingers, 1056 nets with dummy pingers and 74 nets without pingers. Eight porpoises were caught, all in nets with dummy pingers. In the flat bottom/stony ground fishery the total effort was 5596 nets with active pingers, 5210 nets with dummy pingers and 2973 nets without pingers....... Sixteen porpoises were caught, including 1 animal in a net with active pingers, 6 in nets with dummy pingers and 9 in nets without pingers. The difference in bycatch between nets with active pingers and nets with inactive or no pingers was highly significant (p fishery...

  3. Stress level in wild harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) during satellite tagging measured by respiration, heart rate and cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskesen, Ida Grønborg; Teilmann, J.; Geertsen, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    During satellite tagging of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), heart rate, respiration rate and cortisol value were measured to evaluate stress effects during handling and tagging. Respiration rates were obtained using video recordings, heart rates were recorded and serum cortisol levels were...... and lowering it into the water seem to stabilize a stressed animal. Therefore, general precaution and individual judgement based on experience is essential when handling wild harbour porpoises....

  4. Bite injuries of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus on harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Jauniaux

    Full Text Available Bite-like skin lesions on harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena have been suspected to be caused by grey seals (Halichoerus grypus, and a few field observations have been reported. Bite-like skin lesions observed on stranded animals were characterized by two main components: large flaps of loose or missing skin and blubber with frayed edges and puncture lesions. Definitive demonstration of predation by a grey seal was not reported so far in those stranded animals. In this study, five stranded porpoises with bite-like skin lesions were swabbed for genetic investigations. In addition, the head of a recently dead grey seal was used to mimic bite-like skin injuries on a porpoise carcass. Subsequently, the artificial skin injuries were swabbed, along with the gum of the seal used for inflicting them (positive controls. Total DNA was extracted from the swabs and was used to retrieve a fragment of mitochondrial DNA by PCR. Primers were designed to amplify a specific stretch of mitochondrial DNA known to differ between grey seals and porpoises. The amplicon targeted was successfully amplified from the positive control and from two of the stranded porpoises, and grey seal-specific mitochondrial DNA was retrieved from all those samples. We conclude that (1 it is possible to detect grey seal DNA from dead porpoises even after several days in seawater and (2 bite-like skin lesions found on dead porpoises definitively result from grey seals attacks. The attacks are most likely linked with predation although, in a number of cases, scavenging and aggressive behaviour cannot be excluded.

  5. Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and wind farms: a case study in the Dutch North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheidat, Meike; Brasseur, Sophie; Van Polanen Petel, Tamara; Reijnders, Peter [IMARES, Department of Ecosystems, PO Box 167, 1790 AD Den Burg (Netherlands); Tougaard, Jakob; Carstensen, Jacob; Teilmann, Jonas, E-mail: meike.scheidat@wur.nl [Department of Arctic Environment, Aarhus University, National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2011-04-15

    The rapid increase in development of offshore wind energy in European waters has raised concern for the possible environmental impacts of wind farms. We studied whether harbour porpoise occurrence has been affected by the presence of the Dutch offshore wind farm Egmond aan Zee. This was done by studying acoustic activity of porpoises in the wind farm and in two reference areas using stationary acoustic monitoring (with T-PODs) prior to construction (baseline: June 2003 to June 2004) and during normal operation of the wind farm (operation: April 2007 to April 2009). The results show a strong seasonal pattern, with more activity recorded during winter months. There was also an overall increase in acoustic activity from baseline to operation, in line with a general increase in porpoise abundance in Dutch waters over the last decade. The acoustic activity was significantly higher inside the wind farm than in the reference areas, indicating that the occurrence of porpoises in this area increased as well. The reasons of this apparent preference for the wind farm area are not clear. Two possible causes are discussed: an increased food availability inside the wind farm (reef effect) and/or the absence of vessels in an otherwise heavily trafficked part of the North Sea (sheltering effect).

  6. Passive acoustic methods for fine-scale tracking of harbour porpoises in tidal rapids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macaulay, Jamie; Gordon, Jonathan; Gillespie, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    The growing interest in generating electrical power from tidal currents using tidal turbine generators raises a number of environmental concerns, including the risk that marine mammals might be injured or killed through collision with rotating turbine blades. To understand this risk, information...... on how marine mammals use tidal rapid habitats and in particular, their underwater movements and dive behaviour is required. Porpoises, which are the most abundant small cetacean at most European tidal sites, are difficult animals to tag, and the limited size of tidal habitats means that any telemetered...... animal would be likely to spend only a small proportion of time within them. Here, an alternative approach is explored, whereby passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) is used to obtain fine scale geo-referenced tracks of harbour porpoises in tidal rapid areas. Large aperture hydrophone arrays are required...

  7. Uncovering governance mechanisms surrounding harbour porpoise conservation in the Danish Skagerrak Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Kirk; Kindt-Larsen, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    The harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) is the focus of a range of conservation efforts and policies, including the Habitats Directive, aimed at reducing the bycatch of non-target species in gillnet fisheries. This paper describes the governance process and analyses the governance mechanisms...... mechanisms related to stakeholder involvement. This approach fuels the efficiency of the decision making process, while full transparency and/or co-decision becomes less of a given within a ministry for an economic sector compared with the environment ministry. In relation to porpoises, conflicts are driven...... mainly by the economy and the varying perceptions of the bycatch issue, with great differences between government, NGO's and fishers. Interviews with fishers and fishing effort data reveal intra-sectoral conflicts pertaining to the incompatibility of active trawling and passive gillnetting in the areas...

  8. From echolocation clicks to animal density – acoustic sampling of harbour porpoises with static dataloggers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhn, Line Anker; Tougaard, Jakob; Thomas, L.

    2012-01-01

    for porpoises by passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) is demonstrated by combining rigorous application of methods adapted from distance sampling to PAM. Acoustic dataloggers (T-PODs) were deployed in an area where harbour porpoises concurrently were tracked visually. Probability of detection was estimated...... in a mark-recapture approach, where a visual sighting constituted a “mark” and a simultaneous acoustic detection a “recapture”. As a distance could be assigned to each visual observation, a detection function was estimated. Effective detection radius of T-PODs ranged from 22 to 104 m depending on T-POD type......, T-POD-sensitivity, train classification settings and snapshot duration. The TPOD density estimates corresponded to the visual densities derived concurrently for the same period. With more dataloggers, located according to a systematic design, density estimates would be obtainable for a larger area...

  9. Characterization of the temporomandibular joint of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, M; Vapniarsky-Arzi, N; Verstraete, F J M; Staszyk, C; Leale, D M; Woolard, K D; Arzi, B

    2015-04-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in cetaceans is largely uncharacterized. This study aims to describe the macroscopic, microscopic, biochemical and biomechanical features of the TMJ of two species of the suborder Odontoceti: the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus). Furthermore, we aim to elucidate the structure-function relationship of their TMJs and their possible role in echolocation. The TMJs from fresh cadaver heads of harbour porpoise (n=4) and Risso's dolphin (n=2) acquired from stranding were examined. Following macroscopical evaluation, the TMJs were investigated for their histological, mechanical and biochemical properties. The TMJs of the studied odontocetes were found to be fundamentally different from other mammals. Macroscopically, the TMJ lacks the typical joint cavity found in most mammals and is essentially a syndesmosis. Histological and microstructural analysis revealed that the TMJ discs were composed of haphazardly intersecting fibrous-connective tissue bundles separated by adipose tissue globules and various calibre blood vessels and nerve fibres. The collagen fibre composition was primarily collagen type I with lesser amounts of collagen type II. Sulphated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content was lower compared to other studied mammals. Finally, mechanical testing demonstrated the disc was stronger and stiffer in the dorsoventral direction than in the mediolateral direction. The spatial position of the TMJ, the absence of an articulating synovial joint, and the properties of the TMJ discs all reflect the unique suction-feeding mechanism adopted by the harbour porpoise and Risso's dolphin for underwater foraging. In addition, the presence of unique adipose globules, blood vessels and nerves throughout the discs may indicate a functional need beyond food apprehension. Instead, the disc may play a role in neurological sensory functions such as echolocation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Gas exchange and heart rate in the harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reed, J.Z.; Chambers, C.; Hunter, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    The respiratory physiology, heart rates and metabolic rates of two captive juvenile male harbour porpoises (both 28 kg) were measured using a rapid-response respiratory gas analysis system in the laboratory. Breath-hold durations in the laboratory (12 +/- 0.3 s, mean +/- SEM) were shorter than...... a comparatively high minute rate of gas exchange. Oxygen consumption under these experimental conditions (247 +/- 13.8 ml O-2. min(-1)) was 1.9- fold higher than predicted by standard scaling relations. These data together with an estimate of the total oxygen stores predicted an aerobic dive limit of 5.4 min...

  11. Passive acoustic monitoring of bottlenose dolphin and harbour porpoise, in Cardigan Bay, Wales, with implications for habitat use and partitioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, Malene Juul; Nuuttila, Hanna; Reyes-Zamudio, Mercedes M

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge about harbour porpoise and bottlenose dolphin occurrence in Cardigan Bay Special Area of Conservation (SAC), Wales, is limited to daylight hours during summer, when conditions are suitable for traditional visual surveys. T-PODs are autonomous instruments programmed to log time-cues of s......Knowledge about harbour porpoise and bottlenose dolphin occurrence in Cardigan Bay Special Area of Conservation (SAC), Wales, is limited to daylight hours during summer, when conditions are suitable for traditional visual surveys. T-PODs are autonomous instruments programmed to log time......-cues of species-specific echolocation signals for long periods of time. Here we investigated bottlenose dolphin and harbour porpoise habitat use and partitioning by deploying ten calibrated T-PODs in Cardigan Bay SAC for one year. The T-PODs detected both species all year round with a peak of detections in April......-October for dolphins and in October-March for porpoise, revealing a previously unknown importance of the place to harbour porpoise during winter. Though the two species are sympatric, simultaneous detections of both species were rare and indication of temporal habitat partitioning between the two species in some parts...

  12. The effects of marine traffic on the behaviour of Black Sea harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena relicta within the Istanbul Strait, Turkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Akkaya Bas

    northern sections should be considered carefully and species-specific conservation actions, including establishment of protected areas, should be put in place to prevent the long-term consequences of marine traffic on the Black Sea harbour porpoise population.

  13. Passive acoustic methods for fine-scale tracking of harbour porpoises in tidal rapids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaulay, Jamie; Gordon, Jonathan; Gillespie, Douglas; Malinka, Chloë; Northridge, Simon

    2017-02-01

    The growing interest in generating electrical power from tidal currents using tidal turbine generators raises a number of environmental concerns, including the risk that marine mammals might be injured or killed through collision with rotating turbine blades. To understand this risk, information on how marine mammals use tidal rapid habitats and in particular, their underwater movements and dive behaviour is required. Porpoises, which are the most abundant small cetacean at most European tidal sites, are difficult animals to tag, and the limited size of tidal habitats means that any telemetered animal would be likely to spend only a small proportion of time within them. Here, an alternative approach is explored, whereby passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) is used to obtain fine scale geo-referenced tracks of harbour porpoises in tidal rapid areas. Large aperture hydrophone arrays are required to obtain accurate locations of animals from PAM data and automated algorithms are necessary to process the large quantities of acoustic data collected on such systems during a typical survey. Methods to automate localisation, including a method to match porpoise detections on different hydrophones and separate different vocalising animals, and an assessment of the localisation accuracy of the large aperture hydrophone array are presented.

  14. Differences in the response of a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and a harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) to an acoustic alarm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Jennings, N.; Verboom, W.C.; Haan, D.de; Schooneman, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    Small cetacean bycatch in gillnet fisheries may be reduced by deterring odontocetes from nets acoustically. However, different odontocete species may respond differently to acoustic signals from alarms. Therefore, in this study a striped dolphin and a harbour porpoise were subjected simultaneously

  15. Effects of pile-driving on harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) at the first offshore wind farm in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daehne, M.; Gilles, A.; Lucke, K.; Peschko, V.; Adler, S.; Kruegel, K.; Sundermeyer, J.; Siebert, U.

    2013-01-01

    The first offshore wind farm 'alpha ventus' in the German North Sea was constructed north east of Borkum Reef Ground approximately 45 km north off the German coast in 2008 and 2009 using percussive piling for the foundations of 12 wind turbines. Visual monitoring of harbour porpoises was conducted

  16. Possible causes of a harbour porpoise mass stranding in Danish waters in 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Andrew J; Maar, Marie; Mohn, Christian; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Siebert, Ursula; Jensen, Lasse Fast; Baagøe, Hans J; Teilmann, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    An unprecedented 85 harbour porpoises stranded freshly dead along approximately 100 km of Danish coastline from 7-15 April, 2005. This total is considerably above the mean weekly stranding rate for the whole of Denmark, both for any time of year, 1.23 animals/week (ranging from 0 to 20 during 2003-2008, excluding April 2005), and specifically in April, 0.65 animals/week (0 to 4, same period). Bycatch was established as the cause of death for most of the individuals through typical indications of fisheries interactions, including net markings in the skin and around the flippers, and loss of tail flukes. Local fishermen confirmed unusually large porpoise bycatch in nets set for lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) and the strandings were attributed to an early lumpfish season. However, lumpfish catches for 2005 were not unusual in terms of season onset, peak or total catch, when compared to 2003-2008. Consequently, human activity was combined with environmental factors and the variation in Danish fisheries landings (determined through a principal component analysis) in a two-part statistical model to assess the correlation of these factors with both the presence of fresh strandings and the numbers of strandings on the Danish west coast. The final statistical model (which was forward selected using Akaike information criterion; AIC) indicated that naval presence is correlated with higher rates of porpoise strandings, particularly in combination with certain fisheries, although it is not correlated with the actual presence of strandings. Military vessels from various countries were confirmed in the area from the 7th April, en route to the largest naval exercise in Danish waters to date (Loyal Mariner 2005, 11-28 April). Although sonar usage cannot be confirmed, it is likely that ships were testing various equipment prior to the main exercise. Thus naval activity cannot be ruled out as a possible contributing factor.

  17. Possible causes of a harbour porpoise mass stranding in Danish waters in 2005.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Wright

    Full Text Available An unprecedented 85 harbour porpoises stranded freshly dead along approximately 100 km of Danish coastline from 7-15 April, 2005. This total is considerably above the mean weekly stranding rate for the whole of Denmark, both for any time of year, 1.23 animals/week (ranging from 0 to 20 during 2003-2008, excluding April 2005, and specifically in April, 0.65 animals/week (0 to 4, same period. Bycatch was established as the cause of death for most of the individuals through typical indications of fisheries interactions, including net markings in the skin and around the flippers, and loss of tail flukes. Local fishermen confirmed unusually large porpoise bycatch in nets set for lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus and the strandings were attributed to an early lumpfish season. However, lumpfish catches for 2005 were not unusual in terms of season onset, peak or total catch, when compared to 2003-2008. Consequently, human activity was combined with environmental factors and the variation in Danish fisheries landings (determined through a principal component analysis in a two-part statistical model to assess the correlation of these factors with both the presence of fresh strandings and the numbers of strandings on the Danish west coast. The final statistical model (which was forward selected using Akaike information criterion; AIC indicated that naval presence is correlated with higher rates of porpoise strandings, particularly in combination with certain fisheries, although it is not correlated with the actual presence of strandings. Military vessels from various countries were confirmed in the area from the 7th April, en route to the largest naval exercise in Danish waters to date (Loyal Mariner 2005, 11-28 April. Although sonar usage cannot be confirmed, it is likely that ships were testing various equipment prior to the main exercise. Thus naval activity cannot be ruled out as a possible contributing factor.

  18. Variation in harbour porpoise activity in response to seismic survey noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirotta, Enrico; Brookes, Kate L; Graham, Isla M; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-05-01

    Animals exposed to anthropogenic disturbance make trade-offs between perceived risk and the cost of leaving disturbed areas. Impact assessments tend to focus on overt behavioural responses leading to displacement, but trade-offs may also impact individual energy budgets through reduced foraging performance. Previous studies found no evidence for broad-scale displacement of harbour porpoises exposed to impulse noise from a 10 day two-dimensional seismic survey. Here, we used an array of passive acoustic loggers coupled with calibrated noise measurements to test whether the seismic survey influenced the activity patterns of porpoises remaining in the area. We showed that the probability of recording a buzz declined by 15% in the ensonified area and was positively related to distance from the source vessel. We also estimated received levels at the hydrophones and characterized the noise response curve. Our results demonstrate how environmental impact assessments can be developed to assess more subtle effects of noise disturbance on activity patterns and foraging efficiency. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Status, ecology and life history of harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena, in Danish waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Lockyer

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A review of historical harbour porpoise catches in Danish waters, together with current distribution, are provided. Most information on distribution is derived from historical catch data with a total of about 100,000 animals taken in Little Belt alone and 40,000 from Isefjord area during the 19th century. Recent sightings surveys and tagging indicate extensive movements of animals within and between Inner Danish Waters and the Skagerrak / North Sea. Biological information is reviewed for the region, drawing on directed catches, bycatches and strandings from a databasecomprising nearly 1,900 records from 1834 through 1998. Diet, parasites, pollutants, biological parameters (age and reproduction and body condition are reported, focusing mainly on the period 1996-98 when comprehensive data were collected. In 1980s samples, gadoids were the most important prey items (found in 62% of stomachs followed by clupeoids (35%, gobiids (30%, and ammodytids (30%. Some dietary differences were observed between North Sea and Inner Danish waters. Pollutant analyses indicated a decline in sumDDT concentrations yet an increase in sumPCB and HCH levels in Danish porpoises, with comparatively higher levels here than in Baltic and Norwegian waters. Heavy metal concentrations appear higher than in Baltic porpoises. Biological parameters indicate a longevity of up to 23 years in both sexes but with fewer than 5% living beyond 12 years. Sexual maturity occurred at slightly over age 3 years in both females and males, with corresponding lengths of about 135 cm in males and 143 cm in females. The dataindicate a size range at birth of 65 - 75 cm (weight 4.5 – 6.7 kg, with a minimum of 60 cm and 3.4 kg, and a likely gestation time of 10 months. Conception most likely occurs during August, with peak births in June. Directed catches comprised adult animals whereas bycaught and stranded porpoises comprised predominantly juveniles. In data from all sources, males outnumbered

  20. Anisakis spp. induced granulomatous dermatitis in a harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena and a bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beurden, Steven J; IJsseldijk, Lonneke L; Cremers, Herman J W M; Gröne, Andrea; Verheije, M Hélène; Begeman, Lineke

    2015-01-15

    Cetaceans are well known definitive hosts of parasitic nematodes of the genus Anisakis (Nematoda: Anisakidae). Anisakid nematodes are also a health hazard for humans, potentially causing gastrointestinal infections or allergic reactions following the consumption of infected fish. In marine mammals, the nematodes develop from third-stage larvae to adults in the stomachs. In the first (or fore-) stomach, these parasites are typically associated with mucosal ulceration; parasites have not been identified in other organs. Two small cetaceans, a bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus and a harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena, presented marked gastric A. simplex infection, as well as chronic granulomatous and ulcerative dermatitis with intralesional nematodes, bordered by epithelial hyperplasia. Nematodes in the skin of the bottlenose dolphin were morphologically similar to Anisakis spp. Morphology of the parasitic remnants in the skin lesion of the harbour porpoise was indistinct, but molecular identification confirmed the presence of A. simplex. This is the first report of Anisakis spp. infection in the skin of marine mammals.

  1. Growth and reproduction in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena in Icelandic waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Droplaug Ólafsdóttir

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1,268 harbour porpoises were obtained from fishing nets in Icelandic coastal waters from September to June in the years 1991 to 1997. Foetal sex ratio was 1.2:1 (male:female. The bias towards males increased further among older animals in the present collection. The modal year classes were 0 and 1 years but the oldest porpoise was a female estimated at 20 years of age. Length at birth was estimated as approximately 75 cm, and females grew faster and attained larger sizes than males. Asymptotic length was 149.6 cm for males and 160.1 cm for females. Estimated age and length at sexual maturity was 1.9 to 2.9 years and 135 cm for males and 2.1 to 4.4 years and 138 to 147 cm for females. Immature individuals were significantly shorter than pubertal and mature animals in both sexes in age classes 1 to 3. Testes weight increased only slightly with body size in immature males but increased rapidly around maturity. Pronounced seasonality was alsoobserved in testes weight, indicating a peak in testes activity in summer. Lack of data from the summer makes the exact timing of parturition and mating unknown. Births do, however, most likely peak in June and July and lactation lasts at least 7 to 8 months. Ovulation and pregnancy rates were 0.98.

  2. Evaluation of immune and stress status in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena): can hormones and mRNA expression levels serve as indicators to assess stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sabine; Lehnert, Kristina; Seibel, Henrike; Driver, Jörg; Ronnenberg, Katrin; Teilmann, Jonas; van Elk, Cornelius; Kristensen, Jakob; Everaarts, Eligius; Siebert, Ursula

    2013-07-17

    The harbour porpoise is exposed to increasing pressure caused by anthropogenic activities in its marine environment. Numerous offshore wind farms are planned or under construction in the North and Baltic Seas, which will increase underwater noise during both construction and operation. A better understanding of how anthropogenic impacts affect the behaviour, health, endocrinology, immunology and physiology of the animals is thus needed. The present study compares levels of stress hormones and mRNA expression of cytokines and acute-phase proteins in blood samples of harbour porpoises exposed to different levels of stress during handling, in rehabilitation or permanent human care.Free-ranging harbour porpoises, incidentally caught in pound nets in Denmark, were compared to harbour porpoises in rehabilitation at SOS Dolfijn in Harderwijk, the Netherlands, and individuals permanently kept in human care in the Dolfinarium Harderwijk and Fjord & Belt Kerteminde, Denmark. Blood samples were investigated for catecholamines, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, as well as for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, metanephrine and normetanephrine. mRNA expression levels of relevant cell mediators (cytokines IL-10 and TNFα, acute-phase proteins haptoglobin and C-reactive protein and the heat shock protein HSP70) were measured using real-time PCR. Biomarker expression levels varied between free-ranging animals and porpoises in human care. Hormone and cytokine ranges showed correlations to each other and to the health status of investigated harbour porpoises. Hormone concentrations were higher in free-ranging harbour porpoises than in animals in human care. Adrenaline can be used as a parameter for the initial reaction to acute stress situations; noradrenaline, dopamine, ACTH and cortisol are more likely indicators for the following minutes of acute stress. There is evidence for different correlations between production of normetanephrine, metanephrine, cortisol and

  3. An experimental study of postmortem ocular fluid and core temperature analysis in incidentally captured harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Hood

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Determination of elapsed time since death in small cetaceans can be important to our understanding of the nature of their interactions with fishing operations. This pilot study was conducted to determine the potential diagnostic usefulness of ocular fluid (vitreous humour and core body temperature to estimate postmortem intervals in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena. Core temperature and concentrations of various constituents of vitreous humour (glucose, urea, sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, calcium, and phosphorus were determined in 24 harbour porpoises incidentally caught in groundfish gillnets in the waters of the Gulf of Maine and the Bay of Fundy. These parameters were compared to published values for rectal temperatures and the serum concentrations of several selected elements in live harbour porpoises. Glucose in vitreous humour decreased in dead animals compared to serum values in live ones; its level was positively correlated with core temperature. Potassium and magnesium in vitreous humour increased following death. These data suggest that most animals analysed had been dead for several hours. For the present, the methodology affords researchers an approach that appears to hold some promise. However, the most practical technique requires testing animals with a known time of death in order to derive a set of curves for ocular fluid values and temperature versus time that are appropriate for a statistical presentation of predictability for the time since death.

  4. Bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in female common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from western European seas: Geographical trends, causal factors and effects on reproduction and mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, G.J. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ (United Kingdom); Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Centro Oceanografico de Vigo, P.O. Box 1552, 36200, Vigo (Spain)], E-mail: g.j.pierce@abdn.ac.uk; Santos, M.B. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ (United Kingdom); Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Centro Oceanografico de Vigo, P.O. Box 1552, 36200, Vigo (Spain); Murphy, S. [AFDC, Department of Zoology, Ecology and Plant Science, University College, National University of Ireland, Enterprise Centre, North Mall, Cork (Ireland); Sea Mammal Research Unit, Gatty Marine Laboratory, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 8LB (United Kingdom); Learmonth, J.A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ (United Kingdom); Zuur, A.F. [Highland Statistics, 6 Laverock Road, Newburgh, Aberdeenshire AB41 6FN (United Kingdom); Rogan, E. [AFDC, Department of Zoology, Ecology and Plant Science, University College, National University of Ireland, Enterprise Centre, North Mall, Cork (Ireland); Bustamante, P.; Caurant, F. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ecosystemes Littoraux Anthropises, UMR 6217 CNRS-IFREMER-Universite de la Rochelle, 22 avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France); Lahaye, V. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ (United Kingdom); Centre de Recherche sur les Ecosystemes Littoraux Anthropises, UMR 6217 CNRS-IFREMER-Universite de la Rochelle, 22 avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France); Ridoux, V. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ecosystemes Littoraux Anthropises, UMR 6217 CNRS-IFREMER-Universite de la Rochelle, 22 avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France); Zegers, B.N.; Mets, A. [Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel (Netherlands)] (and others)

    2008-05-15

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blubber of female common dolphins and harbour porpoises from the Atlantic coast of Europe were frequently above the threshold at which effects on reproduction could be expected, in 40% and 47% of cases respectively. This rose to 74% for porpoises from the southern North Sea. PCB concentrations were also high in southern North Sea fish. The average pregnancy rate recorded in porpoises (42%) in the study area was lower than in the western Atlantic but that in common dolphins (25%) was similar to that of the western Atlantic population. Porpoises that died from disease or parasitic infection had higher concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) than animals dying from other causes. Few of the common dolphins sampled had died from disease or parasitic infection. POP profiles in common dolphin blubber were related to individual feeding history while those in porpoises were more strongly related to condition. - High PCB levels were recorded in porpoises and common dolphins from European coasts.

  5. Short-term effects of the construction of wind turbines on harbour porpoises at Horns Reef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougaard, J. [Hedeselskabet, Miljoe og Energi A/S, Viborg(Denmark); Carstensen, Jakob [National Environmental Res. Inst., Dept. of Marine Ecology, Roskidle (Denmark); Damsgaard Henriksen, O.; Teilmann, J. [National Environmental Res. Inst., Dept. of Arctic Biology, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2003-04-15

    In 2002 the Worlds largest offshore wind farm, consisting of 80 2MW wind turbines, was constructed on Horns Reef in the Danish North Sea. Ship based visual surveys and long-term deployment of acoustic dataloggers (PODs) were used to assess short term effects of construction on behaviour and abundance of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). Most focus was put on mounting of steel monopile foundations for the turbines, as they were rammed into the seabed. This type of operation is known to generate very loud underwater sound levels. Combined evidence from animal densities obtained from visual surveys, behavioural observations during surveys and acoustic activity data in and outside the construction area demonstrated effects on the behaviour and abundance of animals on both short-term (hours) and long term (entire construction period) scales. Acoustic activity by the porpoises decreased dramatically on the entire Horns Reef at the onset of ramming operations and returned to higher levels a few hours after each ramming operation was completed. A reduction in abundance close to ramming operations was anticipated, as deterring devices (pingers and seal scarers) were deployed prior to each ramming operation to deter marine mammals from the area and thus protect them from exposure to the loud sound levels generated by the ramming procedure. The changes in abundance and behaviour over large distances are unlikely to be explained by the deterring sounds, which have comparably lower intensities than the ramming sounds and these effects must be attributed to the ramming. A general effect on the behaviour of animals was seen during the construction period and at distances of up to 10-15 kilometers from the construction site. Compared to observations before and after construction there was a decrease in non-directional swimming, a behaviour assumed to correlate with feeding activity. Animal density estimates indicates that there were fewer animals present on the entire Horns

  6. Differences in the response of a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and a harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) to an acoustic alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastelein, R A; Jennings, N; Verboom, W C; de Haan, D; Schooneman, N M

    2006-04-01

    Small cetacean bycatch in gillnet fisheries may be reduced by deterring odontocetes from nets acoustically. However, different odontocete species may respond differently to acoustic signals from alarms. Therefore, in this study a striped dolphin and a harbour porpoise were subjected simultaneously to sounds produced by the XP-10 experimental acoustic alarm. The alarm produced 0.3s tonal signals randomly selected from a set of 16 with fundamental frequencies between 9 and 15kHz, with a constant pulse interval of 4.0s (duty cycle 8%) and a Source Level range of 133-163dB re 1muPa (rms). The effect of the alarm was judged by comparing the animals' respiration rate and position relative to the alarm during test periods with those during baseline periods. As in a previous study on two porpoises with the same alarm, the porpoise in the present study reacted strongly to the alarm by swimming away from it and increasing his respiration rate. The striped dolphin, however, showed no reaction to the active alarm. Based on harbour porpoise audiograms and the specific audiogram of the striped dolphin in the present study, and the low background noise levels during the experiment, both animals must have heard the alarm signals clearly. This study indicates that cetacean species are not equally sensitive to human-made noise disturbance. Therefore, source levels of acoustic alarms should be adapted to the species they are supposed to deter. In addition, alarms should be tested on each odontocete species for which they are intended to reduce bycatch.

  7. Chlorinated pollutants in harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena): Distribution, accumulation and metabolism as a function of structure; Chlorierte Schadstoffe in Schweinswalen (Phocoena phocoena): Verteilung, Akkumulation und Metabolismus in Abhaengigkeit von der Struktur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruhn, R.

    1997-12-31

    Harbour porpoises are the most common cetaceans in the German North and Baltic Sea. Their population size has declined during the last decades. Beside the accidental catch, the depletion of food sources and the disturbance by marine traffic, organic contaminants are discussed as a possible reason for their decreasing number. Organochlorines such as chlorobiphenyls, chlorinated pesticides, dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans are ubiquitous, anthropogenic environmental contaminants. Due to their lipophilicity and persistence they accumulate in the fatty tissues of marine mammals. These contaminants are supposed to be partly responsible for reproductive and immunological abnormalities in marine mammal populations. In the framework of the project `Investigations on small cetaceans as a basis for a monitoring-programme`, which was financed by the Federal Ministry of Science and Technology, investigations on organochlorines in harbour porpoises from the North Sea, Baltic Sea and the west coast off Greenland were carried out. (orig./MG)

  8. Analysis of seasonal changes in reproductive organs from Icelandic harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverrir Daníel Halldórsson

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyse some aspects of the macro- and microscopical appearance of gonads of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena from Icelandic coastal waters. Sampling of animals bycaught in gillnets took place in the years 1991 to 1997 and covered the months from September to June. The differences in diameter of seminiferous tubules between samples from the peripheral and central parts of the testis indicate that histological changes associated with maturity begin in the core of the testis. The average tubule diameter was 49, 78 and 118 μm in immature, pubertal and mature animals respectively. The tubule size increased from 55 to 95 μm, coinciding with combined testis weight of 75 to 150 g, indicating the onset of puberty within this range of tubule size and testis weight. The estimated average diameter of tubules when an animal reaches maturity is 82.2 μm or 86.15 μm depending on the method used. The diameter of seminiferous tubules of mature and pubertal animals varies seasonally with a steady increase in the spring. However, lack of samples after mid-June makes estimation of the exact timing of mating impossible. In females, the follicle size of mature and immature animals of age 2 years and older shows seasonalvariation, increasing in late winter or spring. The corpus luteum increases in size during the late pregnancy. The average size of the corpus albicans as a function of the total number of corpora albicantia for each animal, diminishes following the logarithmic equation y = 4.49 – 0.447 · lnx (y = corpus size, x = number of corpora albicantia but apparently they never disappear completely from the ovary. Ovarian activity was almost confined to the left ovary. Our results indicate parturition and copulation in the summer months from late June to August.

  9. Fine-scale hydrodynamics influence the spatio-temporal distribution of harbour porpoises at a coastal hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. R.; Hosegood, P.; Wynn, R. B.; De Boer, M. N.; Butler-Cowdry, S.; Embling, C. B.

    2014-11-01

    The coastal Runnelstone Reef, off southwest Cornwall (UK), is characterised by complex topography and strong tidal flows and is a known high-density site for harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena); a European protected species. Using a multidisciplinary dataset including: porpoise sightings from a multi-year land-based survey, Acoustic Doppler Current Profiling (ADCP), vertical profiling of water properties and high-resolution bathymetry; we investigate how interactions between tidal flow and topography drive the fine-scale porpoise spatio-temporal distribution at the site. Porpoise sightings were distributed non-uniformly within the survey area with highest sighting density recorded in areas with steep slopes and moderate depths. Greater numbers of sightings were recorded during strong westward (ebbing) tidal flows compared to strong eastward (flooding) flows and slack water periods. ADCP and Conductivity Temperature Depth (CTD) data identified fine-scale hydrodynamic features, associated with cross-reef tidal flows in the sections of the survey area with the highest recorded densities of porpoises. We observed layered, vertically sheared flows that were susceptible to the generation of turbulence by shear instability. Additionally, the intense, oscillatory near surface currents led to hydraulically controlled flow that transitioned from subcritical to supercritical conditions; indicating that highly turbulent and energetic hydraulic jumps were generated along the eastern and western slopes of the reef. The depression and release of isopycnals in the lee of the reef during cross-reef flows revealed that the flow released lee waves during upslope currents at specific phases of the tidal cycle when the highest sighting rates were recorded. The results of this unique, fine-scale field study provide new insights into specific hydrodynamic features, produced through tidal forcing, that may be important for creating predictable foraging opportunities for porpoises at a

  10. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay-A rapid detection tool for identifying red fox (Vulpes vulpes) DNA in the carcasses of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heers, Teresa; van Neer, Abbo; Becker, André; Grilo, Miguel Luca; Siebert, Ursula; Abdulmawjood, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Carcasses of wild animals are often visited by different scavengers. However, determining which scavenger caused certain types of bite marks is particularly difficult and knowledge thereof is lacking. Therefore, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay (target sequence cytochrome b) was developed to detect red fox DNA in carcasses of harbour porpoises. The MSwab™ method for direct testing without prior DNA isolation was validated. As a detection device, the portable real-time fluorometer Genie® II was used, which yields rapid results and can be used in field studies without huge laboratory equipment. In addition to in vitro evaluation and validation, a stranded and scavenged harbour porpoise carcass was successfully examined for red fox DNA residues. The developed LAMP method is a valuable diagnostic tool for confirming presumable red fox bite wounds in harbour porpoises without further DNA isolation steps.

  11. Timing of epiphyseal development in the flipper skeleton of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) as an indicator of paedomorphosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galatius, Anders; Andersen, Mai-Britt Elin Rindom; Haugan, Birgitte Margrethe

    2006-01-01

    Epiphyseal development was investigated on X-rays of flippers from 158 harbour porpoises from Danish waters. Development followed a proximodistal pattern similar to what is known in other cetacean species. Ossification of epiphyses was rare in the phalanges of the first and fifth digits and in th......Epiphyseal development was investigated on X-rays of flippers from 158 harbour porpoises from Danish waters. Development followed a proximodistal pattern similar to what is known in other cetacean species. Ossification of epiphyses was rare in the phalanges of the first and fifth digits...

  12. Long-term feeding ecology and habitat use in harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena from Scandinavian waters inferred from trace elements and stable isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontaine, Michaël C; Tolley, Krystal A; Siebert, Ursula; Gobert, Sylvie; Lepoint, Gilles; Bouquegneau, Jean-Marie; Das, Krishna

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated the feeding ecology and habitat use of 32 harbour porpoises by-caught in 4 localities along the Scandinavian coast from the North Sea to the Barents Sea using time-integrative markers: stable isotopes (delta13C, delta15N) and trace elements (Zn, Cu, Fe, Se, total Hg and

  13. Investigations of harbour porpoises at the planned site for wind turbines at Horns Reef. Status report. 1/1 2001 - 31/12 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skov, H. [Ornis Consult A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark); Teilmann, J.; Damsgaard Henriksen, O. [National Environmental Res. Inst., Dept. of Arctic Environment, Roskilde (Denmark); Carstensen, Jacob [National Environmental Res. Inst., Dept. of Marine Ecology, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2002-07-15

    An offshore wind farm is currently being established at Horns Reef. EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) studies were carried out in 2000 following the guidelines jointly drawn up by the Danish Energy Agency and the National Forest and Nature Agency. Part of the demonstration program for the Horns Reef wind farm is to assess the effect of wind farms on the environment, and one of the tasks is to monitor whether wind farms will cause measurable, temporary or permanent, changes in the local stock of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). On the basis of two-years of ship-based surveys and analyses of historic data, the impact assessment regarding harbour porpoises for the Horns Reef wind farm was finalised in February 2000. The results of the impact assessment suggested that short-term effects on harbour porpoises would take place as a result of disturbance during the construction phase caused by a large number of service boats and sound emissions from the ramming activities. The EIA estimated that the animals would disappear from the wind farm area during construction, and subsequently return to the site after construction activities have ceased. On the basis of the fact that the sound emissions from the turbines during production are more regular and at a low level and a modest disturbance from service vessels the long-term effects on the number of harbour porpoises on Horns Reef during the production phase was estimated to be relatively small, or equivalent to 25% as compared to the base line level. Following the EIA, a monitoring programme was launched to measure the level of long-term effects on harbour porpoises on Horns Reef, and base-line investigations have been carried out up to the present time, - at the onset of the construction phase. This report deals with the results of the investigations on harbour porpoises on Horns Reef during the period from January 2001 to December 2001. These investigations involve a range of new field and analysis techniques

  14. Organization and number of orexinergic neurons in the hypothalamus of two species of Cetartiodactyla: A comparison of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) and harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Leigh-Anne; Patzke, Nina; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Bux, Faiza; Fuxe, Kjell; Barber, Grace; Siegel, Jerome M.; Manger, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    The present study describes the organization of the orexinergic (hypocretinergic) neurons in the hypothalamus of the giraffe and harbour porpoise – two members of the mammalian Order Cetartiodactyla which is comprised of the even-toed ungulates and the cetaceans as they share a monophyletic ancestry. Diencephalons from two sub-adult male giraffes and two adult male harbour porpoises were coronally sectioned and immunohistochemically stained for orexin-A. The staining revealed that the orexinergic neurons could be readily divided into two distinct neuronal types based on somal volume, area and length, these being the parvocellular and magnocellular orexin-A immunopositive (OxA+) groups. The magnocellular group could be further subdivided, on topological grounds, into three distinct clusters – a main cluster in the perifornical and lateral hypothalamus, a cluster associated with the zona incerta and a cluster associated with the optic tract. The parvocellular neurons were found in the medial hypothalamus, but could not be subdivided, rather they form a topologically amorphous cluster. The parvocellular cluster appears to be unique to the Cetartiodactyla as these neurons have not been described in other mammals to date, while the magnocellular nuclei appear to be homologous to similar nuclei described in other mammals. The overall size of both the parvocellular and magnocellular neurons (based on somal volume, area and length) were larger in the giraffe than the harbour porpoise, but the harbour porpoise had a higher number of both parvocellular and magnocellular orexinergic neurons than the giraffe despite both having a similar brain mass. The higher number of both parvocellular and magnocellular orexinergic neurons in the harbour porpoise may relate to the unusual sleep mechanisms in the cetaceans. PMID:22683547

  15. Harbour porpoise distribution can vary at small spatiotemporal scales in energetic habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamins, Steven; van Geel, Nienke; Hastie, Gordon; Elliott, Jim; Wilson, Ben

    2017-07-01

    Marine habitat heterogeneity underpins species distribution and can be generated through interactions between physical and biological drivers at multiple spatiotemporal scales. Passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) is used worldwide to study potential impacts of marine industrial activities on cetaceans, but understanding of animals' site use at small spatiotemporal scales (marine renewable energy development (MRED) sites was investigated by deploying dense arrays of C-POD passive acoustic detectors at a wave energy test site (the European Marine Energy Centre [Billia Croo, Orkney]) and by a minor tidal-stream site (Scarba [Inner Hebrides]). Respective arrays consisted of 7 and 11 moorings containing two C-PODs each and were deployed for up to 55 days. Minimum inter-mooring distances varied between 300-600 m. All C-POD data were analysed at a temporal resolution of whole minutes, with each minute classified as 1 or 0 on the basis of presence/absence of porpoise click trains (Porpoise-Positive Minutes/PPMs). Porpoise detection rates were analysed using Generalised Additive Models (GAMs) with Generalised Estimation Equations (GEEs). Although there were many porpoise detections (wave test site: N=3,432; tidal-stream site: N=17,366), daily detection rates varied significantly within both arrays. Within the wave site array (<1 km diameter), average daily detection rates varied from 4.3 to 14.8 PPMs/day. Within the tidal-stream array (<2 km diameter), average daily detection rates varied from 10.3 to 49.7 PPMs/day. GAM-GEE model results for individual moorings within both arrays indicated linkages between porpoise presence and small-scale heterogeneity among different environmental covariates (e.g., tidal phase, time of day). Porpoise detection rates varied considerably but with coherent patterns between moorings only several hundred metres apart and within hours. These patterns presumably have ecological relevance. These results indicate that, in energetically active and

  16. Harbour porpoise acoustic ecology: Nocturnal peak in activity documented by T-PODs in the Great Belt, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt Pedersen, Camilla; Tougaard, Jakob; Carstensen, Jacob

    Abundance and activity of harbour porpoises were studied in connection with construction of a small offshore wind farm north of Sprogø, Great Belt, Denmark, within a designated Natura2000 area. The wind farm consists of 7 turbines (2.3MW) on gravitational foundations. Two passive acoustic data...... loggers, T-pods (Chelonia Ltd.), where placed in vicinity of the wind turbines and two in a reference area 20 km to the north. Monitoring took place over the summer months (April through November) in the years 2008-2010, corresponding to before, during and after construction of the wind farm (BACI design...... of a small offshore wind farm need not be in conflict with the objectives of a Natura2000 area, given appropriate planning and choice of construction methods. At the stations at Sprogø, data showed pronounced diel variation with a high click activity during night hours (measured as number of click trains...

  17. Geographical, and seasonal variation in the diet of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena in Icelandic coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gísli A Víkingsson

    2003-07-01

    Overall capelin (Mallotus villosus comprised the predominant prey, followed by sandeel (Ammodytidae sp., then gadids, cephalopods and redfish (Sebastes marinus, while other taxa were of less importance. Differences were detected in diet composition among 5 areas around Iceland with redfish and gadids more prominent in the northern areas. Off SW Iceland there was considerable seasonal variation in the porpoise diet, where capelin appeared to be dominant in late winter and spring and sandeel in the summer through early winter. Predominance of capelin in the diet coincided with the spawning migration of capelin from northern waters along the east, south and west coasts of Iceland. Mature females appeared to have a more diverse diet than other reproductive classes. The length distributions of fish consumed by the porpoises ranged from 1 to 51 cm although most fish prey were less than 30 cm.

  18. Effects on harbour porpoises from Roedsand 2 Off-shore Wind Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teilmann, J.; Tougaard, J.; Carstensen, J.

    2012-11-15

    E.ON Vind Sverige has been commissioned the construction of Roedsand 2 Offshore Wind Farm comprising 90 wind turbines, south of Lolland-Falster, Denmark. The location of the wind farm is 3 km west of the existing Nysted Offshore Wind Farm with 72 turbines. In combination the two wind farms represents the largest wind farm area in the world. Porpoises were monitored by automatic acoustic dataloggers (T-PODs) according to a statistical BACI design and deployed during baseline (Sep 2008-Feb 2009) and during operation (Sep 2011-Mar 2012). These instruments were deployed at 10 stations covering a coastal stretch of 35 km from Gedser to Roedby, including the wind farm area with reference areas on both sides. In addition, background noise at four of the T-POD stations was recorded by automatic noise loggers. In order to assess the potential cumulative effect of two adjacent wind farms, similar data from the Nysted Offshore Wind Farm were also analysed. We found no overall change in echolocation activity over the entire monitoring area from baseline to operation of Roedsand 2 Offshore Wind Farm. Also, there was no significant change in the echolocation activity in Roedsand 2 Offshore Wind Farm relative to each or a combination of the three reference areas, i.e. changes from baseline to operation were similar in the impact and reference areas. Also no significant change in noise levels audible to porpoises was found. This could be due to a generally high noise level in the area, masking the turbine noise or that the noise loggers in the wind farm were deployed between the wind turbines, i.e. at distances {approx}350-450 m from the turbines. This study also shows that the echolocation activity is still significantly lower in Nysted Offshore Wind Farm since the baseline in 2001-2002, although the difference seem to gradually diminish possibly due to a habituation of the porpoises to the wind farm or better feeding posibilities. We found no cumulative effect of the two wind

  19. Monitoring growth and energy utilisation of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena in human care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Lockyer

    2003-07-01

    The growth of the animals resembles that of wild porpoises in the region. The sudden initial weight losses suggested that the energy reserves of the animals may only be short-term. The large weight increase in the winter months with colder water, correlating with the increase in girth and blubber thickness, suggest that energy reserves and blubber fat may be important for insulation. During the two 24-hour observations, the animals spent most of their time cruising around, although slow swimming and logging at the surface increased at night. Breathing rates were lower in the early morning hours, consistent with diminished activity. Both animals’ movements were influenced by external activities at poolside.

  20. Genetic footprint of population fragmentation and contemporaneous decline in the endangered Yangtze finless porpoise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Minmin; Fontaine, Michael C; Chehida, Yacine Ben; Zheng, Jinsong; Labbé, Frédéric; Mei, Zhigang; Hao, Yujiang; Wang, Kexiong; Wu, Min; Zhao, Qingzhong; Wang, Ding

    2017-01-01

    Understanding demographic trends and patterns of gene flow in an endangered species is crucial for devising conservation strategies. Here, we examined the extent of population structure and recent evolution of the critically endangered Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis

  1. Fine-scale movement responses of free-ranging harbour porpoises to capture, tagging and short-term noise pulses from a single airgun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Beest, Floris; Teilmann, Jonas; Hermannsen, Line

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge about the impact of anthropogenic disturbances on the behavioural responses of cetaceans is constrained by lack of data on fine-scale movements of individuals. We equipped five free-ranging harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) with high-resolution location and dive loggers and exposed......, with natural behaviour resumed in less than or equal to 24 h. When we exposed porpoises to airgun pulses at ranges of 420–690 m with noise level estimates of 135–147 dB re 1 µPa2s (sound exposure level), one individual displayed rapid and directed movements away from the exposure site and two individuals used...... them to a single 10 inch3 underwater airgun producing high-intensity noise pulses (2–3 s intervals) for 1 min. All five porpoises responded to capture and tagging with longer, faster and more directed movements as well as with shorter, shallower, less wiggly dives immediately after release...

  2. Single source sound production and dynamic beam formation in echolocating harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Teglberg; Wisniewska, Danuta Maria; Beedholm, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Echolocating toothed whales produce high-powered clicks by pneumatic actuation of phonic lips in their nasal complexes. All non-physeteroid toothed whales have two pairs of phonic lips allowing many of these species to produce both whistles and clicks at the same time. That has led...... to the hypothesis that toothed whales can increase the power outputs and bandwidths of clicks, and enable fast clicking and beam steering by acutely timed actuation of both phonic lip pairs simultaneously. Here we test that hypothesis by applying suction cup hydrophones on the sound-producing nasal complexes...... of three echolocating porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) with symmetrical pairs of phonic lips. Using time of arrival differences on three hydrophones, we show that all recorded clicks from these three porpoises are produced by the right pair of phonic lips with no evidence of simultaneous or independent...

  3. Porpoises: From predators to prey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leopold, M.F.; Begeman, L.; Hesse, E.; Hiele, van der J.; Hiemstra, S.; Keijl, G.O.; Meesters, H.W.G.; Mielke, L.; Verheyen, D.; Groene, A.

    2015-01-01

    Along the Dutch shores hundreds of harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena are stranded each year. A recurrent phenomenon in the Netherlands is a surge of strandings in late winter and early spring of severely mutilated porpoises, that are mostly in good nutritional body condition (thick blubber layer).

  4. Organization of the sleep-related neural systems in the brain of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Leigh-Anne; Patzke, Nina; Spocter, Muhammad A; Siegel, Jerome M; Manger, Paul R

    2016-07-01

    The present study provides the first systematic immunohistochemical neuroanatomical investigation of the systems involved in the control and regulation of sleep in an odontocete cetacean, the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). The odontocete cetaceans show an unusual form of mammalian sleep, with unihemispheric slow waves, suppressed REM sleep, and continuous bodily movement. All the neural elements involved in sleep regulation and control found in bihemispheric sleeping mammals were present in the harbor porpoise, with no specific nuclei being absent, and no novel nuclei being present. This qualitative similarity of nuclear organization relates to the cholinergic, noradrenergic, serotonergic, and orexinergic systems and is extended to the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic elements involved with these nuclei. Quantitative analysis of the cholinergic and noradrenergic nuclei of the pontine region revealed that in comparison with other mammals, the numbers of pontine cholinergic (126,776) and noradrenergic (122,878) neurons are markedly higher than in other large-brained bihemispheric sleeping mammals. The diminutive telencephalic commissures (anterior commissure, corpus callosum, and hippocampal commissure) along with an enlarged posterior commissure and supernumerary pontine cholinergic and noradrenergic neurons indicate that the control of unihemispheric slow-wave sleep is likely to be a function of interpontine competition, facilitated through the posterior commissure, in response to unilateral telencephalic input related to the drive for sleep. In addition, an expanded peripheral division of the dorsal raphe nuclear complex appears likely to play a role in the suppression of REM sleep in odontocete cetaceans. Thus, the current study provides several clues to the understanding of the neural control of the unusual sleep phenomenology present in odontocete cetaceans. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1999-2017, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals

  5. Time-varying auditory gain control in response to double-pulse stimuli in harbour porpoises is not mediated by a stapedial reflex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asger Emil Munch Schrøder

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Echolocating animals reduce their output level and hearing sensitivity with decreasing echo delays, presumably to stabilize the perceived echo intensity during target approaches. In bats, this variation in hearing sensitivity is formed by a call-induced stapedial reflex that tapers off over time after the call. Here, we test the hypothesis that a similar mechanism exists in toothed whales by subjecting a trained harbour porpoise to a series of double sound pulses varying in delay and frequency, while measuring the magnitudes of the evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs. We find that the recovery of the ABR to the second pulse is frequency dependent, and that a stapedial reflex therefore cannot account for the reduced hearing sensitivity at short pulse delays. We propose that toothed whale auditory time-varying gain control during echolocation is not enabled by the middle ear as in bats, but rather by frequency-dependent mechanisms such as forward masking and perhaps higher-order control of efferent feedback to the outer hair cells.

  6. Short-term disturbance by a commercial two-dimensional seismic survey does not lead to long-term displacement of harbour porpoises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Paul M.; Brookes, Kate L.; Graham, Isla M.; Barton, Tim R.; Needham, Keith; Bradbury, Gareth; Merchant, Nathan D.

    2013-01-01

    Assessments of the impact of offshore energy developments are constrained because it is not known whether fine-scale behavioural responses to noise lead to broader-scale displacement of protected small cetaceans. We used passive acoustic monitoring and digital aerial surveys to study changes in the occurrence of harbour porpoises across a 2000 km2 study area during a commercial two-dimensional seismic survey in the North Sea. Acoustic and visual data provided evidence of group responses to airgun noise from the 470 cu inch array over ranges of 5–10 km, at received peak-to-peak sound pressure levels of 165–172 dB re 1 µPa and sound exposure levels (SELs) of 145–151 dB re 1 µPa2 s−1. However, animals were typically detected again at affected sites within a few hours, and the level of response declined through the 10 day survey. Overall, acoustic detections decreased significantly during the survey period in the impact area compared with a control area, but this effect was small in relation to natural variation. These results demonstrate that prolonged seismic survey noise did not lead to broader-scale displacement into suboptimal or higher-risk habitats, and suggest that impact assessments should focus on sublethal effects resulting from changes in foraging performance of animals within affected sites. PMID:24089338

  7. Spatially Explicit Analysis of Genome-Wide SNPs Detects Subtle Population Structure in a Mobile Marine Mammal, the Harbor Porpoise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljerka Lah

    Full Text Available The population structure of the highly mobile marine mammal, the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena, in the Atlantic shelf waters follows a pattern of significant isolation-by-distance. The population structure of harbor porpoises from the Baltic Sea, which is connected with the North Sea through a series of basins separated by shallow underwater ridges, however, is more complex. Here, we investigated the population differentiation of harbor porpoises in European Seas with a special focus on the Baltic Sea and adjacent waters, using a population genomics approach. We used 2872 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, derived from double digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-seq, as well as 13 microsatellite loci and mitochondrial haplotypes for the same set of individuals. Spatial principal components analysis (sPCA, and Bayesian clustering on a subset of SNPs suggest three main groupings at the level of all studied regions: the Black Sea, the North Atlantic, and the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, we observed a distinct separation of the North Sea harbor porpoises from the Baltic Sea populations, and identified splits between porpoise populations within the Baltic Sea. We observed a notable distinction between the Belt Sea and the Inner Baltic Sea sub-regions. Improved delineation of harbor porpoise population assignments for the Baltic based on genomic evidence is important for conservation management of this endangered cetacean in threatened habitats, particularly in the Baltic Sea proper. In addition, we show that SNPs outperform microsatellite markers and demonstrate the utility of RAD-tags from a relatively small, opportunistically sampled cetacean sample set for population diversity and divergence analysis.

  8. Hematologic and biochemical differences between two free ranging Yangtze finless porpoise populations: The implications of habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Nabi

    Full Text Available The goals of this study were to compare the serum chemistry and hematology values of wild and semi-natural free-ranging Yangtze Finless Porpoises (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis ssp. asiaeorientalis populations and to ascertain how these values change with the different environmental condition. For this study, samples were collected from 81 YFPs, 35 living in the wild and 46 living in a semi-natural reserve. Each population was divided into 8 life history categories; Male Calf, Female Calf, Juvenile Male, Juvenile Female, Adult Male, Pregnant, Lactating and Pregnant plus Lactating. Statistically significant differences in the various parameters were observed in the same life history categories for both populations. Generally, Lipid Profile, Hepatic Enzymes, Creatine Kinase, Red Blood Cells, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit and Neutrophils were significantly higher in the Tian-E-Zhou Oxbow population while, Creatinine, Phosphate, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Bilirubin and Lymphocytes were significantly higher in the Poyang Lake YFPs. Across the groups in the Tian-E-Zhou Oxbow population, a significant decrease in serum Albumin, Alkaline Phosphatase and Calcium, while a significant increase in the Neutrophils and Platelets was observed. Similarly, in the Poyang Lake, Alkaline Phosphatase levels in the Female Calves group, High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Lactating group, basophil counts in Pregnant plus Lactating group, lymphocytes counts in Juvenile Females group and Globulin and Total Protein levels in Pregnant group were significantly higher. This study in health assessments can help us to understand the effect of sex, age, reproductive status and environmental conditions on the well-being of Yangtze Finless Porpoises.

  9. Patterns of variability of retinol levels in a harbour porpoise population from an unpolluted environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrell, A.; Cantos, G.; Aguilar, A.

    1999-01-01

    Organochlorine compounds (OC) are known to induce vitamin A (retinoids) deficiency in mammals, which may be associated with impairment of immunocompetence, reproduction and growth. This makes retinoids a potentially useful biomarker of organochlorine impact on marine mammals. However, use of reti...

  10. Predicting the population-level impact of mitigating harbor porpoise bycatch with pingers and time-area fishing closures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Beest, Floris; Kindt-Larsen, Lotte; Bastardie, Francois

    2017-01-01

    efficiency) on the population size using the inner Danish waters as a biological system. The model incorporated empirical data on gillnet fishing effort and noise avoidance behavior by free-ranging harbor porpoises exposed to randomized high-frequency (20- to 160-kHz) pinger signals. The IBM simulations...... and protected marine top predator, involves the use of pingers (acoustic alarms that emit underwater noise) and time-area fishing closures. Although these mitigation measures can reduce harbor porpoise bycatch in gillnet fisheries considerably, inference about the long-term population-level consequences...... revealed a synergistic relationship between the implementation of time-area fishing closures and pinger deployment. Time-area fishing closures reduced bycatch rates substantially but not completely. In contrast, widespread pinger deployment resulted in total mitigation of bycatch but frequent and recurrent...

  11. Characterization of morbilliviruses isolated from dolphins and porpoises in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.K.G. Visser (Ilona); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); M.F. van Bressem; R.L. de Swart (Rik); M.W.G. van de Bildt (Marco); H.W. Vos (Helma); R.W.J. van der Heijden (Roger); J.T. Saliki; C. Örvell; P. Kitching; T. Kuiken (Thijs); T. Barrett (Thomas)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractA previously unidentified morbillivirus was isolated from two harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) that had died in the Dutch Waddensea (North Sea) in 1990. This porpoise morbillivirus (PMV) and a dolphin morbillivirus (DMV), which had recently caused a heavy mortality in Mediterranean

  12. Integrating genetic data and population viability analyses for the identification of harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) populations and management units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Morten Tange; Andersen, Liselotte Wesley; Dietz, Rune

    2014-01-01

    present a novel approach, integrating genetic, life-history and demographic data to identify populations and management units in southern Scandinavian harbour seals. First, 15 microsatellite markers and model- and distance-based genetic clustering methods were used to determine the population genetic...... structure in harbour seals. Second, we used harbour seal demographic and life-history data to conduct population viability analyses (PVAs) in the VORTEX simulation model in order to determine whether the inferred genetic units could be classified as management units according to Lowe and Allendorf's (2010......) "population viability criterion" for demographic independence. The genetic analyses revealed fine-scale population structuring in southern Scandinavian harbour seals and pointed to the existence of six genetic units. The PVAs indicated that the census population size of each of these genetic units...

  13. Predicting the population-level impact of mitigating harbor porpoise bycatch with pingers and time-area fishing closures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Beest, Floris; Kindt-Larsen, Lotte; Bastardie, Francois

    2017-01-01

    and protected marine top predator, involves the use of pingers (acoustic alarms that emit underwater noise) and time-area fishing closures. Although these mitigation measures can reduce harbor porpoise bycatch in gillnet fisheries considerably, inference about the long-term population-level consequences...... noise avoidance behavior in high-quality foraging habitat negatively affected individual survival and the total population size. When both bycatch mitigation measures were implemented simultaneously, the negative impact of pinger noise-induced sub-lethal behavioral effects on the population was largely...... before enforcing their widespread implementation. Individual-based simulation models, such as the one presented here, offer an efficient and dynamic framework to evaluate the impact of human activities on the long-term survival of marine populations and can serve as a basis to design adaptive management...

  14. Predicting the population-level impact of mitigating harbor porpoise bycatch with pingers and time-area fishing closures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Beest, Floris; Kindt-Larsen, Lotte; Bastardie, Francois

    2017-01-01

    and protected marine top predator, involves the use of pingers (acoustic alarms that emit underwater noise) and time-area fishing closures. Although these mitigation measures can reduce harbor porpoise bycatch in gillnet fisheries considerably, inference about the long-term population-level consequences...... is currently lacking. We developed a spatially explicit individual-based simulation model (IBM) with the aim to evaluate the effectiveness of these two bycatch mitigation measures. We quantified both the direct positive effects (i.e. reduced bycatch) as well as any indirect negative effects (i.e. reduced...... simulations revealed a synergistic relationship between the implementation of time-area fishing closures and pinger deployment. Time-area fishing closures reduced bycatch rates substantially but not completely. In contrast, widespread pinger deployment resulted in total mitigation of bycatch but frequent...

  15. Integrating genetic data and population viability analyses for the identification of harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) populations and management units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Morten T; Andersen, Liselotte W; Dietz, Rune; Teilmann, Jonas; Härkönen, Tero; Siegismund, Hans R

    2014-02-01

    Identification of populations and management units is an essential step in the study of natural systems. Still, there is limited consensus regarding how to define populations and management units, and whether genetic methods allow for inference at the relevant spatial and temporal scale. Here, we present a novel approach, integrating genetic, life history and demographic data to identify populations and management units in southern Scandinavian harbour seals. First, 15 microsatellite markers and model- and distance-based genetic clustering methods were used to determine the population genetic structure in harbour seals. Second, we used harbour seal demographic and life history data to conduct population viability analyses (PVAs) in the vortex simulation model in order to determine whether the inferred genetic units could be classified as management units according to Lowe and Allendorf's (Molecular Ecology, 19, 2010, 3038) 'population viability criterion' for demographic independence. The genetic analyses revealed fine-scale population structuring in southern Scandinavian harbour seals and pointed to the existence of several genetic units. The PVAs indicated that the census population size of each of these genetic units was sufficiently large for long-term population viability, and hence that the units could be classified as demographically independent management units. Our study suggests that population genetic inference can offer the same degree of temporal and spatial resolution as 'nongenetic' methods and that the combined use of genetic data and PVAs constitutes a promising approach for delineating populations and management units. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Echoes from the past: Regional variations in recovery within a harbour seal population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie M J M Brasseur

    Full Text Available Terrestrial and marine wildlife populations have been severely reduced by hunting, fishing and habitat destruction, especially in the last centuries. Although management regulations have led to the recovery of some populations, the underlying processes are not always well understood. This study uses a 40-year time series of counts of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina in the Wadden Sea to study these processes, and demonstrates the influence of historical regional differences in management regimes on the recovery of this population. While the Wadden Sea is considered one ecologically coupled zone, with a distinct harbour seal population, the area is divided into four geo-political regions i.e. the Netherlands, Lower Saxony including Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Denmark. Gradually, seal hunting was banned between 1962 and 1977 in the different regions. Counts of moulting harbour seals and pup counts, obtained during aerial surveys between 1974 and 2014, show a population growth from approximately 4500 to 39,000 individuals. Population growth models were developed to assess if population growth differed between regions, taking into account two Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV epizootics, in 1988 and 2002 which seriously affected the population. After a slow start prior to the first epizootic, the overall population grew exponentially at rates close to assumed maximum rates of increase in a harbour seal population. Recently, growth slowed down, potentially indicative of approaching carrying capacity. Regional differences in growth rates were demonstrated, with the highest recovery in Netherlands after the first PDV epizootic (i.e. 17.9%, suggesting that growth was fuelled by migration from the other regions, where growth remained at or below the intrinsic growth rate (13%. The seals' distribution changed, and although the proportion of seals counted in the German regions declined, they remained by far the most important pupping region, with approximately

  17. Stochasticity in space, persistence in time: genetic heterogeneity in harbour populations of the introduced ascidian Styela plicata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari-Carmen Pineda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatio-temporal changes in genetic structure among populations provide crucial information on the dynamics of secondary spread for introduced marine species. However, temporal components have rarely been taken into consideration when studying the population genetics of non-indigenous species. This study analysed the genetic structure of Styela plicata, a solitary ascidian introduced in harbours and marinas of tropical and temperate waters, across spatial and temporal scales. A fragment of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (COI was sequenced from 395 individuals collected at 9 harbours along the NW Mediterranean coast and adjacent Atlantic waters (> 1,200 km range at two time points 5 years apart (2009 and 2014. The levels of gene diversity were relatively low for all 9 locations in both years. Analyses of genetic differentiation and distribution of molecular variance revealed strong genetic structure, with significant differences among many populations, but no significant differences among years. A weak and marginally significant correlation between geographic distance and gene differentiation was found. Our results revealed spatial structure and temporal genetic homogeneity in S. plicata, suggesting a limited role of recurrent, vessel-mediated transport of organisms among small to medium-size harbours. Our study area is representative of many highly urbanized coasts with dense harbours. In these environments, the episodic chance arrival of colonisers appears to determine the genetic structure of harbour populations and the genetic composition of these early colonising individuals persists in the respective harbours, at least over moderate time frames (five years that encompass ca. 20 generations of S. plicata.

  18. Stochasticity in space, persistence in time: genetic heterogeneity in harbour populations of the introduced ascidian Styela plicata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Mari-Carmen; Lorente, Beatriz; López-Legentil, Susanna; Palacín, Creu; Turon, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Spatio-temporal changes in genetic structure among populations provide crucial information on the dynamics of secondary spread for introduced marine species. However, temporal components have rarely been taken into consideration when studying the population genetics of non-indigenous species. This study analysed the genetic structure of Styela plicata, a solitary ascidian introduced in harbours and marinas of tropical and temperate waters, across spatial and temporal scales. A fragment of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (COI) was sequenced from 395 individuals collected at 9 harbours along the NW Mediterranean coast and adjacent Atlantic waters (> 1,200 km range) at two time points 5 years apart (2009 and 2014). The levels of gene diversity were relatively low for all 9 locations in both years. Analyses of genetic differentiation and distribution of molecular variance revealed strong genetic structure, with significant differences among many populations, but no significant differences among years. A weak and marginally significant correlation between geographic distance and gene differentiation was found. Our results revealed spatial structure and temporal genetic homogeneity in S. plicata, suggesting a limited role of recurrent, vessel-mediated transport of organisms among small to medium-size harbours. Our study area is representative of many highly urbanized coasts with dense harbours. In these environments, the episodic chance arrival of colonisers appears to determine the genetic structure of harbour populations and the genetic composition of these early colonising individuals persists in the respective harbours, at least over moderate time frames (five years) that encompass ca. 20 generations of S. plicata.

  19. Genetic drift vs. natural selection in a long-term small isolated population: major histocompatibility complex class II variation in the Gulf of California endemic porpoise (Phocoena sinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguia-Vega, Adrian; Esquer-Garrigos, Yareli; Rojas-Bracho, Lorenzo; Vazquez-Juarez, Ricardo; Castro-Prieto, Aines; Flores-Ramirez, Sergio

    2007-10-01

    Although many studies confirm long-term small isolated populations (e.g. island endemics) commonly sustain low neutral genetic variation as a result of genetic drift, it is less clear how selection on adaptive or detrimental genes interplay with random forces. We investigated sequence variation at two major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) class II loci on a porpoise endemic to the upper Gulf of California, México (Phocoena sinus, or vaquita). Its unique declining population is estimated around 500 individuals. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis revealed one putative functional allele fixed at the locus DQB (n = 25). At the DRB locus, we found two presumed functional alleles (n = 29), differing by a single nonsynonymous nucleotide substitution that could increase the stability at the dimer interface of alphabeta-heterodimers on heterozygous individuals. Identical trans-specific DQB1 and DRB1 alleles were identified between P. sinus and its closest relative, the Burmeister's porpoise (Phocoena spinipinnis). Comparison with studies on four island endemic mammals suggests fixation of one allele, due to genetic drift, commonly occurs at the DQA or DQB loci (effectively neutral). Similarly, deleterious alleles of small effect are also effectively neutral and can become fixed; a high frequency of anatomical malformations on vaquita gave empirical support to this prediction. In contrast, retention of low but functional polymorphism at the DRB locus was consistent with higher selection intensity. These observations indicated natural selection could maintain (and likely also purge) some crucial alleles even in the face of strong and prolonged genetic drift and inbreeding, suggesting long-term small populations should display low inbreeding depression. Low levels of Mhc variation warn about a high susceptibility to novel pathogens and diseases in vaquita.

  20. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of the Critically Endangered Yangtze Finless Porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis as Revealed by Mitochondrial and Microsatellite DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minmin Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological surveys have indicated that the population of the critically endangered Yangtze finless porpoise (YFP, Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis is becoming increasingly small and fragmented, and will be at high risk of extinction in the near future. Genetic conservation of this population will be an important component of the long-term conservation effort. We used a 597 base pair mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control region and 11 microsatellite loci to analyze the genetic diversity and population structure of the YFP. The analysis of both mtDNA and microsatellite loci suggested that the genetic diversity of the YFP will possibly decrease in the future if the population keeps declining at a rapid rate, even though these two types of markers revealed different levels of genetic diversity. In addition, mtDNA revealed strong genetic differentiation between one local population, Xingchang–Shishou (XCSS, and the other five downstream local populations; furthermore, microsatellite DNA unveiled fine but significant genetic differentiation between three of the local populations (not only XCSS but also Poyang Lake (PY and Tongling (TL and the other local populations. With an increasing number of distribution gaps appearing in the Yangtze main steam, the genetic differentiation of local populations will likely intensify in the future. The YFP is becoming a genetically fragmented population. Therefore, we recommend attention should be paid to the genetic conservation of the YFP.

  1. Exposure of harbour seals Phoca vitulina to Brucella in declining populations across Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Joanna L; Stubberfield, Emma J; Foster, Geoffrey; Brownlow, Andrew; Hall, Ailsa J; Perrett, Lorraine L

    2017-09-20

    Since 2000 there has been a major decline in the abundance of Scottish harbour seals Phoca vitulina. The causes of the decline remain uncertain. The aim of this study was to establish the extent to which the seals in the regions of greatest decline have been exposed to Brucella, a bacterial pathogen that causes reproductive failure in terrestrial mammalian hosts. Tissues from dead seals collected between 1992 and 2013 were cultured for Brucella (n = 150). Serum samples collected from live capture-released seals (n = 343) between 1997 and 2012 were tested for Brucella antibodies using the Rose Bengal plate agglutination test (RBT) and a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). In total, 16% of seals cultured had Brucella isolated from one or more tissues, but there were no pathological signs of infection. The cELISA results were more sensitive than the RBT results, showing that overall 25.4% of seals were seropositive, with the highest seroprevalence in juveniles. As there was no evidence of either a higher seroprevalence or higher circulating antibody levels in seropositive animals in the areas with the greatest declines, it was concluded that Brucella infection is likely not a major contributing factor to recent declines. However, the consistently high proportion of seals exposed to Brucella indicates possible endemicity in these populations, likely due to B. pinnipedialis, which has demonstrated a preference for pinniped hosts. Importantly, given the close proximity between seals, humans and livestock in many areas, there is the potential for cross-species infections.

  2. A population on the edge: genetic diversity and population structure of the world's northernmost harbour seals (Phoca vitulina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Liselotte Wesley; Lydersen, Christian; Frie, Anne Kirstine

    2011-01-01

      It is crucial to examine the genetic diversity and structure of small, isolated populations, especially those at the edge of their distribution range, because they are vulnerable to stochastic processes if genetic diversity is low and isolation level high, and because such populations provide...... harbour seal populations, but if it the Svalbard population is experiencing inbreeding, this could reduce its resilience to climate change, disease outbreaks or other perturbations. Udgivelsesdato: 2010...

  3. Framework for assessing impacts of pile-driving noise from offshore wind farm construction on a harbour seal population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Paul M., E-mail: lighthouse@abdn.ac.uk [University of Aberdeen, Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Lighthouse Field Station, Cromarty IV11 8YL (United Kingdom); Hastie, Gordon D., E-mail: gdh10@st-andrews.ac.uk [Scottish Oceans Institute, SMRU Limited, New Technology Centre, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9RS (United Kingdom); Nedwell, Jeremy, E-mail: Jeremy.Nedwell@subacoustech.com [Subacoustech Environmental Ltd., Unit 9, Claylands Road, Bishops Waltham, Southampton, Hampshire SO32 1QD (United Kingdom); Barham, Richard, E-mail: richard.barham@subacoustech.com [Subacoustech Environmental Ltd., Unit 9, Claylands Road, Bishops Waltham, Southampton, Hampshire SO32 1QD (United Kingdom); Brookes, Kate L., E-mail: Kate.Brookes@scotland.gsi.gov.uk [University of Aberdeen, Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Lighthouse Field Station, Cromarty IV11 8YL (United Kingdom); Cordes, Line S., E-mail: line_cordes@hotmail.com [University of Aberdeen, Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Lighthouse Field Station, Cromarty IV11 8YL (United Kingdom); Bailey, Helen, E-mail: hbailey@umces.edu [Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Solomons, MD 20688 (United States); McLean, Nancy, E-mail: Nancy@naturalpower.com [Natural Power Consultants, The Green House, Forrest Estate, Dalry, Castle Douglas DG7 3XS (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-15

    Offshore wind farm developments may impact protected marine mammal populations, requiring appropriate assessment under the EU Habitats Directive. We describe a framework developed to assess population level impacts of disturbance from piling noise on a protected harbour seal population in the vicinity of proposed wind farm developments in NE Scotland. Spatial patterns of seal distribution and received noise levels are integrated with available data on the potential impacts of noise to predict how many individuals are displaced or experience auditory injury. Expert judgement is used to link these impacts to changes in vital rates and applied to population models that compare population changes under baseline and construction scenarios over a 25 year period. We use published data and hypothetical piling scenarios to illustrate how the assessment framework has been used to support environmental assessments, explore the sensitivity of the framework to key assumptions, and discuss its potential application to other populations of marine mammals. -- Highlights: • We develop a framework to support Appropriate Assessment for harbour seal populations. • We assessed potential impacts of wind farm construction noise. • Data on distribution of seals and noise were used to predict effects on individuals. • Expert judgement linked these impacts to vital rates to model population change. • We explore the sensitivity of the framework to key assumptions and uncertainties.

  4. Norovirus Infection in Harbor Porpoises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Miranda; Bodewes, Rogier; van Elk, Cornelis E; van de Bildt, Marco; Getu, Sarah; Aron, Georgina I; Verjans, Georges M G M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; van den Brand, Judith M A; Kuiken, Thijs; Koopmans, Marion P G

    2017-01-01

    A norovirus was detected in harbor porpoises, a previously unknown host for norovirus. This norovirus had low similarity to any known norovirus. Viral RNA was detected primarily in intestinal tissue, and specific serum antibodies were detected in 8 (24%) of 34 harbor porpoises from the North Sea.

  5. Norovirus Infection in Harbor Porpoises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, Miranda; Bodewes, Rogier|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/33230583X; van Elk, Cornelis E; van de Bildt, Marco; Getu, Sarah; Aron, Georgina I; Verjans, Georges M G M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074960172; van den Brand, Judith M A; Kuiken, Thijs; Koopmans, Marion P G

    A norovirus was detected in harbor porpoises, a previously unknown host for norovirus. This norovirus had low similarity to any known norovirus. Viral RNA was detected primarily in intestinal tissue, and specific serum antibodies were detected in 8 (24%) of 34 harbor porpoises from the North Sea.

  6. A combined DNA-microsatellite and isozyme analysis of the population structure of the harbour porpoise in Danish waters and west Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L W; Holm, L E; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

    1997-01-01

    deviations from the expected Hardy-Weinberg distribution were only observed in the total sample and at a single locus in the North Sea-summer sample and at two loci in the West Greenland sample. Whenever this occurred a surplus of homozygotes was observed, suggesting a Wahlund effect, a null allele...

  7. Prey capture by harbor porpoises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Lee; Verfuss, Ursula

    2009-01-01

    their ultrasonic clicks as biosonar for orientation and detection of prey (mostly smaller pelagic and bottom dwelling fish), and for communication. For studying wild animals, hydrophone arrays and acoustic (time/depth) tags have been used. For studying captive animals, arrays and video techniques as well......  The harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) is a small toothed whale living mostly in coastal waters.  There are large, but unknown, numbers in the inner Danish waters. Four are in captivity at Fjord & Bælt, Kerteminde, Denmark, one of which was born here in 2006. Harbor porpoises use...... as miniature acoustic-behavioral tags have been used. While searching for prey, captive harbor porpoises used clicks with intervals longer than 50 ms. After detecting the prey, the click interval stabilized at about 50 ms and then became progressively shorter while approaching the prey. During this time...

  8. Prey capture by harbor porpoises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Lee

    2008-01-01

    (2007)] have been used.  For studying captive animals, arrays and video techniques [Verfuss et al. J.Exp.Biol. 208 (2005)] as well as miniature acoustic-behavioral tags [Deruiter et al. JASA 123 (2008)] have been used.  While searching for prey, harbor porpoises use clicks at long intervals (~50 ms...... The harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) is a small toothed whale living mostly in coastal waters.  There are large, but unknown, numbers in the inner Danish waters.  Four are in captivity at Fjord & Bælt, Kerteminde, Denmark, one of which was born here in 2006.  Harbor porpoises use...... their ultrasonic clicks as biosonar for orientation and detection of prey (mostly smaller pelagic and bottom dwelling fish), and for communication.  For studying wild animals, hydrophone arrays [Villadsgaard et al. J.Exp.Biol. 210 (2007)] and acoustic (time/depth) tags [Akamatsu et al. Deep Sea Research II 54...

  9. Population abundance and species composition of chaetognaths in the Bombay harbour-Thana and Bassein creek estuarine complex

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, Neelam; Nair, V.R.

    Detailed study on the abundance, distribution and species composition of chaetognaths from the Bombay harbour-Thana and Bassein creek estuarine complex was carried out from October 1985 to September 1986. Percentage contribution of chaetognaths...

  10. Distribution and density of harbour popoises in Dutch North Sea waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheidat, M.; Verdaat, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Aerial surveys were conducted to investigate harbour porpoise density and distribution in Dutch waters. Surveys were conducted following standard line transect distance sampling methodology on tracklines providing a representative coverage of the study area which ranged from the Dutch coast to about

  11. Aquatic Resource Conservation. The first Yangtze finless porpoise successfully born in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ding; Hao, Yujiang; Wang, Kexiong; Zhao, Qingzhong; Chen, Daoquang; Wei, Zhuo; Zhang, Xianfeng

    2005-09-01

    As the sole freshwater subspecies of finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides), the Yangtze finless porpoise (N. p. asiaeorientalis) lives only in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and its appended Poyang and Dongting Lakes. As a result of human activity on the river, including over and illegal fishing, pollution, transportation and dam construction, the population of Yangtze finless porpoises has been steadily and rapidly decreasing during the past several decades, which leads the animal to be endangered. For saving this unique animal from extinction, three corresponding measures, in situ conservation, ex situ conservation, and intensifying breeding research in captivity, were proposed and have been implemented since the 1980s. After successfully rearing the animals in captivity for almost nine years, the first Yangtze finless porpoise was successfully born in captivity on July 5, 2005. The calf is male, with a body length of 69 cm. This is the first freshwater cetacean ever born in captivity. The successful birth of this calf confirms that it is possible to breed the Yangtze finless porpoise in captivity. Furthermore, this will greatly benefit the conservation efforts, and also greatly bolster our on-going efforts to study the reproductive biology of these animals. More studies and efforts are expected to establish a sustainable, captive colony of the Yangtze finless porpoise, which will not only greatly expand our knowledge about the reproduction biology of this animal, but also help to redeem the wild population through a careful yearly 'soft releasing' process.

  12. Differences in the response of a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and a harbour popoise (Phocoena phocoena) to an acoustic alarm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Jennings, N.; Verboom, W.C.; Haan, de D.; Schooneman, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    Small cetacean bycatch in gillnet fisheries may be reduced by deterring odontocetes from nets acoustically. However, different odontocete species may respond differently to acoustic signals from alarms. Therefore, in this study a striped dolphin and a harbour porpoise were subjected simultaneously

  13. Hambantota Fishery Harbour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, P.S.; Julianus, E.J.B.; Marijnissen, M.; Voorend, S.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    At the southern coast of Sri Lanka a small fishery harbour is located in Hambantota. Soon after construction of the harbour in 2006 the harbour started silting up at various places. From that point onwards the harbour’s basin has been dredged multiple times, but the problem turned out to be

  14. Likely effects of construction of Scroby Sands offshore wind farm on a mixed population of harbour Phoca vitulina and grey Halichoerus grypus seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeate, Eleanor R; Perrow, Martin R; Gilroy, James J

    2012-04-01

    Scroby Sands offshore wind farm was built close to a haul-out and breeding site for harbour seal, a species of conservation concern. An aerial survey programme conducted during a five-year period spanning wind farm construction, revealed a significant post-construction decline in haul-out counts. Multivariate model selection suggested that the decline was not related to the environmental factors considered, nor did it mirror wider population trends. Although cause and effect could not be unequivocally established, the theoretical basis of hearing in pinnipeds and previous studies suggested that extreme noise (to 257 dB re 1 μ Pa(pp) @ 1m) generated by pile-driving of turbine bases led to displacement of seals. A lack of full recovery of harbour seal during the study was also linked to their sensitivity to vessel activity and/or rapid colonisation of competing grey seal. Any impact of offshore wind farm development upon pinnipeds would be much reduced without pile-driving. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Spatial and temporal impacts of the Skjervøy harbour diesel spill on native population of blue mussels: A sub-Arctic case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitwieser, Marine; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène; Huet, Valérie; Sagerup, Kjetil; Geraudie, Perrine

    2018-02-07

    This work was designed to investigate biological impacts on blue mussels (Mytilus edulis spp) after being exposed to diesel spill. On December 2013, an 180,000-litre accidental acute diesel spill was reported in a small harbour of northern Norway (Skjervøy). In order to assess the biological effects on the wild population of blue mussels, bivalves were collected at three different locations: at the oil-spill spot, at the other side of the harbour (opposite the oil-spill area), and in an uncontaminated site. Body burden and seawater samples were collected from a few days up to five months after the diesel spill. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and immunological effects were assessed in the blue mussels digestive glands. Our findings reported significant modulation of GST (detoxification), SOD (antioxidant response) and MDA (lipid peroxidation) in bivalves exposed to diesel with a similar response at two and five months after the spill. Laccase-type enzyme also highlighted an important aspect in terms of biomarker response of the immune function. Overall, our study demonstrated that some biomarkers returned to basal levels a few months after the diesel spill. Consequently, it highlighted the usefulness of normalised tools and guidelines for biomonitoring strategies after a diesel spill. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Local ecological knowledge and the interaction of porpoises with fishing on the coast of the state of Para, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Pereira Brito

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fishing has a great importance to the socioeconomic development of the Amazonian riparian communities, which have a local knowledge on the environment, its fauna and flora. This knowledge is of paramount importance for the management and conservation of fish stocks and species that interact with the fishing activity, such as the populations of gray porpoises (Sotalia sp. and pink porpoises (Inia geoffrensis. Therefore, to register local ecological knowledge and the interaction of porpoises with fishing on the coast of the state of Para, Brazil, 82 semi-structured interviews were carried out in 3 different colonies of fishermen: colony Z-1 (Soure, colony Z-7 (Maracana, and colony Z-23 (Colares. The species Sotalia sp. had a strong social structure, it can be observed in the region both during the dry and rainy seasons, while the species I. geoffrensis didn’t present a social structure, it’s observed in the region especially during the rainy season. The pink porpoise showed a larger interaction with fishing than the gray porpoise, however, this interaction was particularly detrimental to the activity, while the gray porpoise showed both a beneficial and a harmful interaction with fishing. The incidental capture of porpoises primarily occurred through nets and trawls, harming their populations. Captured animals were mostly released, however, there were records of consumption for food, use as bait, and selling of the animal’s eyes. This information will constitute the basis for further studies on the biology, ecology, and estimate of the mortality of porpoises on the Amazon coast. Management measures should be adopted, along with the communities studied, for the conservation of these animals in the region.

  17. Analysis of an intraspecific RIL population uncovers genomic segments harbouring multiple QTL for seed relevant traits in lentil (Lens culinaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Rintu; Bohra, Abhishek; Jha, Uday Chand; Rana, Maneet; Chahota, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Shiv; Sharma, Tilak Raj

    2017-07-01

    Improving seed related traits remains key objective in lentil breeding. In recent years, genomic resources have shown great promise to accelerate crop improvement. However, limited genomic resources in lentil greatly restrict the use of genomics assisted breeding. The present investigation aims to build an intraspecific genetic linkage map and identify the QTL associated with important seed relevant traits using 94 recombinant inbreds (WA 8649090 × Precoz). A total of 288 polymorphic DNA markers including simple sequence repeat (SSR), inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were assayed on mapping population. The resultant genetic linkage map comprised 220 loci spanning 604.2 cM of the lentil genome, with average inter-marker distance of 2.74 cM. QTL mapping in this RIL population uncovered a total of 18 QTL encompassing nine major and nine minor QTL. All major QTL were detected for seed related traits viz., seed diameter (SD), seed thickness (ST), seed weight (SW) and seed plumpness (SP) across two locations. A considerable proportion of the phenotypic variation (PV) was accounted to these QTL. For instance, one major QTL on LG5 controlling SW (QTL 15) explained 50% PV in one location, while the same QTL accounted for 34.18% PV in other location. Importantly, the genomic region containing multiple QTL for different seed traits was mapped to a 17-cM region on LG5. The genomic region harbouring QTL for multiple traits opens up exciting opportunities for genomics assisted improvement of lentil.

  18. Evaluating the influence of epidemiological parameters and host ecology on the spread of phocine distemper virus through populations of harbour seals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catriona M Harris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of phocine distemper virus (PDV in Europe during 1988 and 2002 were responsible for the death of around 23,000 and 30,000 harbour seals, respectively. These epidemics, particularly the one in 2002, provided an unusual opportunity to estimate epidemic parameters for a wildlife disease. There were marked regional differences in the values of some parameters both within and between epidemics. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used an individual-based model of seal movement that allowed us to incorporate realistic representations of space, time and animal behaviour into a traditional epidemiological modelling framework. We explored the potential influence of a range of ecological (foraging trip duration, time of epidemic onset, population size and epidemiological (length of infectious period, contact rate between infectious and susceptible individuals, case mortality parameters on four readily-measurable epidemic characteristics (number of dead individuals, duration of epidemic, peak mortality date and prevalence and on the probability that an epidemic would occur in a particular region. We analysed the outputs as if they were the results of a series of virtual experiments, using Generalised Linear Modelling. All six variables had a significant effect on the probability that an epidemic would be recognised as an unusual mortality event by human observers. CONCLUSIONS: Regional and temporal variation in contact rate was the most likely cause of the observed differences between the two epidemics. This variation could be a consequence of differences in the way individuals divide their time between land and sea at different times of the year.

  19. Harbor porpoise Phocoena phocoena strandings on the Dutch coast: No genetic structure, but evidence of inbreeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Plas-Duivesteijn, Suzanne J.; Smit, Femmie J. L.; van Alphen, Jacques J. M.; Kraaijeveld, Ken

    2015-03-01

    Conservation management in the North Sea is often motivated by the population size of marine mammals, like harbor porpoises Phocoena phocoena. In the Dutch part of the North Sea, sighting and stranding data are used to estimate population sizes, but these data give little insight into genetic structuring of the population. In this study we investigated genetic structure among animals stranded at different locations and times of year. We also tested whether there is a link between stranding and necropsy data, and genetic diversity. We made use of both mitochondrial (mtDNA) and microsatellite DNA analysis of samples from dead stranded porpoises along the Dutch coast during 2007. mtDNA analysis showed 6 variable positions in the control region, defining 3 different haplotypes. mtDNA haplotypes were not randomly distributed along the Dutch coastline. However, microsatellite analysis showed that these mtDNA haplotypes did not represent separate groups on a nuclear level. Furthermore, microsatellite analysis revealed no genotypic differences between seasons, locations or genders. The results of this study indicate that the Dutch population is panmictic. In contrast, heterozygosity levels were low, indicating some level of inbreeding in this population. However, this was not corroborated by other indices of inbreeding. This research provided insight into genetic structuring of stranded porpoises in 2007, but data from multiple years should be included to be able to help estimate population sizes.

  20. Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation in North Atlantic Long-Finned Pilot Whales, Globicephala melas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    porpoises, 9 Black Sea harbour porpoises, 7 North Pacific Dall’s porpoises (P. dalli), 15 vaquitas (P. sinus), 6 Peruvian Burmeister’s porpoises (P...Black Sea harbour porpoises or the vaquitas . Because both populations were isolated during the Pleistocene glacial periods (15,000 years ago), she...population size. The loss of mtDNA variation in a cetacean species with a small effective population size has been reported for vaquitas (Phocoena sinus

  1. Cetacean noise criteria revisited in the light of proposed exposure limits for harbour porpoises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tougaard, Jakob; Wright, Andrew John; Madsen, Professor Peter Teglberg

    2015-01-01

    The impact of underwater noise on marine life calls for identification of exposure criteria to inform mitigation. Here we review recent experimental evidence with focus on the high-frequency cetaceans and discuss scientifically-based initial exposure criteria. A range of new TTS experiments sugge...

  2. Multiple insights into the reproductive function of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena: An ongoing study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Desportes

    2003-07-01

    Projects have concentrated on the sexual behaviour of the adult male and female (frequency, initiative, courtship behaviours and their hormonal correlates, as well as on the interaction of the juvenile with the 2 adult animals. Behavioural sexual activity is very seasonal (peaking at the end of July and August, as is the testosterone cycle (levels increasing from less than 1 ng/ml to 30 ng/ml in May and the development of the testis (peaking in July-August. Progesterone and oestrogen levels vary between less than 1 to 17 ng/ml and less than 0.1 to 1.8 ng/ml respectively, but infrequent blood sampling precluded obtaining a detailed picture of the ovarian cycle. We are attempting to measure sexual hormones in saliva and eye secretion. Successful matings have been confirmed by the presence of sperm on vaginal smears in 4 consecutive summers, but no pregnancy has occurred yet.

  3. Observing incidental harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena bycatch by remote electronic monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindt-Larsen, Lotte; Dalskov, Jørgen; Stage, Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    Quantification of marine mammal bycatch is important in relation to conservation and management of protected species. Hitherto, using onboard observers has been the most reliable and accurate method but observer programs can be prohibitively expensive. To investigate the potential of CCTV cameras...

  4. Possible causes of a harbour porpoise mass stranding in Danish waters in 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, Andrew J.; Maar, Marie; Mohn, Christian

    2013-01-01

    -2008, excluding April 2005), and specifically in April, 0.65 animals/week (0 to 4, same period). Bycatch was established as the cause of death for most of the individuals through typical indications of fisheries interactions, including net markings in the skin and around the flippers, and loss of tail flukes...

  5. Sexually dimorphic proportions of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) skeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galatius, Anders

    2005-01-01

    compared with males. Measurements of the skull and flipper bones show negative allometry, whereas those of the bones of the body generally show positive allometry. There are no statistically significant intersexual differences in allometry except for the pelvic bones, where the males show stronger positive...... allometry. Throughout the range of individual sizes, females have significantly larger skulls and shorter vertebral columns than males for similarly sized individuals. In fully grown specimens, the condylobasal length of females makes up a smaller proportion of total length, and the vertebrae make up...... a larger proportion as compared with males. As these characters show negative and positive allometry, respectively, it is suggested that males finish their development at an earlier stage than females, retaining more paedomorphic proportions of the skeleton. Paedomorphosis in fully grown males relative...

  6. Ecology, tourism and management of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina)

    OpenAIRE

    Granquist, Sandra M.

    2016-01-01

    In cases where human and wildlife are co-using the same geographical areas and resources, management issues often get complex and stakeholder conflicts are common. The Icelandic harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) population is rapidly decreasing, but direct culling of seals still occurs. At the same time seals are becoming an important resource due to increased interest in wildlife watching. Despite the complicated management situation, the Icelandic harbour seal population is one of the least stu...

  7. Kinetic Algorithms for Harbour Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, C. M.; Goralski, R. I.

    2012-07-01

    Modern harbour management for a busy port needs to resolve a variety of simultaneous problems. Harbour traffic may be busy and the waterways congested, both by the major shipping and by the attendant harbour tugs. The harbour channel may be narrow and tortuous, and rapidly changing tides may require frequent course adjustments. Navigation aids must be clearly specified and immediately identifiable, in order to permit safe passage for the vessels. This requires a GIS with attributes not easily available with traditional products. The GeoVS system is a kinetic GIS with full three-dimensional visualisation, so that ships, bathymetry and landscape may be viewed in a form that is immediately understandable to both harbour pilots and the harbour authority. The system is kinetic because the data structures used to preserve the topological relationships between ships, seafloor and coastline are able to be maintained on a real-time basis, taking account of ship movement recorded on the compulsory AIS (Automatic Information System) beacons. Maintenance of this real-time topology allows for easy detection of potential collisions, as well as real-time bathymetric estimations, necessary to prevent ship grounding in highly tidal environments. The system, based on previous research into kinetic Voronoi diagrams, as well as development of a completely new graphical engine, is now in commercial production, where its advantages over simpler twodimensional models without automatic collision and grounding detection are becoming evident. Other applications are readily envisaged, and will be addressed in the near future.

  8. KINETIC ALGORITHMS FOR HARBOUR MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Gold

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern harbour management for a busy port needs to resolve a variety of simultaneous problems. Harbour traffic may be busy and the waterways congested, both by the major shipping and by the attendant harbour tugs. The harbour channel may be narrow and tortuous, and rapidly changing tides may require frequent course adjustments. Navigation aids must be clearly specified and immediately identifiable, in order to permit safe passage for the vessels. This requires a GIS with attributes not easily available with traditional products. The GeoVS system is a kinetic GIS with full three-dimensional visualisation, so that ships, bathymetry and landscape may be viewed in a form that is immediately understandable to both harbour pilots and the harbour authority. The system is kinetic because the data structures used to preserve the topological relationships between ships, seafloor and coastline are able to be maintained on a real-time basis, taking account of ship movement recorded on the compulsory AIS (Automatic Information System beacons. Maintenance of this real-time topology allows for easy detection of potential collisions, as well as real-time bathymetric estimations, necessary to prevent ship grounding in highly tidal environments. The system, based on previous research into kinetic Voronoi diagrams, as well as development of a completely new graphical engine, is now in commercial production, where its advantages over simpler twodimensional models without automatic collision and grounding detection are becoming evident. Other applications are readily envisaged, and will be addressed in the near future.

  9. Muddy waters and the Wadden Sea harbours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekelen, van E.; Baptist, M.J.; Dankers, P.; Grasmeijer, B.T.; Kessel, van T.; Maren, van D.S.

    2016-01-01

    Several harbours along the Dutch Wadden Sea deal with large siltation rates and limited possibilities for developments. However, development of new harbour activities is needed for these harbours to be able to survive in the long run. As these harbours lie in or close to areas with a protected

  10. Phylogenetic relationships among the true porpoises (Cetacea:Phocoenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosel, P E; Haygood, M G; Perrin, W F

    1995-12-01

    Portions of the cytochrome b gene and control region of the mitochondrial DNA molecule were sequenced to investigate systematic relationships among the six extant species of true porpoises, (Cetacea: Phocoenidae). Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences support a close relationship between Burmeister's porpoise, Phocoena spinipinnis, and the vaquita, Phocoena sinus, and the association of these two species with the spectacled porpoise, Australophocaena dioptrica. The latter result is not in concordance with a recent morphological reclassification which groups A. dioptrica with Dall's porpoise, Phocoenoides dalli, in the subfamily Phocoenoidinae. The molecular analysis found no support for this grouping. A. dioptrica was originally described as a member of the genus Phocoena, and our results support returning it to that genus at this time. Finally, the data suggest that the tropical species Neophocaena phocaenoides, the finless porpoise, may represent the most basal member of the family. The control region sequences corroborated the relationships among the closely related taxa P. sinus, P. spinipinnis, and A. dioptrica, but were unable to resolve the deeper branches of the tree, probably as a result of a high level of saturation of these sequences.

  11. Exploring Trade-Offs between Fisheries and Conservation of the Vaquita Porpoise (Phocoena sinus) Using an Atlantis Ecosystem Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hem Nalini Morzaria-Luna; Cameron H Ainsworth; Kaplan, Isaac C.; Phillip S. Levin; Elizabeth A Fulton

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Minimizing fishery bycatch threats might involve trade-offs between maintaining viable populations and economic benefits. Understanding these trade-offs can help managers reconcile conflicting goals. An example is a set of bycatch reduction measures for the Critically Endangered vaquita porpoise (Phocoena sinus), in the Northern Gulf of California, Mexico. The vaquita is an endemic species threatened with extinction by artisanal net bycatch within its limited range; in this area f...

  12. SECURITY SYSTEMS FOR MARITIME HARBOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgică SLĂMNOIU

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure protection objectives are at the top of the agenda of those responsible in the European Union. Currently Romania is one of the countries on its eastern border of the Union and this has special implications in terms of security measures that are required to be implemented. Ships and harbours are important current conflict stage. An integrated system of protection of harbours must be prepared in advance in order to continuously provide information that will increase the overall performance of the intervention forces.

  13. Status of the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina in Southern Scandinavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Tange Olsen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The harbour seal population in Southern Scandinavia has experienced repeated declines caused by hunting and epizootics. These events have shaped the current distribution and abundance of the population. This paper assesses the current status of the population. We estimate trends in abundance of harbour seals from long term survey data, compare these with historic trends inferred from previously published material, and discuss past and potential threats to the harbour seal population of Southern Scandinavia. It is evident that harbour seals have disappeared from haulout areas along the Danish shores of Kattegat and in the westernmost part of the Baltic Sea, where they were previously numerous. In the 1920-30s, when abundance was at its lowest, the population is estimated to have been only a fraction of its original size. Following 30 years of protection the population is currently approaching historic abundance and might have reached the carrying capacity in some areas. Further development depends largely on effects of future epizootics, anthropogenic disturbance, and availability of suitable haulout sites.

  14. Respiratory properties of blood in the harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soegaard, Lisette B; Hansen, Marie N; van Elk, Cornelis

    2012-01-01

    . The true plasma non-bicarbonate buffer value was moderately higher than in terrestrial mammals and increased upon deoxygenation. Plasma bicarbonate was also relatively high, contributing to increase the overall buffer capacity. The apparent Cl(-) permeability of harbor porpoise erythrocytes was similar...

  15. Predicting recurrent PDV epizootics in European harbour seals (Phoca vitulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tero Härkönen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV caused mass mortality in European harbour seals (Phoca vitulina in 1988 and in 2002. Both epizootics likely originated from refugia in Arctic seals, where data indicate PDV hops among populations and species. The metapopulation structure of host populations is suggested to be the reason why PDV is preserved among Arctic seals, since the high rate of spread of PDV would require much larger panmictic populations to maintain an infection. The pattern of sudden outbreaks of PDVis also seen in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus, the only to date identified species that could act as a vector between Arctic and North Sea seal populations. Harbour seal populations along mainland Europe were below critical herd immunity levels by 3-5 years after the events, and thus vulnerable for new outbreaks, but historical data and the 14 years between the 2 epizootics suggest that harbour seals in the North Sea area are only rarely exposed to the infective agent. The risk for new outbreaks of the seal plague in North Sea harbour seals is likely linked to the dynamics of the disease in Arctic seal species as well asvector species.

  16. The status of the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A Cronin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The status of Ireland’s harbour seal population and its relationship with that of Britain and Western Europe are poorly understood. Prior to 2003, limited research efforts and poor co-ordination of survey methods fell short at providing an accurate assessment of overall distribution and population size on a regional or national scale. However, in August 2003, the Republic of Ireland’s harbour seal population was assessed by means of a geographically extensive survey conducted during the annual moult, providing an up-to-date minimum population estimate and a reliable baseline for future surveys. Trends on a national scale could not be assessed due to absence of a reliable historic population estimate; however there is some evidence of local decreases and increases in harbour seal numbers in Northern Ireland and southwest Ireland respectively. Research effort to date on aspects of the ecology of the harbour seal in the Republic of Ireland is reviewed and current research and management priorities highlighted.

  17. Status of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina in Atlantic Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike O Hammill

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Harbour seals are associated with small islets, reefs and rocks exposed at low tide and estuarine habitats throughout eastern Canada. Evidence of harvesting by indigenous people has been found in pre-European contact archaeological excavations. A bounty harvest as well as subsistence and commercial hunting probably lead to a decline in the population from 1949 to the early 1970s. The bounty was removed in 1976, and harbour seals, in the southern parts of their range have been protected since then. There is little information available on total abundance and current population trend. Mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA research has shown separation between Northeast and Northwest Atlantic harbour seals. Within Canada, the subspecies Phoca vitulina concolor shows some population sub-structure with three distinct units that could be separated into Hudson Bay, Gulf of St. Lawrence and Sable Island. Urban development resulting in habitat degradation is probably the most important factor affecting harbour seal populations in AtlanticCanada, although other factors such as incidental catches in commercial fisheries and competition with grey seals may also be important.

  18. Transfer pricing and safe harbours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Solilová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfer prices are significant for both taxpayers and tax administrations because they determine in large part taxable profits of associated enterprises in different tax jurisdictions. Moreover, in the context of taxation, transfer prices must be complied with the arm’s length principle. However, Multinational Enterprises have been faced daily by conflicting rules and approaches to applying the arm’s length principle, burdensome documentation requirements, inconsistent audit standards and unpredictable competent authority outcomes. Therefore, the Committee on Fiscal Affairs launched another project on the administrative aspects of transfer pricing in 2010. On 16 May 2013 as a partial solution of this project was approved by the OECD Council the Revised Section E on Safe Harbours in Chapter IV of the Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Authorities. The paper is focused on significant changes of newly approved chapter IV of the Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Authorities, further on analysis of practice in this area, on advantages and disadvantages of safe harbours for taxpayers and competent authorities with aim to suggest recommendations on use of safe harbours in the Czech Republic.

  19. South-East Asia bovine populations and the Japanese cattle breeds do not harbour the E211K variant of the PRNP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Msalya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An important outcome of intensive worldwide Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE obtained with the surveillance by The National Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Surveillance Unit (http://www.cjd.ed.ac.uk/figures. htm, has been the detection of atypical BSE in cattle. The discovery of a prion protein gene (PRNP E211K variant in an atypical BSE case is particularly remarkable because it is analogous to the most common pathogenic mutation in humans (E200K, which causes hereditary Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD. Knowledge of the distribution and frequency of PRNP E211K variants in cattle populations is critical for understanding and managing atypical BSE. This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of the E211K variant in the South-East Asia bovine populations and in the Japanese cattle breeds. It was discovered that E211K variant was monomorphic for a G allele and the GG genotype in the 745 animals analyzed in this study. Therefore, neither the Bos indicus nor the Bos taurus animals analyzed are presently known to harbor the 211K variant predicting that the number of carriers for this variant will also be vanishingly low.

  20. Geographic, seasonal, and diurnal surface behavior of harbor porpoises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Jonas; Christiansen, C.T.; Kjellerup, Sanne

    2013-01-01

    are essential information on the status and management of the species. Thirty-five free-ranging harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) were tracked in the region between the Baltic and the North Sea for 25-349 d using Argos satellite transmitters. No differences were found in surface behavior between geographical...... areas or the size of the animals. Slight differences were found between the two sexes and time of day. Surface time peaked in April, where 6% was spent with the transmitter above surface and 61.5% between 0 and 2 m depth, while the minimum values occurred in February (3.4% and 42.5%, respectively......). The analyses reveal that individual variation among porpoises is the most important factor in explaining variation in surface rates. However, the large number of animals documented in the present study covering a wide range of age and sex groups justifies the use of the seasonal average surface times...

  1. Epizootics in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina: clinical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Siebert

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Epizootic diseases causing considerable mortality in harbour seal populations have mainly been reported from the waters of the United States and Europe. Such die-offs were largely attributable to viral infections. Several hundred individuals died from respiratory infections caused by Influenza A viruses at the coast of New England, USA, in 1979, 1980 and 1982. More than 53,000 harbour seals were killed in European waters by Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV, a morbillivirus,in two outbreaks in 1988 and 2002. For several other epizootics of smaller scale in the waters of the Atlantic and Pacific coast of the USA and, most recently, in Danish and Swedish waters in 2007 the causes remain unclear, although characteristic respiratory symptoms and interstitial pneumonia suspicious of viral etiology were detected as well as occasionally bacterial infections caused by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Mass mortalities caused by biotoxins, direct human interactions or changes in oceanographic conditions have so far not been described for harbour seals. However, high organochlorine loads detected in European harbour seal populations and suspected to impede immune functions, were considered an aggravating factor in the 1988 morbillivirus epizootic. Establishing supranational stranding networks is a key prerequisite for the detection of future unusual die-offs in marine mammals. Detailed post-mortem investigations of all organ systems are essential for targeted etiological studies towards the causes of mass mortalities in seals.

  2. The effects of acoustic alarms on the behavior of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in a floating pen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Rippe, H.T.; Vaughan, N.; Schooneman, N.M.; Verboom, W.C.; Haan, D.de

    2000-01-01

    In an attempt to test the effectiveness of sounds in deterring harbor porpoises from nets and reducing porpoise bycatch in gill net fisheries, two harbor porpoises, kept in a large floating pen at Neeltje Jans, The Netherlands, were subjected to 3 different underwater sounds. The effect of each

  3. Ocean disposal of dredged materials from Atlantic Canadian harbours ll. small craft harbours, Gulf Region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1984-01-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a compilation of all data related to dredging/ocean disposal of dredged materials from harbours maintained by the Small Craft Harbours Branch of Fisheries...

  4. Phylogeography of the finless porpoise (genus Neophocaena): testing the stepwise divergence hypothesis in the northwestern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenzhi; Frère, Céline H.; Karczmarski, Leszek; Xia, Jia; Gui, Duan; Wu, Yuping

    2014-10-01

    We used 344 mitochondrial control region (717 bp) sequences from the finless porpoise (genus Neophocaena) from the northwestern Pacific to investigate the extent and manner in which past climatic oscillations may have shaped patterns of genetic diversity for this marine mammal. Both SplitsTree and Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) revealed the presence of a deep divergence among N. phocaenoides in subtropical waters compared with N. asiaeorientalis in temperate waters. Results from Migrate-n indicated that migration increased along the continent during the early Pleistocene period. Migration increased, although to a lesser extent than that during the Pleistocene, along the marginal shelf in the Yellow/Bohai Sea during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) due to a shortening coastline. Our results suggest that the current patterns of genetic diversity of Neophocaena vary at a hierarchy on a temporal and spatial scale, and phylogeographic history should be taken into account when examining species population structure and taxonomy.

  5. Receiving beam patterns in the horizontal plane of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Janssen, M.; Verboom, W.C.; Haan, D. de

    2005-01-01

    Receiving beam patterns of a harbor porpoise were measured in the horizontal plane, using narrow-band frequency modulated signals with center frequencies of 16, 64, and 100 kHz. Total signal duration was 1000 ms, including a 200 ms rise time and 300 ms fall time. The harbor porpoise was trained to

  6. The Vascular System in the Kidneys of the Common Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena (L.))

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoel, van der S.

    1963-01-01

    Studying the kidneys of the Common Porpoise and the Fin Whale it was found that there is a second venal system next to the normal venal system. The arterial and venal system as found in the kidneys of the dog are present in the kidneys of the Common Porpoise without typical differences but there is

  7. Evolutionary history of the porpoise family(Phocoenidae) : A perspective from mitogenomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben Chehida, Yacine; Aguilar, A. A.; Borrell, A.; Ferreira, M.; Taylor, B.L.; Rojas-Bracho, L.; Lorenzo Robertson, R.; Thumloup, Julie; Schumacher, C.; Vikingsson, G.A.; Morin, Phillip A.; Fontaine, Michael Christophe

    2017-01-01

    The six species of porpoises inhabit the cold waters of the globe, displaying a textbook example of anti-tropical distribution in marine mammals. Nevertheless, the evolutionary history of the porpoises still remained poorly understood, but this knowledge is crucial to illuminate the conservation

  8. Bilateral directional asymmetry of the appendicular skeleton of the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galatius, Anders; Jespersen, Åse

    2005-01-01

    from 2.8% SE 0.5 (humerus) to 4.3% SE 0.7 (ulna). The humerus and ulna had significantly larger mean diameter/ length ratios on the right side than the left, making them more robust. The large DA of scapula length indicates larger muscle mass associated with the right flipper, while the generally more...... robust right humerii and ulnae may be designed for higher levels of mechanical stress. These DAs and the examples of lateralized behavior recorded in cetaceans, point to the existence of lateralized use of the flippers at the population level in harbor porpoises and possibly other cetacean species....

  9. Assessing the Impact of Underwater Clearance of Unexploded Ordnance on Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in the Southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benda-Beckmann, A.M. von; Aarts, G.; Sertlek, H.O.; Lucke, K.; Verboom, W.C.; Kastelein, R.A.; Ketten, D.R.; Bemmelen, R. van; Lam, F.P.A.; Kirkwood, R.; Ainslie, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    (UXO) are still present in the North Sea. UXO are frequently accidentally encountered by fishermen and dredging vessels. Out of concern for human safety and to avoid damage to equipment and infrastructure from uncontrolled explosions, most reported UXO found in the Dutch Continental Shelf (DCS) are

  10. Anisakis spp. induced granulomatous dermatitis in a harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena and a bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beurden, Steven J; IJsseldijk, Lonneke L; Cremers, Herman J W M; Gröne, Andrea; Verheije, M Hélène; Begeman, Lineke

    2015-01-01

    Cetaceans are well known definitive hosts of parasitic nematodes of the genus Anisakis (Nematoda: Anisakidae). Anisakid nematodes are also a health hazard for humans, potentially causing gastrointestinal infections or allergic reactions following the consumption of infected fish. In marine mammals,

  11. Status and biology of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina in Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lydersen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Harbour seals in Svalbard are the northernmost population of this species. This small population is comprised of ca. 1,000 individuals, most of which reside along the west coast of Prins Karls Forland (78°20’N. Satellite tracking studies have shown that adults are resident. Birthing occurs in the latter half of June. Newborns weigh about 11 kg and gain an average of 0.7 kg/d during the nursing period. Haulout patterns in Svalbard harbour seals are influenced by date (season, time of day, tidal cycle and temperature. Moulting takes place in early fall, first among juveniles, then in adult females and finally in adult males. Feeding studies show that polar cod (Boreogadus saida is the dominant prey in terms of numbers, while Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua is the dominant prey based on biomass, at least during the early autumn. Growth curves display significant sexual dimorphism with asymptotic values for standard length and body mass being greater formales. Testosterone levels inmales showed an abrupt increase at 6 years of age, while estradiol levels in females increased abruptly from age 4 years. The reproductive rate for adult females was 0.93. Longevity of Svalbard harbour seals is very short compared with populations from other areas.

  12. Quantitative Measures of Anthropogenic Noise on Harbor Porpoises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewska, Danuta Maria; Teilmann, Jonas; Hermannsen, Line

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, several sound and movement recording tags have been developed to sample the acoustic fi eld experienced by cetaceans and their reactions to it. However, little is known about how tag placement and an animal’s orientation in the sound fi eld affect the reliability of on-animal...... recordings as proxies for actual exposure. Here, we quantify sound exposure levels recorded with a DTAG-3 tag on a captive harbor porpoise exposed to vessel noise in a controlled acoustic environment. Results show that fl ow noise is limiting onboard noise recordings, whereas no evidence of body shading has...

  13. Application of a novel method for age estimation of a baleen whale and a porpoise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nynne H.; Garde, Eva; Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter

    2013-01-01

    Eyeballs from 121 fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) and 83 harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) were used for age estimation using the aspartic acid racemization (AAR) technique. The racemization rate (kAsp) for fin whales was established from 15 fetuses (age 0) and 15 adult whales where age...... was estimated by reading growth layer groups (GLGs) in the earplugs. The (kAsp) for harbor porpoises was derived from 15 porpoises (two calves and 13 > 1 yr old) age-estimated by counting GLGs in the teeth and two calves classified to age based on length. The (kAsp) values were estimated by regression of GLGs...

  14. Mercury in Thana creek, Bombay harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Desai, B.N.

    weight) with marked increased from harbour to the creek region suggests substantial mercury input in the head region. Chemical extraction by hydrogen peroxide indicated that more than 70% of mercury was leachable and probably organically bound...

  15. Genetic variation in Phoca vitulina (the harbour seal) revealed by DNA fingerprinting and RAPDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappe, A.L.; van de Zande, L.; Vedder, E.J.; Bijlsma, R.; van Delden, Wilke

    Genetic variation in two harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) populations from the Dutch Wadden Sea and Scotland was examined by RAPD analysis and DNA fingerprinting. For comparison a population of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) was studied. The RAPD method revealed a very low number of polymorphic bands.

  16. Variation in European harbour seal immune response genes and susceptibility to phocine distemper virus (PDV)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCarthy, A.J.; Shaw, M.; Jepson, P.D.; Brasseur, S.M.J.M.; Reijnders, P.J.H.; Goodman, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Phocine distemper virus (PDV) has caused two mass mortalities of European harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in recent decades. Levels of mortality varied considerably among European populations in both the 1988 and 2002 epidemics, with higher mortality in continental European populations in comparison

  17. Subsurface geology of the Bombay Harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Almeida, F.; Ramana, M.V.; Vora, K.H.; Bhattacharya, G.C.; Subrahmanyam, V.

    As part of engineering pre-design investigations, high resolution geophysical surveys were carried out in and around Bombay harbour, India. The depth in the area varies from dries over the mudflats to about 14m towards the offshore end. The seabed...

  18. Seabed surveys of Victoria harbour, Mahe, Seychelles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hashimi, N.H.; Wagle, B.G.

    The seabed surveys in the Victoria Harbour, Mahe, Seychelles shows that the prominent feature is the navigational channel aligned in the northeast-southwest direction with a width varying from 300 to 450m. The depth in the channel ranges from 14...

  19. Earlier pupping in harbour seals, Phoca vitulina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, P.J.H.; Brasseur, S.M.J.M.; Meesters, H.W.G.

    2010-01-01

    The annual reproductive cycle of most seal species is characterized by a tight synchrony of births. Typically, timing of birth shows little inter-annual variation. Here, however we show that harbour seals Phoca vitulina from the Wadden Sea (southeast North Sea) have shortened their yearly cycle,

  20. Impact investigations of access channel modifications of Cochin harbour, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.

    Though the modernization projects over the decades for harbour development also brought about several severe environmental modifications in Cochin harbour, along the west coast of India, so far, the physical processes involved are seldom...

  1. Pollution characteristics and water quality in the Visakhapatnam harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.; Raju, G.R.K.; Babu, T.B.

    The impact of organic pollution on the quality of waters in the Visakhapatnam harbour has been studied over a year at 8 stations. The enrichment of nutrients in these waters enhances the eutrophication. The construction of outer harbour retards...

  2. The influence of signal parameters on the sound source localization ability of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Haan, D.de; Verboom, W.C.

    2007-01-01

    It is unclear how well harbor porpoises can locate sound sources, and thus can locate acoustic alarms on gillnets. Therefore the ability of a porpoise to determine the location of a sound source was determined. The animal was trained to indicate the active one of 16 transducers in a 16-m -diam

  3. Behavioral avoidance threshold level of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) for a continuous 50 kHz pure tone (L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Verboom, W.C.; Jennings, N.; Haan, D. de

    2008-01-01

    The use of ultrasonic sounds in alarms for gillnets may be advantageous, but the deterring effects of ultrasound on porpoises are not well understood. Therefore a harbor porpoise in a large floating pen was subjected to a continuous 50 kHz pure tone with a source level of 122 +/- 3dB (re 1uPa, rms).

  4. Behavioral avoidance threshold level of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) for a continuous 50 kHz pure tone (L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Verboom, W.C.; Jennings, N.; Haan, de D.

    2008-01-01

    The use of ultrasonic sounds in alarms for gillnets may be advantageous, but the deterring effects of ultrasound on porpoises are not well understood. Therefore a harbor porpoise in a large floating pen was subjected to a continuous 50 kHz pure tone with a source level of 122±3 dB (re 1 ¿Pa, rms).

  5. Analysis of the performance of swash in harbour domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alabart, J.; Sanchez-Arcilla, A.; Van Vledder, G.P.

    2014-01-01

    Wave penetration inside harbours has been one the main issues that port planners and engineers have had to deal with in recent years. Wave conditions inside harbours trigger vessel movements, create dynamic loads on port structures and condition harbour exploitation and safety. For this reason in

  6. The zooplankton community of Richards Bay Harbour and adjacent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During construction of the current Richards Bay Harbour in the early 1970s, the original shallow Mhlathuze Estuary was divided into two separate systems: a new estuary and a deep-water harbour. This study compares the zooplankton communities of the current systems with reference to that of the original, before harbour ...

  7. Ocean disposal of dredged materials from Atlantic Canadian harbours. 1. Small craft harbours, Scotia-Fundy Region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a compilation of all data related to dredging/ocean disposal of dredged materials from harbours maintained by the Small Craft Harbours Branch of Fisheries...

  8. A neurological comparative study of the harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walløe, Solveig; Eriksen, Nina; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The cetacean brain is well studied. However, few comparisons have been done with other marine mammals. In this study, we compared the harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and the harbor porpoise brain (Phocoena phocoena). Stereological methods were applied to compare three areas of interest...... cells, whereas the harp seal have 6.1 × 10(9) neocortical neurons and 17.5 × 10(9) neocortical glial cells. The harbor porpoise have significantly more neurons and glial cells in the auditory cortex than in the visual cortex, whereas the pattern was opposite for the harp seal. These results...... are the first to provide estimates of the number of neurons and glial cells in the neocortex of the harp seal and harbor porpoise brain and offer new data to the comparative field of mammalian brain evolution....

  9. The Ancient Harbours of the Piraeus, Volume I.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lovén, Bjørn

    of Athenian power. This first volume in the peer-reviewed Ancient Harbours of the Piraeus series is the culmination of the first phase of archaeological investigations conducted by the Zea Harbour Project, 2001-2006. The study focuses on Zea Harbour, where two previously unidentified building phases were...... and measurement of the relative changes in sea level since antiquity - a key piece of the puzzle, and one that has led to a broader understanding of the topography of the ancient harbours of the Piraeus. The naval installations built in Zea Harbour in the 4th century BC were amongst the largest building complexes...

  10. Estimation of Wave Disturbance in Harbours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helm-Petersen, Jacob

    been presented for the analysis of reflected wave fields in 2D and 3D. The Bayesian Directional Wave Spectrum Estimation Method has been applied throughout the study. Reflection characteristics have been investigated by use of physical models for three types of coastal structures with vertical fronts......The motivation for the present study has been to improve the reliability in using numerical wave propagation models as a tool for estimating wave disturbance in harbours. Attention has been directed towards the importance of the modelling of reflection in the applied mild-slope model. Methods have....... The analyses include mainly directional waves. Analysis of field measurements has also taken place. Simulations with a mild-slope model have been carried out with individual structures and a complete harbour. The analyses clarify to a wide extent the behaviour of the sponge layers applied in the model...

  11. Diet composition and food consumption rate of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena ) in the western Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Heidi; Ross, Stine Dalmann; Siebert, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    prey and in particular otoliths. The bias originating from differential residence time of otoliths in the stomachs was addressed by use of a recently developed approach. Atlantic cod and herring were the main prey of adults, constituting on average 70% of the diet mass. Juvenile porpoises also...... frequently consumed gobies. Here, the mass contribution by gobies was on aver-age 25%, which was as much as cod. Other species such as whiting, sprat, eelpout, and sandeels were of minor importance for both juveniles and adults. The diet compo- sition differed between years, quarters, and porpoise...

  12. Prevalence of skull pathologies in European harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) during 1981-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertoldi, Cino; Jensen, Lasse Fast; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen

    2017-01-01

    Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) inhabit the seas surrounding Denmark and are an important top predator in the marine food chain. This trophic position exposes them to environmental contaminants with disease epidemics and hunting being additional threats to this population. It is therefore important...

  13. Planning a census of the Harbour Seal (Phoca vitulina L.) on the coasts of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmel, van A.C.V.

    1956-01-01

    Scientific research into the occurrence and population density of the Harbour Seal ( Phoca vitulina L.) in the coastal regions of the Netherlands, necessary for any efficacious nature conservancy programme, was started in September 1953 by the author. A reliable calculation of the total number of

  14. PCB pollution continues to impact populations of orcas and other dolphins in European waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Paul D; Deaville, Rob; Barber, Jonathan L; Aguilar, Àlex; Borrell, Asunción; Murphy, Sinéad; Barry, Jon; Brownlow, Andrew; Barnett, James; Berrow, Simon; Cunningham, Andrew A; Davison, Nicholas J; Ten Doeschate, Mariel; Esteban, Ruth; Ferreira, Marisa; Foote, Andrew D; Genov, Tilen; Giménez, Joan; Loveridge, Jan; Llavona, Ángela; Martin, Vidal; Maxwell, David L; Papachlimitzou, Alexandra; Penrose, Rod; Perkins, Matthew W; Smith, Brian; de Stephanis, Renaud; Tregenza, Nick; Verborgh, Philippe; Fernandez, Antonio; Law, Robin J

    2016-01-14

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the more persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have well-established dose-dependent toxicities to birds, fish and mammals in experimental studies, but the actual impact of OC pollutants on European marine top predators remains unknown. Here we show that several cetacean species have very high mean blubber PCB concentrations likely to cause population declines and suppress population recovery. In a large pan-European meta-analysis of stranded (n = 929) or biopsied (n = 152) cetaceans, three out of four species:- striped dolphins (SDs), bottlenose dolphins (BNDs) and killer whales (KWs) had mean PCB levels that markedly exceeded all known marine mammal PCB toxicity thresholds. Some locations (e.g. western Mediterranean Sea, south-west Iberian Peninsula) are global PCB "hotspots" for marine mammals. Blubber PCB concentrations initially declined following a mid-1980s EU ban, but have since stabilised in UK harbour porpoises and SDs in the western Mediterranean Sea. Some small or declining populations of BNDs and KWs in the NE Atlantic were associated with low recruitment, consistent with PCB-induced reproductive toxicity. Despite regulations and mitigation measures to reduce PCB pollution, their biomagnification in marine food webs continues to cause severe impacts among cetacean top predators in European seas.

  15. Interspecific variation of ontogeny and skull shape among porpoises (Phocoenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatius, Anders; Berta, Annalisa; Frandsen, Marie Schou; Goodall, R Natalie P

    2011-02-01

    All extant members of Phocoenidae (porpoises) have been characterized as pedomorphic based on skeletal characters. To investigate the ontogenetic background for pedomorphosis and assess interspecific differences in ontogeny among phocoenids, samples of the six extant species were compared in terms of development of both epiphyseal and cranial suture fusion. Across all species, full maturity of the vertebral column was rare. Vertebral epiphyseal development did not progress so far in most Phocoena phocoena as in Phocoenoides dalli and Phocoena dioptrica. P. phocoena, Phocoena spinipinnis, Ph. dalli, and P. dioptrica, for which large series were available, were further compared in terms of ontogeny of cranial shape by three-dimensional geometric morphometrics. Ph. dalli and P. dioptrica generally showed further development of cranial sutures than the other species. Postnatal skull shape development was similar for all species studied; the majority of interspecific shape differences are present at parturition. Smaller species had a higher rate of shape development relative to growth in size than Ph. dalli and P. dioptrica, but they still showed less allometric development due to less postnatal growth. Interspecific shape differences indicate phylogenetic relationships similar to that proposed based on morphology or convergent evolution of the two pelagic species, Ph. dalli and P. dioptrica, under the scenarios suggested by recent molecular studies. A shape trend coinciding with habitat preference was detected; in species with pelagic preference the position and orientation of the foramen magnum aligned the skull with the vertebral column; the rostrum showed less ventral inclination, and the facial region was larger and more concave in lateral aspect. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises of the Western North Atlantic: A Guide to Their Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherwood, Stephen; And Others

    This field guide is designed to permit observers to identify the cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) they see in western North Atlantic, including the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the coastal waters of the United States and Canada. The animals described are not grouped by scientific relationships but by similarities in appearance…

  17. Acoustic property reconstruction of a neonate Yangtze finless porpoise's (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis) head based on CT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chong; Wang, Zhitao; Song, Zhongchang; Wang, Kexiong; Wang, Ding; Au, Whitlow W L; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The reconstruction of the acoustic properties of a neonate finless porpoise's head was performed using X-ray computed tomography (CT). The head of the deceased neonate porpoise was also segmented across the body axis and cut into slices. The averaged sound velocity and density were measured, and the Hounsfield units (HU) of the corresponding slices were obtained from computed tomography scanning. A regression analysis was employed to show the linear relationships between the Hounsfield unit and both sound velocity and density of samples. Furthermore, the CT imaging data were used to compare the HU value, sound velocity, density and acoustic characteristic impedance of the main tissues in the porpoise's head. The results showed that the linear relationships between HU and both sound velocity and density were qualitatively consistent with previous studies on Indo-pacific humpback dolphins and Cuvier's beaked whales. However, there was no significant increase of the sound velocity and acoustic impedance from the inner core to the outer layer in this neonate finless porpoise's melon.

  18. Respiratory properties of blood in the harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soegaard, Lisette B.; Hansen, Marie Niemann; van Elk, Cornelis

    2012-01-01

    -bicarbonate buffer value was moderately higher than in terrestrial mammals and increased upon deoxygenation. Plasma bicarbonate was also relatively high, contributing to increase the overall buffer capacity. The apparent Cl– permeability of harbor porpoise erythrocytes was similar to the human value at 37°C, showing...

  19. 78 FR 61821 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Harbor Porpoise Take...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-04

    .... 2012. \\2\\ Waring et al. 2013. \\3\\ C.D. Orphanides, personal communication, September 16, 2013. [[Page... further mortality declines towards ZMRG. Response: NMFS acknowledges that the Plan has not reached ZMRG. However, harbor porpoise bycatch in U.S. gillnet fisheries is declining significantly below the PBR level...

  20. Hearing thresholds of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) for playbacks of multiple pile driving strike sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Hoek, L.; Gransier, R.; Jong, C.A.F. de

    2013-01-01

    Pile driving is presently the most common method used to attach wind turbines to the sea bed. To assess the impact of pile driving sounds on harbor porpoises, it is important to know at what distance these sounds can be detected. Using a psychophysical technique, a male porpoise’s hearing thresholds

  1. Post-Harbour Areas - New Urban Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowacka-Rejzner Urszula

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article on selected examples one illustrated the different solutions for shaping post-harbour areas. One highlighted the complexity and longevity of activities conducted in these areas, which include both: the modernization of building structures, shaping of new functional and spatial interactions, reproduction of natural resources, protection and sharing of preserved buildings and complexes of cultural heritage, but also well balanced management of transformed area. The basis for conducted deliberations constitute studies and field studies concerning the development of urban structures, conducted for many years by the author.

  2. Chemical tracers of shipping emissions in a Mediterranean harbour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, M.; Amato, F.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; Román, A.; García, M.

    2009-04-01

    Particle emissions from transport-related activities are known as one of the most important sources contributing to the PM mass concentrations in urban environments. However, only limited information is currently available in the literature on the contribution to PM levels by specific transport related sources such as shipping emissions, even though according to the latest IPCC report (Ribeiro et al., 2007), shipping emissions are receiving increased scrutiny by international and regional regulatory agencies because of their potential impact on air quality and human health in communities downwind from major shipping lanes and ports (Dominguez et al., 2008). One of the main reasons for this lack of information is the complexity in the detection of shipping emissions, given that no specific emission tracers have so far been identified as a consequence of the vast variability of combustion fuels burnt by vessels. The city of Melilla was selected for the study of shipping emissions due to its location on the South-Western sector of the Mediterranean basin, on the Northern coast of Morocco and less than 200 km from the Gibraltar Strait (35°17´40" N, 2°56´30" W). The city covers an extension of 13.4 km2, with a population of 70000 inhabitants. The monitoring station selected for the present study is representative of urban background levels, and it is located at approximately 150 m from the Melilla harbour. The harbour is mainly characterised by commercial traffic (passanger and container), although minerals and other loose materials are also stocked on the docks located farthest away from the monitoring site. PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 levels were determined on an hourly basis between 12/01/2008 and 19/12/2008 using a GRIMM laser spectrometer, which produced more than 8000 data points for each size fraction (24000 data points in total). In addition, PM10 and PM2.5 levels were sampled on quartz fibre filter substrates (Munktell) by means of high-volume samplers (PM1025 MCV

  3. Tag-based Heart Rate Measurements of Harbor Porpoises During Normal and Noise-exposed Dives to Study Stress Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    nitrogen management and can provide information on the level of stress the animals routinely experience. Here we examine the dive heart rate...ventilation rate and activity in both captive and wild porpoise to better understand the dive response and how it may be overruled by noise exposure. We...acoustic data in captive and wild harbor porpoises. The specific objectives are 1) Quantify the physiological (heart and ventilation rates) and behavioral

  4. Imposex in the indigenous Nassarius kraussianus (Mollusca: Neogastropoda) from South African harbours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, David J; Rajkumar, Anisha

    2003-09-01

    Nassarius kraussianus populations in the Durban and Richards Bay harbours (along the eastern seaboard of southern Africa) and in the Knysna lagoon (southern Cape coast) showed imposex development, confirming bioavailability of tributyltin (TBT) in these waterways. Incidence of imposex (which ranged from 29% to 100%) and relative penis length of females (RPL; which ranged from 1.3% to 55.2%) were markedly variable among populations from different sites in each waterway, indicative of localised effects of TBT contamination. Shell length of the snails was apparently not correlated with contamination level, as assessed from imposex measurements. While population imposex features are easy to determine and often provide a sensitive biomarker of TBT exposure, the discussion outlines reservations when extrapolating these to general ecological situations. Additionally, this study represents the first published report on the topic for sub-Saharan, African harbours, some of which seem remarkably less affected than suggested for other world regions.

  5. Modelling the tsunami threat to Sydney Harbour, Australia, with comparisons to historical events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, O.; Power, H.

    2016-12-01

    Sydney Harbour is an iconic location with a dense population and low-lying development. On the east coast of Australia, facing the Pacific Ocean it is exposed to several tsunamigenic trenches. To date, this is the most detailed assessment of the potential for earthquake-generated tsunami impact on Sydney Harbour. The tsunami wave trains modelled include tsunami modelled from earthquakes of magnitude 7.5, 8.0, 8.5 and 9.0 MW from the Puysegur and New Hebrides trenches. Historical events from Chile in 1960 and Japan in 2011 are also modelled for comparison. Using the hydrodynamic model ANUGA, results show that the events modelled have the potential to cause high current speeds, hazardous waves and rapid changes in water level. These effects are most dramatic at pinch points such as Spit Bridge and Anzac Bridge, particularly with regard to current speeds. Large waves are shown to be a particular threat at the mouth of the harbour, where the bathymetry causes the tsunami wave train to shoal. Inundation is less of a hazard for the tsunami events modlled, although some inundation is evident at several low-lying embayments in the south of the harbour. These results will provide an evidence base for tsunami threat emergency management.

  6. Results of Optical Detection Trials in Harbour Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, D.J.J. de; Dijk, J.; Schwering, P.B.W.; Kemp, R.A.W.; Groot, J.F. de; Broek, S.P. van den

    2008-01-01

    In harbour environments operators should perform tasks as detection and classification. Present-day threats of smallobjects, as jet skis etc, should be detected, classified and recognized. Furthermore threat intention should be analysed. As harbour environments contain several hiding spaces, due to

  7. Reuse of harbour sediments in the Greenlandic construction industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmonte, Louise Josefine; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate possibilities of using harbour sediments from the Greenlandic harbours as substitutes in the Greenlandic construction industry, mainly for concrete production and road construction. Materials for use in the Greenlandic construction industry are shipped...

  8. Sediment dynamics in Lagos Harbour reconnaissance on effects of dredging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijverberg, T.; Reneerkens, M.J.J.; Winterwerp, J.C.; Scholl, O.; Haruna, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Due to economic growth, Lagos Harbour is expanding. Capital dredging is needed to allow larger vessels to call the port. As harbour siltation is already a problem, increase of maintenance dredging is a worry. In the past no data was available to understand the hydraulics and sediment transport to

  9. Lead intoxication in Sydney Harbour Bridge workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, C A; Ibels, L S

    1988-02-01

    Thirty-eight Sydney Harbour Bridge workers were assessed for possible lead intoxication. Forty-seven per cent were found to have significant lead intoxication as assessed by calcium disodium edetate chelation (Ca EDTA) testing and were subsequently effectively and safely treated with Ca EDTA. The prevalence of neurological, constitutional, gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal symptoms was significantly greater in those with, than those without, lead toxicity. Although blood lead levels and, to a lesser extent, hematological parameters were of some use in diagnosis, they were not sufficiently sensitive and thus should not be used in screening workers at risk of lead intoxication. Ca EDTA testing remains the diagnostic method of choice. Patients exposed to lead dust and fumes, in whom symptoms of lead intoxication are present, should undergo such testing and if a positive result is obtained, then EDTA chelation therapy should be instituted.

  10. Seal dynamics on the Swedish west coast: Scenarios of competition as Baltic grey seal intrude on harbour seal territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Carl Johan

    2012-07-01

    The Kattegat-Skagerrak region on the Swedish west coast is home to an abundant harbour seal population (Phoca vitulina) and a small scattered grey seal population (Halichoerus grypus). In addition, grey seal from the growing population in the Baltic Sea frequently migrate into the Kattegat-Skagerrak. Harbour seals on the west coast of Sweden show relatively high population growth (approximately 9%) compared to the Baltic grey seal in ice-free habitats (approximately 6%), which, in theory, makes harbour seal the stronger competitor of the two in this region. However, incidents of disease in harbour seals that lower population growth are becoming more frequent. These epidemics are primarily caused by the Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV), and may reduce population size with up to 70%. This study models the average development under potential scenarios of competing harbour- and Baltic grey seal populations using Leslie matrices and the Lotka-Volterra model of inter-specific competition. The model is parameterised with previously published data, and resource overlap is incorporated through density dependent pup survival. Using numerical methods short- and long-term abundances are simulated under weak, moderate and strong competition and for different frequencies of PDV epidemics. Results show that the harbour seals are resilient to competition while exerting a negative effect on grey seal abundance under moderate to strong competition. Hence Baltic grey seal benefit from weaker levels of competition. Under moderate and strong competition grey seal abundance is a direct function of the PDV frequency as this reduces the competitive strength of harbour seals. Theoretically this means that higher frequencies of PDV or other pathogens epidemics could facilitate an expansion of Baltic grey seal into Kattegat-Skagerrak. Independent of interaction strength and frequency of epidemics the projected changes to abundances are slow (50-100 years), and even in exceedingly stable

  11. Groundwater vulnerability assessment of the Cork Harbour area, SW Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, A. R.; Milenic, D.

    2007-11-01

    In the Cork Harbour area of SW Ireland, high yield karst and intergranular gravel aquifers are extremely vulnerable to pollution from a variety of sources, mainly due to the limited protection afforded by the thin cover of low permeability glacial and alluvial overburden. The main potential sources of pollution are due to rapid urbanisation of the Cork city area and its attendant infrastructure, and increased industrialisation in the area, with numerous new industries, particularly pharmaceutical and chemical industries, located around Cork Harbour. Other potential sources of pollution are a number of landfills in the area and an oil refinery near the mouth of Cork Harbour. Traditional agricultural sources of pollution also exist, due to increased use of chemical fertilisers. Finally, the susceptibility to saline intrusion of the karst and gravel aquifers around Cork Harbour is high due to the long coastline of the harbour and the low-lying nature of the karst synclines with their superimposed buried valleys.

  12. Harbour of Ravenna: The contribution of harbour traffic to air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucialli, Patrizia; Ugolini, Pamela; Pollini, Elisa

    Ravenna is one of the main Italian ports and has assumed a leadership position in Italy for some products and markets. The commercial harbour and the adjacent industrial area are very important for the economic system of Ravenna but, at the same time, they are highly critical areas. In particular, on average 8000 ships per year pass through the harbour of Ravenna, influencing air quality in harbour environment. The paper originates from a study about the contribution of different sources of air pollution in Ravenna and its aim is to evaluate the maritime traffic contribution to the air quality in the port area and to determine the suitability of an urban air quality model to support the air quality management in Ravenna. NO x and PM are selected as modelled pollutants. The study is made up of two parts. The first deals with the evaluation of annual emission of PM 10 and NO x coming from ships through a standard European methodology while in the second we simulated the diffusion of these pollutants in the whole area. In order to evaluate the capability of the model to treat maritime traffic emissions, we compared hour-by-hour simulated concentrations with data collected by a fixed monitoring station located near the Candiano Canal. NO x concentrations obtained by short- and long-term simulations show a good match with the values measured by the fixed monitoring station, located in the centre of harbour area, and these results are also supported by FA2 performance index. Instead the omission of the secondary particulate and the contribution of other sources of particulate matter in the port area are probably the most important causes of the PM 10 underestimation. The worse results obtained according to the performance indexes indicate the need to consider the formation and transport of secondary particulate matter in order to obtain more reliable predictions.

  13. Receiving beam patterns in the horizontal plane of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastelein, Ronald A.; Janssen, Mirjam; Verboom, Willem C.; de Haan, Dick

    2005-08-01

    Receiving beam patterns of a harbor porpoise were measured in the horizontal plane, using narrow-band frequency modulated signals with center frequencies of 16, 64, and 100 kHz. Total signal duration was 1000 ms, including a 200 ms rise time and 300 ms fall time. The harbor porpoise was trained to participate in a psychophysical test and stationed itself horizontally in a specific direction in the center of a 16-m-diameter circle consisting of 16 equally-spaced underwater transducers. The animal's head and the transducers were in the same horizontal plane, 1.5 m below the water surface. The go/no-go response paradigm was used; the animal left the listening station when it heard a sound signal. The method of constants was applied. For each transducer the 50% detection threshold amplitude was determined in 16 trials per amplitude, for each of the three frequencies. The beam patterns were not symmetrical with respect to the midline of the animal's body, but had a deflection of 3-7° to the right. The receiving beam pattern narrowed with increasing frequency. Assuming that the pattern is rotation-symmetrical according to an average of the horizontal beam pattern halves, the receiving directivity indices are 4.3 at 16 kHz, 6.0 at 64 kHz, and 11.7 dB at 100 kHz. The receiving directivity indices of the porpoise were lower than those measured for bottlenose dolphins. This means that harbor porpoises have wider receiving beam patterns than bottlenose dolphins for the same frequencies. Directivity of hearing improves the signal-to-noise ratio and thus is a tool for a better detection of certain signals in a given ambient noise condition.

  14. Directional Acoustic Wave Manipulation by a Porpoise via Multiphase Forehead Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Song, Zhongchang; Wang, Xianyan; Cao, Wenwu; Au, Whitlow W. L.

    2017-12-01

    Porpoises are small-toothed whales, and they can produce directional acoustic waves to detect and track prey with high resolution and a wide field of view. Their sound-source sizes are rather small in comparison with the wavelength so that beam control should be difficult according to textbook sonar theories. Here, we demonstrate that the multiphase material structure in a porpoise's forehead is the key to manipulating the directional acoustic field. Computed tomography (CT) derives the multiphase (bone-air-tissue) complex, tissue experiments obtain the density and sound-velocity multiphase gradient distributions, and acoustic fields and beam formation are numerically simulated. The results suggest the control of wave propagations and sound-beam formations is realized by cooperation of the whole forehead's tissues and structures. The melon size significantly impacts the side lobes of the beam and slightly influences the main beams, while the orientation of the vestibular sac mainly adjusts the main beams. By compressing the forehead complex, the sound beam can be expanded for near view. The porpoise's biosonar allows effective wave manipulations for its omnidirectional sound source, which can help the future development of miniaturized biomimetic projectors in underwater sonar, medical ultrasonography, and other ultrasonic imaging applications.

  15. Magnetic imaging of a submerged Roman harbour, Caesarea Maritima, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, J. I.; Reinhardt, E. G.; Raban, A.; Pozza, M. R.

    2003-04-01

    The harbour built by King Herod's engineers at Caesarea represented a major advance in Roman harbour construction that incorporated the use of large (390 m^3), form-filled hydraulic concrete blocks to build an extensive foundation for the harbour moles and breakwater barriers. Marine geophysical surveys were recently conducted across the submerged harbour in an attempt to map the configuration of the buried concrete foundation. A total of 107 line km of high-resolution marine magnetic surveys (nominal 15 m line separations) and bathymetry data were acquired over a 1 km^2 area of the submerged harbour using an Overhauser marine magnetometer, integrated DGPS and single-beam (200 KHz) echosounder. The feasibility of magnetic detection of the concrete was established before the survey by magnetic susceptibility testing of concrete core samples. All concrete samples contained appreciable amounts of fe-oxide-rich volcanic ash ('pozzolana') and showed uniformly high susceptibility values (k > 10^-^4 cgs) when compared to harbour bottom sediments and building stones (k construction of the harbour moles and quays.

  16. The influence of acoustic emissions for underwater data transmission on the behaviour of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in a floating pen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Verboom, W.C.; Muijsers, M.; Jennings, N.V.; Heul, S. van der

    2005-01-01

    To prevent grounding of ships and collisions between ships in shallow coastal waters, an underwater data collection and communication network is currently under development: Acoustic Communication network for Monitoring of underwater Environment in coastal areas (ACME). Marine mammals might be

  17. Hearing thresholds of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) for sweeps (1-2 kHz and 6-7 kHz bands) mimicking naval sonar signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Hoek, L.; Jong, C.A.F. de

    2011-01-01

    The distance at which active naval sonar signals can be heard by harbor porpoises depends, among other factors, on the hearing thresholds of the species for those signals. Therefore the hearing sensitivity of a harbor porpoise was determined for 1 s up-sweep and down-sweep signals, mimicking

  18. In search of virus carriers of the 1988 and 2002 phocine distemper virus outbreaks in European harbour seals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreutzer, M.; Kreutzer, R.; Siebert, U.; Muller, G.; Reijnders, P.J.H.; Brasseur, S.M.J.M.; Harkonen, T.; Dietz, R.; Sonne, C.; Born, E.W.; Baumgartner, W.

    2008-01-01

    European harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) populations decreased substantially during the phocine distemper virus (PDV) outbreaks of 1988 and 2002. Different hypotheses have stated that various seals and terrestrial carnivore species might be the source of infection. To further analyse these hypotheses,

  19. Pollution studies on harbours and jetties in Nigeria | Agbagwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    40%) were Vibrio parahaemolyticus, four isolates were also identified as Salmonella species. The high distribution of the bacteria which is of public health importance in the harbours/jetties, indicates pollution. Physiochemical parameters such ...

  20. Results of optical detection trials in harbour environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Rob A. W.; de Groot, Johannes F.; van den Broek, Sebastiaan P.; de Lange, Dirk-Jan J.; Dijk, Judith; Schwering, Piet B. W.

    2008-04-01

    In harbour environments operators should perform tasks as detection and classification. Present-day threats of small objects, as jet skis etc, should be detected, classified and recognized. Furthermore threat intention should be analysed. As harbour environments contain several hiding spaces, due to fixed and floating neutral objects, correct assessment of the threats is complicated when detection tracks are intermittently known. For this purpose we have analysed the capability of our image enhancement and detection technology to assess the performance of the algorithms in a harbour environment. Data were recorded in a warm harbour location. During these trials several small surfaces targets were used, that were equipped with ground truth equipment. In these environments short-range detection is mandatory, followed by immediate classification. Results of image enhancement and detection are shown. An analysis was made into the performance assessment of the detection algorithms.

  1. Review on utilization and research on harbour seal (Phoca vitulina in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlingur Hauksson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina have been harvested in Iceland since the first settlers arrived in the 9th century. Pups were generally netted, clubbed and harpooned until 1875 when general use of guns for hunting began. Seal-hunting has been traditional amongst the farms legal rights. Seal hunting was an important supplement to other economic resources. Harbour seal skins, salted ordried, were exported and large dataset of catch statistics is available from trading logbooks since the late 19th century. In the early 20th century catch was about 6,000. In the ‘bounty’ period 1982 – 1989, maximum catches were of 4,000 animals with about 350 hunters participated; in 2006 catches were only about 100 animals with 18 hunters. After 1989 the population continued to decline even though catches decreased markedly. Unreported by-catch in fishing gear, hunt for local consumption and shooting of seals swimming in salmon rivers estuaries may have kept the total removal from the stock above sustainable levels. A considerable Icelandic knowledge base had been compiled about the biology of the harbour seal since the late 16th century, with the first written reference in 1588-1589. In the last decades, research on various aspects of its biology and monitoring have been intensified, with focus on abundance, distribution, diet and nematode infestation. The main results show that the Icelandic harbour seal population - has declined annually about 5% in the period 1980-2006, - was most abundant on the NW-coast, - feeds mainly on sand-eels and gadoids, - and was less infected with anisakid nematodes than grey seals. Seal watching, as a low-consumptive indirect utilization, may represent a new economical opportunity if properly regulated.

  2. Inner harbour wave agitation using boussinesq wave model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panigrahi Jitendra K.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Short crested waves play an important role for planning and design of harbours. In this context a numerical simulation is carried out to evaluate wave tranquility inside a real harbour located in east coast of India. The annual offshore wave climate proximity- to harbour site is established using Wave Model (WAM hindcast wave data. The deep water waves are transformed to harbour front using a Near Shore spectral Wave model (NSW. A directional analysis is carried out to determine the probable incident wave directions towards the harbour. Most critical threshold wave height and wave period is chosen for normal operating conditions using exceedence probability analysis. Irregular random waves from various directions are generated confirming to Pierson Moskowitz spectrum at 20m water depth. Wave incident into inner harbor through harbor entrance is performed using Boussinesq Wave model (BW. Wave disturbance experienced inside the harbour and at various berths are analysed. The paper discusses the progresses took place in short wave modeling and it demonstrates application of wave climate for the evaluation of harbor tranquility using various types of wave models.

  3. Inner harbour wave agitation using boussinesq wave model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra K. Panigrahi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Short crested waves play an important role for planning and design of harbours. In this context a numerical simulation is carried out to evaluate wave tranquility inside a real harbour located in east coast of India. The annual offshore wave climate proximity to harbour site is established using Wave Model (WAM hindcast wave data. The deep water waves are transformed to harbour front using a Near Shore spectral Wave model (NSW. A directional analysis is carried out to determine the probable incident wave directions towards the harbour. Most critical threshold wave height and wave period is chosen for normal operating conditions using exceedence probability analysis. Irregular random waves from various directions are generated confirming to Pierson Moskowitz spectrum at 20 m water depth. Wave incident into inner harbor through harbor entrance is performed using Boussinesq Wave model (BW. Wave disturbance experienced inside the harbour and at various berths are analysed. The paper discusses the progresses took place in short wave modeling and it demonstrates application of wave climate for the evaluation of harbor tranquility using various types of wave models.

  4. Exploring Trade-Offs between Fisheries and Conservation of the Vaquita Porpoise (Phocoena sinus) Using an Atlantis Ecosystem Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morzaria-Luna, Hem Nalini; Ainsworth, Cameron H.; Kaplan, Isaac C.; Levin, Phillip S.; Fulton, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Minimizing fishery bycatch threats might involve trade-offs between maintaining viable populations and economic benefits. Understanding these trade-offs can help managers reconcile conflicting goals. An example is a set of bycatch reduction measures for the Critically Endangered vaquita porpoise (Phocoena sinus), in the Northern Gulf of California, Mexico. The vaquita is an endemic species threatened with extinction by artisanal net bycatch within its limited range; in this area fisheries are the chief source of economic productivity. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyze trade-offs between conservation of the vaquita and fisheries, using an end-to-end Atlantis ecosystem model for the Northern Gulf of California. Atlantis is a spatially-explicit model intended as a strategic tool to test alternative management strategies. We simulated increasingly restrictive fisheries regulations contained in the vaquita conservation plan: implementing progressively larger spatial management areas that exclude gillnets, shrimp driftnets and introduce a fishing gear that has no vaquita bycatch. We found that only the most extensive spatial management scenarios recovered the vaquita population above the threshold necessary to downlist the species from Critically Endangered. The scenario that excludes existing net gear from the 2008 area of vaquita distribution led to moderate decrease in net present value (US$ 42 million) relative to the best-performing scenario and a two-fold increase in the abundance of adult vaquita over the course of 30 years. Conclusions/Significance Extended spatial management resulted in the highest recovery of the vaquita population. The economic cost of proposed management actions was unequally divided between fishing fleets; the loss of value from finfish gillnet fisheries was never recovered. Our analysis shows that managers will have to confront difficult trade-offs between management scenarios for vaquita conservation. PMID:22916180

  5. Exploring trade-offs between fisheries and conservation of the vaquita porpoise (Phocoena sinus) using an Atlantis ecosystem model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morzaria-Luna, Hem Nalini; Ainsworth, Cameron H; Kaplan, Isaac C; Levin, Phillip S; Fulton, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    Minimizing fishery bycatch threats might involve trade-offs between maintaining viable populations and economic benefits. Understanding these trade-offs can help managers reconcile conflicting goals. An example is a set of bycatch reduction measures for the Critically Endangered vaquita porpoise (Phocoena sinus), in the Northern Gulf of California, Mexico. The vaquita is an endemic species threatened with extinction by artisanal net bycatch within its limited range; in this area fisheries are the chief source of economic productivity. We analyze trade-offs between conservation of the vaquita and fisheries, using an end-to-end Atlantis ecosystem model for the Northern Gulf of California. Atlantis is a spatially-explicit model intended as a strategic tool to test alternative management strategies. We simulated increasingly restrictive fisheries regulations contained in the vaquita conservation plan: implementing progressively larger spatial management areas that exclude gillnets, shrimp driftnets and introduce a fishing gear that has no vaquita bycatch. We found that only the most extensive spatial management scenarios recovered the vaquita population above the threshold necessary to downlist the species from Critically Endangered. The scenario that excludes existing net gear from the 2008 area of vaquita distribution led to moderate decrease in net present value (US$ 42 million) relative to the best-performing scenario and a two-fold increase in the abundance of adult vaquita over the course of 30 years. Extended spatial management resulted in the highest recovery of the vaquita population. The economic cost of proposed management actions was unequally divided between fishing fleets; the loss of value from finfish gillnet fisheries was never recovered. Our analysis shows that managers will have to confront difficult trade-offs between management scenarios for vaquita conservation.

  6. Exploring trade-offs between fisheries and conservation of the vaquita porpoise (Phocoena sinus using an Atlantis ecosystem model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hem Nalini Morzaria-Luna

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Minimizing fishery bycatch threats might involve trade-offs between maintaining viable populations and economic benefits. Understanding these trade-offs can help managers reconcile conflicting goals. An example is a set of bycatch reduction measures for the Critically Endangered vaquita porpoise (Phocoena sinus, in the Northern Gulf of California, Mexico. The vaquita is an endemic species threatened with extinction by artisanal net bycatch within its limited range; in this area fisheries are the chief source of economic productivity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyze trade-offs between conservation of the vaquita and fisheries, using an end-to-end Atlantis ecosystem model for the Northern Gulf of California. Atlantis is a spatially-explicit model intended as a strategic tool to test alternative management strategies. We simulated increasingly restrictive fisheries regulations contained in the vaquita conservation plan: implementing progressively larger spatial management areas that exclude gillnets, shrimp driftnets and introduce a fishing gear that has no vaquita bycatch. We found that only the most extensive spatial management scenarios recovered the vaquita population above the threshold necessary to downlist the species from Critically Endangered. The scenario that excludes existing net gear from the 2008 area of vaquita distribution led to moderate decrease in net present value (US$ 42 million relative to the best-performing scenario and a two-fold increase in the abundance of adult vaquita over the course of 30 years. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Extended spatial management resulted in the highest recovery of the vaquita population. The economic cost of proposed management actions was unequally divided between fishing fleets; the loss of value from finfish gillnet fisheries was never recovered. Our analysis shows that managers will have to confront difficult trade-offs between management scenarios for vaquita conservation.

  7. A note on harbour seal (Phoca vitulina distribution and abundance in France and Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Hassani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The most southern European colonies of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina are located in France, in three areas: Baie du Mont Saint Michel, Baie des Veys and Baie de Somme. The largest colony is situated at the Baie de Somme, with a maximum of 186 individuals recorded on one occasion in the summer of 2008. All colonies are regularly monitored by different organisations. Different monitoring methods are used, including land-based, air-based and ship-based survey techniques. The basic results of the monitoring indicate a regular increase in the population size since 1990, with the total count of hauled out harbour seals for the three colonies increasing from 24 in 1990 to 295 in 2008. During the last years, an increasing number of pregnant females, pups and postweaned seals have been observed. The recorded number of pups in 2008 was 53. Along the Belgian coast, no harbour seal colonies exist anymore, although individual animals and small groups are regularly observed at different locations. The high recreational use of Belgian beachesmay prevent the establishment of colonies or regularly used haulout sites.

  8. Do porpoises choose their associates? A new method for analyzing social relationships among cetaceans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Sakai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Observing and monitoring the underwater social interactions of cetaceans is challenging. Therefore, previous cetacean studies have monitored these interactions by surface observations. However, because cetaceans spend most of their time underwater, it is important that their underwater behavior is also continuously monitored to better understand their social relationships and social structure. The finless porpoise is small and has no dorsal fin. It is difficult to observe this species in the wild, and little is known of its sociality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The swim depths of 6 free-ranging finless porpoises were simultaneously recorded using a time-synchronized bio-logging system. Synchronous diving was used as an index of association. Two pairs, #27 (an immature female estimated to be 3.5 years old and #32 (an adult male, #28 (a juvenile male estimated to be 2 years old and #29 (an adult male, tended to participate in long periods of synchronized diving more frequently than 13 other possible pairs, indicating that the 4 porpoises chose their social partners. The adult males (#32, #29 tended to follow the immature female (#27 and juvenile male (#28, respectively. However, during synchronized diving, the role of an initiator often changed within the pair, and their body movements appeared to be non-agonistic, e.g., rubbing of bodies against one another instead of that on one-side, as observed with chasing and escaping behaviors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study employed a time-synchronized bio-logging method to observe the social relationships of free-ranging aquatic animals based on swimming depth. The results suggest that certain individuals form associations even if they are not a mother and calf pair. Long synchronized dives occurred when particular members were reunited, and this suggests that the synchronized dives were not a by-product of opportunistic aggregation.

  9. Patterns of Occurrence of Sharks in Sydney Harbour, a Large Urbanised Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoothey, Amy F; Gray, Charles A; Kennelly, Steve J; Masens, Oliver J; Peddemors, Victor M; Robinson, Wayne A

    2016-01-01

    Information about spatial and temporal variability in the distribution and abundance of shark-populations are required for their conservation, management and to update measures designed to mitigate human-shark interactions. However, because some species of sharks are mobile, migratory and occur in relatively small numbers, estimating their patterns of distribution and abundance can be very difficult. In this study, we used a hierarchical sampling design to examine differences in the composition of species, size- and sex-structures of sharks sampled with bottom-set longlines in three different areas with increasing distance from the entrance of Sydney Harbour, a large urbanised estuary. During two years of sampling, we obtained data for four species of sharks (Port Jackson, Heterodontus portusjacksoni; wobbegong, Orectolobus maculatus; dusky whaler, Carcharhinus obscurus and bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas). Only a few O. maculatus and C. obscurus were caught, all in the area closest to the entrance of the Harbour. O. maculatus were caught in all seasons, except summer, while C. obscurus was only caught in summer. Heterodontus portusjacksoni were the most abundant species, caught in the entrance location mostly between July to November, when water temperature was below 21.5°C. This pattern was consistent across both years. C. leucas, the second most abundant species, were captured in all areas of Sydney Harbour but only in summer and autumn when water temperatures were above 23°C. This study quantified, for this first time, how different species utilise different areas of Sydney Harbour, at different times of the year. This information has implications for the management of human-shark interactions, by enabling creation of education programs to modify human behaviour in times of increased risk of potentially dangerous sharks.

  10. Patterns of Occurrence of Sharks in Sydney Harbour, a Large Urbanised Estuary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy F Smoothey

    Full Text Available Information about spatial and temporal variability in the distribution and abundance of shark-populations are required for their conservation, management and to update measures designed to mitigate human-shark interactions. However, because some species of sharks are mobile, migratory and occur in relatively small numbers, estimating their patterns of distribution and abundance can be very difficult. In this study, we used a hierarchical sampling design to examine differences in the composition of species, size- and sex-structures of sharks sampled with bottom-set longlines in three different areas with increasing distance from the entrance of Sydney Harbour, a large urbanised estuary. During two years of sampling, we obtained data for four species of sharks (Port Jackson, Heterodontus portusjacksoni; wobbegong, Orectolobus maculatus; dusky whaler, Carcharhinus obscurus and bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas. Only a few O. maculatus and C. obscurus were caught, all in the area closest to the entrance of the Harbour. O. maculatus were caught in all seasons, except summer, while C. obscurus was only caught in summer. Heterodontus portusjacksoni were the most abundant species, caught in the entrance location mostly between July to November, when water temperature was below 21.5°C. This pattern was consistent across both years. C. leucas, the second most abundant species, were captured in all areas of Sydney Harbour but only in summer and autumn when water temperatures were above 23°C. This study quantified, for this first time, how different species utilise different areas of Sydney Harbour, at different times of the year. This information has implications for the management of human-shark interactions, by enabling creation of education programs to modify human behaviour in times of increased risk of potentially dangerous sharks.

  11. Fouling Bryozoa from some Alexandria harbours, EGYPT. (I Erect species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KH.M. ABDEL-SALAM

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The fouling erect Bryozoa settled on polystyrene test panels immersed half a meter deep in the water of Abu Qir Harbour, the Eastern Harbour and El-Dekheila Harbour were studied. The present study yields 5 species of erect bryozoa. These areAmathia pruvoti, Zoobotryon verticillatum, Bowerbankia gracilis,Bugula neritina and Bugula stolonifera. The first three ones pertain to 3 genera of the family Vesiculariidae belonging to suborder the Stolonifera; while the other two species affiliate to the genus Bugula belonging to the family Bugulidae of suborder Anasca. The present record of Amathia pruvoti is the first from the Egyptian Mediterranean waters. A re-description, supplied with full structural illustrations of the recorded species is given. Moreover, the temporal and spatial distributions of the species recorded are encountered.

  12. Echolocation-Based Foraging by Harbor Porpoises and Sperm Whales, Including Effects on Noise and Acoustic Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    of echolocation, including intraspecific comparisons of wild and captive animals and interspecific comparisons of whales and other echolocating...between outgoing clicks and echoes. Such investigations would greatly facilitate interspecific comparisons of echolocation by porpoises, other...related to marine mammal echolocation and communication, which is why I chose it. In some cases, it might be more accurate to invoke a hybrid

  13. Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises of the Eastern North Pacific and Adjacent Arctic Waters: A Guide to Their Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherwood, Stephen; And Others

    This field guide is designed to permit observers to identify the cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) they see in the waters of the eastern North Pacific, including the Gulf of California, Hawaii, and the western Arctic of North America. The animals described are grouped not by scientific relationships but by similarities in appearance in…

  14. 77 FR 60319 - Harbor Porpoise Take Reduction Plan; Coastal Gulf of Maine Closure Area Established With a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Reduction Plan; Coastal Gulf of Maine Closure Area Established With a Temporary Shift of Its Effective Date...), Commerce. ACTION: Establishment of the Coastal Gulf of Maine Closure Area; temporary shift of its effective... establishment of the Coastal Gulf of Maine Closure Area under the Harbor Porpoise Take Reduction Plan (Plan...

  15. Acoustic radiation from the head of echolocating harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Whitlow W L; Kastelein, Ronald A; Benoit-Bird, Kelly J; Cranford, Ted W; McKenna, Megan F

    2006-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the sound pressure patterns on the melon of odontocetes by using four broadband hydrophones embedded in suction cups to measure echolocation signals on the surface of the forehead of two harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). It has long been hypothesized that the special lipids found in the melon of odontocetes, and not in any other mammals, focus sounds produced in the nasal region that then propagate through the melon, producing a beam that is directional in both the horizontal and vertical planes. The results of our measurements supported the melon-focusing hypothesis, with the maximum click amplitude, representing the axis of the echolocation beam, located approximately 5.6-6.1 cm from the edge of the animal's upper lip along the midline of the melon. The focusing is not sharp but is sufficient to produce a transmission beam of about 16 degrees. Click amplitude dropped off rapidly at locations away from the location of site of maximum amplitude. Based on comparisons of forehead anatomy from similar sized porpoises, the beam axis coincided with a pathway extending from the phonic lips through the axis of the low-density/low sound velocity lipid core of the melon. The significant interaction between click number and hydrophone position suggests that the echolocation signals can take slightly different pathways through the melon, probably as a result of how the signals are launched by the production mechanism and the position of the acoustically reflective air sacs.

  16. Beyond Parasitism: Hepatic Lesions in Stranded Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Without Trematode (Campula oblonga) Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, S; Harkema, L; Wiersma, L C M; Keesler, R I

    2015-11-01

    The liver can be an indicator of the health of an individual or of a group, which can be especially important to identify agents that can cause disease in multiple species. To better characterize hepatic lesions in stranded harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), we analyzed the livers from 39 porpoises that stranded along the Dutch coast between December 2008 and December 2012. The animals were selected because they had either gross or histologic liver lesions with minimal autolysis and no evidence of trematode (Campula oblonga) infection. The most common finding was a chronic hepatitis (22/39, 56.4%) that was often associated with significant disease reported in another organ system (18/22, 81.8%), of which 14 had chronic systemic disease. One case of chronic hepatitis was so severe as to mimic lymphoma, which could only be differentiated with immunohistochemistry. The other common lesions were lipidosis (11/39, 28.2%) and acute hepatitis (6/39, 15.4%), often in combination with mild chronic changes. Overall, although there were no consistent trends in etiology for the hepatic lesions, lipidosis was associated with starvation (8/11, 72.7%) and acute disease, and acute hepatitis was associated with bacterial infections and sepsis (6/6, 100%). © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. LATTARA: the ancient and Medieval harbour of Lattes

    OpenAIRE

    Marriner, Nick

    2009-01-01

    The LATTARA series, named after the ancient town, publishes work on the archaeological site of Latte and its harbour environment. Subjects discussed range from past research to recent multidisciplinary excavations. Over three decades ago, Arnal et al. (1974) published «Le port de Lattara (Lattes, Hérault)» a work which summarised the discoveries made in and around Latte. The term «harbour» was taken in the largest sense of the word, that is to say a maritime city with strong links to the sea....

  18. Water quality effects of harbour activities assessed with integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    moes2

    such as the intensity of the crafts traffic, the nature of the transported materials, as well as those materials used ... set of bio-chemical parameters were studied in Cochin harbour region so as to find out their reliability and ..... water, washing water, lubricant oil and other residues in machinery space comes under this category.

  19. Shoreline stability in the vicinity of Cochin Harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Vethamony, P.

    A small stretch of barrier beach on either side of Cochin harbour along the west coast of India has been investigated for its stability through systematic surveys. The observed erosion of the beaches during the southwest monsoon is due to an order...

  20. Water quality effects of harbour activities assessed with integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecological tools were developed to study the water quality in Cochin harbour, a complex aquatic ecosystems, through the integration of microbiological monitoring (faecal coliforms and Pseudomonas species) and heavy metal contamination (lead, cadmium and mercury). One way ANOVA indicates statistically significant ...

  1. Plastic ingestion by harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo Rebolledo, E.; Franeker, van J.A.; Jansen, O.E.; Brasseur, S.M.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Abundance of ingested debris by seals has been mentioned as a potential indicator of marine litter in the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). A sample of 107 stomachs, 100 intestines and 125 scats of harbour seals from the Netherlands was analysed for the presence of plastics.

  2. Aspects of Water Quality of Freshwater Systems Harbouring Snail ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of some aspects of water quality of freshwater systems harbouring snail vectors of schistosome parasites was conducted in Jos, Nigeria. Calcium ion concentration of the water bodies was a mean value of 31 mg.l-1. The range of temperature was 15 - 30OC. The occurrence of Biomphalaria pferifferi was attributed to ...

  3. Declines of seagrasses in a tropical harbour, North Queensland ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A recent paper inferred that all seagrass in Cairns Harbour, tropical north-eastern Australia, had undergone 'complete and catastrophic loss' as a result of tropical cyclone Yasi in 2011. While we agree with the concern expressed, we would like to correct the suggestion that the declines were the result of a single climatic ...

  4. Pollution studies on harbours and jetties in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-14

    Mar 14, 2011 ... of the bacteria which is of public health importance in the harbours/jetties, indicates pollution. ... people live along side serious pollution sources and not ..... beach-clean and survey report. Marine Conservation. Society, Rosson-Wye. Mombershora C, Ajauyi SO, Osibainjo O (1981). Pollution studies on.

  5. of Sediment Deposition into the Dar es Salaam Harbour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sediment traps, a wave-gauge and a current-meter were deployed in the entrance channel during .... rivers namely Yombo, Mbagala and Mzinga drain into the ..... Harbour Transportation, Fishing Ports, Sediment. Transport, Geomorphology, Inlets, and Dredging. Gulf Publishing Company, Book Division,. Houston, Texas.

  6. Seabed surveys of Mormugao Harbour, Central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.; Gujar, A.R.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Mislankar, P.G.

    with natural and man-made features. The depth in the area ranged from 2-16 m and in the navigational channel from 7-15 m. The seabed in the inner harbour and towards the offshore end was marked by even topography, whereas in the northern and northwestern part...

  7. Phytoplankton dynamic responses to oil spill in Mumbai Harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    JiyalalRam, M.J.; Ram, A; Rokade, M.A; Karangutkar, S.H.; Yengal, B.; Dalvi, S.; Acharya, D.; Sharma, S.; Gajbhiye, S.N.

    The oil spill caused by collision of MSC-Chitra with MV-Khalijia on August 7, 2010 in Mumbai Harbour and surrounding area contaminated the shore and resulted in augmented level of PHc (6692.4-16902.2 mew g/l), though it was seen in low concentration...

  8. Numerical simulation of ship motion in offshore and harbour areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Jensen, Bjarne; Mortensen, Simon Brandi

    2008-01-01

    A method for simulating the motions and mooring forces of a moored ship subject to wave forcing has been further developed and validated for both the open water case and inside harbour areas. The method was originally developed and reported in Bingham (2000). The simulation tool is named WAMSIM...

  9. A systematic study of wave conditions and sediment transport near Mormugao harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reddy, M.P.M.

    Wave conditions and the nature of sediment transport in the Mormugao Harbour area have been evaluated in view of the proposed development project of this harbour It has been found from this study that generally high waves will be experienced...

  10. Suspended sediment transport and shoaling in the Munambam fishery harbour, Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Revichandran, C.; Abraham, P.; Josanto, V.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    phenomena in the harbour region. Based on various physical and geomorphological data available on the harbour and near shore region, remedial measures are suggested to prevent the siltation and shoaling at the entrance channel and the sandbar formation...

  11. Third Indian National Conference on Harbour and Ocean Engineering (INCHOE - 2004). Proceedings

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.; SanilKumar, V.; Jayakumar, S.

    The two volumes contain 103 scientific papers in the field of harbour and ocean engineering, presented at the Third Indian National Conference on Harbour and Ocean Engineering (INCHOE - 2004), held at National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Dona...

  12. A comparative study of macrobenthic community from harbours along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Sivadas, S.; Nanajkar, M.; Sautya, S.; Nag, A.

    compared the macrobenthic community between different Indian harbours. The present study was therefore conducted in three important harbour (Ratnagiri, Goa, Karwar) along the central west coast of India. The paper discusses the health status of the three...

  13. Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina and rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nynke Osinga

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the past few decades, rehabilitation of seals has become an activity that is anchored in the present day society of many countries. Seals are primarily rehabilitated to help individual animals in distress. At the same time, the release of seals which would have otherwise died can be considered as a contribution to the population. Most rehabilitated seals are animals under one year of age. They are mainly orphans, weaned seals with complications and seals with a parasiticbronchopneumonia. For the optimal handling of seals and their diseases, centralised operations with quality standards are essential. Rehabilitation provides an instrument to monitor the health of the seal population and its ecosystem. Changes in stranding trends or the appearance of new diseases can be monitored. Moreover, rehabilitation is important to show the general public thestate of the marine environment. In the Netherlands there is significant social support for the rehabilitation of seals. Experience obtained with seal care is of importance in countries where urgent help of threatened seal species is required. Here individual seals are also ambassadors to raise support for the protection of this species in general. Given that the anthropogenic impact on the seals and their environment is extensive in the Wadden Sea, rehabilitation centres can compensate the consequences of this impact on individual seals as well as the population as a whole.

  14. Vuosaari Harbour Road Tunnel Traffic Management and Incident Detection System Design Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caj Holm

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Helsinki is constructing in Vuosaari a new modem and effectivecargo harbour. All cargo harbour activities will be concentratedthere. The total project includes the harbour, a logisticsarea, traffic connections (road, railway and fairway and aBusiness Park. The road connection goes through the Porvarinlahtiroad tunnel. The harbour will commence operatingin 2008. This paper gives an oveTView of the tunnel design phasefunctional studies and risk analysis tunnel incident detectionsystem design issues and some specific environmental featuresof the tunnel.

  15. Vuosaari Harbour Road Tunnel Traffic Management and Incident Detection System Design Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Caj Holm; Ronald Westermark; Mario Anžek

    2006-01-01

    Helsinki is constructing in Vuosaari a new modem and effectivecargo harbour. All cargo harbour activities will be concentratedthere. The total project includes the harbour, a logisticsarea, traffic connections (road, railway and fairway) and aBusiness Park. The road connection goes through the Porvarinlahtiroad tunnel. The harbour will commence operatingin 2008. This paper gives an oveTView of the tunnel design phasefunctional studies and risk analysis tunnel incident detectionsystem design i...

  16. Biological and management aspects of a Caribbean mangal: West Harbour, Jamaica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chow, Barbara A.

    1997-01-01

    CHOW, Barbara A., 1997. Biological and management aspects of a Caribbean mangal: West Harbour, Jamaica. Studies Nat. Hist. Caribbean Region 73, Amsterdam, 1997: 1-22. Observations are given for the first time of West Harbour, a pristine south-coast Jamaican mangal. West Harbour is shown to be a

  17. The stranding anomaly as population indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltier, Helene; Baagøe, Hans J.; Camphuysen, Kees C. J.

    2013-01-01

    credibility are disputed. Our present goal is to improve the value of stranding data as population indicator as part of monitoring strategies by constructing the spatial and temporal null hypothesis for strandings. The null hypothesis is defined as: small cetacean distribution and mortality are uniform...... conditions did not explain observed seasonal variations of porpoise strandings. Long-term stranding anomalies increased first in the southern North Sea, the Channel and Bay of Biscay coasts, and finally the eastern North Sea. The hypothesis of changes in porpoise distribution was consistent with local visual...... surveys, mostly SCANS surveys (1994 and 2005). This new indicator could be applied to cetacean populations across the world and more widely to marine megafauna....

  18. Harbour Infrastructure Inventory Development with 3D Laser Scanning Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Świerczyński Sławomir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Polish law harbour infrastructure is one of key elements to determine the various cargo types, available means of transport and, ultimately, the significance of any sea port. The structures, devices and installations situated within a port’s boundaries, dedicated to the swift operation of the port, are all designed for tasks that involve the best use of this infrastructure.

  19. Salinity and survival of Martesia striata (Linn) in Cochin harbour

    OpenAIRE

    Cheriyan, P.V.; Cherian, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of salinity variations on the survival of Martesia striata from Cochin harbour are presented. It is observed that at least a few of the animals survive the low saline conditions during monsoon. Laboratory experiments showed the lethal salinity as 6‰ when animals acclimatised in 34‰ were subjected to abrupt changes in salinity. But acclimatisation to 17‰ salinity showed a downward shift in the lethal salinity to 4‰. The present observations indicate that M. striata is euryhaline ar...

  20. The Diel Rhythms of Biosonar Behavior in the Yangtze Finless Porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis) in the Port of the Yangtze River: The Correlation between Prey Availability and Boat Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhitao; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Wang, Kexiong; Wang, Ding

    2014-01-01

    Information on the habitat use of the critically endangered Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis) is critical for its conservation. The diel biosonar behavior of the porpoise in the port areas of the Yangtze River was examined along with simultaneous observations of fish density and boat traffic. Biosonar pulses from the porpoises were detected for 1233 min (5.77%) over a 21,380 min duration of effective observations. In total, 190 (5.63%) buzzes (an indication of prey capture attempts) were recorded among the 3372 identified click trains. Of the 168 echolocation encounters (bouts of click trains less than eight min apart), 150 (89.3%) involved single animals, indicating that solitary porpoises were frequently present and feeding in the port areas. Significant diel patterns were evident involving the biosonar behavior of the porpoises (including click trains and buzzes), fish density and boat traffic. The frequencies of the click trains and buzzes were significantly lower during the day than in the evening and at night, which suggests that porpoises in this region are primarily engaged in crepuscular and nocturnal foraging. The lack of a significant diel pattern in the echolocation encounters indicates the importance of the port in porpoise conservation. A forced feeding schedule may be associated with the lack of a significant correlation between porpoise acoustics and boat traffic. Overall, prey availability appears to be the primary factor that attracts porpoises. Additionally, porpoises tend to migrate or remain downstream in the morning and migrate or remain upstream in the evening, most likely to follow their prey. The findings of this study can be used to improve the conservation of the Yangtze finless porpoise. PMID:24823945

  1. The diel rhythms of biosonar behavior in the Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis) in the port of the Yangtze River: The correlation between prey availability and boat traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhitao; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Wang, Kexiong; Wang, Ding

    2014-01-01

    Information on the habitat use of the critically endangered Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis) is critical for its conservation. The diel biosonar behavior of the porpoise in the port areas of the Yangtze River was examined along with simultaneous observations of fish density and boat traffic. Biosonar pulses from the porpoises were detected for 1233 min (5.77%) over a 21,380 min duration of effective observations. In total, 190 (5.63%) buzzes (an indication of prey capture attempts) were recorded among the 3372 identified click trains. Of the 168 echolocation encounters (bouts of click trains less than eight min apart), 150 (89.3%) involved single animals, indicating that solitary porpoises were frequently present and feeding in the port areas. Significant diel patterns were evident involving the biosonar behavior of the porpoises (including click trains and buzzes), fish density and boat traffic. The frequencies of the click trains and buzzes were significantly lower during the day than in the evening and at night, which suggests that porpoises in this region are primarily engaged in crepuscular and nocturnal foraging. The lack of a significant diel pattern in the echolocation encounters indicates the importance of the port in porpoise conservation. A forced feeding schedule may be associated with the lack of a significant correlation between porpoise acoustics and boat traffic. Overall, prey availability appears to be the primary factor that attracts porpoises. Additionally, porpoises tend to migrate or remain downstream in the morning and migrate or remain upstream in the evening, most likely to follow their prey. The findings of this study can be used to improve the conservation of the Yangtze finless porpoise.

  2. The diel rhythms of biosonar behavior in the Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis in the port of the Yangtze River: The correlation between prey availability and boat traffic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitao Wang

    Full Text Available Information on the habitat use of the critically endangered Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis is critical for its conservation. The diel biosonar behavior of the porpoise in the port areas of the Yangtze River was examined along with simultaneous observations of fish density and boat traffic. Biosonar pulses from the porpoises were detected for 1233 min (5.77% over a 21,380 min duration of effective observations. In total, 190 (5.63% buzzes (an indication of prey capture attempts were recorded among the 3372 identified click trains. Of the 168 echolocation encounters (bouts of click trains less than eight min apart, 150 (89.3% involved single animals, indicating that solitary porpoises were frequently present and feeding in the port areas. Significant diel patterns were evident involving the biosonar behavior of the porpoises (including click trains and buzzes, fish density and boat traffic. The frequencies of the click trains and buzzes were significantly lower during the day than in the evening and at night, which suggests that porpoises in this region are primarily engaged in crepuscular and nocturnal foraging. The lack of a significant diel pattern in the echolocation encounters indicates the importance of the port in porpoise conservation. A forced feeding schedule may be associated with the lack of a significant correlation between porpoise acoustics and boat traffic. Overall, prey availability appears to be the primary factor that attracts porpoises. Additionally, porpoises tend to migrate or remain downstream in the morning and migrate or remain upstream in the evening, most likely to follow their prey. The findings of this study can be used to improve the conservation of the Yangtze finless porpoise.

  3. The influence of signal parameters on the sound source localization ability of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastelein, Ronald A; de Haan, Dick; Verboom, Willem C

    2007-08-01

    It is unclear how well harbor porpoises can locate sound sources, and thus can locate acoustic alarms on gillnets. Therefore the ability of a porpoise to determine the location of a sound source was determined. The animal was trained to indicate the active one of 16 transducers in a 16-m-diam circle around a central listening station. The duration and received level of the narrowband frequency-modulated signals (center frequencies 16, 64 and 100 kHz) were varied. The animal's localization performance increased when the signal duration increased from 600 to 1000 ms. The lower the received sound pressure level (SPL) of the signal, the harder the animal found it to localize the sound source. When pulse duration was long enough (approximately 1 s) and the received SPLs of the sounds were high (34-50 dB above basic hearing thresholds or 3-15 dB above the theoretical masked detection threshold in the ambient noise condition of the present study), the animal could locate sounds of the three frequencies almost equally well. The porpoise was able to locate sound sources up to 124 degrees to its left or right more easily than sounds from behind it.

  4. Temporal variation and biomagnification of organohalogen compounds in finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) from the South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramu, Karri [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama, Ehime Prefecture 790-8577 (Japan); Kajiwara, Natsuko [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama, Ehime Prefecture 790-8577 (Japan); Lam, Paul K.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Jefferson, Thomas A. [Southwest Fisheries Science Center, NOAA, Fisheries, 8604 La Jolla Shores Drive, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Zhou Kaiya [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Bioresource Technology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama, Ehime Prefecture 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2006-11-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine compounds (OCs) were determined in the blubber of male finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) collected in 1990 and 2000/01 from the South China Sea. Among the organohalogen compounds analyzed, DDTs and PCBs were the predominant contaminants in the porpoises, ranging from 26,000 to 260,000 and 1400 to 28,000 ng/g lipid wt., respectively. PBDEs ranged from a minimum of 84 ng/g lipid wt., in 1990 to a maximum of 980 ng/g lipid wt., in 2001, showing a significant increase during the time period investigated. Congener profiles in finless porpoises did not shift to higher BDE congeners during these years, implying a continuous discharge of lower BDE commercial mixtures, such as PentaBDE. For OCs, HCHs concentrations decreased significantly, while others did not exhibit any significant temporal variation. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) were found to be highest for CHLs and lowest for HCB. PBDEs and PCBs had comparable BMFs, indicating a similar potential for biomagnification through the food web. - Levels and temporal variations of organohalogen contaminants in the South China Sea.

  5. On harbour siltation in the fresh-salt water mixing region

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nijs, Michel A. J.; Winterwerp, Johan C.; Pietrzak, Julie D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a novel series of field measurements are presented, which are the first to elucidate the processes influencing siltation in Botlek Harbour. Botlek Harbour is situated at the limit of saline water intrusion in the Rotterdam Waterway. Normally, after the ebb tide fresher river waters are found in the Rotterdam Waterway at the location of Botlek Harbour. On the flooding tide, the tip of the salt wedge is advected along the Rotterdam Waterway towards the mouth of Botlek Harbour. Hence on flood, a lock-exchange mechanism operates between Botlek Harbour and the Rotterdam Waterway. On the flood tide, when there is a supply of suspended particulate matter (SPM) associated with the presence of the estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) at the mouth of the harbour, the survey data show exchange of SPM into the harbour. This lock-exchange process is found to be the dominant cause for SPM transport into the harbour. This is further substantiated by an analysis of the mass transport mechanisms. In this analysis, the vertical profiles of the instantaneous velocity, salinity and SPM concentration fields, recorded during the surveys, were decomposed into advective and dispersive transport components. The results of this analysis indicate that the correlation between the lock-exchange mechanism on the flood tide with the availability of SPM for exchange and efficient trapping, dominate the total exchange of SPM (97%). Hence, the increase in measured near-bed SPM concentration within the harbour is ascribed to tidal advection of saline water and the ETM along the Rotterdam Waterway. Tidal advection controls the density difference between the estuary and harbour, as well as the availability of SPM for exchange at the entrance to Botlek Harbour. The location of the ETM at the tip of the salt wedge is a key factor in supplying SPM to Botlek Harbour. Consequently the timing of the availability of SPM at the mouth of the harbour needs to be considered in siltation studies. The

  6. Respiratory transmission of an avian H3N8 influenza virus isolated from a harbour seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Erik A.; Ip, Hon S.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Yoon, Sun W.; Johnson, Jordan; Beck, Melinda A.; Webby, Richard J.; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing human H7N9 influenza infections highlight the threat of emerging avian influenza viruses. In 2011, an avian H3N8 influenza virus isolated from moribund New England harbour seals was shown to have naturally acquired mutations known to increase the transmissibility of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses. To elucidate the potential human health threat, here we evaluate a panel of avian H3N8 viruses and find that the harbour seal virus displays increased affinity for mammalian receptors, transmits via respiratory droplets in ferrets and replicates in human lung cells. Analysis of a panel of human sera for H3N8 neutralizing antibodies suggests that there is no population-wide immunity to these viruses. The prevalence of H3N8 viruses in birds and multiple mammalian species including recent isolations from pigs and evidence that it was a past human pandemic virus make the need for surveillance and risk analysis of these viruses of public health importance.

  7. A modelling framework to optimize timing of haulout counts for estimating harbour seal (Phoca vitulina abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Cronin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The time of year and day, the state of the tide and prevailing environmental conditions significantly influence seal haulout behaviour. Understanding these effects is fundamentally important in deriving accurate estimates of harbour seal abundance from haulout data. We present a modelling approach to assess the influence of these variables on seals’ haulout behaviour and, by identifying the combination of covariates during which seal abundance is highest, predict the optimal time and conditions for future surveys. Count data of harbour seals at haulouts in southwest Ireland collected during 2003-2005 were included in mixed additive models together with environmental covariates, including season, time of day and weather conditions. The models show maximum abundance at haulout sites occurred during midday periods during August and in late afternoon/early evening during September. Accurate national and local population estimates are essential for the effective monitoring of the conservation status of the species and for the identification, management and monitoring of Special Areas of Conservation (SAC in accordance with the EU Habitats Directive. Our model based approach provides a useful tool for optimising the timing of harbourseal surveys in Ireland and the modelling framework is useful for predicting optimal survey periods for other protected, endangered or significant species worldwide.

  8. Geodetic infrastructure at the Barcelona harbour for sea level monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Benjamin, Juan Jose; Gili, Josep; Lopez, Rogelio; Tapia, Ana; Pros, Francesc; Palau, Vicenc; Perez, Begona

    2015-04-01

    The presentation is directed to the description of the actual geodetic infrastructure of Barcelona harbour with three tide gauges of different technologies for sea level determination and contribution to regional sea level rise and understanding past and present sea level rise in the Barcelona harbour. It is intended that the overall system will constitute a CGPS Station of the ESEAS (European Sea Level) and TIGA (GPS Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring) networks. At Barcelona harbour there is a MIROS radar tide gauge belonging to Puertos del Estado (Spanish Harbours).The radar sensor is over the water surface, on a L-shaped structure which elevates it a few meters above the quay shelf. 1-min data are transmitted to the ENAGAS Control Center by cable and then sent each 1 min to Puertos del Estado by e-mail. The information includes wave forescast (mean period, significant wave height, sea level, etc.This sensor also measures agitation and sends wave parameters each 20 min. There is a GPS station Leica Geosystems GRX1200 GG Pro and antenna AX 1202 GG. The Control Tower of the Port of Barcelona is situated in the North dike of the so-called Energy Pier in the Barcelona harbor (Spain). This tower has different kind of antennas for navigation monitoring and a GNSS permanent station. As the tower is founded in reclaimed land, and because its metallic structure, the 50 m building is subjected to diverse movements, including periodic fluctuations due to temperature changes. In this contribution the 2009, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 the necessary monitoring campaigns are described. In the framework of a Spanish Space Project, the instrumentation of sea level measurements has been improved by providing the Barcelona site with a radar tide gauge Datamar 2000C from Geonica S.L. in June 2014 near an acoustic tide gauge from the Barcelona Harbour installed in 2013. Precision levelling has been made several times in the last two years because the tower is founded in reclaimed land and

  9. Polychaete assemblages and sediment pollution in a harbour with two opposing entrances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-García, José M.; García-Gómez, José C.

    2004-10-01

    The harbour at Ceuta is one of the most important harbours in the Strait of Gibraltar. The sediments are moderately polluted with organic matter and heavy metals but the harbour has two opposing entrances and a connecting channel which increases water renewal and dissolved oxygen across the harbour. For these special conditions, the value of the soft bottom polychaete community as a bioindicator, and possible advantages of the presence of two harbour entrances on biotic assemblages, were studied. Twenty-one stations were selected, and 27 variables were measured in the sediment of each station. The polychaete species richness and Shannon diversity values were similar inside and outside the harbour. Nevertheless, the Pielou evenness index was significantly higher in the external stations due to high densities of some species of polychaetes such as Pseudomalacoceros tridentata and Capitella capitata inside the harbour. The multivariate approach based on polychaete species composition was much more sensitive than univariate analyses at discriminating between internal and external stations. The pollution gradient and granulometric parameters were the main factors affecting polychaete distribution. Polychaete species richness and diversity in sediments inside Ceuta harbour were higher than in conventional harbours due to the positive effects of increased water renewal. These results should be taken into consideration in design, construction and remodelling of future harbours.

  10. Siltation Rate and Mechanism in the North Harbour of Incheon, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. T.; Lee, G. H.; Ryu, W.; Shin, H. J.; Lee, S.; Kim, K.; Dellapenna, T.; Williams, J. R.; Ha, H.

    2014-12-01

    The development of North Harbour was initiated at a macro-tidal flat within the Harbour Complex of Incheon, Korea in 1997. To maintain the design depth of -14 m below ALLW (Approximately Lowest Low Water) from the tidal flat of 2 m above LLW, dredging operation has been repeated over the last 13 years within the unbalanced (disequilibrium) North Harbour. In efforts to reduce the siltation within the harbour, this paper deals with the estimation of siltation rate and the determination of the mechanism for the siltation within the North Harbour. The siltation rate was estimated and then confirmed by the following three independent methods: comparison of available hydrographic survey data (smooth sheet), radioisotope analysis of gravity cores and altimeter measurement of bed level. The sedimentation rate varied from 20 cm/yr in the far end of the harbour to about 70 cm/yr at the entrance. In order to determine dominant mechanisms for siltation, two ADCPs and two CTDs were deployed at the entrance and the far end of the harbour over a month, and examined flow mechanisms for a harbour basin. The preliminary results suggest that the mechanisms include Suspended Particulate Material (SPM) exchange by horizontal entrainment through the harbour mouth and trapping of SPM in the harbour basin.

  11. Abundance and recruitment data for Undaria pinnatifida in Brest harbour, France: Model versus field results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T. Murphy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “A modelling approach to explore the critical environmental parameters influencing the growth and establishment of the invasive seaweed Undaria pinnatifida in Europe” [1]. This article describes raw simulation data output from a novel individual-based model of the invasive kelp species Undaria pinnatifida. It also includes field data of monthly abundance and recruitment values for a population of invasive U. pinnatifida (in Brest harbour, France that were used to validate the model. The raw model output and field data are made publicly available in order to enable critical analysis of the model predictions and to inform future modelling efforts of the study species.

  12. Grey and harbour seals in France: Distribution at sea, connectivity and trends in abundance at haulout sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Cécile; Huon, Mathilde; Caurant, Florence; Dabin, Willy; Deniau, Armel; Dixneuf, Stéphane; Dupuis, Laetitia; Elder, Jean-François; Fremau, Marie-Hélène; Hassani, Sami; Hemon, Audrey; Karpouzopoulos, Jacky; Lefeuvre, Cécile; McConnell, Bernie J.; Moss, Simon E. W.; Provost, Pascal; Spitz, Jérôme; Turpin, Yannis; Ridoux, Vincent

    2017-07-01

    Grey (Halichoerus grypus) and harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) are sympatric seal species, but they display distinct strategies of habitat use and connectivity between haulout sites. The distribution patterns and variations in relative abundance of both species were investigated along the French coast of the English Channel, at the southern limit of their range where seal numbers are increasing. Regular censuses conducted at all main haulout sites in mainland France showed significant seasonal variations at most sites, with more harbour seals counted during summer (breeding and moulting seasons), and more grey seals during summer only in the eastern English Channel. Trends in maximum haulout numbers at haulout sites showed a significant increase over the last five years, ranging from 9.7% to 30.9% per year for harbour seals, and from 5.8% (in the western English Channel) to 49.2% (in the eastern English Channel) per year for grey seals. These rates of increase in grey seal numbers are not linked to local pup production and most probably result from seal movements from the southwest British Isles and the North Sea, respectively. Aerial surveys conducted across the English Channel showed that most seal observations at sea were concentrated in the north-eastern English Channel. Telemetry showed that the 28 harbour seals tracked remained highly coastal, within a radius of 100 km from their haulout sites, and did not move to other known colonies. Grey seals moved much greater distances, reaching up to 1200 km from their capture site. More than half of the 45 grey seals tracked crossed the English Channel, especially during the breeding season, moving to known colonies in the southwest British Isles and the North Sea. Combining individual tracks and long-term surveys of the seal populations allowed a better understanding of the dynamics of these populations and their connectivity at a larger regional scale. The findings provide direct information for the management of grey

  13. Assessing pollution levels in sediments of a harbour with two opposing entrances: environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-García, José M; García-Gómez, J Carlos

    2005-10-01

    The harbour of Ceuta, North Africa, differs substantially from conventional harbours with only one entrance since it has two opposing entrances and a channel which increases water renewal and local currents, with implications for sedimentary processes, levels of pollution and oxygen concentration. The distribution of heavy metals, nutrients and total hydrocarbons was investigated in sediment samples from this particular harbour. The grain size effect, a normalization technique using Fe concentrations and different sediment quality guidelines are discussed, and the data from the harbour of Ceuta are compared with other harbours worldwide. In spite of the water renewal, sediments inside the harbour of Ceuta were characterised by moderate levels of pollution, mainly hydrocarbons (496--6972 microg/g), P (282--1350 microg/g), N (100--2600 microg/g) and heavy metals Cu (5--865 microg/g), Pb (10--516 microg/g), Zn (296--695 microg/g), Cr (13--381 microg/g) and Ni (8--671 microg/g). Taking into account that there is no industrial activity around the harbour of Ceuta, the major sources of contamination are the sewage effluents of urban influence, anti-fouling paints and accidental oil spills during loading and dumping involved in shipping operations. The design of Ceuta harbour should be taken into consideration in the design, construction and management of future harbours.

  14. The National Trust and the Heritage of Sydney Harbour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Logan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Campaigns to preserve the legacy of the past in Australian cities have been particularly focused on the protection of natural landscapes and public open space. From campaigns to protect Perth’s Kings Park and the Green Bans of the Builders Labourers Federation in New South Wales to contemporary controversies such as the Perth waterfront redevelopment, Melbourne’s East West Link, and new development at Middle Harbour in Sydney’s Mosman, heritage activists have viewed the protection and restoration of ‘natural’ vistas, open spaces and ‘scenic landscapes’ as a vital part of the effort to preserve the historic identity of urban places. The protection of such landscapes has been a vital aspect of establishing a positive conception of the environment as a source of both urban and national identity. Drawing predominantly on the records of the National Trust of Australia (NSW, this paper examines the formation and early history of the Australian National Trust, in particular its efforts to preserve and restore the landscapes of Sydney Harbour. It then uses that history as a basis for examining the debate surrounding the landscape reconstruction project that forms part of Sydney’s highly contested Barangaroo development.

  15. The numismatic evidence on the Roman harbour of Patrai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charikleia Papageorgiadou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Patrai, where Augustus founded a roman colony held a favorable position for the control not only of the northern Peloponnesian coastline but also the routes in the Aetolia and Locris.Although a maritime trade station, the references to its harbour is very scanty, while its ancient remains are almost totally destroyed by the modern city’s expansion. However, the installations of an important harbour can be attested in the numismatic evidence, offered by two issues dated to the reign of Commodus and Geta, which coincide with the archaeological one supporting the idea of a project to restore, enlarge or reconstruct the port during the reign of Commodus. This is perhaps the cause for the more realistic and more detailed rendering of the monuments depicted. The issues struck under Geta, in a more elliptic artistic rendering, might have been commemorative, to honour his predecessor’s benefaction to the colony.It is worth noticing that some of the buildings and statues which are shown can be identified to similar types depicted on other issues of the city, not only dated to the reigns of Commodus and Geta, but to other periods as well .Few Greek cities depict their harbours on their coins, most of them located in the region of the Peloponnese and dated to the Antonine and the Severi period. Their harbours underwent extensive reconstructions during Roman times and were transformed into major centres in the naval and commercial network of the period.In fact, it seems that the flourishing of a net of cities in the northern Peloponnesian coast as commercial centres was the trigger for the issuing of these coins promoting their predominance in the sea routes and commemorating actual construction works in their ports. The scarcity of the coins depicting harbours and the limited numbersofissues could confirm that these pieces were meant to celebrate or commemorate a construction program referring to

  16. Eutrophication problems in the Western Harbour of Alexandria, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Okbah

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Eutrophication-related problems in the Western Harbour of Alexandria were studied monthly from April 1999 to March 2000. Variation in salinity appeared to be the key to all changes in water quality and plankton abundance in the harbour. Both at the surface and near the bottom the salinity was lower (annual average: 35.1 and 38.3 PSU respectively than in the open sea (39 PSU. Dissolved oxygen levels indicated poor aeration conditions along the water column (2.3-3.98 mg l-1. Average pH values were approximately similar in the two layers (8.1 and 8 respectively but exhibited different ranges of variations. Nutrient salts varied widely, often occurring in high concentrations, with ranges of 0.12-5.7 and 0.06-2.6 µM at the surface and the bottom respectively for phosphate, 0.21-20.46 and 0.25-18.12 µM for nitrate, 0.29-3.3 and 0.23-1.66 µM for nitrite, 0.56-57.46 and 2.32-43.73 µM for ammonia and 0.3-36.3 and 0.48-38.4 µM for silicate. As a result of nutrient enrichment, phytoplankton growth was very intensive, reflected by an abnormally high concentration of chlorophyll a (annual average: 33.82 µg l-1. At the same time the death of large numbers of phytoplankton cells could be inferred from the relatively large amount of phaeopigment (annual average: 10.39 µg l-1. The high levels of nutrient salts and phytoplankton biomass together serve as a good indicator of high eutrophication levels in the Western Harbour throughout the year. These conditions clearly affected the zooplankton stock, which varied between 5.8-93.6 × 103 indiv. m-3, although for most of the time values remained at a low level (annual average: 26 728 indiv. m-3.

  17. Sydney harbourings, rehabilitations and the politics of procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine de Lorenzo

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last three years Sydney has been transformed to an unprecedented extent by public art projects, most of which have been developed by government instrumentalities, agencies or partnerships. The central city council has initiated a Sculpture Walk through the streets and around the rocky foreshores of the inner city; the Sydney Olympic site at Homebush Bay is home to a number of public art works; the government’s water utility company has sponsored an annual, temporary art installation walk along a spectacularly rugged ocean escarpment linking several medium-density suburbs; another instrumentality recently established to oversee the reuse of abandoned heavy industrial sites in the harbour, has established the ‘Promenart’ program along fifteen kilometres of harbour foreshores; and a government-appointed statutory authority responsible for the redevelopment of an extensive and highly polluted former industrial site between the CDB and the airport, has worked closely with designers and artists to develop comprehensive briefs addressing environmental rehabilitation and social interaction. This impressive list is by no means exhaustive. The surge in bureaucratic and artistic creative energy demands critical evaluation. In this paper I will contrast two sets of projects. This first concerns actual projects, in or near the spectacular Sydney Harbour setting, which are premised on placemaking principles and on the whole elicit actual or imagined histories for the delight and reverie of the promenader. Despite the popular and aesthetic success of these projects, one of them, the ambitious Sculpture Walk, is currently being re-evaluated. The second set, in more mundane suburban environments and centred on toxic waterways, concerns projects that at this stage are either being implemented or nearing commencement by interdisciplinary groups of artists, designers, engineers, environmentalists, community representatives, and other specialists. Their

  18. Gas bubbles in seals, dolphins, and porpoises entangled and drowned at depth in gillnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M J; Bogomolni, A L; Dennison, S E; Early, G; Garner, M M; Hayward, B A; Lentell, B J; Rotstein, D S

    2009-05-01

    Gas bubbles were found in 15 of 23 gillnet-drowned bycaught harp (Pagophilus groenlandicus), harbor (Phoca vitulina) and gray (Halichoerus grypus) seals, common (Delphinus delphis) and white-sided (Lagenorhyncus acutus) dolphins, and harbor porpoises (Phocaena phocaena) but in only 1 of 41 stranded marine mammals. Cases with minimal scavenging and bloating were chilled as practical and necropsied within 24 to 72 hours of collection. Bubbles were commonly visible grossly and histologically in bycaught cases. Affected tissues included lung, liver, heart, brain, skeletal muscle, gonad, lymph nodes, blood, intestine, pancreas, spleen, and eye. Computed tomography performed on 4 animals also identified gas bubbles in various tissues. Mean +/- SD net lead line depths (m) were 92 +/- 44 and ascent rates (ms(-1)) 0.3 +/- 0.2 for affected animals and 76 +/- 33 and 0.2 +/- 0.1, respectively, for unaffected animals. The relatively good carcass condition of these cases, comparable to 2 stranded cases that showed no gas formation on computed tomography (even after 3 days of refrigeration in one case), along with the histologic absence of bacteria and autolytic changes, indicate that peri- or postmortem phase change of supersaturated blood and tissues is most likely. Studies have suggested that under some circumstances, diving mammals are routinely supersaturated and that these mammals presumably manage gas exchange and decompression anatomically and behaviorally. This study provides a unique illustration of such supersaturated tissues. We suggest that greater attention be paid to the radiology and pathology of bycatch mortality as a possible model to better understand gas bubble disease in marine mammals.

  19. Sedimentation and Flood assessment for the expansion of Kingston Harbour, Jamaica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerssens, P.; Verreijken, K.; Vermerris, P.; Wijs, J.

    2012-01-01

    Student project report, in cooperation with Smith-Warner International Ltd. (SWIL), Kingston, Jamaica. At this moment the shipping channels in Kingston Harbour, Jamaica, slowly accrete. When the harbour is expanded, the local and global sediment transport is likely to change. During this project it

  20. Measurements of boat motion in waves at Durban harbour for qualitative validation of motion model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mosikare, OR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Response Amplitude Operator (RAO) theory was used to develop a mathematical model of boat angular motion. Measurements were made on a harbour patrol boat on sea runs off Durban Harbour. Measurements were first calibrated for axis alignment...

  1. Design and construction of an export harbour in Persian Gulf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimzadegan, K. [Horizon Engineering Inc., North Vancover, BC (Canada); Raissi, H. [Tehran Berkeley Engineers, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Design and construction of the Pars Sulphur Export Harbour near the city of Beshar, in southern Iran on the Persian Gulf, to accommodate 15,000 DWT (deadweight) general cargo vessels is described. Although the steep drop of the ground near the shore was ideal for ship-berthing facilities, the construction of the associated breakwater in very deep waters required a significant amount of land reclamation (102,000 sq m, with a depth of backfilling up to eight metres and volume of about 550,000 cu m). The paper provides design details for filling the reclamation area in an economical way. It also describes the construction management and control issues that had to be dealt with to allow for the successful completion of the project within the approved budget. 5 tabs., 5 figs.

  2. The effect of dock length on harbour siltation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Maren, Dirk Sebastiaan; Winterwerp, Johan C.; Sas, Marc; Vanlede, Joris

    2009-06-01

    Density-driven exchange flows between estuaries and harbour docks are influenced by the length of the dock. As a result, increasing dock size through its lengthening, not necessarily results in an increase in sedimentation rates. The propagation of a low-salinity surface patch into the dock is blocked at the head of a relatively short dock, resulting in a reversal of density-driven flows, and a reduction of the hydrostatic pressure gradients in the entrance of the dock. A reduced hydrostatic pressure in the dock, in turn, promotes near-bed inflow. When this increased near-bed inflow coincides with a high sediment supply on the adjacent river, the sediment transport into the dock increases. This has been tested with an extensively validated high-resolution numerical model developed for the Deurganckdok in the Port of Antwerp. In the Deurganckdok, siltation rates are expected to decrease when the dock is fully excavated compared to the present half-opened dock. Whether exchange flows between estuaries and harbour docks are influenced by the length of the dock, depends on the tidal variation in salinity. For small tidal density variations (around 0.5 kg/m 3), the dock length is expected to influence exchange flows in a short dock (approximately 1 km), whereas the dock should be much longer (4 km) when the tidal density variation is higher (around 5 kg/m 3). Whether these changing exchange flow result in a lowering or increase of sediment import, depends on the phase difference between sediment concentration peaks on the adjacent river/estuary and the salinity variation, and on the vertical distribution of sediment.

  3. A note on the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina in the Faroe Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarni Mikkelsen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The harbour seal was exterminated as a breeding species in the Faroe Islands in the mid-19th Century. Historical sources document that the harbour seal used to be a common inhabitant of the sheltered fjords where breeding occurred. It was reported to be more common than the grey seal, the other pinniped specie resident around the Faroes. But the number of harbour seals seemingly decreased as human settlements and other anthropogenic activities increased. Seal hunting was apparently already introduced by the Norse that arrived on the islands in the 7th century, a hunt that finally lead to the extermination of the harbour seal. For the last 40 years the harbour seal has only been positively identified twice in the Faroe Islands, in 2001 and 2005.

  4. Role of commercial harbours and recreational marinas in the spread of non-indigenous fouling species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Jasmine; Caronni, Sarah; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna; Marchini, Agnese

    2017-09-01

    The role of commercial harbours as sink and source habitats for non-indigenous species (NIS) and the role of recreational boating for their secondary spread were investigated by analysing the fouling community of five Italian harbours and five marinas in the western Mediterranean Sea. It was first hypothesised that NIS assemblages in the recreational marinas were subsets of those occurring in commercial harbours. However, the data did not consistently support this hypothesis: the NIS pools of some marinas significantly diverged from harbours even belonging to the same coastal stretches, including NIS occurring only in marinas. This study confirms harbours as hotspots for marine NIS, but also reveals that numbers of NIS in some marinas is higher than expected, suggesting that recreational vessels effectively facilitate NIS spread. It is recommended that this vector of NIS introduction is taken into account in the future planning of sustainable development of maritime tourism in Europe.

  5. The influence of 70 and 120 kHz tonal signals on the behavior of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in a floating pen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Verboom, W.C.; Jennings, N.; Haan, de D.; Heul, van der S.

    2008-01-01

    Two harbor porpoises in a floating pen were subjected to five pure tone underwater signals of 70 or 120 kHz with different signal durations, amplitudes and duty cycles (% of time sound is produced). Some signals were continuous, others were intermittent (duty cycles varied between 8% and 100%). The

  6. The influence of 70 and 120 kHz tonal signals on the behavior of harbor porpoises () in a floating pen

    OpenAIRE

    Kastelein, Ronald A.; Verboom, Willem C.; Jennings, Nancy; De Haan, Dick; Van Der Heul, Sander

    2008-01-01

    The influence of 70 and 120 kHz tonal signals on the behavior of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in a floating pen correspondance: Corresponding author. (Kastelein, Ronald A.) (Kastelein, Ronald A.) Sea Mammal Research Company (SEAMARCO)--> , Julianalaan 46--> , 3843 CC Harderwijk--> - NETHERLANDS (Kastelein, Ronald A.) NETHERLANDS (Kastelein, Ronald A.) Acoustic consultancy--> ...

  7. Hearing thresholds of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) for sweeps (1-2 kHz and 6-7 kHz bands) mimicking naval sonar signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastelein, Ronald A; Hoek, Lean; de Jong, Christ A F

    2011-05-01

    The distance at which active naval sonar signals can be heard by harbor porpoises depends, among other factors, on the hearing thresholds of the species for those signals. Therefore the hearing sensitivity of a harbor porpoise was determined for 1 s up-sweep and down-sweep signals, mimicking mid-frequency and low-frequency active sonar sweeps (MFAS, 6-7 kHz band; LFAS, 1-2 kHz band). The 1-2 kHz sweeps were also tested with harmonics, as sonars sometimes produce these as byproducts of the fundamental signal. The hearing thresholds for up-sweeps and down-sweeps within each sweep pair were similar. The 50% detection threshold sound pressure levels (broadband, averaged over the signal duration) of the 1-2 kHz and 6-7 kHz sweeps were 75 and 67 dB re 1 μPa(2), respectively. Harmonic deformation of the 1-2 kHz sweeps reduced the threshold to 59 dB re 1 μPa(2). This study shows that the presence of harmonics in sonar signals can increase the detectability of a signal by harbor porpoises, and that tonal audiograms may not accurately predict the audibility of sweeps. LFAS systems, when designed to produce signals without harmonics, can operate at higher source levels than MFAS systems, at similar audibility distances for porpoises.

  8. Hearing thresholds of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) for playbacks of seal scarer signals, and effects of the signals on behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Hoek, L.; Gransier, R.; Jong, C.A.F. de; Terhune, J.M.; Jennings, N.

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic Mitigation Devices (AMDs) are used to deter marine mammals from construction sites, in order to prevent hearing injury by offshore pile driving noise. To estimate the distance at which two AMDs designed as ‘seal scarers’ (Ace Aquatec and Lofitech) are detected by harbor porpoises, the 50%

  9. The influence of 70 and 120 kHz tonal signals on the behavior of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in a floating pen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastelein, Ronald A; Verboom, Willem C; Jennings, Nancy; de Haan, Dick; van der Heul, Sander

    2008-09-01

    Two harbor porpoises in a floating pen were subjected to five pure tone underwater signals of 70 or 120 kHz with different signal durations, amplitudes and duty cycles (% of time sound is produced). Some signals were continuous, others were intermittent (duty cycles varied between 8% and 100%). The effect of each signal was judged by comparing the animals' surfacing locations and number of surfacings (i.e. number of respirations) during test periods with those during baseline periods. In all cases, both porpoises moved away from the sound source, but the effect of the signals on respiration rates was negligible. Pulsed 70 kHz signals with a source level (SL) of 137 dB had a similar effect as a continuous 70 kHz signal with an SL of 148 dB (re 1 microPa, rms). Also, a pulsed 70 kHz signal with an SL of 147 dB had a much stronger deterring effect than a continuous 70 kHz signal with a similar SL. For pulsed 70 kHz signals (2 s pulse duration, 4s pulse interval, SL 147 dB re 1 microPa, rms), the avoidance threshold sound pressure level (SPL), in the context of the present study, was estimated to be around 130 dB (re 1 microPa, rms) for porpoise 064 and around 124 dB (re 1 microPa, rms) for porpoise 047. This study shows that ultrasonic pingers (70 kHz) can deter harbor porpoises. Such ultrasonic pingers have the advantage that they do not have a "dinner bell" effect on pinnipeds, and probably have no, or less, effect on other marine fauna, which are often sensitive to low frequency sounds.

  10. The diet of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina at the southern limit of its European distribution (Normandy, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Spitz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in habitat availability or resources are likely to have the biggest impact on survival or abundance of individuals found at the extremity of the population’s range. In the case of such marginal populations, the first step in designing appropriate conservation plans is the identification of potential risks to the viability of the population, or subpopulation. For example, the interaction between coastal seals and fisheries is often considered as a major conservation issue, due to the potential co-exploitation of the same resources by both fishermen and seals. The diet of harbour seals was investigated by scat analysis at the southern extremity of their European range, in Baie des Veys (Normandy, France. A total of 121 scats, analysed following standard methodologies, revealed a diet largely dominated by mullets, Mugilidae (49% by mass, plaice Pleuronectes platess (29% by mass and garfish, Belone belone (19% by mass. The diet of harbour seals at the edge of their European distribution differs from all previous studies conducted elsewhere, in terms of species composition, but shows a similar balance between fat and lean fish. Overall dietcomposition suggests a low potential for interaction with fisheries as commercial fishery target species are almost absent.

  11. Approaches to environmental restoration of a polluted harbour with submerged archaeology: the Alexandria case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Rayis, Osman A; Hemeda, Engy I; Ismael, Amany M; Jammo, K

    2003-01-01

    Many invaluable underwater buildings of archaeological interest in Alexandria were discovered in 1996 at different sites in the Eastern Harbour of Alexandria. There is a belief that the best way to protect these invaluable heritages is to transfer them to an underwater park or museum. Obviously, the execution of such a project depends essentially upon the water quality (including water transparency) improving in the future. The harbour is presently polluted by discharge of wastewater effluents from different sources. It has recently been decided to restore this important coastal area through: (1) stopping the direct discharge of wastewater effluents into this semi-enclosed harbour in 1993 and (2) gradually reducing the discharge of the municipal wastewater through marine outfalls at two sites lying at the outer sides of the harbour. Zero discharge is expected to be effective by the end of the year 2001. The present work, therefore, is a follow up of the study of water quality in the harbour after 1993: in 1996 and 1999-2000. The water quality of an open sea reference station was also studied for comparison. The results reveal occurrence of an improvement of the environmental conditions in the harbour. The water has turned from being eutrophic to mesotrophic. The harbour is expected to become meso/oligotrophic as soon as the complete cessation of the discharge from the two outside sources is attained.

  12. Influence on surfers wind conditions east of the new Hanstholm harbour/wind turbine project

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Torben J.; Astrup, Poul

    2012-01-01

    In this report a consequence study regarding the surfers wind conditions east of the planned new harbour area of Hanstholm. At this harbour area, 10 new 150m tall 3MW wind turbines are planned.Both the harbour constructions as well as the wind turbines could potentially alter the wind conditions on the lee side, which is an important area for wind and kite surfers. In this study, both changes in mean wind velocities as well as the turbulence level are investigated for the surf area between a ...

  13. Soft bottom mollusc assemblages and pollution in a harbour with two opposing entrances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-García, José M.; Carlos García-Gómez, J.

    2004-06-01

    Conventional harbours, provided with only one entrance and devoid of channels, are enclosed areas with low water renewal, high sedimentation rate and high concentrations of pollutants in sediments; the soft bottom communities are characterised by low species richness and low values of the diversity and evenness indexes. The harbour of Ceuta, North Africa, presents an unusual structure since it is provided with two opposing entrances and a channel, which increase the water renewal across the middle of the harbour. These unusual characteristics turn the harbour of Ceuta into an adequate locality to test its environmental implications on macrofaunal assemblages. In the present study, the spatial distribution of mollusc community associated with soft bottoms was studied in relation to the influence of environmental factors on the harbour of Ceuta and nearby areas, North Africa. Twenty-one stations (15 inside and six outside the harbour) were sampled and 26 variables were measured in the sediment of each station: depth, %sand, organic matter, lipids, P, N, Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, S, Sr, Zn. The special configuration of Ceuta harbour created a great variability in sediment characteristics and environmental measures depending on the stations and, due to this heterogeneity, the mollusc species richness in the sediments inside the harbour (45 species) was higher than in conventional harbours. The multivariate approach based on MDS analysis was much more sensitive than univariate techniques to detect differences between internal and external stations of the harbour of Ceuta. The percentage of sand was the main factor to affect the distribution of the mollusc assemblages according to the BIO-ENV procedure and the CCA. SIMPER showed that the bivalves Parvicardium exiguum, Ervilia castanea, Spisula subtruncata and Digitaria digitata were the species that most contributed to the dissimilarity between internal and external stations; P

  14. Multispecies reactive transport modelling of electrokinetic remediation of harbour sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Matteo; Ceccarini, Alessio; Iannelli, Renato

    2017-03-15

    We implemented a numerical model to simulate transport of multiple species and geochemical reactions occurring during electrokinetic remediation of metal-contaminated porous media. The main phenomena described by the model were: (1) species transport by diffusion, electromigration and electroosmosis, (2) pH-dependent buffering of H + , (3) adsorption of metals onto particle surfaces, (4) aqueous speciation, (5) formation and dissolution of solid precipitates. The model was applied to simulate the electrokinetic extraction of heavy metals (Pb, Zn and Ni) from marine harbour sediments, characterized by a heterogeneous solid matrix, high buffering capacity and aged pollution. A good agreement was found between simulations of pH, electroosmotic flow and experimental results. The predicted residual metal concentrations in the sediment were also close to experimental profiles for all of the investigated metals. Some removal overestimation was observed in the regions close to the anode, possibly due to the significant metal content bound to residual fraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Insect symbiotic bacteria harbour viral pathogens for transovarial transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dongsheng; Mao, Qianzhuo; Chen, Yong; Liu, Yuyan; Chen, Qian; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Hongyan; Li, Yi; Wei, Taiyun

    2017-03-06

    Many insects, including mosquitoes, planthoppers, aphids and leafhoppers, are the hosts of bacterial symbionts and the vectors for transmitting viral pathogens1-3. In general, symbiotic bacteria can indirectly affect viral transmission by enhancing immunity and resistance to viruses in insects3-5. Whether symbiotic bacteria can directly interact with the virus and mediate its transmission has been unknown. Here, we show that an insect symbiotic bacterium directly harbours a viral pathogen and mediates its transovarial transmission to offspring. We observe rice dwarf virus (a plant reovirus) binding to the envelopes of the bacterium Sulcia, a common obligate symbiont of leafhoppers6-8, allowing the virus to exploit the ancient oocyte entry path of Sulcia in rice leafhopper vectors. Such virus-bacterium binding is mediated by the specific interaction of the viral capsid protein and the Sulcia outer membrane protein. Treatment with antibiotics or antibodies against Sulcia outer membrane protein interferes with this interaction and strongly prevents viral transmission to insect offspring. This newly discovered virus-bacterium interaction represents the first evidence that a viral pathogen can directly exploit a symbiotic bacterium for its transmission. We believe that such a model of virus-bacterium communication is a common phenomenon in nature.

  16. Preimplantation death of xenomitochondrial mouse embryo harbouring bovine mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Manabu; Koyama, Shiori; Iimura, Satomi; Yamazaki, Wataru; Tanaka, Aiko; Kohri, Nanami; Sasaki, Keisuke; Takahashi, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria, cellular organelles playing essential roles in eukaryotic cell metabolism, are thought to have evolved from bacteria. The organization of mtDNA is remarkably uniform across species, reflecting its vital and conserved role in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Our objectives were to evaluate the compatibility of xenogeneic mitochondria in the development of preimplantation embryos in mammals. Mouse embryos harbouring bovine mitochondria (mtB-M embryos) were prepared by the cell-fusion technique employing the haemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ). The mtB-M embryos showed developmental delay at embryonic days (E) 3.5 after insemination. Furthermore, none of the mtB-M embryos could implant into the maternal uterus after embryo transfer, whereas control mouse embryos into which mitochondria from another mouse had been transferred developed as well as did non-manipulated embryos. When we performed quantitative PCR (qPCR) of mouse and bovine ND5, we found that the mtB-M embryos contained 8.3% of bovine mitochondria at the blastocyst stage. Thus, contamination with mitochondria from another species induces embryonic lethality prior to implantation into the maternal uterus. The heteroplasmic state of these xenogeneic mitochondria could have detrimental effects on preimplantation development, leading to preservation of species-specific mitochondrial integrity in mammals. PMID:26416548

  17. OPINIONS REGARDING THE TOURISTIC POTENTIAL OF THE DANUBIAN HARBOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena MATEI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of European integration, the creation of transnational tourism products represents the brand of an inter-state collaboration, which, based on a common strategy, implies objectives that aim at achieving the global development of a destination, making thus possible an efficient and effective allocation of resources, in order to achieve a sustainable development, both from a touristic point of view and from an economic, social, cultural, technological, etc. one. The route of the Danube could represent one of the most important European destinations, appertaining to more than one country; therefore, in order to develop and sustain its touristic potential, a common strategy is necessary, with an integrated marketing image, associated to a consistent tourism product, inspiring common values, regardless of the territory of the country it is located in. In this direction, a quantitative marketing research, conducted on 992 respondents, aged 18-24, in order to determine the opinions concerning the touristic potential of the Danubian harbours – as a fundamental element, precursory to the market analysis.

  18. Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) can steer by the stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauck, Björn; Gläser, Nele; Schlosser, Wolfhard; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2008-10-01

    Offshore orientation in marine mammals is still a mystery. For visual orientation during night-time foraging and travelling in the open seas, seals cannot rely on distant terrestrial landmarks, and thus might use celestial cues as repeatedly shown for nocturnally migrating birds. Although seals detect enough stars to probably allow for astronavigation, it was unclear whether they can orient by the night sky. The widely accepted cognitive mechanism for bird night-time orientation by celestial cues is a time-independent star compass with learned geometrical star configurations used to pinpoint north as the rotational centre of the starry sky while there is no conclusive evidence for a time-compensated star compass or true star navigation. Here, we present results for two harbour seals orienting in a custom made swimming planetarium. Both seals learned to highly accurately identify a lodestar out of a pseudo-randomly oriented, realistic projection of the northern hemisphere night sky. Providing the first evidence for star orientation capability in a marine mammal, our seals' outstanding directional precision would allow them to steer by following lodestars of learned star courses, a celestial orientation mechanism that has been known to be used by Polynesian navigators but has not been considered for animals yet.

  19. CO2 emissions from a temperate drowned river valley estuary adjacent to an emerging megacity (Sydney Harbour)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, E. L.; Mulhearn, P. J.; Eyre, B. D.

    2017-06-01

    The Sydney Harbour Estuary is a large drowned river valley adjacent to Sydney, a large urban metropolis on track to become a megacity; estimated to reach a population of 10 million by 2100. Monthly underway surveys of surface water pCO2 were undertaken along the main channel and tributaries, from January to December 2013. pCO2 showed substantial spatio-temporal variability in the narrow high residence time upper and mid sections of the estuary, with values reaching a maximum of 5650 μatm in the upper reaches and as low as 173 μatm in the mid estuary section, dominated by respiration and photosynthesis respectively. The large lower estuary displayed less variability in pCO2 with values ranging from 343 to 544 μatm controlled mainly by tidal pumping and temperature. Air-water CO2 emissions reached a maximum of 181 mmol C m-2 d-1 during spring in the eutrophic upper estuary. After a summer high rainfall event nutrient-stimulated biological pumping promoted a large uptake of CO2 transitioning the Sydney Harbour Estuary into a CO2 sink with a maximum uptake of rate of -10.6 mmol C m-2 d-1 in the mid-section of the estuary. Annually the Sydney Harbour Estuary was heterotrophic and a weak source of CO2 with an air-water emission rate of 1.2-5 mmol C m-2 d-1 (0.4-1.8 mol C m-2 y-1) resulting in a total carbon emission of around 930 tonnes per annum. CO2 emissions (weighted m3 s-1 of discharge per km2 of estuary surface area) from Sydney Harbour were an order of magnitude lower than other temperate large tectonic deltas, lagoons and engineered systems of China, India, Taiwan and Europe but were similar to other natural drowned river valley systems in the USA. Discharge per unit area appears to be a good predictor of CO2 emissions from estuaries of a similar climate and geomorphic class.

  20. Numerical modelling of circulation and dispersion processes in Boulogne-sur-Mer harbour (Eastern English Channel): sensitivity to physical forcing and harbour design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouanneau, Nicolas; Sentchev, Alexei; Dumas, Franck

    2013-12-01

    The MARS-3D model in conjunction with the particle tracking module Ichthyop is used to study circulation and tracer dynamics under a variety of forcing conditions in the eastern English Channel, and in the Boulogne-sur-Mer harbour (referred to hereafter as BLH). Results of hydrodynamic modelling are validated against the tidal gauge data, VHF radar surface velocities and ADCP measurements. Lagrangian tracking experiments are performed with passive particles to study tracer dispersal along the northern French coast, with special emphasis on the BLH. Simulations revealed an anticyclonic eddy generated in the harbour at rising tide. Tracers, released during flood tide at the Liane river mouth, move northward with powerful clockwise rotating current. After the high water, the current direction changes to westward, and tracers leave the harbour through the open boundary. During ebb tide, currents convergence along the western open boundary but no eddy is formed, surface currents inside the harbour are much weaker and the tracer excursion length is small. After the current reversal at low water, particles are advected shoreward resulting in a significant increase of the residence time of tracers released during ebb tide. The effect of wind on particle dispersion was found to be particularly strong. Under strong SW wind, the residence time of particles released during flood tide increases from 1.5 to 6 days. For release during ebb tide, SW wind weakens the southward tidally induced drift and thus the residence time decreases. Similar effects are observed when the freshwater inflow to the harbour is increased from 2 to 10 m3/s during the ebb tide flow. For flood tide conditions, the effect of freshwater inflow is less significant. We also demonstrate an example of innovative coastal management targeted at the reduction of the residence time of the pathogenic material accidentally released in the harbour.

  1. An ancient harbour at Dwarka: Study based on the recent underwater explorations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    Dwarka, Gujarat, India, an ancient harbour and an important religious centre of the Hindus, has played an important role in the history of maritime activities of Okhamandal region since the early historical period. Gomati creek, located...

  2. Determination of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediment samples from Bombay harbour, Dharamtar creek and Amba river estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, S.A.; Dhaktode, S.S.; Kadam, A.N.

    The surface sediment samples were collected by van Veen grab sampler during premonsoon, monsoon and postmonsoon seasons from Bombay harbour, Dharamtar creek and Amba river estuary Moisture content of the samples ranges from 36 to 67.5...

  3. A new species of Acartia (Copepoda, Calanoida) from Cochin Harbour, India, and adjacent areas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Abraham, S.

    During the course of a study of the family Acartiidae of Cochin harbour and its neighbourhood, a species of Acartia different from all other known species of Acartia, was found. Its characteristics, habitat and seasonal distribution form the theme...

  4. Extractable organics in surface sediments from Thana creek and Bombay harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rokade, M.A.; Bhosle, N.B.; Kadam, A.N.

    Considerable variations in hydrocarbon and fatty acid levels in surface sediments from Thana creek and Bombay harbour were observed Sediments from the westernside nearshore locations yielded higher values The residues were characterised by infrared...

  5. Petrology of offshore basalts of Bombay harbour area, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karisiddaiah, S.M.

    Recent marine geological and geophysical surveys indicate that the Deccan Traps extend to the offshore area of Bombay. Cores from bore holes in Deccan Traps collected from Bombay Harbour have been classified as basalts, olivine basalts, spilitic...

  6. Mixing in Visakhapatnam harbour and nutrient inputs to nearshore waters, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RamaRaju, V.S.; Sarma, V.V.; Raju, G.R.K.; Rao, V.S.

    The flushing time (t) and replacement time CD are computed for different seasons to understand mixing in Visakhapatnam harbour. Replacement times are higher than the flushing times indicating that the transverse mixing in the tidal flow...

  7. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: TORONTO HARBOUR COMMISSIONERS (THC) SOIL RECYCLE TREATMENT TRAIN. Project Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    A demonstration of the Toronto Harbour Commissioners' (THC) Soil Recycle Treatment Train was performed under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program at a pilot plant facility in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Soil Recycle Treatment Train, which consists of s...

  8. Investigations on oil patches around 'M.T.Lajpatrai' Bombay harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kadam, A.N.; Zingde, M.D.

    Samples from three oil patches observed around the burning tanker 'M. T. Lajpatrai' at Bombay Harbour were characterised using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (PMR). Two of them were found to be from used lubricating oils. As indicated by gas...

  9. Macrobenthic assemblage in the soft sediment of Marmugao Harbour, Goa (central west coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Sreepada, R.A.; Kanti, A.; Gracias, E.S.

    Survey of the macroinvertebrate fauna in soft sediment of 18 stations in the Marmugao Harbour revealed spatial heterogeneity based on environmental parameters and benthic assemblage. Based on the presence/absence of the families five associations...

  10. Comparison of tropical nematode communities from three harbours, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nanajkar, M.; Ingole, B.S

    community, our main objective was to investigate and inter-compare the nematode communities within these harbours and with other similar habitats worldwide. A total of 50 nematode species was encountered in the study area, wherein highest (34 species) were...

  11. Intersex in Littorina littorea and DNA damage in Mytilus edulis as indicators of harbour polllution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Jette

    2009-01-01

    Intersex in snails (Littorina littorea) and DNA damage in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were analysed to assess how these bio-indicators reflected the level of chemical contamination at two sites in a highly contaminated harbour in Denmark. The comet assay using mussel gill cells was an indicator...... effects were found to reflect the levels of the chemicals, and it was concluded that intersex in L. littorea and DNA damage in M. edulis can be used as bio-indicators of harbour pollution...

  12. Harbour sediment toxicity: An italian case study; Valutazione della tossicita` di sedimenti portuali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrini, M. [ICRAM, Istituto Centrale per la -ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica Applicata al Mare, Rome (Italy); Bigongiari, N.; Mellera, F.; Giuliani, S. [CIBM, Centro Interuniversitario di Biologia Marina, Livorno (Italy); De Poorter, L. R. M. [AquaSense Consultants, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1998-01-01

    Harbour sediments usually contain a complex mixture of compounds originating from industrial and shipping activities. An important tool for the recognition of potential toxic effects of sediments is the use of bioassays. In order to estimate harbour sediment toxicity a specific study was carried out measuring reduction of microbial luminescence (Vibrio fischeri), oyster larvae development impairment (Crassostrea gigas) and amphipod mortality (Corophium volutator). Bioassay results are correlated with data on chemical contaminants (heavy metals, PAHs and PCBs).

  13. Populism

    OpenAIRE

    Abts, Koenraad; Van Kessel, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    Populism is a concept applied to a wide range of political movements and actors across the globe. There is, at the same time, considerable confusion about the attributes and manifestation of populism, as well as its impact on democracy. This contribution identifies the defining elements of the populist ideology and discusses the varieties in which populism manifests itself, for instance as a component of certain party families. We finally discuss various normative interpretations of populism,...

  14. Defining management units for cetaceans by combining genetics, morphology, acoustics and satellite tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Sveegaard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Managing animal units is essential in biological conservation and requires spatial and temporal identification of such units. Since even neighbouring populations often have different conservation status and face different levels of anthropogenic pressure, detailed knowledge of population structure, seasonal range and overlap with animals from neighbouring populations is required to manage each unit separately. Previous studies on genetic structure and morphologic separation suggests three distinct populations of harbour porpoises with limited geographic overlap in the North Sea (NS, the Belt Sea (BS and the Baltic Proper (BP region. In this study, we aim to identify a management unit for the BS population of harbour porpoises. We use Argos satellite data and genetics from biopsies of tagged harbour porpoises as well as acoustic data from 40 passive acoustic data loggers to determine management areas with the least overlap between populations and thus the least error when abundance and population status is estimated. Discriminant analysis of the satellite tracking data from the BS and NS populations showed that the best fit of the management unit border during the summer months was an east–west line from Denmark to Sweden at latitude 56.95°N. For the border between BS and BP, satellite tracking data indicate a sharp decline in population density at 13.5°E, with 90% of the locations being west of this line. This was supported by the acoustic data with the average daily detection rate being 27.5 times higher west of 13.5°E as compared to east of 13.5°E. By using this novel multidisciplinary approach, we defined a management unit for the BS harbour porpoise population. We recommend that these boundaries are used for future monitoring efforts of this population under the EU directives. The boundaries may also be used for conservation efforts during the summer months, while seasonal movements of harbour porpoises should be considered during

  15. Understanding coastal processes to assist with coastal erosion management in Darwin Harbour, Northern Territory, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonyes, S. G.; Wasson, R. J.; Munksgaard, N. C.; Evans, K. G.; Brinkman, R.; Williams, D. K.

    2017-02-01

    Sand transport pathways in Darwin Harbour, Northern Territory, Australia, are being investigated to assist with coastal management. Coastal erosion, which threatens public and private infrastructure, is one of the major problems along the harbour beaches. A study of sediment transport is essential to identify the challenges encountered by the stakeholders in coastal management. Darwin Harbour, located in the tropical, cyclone prone area of Australia, was, until recently, considered a near pristine estuary. A semi-diurnal macro-tidal embayment, the tidal variation in the harbour reaches up to 8 m with a mean tidal range of 3.7 m. The beach morphology consists of sandy pocket beaches between coastal cliffs, sandbars, rocky shore platforms, tidal flats and mangrove fringes. A two-dimensional depth averaged finite-element hydrodynamic model (RMA-2), coupled with a sediment transport model (RMA-11) from Resource Modelling Associates, has been used to infer the sources and the depositional areas of sand in the harbour. Grain size distributions and geochemical analysis are also used to characterize the sand and its source(s). Initial results show that the beach sand is mostly of offshore origin with small sand input from the rivers. Potential supplementary sand sources are the eroded materials from the shore platforms and the rocky cliffs. Due to the rapid development in Darwin Harbour, this study is fundamental in understanding coastal processes to support decision making in coastal management, particularly in a macro-tidal, tropical estuary.

  16. Characterization of the novel In1059 harbouring VIM gene cassette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongguo Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background VIM-type enzyme encodes the most widely acquired metallo-β-lactamases in Gram- negative bacteria. To obtain current epidemiological data for integrons from enterobacteriae in hospital, the study characterizes the genetic structure in In1059 by comparison with In846 integrons harbouring VIM gene and other class 1 integrons including In37, In62, In843 and In1021 with the aim of identifying the putative mechanisms involved integron mobilization and infer evolution of relevant integrons. Methods Six of 69 recombinant plasmids from clinical strains were found to be class 1 integrons by digestion with BamHI, drug susceptibility testing, conjugation experiments, PCR amplification, integron cloning and sequencing, genome comparison, and detection of carbapenemase activity. Results The sequences of the six recombinant plasmids encoding In1021, In843, In846, In37, In62, and the novel In1059 integron had approximate lengths of ~4.8-, 4.1-, 5.1-, 5.3-, 5.3- and 6.6- kb, respectively. The genetic structures of these integrons were mapped and characterized, and the carbapenemase activities of their parental strains were assessed. Conclusions Our results suggest that the six variable integron structures and regular variations that exist in the gene cassettes provide a putative mechanism for the integron changes. Our study has also shown that the genetic features in the integrons named above fall within a scheme involving the stepwise and parallel evolution of class 1 integron variation likely under antibiotic selection pressure in clinical settings.

  17. Copper speciation survey from UK marinas, harbours and estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bryn; Bolam, Thi

    2007-08-01

    The use of copper in antifouling paints has increased in the UK in the last 20 years as TBT and several other organic biocides have been phased out. To assess the probable impact of copper on estuarine systems a survey was undertaken to measure the different fractions of copper present in the water column at current usage. The different fractions measured were; labile copper, (LCu) considered as both the free copper ions and inorganically bound copper, the total dissolved copper (TDCu) present, and the difference between them taken as the organically bound likely non-toxic copper fraction. The survey considered sites with different levels of boat use, namely marinas, harbours and estuaries, differing physical parameters of suspended and dissolved organic matter, different seasons of the year and different depths in the water column all of which control speciation behaviour. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) values were measured at all sites and increased from West to East coast locations (5.7-34.4 mg/l). Dissolved organic matter (DOM) values ranged from 0.58 to 2.2mg/l C. The total dissolved copper concentrations ranged from 0.30 to 6.68 microg/l, with labile fraction ranging from 0.02 to 2.69 microg/l, and most labile copper concentrations below 1 microg/l. None of the yearly mean copper measurements exceeded the 76/464/EEC EQS of 5 microg/l. Of the 306 measurements, only one dissolved copper value in one season was above 5 microg/l. This ratio of labile to total copper was between 10 and 30%. The results from this survey suggest that if toxicity of copper is due to the labile fraction then using the total dissolved copper concentrations as an indicator of impact overestimate the risk by a factor of four times.

  18. Underwater recordings of the whistles of bottlenose dolphins in Fremantle Inner Harbour, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Sarah A.; Erbe, Christine; Kent, Chandra P. Salgado

    2017-09-01

    Dolphins use frequency-modulated whistles for a variety of social functions. Whistles vary in their characteristics according to context, such as activity state, group size, group composition, geographic location, and ambient noise levels. Therefore, comparison of whistle characteristics can be used to address numerous research questions regarding dolphin populations and behaviour. However, logistical and economic constraints on dolphin research have resulted in data collection biases, inconsistent analytical approaches, and knowledge gaps. This Data Descriptor presents an acoustic dataset of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) whistles recorded in the Fremantle Inner Harbour, Western Australia. Data were collected using an autonomous recorder and analysed using a range of acoustic measurements. Acoustic data review identified 336 whistles, which were subsequently measured for six key characteristics using Raven Pro software. Of these, 164 'high-quality' whistles were manually measured to provide an additional five acoustic characteristics. Digital files of individual whistles and corresponding measurements make this dataset available to researchers to address future questions regarding variations within and between dolphin communities.

  19. Over-representation of two specific haplotypes among chromosomes harbouring BRCA1 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Ana; de la Hoya, Miguel; Rodríguez-López, Raquel; Granizo, Juan José; Díez, Orland; Vega, Ana; Durán, Mercedes; Carracedo, Angel; Baiget, Montserrat; Caldés, Trinidad; Benítez, Javier

    2003-06-01

    The BRCA1 gene is included in a 200-400 kb region that is subjected to a recombination suppression mechanism; this region shows nearly complete linkage disequilibrium for a series of common biallelic polymorphisms, all of them with rarer allele frequency close to 0.4. These series of SNPs define two major haplotypes designated as class I and class II. In the present study, we have determined haplotype classes in the index case of 106 breast/ovarian cancer families previously screened for mutations in the BRCA genes and we have found that haplotype II (the less frequent in the control population) is over-represented among chromosomes harbouring mutations in BRCA1. In addition, we have defined a subtype of chromosomes characterized by haplotype I and one specific allele for the microsatellite marker D17S855, which are also more frequently associated with BRCA1 mutations. These findings may have important consequences for the selection of families with higher probabilities of carrying mutations in the BRCA1 gene.

  20. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Narrow-Ridged Finless Porpoise Renal Transcriptome and Identification of Candidate Genes Involved in Osmoregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Ruan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During the evolutionary transition from land to water, cetaceans have undergone numerous critical challenges, with osmoregulation being the major one. Two subspecies of the narrow-ridged finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis, the freshwater Yangtze finless porpoise (N. a. asiaeorientalis, NAA and the marine East Asian finless porpoise (N. a. sunameri, NAS, provide excellent subjects to understand the genetic basis of osmoregulatory divergence between freshwater and marine mammals. The kidney plays an important and well-established role in osmoregulation in marine mammals and thus, herein, we utilized RNA-seq to characterize the renal transcriptome and preliminarily analyze the divergence between the NAA and the NAS. Approximately 48.98 million clean reads from NAS and 49.40 million clean reads from NAA were obtained by RNA-Seq. And 73,449 (NAS and 68,073 (NAA unigenes were assembled. Among these annotations, 22,231 (NAS and 21,849 (NAA unigenes were annotated against the NCBI nr protein database. The ion channel complex GO term and four pathways were detected as relevant to osmoregulation by GO and KEGG pathway classification of these annotated unigenes. Although the endangered status of the study species prevented analysis of biological replicates, we identified nine differentially expressed genes (DEGs that may be vital in the osmoregulation of the narrow-ridged finless porpoise and worthwhile for future studies. Of these DEGs, the differential expression and distribution of the aquaporin-2 (AQP2 in the collecting duct were verified using immunohistochemical experiments. Together, this work is the first report of renal transcriptome sequencing in cetaceans, and it will provide a valuable resource for future molecular genetics studies on cetacean osmoregulation.

  1. Leukemia incidence among children around Brest Harbour, 1991-2005; Incidence des leucemies de l'enfant autour de la rade de Brest entre 1991 et 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagniere, B.; Gourvellec, G.; Gillet, D.; Berthou, Ch.; Guillois-Becel, Y.; Tron, I

    2010-01-15

    Context and objectives: to respond to population concerns about the health impact of the nuclear submarines based at Ile Longue, a study was conducted of variations in the incidence of childhood leukaemia around Brest harbour. Methods: the study analysed data from the Brittany child tumor registry. It divided Finistere into 3 areas 1-Finistere excluding Brest and its harbour, 2- Brest harbour, but excluding the city of Brest, 3- the city of Brest. The 1991-2005 period was studied as a continuous or categorical variable according to the size of the area. Age-standardised analyses were performed with both external and internal (either Brittany or Finistere) references. results: An excess incidence of leukaemia was observed throughout Finistere, due to an excess in Brest in 2000-2002. The characteristics of the 2000-2005 Brest cases were not consistent with a link to parental occupation exposure in nuclear defence activities. Conclusion: Standard and complementary methodological approaches offered a comprehensive view of the epidemiological situation and provided convergent indications that leukaemia incidence peaked in Brest 2000-2002. This peak did not seem to be associated with a persistent environmental cause, but follow-up should continue. (authors)

  2. Critical ratios in harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) for tonal signals between 0.315 and 150 kHz in random Gaussian white noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastelein, Ronald A; Wensveen, Paul J; Hoek, Lean; Au, Whitlow W L; Terhune, John M; de Jong, Christ A F

    2009-09-01

    A psychoacoustic behavioral technique was used to determine the critical ratios (CRs) of two harbor porpoises for tonal signals with frequencies between 0.315 and 150 kHz, in random Gaussian white noise. The masked 50% detection hearing thresholds were measured using a "go/no-go" response paradigm and an up-down staircase psychometric method. CRs were determined at one masking noise level for each test frequency and were similar in both animals. For signals between 0.315 and 4 kHz, the CRs were relatively constant at around 18 dB. Between 4 and 150 kHz the CR increased gradually from 18 to 39 dB ( approximately 3.3 dB/octave). Generally harbor porpoises can detect tonal signals in Gaussian white noise slightly better than most odontocetes tested so far. By combining the mean CRs found in the present study with the spectrum level of the background noise levels at sea, the basic audiogram, and the directivity index, the detection threshold levels of harbor porpoises for tonal signals in various sea states can be calculated.

  3. Deciphering natural to anthropogenic control on sedimentation: the Late Holocene Magdala (Kinneret Lake, Israel) harbour hystory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, G.; Rossi, V.; Amorosi, A.; Bertoni, D.; Ribolini, A.; Sammartino, I.; Zanchetta, G.

    2012-04-01

    Using a multidisciplinary approach involving geologists, geomorphologists and archeologists, the late Holocene sedimentary succession buried beneath the ancient Magdala harbour area (Kinneret Lake, Israel) was studied, in order to highlight the strict relationships among harbour evolutive phases (e.g. foundation, siltation, abandonment), natural events (e.g. sea-level variations, climatic changes and earthquakes among the most important) and, obviously, archaeological history. Recent excavations performed within the "Magdala Project" have discovered a harbour structure with late Hellenistic-Roman mooring stones at altitudes of 208.100 m and 208.320 m bsl respectively, suggestive of a higher lake-level (about 212 m bsl) than previously hypothesized. Along the most representative sections of trenches, integrated sedimentological, micropalaeontological (benthic meiofauna and pollen) and geochemical analyses were carried out on sedimentary deposits underlying and overlying the harbour structures, to define the main depositional facies and evolution phases that took place during the last millennia. Spatial variability of coeval palaeoenvironments across the archaeological site allowed to reconstruct a comprehensive picture of the harbour complex, evidencing the occurrence of three main evolution phases, similar to those reported from several Mediterranean Sea harbour systems: 1) a pre-harbor foundation phase; 2) a sin-harbor activity phase and 3) an harbor-abandonment phase. The first phase corresponds to the development of a natural lacustrine sandy beach barren in archaeological remains and containing an ostracod fauna very similar to the one observed within the present-day lake basin at ca. 5 m water depth. The second phase was characterized by the formation of an early Hellenistic sheltered lacustrine basin, recording the first anthropogenic control exerted on coastal sedimentation by the construction of harbour structures ("anthropogenically forced sheltered basin

  4. Integrated hazard, risk and impact assessment of tropical marine sediments from Tema Harbour (Ghana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botwe, Benjamin O; De Schamphelaere, Kristine; Schipper, Cor A; Teuchies, Johannes; Blust, Ronny; Nyarko, Elvis; Lens, Piet N L

    2017-06-01

    The potential ecological hazard, risk and impact of tropical marine sediments from the Tema Harbour (Greater Accra, Ghana) was investigated by integrating Corophium volutator and Hediste diversicolor whole-sediment toxicity bioassays with data on the metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and As) concentrations of the sediments. The whole-sediment toxicity bioassay results showed that sediments of the Tema Harbour are potentially hazardous to marine benthic invertebrates. C. volutator exhibited a higher vulnerability to the sediment toxicity than H. diversicolor, although the latter showed higher biota-sediment accumulation factors for the investigated metals. Statistically significant correlations were observed between C. volutator mortality and sediment Cd concentration (r = 0.84, p < 0.05; n = 6) and between H. diversicolor mortality and sediment Cu concentration (r = 0.94, p < 0.05; n = 5). Comparison of metal concentrations with international action levels for contaminated sediment disposal indicates that the Tema Harbour sediments contain potentially hazardous concentrations of Cu and Zn. This study shows that sediments from the Tema Harbour are not suitable for disposal at sea without remediation. There is, therefore, a need to improve environmental management and regulate the disposal of dredged material originating from the Tema Harbour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. ARCHAEOBOTANICAL INVESTIGATIONS AND HUMAN IMPACT AT THE IMPERIAL HARBOUR OF ROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Giardini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Remnants of the ancient harbour of Rome are located in the Tiber delta area 3.5 km away from the present coastline. It was the main Rome maritime port from the middle of the first century to Late Antiquity. In 42 AD, emperor Claudius started the excavation of the harbour. Then, the Emperor Trajan added to the former construction, which had gradually silted up, a hexagonal basin in an inner position. The objective of this multidisciplinary study was to reconstruct the plant cultural landscape in the harbour applying detailed pollen, microcharcoal, and plant macroremains recovered from two cores (PTS5 and PTS13 drilled in the area of the Claudius harbour. The chronological framing of the records is based on stratigraphical criteria, radiocarbon dates, archaeological and historical data. The two cores record different periods of time. One core shows the first phases of the harbour activities, with a plant landscape typical of a coastal environment. The other one records a stronger human impact related to the presence of Portus town and of medieval settlements. Anthropogenic pollen indicators (sensu Behre and Jacomet 1991 as well as strong fire use/occurrence were increasing in the first centuries AD. These results will be completed with new core data from the extant Trajan lake, granting the possibility to study a record spanning the last two millennia.

  6. Codes of Practice related to Harbour and Coastal Engineering in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.

    2000-01-01

    structures (1941). The codes were based on the principle of allowable stresses. However, already in 1948 a Danish consulting engineer used a partial safety factor concept for a power station design in order to secure satisfactory safety. The concept was in fact old as it was used by Gerber in his design......Codes of practice for building and civil engineering works have been produced since 1893 by the "Danish Society of Engineers". Among the early codes are: Reinforces concrete structures (1908, 1943), calculation of reinforced concrete structures in harbour works (1926), Harbour Works (1927), Steel...

  7. Screening of variable importance for optimizing electrodialytic remediation of heavy metals from polluted harbour sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine B.; Lejon, Tore; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Using multivariate design and modelling, the optimal conditions for electrodialytic remediation (EDR) of heavy metals were determined for polluted harbour sediments from Hammerfest harbour located in the geographic Arctic region of Norway. The comparative importance of the variables, current...... density, remediation time, light/no light, the liquid-solid ratio and stirring rate of the sediment suspension, was determined in 15 laboratory-scale EDR experiments by projection to latent structures (PLS). The relation between the X matrix (experimental variables) and the Y matrix (removal efficiencies...

  8. An innovative early warning system for floods and operational risks in harbours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smets, Steven; Bolle, Annelies; Mollaert, Justine; Buitrago, Saul; Gruwez, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Early Warning Systems (EWS) are nowadays becoming fairly standard in river flood forecasting or in large scale hydrometeorological predictions. For complex coastal morphodynamic problems or in the vicinity of complex coastal structures, such as harbours, EWS are much less used because they are both technically and computationally still very challenging. To advance beyond the state-of-the-art, the EU FP7 project Risc-KIT (www.risc-kit.eu) is developing prototype EWS which address specifically these topics. This paper describes the prototype EWS which IMDC has developed for the case study site of the harbour of Zeebrugge. The harbour of Zeebrugge is the largest industrial seaport on the coast of Belgium, extending more than 3 km into the sea. Two long breakwaters provide shelter for the inner quays and docks for regular conditions and frequent storms. Extreme storms surges and waves can however still enter the harbour and create risks for the harbour operations and infrastructure. The prediction of the effects of storm surges and waves inside harbours are typically very complex and challenging, due to the need of different types of numerical models for representing all different physical processes. In general, waves inside harbours are a combination of locally wind generated waves and offshore wave penetration at the port entrance. During extreme conditions, the waves could overtop the quays and breakwaters and flood the port facilities. Outside a prediction environment, the conditions inside the harbour could be assessed by superimposing processes. The assessment can be carried out by using a combination of a spectral wave model (i.e. SWAN) for the wind generated waves and a Boussinesq type wave model (i.e. Mike 21 BW) for the wave penetration from offshore. Finally, a 2D hydrodynamic model (i.e. TELEMAC) can be used to simulate the overland flooding inside the port facilities. To reproduce these processes in an EWS environment, an additional challenge is to cope

  9. Test of experimental set-ups for electrodialytic removal of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd from different contaminated harbour sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nystrøm, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2005-01-01

    Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from different harbour sediments was investigated. Electrodialytic remediation experiments in laboratory scale were made with calcareous and non-calcareous harbour sediments. Two different experimental set-ups were used for the study, one with stirring of t...

  10. Estimation of Wave Conditions Along a New Breakwater for the Hanstholm Harbour, Using the Numerical Model MILDwave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stratigaki, Vasiliki; Troch, Peter; Margheritini, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    Extension of the Hanstholm harbour (Denmark) is being planned, including the construction of a new breakwater. Within the general frame of the development plan of the harbour, numerical modelling has been carried out using the ild-slope model MILDwave developed at Ghent University, for estimating...... with analytical (Goda’ method) and numerical results (SWAN-1D)....

  11. Contaminant-induced immunotoxicity in harbour seals: Wildlife at risk?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.S. Ross (Peter); R.L. de Swart (Rik); R. Addison; H. van Loveren (Henk); J.G. Vos (Joseph); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractPersistent, lipophilic polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) accumulate readily in the aquatic food chain and are found in high concentrations in seals and other marine mammals. Recent mass mortalities among several marine mammal populations have been attributed to infection by

  12. Intercomparison studies on distribution and coassociations of heavy metals in liver, kidney, and muscle of harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena , from southern Baltic Sea and coastal waters of Denmark and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szefer, P.; Zdrojewska, I.; Jensen, Jette Donovan

    2002-01-01

    The concentrations of selected metals such as Cd, Pb. Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Mn, and Fe were determined in liver, kidney, and muscle of harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) front three geographical regions, i.e.. the Baltic Sea and Danish and Greenland coastal waters. The concentrations of Cd in liver an...... by different food composition in the area studied. Baltic porpoises mainly feed on fish (cod. plaice) containing extremely low levels of muscle Col. but an important diet component of Greenlandic individuals is squid. characterized by elevated levels of Cd....

  13. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT) in Barcelona harbour sediments and their impact on benthic communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Llado, Xavier [Environmental Technology Area, CTM-UPC, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Manresa (Spain); Gibert, Oriol [Environmental Technology Area, CTM-UPC, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Manresa (Spain); Marti, Vicens [Environmental Technology Area, CTM-UPC, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Manresa (Spain)]. E-mail: vicens.marti@upc.edu; Diez, Sergi [Environmental Chemistry Department, IIQAB-CSIC, c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Environmental Geology Department, ICTJA-CSIC, Lluis Sole i Sabaris, s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Romo, Javier [Environmental Service of Barcelona Harbour Authority, Carretera de la Circumval.lacio, s/n, Tram VI, Sector 6, Barcelona (Spain); Bayona, Josep Maria [Environmental Chemistry Department, IIQAB-CSIC, c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Pablo, Joan de [Environmental Technology Area, CTM-UPC, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Manresa (Spain)

    2007-09-15

    Sediments have long been recognised as a sink for many contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT), which by virtue of their nature can strongly adsorb onto sediments affecting the benthic community inhabiting them. Using geographical information systems, this study reports and combines the results of several already existing studies along Barcelona harbour in order to assess the potential ecological impacts of these contaminants on the benthos of the harbour ecosystem. Chemical analysis indicated low to moderate contents of PAHs and high contents of TBT in sediments in Barcelona harbour. Comparison against existing sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) indicated that acutely toxic effects would not be expected for PAHs but for TBT, which represents a serious environmental threat for the benthic community. Benthos surveys revealed a deterioration of the benthic community throughout the harbour, especially in the inner port. - A possible correlation exists between TBT concentration in sediments and ecological effects on benthos in Barcelona harbour.

  14. Chemometric Analysis for Pollution Source Assessment of Harbour Sediments in Arctic Locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine B.; Lejon, Tore; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2015-01-01

    found adjacent to the former shipyards. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) ratios and PCA plots revealed that the predominant source in both harbours was pyrogenic related to coal/biomass combustion. Comparison of commercial polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) mixtures with PCB compositions in the sediments...

  15. Metal contamination in harbours impacts life-history traits and metallothionein levels in snails.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alexandra Bighiu

    Full Text Available Harbours with limited water exchange are hotspots of contaminant accumulation. Antifouling paints (AF contribute to this accumulation by leaching biocides that may affect non-target species. In several leisure boat harbours and reference areas in the Baltic Sea, chronic exposure effects were evaluated using caging experiments with the snail Theodoxus fluviatilis. We analysed variations in ecologically relevant endpoints (mortality, growth and reproduction in concert with variation in metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP levels. The latter is a biomarker of exposure to metals, such as copper (Cu and zinc (Zn, which are used in AF paints as active ingredient and stabilizer, respectively. In addition, environmental samples (water, sediment were analysed for metal (Cu and Zn and nutrient (total phosphorous and nitrogen concentrations. All life-history endpoints were negatively affected by the exposure, with higher mortality, reduced growth and lower fecundity in the harbours compared to the reference sites. Metal concentrations were the key explanatory variables for all observed adverse effects, suggesting that metal-driven toxicity, which is likely to stem from AF paints, is a source of anthropogenic stress for biota in the harbours.

  16. Establishment of gravity stations and inference of crustal thickness around Mormugao Harbour and NIO

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subbaraju, L.V.; Krishna, K.S.

    Complete descriptions and basic facts of nine gravity stations of Marmugao Harbour, Goa, India are presented. They exhibit a maximum Bouguer difference of 2.12 mGal in an overall distance of about 2 km. Keeping in view the limited amount of data...

  17. A review of the 1988 and 2002 phocine distemper virus epidemics in European harbour seals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Härkönen, L.; Dietz, R.; Reijnders, P.J.H.; Teilmann, J.; Harding, K.; Hall, A.; Brasseur, S.M.J.M.; Siebert, U.; Goodman, S.J.; Jepson, P.D.; Rasmussen, T.D.; Thompson, P.

    2006-01-01

    We present new and revised data for the phocine distemper virus (PDV) epidemics that resulted in the deaths of more than 23 000 harbour seals Phoca vitulina in 1988 and 30 000 in 2002. On both occasions the epidemics started at the Danish island of Anholt in central Kattegat, and subsequently spread

  18. Before harbour construction, Richards Bay on the Kwa- Zulu-Natal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    The Mhlathuze (Richards Bay) Estuary on the KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, was substantially altered ... Berm. E. Harbour. Current estuary. Vegetated islands and mangroves. Mhlathuze River. 1 km. N. CAPE. TOWN. SOUTH AFRICA. Richards Bay. Port Elizabeth. Fig. .... ment of Water Affairs and Forestry, unpublished.

  19. SITE DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: SOIL RECYCLING TREATMENT TRAIN - THE TORONTO HARBOUR COMMISSIONERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Toronto Harbour Commissioners (THC) have developed a soil treatment train designed to treat inorganic and organic contaminants in soils. THC has conducted a large-scale demonstration of these technologies in an attempt to establish that contaminated soils at the Toronto Port...

  20. Coastal Changes due to the Construction of Artificial Harbour Entrances and Practical Solutions, including Beach Replenishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijker, E.W.; Van der Leijé, J.P.; Pilon, J.J.; Svasek, J.N.; In 't Veld, J.K.; Verhagen, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    When longshore sediment transport is interrupted by a construction along a coast, e.g harbour moles or a dredged approach channel, the equilibrium of the coastline may be disturbed. When the disruption is caused by breakwaters, the longshore transport that is held back will cause accretion updrift

  1. Petroleum hydrocarbons and trace metals in Visakhapatnam harbour and Kakinada Bay, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.; VaraPrasad, S.J.D.; Gupta, G.V.M.; Sudhakar, U.

    High concentrations of PHC were observed in the inner channels (viz. South lighter canal, Northern arm, North Western arm and Western arm) of Visakhapatnam Harbour, Andhra Pradesh, India. The estimation of trace metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Co, Ni and Cr...

  2. TORONTO HARBOUR COMMISSIONERS (THC) SOIL RECYCLE TREATMENT TRAIN - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Toronto Harbour Commissioners (THC) have developed a soil treatment train designed to treat inorganic and organic contaminants in soils. THC has conducted a large-scale demonstration of these technologies in an attempt to establish that contaminated soils at the Toronto Port ...

  3. Fossil Crustacea of the Late Pleistocene Port Morant Formation, west Port Morant Harbour, southeastern Jamaica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, J.S.H.; Donovan, S.K.; Stemann, T.A.

    2009-01-01

    The Late Pleistocene Port Morant Formation of southeast Jamaica is particularly rich in fossil marine crustaceans. A new locality on the west side of Port Morant Harbour, parish of St. Thomas, has yielded decapods including the callianassids Lepidophthalmus jamaicense? (Schmitt ), Neocallichirus

  4. Why do seals have cones? Behavioural evidence for colour-blindness in harbour seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtyssek, Christine; Kelber, Almut; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2015-03-01

    All seals and cetaceans have lost at least one of two ancestral cone classes and should therefore be colour-blind. Nevertheless, earlier studies showed that these marine mammals can discriminate colours and a colour vision mechanism has been proposed which contrasts signals from cones and rods. However, these earlier studies underestimated the brightness discrimination abilities of these animals, so that they could have discriminated colours using brightness only. Using a psychophysical discrimination experiment, we showed that a harbour seal can solve a colour discrimination task by means of brightness discrimination alone. Performing a series of experiments in which two harbour seals had to discriminate the brightness of colours, we also found strong evidence for purely scotopic (rod-based) vision at light levels that lead to mesopic (rod-cone-based) vision in other mammals. This finding speaks against rod-cone-based colour vision in harbour seals. To test for colour-blindness, we used a cognitive approach involving a harbour seal trained to use a concept of same and different. We tested this seal with pairs of isoluminant stimuli that were either same or different in colour. If the seal had perceived colour, it would have responded to colour differences between stimuli. However, the seal responded with "same", providing strong evidence for colour-blindness.

  5. The Westward Movement of Chinese Export Harbour Views : Significant Paintings with a Social Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der R.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Article (Chapter) in proceedings of the First Rombouts Graduate Conference Globalization and Glocalization in China, at Leiden University, held in Leiden on 6 and 7 September 2011. This article offers a closer examination of Chinese export harbour views and, in doing so, reveals that waterfronts and

  6. The worldwide distribution of genetically and phylogenetically diverse Bacillus cereus isolates harbouring Bacillus anthracis-like plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminska, Paulina Sylwia; Yernazarova, Aliya; Drewnowska, Justyna Malgorzata; Zambrowski, Grzegorz; Swiecicka, Izabela

    2015-10-01

    Bacillus cereus is a close relative of B. anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax whose pathogenic determinants are located on pXO1 and pXO2 plasmids. Bacillus anthracis-like plasmids have been also noted among B. cereus, however, genetic features of B. cereus harbouring these elements remain largely undescribed, especially from the global perspective. Herein, we present the genetic polymorphism, population structure and phylogeny of B. cereus with pXO1-/pXO2-like plasmids originating from Argentina, Kazakhstan, Kenya and Poland. The plasmids were found in about 17% of the isolates, but their frequencies and expression of replicons differed within and between populations. In the multi-locus sequence typing, the bacteria exhibited high genetic polymorphism reflected by 116 sequencing types, including 84 singletons and 10 clonal complexes, which mainly consisted of isolates of the same origin. The phylogenetic analysis of pXO1-/pXO2-like positive B. cereus isolates revealed six independent clades; in certain clades individual populations predominated. Generally, B. cereus with pXO1-/pXO2-like plasmids did not indicate the genetic relationship with B. anthracis, and cannot be classified into an evolutionary independent anthrax line within the B. cereus group. Our report is of a crucial importance for discovering the genetic specificity and evolution of B. cereus bacilli. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Assessing the importance of alien macro-Crustacea (Malacostraca) within macroinvertebrate assemblages in Belgian coastal harbours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boets, Pieter; Lock, Koen; Goethals, Peter L. M.

    2012-06-01

    Harbours, which are often characterised by anthropogenic stress in combination with intensive international ship traffic, tend to be very susceptible to aquatic invasions. Since alien macrocrustaceans are known to be very successful across many European waters, a study was made on their distribution and impact in the four Belgian coastal harbours (Nieuwpoort, Ostend, Blankenberge and Zeebrugge). Biological and physical-chemical data were gathered at 43 sampling sites distributed along a salinity gradient in the four harbours. One-fourth of all crustacean species recorded were alien and represented on average 30% of the total macrocrustacean abundance and 65% of the total macrocrustacean biomass. The large share of alien crustaceans in the total macrocrustacean biomass was mainly due to several large alien crab species. Most alien species were found in the oligohaline zone, whereas the number of indigenous species slightly increased with increasing salinity. The low number of indigenous species present at low salinities was probably not only caused by salinity, but also by the lower water quality in this salinity range. Based on the site-specific biocontamination index (SBCI), which was used to assess the ecological water quality, the harbour of Nieuwpoort and Ostend scored best and were classified as good, indicating the limited abundance and the low number of alien macrocrustaceans. Sampling locations situated more inland generally had a higher SBCI and a lower ecological water quality. Zeebrugge and Blankenberge were characterised by a severe biocontamination. For Zeebrugge, this is probably related to the intensive transcontinental commercial ship traffic, whereas for Blankenberge, this could be due to introduction of alien species via recreational crafts or due to its geographical location in the proximity of Zeebrugge. Consistent monitoring of estuarine regions and harbours, which are seen as hotspots for introductions, could help in understanding and

  8. Analysis Of Macrobenthic Community Structure In Relation To Different Environmental Conditions In Three Harbours In The North Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy. Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. BEDINI

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on benthic communities are being widely used in monitoring pollution effects, using both the methodologies provided from the national laws in various countries and experimental innovative methodologies of research. We have carried out a preliminary study on macrobenthic communities (zoobenthos and phytobenthos in three harbours, one of which (Piombino receives wastewater from industry and is also subject to heavy shipping traffic. The other two (Porto Santo Stefano and Portoferraio enjoy great tourist traffic but no industrial waste, and they have been selected in order to find possible differences between populations of animals present in unpolluted and polluted areas. The results show that there are no outstanding differences in the sessile and sedentary bentological population parameters of the studied harbours. We probably do not have an adequate historical data set of the species living in the study areas to detect the effects of pollution, and the sessile living animal species we found may have adapted to the current situation, since living species typical of very clean waters were found.

  9. Comparative physiology of vocal musculature in two odontocetes, the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thometz, Nicole M; Dearolf, Jennifer L; Dunkin, Robin C; Noren, Dawn P; Holt, Marla M; Sims, Olivia C; Cathey, Brandon C; Williams, Terrie M

    2018-01-01

    The mechanism by which odontocetes produce sound is unique among mammals. To gain insight into the physiological properties that support sound production in toothed whales, we examined myoglobin content ([Mb]), non-bicarbonate buffering capacity (β), fiber-type profiles, and myosin heavy chain expression of vocal musculature in two odontocetes: the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus; n = 4) and the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena; n = 5). Both species use the same anatomical structures to produce sound, but differ markedly in their vocal repertoires. Tursiops produce both broadband clicks and tonal whistles, while Phocoena only produce higher frequency clicks. Specific muscles examined in this study included: (1) the nasal musculature around the phonic lips on the right (RNM) and left (LNM) sides of the head, (2) the palatopharyngeal sphincter (PPS), which surrounds the larynx and aids in pressurizing cranial air spaces, and (3) the genioglossus complex (GGC), a group of muscles positioned ventrally within the head. Overall, vocal muscles had significantly lower [Mb] and β than locomotor muscles from the same species. The PPS was predominately composed of small diameter slow-twitch fibers. Fiber-type and myosin heavy chain analyses revealed that the GGC was comprised largely of fast-twitch fibers (Tursiops: 88.6%, Phocoena: 79.7%) and had the highest β of all vocal muscles. Notably, there was a significant difference in [Mb] between the RNM and LNM in Tursiops, but not Phocoena. Our results reveal shared physiological characteristics of individual vocal muscles across species that enhance our understanding of key functional roles, as well as species-specific differences which appear to reflect differences in vocal capacities.

  10. Dinoflagellate cyst abundance is positively correlated to sediment organic carbon in Sydney Harbour and Botany Bay, NSW, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chang; Doblin, Martina A; Dafforn, Katherine A; Johnston, Emma L; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong

    2018-02-01

    There is growing public concern about the global expansion of harmful algal bloom species (HABs), with dinoflagellate microalgae comprising the major portion of the harmful taxa. These motile, unicellular organisms have a lifecycle involving sexual reproduction and resting cyst formation whereby cysts can germinate from sediments and 'seed' planktonic populations. Thus, investigation of dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) distribution in sediments can provide significant insights into HAB dynamics and contribute to indices of habitat quality. Species composition and abundance of dinocysts in relation to sediment characteristics were studied at 18 stations in two densely populated temperate Australian estuaries, Sydney Harbour (Parramatta River/Port Jackson; PS) and Botany Bay (including Georges River; GB). Eighteen dinocyst taxa were identified, dominated by Protoceratium reticulatum and Gonyaulax sp.1 in the PS estuary, together with Archaeperidinium minutum and Gonyaulax sp.1 in the GB estuary. Cysts of Alexandrium catenella, which is one of the causative species of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), were also detected in both estuaries. Out of the measured sediment characteristics (TOC, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, Zn and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), TOC was the parameter explaining most of the variation in dinocyst assemblages and was positively correlated to most of the heavy metals. Given the significant relationship between sediment TOC and dinocyst abundance and heavy metal concentrations, this study suggests that sediment TOC could be broadly used in risk management for potential development of algal blooms and sediment contamination in these estuaries.

  11. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Various Species of Fishes from Mumbai Harbour, India, and Their Dietary Intake Concentration to Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dhananjayan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants which have caused worldwide concerns as toxic pollutant. This study reports the concentrations of 15 PAHs in 5 species of fish samples collected along the harbour line, Mumbai, between 2006 and 2008. Among 5 species of fish investigated, Mandeli, Coilia dussimieri, detected the maximum concentration of PAHs (P<0.05 followed by Doma, Otolithes ruber. The concentration of total and carcinogenic PAHs ranged from 17.43 to 70.44 ng/g wet wt. and 9.49 to 31.23 ng/g wet wt, respectively, among the species tested. The lower-molecular-weight PAHs were detected at highest levels. Estimated intakes of PAHs by fish consumption for the general population were ranged between 1.77 and 10.70 ng/kg body weight/day. Mandeli contributed to the highest intakes of PAHs. The toxic equivalents (TEQs of PAHs were calculated using a TEQ proposed in literature, and the intake ranged from 8.39 to 15.78 pg TEQ/kg body weight/d. The estimated excess cancer risk value (2.37×10−7–1.43×10−6 from fish consumption for the general population exceeded the guideline value (1.0 × 10−6 for potential cancer risk.

  12. Analysis of Lower Green Bay and Fox River, Collingwood Harbour, Spanish Harbour, and the Metro Toronto and Region remedial action plan (RAP) processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtner-Zimmermann, Arnold

    1996-07-01

    This article presents a model of remedial action planning, which includes four key variables that determine progress in plan development and implementation and explain the differing level of achievement in individual sites. The model is illustrated by the characteristics and developments of four remedial action plan (RAP) processes (Lower Green Bay and Fox River, Collingwood Harbour, Spanish Harbour, and the Metro Toronto and Region RAPs). Differences in the local context of the plans have, to a significant degree, predisposed individual planning and implementation experiences. Local context includes three variables, namely geographical—technical and sociopolitical aspects and the previous history of water pollution management in the area. RAP precursors are a necessary precondition for progress in planning and substantive achievements. While there is a tendency that most geographically focused RAPs in administratively simple areas accomplish most, the motivation and political clout of RAP participants are strongly intervening factors. Resource input from upper levels of government, in particular financial commitment for plan implementation, is the fourth necessary ingredient for progress due to the RAPs' weak regulatory and institutional framework. Unfortunately, upper levels of government have shown widespread reluctance to lead in remedial action planning. This was only in part offset by local commitment and support for RAP and its cause.

  13. Australia's first underseas road tunnel. ; Sydney Harbour Tunnel. Australia hatsu no kaitei doro tonneru no kensetsu. ; Sydney/harbour/tonneru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, N. (Kumagai Gumi Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    The Sydney Harbour Tunnel has been constructed by a joint venture of Kumagai Gumi and local construction company, and has opened on August 31st, 1992. As the project has been undertaken in a beautiful and residential location, in comparison with the conventional undersea tunnel, measures for labor problems and measures for environmental protection (tunnel ventilation measure, normal days working hours are limited to 6 to 18 hours, management of the waste water in the construction site, etc.) have been taken. In addition, the tunnel has been constructed on the basis of solving Harbour Bridge traffic problem, without troubling the people around the site and without creating environmental problems. New techniques have been employed for the immersed tube tunnel construction such as a long ocean towing of tunnel units, a flexible final joint, etc. As compared to the conventional construction method, in case of the flexible joint the benefits have been clarified that the work inside the tunnel has not been complicated. This construction has been completed with the consideration of surrounding environment and is highly evaluated. 2 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Disturbance-induced responses of VHF and satellite tagged harbour seals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Signe May; Teilmann, Jonas; Dietz, Rune

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT 1. The response of individual harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) to controlled and sporadic disturbances when hauled out in the Anholt seal reserve, Denmark, was studied. Sporadic disturbances from pedestrians, boats, low-flying aeroplanes and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) were observed...... in or near the reserve. VHF and satellite transmitters were attached to eight harbour seals to determine post-disturbance and undisturbed behaviour during the pre-breeding period (25 April to 21 May 2008). 2. Both disturbed and undisturbed seals mostly returned to the haul-out site from dusk and throughout...... within 40 km from the haul-out site. The maximum extent of post-disturbance trips, however, varied among individuals and disturbance types, and was strongly correlated with the duration of trips. 3. Disturbed and undisturbed seals used the same areas, suggesting that these areas represent normal foraging...

  15. Age determination methods in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina with a review of methods applicable to carnivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Lockyer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of age determination methods in marine mammals is reviewed with particular reference to the use of teeth Growth Layer Groups (GLGs formed in the dentine and cement of carnivores. Using this background, practices for sampling, tooth extraction and collection, storage and different methods of preparation of teeth as well as reading and counting GLGs are discussed and evaluated for the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina. The paper includes comments on best practices for counting GLGs with new examples from known-age seals, and also a detailed examination of confounding factors in interpreting GLGs such as mineralization anomalies and the phenomena of accessory lines, “false annuli” and “paired laminae” which have not been discussed previously. The paper concludes with recommendations for undertaking age estimation in harbour seals from sampling through final GLG interpretation with special emphasis on standardization of methods with other researchers.

  16. The newtonian approach in the meteorological tide waves forecasting: preliminary observations in the East Ligurian harbours

    OpenAIRE

    G. Piangiamore; Nardone, G.; P. Lusiani; Canepa, G.; R. Bozzano; Bianco, G.; N. Bencivenga; Arena, G.; Faggioni, O.; Soldani, M.

    2006-01-01

    Sea level oscillations are the superposition of many contributions, among which the main are astronomic and meteorological low-frequency tides. In Ligurian Sea meteo-tide components, being most ample than astronomic fluctuations, drive water exchange in harbours. The present note shows first results about port of Genoa concerning a coherency study between atmospheric variation and corresponding sea level adjustment (meteorological tide). The newtonian forecasting method of meteorological tide...

  17. Late Ordovician deep-water brachiopod fauna from Raheen, Waterford Harbour, Ireland.

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, David A.T.; Parkes, Matthew A.; Ren-Bin, Zhan

    2017-01-01

    The Raheen Formation at Newtown Head in Waterford Harbour is a small isolated section of Ordovician rocks, dominated by volcanics of the Duncannon Group, but with interbedded fossiliferous shales. Although a brachiopod and trilobite dominated fauna has been known since the mid-nineteenth century, only the trilobites and cystoids have been assessed in modern terms. This paper describes the brachiopod fauna for the first time. The assemblage from Raheen is overwhelmingly dominated by the dalman...

  18. Monitoring effects of remediation on natural sediment recovery in Sydney Harbour, Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Tony R; Macaskill, Devin; Rushton, Theresa; Thalheimer, Andrew; Weaver, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Chemical contaminants were assessed in Sydney Harbour, Nova Scotia during pre-remediation (baseline) and 3 years of remediation of a former coking and steel facility after nearly a century of operation and historical pollution into the Sydney Tar Ponds (STP). Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and inorganic parameters measured in sediments and total suspended solids in seawater indicate that the overall spatial distribution pattern of historical contaminants remains unchanged, although at much lower concentrations than previously reported due to natural sediment recovery, despite remediation activities. Measured sediment deposition rates in bottom-moored traps during baseline were low (0.4-0.8 cm year(-1)), but during dredging operations required for construction of new port facilities in the inner Sydney Harbour, sedimentation rates were equivalent to 26-128 cm year(-1). Measurements of sediment chemical contaminants confirmed that natural recovery rates of Sydney Harbour sediments were in broad agreement with predicted concentrations, or in some cases, lower than originally predicted despite remediation activities at the STP site. Overall, most measured contaminants in sediments showed little temporal variability (4 years), except for the detection of significant increases in total PAH concentrations during the onset of remediation monitoring compared to baseline. This slight increase represents only a short-term interruption in the overall natural recovery of sediments in Sydney Harbour, which were enhanced due to the positive impacts of large-scale dredging of less contaminated outer harbor sediments which were discharged into a confined disposal area located in the inner harbor.

  19. New insights into Wellington Harbours' tectonic settings from marine geophysical and sedimentological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelz, Susi; Nodder, Scott; Barnes, Philip; Orpin, Alan

    2015-04-01

    After the experience of several damaging coastal earthquakes in New Zealand in the last three years, the importance of locating and characterising the earthquake potential of active faults close to urban areas has become more obvious, especially when cities lie in complex tectonic settings as it is the case for Wellington. To assess the earthquake and tsunami potential and the associated hazard posed by such faults, it is necessary to characterise fault geometry, slip rate, earthquake history and earthquake potential. In the marine environment, we have the advantage that faults can be assessed cross-sectionally through the application of high-resolution geophysical data without having to excavate trenches across the active fault trace. We present new marine data from Wellington Harbour that helps to characterise three faults; the Wellington Fault at Kaiwharawhara, the Evans Bay Fault, and a newly discovered fault off Oriental Bay, informally referred to as the Mount Victoria Fault. New marine geophysical data has better delineated the location and characteristics of these faults. High-resolution multi-beam bathymetric data (50 cm grid-cell size), covering the entire Wellington Harbour, were also used to determine the occurrence of seafloor scarps associated with surface ruptures on the faults. Sediment cores from either side of the Wellington Fault off Kaiwharawhara Stream, in about 17.5 m water depth, provide insight into the late Quaternary-Holocene stratigraphy and age of sediments that have been deformed by activity on the faults delineated in Wellington Harbour. The stratigraphy reveals details of the post-glacial marine flooding of the harbour that occurred about 10,000 years ago.

  20. The harbour of Elaia: A palynological archive for human environmental interactions during the last 7500 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumilovskikh, Lyudmila S.; Seeliger, Martin; Feuser, Stefan; Novenko, Elena; Schlütz, Frank; Pint, Anna; Pirson, Felix; Brückner, Helmut

    2016-10-01

    Elaia, the harbour city for ancient Pergamon (western Turkey), was investigated using geoarchaeological methods. The rise and fall of Elaia were closely linked to the flourishing period of Pergamon, which ruled wide parts of today's western Turkey in Hellenistic times. In the framework of this research, the palynological analysis of a 9 m sediment core, Ela-70, retrieved from the enclosed harbour of the city, was carried out to reconstruct the vegetation and environmental history of the wider Gulf of Elaia region. An age-depth model, based on 11 calibrated radiocarbon ages, starting from 7.5 ka BP, provides the basis for the high resolution study of sediments from the Hellenistic period, as well as before and after. The lower part of the pollen diagram is characterised by high percentages of deciduous oaks and pines, suggesting the dominance of open forests close to the coring site. The change from oak forests to a cultural landscape, with olive, pistachio, walnut, and grape, started around 850 BC, reaching a maximum ca. 250 BC, and continuing to ca. AD 800. This period is characterised by increase of fire activity, soil erosion intensity, and pastoral farming. Such long-lasting intensive land use likely led to the climax ecosystem turnover from open deciduous oak forests to pine stands, while salt marshes developed around the coring site. The discovery of the dinoflagellate cysts of Peridinium ponticum, a Black Sea endemic species, in the harbour of Elaia evidences maritime trade between the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea; its first occurrence coincides with the time of the Mithridatic Wars (1st century BC). In conclusion, palynological data, in addition to historical and archaeological records, provide a deeper insight into human environmental interactions, as derived from the geoarchaeological archive of the harbour of Elaia.

  1. Protection against flooding of the harbour of Ostend (Belgium) by the construction of storm walls

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, P; Trouw, K.; Bolle, A.; Van Doorslaer, K.; Troch, P.; Verwaest, T.; Ballieu, D.

    2012-01-01

    The city of Ostend is threatened by floodings due to wave overtopping over the quays of the harbour of Ostend. For this reason storm return walls have to protect the city. This paper describes the design of these storm return walls, starting from the determination of the hydrodynamic boundary conditions, the calculation of wave overtopping discharges and wave forces and the final geotechnical and structural design of the storm return walls.

  2. Influence on surfers wind conditions east of the new Hanstholm harbour/wind turbine project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben J.; Astrup, Poul

    /s mainly from west, measured in 10m height. Results are extracted in several downstream locations specified by Grontmij covering the area used for surfing. It is expected that surfing mainly occurs for wind speeds above 10m/s (10m height) and the important parameters both level of mean wind speeds as well......In this report a consequence study regarding the surfers wind conditions east of the planned new harbour area of Hanstholm. At this harbour area, 10 new 150m tall 3MW wind turbines are planned. Both the harbour constructions as well as the wind turbines could potentially alter the wind conditions...... on the lee side, which is an important area for wind and kite surfers. In this study, both changes in mean wind velocities as well as the turbulence level are investigated for the surf area between a location called ”Fish Factory” to the location called ”Hamburg”. The interesting wind speed interval is 8-16m...

  3. The newtonian approach in the meteorological tide waves forecasting: preliminary observations in the East Ligurian harbours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Piangiamore

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea level oscillations are the superposition of many contributions, among which the main are astronomic and meteorological low-frequency tides. In Ligurian Sea meteo-tide components, being most ample than astronomic fluctuations, drive water exchange in harbours. The present note shows first results about port of Genoa concerning a coherency study between atmospheric variation and corresponding sea level adjustment (meteorological tide. The newtonian forecasting method of meteorological tides is based on measurements of time elapsing between barometric sea level unbalance (?g and its meteorological tide compensation (inverse barometer component. Meteorological tide component is independent on the Earth-Moon-Sun gravitational relationships, moreover parameters related to the shifted water mass are too many to describe the phenomenon analytically (basin topography, barometric strength position and time, chemical water quality, off-shore sea circulation, etc.; then, meteorological tide can’t be accurately foreseen by atmospheric pressure measurements only. A gravimeter can detect the geodetic unbalance starting time and a tide-gauge can detect the newtonian compensation (tide wave coming time. The difference between these two times is the meteorological tide delay. An opportune statistic of this delay provides an experimental law typical for each harbour to forecast the meteo-tide compensation wave delay. This paper describes the methodological procedure adopted and first evidences of the phenomenon in Genoa harbour.

  4. Impact of a harbour construction on the benthic community of two shallow marine caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepote, Ettore; Bianchi, Carlo Nike; Morri, Carla; Ferrari, Marco; Montefalcone, Monica

    2017-01-15

    Marine caves are unique and vulnerable habitats, threatened by multiple global and local disturbances. Whilst the effects of climate change on marine caves have already been investigated, no information exists about the effects of local human impacts, such as coastal development, on these habitats. This study investigated the impact of the construction of a touristic harbour on two shallow underwater marine caves in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean). As a standard methodology for monitoring marine caves does not exist yet, changes over time on the benthic community were assessed adopting two different non-taxonomic descriptors: trophic guilds and growth forms. Harbour construction caused an increase of sediment load within the caves, with a consequent decline of filter feeder organisms. Abundance of small organisms, such as encrusting and flattened sponges, was greatly reduced in comparison to organisms with larger and erect growth forms, such as domed mounds and pedunculated sponges. Our study indicated that growth forms and trophic guilds are effective descriptors for evaluating changes over time in marine caves, and could be easily standardised and applied in monitoring plans. In addition, as the harbour construction impacted differently according to the cave topography, the use of a systematic sampling in different zones of an underwater cave is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterisation of microcontaminants in Darwin Harbour, a tropical estuary of northern Australia undergoing rapid development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Veronica A; King, Susan Codi; Kumar, Anu; Northcott, Grant; McGuinness, Keith; Parry, David

    2015-12-01

    The detection of microcontaminants in aquatic environments raises concerns about their potential to exert ecotoxicological effects and impact human health. In contrast to freshwater habitats, little information is available on environmental concentrations in urban estuarine and marine environments. This study investigated an extensive range of organic and inorganic microcontaminants in the Darwin Harbour catchment, a tropical estuary in northern Australia undergoing rapid urbanisation and industrial development. We sampled wastewater effluent and surface water from seven sites in Darwin Harbour for pharmaceuticals and personal care products, alkylphenols, hormones, pesticides, herbicides and metals. In vitro bioassays were used to estimate the (anti)estrogenic and (anti)androgenic activities of samples. Seventy-nine of 229 organic microcontaminants analysed were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 20 μg/L, with acesulfame, paracetamol, cholesterol, caffeine, DEET and iopromide detected at the highest concentrations in wastewater effluent (20 μg/L, 17 μg/L, 11 μg/L, 11 μg/L, 10 μg/L and 7.6 μg/L, respectively). Levels of estrogenic activity ranged from estradiol equivalency quotients (EEQs) of Darwin Harbour. The measured concentration range of DEET was higher than ranges reported in previous studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A compact self-recording pressure based sea level gauge suitable for deployments at harbour and offshore environments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.; Peshwe, V.B.; Joseph, A.; Mehra, P.; Naik, G.P.; Kumar, V.; Desa, E.S.; Desai, R.G.P.; Nagvekar, S.; Desai, S.P.

    A compact and lightweight self-recording pressure based sea level gauge has been designed to suit deployments from harbour and offshore environments. A novel hydraulic coupling device designed in-house was used to transfer the seawater pressure...

  7. Sporadic diffuse segmental interstitial cell of Cajal hyperplasia harbouring two gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST mimicking hereditary GIST syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafalda Costa Neves

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: We describe a diffuse form of sporadic ICC hyperplasia harbouring multifocal GISTs, mimicking diffuse ICC hyperplasia in hereditary GIST syndromes. Detection of somatic c-KIT exon 11 mutation ruled out a hereditary disorder.

  8. Dinoflagellate cyst assemblages in recent sediments of Visakhapatnam harbour, east coast of India: Influence of environmental characteristics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSilva, M.S.; Anil, A.C.; Sawant, S.S.

    . The cyst abundance varied from 11 to 1218 cysts g sup(-1) dry sediment. Changes in the cyst assemblages from phototrophic to heterotrophic forms were observed from inner to outer harbour stations, and related to changes in environmental characteristics...

  9. Bearing the burden of boat harbours: heavy contaminant and fouling loads in a native habitat-forming alga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, E L; Marzinelli, E M; Wood, C A; Speranza, D; Bishop, J D D

    2011-10-01

    Boat harbours are an increasingly common form of artificial habitat. This paper presents a comparative study of contaminants and foulers of a habitat-forming native kelp (Saccharina latissima) in four marinas and four reference locations along the south-west coast of the UK. Fouling of algal laminae was light (boat harbours creates habitats that are high risk source localities for pollution-tolerant fouling organisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sustainable management of harbours : a numerical approach for the assessment of waters quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamano, Simone; Madonia, Alice; Piazzolla, Daniele; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Piermattei, Viviana; Scanu, Sergio; Melchiorri, Cristiano; Marcelli, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Within the Water Framework Directive (WFD), harbours must reach or maintain the good ecological potential, being classified as heavily modified water bodies. To fulfill this task and to comply the Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) principles, port managers have to monitor the water quality that can be compromised by the numerous activities including the realization of new infrastructures. The port of Civitavecchia, located on the central west coast of Italy, is undergoing to major structural changes to become one of the first ports of the Mediterranean in terms of passenger traffic and goods, thus requiring the development of management tools for the predictive assessment of harbour water quality. This study focused on the evaluation of water degradation within Civitavecchia port trough the calculation of Flushing time (FT) and the development of the new Flushing Efficiency Index (FEI). FT was calculated through the use of a numerical model under different scenarios selected combining different weather conditions with the new port configurations. FT values was then used to estimate the FEI for the evaluation of the improvement (positive values) or the deterioration (negative values) of water quality in the different zones of the port. The increase in the harbour basin size due to the embankment extension results in high values of FT, particularly in the inner part of the port, in accordance with the highest values of the Enrichment Factor (EF) of the trace metals found in the sediment. The correlation between FT and EF confirms that renewal time can be used as a proxy to evaluate the water quality conditions in the harbour basin, as also stated by the WFD guidelines. Also the results of FEI calculation indicate the potential occurrence of water degradation due to the embankment extension. Otherwise, the realization of a second entrance in the southern part of Civitavecchia port produces FEI positive values, highlighting a drastic improvement in harbour water renewal

  11. Effects of waves and currents on the siltation problem of Damietta harbour, Nile Delta coast, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABO BAKER.I. ABO ZED

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the effect of prevailing dynamic factors on the sedimentation process in Damietta Harbour along the Nile delta coast of Egypt. The monitoring program spanned the period between 1978 and 1999 and included measurements of waves, currents and bathymetric profiles. The evaluation was based on determination of erosion and accretion rates, current regime, sediment transport, wave characteristics and wave refraction. Results revealed that the predominant wave direction from N-NW sector (86 % throughout the year is responsible for generation of a longshore eastward current. Less frequent waves from the N-NE sector generate an opposing longshore westward current. The refraction pattern for the prevailing wave direction indicates that the harbour and its navigation channel are located within a divergence of wave orthogonal and in an accretion sediment sink area. The annual net rate of littoral drift on the western side of the harbour is about 1.43 * 105 m3 (accretion, while the annual net rate of littoral drift on the eastern side is about 2.54 * 105 m3 (erosion. Currents fluctuate tremendously in speed and direction, especially during the winter months. Hence, sediment transport takes place in offshore, eastward, and onshore directions. Progressive vector diagrams show that the largest near bottom offshore, onshore and easterly net drift occurs during summer, spring and winter respectively. The onshore sediment transport generated during spring and summer plays an important role in the redistribution of eroded sediments during the winter. The overall study of dynamic factors indicated that the harbour site is characterized by eastern, western, offshore and onshore sediment movements. Therefore, the north-south orientation of the navigation channel, with its depth greater than the surrounding area, interrupts sediment drift from different directions and reduces the current speed. Consequently, the sediments sink within the navigation

  12. The ancient harbour system of Terracina (Latium, Italy) obtained by gravity survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Nezza, M.; di Filippo, M.

    2009-04-01

    Historical research has shown that Terracina (Latina, Latium) played a fundamental role in the maritime and land traffic since before the foundation of the colony. The settlement was established where the organized system of maritime, land, coastal, and fluvial transport had the most ideal conditions to constitute an important commercial crossroads, apparently since the beginning of recorded history. In order to reconstruction the buried archaeological structures attributed to the ancient Roman port, traditionally attributed to Traiano, in the current area of the harbour of Terracina, it was carried out a gravity survey, more than 380 gravity stations. This method enables to recognize the cavity and the structures of the buildings underground through the results of variations density in the subsoil. In the residual gravity anomaly map a series of positive anomalies are visible which confirm the round structures and the pier of the buried foundations of the Imperial harbour. Unfortunately, little remains of the functioning facilities of the harbour's activities. The modern construction of the harbour, in fact, has to be developed around the new inhabitable commercial area, know today as Terracina Bassa or Borgo alla Marina. It had to be developed with a modern infrastructure of a harbor area, as in the construction of the rooms for storage of goods, warehouses, as well as for the thermal baths, hotels and amphitheatre. Furthermore, there are always the positive anomalies that characterize the area to the north-east of "Montone" hill where archaeological remains are easily visible near Via Lungolinea Pio VI. A large negative anomaly is situated in correspondence with "Montone". Gravity information shows an average density of the hill approximately 1.10 g/cm3, notably less than the recorded data relative to dry sand, approximately 1.6 g/cm3. The low value founds hits at the possibility of an "emptiness" in the subsoil of "Montone" hill, attribuiting to the possible

  13. Environmental quality assessment of Grand Harbour (Valletta, Maltese Islands): a case study of a busy harbour in the Central Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Teresa; D'Alessandro, Michela; Esposito, Valentina; Scotti, Gianfranco; Berto, Daniela; Formalewicz, Malgorzata; Noventa, Seta; Giuliani, Silvia; Macchia, Simona; Sartori, Davide; Mazzola, Angelo; Andaloro, Franco; Giacobbe, Salvatore; Deidun, Alan; Renzi, Monia

    2015-12-01

    Contamination levels by plastic debris, trace elements and persistent organic pollutants were assessed and related to macrobenthic diversity within soft bottoms of Grand Harbour (Malta, Central Mediterranean). Sediment toxicity was evaluated by ecotoxicological method, deploying Bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), Echinodermata (Paracentrotus lividus) and Crustacea (Corophium orientale). Univariate analysis (Pearson's test) was used to test relationships between biodiversity indices, pollutants and grain size. A multivariate approach (PERMANOVA) was applied to investigate for any significant differences among sampling stations concerning plastic abundances and to test the relationship between infaunal abundances and pollutant concentrations (the BIOENV test). Significant differences in the plastic abundances were found between sampling stations. The lowest value for Shannon-Wiener biodiversity index was associated to the highest sediment pollution level. Multivariate analyses suggest that MBT and TBT were factors that most influenced macrozoobenthic abundance and biodiversity. The bivalve Corbula gibba and the introduced polychaete Monticellina dorsobranchialis were the most abundant found species.

  14. Age- and sex-specific mortality patterns in an emerging wildlife epidemic: the phocine distemper in European harbour seals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tero Härkönen

    Full Text Available Analyses of the dynamics of diseases in wild populations typically assume all individuals to be identical. However, profound effects on the long-term impact on the host population can be expected if the disease has age and sex dependent dynamics. The Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV caused two mass mortalities in European harbour seals in 1988 and in 2002. We show the mortality patterns were highly age specific on both occasions, where young of the year and adult (>4 yrs animals suffered extremely high mortality, and sub-adult seals (1-3 yrs of both sexes experienced low mortality. Consequently, genetic differences cannot have played a main role explaining why some seals survived and some did not in the study region, since parents had higher mortality levels than their progeny. Furthermore, there was a conspicuous absence of animals older than 14 years among the victims in 2002, which strongly indicates that the survivors from the previous disease outbreak in 1988 had acquired and maintained immunity to PDV. These specific mortality patterns imply that contact rates and susceptibility to the disease are strongly age and sex dependent variables, underlining the need for structured epidemic models for wildlife diseases. Detailed data can thus provide crucial information about a number of vital parameters such as functional herd immunity. One of many future challenges in understanding the epidemiology of the PDV and other wildlife diseases is to reveal how immune system responses differ among animals in different stages during their life cycle. The influence of such underlying mechanisms may also explain the limited evidence for abrupt disease thresholds in wild populations.

  15. Bosaso Harbour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Toschi, P.B; Turrio, E.

    1991-01-01

    The paper deals with some design and construction aspects related to the new port at Bosaso, which is the terminal of the newly completed road system which connects northern Somalia with Mogadishu in the south. The port and the road project was financed by The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Funding...... Agency for Developing Contries, Italy. The basic design and supervision of the work were performed by TECHINT, Milano, with the supervision of CESEN, Genoa. The construction of the port was performed by SACES, Rome, with COSMEZZ Costruzioni, Rome, as subcontractor....

  16. Hydrodynamic detection and localization of artificial flatfish breathing currents by harbour seals (Phoca vitulina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesterok, Benedikt; Krüger, Yvonne; Wieskotten, Sven; Dehnhardt, Guido; Hanke, Wolf

    2017-01-15

    Harbour seals are known to be opportunistic feeders, whose diet consists mainly of pelagic and benthic fish, such as flatfish. As flatfish are often cryptic and do not produce noise, we hypothesized that harbour seals are able to detect and localize flatfish using their hydrodynamic sensory system (vibrissae), as fish emit water currents through their gill openings (breathing currents). To test this hypothesis, we created an experimental platform where an artificial breathing current was emitted through one of eight different openings. Three seals were trained to search for the active opening and station there for 5 s. Half of the trials were conducted with the seal blindfolded with an eye mask. In blindfolded and non-blindfolded trials, all seals performed significantly better than chance. The seals crossed the artificial breathing current (being emitted into the water column at an angle of 45 deg to the ground) from different directions. There was no difference in performance when the seals approached from in front, from behind or from the side. All seals responded to the artificial breathing currents by directly moving their snout towards the opening from which the hydrodynamic stimulus was emitted. Thus, they were also able to extract directional information from the hydrodynamic stimulus. Hydrodynamic background noise and the swimming speed of the seals were also considered in this study as these are aggravating factors that seals in the wild have to face during foraging. By creating near-natural conditions, we show that harbour seals have the ability to detect a so-far overlooked type of stimulus. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Investigations of Cu, Pb and Zn partitioning by sequential extraction in harbour sediments after electrodialytic remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2010-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation was used to remove Cu, Zn and Pb from three different contaminated harbour sediments. Electrodialytic experiments lasting 2 and 4 weeks were performed and 48-86% Cu, 74-90% Zn and 62-88% Pb were removed from the different sediments and the removal increased with longer....... Zn and Pb were found in the exchangeable and reducible phases before remediation. Zn was still found in the exchangeable and reducible phases after remediation, whereas most Pb was removed from these phases during electrodialytic remediation....

  18. Geodetic Infrastructure in the Ibiza and Barcelona Harbours for Sea Level Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Benjamin, J. J.; Gili, J.; Lopez, R.; Tapia, A.; Perez, B.; Pros, F.

    2013-12-01

    The presentation is directed to the description of the actual situation and relevant information of the geodetic infrastructure of Ibiza and Barcelona sites for sea level determination and contribution to regional sea level rise. Time series are being analysed for mean sea level variations www.puertos.es. .In the framework of a Spanish Space Project, the instrumentation of sea level measurements has been improved by providing the Barcelona site with a radar tide gauge Datamar 2000C from Geonica s.l. near an acoustic tide gauge. Puertos del Estado installed in 2007 a MIROS radar tide gauge and the Barcelona Harbour Authority a GPS referente station in the roof of the new Control Tower situated in the Energy Pier. The radar sensor is over the water surface, on a L-shaped structure which elevates it a few meters above the quay shelf. 1-min data are transmitted to the ENAGAS Control Center by cable and then sent each 1 min to Puertos del Estado by e-mail. There is a GPS station Leica Geosystems GRX1200 GG Pro and antenna 1202. Precision levelling has been made several times in the last two years because the tower is founded in reclaimed land. The measured settlement rate is about 1cm/year that may be could mask the values registered by the tide gauge. A description of the actual infrastructure at Ibiza harbour at Marina de Botafoch, is presented and its applications to sea level monitoring and altimeter calibration in support of the main CGPS at Ibiza harbour. It is described the geometrical precision levelling made in June 2013 between the radar tide gauge and the GPS station. In particular, the CGPS located at Ibiza harbour is essential for its application to the marine campaign Baleares 2013, near Ibiza island. The main objective is to determine the altimeter bias for Jason-2, about 9:09 UTC September 15, 2013, and Saral/AltiKa, about 05:30 UTC September 16, UTC. These activities has been received funding of the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion under Spanish

  19. Analysis of Wave Reflection from Wave Energy Converters Installed as Breakwaters in Harbour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanuttigh, B.; Margheritini, Lucia; Gambles, L.

    2009-01-01

    loads on the structure, i.e. better survivability. Nevertheless these devices must comply with the requirements of harbour protection structures and thus cope with problems due to reflection of incoming waves, i.e. dangerous sea states close to harbors entrances and intensified sediment scour, which can...... lead to structure destabilization. The present paper aims to analyse wave reflection from OWC and Sea Slot-cone Generator (SSG) converters, based on experimental results obtained in 2D and 3D facilities. The applicability of formulae available in the literature and derived from costal structures...

  20. Wave-induced nearshore flow patterns in the vicinity of Cochin harbour, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Vethamony, P.; Murty, C.S.

    , C. S. Murty Refraction function Wave length Wave period Wave orbital velocity 1 INTRODUCTION The dynamics of sediment movement in the littoral zone is governed primarily by wave-induced currents. Specific knowledge of these currents...) _\\] (2) The wave orbital velocities (Umax) at the lower boundary of the fluid Nearshore flow patterns in the vicinity of Cochin Harbour 115 75 ° &5' 7,6" 76~ 15' -- 10 ° i 15' 300 ec N I -10° :hin leltana ~ntnak~ ;Ranaz 30 Fig. 2. A typical...

  1. Toxic effects of tributyltin and its metabolites on harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) immune cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frouin, Heloise [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique - Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, Quebec H7V 1B7 (Canada); Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Maurice Lamontagne Institute, Mont-Joli, Quebec G5H 3Z4 (Canada)], E-mail: heloise.frouin@iaf.inrs.ca; Lebeuf, Michel [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Maurice Lamontagne Institute, Mont-Joli, Quebec G5H 3Z4 (Canada); Saint-Louis, Richard [Institut des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski (ISMER), Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, Rimouski, Quebec G5L 3A1 (Canada); Hammill, Mike [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Maurice Lamontagne Institute, Mont-Joli, Quebec G5H 3Z4 (Canada); Pelletier, Emilien [Institut des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski (ISMER), Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, Rimouski, Quebec G5L 3A1 (Canada); Fournier, Michel [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique - Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, Quebec H7V 1B7 (Canada)

    2008-11-21

    The widespread environmental contamination, bioaccumulation and endocrine disruptor effects of butyltins (BTs) to wildlife are well documented. Although suspected, potential effects of BTs exposure on the immune system of marine mammals have been little investigated. In this study, we assessed the effects of tributyltin (TBT) and its dealkylated metabolites dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT) on the immune responses of harbour seals. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from pup and adult harbour seals were exposed in vitro to varying concentrations of BTs. DBT resulted in a significant decrease at 100 and 200 nM of phagocytotic activity and reduced significantly phagocytic efficiency at 200 nM in adult seals. There was no effect in phagocytosis with TBT and MBT. In pups, the highest concentration (200 nM) of DBT inhibited phagocytic efficiency. A reduction of tumor-killing capacity of adult natural killer (NK) cells occurred when leukocytes were incubated in vitro with 50 nM DBT and 200 nM TBT for 24 h. In adult seals, T-lymphocyte proliferation was significantly suppressed when the cells were exposed to 200 nM TBT and 100 nM DBT. In pups, the proliferative response increased after an exposure to 100 nM TBT and 50 nM DBT, but decreased with 200 nM TBT and 100 nM DBT. The immune functions were more affected by BTs exposure in adults than in pups, suggesting that other unsuspected mechanisms could trigger immune parameters in pups. The toxic potential of BTs followed the order of DBT > TBT > MBT. BT concentrations of harbour seal pups from the St. Lawrence Estuary (Bic National Park) ranged between 0.1-0.4 ng Sn/g wet weight (ww) and 1.2-13.4 ng Sn/g ww in blood and blubber, respectively. For these animals, DBT concentrations were consistently below the quantification limit of 0.04 ng Sn/g ww in blood and 0.2 ng Sn/g ww in blubber. Results suggest that concentrations measured in pups are considered too low to induce toxic effects to their immune system

  2. Enzymatic activity in the surface microlayer and subsurface water in the harbour channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perliński, Piotr; Mudryk, Zbigniew J.; Antonowicz, Józef

    2017-09-01

    Hydrolytic activity of eight extracellular enzymes was determined spectrofluorimetric method in the surface microlayer and subsurface water in the harbour channel in Ustka. The ranking order of the potential enzyme activity rates in the studied water layers was as follows: lipase > phosphatase > aminopeptidase > β-glucosidase > α-glucosidase > xylanase > cellulase > chitinase. The level of activity of all studied hydrolases was higher in the surface microlayer than subsurface water. No clear gradients in the level of enzymatic activity were determined along the horizontal profile of the studied channel. Activity of extracellular enzymes was strongly influenced by the season.

  3. Shear wave reflection seismic surveying in the Trondheim harbour area - imaging of land slide processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polom, U.; Hansen, L.; L'Heureux, S.; Longva, O.; Lecomte, I.; Krawczyk, C. M.

    2008-12-01

    The harbour area of Trondheim, Norway, was build on man-made land fillings at the coast of the Trondheim Fjord in several expansions since the last 80 years. The whole area is located on the deltaic sediments of the river Nidelven, which are overlying marine sediments that reach the bed rock in nearly 150 m depth. Some submarine land slides at the border of the sediment body nearby the harbour area were reported during the last decades. Therefore, many geological and geophysical investigations were carried out in recent years to explore the structure of the sediment body and its stability onshore and offshore in detail. Whereas high-resolution marine seismic methods archieved excellent results in the offshore area, common seismic investigations for the mostly paved harbour area itself were a difficult challenge. Therefore, SH polarized shear wave reflection seismics using a land streamer combined with a newly developed shear wave vibrator buggy of 30 kN peak force was applied, because this method is advantageous for paved surfaces. Overall 4.2 km 2.5D profiling was carried out in the harbour area along roads and parking places after optimizing of the field procedure. The whole operation was done at night in time slots from midnight to 5 am by road closures due to savety reasons and to minimize the noise from surrounding heavy traffic of trains, trucks and other heavy equipment. The field measurements achieved high resolution results of the sediment body structure, clear detection of the bedrock, and probably deeper structures within the bedrock. Due to the clear and continuous reflection events, also the shear wave velocity could be calculated at least down to the bedrock to indicate the stiffness of the sediment layers. The results of these onshore seismic profiles will be integrated in a combined onshore-offshore seismic profile grid for structural interpretation. Furthermore, the derived shear wave velocities will be combined with cone penetrometer testings and

  4. Succession of Scyphozoa-Ctenophora in the Harbour of Çanakkale

    OpenAIRE

    Alpaslan, Mustafa

    2001-01-01

    Abstract This study was carried on the basic of physico-chemical parameters, Scyphozoa and. Ctenophora succession in the Harbour of Çanakkale (40° 09' 07" N, 26° 24' 09" B) between January 2000 and December 2000 sampling intervals. According to the results of chemical analysis; nitrate nitrogen ranged within 0.80-1.630 mglt 1, total inorganic phosphate 0.016-0.044 mglt 1, silica 0.180- 0.300 mglt 1, potassium 190-220 mglt', zinc 0.030-0.1.4 mglt 1, temperature 7...

  5. INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS FOR SMALL SCALE VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINES USED IN HARBOURS AND SHORE AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONESCU Raluca Dora

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyse the wind turbine solutions implemented in harbours and on shore areas. Also a thorough study of the blade design solutions for small power Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs has been conducted, with their advantages and disadvantages, in order to find the best solution that minimises the loads and helps with the self-starting capabilities of the wind turbine. First are presented all the solutions, next are discussed several research results for each solution and, in the end, a combination of solutions is chosen for our new small power VAWT with a pre-dimensioning analysis.

  6. Do syntopic host species harbour similar symbiotic communities? The case of Chaetopterus spp. (Annelida: Chaetopteridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temir A. Britayev

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To assess whether closely related host species harbour similar symbiotic communities, we studied two polychaetes, Chaetopterus sp. (n = 11 and Chaetopterus cf. appendiculatus (n = 83 living in soft sediments of Nhatrang Bay (South China Sea, Vietnam. The former harboured the porcellanid crabs Polyonyx cf. heok and Polyonyx sp., the pinnotherid crab Tetrias sp. and the tergipedid nudibranch Phestilla sp. The latter harboured the polynoid polychaete Ophthalmonoe pettiboneae, the carapid fish Onuxodon fowleri and the porcellanid crab Eulenaios cometes, all of which, except O. fowleri, seemed to be specialized symbionts. The species richness and mean intensity of the symbionts were higher in Chaetopterus sp. than in C. cf. appendiculatus (1.8 and 1.02 species and 3.0 and 1.05 individuals per host respectively. We suggest that the lower density of Chaetopterus sp. may explain the higher number of associated symbionts observed, as well as the 100% prevalence (69.5% in C. cf. appenciculatus. Most Chaetopterus sp. harboured two symbiotic species, which was extremely rare in C. cf. appendiculatus, suggesting lower interspecific interactions in the former. The crab and nudibranch symbionts of Chaetopterus sp. often shared a host and lived in pairs, thus partitioning resources. This led to the species coexisting in the tubes of Chaetopterus sp., establishing a tightly packed community, indicating high species richness and mean intensity, together with a low species dominance. In contrast, the aggressive, strictly territorial species associated with C. cf. appendiculatus established a symbiotic community strongly dominated by single species and, thus, low species richness and mean intensity. Therefore, we suggest that interspecific interactions are determining species richness, intensity and dominance, while intraspecific interactions are influencing only intensity and abundance. It is possible that species composition may have influenced the

  7. Development in Harbour Construction, Infrastructure and Topography on the Eve of the Early Modern Age in the Baltic (1450-1600)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springmann, Maik Jens O R

    2016-01-01

    Ships are no Flying Dutchmen! They need a harbour. Therefore, the development of ship construction is pretty much connected with that of harbour construction, and beyond this, they influence the topography and infrastructure of a harbour. The transition between the Medieval period and the Early...... Modern Age is a period of great change in the development of larger ships, even in the Baltic. Furthermore, the internationalisation of Baltic trade took place. In Medieval times, ship construction followed conditions in the harbours. In the Early Modern Age, it was the other way round. Now, harbour...... construction, topography and infrastructure follow the development of ship construction. The paper focuses on the deep impact that larger multi-mast sailing ships had on the development of Baltic harbours...

  8. Recolonization of macrofauna in unpolluted sands placed in a polluted yachting harbour: A field approach using experimental trays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-García, J. M.; García-Gómez, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    A field experiment using trays was conducted at Ceuta's yachting harbour, North Africa, to study the effect in recolonization of placing trays with unpolluted defaunate sediments (fine and gross sands with low contents of organic matter) inside an enclosed yachting harbour characterized by high percentages of silt and clay and high concentrations of organic matter. Sediment recolonization in the trays was mainly undertaken by the species living naturally at the yachting harbour, which recolonized both uncontaminated gross and fine sand trays (such as the crustaceans Corophium runcicorne, Corophium sextonae and Nebalia bipes, the mollusc Parvicardium exiguum and the polychaete Pseudomalacoceros tridentata). However, other species like the polychaetes Cirriformia tentaculata and Platynereis dumerilii, although also abundant in the yachting harbour, were unable to colonize the trays through transport of larvae and/or adults in the water column. The recolonization was very quick, and after the first month, the values of abundance, species richness, diversity and evenness were similar in the experimental trays and in the reference area (yachting harbour). Although the multivariate analysis showed that the species composition differed between the trays and the reference area, there were no significant differences in recolonization of gross and fine sands, indicating that other factors different from the granulometry are modulating the recolonization patterns.

  9. Effective population size and evolutionary dynamics in outbred ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mation developed in this study suggests that some of our laboratory populations harbour more genetic variation than expected. One explanation for this finding is that part of the genetic variation in these outbred laboratory Drosophila populations may be maintained ..... ing depression observed for either longevity or female.

  10. Linking animal population dynamics to alterations in foraging behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Sibly, Richard; Tougaard, Jakob

    that are increasingly exposed to noise from ships, wind turbines, etc. In the present study we investigate how the dynamics of the harbor porpoise population (Phocoena phocoena) in the inner Danish waters is influenced by disturbances using an agent- based simulation model. In the model animal movement, and hence......Background/Question/Methods The survival of animal populations is strongly influenced by the individuals’ ability to forage efficiently, yet there are few studies of how populations respond when disturbances cause animals to deviate from their natural foraging behavior. Animals that respond...... realistic movement patterns in scenarios where animals were not exposed to noise. Results/Conclusions The main results of the study were that the effects of disturbances were highly dependent on how fast the food recovered after being eaten, but that the long-term survival of the population...

  11. The Acoustic Repertoire of Odontecetes as a Basis for Developing Automatic Detectors and Classifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    8 3.4 Vaquita ...Phocoenoides dalli Spectacled Porpoise Australophocaena dioptrica Harbour Porpoise Phocoena phocoena Vaquita Phocoena sinus Burmeister’s Porpoise... Vaquita Type Bandwidth ∆f [Hz] Dominant f [Hz] Duration/Repet. SL [dB re 1µPa @1m] Location Reference s clicks 147k-122k 128k-139k 79-193µs

  12. Integrative sediment assessment at Atlantic Spanish harbours by means of chemical and ecotoxicological tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, N; Belzunce-Segarra, M J; Menchaca, I; Garmendia, J M; Franco, J; Nieto, O; Etxebarria, N

    2013-02-01

    This study refers to the integrative assessment of sediment quality in three harbour areas at the Spanish Atlantic Coast: Vigo (Northwestern Spain), Bilbao and Pasajes (Northern Spain). At each site, two lines of evidence have been considered: chemical analyses (metal, PAH and PCB concentrations in sediments and ammonia concentration in bioassays) and toxicity tests (Microtox®, Corophium sp. marine amphipod and Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin larvae). Chemical and ecotoxicological results have been integrated by means of a tabular matrix and a multivariate factorial analysis (FA). Highly toxic samples have been characterised in Vigo and Pasajes harbours while Bilbao samples present toxicity levels ranging from non-toxic to moderately toxic. High toxicity is associated with high levels of contaminants whereas confounding factors (ammonia, organic matter and mud) have been identified to be the main cause of low to moderate toxicity. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that deriving potential toxicity of sediments based on comparison with Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) is in agreement to toxicity results in areas presenting high levels of contaminants. However, at lower levels of toxicity (low to moderate), the mismatch between the potential toxicity (SQG approach) and the toxicity measured by bioassays is greater, as the former only accounts for chemical concentrations, without considering the interaction between contaminants and the effect of confounding factors. Contrarily, the multivariate analysis seems to be a robust tool for the integration and interpretation of different lines of evidence in areas affected by different sources of contamination.

  13. Numerical simulations of tsunami waves impacts on Ulee Lheue Harbour in Banda Aceh-Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachrurrazi; Syamsidik; Al'ala, M.; Mahardi, W.

    2017-02-01

    This paper reports the effects of 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami onto the Ulee Lheue harbour facility, Banda Aceh - Indonesia. The breakwater that had damaged after tsunami were rebuilt into its original design once more due to UNDP funding source. As the existing construction knowing how much the chance it stands againts the tsunami in various terms would be decent for further improvement. This research aim is to measure the capabilities of the breakwater againts the various tsunami scenario. performing the numerical simulation to analyze the hydrodynamics we used both COMCOT and Delft3D-flow for tsunami propagation in line with the hydrodynamics. Several observation points were deployed representing each part of the breakwater. The process revealed that the breakwater only able to hold 8.0 Mw induced wave from overtopping. uniquely when 8.2 Mw tsunami wave strikes the breakwater till overtopped but not giving enough energy to move the boulder aside. Potential movement of the boulder occurred when the 8.4 Mw tsunami wave come through the breakwater produced 77.12 m (5.88 %) damaged structure. The 8.6 Mw single fault highest magnitude gave 209.32 m long (15.97%) destruction upon this Ulee Lheue Harbour breakwater.

  14. Toronto Harbour Commissioners (THC) soil recycle treatment train. Applications analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrenreich, L.C.; Matuson, A.; Peters, J.; Evans, J.

    1993-04-01

    This project consists of a demonstration of the Toronto Harbour Commissioners (THC) Soil Recycle Treatment Train. The treatment train consists of three processes. The first process utilizes an attrition soil wash process to separate relatively uncontaminated soil from a more heavily contaminated fine slurry. The contaminated fine slurry is then further processed in a metals removal process or a bioslurry reactor process or both to remove organic contaminants and heavy metals contamination. The Toronto Harbour Commissioners conducted a long-term evaluation of this treatment train at a 55 tons per day pilot plant at 185 Cherry Street in the port of Toronto, located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program conducted a demonstration project that examined in detail the processing of soil from one of the sites being evaluated in the overall project. The goals of this study were to evaluate the technical effectiveness and economics of a treatment process sequence and to assess the potential applicability of the process to other wastes and/or other Superfund and hazardous waste sites.

  15. Tsunami impact and vulnerability in the harbour area of Tangier, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Benchekroun

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we assess tsunami impact and building vulnerability in the harbour area of Tangier – Morocco. Tsunami impact is evaluated through performing high-resolution inundation modelling. To assess buildings tsunami vulnerability, we use a geographic information system (GIS multi-criteria approach based upon weight and classification factors. The methodology includes various steps: (i identification of the most hazardous earthquake tsunamigenic sources, (ii computation of high-resolution digital elevation model, (iii simulation of inundation, (iv field survey to classify buildings and defence structures and (v application of the GIS-based model to produce final vulnerability map. Results show the potential tsunami impact and vulnerability that Tangier coast might face due to the occurrence of a large tsunami event in the region. Inundation map indicates that a coastal area of over 4.5 km2 is prone to tsunami flood with flow depths ranging from 0.5 to more than 6 m. Vulnerability map highlights different levels of expected buildings vulnerability to tsunami impact, which vary from “very high” for single-storey structures, located in the city harbour and along the sandy beach, to “low” for multi-storeys RC structures. Both inundation and vulnerability maps have important implications for decision makers and land use planning aiming to mitigate tsunami hazard in the North East Atlantic region.

  16. An X-Band Radar System for Bathymetry and Wave Field Analysis in a Harbour Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Ludeno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine X-band radar based systems are well tested to provide information about sea state and bathymetry. It is also well known that complex geometries and non-uniform bathymetries provide a much bigger challenge than offshore scenarios. In order to tackle this issue a retrieval method is proposed, based on spatial partitioning of the data and the application of the Normalized Scalar Product (NSP, which is an innovative procedure for the joint estimation of bathymetry and surface currents. The strategy is then applied to radar data acquired around a harbour entrance, and results show that the reconstructed bathymetry compares well with ground truth data obtained by an echo-sounder campaign, thus proving the reliability of the whole procedure. The spectrum thus retrieved is then analysed to show the evidence of reflected waves from the harbour jetties, as confirmed by chain of hydrodynamic models of the sea wave field. The possibility of using a land based radar to reveal sea wave reflection is entirely new and may open up new operational applications of the system.

  17. Diversity and antimicrobial activities of surface-attached marine bacteria from Sydney Harbour, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, George S; Raftos, David A; Corrigan, Shannon L; Nair, Sham V

    2010-05-30

    Marine bacteria are a rich source of potentially useful antimicrobial molecules. However, much of the microbial diversity in marine ecosystems with its potential for uncovering new antimicrobial compounds remains to be discovered. This is particularly true for surface-attached marine bacteria, which comprise microbial communities that are generally unique to a host surface and geographic location. The current study characterises culturable microbial communities on marine surfaces from Sydney Harbour, Australia, and tests their antimicrobial activities. A high proportion (47%) of the 104 marine isolates from Sydney Harbour could not be classified to a known genus based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Assays of antimicrobial activity from the 104 isolates showed that antimicrobial production is not widespread throughout the phylogeny of isolates with 8 of the 10 antimicrobial producers clustering into a distinct phylogenetic clade. These 8 closely related antibacterial isolates had potent activity in antibacterial cross-dilution assays, with no growth of target bacteria at supernatant concentrations of less than 6.6% v/v. To gain an insight into the types of molecules responsible for this potent activity, differential polarity extractions were carried out on antibacterial culture supernatants from these 8 isolates. All of the activity fractionated into the most polar phase, suggesting that the antibacterial molecules are highly polar. Proteolytic digestion inhibited activity, indicating that the antibacterial molecules were proteins. This study is the first to link the phylogeny of numerous surface-attached marine bacteria with antimicrobial production. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Saccadic movement strategy in a semiaquatic species - the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurten, Bart R H; Niesterok, Benedikt; Dehnhardt, Guido; Hanke, Frederike D

    2017-04-15

    Moving animals can estimate the distance of visual objects from image shift on their retina (optic flow) created during translational, but not rotational movements. To facilitate this distance estimation, many terrestrial and flying animals perform saccadic movements, thereby temporally separating translational and rotational movements, keeping rotation times short. In this study, we analysed whether a semiaquatic mammal, the harbour seal, also adopts a saccadic movement strategy. We recorded the seals' normal swimming pattern with video cameras and analysed head and body movements. The swimming seals indeed minimized rotation times by saccadic head and body turns, with top rotation speeds exceeding 350 deg s(-1) which leads to an increase of translational movements. Saccades occurred during both types of locomotion of the seals' intermittent swimming mode: active propulsion and gliding. In conclusion, harbour seals share the saccadic movement strategy of terrestrial animals. Whether this movement strategy is adopted to facilitate distance estimation from optic flow or serves a different function will be a topic of future research. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. In vitro and in vivo pathogenicity studies of Pasteurella multocida strains harbouring different ompA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoch, Shailja; Sharma, Mandeep; Patil, R D; Kumar, Sandeep; Verma, Subhash

    2014-09-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a pathogenic, Gram-negative bacterium that is commonly found as normal flora in nasopharynx of variety of wild and domestic animals. Numerous virulence factors have been described for P. multocida isolates which include adherence and colonization factors, iron-regulated and acquisition proteins, extracellular enzymes such as neuraminidase, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), capsule and a variety of outer membrane proteins (Omp). OmpA has a significant role in stabilizing the cell envelope structure by providing physical linkage between the outer membrane & peptidoglycan. It has been shown to mediate P. multocida -host cells interaction via heparin and/or fibronectin binding and therefore act as an important invasive molecule which could determine the final outcome of initial infection. Comparative nucleotide sequence analysis of ompA gene of P. multocida has revealed that despite extensive genetic diversity in ompA of P. multocida, most sequences could be classified into two major allele classes namely ompA allele (I) and allele (II). The P. multocida recovered from nasal cavity of bovine and belonging to two ompA classes were tested for their differential virulence. In vitro pathogenicity studies on Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cell line employing adhesion and invasion assays indicated that P. multocida strain with ompA (I) is more invasive than P. multocida strain with ompA (II). In vivo studies in mice further reiterated that the isolates harbouring ompA(I) were comparatively more virulent to isolates harbouring ompA (II).

  20. Developing a Social, Cultural and Economic Report Card for a Regional Industrial Harbour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Pascoe

    Full Text Available Report cards are increasingly used to provide ongoing snap-shots of progress towards specific ecosystem health goals, particularly in coastal regions where planners need to balance competing demands for coastal resources from a range of industries. While most previous report cards focus on the biophysical components of the system, there is a growing interest in including the social and economic implications of ecosystem management to provide a greater social-ecological system understanding. Such a report card was requested on the Gladstone Harbour area in central Queensland, Australia. Gladstone Harbour adjoins the southern Great Barrier Reef, and is also a major industrial and shipping port. Balancing social, economic and environmental interests is therefore of great concern to the regional managers. While environmental benchmarking procedures are well established within Australia (and elsewhere, a method for assessing social and economic performance of coastal management is generally lacking. The key aim of this study was to develop and pilot a system for the development of a report card relating to appropriate cultural, social and economic objectives. The approach developed uses a range of multicriteria decision analysis methods to assess and combine different qualitative and quantitative measures, including the use of Bayesian Belief Networks to combine the different measures and provide an overall quantitative score for each of the key management objectives. The approach developed is readily transferable for purposes of similar assessments in other regions.

  1. An X-Band Radar System for Bathymetry and Wave Field Analysis in a Harbour Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludeno, Giovanni; Reale, Ferdinando; Dentale, Fabio; Carratelli, Eugenio Pugliese; Natale, Antonio; Soldovieri, Francesco; Serafino, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Marine X-band radar based systems are well tested to provide information about sea state and bathymetry. It is also well known that complex geometries and non-uniform bathymetries provide a much bigger challenge than offshore scenarios. In order to tackle this issue a retrieval method is proposed, based on spatial partitioning of the data and the application of the Normalized Scalar Product (NSP), which is an innovative procedure for the joint estimation of bathymetry and surface currents. The strategy is then applied to radar data acquired around a harbour entrance, and results show that the reconstructed bathymetry compares well with ground truth data obtained by an echo-sounder campaign, thus proving the reliability of the whole procedure. The spectrum thus retrieved is then analysed to show the evidence of reflected waves from the harbour jetties, as confirmed by chain of hydrodynamic models of the sea wave field. The possibility of using a land based radar to reveal sea wave reflection is entirely new and may open up new operational applications of the system. PMID:25594601

  2. Recent changes in estuarine benthic and suprabenthic communities resulting from the development of harbour infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvin, J C; Desroy, N; Janson, A L; Vallet, C; Duhamel, S

    2006-01-01

    Using a Before/During/After sampling protocol, the effects of the Le Havre harbour extension, which was started at the end of 2001, on the macrobenthic and suprabenthic communities in the eastern Bay of Seine (English Channel) were examined. As the construction phase has not yet been completed, the results presented here reflect only the data collected before and during the operations (September 2000 and 2002 for benthos sampling and March 2001, September 2001, October 2002 and March 2003 for suprabenthos sampling). Although bio-sedimentary changes did occur at the mouth of the Seine river, an analysis of benthic assemblages reveals that the dredging and construction operations do not seem to have influenced assemblage structure or the spatial distribution of organisms. Comparisons of the suprabenthic assemblages at each sampling date indicate that seasonal dynamics was mainly responsible for determining species distribution. We conclude that, 1 year into the harbour management plan, the observed changes in benthic and suprabenthic assemblage abundance do not exceed the range of spatial variability that exists naturally in the Seine estuary. Despite this compensatory actions designed to protect the aquatic habitats and to preserve a sustainable and healthy ecosystem have been added to the infrastructure development plan.

  3. Comparison of Sterol Biomarkers for Sewage with other Measures in Victoria Harbour, B.C., Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, S. M.; Lintern, D. Gwyn

    1999-01-01

    A lipid biomarker survey was conducted in Victoria Harbour, Canada, to compare the distribution of sewage-derived organic matter with existing results from bacterial studies. Previous surveys [Miller (1993) Report prepared by Capital Regional District Engineering Department, Victoria, B.C. Canada and Miller et al. (1995) Report prepared by CRD Environmental Services Group and Aquatic Science Consultants Ltd., B.C., Canada] of sewage contamination in the harbour were based principally on infrequent faecal coliform counts. The use of lipid biomarkers to determine time-averaged concentrations of sewage components in sediments may be a more appropriate method for defining areas where sewage is causing environmental or human health risks. 5β-Coprostanol was measured together with other sterols, fatty acids and fatty alcohols. Generally, sewage contamination shown by these lipid biomarkers was coincident with high faecal coliform counts from previous studies. However, this survey suggests, contrary to faecal coliform counts, that Portage Inlet was a region where sewage had accumulated in the sediments, possibly due to nearby overflow facilities or tidal pumping. Although the bacterial counts were low, sewage-derived organic matter was accumulating in the slack areas. In sediments of the Gorge and West Bay there were low faecal biomarker concentrations; this was probably due to the strong tidal currents which do not allow faecal matter to settle in sediments. Faecal coliform counts, however, indicated poor water quality in these same regions but this probably reflects fresh discharges passing through this area without leading to settlement.

  4. Developing a Social, Cultural and Economic Report Card for a Regional Industrial Harbour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Sean; Tobin, Renae; Windle, Jill; Cannard, Toni; Marshall, Nadine; Kabir, Zobaidul; Flint, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Report cards are increasingly used to provide ongoing snap-shots of progress towards specific ecosystem health goals, particularly in coastal regions where planners need to balance competing demands for coastal resources from a range of industries. While most previous report cards focus on the biophysical components of the system, there is a growing interest in including the social and economic implications of ecosystem management to provide a greater social-ecological system understanding. Such a report card was requested on the Gladstone Harbour area in central Queensland, Australia. Gladstone Harbour adjoins the southern Great Barrier Reef, and is also a major industrial and shipping port. Balancing social, economic and environmental interests is therefore of great concern to the regional managers. While environmental benchmarking procedures are well established within Australia (and elsewhere), a method for assessing social and economic performance of coastal management is generally lacking. The key aim of this study was to develop and pilot a system for the development of a report card relating to appropriate cultural, social and economic objectives. The approach developed uses a range of multicriteria decision analysis methods to assess and combine different qualitative and quantitative measures, including the use of Bayesian Belief Networks to combine the different measures and provide an overall quantitative score for each of the key management objectives. The approach developed is readily transferable for purposes of similar assessments in other regions.

  5. Sensor and Video Monitoring of Water Quality at Bristol Floating Harbour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiheng; Han, Dawei

    2017-04-01

    Water system is an essential component in a smart city for its sustainability and resilience. The harbourside is a focal area of​ ​Bristol with new buildings and features redeveloped in the last ten years, attracting numerous visitors by the diversity of attractions and beautiful views. There is a strong​ ​relationship between the satisfactory of the visitors and local people with the water quality in the Harbour. The freshness and beauty of the water body would please people as well as benefit the aquatic ecosystems. As we are entering a data-rich era, this pilot project aims to explore the concept of using​ ​ video cameras and smart sensors to collect and monitor water quality condition at the Bristol harbourside. The video cameras and smart sensors are connected to the Bristol Is Open network, an open programmable city platform. This will be the​ first​ attempt to collect water quality data in real time in the​ ​Bristol urban area with the wireless network. The videos and images of the water body collected by the cameras will be correlated with the in-situ water quality parameters for research​ ​purposes. The successful implementation of the sensors can attract more academic researchers and industrial partners to expand the sensor network to multiple locations​ ​around the city covering the other parts of the Harbour and River Avon, leading to a new generation of urban system infrastructure model.

  6. Endoparasitic helminths of the harbour seal, Phoca vitulina, in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgsteede, F. H. M.; Bus, H. G. J.; Verplanke, J. A. W.; van Burg, W. P. J.

    The endoparasitic helminth fauna of harbour seals which had died during the epidemic of the phocine distemper virus in 1988 was studied. Lungs, heart and gastrointestinal tracts of 94 animals collected along the Dutch coast were available for investigation. The following parasites and infection percentages were found: Nematoda: Dipetalonema spirocauda (24.5%), Otostrongylus circumlitus (6.4%), Parafilaroides gymnurus (24.5%), Ascaridoidea spec. (58.5%); Trematoda: Phagicola septentrionalis (66.0%), Cryptocotyle lingua (74.5%); Cestoda: Diphyllobothrium spec. (8.5%); Acanthocephala: Corynosoma strumosum (70.2%). The presence of worm species was not evenly distributed over the age classes. Seals younger than one year harboured fewer parasites. The highest percentages were found in 1 to 2 year old seals. The number of worms per seal varied greatly. The highest burden for ascarids was 253, for P. septentrionalis 123 000, for C. lingua 112 000 and for C. strumosum 251. A comparison of the present results with those described in the literature shows that in Dutch seals the same species were present and that numbers of worms were not higher than before the 1988 mass mortality. It is therefore concluded that helminth parasites did not cause the mass mortality.

  7. The ancient harbour system of Terracina (Latium, Italy) obtained by gravity and seismic surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Nezza, Maria; di Filippo, Michele

    2010-05-01

    Historical research has shown that Terracina (Latina, Latium) played a fundamental role in the maritime and land traffic since before the foundation of the colony. The settlement was established where the organized system of maritime, land, coastal, and fluvial transport had the most ideal conditions to constitute an important commercial crossroads, apparently since the beginning of recorded history. In order to reconstruction the buried archaeological structures attributed to the ancient Roman port, traditionally attributed to Traiano, in the current area of the harbour of Terracina, it was carried out a gravity survey, more than 380 gravity stations. The gravity method enables to recognize the cavity and the structures of the buildings underground through the results of variations density in the subsoil. Seismic tomography treats the problem of identifying a buried structure as a wave propagation process by inverting the linearized wave equation to compute the spatial distribution of the slowness of the velocity. The purpose of our tomographic study is to further test the method and to guide archaeologists in their future excavations by locating and identifying buried structures. In the residual gravity anomaly map a series of positive anomalies are visible which confirm the round structures and the pier of the buried foundations of the Imperial harbour. Unfortunately, little remains of the functioning facilities of the harbour's activities. The modern construction of the harbour, in fact, has to be developed around the new inhabitable commercial area, know today as Terracina Bassa or Borgo alla Marina. It had to be developed with a modern infrastructure of a harbor area, as in the construction of the rooms for storage of goods, warehouses, as well as for the thermal baths, hotels and amphitheatre. Furthermore, there are always the positive anomalies that characterize the area to the north-east of "Montone" hill where archaeological remains are easily visible

  8. Sediment quality dredging from Viareggio harbour; Valutazione della qualita` di sedimenti del porto di Viareggio da sottoporre ad escavo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ausili, A.; Pellegrini, D. [ICRAM, Istituto Centrale per la -ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica Applicata al Mare, Rome (Italy); Onorati, F.; De Ranieri, S. [CIBM, Centro Interuniversitario di Biologia Marina, Livorno (Italy)

    1998-01-01

    Several areas of Viareggio Harbour (Italy) (inside, outer-port and harbour-entrance) a tourist attended port close to the Thyrrhenian coast, has to be dredged. This operation requires accurate determination of physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics before the following disposal or alternative uses (e.g. in beach nourishment). Sediment texture, heavy metal concentrations, polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined, and preliminary bioassays were performed in order to evaluate sediment quality and toxicity. This study shows that harbour-entrance sediments are mainly clean sands, while in the other sites the finer fraction is dominant. High concentrations of anthropic contaminants in the inner port make them not suitable for the disposal in the dumping site.

  9. Total fluorine, extractable organic fluorine, perfluorooctane sulfonate and other related fluorochemicals in liver of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) and finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) from South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeung, L.W.Y. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Miyake, Y. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Wang, Y. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Taniyasu, S. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Yamashita, N. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan)], E-mail: nob.yamashita@aist.go.jp; Lam, P.K.S. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: bhpksl@cityu.edu.hk

    2009-01-15

    The concentrations of 10 PFCs (perfluorinated compounds: PFOS, PFHxS, PFOSA, N-EtFOSA, PFDoDA, PFUnDA, PFDA, PFNA, PFOA, and PFHpA) were measured in liver samples of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) (n = 10) and finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) (n = 10) stranded in Hong Kong between 2003 and 2007. PFOS was the dominant PFC in the tissues at concentrations ranging at 26-693 ng/g ww in dolphins and 51.3-262 ng/g ww in porpoises. A newly developed combustion ion chromatography for fluorine was applied to measure total fluorine (TF) and extractable organic fluorine (EOF) in these liver samples to understand PFC contamination using the concept of mass balance analysis. Comparisons between the amounts of known PFCs and EOF in the livers showed that a large proportion ({approx}70%) of the organic fluorine in both species is of unknown origin. These investigations are critical for a comprehensive assessment of the risks of these compounds to humans and other receptors. - Comparison between the amounts of known PFCs and EOF in the livers of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin and finless porpoise in South China showed that a large proportion ({approx}70%) of the organofluorine is of unknown origin.

  10. Soybeans inoculated with root zone soils of Canadian native legumes harbour diverse and novel Bradyrhizobium spp. that possess agricultural potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromfield, Eden S P; Cloutier, Sylvie; Tambong, James T; Tran Thi, Thu Van

    2017-10-01

    An assessment was made of the evolutionary relationships of soybean nodulating bacteria associated with legumes native to eastern Canada to identify potential new sources of soybean inoculant strains. Short season soybeans were used to selectively trap bacteria from root zone soils of four native legume species. Screening of more than 800 bacterial isolates from soybean root nodules by analysis of recA gene sequences followed by analyses of selected genotypes using six core and two symbiosis (nodC and nifH) gene sequences permitted identification of diverse taxa that included eight novel and four named Bradyrhizobium species as well as lineages attributed to the genera Afipia and Tardiphaga. Plant tests showed that symbionts related to four named species as well as a novel Bradyrhizobium lineage were highly efficient with regard to nitrogen fixation on soybeans relative to an inoculant strain. A new symbiovar (sv. septentrionalis) is proposed based on a group of four novel Bradyrhizobium spp. that possess distinctive nodC and nifH gene sequences and symbiotic characteristics. Evidence is provided for horizontal transfer of sv. septentrionalis symbiosis genes between novel Bradyrhizobium spp., a process that rendered recipient bacteria ineffective on soybeans. Diverse lineages of non-symbiotic and symbiotic Bradyrhizobium spp. co-occured within monophyletic clusters in a phylogenetic tree of concatenated core genes, suggesting that loss and/or gain of symbiosis genes has occurred in the evolutionary history of the bacterial genus. Our data suggest that symbiont populations associated with legumes native to eastern Canada harbour elite strains of Bradyrhizobium for soybean inoculation. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Citrus-orchard ground harbours a diverse, well-established and abundant ground-dwelling spider fauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monzo, C.; Molla, O.; Vanaclocha, P.; Monton, H.; Melic, A.; Castanera, P.; Urbaneja, A.

    2011-07-01

    Ground-dwelling spider assemblages comprise one of the most representative predatory groups to be found in many crops. There is some evidence of the role that ground-dwelling spiders play in controlling certain citrus pests; however, there are almost no studies about the abundance and composition of this predatory group in citrus orchards. A three-year survey conducted using pitfall traps in three citrus orchards in Eastern Spain yielded more than five-thousand ground-dwelling spiders belonging to more than 50 species and 20 families. Wandering families such as Lycosidae, Gnaphosidae and Zodariidae were the most numerous in terms of captures. The generalist predator Pardosa cribata Simon (Araneae: Lycosidae) was the most common species, representing a quarter of all captures, followed by Zodarion cesari Pekar. (Araneae: Zodariidae) and Trachyzelotes fuscipes (Koch) (Araneae: Gnaphosidae). Spiders were active throughout the year with a peak population in summer. The species abundance data for the three spider assemblages sampled fitted a log normal statistical model which is consistent with a well-established community. The presence of a cover crop provided higher abundance of alternative prey and consequently higher abundance and diversity of ground-dwelling spiders. This work demonstrates that the citrus-orchard ground harbours a diverse and abundant ground-dwelling spider fauna, which is also active throughout the year. A challenge for future studies will be to establish conservation management strategies for these predators, that will improve biological control of those citrus pests that inhabit or spend part of their life cycle on the orchard floor. (Author) 49 refs.

  12. Distribution and abundance of benthic macroorganisms in and around Visakhapatnam Harbour on the east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Musale, A.S.; Desai, D.V.; Sawant, S.S.; Venkat, K.; Anil, A.C.

    during the monsoon, and port related activities such as dredging, oil spill, petroleum effluents, out-fall of variety of cargo handled by the port etc. all of which disturb the port environment. Visakhapatnam is a major harbour in the North East... berths in the IH and OH area with two moorings respectively, indicating the amount of cargo handled in the inner harbour will be more. The climate in Visakhapatnam is governed by its location in the tropics which is mainly affected by seasonal monsoon...

  13. Potential effects of abiotic factors on the abundance and distribution of the plankton in the Western Harbour, south-eastern Mediterranean Sea, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M.M. Heneash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples were collected seasonally from Western Harbour during winter 2012–winter 2013 to examine spatial and temporal variability in phytoplankton and zooplankton abundance in relation to physicochemical parameters. Water was alkaline and well oxygenated. Nutrient concentrations were generally high and related to inflow of discharged waters. A total of 157 and 106 of phytoplankton and zooplankton species were recorded, respectively. The average plankton population was 4 × 106 cells l−1 in terms of phytoplankton and 24 × 103 ind. m−3 in terms of zooplankton. Seasonal differences in the quantitative and qualitative composition of both communities in the different stations were marked. Eutreptiella belonging to class Euglenophyceae overwhelming during spring, reaching an average of 17 × 106 cells l−1. The genus previously was recorded as rare form in the Egyptian waters and may have been introduced via ballast water. Except in spring, copepods were the most abundant group and tintinnid abundances generally increased in spring. The ranges of Shannon diversity indices indicate disturbance level and sometimes high productivity. Salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH may be responsible for the variations in phytoplankton and zooplankton community structure. The results indicate that not only the discharged water make the harbour at risk, but also the ballast water is not less dangerous, and so, we emphasize the need for activation of the ballast water management IMO Ballast Water Management Conventions to reduce the risk of future species invasions.

  14. Canine distemper virus ISCOMS induce protection in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) against phocid distemper but still allow subsequent infection with phocid distemper virus-1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.K.G. Visser (Ilona); E.J. Vedder (Lies); C. Örvell; T. Barrett (Thomas); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); M.W.G. van de Bildt (Marco)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractA candidate canine distemper virus (CDV) ISCOM vaccine has been shown to be effective in protecting harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) from phocid distemper in 1988. However, of the 35 harbour seals receiving this vaccine upon admission to a seal rehabilitation and research centre

  15. Lead intoxication in paint removal workers on the Sydney Harbour Bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, C A; Ibels, L S

    Lead intoxication is far more prevalent than is recognized by those persons who are exposed to lead fumes and dust in industry, as the early symptoms of intoxication are subtle and non-specific. The levels of lead in blood are a poor reflection of lead stores in the body and their potential toxicity, but are used frequently as the only test for screening of lead intoxication. Chelation of lead with calcium-EDTA is a more sensitive test to detect those persons who are at risk of toxicity. Industrial workers who are exposed regularly to lead must be screened on a periodic basis and a diagnosis of lead poisoning must be considered if substantial morbidity is to be avoided. We report six cases of men with significant lead intoxication who were employed on the Sydney Harbour Bridge, all of whom have benefited symptomatically from calcium-EDTA chelation therapy.

  16. The Identification of Land Subsidance by Levelling Measurement and GPR Data at Tanjung Emas Harbour, Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnomo Raharjo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the main problem in Semarang City is flood. This area has low relief that consists of coastal alluvial deposits, swamp and marine sediments. The coastline is characterized by muddy, sandy, and rocky coasts, and mangrove coast. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR records, show that subsurface geological condition of northern part of Semarang is coastal alluvial deposit and in the south is volcanic rocks. The aims of this this research is to determine land subsidence by levelling measurement in 2005 in Tanjung Emas Harbour area built on 1995. During ten years, there are various land subsidance in this area: in Coaster Street (21 – 41 cm, container wharf (62 – 94 cm, north breakwater (64 – 79 cm, west breakwater (74 – 140 cm, east groin (76 – 89 cm, and stacking area ( 77 – 109 cm. According to this research, it is concluded that one reason causes of flooding in this area is land subsidence.

  17. Kidnapping small icy asteroids in Earth near encounter to harbour life and to deflect trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargion, Daniele

    2016-07-01

    The inter-planetary flight for human being is under danger because of unscreened and lethal solar flare radioactive showers. The screening of the astronauts by huge superconducting magnetic fields is unrealistic by many reasons. On the contrary the ability to reach nearby icy asteroids, to harbour there a complete undergound room where ecological life systems are first set, this goal may offer a later natural and safe currier for future human stations and enterprise. The need to deflect such a small size (a few thousands tons objects) maybe achieved by micro nuclear engines able to dig the asteroid icy skin, to heat and propel the soil by a synchronous jet engine array, bending and driving it to any desired trajectories. The need for such a wide collection of icy asteroid stations, often in a robotic ibernated state, it will offer the safe help station, raft in the wide space sea, where to collect material or energy in long human planetary travels.

  18. Dynamic Positioning System for a Ship on Harbour Manoeuvring with Different Observers. Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomera Mirosław

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In cases when the navigational space of the manoeuvre performed by the ship is severely limited, the procedures making use of the rudder blade, propeller screw, and thrusters are very complicated. Such situations take place when the ship manoeuvres inside the harbour area and in those cases the structure of the control system is very complex. Te article describes the algorithm of multivariable control of ship motion over the water surface, which makes use of the state vector consisting of 6 variables. Tree of them, which are the position coordinates (x, y measured by the DGPS system and the ship heading y measured by gyro-compass, were obtained experimentally. Te three remaining variables, which are the velocities in surge u, sway v, and yaw r directions, were estimated by Kalman filter, Kalman-Bucy filter and extended Kalman flter, respectively.

  19. The use of desorbing agents in electrodialytic remediation of harbour sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nystrøm, Gunvor Marie; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2006-01-01

    Electrodialytic removal of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd from contaminated harbour sediment was made with the emphasis of testing the effectiveness of different desorbing agents: HCl, NaCl, citric acid, lactic acid, ammonium citrate and distilled water. Extraction experiments with the desorbing agents were...... made prior to the electrodialytic experiments. The extractions showed that HCl was most efficient for metal desorption, probably due to the low pH and complexation with chloride. The metals were not extracted by distilled water. However, in the electrodialytic experiments, the removal was high when...... using distilled water and the desorbing agents did generally not enhance the heavy metal removal compared to distilled water. The only exception was with lactic acid, where the Cu removal was 20% higher compared to the other desorbing agents. The removal was 48% Cu, 80% Zn, 96% Pb and 98% Cd, when using...

  20. Histopathological lesions of molluscs in the harbour of Norderney, Lower Saxony, North Sea (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermann, Burkard; Thomsen, Anja; Kolodzey, Heike; Daehne, Bernd; Meemken, Maike; Pijanowska, Ute; Liebezeit, Gert

    2008-06-01

    During a combined research project at several stations along the Lower Saxony coast (German North Sea) antifouling biocides were analysed in water, sediment and biota. Pathological alterations in blue mussel, Pacific oyster and periwinkle found in the harbour of Norderney and a reference station are presented here and discussed on the background of chemical analyses. The molluscan species from the reference station Borkum East flat did not show any pathological effects in central organs, except those provoked by an infestation in the gastro-intestinal tract by the copepod Mytilicola intestinalis and trematode larvae. In most animals, the metacercaria were found in the interstitial tissue without any inflammatory reaction. In a minor number of specimens, an inflammatory reaction in the mucosa and sub-mucosa of the intestine occurred in association with Mytilicola infestation. These reactions may be evoked through mechanical irritation of the gut epithelium, metabolic products of the parasites or invading bacteria. In contrast to the observed pathological changes of mussels, oysters and periwinkles in Norderney harbour were not found to be associated with parasitic infestation. The most prominent pathological alterations were observed in the digestive system and in the gonad. In the gastro-intestinal tract inflammatory reactions, atrophy and necrosis of tubules in the mid gut gland were most pronounced in spring at the beginning of the pleasure boat season in the Pacific oyster and to a minor degree in the blue mussel and the periwinkle. The latter displayed additional inflammatory and necrotic processes in the gills. Especially in the gonad, an elevated resorption rate of gametes was present in the Pacific oyster and in the periwinkle. In addition, impact of organotin compounds was reflected in an intersex index of up to 1.4 in Littorina littorea in coincidence with masculinization of the reproductive organs.

  1. High-yielding Wheat Varieties Harbour Superior Plant Growth Promoting-Bacterial Endophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehwish Yousaf

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the endophytic microbial flora of different wheat varieties to check whether a better yielding variety also harbours superior plant growth promoting bacteria. Such bacteria are helpful in food biotechnology as their application can enhance the yield of the crop.Material and Methods: Three wheat varieties (Seher, Faisalabad and Lasani were selected, Seher being the most superior variety. endophytic bacteria were isolated from the histosphere of the leaves and roots at different growth phases of the plants. The isolates were analyzed for plant growth promoting activities. Isolates giving best results were identified through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel 2013. All the experiments were conducted in triplicates.Results and Conclusion: The endophytes of Seher variety showed maximum plant growth promoting abilities. Among the shoot endophytes, the highest auxin production was shown by Seher isolate SHHP1-3 up to 51.9μg ml-1, whereas in the case of root endophytes, the highest auxin was produced by SHHR1-5 up to 36 μg ml-1. The bacteria showing significant plant growth promoting abilities were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. Bacillus, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria species were the dominant bacteria showing all the traits of plant growth promotion. It can be concluded that Seher variety harbours superior plant growth promoting endophytes that must be one of the reasons for its better growth and yield as compared to the other two varieties. The investigated results support possible utilization of the selected isolates in wheat growth promotion with respect to increase in agro-productivity. The application of such bacteria could be useful to enhance wheat yield and can help in food biotechnology.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  2. Ecological indices as a tool for assessing pollution in El-Dekhaila Harbour (Alexandria, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany A. Ismael

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Statistical analyses of data concerning the phytoplankton standing crop andbiomass were applied as a tool for assessing pollution in El-Dekhaila Harbour.Univariate and multivariate analysis showed a succession of three clustersassociated with salinity and temperature variations. The first and thirdclusters comprised mainly diatoms and dinoflagellates. The second cluster,richer in species, was dominated by brackish water cyanophytes, chlorophytesand euglenophytes. The diversity index ranged from 0.08 to 2.41. A highdiversity was associated with high evenness, reflecting the multidominancepattern of cluster (2. On the other hand, multiple correlations betweensalinity and standing crop, richness and evenness, were negative andsignificant, but positive with the diversity index. The ABC curve showed thatthe k-dominance curve for numerical abundance extends above that for thebiomass when clusters 1 and 3 are dominant. Both curves coincide more orless for another segment of the curve but when cluster 2 becomes dominantthe numerical abundance curve runs below that of the biomass. Sucha pattern may indicate unpolluted or moderate to heavily polluted conditionsin El-Dekhaila Harbour.       The present study reveals that the combination of univariate andmultivariate analysis with the ABC curve provides a promising tool forthe characterization of phytoplankton dynamics under stress conditions.On the other hand, the phytoplankton community in El-Dekhaila Harbouris stressed not by the inflow of brackish water but rather by the inflow ofsea water. This is indicated by the higher diversity and evenness, and bythe ABC curve during the dominance of cluster (2.

  3. Telemetry-Determined Habitat Use Informs Multi-Species Habitat Management in an Urban Harbour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rous, Andrew M.; Midwood, Jonathon D.; Gutowsky, Lee F. G.; Lapointe, Nicolas W. R.; Portiss, Rick; Sciscione, Thomas; Wells, Mathew G.; Doka, Susan E.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2017-01-01

    Widespread human development has led to impairment of freshwater coastal wetlands and embayments, which provide critical and unique habitat for many freshwater fish species. This is particularly evident in the Laurentian Great Lakes, where such habitats have been severely altered over the last century as a result of industrial activities, urbanization, dredging and infilling. In Toronto Harbour, extensive restoration efforts have been directed towards improving the amount and quality of aquatic habitat, especially for fishes. To evaluate the effectiveness of this restoration work, use of the restored area by both target species and the fish community as a whole must be assessed. Individuals from four species (Common Carp, Largemouth Bass, Northern Pike and Yellow Perch) were tagged and tracked continuously for 1 year using an acoustic telemetry array in Toronto Harbour area of Lake Ontario. Daily site fidelity was estimated using a mixed-effects logistic regression model. Daily site fidelity was influenced by habitat restoration and its interactions with species and body size, as well as season and its interactions with species and body size. Daily site fidelity was higher in restored sites compared to non-restored sites for Yellow Perch and Northern Pike, but lower for Largemouth Bass and Common Carp. For all species, daily site fidelity estimates were highest during the summer and lowest during autumn. The approach used here has merit for evaluating restoration success and informing future habitat management activities. Creating diverse habitats that serve multiple functions and species are more desirable than single-function-oriented or single-species-oriented designs.

  4. Oxygen levels versus chemical pollutants: do they have similar influence on macrofaunal assemblages? A case study in a harbour with two opposing entrances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-García, J M; García-Gómez, J C

    2005-05-01

    Generally, harbours are polluted zones characterised by low values of hydrodynamism and oxygen in the water column and high concentrations of pollutants in sediments. The harbour of Ceuta, North Africa, has an unusual structure; it is located between two bays connected by a channel, which increases the water movement and exchange in the harbour, maintaining moderate oxygen levels in the water-sediment interface. Nevertheless, high concentration of organic matter, nutrients and heavy metals were measured in sediments from this harbour. Under these unusual conditions (high levels of pollution but total saturation of oxygen in the water column) we studied the responses of soft-bottom macrobenthic communities using uni and multivariate analyses. The number of species was similar inside and outside the harbour but the species composition differed between internal and external stations; oxygen levels seem to control the "quantity" of species whereas pollutants control the "quality" of them.

  5. How a simple adaptive foraging strategy can lead to emergent home ranges and increased food intake - computer code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Movement model used for simulating harbour porpoise fine scale movement behaviour. Please refer to the scientific publication (Nabe-Nielsen et al. 2013) for detailed documentation.......Movement model used for simulating harbour porpoise fine scale movement behaviour. Please refer to the scientific publication (Nabe-Nielsen et al. 2013) for detailed documentation....

  6. Application of a Spectral Wave Model to Assess Breakwater Configurations at a Small Craft Harbour on Lake Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia H. Cooper

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A surface wave model using three nested grids is applied to the eastern end of Lake Ontario to investigate wave propagation from an open lake environment to a small craft harbour protected by a breakwater. The Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN spectral wave model, coupled with the Delft3D hydrodynamic model, is applied to simulate a series of storms in November, 2013. The model results are compared to observations from two pressure sensors, and used to quantify wave properties around existing and future breakwaters to evaluate the bulk changes to the harbour configuration. Overall, the results indicate that the rubblemound breakwater reduces wave heights in the existing harbour by 63% compared to no breakwater, and that the addition of a surface breakwater extension could reduce wave heights by an additional 54%. Wave height attenuation was found to be highly dependent on the incident wave direction relative to breakwater orientation. The spectral wave model is useful for simulating wave transformation for broad directional spectra in wind-sea conditions over large scales to semi-protected areas such as small craft harbours.

  7. Screening of feral and wood pigeons for viruses harbouring a conserved mobile viral element: characterization of novel Astroviruses and Picornaviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Kofstad

    Full Text Available A highly conserved RNA-motif of yet unknown function, called stem-loop-2-like motif (s2m, has been identified in the 3' end of the genomes of viruses belonging to different RNA virus families which infect a broad range of mammal and bird species, including Astroviridae, Picornaviridae, Coronaviridae and Caliciviridae. Since s2m is such an extremely conserved motif, it is an ideal target for screening for viruses harbouring it. In this study, we have detected and characterized novel viruses harbouring this motif in pigeons by using a s2m-specific amplification. 84% and 67% of the samples from feral pigeons and wood pigeons, respectively, were found to contain a virus harbouring s2m. Four novel viruses were identified and characterized. Two of the new viruses belong to the genus Avastrovirus in the Astroviridae family. We propose two novel species to be included in this genus, Feral pigeon astrovirus and Wood pigeon astrovirus. Two other novel viruses, Pigeon picornavirus A and Pigeon picornavirus B, belong to the Picornaviridae family, presumably to the genus Sapelovirus. Both of the novel picornaviruses harboured two adjacent s2m, called (s2m(2, suggesting a possible increased functional effect of s2m when present in two copies.

  8. A Post-Colonial Dilemma Tale from the Harbour of St. Thomas in the US Virgin Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brichet, Nathalia Sofie

    2017-01-01

    of Charlotte Amalie as my central analytical unit thus provides an interesting lens through which to approach Danish colonial imprints. The harbour is and has been characterized by activities of a temporary and opportunistic kind – industries blossom, people and crops from far away get uprooted and replanted...

  9. Comparison of 2-compartment, 3-compartment and stack designs for electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from harbour sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2015-01-01

    Comparisons of cell and stack designs for the electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from two harbour sediments, were made. Multivariate modelling showed that sediment properties and experimental set-ups had the highest influence on the heavy metal removal indicating that they should be modelled...

  10. Modelling the distribution of hard seabed using calibrated multibeam acoustic backscatter data in a tropical, macrotidal embayment: Darwin Harbour, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwabessy, P. Justy W.; Tran, Maggie; Picard, Kim; Brooke, Brendan P.; Huang, Zhi; Smit, Neil; Williams, David K.; Nicholas, William A.; Nichol, Scott L.; Atkinson, Ian

    2017-05-01

    Spatial information on the distribution of seabed substrate types in high use coastal areas is essential to support their effective management and environmental monitoring. For Darwin Harbour, a rapidly developing port in northern Australia, the distribution of hard substrate is poorly documented but known to influence the location and composition of important benthic biological communities (corals, sponges). In this study, we use angular backscatter response curves to model the distribution of hard seabed in the subtidal areas of Darwin Harbour. The angular backscatter response curve data were extracted from multibeam sonar data and analysed against backscatter intensity for sites observed from seabed video to be representative of "hard" seabed. Data from these sites were consolidated into an "average curve", which became a reference curve that was in turn compared to all other angular backscatter response curves using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit. The output was used to generate interpolated spatial predictions of the probability of hard seabed (p-hard) and derived hard seabed parameters for the mapped area of Darwin Harbour. The results agree well with the ground truth data with an overall classification accuracy of 75% and an area under curve measure of 0.79, and with modelled bed shear stress for the Harbour. Limitations of this technique are discussed with attention to discrepancies between the video and acoustic results, such as in areas where sediment forms a veneer over hard substrate.

  11. Structure and amount of genetic variation at minisatellite loci within the subspecies complex of Phoca vitulina (the harbour seal)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappe, A.L.; Bijlsma, R.; Osterhaus, ADME; van Delden, W.; van de Zande, L.

    The structure and amount of genetic variation within and between three subspecies of the harbour seal Phoca vitulina was assessed by multilocus DNA fingerprinting. Bandsharing similarity indicates that the subspecies Phoca vitulina richarhsi (Alaska, East Pacific) is clearly separated from the other

  12. Applicability of market-based instruments for safeguarding water quality in coastal waterways: Case study for Darwin Harbour, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Romy

    2014-02-01

    Water pollution of coastal waterways is a complex problem due to the cocktail of pollutants and multiplicity of polluters involved and pollution characteristics. Pollution control therefore requires a combination of policy instruments. This paper examines the applicability of market-based instruments to achieve effective and efficient water quality management in Darwin Harbour, Northern Territory, Australia. Potential applicability of instruments is examined in the context of biophysical and economic pollution characteristics, and experience with instruments elsewhere. The paper concludes that there is potential for inclusion of market-based instruments as part of an instrument mix to safeguard water quality in Darwin Harbour. It recommends, in particular, expanding the existing licencing system to include quantitative pollution limits for all significant point polluters; comprehensive and independent pollution monitoring across Darwin Harbour; public disclosure of water quality and emissions data; positive incentives for landholders in the Darwin Harbour catchment to improve land management practices; a stormwater offset program for greenfield urban developments; adoption of performance bonds for developments and operations which pose a substantial risk to water quality, including port expansion and dredging; and detailed consideration of a bubble licensing scheme for nutrient pollution. The paper offers an analytical framework for policy makers and resource managers tasked with water quality management in coastal waterways elsewhere in Australia and globally, and helps to scan for MBIs suitable in any given environmental management situation.

  13. Aerial low-frequency hearing in captive and free-ranging harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) measured using auditory brainstem responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucke, K.; Hastie, Gordon D.; Ternes, Kerstin; McConnell, Bernie; Moss, Simon; Russell, Deborah J.F.; Weber, Heike; Janik, Vincent M.

    2016-01-01

    The hearing sensitivity of 18 free-ranging and 10 captive harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) to aerial sounds was measured in the presence of typical environmental noise through auditory brainstem response measurements. A focus was put on the comparative hearing sensitivity at low frequencies. Low-

  14. Declines of seagrasses in a tropical harbour, North Queensland, Australia, are not the result of a single event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKENNA, Skye; Jarvis, Jessie; Sankey, Tonia; Reason, Carissa; Coles, Robert; Rasheed, Michael

    2015-06-01

    A recent paper inferred that all seagrass in Cairns Harbour, tropical north-eastern Australia, had undergone 'complete and catastrophic loss' as a result of tropical cyclone Yasi in 2011. While we agree with the concern expressed, we would like to correct the suggestion that the declines were the result of a single climatic event and that all seagrass in Cairns Harbour were lost. Recent survey data and trend analysis from an on-ground monitoring program show that seagrasses in Cairns Harbour do remain, albeit at low levels, and the decline in seagrasses occurred over several years with cyclone Yasi having little additional impact. We have conducted annual on-ground surveys of seagrass distribution and the above-ground meadow biomass in Cairns Harbour and Trinity Inlet since 2001. This has shown a declining trend in biomass since a peak in 2004 and in area since it peaked in 2007. In 2012, seagrass area and above-ground biomass were significantly below the long-term (12 year) average but seagrass was still present. Declines were associated with regional impacts on coastal seagrasses from multiple years of above-average rainfall and severe storm and cyclone activity, similar to other nearby seagrass areas, and not as a result of a single event.

  15. Selection of an appropriate management strategy for contaminated sediment: A case study at a shallow contaminated harbour in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourabadehei, Mehdi; Mulligan, Catherine N

    2016-12-01

    Harbours, as strategic places in tourism and transportation, are exposed to many sources of contamination. Assessing the quality of harbours sediment by guidelines and regulations does not reflect the actual level of contamination and the risk posed to aquatic ecosystems. Selection of an appropriate management technique for contaminated sediments in those strategic locations is crucial for the aquatic environment. The purpose of this study is to show that insufficient information, provided by sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) to identify the actual contaminants, could lead to a destructive or potentially ineffective decision for risk reduction in contaminated harbours. A comprehensive evaluation on physicochemical characteristics of sediment and water samples of a shallow harbour in St. Lawrence River was performed. Results of trace metal fractionation and risk assessment indicated that Cd and Pb were the contaminants that could pose a threat to aquatic ecosystem, although the SQG outcomes implied that Cu and Zn may cause an adverse effect on the benthic organisms. The results of multivariate statistical analysis demonstrated that the locations in the vicinity of the maintenance area contained the most contaminated sediment samples and require appropriate management. Antifouling paint particles and probably the runoff entering the harbour were the main sources of pollution. Among the diverse range of management strategies, the resuspension technique is suggested as a viable alternative in this specific case for shallow locations with contaminated sediments. A suitable management strategy could reduce the cost of remediation process by identifying the actual contaminated spots and also reduce the risk of remobilization of trace metals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Development and Characteristics of Ancient Harbours-Applying the PADM Chart to the Case Studies of Ostia and Portus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreol Salomon

    Full Text Available Over the last 20 years, the geoarchaeology of ancient harbours has been a very active area of research around the Mediterranean basin, generating much palaeoenvironmental data from many sites, including estimations of sedimentation rates, the height of the ancient sea-level at different dates and palaeo-geographical reconstructions. Combining this information has proved a major challenge. This article proposes a new chart called the Palaeoenvironmental Age-Depth Model (PADM chart, that allows the researchers to combine all relevant indicators in order to estimate harbour potential of a given ancient port, and to generate comparable data between harbours in terms of degree of closure and water depth available against a synchronised chronology. This new approach, developed in the context of the ERC-funded RoMP Portuslimen project, takes into account estimations of water depths relating to differing Roman ship draughts at different periods. It is tested against the palaeoenvironmental evidence published over 10 years from two Roman harbours located at the mouth of the river Tiber: Ostia and Portus. This reveals that: (1 there has been an underestimate of the real sedimentation rates due to the margins of error of the radiocarbon dates; (2 there was effective control of the water column by dredging; (3 there were different periods of control of the sedimentation. We suggest that the navigability of the Ostia harbour by ships with shallower draughts was maintained until sometime between the 2nd c. BC and 1st c. AD, while at Portus it was retained until the 6th-7th c. AD.

  17. Entanglement in fishing gear and other causes of death in cetaceans stranded on the coasts of England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, J K; Bennett, P M; Jepson, P D; Kuiken, T; Simpson, V R; Baker, J R

    1997-07-26

    Between August 1990 and September 1995 the carcases of 422 cetaceans of 12 species that had died around the coasts of England and Wales were examined. There were 234 harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), 138 common dolphins (Delphinus delphis), and 50 individuals of 10 other species of dolphins and whales. The cause of death was diagnosed in the harbour porpoises and common dolphins was entanglement in fishing gear (bycatch). Of the cases in which the cause of death was established, 66 (38 per cent) of 176 harbour porpoises, 86 (80 percent) of 108 common dolphins, and six (19 per cent) of 31 individuals of other species had been bycaught. Neonatal starvation, pneumonia and generalised infections accounted for a further 31 per cent of the diagnosed causes of death in harbour porpoises. The proportion of stranded common dolphins that had been bycaught was consistently high except during 1995, but the proportion of stranded harbour porpoises which had been bycaught increased in each successive year.

  18. Old Stellar Populations of The VGS Void Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beygu, Burcu; Jarrett, Thomas; Jarrett, Tom; van de Weygaert, Rien; Kreckel, Kathryn; van der Hulst, Thijs; van Gorkom, Jacqueline

    Cosmic voids form an essential ingredient of the Cosmic Web and may harbour a systematically different population of galaxies. Largely unaffected by the complex processes modifying galaxies in high-density environments, the pristine and isolated void regions must hold important clues to the

  19. Complex genetic origin of Indian populations and its implications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-15

    Oct 15, 2012 ... s12038-012-9256-9. 1. Introduction. Modern humans originated in Africa about 200,000 years before present (ybp) (Cavalli-Sforza 1998; Yotova et al. ..... malaria. In spite of the Siddis' African origin, only 10% of the Siddi population was found to harbour the A-variant. This is mainly due to the admixture of ...

  20. Mercury immune toxicity in harbour seals: links to in vitro toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzucchelli Gabriel

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mercury is known to bioaccumulate and to magnify in marine mammals, which is a cause of great concern in terms of their general health. In particular, the immune system is known to be susceptible to long-term mercury exposure. The aims of the present study were (1 to determine the mercury level in the blood of free-ranging harbour seals from the North Sea and (2 to examine the link between methylmercury in vitro exposure and immune functions using seal and human mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (T-lymphocytes. Methods Total mercury was analysed in the blood of 22 harbour seals. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from seals (n = 11 and from humans (n = 9. Stimulated lymphocytes of both species were exposed to functional tests (proliferation, metabolic activity, radioactive precursor incorporation under increasing doses of methylmercury (0.1 to 10 μM. The expression of cytokines (IL-2, IL-4 and TGF-β was investigated in seal lymphocytes by RT-PCR and by real time quantitative PCR (n = 5 at methylmercury concentrations of 0.2 and 1 μM. Finally, proteomics analysis was attempted on human lymphocytes (cytoplasmic fraction in order to identify biochemical pathways of toxicity at concentration of 1 μM (n = 3. Results The results showed that the number of seal lymphocytes, viability, metabolic activity, DNA and RNA synthesis were reduced in vitro, suggesting deleterious effects of methylmercury concentrations naturally encountered in free-ranging seals. Similar results were found for human lymphocytes. Functional tests showed that a 1 μM concentration was the critical concentration above which lymphocyte activity, proliferation and survival were compromised. The expression of IL-2 and TGF-β mRNA was weaker in exposed seal lymphocytes compared to control cells (0.2 and 1 μM. Proteomics showed some variation in the protein expression profile (e.g. vimentin. Conclusion Our results suggest that

  1. Diversity of Polychaeta (Annelida) and other worm taxa in mangrove habitats of Darwin Harbour, northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, K. N.; Glasby, C. J.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper data on the diversity, distribution and abundance of polychaetes and other worm taxa in the mangroves of Darwin Harbour, northern Australia, are presented and compared with those of other tropical mangrove areas. Aspects of the feeding guild ecology and the effects of disturbance on mangrove worms are also examined. Data were collected over a period of four years, across four mangrove assemblages. Samples were obtained using three sampling techniques: 1 m × 1 m quadrat searches, epifauna searches and a new infaunal sampling technique, the anoxic mat. A total of 76 species (68 polychaetes, 1 oligochaete, 1 echiuran, 3 sipunculans, 2 nemerteans, 1 turbellarian) were recorded from the four main mangrove assemblages. Of these, 30 species are widespread, occurring in mangrove and non-mangrove habitats throughout the Indo-west Pacific. Only seven species (all polychaetes) appear to be restricted to the mangroves of Darwin Harbour and northern Australia. Polychaetes are predominant, comprising 80-96% of all worms sampled, with three families—Nereididae, Capitellidae and Spionidae—accounting for 46% of all species. The highest diversity and abundance was recorded in the soft, unconsolidated substrates of the seaward assemblage, with diversity and abundance decreasing progressively in the landward assemblages. Most of the worm fauna was infaunal (70%), but the intensive sampling regime revealed a hitherto unknown significant percentage of epifaunal species (18%) and species occurring as both infauna and epifauna (12%). Univariate analyses showed annual and seasonal differences in worm species richness and abundance—presumably associated with the intensity of the monsoon and recruitment success. The worm fauna differed between mangrove assemblages but the proportion of species in each feeding guild was relatively consistent across the four assemblages studied. Herbivores were the most species-rich and abundant, followed by carnivores and sub

  2. The impact of harbour sludge disposal on benthic macrofauna communities in the Weser estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Jan; Schroeder, Alexander; Knust, Rainer; Arntz, Wolf E.

    2004-04-01

    During an open-water disposal of about 710,000 m3 of harbour sludge in the polyhaline zone of the Weser estuary, Germany, a monitoring programme was carried out to investigate the impact on benthic invertebrates. The macrofaunal communities of four sites within the disposal area and five sites in a reference area were compared after discharge. The location and extent of the potentially affected area were inferred from a morphodynamic computer model (TIMOR 3; Zanke 1998). Disposal effects were analysed by comparing species numbers, densities, diversity and faunal similarity using multivariate methods. A loss of diversity and a decline in the abundance of several species in the disposal area were measured. The species number was reduced up to 50% and important habitat structures were absent from the disposal area. Several benthic species were affected by the disposal. The importance of species such as Mytilus edulis (Mollusca) and Lanice conchilega (Polychaeta) for the diversity of the community, and the sensitivity of these species to sediment discharge are analysed. The difficulties of separating dumping effects from natural variation in a dynamic estuarine channel system are discussed.

  3. Plants of the fynbos biome harbour host species-specific bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyambo, Tsakani; Makhalanyane, Thulani P; Cowan, Don A; Valverde, Angel

    2016-08-01

    The fynbos biome in South Africa is globally recognised as a plant biodiversity hotspot. However, very little is known about the bacterial communities associated with fynbos plants, despite interactions between primary producers and bacteria having an impact on the physiology of both partners and shaping ecosystem diversity. This study reports on the structure, phylogenetic composition and potential roles of the endophytic bacterial communities located in the stems of three fynbos plants (Erepsia anceps, Phaenocoma prolifera and Leucadendron laureolum). Using Illumina MiSeq 16S rRNA sequencing we found that different subpopulations of Deinococcus-Thermus, Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Firmicutes dominated the endophytic bacterial communities. Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were prevalent in P. prolifera, whereas Deinococcus-Thermus dominated in L. laureolum, revealing species-specific host-bacteria associations. Although a high degree of variability in the endophytic bacterial communities within hosts was observed, we also detected a core microbiome across the stems of the three plant species, which accounted for 72% of the sequences. Altogether, it seems that both deterministic and stochastic processes shaped microbial communities. Endophytic bacterial communities harboured putative plant growth-promoting bacteria, thus having the potential to influence host health and growth. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Glas Journal: Deep Mappings of a Harbour or the Charting of Fragments, Traces and Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Loeffler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With reference to a hybrid ethnographic project entitled Glas Journal (2014–2016, this article invites readers to reflect on the cultural mapping of spaces we intimately inhabit. Developed with the participation of local inhabitants of Dún Laoghaire Harbour, Ireland, Glas Journal seeks to explore the maritime environment as a liminal space, whereby the character of buildings and an area’s economic implications determine our relationship to space as much as our daily spatial rhythms and feelings of safety. Deep mapping provides the methodological blueprint for Glas Journal. In order to create a heteroglossic narrative of place and belonging, I will contextualise the project with references to seminal works in the visual arts, literature, film and geography that emotionally map spaces. Chronotopes of the threshold will be used to elaborate on spatial and cultural phenomena that occur when crossings from public to private and interior to exterior take place. Touching upon questions such as “What is a space of protection?”, “Who am I in it?”, and “Who is the Other?”, this article traces forms of liquid mapping that do not strive to conquer but rather to gain insight into the inner landscapes that are reflected in outer space.

  5. Generation of mice harbouring a conditional loss-of-function allele of Gata6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Stephen A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The zinc finger transcription factor GATA6 is believed to have important roles in the development of several organs including the liver, gastrointestinal tract and heart. However, analyses of the contribution of GATA6 toward organogenesis have been hampered because Gata6-/- mice fail to develop beyond gastrulation due to defects in extraembryonic endoderm function. We have therefore generated a mouse line harbouring a conditional loss-of-function allele of Gata6 using Cre/loxP technology. LoxP elements were introduced into introns flanking exon 2 of the Gata6 gene by homologous recombination in ES cells. Mice containing this altered allele were bred to homozygosity and were found to be viable and fertile. To assess the functional integrity of the loxP sites and to confirm that we had generated a Gata6 loss-of-function allele, we bred Gata6 'floxed' mice to EIIa-Cre mice in which Cre is ubiquitously expressed, and to Villin-Cre mice that express Cre in the epithelial cells of the intestine. We conclude that we have generated a line of mice in which GATA6 activity can be ablated in a cell type specific manner by expression of Cre recombinase. This line of mice can be used to establish the role of GATA6 in regulating embryonic development and various aspects of mammalian physiology.

  6. Heavy metals mobility in harbour contaminated sediments: the case of Port-en-Bessin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplat, C; Texier, H; Barillier, D; Lelievre, C

    2005-05-01

    Metallic contaminants associated with sediments showed various behaviours depending on physicochemical conditions. A contaminated sediment core from a harbour in the Bay of Seine was sampled to derive information about metal solubilization from anoxic sediment. In these anaerobic surroundings, physicochemical processes depended on the organic matter cycle, on vertical variation of redox conditions and on precipitation conditions of iron and manganese. In the studied core, anoxic conditions were developed at -15 cm depth. A three-step sequential extraction procedure, modified from the BCR method (now the SM&T), was applied to the anoxic sediment in order to evaluate the potential mobility of fixed metals. Zinc was the most labile metal, recovered in the first extraction stages, and was associated with the non-residual fraction of sediment. Lead was the least labile metal, with up to 70% associated with the residual fraction of the sediment. Copper was associated with organic matter, and its mobility was controlled by the concentration and degradation of the organic fraction. Discharge of organic-rich dredged sediments at sea results in degradation of contained organic matter and may affect the environmental impact of these metals significantly. These results therefore help to improve the waste management of such contaminated sediments.

  7. A spectral-based clustering for structural health monitoring of the Sydney Harbour Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamdari, Mehrisadat Makki; Rakotoarivelo, Thierry; Khoa, Nguyen Lu Dang

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the results of a large scale Structural Health Monitoring application on the Sydney Harbour Bridge in Australia. This bridge has many structural components, and our work focuses on a subset of 800 jack arches under the traffic lane 7. Our goal is to identify which of these jack arches (if any) respond differently to the traffic input, due to potential structural damages or instrumentation issues. We propose a novel non-model-based method to achieve this objective, using a spectrum-driven feature based on the Spectral Moments (SMs) from measured responses from the jack arches. SMs contain information from the entire frequency range, thus subtle differences between the normal signals and distorted ones could be identified. Our method then applies a modified k-means- clustering algorithm to these features, followed by a selection mechanism on the clustering results to identify jack arches with abnormal responses. We performed an extensive evaluation of the proposed method using real data from the bridge. This evaluation included a control component, where the approach successfully detected jack arches with already known damage or issues. It also included a test component, which applied the method to a large set of nodes over a month of data to detect any potential anomaly. The detected anomalies turned out to have indeed system issues after further investigations.

  8. Pathogenicity of pan-drug-resistant Serratia marcescens harbouring blaNDM-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Teresa M; Göttig, Stephan; Mark, Laura; Christ, Sara; Kempf, Volkhard A J; Wichelhaus, Thomas A; Hamprecht, Axel

    2015-04-01

    To characterize a pan-drug-resistant Serratia marcescens clinical isolate carrying the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-1. The presence of β-lactamase genes was examined by PCR and sequencing. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by antibiotic gradient test. Transformation assays, transconjugation assays, PFGE and PCR-based replicon typing were used for plasmid analysis. Horizontal gene transfer was evaluated by liquid mating using Escherichia coli J53 as a recipient. Pathogenicity of NDM-1 expressing S. marcescens was analysed using the Galleria mellonella infection model. S. marcescens isolate SM1890 was non-susceptible to all tested antibiotics, with minocycline retaining intermediate activity. blaNDM-1 was located on a 140 kb IncA/C-type plasmid which was transferable to E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae by conjugation. The LD50 of the NDM-positive, SM1890 isolate was higher than that of other, NDM-1 negative, S. marcescens strains. The presence of a blaNDM-1-harbouring IncA/C plasmid resulted in marked resistance to β-lactam antibiotics, but had no significant effect on virulence of isogenic strains. Because of the intrinsic resistance of S. marcescens to colistin and reduced susceptibility to tigecycline, treatment options for infections by NDM-1-positive isolates are extremely limited in this species. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Ensuring very shallow-water sediment properties: case study from Capo Granitola harbour, Sicily (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punzo, Michele; Cavuoto, Giuseppe; Tarallo, Daniela; Di Fiore, Vincenzo

    2017-09-01

    We present high-resolution Vp models of the Capo Granitola harbor, Sicily (Italy) obtained by first arrival traveltime tomography. Seismic data were collected along four hydrophone arrays on the sea-bottom and via a Watergun as seismic source, in order to plan dredging operations in the harbor. Using a hydrophone spacing of 2.5 m and shot spacing of 5 m, very high resolution quality data were recorded. Seismic tomography expands existing knowledge of the harbour subsoil with a penetration of about 20 m, illuminating the Lower Pleistocene bedrock (Marsala calcarenites) that corresponds to high-Vp regions (Vp > 4.5 km/s). Low Vp (1.8-4.5 km/s) deposits belonging to terraced calcarenites (Upper Pleistocene in age) are also well imaged; they are about 8 m thick and lie below loose sand deposits (Vp = 1.5 km/s). The substratum has an articulated morphology; Vp images unravel small steps in the basement probably related to structural discontinuities (e.g., faults). Processing data with 3D techniques enables images of the structure and the thickness of the lithotypes to be reconstructed, thus leading to large-scale, realistic estimates of the total quantity of material to be excavated or dredged. Tomographic profiles permit clear discrimination of the soft sediment above the basement and thus allow the determination of the total volume of sediment above the seismic bedrock, estimated at about 265,000 m3.

  10. Hydrodynamic discrimination of wakes caused by objects of different size or shape in a harbour seal (Phoca vitulina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieskotten, S.; Mauck, B.; Miersch, L.

    2011-01-01

    Harbour seals can use their mystacial vibrissae to detect and track hydrodynamic wakes. We investigated the ability of a harbour seal to discriminate objects of different size or shape by their hydrodynamic signature and used particle image velocimetry to identify the hydrodynamic parameters...... that a seal may be using to do so. Hydrodynamic trails were generated by different sized or shaped paddles that were moved in the calm water of an experimental box to produce a characteristic signal. In a two-alternative forced-choice procedure the blindfolded subject was able to discriminate size differences...... of down to 3.6. cm (Weber fraction 0.6) when paddles were moved at the same speed. Furthermore the subject distinguished hydrodynamic signals generated by flat, cylindrical, triangular or undulated paddles of the same width. Particle image velocimetry measurements demonstrated that the seal could have...

  11. Wave simulation for the design of an innovative quay wall: the case of Vlorë Harbour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Alessandro; Archetti, Renata; Lamberti, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Sea states and environmental conditions are basic data for the design of marine structures. Hindcasted wave data have been applied here with the aim of identifying the proper design conditions for an innovative quay wall concept. In this paper, the results of a computational fluid dynamics model are used to optimise the new absorbing quay wall of Vlorë Harbour (Republic of Albania) and define the design loads under extreme wave conditions. The design wave states at the harbour entrance have been estimated analysing 31 years of hindcasted wave data simulated through the application of WaveWatch III. Due to the particular geography and topography of the Bay of Vlorë, wave conditions generated from the north-west are transferred to the harbour entrance with the application of a 2-D spectral wave module, whereas southern wave states, which are also the most critical for the port structures, are defined by means of a wave generation model, according to the available wind measurements. Finally, the identified extreme events have been used, through the NewWave approach, as boundary conditions for the numerical analysis of the interaction between the quay wall and the extreme events. The results show that the proposed method, based on numerical modelling at different scales from macro to meso and to micro, allows for the identification of the best site-specific solutions, also for a location devoid of any wave measurement. In this light, the objectives of the paper are two-fold. First, they show the application of sea condition estimations through the use of wave hindcasted data in order to properly define the design wave conditions for a new harbour structure. Second, they present a new approach for investigating an innovative absorbing quay wall based on CFD modelling and the NewWave theory.

  12. Pengaruh Metode Pelatihan Kerja terhadap Peningkatan Keterampilan Pramusaji Food & Beverage Service Swiss-belhotel Harbour Bay Batam

    OpenAIRE

    Achnes, Syofia; Eka, Yuki Lusiana

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to determine how the influence of the training methods work towards food and beverage service waitress skill enhancement at Swiss-Belhotel Harbour Bay Batam.This research uses descriptive quantitative method for examining the issues raised. The sample in this research are 18 people and using census method. While the data collection techniques in this research using questionnaires, observation and documentation. By using a Likert scale as a measure to determine the length of...

  13. Fostering Ecological Literacy: A Case Study of the Saint John Harbour in Two High School English Language Arts Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Velta

    Integrating environmental education into curriculum in a way that tackles the holistic and complicated nature of multi-dimensional issues continues to be a challenge for educators and administrators. There is potential in using ecological literacy to introduce local environmental case studies into English Language Arts high school classrooms. This research examines the experiences of two ELA classrooms in one Saint John, NB, high school with a two-week unit based on stakeholder relationships within the Saint John Harbour. Through presentations by guest speakers and research sourced from local community groups, students learned about the highly complex environmental issues that inform management decisions for the Harbour. Using these materials as background, students participated in a mock stakeholders meeting. Case study methodology was used to explore student learning in both a higher-level and a lower-level grade 10 ELA class. Data for the analysis included: cognitive mapping exercises; oral and written classroom assignments and activities; a videotape of the mock stakeholder meetings; a focus group interview with selected students; and researcher field notes. Data demonstrated significant student learning about environmental issues including increased sophistication in describing links between and among environmental issues affecting the harbour, and much more complex understandings of the positions and roles of the various stakeholder groups. Some important areas of resistance to new learning were also evident. Implications for practice and policy and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  14. Evaluation of trophic state and plankton abundance from the environmental parameters of Visakhapatnam Harbour and near-shore waters, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripathy, S.C.; KusumaKumari, B.A.V.L.; Sarma, V.V.; Murty, T.V.R.

    of water quality on spatial basis towards the near-shore environment from the polluted harbour zone. Multiple regression equations have been utilized to evaluate the plankton abundance and the influencing parameters controlling plankton distribution...

  15. Temporary threshold shifts and recovery in a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) after octave-band noise at 4 kHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastelein, Ronald A; Gransier, Robin; Hoek, Lean; Olthuis, Juul

    2012-11-01

    Safety criteria for underwater sound produced during offshore pile driving are needed to protect marine mammals. A harbor porpoise was exposed to fatiguing noise at 18 sound pressure level (SPL) and duration combinations. Its temporary hearing threshold shift (TTS) and hearing recovery were quantified with a psychoacoustic technique. Octave-band white noise centered at 4 kHz was the fatiguing stimulus at three mean received SPLs (124, 136, and 148 dB re 1 μPa) and at six durations (7.5, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min). Approximate received sound exposure levels (SELs) varied between 151 and 190 dB re 1 μPa(2) s. Hearing thresholds were determined for a narrow-band frequency-swept sine wave (3.9-4.1 kHz; 1 s) before exposure to the fatiguing noise, and at 1-4, 4-8, 8-12, 48, and 96 min after exposure. The lowest SEL (151 dB re 1 μPa(2) s) which caused a significant TTS(1-4) was due to exposure to an SPL of 124 dB re 1 μPa for 7.5 min. The maximum TTS(1-4), induced after a 240 min exposure to 148 dB re 1 μPa, was around 15 dB at a SEL of 190 dB re 1 μPa(2) s. Recovery time following TTS varied between 4 min and under 96 min, depending on the exposure level, duration, and the TTS induced.

  16. Draft genome sequence of an O25:H4-ST131 Escherichia coli harbouring blaNDM-1 on an IncHI3 plasmid: A first report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Gopalakrishnan Kaushik; Palani, Gnanasoundari; Vijayakumar, Ramanathan; Krishnan, Padma

    2017-03-01

    Carbapenem resistance conferred by New Delhi metallo-β-lactamases is mediated by plasmids of diverse incompatibility types harboured by different lineages of Enterobacteriaceae. In this study, we report the draft genome sequence of a ST131 Escherichia coli harbouring the blaNDM gene on an IncHI3 plasmid. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Avoidance of wind farms by harbour seals is limited to pile driving activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Debbie J F; Hastie, Gordon D; Thompson, David; Janik, Vincent M; Hammond, Philip S; Scott-Hayward, Lindesay A S; Matthiopoulos, Jason; Jones, Esther L; McConnell, Bernie J

    2016-12-01

    As part of global efforts to reduce dependence on carbon-based energy sources there has been a rapid increase in the installation of renewable energy devices. The installation and operation of these devices can result in conflicts with wildlife. In the marine environment, mammals may avoid wind farms that are under construction or operating. Such avoidance may lead to more time spent travelling or displacement from key habitats. A paucity of data on at-sea movements of marine mammals around wind farms limits our understanding of the nature of their potential impacts.Here, we present the results of a telemetry study on harbour seals Phoca vitulina in The Wash, south-east England, an area where wind farms are being constructed using impact pile driving. We investigated whether seals avoid wind farms during operation, construction in its entirety, or during piling activity. The study was carried out using historical telemetry data collected prior to any wind farm development and telemetry data collected in 2012 during the construction of one wind farm and the operation of another.Within an operational wind farm, there was a close-to-significant increase in seal usage compared to prior to wind farm development. However, the wind farm was at the edge of a large area of increased usage, so the presence of the wind farm was unlikely to be the cause.There was no significant displacement during construction as a whole. However, during piling, seal usage (abundance) was significantly reduced up to 25 km from the piling activity; within 25 km of the centre of the wind farm, there was a 19 to 83% (95% confidence intervals) decrease in usage compared to during breaks in piling, equating to a mean estimated displacement of 440 individuals. This amounts to significant displacement starting from predicted received levels of between 166 and 178 dB re 1 μPa(p-p). Displacement was limited to piling activity; within 2 h of cessation of pile driving, seals were distributed as per

  18. Oxygen levels versus chemical pollutants: do they have similar influence on macrofaunal assemblages? A case study in a harbour with two opposing entrances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra-Garcia, J.M. [Laboratorio de Biologia Marina, Departamento de Fisiologia y Zoologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda Reina Mercedes 6, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)]. E-mail: jmguerra@us.es; Garcia-Gomez, J.C. [Laboratorio de Biologia Marina, Departamento de Fisiologia y Zoologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda Reina Mercedes 6, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2005-05-01

    Generally, harbours are polluted zones characterised by low values of hydrodynamism and oxygen in the water column and high concentrations of pollutants in sediments. The harbour of Ceuta, North Africa, has an unusual structure; it is located between two bays connected by a channel, which increases the water movement and exchange in the harbour, maintaining moderate oxygen levels in the water-sediment interface. Nevertheless, high concentration of organic matter, nutrients and heavy metals were measured in sediments from this harbour. Under these unusual conditions (high levels of pollution but total saturation of oxygen in the water column) we studied the responses of soft-bottom macrobenthic communities using uni and multivariate analyses. The number of species was similar inside and outside the harbour but the species composition differed between internal and external stations; oxygen levels seem to control the 'quantity' of species whereas pollutants control the 'quality' of them. - A high diversity of benthic animals was found in a polluted harbour where high oxygen levels occurred.

  19. Potential Pitfalls of SDH Immunohistochemical Detection in Paragangliomas and Phaeochromocytomas Harbouring Germline SDHx Gene Mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Raffaella; Rapizzi, Elena; Canu, Letizia; Ercolino, Tonino; Baroni, Gianna; Fucci, Rossella; Costa, Giuseppe; Mannelli, Massimo; Nesi, Gabriella

    2017-02-01

    Germline mutations in any of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) genes result in destabilization of the SDH protein complex and loss of SDHB expression at immunohistochemistry. SDHA is lost together with SDHB in SDHA-mutated tumours, but its expression is retained in tumours with other SDH mutations. We investigated whether SDHA/SDHB immunohistochemistry is able to identify SDH-related tumours in a retrospective case series of phaeochromocytomas (PCCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs). SDHA and SDHB immunostaining was performed in 13 SDH gene-mutated tumours (SDHB: n=3; SDHC: n=1; SDHD: n=9) and 16 wild-type tumours. Protein expression by western blot analysis and enzymatic activity were also assessed. Tumours harbouring SDH gene mutations demonstrated a significant reduction in enzymatic activity and protein expression when compared to wild-type tumours. SDHB immunostaining detected 76.9% of SDH mutated PCCs/PGLs (3/3 SDHB-mutated samples; 1/1 SDHC-mutated sample; 6/9 SDHD-mutated samples). In three SDHD-related tumours with the same mutation (p.Pro81Leu), positive (n=2) or weakly diffuse (n=1) SDHB staining was observed. All wild-type PCCs/PGLs exhibited SDHB immunoreactivity, while immunostaining for SDHA was positive in 93.8% cases and weakly diffuse in one (6.2%). SDHA protein expression was preserved in all tumours with mutations. SDHA and SDHB immunohistochemistry should be interpreted with caution, due to possible false-positive or false-negative results, and ideally in the setting of quality assurance provided by molecular testing. In SDHD mutation, weak non-specific cytoplasmic staining occurs commonly, and this pattern of staining can be difficult to interpret with certainty. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  20. Toxicity of Halifax Harbour sediments: An evaluation of the Microtox solid phase bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, N.H.; Wells, P.G. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada). School for Resource and Environmental Studies

    1995-12-31

    Subtidal sediments were collected from 8 stations in Halifax Harbour, N.S., in July and August, 1992, to initiate a study of sediment toxicity and hazards near the proposed location of a sewage treatment plant and outfall. A set of 110 samples was evaluated. Interstitial water from aerobic surface (0--2cm) and anaerobic subsurface (2-4cm) sediments was analyzed by the Microtox{reg_sign} toxicity test protocol; the sediment particles were analyzed using the Microtox Solid Phase Test (SPT). Toxicity was expressed as 5, 15, and 30min-EC50`s for the interstitial samples, and 5min-EC50`s for the sediments, the endpoint being the inhibition of photoluminescence of Photobacterium phosphoreum. Interstitial water from surface and subsurface sediments from all stations was usually non-toxic, when compared to a phenol standard. The mean 5min-EC50 of surface sediments (n = 57) was 5,433mg/L; the mean 5min-EC50 of subsurface sediments (n = 50) was 804 mg/L. Toxicity thresholds were compared with NRC sediment reference materials and a selection of natural sediments; then ranked based on criteria suggested by Environment Canada. Intra- and inter-sample variability in toxicity at different locations in relation to time, sediment depth, sediment properties, types and concentrations of contaminants, was evaluated by multivariate and PCA techniques. An experiment with marine reference sediments (certified for PAHs and trace metals) and their mixtures showed the ability of the STP to discriminate between different levels of contaminated sediments, i.e. a dose-response relationship was demonstrated. This laboratory-field study provided insights into the sensitivity, reproducibility, significance and discriminatory ability of the Microtox{reg_sign} SPT, characteristics necessary for its deployment in a tiered hazard assessment of contaminated harbor sediments.

  1. Coral colonisation of an artificial reef in a turbid nearshore environment, Dampier Harbour, western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Blakeway

    Full Text Available A 0.6 hectare artificial reef of local rock and recycled concrete sleepers was constructed in December 2006 at Parker Point in the industrial port of Dampier, western Australia, with the aim of providing an environmental offset for a nearshore coral community lost to land reclamation. Corals successfully colonised the artificial reef, despite the relatively harsh environmental conditions at the site (annual water temperature range 18-32°C, intermittent high turbidity, frequent cyclones, frequent nearby ship movements. Coral settlement to the artificial reef was examined by terracotta tile deployments, and later stages of coral community development were examined by in-situ visual surveys within fixed 25 x 25 cm quadrats on the rock and concrete substrates. Mean coral density on the tiles varied from 113 ± 17 SE to 909 ± 85 SE per m(2 over five deployments, whereas mean coral density in the quadrats was only 6.0 ± 1.0 SE per m(2 at eight months post construction, increasing to 24.0 ± 2.1 SE per m(2 at 62 months post construction. Coral taxa colonising the artificial reef were a subset of those on the surrounding natural reef, but occurred in different proportions--Pseudosiderastrea tayami, Mycedium elephantotus and Leptastrea purpurea being disproportionately abundant on the artificial reef. Coral cover increased rapidly in the later stages of the study, reaching 2.3 ± 0.7 SE % at 62 months post construction. This study indicates that simple materials of opportunity can provide a suitable substrate for coral recruitment in Dampier Harbour, and that natural colonisation at the study site remains sufficient to initiate a coral community on artificial substrate despite ongoing natural and anthropogenic perturbations.

  2. Complete sequence of two KPC-harbouring plasmids from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naas, Thierry; Bonnin, Rémy A; Cuzon, Gaëlle; Villegas, Maria-Virginia; Nordmann, Patrice

    2013-08-01

    KPC-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa are increasingly isolated in the Americas and in the Caribbean islands. Here, we determined the whole-plasmid sequence of two plasmids carrying the blaKPC-2 gene from multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa clinical isolates from Colombia. The two plasmids, pCOL-1 and pPA-2, were transferred to Escherichia coli recipient strain TOP10 and completely sequenced using high-throughput pyrosequencing for pCOL-1 and classical Sanger sequencing for pPA-2. Both plasmids could be transferred to E. coli by transformation and displayed no other resistance marker besides KPC. Plasmid pCOL-1 was 31 529 bp in size, contained 31 open reading frames (ORFs) and belonged to the IncP-6 replicon group. It exhibited genes involved in replication, mobilization and partitioning, but none involved in conjugation. Plasmid pPA-2 was 7995 bp in size and contained seven ORFs. It exhibited a replicase gene of IncU, but was lacking genes involved in mobilization, partitioning and conjugation. Only 2072 bp matched Tn4401, including the blaKPC-2 gene, part of ISKpn6 and a 73 bp segment located upstream of the blaKPC-2 gene, containing the P1 promoter. Sequence identity was interrupted by a Tn3 transposon, itself interrupted by an IS26 element inserted within the β-lactamase blaTEM-1 gene. Here we present the genetic features of the very first plasmids carrying the blaKPC-2 gene from P. aeruginosa. The emergence of the blaKPC-2 gene on unrelated plasmids, differing in size and in incompatibility group, and harbouring different genetic structures containing the blaKPC-2 genes in P. aeruginosa isolates suggests that this resistance trait may follow a dissemination scheme in P. aeruginosa similar to that seen in Enterobacteriaceae.

  3. Modelling changes in the coastal geomorphology of Unst, Shetland and the implications for understanding High to Late Medieval harbour changes in the Norse North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, John; Dugmore, Andrew; Newton, Anthony; Mudd, Simon

    2016-04-01

    The Norse settlement of the North Atlantic islands relied upon a network of harbours that also played a key role in the development of North European economies through the late Middle Ages. However, many of these harbours fell into disuse, their locations are uncertain and the reasons for this are unclear. A crucial geomorphological characteristic of a successful harbour is structural equilibrium. A harbour must have physical stability (or a dynamic equilibrium in the case of a beach) for boats to use it safely season to season, year on year. In the absence of a major civil engineering effort, something that was not possible in the pre-modern Atlantic islands, the geomorphology of a harbour is a key indicator of its physical equilibrium (or otherwise). Should the harbour be located on a changeable coastline (or one that becomes changeable) it may become unviable. Conversely, a harbour may be located on a coastline stable over centennial timescales, where little geomorphological change occurs, infrastructure can endure and many aspects of the physical environment remain predictable. The geomorphological setting of Norse harbours in the Atlantic is variable, with contrasting landform stability over short, medium and long time scales. We assess geomorphological change on the island of Unst, the most northerly of the British Isles, a coastline used by the Norse as well as earlier and later societies. This island offers a complex coastline of deep fjords and arcuate embayments and thus significant differences in forces acting upon the coastline. There is also evidence for instability in the beaches used by the Norse that could have been driven by the changes in climate conditions from the Medieval Climatic Anomaly to the Little Age and the present day. We model coastlines using the sediment dynamics model MIKE21. Model results agree well with the location of extant sandy beaches on Unst, but model runs with modern environmental drivers also build sandy beaches where

  4. Unidentified atmospheric absorption structure observed by DOAS near Hamburg harbour, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Stefan; Weigelt, Andreas; Mathieu-Üffing, Barbara; Seyler, André; Wittrock, Folkard; Lampel, Johannes; Pöhler, Denis; Platt, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Within a six week campaign in July and August 2016, Long Path (LP)-DOAS measurements were performed near the harbour of Hamburg to monitor ship emissions of NO2 and SO2. LP-DOAS instruments retrieve information about the composition of ambient air using active spectroscopy. Therefore, an absorption light path was set up between the northern and the southern riverside of the river Elbe with a total length of ca. 5.7 km. The light of a laser driven Xenon arc lamp was sent to a retro reflector mounted on a light house on the opposite riverside. By comparing the spectrum of the Xenon lamp before and after being sent through the atmosphere, spectral absorption structures of several molecules can be identified and their mixing ratios can be quantified. Besides the well-known trace gas species such as NO2, SO2, O3 and HCHO, a so far unidentified, strong absorption structure could be observed regularly throughout the measurement period. The structure is similar to other known absorption structures in the UV-vis range and can be most likely associated with a molecular absorption cross section. The absorber features a progression of absorption bands in the range of 280 nm to 330 nm with an average band distance of 3 nm to 4 nm. These bands were observed with optical densities of up to 2 per cent along the absorption path. The absorber predominantly occurs during daylight indicating that photolytic processes are most likely to play an important role. Further, direct emission from ships could be excluded by the comparison with NO2 peaks, which serve as a proxy for ship plumes. The respective LP-DOAS instrument was deployed at multiple other measurement sites at the past including rural, urban and remote areas. However, the discussed absorption structure has never been detected before and instrumental errors can be excluded. Currently, MAX-DOAS measurements performed at the same site are evaluated. We will present the spectral features of the putative absorber as well as an

  5. Characterization of trh2 Harbouring Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains Isolated in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechlars, Silke; Jäckel, Claudia; Diescher, Susanne; Wüstenhagen, Doreen A.; Kubick, Stefan; Dieckmann, Ralf; Strauch, Eckhard

    2015-01-01

    Background Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a recognized human enteropathogen. Thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH) as well as the type III secretion system 2 (T3SS2) are considered as major virulence factors. As tdh positive strains are not detected in coastal waters of Germany, we focused on the characterization of trh positive strains, which were isolated from mussels, seawater and patients in Germany. Results Ten trh harbouring V. parahaemolyticus strains from Germany were compared to twenty-one trh positive strains from other countries. The complete trh sequences revealed clustering into three different types: trh1 and trh2 genes and a pseudogene Ψtrh. All German isolates possessed alleles of the trh2 gene. MLST analysis indicated a close relationship to Norwegian isolates suggesting that these strains belong to the autochthonous microflora of Northern Europe seawaters. Strains carrying the pseudogene Ψtrh were negative for T3SS2β effector vopC. Transcription of trh and vopC genes was analyzed under different growth conditions. Trh2 gene expression was not altered by bile while trh1 genes were inducible. VopC could be induced by urea in trh2 bearing strains. Most trh1 carrying strains were hemolytic against sheep erythrocytes while all trh2 positive strains did not show any hemolytic activity. TRH variants were synthesized in a prokaryotic cell-free system and their hemolytic activity was analyzed. TRH1 was active against sheep erythrocytes while TRH2 variants were not active at all. Conclusion Our study reveals a high diversity among trh positive V. parahaemolyticus strains. The function of TRH2 hemolysins and the role of the pseudogene Ψtrh as pathogenicity factors are questionable. To assess the pathogenic potential of V. parahaemolyticus strains a differentiation of trh variants and the detection of T3SS2β components like vopC would improve the V. parahaemolyticus diagnostics and could lead to a refinement of the risk

  6. Sources of ambient concentrations and chemical composition of PM 2.5-0.1 in Cork Harbour, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellebust, S.; Allanic, A.; O'Connor, I. P.; Jourdan, C.; Healy, D.; Sodeau, J. R.

    2010-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM 10-2.5 and PM 2.5-0.1) has been collected over a period of one year in Cork Harbour, Ireland, using a high-volume cascade impactor and polyurethane foam collection substrate. Collected PM 2.5-0.1 was analysed for water-soluble inorganic ions and metal content using ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. On average approximately 50% by mass of the chemical content of PM was identified. The motivation for the study was to assess the potential impact of shipping emissions on air quality in Cork Harbour and City, with a view to informing public health impacts. The average ambient concentration of PM 10 between May 2007 and April 2008 was 4.6 µgm - 3 and the maximum concentration measured in one sample, representing a 4 day collection period, was 16 µgm - 3 . The major inorganic constituents identified in PM collected in Haulbowline Island in Cork Harbour were sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, chloride and sodium ions, which were mainly attributable to sea salt and secondary inorganic aerosols from regional sources. The results were analysed by principal component analysis for the purpose of source apportionment. Four factors were identified explaining over 80% of the data set variance. The factors were: shipping, sea salt, crustal material and secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA). The smaller size fraction was frequently observed to dominate, as the average concentration was 2.77 µgm - 3 for PM 2.5-0.1 compared to 1.9 µgm - 3 for PM 10-2.5. Fresh ship plumes were not found to make a significant contribution to primary PM 2.5-0.1 concentrations adjacent to the shipping channel. However, this was partially attributed to the ultrafine nature of ship emissions and the majority of the toxic metal content was attributed to emissions associated with heavy oil combustion sources, which include ship engines.

  7. Personal exposure to benzene and 1,3-butadiene during petroleum refinery turnarounds and work in the oil harbour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerstrom, M; Almerud, P; Andersson, E M; Strandberg, B; Sallsten, G

    2016-11-01

    Petroleum refinery workers' exposure to the carcinogens benzene and 1,3-butadiene has decreased during normal operations. However, certain occupational groups or events at the refineries still involve a risk of higher exposures. The aim of this study was to examine the personal exposure to benzene and 1,3-butadiene at refinery turnarounds and during work in the oil harbour. Personal exposure measurements of benzene and 1,3-butadiene were taken during work shifts, with a priori assumed higher benzene exposure, using PerkinElmer diffusive samplers filled with Carbopack X. Mean exposure levels were calculated, and repeated exposure measurements, when available, were assessed using mixed effect models. Group and individual compliance with the Swedish occupational exposure limit (OEL) was tested for the different exposure groups. Mean benzene exposure levels for refinery workers during the three measured turnarounds were 150, 610 and 960 µg/m(3), and mean exposures for oil harbour workers and sewage tanker drivers were 310 and 360 µg/m(3), respectively. Higher exposures were associated with handling benzene-rich products. Most occupational groups did not comply with the Swedish OEL for benzene nor did the individuals within the groups. The exposure to 1,3-butadiene was very low, between refinery industry, with potential exposure to open product streams containing higher fractions of benzene, pose a risk of personal benzene exposures exceeding the OEL. Refinery workers performing these work tasks frequently, such as contractors, sewage tanker drivers and oil harbour workers, need to be identified and protected.

  8. Sediment dynamics of an artificially deepened mesotidal coastal lagoon: An environmental magnetic investigation of Tauranga Harbour, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badesab, Firoz; von Dobeneck, Tilo; Briggs, Roger M.; Bryan, Karin R.; Just, Janna; Müller, Hendrik

    2017-07-01

    Tauranga Harbour, New Zealand's largest barrier-enclosed coastal lagoon, comprises two sub-basins with separate catchments, inlets and tidal channel systems. This study sets out to assess and investigate the sediment dispersal system of Tauranga Harbour using standard environmental magnetic and sedimentological methods. Compilations of rock magnetic and grain size data of surficial sediments collected from inflowing rivers, various estuarine environments (estuaries, tidal flats and tidal channels) and the adjacent nearshore mirror the net and differential sediment fluxes into and through the two sub-basins of this lagoon. For all studied depositional environments, the magnetogranulometric ratios SIRM/κ and ARM/κ are positively correlated with magnetic mineral content (SIRM, ARM, χ) in the sense that larger magnetic particles are associated with higher magnetic enrichment. Grain-size analyses show that magnetic enrichment during particle transport and deposition can result from grain-size as well as from grain-density fractionation. The periodically changing accumulation/erosion conditions provide for a selective retention of specific grain sizes and an enhancement of the heavier magnetic mineral particles. Magnetic crystal size and clastic grain size correlate poorly over the whole study area, but group within similar depositional environments. Coarser magnetic and clastic grain sizes and higher magnetite enrichment in the southern sub-basin can be reconciled with episodic flood runoff of the Wairoa River and a much larger, artificially deepened southern tidal inlet which likely enables higher tidal current velocities. Our approach of combining magnetic and clastic grain-size could be successfully implemented to establish a conceptual model of sediment dynamics and gravitational sorting within Tauranga Harbour.

  9. Numerical study of the effects of mangrove areas and tidal flats on tides: A case study of Darwin Harbour, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Wang, Xiao Hua; Williams, David; Sidhu, Harvinder; Song, Dehai

    2012-06-01

    The tidal dynamics of Darwin Harbour, Australia, are simulated using a finite volume coastal ocean model. The calibrated model agreed well with the observed sea surface elevation and current velocity. Results indicate that the harbor's hydrodynamics are driven mainly by the tides, with wind and river inputs playing only small roles. The M2 tide is dominant, with amplitude 1.7 m and peak current speed 3.0 m s-1. Sensitivity tests using the model indicate that the mangrove areas and tidal flats play crucial roles in modulating tidal amplitudes and phases in the embayments, especially for the shallow water tides such as M4. Removal of the mangrove areas and tidal flats from Darwin Harbour would dampen the M2 amplitude due to decreased shoaling effects but generate a 75.0% greater M4 amplitude in parts of the harbor. Mangrove areas and tidal flats also affect tidal asymmetry through the changing amplitudes and phases of mainly the M2 and M4 tides. In Darwin Harbour, tidal asymmetry, measured by elevation and current skewness, would increase by up to 100% if the mangrove areas were removed. If the tidal flats were removed as well, the increase would be 120%. Therefore, reclamation of the mangrove areas and tidal flats may cause sediment siltation as a result of increased flood dominance. Although this study is site-specific, the model and our findings have a wider applicability to the effects of mangrove areas and tidal flats on tides and sediment transport in harbors and estuaries.

  10. Survival after free falls of 59 metres into water from the Sydney Harbour Bridge, 1930-1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, P M; Solomons, B J

    1983-05-28

    Between 1930 and 1982, 92 persons fell from the Sydney Harbour Bridge into the water, 59 metres below. The major problem among survivors was pulmonary trauma, often with severe respiratory failure. The position of impact influenced survival, the feet-first vertical position being the most favourable. Mortality rate from the fall was 85%. Rapid clinical assessment of victims, especially with reference to pulmonary injury, and prompt institution of ventilatory support, where required, may reverse respiratory failure. Intra-abdominal injuries, spinal column or central nervous system involvement and peripheral fractures should all be suspected.

  11. Sources of organic matter and microbial community structure in the sediments of the Visakhapatnam Harbour, east coat of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harji, R.R.; Bhosle, N.B.; Garg, A.; Sawant, S.S.; Venkat, K.

    are in the range of values earlier recorded for the coastal sediments of other areas. For example, for the Marmugoa harbour sediments, the total lipids varied from 233 to 1448 µg g -1 dw sediments (Harji et al., 2008). Similarly, for the sediments of Sfax..., P.I., Virtue, P., Nichols, P.D., 1996. Microbial consortia in wetland sediments: a biomarker analysis of the effects of hydrological regime, vegetation and season on benthic microbes. Marine and Freshwater Research 47, 27-41. Boschker, H.T.S., de...

  12. Community-acquired infections due to Staphylococcus argenteus lineage isolates harbouring the Panton-Valentine leucocidin, France, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupieux, C; Blondé, R; Bouchiat, C; Meugnier, H; Bes, M; Laurent, S; Vandenesch, F; Laurent, F; Tristan, A

    2015-06-11

    We describe two cases of human infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 75, also called Staphylococcus argenteus, harbouring the Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL). These two sporadic cases were community-acquired, and identified in France in 2014. Both had an epidemiological link with Mayotte, an overseas department of France located in the Indian Ocean off the south-eastern African coast. This report illustrates that, contrary to previous descriptions, S. argenteus can acquire important virulence factors and be responsible for severe infections.

  13. Defining management units for cetaceans by combining genetics, morphlogy, acoustics and satellite tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveegaard, Signe; Galatius, Anders; Dietz, Rune

    2015-01-01

    Managing animal units is essential in biological conservation and requires spatial and temporal identification of such units. Since even neighbouring populations often have different conservation status and face different levels of anthropogenic pressure, detailed knowledge of population structure...... higher west of 13.5°E as compared to east of 13.5°E. By using this novel multidisciplinary approach, we defined a management unit for the BS harbour porpoise population. We recommend that these boundaries are used for future monitoring efforts of this population under the EU directives. The boundaries...

  14. A Method for Identifying Pollution Sources of Heavy Metals and PAH for a Risk-Based Management of a Mediterranean Harbour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ombretta Paladino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A procedure for assessing harbour pollution by heavy metals and PAH and the possible sources of contamination is proposed. The procedure is based on a ratio-matching method applied to the results of principal component analysis (PCA, and it allows discrimination between point and nonpoint sources. The approach can be adopted when many sources of pollution can contribute in a very narrow coastal ecosystem, both internal and outside but close to the harbour, and was used to identify the possible point sources of contamination in a Mediterranean Harbour (Port of Vado, Savona, Italy. 235 sediment samples were collected in 81 sampling points during four monitoring campaigns and 28 chemicals were searched for within the collected samples. PCA of total samples allowed the assessment of 8 main possible point sources, while the refining ratio-matching identified 1 sampling point as a possible PAH source, 2 sampling points as Cd point sources, and 3 sampling points as C > 12 point sources. By a map analysis it was possible to assess two internal sources of pollution directly related to terminals activity. The study is the prosecution of a previous work aimed at assessing Savona-Vado Harbour pollution levels and suggested strategies to regulate the harbour activities.

  15. A Method for Identifying Pollution Sources of Heavy Metals and PAH for a Risk-Based Management of a Mediterranean Harbour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moranda, Arianna

    2017-01-01

    A procedure for assessing harbour pollution by heavy metals and PAH and the possible sources of contamination is proposed. The procedure is based on a ratio-matching method applied to the results of principal component analysis (PCA), and it allows discrimination between point and nonpoint sources. The approach can be adopted when many sources of pollution can contribute in a very narrow coastal ecosystem, both internal and outside but close to the harbour, and was used to identify the possible point sources of contamination in a Mediterranean Harbour (Port of Vado, Savona, Italy). 235 sediment samples were collected in 81 sampling points during four monitoring campaigns and 28 chemicals were searched for within the collected samples. PCA of total samples allowed the assessment of 8 main possible point sources, while the refining ratio-matching identified 1 sampling point as a possible PAH source, 2 sampling points as Cd point sources, and 3 sampling points as C > 12 point sources. By a map analysis it was possible to assess two internal sources of pollution directly related to terminals activity. The study is the prosecution of a previous work aimed at assessing Savona-Vado Harbour pollution levels and suggested strategies to regulate the harbour activities. PMID:29270328

  16. Impact of remobilized contaminants in Mytilus edulis during dredging operations in a harbour area: bioaccumulation and biomarker responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Marta; Costa, Pedro M; Raimundo, Joana; Vale, Carlos; Ferreira, Ana M; Costa, Maria H

    2012-11-01

    Dredging operations in harbours are recurrent to maintain accessibility and navigational depths. One of the main environmental risks of these operations is the remobilization of contaminants trapped in the sediments, rendering them more bioavailable to the biota. However, regulatory policies regarding the contamination risk of dredging chiefly apply to the disposal of dredged materials rather than the direct impact of the procedure itself. In order to assess the ecotoxicological risk of harbour dredging operations in a polluted estuary (the Tagus, W Portugal), the present study compared bioaccumulation and biomarker responses in field-deployed mussels before and after the beginning of operations, complemented by sediment characterization and risk analysis based on standardized sediment quality guidelines. The results revealed a very significant increase in genotoxicity and oxidative stress from the beginning of dredging onwards, which was accompanied by increased bioaccumulation of toxicants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Overall, the results indicate the importance of surveying the direct impacts of these procedures on local contamination, especially considering these sediments had been previously classified as "trace contaminated", according to normative guidelines, and therefore safe for disposal. This study shows the importance of obtaining both chemical and biological data in standard monitoring procedures and that the remobilization of contaminants by dredging operations may be grossly underestimated, which calls for caution when assessing the impact of these activities even in low to moderately polluted areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The brown lacewings (Neuroptera, Hemerobiidae of northwestern Turkey with new records, their spatio-temporal distribution and harbouring plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orkun Baris Kovanci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The brown lacewings (Neuroptera, Hemerobiidae of northwestern Turkey with new records, their spatio-temporal distribution and harbouring plants. The occurrence and spatio-temporal distribution of brown lacewing species (Neuroptera, Hemerobiidae in Bursa province, northwestern Turkey, was investigated during 1999-2011. A total of 852 brown lacewing specimens of 20 species, including the genera of Hemerobius, Megalomus, Micromus, Sympherobius, and Wesmaelius were collected. Of these, 12 species were new records for northwestern Turkey while Sympherobius klapaleki is a new record for the Neuroptera fauna of Turkey. The most widespread species were Hemerobius handschini and Sympherobius pygmaeus with percent dominance values of 42.00 and 15.96%, respectively. Wesmaelius subnebulosus was the earliest emerging hemerobiid species and had the longest flight activity lasting from March to October. The species of southern origin characterized by the Mediterranean elements constituted 55% of the hemerobiid fauna and prevailed over the species of northern origin that belong to the Siberian centres. The total number of hemerobiid species reached a peak in July with captures of 15 species per month. There were 11, 13, 18 and 5 hemerobiid species occurring at altitudes between 1-500, 501-1000, 1001-1500 and 1500-2000 m, respectively. In addition, plant species harbouring hemerobiids are given for each species, and their association with the hemerobiid fauna is discussed.

  18. Heavy metals in benthic foraminifera from the highly polluted sediments of the Naples harbour (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumolo, Paola, E-mail: paola.rumolo@iamc.cnr.it [Institute for Coastal Marine Environment (CNR) - Calata Porta di Massa 80133 Naples (Italy); Manta, Daniela Salvagio; Sprovieri, Mario [Institute for Coastal Marine Environment (CNR) - Calata Porta di Massa 80133 Naples (Italy); Coccioni, Rodolfo [Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Uomo, dell' Ambiente e della Natura, Universita degli Studi ' Carlo Bo' , Campus Scientifico, Localita Crocicchia, 61029, Urbino (Italy); Ferraro, Luciana; Marsella, Ennio [Institute for Coastal Marine Environment (CNR) - Calata Porta di Massa 80133 Naples (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    A systematic investigation evaluated the concentrations of a selected number of trace elements (Cd, Co, Cu, Li, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) in carbonates of the benthic foraminifera Ammonia tepida collected from surface sediments of the highly polluted harbour of Naples. Application of cleaning procedures, combined with Scanning Electron Microscopy investigation (SEM) of the analysed shells allowed reliable quantification of the elements in the carbonate lattice. Adoption of biogenic carbonate/seawater distribution coefficients reported in the literature provided the ranges of variability of total dissolved trace elements in the studied marine environment. Very high concentrations of Zn, Cd, and Cu calculated in seawater (from 100 to 10,000 times higher than those reported for uncontaminated Mediterranean seawaters) testify to intense effects of anthropogenic impact on the harbour mainly related to the industrial and commercial activities carried out in the neighbouring area. The ensemble of the obtained results emphasizes the high potential of measurements of trace elements in the biogenic carbonates of benthic foraminifera as tracers of anthopogenic pollution of seawater and reliable proxies of potentially bioavailable forms (as free ions and/or more labile organic complexes) of seawater dissolved metals.

  19. Unique fur and skin structure in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina)--thermal insulation, drag reduction, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdsack, Nicola; Dehnhardt, Guido; Witt, Martin; Wree, Andreas; Siebert, Ursula; Hanke, Wolf

    2015-03-06

    Vertebrate surface structures, including mammalian skin and hair structures, have undergone various modifications during evolution in accordance with functional specializations. Harbour seals rely on their vibrissal system for orientation and foraging. To maintain tactile sensitivity even at low temperatures, the vibrissal follicles are heated up intensely, which could cause severe heat loss to the environment. We analysed skin samples of different body parts of harbour seals, and expected to see higher hair densities at the vibrissal pads as a way to reduce heat loss. In addition to significantly higher hair densities around the vibrissae than on the rest of the body, we show a unique fur structure of hair bundles consisting of broad guard hairs along with hairs of a new type, smaller than guard hairs but broader than underhairs, which we defined as 'intermediate hairs'. This fur composition has not been reported for any mammal so far and may serve for thermal insulation as well as drag reduction. Furthermore, we describe a scale-like skin structure that also presumably plays a role in drag reduction. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Tumour exosomes from cells harbouring PTPRZ1-MET fusion contribute to a malignant phenotype and temozolomide chemoresistance in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, A-L; Yan, W; Liu, Y-W; Wang, Z; Hu, Q; Nie, E; Zhou, X; Li, R; Wang, X-F; Jiang, T; You, Y-P

    2017-09-21

    Exosomes are carriers of pro-tumorigenic factors that participate in glioblastoma (GBM) progression, and many fusion genes are strong driver mutations in neoplasia and are involved in tumorigenesis. However, the ability of fusion genes to be transduced by exosomes is unknown. We characterized exosomes from GBM cells harbouring and not harbouring PTPRZ1-MET fusion (ZM fusion). We also determined the effect of the exosomes from ZM fusion cells (ZM exosomes) on pro-oncogenic secretions and showed that ZM exosomes are internalized by the recipient cells. In addition, we studied the effect of ZM exosome-mediated intercellular communication in the GBM microenvironment. MET proto-oncogene expression was higher in ZM exosomes. Moreover, phosphorylated MET was detected only in ZM exosomes and not in exosomes released by non-ZM fusion GBM cells. ZM exosomes transferred to non-ZM fusion GBM cells and normal human astrocytes altered gene expression and induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The uptake of ZM exosomes also induced an exosome-dependent phenotype defined by GBM cell migration and invasion, neurosphere growth and angiogenesis. In addition, ZM exosomes conferred temozolomide resistance to the GBM cells, and exosome-derived ZM fusion network proteins targeted multiple pro-oncogenic effectors in recipient cells within the GBM microenvironment. Our findings show that exosomes mediate the aggressive character of GBM and demonstrate the role of ZM fusion in the exacerbation of this effect. These findings have possible implications for the foundation of gene fusion-based therapy for managing GBM.

  1. First report of a clinical isolate of Leclercia adecarboxylata harbouring multiple resistance genes in Uruguay and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fulgueiras, Virginia; Seija, Verónica; Aguerrebere, Paula; Cordeiro, Nicolás F; Vignoli, Rafael

    2014-06-01

    Here we report the detection of a Leclercia adecarboxylata strain, isolated from a case of osteomyelitis, harbouring multiple antibiotic resistance genes encoded on a 450-kb IncHI1/HI2 conjugative plasmid (pLa12). The plasmid carried a complex class 1 integron with the genetic array intI1-aac(6')-Ib-cr-bla OXA-1 -catB3-arr3-qacEΔ1-sul1-ISCR1; in addition, a bla DHA-1 -like allele linked to ampR-qacEΔ1-sul1 as well as bla SHV-12 , bla TEM-1 and qnrB4-like genes were found. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of L. adecarboxylata harbouring transferable resistance genes to quinolones, chloramphenicol and rifampicin as well as a plasmidic class C β-lactamase. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Diffusion in coastal and harbour zones, effects of Waves,Wind and Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, M.; Redondo, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    As there are multiple processes at different scales that produce turbulent mixing in the ocean, thus giving a large variation of horizontal eddy diffusivities, we use a direct method to evaluate the influence of different ambient parameters such as wave height and wind on coastal dispersion. Measurements of the diffusivity are made by digital processing of images taken from from video recordings of the sea surface near the coast. The use of image analysis allows to estimate both spatial and temporal characteristics of wave fields, surface circulation and mixing in the surf zone, near Wave breakers and inside Harbours. The study of near-shore dispersion [1], with the added complexity of the interaction between wave fields, longshore currents, turbulence and beach morphology, needs detailed measurements of simple mixing processes to compare the respective influences of forcings at different scales. The measurements include simultaneous time series of waves, currents, wind velocities from the studied area. Cuantitative information from the video images is accomplished using the DigImage video processing system [3], and a frame grabber. The video may be controlled by the computer, allowing, remote control of the processing. Spectral analysis on the images has also used n order to estimate dominant wave periods as well as the dispersion relations of dominant instabilities. The measurements presented here consist mostly on the comarison of difussion coeficients measured by evaluating the spread of blobs of dye (milk) as well as by measuring the separation between different buoys released at the same time. We have used a techniques, developed by Bahia(1997), Diez(1998) and Bezerra(2000)[1-3] to study turbulent diffusion by means of digital processing of images taken from remote sensing and video recordings of the sea surface. The use of image analysis allows to measure variations of several decades in horizontal diffusivity values, the comparison of the diffusivities

  3. Simulation-Augmented Methods for Safe and Efficient Manoeuvres in Harbour Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knud Benedict

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Safety of navigation is especially challenging and critical when a ship approaches and manoeuvres in harbour areas. Improving the safety especially in the first and last phase of a voyage is crucial and requires measures addressing both the human and technical-technological elements including support systems that shall provide human operators with information relevant for decision making. The present situation is characterized by the introduction of numerous sophisticated technical and support systems often integrated with several components becoming increasingly complex. On the users end, changes are not that obvious and not that rapid as for technology. However, new approaches are under development or already in use. They are characterized by applying and adapting solutions from other transport modes. In this way, tasks and procedures on ships, that are highly safety-relevant and containing high portions of manoeuvring activities have been changed to high back-up procedures as in air planes. For port manoeuvres e.g. the system of pilot/co-pilot was introduced on ferries in a sense that one officer is operating and the other is monitoring and checking the safe performance. In cruise shipping, new structures replacing the traditional rank-based with a flexible system based on job functions. This system creates a kind of a safety net around the person conning the vessel. Each operation is cross checked before execution by one or two other persons. The first obvious consequence is higher costs due to doubling personnel. On the other hand there is also a need for a technology appropriately supporting the checking officer by enabling her or him to monitor what the conning officer is doing. “Fast-Time Manoeuvring Simulation Technology” (FTS developed at the Institute for Innovative Ship Simulation and Maritime Systems (ISSIMS has huge potential to fulfil this task. FTS calculates within one second of computing time up to 1000 seconds of real

  4. Bio-Optical Properties of Two Neigboring Coastal Regions of Tropical Northern Australia: The Van Diemen Gulf and Darwin Harbour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Blondeau-Patissier

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the seasonal and spatial characterization of inherent optical properties and biogeochemical concentrations in the Van Diemen Gulf and Darwin Harbour, two neighboring tropical coastal environments of Northern Australia that exhibit shallow depths (~20 m, large (>3 m semi-diurnal tides, and a monsoonal climate. To gain insight in the functioning of these optically complex coastal ecosystems, a total of 23 physical, biogeochemical, and optical parameters were sampled at 63 stations during three field campaigns covering the 2012 wet and dry seasons, and the 2013 dry season. The total light absorption budget in the Van Diemen Gulf was dominated by non-algal particles (aNAP; >45% during the dry season (May–October and colored dissolved organic matter (aCDOM; 60% during the wet season (November–April. The combined absorption by aNAP and aCDOM generally exceeded ~80% of the total absorption budget from 400 to 620 nm, with phytoplankton, aPhy, accounting for <20%. In Darwin Harbour, where only the dry season conditions were sampled, the total absorption budget was dominated by an equivalent contribution of aCDOM, aNAP, and phytoplankton. The major processes explaining the seasonal variability observed in the Van Diemen Gulf are resuspension from seasonal south-easterly trade winds in combination with the tidal energy and shallow bathymetry during the dry season months, and mostly terrestrial river runoff during the monsoon which discharge terrestrial CDOM from the surrounding wetlands. Due to light-limited conditions all year round, the particulate scattering coefficient [bp(555] contributed significantly (90% to the beam attenuation coefficient c(555, thus strongly limiting phytoplankton growth (Chlorophyll a ~1 mg.m−3. Spatially, the Van Diemen Gulf had higher total suspended solids and nutrient concentrations than Darwin Harbour, with dissolved organic carbon and aCDOM subjected to photobleaching during the dry season. Key

  5. Listeria monocytogenes isolates from food and food environment harbouring tetM and ermB resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubert, L; Mendonça, M; Lopes, G V; de Itapema Cardoso, M R; da Silva, W P

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that has become an important cause of human and animal diseases worldwide. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the serotypes, virulence potential, antimicrobial resistance profile, and genetic relationships of 50 L. monocytogenes isolates from food and food environment in southern Brazil. In this study, the majority of L. monocytogenes isolates belonged to the serotypes 1/2b (42%) and 4b (26%), which are the main serotypes associated with human listeriosis. In addition, all isolates harboured internalin genes (inlA, inlC, inlJ), indicating a virulence potential. The isolates were sensitive to most of the antimicrobial compounds analysed, and five isolates (10%) were multi-resistant. Two isolates harboured antimicrobial resistance genes (tetM and ermB) and in one of them, the gene was present in the plasmid. Moreover, according to the pulsed field gel electrophoresis assay, two multi-resistant isolates were a single clone isolated from food and the processing plant. The isolates were susceptible to the most frequently used antibiotics for listeriosis treatment. However, the presence of multidrug-resistant isolates and antimicrobial resistance genes including in the plasmid could even be transferred between bacterial species, suggesting a potential health risk to consumers and a potential risk of spreading multi-resistance genes to other bacteria. Listeria monocytogenes is an important agent of foodborne diseases. The results of this study suggest a potential capacity of L. monocytogenes isolates from food and food environment to cause human infections. Antimicrobial multi-resistance profiles were detected in 10%, and two isolates harboured tetM and ermB resistance genes. Moreover, the present research can help to build up a better knowledge about antimicrobial resistance of L. monocytogenes. Additionally, we found one isolate carrying tetM resistance gene in a plasmid, that suggests a possible transmission

  6. Ecotoxicological evaluation of harbour sediments using marine organisms from different trophic levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pane, L.; Giacco, E.; Mariottini, G.L. [Genova Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Biology; Corra, C.; Greco, G.; Faimali, M. [CNR - ISMAR-Marine Technology Section, Genova (Italy); Varisco, F. [Multiproject S.r.l., Gorizia (Italy)

    2008-04-15

    Background, aim and scope. The toxicity of contaminated sediments should be evaluated considering the direct exposure of laboratory organisms to whole sediments and the indirect exposure to elutriates or extracts (Tay et al. 1992, Byrne and Halloran 1999, Nendza 2002). The alga Dunaliella tertiolecta is indicated for the use in toxicity bioassays because it is highly sensitive to several xenobiotics. Harpacticoid copepods have been already used for toxicity testing and Tigriopus fulvus is a promising Mediterranean target-species in ecotoxicology (Todaro et al. 2001, Faraponova et al. 2003, Pane et al. 2005a). In this study, the toxicity of sediments collected in harbour sites of the Northeastern Adriatic Sea was evaluated by growth inhibition test with free living and alginate-immobilized Dunaliella tertiolecta and acute toxicity test with nauplii and adult Tigriopus fulvus with the aim of pointing out the importance to utilize model organisms from different trophic levels in sediment ecotoxicology. Methodology. Elutriates and whole sediments were tested on free living and immobilized (Pane et al. 1998) algal cells, and on laboratory reared copepods. Free-living D. tertiolecta were exposed to diluted elutriates in a static, multi-well plate system. Na-alginate immobilized D. tertiolecta were placed in polystyrene inserts fitted with polyester mesh bottoms and exposed to a thin layer (2 mm) of whole sediments in multi-well plates (EPS 1992, Pane and Bertino 1999). Toxicity tests with copepods were carried out on Tigriopus fulvus nauplii (elutriates) and adults (whole sediments and elutriates). Same-aged nauplii useful for toxicity tests were obtained by egg sac detaching and consequent hatching stimulation (Pane et al. 2006). Newborn nauplii (I-II stage) were exposed to elutriates in multi-well plates provided with polystyrene inserts. Adult T. fulvus maintained in polystyrene inserts fitted with polyester mesh bottoms were placed in contact with a thin layer (2 mm

  7. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyl residues in sediments and blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from Port Elizabeth Harbour, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampire, E; Rubidge, G; Adams, J B

    2015-02-15

    Sediment and Mytilus galloprovincialis samples collected from the Port Elizabeth Harbour were analysed for six indicator PCB congeners to assess their contamination status. The concentrations of total PCBs in sediments and M. galloprovincialis ranged from 0.56 to 2.35 ng/g dry weight and 14.48 to 21.37 ng/g wet weight, respectively. Congeners 138 and 153 were dominant and accounted for an average of 29% and 24% of total PCBs in M. galloprovincialis; 32% and 30% in sediments, respectively. Sediments are home to a wide variety of aquatic life. None of the sediments analysed exceeded the PCB limits recommended the Canadian interim sediment quality guideline and the South African recommended sediment guidelines (21.6 ng/g). Both humans and aquatic life are sensitive to the toxic effects of PCBs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Human-ecosystem interactions in relation to Holocene environmental change in Port Joli Harbour, southwestern Nova Scotia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Karen; Gajewski, Konrad; Betts, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    A high-resolution pollen record from Path Lake in Port Joli Harbour, Nova Scotia, Canada, provides a paleo-ecological perspective on Holocene climate and vegetation variability within the context of local archaeological research. Pollen assemblages in the early Holocene reflect a post-glacial forest dominated by Pinus, Tsuga, Betula and Quercus. During this time, a lower frequency of radiocarbon dated cultural material suggests lower human settlement intensity. Shallow water aquatic (Isoetes) and wetland (Alnus, Sphagnum) taxa increased after 3400 cal yr BP in response to a transition towards wetter climatic conditions. Culturally significant periods, where settlement intensity increased in the Maritimes and Maine, coincide with maximum values of reconstructed total annual precipitation, suggesting that environmental conditions may have influenced prehistoric human activity. European settlement, after 350 cal yr BP, was marked by a rise in Ambrosia. The impact of anthropogenic fire disturbances on the landscape was evidenced by peak charcoal accumulations after European settlement.

  9. First data on three bivalve species exposed to an intra-harbour polymetallic contamination (La Rochelle, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitwieser, Marine; Viricel, Amélia; Churlaud, Carine; Guillot, Benoit; Martin, Elie; Stenger, Pierre-Louis; Huet, Valérie; Fontanaud, Angélique; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène

    2017-09-01

    Evaluating diffuse sediment contamination in the environment is a major concern with the aim of reaching a good chemical and ecological state of the littoral zone. In this study the risks of chronic chemical contamination and consequences in the bivalves Crassostrea gigas, Mytilus sp. and Mimachlamys varia were evaluated in coastal environments. The objective here was to understand the anthropological phenomena that affect the functioning of the marina of La Rochelle (semi-closed environment). Harbours seeking ecomanagement accreditations (such as the international reference ISO 14001) constitute zones of interest to implement biomonitoring studies. The biological effects of chemical pollution in the Marina of La Rochelle were studied to develop a multi-biomarker biomonitoring approach on specific marine species of this site. Moreover, a genetic (DNA barcoding) approach was applied to validate the species identity of collected bivalves. Of the three species tested the scallop, M. varia, was the most sensitive to metal exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of carbonic anhydrase-related protein VIII on human cells harbouring an A8344G mitochondrial DNA mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tze-Kai; Cheng, Che-Kun; Chi, Tang-Hao; Ma, Yi-Shing; Wu, Shi-Bei; Wei, Yau-Huei; Hsieh, Mingli

    2014-04-01

    MERRF (myoclonus epilepsy associated with ragged-red fibres) is a maternally inherited mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with various syndromes involving both muscular and nervous systems. The most common mutation in MERRF syndrome, the A8344G mutation in mtDNA, has been associated with severe defects in the respiratory function of mitochondria. In the present study, we show that there is a significant decrease in CA8 (carbonic anhydrase-related protein VIII) in cybrids harbouring the MERRF A8344G mutation. CA8 deficiency and mutations were found to be associated with a distinctive lifelong gait disorder in wdl (Waddles) mice and novel syndromes characterized by cerebellar ataxia and mental retardation in humans. The results of the present study showed that overexpression of CA8 in MERRF cybrids significantly decreased cell death induced by STS (staurosporine) treatment, suggesting a protective function of CA8 in cells harbouring the A8344G mutation of mtDNA. Interestingly, an increase in the formation of LC3-II (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II) was found in the cybrids with down-regulated CA8 expression, suggesting that reduced expression of CA8 leads to autophagy activation. Furthermore, cybrids exhibiting down-regulated CA8 showed increased cytosolic Ca2+ signals and reduced levels of phospho-Akt compared with those in the cybrids with overexpressed CA8, indicating that phospho-Akt is involved in the protection of cells by CA8. Our findings suggest that CA8 is involved in the autophagic pathway and may have a protective role in cultured cells from patients with MERRF. Targeting CA8 and the downstream autophagic pathway might help develop therapeutic agents for treatment of MERRF syndrome in the future.

  11. Species composition, abundance and distribution of hydromedusae from Dharamtar estuarine system, adjoining Bombay Harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.; Tiwari, L.R.; Nair, V.R.

    . Maximum species diversity was observed at st. 1 (coastal zone). A downward trend in species diversity was discernible towards the upper reaches of the estuary. Highest population density of hydromedusae was observed at st 4 (inner zone) and it was due...

  12. Estrogenic and dioxin-like compounds in sediment from Zierikzee harbour identified with CALUX assay-directed fractionation combined with one and two dimensional gas chromatography analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, C.J.; Booij, P.; Jover, E.; del Pascual Rio, D.; Swart, K.; van Velzen, M.; Vreuls, R.J.J.; Legler, J.; Brouwer, A.M.; Lamoree, M.

    2006-01-01

    The identity of compounds responsible for estrogenic and dioxin-like activities in sediment from the harbour of the small town Zierikzee in Zeeland, The Netherlands, was investigated using a bioassay directed fractionation approach with the in vitro estrogen and dioxin responsive reporter gene

  13. Interdisciplinary Archaeological Research Programme Maasvlakte 2, Rotterdam : Twenty meters deep! The mesolithic period at the Yangtze Harbour site - Rotterdam Maasvlakte, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, J.J.; Brinkhuizen, D.C.; Bunnik, F.P.M.; Cohen, K.M.; Cremer, H.; Exaltus, R.P.; van Kappel, K.; Kooistra, L.I.; Koolmees, H.; de Kruyk, H.; Kubiak-Martens, L.; Moree, J.M.; Niekus, M.J.L.Th.; Peeters, J.H.M.; Schiltmans, D.E.A.; Verbaas, A.; Verbruggen, F.; Vos, P.C.; Zeiler, J.T.

    2015-01-01

    In 2011 a systematic underwater field survey and an invasive investigation were executed in the Yangtze Harbour planning area, Maasvlakte, Rotterdam, commissioned by Port of Rotterdam Authority. The aim of the work was to locate and document any archaeological remains in submerged Late Pleistocene

  14. Twenty metres deep! The Mesolithic period at the site Yangtze Harbour in the Rotterdam Maasvlakte, the Netherlands. Early Holocene landscape development and habitation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sier, M.M.; Cohen, K.M.; Kooistra, L.; Kubiak-Martens, L.; Moree, J.M.; Niekus, M.; Peeters, J.H.M.; Schiltmans, D.E.A.; Verbaas, A.; Verbruggen, F.; Vos, P.C.; Zeiler, J.T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In November 2011 archaeologists of City of Rotterdam Archaeological Service (BOOR) conducted underwater research in the Yangtze harbour, Rotterdam Maasvlakte, The Netherlands. The research was carried out by order of Port of Rotterdam Authority and supervised by the Cultural Heritage

  15. The Cetaceans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, J.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper observations are summarized, dealing with the occurrence, movements and part of the life-history of the Cetaceans Tursiops truncatus (the bottlenosed dolphin) and Phocoena phocoena (the harbour porpoise or common porpoise). The observations were made in the neighbourhood

  16. Endemic plants harbour specific Trichoderma communities with an exceptional potential for biocontrol of phytopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachow, Christin; Berg, Christian; Müller, Henry; Monk, Jana; Berg, Gabriele

    2016-10-10

    Trichoderma strains exhibit enormous potential for applications in biotechnology, in particular as biocontrol agents against pathogens. However, little is known about the diversity of plant-associated Trichoderma communities at a global scale and their antagonistic spectrum. In order to gather information about structure and function, we compared Trichoderma biomes of endemic (Aeonium, Diospyros, Hebe, Rhododendron) and cosmopolitan plants (Zea mays) in a global study encompassing the area Northwest Africa to New Zealand via the European Alps and Madagascar. At the quantitative level we found no differences between cosmopolitan and endemic plants. Statistically significant differences were detected at the qualitative level: Trichoderma populations of endemic plants were highly specific and diverse with hot spots appearing in Madagascar and New Zealand. By contrast, maize plants from all sites shared the majority of Trichoderma species (65.5%). Interestingly, the high above ground biodiversity in ecosystems containing endemic plants was confirmed by a high below ground Trichoderma diversity. Despite the differences, we found a global Trichoderma core community shared by all analysed plants, which was dominated by T. koningii and T. koningiopsis. Amplicon-based network analyses revealed a high similarity between maize Trichoderma grown world-wide and distinct populations of endemic plants. Furthermore, Trichoderma strains from endemic plants showed a higher antagonistic activity against fungal pathogens compared to maize-associated strains. Our results showed that endemic plants are associated with a specific Trichoderma microbiome which possesses a high antagonistic activity indicating that it has potential to be used for biocontrol purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of the North Sea by harbour seal with special emphasis on the Horns Reef area. Test of prototype GPS/GSM-transmitter on harbour seals in the Sealarium Esbjerg[Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougaard, S.; Tougaard, J.

    2004-04-15

    A combined GPS-receiver and GSM mobile phone transmitter designed for deployment on wild seals was tested on a captive harbour seal. The unit has been under development in recent years and consists of a GPS-unit for positioning and a GSM mobile phone unit for transmission of logged positions to land. The test took place in the Sealarium at the Fisheries and Maritime Museum, Esbjerg. The unit was glued onto the fur on the head of the seal, where it stayed on for 13 days. Only one position was acquired by the unit and it failed to connect to the GSM-net during the test. Technical information from the constructor of the unit is not available and it is thus not possible to conclude on the reasons why the unit did not function as intended. The behaviour of the seal can however, be ruled out, as close observation and registration of the seals dive behaviour during the first days of deployment showed that the unit was free of the water for sufficiently long periods for positions to be acquired. (au)

  18. Genetic footprint of population fragmentation and contemporary collapse in a freshwater cetacean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minmin; Fontaine, Michael C; Ben Chehida, Yacine; Zheng, Jinsong; Labbé, Frédéric; Mei, Zhigang; Hao, Yujiang; Wang, Kexiong; Wu, Min; Zhao, Qingzhong; Wang, Ding

    2017-10-31

    Understanding demographic trends and patterns of gene flow in an endangered species is crucial for devising conservation strategies. Here, we examined the extent of population structure and recent evolution of the critically endangered Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis). By analysing genetic variation at the mitochondrial and nuclear microsatellite loci for 148 individuals, we identified three populations along the Yangtze River, each one connected to a group of admixed ancestry. Each population displayed extremely low genetic diversity, consistent with extremely small effective size (≤92 individuals). Habitat degradation and distribution gaps correlated with highly asymmetric gene-flow that was inefficient in maintaining connectivity between populations. Genetic inferences of historical demography revealed that the populations in the Yangtze descended from a small number of founders colonizing the river from the sea during the last Ice Age. The colonization was followed by a rapid population split during the last millennium predating the Chinese Modern Economy Development. However, genetic diversity showed a clear footprint of population contraction over the last 50 years leaving only ~2% of the pre-collapsed size, consistent with the population collapses reported from field studies. This genetic perspective provides background information for devising mitigation strategies to prevent this species from extinction.

  19. Parasites in harbour seals ( Phoca vitulina) from the German Wadden Sea between two Phocine Distemper Virus epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, K.; Raga, J. A.; Siebert, U.

    2007-12-01

    Parasites were collected from 107 harbour seals ( Phoca vitulina) found on the coasts of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, between 1997 and 2000. The prevalence of the parasites and their associated pathology were investigated. Eight species of parasites, primarily nematodes, were identified from the examined organs: two anisakid nematodes ( Pseudoterranova decipiens (sensu lato) , Contracaecum osculatum (sensu lato)) from the stomach, Otostrongylus circumlitus (Crenosomatidae) and Parafilaroides gymnurus (Filaroididae) from the respiratory tract, one filarioid nematode ( Acanthocheilonema spirocauda) from the heart, two acanthocephalans, Corynosoma strumosum and C. semerme (Polymorphidae), from the intestine and an ectoparasite, Echinophthirius horridus (Anoplura, Insecta). Lungworm infection was the most prominent parasitological finding and secondary bacterial bronchopneumonia the most pathogenic lesion correlated with the parasites. Heavy nematode burdens in the respiratory tract were highly age-related and more frequent in young seals. A positive correlation was observed between high levels of pulmonary infection and severity of bronchopneumonia. The prevalence of lungworms in this study was higher than in seals that died during the 1988/1989 Phocine Distemper Virus epidemic, and the prevalence of acanthocephalans and heartworms had decreased compared to findings from the first die-off.

  20. Human iPSC-derived motoneurons harbouring TARDBP or C9ORF72 ALS mutations are dysfunctional despite maintaining viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Anna-Claire; Burr, Karen; Borooah, Shyamanga; Foster, Joshua D.; Cleary, Elaine M.; Geti, Imbisaat; Vallier, Ludovic; Shaw, Christopher E.; Chandran, Siddharthan; Miles, Gareth B.

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease for which a greater understanding of early disease mechanisms is needed to reveal novel therapeutic targets. We report the use of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived motoneurons (MNs) to study the pathophysiology of ALS. We demonstrate that MNs derived from iPSCs obtained from healthy individuals or patients harbouring TARDBP or C9ORF72 ALS-causing mutations are able to develop appropriate physiological properties. However, patient iPSC-derived MNs, independent of genotype, display an initial hyperexcitability followed by progressive loss of action potential output and synaptic activity. This loss of functional output reflects a progressive decrease in voltage-activated Na+ and K+ currents, which occurs in the absence of overt changes in cell viability. These data implicate early dysfunction or loss of ion channels as a convergent point that may contribute to the initiation of downstream degenerative pathways that ultimately lead to MN loss in ALS. PMID:25580746

  1. Benthic foraminifera and heavy metals distribution: A case study from the Naples Harbour (Tyrrhenian Sea, Southern Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraro, L. [Istituto per l' Ambiente Marino Costiero (IAMC)-CNR, Calata Porta di Massa (Interno Porto di Napoli), 80133 Naples (Italy)]. E-mail: luciana.ferraro@iamc.cnr.it; Sprovieri, M. [Istituto per l' Ambiente Marino Costiero (IAMC)-CNR, Calata Porta di Massa (Interno Porto di Napoli), 80133 Naples (Italy); Alberico, I. [Centro Interdipartimentale Ricerca Ambiente (CIRAM), Universita degli Studi di Napoli ' Federico II' , Naples (Italy); Lirer, F. [Istituto per l' Ambiente Marino Costiero (IAMC)-CNR, Calata Porta di Massa (Interno Porto di Napoli), 80133 Naples (Italy); Prevedello, L. [Istituto per l' Ambiente Marino Costiero (IAMC)-CNR, Calata Porta di Massa (Interno Porto di Napoli), 80133 Naples (Italy); Marsella, E. [Istituto per l' Ambiente Marino Costiero (IAMC)-CNR, Calata Porta di Massa (Interno Porto di Napoli), 80133 Naples (Italy)

    2006-07-15

    The analysis of 90 surficial sediments from three docks of the Naples Harbour (Levante, Granili, and Diaz) permits to compare the distribution modes of heavy metals with grain sizes, total organic carbon content (TOC) and distribution patterns of benthic foraminifera. Foraminiferal density and species richness decrease with the increasing toxic elements concentrations from the Levante to the Diaz dock. Median concentrations of Ni, Pb, Zn, and Hg (medians of 21.43 mg/kg, 270.24 mg/kg, 489.65 mg/kg, and 1.18 mg/kg, respectively) were reported for the Diaz dock where foraminifera are absent, thus suggesting a possible impact of toxic elements on the benthic ecosystem balance. Compared to the unpolluted marine sediments of the Granili dock, the Levante area shows higher heavy metals levels and a quasi-oligotypic benthic assemblage. This is dominated by the tolerant species Ammonia tepida that may be used as bio-indicator of pollution of anthropised marine sediments. - Benthic foraminiferal density and species distribution may be used as pollution indicators.

  2. Haulout behaviour of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina during breeding and moult in Vesterålen, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne-Grethe Mogren

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Haulout behaviour of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina in Vesterålen, Norway, was investigated from1 July to 23 August 2003 using a combination of high- and low-tide counts performed from boat and elevated land positions, and hourly counts from the land positions through 12- or 24-h cycles at specific haulout sites. There were obvious contrasts in haulout patterns of the seals throughout the period. The number of seals hauled-out was considerably higher in the area in July (the pupping period than during August when the moulting period started. Contrasting July, when numbers of seals hauled-out at low tide was clearly higher than at high tide, there were virtually no systematic differences in haulout numbers between high and low tides in August. Circadian patterns were weaker in August than in July as well. Low temperatures had significant adverse effects on haulout numbers both in July and August, whereas increased cloud cover resulted in fewer seals hauled-out in July, but more seals in August.

  3. Presence of Streptococcus mutans strains harbouring the cnm gene correlates with dental caries status and IgA nephropathy conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misaki, Taro; Naka, Shuhei; Hatakeyama, Rina; Fukunaga, Akiko; Nomura, Ryota; Isozaki, Taisuke; Nakano, Kazuhiko

    2016-11-04

    Streptococcus mutans is a major pathogen of human dental caries. Strains harbouring the cnm gene, which encodes Cnm, a collagen-binding protein, contribute to the development of several systemic diseases. In this study, we analysed S. mutans strains isolated from the oral cavity of immunoglobulin (Ig)A nephropathy (IgAN) patients to determine potential relationships between cnm and caries status as well as IgAN conditions. Saliva specimens were collected from 109 IgAN patients and the cnm status of isolated S. mutans strains was determined using PCR. In addition, the dental caries status (decayed, missing or filled teeth [DMFT] index) in patients who agreed to dental consultation (n = 49) was evaluated. The DMFT index and urinary protein levels in the cnm-positive group were significantly higher than those in the cnm-negative group (p mutans strains from the oral cavity may be associated with urinary protein levels in IgAN patients, especially those with a high dental caries status.

  4. Effect of flow rate, duty cycle, amplitude, and treatment Time of ultrasonic regimens towards Escherichia coli harbouring lipase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, W. S. A. W.; Sulaiman, A. Z.; Ajit, A.; Chisti, Y.; Chor, A. L. T.

    2017-06-01

    A full factorial design (FFD) approach was conducted to assess the effect of four factors, namely flow rate, duty cycle, amplitude, and treatment time of ultrasonic regimens towards Escherichia coli harbouring lipase. The 22 experiments were performed as the following values with six replicates of centre point: flow rate (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 L/min), duty cycle (0, 20, and 40 ), amplitude (2, 6, and 10), and treatment time (10, 35, and 60 min). The FFD was employed as preliminary screening in shake flask cultivation to choose the significant factors (Pcoli culture. Also, the designated flow rate and amplitude accordingly showed no effect towards the amount of dry cells weight (DCW). DCW1 was found significantly degraded after the exposure of high duty cycle and treatment time as other factors remained constant. Whereas for the lipase activity, no significant difference was observed in any main factors or interactions. Paired samples t-test confirms the result at a p-value of 0.625. This experimental study suggests the direct and continuous approach of sonication caused an adverse effect on the cells culture density.

  5. Identification of sulfur interferences during organotin determination in harbour sediment samples by sodium tetraethyl borate ethylation and gas chromatography-pulsed flame photometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Manuel; Lespes, Gäetane; De Gregori, Ida; Pinochet, Hugo; Potin-Gautier, Martine

    2004-08-13

    Because of the high toxicity of organotin compounds and the current regulation about their applications, analytical method usable in routine analysis is required. A speciation procedure based on NaBEt4 ethylation and GC-PFPD analysis has shown to be suitable for the organotin determination. Unfortunately, some matrix effects were observed during the analysis of harbour sediments from Chile. These effects were identified as the alkylation of elemental sulfur and the coelution between the organotin compounds and some dialkylsulfides. The re-optimization of GC parameters and application of solid phase microextraction (SPME) were proposed to solve these analytical problems. Certified reference materials and different harbour sediment samples were analysed in order to evaluate the suitability of the methods for organotin control in complex environment samples.

  6. Assessment of heavy metal and petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in the Sultanate of Oman with emphasis on harbours, marinas, terminals and ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupp, Barry P; Fowler, Scott W; Dobretsov, Sergey; van der Wiele, Henk; Al-Ghafri, Ahmed

    2017-08-15

    The assessment here includes data on levels of contaminants (petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals) in sediments and biomonitor organisms, including the eulittoral rock oyster Saccostrea cucullata and subtidal biomonitors, the barnacle Balanus trigonus and the antipatharian coral Antipathes sp., at harbours, marinas, terminals and large ports along the coastline of Oman. TBT levels in harbour and port sediments up to a maximum of 100ppb TBT dry weight are highlighted. Oysters contained concentrations up to 367ppm mg TPH/kg dry weight. The maximum levels of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were found in the subtidal sediments and barnacles at the oil tanker loading Single Buoy Mooring stations in Mina Al Fahal. In general, the levels of most of the contaminants analysed are at low to moderate concentrations compared to those in highly contaminated sites such as shipyards and dry docks, but continued monitoring is recommended especially during any dredging campaigns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Beta2 toxin is not involved in in vitro cell cytotoxicity caused by human and porcine cpb2-harbouring Clostridium perfringens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaart, Janneke G; van Asten, Alphons J A M; Vernooij, Johannes C M; Gröne, Andrea

    2014-06-25

    Clostridium perfringens is a common cause of intestinal disease in animals and humans. Its pathogenicity is attributed to the toxins it can produce, including the beta2 toxin. The presence of cpb2, the gene encoding the beta2 toxin, has been associated with diarrhoea in neonatal piglets and humans. However, the exact role of the beta2 toxin in the development of diarrhoea is still unknown. In this study we investigated the level of cytotoxicity to porcine IPI-21 and human Caco-2 cell-lines caused by porcine and human cpb2-harbouring C. perfringens and the significance of the beta2 toxin for the induction of cell cytotoxicity. Supernatants of porcine cpb2-harbouring C. perfringens strains were cytotoxic to both cell lines. Cell cytotoxicity caused by supernatant of human cpb2-harbouring C. perfringens strains was variable among strains. However, removal of the beta2 toxin by anti-beta2 toxin antibodies or degradation of the beta2 toxin by trypsin did not reduce the cytotoxic effect of any of the supernatants. These data suggest that beta2 toxin does not play a role in the development of cell cytotoxicity in in vitro experiments. In vivo studies are necessary to definitely define the role of beta2 toxin in the development of cell cytotoxicity and subsequent diarrhoea. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. First outbreak of colonization by linezolid- and glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium harbouring the cfr gene in a UK nephrology unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkster, T; Coia, J; Meunier, D; Doumith, M; Martin, K; Pike, R; Imrie, L; Kane, H; Hay, M; Wiuff, C; Wilson, J; Deighan, C; Hopkins, K L; Woodford, N; Hill, R

    2017-07-08

    To describe an outbreak of colonization by linezolid- and glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium harbouring the cfr gene in a UK nephrology unit. Isolates of linezolid-resistant E. faecium were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing for the transmissible cfr gene that confers resistance to linezolid. Enhanced environmental cleaning, initial and weekly screening of all patients, and monitoring of adherence to standard infection control precautions were implemented. Five patients with pre-existing renal disease were found to have rectal colonization with linezolid-resistant E. faecium over a two-week period. The index case was a 57-year-old male from India who had travelled to the UK. One patient also had a linezolid-resistant E. faecium of a different PFGE profile isolated from a heel wound. All isolates were confirmed to harbour the cfr gene by PCR and Sanger sequencing, and all were resistant to glycopeptides (VanA phenotype). This article describes the first UK outbreak with a single strain of linezolid- and glycopeptide-resistant E. faecium harbouring the cfr gene, affecting five patients in a nephrology unit. Following the implementation of aggressive infection control measures, no further cases were detected beyond a two-week period. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental Factors Controlling the Distribution of Symbiodinium Harboured by the Coral Acropora millepora on the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Timothy F.; Berkelmans, Ray; Ulstrup, Karin E.; Weeks, Scarla; Radford, Ben; Jones, Alison M.; Doyle, Jason; Canto, Marites; O'Leary, Rebecca A.; van Oppen, Madeleine J. H.

    2011-01-01

    Background The Symbiodinium community associated with scleractinian corals is widely considered to be shaped by seawater temperature, as the coral's upper temperature tolerance is largely contingent on the Symbiodinium types harboured. Few studies have challenged this paradigm as knowledge of other environmental drivers on the distribution of Symbiodinium is limited. Here, we examine the influence of a range of environmental variables on the distribution of Symbiodinium associated with Acropora millepora collected from 47 coral reefs spanning 1,400 km on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia. Methodology/Principal Findings The environmental data included Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data at 1 km spatial resolution from which a number of sea surface temperature (SST) and water quality metrics were derived. In addition, the carbonate and mud composition of sediments were incorporated into the analysis along with in situ water quality samples for a subset of locations. Analyses were conducted at three spatio-temporal scales [GBR (regional-scale), Whitsunday Islands (local-scale) and Keppel Islands/Trunk Reef (temporal)] to examine the effects of scale on the distribution patterns. While SST metrics were important drivers of the distribution of Symbiodinium types at regional and temporal scales, our results demonstrate that spatial variability in water quality correlates significantly with Symbiodinium distribution at local scales. Background levels of Symbiodinium types were greatest at turbid inshore locations of the Whitsunday Islands where SST predictors were not as important. This was not the case at regional scales where combinations of mud and carbonate sediment content coupled with SST anomalies and mean summer SST explained 51.3% of the variation in dominant Symbiodinium communities. Conclusions/Significance Reef corals may respond to global-scale stressors such as climate change through changes in their resident symbiont

  10. Municipal water quantities and health in Nunavut households: an exploratory case study in Coral Harbour, Nunavut, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Kiley; Castleden, Heather; Jamieson, Rob; Furgal, Chris; Ell, Lorna

    2014-01-01

    Access to adequate quantities of water has a protective effect on human health and well-being. Despite this, public health research and interventions are frequently focused solely on water quality, and international standards for domestic water supply minimums are often overlooked or unspecified. This trend is evident in Inuit and other Arctic communities even though numerous transmissible diseases and bacterium infections associated with inadequate domestic water quantities are prevalent. Our objective was to explore the pathways by which the trucked water distribution systems being used in remote northern communities are impacting health at the household level, with consideration given to the underlying social and environmental determinants shaping health in the region. Using a qualitative case study design, we conducted 37 interviews (28 residents, 9 key informants) and a review of government water documents to investigate water usage practices and perspectives. These data were thematically analysed to understand potential health risks in Arctic communities and households. Each resident receives an average of 110 litres of municipal water per day. Fifteen of 28 households reported experiencing water shortages at least once per month. Of those 15, most were larger households (5 people or more) with standard sized water storage tanks. Water shortages and service interruptions limit the ability of some households to adhere to public health advice. The households most resilient, or able to cope with domestic water supply shortages, were those capable of retrieving their own drinking water directly from lake and river sources. Residents with extended family and neighbours, whom they can rely on during shortages, were also less vulnerable to municipal water delays. The relatively low in-home water quantities observed in Coral Harbour, Nunavut, appear adequate for some families. Those living in overcrowded households, however, are accessing water in quantities more

  11. Municipal water quantities and health in Nunavut households: an exploratory case study in Coral Harbour, Nunavut, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiley Daley

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Access to adequate quantities of water has a protective effect on human health and well-being. Despite this, public health research and interventions are frequently focused solely on water quality, and international standards for domestic water supply minimums are often overlooked or unspecified. This trend is evident in Inuit and other Arctic communities even though numerous transmissible diseases and bacterium infections associated with inadequate domestic water quantities are prevalent. Objectives: Our objective was to explore the pathways by which the trucked water distribution systems being used in remote northern communities are impacting health at the household level, with consideration given to the underlying social and environmental determinants shaping health in the region. Methods: Using a qualitative case study design, we conducted 37 interviews (28 residents, 9 key informants and a review of government water documents to investigate water usage practices and perspectives. These data were thematically analysed to understand potential health risks in Arctic communities and households. Results: Each resident receives an average of 110 litres of municipal water per day. Fifteen of 28 households reported experiencing water shortages at least once per month. Of those 15, most were larger households (5 people or more with standard sized water storage tanks. Water shortages and service interruptions limit the ability of some households to adhere to public health advice. The households most resilient, or able to cope with domestic water supply shortages, were those capable of retrieving their own drinking water directly from lake and river sources. Residents with extended family and neighbours, whom they can rely on during shortages, were also less vulnerable to municipal water delays. Conclusions: The relatively low in-home water quantities observed in Coral Harbour, Nunavut, appear adequate for some families. Those living in

  12. Pulsating stars harbouring planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moya A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Why bother with asteroseismology while studying exoplanets? There are several answers to this question. Asteroseismology and exoplanetary sciences have much in common and the synergy between the two opens up new aspects in both fields. These fields and stellar activity, when taken together, allow maximum extraction of information from exoplanet space missions. Asteroseismology of the host star has already proved its value in a number of exoplanet systems by its unprecedented precision in determining stellar parameters. In addition, asteroseismology allows the possibility of discovering new exoplanets through time delay studies. The study of the interaction between exoplanets and their host stars opens new windows on various physical processes. In this review I will summarize past and current research in exoplanet asteroseismology and explore some guidelines for the future.

  13. Satellite tracking of harbour seals on Horns Reef - Use of the Horns Reef wind farm area and the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougaard, J.; Tougaard, S.; Jensen, Thyge [Fisheries and Maritime Museum Esbjerg (Denmark); Ebbesen, I. [Univ. of Sourthern Denmark, Inst. of Biology, Odense (Denmark); Teilmann, J. [NationL Environmental Res. Inst., Roskidle (Denmark)

    2003-03-15

    Ten harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) caught on the Danish Wadden Sea island Roemoe were equipped with satellite linked time depth recorders. The animals were caught on three separate occasions (Jan. 4th, Feb. 18th and May 6th, 2002). The transmitters worked between 49 and 100 days, relaying positional and dive information back via the ARGOS satellite service until beginning of July. Background for the studies is the construction of the Worlds largest off shore wind farm on Horns Reef. Based on previous studies using VHF-transmitters, it was expected that the seals would spend considerable time on Horns Reef. The VHF-telemetry studies showed that the preferred direction for seals leaving the Danish Wadden Sea is NW from Graedyb tidal area outside Esbjerg, the direction directly towards the wind farm area. The previously used VHF-transmitters had a limited detection range and it was decided to equip a number of seals from the same area as before with satellite transmitters. This allows for positioning of the seals in the entire North Sea as well as providing dive summary information, as a transmitter with a depth transducer was chosen for the study. Positional information revealed that animals move about more extensively than previously believed. Substantial variation between animals was observed and each seal seemed to have adopted its own foraging strategy. Some animals travelled to the centre of the North Sea on foraging trips and spent considerable time close to the bottom at 30-70 meters depth. Other seals remained in the German Bight and yet others spent considerable time on and around Horns Reef. The area of Horns reef wind farm constitutes a negligible fraction of the total area visited by the tagged seals. The reef as a whole however, appears to be important to the seals both for foraging and as transit area to other feeding grounds further off shore. The resolution in positional information is not sufficiently high to allow for a detailed study of the effects

  14. Application of sediment quality guidelines in the assessment and management of contaminated surficial sediments in Port Jackson (Sydney Harbour), Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Gavin F; Taylor, Stuart E

    2002-06-01

    Sediments in the Port Jackson estuary are polluted by a wide range of toxicants and concentrations are among the highest reported for any major harbor in the world. Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), developed by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in the United States are used to estimate possible adverse biological effects of sedimentary contaminants in Port Jackson to benthic animals. The NOAA guidelines indicate that Pb, Zn, DDD, and DDE are the most likely contaminants to cause adverse biological effects in Port Jackson. On an individual chemical basis, the detrimental effects due to these toxicants may occur over extensive areas of the harbor, i.e., about 40%, 30%, 15% and 50%, respectively. The NOAA SQGs can also be used to estimate the probability of sediment toxicity for contaminant mixtures by determining the number of contaminants exceeding an upper guideline value (effects range medium, or ERM), which predicts probable adverse biological effects. The exceedence approach is used in the current study to estimate the probability of sediment toxicity and to prioritize the harbour in terms of possible adverse effects on sediment-dwelling animals. Approximately 1% of the harbor is mantled with sediment containing more than ten contaminants exceeding their respective ERM concentrations and, based on NOAA data, these sediments have an 80% probability of being toxic. Sediment with six to ten contaminants exceeding their respective ERM guidelines extend over approximately 4% of the harbor and have a 57% probability of toxicity. These areas are located in the landward reaches of embayments in the upper and central harbor in proximity to the most industrialised and urbanized part of the catchment. Sediment in a further 17% of the harbor has between one and five exceedences and has a 32% probability of being toxic. The application of SQGs developed by NOAA has not been tested outside North America, and the validity of using them in Port

  15. Fjord-valley fill stratigraphy from onshore high-resolution shear-wave seismics, Trondheim harbour area, central Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, L.; Polom, U.; L'Heureux, J.; Sauvin, G.; Lecomte, I.; Krawczyk, C. M.; Longva, O.

    2009-12-01

    To obtain information on the stratigraphic variability within the underlying fjord-valley fill, a shallow, shear-wave reflection seismic survey was successfully carried out on land in the Trondheim harbor area, central Norway. Since the last deglaciation, the region has been subjected to a fall of relative sea level of totally 175 m due to glacioisostatic rebound. The relative sea-level fall was accompanied by river erosion of emerging (glacio) marine deposits, several, large landslides, and delta progradation into the fjord. The infilled harbour area is located on the submerged part of a delta plain, and land reclamation is still going on. Historic and older submarine landslides are known to have taken place along the shoreline and an improved understanding of the ground conditions is therefore valuable for engineering purposes. In addition, the unique, S-wave seismic record gives insight into the overall architecture and long-term development of a fjord-valley filling influenced by relative sea level fall accompanied by occasional major mass-wasting events. Shear-wave reflection seismics was applied using a land streamer of 120 channels combined with a newly developed shear-wave vibrator from LIAG. Overall, 4.2 profile-km were acquired in a 2.5-D grid along paved roads and parking lots during night to minimize environmental noise. The investigations achieved a highly resolved image of the fjord-valley fill and clear bedrock detection. Vertical resolution is within a few meters over the entire profile whereas horizontal resolution decreases with depth. The entire fjord-valley fill is up to 160 m thick and five main stratigraphic units have been identified including bedrock. The fjord-valley fill is interpreted as consisting of glaciomarine deposits overlain by marine fjord sediments grading upwards into deltaic deposits. The change from continuous to more discontinuous or irregular reflection patterns reflects a progressive influence of delta-derived processes and

  16. Natural vs human-induced changes at the Tauranga Harbour area (New Zealand): a time -series acoustic seabed classification comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capperucci, Ruggero Maria; Bartholomä, Alexander; Renken, Sabrina; De Lange, Willem

    2013-04-01

    The Tauranga Harbour Bay (New Zealand) is a mesotidal estuary system, enclosed by the Matakana barrier island. It hosts the leading export port in New Zealand and the second largest import port by value. Coastal changes are well documented over the last decades, mainly at the southern entrance of the area, between Matakana Island and Mt. Maunganui. It is an extremely dynamic environment, where natural processes are strongly influenced by human activities. In particular, the understanding of the recent evolution of the system is crucial for policymakers. In fact, the cumulative impact due to the maintenance of the port (mainly dredging activities, shipping, facilities construction, but also increasing tourism) and its already approved expansion clashes with the claim of the local Maori communities, which recently leaded to a court action. A hydroacoustic multiple-device survey (Side-scan Sonar SSS, Multibeam Echo-sounder MBES and Single Beam Echo-sounder) coupled with sediment sampling was carried out in March 2011 over an area of 0.8 km2, southern Matakana Island, along the Western Channel. The area is not directly impacted by dredging activities, resulting in an optimal testing site for assessing indirect effects of human disturbance on coastal dynamics. The main goals were: 1. To test the response of different acoustic systems in such a highly dynamic environment; 2. To study the influence of dredging activities on sediment dynamics and habitat changes, by means of comparing the current data with existing ones, in order to distinguish between natural and human induced changes Results demonstrate a good agreement between acoustic classifications from different systems. They seem to be mainly driven by the sediment distribution, with a distinctive fingerprint given by shells and shell fragments. Nevertheless, the presence of relevant topographic features (i.e. large bedform fields) influences swath-looking systems (SSS and MBES). SSS and MBES classifications tend

  17. Do microplastic loads reflect the population demographics along the southern African coastline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Holly Astrid; Hean, Jeffrey William; Noundou, Xavier Siwe; Froneman, Pierre William

    2017-02-15

    Plastic pollution is a major anthropogenic contaminant effecting the marine environment and is often associated with high human population densities and industrial activities. The microplastic (63 to 5000μm) burden of beach sediment and surf-zone water was investigated at selected sites along the entire length of the South African coastline. It was predicted that samples collected in areas of high population density, would contain a higher microplastic burden than those along coasts that demonstrate very low population densities. With the exception of water column microplastics within Richard's Bay Harbour (413.3±77.53particles·m(-3)) and Durban Harbour (1200±133.2particles·m(-3)), there were no significant spatial differences in microplastic loads. This supports the theory that harbours act as a source of microplastics for the surrounding marine environment. Additionally, the absence of any spatial variation highlights the possible long range distribution of microplastic pollutants by large scale ocean currents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An insight into the epidemiology of dolphin morbillivirus worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bressem, M; Waerebeek, K V; Jepson, P D; Raga, J A; Duignan, P J; Nielsen, O; Di Beneditto, A P; Siciliano, S; Ramos, R; Kant, W; Peddemors, V; Kinoshita, R; Ross, P S; López-Fernandez, A; Evans, K; Crespo, E; Barrett, T

    2001-08-20

    Serum samples from 288 cetaceans representing 25 species and originating from 11 different countries were collected between 1995 and 1999 and examined for the presence of dolphin morbillivirus (DMV)-specific antibodies by an indirect ELISA (iELISA) (N = 267) or a plaque reduction assay (N = 21). A total of 35 odontocetes were seropositive: three harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and a common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) from the Northeastern (NE) Atlantic, a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) from Kent (England), three striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), two Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus) and a bottlenose dolphin from the Mediterranean Sea, one common dolphin from the Southwest (SW) Indian Ocean, three Fraser's dolphins (Lagenodelphis hosei) from the SW Atlantic, 18 long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) and a bottlenose dolphin from the SW Pacific as well as a captive bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) originally from Taiwan. The presence of morbillivirus antibodies in 17 of these animals was further examined in other iELISAs and virus neutralization tests. Our results indicate that DMV infects cetaceans worldwide. This is the first report of DMV-seropositive animals from the SW Indian, SW Atlantic and West Pacific Oceans. Prevalence of DMV-seropositives was 85.7% in 21 pilot whales from the SW Pacific and both sexually mature and immature individuals were infected. This indicates that DMV is endemic in these animals. The same situation may occur among Fraser's dolphins from the SW Atlantic. The prevalence of DMV-seropositives was 5.26% and 5.36% in 19 common dolphins and 56 harbour porpoise from the NE Atlantic, respectively, and 18.75% in 16 striped dolphins from the Mediterranean. Prevalence varied significantly with sexual maturity in harbour porpoises and striped dolphins; all DMV-seropositives being mature animals. The prevalence of seropositive harbour porpoise and striped dolphins appeared to have decreased since previous

  19. What a jerk: prey engulfment revealed by high-rate, super-cranial accelerometry on a harbour seal (Phoca vitulina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Kristina S; Wisniewska, Danuta Maria; Hansen, Janni D

    2014-01-01

    to wear an OpenTag (sampling at 200 or 333 Hz with ±2 or ±16 g clipping) on its head while catching fish prey in front of four underwater digital high-speed video cameras. We show that both raptorial and suction feeding generate jerk (i.e. differential of acceleration) signatures with maximum peak values...... in particular shaped dives or when the animal remains in an area for an extended interval. However, fast movements of the head and jaws may provide reliable feeding cues that can be detected by small low-power accelerometers mounted on the head. To test this notion, a harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) was trained...

  20. Transoceanic dispersal of benthic macrofauna: Haliplanella luciae (Verrill, 1898) (Anthozoa, Actiniaria) found on a ship's hull in a shipyard dock in Hamburg Harbour, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollasch, S.; Riemann-Zürneck, K.

    1996-06-01

    In September 1993, 26 live specimens of the small, delicate sea anemone Haliplanella luciae (Verrill, 1898) were sampled from the hull of a ship docked in Hamburg Harbour. After a worldwide journey the ship had passed into the freshwater region of the river Elbe. Although the migratory potential of the species (supposed home region is Japan) is well known, its transport on ships' bottoms has never been documented. Behavioural traits enabling the anemone to settle on ships are discussed together with probable reasons why Haliplanella luciae did not establish itself in the fauna of the German Bight.