WorldWideScience

Sample records for harbor wide-ranging adaptive

  1. Neural network for adapting nuclear power plant control for wide-range operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, C.C.; Lee, K.Y.; Edwards, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    A new concept of using neural networks has been evaluated for optimal control of a nuclear reactor. The neural network uses the architecture of a standard backpropagation network; however, a new dynamic learning algorithm has been developed to capture the underlying system dynamics. The learning algorithm is based on parameter estimation for dynamic systems. The approach is demonstrated on an optimal reactor temperature controller by adjusting the feedback gains for wide-range operation. Application of optimal control to a reactor has been considered for improving temperature response using a robust fifth-order reactor power controller. Conventional gain scheduling can be employed to extend the range of good performance to accommodate large changes in power where nonlinear characteristics significantly modify the dynamics of the power plant. Gain scheduling is developed based on expected parameter variations, and it may be advantageous to further adapt feedback gains on-line to better match actual plant performance. A neural network approach is used here to adapt the gains to better accommodate plant uncertainties and thereby achieve improved robustness characteristics

  2. Wide-Range Adaptive RF-to-DC Power Converter for UHF RFIDs

    KAUST Repository

    Ouda, Mahmoud H.

    2016-07-27

    A wide-range, differential, cross-coupled rectifier is proposed with an extended dynamic range of input RF power that enables wireless powering from varying distances. The proposed architecture mitigates the reverse-leakage problem in conven- tional, cross-coupled rectifiers without degrading sensitivity. A prototype is designed for UHF RFID applications, and is imple- mented using 0.18 μ m CMOS technology. On-chip measurements demonstrate a sensitivity of − 18 dBm for 1 V output over a 100 k Ω load and a peak RF-to-DC power conversion efficiency of 65%. A conventional, fully cross-coupled rectifier is fabricated along- side for comparison and the proposed rectifier shows more than 2 × increase in dynamic range and a 25% boosting in output voltage than the conventional rectifier

  3. Wide range neutron flux monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Yorimasa; Fukushima, Toshiki.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a wide range neutron-flux monitor adapted such that the flux monitoring function and alarming function can automatically by shifted from pulse counting system to cambel method system. Constitution: A wide range neutron-flux monitor comprises (la) pulse counting system and (lb) cambel-method system for inputting detection signals from neutron detectors and separating them into signals for the pulse measuring system and the cambel measuring system, (2) overlap detection and calculation circuit for detecting the existence of the overlap of two output signals from the (la) and (lb) systems, and (3) trip circuit for judging the abnormal state of neutron detectors upon input of the detection signals. (Seki, T.)

  4. Characteristics of the gait adaptation process due to split-belt treadmill walking under a wide range of right-left speed ratios in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hikaru; Sato, Koji; Ogawa, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichiro; Nakazawa, Kimitaka; Kawashima, Noritaka

    2018-01-01

    The adaptability of human bipedal locomotion has been studied using split-belt treadmill walking. Most of previous studies utilized experimental protocol under remarkably different split ratios (e.g. 1:2, 1:3, or 1:4). While, there is limited research with regard to adaptive process under the small speed ratios. It is important to know the nature of adaptive process under ratio smaller than 1:2, because systematic evaluation of the gait adaptation under small to moderate split ratios would enable us to examine relative contribution of two forms of adaptation (reactive feedback and predictive feedforward control) on gait adaptation. We therefore examined a gait behavior due to on split-belt treadmill adaptation under five belt speed difference conditions (from 1:1.2 to 1:2). Gait parameters related to reactive control (stance time) showed quick adjustments immediately after imposing the split-belt walking in all five speed ratios. Meanwhile, parameters related to predictive control (step length and anterior force) showed a clear pattern of adaptation and subsequent aftereffects except for the 1:1.2 adaptation. Additionally, the 1:1.2 ratio was distinguished from other ratios by cluster analysis based on the relationship between the size of adaptation and the aftereffect. Our findings indicate that the reactive feedback control was involved in all the speed ratios tested and that the extent of reaction was proportionally dependent on the speed ratio of the split-belt. On the contrary, predictive feedforward control was necessary when the ratio of the split-belt was greater. These results enable us to consider how a given split-belt training condition would affect the relative contribution of the two strategies on gait adaptation, which must be considered when developing rehabilitation interventions for stroke patients.

  5. Wide range neutron detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todt, W.H. Sr.

    1978-01-01

    A neutron detection system for reactor control is described which is operable over a wide range of neutron flux levels. The system includes a fission type ionization chamber neutron detector, means for gamma and alpha signal compensation, and means for operating the neutron detector in the pulse counting mode for low neutron flux levels, and in the direct current mode for high neutron flux levels

  6. A new method suitable for calculating accurately wetting temperature over a wide range of conditions: Based on the adaptation of continuation algorithm to classical DFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiqi

    2017-11-01

    A new scheme is put forward to determine the wetting temperature (Tw) by utilizing the adaptation of arc-length continuation algorithm to classical density functional theory (DFT) used originally by Frink and Salinger, and its advantages are summarized into four points: (i) the new scheme is applicable whether the wetting occurs near a planar or a non-planar surface, whereas a zero contact angle method is considered only applicable to a perfectly flat solid surface, as demonstrated previously and in this work, and essentially not fit for non-planar surface. (ii) The new scheme is devoid of an uncertainty, which plagues a pre-wetting extrapolation method and originates from an unattainability of the infinitely thick film in the theoretical calculation. (iii) The new scheme can be similarly and easily applied to extreme instances characterized by lower temperatures and/or higher surface attraction force field, which, however, can not be dealt with by the pre-wetting extrapolation method because of the pre-wetting transition being mixed with many layering transitions and the difficulty in differentiating varieties of the surface phase transitions. (iv) The new scheme still works in instance wherein the wetting transition occurs close to the bulk critical temperature; however, this case completely can not be managed by the pre-wetting extrapolation method because near the bulk critical temperature the pre-wetting region is extremely narrow, and no enough pre-wetting data are available for use of the extrapolation procedure.

  7. Wide-range voltage modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, K.R.; Wilson, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider's Medium Energy Booster Abort (MEBA) kicker modulator will supply a current pulse to the abort magnets which deflect the proton beam from the MEB ring into a designated beam stop. The abort kicker will be used extensively during testing of the Low Energy Booster (LEB) and the MEB rings. When the Collider is in full operation, the MEBA kicker modulator will abort the MEB beam in the event of a malfunction during the filling process. The modulator must generate a 14-μs wide pulse with a rise time of less than 1 μs, including the delay and jitter times. It must also be able to deliver a current pulse to the magnet proportional to the beam energy at any time during ramp-up of the accelerator. Tracking the beam energy, which increases from 12 GeV at injection to 200 GeV at extraction, requires the modulator to operate over a wide range of voltages (4 kV to 80 kV). A vacuum spark gap and a thyratron have been chosen for test and evaluation as candidate switches for the abort modulator. Modulator design, switching time delay, jitter and pre-fire data are presented

  8. Calibration device for wide range monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodoku, Masaya; Sato, Toshifumi.

    1989-01-01

    The calibration device for a wide range monitor according to the present invention can continuously calibrate the entire counting regions of a wide range monitor. The wide range monitor detect the reactor power in the neutron source region by means of a pulse counting method and detects the reactor power in the intermediate region by means of a cambell method. A calibration signal outputting means is disposed for continuously outputting, as such calibration signals, pulse number varying signals in which the number of pulses per unit time varies depending on the reactor power in the neutron source region to be simulated and amplitude square means varying signal in which the mean square value of amplitude varies depending on the reactor power in the intermediate region to be simulated. By using both of the calibration signals, calibration can be conducted for the nuclear reactor power in the neutron source region and the intermediate region even if the calibration is made over two regions, further, calibration for the period present over the two region can be conducted easily as well. (I.S.)

  9. A micro-controller based wide range survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhingare, R.R.; Bajaj, K.C.; Kannan, S.

    2004-01-01

    Wide range survey meters (1μSv/h -10 Sv/h) with the detector(s) mounted at the end of a two-to-four meter-long extendable tube are widely used for radiation protection survey of difficult to reach locations and high dose rate areas, The commercially available survey meters of this type use two GM counters to cover a wide range of dose rate measurement. A new micro-controller based wide range survey meter using two Si diode detectors has been developed. The use of solid state detectors in the survey meter has a number of advantages like low power consumption, lighter battery powered detector probe, elimination of high voltage for the operation of the detectors, etc. The design uses infrared communication between the probe and the readout unit through a light-weight collapsible extension tube for high reliability. The design details and features are discussed in detail. (author)

  10. Non-uniform sampling and wide range angular spectrum method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong-Hae; Byun, Chun-Won; Oh, Himchan; Lee, JaeWon; Pi, Jae-Eun; Heon Kim, Gi; Lee, Myung-Lae; Ryu, Hojun; Chu, Hye-Yong; Hwang, Chi-Sun

    2014-01-01

    A novel method is proposed for simulating free space field propagation from a source plane to a destination plane that is applicable for both small and large propagation distances. The angular spectrum method (ASM) was widely used for simulating near field propagation, but it caused a numerical error when the propagation distance was large because of aliasing due to under sampling. Band limited ASM satisfied the Nyquist condition on sampling by limiting a bandwidth of a propagation field to avoid an aliasing error so that it could extend the applicable propagation distance of the ASM. However, the band limited ASM also made an error due to the decrease of an effective sampling number in a Fourier space when the propagation distance was large. In the proposed wide range ASM, we use a non-uniform sampling in a Fourier space to keep a constant effective sampling number even though the propagation distance is large. As a result, the wide range ASM can produce simulation results with high accuracy for both far and near field propagation. For non-paraxial wave propagation, we applied the wide range ASM to a shifted destination plane as well. (paper)

  11. Marine: a new wide range neutron monitoring system concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trama, J.C.; Lescop, B.; Lefevre, J.; Nguyen, T.; Sudres, C. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France). Dept. d' Electronique et d' Instrumentation Nucleaire; Pasdeloup, P. [Technicatome, 13 - Les Milles (France)

    2001-07-01

    In a Nuclear Power Plant, the developed power is proportional to the emitted neutron flux. The 10 to 11 decades measurement range from source to power generally needs 3 distinct neutron measurement chains to be monitored. A wide range neutron monitoring system may cover this range with only one sensor followed by adequate electronics. In the past this concept has been developed with an analogue technology which was presenting some drawbacks (slow log amplifier, components perenniality). In this paper, we introduce a completely new design, that makes use of a recent technology, including full linear input electronics, and advanced digital signal processing. As far as the sensor is concerned, both a well known commercial fission chamber, or an innovative wide range sensor presenting a high sensitivity may be used. The basic concept is that the single signal is continuously processed by three different electronic stages, each one being dedicated to approximately one third of the full range: pulse, Campbelling and current modes. After amplification, appropriate shaping, this signal is numerically filtered by a Kalman filter algorithm to compute the neutron flux as well as the reactor period. A specifically developed test module allows the surveillance of the sensor and the electronics via stimuli injections and characteristic curves plotting. A computerised simulation of the whole chain is used to validate the signal processing algorithms evolutions. In the paper we will specifically develop the metrological performances of this chain and the general agreement that exists between simulated and measured values. (authors)

  12. Cobalt catalyzed hydroesterification of a wide range of olefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Rensburg, H.; Hanton, M.; Tooze, R.P.; Foster, D.F. [Sasol Technology UK, St Andrews (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    Petrochemical raw materials are an essential raw material for the production of detergents with a substantial portion of synthetic fatty alcohols being produced via hydroformylation of oil or coal derived olefins. Carbonylation processes other than hydroformylation have to date not been commercially employed for the production of fatty esters or alcohols. In this document we highlight the opportunities of converting olefins to esters using cobalt catalyzed alkoxycarbonylation. This process is highly versatile and applicable to a wide range of olefins, linear or branched, alpha or internal in combination with virtually any chain length primary or secondary alcohol allowing the synthesis of a diverse array of compounds such as ester ethoxylated surfactants, methyl branched detergents, lubricants and alkyl propanoates. Furthermore, alkoxycarbonylation of a broad olefin/paraffin hydrocarbon range could be used to produce the corresponding broad cut detergent alcohols. (orig.)

  13. Wide Range Portable Radiation Survey Meter for Emergency Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangadharan, P.; Bhave, D. G.; Gokarn, R. S.; Khadake, R. G. [Directorate Of Radiation Protection, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Bombay (India)

    1969-05-15

    The paper describes a portable battery-operated radiation survey meter for monitoring a wide range of X- and gamma-ray exposure rates from 1 mR/h to 100 R/h. The instrument Incorporates a halogen GM tube as the detector and a count-rate meter for indication. A transistorized d.c. -d.c. converter supplies the necessary high voltage to the GM counter. The instrument response has been made energy independent in the energy range 80 keV to 1.25 MeV. Further, the response is linear over the entire range of exposure rates. Suitable extension rods have been designed to provide sufficient separation between the probe and the meter in cases where remote monitoring is necessary because of high fields. (author)

  14. Wide-Range Probing of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Duck-Ho; Yoo, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Dae-Yun; Min, Byoung-Chul; Choe, Sug-Bong

    2017-03-01

    The Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) in magnetic objects is of enormous interest, because it generates built-in chirality of magnetic domain walls (DWs) and topologically protected skyrmions, leading to efficient motion driven by spin-orbit torques. Because of its importance for both potential applications and fundamental research, many experimental efforts have been devoted to DMI investigation. However, current experimental probing techniques cover only limited ranges of the DMI strength and have specific sample requirements. Thus, there are no versatile methods to quantify DMI over a wide range of values. Here, we present such an experimental scheme, which is based on the angular dependence of asymmetric DW motion. This method can be used to determine values of DMI much larger than the maximum strength of the external magnetic field strength, which demonstrates that various DMI strengths can be quantified with a single measurement setup. This scheme may thus prove essential to DMI-related emerging fields in nanotechnology.

  15. High voltage wide range marx generator design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    A wide range, long pulse, Marx generator has been designed and constructed for the purpose of exciting a thermionic electron gun utilized for quasi-cw gas laser medium ionization. The Marx generator has been specifically designed to operate over a voltage range variable from 100 kV to 200 kV into a resistive load of between 83 kΩ and open circuit. This wide operating range, both in voltage and load impedance, was obtained using interstage coupling capacitors to assure overvoltage and subsequent breakdown of the three element spark gap switches used. This paper will discuss the motivation and specific application for the Marx generator and will present the relevant design procedure with particular emphasis on the interstage coupling and triggering techniques employed. Experimental data regarding the measured Marx generator performance will also be presented

  16. Development of a wide-range tritium-concentration detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, F.; Zhe, L.; Shicheng, L.; Jiangfeng, S.; Deli, L. [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China)

    2015-03-15

    According to the requirements of the tritium related systems of the TBM (Test Blanket Module) for monitoring the on-line tritium concentration, a wide-range tritium-concentration detector has been developed to measure the tritium concentration in the range of 10{sup 4} Bq/ml - 5*10{sup 8} Bq/ml. This detector is combined with a low-memory helium ionization chamber. The weak current signal collected in the ionization chamber is converted to the voltage signal by an I-V converter. The minimum weak current which the detector could be measured is 10{sup -14} A. The performance of the background current and the current response linearity of the prototype have been tested. The test result indicates that the linear response of the current signal of the prototype without connecting the ionization chamber is good. The linear correlation coefficient is R{sup 2} = 0.998.

  17. Development of a wide-range tritium-concentration detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, F.; Zhe, L.; Shicheng, L.; Jiangfeng, S.; Deli, L.

    2015-01-01

    According to the requirements of the tritium related systems of the TBM (Test Blanket Module) for monitoring the on-line tritium concentration, a wide-range tritium-concentration detector has been developed to measure the tritium concentration in the range of 10 4 Bq/ml - 5*10 8 Bq/ml. This detector is combined with a low-memory helium ionization chamber. The weak current signal collected in the ionization chamber is converted to the voltage signal by an I-V converter. The minimum weak current which the detector could be measured is 10 -14 A. The performance of the background current and the current response linearity of the prototype have been tested. The test result indicates that the linear response of the current signal of the prototype without connecting the ionization chamber is good. The linear correlation coefficient is R 2 = 0.998

  18. Effective inactivation of a wide range of viruses by pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröner, Albrecht; Broumis, Connie; Fang, Randel; Nowak, Thomas; Popp, Birgit; Schäfer, Wolfram; Roth, Nathan J

    2018-01-01

    Careful selection and testing of plasma reduces the risk of blood-borne viruses in the starting material for plasma-derived products. Furthermore, effective measures such as pasteurization at 60°C for 10 hours have been implemented in the manufacturing process of therapeutic plasma proteins such as human albumin, coagulation factors, immunoglobulins, and enzyme inhibitors to inactivate blood-borne viruses of concern. A comprehensive compilation of the virus reduction capacity of pasteurization is presented including the effect of stabilizers used to protect the therapeutic protein from modifications during heat treatment. The virus inactivation kinetics of pasteurization for a broad range of viruses were evaluated in the relevant intermediates from more than 15 different plasma manufacturing processes. Studies were carried out under the routine manufacturing target variables, such as temperature and product-specific stabilizer composition. Additional studies were also performed under robustness conditions, that is, outside production specifications. The data demonstrate that pasteurization inactivates a wide range of enveloped and nonenveloped viruses of diverse physicochemical characteristics. After a maximum of 6 hours' incubation, no residual infectivity could be detected for the majority of enveloped viruses. Effective inactivation of a range of nonenveloped viruses, with the exception of nonhuman parvoviruses, was documented. Pasteurization is a very robust and reliable virus inactivation method with a broad effectiveness against known blood-borne pathogens and emerging or potentially emerging viruses. Pasteurization has proven itself to be a highly effective step, in combination with other complementary safety measures, toward assuring the virus safety of final product. © 2017 The Authors Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.

  19. The French 35-hour workweek: a wide-ranging social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunier-Poulmaire, S; Gadbois, C

    2001-12-01

    The reduction of the legal working week to 35 hours in France has generated wide-ranging social change. We examine the resulting changes in working-time patterns as well as their repercussions on the use of the time gained and on the quality of life and health. To compensate the reduction in the length of the working week, companies have modified the working-time patterns, by extending operation time (shiftwork, atypical schedules) and by matching the on-site workforce to production requirements (flexible working hours). They have sought to make more efficient use of working time: job intensification or job compression. The effects on the off-the-job life and health are linked to the shiftwork and atypical schedules designed to increase the company's operating time, and adjustments to the company's need for flexibilization impose working time/free time patterns that are at odds with biological rhythms and social life patterns. Changes to working-time patterns have unexpected consequences for work organization: heightened difficulties for the individual and the crew. These changes may generate a range of health problems related to overwork and stress. The way some companies have adapted may call into question the usefulness of work done by employees, thus damaging their social identity and mental well-being.

  20. GaN-based High Power High Frequency Wide Range LLC Resonant Converter, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SET Group will design, build and demonstrate a Gallium Nitride (GaN) based High Power High Frequency Wide Range LLC Resonant Converter capable of handling high power...

  1. Wide-Range Highly-Efficient Wireless Power Receivers for Implantable Biomedical Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Ouda, Mahmoud

    2016-11-01

    Wireless power transfer (WPT) is the key enabler for a myriad of applications, from low-power RFIDs, and wireless sensors, to wirelessly charged electric vehicles, and even massive power transmission from space solar cells. One of the major challenges in designing implantable biomedical devices is the size and lifetime of the battery. Thus, replacing the battery with a miniaturized wireless power receiver (WPRx) facilitates designing sustainable biomedical implants in smaller volumes for sentient medical applications. In the first part of this dissertation, we propose a miniaturized, fully integrated, wirelessly powered implantable sensor with on-chip antenna, designed and implemented in a standard 0.18μm CMOS process. As a batteryless device, it can be implanted once inside the body with no need for further invasive surgeries to replace batteries. The proposed single-chip solution is designed for intraocular pressure monitoring (IOPM), and can serve as a sustainable platform for implantable devices or IoT nodes. A custom setup is developed to test the chip in a saline solution with electrical properties similar to those of the aqueous humor of the eye. The proposed chip, in this eye-like setup, is wirelessly charged to 1V from a 5W transmitter 3cm away from the chip. In the second part, we propose a self-biased, differential rectifier with enhanced efficiency over an extended range of input power. A prototype is designed for the medical implant communication service (MICS) band at 433MHz. It demonstrates an efficiency improvement of more than 40% in the rectifier power conversion efficiency (PCE) and a dynamic range extension of more than 50% relative to the conventional cross-coupled rectifier. A sensitivity of -15.2dBm input power for 1V output voltage and a peak PCE of 65% are achieved for a 50k load. In the third part, we propose a wide-range, differential RF-to-DC power converter using an adaptive, self-biasing technique. The proposed architecture doubles

  2. Predicting sorption of organic acids to a wide range of carbonized sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, Gabriel; Kah, Melanie; Sun, Huichao; Hofmann, Thilo

    2016-04-01

    Many contaminants and infochemicals are organic acids that undergo dissociation under environmental conditions. The sorption of dissociated anions to biochar and other carbonized sorbents is typically lower than that of neutral species. It is driven by complex processes that are not yet fully understood. It is known that predictive approaches developed for neutral compounds are unlikely to be suitable for organic acids, due to the effects of dissociation on sorption. Previous studies on the sorption of organic acids to soils have demonstrated that log Dow, which describes the decrease in hydrophobicity of acids upon dissociation, is a useful alternative to log Kow. The aim of the present study was to adapt a log Dow based approach to describe the sorption of organic acids to carbonized sorbents. Batch experiments were performed with a series of 9 sorbents (i.e., carbonized wood shavings, pig manure, and sewage sludge, carbon nanotubes and activated carbon), and four acids commonly used for pesticidal and biocidal purposes (i.e., 2,4-D, MCPA, 2,4-DB, and triclosan). Sorbents were comprehensively characterized, including by N2 and CO2 physisorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The wide range of sorbents considered allows (i) discussing the mechanisms driving the sorption of neutral and anionic species to biochar, and (ii) their dependency on sorbate and sorbent properties. Results showed that the sorption of the four acids was influenced by factors that are usually not considered for neutral compounds (i.e., pH, ionic strength). Dissociation affected the sorption of the four compounds, and sorption of the anions ranged over five orders of magnitude, thus substantially contributing to sorption in some cases. For prediction purposes, most of the variation in sorption to carbonized sorbents (89%) could be well described with a two-parameter regression equation including log Dow and sorbent specific surface area. The proposed model

  3. An abundance of small exoplanets around stars with a wide range of metallicities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchhave, Lars A.; Latham, David W.; Johansen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    of the host stars of 226 small exoplanet candidates discovered by NASAs Kepler mission, including objects that are comparable in size to the terrestrial planets in the Solar System. We find that planets with radii less than four Earth radii form around host stars with a wide range of metallicities (but...

  4. X-γ dose rate continuous monitor with wide range based on single-chip microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Debo; Ling Qiu; Guo Lanying; Yang Binhua

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a concept about circuit designing of X-γ dose rate continuous monitor with wide range based on single-chip microcomputer, and also presents the design procedure of hardware and software, and gives several methods for solving the design procedure of hardware and software with emphasis. (authors)

  5. Interactions between vegetation, atmospheric turbulence and clouds under a wide range of background wind conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikma, M.; Ouwersloot, H.G.; Pedruzo-Bagazgoitia, X.; Heerwaarden, van C.C.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of plant responses to cumulus (Cu) cloud shading are studied from free convective to shear-driven boundary-layer conditions. By using a large-eddy simulation (LES) coupled to a plant physiology embedded land-surface submodel, we study the vegetation-cloud feedbacks for a wide range (44)

  6. Wearable Wide-Range Strain Sensors Based on Ionic Liquids and Monitoring of Human Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Hui Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Wearable sensors for detection of human activities have encouraged the development of highly elastic sensors. In particular, to capture subtle and large-scale body motion, stretchable and wide-range strain sensors are highly desired, but still a challenge. Herein, a highly stretchable and transparent stain sensor based on ionic liquids and elastic polymer has been developed. The as-obtained sensor exhibits impressive stretchability with wide-range strain (from 0.1% to 400%, good bending properties and high sensitivity, whose gauge factor can reach 7.9. Importantly, the sensors show excellent biological compatibility and succeed in monitoring the diverse human activities ranging from the complex large-scale multidimensional motions to subtle signals, including wrist, finger and elbow joint bending, finger touch, breath, speech, swallow behavior and pulse wave.

  7. Novel methodology for wide-ranged multistage morphing waverider based on conical theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Liu, Jun; Ding, Feng; Xia, Zhixun

    2017-11-01

    This study proposes the wide-ranged multistage morphing waverider design method. The flow field structure and aerodynamic characteristics of multistage waveriders are also analyzed. In this method, the multistage waverider is generated in the same conical flowfield, which contains a free-stream surface and different compression-stream surfaces. The obtained results show that the introduction of the multistage waverider design method can solve the problem of aerodynamic performance deterioration in the off-design state and allow the vehicle to always maintain the optimal flight state. The multistage waverider design method, combined with transfiguration flight strategy, can lead to greater design flexibility and the optimization of hypersonic wide-ranged waverider vehicles.

  8. A wide range gamma monitor with digital display for remote monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risbud, V.H.; Thiagarajan, A.; Gangadharan, P.

    1976-01-01

    A wide range gamma monitor designed for remote monitoring in nuclear facilities is described. The instrument consists of two GM detectors and pre-amplifiers connected by a long coaxial cable to the power supply, scalers and timers and display devices. Automatic selection of detectors range of exposure rate and display (nixie) are achieved with this set up, radiation levels in active areas can easily be displayed in the control room. Other advantages are also pointed out. (A.K.)

  9. Development of GM tube electronic personal dosimeter with wide range and multi-purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing; Weng Puyu; Chen Mingjun; Hu Zunsu; Huang Chenguang; Lei Jindian

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the main design features and basic properties of a GM tube electronic personal dosimeter with wide range and multi-purposes. the dosimeter can display dose-rate or accumulative dose or the maximum dose-rate, record accumulative dose and the maximum dose-rate as well as the time of its appearance and at most 160 historical dose values within 8 h. All recorded data can directly be sent to PC by the infrared communication

  10. [Pearl Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of "Loblolly Magazine" was written in observance of the 50th anniversary of the U.S. entrance into World War II. The publication features interviews conducted by East Texas high school students with Clarence Otterman, one of the few survivors of the crew of the USS Arizona, which was bombed during the attack on Pearl Harbor,…

  11. Resource selection and its implications for wide-ranging mammals of the brazilian cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vynne, Carly; Keim, Jonah L; Machado, Ricardo B; Marinho-Filho, Jader; Silveira, Leandro; Groom, Martha J; Wasser, Samuel K

    2011-01-01

    Conserving animals beyond protected areas is critical because even the largest reserves may be too small to maintain viable populations for many wide-ranging species. Identification of landscape features that will promote persistence of a diverse array of species is a high priority, particularly, for protected areas that reside in regions of otherwise extensive habitat loss. This is the case for Emas National Park, a small but important protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado, the world's most biologically diverse savanna. Emas Park is a large-mammal global conservation priority area but is too small to protect wide-ranging mammals for the long-term and conserving these populations will depend on the landscape surrounding the park. We employed novel, noninvasive methods to determine the relative importance of resources found within the park, as well as identify landscape features that promote persistence of wide-ranging mammals outside reserve borders. We used scat detection dogs to survey for five large mammals of conservation concern: giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus), giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), jaguar (Panthera onca), and puma (Puma concolor). We estimated resource selection probability functions for each species from 1,572 scat locations and 434 giant armadillo burrow locations. Results indicate that giant armadillos and jaguars are highly selective of natural habitats, which makes both species sensitive to landscape change from agricultural development. Due to the high amount of such development outside of the Emas Park boundary, the park provides rare resource conditions that are particularly important for these two species. We also reveal that both woodland and forest vegetation remnants enable use of the agricultural landscape as a whole for maned wolves, pumas, and giant anteaters. We identify those features and their landscape compositions that should be prioritized for conservation, arguing

  12. Resource selection and its implications for wide-ranging mammals of the brazilian cerrado.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly Vynne

    Full Text Available Conserving animals beyond protected areas is critical because even the largest reserves may be too small to maintain viable populations for many wide-ranging species. Identification of landscape features that will promote persistence of a diverse array of species is a high priority, particularly, for protected areas that reside in regions of otherwise extensive habitat loss. This is the case for Emas National Park, a small but important protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado, the world's most biologically diverse savanna. Emas Park is a large-mammal global conservation priority area but is too small to protect wide-ranging mammals for the long-term and conserving these populations will depend on the landscape surrounding the park. We employed novel, noninvasive methods to determine the relative importance of resources found within the park, as well as identify landscape features that promote persistence of wide-ranging mammals outside reserve borders. We used scat detection dogs to survey for five large mammals of conservation concern: giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus, giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus, jaguar (Panthera onca, and puma (Puma concolor. We estimated resource selection probability functions for each species from 1,572 scat locations and 434 giant armadillo burrow locations. Results indicate that giant armadillos and jaguars are highly selective of natural habitats, which makes both species sensitive to landscape change from agricultural development. Due to the high amount of such development outside of the Emas Park boundary, the park provides rare resource conditions that are particularly important for these two species. We also reveal that both woodland and forest vegetation remnants enable use of the agricultural landscape as a whole for maned wolves, pumas, and giant anteaters. We identify those features and their landscape compositions that should be prioritized for

  13. Modelling plastic deformation of metals over a wide range of strain rates using irreversible thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Mingxin; Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, Pedro E J; Zwaag, Sybrand van der; Bouaziz, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Based on the theory of irreversible thermodynamics, the present work proposes a dislocation-based model to describe the plastic deformation of FCC metals over wide ranges of strain rates. The stress-strain behaviour and the evolution of the average dislocation density are derived. It is found that there is a transitional strain rate (∼ 10 4 s -1 ) over which the phonon drag effects appear, resulting in a significant increase in the flow stress and the average dislocation density. The model is applied to pure Cu deformed at room temperature and at strain rates ranging from 10 -5 to 10 6 s -1 showing good agreement with experimental results.

  14. Impedance Based Analysis and Design of Harmonic Resonant Controller for a Wide Range of Grid Impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of grid impedance variation on harmonic resonant current controllers for gridconnected voltage source converters by means of impedance-based analysis. It reveals that the negative harmonic resistances tend to be derived from harmonic resonant controllers...... in the closed-loop output admittance of converter. Such negative resistances may interact with the grid impedance resulting in steady state error or unstable harmonic compensation. To deal with this problem, a design guideline for harmonic resonant controllers under a wide range of grid impedance is proposed...

  15. A liquid crystalline medium for measuring residual dipolar couplings over a wide range of temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Hong; Eberstadt, Matthias; Olejniczak, Edward T.; Meadows, Robert P.; Fesik, Stephen W. [Abbott Laboratories (United States)

    1998-10-15

    A mixture of dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine (DLPC) and 3-(cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio-2-hydroxyl-1-propane sulfonate (CHAPSO) in water forms disc shaped bicelles that become ordered at high magnetic fields over a wide range of temperatures. As illustrated for the FK506 binding protein (FKBP), large residual dipolar couplings can be measured for proteins dissolved in low concentrations (5% w/v) of a DLPC/CHAPSO medium at a molar ratio of 4.2:1. This system is especially useful for measuring residual dipolar couplings for molecules that are only stable at low temperatures.

  16. Lithium-ion battery dynamic model for wide range of operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Ana-Irina; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2017-01-01

    In order to analyze the dynamic behavior of a Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery and to determine their suitability for various applications, battery models are needed. An equivalent electrical circuit model is the most common way of representing the behavior of a Li-ion battery. There are different...... characterization tests performed for a wide range of operating conditions (temperature, load current and state-of-charge) on a commercial available 13Ah high-power lithium titanate oxide battery cell. The obtained results were used to parametrize the proposed dynamic model of the battery cell. To assess...

  17. A digitized wide range channel for new instrumentation and control system of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zareen Khan Abdul Jalil Khan; Izhar Abu Hussin; Mohd Idris Taib; Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha; Roslan Md Dan

    2010-01-01

    Wide Range Channel is one of very important part of Reactor Instrumentation and Control system. Current system is using all analog system. The main functions of the new system are to provide Wide-log power and Multi-range linear power. The other functions are to provide Percent power and Power rate of change. The linear power level range is up to 125 % and the log power system to cover from below source level to 150 %. The main function of digital signal processor is for pulse shaping, pulse counting and root mean square signal processing. The system employs automatic on-line self diagnostics and calibration verification. (author)

  18. Model Study of Wave Overtopping of Marine Structure for a Wide Range of Geometric Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the study described in this paper is to enable estimation of wave overtopping rates for slopes/ramps given by a wide range of geometric parameters when subjected to varying wave conditions. To achieve this a great number of model tests are carried out in a wave tank using irregul...... 2-D waves. On the basis of the first part of these tests an exponential overtopping expression for a linear slope, including the effect of limited draught and varying slope angle, is presented. The plans for further tests with other slope geometries are described....

  19. Wide-range nuclear reactor temperature control using automatically tuned fuzzy logic controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramaswamy, P.; Edwards, R.M.; Lee, K.Y.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, a fuzzy logic controller design for optimal reactor temperature control is presented. Since fuzzy logic controllers rely on an expert's knowledge of the process, they are hard to optimize. An optimal controller is used in this paper as a reference model, and a Kalman filter is used to automatically determine the rules for the fuzzy logic controller. To demonstrate the robustness of this design, a nonlinear six-delayed-neutron-group plant is controlled using a fuzzy logic controller that utilizes estimated reactor temperatures from a one-delayed-neutron-group observer. The fuzzy logic controller displayed good stability and performance robustness characteristics for a wide range of operation

  20. Wide-range stiffness gradient PVA/HA hydrogel to investigate stem cell differentiation behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Se Heang; An, Dan Bi; Kim, Tae Ho; Lee, Jin Ho

    2016-04-15

    Although stiffness-controllable substrates have been developed to investigate the effect of stiffness on cell behavior and function, the use of separate substrates with different degrees of stiffness, substrates with a narrow range stiffness gradient, toxicity of residues, different surface composition, complex fabrication procedures/devices, and low cell adhesion are still considered as hurdles of conventional techniques. In this study, a cylindrical polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel with a wide-range stiffness gradient (between ∼20kPa and ∼200kPa) and cell adhesiveness was prepared by a liquid nitrogen (LN2)-contacting gradual freezing-thawing method that does not use any additives or specific devices to produce the stiffness gradient hydrogel. From an in vitro cell culture using the stiffness gradient PVA/HA hydrogel, it was observed that human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells have favorable stiffness ranges for induction of differentiation into specific cell types (∼20kPa for nerve cell, ∼40kPa for muscle cell, ∼80kPa for chondrocyte, and ∼190kPa for osteoblast). The PVA/HA hydrogel with a wide range of stiffness spectrum can be a useful tool for basic studies related with the stem cell differentiation, cell reprogramming, cell migration, and tissue regeneration in terms of substrate stiffness. It is postulated that the stiffness of the extracellular matrix influences cell behavior. To prove this concept, various techniques to prepare substrates with a stiffness gradient have been developed. However, the narrow ranges of stiffness gradient and complex fabrication procedures/devices are still remained as limitations. Herein, we develop a substrate (hydrogel) with a wide-range stiffness gradient using a gradual freezing-thawing method which does not need specific devices to produce a stiffness gradient hydrogel. From cell culture experiments using the hydrogel, it is observed that human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells have

  1. Wide Range Vacuum Pumps for the SAM Instrument on the MSL Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Paul; Kline-Schoder, Robert; Farley, Rodger

    2014-01-01

    Creare Incorporated and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center developed and space qualified two wide range pumps (WRPs) that were included in the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument. This instrument was subsequently integrated into the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) "Curiosity Rover," launched aboard an Atlas V rocket in 2011, and landed on August 6, 2012, in the Gale Crater on Mars. The pumps have now operated for more than 18 months in the Gale Crater and have been evacuating the key components of the SAM instrument: a quadrupole mass spectrometer, a tunable laser spectrometer, and six gas chromatograph columns. In this paper, we describe the main design challenges and the ways in which they were solved. This includes the custom design of a miniaturized, high-speed motor to drive the turbo drag pump rotor, analysis of rotor dynamics for super critical operation, and bearing/lubricant design/selection.

  2. Robust wide-range control of nuclear reactors by using the feedforward-feedback concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, C.K.; Edwards, R.M.; Ray, A.

    1994-01-01

    A robust feedforward-feedback controller is proposed for wide-range operations of nuclear reactors. This control structure provides (a) optimized performance over a wide operating range resulting form the feedforward element and (b) guaranteed robust stability and performance resulting from the feedback element. The feedforward control law is synthesized via nonlinear programming, which generates an optimal control sequence over a finite-time horizon under specified constraints. The feedback control is synthesized via the structured singular value μ approach to guarantee robustness in the presence of disturbances and modeling uncertainties. The results of simulation experiments are presented to demonstrate efficacy of the proposed control structure for a large rapid power reduction to avoid unnecessary plant trips

  3. Subdigital setae of chameleon feet: friction-enhancing microstructures for a wide range of substrate roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinner, Marlene; Westhoff, Guido; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-06-27

    Hairy adhesive systems of microscopic setae with triangular flattened tips have evolved convergently in spiders, insects and arboreal lizards. The ventral sides of the feet and tails in chameleons are also covered with setae. However, chameleon setae feature strongly elongated narrow spatulae or fibrous tips. The friction enhancing function of these microstructures has so far only been demonstrated in contact with glass spheres. In the present study, the frictional properties of subdigital setae of Chamaeleo calyptratus were measured under normal forces in the physical range on plane substrates having different roughness. We showed that chameleon setae maximize friction on a wide range of substrate roughness. The highest friction was measured on asperities of 1 μm. However, our observations of the climbing ability of Ch. calyptratus on rods of different diameters revealed that also claws and grasping feet are additionally responsible for the force generation on various substrates during locomotion.

  4. Stability diagrams for continuous wide-range control of two mutually delay-coupled semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junges, Leandro; Gallas, Jason A C

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of two mutually delay-coupled semiconductor lasers has been frequently studied experimentally, numerically, and analytically either for weak or strong detuning between the lasers. Here, we present a systematic numerical investigation spanning all detuning ranges. We report high-resolution stability diagrams for wide ranges of the main control parameters of the laser, as described by the Lang–Kobayashi model. In particular, we detail the parameter influence on dynamical performance and map the distribution of chaotic pulsations and self-generated periodic spiking with arbitrary periodicity. Special attention is given to the unfolding of regular pulse packages for both symmetric and non-symmetric configurations with respect to detuning. The influence of the delay –time on the self-organization of periodic and chaotic laser phases as a function of the coupling and detuning is also described in detail. (paper)

  5. Generalized weighted ratio method for accurate turbidity measurement over a wide range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongbo; Yang, Ping; Song, Hong; Guo, Yilu; Zhan, Shuyue; Huang, Hui; Wang, Hangzhou; Tao, Bangyi; Mu, Quanquan; Xu, Jing; Li, Dejun; Chen, Ying

    2015-12-14

    Turbidity measurement is important for water quality assessment, food safety, medicine, ocean monitoring, etc. In this paper, a method that accurately estimates the turbidity over a wide range is proposed, where the turbidity of the sample is represented as a weighted ratio of the scattered light intensities at a series of angles. An improvement in the accuracy is achieved by expanding the structure of the ratio function, thus adding more flexibility to the turbidity-intensity fitting. Experiments have been carried out with an 850 nm laser and a power meter fixed on a turntable to measure the light intensity at different angles. The results show that the relative estimation error of the proposed method is 0.58% on average for a four-angle intensity combination for all test samples with a turbidity ranging from 160 NTU to 4000 NTU.

  6. Autonomous Vehicles Have a Wide Range of Possible Energy Impacts (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, A.; Repac, B.; Gonder, J.

    2013-07-01

    This poster presents initial estimates of the net energy impacts of automated vehicles (AVs). Automated vehicle technologies are increasingly recognized as having potential to decrease carbon dioxide emissions and petroleum consumption through mechanisms such as improved efficiency, better routing, lower traffic congestion, and by enabling advanced technologies. However, some effects of AVs could conceivably increase fuel consumption through possible effects such as longer distances traveled, increased use of transportation by underserved groups, and increased travel speeds. The net effect on petroleum use and climate change is still uncertain. To make an aggregate system estimate, we first collect best estimates for the energy impacts of approximately ten effects of AVs. We then use a modified Kaya Identity approach to estimate the range of aggregate effects and avoid double counting. We find that depending on numerous factors, there is a wide range of potential energy impacts. Adoption of automated personal or shared vehicles can lead to significant fuel savings but has potential for backfire.

  7. Raman spectroscopic characterization of CH4 density over a wide range of temperature and pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Linbo; Chou, I-Ming; Burruss, Robert; Hu, Ruizhong; Bi, Xianwu

    2014-01-01

    The positions of the CH4 Raman ν1 symmetric stretching bands were measured in a wide range of temperature (from −180 °C to 350 °C) and density (up to 0.45 g/cm3) using high-pressure optical cell and fused silica capillary capsule. The results show that the Raman band shift is a function of both methane density and temperature; the band shifts to lower wavenumbers as the density increases and the temperature decreases. An equation representing the observed relationship among the CH4 ν1 band position, temperature, and density can be used to calculate the density in natural or synthetic CH4-bearing inclusions.

  8. A computer code simulating multistage chemical exchange column under wide range of operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Okuno, Kenji

    1996-09-01

    A computer code has been developed to simulate a multistage CECE(Combined Electrolysis Chemical Exchange) column. The solution of basic equations can be found out by the Newton-Raphson method. The independent variables are the atom fractions of D and T in each stage for the case where H is dominant within the column. These variables are replaced by those of H and T under the condition that D is dominant. Some effective techniques have also been developed to get a set of solutions of the basic equations: a setting procedure of initial values of the independent variables; and a procedure for the convergence of the Newton-Raphson method. The computer code allows us to simulate the column behavior under a wide range of the operating conditions. Even for a severe case, where the dominant species changes along the column height, the code can give a set of solutions of the basic equations. (author)

  9. Development of a wide range vortex shedding flowmeter for high temperature helium gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, S.P.; Ennis, R.M. Jr.; Herndon, P.G.

    1981-07-01

    A flowmeter was required to measure recirculating helium gas flow over a wide range of conditions in a gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) core flow simulator, the ORNL Core Flow Test Loop (CFTL). The flow measurement requirements of the CFTL exceeded the proven performance of any single conventional flowmeter. Therefore, a special purpose vortex shedding flowmeter (VSFM) was developed. A single flowmeter capable of meeting all the CFTL requirements would provide significant economic and performance advantages in the operation of the loop. The development, conceptual design, and final design of a modified VSFM are described. The results of extensive flow calibration of the flowmeter at the Colorado Engineering Experiment Station (CEES) are presented. The report closes with recommendations for application of the VSFM to the CFTL and for future development work.

  10. Solar tri-diurnal variation of cosmic rays in a wide range of rigidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, S.; Ueno, H.; Fujii, Z.; Morishita, I.; Nagashima, K.

    1985-01-01

    Solar tri-diurnal variations of cosmic rays have been analyzed in a wide range of rigidity, using data from neutron monitors, and the surface and underground muon telescopes for the period 1978-1983. The rigidity spectrum of the anisotropy in space is assumed to be of power-exponential type as (P/gamma P sub o) to the gamma exp (gamma-P/P sub o). By means of the best-fit method between the observed and the expected variations, it is obtained that the spectrum has a peak at P (=gamma P sub o) approx = 90 GV, where gamma=approx 3.0 and P sub o approx. 30 GV. The phase in space of the tri-diurnal variation is also obtained as 7.0 hr (15 hr and 23 hr LT), which is quite different from that of approx. 1 hr. arising from the axisymmetric distribution of cosmic rays with respect to the IMF.

  11. A wide range and highly sensitive optical fiber pH sensor using polyacrylamide hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Akhilesh Kumar; Singh, Vinod Kumar

    2017-12-01

    In the present study we report the fabrication and characterization of no-core fiber sensor (NCFS) using smart hydrogel coating for pH measurement. The no-core fiber (NCF) is stubbed between two single-mode fibers with SMA connector before immobilizing of smart hydrogel. The wavelength interrogation technique is used to calculate the sensitivity of the proposed sensor. The result shows a high sensitivity of 1.94 nm/pH for a wide range of pH values varied from 3 to 10 with a good linear response. In addition to high sensitivity, the fabricated sensor provides a fast response time with a good stability, repeatability and reproducibility.

  12. Lipophilic polyelectrolyte gel derived from phosphonium borate can absorb a wide range of organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunaga, Sokuro; Kokado, Kenta; Sada, Kazuki

    2018-01-24

    Herein, we demonstrate a polyelectrolyte gel which can absorb a wide range of organic solvents from dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, permittivity: ε = 47.0) to tetrahydrofuran (ε = 5.6). The gel consists of polystyrene chains with small amounts (∼5 mol%) of lipophilic electrolytes derived from triphenylphosphonium tetraaryl borate. The swelling ability of the polyelectrolyte gel was higher than that of the alkyl ammonium tetraaryl borate previously reported by us, and this is attributed to the higher compatibility with organic solvents, as well as the higher dissociating ability, of the triphenyl phosphonium salt. The role of the ionic moieties was additionally confirmed by post modification of the polyelectrolyte gel via a conventional Wittig reaction, resulting in a nonionic gel. Our findings introduced here will lead to a clear-cut molecular design for polyelectrolyte gels which absorb all solvents.

  13. An emittance measurement system for a wide range of bunch charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunham, B.; Engwall, D.; Hofler, A.; Keesee, M.; Legg, R.

    1997-01-01

    As a part of the emittance measurements planned for the FEL injector at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab), the authors have developed an emittance measurement system that covers the wide dynamic range of bunch charges necessary to fully characterize the high-DC-voltage photocathode gun. The measurements are carried out with a variant of the classical two-slit method using a slit to sample the beam in conjunction with a wire scanner to measure the transmitted beam profile. The use of commercial, ultra-low noise picoammeters makes it possible to cover the wide range of desired bunch charges, with the actual measurements made over the range of 0.25 pC to 125 pC. The entire system, including its integration into the EPICS control system, is discussed

  14. A study on the excore neutron flux monitoring system for the wide range measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Jun; Jeong, Dae Won; Baek, Kwang Il; Lee, Jeong Yang; Ha, Jae Hong

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes a study in which only one kind of neutron detector were used in the advanced ENFMS. The conceptual design was performed for overall system with unified fission chamber. The system consists of detector, junction box, wide-range amplifier and signal processing device. Also the requirements of 10CFR50 App. R were considered in design. On the other hand, through computer simulation, the characteristics of pulse-count mode and MSV mode was scrutinized and each noise withstanding capability was analyzed. The results say that 3rd moment has the more stable characteristics to background noise than MSV method. Also, to remain the integrity of information against noise, during installation and operation, the overall system of KSNP was analyzed from a view of noise. By administration for the cause of noise and noise-coupling paths, through the full understanding of noise characteristics, the transfer of the noise source can be minimized. (Author)

  15. Electrochemical reduction of oxygen catalyzed by a wide range of bacteria including Gram-positive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cournet, Amandine [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, LU49, Adhesion Bacterienne et Formation de Biofilms, 35 chemin des Maraichers, 31 062 Toulouse cedex 09 (France); Laboratoire de Genie Chimique CNRS, Universite de Toulouse, 4 allee Emile Monso, BP 84234, 31432 Toulouse cedex 04 (France); Delia, Marie-Line; Bergel, Alain [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique CNRS, Universite de Toulouse, 4 allee Emile Monso, BP 84234, 31432 Toulouse cedex 04 (France); Roques, Christine; Berge, Mathieu [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, LU49, Adhesion Bacterienne et Formation de Biofilms, 35 chemin des Maraichers, 31 062 Toulouse cedex 09 (France)

    2010-04-15

    Most bacteria known to be electrochemically active have been harvested in the anodic compartments of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and are able to use electrodes as electron acceptors. The reverse phenomenon, i.e. using solid electrodes as electron donors, is not so widely studied. To our knowledge, most of the electrochemically active bacteria are Gram-negative. The present study implements a transitory electrochemical technique (cyclic voltammetry) to study the microbial catalysis of the electrochemical reduction of oxygen. It is demonstrated that a wide range of aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria are able to catalyze oxygen reduction. Among these electroactive bacteria, several were Gram-positive. The transfer of electrons was direct since no activity was obtained with the filtrate. These findings, showing a widespread property among bacteria including Gram-positive ones, open new and interesting routes in the field of electroactive bacteria research. (author)

  16. Gamma compensated pulsed ionization chamber wide range neutron/reactor power measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    An improved method and system of pulsed mode operation of ionization chambers is described in which a single sensor system with gamma compensation is provided by sampling, squaring, automatic gate selector, and differential amplifier circuit means, employed in relation to chambers sensitized to neutron plus gamma and gamma only to subtract out the gamma component, wherein squaring functions circuits, a supplemental high performance pulse rate system, and operational and display mode selection and sampling gate circuits are utilized to provide automatic wide range linear measurement capability for neutron flux and reactor power. Neon is employed as an additive in the ionization chambers to provide independence of ionized gas kinetics temperature effects, and the pulsed mode of operation provide independence of high temperature insulator leakage effects. (auth)

  17. Practice of building production planning system of company with a wide range of products - case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Hadaś

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The complexity of the manufacturing environments of today's mechanical engineering companies and the number of both internal and external restrictions affecting to need of building tailored production planning and control systems. This statement is particularly important in conditions of companies with a wide range of products and different customer service strategies (different locations of the logistics decoupling point otherwise called "order penetration point". Streams of materials in these conditions require different management what is the main reason for carrying out research in business conditions by the authors. Material and methods: The research was carried out in industrial engineering in complex environmental conditions of production. This was a specializing in technology, multi-departments environment, with multiple streams of values and a wide range of products (about 500 items. The work was carried out under the transformation of the production system from the "push" logic of flow to "pull" logic of flow and building a dedicated system based on the best practice approach. Results: The paper describes the process of building tailored hybrid systems in the area of planning and shop flow control of production. The authors present the theoretical considerations on the issue and practical experiences. The authors present factors of selection of the transformation path and its road map. The article describes the part of the authors' own experience in the work on the methodology of transformation of Polish companies in the running business condition. Conclusions: Establishing the methodology of transformation of the production system is not a simple task. This paper presents only selected aspects of complex decision-making process. However, the authors presented work shows the important aspect of the transformation of production systems for these organizational conditions.

  18. A wide-range model of two-group gross sections in the dynamics code HEXTRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaloinen, E.; Peltonen, J.

    2002-01-01

    In dynamic analyses the thermal hydraulic conditions within the reactor core may have a large variation, which sets a special requirement on the modeling of cross sections. The standard model in the dynamics code HEXTRAN is the same as in the static design code HEXBU-3D/MODS. It is based on a linear and second order fitting of two-group cross sections on fuel and moderator temperature, moderator density and boron density. A new, wide-range model of cross sections developed in Fortum Nuclear Services for HEXBU-3D/MOD6 has been included as an option into HEXTRAN. In this model the nodal cross sections are constructed from seven state variables in a polynomial of more than 40 terms. Coefficients of the polynomial are created by a least squares fitting to the results of a large number of fuel assembly calculations. Depending on the choice of state variables for the spectrum calculations, the new cross section model is capable to cover local conditions from cold zero power to boiling at full power. The 5. dynamic benchmark problem of AER is analyzed with the new option and results are compared to calculations with the standard model of cross sections in HEXTRAN (Authors)

  19. A flexible piezoresistive carbon black network in silicone rubber for wide range deformation and strain sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianxiong; Wang, Hai; Zhu, Yali

    2018-01-01

    This work presents the design, fabrication, and measurement of a piezoresistive device with a carbon black (CB) particle network in a highly flexible silicone rubber for large deformation and wide range strain sensing. The piezoresistive composite film was fabricated with a mixture of silicone rubber and CB filler particles. The test results showed that the CB particle network in the silicone rubber strongly affected the resistance of the device during the process of drawing and its recovery. We found that the 50% volume ratio of CB filler particles showed a lower relative resistance than the 33.3% volume ratio of CB filler particles, but with an advantage of good resistance recovery stability and a smaller perturbation error (smaller changed resistance) during the periodic back and forth linear motor test. With both having a 50% volume ratio of CB filler particles and a 33.3% volume ratio of CB filler particles, one can reach up to 200% strain with resistances 18 kΩ and 110 kΩ, respectively. We also found that the relative resistance increased in an approximately linear relationship corresponding to the value of step-increased instantaneous length for the reported device. Moreover, an application test through hand drawing was used to demonstrate the piezoresistive performance of the device, which showed that the reported device was capable of measuring the instantaneous length with large deformation.

  20. Wide-range particle characterization and elemental concentration in Beijing aerosol during the 2013 Spring Festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Hui; Li, Yu-Feng; Zhao, Jiating; Li, Bai; Sun, Jialong; Chen, Rui; Gao, Yuxi; Chen, Chunying

    2014-09-01

    The number and mass concentration, size distribution, and the concentration of 16 elements were studied in aerosol samples during the Spring Festival celebrations in 2013 in Beijing, China. Both the number and mass concentration increased sharply in a wide range from 10 nm to 10 μm during the firecrackers and fireworks activities. The prominent increase of the number concentration was in 50 nm-500 nm with a peak of 1.7 × 10(5)/cm(3) at 150 nm, which is 8 times higher than that after 1.5 h. The highest mass concentration was in 320-560 nm, which is 4 times higher than the control. K, Mg, Sr, Ba and Pb increased sharply during the firework activities in PM10. Although the aerosol emission from firework activities is a short-term air quality degradation event, there may be a substantial hazard arising from the chemical composition of the emitted particles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Photopolarimetric properties of leaf and vegetation covers over a wide range of measurement directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhongqiu; Peng, Zhiyan; Wu, Di; Lv, Yunfeng

    2018-02-01

    The optical scattering property of the target is the essential signal for passive remote sensing applications. To deepen our understanding of the light reflected from vegetation, we present results of photopolarimetric laboratory measurements from single leaf and two vegetation covers (planophile and erectophile) over a wide range of viewing directions. The bidirectional polarized reflectance factor (BPRF) was used to characterize the polarization property of our samples. We observed positive and negative polarization (-BPRFQ) of all samples in the forward scattering and backward scattering directions, respectively. Based on the comparison of the BPRF among single leaf, planophile vegetation and erectophile vegetation, our measurements demonstrate that the orientation of the leaf is a key factor in describing the amount of polarization in the forward scattering direction. Our measurements also validated certain model results stating that (1) specular reflection generates a portion of polarization in the forward scattering direction and diffuses scattering of polarized light in all hemisphere directions, (2) BPRFU is anti-symmetric in the principal plane from a recent study in which the authors simulated the polarized reflectance of vegetation cover using the vector radiative transfer theory. These photopolarimetric measurement results, which can be completely explained by the theoretical results, are useful in remote sensing applications to vegetation.

  2. A “twisted” microfluidic mixer suitable for a wide range of flow rate applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sivashankar, Shilpa

    2016-06-27

    This paper proposes a new “twisted” 3D microfluidic mixer fabricated by a laser writing/microfabrication technique. Effective and efficient mixing using the twisted micromixers can be obtained by combining two general chaotic mixing mechanisms: splitting/recombining and chaotic advection. The lamination of mixer units provides the splitting and recombination mechanism when the quadrant of circles is arranged in a two-layered serial arrangement of mixing units. The overall 3D path of the microchannel introduces the advection. An experimental investigation using chemical solutions revealed that these novel 3D passive microfluidic mixers were stable and could be operated at a wide range of flow rates. This micromixer finds application in the manipulation of tiny volumes of liquids that are crucial in diagnostics. The mixing performance was evaluated by dye visualization, and using a pH test that determined the chemical reaction of the solutions. A comparison of the tornado-mixer with this twisted micromixer was made to evaluate the efficiency of mixing. The efficiency of mixing was calculated within the channel by acquiring intensities using ImageJ software. Results suggested that efficient mixing can be obtained when more than 3 units were consecutively placed. The geometry of the device, which has a length of 30 mm, enables the device to be integrated with micro total analysis systems and other lab-on-chip devices.

  3. ZnO core spike particles and nano-networks and their wide range of applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, S.; Mishra, Y. K.; Gedamu, D.; Kaps, S.; Jin, X.; Koschine, T.; Bathnagar, A.; Adelung, R.

    2011-05-01

    In our approach we are producing a polymer composite material with ZnO core spike particles as concave fillers. The core spike particles are synthesized by a high throughput method. Using PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) as a matrix material the core spike particles achieve not only a high mechanical reinforcement but also influence other material properties in a very interesting way, making such a composite very interesting for a wide range of applications. In a very similar synthesis route a nanoscopic ZnO-network is produced. As a ceramic this network can withstand high temperatures like 1300 K. In addition this material is quite elastic. To find a material with these two properties is a really difficult task, as polymers tend to decompose already at lower temperatures and metals melt. Especially under ambient conditions, often oxygen creates a problem for metals at these temperatures. If this material is at the same time a semiconductor, it has a high potential as a multifunctional material. Ceramic or classical semiconductors like III-V or IIVI type are high temperature stable, but typically brittle. This is different on the nanoscale. Even semiconductor wires like silicon with a very small diameter do not easily built up enough stress that leads to a failure while being bent, because in a first order approximation the maximum stress of a fiber scales with its diameter.

  4. Screening variability and change of soil moisture under wide-ranging climate conditions: Snow dynamics effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrot, Lucile; Destouni, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    Soil moisture influences and is influenced by water, climate, and ecosystem conditions, affecting associated ecosystem services in the landscape. This paper couples snow storage-melting dynamics with an analytical modeling approach to screening basin-scale, long-term soil moisture variability and change in a changing climate. This coupling enables assessment of both spatial differences and temporal changes across a wide range of hydro-climatic conditions. Model application is exemplified for two major Swedish hydrological basins, Norrström and Piteälven. These are located along a steep temperature gradient and have experienced different hydro-climatic changes over the time period of study, 1950-2009. Spatially, average intra-annual variability of soil moisture differs considerably between the basins due to their temperature-related differences in snow dynamics. With regard to temporal change, the long-term average state and intra-annual variability of soil moisture have not changed much, while inter-annual variability has changed considerably in response to hydro-climatic changes experienced so far in each basin.

  5. Comprehensive Measurement of Atmospheric Aerosols with a Wide Range Aerosol Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, L; Pesch, M; Grimm, H

    2011-01-01

    A wide range aerosol spectrometer (WRAS) was used for comprehensive long term measurements of aerosol size distributions. The system combines the results of an optical aerosol spectrometer with the results of a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) to record essentially the full size range (5 nm - 32 μm) of atmospheric particles in 72 channels. Measurements were carried out over one year (2009) at the Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW)-Station Hohenpeissenberg, Bavaria. Total particle number concentrations obtained from the aerosol size distributions were compared to the total number concentrations measured by a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC). The comparison showed an excellent agreement of the data. The high time resolution of 5 minutes allows the combination of the measured size distributions with meteorological data and correlations to gaseous pollutants (CO, NOx and SO2). A good correlation of particle number and CO concentrations was found for long distance transported small particles, which were probably mainly soot particles. Correlations to NOx were observed for aerosols from local sources such as traffic emissions. The formation of secondary aerosols from gaseous precursors was also observed. Episodes of relatively high concentration of particles in the range of 2-3 μm were probably caused by pollen.

  6. Complexity and wide range of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders: more than typical manifestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jinming; Yang, Meng-ge; Zhu, Jie; Jin, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), considered to be mediated by autoantibodies, often cause severely disabling disorders of the central nervous system, and predominantly cause optic nerve damage and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. Remarkable progress has been made in deciphering NMO pathogenesis during the past decade. In 2015, the International Panel for NMO Diagnosis proposed the unifying term “NMO spectrum disorders” (NMOSD) and the updated NMOSD criteria reflects a wide range of disease and maintains reasonable specificity. Moreover, cumulative findings have indicated that NMOSD are frequently associated with multiple autoimmune diseases, thereby presenting complex clinical symptoms that make this disease more difficult to recognize. Notably, most neurologists do not heed these symptoms or comorbid conditions in patients with NMOSD. Whereas previous reviews have focused on pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis in NMOSD, we summarize the present knowledge with particular emphasis on atypical manifestations and autoimmune comorbidities in patients with NMOSD. Furthermore, we emphasized the identification of these atypical characteristics to enable a broader and better understanding of NMOSD, and improve early accurate diagnosis and therapeutic decision making. PMID:29118581

  7. Constitutive modeling of polycarbonate over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haitao; Zhou, Huamin; Huang, Zhigao; Zhang, Yun; Zhao, Xiaoxuan

    2017-02-01

    The mechanical behavior of polycarbonate was experimentally investigated over a wide range of strain rates (10^{-4} to 5× 103 s^{-1}) and temperatures (293 to 353 K). Compression tests under these conditions were performed using a SHIMADZU universal testing machine and a split Hopkinson pressure bar. Falling weight impact testing was carried out on an Instron Dynatup 9200 drop tower system. The rate- and temperature-dependent deformation behavior of polycarbonate was discussed in detail. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) tests were utilized to observe the glass (α ) transition and the secondary (β ) transition of polycarbonate. The DMA results indicate that the α and β transitions have a dramatic influence on the mechanical behavior of polycarbonate. The decompose/shift/reconstruct (DSR) method was utilized to decompose the storage modulus into the α and β components and extrapolate the entire modulus, the α-component modulus and the β-component modulus. Based on three previous models, namely, Mulliken-Boyce, G'Sell-Jonas and DSGZ, an adiabatic model is proposed to predict the mechanical behavior of polycarbonate. The model considers the contributions of both the α and β transitions to the mechanical behavior, and it has been implemented in ABAQUS/Explicit through a user material subroutine VUMAT. The model predictions are proven to essentially coincide with the experimental results during compression testing and falling weight impact testing.

  8. Rapid response and wide range neutronic power measuring systems for fast pulsed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumita, Kenji; Iida, Toshiyuki; Wakayama, Naoaki.

    1976-01-01

    This paper summarizes our investigation on design principles of the rapid, stable and wide range neutronic power measuring system for fast pulsed reactors. The picoammeter, the logarithmic amplifier, the reactivity meter and the neutron current chamber are the items of investigation. In order to get a rapid response, the method of compensation for the stray capacitance of the feedback circuits and the capacitance of signal cables is applied to the picoammeter, the logarithmic amplifier and the reactivity meter with consideration for the stability margin of a whole detecting system. The response of an ionization current chamber and the method for compensating the ion component of the chamber output to get optimum responses high pass filters are investigated. Statistical fluctuations of the current chamber output are also considered in those works. The optimum thickness of the surrounding moderator of the neutron detector is also discussed from the viewpoint of the pulse shape deformation and the neutron sensitivity increase. The experimental results are reported, which were observed in the pulse operations of the one shot fast pulsed reactor ''YAYOI'' and the one shot TRIGA ''NSRR'' with the measuring systems using those principles. (auth.)

  9. Involvement of TRPM2 in a wide range of inflammatory and neuropathic pain mouse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako So

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests a role of transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2 in immune and inflammatory responses. We previously reported that TRPM2 deficiency attenuated inflammatory and neuropathic pain in some pain mouse models, including formalin- or carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain, and peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain models, while it had no effect on the basal mechanical and thermal nociceptive sensitivities. In this study, we further explored the involvement of TRPM2 in various pain models using TRPM2-knockout mice. There were no differences in the chemonociceptive behaviors evoked by intraplantar injection of capsaicin or hydrogen peroxide between wildtype and TRPM2-knockout mice, while acetic acid-induced writhing behavior was significantly attenuated in TRPM2-knockout mice. In the postoperative incisional pain model, no difference in mechanical allodynia was observed between the two genotypes. By contrast, mechanical allodynia in the monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis pain model and the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model were significantly attenuated in TRPM2-knockout mice. Furthermore, mechanical allodynia in paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy and streptozotocin-induced painful diabetic neuropathy models were significantly attenuated in TRPM2-knockout mice. Taken together, these results suggest that TRPM2 plays roles in a wide range of pathological pain models based on peripheral and central neuroinflammation, rather than physiological nociceptive pain.

  10. Assessment of ecological risks to wide-ranging wildlife species on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sample, B.

    1995-01-01

    Ecological risk assessment at CERCLA sites generally focuses on species that may be definitively associated with a contaminated area. While appropriate for sites with single, discrete areas of contamination, this approach is not adequate for sites with multiple, spatially separated contaminated areas such as the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Wide-ranging wildlife species may travel between and use multiple contaminated sites. These species may therefore be exposed to and be at risk from contaminants from multiple locations. Use of a site (and therefore exposure and risk) by wildlife is dependent upon the availability of habitat. Availability and distribution of habitat on the ORR was determined using satellite imagery. The proportion of habitat within contaminated areas was then determined by overlaying boundaries of contaminated areas (Operable Units or OUs) on the ORR habitat map. The likelihood of contaminant exposure was estimated by comparing the habitat requirements for wildlife species to the proportion of suitable habitat within OUs. OU-specific contaminant concentrations in surface water, soil, or biota were used to estimate the magnitude of risk presented by each DU. The proportion of ORR-wide population likely to be exposed was estimated using literature-derived population density data for each endpoint. At present, due to major data gaps (i.e., lack of data for all OUs, site-specific population density or habitat use data, etc.) uncertainty associated with conclusions is high. Results of this assessment must therefore be considered to be preliminary

  11. /sup 210/Po in marine organisms: a wide range of natural radiation dose domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, F P

    1988-01-01

    Marine biota is able to concentrate /sup 210/Po to high levels, as 10/sup 3/-10/sup 5/ relative to sea water concentration. /sup 210/Po concentrations in mixed zooplankton reaches 34-51 Bq.kg/sup -1/ (fresh wt), special groups such as copepods reaching even higher concentrations /similar to/ 90 Bq.kg/sup -1/, whereas gelatinous zooplankton display /similar to/ 1 Bq.kg/sup -1/. Epipelagic teleosts feeding on plankton displayed the highest concentrations found in fish muscle, 2-21 Bq.kg/sup -1/. Contrasting with this, demersal teleosts and elasmobranchs display lower /sup 210/Po concentrations, in the ranges 0.5-7 Bq.kg/sup -1/ and 0.2-1.7 Bq.kg/sup -1/, respectively. Much higher concentrations can, however, be measured in fish liver, gonad, bone and piloric caecca, and small mesopelagic fish can reach /similar to/ 800 Bq.kg/sup -1/ on a whole-body basis. Due to these /sup 210/Po activity concentrations, dose equivalent rates delivered to biological tissues in marine organisms can vary widely, from 0.4 mSv.y/sup -1/ in gelatinous plankton up to 5.6 x 10/sup 3/ mSv.y/sup -1/ in the gut wall of sardines. It is concluded that in organisms living in the same ocean layer a wide range of internal radiation doses exists and it is essentially sustained by /sup 210/Po food-chain transfer. (author).

  12. Linearity improvement on wide-range log signal of neutron measurement system for HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-Ki; Tuetken, Jeffrey S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses engineering activities for improving the linearity characteristics of the Log Power signal from the neutron measurement system for HANARO. This neutron measurement system uses a fission chamber based detector which covers 10.3 decade-wide range from 10 -8 % full power(FP) up to 200%FP, The Log Power signal is designed to control the reactor at low power levels where most of the reactor physics tests are carried out. Therefore, the linearity characteristics of the Log Power signal is the major factor for accurate reactor power control. During the commissioning of the neutron measurement system, it was found that the linearity characteristics of the Log Power signal, especially near 10 -2 %FP, were not accurate enough for controlling the reactor during physics testing. Analysis of the system linearity data directly measured with reactor operating determined that the system was not operating per the design characteristics established from previous installations. The linearity data, which were taken as the reactor was increased in power, were sent to manufacturer's engineering group and a follow-up measures based on the analysis were then fed back to the field. Through step by step trouble-shooting activities, which included minor circuit modifications and alignment procedure changes, the linearity characteristics have been successfully improved and now exceed minimum performance requirements. This paper discusses the trouble-shooting techniques applied, the changes in the linearity characteristics, special circumstances in the HANARO application and the final resolution. (author)

  13. Regional deposition of nasal sprays in adults: A wide ranging computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiaee, Milad; Wachtel, Herbert; Noga, Michelle L; Martin, Andrew R; Finlay, Warren H

    2018-05-01

    The present work examines regional deposition within the nose for nasal sprays over a large and wide ranging parameter space by using numerical simulation. A set of 7 realistic adult nasal airway geometries was defined based on computed tomography images. Deposition in 6 regions of each nasal airway geometry (the vestibule, valve, anterior turbinate, posterior turbinate, olfactory, and nasopharynx) was determined for varying particle diameter, spray cone angle, spray release direction, particle injection speed, and particle injection location. Penetration of nasal spray particles through the airway geometries represented unintended lung exposure. Penetration was found to be relatively insensitive to injection velocity, but highly sensitive to particle size. Penetration remained at or above 30% for particles exceeding 10 μm in diameter for several airway geometries studied. Deposition in the turbinates, viewed as desirable for both local and systemic nasal drug delivery, was on average maximized for particles ranging from ~20 to 30 μm in diameter, and for low to zero injection velocity. Similar values of particle diameter and injection velocity were found to maximize deposition in the olfactory region, a potential target for nose-to-brain drug delivery. However, olfactory deposition was highly variable between airway geometries, with maximum olfactory deposition ranging over 2 orders of magnitude between geometries. This variability is an obstacle to overcome if consistent dosing between subjects is to be achieved for nose-to-brain drug delivery. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Modifications to JLab 12 GeV Refrigerator and Wide Range Mix Mode Performance Testing Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, P.; Ganni, V.; Hasan, N.; Dixon, K.; Norton, R.; Creel, J.

    2017-02-01

    Analysis of data obtained during the spring 2013 commissioning of the new 4.5 K refrigeration system at Jefferson Lab (JLab) for the 12 GeV upgrade indicated a wide capacity range with good efficiency and minimal operator interaction. Testing also showed that the refrigerator required higher liquid nitrogen (LN) consumption for its pre-cooler than anticipated by the design. This does not affect the capacity of the refrigerator, but it does result in an increased LN utility cost. During the summer of 2015 the modifications were implemented by the cold box manufacturer, according to a design similar to the JLab 12 GeV cold box specification. Subsequently, JLab recommissioned the cold box and performed extensive performance testing, ranging from 20% to 100% of the design maximum capacity, and in various modes of operation, ranging from pure refrigeration, pure liquefaction, half-and-half mix mode and at selected design modes using the Floating Pressure - Ganni Cycle. The testing demonstrated that the refrigerator system has a good and fairly constant performance over a wide capacity range and different modes of operation. It also demonstrated the modifications resulted in a LN consumption that met the design for the pure refrigeration mode (which is the most demanding) and was lower than the design for the nominal and maximum capacity modes. In addition, a pulsed-load test, similar to what is expected for cryogenic systems supporting fusion experiments, was conducted to observe the response using the Floating Pressure - Ganni Cycle, which was stable and robust. This paper will discuss the results and analysis of this testing pertaining to the LN consumption, the system efficiency over a wide range of capacity and different modes and the behaviour of the system to a pulsed load.

  15. ATMOSPHERIC DYNAMICS OF TERRESTRIAL EXOPLANETS OVER A WIDE RANGE OF ORBITAL AND ATMOSPHERIC PARAMETERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaspi, Yohai [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, 234 Herzl st., 76100, Rehovot (Israel); Showman, Adam P., E-mail: yohai.kaspi@weizmann.ac.il [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, 1629 University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The recent discoveries of terrestrial exoplanets and super-Earths extending over a broad range of orbital and physical parameters suggest that these planets will span a wide range of climatic regimes. Characterization of the atmospheres of warm super-Earths has already begun and will be extended to smaller and more distant planets over the coming decade. The habitability of these worlds may be strongly affected by their three-dimensional atmospheric circulation regimes, since the global climate feedbacks that control the inner and outer edges of the habitable zone—including transitions to Snowball-like states and runaway-greenhouse feedbacks—depend on the equator-to-pole temperature differences, patterns of relative humidity, and other aspects of the dynamics. Here, using an idealized moist atmospheric general circulation model including a hydrological cycle, we study the dynamical principles governing the atmospheric dynamics on such planets. We show how the planetary rotation rate, stellar flux, atmospheric mass, surface gravity, optical thickness, and planetary radius affect the atmospheric circulation and temperature distribution on such planets. Our simulations demonstrate that equator-to-pole temperature differences, meridional heat transport rates, structure and strength of the winds, and the hydrological cycle vary strongly with these parameters, implying that the sensitivity of the planet to global climate feedbacks will depend significantly on the atmospheric circulation. We elucidate the possible climatic regimes and diagnose the mechanisms controlling the formation of atmospheric jet streams, Hadley and Ferrel cells, and latitudinal temperature differences. Finally, we discuss the implications for understanding how the atmospheric circulation influences the global climate.

  16. Natural selection constrains neutral diversity across a wide range of species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett-Detig, Russell B; Hartl, Daniel L; Sackton, Timothy B

    2015-04-01

    The neutral theory of molecular evolution predicts that the amount of neutral polymorphisms within a species will increase proportionally with the census population size (Nc). However, this prediction has not been borne out in practice: while the range of Nc spans many orders of magnitude, levels of genetic diversity within species fall in a comparatively narrow range. Although theoretical arguments have invoked the increased efficacy of natural selection in larger populations to explain this discrepancy, few direct empirical tests of this hypothesis have been conducted. In this work, we provide a direct test of this hypothesis using population genomic data from a wide range of taxonomically diverse species. To do this, we relied on the fact that the impact of natural selection on linked neutral diversity depends on the local recombinational environment. In regions of relatively low recombination, selected variants affect more neutral sites through linkage, and the resulting correlation between recombination and polymorphism allows a quantitative assessment of the magnitude of the impact of selection on linked neutral diversity. By comparing whole genome polymorphism data and genetic maps using a coalescent modeling framework, we estimate the degree to which natural selection reduces linked neutral diversity for 40 species of obligately sexual eukaryotes. We then show that the magnitude of the impact of natural selection is positively correlated with Nc, based on body size and species range as proxies for census population size. These results demonstrate that natural selection removes more variation at linked neutral sites in species with large Nc than those with small Nc and provides direct empirical evidence that natural selection constrains levels of neutral genetic diversity across many species. This implies that natural selection may provide an explanation for this longstanding paradox of population genetics.

  17. Modelling seasonal habitat suitability for wide-ranging species: Invasive wild pigs in northern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens G Froese

    Full Text Available Invasive wildlife often causes serious damage to the economy and agriculture as well as environmental, human and animal health. Habitat models can fill knowledge gaps about species distributions and assist planning to mitigate impacts. Yet, model accuracy and utility may be compromised by small study areas and limited integration of species ecology or temporal variability. Here we modelled seasonal habitat suitability for wild pigs, a widespread and harmful invader, in northern Australia. We developed a resource-based, spatially-explicit and regional-scale approach using Bayesian networks and spatial pattern suitability analysis. We integrated important ecological factors such as variability in environmental conditions, breeding requirements and home range movements. The habitat model was parameterized during a structured, iterative expert elicitation process and applied to a wet season and a dry season scenario. Model performance and uncertainty was evaluated against independent distributional data sets. Validation results showed that an expert-averaged model accurately predicted empirical wild pig presences in northern Australia for both seasonal scenarios. Model uncertainty was largely associated with different expert assumptions about wild pigs' resource-seeking home range movements. Habitat suitability varied considerably between seasons, retracting to resource-abundant rainforest, wetland and agricultural refuge areas during the dry season and expanding widely into surrounding grassland floodplains, savanna woodlands and coastal shrubs during the wet season. Overall, our model suggested that suitable wild pig habitat is less widely available in northern Australia than previously thought. Mapped results may be used to quantify impacts, assess risks, justify management investments and target control activities. Our methods are applicable to other wide-ranging species, especially in data-poor situations.

  18. ATMOSPHERIC DYNAMICS OF TERRESTRIAL EXOPLANETS OVER A WIDE RANGE OF ORBITAL AND ATMOSPHERIC PARAMETERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaspi, Yohai; Showman, Adam P.

    2015-01-01

    The recent discoveries of terrestrial exoplanets and super-Earths extending over a broad range of orbital and physical parameters suggest that these planets will span a wide range of climatic regimes. Characterization of the atmospheres of warm super-Earths has already begun and will be extended to smaller and more distant planets over the coming decade. The habitability of these worlds may be strongly affected by their three-dimensional atmospheric circulation regimes, since the global climate feedbacks that control the inner and outer edges of the habitable zone—including transitions to Snowball-like states and runaway-greenhouse feedbacks—depend on the equator-to-pole temperature differences, patterns of relative humidity, and other aspects of the dynamics. Here, using an idealized moist atmospheric general circulation model including a hydrological cycle, we study the dynamical principles governing the atmospheric dynamics on such planets. We show how the planetary rotation rate, stellar flux, atmospheric mass, surface gravity, optical thickness, and planetary radius affect the atmospheric circulation and temperature distribution on such planets. Our simulations demonstrate that equator-to-pole temperature differences, meridional heat transport rates, structure and strength of the winds, and the hydrological cycle vary strongly with these parameters, implying that the sensitivity of the planet to global climate feedbacks will depend significantly on the atmospheric circulation. We elucidate the possible climatic regimes and diagnose the mechanisms controlling the formation of atmospheric jet streams, Hadley and Ferrel cells, and latitudinal temperature differences. Finally, we discuss the implications for understanding how the atmospheric circulation influences the global climate

  19. Wide-ranging phylogeographic structure of invasive red lionfish in the Western Atlantic and Greater Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, John S.; Díaz-Ferguson, Edgardo; Silliman, Brian R.; Saunders, Jonathan W.; Buddo, Dayne; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Searle, Linda; Allen, Aarin Conrad; Hunter, Margaret E.

    2015-01-01

    The red lionfish (Pterois volitans) is an invasive predatory marine fish that has rapidly expanded its presence in the Western Hemisphere. We collected 214 invasive red lionfish samples from nine countries and territories, including seven unpublished locations. To more comprehensively evaluate connectivity, we compiled our d-loop sequence data with 846 published sequences, resulting in 1,060 samples from 14 locations. We found low nucleotide diversity (π = 0.003) and moderate haplotype diversity (h = 0.59). Using haplotype population pairwise ΦST tests, we analyzed possible phylogeographic breaks that were previously proposed based on other reef organisms. We found support for the Bahamas/Turks/Caicos versus Caribbean break (ΦST = 0.12) but not for the Northwestern Caribbean, Eastern Caribbean, or US East Coast versus Bahamas breaks. The Northern Region had higher variation and more haplotypes, supporting introductions of at least five haplotypes to the region. Our wide-ranging samples showed that a lower-frequency haplotype in the Northern Region dominated the Southern Region and suggested multiple introductions, possibly to the south. We tested multiple scenarios of phylogeographic structure with analyses of molecular variance and found support for a Northern and Southern Region split at the Bahamas/Turks/Caicos versus Caribbean break (percentage of variation among regions = 8.49 %). We found that Puerto Rico clustered with the Southern Region more strongly than with the Northern Region, as opposed to previous reports. We also found the rare haplotype H03 for the first time in the southern Caribbean (Panama), indicating that either secondary releases occurred or that the low-frequency haplotypes have had time to disperse to extreme southern Caribbean locations.

  20. Wide-range screening of psychoactive substances by FIA-HRMS: identification strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alechaga, Élida; Moyano, Encarnación; Galceran, Maria Teresa

    2015-06-01

    Recreational drugs (illicit drugs, human and veterinary medicines, legal highs, etc.) often contain lacing agents and adulterants which are not related to the main active ingredient. Serious side effects and even the death of the consumer have been related to the consumption of mixtures of psychoactive substances and/or adulterants, so it is important to know the actual composition of recreational drugs. In this work, a method based on flow injection analysis (FIA) coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) is proposed for the fast identification of psychoactive substances in recreational drugs and legal highs. The FIA and HRMS working conditions were optimized in order to detect a wide range of psychoactive compounds. As most of the psychoactive substances are acid-base compounds, methanol-0.1 % aqueous formic acid (1:1 v/v) as a carrier solvent and electrospray in both positive ion mode and negative ion mode were used. Two data acquisition modes, full scan at high mass resolution (HRMS) and data-dependent tandem mass spectrometry (ddMS/HRMS) with a quadrupole-Orbitrap mass analyzer were used, resulting in sufficient selectivity for identification of the components of the samples. A custom-made database containing over 450 substances, including psychoactive compounds and common adulterants, was built to perform a high-throughput target and suspect screening. Moreover, online accurate mass databases and mass fragmenter software were used to identify unknowns. Some examples, selected among the analyzed samples of recreational drugs and legal highs using the FIA-HRMS(ddMS/HRMS) method developed, are discussed to illustrate the screening strategy used in this study. The results showed that many of the analyzed samples were adulterated, and in some cases the sample composition did not match that of the supposed marketed substance.

  1. Radiation-induced polymerization of water-saturated styrene in a wide range of dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takezaki, J.; Okada, T.; Sakurada, I.

    1978-01-01

    Radiation-induced polymerization of water-saturated styrene (water content 3.5 x 10 -2 mole/liter) was carried out in a wide range of dose rate between 1.2 x 10 3 and 1.8 x 10 7 rad/sec, and compared with the polymerization of the moderately dried styrene (water content 3.2 x 10 -3 mole/liter). Molecular weight distribution curves of the polymerization products showed that they were generally consisted of four parts, namely, oligomers, radical, cationic, and super polymers. Contributions of the four constituents to the polymerization and the number average degrees of polymerization (DP) of the four kinds of polymers were calculated by the graphical analysis of the curves. The rate of radical polymerization and DP of radical polymers are independent of the water content; the dose rate dependences of the polymerization rate and DP agree with the well known square root and inverse square root laws, respectively, of the radical polymerization of styrene. The rate of ionic polymerization is directly proportional to the dose rate, but it decreases, at a given dose rate, inversely proportional to the water content of styrene. DP of ionic polymer is independent of the dose rate but decreases with increasing water content. The super polymer of DP about 10 4 is not formed in the case of the moderately dried styrene. G values for the initiating radical and ion formation are calculated to be independently of the dose rate and water content, 0.66 and 0.027, respectively. It was suggested that oligomer was formed in the early stage by the interaction of cation with anion and only those cations which had survived underwent polymerization. 10 figures, 4 tables

  2. Evaluating the impact of a wide range of vegetation densities on river channel pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, Ian; Roucou, Ron

    2016-04-01

    develop a simple conceptual model to explain the observations along the wide range of vegetation densities investigated. At low plant densities, each plant acted independently and caused flow separation and convergence around each plant, similar to in the Coulthard (2005] experiment. At medium densities, individual plants start to interact together with narrow channels developing longitudinally between vegetative bars. Finally at very high densities, there was both lateral and longitudinal interaction between plants meaning that flow was diverted around them forming wandering, meandering channels. In summary, the relationship between vegetation density and channel braiding is more complex than previous thought, taking a parabolic shape, with maximum braiding occurring at medium vegetation densities.

  3. A wide-range embrittlement trend curve for western RPV steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, M.T.

    2011-01-01

    Embrittlement trend curves (ETCs) are used to estimate neutron irradiation embrittlement as a function of both exposure (fluence, flux, temperature, ...) and composition variables. ETCs provide information needed to assess the structural integrity of operating nuclear reactors, and to determine their suitability for continued safe operation. Past efforts on ETC development in the United States have used data drawn from domestic licensees. While this approach has addressed past needs well, future needs such as power up-rates, license extensions to 60 years and beyond, and the use of low copper materials in new reactors produce future operating conditions for the US reactor fleet that may differ from past experience, suggesting that data from sources other than licensee surveillance programs may be needed. In this paper we draw together embrittlement data expressed in terms of ΔT41J and ΔYS from a wide variety of data sources as a first step in examining future embrittlement trends. We develop a 'wide range' ETC based on a collection of over 2500 data. We assess how well this ETC models the whole database, as well as significant data subsets. Comparisons presented herein indicate that a single algebraic model, denoted WR-C(5), represents reasonably well both the trends evident in the data overall as well as trends exhibited by four special data subsets. The WR-C(5) model indicates the existence of trends in high fluence data (Φ > 2-3*10 19 n/cm 2 , E > 1 MeV) that are not as apparent in the US surveillance data due to the limited quantity of ΔT30 data measured at high fluence in this dataset. Additionally, WR-C(5) models well the trends in both test and power reactor data despite the fact it has not term to account for flux. It is suggested that one appropriate use of the WR-C(5) trend curve may include the design irradiation studies to validate or refute the findings presented herein. Additionally, WR-C(5) could be used, along with other information (e.g., other

  4. Using dogs to find cats: detection dogs as a survey method for wide-ranging cheetah

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, M. S.; Durant, S. M.; Watson, F. G. R.; Parker, M.; Gottelli, D.; M Soka, J.; Droge, E.; Nyirenda, M.; Schuette, P.; Dunkley, P.; Brummer, R.

    2017-01-01

    Rapid global large carnivore declines make evaluations of remaining populations critical. Yet landscape-scale evaluations of presence, abundance and distribution are difficult, as many species are wide-ranging, occur only at low densities and are elusive. Insufficient information-gathering tools for many large carnivore species compounds these challenges. Specially trained detection dogs have demonstrated effectiveness for carnivore surveys, but are untested on extremely sparse, wide-ranging ...

  5. A parameterization of momentum roughness length and displacement height for a wide range of canopy densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Verhoef

    1997-01-01

    occurring in the d-data across 16 selected canopies can be explained, whereas the analogous value for the z0-data (24 datapoints available is 81%. This makes the R94 model, with only two coefficients and its relatively simple equations, a useful universal tool for predicting z0 and d values for all kinds of canopies. For comparison, a similar fitting exercise is made using simple linear equations based on obstacle height only (e.g. Brutsaert, 1982 and another formula involving canopy height as well as roughness density (Lettau, 1969. The fitted Brutsaert equations explain 98% and 62% of the variance in the d and z0-data, respectively. Lettau's equation for prediction of z0 performs unsatisfactorily (r2 values <0, even after fitting of the coefficient and so it is concluded that the drag partition model is definitely the most effective for prediction of the momentum roughness lengths for a wide rang of canopy densities.

  6. Review of some experimental studies of turbulent mixed convection covering a wide range Prandtl number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    The early experimental studies of buoyancy-influenced turbulent convective heat transfer to fluids flowing upwards and downwards in long uniformly heated vertical tubes were mainly performed using water at atmospheric pressure as the working fluid. In addition, some experiments using air were reported and even some using mercury. At that time there was also quite a lot of interest in heat transfer to water at supercritical pressure and also carbon dioxide. More recently, experimental results have been obtained using liquid sodium. The Prandtl numbers in the studies referred to above cover a wide range of values, being well in excess of unity under some conditions in the case of the supercritical pressure fluids and atmospheric pressure water, just under unity in the case of air, much less than unity in the case of mercury and even lower in the case of liquid sodium. Over the years a good general understanding has gradually been achieved of the complex manner in which buoyancy affects heat transfer in conventional fluids such as water and air. Up to a point, the behaviour in the case of a liquid metal such as mercury can be reconciled with such arguments. However, this is certainly not so in the case of liquid sodium. In the present paper results from a number of experimental studies of buoyancy-influenced heat transfer in vertical tubes are reviewed. This is done with the aim of providing a picture of observed behaviour consistent with our understanding of the basic mechanisms of convective heat transfer, taking account of the complicated manner in which the mean motion, turbulence and the heat transfer are affected by buoyancy. The starting point is to view convective heat transfer in wall shear flows in terms of the local balance between diffusion of heat (turbulent and molecular) and advection of heat by the flowing fluid. Prandtl number affects the radial temperature profile and therefore the variation of density across the shear flow and, in turn, the extent

  7. Computer calculation of heat capacity of natural gases over a wide range of pressure and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dranchuk, P.M. (Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)); Abou-Kassem, J.H. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (USA))

    1992-04-01

    A method is presented whereby specific heats or heat capacities of natural gases, both sweet and sour, at elevated pressures and temperatures may be made suitable to modern-day machine calculation. The method involves developing a correlation for ideal isobaric heat capacity as a function of gas gravity and pseudo reduced temperature over the temperature range of 300 to 1500 K, and a mathematical equation for the isobaric heat capacity departure based on accepted thermodynamic principles applied to an equation of state that adequately describes the behavior of gases to which the Standing and Katz Z factor correlation applies. The heat capacity departure equation is applicable over the range of 0.2 {le} Pr {le} 15 and 1.05 {le} Tr {le} 3, where Pr and Tr refer to the reduced pressure and temperature respectively. The significance of the method presented lies in its utility and adaptability to computer applications. 25 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. The use of new facility by means internal balance with sting support for wide range Angle of Attack aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subagyo; Daryanto, Yanto; Risnawan, Novan

    2018-04-01

    The development of facilities for the testing of wide range angle of attack aircraft in the wind tunnel at subsonic regime has done and implemented. Development required to meet the test at an angle of attack from -20 ° to 40 °. Testing the wide range angle of attack aircraft with a wide variation of the angle of attack become important needs. This can be done simply by using the sting support-equipped by internal balance to measure the forces and moments component aerodynamics. The results of development and use on the wide range angle of attack aircraft testing are aerodynamics characteristics in the form of the coefficient three components forces and the three components of the moment. A series of test aircraft was successfully carried out and the results are shown in the form of graphs of characteristic of aerodynamics at wind speed 70 m/s.

  9. Development of wide range charge integration application specified integrated circuit for photo-sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayose, Yusaku, E-mail: katayose@ynu.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 240-8501 (Japan); Ikeda, Hirokazu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS)/Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Tanaka, Manobu [National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Shibata, Makio [Department of Physics, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 240-8501 (Japan)

    2013-01-21

    A front-end application specified integrated circuit (ASIC) is developed with a wide dynamic range amplifier (WDAMP) to read-out signals from a photo-sensor like a photodiode. The WDAMP ASIC consists of a charge sensitive preamplifier, four wave-shaping circuits with different amplification factors and Wilkinson-type analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To realize a wider range, the integrating capacitor in the preamplifier can be changed from 4 pF to 16 pF by a two-bit switch. The output of a preamplifier is shared by the four wave-shaping circuits with four gains of 1, 4, 16 and 64 to adapt the input range of ADC. A 0.25-μm CMOS process (of UMC electronics CO., LTD) is used to fabricate the ASIC with four-channels. The dynamic range of four orders of magnitude is achieved with the maximum range over 20 pC and the noise performance of 0.46 fC + 6.4×10{sup −4} fC/pF. -- Highlights: ► A front-end ASIC is developed with a wide dynamic range amplifier. ► The ASIC consists of a CSA, four wave-shaping circuits and pulse-height-to-time converters. ► The dynamic range of four orders of magnitude is achieved with the maximum range over 20 pC.

  10. The mechanical behavior of metal alloys with grain size distribution in a wide range of strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripnyak, V. A.; Skripnyak, V. V.; Skripnyak, E. G.

    2017-12-01

    The paper discusses a multiscale simulation approach for the construction of grain structure of metals and alloys, providing high tensile strength with ductility. This work compares the mechanical behavior of light alloys and the influence of the grain size distribution in a wide range of strain rates. The influence of the grain size distribution on the inelastic deformation and fracture of aluminium and magnesium alloys is investigated by computer simulations in a wide range of strain rates. It is shown that the yield stress depends on the logarithm of the normalized strain rate for light alloys with a bimodal grain distribution and coarse-grained structure.

  11. Logistic regression accuracy across different spatial and temporal scales for a wide-ranging species, the marbled murrelet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn B. Meyer; Sherri L. Miller; C. John Ralph

    2004-01-01

    The scale at which habitat variables are measured affects the accuracy of resource selection functions in predicting animal use of sites. We used logistic regression models for a wide-ranging species, the marbled murrelet, (Brachyramphus marmoratus) in a large region in California to address how much changing the spatial or temporal scale of...

  12. Preliminary assessment of the ecological risks to wide-ranging wildlife species on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E.; Baron, L.A.; Jackson, B.L.

    1995-08-01

    Historically, ecological risk assessment at CERCLA sites [such as the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR)], has focused on species that may be definitively associated with a contaminated area or source operable unit. Consequently the species that are generally considered are those with home ranges small enough such that multiple individuals or a distinct population can be expected to reside within the boundaries of the contaminated site. This approach is adequate for sites with single, discrete areas of contamination that only provide habitat for species with limited requirements. This approach is not adequate however for large sites with multiple, spatially separated contaminated areas that provide habitat for wide-ranging wildlife species. Because wide-ranging wildlife species may travel between and use multiple contaminated sites they may be exposed to and be at risk from contaminants from multiple locations. Use of a particular contaminated site by wide-ranging species will be dependent upon the amount of suitable habitat available at that site. Therefore to adequately evaluate risks to wide-ranging species at the ORR-wide scale, the use of multiple contaminated sites must be weighted by the amount of suitable habitat on OUs. This reservation-wide ecological risk assessment is intended to identify which endpoints are significantly at risk; which contaminants are responsible for this risk; and which OUs significantly contribute to risk.

  13. Experimental Investigation of Muon-Catalyzed $dt$ Fusion in Wide Ranges of $D/T$ Mixture Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Bom, V R; Demin, D L; van Eijk, C W E; Faifman, M P; Filchenkov, V V; Golubkov, A N; Grafov, N N; Grishenchkin, S K; Gritsaj, K I; Klevtsov, V G; Konin, A D; Kuryakin, A V; Medved', S V; Musyaev, R K; Perevozchikov, V V; Rudenko, A I; Sadetsky, S M; Vinogradov, Yu I; Yukhimchuk, A A; Yukhimchuk, S A; Zinov, V G; Zlatoustovskii, S V

    2004-01-01

    A vast program of the experimental investigation of muon-catalyzed $dt$ fusion was performed at the JINR Phasotron. Parameters of the $dt$ cycle were obtained in a wide range of $D/T$ mixture conditions: temperatures of $20\\div 800$ K, densities of $0.2\\div1.2$ LHD and tritium concentrations of $15\\div 86\\%$. The results obtained are summarized.

  14. Coastal Harbors Modeling Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Coastal Harbors Modeling Facility is used to aid in the planning of harbor development and in the design and layout of breakwaters, absorbers, etc.. The goal is...

  15. Parametrization of the average ionization and radiative cooling rates of carbon plasmas in a wide range of density and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, J.M.; Rodriguez, R.; Florido, R.; Rubiano, J.G.; Mendoza, M.A.; Nuez, A. de la; Espinosa, G.; Martel, P.; Minguez, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we present an analysis of the influence of the thermodynamic regime on the monochromatic emissivity, the radiative power loss and the radiative cooling rate for optically thin carbon plasmas over a wide range of electron temperature and density assuming steady state situations. Furthermore, we propose analytical expressions depending on the electron density and temperature for the average ionization and cooling rate based on polynomial fittings which are valid for the whole range of plasma conditions considered in this work. -- Highlights: ► We compute the average ionization, cooling rates and emissivities of carbon plasmas. ► We compare LTE and NLTE calculations of these magnitudes. ► We perform a parametrization of these magnitudes in a wide range of plasma conditions. ► We provide information about where LTE regime assumption is accurate

  16. Parametrization of the average ionization and radiative cooling rates of carbon plasmas in a wide range of density and temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Gil de la Fe, Juan Miguel; Rodriguez Perez, Rafael; Florido, Ricardo; Garcia Rubiano, Jesus; Mendoza, M.A.; Nuez, A. de la; Espinosa, G.; Martel Escobar, Carlos; Mínguez Torres, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    In this work we present an analysis of the influence of the thermodynamic regime on the monochromatic emissivity, the radiative power loss and the radiative cooling rate for optically thin carbon plasmas over a wide range of electron temperature and density assuming steady state situations. Furthermore, we propose analytical expressions depending on the electron density and temperature for the average ionization and cooling rate based on polynomial fittings which are valid for the whole range...

  17. Wide ranges of functional traits in the flora from the central region of Sonora: A diversity to be explored

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar Hinojo Hinojo; Alejandro E. Castellanos; Jose M. Llano. Sotelo

    2013-01-01

    Although the Sonoran Desert does not have the highest plant species richness, it has been documented with the highest growth form diversity from the North American deserts. It is not known if this high growth form diversity could also harbor a high functional diversity. In this study we characterize the ecophysiological functional traits of photosynthetic capacity,...

  18. Optimization of nonimaging focusing heliostat in dynamic correction of astigmatism for a wide range of incident angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Kok-Keong

    2010-05-15

    To overcome astigmatism has always been a great challenge in designing a heliostat capable of focusing the sunlight on a small receiver throughout the year. In this Letter, a nonimaging focusing heliostat with a dynamic adjustment of facet mirrors in a group manner has been analyzed for optimizing the astigmatic correction in a wide range of incident angles. This what is to the author's knowledge a new heliostat is not only designed to serve the purpose of concentrating sunlight to several hundreds of suns, but also to significantly reduce the variation of the solar flux distribution with the incident angle.

  19. Preliminary assessment of the ecological risks to wide-ranging wildlife species on the Oak Ridge Reservation. 1996 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E.; Hinzman, R.L.; Jackson, B.L.; Baron, L.

    1996-09-01

    More than approximately 50 years of operations, storage, and disposal of wastes generated by the three facilities on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant) has resulted in a mosaic of uncontaminated property and lands that are contaminated to varying degrees. This contaminated property includes source areas and the terrestrial and aquatic habitats down gradient from these source areas. Although the integrator OUs generally contain considerable habitat for biota, the source OUs provide little or no suitable habitat. Historically, ecological risk assessment at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites has focused on species that may be definitively associated with a contaminated area or source OU. Endpoints considered in source OUs include plants, soil/litter invertebrates and processes, aquatic biota found in on-OU sediments and surface waters, and small herbivorous, omnivorous, and vermivorous (i.e., feeding on ground, litter, or soil invertebrates) wildlife. All of these endpoints have limited spatial distributions or home ranges such that numerous individuals or a distinct population can be expected to reside within the boundaries of the source OU. Most analyses are not adequate for large sites with multiple, spatially separated contaminated areas such as the ORR that provide habitat for wide-ranging wildlife species. This report is a preliminary response to a plan for assessing risks to wide-ranging species.

  20. Impact Response Comparison Between Parametric Human Models and Postmortem Human Subjects with a Wide Range of Obesity Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Cao, Libo; Wang, Yulong; Hwang, Eunjoo; Reed, Matthew P; Forman, Jason; Hu, Jingwen

    2017-10-01

    Field data analyses have shown that obesity significantly increases the occupant injury risks in motor vehicle crashes, but the injury assessment tools for people with obesity are largely lacking. The objectives of this study were to use a mesh morphing method to rapidly generate parametric finite element models with a wide range of obesity levels and to evaluate their biofidelity against impact tests using postmortem human subjects (PMHS). Frontal crash tests using three PMHS seated in a vehicle rear seat compartment with body mass index (BMI) from 24 to 40 kg/m 2 were selected. To develop the human models matching the PMHS geometry, statistical models of external body shape, rib cage, pelvis, and femur were applied to predict the target geometry using age, sex, stature, and BMI. A mesh morphing method based on radial basis functions was used to rapidly morph a baseline human model into the target geometry. The model-predicted body excursions and injury measures were compared to the PMHS tests. Comparisons of occupant kinematics and injury measures between the tests and simulations showed reasonable correlations across the wide range of BMI levels. The parametric human models have the capability to account for the obesity effects on the occupant impact responses and injury risks. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  1. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) as a Model Organism to Investigate the Effects of Roads on Wide-Ranging Carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvaitis, John A; Reed, Gregory C; Carroll, Rory P; Litvaitis, Marian K; Tash, Jeffrey; Mahard, Tyler; Broman, Derek J A; Callahan, Catherine; Ellingwood, Mark

    2015-06-01

    We are using bobcats (Lynx rufus) as a model organism to examine how roads affect the abundance, distribution, and genetic structure of a wide-ranging carnivore. First, we compared the distribution of bobcat-vehicle collisions to road density and then estimated collision probabilities for specific landscapes using a moving window with road-specific traffic volume. Next, we obtained incidental observations of bobcats from the public, camera-trap detections, and locations of bobcats equipped with GPS collars to examine habitat selection. These data were used to generate a cost-surface map to investigate potential barrier effects of roads. Finally, we have begun an examination of genetic structure of bobcat populations in relation to major road networks. Distribution of vehicle-killed bobcats was correlated with road density, especially state and interstate highways. Collision models suggested that some regions may function as demographic sinks. Simulated movements in the context of the cost-surface map indicated that some major roads may be barriers. These patterns were supported by the genetic structure of bobcats. The sharpest divisions among genetically distinct demes occurred along natural barriers (mountains and large lakes) and in road-dense regions. In conclusion, our study has demonstrated the utility of using bobcats as a model organism to understand the variety of threats that roads pose to a wide-ranging species. Bobcats may also be useful as one of a group of focal species while developing approaches to maintain existing connectivity or mitigate the negative effects of roads.

  2. Preliminary assessment of the ecological risks to wide-ranging wildlife species on the Oak Ridge Reservation. 1996 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sample, B.E.; Hinzman, R.L.; Jackson, B.L.; Baron, L.

    1996-09-01

    More than approximately 50 years of operations, storage, and disposal of wastes generated by the three facilities on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant) has resulted in a mosaic of uncontaminated property and lands that are contaminated to varying degrees. This contaminated property includes source areas and the terrestrial and aquatic habitats down gradient from these source areas. Although the integrator OUs generally contain considerable habitat for biota, the source OUs provide little or no suitable habitat. Historically, ecological risk assessment at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites has focused on species that may be definitively associated with a contaminated area or source OU. Endpoints considered in source OUs include plants, soil/litter invertebrates and processes, aquatic biota found in on-OU sediments and surface waters, and small herbivorous, omnivorous, and vermivorous (i.e., feeding on ground, litter, or soil invertebrates) wildlife. All of these endpoints have limited spatial distributions or home ranges such that numerous individuals or a distinct population can be expected to reside within the boundaries of the source OU. Most analyses are not adequate for large sites with multiple, spatially separated contaminated areas such as the ORR that provide habitat for wide-ranging wildlife species. This report is a preliminary response to a plan for assessing risks to wide-ranging species

  3. Wide-range frequency selectivity in an acoustic sensor fabricated using a microbeam array with non-uniform thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shintaku, Hirofumi; Kotera, Hidetoshi; Kobayashi, Takayuki; Zusho, Kazuki; Kawano, Satoyuki

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have demonstrated the fabrication of a microbeam array (MBA) with various thicknesses and investigated the suitability it for an acoustic sensor with wide-range frequency selectivity. For this, an MBA composed of 64 beams, with thicknesses varying from 2.99–142 µm, was fabricated by using single gray-scale lithography and a thick negative photoresist. The vibration of the beams in air was measured using a laser Doppler vibrometer; the resonant frequencies of the beams were measured to be from 11.5 to 290 kHz. Lastly, the frequency range of the MBA with non-uniform thickness was 10.9 times that of the MBA with uniform thickness. (paper)

  4. Efficient Wide Range Converters (EWiRaC): A new family of high efficient AC-DC Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2006-01-01

    The performance in terms of efficiency of the existing power supplies used for PFC is very dependent on the input voltage range. The boost converter is the most commonly used PFC converter because of its simplicity and high efficiency. But, the boost converter as well as other known converters...... suffers a major penalty in efficiency when used at the low end of the voltage range (90VAC) in a universal voltage range application (90-270VAC). This paper addresses this problem by suggesting a new family of converters that effectively reduces the apparent voltage range with a factor of 2 by changing...... the converter topology according to the input voltage. This new converter type has been named: efficient wide range converter (EWiRaC). The performance of the EWiRaC is experimental verified in a universal input range (90-270VAC) application with an output voltage of 185VDC capable of 500W output power. The EWi...

  5. Effects of chiral three-nucleon forces on 4He-nucleus scattering in a wide range of incident energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokawa, Masakazu; Yahiro, Masanobu; Matsumoto, Takuma; Kohno, Michio

    2018-02-01

    An important current subject is to clarify the properties of chiral three-nucleon forces (3NFs) not only in nuclear matter but also in scattering between finite-size nuclei. Particularly for elastic scattering, this study has just started and the properties are not understood for a wide range of incident energies (E_in). We investigate basic properties of chiral 3NFs in nuclear matter with positive energies by using the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock method with chiral two-nucleon forces at N3LO and 3NFs at NNLO, and analyze the effects of chiral 3NFs on 4He elastic scattering from targets ^{208}Pb, ^{58}Ni, and ^{40}Ca over a wide range of 30 ≲ E_in/A_P ≲ 200 MeV by using the g-matrix folding model, where A_P is the mass number of the projectile. In symmetric nuclear matter with positive energies, chiral 3NFs make the single-particle potential less attractive and more absorptive. The effects mainly come from the Fujita-Miyazawa 2π-exchange 3NF and become slightly larger as E_in increases. These effects persist in the optical potentials of 4He scattering. As for the differential cross sections of 4He scattering, chiral-3NF effects are large for E_in/A_P ≳ 60 MeV and improve the agreement of the theoretical results with the measured ones. Particularly for E_in/A_P ≳ 100 MeV, the folding model reproduces measured differential cross sections pretty well. Cutoff (Λ) dependence is investigated for both nuclear matter and 4He scattering by considering two cases of Λ=450 and 550 MeV. The uncertainty coming from the dependence is smaller than chiral-3NF effects even at E_in/A_P=175 MeV.

  6. Determination of Germination Response to Temperature and Water Potential for a Wide Range of Cover Crop Species and Related Functional Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribouillois, Hélène; Dürr, Carolyne; Demilly, Didier; Wagner, Marie-Hélène; Justes, Eric

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of species can be sown as cover crops during fallow periods to provide various ecosystem services. Plant establishment is a key stage, especially when sowing occurs in summer with high soil temperatures and low water availability. The aim of this study was to determine the response of germination to temperature and water potential for diverse cover crop species. Based on these characteristics, we developed contrasting functional groups that group species with the same germination ability, which may be useful to adapt species choice to climatic sowing conditions. Germination of 36 different species from six botanical families was measured in the laboratory at eight temperatures ranging from 4.5-43°C and at four water potentials. Final germination percentages, germination rate, cardinal temperatures, base temperature and base water potential were calculated for each species. Optimal temperatures varied from 21.3-37.2°C, maximum temperatures at which the species could germinate varied from 27.7-43.0°C and base water potentials varied from -0.1 to -2.6 MPa. Most cover crops were adapted to summer sowing with a relatively high mean optimal temperature for germination, but some Fabaceae species were more sensitive to high temperatures. Species mainly from Poaceae and Brassicaceae were the most resistant to water deficit and germinated under a low base water potential. Species were classified, independent of family, according to their ability to germinate under a range of temperatures and according to their base water potential in order to group species by functional germination groups. These groups may help in choosing the most adapted cover crop species to sow based on climatic conditions in order to favor plant establishment and the services provided by cover crops during fallow periods. Our data can also be useful as germination parameters in crop models to simulate the emergence of cover crops under different pedoclimatic conditions and crop

  7. Reactivity of chars prepared from the pyrolysis of a Victorian lignite under a wide range of conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, H.; Mody, D.; Li, C.; Hayashi, J.; Chiba, T. [Monash University, Vic. (Australia). CRC for Clean Power from Lignite, Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2000-07-01

    A Loy Yang lignite sample was pyrolysed under a wide range of experimental conditions using a wire-mesh reactor, a fluidised-bed reactor, a drop-tube reformer and a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The reactivity of these char samples in CO{sub 2} and air was measured in the TGA as well as in the fluidised-bed reactor. A sample prepared by the physical impregnation of NaCl into the lignite was also used in order to investigate the effect of NaCl in the lignite on the reactivity of the resulting char. Our experimental results indicate that, due to the volatilisation of a substantial fraction of Na in the lignite substrate during pyrolysis, the true catalytic activity of the Na in the lignite substrate should be evaluated by measuring the sodium content in the char after pyrolysis. The char reactivity measured in situ in the fluidised-bed reactor was compared with that of the same char measured separately in the TGA after re-heating the char sample to the same temperature as that in the fluidised-bed. It was found that the re-heating of the char in the TGA reduced the char reactivity.

  8. Wide range of body composition measures are associated with cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Huiloo; Abdul Manaf, Zahara; Mat Ludin, Arimi Fitri; Shahar, Suzana

    2017-04-01

    Studies of the association between body composition, both body fat and body muscle, and cognitive function are rarely reported. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between a wide range of body composition measures with cognitive function in older adults. A total of 2322 Malaysian older adults aged 60 years and older were recruited using multistage random sampling in a population-based cross-sectional study. Out of 2322 older adults recruited, 2309 (48% men) completed assessments on cognitive function and body composition. Cognitive functions were assessed using the Malay version of the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Bahasa Malaysia version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Digit Span Test, Digit Symbol Test and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Body composition included body mass index, mid-upper arm circumference, waist circumference, calf circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, percentage body fat and skeletal muscle mass. The association between body composition and cognitive functions was analyzed using multiple linear regression. After adjustment for age, education years, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, depression, smoking status and alcohol consumption, we found that calf circumference appeared as a significant predictor for all cognitive tests among both men and women (P cognitive tests among women (P Cognitive Assessment among men (P older adults for optimal cognitive function. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 554-560. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  9. Vertical ground reaction force in stationary running in water and on land: A study with a wide range of cadences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito Fontana, Heiliane; Ruschel, Caroline; Dell'Antonio, Elisa; Haupenthal, Alessandro; Pereira, Gustavo Soares; Roesler, Helio

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of cadence, immersion level as well as body density on the vertical component (Fy max ) of ground reaction force (GRF) during stationary running (SR). In a controlled, laboratory study, thirty-two subjects ran at a wide range of cadences (85-210 steps/min) in water, immersed to the hip and to the chest, and on dry land. Fy max. was verified by a waterproof force measurement system and predicted based on a statistical model including cadence, immersion ratio and body density. The effect of cadence was shown to depend on the environment: while Fy max increases linearly with increasing cadence on land; in water, Fy max reaches a plateau at both hip and chest immersions. All factors analyzed, cadence, immersion level and body density affected Fy max significantly, with immersion (aquatic × land environment) showing the greatest effect. In water, different cadences may lead to bigger changes in Fy max than the changes obtained by moving subjects from hip to chest immersion. A regression model able to predict 69% of Fy max variability in water was proposed and validated. Cadence, Immersion and body density affect Fy max in a significant and non-independent way. Besides a model of potential use in the prescription of stationary running in water, our analysis provides insights into the different responses of GRF to changes in exercise parameters between land and aquatic environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Experimental validation of the intrinsic spatial efficiency method over a wide range of sizes for cylindrical sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-Ramŕez, Pablo, E-mail: rapeitor@ug.uchile.cl; Larroquette, Philippe [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile (Chile); Camilla, S. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana (Chile)

    2016-07-07

    The intrinsic spatial efficiency method is a new absolute method to determine the efficiency of a gamma spectroscopy system for any extended source. In the original work the method was experimentally demonstrated and validated for homogeneous cylindrical sources containing {sup 137}Cs, whose sizes varied over a small range (29.5 mm radius and 15.0 to 25.9 mm height). In this work we present an extension of the validation over a wide range of sizes. The dimensions of the cylindrical sources vary between 10 to 40 mm height and 8 to 30 mm radius. The cylindrical sources were prepared using the reference material IAEA-372, which had a specific activity of 11320 Bq/kg at july 2006. The obtained results were better for the sources with 29 mm radius showing relative bias lesser than 5% and for the sources with 10 mm height showing relative bias lesser than 6%. In comparison with the obtained results in the work where we present the method, the majority of these results show an excellent agreement.

  11. Development of a novel monoclonal antibody with reactivity to a wide range of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phelps Amanda L

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is currently a requirement for antiviral therapies capable of protecting against infection with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV, as a licensed vaccine is not available for general human use. Monoclonal antibodies are increasingly being developed as therapeutics and are potential treatments for VEEV as they have been shown to be protective in the mouse model of disease. However, to be truly effective, the antibody should recognise multiple strains of VEEV and broadly reactive monoclonal antibodies are rarely and only coincidentally isolated using classical hybridoma technology. Results In this work, methods were developed to reliably derive broadly reactive murine antibodies. A phage library was created that expressed single chain variable fragments (scFv isolated from mice immunised with multiple strains of VEEV. A broadly reactive scFv was identified and incorporated into a murine IgG2a framework. This novel antibody retained the broad reactivity exhibited by the scFv but did not possess virus neutralising activity. However, the antibody was still able to protect mice against VEEV disease induced by strain TrD when administered 24 h prior to challenge. Conclusion A monoclonal antibody possessing reactivity to a wide range of VEEV strains may be of benefit as a generic antiviral therapy. However, humanisation of the murine antibody will be required before it can be tested in humans. Crown Copyright © 2009

  12. Wide-range light-harvesting donor-acceptor assemblies through specific intergelator interactions via self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Suman K; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2012-12-03

    We have synthesized two new low-molecular-mass organogelators based on tri-p-phenylene vinylene derivatives, one of which could be designated as the donor whereas the other one is an acceptor. These were prepared specifically to show the intergelator interactions at the molecular level by using donor-acceptor self-assembly to achieve appropriate control over their macroscopic properties. Intermolecular hydrogen-bonding, π-stacking, and van der Waals interactions operate for both the individual components and the mixtures, leading to the formation of gels in the chosen organic solvents. Evidence for intergelator interactions was acquired from various spectroscopic, microscopic, thermal, and mechanical investigations. Due to the photochromic nature of these molecules, interesting photophysical properties, such as solvatochromism and J-type aggregation, were clearly observed. An efficient energy transfer was exhibited by the mixture of donor-acceptor assemblies. An array of four chromophores was built up by inclusion of two known dyes (anthracene and rhodamine 6G) for the energy-transfer studies. Interestingly, an energy-transfer cascade was observed in the assembly of four chromophores in a particular order (anthracene-donor-acceptor-rhodamine 6G), and if one of the components was removed from the assembly the energy transfer process was discontinued. This allowed the build up of a light-harvesting process with a wide range. Excitation at one end produces an emission at the other end of the assembly. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. The initial magnetic susceptibility of polydisperse ferrofluids: A comparison between experiment and theory over a wide range of concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solovyova, Anna Y.; Goldina, Olga A.; Ivanov, Alexey O.; Elfimova, Ekaterina A.; Lebedev, Aleksandr V.

    2016-01-01

    Temperature dependencies of the static initial magnetic susceptibility for ferrofluids at various concentrations are studied using experiment and statistical-mechanical theories. Magnetic susceptibility measurements are carried out for twelve samples of magnetite-based fluids stabilized with oleic acid over a wide range of temperatures (210 K ≲T ≲ 390 K); all samples have the same granulometric composition but different volume ferroparticle concentrations (0.2 ≲ φ ≲ 0.5). Experimental results are analyzed using three theories: the second-order modified mean-field theory (MMF2) [A. O. Ivanov and O. B. Kuznetsova, Phys. Rev. E 64, 41405 (2001)]; its correction for polydisperse ferrofluids arising from Mayer-type cluster expansion and taking into account the first terms of the polydisperse second virial coefficient [A. O. Ivanov and E. A. Elfimova, J. Magn. Magn. Mater 374, 327 (2015)]; and a new theory based on MMF2 combined with the first terms of the polydisperse second and third virial contributions to susceptibility. It turns out that the applicability of each theory depends on the experimental sample density. If twelve ferrofluid samples are split into three groups of strong, moderate, and low concentrated fluids, the temperature dependences of the initial magnetic susceptibility in each group are very precisely described by one of the three theories mentioned above. The determination of a universal formula predicting a ferrofluid susceptibility over a broad range of concentrations and temperatures remains as a challenge.

  14. Liquid-phase turbulence measurements in air-water two-phase flows over a wide range of void fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xinquan [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, 201 W. 19th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Sun, Xiaodong, E-mail: sun.200@osu.edu [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, 201 W. 19th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Liu, Yang [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Tech, 635 Prices Fork Road, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    This paper focuses on liquid-phase turbulence measurements in air-water two-phase flows over a wide range of void fractions and flow regimes, spanning from bubbly, cap-bubbly, slug, to churn-turbulent flows. The measurements have been conducted in two test facilities, the first one with a circular test section and the second one with a rectangular test section. A particle image velocimetry-planar laser-induced fluorescence (PIV-PLIF) system was used to acquire local liquid-phase turbulence information, including the time-averaged velocity and velocity fluctuations in the streamwise and spanwise directions, and Reynolds stress. An optical phase separation method using fluorescent particles and optical filtration technique was adopted to extract the liquid-phase velocity information. An image pre-processing scheme was imposed on the raw PIV images acquired to remove noise due to the presence of bubble residuals and optically distorted particles in the raw PIV images. Four-sensor conductivity probes and high-speed images were also used to acquire the gas-phase information, which was aimed to understand the flow interfacial structure. The highest area-averaged void fraction covered in the measurements for the circular and rectangular test sections was about 40%.

  15. Kinetic particle simulation study of parallel heat transport in scrape-off layer plasmas over a wide range of collisionalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froese, Aaron; Takizuka, Tomonori; Yagi, Masatoshi

    2010-01-01

    Fluid models are not generally applicable to fusion edge plasmas without external provision of kinetic factors: closure parameters and boundary conditions inside the sheath region. We explain the PARASOL-1D simulation, a particle-in-cell code with a binary collision Monte-Carlo model, and use it to determine four kinetic factors commonly needed in fluid codes. These are the electron and ion heat flux limiting factors, α e and α i , the ion adiabatic index, γ A , and the electron and ion temperature anisotropy, T ‖ /T ⊥ . We survey these factors over a wide range of collisionalities and find that, as predicted, the conductive heat flux is accurately described by the Spitzer-Härm expression in the collisional limit and asymptotes to a constant value in the collisionless limit. However, unique behavior occurs in the weakly collisional regime when the ratio of the mean free path to connection length is 0.1 < λ mfp /L ‖ < 10, when the SOL is between the conduction- and sheath-limited regimes. We find that α e can peak, becoming larger than the collisionless limit, γ A is less than unity, and only the ions are anisotropic. The effects of electron energy radiation and Langevin heating are explored. Finally, the strong deviations of the energy distribution function from Maxwellian in the weakly collisional and collisionless regimes are explained. (author)

  16. Hybrid feedforward and feedback controller design for nuclear steam generators over wide range operation using genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y.; Edwards, R.M.; Lee, K.Y.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, a simplified model with a lower order is first developed for a nuclear steam generator system and verified against some realistic environments. Based on this simplified model, a hybrid multi-input and multi-out (MIMO) control system, consisting of feedforward control (FFC) and feedback control (FBC), is designed for wide range conditions by using the genetic algorithm (GA) technique. The FFC control, obtained by the GA optimization method, injects an a priori command input into the system to achieve an optimal performance for the designed system, while the GA-based FBC control provides the necessary compensation for any disturbances or uncertainties in a real steam generator. The FBC control is an optimal design of a PI-based control system which would be more acceptable for industrial practices and power plant control system upgrades. The designed hybrid MIMO FFC/FBC control system is first applied to the simplified model and then to a more complicated model with a higher order which is used as a substitute of the real system to test the efficacy of the designed control system. Results from computer simulations show that the designed GA-based hybrid MIMO FFC/FBC control can achieve good responses and robust performances. Hence, it can be considered as a viable alternative to the current control system upgrade

  17. Plasmid integration in a wide range of bacteria mediated by the integrase of Lactobacillus delbrueckii bacteriophage mv4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvray, F; Coddeville, M; Ritzenthaler, P; Dupont, L

    1997-01-01

    Bacteriophage mv4 is a temperate phage infecting Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. During lysogenization, the phage integrates its genome into the host chromosome at the 3' end of a tRNA(Ser) gene through a site-specific recombination process (L. Dupont et al., J. Bacteriol., 177:586-595, 1995). A nonreplicative vector (pMC1) based on the mv4 integrative elements (attP site and integrase-coding int gene) is able to integrate into the chromosome of a wide range of bacterial hosts, including Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei (two strains), Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Integrative recombination of pMC1 into the chromosomes of all of these species is dependent on the int gene product and occurs specifically at the pMC1 attP site. The isolation and sequencing of pMC1 integration sites from these bacteria showed that in lactobacilli, pMC1 integrated into the conserved tRNA(Ser) gene. In the other bacterial species where this tRNA gene is less or not conserved; secondary integration sites either in potential protein-coding regions or in intergenic DNA were used. A consensus sequence was deduced from the analysis of the different integration sites. The comparison of these sequences demonstrated the flexibility of the integrase for the bacterial integration site and suggested the importance of the trinucleotide CCT at the 5' end of the core in the strand exchange reaction. PMID:9068626

  18. Supercritical Fluid Chromatography of Drugs: Parallel Factor Analysis for Column Testing in a Wide Range of Operational Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Degs, Yahya; Andri, Bertyl; Thiébaut, Didier; Vial, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    Retention mechanisms involved in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) are influenced by interdependent parameters (temperature, pressure, chemistry of the mobile phase, and nature of the stationary phase), a complexity which makes the selection of a proper stationary phase for a given separation a challenging step. For the first time in SFC studies, Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) was employed to evaluate the chromatographic behavior of eight different stationary phases in a wide range of chromatographic conditions (temperature, pressure, and gradient elution composition). Design of Experiment was used to optimize experiments involving 14 pharmaceutical compounds present in biological and/or environmental samples and with dissimilar physicochemical properties. The results showed the superiority of PARAFAC for the analysis of the three-way (column × drug × condition) data array over unfolding the multiway array to matrices and performing several classical principal component analyses. Thanks to the PARAFAC components, similarity in columns' function, chromatographic trend of drugs, and correlation between separation conditions could be simply depicted: columns were grouped according to their H-bonding forces, while gradient composition was dominating for condition classification. Also, the number of drugs could be efficiently reduced for columns classification as some of them exhibited a similar behavior, as shown by hierarchical clustering based on PARAFAC components. PMID:28695040

  19. Supercritical Fluid Chromatography of Drugs: Parallel Factor Analysis for Column Testing in a Wide Range of Operational Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramia Z. Al Bakain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Retention mechanisms involved in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC are influenced by interdependent parameters (temperature, pressure, chemistry of the mobile phase, and nature of the stationary phase, a complexity which makes the selection of a proper stationary phase for a given separation a challenging step. For the first time in SFC studies, Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC was employed to evaluate the chromatographic behavior of eight different stationary phases in a wide range of chromatographic conditions (temperature, pressure, and gradient elution composition. Design of Experiment was used to optimize experiments involving 14 pharmaceutical compounds present in biological and/or environmental samples and with dissimilar physicochemical properties. The results showed the superiority of PARAFAC for the analysis of the three-way (column × drug × condition data array over unfolding the multiway array to matrices and performing several classical principal component analyses. Thanks to the PARAFAC components, similarity in columns’ function, chromatographic trend of drugs, and correlation between separation conditions could be simply depicted: columns were grouped according to their H-bonding forces, while gradient composition was dominating for condition classification. Also, the number of drugs could be efficiently reduced for columns classification as some of them exhibited a similar behavior, as shown by hierarchical clustering based on PARAFAC components.

  20. Liquid-phase turbulence measurements in air-water two-phase flows over a wide range of void fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xinquan; Sun, Xiaodong; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on liquid-phase turbulence measurements in air-water two-phase flows over a wide range of void fractions and flow regimes, spanning from bubbly, cap-bubbly, slug, to churn-turbulent flows. The measurements have been conducted in two test facilities, the first one with a circular test section and the second one with a rectangular test section. A particle image velocimetry-planar laser-induced fluorescence (PIV-PLIF) system was used to acquire local liquid-phase turbulence information, including the time-averaged velocity and velocity fluctuations in the streamwise and spanwise directions, and Reynolds stress. An optical phase separation method using fluorescent particles and optical filtration technique was adopted to extract the liquid-phase velocity information. An image pre-processing scheme was imposed on the raw PIV images acquired to remove noise due to the presence of bubble residuals and optically distorted particles in the raw PIV images. Four-sensor conductivity probes and high-speed images were also used to acquire the gas-phase information, which was aimed to understand the flow interfacial structure. The highest area-averaged void fraction covered in the measurements for the circular and rectangular test sections was about 40%.

  1. Identifying the most promising genotypes in lentil for cultivation in a wide range of environments of Pakistan using various yield stability measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Zahid, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was aimed to identify the most promising high yielding lentil genotype for a wide range of environments of Pakistan using 8 stability measures. The experiment consisted of 12 lentil genotypes grown at 11 locations falling in different agro-ecological zones of Pakistan for 2 years during 2006/07 and 2007/08 under national uniform yield testing. The General Linear Model (GLM) of MINITAB (version 15) was used for two-way analysis of variance for lentil yield data to examine the total variation into genotypes, environments and genotype x environment interaction. The percent variation of 2 major contributors, environment and GxE interaction, was permissible to perform stability analysis to evaluate stable genotypes across the environments. The genotype x environment interaction means were used for eight stability measures (genotype mean, genotype variance, coefficient of variation, ecovalence, interaction variance, regression slope, deviation mean square, coefficient of determination). The stability measures depicted that the genotype NARC-06-1 with high mean yield (1140 kg/ha -1/), regression slope (1.09) close to unity and less statistics of remaining stability measures except high value of R/sup 2/ for yield proved to be the best within the pool of studied genotypes. The results clearly suggest that the genotype NARC-06-1 may prove to be a widely adapted high yielding stable variety for a broad spectrum of environments of Pakistan. (author)

  2. THE PLASMA ENVIRONMENT IN COMETS OVER A WIDE RANGE OF HELIOCENTRIC DISTANCES: APPLICATION TO COMET C/2006 P1 (MCNAUGHT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shou, Y.; Combi, M.; Gombosi, T.; Toth, G. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Jia, Y.-D. [IGPP, and EPSS, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Rubin, M. [Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse. 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2015-08-20

    On 2007 January 12, comet C/2006 P1 (McNaught) passed its perihelion at 0.17 AU. Abundant remote observations offer plenty of information on the neutral composition and neutral velocities within 1 million kilometers of the comet nucleus. In early February, the Ulysses spacecraft made an in situ measurement of the ion composition, plasma velocity, and magnetic field when passing through the distant ion tail and the ambient solar wind. The measurement by Ulysses was made when the comet was at around 0.8 AU. With the constraints provided by remote and in situ observations, we simulated the plasma environment of Comet C/2006 P1 (McNaught) using a multi-species comet MHD model over a wide range of heliocentric distances from 0.17 to 1.75 AU. The solar wind interaction of the comet at various locations is characterized and typical subsolar standoff distances of the bow shock and contact surface are presented and compared to analytic solutions. We find the variation in the bow shock standoff distances at different heliocentric distances is smaller than the contact surface. In addition, we modified the multi-species model for the case when the comet was at 0.7 AU and achieved comparable water group ion abundances, proton densities, plasma velocities, and plasma temperatures to the Ulysses/SWICS and SWOOPS observations. We discuss the dominating chemical reactions throughout the comet-solar wind interaction region and demonstrate the link between the ion composition near the comet and in the distant tail as measured by Ulysses.

  3. Wide range of interacting partners of pea Gβ subunit of G-proteins suggests its multiple functions in cell signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Deepak; Lakhanpaul, Suman; Tuteja, Narendra

    2012-09-01

    Climate change is a major concern especially in view of the increasing global population and food security. Plant scientists need to look for genetic tools whose appropriate usage can contribute to sustainable food availability. G-proteins have been identified as some of the potential genetic tools that could be useful for protecting plants from various stresses. Heterotrimeric G-proteins consisting of three subunits Gα, Gβ and Gγ are important components of a number of signalling pathways. Their structure and functions are already well studied in animals but their potential in plants is now gaining attention for their role in stress tolerance. Earlier we have reported that over expressing pea Gβ conferred heat tolerance in tobacco plants. Here we report the interacting partners (proteins) of Gβ subunit of Pisum sativum and their putative role in stress and development. Out of 90 transformants isolated from the yeast-two-hybrid (Y2H) screening, seven were chosen for further investigation due to their recurrence in multiple experiments. These interacting partners were confirmed using β-galactosidase colony filter lift and ONPG (O-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside) assays. These partners include thioredoxin H, histidine-containing phosphotransfer protein 5-like, pathogenesis-related protein, glucan endo-beta-1, 3-glucosidase (acidic isoform), glycine rich RNA binding protein, cold and drought-regulated protein (corA gene) and soluble inorganic pyrophosphatase 1. This study suggests the role of pea Gβ subunit in stress signal transduction and development pathways owing to its capability to interact with a wide range of proteins of multiple functions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. THE PLASMA ENVIRONMENT IN COMETS OVER A WIDE RANGE OF HELIOCENTRIC DISTANCES: APPLICATION TO COMET C/2006 P1 (MCNAUGHT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shou, Y.; Combi, M.; Gombosi, T.; Toth, G.; Jia, Y.-D.; Rubin, M.

    2015-01-01

    On 2007 January 12, comet C/2006 P1 (McNaught) passed its perihelion at 0.17 AU. Abundant remote observations offer plenty of information on the neutral composition and neutral velocities within 1 million kilometers of the comet nucleus. In early February, the Ulysses spacecraft made an in situ measurement of the ion composition, plasma velocity, and magnetic field when passing through the distant ion tail and the ambient solar wind. The measurement by Ulysses was made when the comet was at around 0.8 AU. With the constraints provided by remote and in situ observations, we simulated the plasma environment of Comet C/2006 P1 (McNaught) using a multi-species comet MHD model over a wide range of heliocentric distances from 0.17 to 1.75 AU. The solar wind interaction of the comet at various locations is characterized and typical subsolar standoff distances of the bow shock and contact surface are presented and compared to analytic solutions. We find the variation in the bow shock standoff distances at different heliocentric distances is smaller than the contact surface. In addition, we modified the multi-species model for the case when the comet was at 0.7 AU and achieved comparable water group ion abundances, proton densities, plasma velocities, and plasma temperatures to the Ulysses/SWICS and SWOOPS observations. We discuss the dominating chemical reactions throughout the comet-solar wind interaction region and demonstrate the link between the ion composition near the comet and in the distant tail as measured by Ulysses

  5. EVIDENCE FOR A WIDE RANGE OF ULTRAVIOLET OBSCURATION IN z {approx} 2 DUSTY GALAXIES FROM THE GOODS-HERSCHEL SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, Kyle [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Dickinson, Mark; Dey, Arjun; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Pope, Alexandra [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Magnelli, Benjamin [Max Planck Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Pannella, Maurilio; Aussel, Herve; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, CEA-Saclay, pt courrier 131, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Altieri, Bruno; Coia, Daniela [Herschel Science Center, European Space Astronomy Center, Villanueva de la Canada, E-28691 Madrid (Spain); Buat, Veronique [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, OAMP, Universite Aix-marseille, CNRS, 38 rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Bussmann, Shane; Hwang, Ho Seong [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Charmandaris, Vassilis [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Dannerbauer, Helmut [Institut fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Wien, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Lin Lihwai [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Magdis, Georgios [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Morrison, Glenn, E-mail: kpenner@as.arizona.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); and others

    2012-11-01

    Dusty galaxies at z {approx} 2 span a wide range of relative brightness between rest-frame mid-infrared (8 {mu}m) and ultraviolet wavelengths. We attempt to determine the physical mechanism responsible for this diversity. Dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs), which have rest-frame mid-IR to UV flux density ratios {approx}> 1000, might be abnormally bright in the mid-IR, perhaps due to prominent emission from active galactic nuclei and/or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, or abnormally faint in the UV. We use far-infrared data from the GOODS-Herschel survey to show that most DOGs with 10{sup 12} L {sub Sun} {approx}< L {sub IR} {approx}< 10{sup 13} L {sub Sun} are not abnormally bright in the mid-IR when compared to other dusty galaxies with similar IR (8-1000 {mu}m) luminosities. We observe a relation between the median IR to UV luminosity ratios and the median UV continuum power-law indices for these galaxies, and we find that only 24% have specific star formation rates that indicate the dominance of compact star-forming regions. This circumstantial evidence supports the idea that the UV- and IR-emitting regions in these galaxies are spatially coincident, which implies a connection between the abnormal UV faintness of DOGs and dust obscuration. We conclude that the range in rest-frame mid-IR to UV flux density ratios spanned by dusty galaxies at z {approx} 2 is due to differing amounts of UV obscuration. Of galaxies with these IR luminosities, DOGs are the most obscured. We attribute differences in UV obscuration to either (1) differences in the degree of alignment between the spatial distributions of dust and massive stars or (2) differences in the total dust content.

  6. Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide-Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karagiozis, A.N.

    2007-05-15

    This document serves as the final report documenting work completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Fraunhofer Institute in Building Physics (Holzkirchen, Germany) under an international CRADA No. 0575 with Fraunhofer Institute of Bauphysics of the Federal Republic of Germany for Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads. This CRADA required a multi-faceted approach to building envelope research that included a moisture engineering approach by blending extensive material property analysis, laboratory system and sub-system thermal and moisture testing, and advanced moisture analysis prediction performance. The Participant's Institute for Building physics (IBP) and the Contractor's Buildings Technology Center (BTC) identified potential research projects and activities capable of accelerating and advancing the development of innovative, low energy and durable building envelope systems in diverse climates. This allowed a major leverage of the limited resources available to ORNL to execute the required Department of Energy (DOE) directives in the area of moisture engineering. A joint working group (ORNL and Fraunhofer IBP) was assembled and a research plan was executed from May 2000 to May 2005. A number of key deliverables were produced such as adoption of North American loading into the WUFI-software. in addition the ORNL Weather File Analyzer was created and this has been used to address environmental loading for a variety of US climates. At least 4 papers have been co-written with the CRADA partners, and a chapter in the ASTM Manual 40 on Moisture Analysis and Condensation Control. All deliverables and goals were met and exceeded making this collaboration a success to all parties involves.

  7. Live cell plasma membranes do not exhibit a miscibility phase transition over a wide range of temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Il-Hyung; Saha, Suvrajit; Polley, Anirban; Huang, Hector; Mayor, Satyajit; Rao, Madan; Groves, Jay T

    2015-03-26

    Lipid/cholesterol mixtures derived from cell membranes as well as their synthetic reconstitutions exhibit well-defined miscibility phase transitions and critical phenomena near physiological temperatures. This suggests that lipid/cholesterol-mediated phase separation plays a role in the organization of live cell membranes. However, macroscopic lipid-phase separation is not generally observed in cell membranes, and the degree to which properties of isolated lipid mixtures are preserved in the cell membrane remain unknown. A fundamental property of phase transitions is that the variation of tagged particle diffusion with temperature exhibits an abrupt change as the system passes through the transition, even when the two phases are distributed in a nanometer-scale emulsion. We support this using a variety of Monte Carlo and atomistic simulations on model lipid membrane systems. However, temperature-dependent fluorescence correlation spectroscopy of labeled lipids and membrane-anchored proteins in live cell membranes shows a consistently smooth increase in the diffusion coefficient as a function of temperature. We find no evidence of a discrete miscibility phase transition throughout a wide range of temperatures: 14-37 °C. This contrasts the behavior of giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs) blebbed from the same cells, which do exhibit phase transitions and macroscopic phase separation. Fluorescence lifetime analysis of a DiI probe in both cases reveals a significant environmental difference between the live cell and the GPMV. Taken together, these data suggest the live cell membrane may avoid the miscibility phase transition inherent to its lipid constituents by actively regulating physical parameters, such as tension, in the membrane.

  8. Acidic pH shock induces the expressions of a wide range of stress-response genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Soon-Kwang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental signals usually enhance secondary metabolite production in Streptomycetes by initiating complex signal transduction system. It is known that different sigma factors respond to different types of stresses, respectively in Streptomyces strains, which have a number of unique signal transduction mechanisms depending on the types of environmental shock. In this study, we wanted to know how a pH shock would affect the expression of various sigma factors and shock-related proteins in S. coelicolor A3(2. Results According to the results of transcriptional and proteomic analyses, the major number of sigma factor genes were upregulated by an acidic pH shock. Well-studied sigma factor genes of sigH (heat shock, sigR (oxidative stress, sigB (osmotic shock, and hrdD that play a major role in the secondary metabolism, were all strongly upregulated by the pH shock. A number of heat shock proteins including the DnaK family and chaperones such as GroEL2 were also observed to be upregulated by the pH shock, while their repressor of hspR was strongly downregulated. Oxidative stress-related proteins such as thioredoxin, catalase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and osmotic shock-related protein such as vesicle synthases were also upregulated in overall. Conclusion From these observations, an acidic pH shock was considered to be one of the strongest stresses to influence a wide range of sigma factors and shock-related proteins including general stress response proteins. The upregulation of the sigma factors and shock proteins already found to be related to actinorhodin biosynthesis was considered to have contributed to enhanced actinorhodin productivity by mediating the pH shock signal to regulators or biosynthesis genes for actinorhodin production.

  9. Not to put too fine a point on it - does increasing precision of geographic referencing improve species distribution models for a wide-ranging migratory bat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Mark A.; Ozenberger, Katharine; Cryan, Paul M.; Wunder, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Bat specimens held in natural history museum collections can provide insights into the distribution of species. However, there are several important sources of spatial error associated with natural history specimens that may influence the analysis and mapping of bat species distributions. We analyzed the importance of geographic referencing and error correction in species distribution modeling (SDM) using occurrence records of hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus). This species is known to migrate long distances and is a species of increasing concern due to fatalities documented at wind energy facilities in North America. We used 3,215 museum occurrence records collected from 1950–2000 for hoary bats in North America. We compared SDM performance using five approaches: generalized linear models, multivariate adaptive regression splines, boosted regression trees, random forest, and maximum entropy models. We evaluated results using three SDM performance metrics (AUC, sensitivity, and specificity) and two data sets: one comprised of the original occurrence data, and a second data set consisting of these same records after the locations were adjusted to correct for identifiable spatial errors. The increase in precision improved the mean estimated spatial error associated with hoary bat records from 5.11 km to 1.58 km, and this reduction in error resulted in a slight increase in all three SDM performance metrics. These results provide insights into the importance of geographic referencing and the value of correcting spatial errors in modeling the distribution of a wide-ranging bat species. We conclude that the considerable time and effort invested in carefully increasing the precision of the occurrence locations in this data set was not worth the marginal gains in improved SDM performance, and it seems likely that gains would be similar for other bat species that range across large areas of the continent, migrate, and are habitat generalists.

  10. Modeling and Simulation of - and Silicon Germanium-Base Bipolar Transistors Operating at a Wide Range of Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheed, M. Reaz

    1995-01-01

    to provide consistently accurate values for base sheet resistance for both Si- and SiGe-base transistors over a wide range of temperatures. A model for plasma-induced bandgap narrowing suitable for implementation in a numerical simulator has been developed. The appropriate method of incorporating this model in a drift -diffusion solver is described. The importance of including this model for low temperature simulation is demonstrated. With these models in place, the enhanced simulator has been used for evaluating and designing the Si- and SiGe-base bipolar transistors. Silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistors offer significant performance and cost advantages over conventional technologies in the production of integrated circuits for communications, computer and transportation applications. Their high frequency performance at low cost, will find widespread use in the currently exploding wireless communication market. However, the high performance SiGe-base transistors are prone to have a low common-emitter breakdown voltage. In this dissertation, a modification in the collector design is proposed for improving the breakdown voltage without sacrificing the high frequency performance. A comprehensive simulation study of p-n-p SiGe-base transistors has been performed. Different figures of merit such as drive current, current gain, cut -off frequency and Early voltage were compared between a graded germanium profile and an abrupt germanium profile. The differences in the performance level between the two profiles diminishes as the base width is scaled down.

  11. Genomic Characterization of Urethritis-Associated Neisseria meningitidis Shows that a Wide Range of N. meningitidis Strains Can Cause Urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kevin C; Unemo, Magnus; Jeverica, Samo; Kirkcaldy, Robert D; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Ohnishi, Makoto; Grad, Yonatan H

    2017-12-01

    Neisseria meningitidis , typically a resident of the oro- or nasopharynx and the causative agent of meningococcal meningitis and meningococcemia, is capable of invading and colonizing the urogenital tract. This can result in urethritis, akin to the syndrome caused by its sister species, N. gonorrhoeae , the etiologic agent of gonorrhea. Recently, meningococcal strains associated with outbreaks of urethritis were reported to share genetic characteristics with the gonococcus, raising the question of the extent to which these strains contain features that promote adaptation to the genitourinary niche, making them gonococcus-like and distinguishing them from other N. meningitidis strains. Here, we analyzed the genomes of 39 diverse N. meningitidis isolates associated with urethritis, collected independently over a decade and across three continents. In particular, we characterized the diversity of the nitrite reductase gene ( aniA ), the factor H-binding protein gene ( fHbp ), and the capsule biosynthetic locus, all of which are loci previously suggested to be associated with urogenital colonization. We observed notable diversity, including frameshift variants, in aniA and fHbp and the presence of intact, disrupted, and absent capsule biosynthetic genes, indicating that urogenital colonization and urethritis caused by N. meningitidis are possible across a range of meningococcal genotypes. Previously identified allelic patterns in urethritis-associated N. meningitidis strains may reflect genetic diversity in the underlying meningococcal population rather than novel adaptation to the urogenital tract. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Wastes vitrification by plasma torch: study of a glass formulation compatible with a wide range of B wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poitou, S.; Richaud, D.; Fiquet, O.; Gramondi, P.; Massit, H.

    2001-01-01

    Within the context of radioactive waste management, CEA has equipped itself with a 'PLASMARC' device. The central element of this device is a plasma torch treatment furnace. It has been implemented and validated for the vitrification of low level radioactive wastes. Meanwhile, the plasma torch presents potentially interests for immobilizing under an inert form in vitreous matrices, B wastes which are generally divided and of complex chemical composition. The application of this process to this type of wastes has been studied here. The obtained results show that with the plasma torch it is possible to make glasses with a high amount of silicon and aluminium oxide and which are adapted to the treatment / packaging of the B wastes. (O.M.)

  13. Improved Fuzzy Logic based DTC of Induction machine for wide range of speed control using AI based controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sudheer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents improvements in Direct Torque control of induction motor using Fuzzy logic switching controller (FDTC. The conventional DTC (CDTC and FDTC drive performance is compared using Conventional PI, Fuzzy controller and Neural Network controllers. The major disadvantages of CDTC are high torque and flux ripples in steady state operation of the drive, inferior performance at low speed operation and variable switching frequency. The presence of hysteresis bands is the major reason for high torque and flux ripples in CDTC. In FDTC the hysteresis band and switching table are replaced by Fuzzy logic switching controller. Using fuzzy logic torque, stator flux space are divided into smaller subsections which results in precise and optimal selection of switching state to meet load torque. In high performance drives accurate tuning of PI speed controller is required. The conventional PI controller cannot adapt to the variation in model parameters. Artificial intelligence based fuzzy controller and neural network controller are compared with PI controller for both CDTC and FDTC of Induction machine. The proposed schemes are developed in Matlab/Simulink environment. Simulation results shows reduction in torque and flux ripples in FDTC and dynamic performance of the drive at low speeds and sudden change in load torque can be improved using Fuzzy logic controller compared to PI and neural network controller.

  14. High variation and very low differentiation in wide ranging plains zebra (Equus quagga): insights from mtDNA and microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Eline D; Arctander, Peter; Siegismund, Hans R

    2008-06-01

    Patterns of genetic differentiation in the plains zebra (Equus quagga) were analysed using mitochondrial DNA control region variation and seven microsatellites. The six morphologically defined subspecies of plains zebra lacked the population genetic structure indicative of distinct evolutionary units. Both marker sets showed high levels of genetic variation and very low levels of differentiation. There was no geographical structuring of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in the phylogenetic tree, and the plains zebra showed the lowest overall differentiation recorded in any African ungulate studied so far. Arid-adapted African ungulates have shown significant regional genetic structuring in support of the Pleistocene refuge theory. This was not the case in the zebra, and the data are discussed in relation to the impact of Pleistocene climate change on a nonbovid member of the savannah ungulate community. The only other species showing a similar absence of genetic structuring is the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), but this taxon lacks the high levels of morphological variation present in the plains zebra.

  15. Molecular basis for the wide range of affinity found in Csr/Rsm protein-RNA recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duss, Olivier; Michel, Erich; Diarra dit Konté, Nana; Schubert, Mario; Allain, Frédéric H-T

    2014-04-01

    The carbon storage regulator/regulator of secondary metabolism (Csr/Rsm) type of small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) is widespread throughout bacteria and acts by sequestering the global translation repressor protein CsrA/RsmE from the ribosome binding site of a subset of mRNAs. Although we have previously described the molecular basis of a high affinity RNA target bound to RsmE, it remains unknown how other lower affinity targets are recognized by the same protein. Here, we have determined the nuclear magnetic resonance solution structures of five separate GGA binding motifs of the sRNA RsmZ of Pseudomonas fluorescens in complex with RsmE. The structures explain how the variation of sequence and structural context of the GGA binding motifs modulate the binding affinity for RsmE by five orders of magnitude (∼10 nM to ∼3 mM, Kd). Furthermore, we see that conformational adaptation of protein side-chains and RNA enable recognition of different RNA sequences by the same protein contributing to binding affinity without conferring specificity. Overall, our findings illustrate how the variability in the Csr/Rsm protein-RNA recognition allows a fine-tuning of the competition between mRNAs and sRNAs for the CsrA/RsmE protein.

  16. A Matrix-Based Structure for Vario-Scale Vector Representation over a Wide Range of Map Scales : The Case of River Network Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, L.; Ai, Tinghua; van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Yan, Xiongfeng; Yang, Min

    2017-01-01

    The representation of vector data at variable scales has been widely applied in geographic information systems and map-based services. When the scale changes across a wide range, a complex generalization that involves multiple operations is required to transform the data. To present such complex

  17. Pearl Harbor Biological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-30

    Pearl Harbor also receives Irrigation tailgate waters from the Oahu Sug- ar Company, Industrial waste waters from the Prlmo Brewery , and heated waters...34Observations of the Cell Structure of Salt Fingers", J. Fluid Mech. 41:4, pp 707-719. ~) 3.3-79 ,’:•.-. ^ IV s’V- EFFECTS OF SHIP ACTIVITY Paul L...anticyclonic) death assemblage - in this report, an assemblage (q.v.) of remains (such as shells or bones ) from a naturally occurring association of living

  18. Electron-impact rotationally elastic total cross sections for H2CO and HCOOH over a wide range of incident energy (0.01-2000 eV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinodkumar, Minaxi; Bhutadia, Harshad; Antony, Bobby; Mason, Nigel

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports computational results of the total cross sections for electron impact on H 2 CO and HCOOH over a wide range of electron impact energies from 0.01 eV to 2 keV. The total cross section is presented as sum of the elastic and electronic excitation cross sections for incident energies. The calculation uses two different methodologies, below the ionization threshold of the target the cross section is calculated using the UK molecular R-matrix code through the Quantemol-N software package while cross sections at higher energies are evaluated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The two methods are found to be consistent at the transition energy (∼15 eV). The present results are, in general, found to be in good agreement with previous experimental and theoretical results (wherever available) and, thus, the present results can serve as a benchmark for the cross section over a wide range of energy.

  19. Wide range radiation monitoring apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, N.P.

    1983-01-01

    There is described a simple and rugged detector capable of measuring radiation fields over the range of 0.02 R/hr up to 10/8 R/hr or higher. The device consists of an emitter element of high atomic number material which is connected to the center conductor of a signal cable. This emitter element is positioned in a spaced-apart relationship between collector element of a low atomic number material with a gap region between the emitter element and the adjacent collector elements

  20. Wide range neutron monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okido, Fumiyasu; Arita, Setsuo; Ishii, Kazuhiko; Matsumiya, Shoichi; Furusato, Ken-ichiro; Nishida, Akira.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention has a function of reliably switching measuring values between a pulse method and a Cambel method even if noise level and saturated level are fluctuated. That is, a proportional range judging means always monitors neutron flux measuring values in a start-up region and neutron flux measuring values in an intermediate power region, so that the proportional range is detected depending on whether the difference or a variation coefficient of both of the measured values is constant or not. A switching value determining means determines a switching value by the result of judgement of the proportional range judging means. A selection/output means selects and outputs measuring signals at a neutron flux level in the start-up region or the intermediate power region by the output of the switching value determining means. With such procedures, since the measuring value is switched after confirming that arrival at the proportional range where the difference or a variation coefficient of the measured value between the pulse processing method and the measured value by the Cambel method is constant, an accurate neutron flux level containing neither noise level nor saturated level can be outputted. (I.S.)

  1. Lack of parental rule-setting on eating is associated with a wide range of adolescent unhealthy eating behaviour both for boys and girls

    OpenAIRE

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Unhealthy eating habits in adolescence lead to a wide variety of health problems and disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of absence of parental rules on eating and unhealthy eating behaviour and to explore the relationships between parental rules on eating and a wide range of unhealthy eating habits of boys and girls. We also explored the association of sociodemographic characteristics such as gender, family affluence or parental education with ea...

  2. NIRS determination of non-structural carbohydrates, water soluble carbohydrates and other nutritive quality traits in whole plant maize with wide range variability

    OpenAIRE

    L. Campo; A. B. Monteagudo; B. Salleres; P. Castro; J. Moreno-Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the potential of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), water soluble carbohydrates (WSC), in vitro organic dry matter digestibility (IVOMD), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and starch in samples of whole plant maize with a wide range of variability. The samples were analyzed in reflectance mode by a spectrophotometer FOSS NIRSystems 6500. ...

  3. Insights Gained from the Dehalococcoides ethenogenes Strain 195’s Transcriptome Responding to a Wide Range of Respiration Rates and Substrate Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    fermented yeast , pure hydrogen, or endogenous biomass decay). When similarly respiring (~120 ?eeq PCE/(L-hr)) batch and PSS cultures were contrasted, the...REPORT Insights gained from the “Dehalococcoides ethenogenes” strain 195?s transcriptome responding to a wide range of respiration rates and substrate...types. 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Bacteria of the group “Dehalococcoides” display the ability to respire recalcitrant chlorinated

  4. Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  5. Grays Harbor Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, B. [Grays Harbor Paper, Hoquiam, WA (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Wood waste biomass boilers are used at Grays Harbor Paper in Hoquiam, Washington. This presentation showed that large volumes of biomass are left after a traditional clearcut. The opportunities and challenges of collecting branches, tops and stumps from this wet coastal climate were outlined. The paper described some of the low-tech methods for picking up branches, stumps and woody debris. It included several photographs of custom logging machines for timber harvest, including a brush grapple slasher, a shearer shovel, chippers, grinders, slicesaws, trucks, trailers and caterpillar log loaders for handling slash. The slash recovery program relies on innovative harvesting machines that convert scattered logging slash into bundles that can be easily collected, transported, and stored for use in existing facilities that utilize wood fiber for fuel. figs.

  6. Adaptation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    building skills, knowledge or networks on adaptation, ... the African partners leading the AfricaAdapt network, together with the UK-based Institute of Development Studies; and ... UNCCD Secretariat, Regional Coordination Unit for Africa, Tunis, Tunisia .... 26 Rural–urban Cooperation on Water Management in the Context of.

  7. Trophodynamics of inorganic pollutants in a wide-range feeder: The relevance of dietary inputs and biomagnification in the Yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Raül; Ramírez, Francisco; Jover, Lluís

    2013-01-01

    The suitability of sentinel species to monitor environmental pollution is often hampered by an insufficient knowledge on pollutant trophodynamics. We simultaneously evaluated the influence of individuals' trophic position (as revealed by δ 15 N values) and dietary exploitation of particular systems (using δ 13 C and δ 34 S as proxies) on inorganic pollutant concentrations measured on fledglings' feathers of a wide-range feeder, the Yellow-legged Gull (Larus michahellis), sampled at four locations throughout the Western Mediterranean. Concentrations of total Hg and Se in fledgling feathers (2.43 ± 1.30 and 1.16 ± 0.43 μg/g, respectively) were under the threshold points for deleterious effects on seabirds. On the contrary, alarming Pb concentrations were found in one colony (mean: 1.57 ± 2.46 μg/g, range: 0.16–12.13). With the exception of Pb, pollutant concentrations were positively influenced by consumption of marine resources (as suggested by the positive relationship with δ 34 S values), whereas trophic position played a minor role in determining pollutant body burdens. - Graphical abstract: Individual feeding behaviours in wide-range feeders may represent unavoidable knowledge for an appropriate understanding of contaminant acquisition, adding complexity to the study of the dynamic of contaminants throughout food chains. In this case study, pollutant body burden of Yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) chicks was highly influenced by dietary exposure, whereas the influence of trophic position was relatively low. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Diet origin (δ 34 S) and trophic position (δ 15 N) were tested relative to Hg, Se, and Pb levels. ► Hg and Se concentrations in gull feathers were highly influenced by δ 34 S signatures. ► Exploited habitat influenced pollutant levels to a greater extent than trophic position. ► Biomagnification processes contribute less to contamination exposure in wide-range feeders. - Pollutant body burden of a wide-range

  8. An experimental study of the transfer of radiocaesium from whole milk to a wide range of milk products produced by the Irish dairy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEnri, C.

    1990-07-01

    Milk and milk products constitute a substantial portion of the human diet and represent one of the principal means by which food-borne radionuclides are ingested. The Chernobyl accident and subsequent widespread contamination demonstrated clearly that the dairy industry is highly sensitive to air-borne pollution. In this thesis, the results of a project to study the transfer of radiocaesium from whole milk to a wide range of milk products manufactured by the Irish Dairy Industry are presented together with a review of the relevant literature

  9. Adapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  10. A novel chitosan-tussah silk fibroin/nano-hydroxyapatite composite bone scaffold platform with tunable mechanical strength in a wide range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Jiabing; Hu, Jingxiao; Sun, Guanglin; Chen, Si; Jiang, Pei; Shen, Xinyu; Tong, Hua

    2016-12-01

    Currently, great efforts have been made to enhance the mechanical strength of bone tissue engineering (BTE) scaffolds, which are composed of biopolymeric matrices and inorganic nano-fillers. But the tunability of mechanical strength in a wide range for BTE scaffolds has seldom been investigated in spite of the great importance of this performance. In this work, a chitosan-tussah silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite (CS-TSF/HAp) hydrogel was synthesized by using a novel in situ precipitation method. Through in situ inducing the conformation transition of TSF in the CS-TSF/HAp hydrogel, which could be monitored by XRD, FT-IR, TGA, and DTA, the elastic modulus and fracture strength of the final CS-TSF/HAp composite could be tailored in a wide range without changing its composition, morphology, roughness, and crystal structures. The elastic modulus of the CS-TSF/HAp composite ranged from ∼250 to ∼400MPa while its fracture strength ranged from ∼45 to ∼100MPa. In order to clarify the rationale behind this process, a speculative explanation was provided. In vitro cell culture indicated that MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the CS-TSF/HAp composite had positive adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation potential. We believed that the CS-TSF/HAp composite could be used as an ideal scaffold platform for cell culture and implantation of bone reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Conditioning of BPM pickup signals for operations of the Duke storage ring with a wide range of single-bunch current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Li, Jing-Yi; Huang, Sen-Lin; Z. Wu, W.; Hao, H.; P., Wang; K. Wu, Y.

    2014-10-01

    The Duke storage ring is a dedicated driver for the storage ring based oscillator free-electron lasers (FELs), and the High Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HIGS). It is operated with a beam current ranging from about 1 mA to 100 mA per bunch for various operations and accelerator physics studies. High performance operations of the FEL and γ-ray source require a stable electron beam orbit, which has been realized by the global orbit feedback system. As a critical part of the orbit feedback system, the electron beam position monitors (BPMs) are required to be able to precisely measure the electron beam orbit in a wide range of the single-bunch current. However, the high peak voltage of the BPM pickups associated with high single-bunch current degrades the performance of the BPM electronics, and can potentially damage the BPM electronics. A signal conditioning method using low pass filters is developed to reduce the peak voltage to protect the BPM electronics, and to make the BPMs capable of working with a wide range of single-bunch current. Simulations and electron beam based tests are performed. The results show that the Duke storage ring BPM system is capable of providing precise orbit measurements to ensure highly stable FEL and HIGS operations.

  12. Multivariate analysis of heavy metal contaminations in seawater and sediments from a heavily industrialized harbor in Southern Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yung-Chang; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Chiang, Pen-Chi; Chen, Wei-Hsiang; Lin, Yuan-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Kaohsiung Harbor is the largest international commercial port in Taiwan. • The metal distributions in the seawater and sediments were investigated. • Many metals exhibited higher levels of enrichment inside the harbor. • Multivariate statistical analysis was used to characterize the metal pollutions. • Two complex arrays of contamination behaviors exist inside and outside the harbor. -- Abstract: Heavy metal pollution, including chromium, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, copper, lead, and aluminum, in the largest industrial harbor in southern Taiwan was investigated. Increasing metal contamination was observed by monitoring heavy metal concentrations in seawater and sediments and estimating the enrichment factors, particularly those inside the harbor. Compared to other metal-polluted harbors worldwide, the presence of chromium in the sediments was relatively high. Excluding the background contribution, the harbor area was polluted by outflows from river mouths, wastewater discharging pipes, and point sources near industrial activities within the harbor. It is shown by principal component and cluster analyses that metal contamination was affected by a wide range of different and complex contamination mechanisms inside and outside the harbor, suggesting managing the pollution using straightforward strategies, i.e., solutions that only consider a single source or single pathway of metal emissions, is problematic

  13. Alaska Harbor Seal Glacial Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Floating glacial ice serves as a haul-out substrate for a significant number (10-15%) of Alaskan harbor seals, and thus surveying tidewater glacial fjords is an...

  14. A Wide-Range Tunable Level-Keeper Using Vertical Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors for Current-Reuse Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanoi, Satoru; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2012-04-01

    A wide-range tunable level-keeper using vertical metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) is proposed for current-reuse analog systems. The design keys for widening tunable range of the operation are a two-path feed-back and a vertical MOSFET with back-bias-effect free. The proposed circuit with the vertical MOSFETs shows the 1.23-V tunable-range of the input level with the 2.4-V internal-supply voltage (VDD) in the simulation. This tunable-range of the proposed circuit is 4.7 times wider than that of the conventional. The achieved current efficiency of the proposed level-keeper is 66% at the 1.2-V output with the 2.4-V VDD. This efficiency of the proposed circuit is twice higher than that of the traditional voltage down converter.

  15. Accuracy of the WatchBP office ABI device for office blood pressure measurement over a wide range of arm sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatini, Paolo; Fania, Claudio; Gasparotti, Federica

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of the WatchBP Office ABI monitor for office blood pressure measurement over a wide range of arm circumferences using the ANSI/AAMI/ISO 81060-2:2013 protocol. The device accuracy was tested in 88 participants whose mean±SD age was 54.5±17.6 years, whose arm circumference was 30.6±8.3 cm (range: 15-46 cm), and whose entry blood pressure (BP) was 138.3±23.4 mmHg for systolic and 83.7±14.6 mmHg for diastolic BP. Four cuffs (small, standard, large, and extra-large) suitable for arm circumferences ranging from 14.0 to 52.0 cm were used. The mean device-observer difference in the 264 separate BP data pairs was 0.7±3.8 mmHg for systolic BP and was 0.0±3.7 mmHg for diastolic BP. These data were in agreement with criterion 1 of the ANSI/AAMI/ISO 81060-2:2013 standard requirements (≤5±8 mmHg). Moreover, criterion 2 was satisfied, the mean±SD device-observer difference of the 88 participants being 0.7±3.1 and 0.0±3.2 mmHg, respectively, for systolic and diastolic BP. Good agreement between observer and device was present across the whole range of arm circumferences. These data show that the Microlife WatchBP Office ABI monitor satisfied the ANSI/AAMI/ISO 81060-2:2013 standard requirements across a wide range of arm sizes.

  16. Accuracy evaluation of contour next compared with five blood glucose monitoring systems across a wide range of blood glucose concentrations occurring in a clinical research setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaff, Leslie J; Brazg, Ronald; Hughes, Kristen; Tideman, Ann M; Schachner, Holly C; Stenger, Patricia; Pardo, Scott; Dunne, Nancy; Parkes, Joan Lee

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of Contour(®) Next (CN; Bayer HealthCare LLC, Diabetes Care, Whippany, NJ) compared with five blood glucose monitoring systems (BGMSs) across a wide range of clinically occurring blood glucose levels. Subjects (n=146) were ≥ 18 years and had type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Subjects' glucose levels were safely lowered or raised to provide a wide range of glucose values. Capillary blood samples were tested on six BGMSs and a YSI glucose analyzer (YSI Life Sciences, Inc., Yellow Springs, OH) as the reference. Extreme glucose values were achieved by glucose modification of the blood sample. System accuracy was assessed by mean absolute difference (MAD) and mean absolute relative difference (MARD) across several glucose ranges, with glucose range (Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc., Alameda, CA), 2.77 mg/dL; OneTouch(®) Ultra(®) 2 (LifeScan, Inc., Milpitas, CA), 10.20 mg/dL; OneTouch(®) Verio(®) Pro (LifeScan, Inc.), 4.53 mg/dL; and Truetrack(®) (Nipro Diagnostics, Inc., Fort Lauderdale, FL), 11.08 mg/dL. The lowest MAD in the low glucose range, from CN, was statistically significantly lower than those of the other BGMSs with the exception of the FSL. CN also had a statistically significantly lower MARD than all other BGMSs in the low glucose range. In the overall glucose range (21-496 mg/dL), CN yielded the lowest MAD and MARD values, which were statistically significantly lower in comparison with the other BGMSs. When compared with other BGMSs, CN demonstrated the lowest mean deviation from the reference value (by MAD and MARD) across multiple glucose ranges.

  17. Light-shade adaptation of Stylophora pistillata, a hermatypic coral from the Gulf of Eilat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkowski, P G [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY; Dubinsky, Z

    1981-01-15

    All reef-forming, or hermatypic, corals harbor photosynthetic endosymbiotic algae called zooxanthellae. The zooxanthellae are essential for the well-being of their hosts; nevertheless, little is known about how light affects the symbiotic association, especially regarding the numbers of zooxanthellae, their photosynthetic responses, and their overall productivity. On the reefs of the Gulf of Eilat, Stylophora pistillata is an abundant hermatypic coral; it is unique in that region in that it can adapt to a wide range of light intensities. In the high light intensities of lagoons or the upper areas of reefs, the corals are markedly lighter in color than those living under ledges, in grottos, or near the reef floor. We report here on the biochemical and physiological adaptations of S. pistillata to variations in light intensity spanning more than two orders of magnitude.

  18. Geoscience rediscovers Phoenicia's buried harbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Doumet-Serhal, Claude; Carbonel, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    After centuries of archaeological debate, the harbors of Phoenicia's two most important city states, Tyre and Sidon, have been rediscovered, and including new geoarcheological results reveal how, where, and when they evolved after their Bronze Age foundations. The early ports lie beneath their present urban centers, and we have indentified four harbor phases. (1) During the Bronze Age, Tyre and Sidon were characterized by semi-open marine coves that served as protoharbors. (2) Biostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic data indicate the presence of early artificial basins after the first millennium B.C. (3) The harbors reached their apogees during the Greco-Roman and Byzantine periods. (4) Silting up and coastal progradation led to burial of the medieval basins, lost until now.

  19. The Pisa pre-main sequence tracks and isochrones. A database covering a wide range of Z, Y, mass, and age values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognelli, E.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Degl'Innocenti, S.

    2011-09-01

    Context. In recent years new observations of pre-main sequence stars (pre-MS) with Z ≤ Z⊙ have been made available. To take full advantage of the continuously growing amount of data of pre-MS stars in different environments, we need to develop updated pre-MS models for a wide range of metallicity to assign reliable ages and masses to the observed stars. Aims: We present updated evolutionary pre-MS models and isochrones for a fine grid of mass, age, metallicity, and helium values. Methods: We use a standard and well-tested stellar evolutionary code (i.e. FRANEC), that adopts outer boundary conditions from detailed and realistic atmosphere models. In this code, we incorporate additional improvements to the physical inputs related to the equation of state and the low temperature radiative opacities essential to computing low-mass stellar models. Results: We make available via internet a large database of pre-MS tracks and isochrones for a wide range of chemical compositions (Z = 0.0002-0.03), masses (M = 0.2-7.0 M⊙), and ages (1-100 Myr) for a solar-calibrated mixing length parameter α (i.e. 1.68). For each chemical composition, additional models were computed with two different mixing length values, namely α = 1.2 and 1.9. Moreover, for Z ≥ 0.008, we also provided models with two different initial deuterium abundances. The characteristics of the models have been discussed in detail and compared with other work in the literature. The main uncertainties affecting theoretical predictions have been critically discussed. Comparisons with selected data indicate that there is close agreement between theory and observation. Tracks and isochrones are available on the web at the http://astro.df.unipi.it/stellar-models/Tracks and isochrones are also available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/533/A109

  20. Geographic, seasonal, and diurnal surface behavior of harbor porpoises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Jonas; Christiansen, C.T.; Kjellerup, Sanne

    2013-01-01

    are essential information on the status and management of the species. Thirty-five free-ranging harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) were tracked in the region between the Baltic and the North Sea for 25-349 d using Argos satellite transmitters. No differences were found in surface behavior between geographical...... areas or the size of the animals. Slight differences were found between the two sexes and time of day. Surface time peaked in April, where 6% was spent with the transmitter above surface and 61.5% between 0 and 2 m depth, while the minimum values occurred in February (3.4% and 42.5%, respectively......). The analyses reveal that individual variation among porpoises is the most important factor in explaining variation in surface rates. However, the large number of animals documented in the present study covering a wide range of age and sex groups justifies the use of the seasonal average surface times...

  1. Results of an Advanced Fan Stage Operating Over a Wide Range of Speed and Bypass Ratio. Part 1; Fan Stage Design and Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suder, Kenneth L.; Prahst, Patricia S.; Thorp, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program is investigating turbine-based combined cycle (TBCC) propulsion systems for access to space because it provides the potential for aircraft-like, space-launch operations that may significantly reduce launch costs and improve safety. To this end, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and General Electric (GE) teamed to design a Mach 4 variable cycle turbofan/ramjet engine for access to space. To enable the wide operating range of a Mach 4+ variable cycle turbofan ramjet required the development of a unique fan stage design capable of multi-point operation to accommodate variations in bypass ratio (10 ), fan speed (7 ), inlet mass flow (3.5 ), inlet pressure (8 ), and inlet temperature (3 ). In this paper, NASA has set out to characterize a TBCC engine fan stage aerodynamic performance and stability limits over a wide operating range including power-on and hypersonic-unique "windmill" operation. Herein, we will present the fan stage design, and the experimental test results of the fan stage operating from 15 to 100 percent corrected design speed. Whereas, in the companion paper, we will provide an assessment of NASA s APNASA code s ability to predict the fan stage performance and operability over a wide range of speed and bypass ratio.

  2. An automated method to morph finite element whole-body human models with a wide range of stature and body shape for both men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Cao, Libo; Fanta, Abeselom; Reed, Matthew P; Neal, Mark; Wang, Jenne-Tai; Lin, Chin-Hsu; Hu, Jingwen

    2017-07-26

    Field data analyses have shown that small female, obese, and/or older occupants are at increased risks of death and serious injury in motor-vehicle crashes compared with mid-size young men. The current adult finite element (FE) human models represent occupants in the same three body sizes (large male, mid-size male, and small female) as those for the contemporary adult crash dummies. Further, the time needed to develop an FE human model using the traditional method is measured in months or even years. In the current study, an improved regional mesh morphing method based on landmark-based radial basis function (RBF) interpolation was developed to rapidly morph a mid-size male FE human model into different geometry targets. A total of 100 human models with a wide range of human attributes were generated. A pendulum chest impact condition was applied to each model as an initial assessment of the resulting variability in response. The morphed models demonstrated mesh quality similar to the baseline model. The peak impact forces and chest deflections in the chest pendulum impacts varied substantially with different models, supportive of consideration of population variation in evaluating the occupant injury risks. The method developed in this study will enable future safety design optimizations targeting at various vulnerable populations that cannot be considered with the current models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Room-temperature wide-range luminescence and structural, optical, and electrical properties of SILAR deposited Cu-Zn-S nano-structured thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Edwin; Kumar, M. C. Santhosh

    2016-09-01

    We report the deposition of nanostructured Cu-Zn-S composite thin films by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method on glass substrates at room temperature. The structural, morphological, optical, photoluminescence and electrical properties of Cu-Zn-S thin films are investigated. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy studies indicate that the films exhibit a ternary Cu-Zn-S structure rather than the Cu xS and ZnS binary composite. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies show that the Cu-Zn-S films are covered well over glass substrates. The optical band gap energies of the Cu-Zn-S films are calculated using UV-visible absorption measurements, which are found in the range of 2.2 to 2.32 eV. The room temperature photoluminescence studies show a wide range of emissions from 410 nm to 565 nm. These emissions are mainly due to defects and vacancies in the composite system. The electrical studies using Hall effect measurements show that the Cu-Zn-S films are having p-type conductivity.

  4. Evaluation of the detachment energy of hydrated phosphate anion over a wide range of cluster size and revisiting solvent-berg model: a theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Arup Kumar

    2014-12-01

    An explicit analytical expression has been obtained for vertical detachment energy (VDE) that can be used to calculate the same over a wide range (both stable and unstable regions) of cluster sizes including the bulk from the knowledge of VDE for a finite number of stable clusters (n = 16-23). The calculated VDE for the bulk is found to be very good in agreement (within 1%) with the available experimental result and the domain of instability lies between n = 0 and n = 15 for the hydrated clusters, PO3 -4 . nH2O. The minimum number (n0) of water molecules needed to stabilise the phosphate anion is 16. We are able to explain the origin of solvent-berg model and anomalous conductivity from the knowledge of first stable cluster. We have also provided a scheme to calculate the radius of the solvent-berg for phosphate anion. The calculated conductivity using Stokes-Einstein relation and the radius of solvent-berg is found to be very good in agreement (within 4%) with the available experimental results.

  5. Calculation of Friction Coefficient and Analysis of Fluid Flow in a Stepped Micro-Channel for Wide Range of Knudsen Number Using Lattice Boltzmann (MRT Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bakhshan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro scale gas flows has attracted significant research interest in the last two decades. In this research, the fluid flow of gases in the stepped micro-channel at a wide range of Knudsen number has been analyzed with using the Lattice Boltzmann (MRT method. In the model, a modified second-order slip boundary condition and a Bosanquet-type effective viscosity are used to consider the velocity slip at the boundaries and to cover the slip and transition regimes of flow and to gain an accurate simulation of rarefied gases. It includes the slip and transition regimes of flow. The flow specifications such as pressure loss, velocity profile, streamline and friction coefficient at different conditions have been presented. The results show good agreement with available experimental data. The calculation shows that the friction coefficient decreases with increasing the Knudsen number and stepping the micro-channel has an inverse effect on the friction coefficient. Furthermore, a new correlation is suggested for calculation of the friction coefficient in the stepped micro-channel as below: C_f Re  = 3.113+2.915/(1 +2 Kn+ 0.641 exp⁡(3.203/(1 + 2 Kn

  6. Variable wide range of lens power and its improvement in a liquid-crystal lens using highly resistive films divided into two regions with different diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Marenori; Sato, Susumu

    2018-05-01

    The variable range of lens power of a liquid-crystal (LC) lens driven by two voltages is discussed on the basis of calculated and experimental results. The LC lens has two electrodes, which are a circularly hole-patterned electrode and a circular electrode, in addition to a common electrode, and highly resistive transparent films. The variable range of lens power increases with increasing driving voltage applied across the circularly hole-patterned electrode and the common electrode, and with decreasing diameter of highly resistive films. However, the optical-phase retardation profile tends to deviate from a parabolic curve in these cases. As a method to improve the trade-off properties, the highly resistive film is divided into two regions with different diameters, where the sheet resistance of an outer film is larger than that of an inner one. The improved LC lens has a lens power that varies in a wide range, and it exhibits a good parabolic phase retardation profile.

  7. Irradiation Creep of Ferritic-Martensitic Steels EP-450, EP-823 and EI-852 Irradiated in the BN-350 Reactor over Wide Ranges of Irradiation Temperature and Dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porollo, S.I.; Konobeev, Y.V.; Ivanov, A.A.; Shulepin, S.V.; Garner, F.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Ferritic/martensitic (F/M) steels appear to be the most promising materials for advanced nuclear systems, especially for fusion reactors. Their main advantages are higher resistance to swelling and lower irradiation creep rate as has been repeatedly demonstrated in examinations of these materials after irradiation. Nevertheless, available experimental data on irradiation resistance of F/M steels are insufficient, with the greatest deficiency of data for high doses and for both low and high irradiation temperatures. From the very beginning of operation the BN-350 fast reactor has been used for irradiation of specimens of structural materials, including F/M steels. The most unique feature of BN-350 was its low inlet sodium temperature, allowing irradiation at temperatures over a very wide range of temperatures compared with the range in other fast reactors. In this paper data are presented on swelling and irradiation creep of three Russian F/M steels EP-450, EP-823 and EI-852, irradiated in experimental assemblies of the BN-350 reactor at temperatures in the range of 305-700 deg. C to doses ranging from 20 to 89 dpa. The investigation was performed using gas-pressurized creep tubes with hoop stresses in the range of 0 - 294 MPa. (authors)

  8. The 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratases HACD1 and HACD2 exhibit functional redundancy and are active in a wide range of fatty acid elongation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawai, Megumi; Uchida, Yukiko; Ohno, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Masatoshi; Nishioka, Chieko; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Sassa, Takayuki; Kihara, Akio

    2017-09-15

    Differences among fatty acids (FAs) in chain length and number of double bonds create lipid diversity. FA elongation proceeds via a four-step reaction cycle, in which the 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratases (HACDs) HACD1-4 catalyze the third step. However, the contribution of each HACD to 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase activity in certain tissues or in different FA elongation pathways remains unclear. HACD1 is specifically expressed in muscles and is a myopathy-causative gene. Here, we generated Hacd1 KO mice and observed that these mice had reduced body and skeletal muscle weights. In skeletal muscle, HACD1 mRNA expression was by far the highest among the HACDs However, we observed only an ∼40% reduction in HACD activity and no changes in membrane lipid composition in Hacd1 -KO skeletal muscle, suggesting that some HACD activities are redundant. Moreover, when expressed in yeast, both HACD1 and HACD2 participated in saturated and monounsaturated FA elongation pathways. Disruption of HACD2 in the haploid human cell line HAP1 significantly reduced FA elongation activities toward both saturated and unsaturated FAs, and HACD1 HACD2 double disruption resulted in a further reduction. Overexpressed HACD3 exhibited weak activity in saturated and monounsaturated FA elongation pathways, and no activity was detected for HACD4. We therefore conclude that HACD1 and HACD2 exhibit redundant activities in a wide range of FA elongation pathways, including those for saturated to polyunsaturated FAs, with HACD2 being the major 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase. Our findings are important for furthering the understanding of the molecular mechanisms in FA elongation and diversity. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Wide range of metallic and organic contaminants in various tissues of the Antarctic prion, a planktonophagous seabird from the Southern Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromant, Aymeric; Carravieri, Alice; Bustamante, Paco; Labadie, Pierre; Budzinski, Hélène; Peluhet, Laurent; Churlaud, Carine; Chastel, Olivier; Cherel, Yves

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Trace elements (n = 14) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs, n = 30) were measured in blood, liver, kidney, muscle and feathers of 10 Antarctic prions (Pachyptila desolata) from Kerguelen Islands, southern Indian Ocean, in order to assess their concentrations, tissue distribution, and inter-tissue and inter-contaminant relationships. Liver, kidney and feathers presented the highest burdens of arsenic, cadmium and mercury, respectively. Concentrations of cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc correlated in liver and muscle, suggesting that uptake and pathways of metabolism and storage were similar for these elements. The major POPs were 4,4′-DDE, mirex, PCB-153 and PCB-138. The concentrations and tissue distribution patterns of environmental contaminants were overall in accordance with previous results in other seabirds. Conversely, some Antarctic prions showed surprisingly high concentrations of BDE-209. This compound has been rarely observed in seabirds before, and its presence in Antarctic prions could be due to the species feeding habits or to the ingestion of plastic debris. Overall, the study shows that relatively lower trophic level seabirds (zooplankton-eaters) breeding in the remote southern Indian Ocean are exposed to a wide range of environmental contaminants, in particular cadmium, selenium and some emerging-POPs, which merits further toxicological investigations. - Highlights: • Trace elements and POPs were measured in various tissues of 10 Antarctic prions. • Residue diversity was notable given the species' small size and low trophic position. • Cd, Se, BDE 183 and 209 showed noticeably high internal tissue concentrations. • Several POPs showed inter- and intra-tissue correlations, indicating co-exposure. • Blood was validated as a good bioindicator of internal tissue As and Hg levels.

  10. Lack of parental rule-setting on eating is associated with a wide range of adolescent unhealthy eating behaviour both for boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2016-04-27

    Unhealthy eating habits in adolescence lead to a wide variety of health problems and disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of absence of parental rules on eating and unhealthy eating behaviour and to explore the relationships between parental rules on eating and a wide range of unhealthy eating habits of boys and girls. We also explored the association of sociodemographic characteristics such as gender, family affluence or parental education with eating related parental rules and eating habits of adolescents. The data on 2765 adolescents aged 13-15 years (mean age: 14.4; 50.7 % boys) from the Slovak part of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study 2014 were assessed. The associations between eating-related parental rules and unhealthy eating patterns using logistic regression were assessed using logistic regression. Unhealthy eating habits occurred frequently among adolescents (range: 18.0 % reported skipping breakfast during weekends vs. 75.8 % for low vegetables intake). Of all adolescents, 20.5 % reported a lack of any parental rules on eating (breakfast not mandatory, meal in front of TV allowed, no rules about sweets and soft drinks). These adolescents were more likely to eat unhealthily, i.e. to skip breakfast on weekdays (odds ratio/95 % confidence interval: 5.33/4.15-6.84) and on weekends (2.66/2.12-3.34), to report low consumption of fruits (1.63/1.30-2.04) and vegetables (1.32/1.04-1.68), and the frequent consumption of sweets (1.59/1.30-1.94), soft drinks (1.93/1.56-2.38) and energy drinks (2.15/1.72-2.70). Parental rule-setting on eating is associated with eating behaviours of adolescents. Further research is needed to disentangle causality in this relationship. If causal, parents may be targeted to modify the eating habits of adolescents.

  11. NIRS determination of non-structural carbohydrates, water soluble carbohydrates and other nutritive quality traits in whole plant maize with wide range variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Campo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the potential of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS to predict non-structural carbohydrates (NSC, water soluble carbohydrates (WSC, in vitro organic dry matter digestibility (IVOMD, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and starch in samples of whole plant maize with a wide range of variability. The samples were analyzed in reflectance mode by a spectrophotometer FOSS NIRSystems 6500. Four hundred and fifty samples of wide spectrum from different origin were selected out of 3000 scanned for the calibration set, whereas 87 independent random samples were used in the external validation. The goodness of the calibration models was evaluated using the following statistics: coefficient of determination (R2, standard error of cross-validation (SECV, standard error of prediction for external validation (SEP and the RPDCV and RPDP indexes [ratios of standard deviation (SD of reference analysis data to SECV and SEP, respectively]. The smaller the SECV and SEP and the greater the RPDCV and RPDP, the predictions are better. Trait measurement units were g/100g of dry matter (DM, except for IVOMD (g/100g OM. The SECV and RPDCV statistics of the calibration set were 1.34 and 3.2 for WSC, 2.57 and 3 for NSC and 2.3 and 2.2 for IVOMD, respectively. The SEP and RPDP statistics for external validation were 0.74 and 4.7 for WSC, 2.14 and 2.5 for NSC and 1.68 and 1.6 for IVOMD respectively. It can be concluded that the NIRS technique can be used to predict WSC and NSC with good accuracy, whereas prediction of IVOMD showed a lesser accuracy. NIRS predictions of OM, CP, NDF, ADF and starch also showed good accuracy.

  12. Wide range of metallic and organic contaminants in various tissues of the Antarctic prion, a planktonophagous seabird from the Southern Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fromant, Aymeric [Centre d' Etudes Biologiques de Chizé, UMR 7372 CNRS—Université de La Rochelle, 79360 Villiers-en-Bois (France); Carravieri, Alice, E-mail: carravieri@cebc.cnrs.fr [Centre d' Etudes Biologiques de Chizé, UMR 7372 CNRS—Université de La Rochelle, 79360 Villiers-en-Bois (France); Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMR 7266 CNRS—Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Bustamante, Paco [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMR 7266 CNRS—Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Labadie, Pierre; Budzinski, Hélène; Peluhet, Laurent [Université de Bordeaux, UMR 5805 EPOC (LPTC Research Group), Université Bordeaux, 351 Cours de la Libération, F 33405 Talence Cedex (France); Churlaud, Carine [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMR 7266 CNRS—Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Chastel, Olivier; Cherel, Yves [Centre d' Etudes Biologiques de Chizé, UMR 7372 CNRS—Université de La Rochelle, 79360 Villiers-en-Bois (France)

    2016-02-15

    ABSTRACT: Trace elements (n = 14) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs, n = 30) were measured in blood, liver, kidney, muscle and feathers of 10 Antarctic prions (Pachyptila desolata) from Kerguelen Islands, southern Indian Ocean, in order to assess their concentrations, tissue distribution, and inter-tissue and inter-contaminant relationships. Liver, kidney and feathers presented the highest burdens of arsenic, cadmium and mercury, respectively. Concentrations of cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc correlated in liver and muscle, suggesting that uptake and pathways of metabolism and storage were similar for these elements. The major POPs were 4,4′-DDE, mirex, PCB-153 and PCB-138. The concentrations and tissue distribution patterns of environmental contaminants were overall in accordance with previous results in other seabirds. Conversely, some Antarctic prions showed surprisingly high concentrations of BDE-209. This compound has been rarely observed in seabirds before, and its presence in Antarctic prions could be due to the species feeding habits or to the ingestion of plastic debris. Overall, the study shows that relatively lower trophic level seabirds (zooplankton-eaters) breeding in the remote southern Indian Ocean are exposed to a wide range of environmental contaminants, in particular cadmium, selenium and some emerging-POPs, which merits further toxicological investigations. - Highlights: • Trace elements and POPs were measured in various tissues of 10 Antarctic prions. • Residue diversity was notable given the species' small size and low trophic position. • Cd, Se, BDE 183 and 209 showed noticeably high internal tissue concentrations. • Several POPs showed inter- and intra-tissue correlations, indicating co-exposure. • Blood was validated as a good bioindicator of internal tissue As and Hg levels.

  13. A Wide Range of 3243A>G/tRNALeu(UUR) (MELAS) Mutation Loads May Segregate in Offspring through the Female Germline Bottleneck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallotti, Francesco; Binelli, Giorgio; Fabbri, Raffaella; Valentino, Maria L.; Vicenti, Rossella; Macciocca, Maria; Cevoli, Sabina; Baruzzi, Agostino; DiMauro, Salvatore; Carelli, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Segregation of mutant mtDNA in human tissues and through the germline is debated, with no consensus about the nature and size of the bottleneck hypothesized to explain rapid generational shifts in mutant loads. We investigated two maternal lineages with an apparently different inheritance pattern of the same pathogenic mtDNA 3243A>G/tRNALeu(UUR) (MELAS) mutation. We collected blood cells, muscle biopsies, urinary epithelium and hair follicles from 20 individuals, as well as oocytes and an ovarian biopsy from one female mutation carrier, all belonging to the two maternal lineages to assess mutant mtDNA load, and calculated the theoretical germline bottleneck size (number of segregating units). We also evaluated “mother-to-offspring” segregations from the literature, for which heteroplasmy assessment was available in at least three siblings besides the proband. Our results showed that mutation load was prevalent in skeletal muscle and urinary epithelium, whereas in blood cells there was an inverse correlation with age, as previously reported. The histoenzymatic staining of the ovarian biopsy failed to show any cytochrome-c-oxidase defective oocyte. Analysis of four oocytes and one offspring from the same unaffected mother of the first family showed intermediate heteroplasmic mutant loads (10% to 75%), whereas very skewed loads of mutant mtDNA (0% or 81%) were detected in five offspring of another unaffected mother from the second family. Bottleneck size was 89 segregating units for the first mother and 84 for the second. This was remarkably close to 88, the number of “segregating units” in the “mother-to-offspring” segregations retrieved from literature. In conclusion, a wide range of mutant loads may be found in offspring tissues and oocytes, resulting from a similar theoretical bottleneck size. PMID:24805791

  14. SU-F-T-406: Verification of Total Body Irradiation Commissioned MU Lookup Table Accuracy Using Treatment Planning System for Wide Range of Patient Sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, D; Chi, P; Tailor, R; Aristophanous, M; Tung, S [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To verify the accuracy of total body irradiation (TBI) measurement commissioning data using the treatment planning system (TPS) for a wide range of patient separations. Methods: Our institution conducts TBI treatments with an 18MV photon beam at 380cm extended SSD using an AP/PA technique. Currently, the monitor units (MU) per field for patient treatments are determined using a lookup table generated from TMR measurements in a water phantom (75 × 41 × 30.5 cm3). The dose prescribed to an umbilicus midline point at spine level is determined based on patient separation, dose/ field and dose rate/MU. One-dimensional heterogeneous dose calculations from Pinnacle TPS were validated with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) placed in an average adult anthropomorphic phantom and also in-vivo on four patients with large separations. Subsequently, twelve patients with various separations (17–47cm) were retrospectively analyzed. Computed tomography (CT) scans were acquired in the left and right decubitus positions from vertex to knee. A treatment plan for each patient was generated. The ratio of the lookup table MU to the heterogeneous TPS MU was compared. Results: TLD Measurements in the anthropomorphic phantom and large TBI patients agreed with Pinnacle calculated dose within 2.8% and 2%, respectively. The heterogeneous calculation compared to the lookup table agreed within 8.1% (ratio range: 1.014–1.081). A trend of reduced accuracy was observed when patient separation increases. Conclusion: The TPS dose calculation accuracy was confirmed by TLD measurements, showing that Pinnacle can model the extended SSD dose without commissioning a special beam model for the extended SSD geometry. The difference between the lookup table and TPS calculation potentially comes from lack of scatter during commissioning when compared to extreme patient sizes. The observed trend suggests the need for development of a correction factor between the lookup table and TPS dose

  15. Crave, like, eat: determinants of food intake in a sample of children and adolescents with a wide range in body mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Hofmann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is heterogeneous condition with obese individuals displaying different eating patterns. Growing evidence suggests that there is a subgroup of obese adults that is marked by frequent and intense food cravings and addiction-like consumption of high-calorie foods. Little is known, however, about such a subgroup of obese individuals in childhood and adolescence. In the present study, a sample of children and adolescents with a wide range in body mass was investigated and trait food craving, liking for and intake of high- and low-calorie foods was measured. One-hundred and forty-two children and adolescents (51.4% female, n = 73; Mage = 13.7 years, SD = 2.25; MBMI-SDS = 1.26, SD = 1.50 completed the Food Cravings Questionnaire - Trait, then viewed pictures of high- and low-calorie foods and rated their liking for them, and subsequently consumed some of these foods in a bogus taste test. Contrary to expectations, higher body mass was associated with lower consumption of high-calorie foods. However, there was an interaction between body mass and trait food craving when predicting food consumption: in obese participants, higher trait food craving was associated with higher consumption of high-calorie foods and this association was not found in normal-weight participants. The relationship between trait food craving and high-calorie food consumption within obese individuals was mediated by higher liking for high-calorie foods (but not by liking for low-calorie foods. Thus, similar to adults, a subgroup of obese children and adolescents - characterized by high trait food craving - seems to exist, calling for specific targeted treatment strategies.

  16. Implementation of a mandatory checklist of protocols and objectives improves compliance with a wide range of evidence-based intensive care unit practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Matthew C; Schuerer, Douglas J E; Schallom, Marilyn E; Sona, Carrie S; Mazuski, John E; Taylor, Beth E; McKenzie, Wendi; Thomas, James M; Emerson, Jeffrey S; Nemeth, Jennifer L; Bailey, Ruth A; Boyle, Walter A; Buchman, Timothy G; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2009-10-01

    To determine a) if a checklist covering a diverse group of intensive care unit protocols and objectives would improve clinician consideration of these domains and b) if improved consideration would change practice patterns. Pre- and post observational study. A 24-bed surgical/burn/trauma intensive care unit in a teaching hospital. A total of 1399 patients admitted between June 2006 and May 2007. The first component of the study evaluated whether mandating verbal review of a checklist covering 14 intensive care unit best practices altered verbal consideration of these domains. Evaluation was performed using real-time bedside audits on morning rounds. The second component evaluated whether the checklist altered implementation of these domains by changing practice patterns. Evaluation was performed by analyzing data from the Project IMPACT database after patients left the intensive care unit. Verbal consideration of evaluable domains improved from 90.9% (530/583) to 99.7% (669/671, p < .0001) after verbal review of the checklist was mandated. Bedside consideration improved on the use of deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis (p < .05), stress ulcer prophylaxis (p < .01), oral care for ventilated patients (p < 0.01), electrolyte repletion (p < .01), initiation of physical therapy (p < .05), and documentation of restraint orders (p < .0001). Mandatory verbal review of the checklist resulted in a greater than two-fold increase in transferring patients out of the intensive care unit on telemetry (16% vs. 35%, p < .0001) and initiation of physical therapy (28% vs. 42%, p < .0001) compared with baseline practice. A mandatory verbal review of a checklist covering a wide range of objectives and goals at each patient's bedside is an effective method to improve both consideration and implementation of intensive care unit best practices. A bedside checklist is a simple, cost-effective method to prevent errors of omission in basic domains of intensive care unit management that might

  17. The effects of size and period of administration of gold nanoparticles on rheological parameters of blood plasma of rats over a wide range of shear rates: In vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhalim Mohamed Anwar K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood viscosity appears to be independent predictor of stroke, carotid intima-media thickening, atherosclerosis and most cardiovascular diseases. In an attempt to understand the toxicity and the potential threat of GNPs therapeutic and diagnostic use, an array of rheological parameters were performed to quantify the blood plasma response to different sizes and administration periods of GNPs over a wide range of shear rates. Methods Healthy, thirty male Wistar-Kyoto rats, 8-12 weeks old (approximately 250 g body weight were divided into control group (NG: n = 10, group 1 (G1A: intraperitoneal infusion of 10 nm GNPs for 3 days, n = 5 and G1B: intraperitoneal infusion of 10 nm GNPs for 7 days, n = 5, group 2 (G2A: intraperitoneal infusion of 50 nm GNPs for 3 days, n = 5 and G2B: intraperitoneal infusion of 50 nm GNPs for 7 days, n = 5. Dose of 100 μl of GNPs was administered to the animals via intraperitoneal injection. Blood samples of nearly 1 ml were obtained from each rat. Various rheological parameters such as torque, shear stress, shear rate, viscosity, plastic velocity, yield stress, consistency index (k and flow index (n were measured in the blood plasma of rats after the intraperitoneal administration of 10 and 50 nm GNP for 3 and 7 days using Brookfield LVDV-III Programmable rheometer. Results The relationship between shear stress and shear rate for control, G1A, G1B, G2A and G2B was linearly related. The plastic viscosity and the yield stress values for G1A, G1B, G2A and G2B significantly (p Conclusions At these particular shear rates, the estimated rheological parameters are not influenced by GNPs size and shape, number of NPs, surface area and administration period of GNPs. This study demonstrates that the highly decrease in blood plasma viscosity was accompanied with the smaller 10 nm GNPs compared with the 50 nm GNPs. The decrease in blood plasma viscosity induced with 10 and 50 nm GNPs may be attributed to

  18. Lack of parental rule-setting on eating is associated with a wide range of adolescent unhealthy eating behaviour both for boys and girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Holubcikova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unhealthy eating habits in adolescence lead to a wide variety of health problems and disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of absence of parental rules on eating and unhealthy eating behaviour and to explore the relationships between parental rules on eating and a wide range of unhealthy eating habits of boys and girls. We also explored the association of sociodemographic characteristics such as gender, family affluence or parental education with eating related parental rules and eating habits of adolescents. Methods The data on 2765 adolescents aged 13–15 years (mean age: 14.4; 50.7 % boys from the Slovak part of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC study 2014 were assessed. The associations between eating-related parental rules and unhealthy eating patterns using logistic regression were assessed using logistic regression. Results Unhealthy eating habits occurred frequently among adolescents (range: 18.0 % reported skipping breakfast during weekends vs. 75.8 % for low vegetables intake. Of all adolescents, 20.5 % reported a lack of any parental rules on eating (breakfast not mandatory, meal in front of TV allowed, no rules about sweets and soft drinks. These adolescents were more likely to eat unhealthily, i.e. to skip breakfast on weekdays (odds ratio/95 % confidence interval: 5.33/4.15–6.84 and on weekends (2.66/2.12–3.34, to report low consumption of fruits (1.63/1.30–2.04 and vegetables (1.32/1.04–1.68, and the frequent consumption of sweets (1.59/1.30–1.94, soft drinks (1.93/1.56–2.38 and energy drinks (2.15/1.72–2.70. Conclusions Parental rule-setting on eating is associated with eating behaviours of adolescents. Further research is needed to disentangle causality in this relationship. If causal, parents may be targeted to modify the eating habits of adolescents.

  19. Heterogeneous associations between smoking and a wide range of initial presentations of cardiovascular disease in 1937360 people in England: lifetime risks and implications for risk prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujades-Rodriguez, Mar; George, Julie; Shah, Anoop Dinesh; Rapsomaniki, Eleni; Denaxas, Spiros; West, Robert; Smeeth, Liam; Timmis, Adam; Hemingway, Harry

    2015-02-01

    It is not known how smoking affects the initial presentation of a wide range of chronic and acute cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), nor the extent to which associations are heterogeneous. We estimated the lifetime cumulative incidence of 12 CVD presentations, and examined associations with smoking and smoking cessation. Cohort study of 1.93 million people aged ≥30years, with no history of CVD, in 1997-2010. Individuals were drawn from linked electronic health records in England, covering primary care, hospitalizations, myocardial infarction (MI) registry and cause-specific mortality (the CALIBER programme). During 11.6 million person-years of follow-up, 114859 people had an initial non-fatal or fatal CVD presentation. By age 90 years, current vs never smokers' lifetime risks varied from 0.4% vs 0.2% for subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), to 8.9% vs 2.6% for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Current smoking showed no association with cardiac arrest or sudden cardiac death [hazard ratio (HR)=1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-1.19).The strength of association differed markedly according to disease type: stable angina (HR=1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.15),transient ischaemic attack (HR=1.41, 95% CI 1.28-1.55), unstable angina (HR=1.54, 95% CI 1.38-1.72), intracerebral haemorrhage (HR=1.61, 95% CI 1.37-1.89), heart failure (HR=1.62, 95% CI 1.47-1.79), ischaemic stroke (HR=1.90, 95% CI 1.72-2.10), MI (HR=2.32, 95% CI 2.20-2.45), SAH (HR= 2.70, 95% CI 2.27-3.21), PAD (HR=5.16, 95% CI 4.80-5.54) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) (HR=5.18, 95% CI 4.61-5.82). Population-attributable fractions were lower for women than men for unheralded coronary death, ischaemic stroke, PAD and AAA. Ten years after quitting smoking, the risks of PAD, AAA (in men) and unheralded coronary death remained increased (HR=1.36, 1.47 and 2.74, respectively). The heterogeneous associations of smoking with different CVD presentations suggests different underlying mechanisms and have important

  20. 77 FR 19967 - Safety Zone, Port of Dutch Harbor; Dutch Harbor, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Port of Dutch Harbor; Dutch Harbor, AK AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes temporary safety zones in the Port of Dutch Harbor... Dutch Harbor, Alaska, and the adjacent territorial sea due to additional vessel traffic associated with...

  1. Army Engineers at Pearl Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    siblings, he was the grandson of David Belden Lyman—a Christian missionary from New England who settled in the Hilo , Hawaii area—and the descendent of...of Hawaii appeared over Oahu. Some headed for Ameri- can warships at Pearl Harbor and the planes on the ground at nearby Hickam Field; oth- ers...hit Schofield Barracks, Wheeler Field, and Bellows Field. USACE in Hawaii con- sisted of Soldier-engineers in the Army’s Hawaiian Depart- ment and

  2. Heterogeneous processing of biomass burning aerosol proxies by OH radicals for a wide range of OH concentrations and detection of volatilization products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, J. H.; Knopf, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Biomass burning aerosol (BBA) constitutes the majority of primary organic aerosol found in the atmosphere, with emission rates comparable to fossil-fuel burning. BBA affects earth's radiative budget directly through absorption and scattering of radiation or indirectly by modifying cloud radiative properties, and impacts air quality. Quantifying BBA source strength and thus its effects on air quality, human health, and climate can be difficult since these organic particles can chemically transform during atmospheric transport, a process also termed aging, due to heterogeneous reactions with oxidants and radicals such as OH. In this work we investigate the reactive uptake of OH radicals by typical BBA compounds that also serve as molecular markers for source apportionment studies. Organic substrates of cellulose pyrolysis products such as levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-β-glucopyranose, C6H10O5), resin acids such as abietic acid (1-phenanthrenecarboxylic acid, C20H30O2), and lignin decomposition products such as 5-nitroguaiacol (2-methoxy-5-nitrophenol, C7H7NO4) have been exposed to a wide range of OH concentrations (~107-1011 cm-3), in presence of O2 in a rotating wall flow reactor operated at 2-6 mbar coupled to a custom built chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS). OH radicals were generated through H2 dissociation in an Evenson microwave resonant cavity operated at 2.45 GHz followed by reaction with O2 or NO2. In addition, potential volatilization of organic material due to heterogeneous oxidation by OH has been determined in-situ by monitoring the volatile organic compounds using a high resolution-proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometer (HR-PTR-ToF-MS). The volatilization studies are conducted at 1 atm and OH is generated by O3 photolysis in the presence of H2O vapor and quantified using a photochemical box model as well as through reaction with a known concentration of isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, C5H8). Reactive uptake validation

  3. Validation of a Monte Carlo model used for simulating tube current modulation in computed tomography over a wide range of phantom conditions/challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostani, Maryam, E-mail: mbostani@mednet.ucla.edu; McMillan, Kyle; Cagnon, Chris H.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F. [Departments of Biomedical Physics and Radiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States); DeMarco, John J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Monte Carlo (MC) simulation methods have been widely used in patient dosimetry in computed tomography (CT), including estimating patient organ doses. However, most simulation methods have undergone a limited set of validations, often using homogeneous phantoms with simple geometries. As clinical scanning has become more complex and the use of tube current modulation (TCM) has become pervasive in the clinic, MC simulations should include these techniques in their methodologies and therefore should also be validated using a variety of phantoms with different shapes and material compositions to result in a variety of differently modulated tube current profiles. The purpose of this work is to perform the measurements and simulations to validate a Monte Carlo model under a variety of test conditions where fixed tube current (FTC) and TCM were used. Methods: A previously developed MC model for estimating dose from CT scans that models TCM, built using the platform of MCNPX, was used for CT dose quantification. In order to validate the suitability of this model to accurately simulate patient dose from FTC and TCM CT scan, measurements and simulations were compared over a wide range of conditions. Phantoms used for testing range from simple geometries with homogeneous composition (16 and 32 cm computed tomography dose index phantoms) to more complex phantoms including a rectangular homogeneous water equivalent phantom, an elliptical shaped phantom with three sections (where each section was a homogeneous, but different material), and a heterogeneous, complex geometry anthropomorphic phantom. Each phantom requires varying levels of x-, y- and z-modulation. Each phantom was scanned on a multidetector row CT (Sensation 64) scanner under the conditions of both FTC and TCM. Dose measurements were made at various surface and depth positions within each phantom. Simulations using each phantom were performed for FTC, detailed x–y–z TCM, and z-axis-only TCM to obtain

  4. The marine bacterium Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus SP17 degrades a wide range of lipids and hydrocarbons through the formation of oleolytic biofilms with distinct gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounier, Julie; Camus, Arantxa; Mitteau, Isabelle; Vaysse, Pierre-Joseph; Goulas, Philippe; Grimaud, Régis; Sivadon, Pierre

    2014-12-01

    Hydrophobic organic compounds (mainly lipids and hydrocarbons) represent a significant part of the organic matter in marine waters, and their degradation has an important impact in the carbon fluxes within oceans. However, because they are nearly insoluble in the water phase, their degradation by microorganisms occurs at the interface with water and thus requires specific adaptations such as biofilm formation. We show that Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus SP17 develops biofilms, referred to as oleolytic biofilms, on a large variety of hydrophobic substrates, including hydrocarbons, fatty alcohols, fatty acids, triglycerides, and wax esters. Microarray analysis revealed that biofilm growth on n-hexadecane or triolein involved distinct genetic responses, together with a core of common genes that might concern general mechanisms of biofilm formation. Biofilm growth on triolein modulated the expression of hundreds of genes in comparison with n-hexadecane. The processes related to primary metabolism and genetic information processing were downregulated. Most of the genes that were overexpressed on triolein had unknown functions. Surprisingly, their genome localization was restricted to a few regions identified as putative genomic islands or mobile elements. These results are discussed with regard to the adaptive responses triggered by M. hydrocarbonoclasticus SP17 to occupy a specific niche in marine ecosystems. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 33 CFR 125.15 - Access to waterfront facilities, and port and harbor areas, including vessels and harbor craft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and port and harbor areas, including vessels and harbor craft therein. 125.15 Section 125.15....15 Access to waterfront facilities, and port and harbor areas, including vessels and harbor craft....09 to those waterfront facilities, and port and harbor areas, including vessels and harbor craft...

  6. CRSMP Potential Harbor Borrow Sites 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Harbor locations as identified originally in the California Shoreline Database compiled by Noble Consultants (Jon Moore) for California Department of Boating and...

  7. Drought tolerance and growth in populations of a wide-ranging tree species indicate climate change risks for the boreal north.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montwé, David; Isaac-Renton, Miriam; Hamann, Andreas; Spiecker, Heinrich

    2016-02-01

    Choosing drought-tolerant planting stock in reforestation programs may help adapt forests to climate change. To inform such reforestation strategies, we test lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Doug. ex Loud. var latifolia Englm.) population response to drought and infer potential benefits of a northward transfer of seeds from drier, southern environments. The objective is addressed by combining dendroecological growth analysis with long-term genetic field trials. Over 500 trees originating from 23 populations across western North America were destructively sampled in three experimental sites in southern British Columbia, representing a climate warming scenario. Growth after 32 years from provenances transferred southward or northward over long distances was significantly lower than growth of local populations. All populations were affected by a severe natural drought event in 2002. The provenances from the most southern locations showed the highest drought tolerance but low productivity. Local provenances were productive and drought tolerant. Provenances from the boreal north showed lower productivity and less drought tolerance on southern test sites than all other sources, implying that maladaptation to drought may prevent boreal populations from taking full advantage of more favorable growing conditions under projected climate change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Applicability of numerical model for seabed topography changes by tsunami flow. Analysis of formulae for sediment transport and simulations in a rectangular harbor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Masafumi

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of formulae for bed-load transport and pick-up rate in suspended transport are investigated in order to clarify the impact on seabed topography changes by tsunami flow. The impact by bed-load transport was depended on Froude number and water surface slope. Bed-load transport causes deposition under Fr 6/7 at face front of tsunami wave. Pick-up rate has more predominant influences for seabed topography changes than that of one brought by bed-load transport. 2-D Numerical simulations with formulae by Ikeno et.al were carried out to simulate topography changes around harbor by tsunami flow in the flume. The result indicated that the numerical model is more applicable than a numerical model with previous formulae for estimation of deposit and erosion by topography changes. It is for this reason that the formula of pick-up rate is adaptable for wide-range diameter of sand, from 0.08mm to 0.2mm. Upper limit of suspended sediment concentration is needed to set due to avoid overlarge concentration in the numerical model. Comparison between numerical results in a real scale with 1% and 5% upper limits clearly shows topography changes have a deep relevance with the upper limit value. The upper limit value is one of dominant factors for evaluating seabed topography changes by the 2-D Numerical simulations with the formulae by Ikeno et.al in a real scale. (author)

  9. 33 CFR 100.109 - Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. 100.109 Section 100.109 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.109 Winter Harbor...

  10. The Suez Canal and the petroleum harbors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The Suez Canal is the second longest channel in the world and allows to save 60% of the travel time between the petroleum harbors of the Arabic peninsula and Europe. This short paper gives a summary of the main petroleum harbors activity along the channel from the Red sea to the Mediterranean sea. (J.S.)

  11. Adaptive behavior of children with visual impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Anđelković Marija

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive behavior includes a wide range of skills necessary for independent, safe and adequate performance of everyday activities. Practical, social and conceptual skills make the concept of adaptive behavior. The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the existing studies of adaptive behavior in persons with visual impairment. The paper mainly focuses on the research on adaptive behavior in children with visual impairment. The results show that the acquisition of adaptive skills is ...

  12. Wide range noble gas radiation monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlman, H.S. III; Wyvill, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention contemplates providing a sample system for effluent from a nuclear process wherein the effluent in a first mode passes through a sample chamber whose noble gases are quantitatively detected. The sample of the first mode is continued until the detector count rate reaches a predetermined maximum. The detector establishes a control signal which is applied to terminate the first mode effluent flow to the chamber, evacuate the chamber to a predetermined value of vacuum and connect the effluent into the sample chamber with a predetermined mode of flow rate different from the rate of the first mode to establish a sample concentration in the chamber within the range of the detector. A subsequent predetermined minimum rate will generate a signal to reconnect the sample chamber to the first mode connection and thereby cycle the system back to its first mode of operation

  13. A wide-range direction neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luszik-Bhadra, M.; D'Errico, F.; Hecker, O.; Matzke, M.

    2002-01-01

    A new device is presented which has been developed for measuring the energy and direction of distribution of neutron fluence in fields of broad energy spectra (thermal to 100 MeV) and with a high background of photon, electron and muon radiation. The device was tested in reference fields with different energy and direction distributions of neutron fluence. The direction-integrated fluence spectra agree fairly well with reference spectra. In all cases, the ambient and personal dose equivalent values calculated from measured direction-differential spectra are within 35% of the reference values. Independent measurements of the directional dose equivalent were performed with a directional dose equivalent monitor based on superheated drop detectors

  14. Genetics Home Reference: Floating-Harbor syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patton MA, Hurst J, Donnai D, McKeown CM, Cole T, Goodship J. Floating-Harbor syndrome. J Med ... medicine? What is newborn screening? New Pages Lyme disease Fibromyalgia White-Sutton syndrome All New & Updated Pages ...

  15. Madaket Harbor, Nantucket, Massachusetts. Water Resources Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-01

    will continue to be, important increases in the recreational use of land and water. The harbor area is an important arena for commercial shellfishing...an important arena for commercial shell fishing. The past few years have seen a rather rapid increase in residential land use. Construction has...beamc. Tnis material will be re-deposited,, viaj troio it 1-apfro1inr ox prior location. j, MADAKET HARBOR NANTUCKET, MASSACHUSETTS FEASIBILITY

  16. 76 FR 8653 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, New Orleans Harbor, Inner Harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... Operation Regulation; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, New Orleans Harbor, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from... Lock), at New Orleans, Orleans Parish, Louisiana. This deviation is necessary to replace all of the...

  17. 75 FR 78601 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, New Orleans Harbor, Inner Harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... Operation Regulation; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, New Orleans Harbor, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from... Harvey Lock), at New Orleans, Orleans Parish, Louisiana. This deviation is necessary to adjust the...

  18. New Harbor in Kangerlussuaq, Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenstad, Jaran Gjerlandj; Eppeland, Kjetil Grødal; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    transported by rivers from the inland ice to the inner parts of the fjord. These sediment layers reduce the water depth and prevent container- and cruiseships to dock, imposing large additional maintenance costs, and inefficient operability. Through engineering geological field and lab investigations......, a possible new harbor location around 10 km further out the fjord near Hancock Pynt, has been investigated. The onshore area was found to be highly suitable for a harbor support area, where a sub-base thickness of 1.8 m with gravel cover-layer was found adequate for the calculated design loads. Existing...

  19. Emergence of fatal avian influenza in New England harbor seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, S.J.; St. Leger, J. A.; Pugliares, K.; Ip, Hon S.; Chan, J.M.; Carpenter, Z.W.; Navarrete-Macias, I.; Sanchez-Leon, M.; Saliki, J.T.; Pedersen, J.; Karesh, W.; Daszak, P.; Rabadan, R.; Rowles, T.; Lipkin, W.I.

    2012-01-01

    From September to December 2011, 162 New England harbor seals died in an outbreak of pneumonia. Sequence analysis of postmortem samples revealed the presence of an avian H3N8 influenza A virus, similar to a virus circulating in North American waterfowl since at least 2002 but with mutations that indicate recent adaption to mammalian hosts. These include a D701N mutation in the viral PB2 protein, previously reported in highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses infecting people. Lectin staining and agglutination assays indicated the presence of the avian-preferred SAα-2,3 and mammalian SAα-2,6 receptors in seal respiratory tract, and the ability of the virus to agglutinate erythrocytes bearing either the SAα-2,3 or the SAα-2,6 receptor. The emergence of this A/harbor seal/Massachusetts/1/2011 virus may herald the appearance of an H3N8 influenza clade with potential for persistence and cross-species transmission.

  20. Evaluation of Sediment Contamination in Pearl Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    ancient Hawaiians, was a large natural inland lagoon. Numerous walled fishponds located inside the harbor were used to cultivate various species of fishes... Ecotoxicology , Commission on Natural Resources, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 103 pp. National Research Council, 1989. Contaminated Marine

  1. Analysis of the influence of the plasma thermodynamic regime in the spectrally resolved and mean radiative opacity calculations of carbon plasmas in a wide range of density and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, J.M.; Rodriguez, R.; Martel, P.; Florido, R.; Rubiano, J.G.; Mendoza, M.A.; Minguez, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this work the spectrally resolved, multigroup and mean radiative opacities of carbon plasmas are calculated for a wide range of plasma conditions which cover situations where corona, local thermodynamic and non-local thermodynamic equilibrium regimes are found. An analysis of the influence of the thermodynamic regime on these magnitudes is also carried out by means of comparisons of the results obtained from collisional-radiative, corona or Saha–Boltzmann equations. All the calculations presented in this work were performed using ABAKO/RAPCAL code. -- Highlights: ► Spectrally resolved, multigroup and mean radiative opacities of carbon plasmas are calculated. ► Corona, local thermodynamic and non-local thermodynamic equilibrium regimes are analyzed. ► Simulations performed using the computational package ABAKO/RAPCAL. ► A criterion for the establishment of the thermodynamic regime is proposed.

  2. Modeling of Tsunami Currents in Harbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynett, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    Extreme events, such as large wind waves and tsunamis, are well recognized as a damaging hazard to port and harbor facilities. Wind wave events, particularly those with long period spectral components or infragravity wave generation, can excite resonance inside harbors leading to both large vertical motions and strong currents. Tsunamis can cause great damage as well. The geometric amplification of these very long waves can create large vertical motions in the interior of a harbor. Additionally, if the tsunami is composed of a train of long waves, which it often is, resonance can be easily excited. These long wave motions create strong currents near the node locations of resonant motions, and when interacting with harbor structures such as breakwaters, can create intense turbulent rotational structures, typical in the form of large eddies or gyres. These gyres have tremendous transport potential, and have been observed to break mooring lines, and even cause ships to be trapped inside the rotation, moving helplessly with the flow until collision, grounding, or dissipation of the eddy (e.g. Okal et al., 2006). This presentation will introduce the traditional theory used to predict wave impacts on harbors, discussing both how these models are practically useful and in what types of situations require a more accurate tool. State-of-the-art numerical models will be introduced, with a focus on recent developments in Boussinesq-type modeling. The Boussinesq equations model can account the dispersive, turbulent and rotational flow properties frequently observed in nature. Also they have the ability to coupling currents and waves and can predict nonlinear wave propagation over uneven bottom from deep (or intermediate) water area to shallow water area. However, during the derivation of a 2D-horizontal equation set, some 3D flow features, such those driven by as the dispersive stresses and the effects of the unresolved small scale 3D turbulence, are excluded. Consequently

  3. 32 CFR 765.6 - Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. 765.6... RULES RULES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC § 765.6 Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The Commander, U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, is responsible for prescribing and enforcing such rules and...

  4. Teaching about Pearl Harbor. Curriculum Enhancement Series #1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Anna Marshall

    These materials consist of sample lesson plans for teaching about the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, in both U.S. and world history classes. The lesson plans challenge students to examine how current attitudes toward the Japanese may be rooted in World War II and Pearl Harbor. Selected bibliographies on Pearl Harbor, World…

  5. Remembering Pearl Harbor at 75 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehr, Patricia; Sopcheck, Janet; Milbrath, Gwyneth

    2016-12-01

    : On December 7, 1941, the Sunday-morning quiet of the U.S. naval base in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, was shattered by dive-bombing Japanese fighter planes. The planes came in two waves-and when it was all over, more than 2,400 were killed and more than 1,100 were injured.Nurses were stationed at U.S. Naval Hospital Pearl Harbor, Tripler General Hospital (now Tripler Army Medical Center), Hickam Field Hospital, Schofield Barracks Station Hospital, and aboard the USS Solace, and witnessed the devastation. But they also did what nurses do in emergencies-they responded and provided care to those in need. Here are the stories of a few of those nurses.

  6. Old Harbor Scammon Bay Hydro Feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent Petrie

    2007-06-27

    The grantee, Alaska Village Electric Cooperative (AVEC), is a non-profit member owned rural electric generation and distribution cooperative. The proposed Project is located near the community of Old Harbor, Alaska. Old Harbor is on the southeastern coast of Kodiak Island, approximately 70 miles southwest of the City of Kodiak and 320 miles southwest of Anchorage. In 1998 sufficient information had been developed to apply for a license to construct the project and the cost was estimated to be $2,445,000 for a 500 KW project on Lagoon Creek. Major features of the project included an eight-foot high diversion dam on Mountain Creek, a desander box, a 9,800-foot long penstock to the powerhouse on Lagoon Creek, and a 5,500-foot long access road. It was also anticipated that the project could provide an additional source of water to Old Harbor. The report details the history and lessons learned in designing and permiting the proposed hydroelectric facility.

  7. Post-glacial phylogeography and evolution of a wide-ranging highly-exploited keystone forest tree, eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) in North America: single refugium, multiple routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinck, John W R; Rajora, Om P

    2016-03-02

    Knowledge of the historical distribution and postglacial phylogeography and evolution of a species is important to better understand its current distribution and population structure and potential fate in the future, especially under climate change conditions, and conservation of its genetic resources. We have addressed this issue in a wide-ranging and heavily exploited keystone forest tree species of eastern North America, eastern white pine (Pinus strobus). We examined the range-wide population genetic structure, tested various hypothetical population history and evolutionary scenarios and inferred the location of glacial refugium and post-glacial recolonization routes. Our hypothesis was that eastern white pine survived in a single glacial refugium and expanded through multiple post-glacial recolonization routes. We studied the range-wide genetic diversity and population structure of 33 eastern white pine populations using 12 nuclear and 3 chloroplast microsatellite DNA markers. We used Approximate Bayesian Computation approach to test various evolutionary scenarios. We observed high levels of genetic diversity, and significant genetic differentiation (F ST = 0.104) and population structure among eastern white pine populations across its range. A south to north trend of declining genetic diversity existed, consistent with repeated founder effects during post-glaciation migration northwards. We observed broad consensus from nuclear and chloroplast genetic markers supporting the presence of two main post-glacial recolonization routes that originated from a single southern refugium in the mid-Atlantic plain. One route gave rise to populations at the western margin of the species' range in Minnesota and western Ontario. The second route gave rise to central-eastern populations, which branched into two subgroups: central and eastern. We observed minimal sharing of chloroplast haplotypes between recolonization routes but there was evidence of admixture between the

  8. Can an electronic device with a single cuff be accurate in a wide range of arm size? Validation of the Visomat Comfort 20/40 device for home blood pressure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou, G S; Tzamouranis, D; Nasothimiou, E G; Protogerou, A D

    2008-11-01

    An appropriate cuff according to the individual's arm circumference is recommended with all blood pressure (BP) monitors. An electronic device for home monitoring has been developed (Visomat Comfort 20/40) that estimates the individual's arm circumference by measuring the cuff filing volume and makes an adjustment of measured BP taking into account the estimated arm circumference. Thus the manufacturer recommends the use of a single cuff for arm circumference 23-43 cm. The device accuracy was assessed using the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol. Simultaneous BP measurements were obtained in 33 adults by two observers (connected mercury sphygmomanometers) four times, sequentially with three measurements taken using the tested device. Absolute device-observer BP differences were classified into difference differences differences difference (systolic/diastolic) was 3.7 +/- 5.6/-1.5 +/- 4.7 mm Hg (4.7 +/- 4.9/ - 1.7 +/- 4.3 in arm circumference 23-29 cm [39 readings] and 3.1 +/- 5.9/-1.4 +/- 5.0 in arm 30-34 cm [60 readings], P=NS). In conclusion, the device fulfils the International Protocol requirements and can be recommended for clinical use. Interestingly, the device was accurate using a single cuff in a wide range of arm circumference (23-34 cm). This study provides no information about the device accuracy in larger arms.

  9. Cultural Resources Survey of Mobile Harbor, Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    improvement from the point of view of supply and communication with other European settlements, since it cut the lightering distance to the capital in half...order to cut the costs of building (Bathe 1978:08.00-02; Millar 1978:15-29). 32 6e The sharing of ship builders, the borrowing of vessel lines and the... Eslava Street Mobile. Burned to water’s edge during overhaul. Notes: Served as HINGHAM in Boston Harbor; served as ORIENT in Long Island Sound. Operated

  10. Wide-range high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals morphological and distributional changes of endomembrane compartments during log to stationary transition of growth phase in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyooka, Kiminori; Sato, Mayuko; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Higaki, Takumi; Sawaki, Fumie; Wakazaki, Mayumi; Goto, Yumi; Hasezawa, Seiichiro; Nagata, Noriko; Matsuoka, Ken

    2014-09-01

    Rapid growth of plant cells by cell division and expansion requires an endomembrane trafficking system. The endomembrane compartments, such as the Golgi stacks, endosome and vesicles, are important in the synthesis and trafficking of cell wall materials during cell elongation. However, changes in the morphology, distribution and number of these compartments during the different stages of cell proliferation and differentiation have not yet been clarified. In this study, we examined these changes at the ultrastructural level in tobacco Bright yellow 2 (BY-2) cells during the log and stationary phases of growth. We analyzed images of the BY-2 cells prepared by the high-pressure freezing/freeze substitution technique with the aid of an auto-acquisition transmission electron microscope system. We quantified the distribution of secretory and endosomal compartments in longitudinal sections of whole cells by using wide-range gigapixel-class images obtained by merging thousands of transmission electron micrographs. During the log phase, all Golgi stacks were composed of several thick cisternae. Approximately 20 vesicle clusters (VCs), including the trans-Golgi network and secretory vesicle cluster, were observed throughout the cell. In the stationary-phase cells, Golgi stacks were thin with small cisternae, and only a few VCs were observed. Nearly the same number of multivesicular body and small high-density vesicles were observed in both the stationary and log phases. Results from electron microscopy and live fluorescence imaging indicate that the morphology and distribution of secretory-related compartments dramatically change when cells transition from log to stationary phases of growth. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Wide-range tunable bandgap in Bi1−xCaxFe1−yTiyO3−δ nanoparticles via oxygen vacancy induced structural modulations at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mocherla, Pavana S V; Sudakar, C; Gautam, Sanjeev; Chae, Keun Hwa; Rao, M S Ramachandra

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that oxygen vacancies (V O ) produced by aliovalent (Ca 2+ ) doping in BiFeO 3 (BCFO) and associated structural changes due to V O ordering result in systematic alteration of the bandgap (E g ) over a wide range from 1.5 eV to 2.3 eV. By contrast, the change in the bandgap of a Ca 2+ and Ti 4+ co-doped BiFeO 3 (BCFTO) system, wherein the V O formation is suppressed, is negligible. These contrastive results strongly confirm the role of oxygen vacancies in altering the bandgap of BCFO. Irrespective of doping, microstrain, which is found to be large (0.3 to 1.2%) below a critical size (d c ∼ 60 nm) also produces a small, yet linear change in the bandgap (E g from 2.0 to 2.3 eV). The cubic phase stabilizes gradually in BCFO for x > 0.1 through an orthorhombic phase (for 0.05 < x < 0.1), whereas it directly transforms for x > 0.1 in BCFTO. This change in BCFO at 300 K suggests a high-pressure-like (or high-temperature-like) effect of the oxygen vacancies and dopants on the structure. Systematic variations in the relative intensities and peak positions of Fe d–d transitions in BCFO reveal the local changes in Fe–O–Fe coordination. These results along with XANES and HRTEM studies substantiate the observed structural changes. (paper)

  12. 77 FR 50916 - Safety Zone; Boston Harbor's Rock Removal Project, Boston Inner Harbor, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... operation on the navigable waters of Boston Inner Harbor, in the main ship channel near Castle Island. This... operations in support of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers rock removal project. Entering into, transiting... before the start date of the project. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers also discussed the rock removal...

  13. Vibration-based structural health monitoring of harbor caisson structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So-Young; Lee, So-Ra; Kim, Jeong-Tae

    2011-04-01

    This study presents vibration-based structural health monitoring method in foundation-structure interface of harbor caisson structure. In order to achieve the objective, the following approaches are implemented. Firstly, vibration-based response analysis method is selected and structural health monitoring (SHM) technique is designed for harbor caisson structure. Secondly, the performance of designed SHM technique for harbor structure is examined by FE analysis. Finally, the applicability of designed SHM technique for harbor structure is evaluated by dynamic tests on a lab-scaled caisson structure.

  14. Bacterial Communities in Polluted Seabed Sediments: A Molecular Biology Assay in Leghorn Harbor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Chiellini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Seabed sediments of commercial ports are often characterized by high pollution levels. Differences in number and distribution of bacteria in such areas can be related to distribution of pollutants in the port and to sediment conditions. In this study, the bacterial communities of five sites from Leghorn Harbor seabed were characterized, and the main bacterial groups were identified. T-RFLP was used for all samples; two 16S rRNA libraries and in silico digestion of clones were used to identify fingerprint profiles. Library data, phylogenetic analysis, and T-RFLP coupled with in silico digestion of the obtained sequences evidenced the dominance of Proteobacteria and the high percentage of Bacteroidetes in all sites. The approach highlighted similar bacterial communities between samples coming from the five sites, suggesting a modest differentiation among bacterial communities of different harbor seabed sediments and hence the capacity of bacterial communities to adapt to different levels and types of pollution.

  15. Hazardous substances shipping at inland water harbors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkovic, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Safety measures and regulations system covering the aspects of fire protection, professional and ecological safety are aimed to create a safe working environment, by detection and remedy of conditions that are potentially hazardous for the well-being of the employees or are leading to certain undesired events. Such unwanted incidents may result in different consequences: operating person's injury, environment pollution or material damage. This study attempts to illustrate the organization of work during hazardous matter loading and unloading at inland water harbors, based on legal provisions and decrees involving safety precautions, and in order to achieve constant enhancement of operating procedure, decreasing thereby the number of work-related injuries and various accidental situations. Fundamental precondition required to prevent possible accidents and to optimize general safety policy is to recognize and control any danger or potential hazard, as well as to be familiar with the legal provisions covering the inland waterway transport of harmful substances.(author)

  16. 33 CFR 80.1460 - Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI. 80.1460 Section 80.1460 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1460 Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI. A line drawn...

  17. 33 CFR 80.1450 - Nawiliwili Harbor, Kauai, HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nawiliwili Harbor, Kauai, HI. 80.1450 Section 80.1450 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1450 Nawiliwili Harbor, Kauai, HI...

  18. 33 CFR 110.238 - Apra Harbor, Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apra Harbor, Guam. 110.238 Section 110.238 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.238 Apra Harbor, Guam. (a) The anchorage grounds (Datum: WGS...

  19. 33 CFR 80.1470 - Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii, HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii, HI. 80.1470 Section 80.1470 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1470 Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii, HI...

  20. 33 CFR 80.1480 - Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI. 80.1480 Section 80.1480 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1480 Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI. A line drawn...

  1. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1...

  2. 32 CFR 705.31 - USS Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false USS Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor. 705.31... NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.31 USS Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor. (a) Limited space and the desirability of keeping the Memorial simple and dignified require the...

  3. 76 FR 50489 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Harbor Maintenance Fee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... Activities: Harbor Maintenance Fee AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... Fee (CBP Forms 349 and 350). This is a proposed extension of an information collection that was... Fee. OMB Number: 1651-0055. Form Number: CBP Forms 349 and 350. Abstract: The Harbor Maintenance Fee...

  4. 33 CFR 165.904 - Lake Michigan at Chicago Harbor & Burnham Park Harbor-Safety and Security Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... & Burnham Park Harbor-Safety and Security Zone. 165.904 Section 165.904 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION... Guard District § 165.904 Lake Michigan at Chicago Harbor & Burnham Park Harbor—Safety and Security Zone...

  5. 77 FR 59551 - Safety Zone, Changes to Original Rule; Boston Harbor's Rock Removal Project, Boston Inner Harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2012-0767] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Changes to Original Rule; Boston Harbor's Rock Removal Project, Boston Inner Harbor... original provisions of that temporary final rule, but adds two additional safety zones necessary for the...

  6. Non-Human Primates Harbor Diverse Mammalian and Avian Astroviruses Including Those Associated with Human Infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik A Karlsson

    Full Text Available Astroviruses (AstVs are positive sense, single-stranded RNA viruses transmitted to a wide range of hosts via the fecal-oral route. The number of AstV-infected animal hosts has rapidly expanded in recent years with many more likely to be discovered because of the advances in viral surveillance and next generation sequencing. Yet no study to date has identified human AstV genotypes in animals, although diverse AstV genotypes similar to animal-origin viruses have been found in children with diarrhea and in one instance of encephalitis. Here we provide important new evidence that non-human primates (NHP can harbor a wide variety of mammalian and avian AstV genotypes, including those only associated with human infection. Serological analyses confirmed that >25% of the NHP tested had antibodies to human AstVs. Further, we identified a recombinant AstV with parental relationships to known human AstVs. Phylogenetic analysis suggests AstVs in NHP are on average evolutionarily much closer to AstVs from other animals than are AstVs from bats, a frequently proposed reservoir. Our studies not only demonstrate that human astroviruses can be detected in NHP but also suggest that NHP are unique in their ability to support diverse AstV genotypes, further challenging the paradigm that astrovirus infection is species-specific.

  7. Contaminant transport and accumulation in Massachusetts Bay and Boston Harbor; a summary of U.S. Geological Survey studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, Bradford; Bothner, Michael H.; Hathaway, J.C.; Jenter, H.L.; Knebel, H.J.; Manheim, F.T.; Signell, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting studies in Boston Harbor, Massachusetts Bay, and Cape Cod Bay designed to define the geologic framework of the region and to understand the transport and accumulation of contaminated sediments. The region is being studied because of environmental problems caused by the introduction of wastes for a long time, because a new ocean outfall (to begin operation in 1995) will change the location for disposal of treated Boston sewage from Boston Harbor into Massachusetts Bay, and because of the need to understand the transport of sediments and associated contaminants in order to address a wide range of management questions. The USGS effort complements and is closely coordinated with the research and monitoring studies supported by the Massachusetts Environmental Trust, the Massachusetts Bays Program, and by the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority. The USGS study includes (1) geologic mapping, (2) circulation studies, (3) long-term current and sediment transport observations, (4) measurements of contaminant inventories and rates of sediment mixing and accumulation, (5) circulation modeling, (6) development of a contaminated sediments data base, and (7) information exchange. A long-term objective of the program is to develop a predictive capability for sediment transport and accumulation.

  8. Cloning and Sequencing of Protein Kinase cDNA from Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. C. Neale

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinases (PKs play critical roles in signal transduction and activation of lymphocytes. The identification of PK genes provides a tool for understanding mechanisms of immunotoxic xenobiotics. As part of a larger study investigating persistent organic pollutants in the harbor seal and their possible immunomodulatory actions, we sequenced harbor seal cDNA fragments encoding PKs. The procedure, using degenerate primers based on conserved motifs of human protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs, successfully amplified nine phocid PK gene fragments with high homology to human and rodent orthologs. We identified eight PTKs and one dual (serine/threonine and tyrosine kinase. Among these were several PKs important in early signaling events through the B- and T-cell receptors (FYN, LYN, ITK and SYK and a MAP kinase involved in downstream signal transduction. V-FGR, RET and DDR2 were also expressed. Sequential activation of protein kinases ultimately induces gene transcription leading to the proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes critical to adaptive immunity. PKs are potential targets of bioactive xenobiotics, including persistent organic pollutants of the marine environment; characterization of these molecules in the harbor seal provides a foundation for further research illuminating mechanisms of action of contaminants speculated to contribute to large-scale die-offs of marine mammals via immunosuppression.

  9. Genome and transcriptome adaptation accompanying emergence of the definitive type 2 host-restricted Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium pathovar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, Robert A; Kay, Sally; Connor, Thomas; Barquist, Lars; Sait, Leanne; Holt, Kathryn E; Sivaraman, Karthi; Wileman, Thomas; Goulding, David; Clare, Simon; Hale, Christine; Seshasayee, Aswin; Harris, Simon; Thomson, Nicholas R; Gardner, Paul; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Wigley, Paul; Humphrey, Tom; Parkhill, Julian; Dougan, Gordon

    2013-08-27

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium definitive type 2 (DT2) is host restricted to Columba livia (rock or feral pigeon) but is also closely related to S. Typhimurium isolates that circulate in livestock and cause a zoonosis characterized by gastroenteritis in humans. DT2 isolates formed a distinct phylogenetic cluster within S. Typhimurium based on whole-genome-sequence polymorphisms. Comparative genome analysis of DT2 94-213 and S. Typhimurium SL1344, DT104, and D23580 identified few differences in gene content with the exception of variations within prophages. However, DT2 94-213 harbored 22 pseudogenes that were intact in other closely related S. Typhimurium strains. We report a novel in silico approach to identify single amino acid substitutions in proteins that have a high probability of a functional impact. One polymorphism identified using this method, a single-residue deletion in the Tar protein, abrogated chemotaxis to aspartate in vitro. DT2 94-213 also exhibited an altered transcriptional profile in response to culture at 42°C compared to that of SL1344. Such differentially regulated genes included a number involved in flagellum biosynthesis and motility. IMPORTANCE Whereas Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium can infect a wide range of animal species, some variants within this serovar exhibit a more limited host range and altered disease potential. Phylogenetic analysis based on whole-genome sequences can identify lineages associated with specific virulence traits, including host adaptation. This study represents one of the first to link pathogen-specific genetic signatures, including coding capacity, genome degradation, and transcriptional responses to host adaptation within a Salmonella serovar. We performed comparative genome analysis of reference and pigeon-adapted definitive type 2 (DT2) S. Typhimurium isolates alongside phenotypic and transcriptome analyses, to identify genetic signatures linked to host adaptation within the DT2 lineage.

  10. Wave Climate and Wave Response, 2025 Plan, Kahului Harbor, Maui, Hawaii

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Edward

    2002-01-01

    ... (wind waves and swell) and long waves (harbor oscillations), was used to evaluate the technical feasibility of three alternative modifications to the harbor, including the Kahului Commercial Harbor 2025 Master Plan...

  11. Evaluation framework based on fuzzy measured method in adaptive learning systems

    OpenAIRE

    Houda Zouari Ounaies, ,; Yassine Jamoussi; Henda Hajjami Ben Ghezala

    2008-01-01

    Currently, e-learning systems are mainly web-based applications and tackle a wide range of users all over the world. Fitting learners’ needs is considered as a key issue to guaranty the success of these systems. Many researches work on providing adaptive systems. Nevertheless, evaluation of the adaptivity is still in an exploratory phase. Adaptation methods are a basic factor to guaranty an effective adaptation. This issue is referred as meta-adaptation in numerous researches. In our research...

  12. Effect of the orientation of the harbor seal vibrissa based biomimetic cylinder on hydrodynamic forces and vortex induced frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HyoJu; Yoon, Hyun Sik

    2017-10-01

    The present study considered the geometric disturbance inspired by a harbor seal vibrissa of which undulated surface structures (HSV) are known as a detecting device to capture the water movement induced by prey fish. As an original research can extend to the flow control based on the biomimetic, this study aims at finding the effect of the angle of attack (AOA) on flow characteristics around the harbor seal vibrissa shaped cylinder, to cover the change of flow direction during the harbor seal's movements and surrounding conditions. Therefore, we considered a wide range of AOA varying from 0 to 90 degree. We carried out large eddy simulation (LES) to investigate the flow around inclined vibrissa shaped cylinder for the Reynolds number (Re) of 500. The elliptic cylinder is considered for the purpose of the comparison. The difference of force coefficients between the HSV and the elliptic cylinder can be classified into three regimes of one large variation region, two invariant regimes according to AOA. In contrast to the elliptic cylinder showing the monotonically decrease of the vortex shedding frequency in AOA, the HSV reveals the increasing and then decreasing behavior of the vortex shedding frequency along the AOA. The same decreasing profile of the vortex shedding frequency means that the HSV lost the unique function on the vortex shedding frequency. The shear layers for the HSV is much longer than that of shear layers for the elliptic cylinder at low angles of the attack. With increasing AOA, the difference of the vortical structures in the wake between the HSV and the elliptic cylinder becomes minor. Thus, it can be concluded that as AOA increases, the bluff body flow overcomes the flow induced by the HSV shape, resulting in the appearance of almost the same flow with the elliptic cylinder.

  13. Perspectives on Highly Adaptive or Morphing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Vicroy, Dan D.; Busan, Ronald C.; Hahn, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to adapt to different flight conditions has been fundamental to aircraft design since the Wright Brothers first flight. Over a hundred years later, unconventional aircraft adaptability, often called aircraft morphing has become a topic of considerable renewed interest. In the past two decades, this interest has been largely fuelled by advancements in multi-functional or smart materials and structures. However, highly adaptive or morphing aircraft is certainly a cross-discipline challenge that stimulates a wide range of design possibilities. This paper will review some of the history of morphing aircraft including recent research programs and discuss some perspectives on this work.

  14. Bar Harbor, ME Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Bar Harbor, Maine Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  15. Hydrocarbon pollutants shape bacterial community assembly of harbor sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Barbato, Marta; Mapelli, Francesca; Magagnini, Mirko; Chouaia, Bessem; Armeni, Monica; Marasco, Ramona; Crotti, Elena; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Petroleum pollution results in co-contamination by different classes of molecules, entailing the occurrence of marine sediments difficult to remediate, as in the case of the Ancona harbor (Mediterranean Sea, Italy). Autochthonous bioaugmentation

  16. Extrachromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid in R factor-harboring Enterobacteriaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, JK; Bak, AL; Christiansen, C

    1976-01-01

    Extrachromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from 24 different R factor-harboring Enterobacteriaceae was isolated and characterized by analytical ultracentrifugation and electron microscopy. The R factors represented 15 different patterns of transferable drug resistance found in enterobacteria from...

  17. 75 FR 76613 - National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    .... The deadly attack on Pearl Harbor did not accomplish its mission of breaking the American spirit..., aiding the war effort by working in manufacturing plants, participating in rationing programs, or...

  18. Apra Harbor, Guam Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Apra Harbor, Guam Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  19. Pearl Harbor, Hawaii 1 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Pearl Harbor Hawaii Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  20. Submarine Biofouling Control- Chlorination DATS Study at Pearl Harbor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wegand, John

    2001-01-01

    The intent of this document is to sumarize the chlorination studies performed at Naval Station, Pearl Harbor in support of biofouling control initiatives for the submarine community, as requested by NAVSEA 92T...

  1. Ground-water status report, Pearl Harbor area, Hawaii, 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroos, Ronald L.; Ewart, Charles J.

    1979-01-01

    Increasing demand for freshwater in Hawaii has placed heavy stress on many of the State 's basal aquifer systems. The most heavily stressed of these systems is the Pearl Harbor on Oahu. The Pearl Harbor basal aquifer supplies as much as 277 million gallons per day. Since early in this century, spring discharge has been declining while pumpage has been increasing. Total ground-water discharge has remained steady despite short-term fluctuations. Some wells show general increases in chloride concentration while others remain steady. Chloride concentrations throughout the area show no apparent increase since 1970. Basal water head maps of the Pearl Harbor area clearly reflect the natural discharge points, which are the springs located along the shore near the center of Pearl Harbor. Basal-water hydrographs show a general decline of about 0.09 foot per year. This implies depletion of storage at a rate of about 25 million gallons per day. (USGS).

  2. Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  3. Harbor seal vibrissa morphology suppresses vortex-induced vibrations

    OpenAIRE

    Hanke, Wolf; Witte, Mathias; Miersch, Lars; Brede, Martin; Oeffner, Johannes; Michael, Mark; Hanke, Frederike; Leder, Alfred; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) often live in dark and turbid waters, where their mystacial vibrissae, or whiskers, play an important role in orientation. Besides detecting and discriminating objects by direct touch, harbor seals use their whiskers to analyze water movements, for example those generated by prey fish or by conspecifics. Even the weak water movements left behind by objects that have passed by earlier can be sensed and followed accurately (hydrodynamic trail following). While scan...

  4. Satellite Monitoring of Boston Harbor Water Quality: Initial Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, P.; Chen, R. F.; Schaaf, C.; Pahlevan, N.; Lee, Z.

    2016-02-01

    The transformation of Boston Harbor from the "dirtiest in America" to a National Park Area is one of the most remarkable estuarine recoveries in the world. A long-term water quality dataset from 1991 to present exists in Boston Harbor due to a $3. 8 billion lawsuit requiring the harbor clean-up. This project uses discrete water sampling and underway transects with a towed vehicle coordinated with Landsat 7 and Landsat 8 to create surface maps of chlorophyll a (Chl a), dissolved organic matter (CDOM and DOC), total suspended solids (TSS), diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd_490), and photic depth in Boston Harbor. In addition, 3 buoys have been designed, constructed, and deployed in Boston Harbor that measure Chl a and CDOM fluorescence, optical backscatter, salinity, temperature, and meteorological parameters. We are initially using summer and fall of 2015 to develop atmospheric corrections for conditions in Boston Harbor and develop algorithms for Landsat 8 data to estimate in water photic depth, TSS, Chl a, Kd_490, and CDOM. We will report on initial buoy and cruise data and show 2015 Landsat-derived distributions of water quality parameters. It is our hope that once algorithms for present Landsat imagery can be developed, historical maps of water quality can be constructed using in water data back to 1991.

  5. Environmental risk assessment of water quality in harbor areas: a new methodology applied to European ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Aina G; Ondiviela, Bárbara; Puente, Araceli; Juanes, José A

    2015-05-15

    This work presents a standard and unified procedure for assessment of environmental risks at the contaminant source level in port aquatic systems. Using this method, port managers and local authorities will be able to hierarchically classify environmental hazards and proceed with the most suitable management actions. This procedure combines rigorously selected parameters and indicators to estimate the environmental risk of each contaminant source based on its probability, consequences and vulnerability. The spatio-temporal variability of multiple stressors (agents) and receptors (endpoints) is taken into account to provide accurate estimations for application of precisely defined measures. The developed methodology is tested on a wide range of different scenarios via application in six European ports. The validation process confirms its usefulness, versatility and adaptability as a management tool for port water quality in Europe and worldwide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Test Review: Wilkinson, G. S., & Robertson, G. J. (2006). Wide Range Achievement Test--Fourth Edition. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources. WRAT4 Introductory Kit (Includes Manual, 25 Test/Response Forms [Blue and Green], and Accompanying Test Materials): $243.00

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Cindy Ann; Harrold, Barbara; Dell, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The Wide Range Achievement Test-Fourth Edition (WRAT4) is designed to provide "a quick, simple, psychometrically sound assessment of academic skills". The test was first published in 1946 by Joseph F. Jastak, with the purpose of augmenting the cognitive performance measures of the Wechsler-Bellevue Scales, developed by David Wechsler.…

  7. Tech Talk for Social Studies Teachers Lest We Forget: Remembering Pearl Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Tim

    2001-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites about Pearl Harbor (Hawaii). Includes Web sites that cover Pearl Harbor history, a live view of Pearl Harbor, stories from people who remember where they were during the attack, information on the naval station at Pearl Harbor, and a virtual tour of the USS Arizona. (CMK)

  8. Production of infectious chimeric hepatitis C virus genotype 2b harboring minimal regions of JFH-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Asako; Kato, Takanobu; Akazawa, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Nao; Date, Tomoko; Masaki, Takahiro; Nakamoto, Shingo; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Mizokami, Masashi; Yokosuka, Osamu; Nomoto, Akio; Wakita, Takaji

    2012-02-01

    To establish a cell culture system for chimeric hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2b, we prepared a chimeric construct harboring the 5' untranslated region (UTR) to the E2 region of the MA strain (genotype 2b) and the region of p7 to the 3' UTR of the JFH-1 strain (genotype 2a). This chimeric RNA (MA/JFH-1.1) replicated and produced infectious virus in Huh7.5.1 cells. Replacement of the 5' UTR of this chimera with that from JFH-1 (MA/JFH-1.2) enhanced virus production, but infectivity remained low. In a long-term follow-up study, we identified a cell culture-adaptive mutation in the core region (R167G) and found that it enhanced virus assembly. We previously reported that the NS3 helicase (N3H) and the region of NS5B to 3' X (N5BX) of JFH-1 enabled replication of the J6CF strain (genotype 2a), which could not replicate in cells. To reduce JFH-1 content in MA/JFH-1.2, we produced a chimeric viral genome for MA harboring the N3H and N5BX regions of JFH-1, combined with a JFH-1 5' UTR replacement and the R167G mutation (MA/N3H+N5BX-JFH1/R167G). This chimeric RNA replicated efficiently, but virus production was low. After the introduction of four additional cell culture-adaptive mutations, MA/N3H+N5BX-JFH1/5am produced infectious virus efficiently. Using this chimeric virus harboring minimal regions of JFH-1, we analyzed interferon sensitivity and found that this chimeric virus was more sensitive to interferon than JFH-1 and another chimeric virus containing more regions from JFH-1 (MA/JFH-1.2/R167G). In conclusion, we established an HCV genotype 2b cell culture system using a chimeric genome harboring minimal regions of JFH-1. This cell culture system may be useful for characterizing genotype 2b viruses and developing antiviral strategies.

  9. Evaluation Framework Based on Fuzzy Measured Method in Adaptive Learning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounaies, Houda Zouari; Jamoussi, Yassine; Ben Ghezala, Henda Hajjami

    2008-01-01

    Currently, e-learning systems are mainly web-based applications and tackle a wide range of users all over the world. Fitting learners' needs is considered as a key issue to guaranty the success of these systems. Many researches work on providing adaptive systems. Nevertheless, evaluation of the adaptivity is still in an exploratory phase.…

  10. Host adaptation of bovine Staphylococcus aureus seems associated with bacteriological cure after lactational antimicrobial treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borne, van den B.H.P.; Nielen, M.; Schaik, van G.; Melchior, M.B.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Zadoks, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus causes a wide range of diseases in multiple species. Some sequence types (ST) are observed in a variety of hosts, whereas other strains are mainly associated with bovine mastitis, suggesting host adaptation. We propose that host adaptation of Staph. aureus may influence

  11. Case study of small harbor excitation under storm and tsunami conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synolakis, Costas; Maravelakis, Nikos; Kalligeris, Nikos; Skanavis, Vassilios; Kanoglu, Utku; Yalciner, Ahmet; Lynett, Pat

    2016-04-01

    Simultaneous nearshore and interior-to-ports wave and current measurements for small ports are not common, and few, if any, benchmarking cases at sufficient resolution exist to help validate numerical model of intermediate waves, or even long waves. The wave conditions inside the old Venetian harbor of Chania, Greece and offshore were measured and studied from 2012 to 2015. The construction of this harbor began in the 14th century, and since then, its layout has been modified to adapt to different social and to economic conditions. It is divided into a western and an eastern basin. The eastern basin is used by recreational vessels and fishing boats throughout the year. The western basin has an exposed entrance to the north, and it is essentially functional half of the year, because of the severe overtopping and flooding that occur during the northern winter storms. Our work is motivated by the necessity to protect the monument from severe winter storm conditions and allow safe mooring and all other recreational activities that take place in the exposed western basin. Two earlier studies had proposed the construction of a low crested breakwater near the harbor entrance. The first design has been partially constructed, while the second never materialized. The main disadvantage of both studies was the lack of any wave field measurements. At the same time, second order or complimentary phenomena such as harbor resonance had not been considered. To address the lack of field data, the offshore wave climate has been monitored since October 2012 using an AWAC 600kHz instrument, deployed at 23m depth. The response of the western and eastern basins of the harbor was measured with a TWR-2050 (deployed at 5.5m depth) and an RBRDuet T.D./wave (deployed at 2m depth) pressure gauges respectively. Significant wave heights ranging up to 5.8 m with significant periods of up to 10 sec were measured. The harbor pressure gauges are now being re-deployed in other locations to collect

  12. 33 CFR 207.610 - St. Lawrence River, Cape Vincent Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation of the harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Lawrence River, Cape Vincent Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation of the harbor and U.S. breakwater. 207.610 Section 207... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.610 St. Lawrence River, Cape Vincent Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and...

  13. Adaptive Reuse as A Strategy Toward Urban Resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz Ozge Aytac; Tulin Vural Arslan; Selen Durak

    2016-01-01

    The significance of urban development has been realized again while acute shocks and chronic stresses (earthquake or unemployment) affect cities in a negative way. Therefore, urban resilience becomes more important for economic, environmental, and social sustainability of the built environment. There is a wide range of approaches to resilience in the literature such as ecological, engineering, and adaptive systems. Unlike others, adaptive resilience establishes a co-evolutionary interaction b...

  14. Adaptive Controller Design for Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    K. Prabhu; V. Murali Bhaskaran

    2014-01-01

    Continues Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) is an important issue in chemical process and a wide range of research in the area of chemical engineering. Temperature Control of CSTR has been an issue in the chemical control engineering since it has highly non-linear complex equations. This study presents problem of temperature control of CSTR with the adaptive Controller. The Simulation is done in MATLAB and result shows that adaptive controller is an efficient controller for temperature control of C...

  15. Littoral cells and harbor dredging along the California coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Gary B.

    1987-02-01

    Beach compartments or littoral cells form the framework for our understanding of the sources, transport, and sinks of sand in the nearshore zone. In general, along the California coast, beach sand is derived from rivers or clifferosion, moves alongshore under the influence of the prevailing waver conditions, and ultimately is lost either to a submarine canyon or a dune field. Marinas or harbors built either between or at the upcoast ends of beach compartments have been relatively maintenance-free, because of a lack of significant littoral drift at these locations. On the other hand, those harbors built in the middle reaches or at the downcoast ends of littoral cells have had expensive annual dredging problems, because of the interruption of large volumes of littoral drift. Although engineers have labored for years on various breakwater, jetty, or entrance channel configurations, the actual design utilized is of secondary importance. The critical factors are harbor location within a littoral cell and annual litoral drift volume.

  16. Respiratory properties of blood in the harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soegaard, Lisette B; Hansen, Marie N; van Elk, Cornelis

    2012-01-01

    Harbor porpoises are active divers that exchange O(2) and CO(2) with the environment during a fast single breath upon surfacing. We investigated blood O(2)-transporting properties, buffer characteristics, Cl(-) transport via the erythrocyte anion exchanger (AE1), circulating nitric oxide metaboli......Harbor porpoises are active divers that exchange O(2) and CO(2) with the environment during a fast single breath upon surfacing. We investigated blood O(2)-transporting properties, buffer characteristics, Cl(-) transport via the erythrocyte anion exchanger (AE1), circulating nitric oxide....... The true plasma non-bicarbonate buffer value was moderately higher than in terrestrial mammals and increased upon deoxygenation. Plasma bicarbonate was also relatively high, contributing to increase the overall buffer capacity. The apparent Cl(-) permeability of harbor porpoise erythrocytes was similar......, plasma nitrate and hemoglobin-mediated nitrite reduction were elevated compared with mammalian standards, suggesting that increased nitric oxide bioavailability and nitrite-derived nitric oxide could play important roles in diving physiology....

  17. Wide-range tunable magnetic lens for tabletop electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Wei-Yu; Chen, Fu-Rong

    2016-01-01

    A tabletop scanning electron microscope (SEM) utilizes permanent magnets as condenser lenses to minimize its size, but this sacrifices the tunability of condenser lenses such that a tabletop system can only be operated with a fixed accelerating voltage. In contrast, the traditional condenser lens utilizes an electromagnetic coil to adjust the optical properties, but the size of the electromagnetic lens is inevitably larger. Here, we propose a tunable condenser lens for a tabletop SEM that uses a combination of permanent magnets and electromagnetic coils. The overall dimensions of the newly designed lens are the same as the original permanent magnet lens, but the new lens allows the tabletop SEM to be operated at different accelerating voltages between 1 kV and 15 kV. - Highlights: • A compact condenser lens combines both permanent magnet and coils. • A tunable lens is designed to keep the same focal point for voltage 1 to 15 kV. • A miniature tunable lens which can directly fit into tabletop SEM.

  18. High intensity accelerator for a wide range of applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conard, E.M.

    1994-01-01

    When looking at commercial applications of accelerators from a market point of view, it appears that a common accelerator design could meet different users' needs. This would benefit both the manufacturer and the user by multiplying the number of machines sold, thus lowering their cost and improving their quality. These applications include: radioisotope production for medical imaging (positron emission tomography), industrial imaging and non-destructive testing (e.g. neutron radiography, explosive and drug detection in luggage or freight). This paper investigates the needs of the various applications and defines their common denominator to establish suitable specifications (type of particles, energy, intensity). Different accelerator types (cyclotrons, linear accelerators and electrostatic machines) are reviewed and compared on performance and estimated costs. A high intensity tandem accelerator design is studied in more detail as it seems the most appropriate candidate. ((orig.))

  19. Wide-range neutron dose determination with CR-39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arneja, A.R.; Waker, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    Optical density measurements of CR-30 irradiated with 252 Cf neutrons and chemically etched with 6.5 N KOH solution have been used to determine neutron absorbed doses between 0.1 and 10 Gy. Optimum etching conditions will depend upon the absorbed dose. Since it is not always possible to know the range of absorbed dose on a CR-39 dosemeter collected from personnel and area monitor stations in a criticality accident situation, a three-step two-hour chemical etch at 60 o C has been found to be appropriate. If after a total of six hours of chemical etching the optical density is found to be below 0.04 for 500 nm light (transmission > 90%) then further treatment in the form of electrochemical etching can be carried out to determine the lower absorbed dose. In this manner, absorbed doses below 0.1 Gy can be determined by counting tracks over a unit area. (author)

  20. CEGB's new simulators provide a wide range of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, V.

    1988-01-01

    A training simulator imitating the Heysham-2 NPP operation with the AGR type reactor is briefly described. The simulator duplicates completely the operator room, which comprises two instrument benches (active and passive ones), operator control board, auxiliary facility, reactor shut-down monitor and a number of electric panels. The simulator imitates the work of reactor and associated systems both in normal and accidental conditions

  1. Wide range optofluidically tunable multimode interference fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio-Lopez, J E; LiKamWa, P; Sanchez-Mondragon, J J; May-Arrioja, D A

    2014-01-01

    An optofluidically tunable fiber laser based on multimode interference (MMI) effects with a wide tuning range is proposed and demonstrated. The tunable mechanism is based on an MMI fiber filter fabricated using a special fiber known as no-core fiber, which is a multimode fiber (MMF) without cladding. Therefore, when the MMI filter is covered by liquid the optical properties of the no-core fiber are modified, which allow us to tune the peak wavelength response of the MMI filter. Rather than applying the liquid on the entire no-core fiber, we change the liquid level along the no-core fiber, which provides a highly linear tuning response. In addition, by selecting the adequate refractive index of the liquid we can also choose the tuning range. We demonstrate the versatility of the optofluidically tunable MMI filter by wavelength tuning two different gain media, erbium doped fiber and a semiconductor optical amplifier, achieving tuning ranges of 55 and 90 nm respectively. In both cases, we achieve side-mode suppression ratios (SMSR) better than 50 dBm with output power variations of less than 0.76 dBm over the whole tuning range. (paper)

  2. A wide range and high speed automatic gain control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tacconi, E.; Christiansen, C.

    1993-05-01

    Automatic gain control (AGC) techniques have been largely used since the beginning of electronics, but in most of the applications the dynamic response is slow compared with the carrier frequency. The problem of developing an automatic gain control with high dynamic response and wide control range simultaneously is analyzed in this work. An ideal gain control law, with the property that the total loop gain remains constant independent of the carrier amplitude, is obtained. The resulting AGC behavior is compared by computer simulations with a linear multiplier AGC. The ideal gain control law can be approximated using a transconductance amplifier. A practical circuit that has been used at CERN in the radio frequency loops of the Booster Synchrotron is presented. The circuit has high speed and 80-dB gain control range

  3. Microprocessor-controlled wide-range streak camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Amy E.; Hollabaugh, Craig

    2006-08-01

    Bechtel Nevada/NSTec recently announced deployment of their fifth generation streak camera. This camera incorporates many advanced features beyond those currently available for streak cameras. The arc-resistant driver includes a trigger lockout mechanism, actively monitors input trigger levels, and incorporates a high-voltage fault interrupter for user safety and tube protection. The camera is completely modular and may deflect over a variable full-sweep time of 15 nanoseconds to 500 microseconds. The camera design is compatible with both large- and small-format commercial tubes from several vendors. The embedded microprocessor offers Ethernet connectivity, and XML [extensible markup language]-based configuration management with non-volatile parameter storage using flash-based storage media. The camera's user interface is platform-independent (Microsoft Windows, Unix, Linux, Macintosh OSX) and is accessible using an AJAX [asynchronous Javascript and XML]-equipped modem browser, such as Internet Explorer 6, Firefox, or Safari. User interface operation requires no installation of client software or browser plug-in technology. Automation software can also access the camera configuration and control using HTTP [hypertext transfer protocol]. The software architecture supports multiple-simultaneous clients, multiple cameras, and multiple module access with a standard browser. The entire user interface can be customized.

  4. A TLD reader for wide range in situ dose measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deme, S; Apathy, I.; Bodnar, L.; Csoeke, A.; Hejja, I.

    1998-01-01

    A portable thermoluminescent dosemeter reader suitable for reading at the site of exposure is described. The instrument consists of a glass bulb containing the CaSO 4 :Dy thermoluminescent material laminated to the surface of an electrically heated resistive metal plate. The bulb is encapsulated in a cylindrical, pen-like metal holder made of aluminium. A one-wire-port integrated electronic programmable memory chip mounted inside the holder contains the identification code and the individual calibration parameters of the dosemeter. The aperture of the holder is normally covered by a stainless steel tube to protect the bulb from light and mechanical shocks. The tube slips backwards automatically when the dosemeter is inserted into the reader. The system is used by the Hungarian nuclear power plant. (M.D.)

  5. Autonomous Vehicles Have a Wide Range of Possible Energy Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin Brown, Brittany Repac, Jeff Gonder

    2013-07-15

    Self-driving or “autonomous” vehicles (AVs) have leapt from science fiction into the forefront of transportation technology news. The technology is likely still years away from widespread commercial adoption, but the recent progress makes it worth considering the potential national impacts of widespread implementation. This poster makes an initial assessment of the energy impacts of AV adoptionon a per-vehicle basis and on total personal vehicle fuel use. While AVs offer numerous potential advantages in energy use, there are significant factors that could decrease or even eliminate the energy benefits under some circumstances. This analysis attempts to describe, quantify, and combine many of the possible effects. The nature and magnitude of these effects remain highly uncertain. This set of effects is very unlikely to be exhaustive, but this analysis approach can serve as a base for future estimates.

  6. Microprocessor-controlled, wide-range streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amy E. Lewis; Craig Hollabaugh

    2006-01-01

    Bechtel Nevada/NSTec recently announced deployment of their fifth generation streak camera. This camera incorporates many advanced features beyond those currently available for streak cameras. The arc-resistant driver includes a trigger lockout mechanism, actively monitors input trigger levels, and incorporates a high-voltage fault interrupter for user safety and tube protection. The camera is completely modular and may deflect over a variable full-sweep time of 15 nanoseconds to 500 microseconds. The camera design is compatible with both large- and small-format commercial tubes from several vendors. The embedded microprocessor offers Ethernet connectivity, and XML [extensible markup language]-based configuration management with non-volatile parameter storage using flash-based storage media. The camera's user interface is platform-independent (Microsoft Windows, Unix, Linux, Macintosh OSX) and is accessible using an AJAX [asynchronous Javascript and XML]-equipped modem browser, such as Internet Explorer 6, Firefox, or Safari. User interface operation requires no installation of client software or browser plug-in technology. Automation software can also access the camera configuration and control using HTTP [hypertext transfer protocol]. The software architecture supports multiple-simultaneous clients, multiple cameras, and multiple module access with a standard browser. The entire user interface can be customized

  7. Wide Range Digitizer for Chem-Bio LIDAR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Green, Norman; Moon, Raphael

    2004-01-01

    .... Typically, receiver amplifier gain is adjusted from time-to-time so that signal amplitude applied to the digitizer is not too large, resulting in a signal clipping, nor too small, resulting in poor digitizer resolution...

  8. Modeling Brain Circuitry over a Wide Range of Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal eFua

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available If we are ever to unravel the mysteries of brain function at its most fundamental level, we will need a precise understanding of how its component neurons connect to each other. Electron Microscopes (EM can now provide the nanometer resolution that is needed to image synapses, and therefore connections, while Light Microscopes (LM see at the micrometer resolution required to model the 3D structure of the dendritic network. Since both the topology and the connection strength are integral parts of the brain's wiring diagram, being able to combine these two modalities is critically important.In fact, these microscopes now routinely produce high-resolution imagery in such large quantities that the bottleneck becomes automated processing and interpretation, which is needed for such data to be exploited to its full potential. In this paper, we briefly review the Computer Vision techniques we have developed at EPFL to address this need. They include delineating dendritic arbors from LM imagery, segmenting organelles from EM, and combining the two into a consistent representation.

  9. Wide-range scintillation spectrometer of fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinov, M.V.; Gavrilov, B.P.; Ivannikova, L.L.; Kozulin, Eh.M.; Mozhaev, A.N.; Saidgareev, V.M.; Tyurin, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    A spectrometer of fast neutrons developed on the base of stilbene crystas and permitting to detect neutrons simultaneously by time-of-flight and recoil protons with analysis of pulse shape in the 0.5-50 MeV energy range is described. The detecting part is performed in the CAMAC standard. The ''Minsk-32'' computer was used for data storage and preliminary processing

  10. Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — WONDER online databases include county-level Compressed Mortality (death certificates) since 1979; county-level Multiple Cause of Death (death certificates) since...

  11. Musa germplasm diversity status across a wide range of agro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... Higher diversity was observed in the east declining westwards to the Lake ... management of crop genetic diversity at the farm, agro-ecosystems and .... The socioeconomic characteristics such as the gender and wealth status.

  12. The ATLAS Wide-Range Database & Application Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Vasileva, Petya Tsvetanova; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    In HEP experiments at LHC the database applications often become complex by reflecting the ever demanding requirements of the researchers. The ATLAS experiment has several Oracle DB clusters with over 216 database schemes each with its own set of database objects. To effectively monitor them, we designed a modern and portable application with exceptionally good characteristics. Some of them include: concise view of the most important DB metrics; top SQL statements based on CPU, executions, block reads, etc.; volume growth plots per schema and DB object type; database jobs section with signaling for problematic ones; in-depth analysis in case of contention on data or processes. This contribution describes also the technical aspects of the implementation. The project can be separated into three independent layers. The first layer consists in highly-optimized database objects hiding all complicated calculations. The second layer represents a server providing REST access to the underlying database backend. The th...

  13. Wide-range tunable magnetic lens for tabletop electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Wei-Yu; Chen, Fu-Rong, E-mail: fchen1@me.com

    2016-12-15

    A tabletop scanning electron microscope (SEM) utilizes permanent magnets as condenser lenses to minimize its size, but this sacrifices the tunability of condenser lenses such that a tabletop system can only be operated with a fixed accelerating voltage. In contrast, the traditional condenser lens utilizes an electromagnetic coil to adjust the optical properties, but the size of the electromagnetic lens is inevitably larger. Here, we propose a tunable condenser lens for a tabletop SEM that uses a combination of permanent magnets and electromagnetic coils. The overall dimensions of the newly designed lens are the same as the original permanent magnet lens, but the new lens allows the tabletop SEM to be operated at different accelerating voltages between 1 kV and 15 kV. - Highlights: • A compact condenser lens combines both permanent magnet and coils. • A tunable lens is designed to keep the same focal point for voltage 1 to 15 kV. • A miniature tunable lens which can directly fit into tabletop SEM.

  14. Microprocessor-controlled, wide-range streak camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amy E. Lewis, Craig Hollabaugh

    2006-09-01

    Bechtel Nevada/NSTec recently announced deployment of their fifth generation streak camera. This camera incorporates many advanced features beyond those currently available for streak cameras. The arc-resistant driver includes a trigger lockout mechanism, actively monitors input trigger levels, and incorporates a high-voltage fault interrupter for user safety and tube protection. The camera is completely modular and may deflect over a variable full-sweep time of 15 nanoseconds to 500 microseconds. The camera design is compatible with both large- and small-format commercial tubes from several vendors. The embedded microprocessor offers Ethernet connectivity, and XML [extensible markup language]-based configuration management with non-volatile parameter storage using flash-based storage media. The camera’s user interface is platform-independent (Microsoft Windows, Unix, Linux, Macintosh OSX) and is accessible using an AJAX [asynchronous Javascript and XML]-equipped modem browser, such as Internet Explorer 6, Firefox, or Safari. User interface operation requires no installation of client software or browser plug-in technology. Automation software can also access the camera configuration and control using HTTP [hypertext transfer protocol]. The software architecture supports multiple-simultaneous clients, multiple cameras, and multiple module access with a standard browser. The entire user interface can be customized.

  15. Simultaneous wide-range stopping power determination for several ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanko, T. E-mail: tommi.alanko@phys.jyu.fi; Trzaska, W.H.; Lyapin, V.; Raeisaenen, J.; Tiourine, G.; Virtanen, A

    2002-05-01

    A new procedure to extract simultaneously continuous stopping power curves for several ions and several absorbers over a wide energy range and with statistical errors reduced to negligible level is presented. The method combines our novel time-of-flight based method with the capability of our K130 cyclotron and ECR ion-source to produce the so-called ion cocktails. The potential of the method is demonstrated with a 6.0 MeV/u cocktail consisting of {sup 16}O{sup 4+}, {sup 28}Si{sup 7+} and {sup 40}Ar{sup 10+} ions. The stopping power in polycarbonate in the energy range of 0.35-5 MeV/u has been determined with absolute uncertainty of less than 2.3% and with relative below 0.2%. The results are compared with literature data and with SRIM2000 parameterisation including cores and bonds corrections.

  16. Modeling brain circuitry over a wide range of scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fua, Pascal; Knott, Graham W

    2015-01-01

    If we are ever to unravel the mysteries of brain function at its most fundamental level, we will need a precise understanding of how its component neurons connect to each other. Electron Microscopes (EM) can now provide the nanometer resolution that is needed to image synapses, and therefore connections, while Light Microscopes (LM) see at the micrometer resolution required to model the 3D structure of the dendritic network. Since both the topology and the connection strength are integral parts of the brain's wiring diagram, being able to combine these two modalities is critically important. In fact, these microscopes now routinely produce high-resolution imagery in such large quantities that the bottleneck becomes automated processing and interpretation, which is needed for such data to be exploited to its full potential. In this paper, we briefly review the Computer Vision techniques we have developed at EPFL to address this need. They include delineating dendritic arbors from LM imagery, segmenting organelles from EM, and combining the two into a consistent representation.

  17. 33 CFR 110.87 - Henderson Harbor, N.Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Henderson Harbor, N.Y. 110.87... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.87 Henderson Harbor, N.Y. (a) Area A. The area in the... latitude 43°51′08.8″ N, longitude 76°12′08.9″ W, thence to latitude 43°51′09.0″ N, longitude 76°12′19.0″ W...

  18. Extrachromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid in R factor-harboring Enterobacteriaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, JK; Bak, AL; Christiansen, C

    1976-01-01

    Extrachromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from 24 different R factor-harboring Enterobacteriaceae was isolated and characterized by analytical ultracentrifugation and electron microscopy. The R factors represented 15 different patterns of transferable drug resistance found in enterobacteria from...... from 1.700 to 1.720 g/cm3. The majority of the bacteria contained extrachromosomal DNAs of various densities. Three-fourths of the R factors were classified as fi+. The investigation illustrates the extensive variability in the physical characteristics of plasmid DNA from R factor-harboring strains....

  19. Adaptive behavior of children with visual impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive behavior includes a wide range of skills necessary for independent, safe and adequate performance of everyday activities. Practical, social and conceptual skills make the concept of adaptive behavior. The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the existing studies of adaptive behavior in persons with visual impairment. The paper mainly focuses on the research on adaptive behavior in children with visual impairment. The results show that the acquisition of adaptive skills is mainly low or moderately low in children and youth with visual impairment. Children with visual impairment achieve the worst results in social skills and everyday life skills, while the most acquired are communication skills. Apart from the degree of visual impairment, difficulties in motor development also significantly influence the acquisition of practical and social skills of blind persons and persons with low vision.

  20. Harbor seal vibrissa morphology suppresses vortex-induced vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Wolf; Witte, Matthias; Miersch, Lars; Brede, Martin; Oeffner, Johannes; Michael, Mark; Hanke, Frederike; Leder, Alfred; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2010-08-01

    Harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) often live in dark and turbid waters, where their mystacial vibrissae, or whiskers, play an important role in orientation. Besides detecting and discriminating objects by direct touch, harbor seals use their whiskers to analyze water movements, for example those generated by prey fish or by conspecifics. Even the weak water movements left behind by objects that have passed by earlier can be sensed and followed accurately (hydrodynamic trail following). While scanning the water for these hydrodynamic signals at a swimming speed in the order of meters per second, the seal keeps its long and flexible whiskers in an abducted position, largely perpendicular to the swimming direction. Remarkably, the whiskers of harbor seals possess a specialized undulated surface structure, the function of which was, up to now, unknown. Here, we show that this structure effectively changes the vortex street behind the whiskers and reduces the vibrations that would otherwise be induced by the shedding of vortices from the whiskers (vortex-induced vibrations). Using force measurements, flow measurements and numerical simulations, we find that the dynamic forces on harbor seal whiskers are, by at least an order of magnitude, lower than those on sea lion (Zalophus californianus) whiskers, which do not share the undulated structure. The results are discussed in the light of pinniped sensory biology and potential biomimetic applications.

  1. Integrated approach to assess ecosystem health in harbor areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebianno, M J; Pereira, C G; Rey, F; Cravo, A; Duarte, D; D'Errico, G; Regoli, F

    2015-05-01

    Harbors are critical environments with strategic economic importance but with potential environmental impact: health assessment criteria are a key issue. An ecosystem health status approach was carried out in Portimão harbor as a case-study. Priority and specific chemical levels in sediments along with their bioavailability in mussels, bioassays and a wide array of biomarkers were integrated in a biomarker index (IBR index) and the overall data in a weight of evidence (WOE) model. Metals, PAHs, PCBs and HCB were not particularly high compared with sediment guidelines and standards for dredging. Bioavailability was evident for Cd, Cu and Zn. Biomarkers proved more sensitive namely changes of antioxidant responses, metallothioneins and vittellogenin-like proteins. IBR index indicated that site 4 was the most impacted area. Assessment of the health status by WOE approach highlighted the importance of integrating sediment chemistry, bioaccumulation, biomarkers and bioassays and revealed that despite some disturbance in the harbor area, there was also an impact of urban effluents from upstream. Environmental quality assessment in harbors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 78 FR 63381 - Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ...; Kaumalapau, Lanai; Kahului, Maui and Kawaihae and Hilo on the Island of Hawaii). The purpose of these safety... the piers faces. (9) All waters of Hilo Harbor, Hawaii immediately adjacent to commercial piers 1 and.... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing nine (9) permanent safety zones encompassing Hawaii's commercial...

  3. 33 CFR 117.181 - Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal. 117.181 Section 117.181 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Tidal Canal. The draws of the Alameda County highway drawbridges at Park Street, mile 5.2; Fruitvale...

  4. 78 FR 21597 - Marine Mammals: Alaska Harbor Seal Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... seek input as to whether management measures are needed, and if so, what types of measures should be... proposed rulemaking (ANPR) on potential management measures to protect glacially-associated harbor seal... need for regulations; (2) the geographic scope and time horizon of regulations; (3) management options...

  5. Quantitative Measures of Anthropogenic Noise on Harbor Porpoises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewska, Danuta Maria; Teilmann, Jonas; Hermannsen, Line

    2016-01-01

    -animal recordings as proxies for actual exposure. Here, we quantify sound exposure levels recorded with a DTAG-3 tag on a captive harbor porpoise exposed to vessel noise in a controlled acoustic environment. Results show that fl ow noise is limiting onboard noise recordings, whereas no evidence of body shading has...

  6. Rhizosphere of rice plants harbor bacteria with multiple plant growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rhizosphere of rice plants harbor bacteria with multiple plant growth promoting features. ... 45 (39.46%) isolates were capable of producing siderophore, the range of production being 4.50 to 223.26 μg mg-1 protein. Analysis of molecular diversity was made by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and ...

  7. U.S. Department of Defense - Pearl Harbor Special

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaii saw that seminal moment in history, and those that were there vividly remember that Sunday morning this noise," he said in an oral history on the Pearl Harbor Survivors' Association Web site. " seeing was an attack. "It didn't mean anything to us until a large group of planes came near the

  8. Availability of streamflow for recharge of the basal aquifer in the Pearl Harbor area, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirashima, George Tokusuke

    1971-01-01

    runoff from the 90-square-mile Pearl Harbor area is 47.27 million gallons per day, or 11.1 inches; this is 13.3 percent of the average annual rainfall (83.3 in.) over the area. Average annual direct runoff in streams at the 800- and 400-foot altitudes is 29 and 38 million gallons per day, respectively. Kipapa Stream has the largest average annual direct runoff at those altitudes--6 and 9 million gallons per day, respectively. Because streams are flashy and have a wide range in discharge, only 60 percent of the average annual runoff can be economically diverted through ditches to recharge areas. The diversion may be increased slightly if reservoirs are used in conjunction with ditches to temporarily detain flows in excess of ditch capacity. The planned irrigation use of some of the perennial flow available in Waikele Stream near sea level will decrease pumping from and increase recharge to the basal aquifer. Suspended-sediment load is mainly silt and clay, and it increases rapidly with increased discharge. Thus, the use of streamflow for artificial recharge poses problems. High flows must be used if recharge is to be effective, but flows must not be so high as to cause clogging of recharge facilities with sediment or woodland debris. Practical tests are needed to determine the advantages and disadvantages of different types of recharge structures, such as a reservoir or basin, large-diameter deep shafts, deep wells, or combinations of all these structures.

  9. Underwater noise from three types of offshore wind turbines: estimation of impact zones for harbor porpoises and harbor seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougaard, Jakob; Henriksen, Oluf Damsgaard; Miller, Lee A

    2009-06-01

    Underwater noise was recorded from three different types of wind turbines in Denmark and Sweden (Middelgrunden, Vindeby, and Bockstigen-Valar) during normal operation. Wind turbine noise was only measurable above ambient noise at frequencies below 500 Hz. Total sound pressure level was in the range 109-127 dB re 1 microPa rms, measured at distances between 14 and 20 m from the foundations. The 1/3-octave noise levels were compared with audiograms of harbor seals and harbor porpoises. Maximum 1/3-octave levels were in the range 106-126 dB re 1 microPa rms. Maximum range of audibility was estimated under two extreme assumptions on transmission loss (3 and 9 dB per doubling of distance, respectively). Audibility was low for harbor porpoises extending 20-70 m from the foundation, whereas audibility for harbor seals ranged from less than 100 m to several kilometers. Behavioral reactions of porpoises to the noise appear unlikely except if they are very close to the foundations. However, behavioral reactions from seals cannot be excluded up to distances of a few hundred meters. It is unlikely that the noise reaches dangerous levels at any distance from the turbines and the noise is considered incapable of masking acoustic communication by seals and porpoises.

  10. Aerial Survey Counts of Harbor Seals in Coastal Alaska (2003-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset supports efforts to estimate the abundance and trends in population size of Alaska harbor seals. Annual surveys of harbor seal populations are...

  11. Aerial Survey Counts of Harbor Seals in Coastal Alaska (1998-2002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset supports efforts to estimate the abundance and trends in population size of Alaska harbor seals. Annual surveys of harbor seal populations are...

  12. A Comprehensive Copper Compliance Strategy: Implementing Regulatory Guidance at Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard & Intermediate Maintenance Facility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Earley, P. J; Rosen, G; Rivera-Duarte, I; Gauthier, R. D; Arias-Thode, Y; Thompson, J; Swope, B

    2007-01-01

    Studies were performed to develop a new National Pollution Discharge Elimination Systems Permit for the discharge of effluents from the Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard and Intermediate Maintenance Facility into Pearl Harbor...

  13. Telemetry data from satellite tags deployed on harbor seals in Cook Inlet, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Between 2004 and 2006 we conducted four harbor seal tagging trips in Cook Inlet during the months of October and May. In total, we captured and released 93 harbor...

  14. PAH- and PCB-induced Alterations of Protein Tyrosine Kinase and Cytokine Gene Transcription in Harbor Seal (Phoca Vitulina PBMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. C. Neale

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms underlying in vitro immunomodulatory effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were investigated in harbor seal peripheral leukocytes, via real-time PCR. We examined the relative genetic expression of the protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs Fyn and Itk, which play a critical role in T cell activation, and IL-2, a cytokine of central importance in initiating adaptive immune responses. IL-1, the macrophage-derived pro-inflammatory cytokine of innate immunity, was also included as a measure of macrophage function. Harbor seal PBMC were exposed to the prototypic immunotoxic PAH benzo[a]pyrene (BaP, 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-169, a model immunotoxic PCB, or DMSO (vehicle control. Exposure of Con A-stimulated harbor seal PBMC to both BaP and CB-169 produced significantly altered expression in all four targets relative to vehicle controls. The PTKs Fyn and Itk were both up-regulated following exposure to BaP and CB-169. In contrast, transcripts for IL-2 and IL-1 were decreased relative to controls by both treatments. Our findings are consistent with those of previous researchers working with human and rodent systems and support a hypothesis of contaminant-altered lymphocyte function mediated (at least in part by disruption of T cell receptor (TCR signaling and cytokine production.

  15. Adaptivna digitalna sita v strukturi porazdeljene aritmetike: Adaptive digital filter implementation with distributed arithmetic structure:

    OpenAIRE

    Babič, Rudolf; Horvat, Bogomir; Osebik, Davorin

    2001-01-01

    Adaptive digital filters have a wide range of applications in the area of signal processing where only minimum a priori knowledge of signal characteristics is available. In this article the adaptive FIR digital filter implementation based on the distributed arithmetic technique is described. The major problem with conventional adaptive digital filter is the need for fast multipliers. When using a hardware implementation. These multipliers take up the disproportional amount of the overall cost...

  16. Adaptive transition rates in excitable membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimon Marom

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation of activity in excitable membranes occurs over a wide range of timescales. Standard computational approaches handle this wide temporal range in terms of multiple states and related reaction rates emanating from the complexity of ionic channels. The study described here takes a different (perhaps complementary approach, by interpreting ion channel kinetics in terms of population dynamics. I show that adaptation in excitable membranes is reducible to a simple Logistic-like equation in which the essential non-linearity is replaced by a feedback loop between the history of activation and an adaptive transition rate that is sensitive to a single dimension of the space of inactive states. This physiologically measurable dimension contributes to the stability of the system and serves as a powerful modulator of input-output relations that depends on the patterns of prior activity; an intrinsic scale free mechanism for cellular adaptation that emerges from the microscopic biophysical properties of ion channels of excitable membranes.

  17. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in young-of-the-year bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) in the vicinity of a Superfund Site in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, and in the adjacent waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Ashok D; Dockum, Bruce W; Cleary, Thomas; Farrington, Cameron; Wieczorek, Daniel

    2013-07-15

    in the Upper Harbor and Lower Harbor samples suggested ongoing or recent sources of these lighter PCBs, particularly Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1016 in this area. The presence of heavier homologs in the Upper Harbor and Lower Harbor bluefish samples could be attributed to Aroclor 1252 and Aroclor 1254 that were being used in relatively smaller quantities in the manufacture of electrical components in addition to Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1016. The concentration of heavier PCB homologs appears to increase in YOY bluefish the further away from the PCB Superfund Site in the Acushnet Estuary the samples were collected. Principal component analyses of PCB 153 normalized concentrations of the individual PCB congeners resulted in two general groupings; a relatively tight group comprised of YOY bluefish from Upper Harbor, Lower Harbor, and Outer Harbor, and a rather loose and more dispersed group comprised of Buzzards Bay bluefish and the tissue samples of bluefish from Clarks Cove. Principal component analyses of major pesticides suggested close groupings of bluefish from Clarks Cove and bluefish from Buzzards Bay. Pesticides in bluefish from Upper Harbor, Lower Harbor, and Outer Harbor formed a loose group, with some bluefish from these locations populating close to Clarks Cove and Buzzards Bay bluefish. Although PCBs have been implicated in various behavioral and health effects in the experimental and field studies, the deleterious effects of chronic exposure to high concentrations of PCBs and the potential for recruitment of New Bedford Harbor YOY bluefish population to the adult stock remains obscure. Adaptive or evolutionary resistance to contaminants have been documented in resident species in some highly contaminated estuaries, however similar responses have not been investigated in the migratory species like bluefish. The results of the present study provide a reference baseline for YOY bluefish for "before-and-after" comparative studies and other toxicological studies

  18. A smart ROV solution for ship hull and harbor inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Scott; Wood, Jon; Vazquez, Jose; Mignotte, Pierre-Yves; Privat, Benjamin

    2010-04-01

    Hull and harbor infrastructure inspections are frequently performed manually and involve quite a bit of risk and human and monetary resources. In any kind of threat and resource constrained environment, this involves unacceptable levels of risk and cost. Modern Remotely Operated Vehicles are highly refined machines that provide features and capabilities previously unavailable. Operations once carried out by divers can now be carried out more quickly, efficiently and safely by smart enabled ROVs. ROVs are rapidly deployable and capable of continuous, reliable operations in adverse conditions. They also provide a stable platform on which multiple sensors may be mounted and utilized to meet the harbor inspection problem. Automated Control software provides ROV's and their pilots with the capability to inspect complex, constrained environments such as those found in a harbor region. This application and the user interface allow the ROV to automatically conduct complex maneuvers relative to the area being inspected and relieves the training requirements and work load for the pilot, allowing he or she to focus on the primary task of survey, inspection and looking for possible threats (such as IEDs, Limpet Mines, signs of sabotage, etc). Real-time sensor processing tools can be integrated into the smart ROV solution to assist the operator. Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) algorithms are used to search through the sensor data collected by the ROV in real time. These algorithms provide immediate feedback on possible threats and notify the operator of regions that may require manual verification. Sensor data (sonar or video) is also mosaiced, providing the operator with real-time situational awareness and a coverage map of the hull or seafloor. Detected objects may also be placed in the context of the large scale characteristics of the hull (or bottom or pilings) and localized. Within the complex areas such as the harbor pier pilings and the running gear of the ship, real

  19. 33 CFR 334.1430 - Apra Inner Harbor, Island of Guam; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apra Inner Harbor, Island of Guam... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1430 Apra Inner Harbor, Island of Guam; restricted area. (a) The restricted area. The waters within Apra Inner Harbor and...

  20. 33 CFR 165.1402 - Apra Outer Harbor, Guam-regulated navigation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apra Outer Harbor, Guam-regulated....1402 Apra Outer Harbor, Guam—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a regulated navigation area—The waters of the Pacific Ocean and Apra Outer Harbor enclosed by a line beginning at latitude 13...

  1. 77 FR 45239 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bar Harbor, ME

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ...-1366; Airspace Docket No. 11-ANE-13] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bar Harbor, ME AGENCY: Federal... area at Bar Harbor, ME, as the Surry Non-Directional Radio Beacon (NDB) has been decommissioned and new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures have been developed at Hancock County-Bar Harbor Airport. This...

  2. 77 FR 27666 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bar Harbor, ME

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ...-1366; Airspace Docket No. 11-ANE-13] Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bar Harbor, ME AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Bar Harbor, ME, as the Surry Non-Directional Radio Beacon... Hancock County-Bar Harbor Airport. This action would enhance the safety and airspace management of...

  3. 33 CFR 162.165 - Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, New York. 162.165 Section 162.165 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... and Rochester Harbors, New York. In Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, no vessel may exceed 6 miles per...

  4. 76 FR 32071 - Safety Zone; Conneaut Festival Fireworks, Conneaut Harbor, Conneaut, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Conneaut Festival Fireworks, Conneaut Harbor, Conneaut, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Conneaut Harbor, Conneaut, OH for the Conneaut Festival Fireworks. This zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Conneaut Harbor, Conneaut, OH during the Conneaut Festival Fireworks on July 3...

  5. 78 FR 18479 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... Operation Regulations; Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... across the Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, mile 4.6, at New Orleans, Louisiana. This deviation is... Seabrook Highway crossing the Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, mile 4.6, in New Orleans, Louisiana. The...

  6. 76 FR 38153 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Commercial Harbor Craft Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Standards; Commercial Harbor Craft Regulations; Opportunity for Public Hearing and Comment AGENCY... engines on commercial harbor craft. CARB has requested that EPA issue a new authorization under [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. California's Commercial Harbor Craft Regulations In a...

  7. Brain transcriptomes of harbor seals demonstrate gene expression patterns of animals undergoing a metabolic disease and a viral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Rosales

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of marine mammals can be difficult to diagnose because of their life history and protected status. Stranded marine mammals have been a particularly useful resource to discover and comprehend the diseases that plague these top predators. Additionally, advancements in high-throughput sequencing (HTS has contributed to the discovery of novel pathogens in marine mammals. In this study, we use a combination of HTS and stranded harbor seals (Phoca vitulina to better understand a known and unknown brain disease. To do this, we used transcriptomics to evaluate brain tissues from seven neonatal harbor seals that expired from an unknown cause of death (UCD and compared them to four neonatal harbor seals that had confirmed phocine herpesvirus (PhV-1 infections in the brain. Comparing the two disease states we found that UCD animals showed a significant abundance of fatty acid metabolic transcripts in their brain tissue, thus we speculate that a fatty acid metabolic dysregulation contributed to the death of these animals. Furthermore, we were able to describe the response of four young harbor seals with PhV-1 infections in the brain. PhV-1 infected animals showed a significant ability to mount an innate and adaptive immune response, especially to combat viral infections. Our data also suggests that PhV-1 can hijack host pathways for DNA packaging and exocytosis. This is the first study to use transcriptomics in marine mammals to understand host and viral interactions and assess the death of stranded marine mammals with an unknown disease. Furthermore, we show the value of applying transcriptomics on stranded marine mammals for disease characterization.

  8. Adaptive oxide electronics: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sieu D.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2011-10-01

    Novel information processing techniques are being actively explored to overcome fundamental limitations associated with CMOS scaling. A new paradigm of adaptive electronic devices is emerging that may reshape the frontiers of electronics and enable new modalities. Creating systems that can learn and adapt to various inputs has generally been a complex algorithm problem in information science, albeit with wide-ranging and powerful applications from medical diagnosis to control systems. Recent work in oxide electronics suggests that it may be plausible to implement such systems at the device level, thereby drastically increasing computational density and power efficiency and expanding the potential for electronics beyond Boolean computation. Intriguing possibilities of adaptive electronics include fabrication of devices that mimic human brain functionality: the strengthening and weakening of synapses emulated by electrically, magnetically, thermally, or optically tunable properties of materials.In this review, we detail materials and device physics studies on functional metal oxides that may be utilized for adaptive electronics. It has been shown that properties, such as resistivity, polarization, and magnetization, of many oxides can be modified electrically in a non-volatile manner, suggesting that these materials respond to electrical stimulus similarly as a neural synapse. We discuss what device characteristics will likely be relevant for integration into adaptive platforms and then survey a variety of oxides with respect to these properties, such as, but not limited to, TaOx, SrTiO3, and Bi4-xLaxTi3O12. The physical mechanisms in each case are detailed and analyzed within the framework of adaptive electronics. We then review theoretically formulated and current experimentally realized adaptive devices with functional oxides, such as self-programmable logic and neuromorphic circuits. Finally, we speculate on what advances in materials physics and engineering may

  9. Hydrocarbon pollutants shape bacterial community assembly of harbor sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Barbato, Marta

    2016-02-02

    Petroleum pollution results in co-contamination by different classes of molecules, entailing the occurrence of marine sediments difficult to remediate, as in the case of the Ancona harbor (Mediterranean Sea, Italy). Autochthonous bioaugmentation (ABA), by exploiting the indigenous microbes of the environment to be treated, could represent a successful bioremediation strategy. In this perspective we aimed to i) identify the main drivers of the bacterial communities\\' richness in the sediments, ii) establish enrichment cultures with different hydrocarbon pollutants evaluating their effects on the bacterial communities\\' composition, and iii) obtain a collection of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria potentially exploitable in ABA. The correlation between the selection of different specialized bacterial populations and the type of pollutants was demonstrated by culture-independent analyses, and by establishing a collection of bacteria with different hydrocarbon degradation traits. Our observations indicate that pollution dictates the diversity of sediment bacterial communities and shapes the ABA potential in harbor sediments.

  10. Buffalo Harbor Study. Preliminary Feasibility Report. Volume I. Main Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    to usually narrow strips of riparian vegetation, which is composed of various trees and shrubs of the Salix genus (willow), sumac, aspen, boxelder...reptiles were found. Species included, leopard frogs, snapping turtles, painted turtle, and garter snakes (SUNY Brockport: 1982). (7) Endangered Species...vessel traffic on the Buffalo River causes interrupted truck service. Firms have also cited snow removal as a problem. The harbor area road service

  11. Army Engineer Divers: First In Port-Au-Prince Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    to the pile once the concrete was poured. This step was com- pleted in a few minutes for each pile. Last, a prefabricated wooden form was emplaced...September-December 201010 Engineer This prefabricated wooden form was emplaced around a rebar cage at the top of damaged piles to hold concrete until it...the mainland into the harbor. Waste from tugboats and sewage from the mainland compounded ecological hazards. The only alternative for the Army and

  12. Environmental Assessment for Boston Harbor Maintenance Dredging, Boston, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    Harbor was developed by Jerome et al (1966), Chesmore et al (1971) and Iwanowicz et al. (1973). The studies on the Lower Mystic River were concentrated in... Iwanowicz et al. (1973) and this data should be referred to for detailed information. Waters overlying the shellfish beds are contaminated by wastes...DMRP Technical Report DS-78-5, Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi. Iwanowicz , H. R., R D

  13. An Evaluation of the Acquisition Streamlining Methods at the Fleet and Industrial Supply Center Pearl Harbor Hawaii

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henry, Mark

    1999-01-01

    ...) Pearl Harbor's implementation of acquisition streamlining initiatives and recommends viable methods of streamlining the acquisition process at FISC Pearl Harbor and other Naval Supply Systems Command...

  14. Towards an ethics safe harbor for global biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Edward S.; Knoppers, Bartha M.; Zawati, Ma'n H.

    2014-01-01

    Although increasingly global, data-driven genomics and other ‘omics’-focused research hold great promise for health discoveries, current research ethics review systems around the world challenge potential improvements in human health from such research. To overcome this challenge, we propose a ‘Safe Harbor Framework for International Ethics Equivalency’ that facilitates the harmonization of ethics review of specific types of data-driven international research projects while respecting globally transposable research ethics norms and principles. The Safe Harbor would consist in part of an agency supporting an International Federation for Ethics Review (IFER), formed by a voluntary compact among countries, granting agencies, philanthropies, institutions, and healthcare, patient advocacy, and research organizations. IFER would be both a central ethics review body, and also a forum for review and follow-up of policies concerning ethics norms for international research projects. It would be built on five principle elements: (1) registration, (2) compliance review, (3) recognition, (4) monitoring and enforcement, and (5) public participation. The Safe Harbor would create many benefits for researchers, countries, and the general public, and may eventually have application beyond (gen)omics to other areas of biomedical research that increasingly engage in secondary use of data and present only negligible risks. PMID:27774154

  15. Pearl Harbor: lessons for the dam safety community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, T.E. [AMEC Earth and Environmental Ltd., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2001-10-01

    Every good dam safety program must be based on surveillance and emergency response planning. The same principles apply to the gathering of information for military intelligence and the planning of defence tactics. Lessons learned from failure have spurred the advancement of dam engineering. Dam safety experts can benefit from the inadequacies encountered by the military community, with the most famous occurring on December 7, 1941 in Pearl Harbor. Both intelligence gathering and contingency response planning failed miserably. The data was not properly disseminated, interpreted, analysed. The proper response to the situation was not initiated. Human error and failure to communicate are the two main reasons that explain the debacle. The inquiries into the tragedy at Pearl Harbor provided valuable lessons, related to individual and organizational failures, which the authors shared in this presentation. The relevance to dam safety was made. All Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) agents must read the lessons drawn from Pearl Harbor, as they have responsibility for dam safety. 4 refs.

  16. Adaptive slope compensation for high bandwidth digital current mode controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taeed, Fazel; Nymand, Morten

    2015-01-01

    An adaptive slope compensation method for digital current mode control of dc-dc converters is proposed in this paper. The compensation slope is used for stabilizing the inner current loop in peak current mode control. In this method, the compensation slope is adapted with the variations...... in converter duty cycle. The adaptive slope compensation provides optimum controller operation in term of bandwidth over wide range of operating points. In this paper operation principle of the controller is discussed. The proposed controller is implemented in an FPGA to control a 100 W buck converter...

  17. Effects of Harbor Modification on Crescent City, California's Tsunami Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler, Lori; Uslu, Burak

    2011-06-01

    More damaging tsunamis have impacted Crescent City, California in historic times than any other location on the West Coast of the USA. Crescent City's harbor has undergone significant modification since the early 20th century, including construction of several breakwaters, dredging, and a 200 × 300 m2 small boat basin. In 2006, a M w 8.3 earthquake in the Kuril Islands generated a moderate Pacific-wide tsunami. Crescent City recorded the highest amplitudes of any tide gauge in the Pacific and was the only location to experience structural damage. Strong currents damaged docks and boats within the small boat basin, causing more than US 20 million in damage and replacement costs. We examine how modifications to Crescent City's harbor may have affected its vulnerability to moderate tsunamis such as the 2006 event. A bathymetric grid of the basin was constructed based on US Army Corps of Engineers soundings in 1964 and 1965 before the construction of the small boat basin. The method of splitting tsunamis was used to estimate tsunami water heights and current velocities at several locations in the harbor using both the 1964-1965 grid and the 2006 bathymetric grid for the 2006 Kuril event and a similar-sized source along the Sanriku coast of Japan. Model velocity outputs are compared for the two different bathymetries at the tide gauge location and at six additional computational sites in the harbor. The largest difference between the two grids is at the small boat basin entrance, where the 2006 bathymetry produces currents over three times the strength of the currents produced by the 1965 bathymetry. Peak currents from a Sanriku event are comparable to those produced by the 2006 event, and within the boat basin may have been higher. The modifications of the harbor, and in particular the addition of the small boat basin, appear to have contributed to the high current velocities and resulting damage in 2006 and help to explain why the 1933 M w 8.4-8.7 Sanriku tsunami

  18. Grays Harbor and Chehalis River Improvements to Navigation Environmental Studies. Wildlife Studies at Proposed Disposal Sites in Grays Harbor, Washington,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    sltand. T 𔃼~P i’ W 210 three times VtwCerI November IOC’C -nd ~co l.Etls ~ ec!,!zervc-o betxwe H -gF 12 Th -ind hl rway u- 7Plie Sicuobh. E. Cumin -s 1... stress imposed by dredge dsosal ;ictivities on these species. It is difficult to rredict the effects of establishing a salt marsh in Grays Harbor on

  19. Adaptation in CRISPR-Cas Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Samuel H; Richter, Hagen; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Qimron, Udi

    2016-03-17

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins constitute an adaptive immune system in prokaryotes. The system preserves memories of prior infections by integrating short segments of foreign DNA, termed spacers, into the CRISPR array in a process termed adaptation. During the past 3 years, significant progress has been made on the genetic requirements and molecular mechanisms of adaptation. Here we review these recent advances, with a focus on the experimental approaches that have been developed, the insights they generated, and a proposed mechanism for self- versus non-self-discrimination during the process of spacer selection. We further describe the regulation of adaptation and the protein players involved in this fascinating process that allows bacteria and archaea to harbor adaptive immunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Serpentinization-Influenced Groundwater Harbors Extremely Low Diversity Microbial Communities Adapted to High pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twing, Katrina I; Brazelton, William J; Kubo, Michael D Y; Hyer, Alex J; Cardace, Dawn; Hoehler, Tori M; McCollom, Tom M; Schrenk, Matthew O

    2017-01-01

    Serpentinization is a widespread geochemical process associated with aqueous alteration of ultramafic rocks that produces abundant reductants (H 2 and CH 4 ) for life to exploit, but also potentially challenging conditions, including high pH, limited availability of terminal electron acceptors, and low concentrations of inorganic carbon. As a consequence, past studies of serpentinites have reported low cellular abundances and limited microbial diversity. Establishment of the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbial Observatory (California, U.S.A.) allowed a comparison of microbial communities and physicochemical parameters directly within serpentinization-influenced subsurface aquifers. Samples collected from seven wells were subjected to a range of analyses, including solute and gas chemistry, microbial diversity by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and metabolic potential by shotgun metagenomics, in an attempt to elucidate what factors drive microbial activities in serpentinite habitats. This study describes the first comprehensive interdisciplinary analysis of microbial communities in hyperalkaline groundwater directly accessed by boreholes into serpentinite rocks. Several environmental factors, including pH, methane, and carbon monoxide, were strongly associated with the predominant subsurface microbial communities. A single operational taxonomic unit (OTU) of Betaproteobacteria and a few OTUs of Clostridia were the almost exclusive inhabitants of fluids exhibiting the most serpentinized character. Metagenomes from these extreme samples contained abundant sequences encoding proteins associated with hydrogen metabolism, carbon monoxide oxidation, carbon fixation, and acetogenesis. Metabolic pathways encoded by Clostridia and Betaproteobacteria, in particular, are likely to play important roles in the ecosystems of serpentinizing groundwater. These data provide a basis for further biogeochemical studies of key processes in serpentinite subsurface environments.

  1. Introduced ascidians harbor highly diverse and host-specific symbiotic microbial assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, James S; Erwin, Patrick M; Shenkar, Noa; López-Legentil, Susanna

    2017-09-08

    Many ascidian species have experienced worldwide introductions, exhibiting remarkable success in crossing geographic borders and adapting to local environmental conditions. To investigate the potential role of microbial symbionts in these introductions, we examined the microbial communities of three ascidian species common in North Carolina harbors. Replicate samples of the globally introduced species Distaplia bermudensis, Polyandrocarpa anguinea, and P. zorritensis (n = 5), and ambient seawater (n = 4), were collected in Wrightsville Beach, NC. Microbial communities were characterized by next-generation (Illumina) sequencing of partial (V4) 16S rRNA gene sequences. Ascidians hosted diverse symbiont communities, consisting of 5,696 unique microbial OTUs (at 97% sequenced identity) from 47 bacterial and three archaeal phyla. Permutational multivariate analyses of variance revealed clear differentiation of ascidian symbionts compared to seawater bacterioplankton, and distinct microbial communities inhabiting each ascidian species. 103 universal core OTUs (present in all ascidian replicates) were identified, including taxa previously described in marine invertebrate microbiomes with possible links to ammonia-oxidization, denitrification, pathogenesis, and heavy-metal processing. These results suggest ascidian microbial symbionts exhibit a high degree of host-specificity, forming intimate associations that may contribute to host adaptation to new environments via expanded tolerance thresholds and enhanced holobiont function.

  2. Complex and adaptive dynamical systems a primer

    CERN Document Server

    Gros, Claudius

    2007-01-01

    We are living in an ever more complex world, an epoch where human actions can accordingly acquire far-reaching potentialities. Complex and adaptive dynamical systems are ubiquitous in the world surrounding us and require us to adapt to new realities and the way of dealing with them. This primer has been developed with the aim of conveying a wide range of "commons-sense" knowledge in the field of quantitative complex system science at an introductory level, providing an entry point to this both fascinating and vitally important subject. The approach is modular and phenomenology driven. Examples of emerging phenomena of generic importance treated in this book are: -- The small world phenomenon in social and scale-free networks. -- Phase transitions and self-organized criticality in adaptive systems. -- Life at the edge of chaos and coevolutionary avalanches resulting from the unfolding of all living. -- The concept of living dynamical systems and emotional diffusive control within cognitive system theory. Techn...

  3. Complex and Adaptive Dynamical Systems A Primer

    CERN Document Server

    Gros, Claudius

    2011-01-01

    We are living in an ever more complex world, an epoch where human actions can accordingly acquire far-reaching potentialities. Complex and adaptive dynamical systems are ubiquitous in the world surrounding us and require us to adapt to new realities and the way of dealing with them. This primer has been developed with the aim of conveying a wide range of "commons-sense" knowledge in the field of quantitative complex system science at an introductory level, providing an entry point to this both fascinating and vitally important subject. The approach is modular and phenomenology driven. Examples of emerging phenomena of generic importance treated in this book are: -- The small world phenomenon in social and scale-free networks. -- Phase transitions and self-organized criticality in adaptive systems. -- Life at the edge of chaos and coevolutionary avalanches resulting from the unfolding of all living. -- The concept of living dynamical systems and emotional diffusive control within cognitive system theory. Techn...

  4. Robust Adaptive Thresholder For Document Scanning Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsing, To R.

    1982-12-01

    In document scanning applications, thresholding is used to obtain binary data from a scanner. However, due to: (1) a wide range of different color backgrounds; (2) density variations of printed text information; and (3) the shading effect caused by the optical systems, the use of adaptive thresholding to enhance the useful information is highly desired. This paper describes a new robust adaptive thresholder for obtaining valid binary images. It is basically a memory type algorithm which can dynamically update the black and white reference level to optimize a local adaptive threshold function. The results of high image quality from different types of simulate test patterns can be obtained by this algorithm. The software algorithm is described and experiment results are present to describe the procedures. Results also show that the techniques described here can be used for real-time signal processing in the varied applications.

  5. How Third World rural households adapt to dietary energy stress

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Philip; Lipton, Michael

    1994-01-01

    People can adjust to environmental changes by calling on a wide range of physical attributes, capabilities, and behaviors. For survival, probably the most important are those that make it possible to prevent serious imbalances between food energy needs and the amount of food that can be acquired at acceptable cost. Those who formulate food and agricultural policies need to know the scope, costs, and benefits of the more common adaptive strategies used by poor people, who are normally at great...

  6. Adaptive Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.

    1979-01-01

    Schools have devised several ways to adapt instruction to a wide variety of student abilities and needs. Judged by criteria for what adaptive education should be, most learning for mastery programs look good. (Author/JM)

  7. An Adaptive Display to Treat Stress-Related Disorders: EMMA's World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banos, R. M.; Botella, C.; Guillen, V.; Garcia-Palacios, A.; Quero, S.; Breton-Lopez, J.; Alcaniz, M.

    2009-01-01

    Most of the virtual environments currently available in the field of psychological treatments were designed to solve a specific problem. Our research group has developed a versatile virtual reality system (an adaptive display) called "EMMA's world", which can address a wide range of problems. It was designed to assist in clinical situations where…

  8. Adaptive management of perennial pepperweed for endangered specias and tidal marsh recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perennial pepperweed has invaded a wide range of habitat types in the far west. In the San Francisco Estuary, dense infestations have impacted sensitive tidal wetlands and compromised endangered species recovery efforts. An adaptive management effort to reduce perennial pepperweed was initiated by...

  9. Genotypic adaptations associated with prolonged persistence of Lactobacillus plantarum in the murine digestive tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst-van de Veen, van H.; Smelt, M.J.; Wels, M.; Hijum, van S.A.F.T.; Vos, de P.; Kleerebezem, M.; Bron, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria harbor effector molecules that confer health benefits, but also adaptation factors that enable them to persist in the gastrointestinal tract of the consumer. To study these adaptation factors, an antibiotic-resistant derivative of the probiotic model organism Lactobacillus

  10. Genotypic adaptations associated with prolonged persistence of Lactobacillus plantarum in the murine digestive tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bokhorst-van de Veen, Hermien; Smelt, Maaike J.; Wels, Michiel; van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.; de Vos, Paul; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Bron, Peter A.

    Probiotic bacteria harbor effector molecules that confer health benefits, but also adaptation factors that enable them to persist in the gastrointestinal tract of the consumer. To study these adaptation factors, an antibiotic-resistant derivative of the probiotic model organism Lactobacillus

  11. Caffeine in Boston Harbor past and present, assessing its utility as a tracer of wastewater contamination in an urban estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sites throughout Boston Harbor were analyzed for caffeine to assess its utility as a tracer in identifying sources of sanitary wastewater. Caffeine ranged from 15 ng/L in the outer harbor to a high of 185 ng/L in the inner harbor. Inner harbor concentrations were a result of comb...

  12. Heat from harbor to city; Warmte van haven naar stad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roggen, M. (ed.)

    2004-09-01

    The Rotterdam harbor area is perfect for an industrial heat distribution network. Numerous major heat producers and many potential consumers of all sizes group together in this industrial area. The new Heat Company ('Warmtebedrijf') is making a detailed business plan to build a heat distribution system. [Dutch] Als er een regio is waar een industrieel warmtenet voor de hand ligt, is het het Rotterdamse havengebied wel. Tal van grote warmteproducenten en een woud aan kleinere en grotere afnemers zijn praktisch buren. Om handen en voeten te geven aan dit op papier mooie idee, stelt het kersverse Warmtebedrijf io een gedetailleerd businessplan op.

  13. Hydraulic modeling of stream channels and structures in Harbor and Crow Hollow Brooks, Meriden, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Lawrence A.; Sears, Michael P.; Cervione, Michael A.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of urbanization have increased the frequency and size of floods along certain reaches of Harbor Brook and Crow Hollow Brook in Meriden, Conn. A floodprofile-modeling study was conducted to model the effects of selected channel and structural modifications on flood elevations and inundated areas. The study covered the reach of Harbor Brook downstream from Interstate 691 and the reach of Crow Hollow Brook downstream from Johnson Avenue. Proposed modifications, which include changes to bank heights, channel geometry, structural geometry, and streambed armoring on Harbor Brook and changes to bank heights on Crow Hollow Brook, significantly lower flood elevations. Results of the modeling indicate a significant reduction of flood elevations for the 10-year, 25-year, 35-year, 50-year, and 100-year flood frequencies using proposed modifications to (1 ) bank heights between Harbor Brook Towers and Interstate 691 on Harbor Brook, and between Centennial Avenue and Johnson Avenue on Crow Hollow Brook; (2) channel geometry between Coe Avenue and Interstate 69 1 on Harbor Brook; (3) bridge and culvert opening geometry between Harbor Brook Towers and Interstate 691 on Harbor Brook; and (4) channel streambed armoring between Harbor Brook Towers and Interstate 691 on Harbor Brook. The proposed modifications were developed without consideration of cost-benefit ratios.

  14. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...

  15. Bluff evolution along coastal drumlins: Boston Harbor Islands, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelstoss, E.A.; FitzGerald, D.M.; Rosen, P.S.; Allen, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    A series of partially drowned drumlins forms the backbone of the inner islands within Boston Harbor. The shoreline of these rounded glacial deposits is composed of actively retreating bluffs formed by continual wave attack. Comparisons of bluffs reveal variability in their height and lateral extent, as well as in the dominant mechanism causing their retreat. Two processes are responsible for bluff erosion and yield distinct bluff morphologies: (1) wave attack undercuts the bluff and causes episodic slumping, yielding planar bluff slopes, and (2) subaerial processes such as rainfall create irregular slopes characterized by rills and gullies. We propose a model of drumlin bluff evolution that is based on processes of erosion and physical characteristics such as bluff height, slope morphology, and the orientation of the bluff with respect to the long axis of the drumlin and its topographic crest. The four phases of drumlin bluff evolution consist of (1) initial formation of bluff, with retreat dominated by wave notching and slumping processes; (2) rill and gully development as bluff heights exceed 10 m and slumped sediment at bluff base inhibits wave attack; (3) return of wave notching and slumping as bluff heights decrease; and (4) final development of boulder retreat lag as last remnants of drumlin are eroded by wave action. These phases capture the important physical processes of drumlin evolution in Boston Harbor and could apply to other eroding coastal drumlin deposits.

  16. New world bats harbor diverse influenza A viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suxiang Tong

    Full Text Available Aquatic birds harbor diverse influenza A viruses and are a major viral reservoir in nature. The recent discovery of influenza viruses of a new H17N10 subtype in Central American fruit bats suggests that other New World species may similarly carry divergent influenza viruses. Using consensus degenerate RT-PCR, we identified a novel influenza A virus, designated as H18N11, in a flat-faced fruit bat (Artibeus planirostris from Peru. Serologic studies with the recombinant H18 protein indicated that several Peruvian bat species were infected by this virus. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that, in some gene segments, New World bats harbor more influenza virus genetic diversity than all other mammalian and avian species combined, indicative of a long-standing host-virus association. Structural and functional analyses of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase indicate that sialic acid is not a ligand for virus attachment nor a substrate for release, suggesting a unique mode of influenza A virus attachment and activation of membrane fusion for entry into host cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that bats constitute a potentially important and likely ancient reservoir for a diverse pool of influenza viruses.

  17. Grace Under Fire: The Army Nurses of Pearl Harbor, 1941.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbrath, Gwyneth R

    2016-01-01

    Much has been written about the military events of December 7, 1941; however, little has been documented about the nurses' work and experience at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The aerial assault on Pearl Harbor was the first time in US history that Army nurses had been on the front line of battle. Nurses quickly triaged and stabilized those who could be saved, and provided compassion and comfort to those who were dying, in an environment where the nurses were unsure of their own survival. Traditional historical methods and a social history framework were used in this investigation. Primary sources included oral histories from the US Army Medical Department Center of History and Heritage and the State of Hawaii's website, Hawaii Aviation. Secondary sources included published books, newspaper articles, military websites, and history texts. Due to the limited bed capacity, Hickam Field Hospital converted to an evacuation hospital. Nurses, physicians, and medical corpsman triaged, stabilized, and transported those likely to survive, while staging the dead behind the building. The emergency room at Tripler Hospital was quickly flooded with patients from the battlefield, but the staff was able to sort patients appropriately to the wards, to the operating room, or provide comfort care as they died. At Schofield Hospital, collaboration between tireless doctors, nurses, and corpsmen was key to providing life-saving surgery and care.

  18. The historical significance of anaesthesia events at Pearl Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowhurst, Ja

    2014-07-01

    Up to the end of World War II, less than 10% of the general anaesthetics administered was with intravenous barbiturates. The remaining 90% of anaesthetics given in the USA were with diethyl ether. In the United Kingdom and elsewhere, chloroform was also popular. Diethyl ether administration was a relatively safe and simple procedure, often delegated to nurses or junior doctors with little or no specific training in anaesthesia. During the Japanese attack on the US bases at Pearl Harbor, with reduced stocks of diethyl ether available, intravenous Sodium Pentothal(®), a most 'sophisticated and complex' drug, was used with devastating effects in many of those hypovolaemic, anaemic and septic patients. The hazards of spinal anaesthesia too were realised very quickly. These effects were compounded by the dearth of trained anaesthetists. This paper presents the significance of the anaesthesia tragedies at Pearl Harbor, and the discovery in the next few years of many other superior drugs that caused medical and other health professionals to realise that anaesthesia needed to be a specialist medical discipline in its own right. Specialist recognition, aided by the foundation of the National Health Service in the UK, the establishment of Faculties of Anaesthesia and appropriate training in pharmacology, physiology and other sciences soon followed. Modern anaesthesiology, as we understand it today, was born and a century or more of ether anaesthesia finally ceased.

  19. Adaptive hybrid mesh refinement for multiphysics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamayseh, Ahmed; Almeida, Valmor de

    2007-01-01

    The accuracy and convergence of computational solutions of mesh-based methods is strongly dependent on the quality of the mesh used. We have developed methods for optimizing meshes that are comprised of elements of arbitrary polygonal and polyhedral type. We present in this research the development of r-h hybrid adaptive meshing technology tailored to application areas relevant to multi-physics modeling and simulation. Solution-based adaptation methods are used to reposition mesh nodes (r-adaptation) or to refine the mesh cells (h-adaptation) to minimize solution error. The numerical methods perform either the r-adaptive mesh optimization or the h-adaptive mesh refinement method on the initial isotropic or anisotropic meshes to equidistribute weighted geometric and/or solution error function. We have successfully introduced r-h adaptivity to a least-squares method with spherical harmonics basis functions for the solution of the spherical shallow atmosphere model used in climate modeling. In addition, application of this technology also covers a wide range of disciplines in computational sciences, most notably, time-dependent multi-physics, multi-scale modeling and simulation

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trace elements bounded to airborne PM10 in the harbor of Volos, Greece: Implications for the impact of harbor activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoli, E.; Chelioti-Chatzidimitriou, A.; Karageorgou, K.; Kouras, A.; Voutsa, D.; Samara, C.; Kampanos, I.

    2017-10-01

    Harbors are often characterized by high levels of air pollutants that are emitted from ship traffic and other harbor activities. In the present study, the concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and trace elements (As, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cr, Mn, Zn, and Fe) bounded to the inhalable particulate matter PM10 were studied in the harbor of Volos, central Greece, during a 2-year period (2014-2015). Seasonal and daily variations were investigated. Moreover, total carcinogenic and mutagenic activities of PAHs were calculated. The effect of major wind sectors (sea, city, industrial, harbor) was estimated to assess the potential contribution of ship traffic and harbor activities, such as scrap metal handling operations. Results showed that the harbor sector (calm winds ≤ 0.5 m s-1) was associated with the highest concentrations of PM10. The harbor sector was also associated with relatively increased levels of trace elements (As, Fe, Cr, Mn, Ni), however the effect of this sector was lower than the corresponding effect of the industrial wind sector. The sea sector showed only a slight increase in B[a]Py and Σ12PAHs, whereas the highest increasing effect for PAHs and traffic-related elements, such as Pb and Zn, was evidenced for the city sector.

  1. Genetic signatures of adaptation revealed from transcriptome sequencing of Arctic and red foxes

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Vikas; Kutschera, Verena E.; Nilsson, Maria A.; Janke, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Background The genus Vulpes (true foxes) comprises numerous species that inhabit a wide range of habitats and climatic conditions, including one species, the Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) which is adapted to the arctic region. A close relative to the Arctic fox, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), occurs in subarctic to subtropical habitats. To study the genetic basis of their adaptations to different environments, transcriptome sequences from two Arctic foxes and one red fox individual were generated...

  2. A TIR domain variant of MyD88 adapter-like (Mal)/TIRAP results in loss of MyD88 binding and reduced TLR2/TLR4 signaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagpal, K.; Plantinga, T.S.; Wong, J.; Monks, B.G.; Gay, N.J.; Netea, M.G.; Fitzgerald, K.A.; Golenbock, D.

    2009-01-01

    The adapter protein MyD88 adapter-like (Mal), encoded by TIR-domain containing adapter protein (Tirap) (MIM 606252), is the most polymorphic of the five adapter proteins involved in Toll-like receptor signaling, harboring eight non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in its coding region. We

  3. Influenza A(H10N7) Virus in Dead Harbor Seals, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Hansen, Mette Sif; Holm, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Since April 2014, an outbreak of influenza in harbor seals has been ongoing in northern Europe. In Denmark during June-August, 152 harbor seals on the island of Anholt were found dead from severe pneumonia. We detected influenza A(H10N7) virus in 2 of 4 seals examined.......Since April 2014, an outbreak of influenza in harbor seals has been ongoing in northern Europe. In Denmark during June-August, 152 harbor seals on the island of Anholt were found dead from severe pneumonia. We detected influenza A(H10N7) virus in 2 of 4 seals examined....

  4. ADAPT Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT) Project Lead: Scott Poll Subject Fault diagnosis in electrical power systems Description The Advanced...

  5. Global optimization in the adaptive assay of subterranean uranium nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vulkan, U.; Ben-Haim, Y.

    1989-01-01

    An adaptive assay is one in which the design of the assay system is modified during operation in response to measurements obtained on-line. The present work has two aims: to design an adaptive system for borehole assay of isolated subterranean uranium nodules, and to investigate globality of optimal design in adaptive assay. It is shown experimentally that reasonably accurate estimates of uranium mass are obtained for a wide range of nodule shapes, on the basis of an adaptive assay system based on a simple geomorphological model. Furthermore, two concepts are identified which underlie the optimal design of the assay system. The adaptive assay approach shows promise for successful measurement of spatially random material in many geophysical applications. (author)

  6. Selective Extraction of Entangled Textures via Adaptive PDE Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Texture and feature extraction is an important research area with a wide range of applications in science and technology. Selective extraction of entangled textures is a challenging task due to spatial entanglement, orientation mixing, and high-frequency overlapping. The partial differential equation (PDE transform is an efficient method for functional mode decomposition. The present work introduces adaptive PDE transform algorithm to appropriately threshold the statistical variance of the local variation of functional modes. The proposed adaptive PDE transform is applied to the selective extraction of entangled textures. Successful separations of human face, clothes, background, natural landscape, text, forest, camouflaged sniper and neuron skeletons have validated the proposed method.

  7. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Richmond Harbor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinza, M R; Ward, J A; Mayhew, H L; Word, J Q; Niyogi, D K; Kohn, N P [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1992-10-01

    During the summer of 1991, Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) was contracted to conduct sampling and testing of sediments proposed for dredging of Richmond Harbor, California. The MSL collected sediment cores to a depth of [minus]40 ft MLLW ([minus]38 ft + 2 ft overdepth) from 28 (12-in. core) and 30 (4-in. core) stations. The sediment cores were allocated to six composite samples referred to as sediment treatments, which were then subjected to physical, chemical, toxicological, and bioaccumulation testing. Physical and chemical parameters included grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), total volatile solids (TVS), oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyis (PCBs), priority pollutant metals, and butyltins. The results from the test treatments were compared to results from five reference treatments representative of potential in-bay and offshore disposal sites.

  8. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Richmond Harbor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinza, M.R.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Niyogi, D.K.; Kohn, N.P.

    1992-10-01

    During the summer of 1991, Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) was contracted to conduct sampling and testing of sediments proposed for dredging of Richmond Harbor, California. The MSL collected sediment cores to a depth of -40 ft MLLW (-38 ft + 2 ft overdepth) from 28 (12-in. core) and 30 (4-in. core) stations. The sediment cores were allocated to six composite samples referred to as sediment treatments, which were then subjected to physical, chemical, toxicological, and bioaccumulation testing. Physical and chemical parameters included grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), total volatile solids (TVS), oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyis (PCBs), priority pollutant metals, and butyltins. The results from the test treatments were compared to results from five reference treatments representative of potential in-bay and offshore disposal sites

  9. West Nile Flavivirus Polioencephalomyelitis in a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Piero, F; Stremme, D W; Habecker, P L; Cantile, C

    2006-01-01

    A 12-year-old male harbor seal presented with progressive signs of neurologic dysfunction including head tremors, muzzle twitching, clonic spasms, and weakness. Lesions included polioencephalomyelitis with glial nodules, spheroids, neuronophagia, ring hemorrhages, and a few neutrophils. Neurons, fibers, and glial nodules were multifocally colonized with intracytoplasmic West Nile flavivirus antigens that were demonstrated using indirect immunohistochemical analysis. Flavivirus on cultured cells also was isolated and was identified by use of monoclonal antibodies and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Clinical signs of disease and lesion morphology and distribution were similar to those of equine West Nile virus infection. Similar to horses, alpacas, humans, dogs, and reptiles, seals can be dead-end hosts of West Nile virus.

  10. Structural damage monitoring of harbor caissons with interlocking condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, Thanh Canh; Lee, So Young; Nauyen, Khac Duy; Kim, Jeong Tae [Pukyong National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    The objective of this study is to monitor the health status of harbor caissons which have potential foundation damage. To obtain the objective, the following approaches are performed. Firstly, a structural damage monitoring(SDM) method is designed for interlocked multiple caisson structures. The SDM method utilizes the change in modal strain energy to monitor the foundation damage in a target caisson unit. Secondly, a finite element model of a caisson system which consists of three caisson units is established to verify the feasibility of the proposed method. In the finite element simulation, the caisson units are constrained each other by shear key connections. The health status of the caisson system against various levels of foundation damage is monitored by measuring relative modal displacements between the adjacent caissons.

  11. Structural damage monitoring of harbor caissons with interlocking condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh, Thanh Canh; Lee, So Young; Nauyen, Khac Duy; Kim, Jeong Tae

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to monitor the health status of harbor caissons which have potential foundation damage. To obtain the objective, the following approaches are performed. Firstly, a structural damage monitoring(SDM) method is designed for interlocked multiple caisson structures. The SDM method utilizes the change in modal strain energy to monitor the foundation damage in a target caisson unit. Secondly, a finite element model of a caisson system which consists of three caisson units is established to verify the feasibility of the proposed method. In the finite element simulation, the caisson units are constrained each other by shear key connections. The health status of the caisson system against various levels of foundation damage is monitored by measuring relative modal displacements between the adjacent caissons

  12. Jam Formation of Traffic Flow in Harbor Tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Hongdi; Lu Weizhen; Dong Liyun

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a study concerning occurrence and growth of traffic jam in a harbor tunnel. The single-lane with three sections (downgrade, flat, and upgrade) is taken into account and they are characterized with different velocity limit. At the low density, the traffic current increases linearly with density and saturates at some values of immediately density. As the density increases, the traffic jam appears firstly before the upgrade section and then extends to the downgrade section. Additionally, the relationships of the velocity and headway against position in different densities are obtained from simulation. These results clearly clarify where and when the traffic jam appears. Finally, the critical densities are derived via the theoretical analysis before and after the discontinuous fronts and the theoretical results are consistent with the critical values of simulation results. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  13. Anthropogenic inputs of dissolved organic matter in New York Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, G. B.; Chen, R. F.; Olavasen, J.; Peri, F.

    2016-02-01

    The Hudson River flows into the Atlantic Ocean through a highly urbanized region which includes New York City to the east and Newark, New Jersey to the west. As a result, the export of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) from the Hudson to the Atlantic Ocean includes a significant anthropogenic component. A series of high resolution studies of the DOC dynamics of this system were conducted between 2003 and 2010. These included both the Hudson and adjacent large waterways (East River, Newark Bay, Kill Van Kull and Arthur Kill) using coastal research vessels and smaller tributaries (Hackensack, Pasaic and Raritan rivers) using a 25' boat. In both cases measurements were made using towed instrument packages which could be cycled from near surface to near bottom depths with horizontal resolution of approximately 20 to 200 meters depending on depth and deployment strategy. Sensors on the instrument packages included a CTD to provide depth and salinity information and a chromophoric dissolved organic matter(CDOM) fluorometer to measure the fluorescent fraction of the DOC. Discrete samples allowed calibration of the fluorometer and the CDOM data to be related to DOC. The combined data set from these cruises identified multiple scales of source and transport processes for DOC within the Hudson River/New York Harbor region. The Hudson carries a substantial amount of natural DOC from its 230 km inland stretch. Additional sources exist in fringing salt marshes adjacent to the Hackensack and Raritan rivers. However the lower Hudson/New Harbor region receives a large input of DOC from multiple publically owned treatment works (POTW) discharges. The high resolution surveys allowed us to elucidate the distribution of these sources and the manner in which they are rapidly mixed to create the total export. We estimate that anthropogenic sources account for up to 2.5 times the DOC flux contributed by natural processes.

  14. Meninges harbor cells expressing neural precursor markers during development and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifari, Francesco; Berton, Valeria; Pino, Annachiara; Kusalo, Marijana; Malpeli, Giorgio; Di Chio, Marzia; Bersan, Emanuela; Amato, Eliana; Scarpa, Aldo; Krampera, Mauro; Fumagalli, Guido; Decimo, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Brain and skull developments are tightly synchronized, allowing the cranial bones to dynamically adapt to the brain shape. At the brain-skull interface, meninges produce the trophic signals necessary for normal corticogenesis and bone development. Meninges harbor different cell populations, including cells forming the endosteum of the cranial vault. Recently, we and other groups have described the presence in meninges of a cell population endowed with neural differentiation potential in vitro and, after transplantation, in vivo. However, whether meninges may be a niche for neural progenitor cells during embryonic development and in adulthood remains to be determined. In this work we provide the first description of the distribution of neural precursor markers in rat meninges during development up to adulthood. We conclude that meninges share common properties with the classical neural stem cell niche, as they: (i) are a highly proliferating tissue; (ii) host cells expressing neural precursor markers such as nestin, vimentin, Sox2 and doublecortin; and (iii) are enriched in extracellular matrix components (e.g., fractones) known to bind and concentrate growth factors. This study underlines the importance of meninges as a potential niche for endogenous precursor cells during development and in adulthood.

  15. Ambiguous Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the connection between contract duration, relational mechanisms, and premature relationship termination. Based on an analysis of a large sample of exchange relationships in the global service-provider industry, we argue that investments in either longer contract duration or more in...... ambiguous reference points for adaption and thus increase the likelihood of premature termination by restricting the parties' set of adaptive actions....

  16. Climate adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzig, Ann P.

    2015-03-01

    This paper is intended as a brief introduction to climate adaptation in a conference devoted otherwise to the physics of sustainable energy. Whereas mitigation involves measures to reduce the probability of a potential event, such as climate change, adaptation refers to actions that lessen the impact of climate change. Mitigation and adaptation differ in other ways as well. Adaptation does not necessarily have to be implemented immediately to be effective; it only needs to be in place before the threat arrives. Also, adaptation does not necessarily require global, coordinated action; many effective adaptation actions can be local. Some urban communities, because of land-use change and the urban heat-island effect, currently face changes similar to some expected under climate change, such as changes in water availability, heat-related morbidity, or changes in disease patterns. Concern over those impacts might motivate the implementation of measures that would also help in climate adaptation, despite skepticism among some policy makers about anthropogenic global warming. Studies of ancient civilizations in the southwestern US lends some insight into factors that may or may not be important to successful adaptation.

  17. Adapting RRT growth for heterogeneous environments

    KAUST Repository

    Denny, Jory; Morales, Marco; Rodriguez, Samuel; Amato, Nancy M.

    2013-01-01

    Rapidly-exploring Random Trees (RRTs) are effective for a wide range of applications ranging from kinodynamic planning to motion planning under uncertainty. However, RRTs are not as efficient when exploring heterogeneous environments and do not adapt to the space. For example, in difficult areas an expensive RRT growth method might be appropriate, while in open areas inexpensive growth methods should be chosen. In this paper, we present a novel algorithm, Adaptive RRT, that adapts RRT growth to the current exploration area using a two level growth selection mechanism. At the first level, we select groups of expansion methods according to the visibility of the node being expanded. Second, we use a cost-sensitive learning approach to select a sampler from the group of expansion methods chosen. Also, we propose a novel definition of visibility for RRT nodes which can be computed in an online manner and used by Adaptive RRT to select an appropriate expansion method. We present the algorithm and experimental analysis on a broad range of problems showing not only its adaptability, but efficiency gains achieved by adapting exploration methods appropriately. © 2013 IEEE.

  18. Adapting RRT growth for heterogeneous environments

    KAUST Repository

    Denny, Jory

    2013-11-01

    Rapidly-exploring Random Trees (RRTs) are effective for a wide range of applications ranging from kinodynamic planning to motion planning under uncertainty. However, RRTs are not as efficient when exploring heterogeneous environments and do not adapt to the space. For example, in difficult areas an expensive RRT growth method might be appropriate, while in open areas inexpensive growth methods should be chosen. In this paper, we present a novel algorithm, Adaptive RRT, that adapts RRT growth to the current exploration area using a two level growth selection mechanism. At the first level, we select groups of expansion methods according to the visibility of the node being expanded. Second, we use a cost-sensitive learning approach to select a sampler from the group of expansion methods chosen. Also, we propose a novel definition of visibility for RRT nodes which can be computed in an online manner and used by Adaptive RRT to select an appropriate expansion method. We present the algorithm and experimental analysis on a broad range of problems showing not only its adaptability, but efficiency gains achieved by adapting exploration methods appropriately. © 2013 IEEE.

  19. Adaptive steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramouli, Rajarathnam; Li, Grace; Memon, Nasir D.

    2002-04-01

    Steganalysis techniques attempt to differentiate between stego-objects and cover-objects. In recent work we developed an explicit analytic upper bound for the steganographic capacity of LSB based steganographic techniques for a given false probability of detection. In this paper we look at adaptive steganographic techniques. Adaptive steganographic techniques take explicit steps to escape detection. We explore different techniques that can be used to adapt message embedding to the image content or to a known steganalysis technique. We investigate the advantages of adaptive steganography within an analytical framework. We also give experimental results with a state-of-the-art steganalysis technique demonstrating that adaptive embedding results in a significant number of bits embedded without detection.

  20. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    the investigations of lighting scenarios carried out in two test installations: White Cube and White Box. The test installations are discussed as large-scale experiential instruments. In these test installations we examine what could potentially occur when light using LED technology is integrated and distributed......Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...

  1. Neuro-fuzzy and neural network techniques for forecasting sea level in Darwin Harbor, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Sepideh; Kisi, Ozgur; Shiri, Jalal; Makarynskyy, Oleg

    2013-03-01

    Accurate predictions of sea level with different forecast horizons are important for coastal and ocean engineering applications, as well as in land drainage and reclamation studies. The methodology of tidal harmonic analysis, which is generally used for obtaining a mathematical description of the tides, is data demanding requiring processing of tidal observation collected over several years. In the present study, hourly sea levels for Darwin Harbor, Australia were predicted using two different, data driven techniques, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and artificial neural network (ANN). Multi linear regression (MLR) technique was used for selecting the optimal input combinations (lag times) of hourly sea level. The input combination comprises current sea level as well as five previous level values found to be optimal. For the ANFIS models, five different membership functions namely triangular, trapezoidal, generalized bell, Gaussian and two Gaussian membership function were tested and employed for predicting sea level for the next 1 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. The used ANN models were trained using three different algorithms, namely, Levenberg-Marquardt, conjugate gradient and gradient descent. Predictions of optimal ANFIS and ANN models were compared with those of the optimal auto-regressive moving average (ARMA) models. The coefficient of determination, root mean square error and variance account statistics were used as comparison criteria. The obtained results indicated that triangular membership function was optimal for predictions with the ANFIS models while adaptive learning rate and Levenberg-Marquardt were most suitable for training the ANN models. Consequently, ANFIS and ANN models gave similar forecasts and performed better than the developed for the same purpose ARMA models for all the prediction intervals.

  2. Chemotactic response and adaptation dynamics in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Clausznitzer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation of the chemotaxis sensory pathway of the bacterium Escherichia coli is integral for detecting chemicals over a wide range of background concentrations, ultimately allowing cells to swim towards sources of attractant and away from repellents. Its biochemical mechanism based on methylation and demethylation of chemoreceptors has long been known. Despite the importance of adaptation for cell memory and behavior, the dynamics of adaptation are difficult to reconcile with current models of precise adaptation. Here, we follow time courses of signaling in response to concentration step changes of attractant using in vivo fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements. Specifically, we use a condensed representation of adaptation time courses for efficient evaluation of different adaptation models. To quantitatively explain the data, we finally develop a dynamic model for signaling and adaptation based on the attractant flow in the experiment, signaling by cooperative receptor complexes, and multiple layers of feedback regulation for adaptation. We experimentally confirm the predicted effects of changing the enzyme-expression level and bypassing the negative feedback for demethylation. Our data analysis suggests significant imprecision in adaptation for large additions. Furthermore, our model predicts highly regulated, ultrafast adaptation in response to removal of attractant, which may be useful for fast reorientation of the cell and noise reduction in adaptation.

  3. The hearing threshold of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) for impulsive sounds (L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Gransier, R.; Hoek, L.; Jong, C.A.F. de

    2012-01-01

    The distance at which harbor porpoises can hear underwater detonation sounds is unknown, but depends, among other factors, on the hearing threshold of the species for impulsive sounds. Therefore, the underwater hearing threshold of a young harbor porpoise for an impulsive sound, designed to mimic a

  4. 76 FR 38302 - Safety Zone; Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... the Town of Cape Charles will sponsor a fireworks display on the shoreline of the navigable waters of...-AA00 Safety Zone; Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard... navigable waters of Cape Charles City Harbor in Cape Charles, VA in support of the Fourth of July Fireworks...

  5. 77 FR 29929 - Safety Zone; Town of Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... section of this notice. Basis and Purpose On July 4, 2012 the Town of Cape Charles will sponsor a...-AA00 Safety Zone; Town of Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA AGENCY: Coast... temporary safety zone on the waters of Cape Charles City Harbor in Cape Charles, VA in support of the Fourth...

  6. 76 FR 71598 - Pearl Harbor National Wildlife Refuge, Honolulu County, HI; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ...] Pearl Harbor National Wildlife Refuge, Honolulu County, HI; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and.../docs/HI-PI/docsjcpearl.htm . Email: [email protected] . Include ``Pearl Harbor final CCP'' in...`iwa, HI 96712. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: David Ellis, Project Leader, (808) 637-6330...

  7. 33 CFR 110.129a - Apra Harbor, Guam. (Datum: WGS 84)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apra Harbor, Guam. (Datum: WGS 84) 110.129a Section 110.129a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.129a Apra Harbor, Guam. (Datum: WGS 84) (a...

  8. 33 CFR 80.1490 - Apra Harbor, U.S. Territory of Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apra Harbor, U.S. Territory of Guam. 80.1490 Section 80.1490 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1490 Apra Harbor, U...

  9. 76 FR 34865 - Safety Zone; Rochester Harbor Festival, Genesee River, Rochester, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Rochester Harbor Festival, Genesee River, Rochester, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Genesee River, Rochester, NY for the Rochester Harbor Festival fireworks. This zone is intended to...

  10. 33 CFR 110.31 - Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at Hull, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at Hull, Mass. 110.31 Section 110.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.31 Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at...

  11. 76 FR 81904 - Solicitation of New Safe Harbors and Special Fraud Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... Medicaid Patient and Program Protection Act of 1987, Public Law 100-93 Sec. 14, the Act, Sec. 1128B(b), 42...-called ``safe harbor'' provisions, specifying various payment and business practices that, although... basis for administrative sanctions. OIG safe harbor provisions have been developed ``to limit the reach...

  12. 33 CFR 117.753 - Ship Channel, Great Egg Harbor Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship Channel, Great Egg Harbor Bay. 117.753 Section 117.753 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.753 Ship Channel, Great Egg Harbor Bay. The draw of the S52 (Ship...

  13. 33 CFR 117.458 - Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans. 117.458 Section 117.458 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans. (a) The draws of the SR 46 (St. Claude Avenue) bridge, mile 0.5...

  14. 77 FR 46285 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Inner Harbor Navigational Canal, New Orleans, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... Operation Regulation; Inner Harbor Navigational Canal, New Orleans, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Navigational Canal, mile 3.1, at New Orleans, LA. The deviation is necessary to replace the wire rope lifting... of the US 90 (Danzinger) Bridge across the Inner Harbor Navigational Canal, mile 3.1, at New Orleans...

  15. 75 FR 4693 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Inner Harbor Navigational Canal, New Orleans, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... Operation Regulation; Inner Harbor Navigational Canal, New Orleans, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... C. Simon) Bascule Bridge across the Inner Harbor Navigational Canal, mile 4.6, at New Orleans, LA... Ochsner Ironman 70.3 New Orleans event. This deviation allows the bridge to remain closed during the event...

  16. Frequency Domain Response at Pacific Coast Harbors to Major Tsunamis of 2005-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiuying; Kou, Zhiqing; Huang, Ziyi; Lee, Jiin-Jen

    2013-06-01

    Tsunamis waves caused by submarine earthquake or landslide might contain large wave energy, which could cause significant human loss and property damage locally as well as in distant region. The response of three harbors located at the Pacific coast (i.e. Crescent City Harbor, Los Angeles/Long Beach Port, and San Diego Harbor) to six well-known tsunamis events generated (both near-field and far-field) between 2005 and 2011 are examined and simulated using a hybrid finite element numerical model in frequency domain. The model incorporated the effects of wave refraction, wave diffraction, partial wave reflection from boundaries, entrance and bottom energy dissipation. It can be applied to harbor regions with arbitrary shapes and variable water depth. The computed resonant periods or modes of oscillation for three harbors are in good agreement with the energy spectral analysis of the time series of water surface elevations recorded at tide gauge stations inside three harbors during the six tsunamis events. The computed wave induced currents based on the present model are also in qualitative agreement with some of the reported eye-witness accounts absence of reliable current data. The simulated results show that each harbor responded differently and significantly amplified certain wave period(s) of incident wave trains according to the shape, topography, characteristic dimensions and water depth of the harbor basins.

  17. 76 FR 37005 - Safety Zone; Fan Pier Yacht Club Fireworks, Boston Harbor, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Fan Pier Yacht Club Fireworks, Boston Harbor, Boston, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Sector Boston Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone for the Fan Pier Yacht Club Fireworks display. This safety... Safety Zone; Fan Pier Yacht Club Fireworks, Boston Harbor, Boston, Massachusetts. (a) General. A...

  18. 33 CFR 110.27 - Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass. 110.27 Section 110.27 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.27 Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass. North of...

  19. Analyzing Approaches to Internet Jurisdiction Based on Model of Harbors and the High Seas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiménez, W.G.; Lodder, A.R.

    2015-01-01

    The inherent cross-border nature of the internet has challenged the legal system for over two decades. In this paper we introduce a model in which the internet is approached as if it were the high seas, the harbor of origin, the harbor of destination, or a combination of these. This model is used to

  20. 33 CFR 165.754 - Safety Zone: San Juan Harbor, San Juan, PR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: San Juan Harbor, San Juan, PR. 165.754 Section 165.754 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Zone: San Juan Harbor, San Juan, PR. (a) Regulated area. A moving safety zone is established in the...

  1. Genetic characterization of blaNDM-harboring plasmids in carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli from Myanmar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yo Sugawara

    Full Text Available The bacterial enzyme New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase hydrolyzes almost all β-lactam antibiotics, including carbapenems, which are drugs of last resort for severe bacterial infections. The spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae that carry the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase gene, blaNDM, poses a serious threat to public health. In this study, we genetically characterized eight carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from a tertiary care hospital in Yangon, Myanmar. The eight isolates belonged to five multilocus-sequence types and harbored multiple antimicrobial-resistance genes, resulting in resistance against nearly all of the antimicrobial agents tested, except colistin and fosfomycin. Nine plasmids harboring blaNDM genes were identified from these isolates. Multiple blaNDM genes were found in the distinct Inc-replicon types of the following plasmids: an IncA/C2 plasmid harboring blaNDM-1 (n = 1, IncX3 plasmids harboring blaNDM-4 (n = 2 or blaNDM-7 (n = 1, IncFII plasmids harboring blaNDM-4 (n = 1 or blaNDM-5 (n = 3, and a multireplicon F plasmid harboring blaNDM-5 (n = 1. Comparative analysis highlighted the diversity of the blaNDM-harboring plasmids and their distinct characteristics, which depended on plasmid replicon types. The results indicate circulation of phylogenetically distinct strains of carbapenem-resistant E. coli with various plasmids harboring blaNDM genes in the hospital.

  2. 77 FR 2019 - Security Zone; Passenger Vessel SAFARI EXPLORER Arrival/Departure, Kaunakakai Harbor, Molokai, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ...-AA87 Security Zone; Passenger Vessel SAFARI EXPLORER Arrival/ Departure, Kaunakakai Harbor, Molokai, HI... vessel SAFARI EXPLORER to its intended berth in the harbor. Entry into the temporary security zone is... operation of the SAFARI EXPLORER into Molokai has been voluntarily suspended by the operating company...

  3. 77 FR 24381 - Security Zone; Passenger Vessel SAFARI EXPLORER Arrival/Departure, Kaunakakai Harbor, Molokai, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ...-AA87 Security Zone; Passenger Vessel SAFARI EXPLORER Arrival/ Departure, Kaunakakai Harbor, Molokai, HI... channel's entrance during the arrival and departure of the Passenger Vessel Safari Explorer in Kaunakakai... entrance during the arrival and departure of the Passenger Vessel Safari Explorer in Kaunakakai Harbor...

  4. 33 CFR 110.235 - Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). 110.235 Section 110.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). (a) The anchorage grounds—(1...

  5. Environmental space management in the harbor of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Milieuruimtemanagement haven Amsterdam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klok, L.; Hulskotte, J. [TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Den Haag (Netherlands); Van Breemen, T. [Haven Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    A new calculation tool will quickly offer the Harbor of Amsterdam insight in the effect of activities in the harbor on the air quality and hence the available environmental space. [Dutch] Een nieuw rekeninstrument geeft Haven Amsterdam snel inzicht in het effect van alle activiteiten in de haven op de luchtkwaliteit en daarmee in de beschikbare milieuruimte.

  6. 75 FR 81556 - Solicitation of New Safe Harbors and Special Fraud Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... statute (section 1128B(b) of the Social Security Act), as well as developing new OIG Special Fraud Alerts... of New Safe Harbors and Special Fraud Alerts AGENCY: Office of Inspector General (OIG), HHS. ACTION... the public on recommendations for developing new or revised safe harbors and Special Fraud Alerts...

  7. 77 FR 76434 - Solicitation of New Safe Harbors and Special Fraud Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... statute (section 1128B(b) of the Social Security Act), as well as developing new OIG Special Fraud Alerts... of New Safe Harbors and Special Fraud Alerts AGENCY: Office of Inspector General (OIG), HHS. ACTION... revised safe harbors and Special Fraud Alerts. Please assist us by referencing the file code OIG-121-N...

  8. 78 FR 78807 - Solicitation of New Safe Harbors and Special Fraud Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... statute (section 1128B(b) of the Social Security Act), as well as developing new OIG Special Fraud Alerts... of New Safe Harbors and Special Fraud Alerts AGENCY: Office of Inspector General (OIG), HHS. ACTION... revised safe harbors and Special Fraud Alerts. Please assist us by referencing the file code OIG-122-N...

  9. 33 CFR 207.600 - Rochester (Charlotte) Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rochester (Charlotte) Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.600 Section 207.600 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF... (Charlotte) Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. (a)-(b) [Reserved] (c) No vessel shall moor or...

  10. 33 CFR 207.580 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.580 Section 207.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.580 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use...

  11. 78 FR 13479 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers, CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers, CT AGENCY: Coast... regulations that govern the operation of three bridges across the Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers at New Haven...) entitled ``Drawbridge Operation Regulations New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers,'' in the Federal...

  12. Congress Investigates: Pearl Harbor and 9/11 Congressional Hearing Exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackerby, Christine

    2011-01-01

    On the morning of December 7, 1941, Japanese bombers staged a surprise attack on U.S. military forces at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Sixty years after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States was attacked again. On the morning of September 11, 2001, four commercial airplanes hijacked by 19 terrorists killed nearly 3,000 people when they crashed…

  13. Pearl Harbor bombing attack: a contamination legacy revealed in the sedimentary record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Olsen, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    Sediment cores collected from Middle Loch and West Loch of Pearl Harbor were dated using fallout 137 Cs and excess 210 Pb and analysed for several major elements and trace metals. Results indicate that sediment deposited immediately following the 7 December, 1941, bombing attack on Pearl Harbor contained elevated levels of several trace metals. (author)

  14. Pearl Harbor bombing attack: a contamination legacy revealed in the sedimentary record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Olsen, C.R.

    1988-02-01

    Sediment cores collected from Middle Loch and West Loch of Pearl Harbor were dated using fallout /sup 137/Cs and excess /sup 210/Pb and analysed for several major elements and trace metals. Results indicate that sediment deposited immediately following the 7 December, 1941, bombing attack on Pearl Harbor contained elevated levels of several trace metals.

  15. 77 FR 38490 - Safety Zone; Mentor Harbor Yachting Club Fireworks, Lake Erie, Mentor, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Mentor Harbor Yachting Club Fireworks, Lake Erie, Mentor, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Erie, Mentor, OH. This safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Erie during the Mentor Harbor Yachting Club fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect...

  16. Are federal sustained yield units equitable? A case study of the Grays Harbor unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Con H Schallau; Wilbur R. Maki

    1986-01-01

    The Grays Harbor Federal Sustained Yield Unit (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service) was established in 1949 to enhance the economic stability of the forest products industry and dependent communities in Grays Harbor County, Washington. Provisions of the unit's charter require that all logs harvested from the Quinault Ranger District of the Olympic...

  17. 78 FR 19632 - Special Local Regulations; St. Thomas Carnival Watersport Activities, Charlotte Amalie Harbor; St...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; St. Thomas Carnival Watersport Activities, Charlotte Amalie Harbor; St... proposes to establish a special local regulation on the waters of Charlotte Amalie Harbor in St Thomas, USVI during the St. Thomas Carnival Watersport Activities, a high speed boat race. The event is...

  18. 33 CFR 110.214 - Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Angeles Harbor). A circular area with a radius of 400 yards (approximately 366 meters), centered in... 400 Transportation Corridor. (C) Outer Harbor: The western boundary of Commercial Anchorage B. (2... Thence along a line described as an arc, radius of 460 meters (approximately 1509 feet) centered on 33...

  19. 77 FR 60109 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Harbor Activities Related to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ...; and Northern elephant seals by Level B harassment only. To date, we have issued nine, 1-year... numbers of marine mammals, incidental to conducting Delta Mariner harbor operations for one year. We... California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), and Northern elephant...

  20. 78 FR 28492 - Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor... establishing a special local regulation on the waters of the Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor... rulemaking (NPRM) entitled, ``Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and...

  1. 33 CFR 165.708 - Safety/Security Zone; Charleston Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC. 165.708 Section 165.708 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.708 Safety/Security Zone; Charleston Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC. (a... Cooper River. All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 1983. (2) All waters within 100 yards of the...

  2. 33 CFR 110.250 - St. Thomas Harbor, Charlotte Amalie, V.I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Thomas Harbor, Charlotte... SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.250 St. Thomas Harbor, Charlotte Amalie.... Thomas, V.I. of the United States and approaches thereto, including all waters under its jurisdiction, as...

  3. The AppComposer Web application for school teachers: A platform for translating and adapting educational web applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Gil, Luis; Orduna, Pablo; Bollen, Lars; Govaerts, Sten; Holzer, Adrian; Gillet, Dennis; Lopez-de-Ipina, Diego; Garcia-Zubia, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Developing educational apps that cover a wide range of learning contexts and languages is a challenging task. In this paper, we introduce the AppComposer Web app to address this issue. The AppComposer aims at empowering teachers to easily translate and adapt existing apps that fit their educational

  4. Identification and analysis of uncertainty in disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in South and Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keur, van der Peter; Bers, van Caroline; Henriksen, Hans Jørgen; Nibanupudi, Hari Krishna; Yadav, Shobha; Wijaya, Rina; Subiyono, Andreas; Mukerjee, Nandan; Hausmann, Hans Jakob; Hare, Matt; Scheltinga, van Catharien Terwisscha; Pearn, Gregory; Jaspers, Fons

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the mainstreaming of uncertainty in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) using as a case South and Southeast Asia, a region highly vulnerable to a wide range of natural disasters. Improvements in the implementation of DRR and CCA at the community

  5. Quadrature amplitude modulation from basics to adaptive trellis-coded turbo-equalised and space-time coded OFDM CDMA and MC-CDMA systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hanzo, Lajos

    2004-01-01

    "Now fully revised and updated, with more than 300 pages of new material, this new edition presents the wide range of recent developments in the field and places particular emphasis on the family of coded modulation aided OFDM and CDMA schemes. In addition, it also includes a fully revised chapter on adaptive modulation and a new chapter characterizing the design trade-offs of adaptive modulation and space-time coding." "In summary, this volume amalgamates a comprehensive textbook with a deep research monograph on the topic of QAM, ensuring it has a wide-ranging appeal for both senior undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as practicing engineers and researchers."--Jacket.

  6. Adaptation Insights

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Addressing Climate Change Adaptation in Africa through Participatory Action Research. A Regional Observatory ... while the average annual rainfall recorded between. 1968 and 1999 was .... the region of Thies. For sustainability reasons, the.

  7. Adaptation Stories

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    By Reg'

    adaptation to climate change from various regions of the Sahel. Their .... This simple system, whose cost and maintenance were financially sustainable, brought ... method that enables him to learn from experience and save time, which he ...

  8. Seasonal monitoring of blue mussel (Mytilus spp.) populations in a harbor area: A focus on responses to environmental factors and chronic contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, C; Duvieilbourg, E; Guillou, N; Guyomarch, J; Bassoulet, C; Moraga, D; Chapalain, G; Auffret, M

    2017-08-01

    Coastal waters corresponding to macrotidal systems are among the most variable marine biotopes. Sessile animals as bivalve mollusks may however be found forming intertidal beds at high densities, as allowed by full adaptation to local conditions. A better knowledge of adaptive responses to environmental factors is required to foresee possible adverse effects of global change. At the sub-cellular level, transcriptional responses are among the earliest signals of environmental disturbances and they can reveal subtle and meaningful changes in organism exposed to stress. Three blue mussel (Mytilus spp.) populations inhabiting the Bay of Brest (France) in sites exposed to different levels of chronic pollution, from low to moderate, were surveyed upon a seasonal schedule, with special attention to the reproductive cycle. Major seawater parameters were monitored over a full-year in the framework of the S!RANO project, based on an automatic high frequency acquisition system installed aboard a ship of opportunity. The health status of mussels has been assessed by measuring a condition index and gametogenesis has been followed by histology. Selected biological responses to environmental stress were detected using a multimarker approach including expression of genes involved in chemical stress response and energetic metabolism, and cellular immune parameters. Environmental parameters showed deep seasonal variations which differed among sites. Most biological responses followed a seasonal pattern. Late winter and spring corresponded to an active reproduction period in the Bay of Brest. Earlier spawning was observed in harbor areas compared to the oceanic site and an altered physiological state was assumed in commercial harbor mussels during the reproductive period, suggesting that their health is compromised at this time of year. However, no signs of severe chemical stress were detected in both harbor mussel populations, which could reflect adaptive responses to adverse

  9. Abstracts of papers presented at the LVIII Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on quantitative Biology: DNA and chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral and poster presentations made at the LVIII Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology entitles DNA & Chromosomes. The meeting was held June 2--June 9, 1993 at Cold Spring Harbor, New York.

  10. Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation? Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Flores Nogueira Diniz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition, joined with the study of recycling, remaking, and every form of retelling. The film deals with the attempt by the scriptwriter Charles Kaufman, cast by Nicholas Cage, to adapt/translate a non-fictional book to the cinema, but ends up with a kind of film which is by no means what it intended to be: a film of action in the model of Hollywood productions. During the process of creation, Charles and his twin brother, Donald, undergo a series of adventures involving some real persons from the world of film, the author and the protagonist of the book, all of them turning into fictional characters in the film. In the film, adaptation then signifies something different from itstraditional meaning. The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition

  11. Experimental Evolution of Escherichia coli Harboring an Ancient Translation Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacar, Betül; Ge, Xueliang; Sanyal, Suparna; Gaucher, Eric A

    2017-03-01

    The ability to design synthetic genes and engineer biological systems at the genome scale opens new means by which to characterize phenotypic states and the responses of biological systems to perturbations. One emerging method involves inserting artificial genes into bacterial genomes and examining how the genome and its new genes adapt to each other. Here we report the development and implementation of a modified approach to this method, in which phylogenetically inferred genes are inserted into a microbial genome, and laboratory evolution is then used to examine the adaptive potential of the resulting hybrid genome. Specifically, we engineered an approximately 700-million-year-old inferred ancestral variant of tufB, an essential gene encoding elongation factor Tu, and inserted it in a modern Escherichia coli genome in place of the native tufB gene. While the ancient homolog was not lethal to the cell, it did cause a twofold decrease in organismal fitness, mainly due to reduced protein dosage. We subsequently evolved replicate hybrid bacterial populations for 2000 generations in the laboratory and examined the adaptive response via fitness assays, whole genome sequencing, proteomics, and biochemical assays. Hybrid lineages exhibit a general adaptive strategy in which the fitness cost of the ancient gene was ameliorated in part by upregulation of protein production. Our results suggest that an ancient-modern recombinant method may pave the way for the synthesis of organisms that exhibit ancient phenotypes, and that laboratory evolution of these organisms may prove useful in elucidating insights into historical adaptive processes.

  12. Strategies for Overcoming Resistance in Tumours Harboring BRAF Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourah Mohammad Obaid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of resistance to previously effective treatments has been a challenge for health care providers and a fear for patients undergoing cancer therapy. This is an unfortunately frequent occurrence for patients undergoing targeted therapy for tumours harboring the activating V600E mutation of the BRAF gene. Since the initial identification of the BRAF mutation in 2002, a series of small molecular inhibitors that target the BRAFV600E have been developed, but intrinsic and acquired resistance to these drugs has presented an ongoing challenge. More recently, improvements in therapy have been achieved by combining the use of BRAF inhibitors with other drugs, such as inhibitors of the downstream effector mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK/extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK kinase (MEK. Despite improved success in response rates and in delaying resistance using combination therapy, ultimately, the acquisition of resistance remains a concern. Recent research articles have shed light on some of the underlying mechanisms of this resistance and have proposed numerous strategies that might be employed to overcome or avoid resistance to targeted therapies. This review will explore some of the resistance mechanisms, compare what is known in melanoma cancer to colorectal cancer, and discuss strategies under development to manage the development of resistance.

  13. Synanthropic Cockroaches (Blattidae: Periplaneta spp.) Harbor Pathogenic Leptospira in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Astudillo, Viviana; Bustamante-Rengifo, Javier A; Bonilla, Álvaro; Lehmicke, Anna Joy J; Castillo, Andrés; Astudillo-Hernández, Miryam

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis cases in Colombia are typically linked to peridomestic rodents; however, empirical data suggest that Leptospira-infected patients with no apparent exposure to these reservoirs are common. Cockroaches (Periplaneta spp.) have equal or greater interaction with humans than rodents, yet their potential role as carriers of Leptospira has not been assessed. We determined if pathogenic Leptospira is harbored by Periplaneta spp. in Cali (Colombia) and the variables influencing this relationship. Fifty-nine cockroaches were captured from seven sites and DNA was extracted from the body surface and digestive tract for a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, targeting genes secY and flaB. Logistic regression models and proportion tests showed a higher likelihood for Leptospira to be isolated from body surfaces (P > 0.001) and from individuals inside houses (six times more likely). These findings are the first to demonstrate an association between Periplaneta spp. and Leptospira, suggesting the need to investigate the potential for cockroaches to serve as reservoirs or transport hosts for Leptospira. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Evaluation of older bay mud sediment from Richmond Harbor, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-09-01

    The older, bay mud (OBM) unit predates modem man and could act as a barrier to the downward transport of contaminants from the younger bay mud (YBM) because of its hard-packed consistency. However, its chemical and biological nature have not been well characterized. Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted three independent studies of OBM sediment in January 1993, January 1994, and October 1994. These studies evaluated potential chemical contamination and biological effects of OBM that could occur as a result of dredging and disposal activities. These evaluations were performed by conducting chemical analysis, solid-phase toxicity tests, suspended- particulate-phase (SPP) toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation tests on the OBM sediment. If the sediment chemistry and toxicity results showed no or minimal contamination and toxicological responses, then either the OBM could be left exposed in Richmond Harbor after dredging the YBM without leaving a source of contamination, or if the project depths necessitate, the OBM would be acceptable for disposal at an appropriate disposal site.

  15. The yeast genome may harbor hypoxia response elements (HRE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Túlio César; Hertzberg, Libi; Gassmann, Max; Campos, Elida Geralda

    2007-01-01

    The hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimeric transcription factor activated when cells are submitted to hypoxia. The heterodimer is composed of two subunits, HIF-1alpha and the constitutively expressed HIF-1beta. During normoxia, HIF-1alpha is degraded by the 26S proteasome, but hypoxia causes HIF-1alpha to be stabilized, enter the nucleus and bind to HIF-1beta, thus forming the active complex. The complex then binds to the regulatory sequences of various genes involved in physiological and pathological processes. The specific regulatory sequence recognized by HIF-1 is the hypoxia response element (HRE) that has the consensus sequence 5'BRCGTGVBBB3'. Although the basic transcriptional regulation machinery is conserved between yeast and mammals, Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not express HIF-1 subunits. However, we hypothesized that baker's yeast has a protein analogous to HIF-1 which participates in the response to changes in oxygen levels by binding to HRE sequences. In this study we screened the yeast genome for HREs using probabilistic motif search tools. We described 24 yeast genes containing motifs with high probability of being HREs (p-value<0.1) and classified them according to biological function. Our results show that S. cerevisiae may harbor HREs and indicate that a transcription factor analogous to HIF-1 may exist in this organism.

  16. Foraminiferal proxies for pollution monitoring in moderately polluted harbors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armynot du Chatelet, E.; Debenay, J.-P.; Soulard, R.

    2004-01-01

    Foraminiferal density and species richness that decrease with an increase in heavy metal and PAH concentration may be used as pollution indicators. - Benthic foraminifera are increasingly used as environmental bio-indicators, especially in polluted environments where their sensitivity to pollutants may be expressed by a modification of the assemblages. Eighteen sediment samples were collected in September 2000 in five harbors located in moderately polluted estuaries on the coast of Vendee (France) for the study of foraminiferal assemblages. Ten heavy metals and 13 PAH have been analyzed from the sediments. The marine to continental estuarine gradient has a prevalent influence on the foraminiferal distribution. However, the results show that foraminiferal density and species richness of the assemblages decrease with an increase in heavy metal and PAH concentration, and therefore may be used as pollution indicators. Moreover, the more polluted areas are dominated by the tolerant pioneer species Haynesina germanica that may be used as bio-indicator of pollution, mainly in the uppermost areas

  17. 77 FR 42076 - Notice of Opportunity for Public Comment on Surplus Property Release at Hancock County-Bar Harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... Comment on Surplus Property Release at Hancock County-Bar Harbor Airport, Trenton, ME AGENCY: Federal... located at Hancock County-Bar Harbor Airport, Trenton, Maine. DATES: Comments must be received on or... INFORMATION: The Federal Aviation Administration is reviewing a request by Hancock County-Bar Harbor Airport...

  18. 33 CFR 165.T14-204 - Safety Zone; fixed mooring balls, south of Barbers Pt Harbor Channel, Oahu, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., south of Barbers Pt Harbor Channel, Oahu, Hawaii. 165.T14-204 Section 165.T14-204 Navigation and... Pt Harbor Channel, Oahu, Hawaii. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: All waters... position is approximately 2,500 yards south of Barbers Point Harbor channel buoy #2, Oahu, Hawaii. This...

  19. 77 FR 67563 - Regulated Navigation Area-New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River, New Haven, CT; Pearl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area--New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River, New Haven, CT... Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River and Mill River. The current RNA pertains only to the operation of tugs...) entitled Regulated Navigation Area--New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River, New Haven, CT; Pearl...

  20. A lifelong journey of moving beyond wartime trauma for survivors from Hiroshima and Pearl Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehr, Patricia; Nishimura, Chie; Ito, Mio; Wands, Lisa Marie; Takahashi, Ryutaro

    2011-01-01

    This study examines 51 stories of health, shared by people who survived the wartime trauma of Hiroshima and Pearl Harbor, seeking to identify turning points that moved participants along over their lifetime. The central turning point for Hiroshima survivors was "becoming Hibabusha (A-bomb survivor)" and for Pearl Harbor survivors was "honoring the memory and setting it aside." Wartime trauma was permanently integrated into survivors' histories, surfacing steadily over decades for Hiroshima survivors and intermittently over decades for Pearl Harbor survivors. Regardless of experience or nationality, participants moved through wartime trauma by connecting with others, pursuing personal and global peace.

  1. Temporal and spatial variation in harbor seal (Phoca vitulina L.) roar calls from southern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Puk Faxe; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Male harbor seals gather around breeding sites for competitive mating displays. Here, they produce underwater vocalizations possibly to attract females and/or scare off other males. These calls offer prospects for passive acoustic monitoring. Acoustic monitoring requires a good understanding...... of natural variation in calling behavior both temporally and among geographically separate sites. Such variation in call structure and calling patterns were studied in harbor seal vocalizations recorded at three locations in Danish and Swedish waters. There was a strong seasonality in the calls from end...... biological differences when comparing harbor seal roars among recording sites and between years....

  2. Strategic Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of theoretical contributions that have influenced the discourse around strategic adaptation including contingency perspectives, strategic fit reasoning, decision structure, information processing, corporate entrepreneurship, and strategy process. The related...... concepts of strategic renewal, dynamic managerial capabilities, dynamic capabilities, and strategic response capabilities are discussed and contextualized against strategic responsiveness. The insights derived from this article are used to outline the contours of a dynamic process of strategic adaptation....... This model incorporates elements of central strategizing, autonomous entrepreneurial behavior, interactive information processing, and open communication systems that enhance the organization's ability to observe exogenous changes and respond effectively to them....

  3. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Kongshaug, Jesper; Søndergaard, Karin

    2015-01-01

    offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... to be static, and no longer acts as a kind of spatial constancy maintaining stability and order? Moreover, what new potentials open in lighting design? This book is one of four books that is published in connection with the research project entitled LED Lighting; Interdisciplinary LED Lighting Research...

  4. Adaptive test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Eriksen, Mette Rose

    2010-01-01

    Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale.......Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale....

  5. The state of climate change adaptation in the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, James D; McDowell, Graham; Jones, Julie

    2014-01-01

    The Arctic climate is rapidly changing, with wide ranging impacts on natural and social systems. A variety of adaptation policies, programs and practices have been adopted to this end, yet our understanding of if, how, and where adaptation is occurring is limited. In response, this paper develops a systematic approach to characterize the current state of adaptation in the Arctic. Using reported adaptations in the English language peer reviewed literature as our data source, we document 157 discrete adaptation initiatives between 2003 and 2013. Results indicate large variations in adaptation by region and sector, dominated by reporting from North America, particularly with regards to subsistence harvesting by Inuit communities. Few adaptations were documented in the European and Russian Arctic, or have a focus on the business and economy, or infrastructure sectors. Adaptations are being motivated primarily by the combination of climatic and non-climatic factors, have a strong emphasis on reducing current vulnerability involving incremental changes to existing risk management processes, and are primarily initiated and led at the individual/community level. There is limited evidence of trans-boundary adaptations or initiatives considering potential cross-scale/sector impacts. (letter)

  6. Mnemiopsis leidyi Gut Harbors Seasonally Variant and Commensal Microbial Assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariita, R. M.; Hossain, M. J.; Liles, M. R.; Moss, A.

    2016-02-01

    Studies have shown that with widespread use of antibiotics in human and domestic animal populations, antibiotic resistance becomes increasingly common in the environment. Estuaries provide ideal conditions for acquisition and dissemination of drug resistance genes because they serve as sinks for pollution. This study aimed to identify M. leidyi microbial diversity and richness and their potential to act as vectors for antibiotic resistance determinants (ARDs). M. leidyi, although native to study area are highly invasive. Metagenomic analyses indicate that there are temporal variations of bacterioplankton assemblages in M. leidyi gut. Overall, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria are the most abundant phyla. Despite the temporal dynamics in the microbial assemblages in M. leidyi gut, they seem to retain Propionibacterium acnes (gut microbiota in some insects) and select proteobacteria across all seasons. The results contradict previous studies that suggest that M. leidyi does not have constant a microbiota, but only seasonally variant microbial assemblages. Here we reveal the presence of M. leidyi gut ARDs in winter and summer, probably because of the ctenophores' positive geotaxis during rough surface conditions. Genes responsible for resistance to fluoroquinolones, multidrug resistance efflux pumps, mercuric reductase, copper homeostasis and blaR1 genes were observed. This is the first study to demonstrate that M. leidyi harbors constant microbiota and provides a baseline for understanding M. leidyi gut microbial and ARDs ecology. It also suggests that M. leidyi bacterial taxonomic and functional dynamics is influenced by season. Funding: Alabama EPSCoR GRSP fellowship, AU-CMB fellowship, NSF EPS-1158862, USDA-Hatch 370225-310100 (AGM, ML).

  7. Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Flores Nogueira Diniz

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition, joined with the study of recycling, remaking, and every form of retelling. The film deals with the attempt by the scriptwriter Charles Kaufman, cast by Nicholas Cage, to adapt/translate a non-fictional book to the cinema, but ends up with a kind of film which is by no means what it intended to be: a film of action in the model of Hollywood productions. During the process of creation, Charles and his twin brother, Donald, undergo a series of adventures involving some real persons from the world of film, the author and the protagonist of the book, all of them turning into fictional characters in the film. In the film, adaptation then signifies something different from itstraditional meaning.

  8. Settlement of the USS Arizona, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carkin, Brad A.; Kayen, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the National Park Service Submerged Resources Center, undertook investigations at the USS Arizona Memorial at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, in 2002, 2003, and 2005 to characterize geological factors affecting the deterioration and movement of the hull of the USS Arizona. Since sinking on the morning of December 7, 1941, the hull of the USS Arizona has been slowly but steadily disappearing below the surface of Pearl Harbor. Continuous sediment coring at three of four locations around the hull of the Arizona was only partially successful, but it was sufficient to identify a varied sedimentary substrate beneath the hull. A boring near the stern reveals a thick, continuous sequence of soft, gray clay to the bottom of the boring. In contrast, borings near the bow and starboard side, below about 5 meters subbottom depth, indicate the presence of very stiff, brown clay and coral debris and an absence of soft clay. Multisensor core logger scanning of the recovered cores distinguishes the lower density of the soft, gray clay at the stern from the higher density of the stiff, brown clays and coral debris at the bow and starboard side. Uniaxial consolidation testing of the soft gray clay indicates a normally consolidated sequence, whereas the stiff, brown clay and coral debris are overconsolidated. Profiles of shear wave velocity vs. depth obtained through spectral analysis of interface wave testing around the perimeter of the hull in 2005 identified areas of higher velocity, stiffer sediment at the bow and starboard side, which correspond to the dense, stiff clay recovered near the bow and starboard borings. Low shear-wave velocities at the port midship and quarter of the hull correlate with the lower density, softer sediment recovered from the boring at the stern. Cross sections of the subbottom of the Memorial combine results from the sediment borings and geophysical surveys and depict a wedge of soft clay unconformably overlying

  9. Adaptation is...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC

    vital sector is under threat. While it is far from the only development challenge facing local farmers, extreme variations in the climate of West Africa in the past several decades have dealt the region a bad hand. Drought and flood now follow each other in succession. Adaptation is... “The floods spoiled our harvests and we.

  10. Ambiguous Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    and reciprocal adaptation of informal governance structure create ambiguity in situations of contingencies, which, subsequently, increases the likelihood of premature relationship termination. Using a large sample of exchange relationships in the global service provider industry, we find support for a hypothesis...

  11. Onondaga Lake Inner Harbor Dredging Design Project, Syracuse, New York: Final Design Memorandum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... The sponsor is the New York State Canal Corporation. The design includes deepening the Inner Harbor channel and a portion of the terminal slip area to a depth of 10 feet below Low Water Datum (LWD...

  12. Aerial Survey Trend Counts of Harbor Seals in Coastal Alaska (1984-2006) - ADF&G

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys were conducted during 1983–2006 in the Ketchikan, Sitka, Kodiak, and Bristol Bay areas of Alaska to estimate trends in abundance of harbor seals.

  13. Aerial Survey Counts of Harbor Seals in Lake Iliamna, Alaska, 1984-2013 (NODC Accession 0123188)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset provides counts of harbor seals from aerial surveys over Lake Iliamna, Alaska, USA. The data have been collated from three previously published sources...

  14. Sedimentation and chronology of heavy metal pollution in Oslo harbor, Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepland, Aivo; Andersen, Thorbjorn J.; Lepland, Aave; Arp, Hans Peter H.; Alve, Elisabeth; Breedveld, Gijs D.; Rindby, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Stratigraphic profiles of Cu, Cd and Hg in ten sediment cores from the Oslo harbor, Norway, combined with results of radiometric dating demonstrate that pollution by these metals peaked between 1940 and 1970. Dating results indicate that Hg discharges peaked between 1940 and 1950, Cd reached maximum ca. 1955-1960, and Cu has the highest concentration in sediment interval corresponding to ca. 1970. Geochemical profiles and maxima of Cu, Cd and Hg concentrations can be used as chronostratigraphic markers for sediment cores from the Oslo harbor. Acoustic backscatter and sediment core data indicate that propeller wash affects the seabed in the Oslo harbor. The propeller-induced turbulence causes erosion, and in places exposes and remobilizes contaminated sediments that accumulated in the harbor during previous decades. Such re-exposure of contaminated sediments could be detrimental to local ecosystems and offset remediation efforts, warranting further impact studies and potential mitigation strategies to prevent redistribution.

  15. Wave Climate and Wave Response, Kawaihae Deep Draft Harbor, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Edward F; Demirbilek, Zeki; Briggs, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    Present and projected commercial activities in Kawaihae Deep Draft Harbor, Island of Hawaii, HI, indicate that a deeper basin and entrance channel and better protected berthing areas will be needed. The U.S...

  16. DEPOT MAINTENANCE: Key Financial Issues for Consolidations at Pearl Harbor and Elsewhere Are Still Unresolved

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... In September 1999, we reported that the preliminary results of the ongoing Pearl Harbor pilot were mixed and recommended that the Departments of Defense and the Navy address unresolved issues related...

  17. Inshore Survey Results: Approaches to New York Harbor, Fall 1955 (NODC Accession 7000294)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A current survey in the approaches to New York Harbor was initiated 06 September 1955 and continued through 04 November 1955. This survey was conducted in accordance...

  18. Environmental Assessment for Building 88 Interior Demolition, Pearl Harbor Naval Complex, O'ahu, Hawaii

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    ...) and ancillary equipment from the interior of Building 88, a former lubricating oil storage facility, and the related exposed piping underneath Mike wharves M3 and M4 at Merry Point, Pearl Harbor Naval Complex...

  19. Defense Infrastructure: General and Flag Officer Quarters at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... We reviewed 17 GFOQs at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, with budgeted maintenance and repair costs of $1,247,300, to determine whether the Navy had properly classified interior shutter costs as maintenance and repair...

  20. Environmental Assessment for Waterfront Facilities Maintenance and Improvements, Pearl Harbor Naval Complex, Oahu, Hawaii

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    Commander, Navy Region Hawaii (CNRH) proposes to repair, maintain, and improve waterfront berthing and maintenance facilities for ships and submarines on an as-needed basis within the Pearl Harbor Naval Complex (PHNC...

  1. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Apra Harbor, Guam U.S. Territory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry from Apra Harbor, Guam U.S. Territory. The netCDF and Arc ASCII grids include multibeam bathymetry from the Reson SeaBat 8125 multibeam sonar...

  2. DefenseLink Special: Attack on Pearl Harbor, 65th Anniversary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japanese raid on Pearl Harbor has been called a defining moment in U.S. history. It caught the country by Hawaii-based combat planes, were heavily damaged. By crippling the U.S. Pacific Fleet, Japan hoped to

  3. MODELING HOW A HURRICANE BARRIER IN NEW BEDFORD HARBOR, MASSACHUSETTS, AFFECTS THE HYDRODYNAMICS AND RESIDENCE TIMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two-dimensional hydrodynamic and transport models were used to simulate tidal and subtidal circulation, residence times, and the longitudinal distributions of conservative constituents in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, before and after a hurricane barrier was constructed. The...

  4. Aerial Survey Effort for Harbor Seals in Coastal Alaska (2004-2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The most feasible approach to determining harbor seal distribution and abundance in Alaska coastal habitats is to use aircraft to count seals when they haul out of...

  5. A Dataset of Aerial Survey Counts of Harbor Seals in Iliamna Lake, Alaska: 1984-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset provides counts of harbor seals from aerial surveys over Iliamna Lake, Alaska, USA. The data have been collated from three previously published sources...

  6. Ice Harbor Spillway Dissolved Gas Field Studies: Before and After Spillway Deflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Steven C. Wilhelms Coastal And Hydraulics Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center 3909 Halls Ferry Road Vicksburg, Mississippi...Harbor as a measure to reduce the total dissolved gas (TDG) production during spill operations. Three field studies were conducted at the Ice Harbor...significantly reduced for nearly all spill operations with deflectors in place. TDG near the stilling basin was reduced from approximately 150% to

  7. Emergence of colistin-resistant Escherichia coli clinical isolates harboring mcr-1 in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Tatsuya; Nhung, Pham Hong; Shimada, Kayo; Tsuchiya, Mitsuhiro; Phuong, Doan Mai; Anh, Nguyen Quoc; Ohmagari, Norio; Kirikae, Teruo

    2017-10-01

    The mcr-1 was first detected on a plasmid in colistin-resistant Escherichia coli from livestock and patients in China. We described here the emergence of colistin-resistant E. coli clinical isolates harboring mcr-1 on the chromosomes in Vietnam. To our knowledge, this is the first report of hospital-acquired E. coli isolates harboring mcr-1 in a medical setting in Vietnam. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Analysis of Protection Measures for Naval Vessels Berthed at Harbor Against Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    of discriminating neutral vessels from threats. A naval vessel berthed at harbor is more susceptible to attack than a vessel in open seas. The...discriminating neutral vessels from threats. A naval vessel berthed at harbor is more susceptible to attack than a vessel in open seas. The chances of...this thesis. He was a source of inspiration, encouragement, and reassurance. Captain Jeffery E. Kline, I am really thankful to you for your ideas

  9. Charleston Harbor, SC, Regional Sediment Management Study: Beneficial Use of Dredged Material through Nearshore Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Modeling System (CMS) that were developed and applied previously for the Charleston Harbor numerical modeling study (Kashlan 2013) were used in...Particle Tracking Model; Report 1: Model theory, implementation, and example applications. ERDC/CHL TR-6-20. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Engineer Research ...ER D C/ CH L TR -1 7- 7 Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program Charleston Harbor, SC, Regional Sediment Management Study

  10. Charleston Harbor, SC, Regional Sediment Management Study; Beneficial Use of Dredged Material through Nearshore Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Modeling System (CMS) that were developed and applied previously for the Charleston Harbor numerical modeling study (Kashlan 2013) were used in...Particle Tracking Model; Report 1: Model theory, implementation, and example applications. ERDC/CHL TR-6-20. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Engineer Research ...ER D C/ CH L TR -1 7- 7 Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program Charleston Harbor, SC, Regional Sediment Management Study

  11. Cladophora (Chlorophyta) spp. Harbor Human Bacterial Pathogens in Nearshore Water of Lake Michigan†

    OpenAIRE

    Ishii, Satoshi; Yan, Tao; Shively, Dawn A.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Whitman, Richard L.; Sadowsky, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Cladophora glomerata, a macrophytic green alga, is commonly found in the Great Lakes, and significant accumulations occur along shorelines during the summer months. Recently, Cladophora has been shown to harbor high densities of the fecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli and enterococci. Cladophora may also harbor human pathogens; however, until now, no studies to address this question have been performed. In the present study, we determined whether attached Cladophora, obtained from the L...

  12. 75 FR 43823 - Safety Zone; He'eia Kea Small Boat Harbor, Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone in He'eia Kea Small Boat Harbor located in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. The safety zone is necessary to protect watercraft and the general public from hazards associated with five vessels moored for approximately 3- weeks off the boat harbor's main pier. Vessels desiring to transit through the zone can request permission by contacting the Captain of the Port Honolulu.

  13. A solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule harboring thyroid carcinoma: review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Mirfakhraee, Sasan; Mathews, Dana; Peng, Lan; Woodruff, Stacey; Zigman, Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    Hyperfunctioning nodules of the thyroid are thought to only rarely harbor thyroid cancer, and thus are infrequently biopsied. Here, we present the case of a patient with a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule harboring thyroid carcinoma and, using MEDLINE literature searches, set out to determine the prevalence of and characteristics of malignant ?hot? nodules as a group. Historical, biochemical and radiologic characteristics of the case subjects and their nodules were compared to those in cases o...

  14. Numerical Modeling of Wave Overtopping of Buffalo Harbor Confined Disposal Facility (CDF4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    navigation channel , and harbor complex. Though there are anecdotal claims and debris indicating possible sediment movement, there has been no evidence of...littoral sediments inside the disposal area, into the channel and harbor, and other adjacent areas to the CDF4. 1.4 Study plan 1.4.1 Purpose There...locations. 2.4 Maintenance dredging data The need for maintenance dredging arises from sedimentation in the navigation channels , which impedes

  15. Impact of Geomorphological Changes to Harbor Resonance During Meteotsunamis: The Vela Luka Bay Test Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denamiel, Cléa; Šepić, Jadranka; Vilibić, Ivica

    2018-05-01

    In engineering studies, harbor resonance, including quality and amplification factors, is typically computed for swell and waves with periods shorter than 10 min. However, in various locations around the world, such as Vela Luka Bay in Croatia, meteotsunami waves of periods greater than 10 min can excite the bay or harbor natural modes and produce substantial structural damages. In this theoretical study, the impact of some geomorphological changes of Vela Luka Bay—i.e. deepening of the bay, dredging the harbor, adding a pier or a marina—to the amplification of the meteotsunami waves are presented for a set of 6401 idealized pressure wave field forcing used to derive robust statistics. The most substantial increase in maximum elevation is found when the Vela Luka harbor is dredged to a 5 m depth, which is in contradiction with the calculation of the quality factor showing a decrease of the harbor natural resonance. It has been shown that the forcing energy content at different frequency bands should also be taken into account when estimating the quality and amplification factors, as their typical definitions derived from the peak frequency of the sea level spectrum fail to represent the harbor response during meteotsunami events. New definitions of these factors are proposed in this study and are shown to be in good agreement with the results of the statistical analysis of the Vela Luka Bay maximum elevation results. In addition, the presented methodology can easily be applicable to any other location in the world where meteotsunamis occur.

  16. Detection of circulating tumor cells harboring a unique ALK rearrangement in ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailler, Emma; Adam, Julien; Barthélémy, Amélie; Oulhen, Marianne; Auger, Nathalie; Valent, Alexander; Borget, Isabelle; Planchard, David; Taylor, Melissa; André, Fabrice; Soria, Jean Charles; Vielh, Philippe; Besse, Benjamin; Farace, Françoise

    2013-06-20

    The diagnostic test for ALK rearrangement in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) for crizotinib treatment is currently done on tumor biopsies or fine-needle aspirations. We evaluated whether ALK rearrangement diagnosis could be performed by using circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The presence of an ALK rearrangement was examined in CTCs of 18 ALK-positive and 14 ALK-negative patients by using a filtration enrichment technique and filter-adapted fluorescent in situ hybridization (FA-FISH), a FISH method optimized for filters. ALK-rearrangement patterns were determined in CTCs and compared with those present in tumor biopsies. ALK-rearranged CTCs and tumor specimens were characterized for epithelial (cytokeratins, E-cadherin) and mesenchymal (vimentin, N-cadherin) marker expression. ALK-rearranged CTCs were monitored in five patients treated with crizotinib. All ALK-positive patients had four or more ALK-rearranged CTCs per 1 mL of blood (median, nine CTCs per 1 mL; range, four to 34 CTCs per 1 mL). No or only one ALK-rearranged CTC (median, one per 1 mL; range, zero to one per 1 mL) was detected in ALK-negative patients. ALK-rearranged CTCs harbored a unique (3'5') split pattern, and heterogeneous patterns (3'5', only 3') of splits were present in tumors. ALK-rearranged CTCs expressed a mesenchymal phenotype contrasting with heterogeneous epithelial and mesenchymal marker expressions in tumors. Variations in ALK-rearranged CTC levels were detected in patients being treated with crizotinib. ALK rearrangement can be detected in CTCs of patients with ALK-positive NSCLC by using a filtration technique and FA-FISH, enabling both diagnostic testing and monitoring of crizotinib treatment. Our results suggest that CTCs harboring a unique ALK rearrangement and mesenchymal phenotype may arise from clonal selection of tumor cells that have acquired the potential to drive metastatic progression of ALK-positive NSCLC.

  17. Hedonic "adaptation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available People live in a world in which they are surrounded by potential disgust elicitors such as ``used'' chairs, air, silverware, and money as well as excretory activities. People function in this world by ignoring most of these, by active avoidance, reframing, or adaptation. The issue is particularly striking for professions, such as morticians, surgeons, or sanitation workers, in which there is frequent contact with major disgust elicitors. In this study, we study the ``adaptation'' process to dead bodies as disgust elicitors, by measuring specific types of disgust sensitivity in medical students before and after they have spent a few months dissecting a cadaver. Using the Disgust Scale, we find a significant reduction in disgust responses to death and body envelope violation elicitors, but no significant change in any other specific type of disgust. There is a clear reduction in discomfort at touching a cold dead body, but not in touching a human body which is still warm after death.

  18. Adaptation Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huq, Saleemul

    2011-11-15

    Efforts to help the world's poor will face crises in coming decades as climate change radically alters conditions. Action Research for Community Adapation in Bangladesh (ARCAB) is an action-research programme on responding to climate change impacts through community-based adaptation. Set in Bangladesh at 20 sites that are vulnerable to floods, droughts, cyclones and sea level rise, ARCAB will follow impacts and adaptation as they evolve over half a century or more. National and international 'research partners', collaborating with ten NGO 'action partners' with global reach, seek knowledge and solutions applicable worldwide. After a year setting up ARCAB, we share lessons on the programme's design and move into our first research cycle.

  19. Adaptive Clinical Trials: Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Adaptive Design Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Edward L; Freidlin, Boris

    2017-06-01

    There is a wide range of adaptive elements of clinical trial design (some old and some new), with differing advantages and disadvantages. Classical interim monitoring, which adapts the design based on early evidence of superiority or futility of a treatment arm, has long been known to be extremely useful. A more recent application of interim monitoring is in the use of phase II/III designs, which can be very effective (especially in the setting of multiple experimental treatments and a reliable intermediate end point) but do have the cost of having to commit earlier to the phase III question than if separate phase II and phase III trials were performed. Outcome-adaptive randomization is an older technique that has recently regained attention; it increases trial complexity and duration without offering substantial benefits to the patients in the trial. The use of adaptive trials with biomarkers is new and has great potential for efficiently identifying patients who will be helped most by specific treatments. Master protocols in which trial arms and treatment questions are added to an ongoing trial can be especially efficient in the biomarker setting, where patients are screened for entry into different subtrials based on evolving knowledge about targeted therapies. A discussion of three recent adaptive clinical trials (BATTLE-2, I-SPY 2, and FOCUS4) highlights the issues. Published by Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Adaptable positioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrador Pavon, I.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 22 fig. 6 ref

  1. Adaptive positioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrador Pavon, I.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 6 refs

  2. Atomic switch networks as complex adaptive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharnhorst, Kelsey S.; Carbajal, Juan P.; Aguilera, Renato C.; Sandouk, Eric J.; Aono, Masakazu; Stieg, Adam Z.; Gimzewski, James K.

    2018-03-01

    Complexity is an increasingly crucial aspect of societal, environmental and biological phenomena. Using a dense unorganized network of synthetic synapses it is shown that a complex adaptive system can be physically created on a microchip built especially for complex problems. These neuro-inspired atomic switch networks (ASNs) are a dynamic system with inherent and distributed memory, recurrent pathways, and up to a billion interacting elements. We demonstrate key parameters describing self-organized behavior such as non-linearity, power law dynamics, and multistate switching regimes. Device dynamics are then investigated using a feedback loop which provides control over current and voltage power-law behavior. Wide ranging prospective applications include understanding and eventually predicting future events that display complex emergent behavior in the critical regime.

  3. How adaptation shapes spike rate oscillations in recurrent neuronal networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz eAugustin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Neural mass signals from in-vivo recordings often show oscillations with frequencies ranging from <1 Hz to 100 Hz. Fast rhythmic activity in the beta and gamma range can be generated by network based mechanisms such as recurrent synaptic excitation-inhibition loops. Slower oscillations might instead depend on neuronal adaptation currents whose timescales range from tens of milliseconds to seconds. Here we investigate how the dynamics of such adaptation currents contribute to spike rate oscillations and resonance properties in recurrent networks of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Based on a network of sparsely coupled spiking model neurons with two types of adaptation current and conductance based synapses with heterogeneous strengths and delays we use a mean-field approach to analyze oscillatory network activity. For constant external input, we find that spike-triggered adaptation currents provide a mechanism to generate slow oscillations over a wide range of adaptation timescales as long as recurrent synaptic excitation is sufficiently strong. Faster rhythms occur when recurrent inhibition is slower than excitation and oscillation frequency increases with the strength of inhibition. Adaptation facilitates such network based oscillations for fast synaptic inhibition and leads to decreased frequencies. For oscillatory external input, adaptation currents amplify a narrow band of frequencies and cause phase advances for low frequencies in addition to phase delays at higher frequencies. Our results therefore identify the different key roles of neuronal adaptation dynamics for rhythmogenesis and selective signal propagation in recurrent networks.

  4. Adaptive ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berth, Mette

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of an adaptive ethnography when studying such phenomena as young people's use of mobile media in a learning perspective. Mobile media such as PDAs and mobile phones have a number of affordances which make them potential tools for learning. However, before we begin to...... formal and informal learning contexts. The paper also proposes several adaptive methodological techniques for studying young people's interaction with mobiles.......This paper focuses on the use of an adaptive ethnography when studying such phenomena as young people's use of mobile media in a learning perspective. Mobile media such as PDAs and mobile phones have a number of affordances which make them potential tools for learning. However, before we begin...... to design and develop educational materials for mobile media platforms we must first understand everyday use and behaviour with a medium such as a mobile phone. The paper outlines the research design for a PhD project on mobile learning which focuses on mobile phones as a way to bridge the gap between...

  5. Differential Evolution Algorithm with Self-Adaptive Population Resizing Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A differential evolution (DE algorithm with self-adaptive population resizing mechanism, SapsDE, is proposed to enhance the performance of DE by dynamically choosing one of two mutation strategies and tuning control parameters in a self-adaptive manner. More specifically, more appropriate mutation strategies along with its parameter settings can be determined adaptively according to the previous status at different stages of the evolution process. To verify the performance of SapsDE, 17 benchmark functions with a wide range of dimensions, and diverse complexities are used. Nonparametric statistical procedures were performed for multiple comparisons between the proposed algorithm and five well-known DE variants from the literature. Simulation results show that SapsDE is effective and efficient. It also exhibits much more superiorresultsthan the other five algorithms employed in the comparison in most of the cases.

  6. CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems of the sulfolobales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garrett, Roger Antony; Shah, Shiraz Ali; Erdmann, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The Sulfolobales have provided good model organisms for studying CRISPR-Cas systems of the crenarchaeal kingdom of the archaea. These organisms are infected by a wide range of exceptional archaea-specific viruses and conjugative plasmids, and their CRISPR-Cas systems generally exhibit extensive...... structural and functional diversity. They carry large and multiple CRISPR loci and often multiple copies of diverse Type I and Type III interference modules as well as more homogeneous adaptation modules. These acidothermophilic organisms have recently provided seminal insights into both the adaptation...... process, the diverse modes of interference, and their modes of regulation. The functions of the adaptation and interference modules tend to be loosely coupled and the stringency of the crRNA-DNA sequence matching during DNA interference is relatively low, in contrast to some more streamlined CRISPR...

  7. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Members Adapted to Wild and Domestic Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Kerri M; Gordon, Stephen V

    2017-01-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) is composed of several highly genetically related species that can be broadly classified into those that are human-host adapted and those that possess the ability to propagate and transmit in a variety of wild and domesticated animals. Since the initial description of the bovine tubercle bacillus, now known as Mycobacterium bovis, by Theobald Smith in the late 1800's, isolates originating from a wide range of animal hosts have been identified and characterized as M. microti, M. pinnipedii, the Dassie bacillus, M. mungi, M. caprae, M. orygis and M. suricattae. This chapter outlines the events resulting in the identification of each of these animal-adapted species, their close genetic relationships, and how genome-based phylogenetic analyses of species-specific variation amongst MTBC members is beginning to unravel the events that resulted in the evolution of the MTBC and the observed host tropism between the human- and animal-adapted member species.

  8. Adaptive Superheat Control of a Refrigeration Plant using Backstepping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for superheat and capacity control of refrigeration systems. The new idea is to control the superheat by the compressor speed and capacity by the refrigerant flow. This gives a highly nonlinear transfer operator from compressor speed input to the superheat output....... A new low order nonlinear model of the evaporator is developed and used in a backstepping design of an adaptive nonlinear controller.  The stability of the proposed method is validated theoretically by Lyapunov analysis and experimental results shows the performance of the system for a wide range...

  9. Standardisation Versus Adaptation in Canton’s Luxury Fashion Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yang

    2009-01-01

    In view of the dynamic growth in the luxury market and the availability of luxury goods to a wider range of consumers than ever before, it is critically important for luxury researchers and marketers to understand why consumers buy luxury, what they believe luxury is and how their perception of luxury value impacts their buying behavior. In a global context, it is faced with a very important marketing decision: to standardise or to adapt its marketing mix? This study draws a wide range of lit...

  10. Symmetry Adapted Basis Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, John Scales; Rettrup, Sten; Avery, James Emil

    automatically with computer techniques. The method has a wide range of applicability, and can be used to solve difficult eigenvalue problems in a number of fields. The book is of special interest to quantum theorists, computer scientists, computational chemists and applied mathematicians....

  11. INSTITUTIONAL BARRIERS TO PORT INFRASTRUCTURE AND HARBOR DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger R. STOUGH

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ports and their regions have experienced at least a century of crisis from wars (e.g., World War I and II, technological change (e.g., containerization and information and computer technology, political change (e.g., end of the Cold War and liberalization of commerce and trade in countries like China and India and globalization. As such ports have needed to adjust to these conditions to maintain their competitiveness. They have done this by adapting their physical and institutional infrastructures and the adoption of new technologies. In this paper it is argued however that institutional adaptation is the most important way in which ports have changed in pursuit of sustained competitiveness. The paper defines institutions in keeping with the view of the new institutional economists and develops an institutional typology for framing the analyses of four case studies of ports and/or their regions that faced crisis conditions. The case studies include an analysis of the problems and responses made by the ports and then an institutional examination and evaluation of the adjustment process pursued. Conclusions are made as working hypotheses about the process of institutional adjustment to competitiveness crises of ports and their regions and directions for future research are presented.

  12. Wastes vitrification by plasma torch: study of a glass formulation compatible with a wide range of B wastes; Vitrification des dechets par torche a plasma: recherche d'une formulation de verre compatible avec un large eventail de dechets B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poitou, S.; Richaud, D.; Fiquet, O.; Gramondi, P.; Massit, H. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Entreposage et de Stockage des Dechets, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2001-07-01

    Within the context of radioactive waste management, CEA has equipped itself with a 'PLASMARC' device. The central element of this device is a plasma torch treatment furnace. It has been implemented and validated for the vitrification of low level radioactive wastes. Meanwhile, the plasma torch presents potentially interests for immobilizing under an inert form in vitreous matrices, B wastes which are generally divided and of complex chemical composition. The application of this process to this type of wastes has been studied here. The obtained results show that with the plasma torch it is possible to make glasses with a high amount of silicon and aluminium oxide and which are adapted to the treatment / packaging of the B wastes. (O.M.)

  13. Adaptive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatenby, Robert A; Silva, Ariosto S; Gillies, Robert J; Frieden, B Roy

    2009-06-01

    A number of successful systemic therapies are available for treatment of disseminated cancers. However, tumor response is often transient, and therapy frequently fails due to emergence of resistant populations. The latter reflects the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment as well as the evolutionary capacity of cancer phenotypes to adapt to therapeutic perturbations. Although cancers are highly dynamic systems, cancer therapy is typically administered according to a fixed, linear protocol. Here we examine an adaptive therapeutic approach that evolves in response to the temporal and spatial variability of tumor microenvironment and cellular phenotype as well as therapy-induced perturbations. Initial mathematical models find that when resistant phenotypes arise in the untreated tumor, they are typically present in small numbers because they are less fit than the sensitive population. This reflects the "cost" of phenotypic resistance such as additional substrate and energy used to up-regulate xenobiotic metabolism, and therefore not available for proliferation, or the growth inhibitory nature of environments (i.e., ischemia or hypoxia) that confer resistance on phenotypically sensitive cells. Thus, in the Darwinian environment of a cancer, the fitter chemosensitive cells will ordinarily proliferate at the expense of the less fit chemoresistant cells. The models show that, if resistant populations are present before administration of therapy, treatments designed to kill maximum numbers of cancer cells remove this inhibitory effect and actually promote more rapid growth of the resistant populations. We present an alternative approach in which treatment is continuously modulated to achieve a fixed tumor population. The goal of adaptive therapy is to enforce a stable tumor burden by permitting a significant population of chemosensitive cells to survive so that they, in turn, suppress proliferation of the less fit but chemoresistant

  14. Specific and Efficient Regression of Cancers Harboring KRAS Mutation by Targeted RNA Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Jin; Kim, Ju Hyun; Yang, Bitna; Jeong, Jin-Sook; Lee, Seong-Wook

    2017-02-01

    Mutations in the KRAS gene, which persistently activate RAS function, are most frequently found in many types of human cancers. Here, we proposed and verified a new approach against cancers harboring the KRAS mutation with high cancer selectivity and efficient anti-cancer effects based on targeted RNA replacement. To this end, trans-splicing ribozymes from Tetrahymena group I intron were developed, which can specifically target and reprogram the mutant KRAS G12V transcript to induce therapeutic gene activity in cells. Adenoviral vectors containing the specific ribozymes with downstream suicide gene were constructed and then infection with the adenoviruses specifically downregulated KRAS G12V expression and killed KRAS G12V-harboring cancer cells additively upon pro-drug treatment, but it did not affect the growth of wild-type KRAS-expressing cells. Minimal liver toxicity was noted when the adenoviruses were administered systemically in vivo. Importantly, intratumoral injection of the adenoviruses with pro-drug treatment specifically and significantly impeded the growth of xenografted tumors harboring KRAS G12V through a trans-splicing reaction with the target RNA. In contrast, xenografted tumors harboring wild-type KRAS were not affected by the adenoviruses. Therefore, RNA replacement with a mutant KRAS-targeting trans-splicing ribozyme is a potentially useful therapeutic strategy to combat tumors harboring KRAS mutation. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reducing Vulnerability of Ports and Harbors to Earthquake and Tsunami Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan J.; Good, James W.; Goodwin, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    Recent scientific research suggests the Pacific Northwest could experience catastrophic earthquakes in the near future, both from distant and local sources, posing a significant threat to coastal communities. Damage could result from numerous earthquake-related hazards, such as severe ground shaking, soil liquefaction, landslides, land subsidence/uplift, and tsunami inundation. Because of their geographic location, ports and harbors are especially vulnerable to these hazards. Ports and harbors, however, are important components of many coastal communities, supporting numerous activities critical to the local and regional economy and possibly serving as vital post-event, response-recovery transportation links. A collaborative, multi-year initiative is underway to increase the resiliency of Pacific Northwest ports and harbors to earthquake and tsunami hazards, involving Oregon Sea Grant (OSG), Washington Sea Grant (WSG), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Services Center (CSC), and the U.S. Geological Survey Center for Science Policy (CSP). Specific products of this research, planning, and outreach initiative include a regional stakeholder issues and needs assessment, a community-based mitigation planning process, a Geographic Information System (GIS) — based vulnerability assessment methodology, an educational web-site and a regional data archive. This paper summarizes these efforts, including results of two pilot port-harbor community projects, one in Yaquina Bay, Oregon and the other in Sinclair Inlet, Washington. Finally, plans are outlined for outreach to other port and harbor communities in the Pacific Northwest and beyond, using "getting started" workshops and a web-based tutorial.

  16. Stabilization and in situ management of radioactive contaminated sediments of Port Hope harbor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolinar, G.M.; Killey, R.W.D.; Philipase, K.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of laboratory and field studies undertaken to assess the feasibility of in situ management of contaminated sediments in Port Hope harbor. The contaminated sediments stem from historic releases from an adjacent radium and uranium refinery, and uranium, arsenic, and radium are the most abundant contaminants. With improved emission controls, currently accumulating sediments have much lower levels of contamination, and the harbor waters currently meet water quality limits for the contaminants of concern. Within a few years, however, the continuing sedimentation will render the harbor unusable. Field tests have confirmed the dredging will result in incomplete removal of the contaminated sediments and that sediment suspension and the release of pores waters during dredging will produce harbor water contaminant concentrations that would require the treatment of large volumes of water. In addition, no remedial work can start until a site for the dredged material can be found. The local community inquired whether in situ burial of the sediments and abandonment of the harbor would provide safe disposal

  17. Adaptive format conversion for scalable video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Wade K.; Lim, Jae S.

    2001-12-01

    The enhancement layer in many scalable coding algorithms is composed of residual coding information. There is another type of information that can be transmitted instead of (or in addition to) residual coding. Since the encoder has access to the original sequence, it can utilize adaptive format conversion (AFC) to generate the enhancement layer and transmit the different format conversion methods as enhancement data. This paper investigates the use of adaptive format conversion information as enhancement data in scalable video coding. Experimental results are shown for a wide range of base layer qualities and enhancement bitrates to determine when AFC can improve video scalability. Since the parameters needed for AFC are small compared to residual coding, AFC can provide video scalability at low enhancement layer bitrates that are not possible with residual coding. In addition, AFC can also be used in addition to residual coding to improve video scalability at higher enhancement layer bitrates. Adaptive format conversion has not been studied in detail, but many scalable applications may benefit from it. An example of an application that AFC is well-suited for is the migration path for digital television where AFC can provide immediate video scalability as well as assist future migrations.

  18. The Emergence of Groups and Inequality through Co-Adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Atwell

    Full Text Available The emergence of groups and of inequality is often traced to pre-existing differences, exclusionary practices, or resource accumulation processes, but can the emergence of groups and their differential success simply be a feature of the behaviors of a priori equally-capable actors who have mutually adapted? Using a simple model of behavioral co-adaptation among agents whose individual actions construct a common environment, we present evidence that the formation of unequal groups is endemic to co-adaptive processes that endogenously alter the environment; agents tend to separate into two groups, one whose members stop adapting earliest (the in-group, and another comprising agents who continue to adapt (the out-group. Over a wide range of model parameters, members of the in-group are rewarded more on average than members of the out-group. The primary reason is that the in-group is able to have a more profound influence on the environment and mold it to the benefit of its members. This molding capacity proves more beneficial than the persistence of adaptivity, yet, crucially, which agents are able to form a coalition to successfully exert this control is strongly contingent on random aspects of the set of agent behaviors. In this paper, we present the model, relevant definitions, and results. We then discuss its implications for the study of complex adaptive systems generally.

  19. Application of the Akinfiev-Diamond equation of state to neutral hydroxides of metalloids (B(OH)3, Si(OH)4, As(OH)3) at infinite dilution in water over a wide range of the state parameters, including steam conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinfiev, Nikolay N.; Plyasunov, Andrey V.

    2014-02-01

    The Akinfiev and Diamond (2003) equation of state (EoS) for aqueous nonelectrolytes was employed to describe hydroxides of metalloids (B(OH)3, Si(OH)4, As(OH)3) over a wide temperature and pressure ranges, including steam conditions. The EoS is based on the accurate knowledge of solvent (H2O) properties and requires only three empirical parameters to be fitted to experimental data, and these are independent of temperature and pressure. For nonvolatile components thermodynamic properties of species in the ideal gas state were evaluated using quantum chemical computations. The proposed approach has been tested to predict the whole set of thermodynamic properties of solutes (the chemical potential, entropy, molar volume, and molar heat capacity) over a wide range of temperatures (273-1200 K) and pressures (0.1-1000 MPa), including the near-critical region and both low and high density regions of the solvent. Thus it can be used for modeling various geochemical processes over a whole range of solvent densities, including processes in boiling fluids and a vapor phase as well. solubility data in a low density aqueous fluid (ρ1∗ 1 mol kg-1) where polymerization effects may take place (Newton and Manning, 2003); the rest of data, containing the majority of quartz solubility points at 293-1273 K, 0.1-1000 MPa. Only the 3rd part of experimental quartz solubility data has been used in the fitting procedure. Thermodynamic properties of Si(OH)4 in the ideal gas state were recently determined by the analysis of the relevant experimental data in Plyasunov (2011b). The temperature dependence of heat capacity of the molecule was adopted from comprehensive study of Rutz and Bockhorn (2005)where DFT calculations at different levels of theory including CBS-QBS and G3MP2 methods, as well as corrections for hindered rotations and scaling for vibration frequencies were employed. The adopted Cpo (T = 300-1500 K) values for gaseous Si(OH)4 were approximated by a function and used in the

  20. Adaptive management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rist, Lucy; Campbell, Bruce Morgan; Frost, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive management (AM) emerged in the literature in the mid-1970s in response both to a realization of the extent of uncertainty involved in management, and a frustration with attempts to use modelling to integrate knowledge and make predictions. The term has since become increasingly widely used...... in scientific articles, policy documents and management plans, but both understanding and application of the concept is mixed. This paper reviews recent literature from conservation and natural resource management journals to assess diversity in how the term is used, highlight ambiguities and consider how...... the concept might be further assessed. AM is currently being used to describe many different management contexts, scales and locations. Few authors define the term explicitly or describe how it offers a means to improve management outcomes in their specific management context. Many do not adhere to the idea...

  1. A neurological comparative study of the harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walløe, Solveig; Eriksen, Nina; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The cetacean brain is well studied. However, few comparisons have been done with other marine mammals. In this study, we compared the harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and the harbor porpoise brain (Phocoena phocoena). Stereological methods were applied to compare three areas of interest...... cells, whereas the harp seal have 6.1 × 10(9) neocortical neurons and 17.5 × 10(9) neocortical glial cells. The harbor porpoise have significantly more neurons and glial cells in the auditory cortex than in the visual cortex, whereas the pattern was opposite for the harp seal. These results...... are the first to provide estimates of the number of neurons and glial cells in the neocortex of the harp seal and harbor porpoise brain and offer new data to the comparative field of mammalian brain evolution....

  2. RNA-Seq-based analysis of cold shock response in Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis, a bacterium harboring a single cold shock protein encoding gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although cold shock responses and the roles of cold shock proteins in microorganisms containing multiple cold shock protein genes have been well characterized, related studies on bacteria possessing a single cold shock protein gene have not been reported. Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis MB4, a thermophile harboring only one known cold shock protein gene (TtescpC, can survive from 50° to 80 °C, but has poor natural competence under cold shock at 50 °C. We therefore examined cold shock responses and their effect on natural competence in this bacterium. RESULTS: The transcriptomes of T. tengcongensis before and after cold shock were analyzed by RNA-seq and over 1200 differentially expressed genes were successfully identified. These genes were involved in a wide range of biological processes, including modulation of DNA replication, recombination, and repair; energy metabolism; production of cold shock protein; synthesis of branched amino acids and branched-chain fatty acids; and sporulation. RNA-seq analysis also suggested that T. tengcongensis initiates cell wall and membrane remodeling processes, flagellar assembly, and sporulation in response to low temperature. Expression profiles of TtecspC and failed attempts to produce a TtecspC knockout strain confirmed the essential role of TteCspC in the cold shock response, and also suggested a role of this protein in survival at optimum growth temperature. Repression of genes encoding ComEA and ComEC and low energy metabolism levels in cold-shocked cells are the likely basis of poor natural competence at low temperature. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated changes in global gene expression under cold shock and identified several candidate genes related to cold shock in T. tengcongensis. At the same time, the relationship between cold shock response and poor natural competence at low temperature was preliminarily elucidated. These findings provide a foundation for future studies on genetic

  3. Prenatal organochlorine and methylmercury exposure and memory and learning in school-age children in communities near the New Bedford Harbor Superfund site, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orenstein, Sara T C; Thurston, Sally W; Bellinger, David C; Schwartz, Joel D; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J; Altshul, Larisa M; Korrick, Susan A

    2014-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, and methylmercury (MeHg) are environmentally persistent with adverse effects on neurodevelopment. However, especially among populations with commonly experienced low levels of exposure, research on neurodevelopmental effects of these toxicants has produced conflicting results. We assessed the association of low-level prenatal exposure to these contaminants with memory and learning. We studied 393 children, born between 1993 and 1998 to mothers residing near a PCB-contaminated harbor in New Bedford, Massachusetts. Cord serum PCB, DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene), and maternal peripartum hair mercury (Hg) levels were measured to estimate prenatal exposure. Memory and learning were assessed at 8 years of age (range, 7-11 years) using the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML), age-standardized to a mean ± SD of 100 ± 15. Associations with each WRAML index-Visual Memory, Verbal Memory, and Learning-were examined with multivariable linear regression, controlling for potential confounders. Although cord serum PCB levels were low (sum of four PCBs: mean, 0.3 ng/g serum; range, 0.01-4.4), hair Hg levels were typical of the U.S. fish-eating population (mean, 0.6 μg/g; range, 0.3-5.1). In multivariable models, each microgram per gram increase in hair Hg was associated with, on average, decrements of -2.8 on Visual Memory (95% CI: -5.0, -0.6, p = 0.01), -2.2 on Learning (95% CI: -4.6, 0.2, p = 0.08), and -1.7 on Verbal Memory (95% CI: -3.9, 0.6, p = 0.14). There were no significant adverse associations of PCBs or DDE with WRAML indices. These results support an adverse relationship between low-level prenatal MeHg exposure and childhood memory and learning, particularly visual memory.

  4. Tap-length optimization of adaptive filters used in stereophonic acoustic echo cancellation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kar, Asutosh; Swamy, M.N.S.

    2017-01-01

    An adaptive filter with a large number of weights or taps is necessary for stereophonic acoustic echo cancellation (SAEC), depending on the room impulse response and acoustic path where the cancellation is performed. However, a large tap-length results in slow convergence and increases...... the complexity of the tapped delay line structure for FIR adaptive filters. To overcome this problem, there is a need for an optimum tap-length-estimation algorithm that provides better convergence for the adaptive filters used in SAEC. This paper presents a solution to the problem of balancing convergence...... and steady-state performance of long length adaptive filters used for SAEC by proposing a new tap-length-optimization algorithm. The optimum tap length and step size of the adaptive filter are derived considering an impulse response with an exponentially-decaying envelope, which models a wide range...

  5. Safe Harbor Legislation for Juvenile Victims of Sex Trafficking: A Myopic View of Improvements in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Mehlman-Orozco

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Current social and political realties have focused attention on human trafficking in the United States. Although new mechanisms for criminalizing offenders and protecting victims are increasingly funded and implemented across the country, empirical exploration into the efficacy of these interventions is lacking. This article uses yearly count data on juvenile prostitution arrests aggregated at the state level to explore the criminalization of commercial sexually exploited children post safe harbor policy implementation. Preliminary data from four states suggests that the passage of safe harbor laws may not reduce the number of juveniles arrested for prostitution crimes. Implications for future research are discussed.

  6. Phaeobacter inhibens from the Roseobacter clade has an environmental niche as a surface colonizer in harbors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Rasmussen, Bastian Barker; Wemheuer, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    in the environment is to date unknown. Here, we report on the repeated isolation of Phaeobacter inhibens strains from a marine environment (harbors) not related to aquaculture. Based on phenotype and 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, a total of 64 P. inhibens strains were identified from 35 samples (eukaryotic...... and used for amplification of 16S rRNA. P. inhibens was detected in five of these samples, all of which were biofilm samples, by pyrotag-sequencing at a prevalence of 0.02–0.68% of the prokaryotic community. The results indicated that P. inhibens had a niche in biofilms of fouled surfaces in harbor areas...

  7. Evaluation of Upland Disposal of Oakland Harbor, California, Sediment; Volume I: Turning Basin Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    infiltration studies ( Westerdahl and Skogerboe 1982). Extensive field 53 verification studies have been conducted with the WES Rainfall Simulator...Lysimeter System on a wide range of Corps project sites ( Westerdahl and Skogerboe 1982, Lee and Skogerboe 1984, Skogerboe et al. 1987). The WES Rain- fall...Vicksburg, MS. Winer, B. J. 1971. Statistical Principles in Experimental Design, McGraw- Hill Book Company, New York. Westerdahl , H. E., and Skogerboe, J

  8. Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina) Reproductive Advertisement Behavior and the Effects of Vessel Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Leanna P.

    Harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) are a widely distributed pinniped species that mate underwater. Similar to other aquatically mating pinnipeds, male harbor seals produce vocalizations during the breeding season that function in male-male interactions and possibly as an attractant for females. I investigated multiple aspects of these reproductive advertisement displays in a population of harbor seals in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska. First, I looked at vocal production as a function of environmental variables, including season, daylight, and tidal state. Vocalizations were highly seasonal and detection of these vocalizations peaked in June and July, which correspond with the estimated time of breeding. Vocalizations also varied with light, with the lowest probability of detection during the day and the highest probability of detection at night. The high probability of detection corresponded to when females are known to forage. These results are similar to the vocal behavior of previously studied populations. However, unlike previously studied populations, the detection of harbor seal breeding vocalizations did not vary with tidal state. This is likely due to the location of the hydrophone, as it was not near the haul out and depth was therefore not significantly influenced by changes in tidal height. I also investigated the source levels and call parameters of vocalizations, as well as call rate and territoriality. The average source level of harbor seal breeding vocalizations was 144 dB re 1 ?Pa at 1 m and measurements ranged from 129 to 149 dB re 1 ?Pa. Analysis of call parameters indicated that vocalizations of harbor seals in Glacier Bay were similar in duration to other populations, but were much lower in frequency. During the breeding season, there were two discrete calling areas that likely represent two individual males; the average call rate in these display areas was approximately 1 call per minute. The harbor seal breeding season also

  9. Rice-Infecting Pseudomonas Genomes Are Highly Accessorized and Harbor Multiple Putative Virulence Mechanisms to Cause Sheath Brown Rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quibod, Ian Lorenzo; Grande, Genelou; Oreiro, Eula Gems; Borja, Frances Nikki; Dossa, Gerbert Sylvestre; Mauleon, Ramil; Cruz, Casiana Vera; Oliva, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Sheath rot complex and seed discoloration in rice involve a number of pathogenic bacteria that cannot be associated with distinctive symptoms. These pathogens can easily travel on asymptomatic seeds and therefore represent a threat to rice cropping systems. Among the rice-infecting Pseudomonas, P. fuscovaginae has been associated with sheath brown rot disease in several rice growing areas around the world. The appearance of a similar Pseudomonas population, which here we named P. fuscovaginae-like, represents a perfect opportunity to understand common genomic features that can explain the infection mechanism in rice. We showed that the novel population is indeed closely related to P. fuscovaginae. A comparative genomics approach on eight rice-infecting Pseudomonas revealed heterogeneous genomes and a high number of strain-specific genes. The genomes of P. fuscovaginae-like harbor four secretion systems (Type I, II, III, and VI) and other important pathogenicity machinery that could probably facilitate rice colonization. We identified 123 core secreted proteins, most of which have strong signatures of positive selection suggesting functional adaptation. Transcript accumulation of putative pathogenicity-related genes during rice colonization revealed a concerted virulence mechanism. The study suggests that rice-infecting Pseudomonas causing sheath brown rot are intrinsically diverse and maintain a variable set of metabolic capabilities as a potential strategy to occupy a range of environments. PMID:26422147

  10. In-Network Adaptation of Video Streams Using Network Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shorfuzzaman

    2009-01-01

    problem can be addressed, near the network edge, by applying dynamic, in-network adaptation (e.g., transcoding of video streams to meet available connection bandwidth, machine characteristics, and client preferences. In this paper, we extrapolate from earlier work of Shorfuzzaman et al. 2006 in which we implemented and assessed an MPEG-1 transcoding system on the Intel IXP1200 network processor to consider the feasibility of in-network transcoding for other video formats and network processor architectures. The use of “on-the-fly” video adaptation near the edge of the network offers the promise of simpler support for a wide range of end devices with different display, and so forth, characteristics that can be used in different types of environments.

  11. BPSK Receiver Based on Recursive Adaptive Filter with Remodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Milosevic

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new binary phase shift keying (BPSK signal receiver intended for reception under conditions of significant carrier frequency offsets. The recursive adaptive filter with least mean squares (LMS adaptation is used. The proposed receiver has a constant, defining the balance between the recursive and the nonrecursive part of the filter, whose proper choice allows a simple construction of the receiver. The correct choice of this parameter could result in unitary length of the filter. The proposed receiver has performance very close to the performance of the BPSK receiver with perfect frequency synchronization, in a wide range of frequency offsets (plus/minus quarter of the signal bandwidth. The results obtained by the software simulation are confirmed by the experimental results measured on the receiver realized with the universal software radio peripheral (USRP, with the baseband signal processing at personal computer (PC.

  12. LFC based adaptive PID controller using ANN and ANFIS techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed I. Mosaad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive PID Load Frequency Control (LFC for power systems using Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN oriented by Genetic Algorithm (GA. PID controller parameters are tuned off-line by using GA to minimize integral error square over a wide-range of load variations. The values of PID controller parameters obtained from GA are used to train both ANFIS and ANN. Therefore, the two proposed techniques could, online, tune the PID controller parameters for optimal response at any other load point within the operating range. Testing of the developed techniques shows that the adaptive PID-LFC could preserve optimal performance over the whole loading range. Results signify superiority of ANFIS over ANN in terms of performance measures.

  13. 76 FR 27970 - Safety Zone; Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Charles will sponsor a fireworks display on the shoreline of the navigable waters of Cape Charles City...[deg]01'30'' W (NAD 1983). This safety zone will be established in the vicinity of Cape Charles, VA...-AA00 Safety Zone; Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA. AGENCY: Coast Guard...

  14. 75 FR 38019 - Safety Zone; Fixed Mooring Balls, South of Barbers Pt. Harbor Channel, Oahu, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2010-0457] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Fixed Mooring Balls, South of Barbers Pt. Harbor Channel, Oahu, HI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: Due to the placement of six fixed mooring balls in an...

  15. 75 FR 56130 - Pearl Harbor National Wildlife Refuge, Honolulu County, HI; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R1-R-2010-N160; 1265-0000-10137-S3] Pearl Harbor National Wildlife Refuge, Honolulu County, HI; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and... Kamehameha Highway, Room 2C, Hale`iwa, HI 96712. Alternatively, you may fax comments to the refuge at (808...

  16. Side-scan imagery of Apra Harbor, Guam U.S. Territory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded side-scan imagery collected in Apra Harbor, Guam U.S. Territory, USA. The GeoTIFF and Arc ASCII file includes data that were collected using a Klein 3000...

  17. Evaluation of Proposed Dredged Material Disposal Alternatives for New York/New Jersey Harbor. Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    been developed ( Westerdahl and Skogerboe 1981) and is being used x..-’. to predict surface runoff water quality from dredged material as part of the...Islands in New York Harbor," Miscellaneous Paper D-88-3, US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS. Westerdahl , H. E., and Skogerboe

  18. Application of heterogeneous multiple camera system with panoramic capabilities in a harbor environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwering, P.B.W.; Lensen, H.A.; Broek, S.P. van den; Hollander, R.J.M. den; Mark, W. van der; Bouma, H.; Kemp, R.A.W.

    2009-01-01

    In a harbor environment threats like explosives-packed rubber boats, mine-carrying swimmers and divers must be detected in an early stage. This paper describes the integration and use of a heterogeneous multiple camera system with panoramic observation capabilities for detecting these small vessels

  19. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology: Volume 51, Molecular biology of /ital Homo sapiens/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This volume is the second part of a collection of papers submitted by the participants to the 1986 Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology entitled Molecular Biology of /ital Homo sapiens/. The 49 papers included in this volume are grouped by subject into receptors, human cancer genes, and gene therapy. (DT)

  20. Mitigation of Shore Damage Attributed to the Federal Navigation Structures at Port Sanilac Harbor, Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    produces waves with nealioible wace heights (i.e., 0.5 feet); (b) all waves were deep water waves with no correction for shallow water; and, (c) the...at that harbor. This would re- sult in a loss to the local economy . Ini addition, littoral drift would resume southward thus affecting the littoral