Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage contains polygons representing the PLSS township boundaries of the state of Iowa. TOWNSHIP was developed from a set of 99 individual county coverages...
Department of the Interior — KMZ File Format –In the Public Land Survey System (PLSS), a Township refers to a unit of land, that is nominally six miles on a side, usually containing 36 sections....
Full Text Available The provision of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in resource-limited settings follows a public health approach, which is characterised by a limited number of regimens and the standardisation of clinical and laboratory monitoring. In industrialized countries doctors prescribe from the full range of available antiretroviral drugs, supported by resistance testing and frequent laboratory monitoring. We compared virologic response, changes to first-line regimens, and mortality in HIV-infected patients starting HAART in South Africa and Switzerland.We analysed data from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study and two HAART programmes in townships of Cape Town, South Africa. We included treatment-naïve patients aged 16 y or older who had started treatment with at least three drugs since 2001, and excluded intravenous drug users. Data from a total of 2,348 patients from South Africa and 1,016 patients from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study were analysed. Median baseline CD4+ T cell counts were 80 cells/mul in South Africa and 204 cells/mul in Switzerland. In South Africa, patients started with one of four first-line regimens, which was subsequently changed in 514 patients (22%. In Switzerland, 36 first-line regimens were used initially, and these were changed in 539 patients (53%. In most patients HIV-1 RNA was suppressed to 500 copies/ml or less within one year: 96% (95% confidence interval [CI] 95%-97% in South Africa and 96% (94%-97% in Switzerland, and 26% (22%-29% and 27% (24%-31%, respectively, developed viral rebound within two years. Mortality was higher in South Africa than in Switzerland during the first months of HAART: adjusted hazard ratios were 5.90 (95% CI 1.81-19.2 during months 1-3 and 1.77 (0.90-3.50 during months 4-24.Compared to the highly individualised approach in Switzerland, programmatic HAART in South Africa resulted in similar virologic outcomes, with relatively few changes to initial regimens. Further innovation and resources are
NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A polygon feature class of the Miami Dade County Townships. Townships are legal boundary description. Each Township is thirty six square miles with a few exceptions,...
He, Zhifei; Cheng, Zhaohui; Fu, Hang; Tang, Shangfeng; Fu, Qian; Fang, Haiqing; Xian, Yue; Ming, Hui; Feng, Zhanchun
Purpose: This study aimed to explore the competencies of public health workers (PHWs) of township hospitals in Chongqing Municipality (China), and determine the related impact factors of the competencies of PHWs; Methods: A cross-sectional research was conducted on 314 PHWs from 27 township hospitals in three districts in Chongqing Municipality (China), from June to August 2014. A self-assessment questionnaire was established on the basis of literature reviews and a competency dictionary. The differences in competencies among the three districts were determined by adopting the chi-square test, t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) method, and the impact factors of the competencies of PHWs were determined by adopting stepwise regression analysis. Results: (1) Results of the demographic characteristics of PHWs in three sample districts of Chongqing Municipality showed that a significant difference in age of PHWs (p = 0.021 competency results of PHWs in township hospitals, seven among the 11 aspects were found to have significant differences in the three districts by the ANOVA test; (3) By adopting the t-test and ANOVA method, results of the relationship between the characteristics of PHWs and their competency scores showed that significant differences were found in the economic level (p = 0.000 competencies of PHWs in township hospitals, including the economic level (p = 0.000 competencies of the township hospital staff in Chongqing Municipality (China), are generally insufficient, therefore, regulating the medical education and training skills of PHWs is crucial to improve the competencies of PHWs in the township hospitals of Chongqing Municipality. The results of this study can be mirrored in other areas of China. PMID:26569273
He, Zhifei; Cheng, Zhaohui; Fu, Hang; Tang, Shangfeng; Fu, Qian; Fang, Haiqing; Xian, Yue; Ming, Hui; Feng, Zhanchun
This study aimed to explore the competencies of public health workers (PHWs) of township hospitals in Chongqing Municipality (China), and determine the related impact factors of the competencies of PHWs; A cross-sectional research was conducted on 314 PHWs from 27 township hospitals in three districts in Chongqing Municipality (China), from June to August 2014. A self-assessment questionnaire was established on the basis of literature reviews and a competency dictionary. The differences in competencies among the three districts were determined by adopting the chi-square test, t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) method, and the impact factors of the competencies of PHWs were determined by adopting stepwise regression analysis. (1) RESULTS of the demographic characteristics of PHWs in three sample districts of Chongqing Municipality showed that a significant difference in age of PHWs (p = 0.021 competency results of PHWs in township hospitals, seven among the 11 aspects were found to have significant differences in the three districts by the ANOVA test; (3) By adopting the t-test and ANOVA method, results of the relationship between the characteristics of PHWs and their competency scores showed that significant differences were found in the economic level (p = 0.000 competencies of PHWs in township hospitals, including the economic level (p = 0.000 competencies of the township hospital staff in Chongqing Municipality (China), are generally insufficient, therefore, regulating the medical education and training skills of PHWs is crucial to improve the competencies of PHWs in the township hospitals of Chongqing Municipality. The results of this study can be mirrored in other areas of China.
Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to explore the competencies of public health workers (PHWs of township hospitals in Chongqing Municipality (China, and determine the related impact factors of the competencies of PHWs; Methods: A cross-sectional research was conducted on 314 PHWs from 27 township hospitals in three districts in Chongqing Municipality (China, from June to August 2014. A self-assessment questionnaire was established on the basis of literature reviews and a competency dictionary. The differences in competencies among the three districts were determined by adopting the chi-square test, t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA method, and the impact factors of the competencies of PHWs were determined by adopting stepwise regression analysis. Results: (1 Results of the demographic characteristics of PHWs in three sample districts of Chongqing Municipality showed that a significant difference in age of PHWs (p = 0.021 < 0.05 and the majors of PHWs (p = 0.045 < 0.05; (2 In terms of the self-evaluation competency results of PHWs in township hospitals, seven among the 11 aspects were found to have significant differences in the three districts by the ANOVA test; (3 By adopting the t-test and ANOVA method, results of the relationship between the characteristics of PHWs and their competency scores showed that significant differences were found in the economic level (p = 0.000 < 0.05, age (p = 0.000 < 0.05, years of working (p = 0.000 < 0.05 and title of PHWs (p = 0.000 < 0.05; (4 Stepwise regression analysis was used to determine the impact factors of the competencies of PHWs in township hospitals, including the economic level (p = 0.000 < 0.001, years of working (p = 0.000 < 0.001, title (p = 0.001 < 0.005, and public health major (p = 0.007 < 0.01. Conclusions: The competencies of the township hospital staff in Chongqing Municipality (China, are generally insufficient, therefore, regulating the medical education and training skills of PHWs is crucial
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PLSSTownship: This dataset represents the GIS Version of the Public Land Survey System including both rectangular and non-rectangular surveys. The primary source for...
Full Text Available Netsanet Fentahun,1 Ashagre Molla21Department of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, 2Department of Nursing, Jimma University, Jimma, EthiopiaBackground: An effectively prepared and continually updated workforce of health professionals is essential to maintenance and improvement in patient care. The major goal of continuing education is to improve and promote quality care. Continuing education is also important to an organization's strategic plan because of its positive influence on the quality of care provided. The purpose of this study was to identify the determinants of and opportunities for continuing education among health care professionals at public health facilities in Jimma township.Methods: A cross-sectional study of 319 health care professionals working in the public health facilities of Jimma township was conducted from January 10, 2012 to February 28, 2012. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. First, descriptive analysis was done to describe the characteristics of the study participants. Finally logistic regression was then used to determine the independent predictors of continuing education.Results: Only 70 (25% of the study participants were participating in continuing education. As working experience increased, participation in continuing education did not steadily increase. The working hours per week were higher for diploma holders than for those with any other qualification. One hundred and fifty-three (71.8% participants mentioned lack of support from their current employer as the reason for not participating in continuing education. Health care professionals with a lack of support from management were 2.4 times more likely not to participate in advanced education. Health care professionals with lack of funding were 0.3 times less likely to participate in advanced education. Health care professionals with lack of resources other than financial were 2.2 times more likely not to participate in
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for township administered roads found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current...
Johnson, Jennifer, Ed.
This issue of "Loblolly Magazine" was written in observance of the 50th anniversary of the U.S. entrance into World War II. The publication features interviews conducted by East Texas high school students with Clarence Otterman, one of the few survivors of the crew of the USS Arizona, which was bombed during the attack on Pearl Harbor,…
Full Text Available
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A township planner wants to house many people within a given area, without exceeding a tight budget, while yet respecting certain standards. These specify a variet::y of house t::ypes. They also imply indirect:: effect::s such as open space, schools or hospitals: more people use more of these. But as we build more schools, less space remains for houses, so we are left with fewer people l requiring fewer schools.
We show how to capture such simultaneous interactions. We also discuss some unexpected results. These arise notably in the tr~nsition from fractional to integer solutions.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: 'n Dorpsbeplanner probeer soveel moontlik mense behuis in 'n betrokke area I sonder om 'n beperkte begroting te' oorskrei, terwyl gegewe standaarde behou moet word. Laasgenoemde maak voorsiening vir 'n verskeidenheid van behuising. Dit behels ook indirekt::e navolgel soos oop ruimte, skole of hospitale: groot getalle gehuisveste mense maak meer gebruik hiervan. Maar soos daar meer skole gebou word I word minder ruimte gelaat vir behuising, dus word minder mense behuis, wat minder skole benodig.
Ons toon aan hoe om sulke gelyktydige interaksie te verwerk. Ons bespreek oak sommige onverwagte resultate. Hierdie ontstaan veral in die oorgang van fraksionele na heeltal oplossings.
The report describes an illegal waste disposal site in east central Pennsylvania and its effect on groundwater in the area surrounding the site. The Crossley Farm (Hereford Groundwater) site is in the Huffs Church community of Hereford Township, Berks County. Illegal waste disposal activities reportedly occurred at the site from the mid-1960's to mid-1970's. About 250 residents live hydrogeological downgradient of the site (within two miles) and another 200 live within one-half mile upgradient of the site. The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources has collected groundwater samples in 1983 and the EPA has collected samples in 1986. The estimated exposures are to substances (trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene in particular) in groundwater at concentrations that with long-term exposure can cause adverse health effects to the population
Sweetened beverages among children in a Lilongwe township 55 ... help in guiding interventions and public health nutrition policies. Aim ... of the key factors associated with overweight and obesity. ... caregivers had given verbal consent to participate in the study ..... Impaired parent-reported health-related quality of life of.
... Comment on Surplus Property Release at Hancock County-Bar Harbor Airport, Trenton, ME AGENCY: Federal... located at Hancock County-Bar Harbor Airport, Trenton, Maine. DATES: Comments must be received on or... INFORMATION: The Federal Aviation Administration is reviewing a request by Hancock County-Bar Harbor Airport...
Nemec, J.; Orsag, H.; Dirner, V.
The paper contains a summary of all reclamation activities in the Karvina township territory, Czech Republic, including those completed, those being worked at, and those under preparation. All projects are connected with changes of the landscape due to coal extraction. The landscape reclamation requires a certain volume of mine waste and of soil. The policy, as presented in this paper, has been submitted for approval by the Municipal Council
Full Text Available The retail sector forms a critical element of a community’s economic and social welfare. It provides people with choices and services. These choices were until recently very limited in township areas. The pre-1994 retail landscape was dominated by small, often informal businesses offering basic household necessities to relatively low income earners. This has resulted in township residents’ preference to shop outside townships, known as ‘outshopping’. Rapid income growth of township residents since 1994 resulted in a substantial increase in consumer expenditure in these areas, known as ‘in-bound shopping’. This lucrative emerging market forms the last retail frontier in South Africa and is being explored by national retailers, especially supermarket chains. This article is aimed at establishing the impact of shopping mall development in townships on the traditional small township retailers including spaza/tuck shops. The net balance sheet on the impact of shopping mall development on small township retailers clearly suggests a decline in the township retailers’ market share. A change in small business model towards, inter alia, effective customer service with a small dedicated assortment of merchandise, satisfaction of emergency needs, selling in small units and extension of credit facilities may result in the survival of some small township retailers (albeit often at a smaller turnover.
Jesse S. Ayivor
Full Text Available Transmission of zoonotic pathogens from bats to humans through direct and indirect contact with bats raises public apprehension about living close to bats. In the township of Ve Golokuati in Ghana, several “camps” of Epomophorus gambianus roost in fruit trees that provide ecosystems services for residents. This study explored human-bat interaction in the township and the potential risks of disease transmission from bats to humans. Data were derived through questionnaire administration and participatory appraisal approach involving focus group discussions, participatory landscape mapping, and transect walk. The study found that most human activities within the township, such as petty-trading, domestic chores, and children’s outdoor recreation, exposed people to bats. Though there have been no reported cases of disease spillover from bats to humans from the perspective of residents and from medical records, respondents whose activities brought them closer to bats within the township were found to be more likely to experience fevers than those who do not interact with bats frequently. The study recommends education of community members about the potential risks involved in human-bat interactions and makes suggestions for reducing the frequent interactions with and exposure to bats by humans.
lack of medical devices for disease diagnosis in those township health centers. The policy implication from this study is to enhance professional training in rational medication uses for rural doctors, improve hardware facilities for township health centers, promote health education to rural residents and establish a public reporting system to monitor prescription practices in rural township health centers, etc.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Coastal Harbors Modeling Facility is used to aid in the planning of harbor development and in the design and layout of breakwaters, absorbers, etc.. The goal is...
Klu mo tshe ring ཀླུ་མོ་ཚེ་རིང་།
Full Text Available Rdo sbis (Daowei 道帏 Tibetan Autonomous Township, Xunhua 循化 Salar Autonomous County, Haidong 海东 Region， is located in eastern Qinghai 青海 Province, PR China. Knowledge, beliefs, and behavior associated with childbirth, midwifery, and childcare in Rdo sbis Township Tibetan communities are described, focusing on a single village as a case-study.
... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. 765.6... RULES RULES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC § 765.6 Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The Commander, U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, is responsible for prescribing and enforcing such rules and...
Feb 21, 2012 ... of juvenile delinquency, reduced literacy and, consequently, a huge economic ... of the township communities where this research was conducted, is .... the effect of the absence of their parent or loved one in the home, the ...
Muzindutsi, Paul-François; Sekhu, Tshediso Joseph
Life evaluations capture a reflective assessment on a person’s life or some specific aspects of it. Given the relative lack of empirical work on subjective wellbeing (SWB) amongst residents in South African townships, this paper seeks to fill that gap by exploring the determinants of SWB in a township of Kwakwatsi. This study is based on household data collected through a survey to investigate the factors that might affect wellbeing. A multiple regression model was used to determine the impac...
California Natural Resource Agency — The 'PLSFILL' layer is a polygon coverage depicting the township, range and sections contained in the Public Land Survey System grid for the State of California....
Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Currently, Iowa townships are not actually classified as civil townships, but as special district governments. Special district governments exist to provide only one...
Core competency of township enterprises may be influenced from the property right, technology, scale operation, financial management and talent. In view of these influence factors, township enterprises should conduct technological innovation, bring into full play functions of talents, promote corporate culture of township enterprises, attach great importance to development of core products and innovation of relevant systems, and establish market information platform for township enterprises.
... Operation Regulation; Tuckahoe River, Between Corbin City and Upper Township, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... River, mile 8.0, between Corbin City and Upper Township, NJ. The deviation is necessary to facilitate... operating schedule, the State Highway Bridge, mile 8.0, between Corbin City and Upper Township, NJ shall...
Dinan, B. Ann; McCall, George J.; Gibson, Diana
Given the high rates of crime in South Africa's townships, nonpolitical violence out-side the home and its psychological impact on women were investigated within two samples, the primary a help-seeking sample and the secondary a community sample. In the help-seeking sample, two thirds of the women reported having experienced several traumatic…
Perotti, E.C.; Sun, L.; Zou, L.
This paper presents an up-to-date survey of the comparison issue between state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and township-village enterprises (TVEs) in China. Although TVEs are at a disadvantage in areas such as technology, labor skills, education levels of staff access to bank loans and government
Perotti, E.C.; Sun, L.; Zou, L.
This paper presents an up-to-date survey of the comparison issue between state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and township-village enterprises (TVEs) in China. Although TVEs are disadvantaged in areas such as technology, labour skills, education levels of staff, access to bank loans and government
In this article the authors argue for the close reading of South African township choral music in order to liberate the voices of a musical genre that has long been one of this country's musical silences. In this regard an analysis of selected compositions by three composers from the Eastern Cape – Tonny Vumazonke, Phillippe ...
Semape J. Manyaka-Boshielo
Full Text Available This article investigates using social entrepreneurship as a way of developing sustainabletownship economies, so that poverty can be eradicated from the townships of South Africaand township dwellers can begin to play a role in the economic development of the country.The author also thinks it is God’s purpose for people to enjoy life, free from economic hardship.A reduction in poverty would also bring down the crime rate and other social ills. It starts bydefining and clarifying the concepts of ‘entrepreneur’ and ‘social entrepreneurship’. Itcontinues by looking in more depth into township life and its challenges. This is done throughreviewing the literature and observations obtained through participant observation research.Post-foundationalist practical theology believes in interdisciplinary dialogue as a means ofallowing the concept of social entrepreneurship to bring about a sustainable townshipeconomy. From the author’s observations, it became apparent that to see the attainment of asustainable township economy, training and development should start with a strong emphasison personal identity and interpersonal and business skills. The author, therefore, proposes aholistic approach to social entrepreneurship.
Szabó, Péter; Šipoš, Jan; Müllerová, Jana
Roč. 57, JUL 2017 (2017), s. 89-99 ISSN 0305-7488 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-11805S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : settlement morphology * township size * historical GIS Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Physical geography Impact factor: 0.772, year: 2016
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors of physical violence in Chinese township hospitals.A cross-sectional survey was used in a sample of 442 general practitioners and 398 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China (response rate = 84.8%.A total of 106 of the 840 (12.6% respondents reported being physically attacked in their workplace in the previous 12 months. Most perpetrators were the patients' relatives (62.3%, followed by the patient (22.6%; 73.6% of perpetrators were aged between 20 and 40 years. Of the physical violence incidents, about 56.6% (n = 60 resulted in a physical injury, and 45.4% of respondents took two or three days of sick leave. Reporting workplace violence in hospitals to superiors or authorities was low (9.4%. Most respondents (62.8% did not receive training on how to avoid workplace violence. Logistic regression analyses indicated that general nurses, aged 35 years or younger, and with a higher-level professional title were more likely to experience physical violence. Healthcare workers with direct physical contact (washing, turning, lifting with patients had a higher risk of physical violence compared to other health care workers. Procedures for reporting workplace violence were a protective factor for physical violence; when in place, reporting after psychological violence (verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, harassment, and threats was more protective than waiting until an instance of physical violence (beating, kicking, slapping, stabbing, etc..Physical violence in Chinese township hospitals is an occupational hazard of rural public health concern. Policies, procedures, and intervention strategies should be undertaken to manage this issue.
... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false USS Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor. 705.31... NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.31 USS Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor. (a) Limited space and the desirability of keeping the Memorial simple and dignified require the...
Full Text Available The focus of this research is to identify the critical factors of shop houses sale failure in Nilai New Township. The critical factors of sale failure of commercial property types, shop houses in new township need to be discover as reported by Valuation and Property Services Department (JPPH showed 5,931 units of shop houses in Malaysia is currently completed but remained unsold where Johor was recorded as the highest with unsold units followed by Negeri Sembilan. Thus Nilai New towship is chosen as research sample for unsold shop houses units due to its strategic location which is near to KLIA, International Sepang Circuit, educational instituitions and surrounded by housing scheme but yet still has numbers of unsold units. Data was gathered from survey question between developers, local authority, purchasers/tenant and local residents.. Generally, the factors of sale failure are economy, demography, politic, location and access, public and basic facilities, financial loan, physical of product, current stock of shop houses upon completion, future potential of subsale and rental, developer’s background, promotion and marketing, speculation and time.
Zaw, Ko-Ko; Ohnmar, Mya; Hlaing, Moh-Moh; Oo, Yin-Thet-Nu; Win, Swe-Swe; Htike, Maung-Maung-Than; Aye, Phyu-Phyu; Shwe, Sein; Htwe, Moe-Thida; Thein, Zaw-Moe
This study aims to describe betel quid chewing practice and compare oral potentially malignant disorders between chewers and non-chewers of betel quid among residents in Dagon Myothit (East) Township, Myanmar. The study used a cross-sectional design conducted with a representative sample of 542 adults aged 18 years and above in the township. The trained interviewers collected data using a pretested structured questionnaire. On-site oral examination was done for suspected oral lesions. The mean age of the respondents was 45 years and 59% were women. Fifty-two percent of the respondents were currently in the habit of chewing betel quids (72% of men and 39% of women). Among 284 current betel quid chewers, 240 (85%) chewed betel quids together with tobacco. Out of 284 current betel quid chewers, 24 (8.5%) were found to have oral potentially malignant disorders; out of 258 betel quid non-chewers, only 1 (0.4%) was found to have oral potentially malignant disorders. This highlights the growing importance of smokeless tobacco use as public health problem.
Full Text Available Workplace violence in Chinese township hospitals is a major public health problem. We identified the risk factors of healthcare workers’ worry about experiencing workplace violence in 90 Chinese township hospitals and determined specific measures for differing stages of violence (based on crisis management theory. Participants were 440 general practitioners and 398 general nurses from Heilongjiang Province, China (response rate 84.6%. One hundred and six (12.6% respondents reported being physically attacked in their workplace in the previous 12 months. Regarding psychological violence, the most common type reported was verbal abuse (46.0%. While most (85.2% respondents had some degree of worry about suffering violence, 22.1% were worried or very worried. Ordinal regression analysis revealed that being ≤35 years of age, having a lower educational level, having less work experience, and working night shifts were all associated with worry about workplace violence. Furthermore, those without experience of such violence were more likely to worry about it. Respondents’ suggested measures for controlling violence included “widening channels on medical dispute solutions,” “improving doctor-patient communication,” and “advocating for respect for medical workers via the media.” Results suggest the target factors for reducing healthcare workers’ worry by according to the type of education and training and possible measures for limiting workplace violence in township hospitals.
Xing, Kai; Zhang, Xue; Jiao, Mingli; Cui, Yu; Lu, Yan; Liu, Jinghua; Zhang, Jingjing; Zhao, Yuchong; Zhao, Yanming; Li, Ye; Liang, Libo; Kang, Zheng; Wu, Qunhong; Yin, Mei
Workplace violence in Chinese township hospitals is a major public health problem. We identified the risk factors of healthcare workers’ worry about experiencing workplace violence in 90 Chinese township hospitals and determined specific measures for differing stages of violence (based on crisis management theory). Participants were 440 general practitioners and 398 general nurses from Heilongjiang Province, China (response rate 84.6%). One hundred and six (12.6%) respondents reported being physically attacked in their workplace in the previous 12 months. Regarding psychological violence, the most common type reported was verbal abuse (46.0%). While most (85.2%) respondents had some degree of worry about suffering violence, 22.1% were worried or very worried. Ordinal regression analysis revealed that being ≤35 years of age, having a lower educational level, having less work experience, and working night shifts were all associated with worry about workplace violence. Furthermore, those without experience of such violence were more likely to worry about it. Respondents’ suggested measures for controlling violence included “widening channels on medical dispute solutions,” “improving doctor-patient communication,” and “advocating for respect for medical workers via the media.” Results suggest the target factors for reducing healthcare workers’ worry by according to the type of education and training and possible measures for limiting workplace violence in township hospitals. PMID:27517949
Xing, Kai; Zhang, Xue; Jiao, Mingli; Cui, Yu; Lu, Yan; Liu, Jinghua; Zhang, Jingjing; Zhao, Yuchong; Zhao, Yanming; Li, Ye; Liang, Libo; Kang, Zheng; Wu, Qunhong; Yin, Mei
Workplace violence in Chinese township hospitals is a major public health problem. We identified the risk factors of healthcare workers' worry about experiencing workplace violence in 90 Chinese township hospitals and determined specific measures for differing stages of violence (based on crisis management theory). Participants were 440 general practitioners and 398 general nurses from Heilongjiang Province, China (response rate 84.6%). One hundred and six (12.6%) respondents reported being physically attacked in their workplace in the previous 12 months. Regarding psychological violence, the most common type reported was verbal abuse (46.0%). While most (85.2%) respondents had some degree of worry about suffering violence, 22.1% were worried or very worried. Ordinal regression analysis revealed that being ≤35 years of age, having a lower educational level, having less work experience, and working night shifts were all associated with worry about workplace violence. Furthermore, those without experience of such violence were more likely to worry about it. Respondents' suggested measures for controlling violence included "widening channels on medical dispute solutions," "improving doctor-patient communication," and "advocating for respect for medical workers via the media." Results suggest the target factors for reducing healthcare workers' worry by according to the type of education and training and possible measures for limiting workplace violence in township hospitals.
... Standards; Commercial Harbor Craft Regulations; Opportunity for Public Hearing and Comment AGENCY... engines on commercial harbor craft. CARB has requested that EPA issue a new authorization under [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. California's Commercial Harbor Craft Regulations In a...
Pearl Harbor also receives Irrigation tailgate waters from the Oahu Sug- ar Company, Industrial waste waters from the Prlmo Brewery , and heated waters...34Observations of the Cell Structure of Salt Fingers", J. Fluid Mech. 41:4, pp 707-719. ~) 3.3-79 ,’:•.-. ^ IV s’V- EFFECTS OF SHIP ACTIVITY Paul L...anticyclonic) death assemblage - in this report, an assemblage (q.v.) of remains (such as shells or bones ) from a naturally occurring association of living
Mere, Oniccah Monimang
The focus of the study is to explore Geographic patterns and Disasters Management in the context of Alexandra Township situated in the Johannesburg Metro. The research evaluates if the Disaster Management Unit in Johannesburg municipality is prepared in terms of policies, community campaigns on flood disasters as well as forming organizations that will assist in times of disaster. It also refers to other South African townships with regard to where most affected townships are l...
Chen, Qiwei; Yang, Lan; Feng, Qiming; Tighe, Scott S.
Background. Township hospitals in China provide rural communities with basic but much needed critical health care services. The doctors working in these hospitals often feel unsatisfied when considering their work schedules and financial rewards. Method. To explore job satisfaction of health workers in a township hospital, a qualitative study was conducted of 39 doctors from five township hospitals in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The goal was to understand the level of job satisfaction o...
Quigg, B. [Grays Harbor Paper, Hoquiam, WA (United States)
Wood waste biomass boilers are used at Grays Harbor Paper in Hoquiam, Washington. This presentation showed that large volumes of biomass are left after a traditional clearcut. The opportunities and challenges of collecting branches, tops and stumps from this wet coastal climate were outlined. The paper described some of the low-tech methods for picking up branches, stumps and woody debris. It included several photographs of custom logging machines for timber harvest, including a brush grapple slasher, a shearer shovel, chippers, grinders, slicesaws, trucks, trailers and caterpillar log loaders for handling slash. The slash recovery program relies on innovative harvesting machines that convert scattered logging slash into bundles that can be easily collected, transported, and stored for use in existing facilities that utilize wood fiber for fuel. figs.
This thesis centres the lived experiences of black township women in same-sex relationships in Cape Town and Johannesburg. The main question—‘How do black township women construct their same-sex sexuality?’—called for a mixed methods approach, combining qualitative and quantitative data. Set against
Johnson, C.A.; Roberts, D.A.; Patania, V.P.; Foley, R.D.
During the early 1980s the W. R. Grace site and the adjacent area were the focus of several radiological investigations. Radiological surveys revealed surface radionuclide concentrations greater than those acceptable under US Department of Energy (DOE) remedial action guidelines. In 1984, Congress assigned responsibility for cleanup of the W.R. Grace site to the Department of Energy. The property was redesignated as the Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS) and in 1985 DOE began plans for survey/monitoring, and remedial action of nearby vicinity properties and the interim storage site. Evaluations of the radiological survey data in 1986 indicated radioactive contamination above current DOE guidelines at the off-site areas of parts of Township Park southwest of WISS, and parts of the Sheffield Brook area and railroad siding in Pequannock Township. Remedial action was conducted over several years of most of these areas and independent verification of remedial action was performed. A team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a mobile radiological scanning survey of a stretch of public roadway in the immediate vicinity south of the WISS, extending northwest to the Pompton turnpike. A mobile gamma scanning van with an on-board computer system was used to identify at least 24 anomalous areas, some attributable to the naturally elevated levels in concrete, asphalt, and natural granite found in streets, driveways and landscaping materials in the area. Analyses of the biased soil samples taken in the ballpark also revealed slightly elevated thorium concentrations. However, soil concentration measurements when averaged over 100 m 2 fall below the limits prescribed by DOE radiological guidelines established for this site. The anomalies may result from a wide range of sources, such as ash, granite, and fertilizer as well as materials from the former Grace facility
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Floating glacial ice serves as a haul-out substrate for a significant number (10-15%) of Alaskan harbor seals, and thus surveying tidewater glacial fjords is an...
Straker, G; Mendelsohn, M; Moosa, F; Tudin, P
This article presents the findings of a series of studies that examine the perceptions of black South African youth about township life and the civil conflict and violence it encompasses. The studies were conducted with comparable samples of 58-82 youth at 3 points in South Africa's history, all characterized by high levels of violence but differing in terms of their political contexts. These contexts were overt State-community conflict, covert opposition and political repression, and intracommunity violence. The data revealed that in all 3 contexts youth reported a high exposure to violence, but only when violence occurred in the context of intracommunity conflict was it subjectively construed to be the most problematic. Reasons for this may include the real increase in more extreme forms of violence, including deaths, that occurs in intracommunity violence and the blurring of the distinction between political and criminal violence in this context.
Tribal Green Building Code Summit Presentation by Kayenta Township Building & Safety Department showing how they established the building department, developed a code adoption and enforcement process, and hired staff to carry out the work.
Shi, Hong-xing; Lv, Jun; Xie, Yi-ping; Wang, Ying; Jia, Jin-zhong; Chang, Feng-shui; Duan, Lin; Sun, Mei; Wang, Zhi-feng; Hao, Mo
To find out the economic laws regulating medical service demand in accordance with influencing factors at the township level, thus to provide references for further adjusting the medical service demand reasonably in the future. The model of medical service demand was established to measure the elasticity of demand in 49 township health clinics in 1995, 1999, 2003 and 2007. The price elasticity of outpatient and inpatient demand was stable during the four periods, and the average value was -0.029 and -0.132 respectively; the average value of income elasticity was 0.973 and 0.977, registering a downward trend in general. The medical service demand at the township level is price inelastic, indicating that it is a necessity for rural residents. The downward trend of income elasticity under the influence of some health policies illustrates a lightening in economic burden for medical service demand among rural residents in township health clinics.
Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Political Township and Incorporated City Boundaries in Iowa in 2010, as Derived from Census Datasets Original Abstract: The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and...
Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Doumet-Serhal, Claude; Carbonel, Pierre
After centuries of archaeological debate, the harbors of Phoenicia's two most important city states, Tyre and Sidon, have been rediscovered, and including new geoarcheological results reveal how, where, and when they evolved after their Bronze Age foundations. The early ports lie beneath their present urban centers, and we have indentified four harbor phases. (1) During the Bronze Age, Tyre and Sidon were characterized by semi-open marine coves that served as protoharbors. (2) Biostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic data indicate the presence of early artificial basins after the first millennium B.C. (3) The harbors reached their apogees during the Greco-Roman and Byzantine periods. (4) Silting up and coastal progradation led to burial of the medieval basins, lost until now.
Full Text Available Nowadays global economic and cultural constellation determined urban communities to find a solution in order to preserve local identity and at the same time to attract capital into the area. Tourism represents in our opinion one of the greatest solutions ever exploited in mankind’s history which erases boundaries of nations and economic policies, creating glocalized encounters. In the case of a city, tourism or township tourism becomes an economical, political and cultural vector that unifies urban space which develops a network of genuine and artificial urban inter-relations between the principal stakeholders. The city as a destination must be a ‘safe’ construct that meets the expectations of various kinds of travellers and of their different travelling motivations. We believe that to a certain extent, the (rebranding of cities consists in the creation of a harmonized space that would reiterate the home-facilities of the traveller. A matter of life-style and life-quality, this issue will be analysed through the lens of travelling as a leisure activity, or as a way of escaping monotone routine of daily living, eventually a way of reinvesting income and creating economic equilibrium.
Seyedeh Shirin Golbaz
Full Text Available Testing soil is recognized to be an important practice for sustainable use of nutrients, which has been introduced to Iranian grape farmers as an innovation for over a decade. Its adoption and utilization may be influenced by receiving information from different sources. This study is performed to introduce these information sources that may influence the adoption of soil testing innovation by grape farmers. Using a survey, a sample of 260 out of 3942 grape farmers of the Khorramdarreh Township was selected using a stratified sampling technique and data was collected by structured interviews using a questionnaire. The content and face validity of the questionnaire was discussed and reviewed by a panel of experts consisting of university staff and agricultural professionals. Its reliability was also assessed through a pilot study and its main constructs were approved to be reliable using the Cronbach’s alpha test (measures between 0.71 and 0.84. Less than half of the grape farmers conducted soil testing in their vineyards. A regression analysis showed that variables such as contact of the farmers with model grape producers, Poster Received, publications and listening to radio programs and farmers’ education have a significant positive impact on soil testing innovation adoption. Therefore, both interpersonal and mass media can have a positive effect on farmers to adopt this innovation.
Myint, Su Kyaw; Narksawat, Kulaya; Sillabutra, Jutatip
Betel nut chewing can cause precancerous oral lesions and is common in Myanmar. We conducted a cross sectional study aimed to estimate prevalence and factors influencing betel nut chewing among 420 subjects aged ≥18 years in West Insein Township, Yangon, Myanmar in order to inform preventive health programs. The mean age of the study subjects was 45(±15) years. The overall prevalence of current betel nut chewing among study subjects was 55.2%. The mean age starting betel nut chewing was 29(±13) years, and the mean duration of chewing was 15(±13) years. The reasons given by study subjects for chewing betel nut included the addictive effect to betel nut, to release tension, to get rid of boredom and to stop smoking. Sixty-two point three percent of current betel nut chewers also chewed tobacco and 24.2% also smoked cigarettes. Factors significantly associated with betel nut chewing were male gender, current alcohol consumer, having no education or finishing primary or secondary school, having a low score regarding their attitude about the health effects of betel nut chewing, and having high score on interpersonal factors by family and peer pressure. Our results show a need to better educate the public about the health effects of betel nut chewing among the study population.
Ott, W.; Arend, M.; Philippen, D. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Gilgen, K.; Beaujean, K. [Hochschule fuer Technik Rapperswil, Institut fuer Raumentwicklung, Rapperswil (Switzerland); Schneider, S. [Planungsbuero Jud AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)
This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project concerning the energy consumption of various residential districts in cities and in rural townships. The analysis examines the consumption of primary energy by residential buildings, their supply and disposal infrastructures and that of traffic induced by settlements. Also, grey energy: consumption for the construction, renovation and demolition of buildings and infrastructures as well as the consumption of primary energy for the production and disposal of individual motor vehicle traffic and public transport is reviewed. Four Swiss case studies are dealt with including largely homogenous residential districts in Effretikon, Oetwil am See, Uster and the City of Zurich. The results of the analyses made are presented in graphical form. The authors quote the great potential for the reduction of the consumption of settlement-dependent primary energy that lies in the fields of energy-efficiency of buildings, mobility and power consumption. The report is rounded off with a comprehensive appendix.
... Medicaid Patient and Program Protection Act of 1987, Public Law 100-93 Sec. 14, the Act, Sec. 1128B(b), 42...-called ``safe harbor'' provisions, specifying various payment and business practices that, although... basis for administrative sanctions. OIG safe harbor provisions have been developed ``to limit the reach...
... statute (section 1128B(b) of the Social Security Act), as well as developing new OIG Special Fraud Alerts... of New Safe Harbors and Special Fraud Alerts AGENCY: Office of Inspector General (OIG), HHS. ACTION... the public on recommendations for developing new or revised safe harbors and Special Fraud Alerts...
... most recreational use. Zone 1 is a fenced corridor of public land within Township 35 North, Range 38... along Water Canyon Road, in Township 36 North Range 38 East, parts of sections 2, 11 and 12. A map of... converted to expel a projectile; including, but not limited to, by the action of an explosive, a compressed...
Full Text Available The campaign to end povertyby 2030,as advocated by the World Bank,has multifacetedcomponents. Food security and abject poverty have received more attention;however,little attention has been focused on housing insecurity. This is important,especially giventhe fact that it iswidely acknowledged that housing satiates an essential human need forphysical security, dignity and prosperity,among other things. Housing, for some time,has been observed as crucial to individual and family functioning. As indicated byorganisations such as the United Nations Habitat, the importance of appropriate housingis explained by the fact that safe housing is seen as a basic need among other needs suchas food, all of which are regarded as central components of the security of ordinaryhouseholds, particularly in developing countries. In 2015, more than 1.5 billionpeopleinthe world were living in housing that was unsafe and inadequate, while in the meantime,millions experienced eviction from their homes every year, with at least 100 millionpeople becoming homeless on any given day.Therefore, it ispertinent to understand whatdetermines housing insecurity. The studyaims toinvestigatefactors thatdetermineshousing insecurity. Using data collected from Sharpeville and Bophelong, two lowincome townships in South Africa that are particularlyvulnerable to housing insecurity,the study employs amultinomiallogisticregression to investigate the effects of head ofhousehold and the general household characteristics on housing insecurity. Theresults ofthe regression analysis show that income, gender, number of people in the household andthe amount paid to bond or rent are significant predictors of housing insecurity.Contentious issues like access to land and job opportunities are areas of further study inunderstanding the multifaceted phenomenon of housing insecurity.
...-AA00 Safety Zone, Port of Dutch Harbor; Dutch Harbor, AK AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes temporary safety zones in the Port of Dutch Harbor... Dutch Harbor, Alaska, and the adjacent territorial sea due to additional vessel traffic associated with...
siblings, he was the grandson of David Belden Lyman—a Christian missionary from New England who settled in the Hilo , Hawaii area—and the descendent of...of Hawaii appeared over Oahu. Some headed for Ameri- can warships at Pearl Harbor and the planes on the ground at nearby Hickam Field; oth- ers...hit Schofield Barracks, Wheeler Field, and Bellows Field. USACE in Hawaii con- sisted of Soldier-engineers in the Army’s Hawaiian Depart- ment and
Schwartz, Kelly D; Theron, Linda C; Scales, Peter C
A cross-sectional study explored the presence and power of developmental assets in a sample of youth from rural South African townships. Learners (female = 58%; M age = 17.1; N = 505) attending three township high schools completed self-report measures of developmental assets and thriving outcomes. Participants reported contextual assets (e.g., family, school, community) in the vulnerable ranges, with gender, family structure, and school type accounting for some differences. Correlation and regression analyses revealed that five asset contexts (family, school, community, personal, social) were uniquely predictive of thriving outcomes. Discussion focuses on contextual expressions of positive youth development among Zulu township youth in challenging environments. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV are major public health problems. Many studies have been performed to investigate the association between demographic and behavioral factors and HIV or HCV infection. However, some of the results of these studies have been in conflict. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The data of all entrants in the 11 national methadone clinics in the Yi Autonomous Prefecture from March 2004 to December 2012 were collected from the national database. Several spatial regression models were used to analyze specific community characteristics associated with the prevalence of HIV and HCV infection at the township level. The study enrolled 6,417 adult patients. The prevalence of HIV infection, HCV infection and co-infection was 25.4%, 30.9%, and 11.0%, respectively. Prevalence exhibited stark geographical variations in the area studied. The four regression models showed Yi ethnicity to be associated with both the prevalence of HIV and of HIV/HCV co-infection. The male drug users in some northwestern counties had greater odds of being infected with HIV than female drug users, but the opposite was observed in some eastern counties. The 'being in drug rehabilitation variable was found to be positively associated with prevalence of HCV infection in some southern townships, however, it was found to be negatively associated with it in some northern townships. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The spatial modeling creates better representations of data such that public health interventions must focus on areas with high frequency of HIV/HCV to prevent further transmission of both HIV and HCV.
..., and port and harbor areas, including vessels and harbor craft therein. 125.15 Section 125.15....15 Access to waterfront facilities, and port and harbor areas, including vessels and harbor craft....09 to those waterfront facilities, and port and harbor areas, including vessels and harbor craft...
Fusillo, Thomas V.
Surface-water and ground-water quality, streamflow, and data on ground-water levels in the upper Great Egg Harbor River basin in the vicinity of the Winslow Crossing residential development in Winslow Township are evaluated. The data include continuous streamflow at four sites, monthly stream water quality at seven sites, ground-water levels and periodic ground-water quality in four wells from 1972 through 1978. Pumpage from the Cohansey Sand in the study area was lower than anticipated because of a slowdown in construction. The average pumpage of 0.48 million gallons per day during 1978 had little effect on ground-water levels. Dissolved-solids concentrations were lower in a well upgradient from the urbanized area. Elevated levels of dissolved solids, specific conductance, chloride, nitrate, and phosphorus were found in the shallow ground water in the vicinity of the Winslow wastewater treatment plant because of effluent infiltration ponds. Nitrate was greatly reduced in October 1974 by a change in the treatment process, which increased denitrification. Phosphorus concentrations in the ground water remained elevated, however. Water from the most urbanized drainage basin was a magnesium bicarbonate type, while the less developed basins had sodium chloride sulfate type waters. Water from the two developed basins had higher median pH (7.1) compared with that of the other basins (5.6-6.3). Winslow Crossing?s development had only a slight effect on the quality of water in Great Egg Harbor River. The river receives point and non-point discharges upstream from Winslow Crossing, and the quality of the water generally improves as the river flows downstream. Streamflow and rainfall were slightly above normal. Unit hydrograph analysis of one basin showed an 80 percent increase in the peak discharge of a 60-minute unit hydrograph (from approximately 150 to 270 cubic feet per second) after the development of 14 percent of the basin. Installation of a stormwater detention basin
Robbins, Joanne K.; Weisenburgh-Snyder, Amy B.; Damons, Bruce; Van Rooyen, Marie; Ismail, Camila
Effective performance-based instruction is making a sustained and noticeable impact on township schools in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. We document the performance improvement effort made over the past 7 years by Partnerships for Educational Excellence and Research International (P.E.E.R), a team of educators, instructional system designers,…
... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision [AC-39: OTS Nos. H-2944 and H-4701... hereby given that on May 10, 2010, the Office of Thrift Supervision approved the application of Oritani Financial Corp., MHC, and Oritani Bank, Township of Washington, New Jersey, to convert to the stock form of...
Full Text Available This paper describes a network architecture to provide low cost last mile access and cloud services for local content sharing in a poorly resourced township environment. We describe how ICT solutions are developed in close partnership with the local...
Chen, Qiwei; Yang, Lan; Feng, Qiming; Tighe, Scott S
Background . Township hospitals in China provide rural communities with basic but much needed critical health care services. The doctors working in these hospitals often feel unsatisfied when considering their work schedules and financial rewards. Method . To explore job satisfaction of health workers in a township hospital, a qualitative study was conducted of 39 doctors from five township hospitals in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The goal was to understand the level of job satisfaction of doctors and to make recommendations for improvements. Results . About 75% (28/39) of the doctors expressed negative attitudes related to their work conditions. Slightly more than half (22/39) mentioned they should receive greater compensation for their work and more than one were seriously considering other options. Many participants (35/39) showed their satisfaction about the achievement of serving as a doctor. Conclusion . Their main concerns related to job satisfaction included working conditions, financial rewards, and the doctor's relationships with patients. Increasing the incomes and fringe benefits of healthcare workers, improving their work conditions, and providing training and continuing education opportunities would help rural clinics retain doctors and eliminate the current unsatisfactory conditions. The findings also highlight the need for the government to increase financial support of township hospitals.
Full Text Available Ecotourism, as a multibillion dollars business, is an industry with high potentials for economic competition. One of the proper solutions for developing ecotourism is better identification of different regions where there is a tourism capacity and accurate planning for performing feasibility study of those regions in terms of attracting ecotourism as well as creating infrastructures in those regions. This paper evaluates capacities and power of tourism as well as nature tourism in Isfahan Township using Geographic Information System and Analytical Hierarchy Process. The present research is applied and research method is descriptive-analytical. Meanwhile, to analyze data, Arc GIS is used. Findings indicate that regarding the map of ecotourism capacity of Isfahan townships, resulted from combining various climatologically, geological, hydrological, topological maps and access maps, the township is not homogeneous in terms of nature tourism and coastal parts of the township (regions around Zayand-e-Rood have better condition than other parts and should be considered for tourism development planning.
Full Text Available In many developing countries, including those with food shortages a large portion of household waste is estimated to be food. This paper reports on findings of a research study conducted in one of South Africa’s largest townships (Mamelodi) within...
Full Text Available Background. Township hospitals in China provide rural communities with basic but much needed critical health care services. The doctors working in these hospitals often feel unsatisfied when considering their work schedules and financial rewards. Method. To explore job satisfaction of health workers in a township hospital, a qualitative study was conducted of 39 doctors from five township hospitals in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The goal was to understand the level of job satisfaction of doctors and to make recommendations for improvements. Results. About 75% (28/39 of the doctors expressed negative attitudes related to their work conditions. Slightly more than half (22/39 mentioned they should receive greater compensation for their work and more than one were seriously considering other options. Many participants (35/39 showed their satisfaction about the achievement of serving as a doctor. Conclusion. Their main concerns related to job satisfaction included working conditions, financial rewards, and the doctor’s relationships with patients. Increasing the incomes and fringe benefits of healthcare workers, improving their work conditions, and providing training and continuing education opportunities would help rural clinics retain doctors and eliminate the current unsatisfactory conditions. The findings also highlight the need for the government to increase financial support of township hospitals.
Modderman, Eelco; Gorter, Cees; Dalhuisen, Jasper; Nijkamp, Peter
The purpose of this paper is to explain the relationship between economic performance and labourmanoeuvrability of township-village enterprises in the Jiangsu province, China. We start with a general overview of the development in the Chinese economy and the functioning of labour markets. Next, we
Rietjens, S.J.H.; Makoriwa, Collins; de Boer, S.J.
This paper proposes an option for the utilisation of excess off-peak capacity of minibus-taxis in South Africa for township tours. The minibus-taxi system typically faces steep peak loads during rush hours with excess vehicle and person capacity available during off-hours. The advantages of the
This ethnography is about the way in which Xhosa migrants in the townships of Cape Town, South Africa, collectively manage their money in financial self-help groups, also known as financial mutuals. This is an umbrella term for a myriad of collective financial arrangements that are mostly informal.
Mestry, Raj; Naidoo, Gans
This article investigates budget monitoring and control in township schools in South Africa. The enactment of the Schools Act 1996 revolutionized school financial management in South Africa, making it part of the drive for democratic school governance. School governing bodies had to be established, whose responsibility it became to manage finances…
... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 13-72; RM-11694, DA 13-448] Television Broadcasting Services; Ely, NV to Middletown Township, NJ AGENCY: Federal Communications... CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video Division...
Full Text Available A number of adolescents have been observed drinking alcohol, pushing and abusing drugs and also stealing cars. A lot of adolescents idle in the township streets, girls are falling pregnant and dropping out of school. No research has been done to elicit the opinions of families on the everyday life of the adolescents in this township. The objectives of this research were twofold, namely: To explore and describe the families’ opinions on the everyday life of adolescents in a specific township in Swaziland, and to describe guidelines for advanced psychiatric nurse practitioners to assist these families to mobilize resources in order to promote, maintain and restore mental health as integral part of health of adolescents in this township. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was used where the research was conducted in two phases. Trustworthiness measures as well as ethical measures were applied throughout the research. Five categories were identified from the result of the focus group interviews with families: Adolescents presenting ineffective communication patterns due to lack of support from their families; adolescents engaging into risky lifestyles related to lack of support and healthy relationships with their parents; families unable to create a supportive and conducive environment for their adolescents due to their focus on own family stumbling blocks and non-availability of recreational centres related to lack of a supportive and conducive environment in the community and inadequate accommodation leading to overcrowding. Guidelines for advanced psychiatric nurse practitioners were deducted from identified themes and the literature control.
Dave Deugo; Andrée Morneault; Dianne Othmer; Megan Smith; Al Stinson; Murray Woods; Ian Kovacs; Ian Aho; Bill Parker; Rob Baker; Marinus Verwey; Guylaine Thauvette; Don Willis; Jeff Dech
In July 2004, a large stand of red oak (Quercus rubra) was harvested in Phelps Township, North Bay District, North Bay, Ontario using the uniform shelterwood system. Most of the stand was harvested to retain 40 percent crown closure, while a very small portion was harvested to retain 70 percent crown closure. During tree marking, an active Northern...
Full Text Available We hypothesized that in South Africa, with a generalized tuberculosis (TB epidemic, TB infection is predominantly acquired indoors and transmission potential is determined by the number and duration of social contacts made in locations that are conducive to TB transmission. We therefore quantified time spent and contacts met in indoor locations and public transport by residents of a South African township with a very high TB burden.A diary-based community social mixing survey was performed in 2010. Randomly selected participants (n = 571 prospectively recorded numbers of contacts and time spent in specified locations over 24-hour periods. To better characterize age-related social networks, participants were stratified into ten 5-year age strata and locations were classified into 11 types.Five location types (own-household, other-households, transport, crèche/school, and work contributed 97.2% of total indoor time and 80.4% of total indoor contacts. Median time spent indoors was 19.1 hours/day (IQR:14.3-22.7, which was consistent across age strata. Median daily contacts increased from 16 (IQR:9-40 in 0-4 year-olds to 40 (IQR:18-60 in 15-19 year-olds and declined to 18 (IQR:10-41 in ≥45 year-olds. Mean daily own-household contacts was 8.8 (95%CI:8.2-9.4, which decreased with increasing age. Mean crèche/school contacts increased from 6.2/day (95%CI:2.7-9.7 in 0-4 year-olds to 28.1/day (95%CI:8.1-48.1 in 15-19 year-olds. Mean transport contacts increased from 4.9/day (95%CI:1.6-8.2 in 0-4 year-olds to 25.5/day (95%CI:12.1-38.9 in 25-29 year-olds.A limited number of location types contributed the majority of indoor social contacts in this community. Increasing numbers of social contacts occurred throughout childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood, predominantly in school and public transport. This rapid increase in non-home socialization parallels the increasing TB infection rates during childhood and young adulthood reported in this
California Natural Resource Agency — Harbor locations as identified originally in the California Shoreline Database compiled by Noble Consultants (Jon Moore) for California Department of Boating and...
Full Text Available The bacterial enzyme New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase hydrolyzes almost all β-lactam antibiotics, including carbapenems, which are drugs of last resort for severe bacterial infections. The spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae that carry the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase gene, blaNDM, poses a serious threat to public health. In this study, we genetically characterized eight carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from a tertiary care hospital in Yangon, Myanmar. The eight isolates belonged to five multilocus-sequence types and harbored multiple antimicrobial-resistance genes, resulting in resistance against nearly all of the antimicrobial agents tested, except colistin and fosfomycin. Nine plasmids harboring blaNDM genes were identified from these isolates. Multiple blaNDM genes were found in the distinct Inc-replicon types of the following plasmids: an IncA/C2 plasmid harboring blaNDM-1 (n = 1, IncX3 plasmids harboring blaNDM-4 (n = 2 or blaNDM-7 (n = 1, IncFII plasmids harboring blaNDM-4 (n = 1 or blaNDM-5 (n = 3, and a multireplicon F plasmid harboring blaNDM-5 (n = 1. Comparative analysis highlighted the diversity of the blaNDM-harboring plasmids and their distinct characteristics, which depended on plasmid replicon types. The results indicate circulation of phylogenetically distinct strains of carbapenem-resistant E. coli with various plasmids harboring blaNDM genes in the hospital.
Gui-Sheng, Ding; Cai-Qun, Cao; Ping, Miao; Mei-Fang, Gu; Xiao-Bin, Cao
To understand the quality of malaria blood examinations in township-level hospitals, so as to provide the evidence for continuing the malaria blood examinations in the stage of post-malaria elimination. A total of 64 township hospitals were investigated and 640 negative malaria blood slides were scored individually according to 10 indicators in "Malaria Elimination Technical Scheme" in 2013 and 2014. The single and multiple indicators were calculated, and the work of blood examinations and situation of technicians were investigated. The data of malaria blood examinations and patient discovery in township hospitals of Nantong City were collected and analyzed during the period of 2011-2014. For the single indicator, 29.5% of the thick blood films did not reach the standard, and 35.8% of thin blood films did not reach the standard. For the multiple indicators, blood slides with more than 4 indicators below the standard (poor quality) accounted for 32.5%. From malaria blood examinations and malaria situation, the number of slides was 194 635 during the period of 2011-2014, and there were no local vivax malaria casesin 4 consecutive years from 2011 to 2014, and local malaria has been effectively controlled in Nantong City. For health facilities where malaria patients initially presented, the township and village level accounted for 16.3%, and county and higher level accounted for 83.7%. The quality of malaria blood examinations in township level hospitals of Nantong City is not high and the microscopic examination has a relatively low efficiency in the discovery of malaria cases. A new model for malaria blood examinations needs to be further explored.
Aim: In response to the developmental need to stimulate micro-enterprise growth in South African townships, the paper poses the question: what approaches are most likely to have a positive impact on township businesses, given current micro-enterprise dynamics? Setting: Primary research was undertaken in two neighbouring townships in Gauteng province, in Ivory Park and Tembisa. Methods: The data comprises a geospatial census of enterprise activities, a survey of select firms and qualitative interviews with business owners. The research utilised a small-area census approach to obtain data on business activities within an area of approximately 2km2 in each site. The census enumerated 2509 micro-enterprises in Ivory Park and 1722 micro-enterprises in Tembisa. Firm interviews were conducted with business owners in four sectors: grocery retail, liquor retail, hair care and early childhood development centres. Results: The business census identifies a strong similarity in the structure of the townships’ informal micro-entrepreneurship despite the considerable differences in the socio-economic status of the respective case sites. The enterprise survey highlights the resource constraints of township businesses and thinness of local markets. Interviews with entrepreneurs reveal four main pathways through which individuals enter into self-employment with the most dynamic enterprises established by inward investing entrepreneurs. Spatial considerations exert an influence on the position of enterprise sectors, whilst access to land and business infrastructure are notable constraints. Conclusion: Reflecting on the evidence, the paper concludes with making a call for a more low-geared development approach, focusing on lessening the legal, institutional and regulatory obstacles to enterprise growth as a first step. Municipalities have an important role in liberalising the spaces and places where township informal enterprises can and should be permitted to trade as well as
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. 100.109 Section 100.109 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.109 Winter Harbor...
The Suez Canal is the second longest channel in the world and allows to save 60% of the travel time between the petroleum harbors of the Arabic peninsula and Europe. This short paper gives a summary of the main petroleum harbors activity along the channel from the Red sea to the Mediterranean sea. (J.S.)
... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Corp. Event Finale UHC, St. Thomas Harbor; St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands... establish a temporary safety zone on the waters of St. Thomas Harbor in St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands... through Friday, except federal holidays. The telephone number is 202-366-9329. See the ``Public...
...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone in He'eia Kea Small Boat Harbor located in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. The safety zone is necessary to protect watercraft and the general public from hazards associated with five vessels moored for approximately 3- weeks off the boat harbor's main pier. Vessels desiring to transit through the zone can request permission by contacting the Captain of the Port Honolulu.
Discussions were given and establishment was made on the new energy vision at Yonaguni Township in Okinawa Prefecture. The overall image of the new energy introduction vision at Yonaguni Township may be depicted by the wind power generation project to be implemented by the Development Public Corporation, by which megawatt-class wind power generation facilities will be built for effective utilization of the power by the whole island. Surplus electric power generated in a great amount in a certain season will be utilized for high value addition by electrifying agricultural works, expansion in production, (water pumping-up for irrigation, prawn cultivation, and sugar making factories), and melting and volume reducing of refuses. In addition, new type batteries for power storage with large capacity will be introduced to achieve stable power supply and introduce electric vehicles for official use and tourism business. Solar cells and small wind mills subject to stand-alone utilization will be arranged along sightseeing roads in the island, on tourism facilities and sightseeing infrastructural facilities. Careful considerations will be given on introduction and arrangement of the new energies for harmony with scenery of the island. Transmission wires related to the new energy utilization will be laid underground. (NEDO)
Yang, Lianping; Liu, Chaojie; Ferrier, J Adamm; Zhang, Xinping
This study identifies potential organizational barriers associated with the implementation of the Chinese National Essential Medicines Policy (NEMP) in rural primary health care institutions. We used a multistage sampling strategy to select 90 township hospitals from six provinces, two from each of eastern, middle, and western China. Data relating to eight core NEMP indicators and institutional characteristics were collected from January to September 2011, using a questionnaire. Prescription-associated indicators were calculated from 9000 outpatient prescriptions selected at random. We categorized the eight NEMP indicators using an exploratory factor analysis, and performed linear regressions to determine the association between the factor scores and institution-level characteristics. The results identified three main factors. Overall, low levels of expenditure of medicines (F1) and poor performance in rational use of medicines (F2) were evident. The availability of medicines (F3) varied significantly across both hospitals and regions. Factor scores had no significant relationship with hospital size (in terms of number of beds and health workers); however, they were associated with revenue and structure of the hospital, patient service load, and support for health workers. Regression analyses showed that public finance per health worker was negatively associated with the availability of medicines (p finance from local governments may reduce medicine stock lines of township hospitals and lead them to seek alternative sources of income, jeopardizing their capacity to meet the needs of local consumers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dove, Edward S.; Knoppers, Bartha M.; Zawati, Ma'n H.
Although increasingly global, data-driven genomics and other ‘omics’-focused research hold great promise for health discoveries, current research ethics review systems around the world challenge potential improvements in human health from such research. To overcome this challenge, we propose a ‘Safe Harbor Framework for International Ethics Equivalency’ that facilitates the harmonization of ethics review of specific types of data-driven international research projects while respecting globally transposable research ethics norms and principles. The Safe Harbor would consist in part of an agency supporting an International Federation for Ethics Review (IFER), formed by a voluntary compact among countries, granting agencies, philanthropies, institutions, and healthcare, patient advocacy, and research organizations. IFER would be both a central ethics review body, and also a forum for review and follow-up of policies concerning ethics norms for international research projects. It would be built on five principle elements: (1) registration, (2) compliance review, (3) recognition, (4) monitoring and enforcement, and (5) public participation. The Safe Harbor would create many benefits for researchers, countries, and the general public, and may eventually have application beyond (gen)omics to other areas of biomedical research that increasingly engage in secondary use of data and present only negligible risks. PMID:27774154
Acha-Anyi, Paul Nkemngu
The goal of this study is to develop a sustainable tourism strategy for the Soshanguve Township. The motivation for this study arose out of the acute developmental challenges facing many township communities in South Africa, mainly due to the absence of economic opportunities. This results in a high unemployment rate, poverty and an elevated number of crime incidences. A sustainable community tourism strategy could alleviate this situation by availing itself of the opportunities presented by ...
Full Text Available This article offers an appraisal of the social ministry of Pentecostal churches through fellowship, healing and livelihood creation in the township communities of the city of Tshwane. In meeting this aim the discussion advances a thesis of these churches as agents of social support and survival of the downcast. In particular, the article attempts to show how these churches exert themselves towards establishing not only moral responsibility, but also a context where the weakest and the least privileged can learn how to survive. The squatter camp people are unique with the special challenges requiring distinctive consideration. Pentecostal churches believe that the lost people matter to God and are of importance to their congregations as well. The backyard Bible study ministries and mutual cooperation strategies are employed for mutual support. Making use of the existing empirical research data and available literature will show how Pentecostal churches in the townships support the laity and community in times of need.
M. Ed. In South Africa many people have been directly or indirectly involved in criminal and/or violent acts either as victims or as perpetrators. Research has shown that violence in its various forms, be it political, criminal or domestic, is endemic in South Africa (Stravou, 1993; Turton, Straker & Moosa, 1992). According to Gibson, Mogale and Friedler (1991:1), political violence, especially in South African townships, has been enacted between the ANC and Inkatha and this violence is re...
Balasubramanian, M.R.; Selvavinayagam, P.; Singaravelan, S.; Ramdoss, R.; Sundar, R.S.
Sea water reverse Osmosis plant SWRO of KKNPP is located at Anuvijay township, Chettikulam, Tirunelveli District, Tamilnadu. The objective of SWRO is to produce 2400 M 3 of potable quality water per day. This plant consists of four streams, each having a capacity of 25 M 3 /hr. Each stream is having 9 pressure tube in parallel and each pressure tube has 6 polyamide spiral wound membrane in series. (author)
Lee, Y. Y.; Lee, Y. H.; Mohammad, S.; Shek, P. N.; Ma, C. K.
As one of the densest population occurred in Johor Bahru, development of a new township become necessary in order to cater this growth. Rapid urbanization is a factor of degradation of environmental quality which may increase surrounded temperature through urban heat island (UHI) phenomena. Therefore, this paper is investigating thermal comfort for a new township, Bandar Dato Onn in Johor Bahru, in order to understand the thermal characteristics of a new township and for further mitigation of UHI phenomena. Surface temperature, ambient temperature and relative humidity have been collected from a terrace house of Bandar Dato Onn. Thermal characteristics with the features of time lag and decrement factors were discussed based on the collected data. The time lag of 5 to 8 hours and the decrement factors of 0.02 to 0.06 were recorded during a five-day measurement. It was concluded that human thermal comfort may not be achieved as the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system needed for bedroom and living room. Passive energy design is suggested to be included in the house in order to have human thermal comfort while reducing the electricity consumption towards sustainable future.
Malefane Johannes Lebusa
Full Text Available Historically, township Small Retail Outlets were mostly established for survival and operated under a generally closed market system where the competition was not very strong. However, with the advent of democracy many people lost their formal income through retrenchments and out of desperation, many of these people opened Small Retail Outlets thus most of the existing and new entrants into the township market were unskilled or semiskilled labourers with little or no formal skills in business or entrepreneurship. Such efforts were rarely guided by any specific and informed strategy of identifying and exploiting a gap in the market. With the consolidation of the free market system under democracy, big brand businesses such as Shoprite Checkers and Small Retail Outlets of foreign nationals with different strategies entered and competed in this township market. With fewer formal skills in business and entrepreneurship, the owners of the Small Retail Outlets struggled to compete and thrive under these relatively new economic conditions. Given this situation, I conducted semi-structured interviews with fifteen of these traditional Small Retail Outlets to find out and better understand the challenges they face and the skills that might be needed to aggressively compete in this space. Based on these findings and understandings, I further examined these issues and suggest infusions of specific entrepreneurship skills that could develop their aggressive competitiveness. Keywords: entrepreneurship, competitiveness, small retail outlets, shopping complexes, innovation
... the event, and enhancing public and maritime safety. Basis and Purpose Fireworks displays are... promote public and maritime safety during a fireworks display, and to protect mariners transiting the area...-AA00 Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Patuxent River, Solomons Island Harbor, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard...
... Patton MA, Hurst J, Donnai D, McKeown CM, Cole T, Goodship J. Floating-Harbor syndrome. J Med ... medicine? What is newborn screening? New Pages Lyme disease Fibromyalgia White-Sutton syndrome All New & Updated Pages ...
Surveys and discussions were given on establishing a new energy vision in Yatsuka Township in Shimane Prefecture. For the survey on available amount of natural energies (sunlight and wind), all-weather insolation required for solar energy power generation was analyzed by using the NEDO information, and wind was analyzed based on observations at Matsue Meteorological Observatory, Sakai-minato Observatory, and Nakaura Water Gate. In discussing the system, power generation amount in the Matsue area was estimated for the case when solar cells of single crystal silicon plus amorphous hybrid type HIP-H48B1 are used. For wind power generation, power generation amount was calculated from observation values derived at the Nakaura water gate when wind mills with diameters from 2 to 10 m are used. Furthermore, calculations were performed on power amount generated uniformly by using a hybrid system using solar energy power generation and wind power generation. As a result of the discussions, a plan was established to introduce the new energies by means of a solar and wind energy hybrid power generation system to the greenhouse 'Green Stellar' symbolizing the Japan's largest peony production, being capable of year-round peony cultivation. The system is planned to be introduced to the town office building and other public organizations sequentially according to annual programs. (NEDO)
Liu, Jun A; Wang, Qi; Lu, Zu X
Job satisfaction is important to staff management of township health centers (THCs), as it is associated with organizational performance, quality of care and employee retention. The purpose of this study was to measure job satisfaction level of THC employees in poor rural China and to identify relevant features in order to provide policy advice on human resource development of health service institutions in poor regions. A self-completion questionnaire was used to assess the job satisfaction and relevant features (response rate: 90.5%) among 172 employees (i.e., clinic doctors, medico-technical workers and public health workers) of 17 THCs in Anhui and Xinjiang provinces of China. The study covered a time period of two months in 2007. The mean staff job satisfaction scored 83.3, which was in the category of "somewhat satisfied" on a scale ranging from 0 (extremely dissatisfied) to 100 (extremely satisfied) by employing Likert's transformation formula. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) revealed eight domains involved in modeling of job satisfaction, among which, the caregivers were more satisfied with job significance (88.2), job competency (87.9) and teamwork (87.7), as compared with work reward (72.9) and working conditions (79.7). Mean job satisfaction in Xinjiang (89.7) was higher than that in Anhui (75.5). Employees of THCs have moderate job satisfactions in poor areas, which need to be raised further by improving their working conditions and reward.
To evaluate flood-prone areas, correlation analysis of flooding factors for the quantitative evaluation of hazard degree was determined to assist in further disaster prevention management. This study used flood-prone areas in 35 villages over eight townships (Changhua, Huatan, Yuanlin, Xiushui, Puyan, Hemei, Dacun, and Erlin) in Changhua County as research samples. Linear combination was used to evaluate flood-prone environmental indices, and an expert questionnaire was designed by using the analytic hierarchy process and the Delphi method to determine the weights of factors. These factors were then used to calculate the eigenvector of a pairwise comparison matrix to obtain the weights for the risk assessment criteria. Through collection of disaster cases, with particular focus on specifically protected areas where flooding has occurred or is likely to occur, public adaptation and response capabilities were evaluated by using an interview questionnaire that contains the items of perceived disaster risk, resource acquisition capability, adaptation capability, and environment understanding and disaster prevention education. Overlays in a geographic information system were used to analyze the flood-risk degree in villages and to construct a distribution map that contains flood-prone environment indices. The results can assist local governments in understanding the risk degree of various administrative areas to aid them in developing effective mitigation plans.
Lu Zu X
Full Text Available Abstract Background Job satisfaction is important to staff management of township health centers (THCs, as it is associated with organizational performance, quality of care and employee retention. The purpose of this study was to measure job satisfaction level of THC employees in poor rural China and to identify relevant features in order to provide policy advice on human resource development of health service institutions in poor regions. Methods A self-completion questionnaire was used to assess the job satisfaction and relevant features (response rate: 90.5% among 172 employees (i.e., clinic doctors, medico-technical workers and public health workers of 17 THCs in Anhui and Xinjiang provinces of China. The study covered a time period of two months in 2007. Results The mean staff job satisfaction scored 83.3, which was in the category of "somewhat satisfied" on a scale ranging from 0 (extremely dissatisfied to 100 (extremely satisfied by employing Likert's transformation formula. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA revealed eight domains involved in modeling of job satisfaction, among which, the caregivers were more satisfied with job significance (88.2, job competency (87.9 and teamwork (87.7, as compared with work reward (72.9 and working conditions (79.7. Mean job satisfaction in Xinjiang (89.7 was higher than that in Anhui (75.5. Conclusions Employees of THCs have moderate job satisfactions in poor areas, which need to be raised further by improving their working conditions and reward.
will continue to be, important increases in the recreational use of land and water. The harbor area is an important arena for commercial shellfishing...an important arena for commercial shell fishing. The past few years have seen a rather rapid increase in residential land use. Construction has...beamc. Tnis material will be re-deposited,, viaj troio it 1-apfro1inr ox prior location. j, MADAKET HARBOR NANTUCKET, MASSACHUSETTS FEASIBILITY
Publicity for preschool cooperatives is described. Publicity helps produce financial support for preschool cooperatives. It may take the form of posters, brochures, newsletters, open house, newspaper coverage, and radio and television. Word of mouth and general good will in the community are the best avenues of publicity that a cooperative nursery…
... Operation Regulation; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, New Orleans Harbor, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from... Lock), at New Orleans, Orleans Parish, Louisiana. This deviation is necessary to replace all of the...
... Operation Regulation; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, New Orleans Harbor, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from... Harvey Lock), at New Orleans, Orleans Parish, Louisiana. This deviation is necessary to adjust the...
Acha-Anyi Paul Nkemngu
Full Text Available Stakeholder theory advocates the inclusion and participation of relevant stakeholders in both community and business development. This necessitates a diligent planning process with the aim of working towards pre-determined objectives. Furthermore, the constructive participation of stakeholders in the development process can be said to depend on their understanding of the role they are expected to play. Therefore, the participation of business managers in tourism planning and development can be assessed based on their familiarity with both the general and personal business success factors in their operating environment. This paper assesses the contribution of tourism business operators in Soshanguve Township to tourism development in their community. The study undertakes a quantitative survey of 29 managers of tourism businesses on their perceptions on general business success factors and personal business success factors in Soshanguve Township. The results reveal discrepancies between what the managers perceive to be general business success factors in the community and the factors they consider to have contributed to their personal business success. The inference from the above is that business managers are not optimising on the business potential in their community based on the margin of difference between what they percieve to be the best industry success factors and the implementation of the same in their personal businesses. The study concludes with recommendations on how to breach the gap in order to maximise the contribution of businesses to tourism development in Soshanguve Township. Prime among these is the increase intervention by the local government in the coordination and training of businesses in the community.
Kay, Robert T.; Kraske, Kurt A.
The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Campton Township Board of Trustees, measured water levels in the aquifers used for residential supply in Campton Township, Kane County, Illinois. Aquifers used for residential supply are the shallow and deep aquifers in the glacial drift, composed of unconsolidated sand and gravels; the Alexandrian-Maquoketa aquifer, composed of dolomite and shale of the Alexandrian Series and the Maquoketa Group; the Galena-Platteville aquifer, composed of dolomite of the Platteville and Galena Groups; and the Ancell aquifer, composed of sandstones of the Glenwood Formation and the St. Peter Sanstone. Water-level altitudes in the shallow drift aquifers generally follow surface topography. Analysis of water-level data does not clearly indicate overutilization of these aquifers. Water-level altitudes in the deep drift aquifers decrease from west to east. Comparison of historical depth to water measurements with current (1995) measurements indicates large decreases in water levels in some areas. The deep drift aquifers may be overutilized at these locations. Water-level altitudes in the Alexandrian-Maquoketa aquifer generally decrease from west to east. The potentiometric surface of the aquifer follows the bedrock-surface topography in some locations. Localized low water-level altitudes and large decreases in water levels indicate the Alexandrian-Maquoketa aquifer is overutilized in several areas. Water-level altitudes in the wells finished in the Galena- Platteville aquifer vary by more than 300 feet. Large decreases in water levels in wells finished in the Galena-Platteville aquifer indicate the Galena-Platteville and Alexandrian-Maquoketa aquifers are overutilized in the northern part of the township. Water-level altitudes in the wells finished in the Ancell aquifer are also highly variable. There is no indication that the Ancell aquifer is overutilized.
Given the fact that 1.4 billion people, over 20% of the world’s population, lack access to electricity, rural electrification remains a common challenge for many developing countries. The ‘Township Electrification Program’ launched by the Chinese government in 2002 is known as the world’s largest renewable energy-based rural electrification program in terms of investment volume ever carried out by a country. This study gives an in-depth examination of the program implemented in two selected townships in remote of rural areas of western China. The results showed that the implementation of the program possessed a technical orientation (e.g., construction of stations, installation of systems), and underestimated the financial implications (e.g., electricity tariff, households’ ability to pay electricity fees, financial management) as well as human resources available (e.g., training for operators, household participation) and institutional capacity building (e.g., good governance, regulatory framework) at the local level. Even though electricity was provided by the solar PV power stations, households still relied on traditional energy sources, such as candles and dry cell batteries, due to the fact that electricity service was unreliable and electricity supply was not sufficient for households’ needs. - Highlights: ► China’s electrification rate has reached the level of OECD countries. ► Township Electrification Program is the world’s largest electrification program. ► The program possessed a technical orientation and underestimated other aspects. ► Households still relied on traditional energy, such as candles and batteries. ► Having electricity access did not mean that electricity was actually used.
Stenstad, Jaran Gjerlandj; Eppeland, Kjetil Grødal; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas
transported by rivers from the inland ice to the inner parts of the fjord. These sediment layers reduce the water depth and prevent container- and cruiseships to dock, imposing large additional maintenance costs, and inefficient operability. Through engineering geological field and lab investigations......, a possible new harbor location around 10 km further out the fjord near Hancock Pynt, has been investigated. The onshore area was found to be highly suitable for a harbor support area, where a sub-base thickness of 1.8 m with gravel cover-layer was found adequate for the calculated design loads. Existing...
.... Department of Transportation, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE.... Vessels can use the Stone Harbor Bridge across the Great Channel as an alternate route to Hereford Inlet...
Full Text Available The new language curriculum in South Africa recommends that extended writing be taught through a combination of text-based (or genre and process approaches. This article reports on a study of the teaching and assessment of narrative writing in English as a first additional language (FAL at a time of curriculum change. The setting is a Cape Flats township school. In focusing on a story written by a Grade 9 learner and assessed by her teacher, the study sought evidence of the use of text-based and process approaches. The theoretical frame is informed by genre theory, which draws on Systemic Functional Linguistics and social constructivist approaches to language learning. A qualitative research paradigm was used. Data obtained for this case study included the learner’s writing, interviews with the teacher, and classroom observation. The study finds very little evidence of a scaffolded approach to the teaching and assessment of writing, and explores the constraints on the realisation of the curriculum cycle in English FAL. These relate to the teacher’s understanding of writing as well as to material conditions in township schools.
Although South Africa's total fertility rate is one of the lowest in sub-Saharan Africa, high rates of early childbearing remain a concern. Most teenage pregnancies occur among poor black and coloured South Africans. The majority of these pregnancies are said to be unwanted and unplanned and the teenager's relationships, unstable. Becoming a mother during one's teenage years is perceived to be socially, economically and physically deleterious for the teenager and her baby. This paper presents ethnographic data collected over a five-year period in the South African township of Nyanga East in the Western Cape. It draws attention to the circumstances that surround teenage pregnancy and discusses reactions to teenage pregnancies in this community. Findings highlight that despite the negative perception of teenage pregnancy within the township, particular social and cultural circumstances provided fertile ground for its occurrence. Furthermore, the paper argues that in this particular community the management of a teenage pregnancy played a functional and critical role in maintaining and reproducing social norms and ideals regarding intergenerational relationships, which ultimately ensured that the rates of early childbearing remained high.
Yu, Jun; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Junjun; Lu, Qinglin; Liang, Bingyu; Liu, Deping; Fang, Keyong; Huang, Jiegang; He, Yang; Ning, Chuanyi; Liao, Yanyan; Lai, Jingzhen; Wei, Wudi; Qin, Fengxiang; Ye, Li; Geng, Wenkui; Liang, Hao
In China, rural areas are a weak link of HIV/AIDS prevention and control. From September 2011, an innovative "county-township-village" allied intervention was implemented in Longzhou County, Guangxi, which assigned the tasks of HIV/AIDS prevention and control to the county Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), township hospitals, and village clinics, respectively, instead of traditional intervention in which the county CDC undertook the entire work. A 6-year consecutive cross-sectional survey, including 3-year traditional intervention (2009-2011) and 3-year innovative intervention (2012-2014), was conducted to evaluate the effects of the new intervention. Compared to traditional intervention, the innovative intervention achieved positive effects in decreasing risky behaviors. Among female sex workers, condom use rate in the last month increased from 72.06% to 96.82% (p ratio of HIV infection during innovative intervention was 0.631 (95% confidence interval 0.549-0.726) compared with traditional one. Cost-effectiveness analysis indicates that innovative intervention restores each disability-adjusted life year costing an average of $124.26. Taken together, Longzhou's innovative intervention has achieved good effects on HIV/AIDS prevention and control and provides a good reference for rural China.
Mendenhall, Emily; Norris, Shane A
Escalation of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) among urban South African populations disproportionately afflicted by HIV/AIDS presents not only medical challenges but also new ways in which people understand and experience sickness. In Soweto, the psychological imprints of political violence of the Apartheid era and structural violence of HIV/AIDS have shaped social and health discourses. Yet, as NCDs increasingly become part of social and biomedical discussions in South African townships, new frames for elucidating sickness are emerging. This article employs the concept of syndemic suffering to critically examine how 27 women living with Type 2 diabetes in Soweto, a township adjacent to Johannesburg known for socio-economic mobility as well as inequality, experience and understand syndemic social and health problems. For example, women described how reconstructing families and raising grandchildren after losing children to AIDS was not only socially challenging but also affected how they ate, and how they accepted and managed their diabetes. Although previously diagnosed with diabetes, women illustrated how a myriad of social and health concerns shaped sickness. Many related diabetes treatment to shared AIDS nosologies, referring to diabetes as 'the same' or 'worse'. These narratives demonstrate how suffering weaves a social history where HIV becomes ordinary, and diabetes new.
M G Masitsa
Full Text Available Research overwhelmingly suggests that effective teaching and learning can occur only in a safe and secure school environment. However, despite the plethora of laws and acts protecting teachers and learners in South African schools, scores of them are still unsafe. This study examines the safety of teachers and learners in township secondary schools in the Free State province, South Africa. The sample of study consisted of 396 teachers who were randomly selected from 44 township secondary schools across the province. The sample completed a questionnaire based on the safety of teachers and learners in their schools. Prior to completion, the questionnaire was tested for reliability using the Cronbach alpha coefficient and it was found to have a reliability score of .885, indicating an acceptable reliability coefficient. The questionnaire was computer analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences Primer Version 12. The results of the analysis revealed that both teachers and learners are not safe in their schools, either during or after school hours. The causes of a lack of safety in these schools reside within and without the schools, implying that learners are sometimes the culprits. The study concludes with recommendations on addressing the problem.
Full Text Available Many learners living in townships require protection and resilience to overcome obstacles and adversities in their context of development. The literature on resilience indicates strongly that resilience is embedded systemically. In the absence of constructive and supportive conditions in the home environment, the school would logically appear to be the next resource in line to be tapped. We investigated the contribution of two South African township schools to the resilience of their middleadolescent learners. Case studies with focus groups of resilient and less-resilient Grade 9 learners were used, following the Interactive Qualitative Analysis method, to determine the participants' perceptions of how the school contributes to the degree and nature of their resilience. The influence of the school varied depending on the degree of the learners' resilience, but also depending on factors within the school itself, suggesting that schools play a distinctive and determining role. Contributions particularly highlighted included creation, or failure to create, a supportive teaching and learning environment with effective implementation of rules and educational policy to provide care and safety for its learners and develop them to reach their future goals. Resilient learners were more ready than less resilient learners to acknowledge and utilise these characteristics. All focus groups placed much emphasis on goal attainment, suggesting a strong relationship with resilience.
Hossein Shabanali Fami
Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate use of renewable energy and materials in smallholder farming system of the Tafresh township of Iran. The population of the study consisted of 2,400 small farmers working in the smallholder farming systems of the area, in which 133 people were selected as sample using Cochran formula and simple random sampling technique. In order to gather the information, a questionnaire was developed for the study and validated by the judgment of the experts in agricultural development and extension. The reliability of the main scales of the questionnaire was examined by Cronbach Alpha coefficients, which ranged from 0.7 to 0.93, indicating the tool of study is reliable. The findings revealed that the majority of the respondents use renewable energy and materials directly in its traditional forms without enabling technologies, and they lack the access to renewable technologies to improve the efficiency of energy use. They preferred fossil energy for many activities due to its lower cost and ease of access. The overall conclusion is that there are potentials and capacities for using renewable energies and materials in the farming systems of the Tafresh township. The government has to support and encourage the adoption of renewable technologies and abandon fossil fuels wherever possible.
Full Text Available The degree of social vulnerability may vary according to the conditions and backgrounds of different locations, yet spatial clustering phenomena may exist when nearby spatial units exhibit similar characteristics. This study applied spatial autocorrelation statistics to analyze the spatial association of vulnerability among townships in Taiwan. The vulnerability was first assessed on the basis of a social vulnerability index that was constructed using Fuzzy Delphi and analytic hierarchy process methods. Subsequently, the corresponding indicator variables were applied to calculate standardized vulnerability assessment scores by using government data. According to the results of the vulnerability assessment in which T scores were normalized, the distribution of social vulnerabilities varied among the townships. The scores were further analyzed using spatial autocorrelation statistics for spatial clustering of vulnerability distribution. The Local G statistic identified 42 significant spatial association pockets, whereas the Global G statistic indicated no spatial phenomenon of clustering. This phenomenon was verified and explained by applying Moran's I statistics to examine the homogeneity and heterogeneity of spatial associations. Although both statistics were originally designed to identify the existence of spatial clustering, they serve diverse purposes, and the results can be compared to obtain additional insights into the distribution patterns of social vulnerability.
ancient Hawaiians, was a large natural inland lagoon. Numerous walled fishponds located inside the harbor were used to cultivate various species of fishes... Ecotoxicology , Commission on Natural Resources, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 103 pp. National Research Council, 1989. Contaminated Marine
Selekane A. Motadi
Full Text Available Background: Globally, there is evidence that three micronutrients deficiencies are of public health concern among children. They are vitamin A, iodine and iron deficiencies. Communities particularly affected are those in situations where poverty, unemployment, civil unrest, war and exploitation remain endemic. Malnutrition is an impediment to productivity, economic growth and poverty eradication. It is estimated that 32% of the global burden would be removed by eliminating malnutrition, including micronutrients deficiencies. Setting: The study was carried out in NkowaNkowa township of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Aim: The main objective was to determine the women’s knowledge on food fortification. Methods: The study design was descriptive. The snowballing method was used to identify women of child-bearing age. Data were collected from 120 participants using a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic, general questions on women’s knowledge on food fortification. The questionnaire was administered by the researcher using the local language Xitsonga. Results: The findings of the study revealed that a majority of 204 (57.0% of the participants were able to define food fortification correctly while 257 (72.0% of the participants knew which foods are fortified as well as the benefits of a food fortification programme. The majority (252 [70.0%] of the participants knew that maize meal is one of the food vehicle used for fortification in South Africa. Conclusion: Most of the questions were answered correctly by more than 50.0% of the participants. The researcher deduced that the study participants are knowledgeable about food fortification based on the response given in relation to the programme.
1226 Office of Counsel,Code 1008.3 ADOR/Director NCST E. R. Franchi , 7000 Public Affairs (Unclassified/ Unlimited Only), Code 703o 4...Great Lakes. Accelerated corrosion of CS pilings in estua- rine and marine harbors is a global phenomenon.9 The term "accelerated low water corrosion
... environmental risk to health or risk to safety that may disproportionately affect children. 11. Indian Tribal... Pier in Chicago Harbor, Chicago, IL. The Captain of the Port, Lake Michigan, has determined that these fireworks displays will pose a significant risk to public safety and property. Such hazards include falling...
... platform vessel in Pago Pago Harbor, American Samoa, while diving operations are under way in and around the CHEHALIS wreck. The safety zone is necessary to protect other vessels and the general public from... Pago, American Samoa. Today, the CHEHALIS wreck remains a potential pollution threat to the environment...
Lynett, P. J.
Extreme events, such as large wind waves and tsunamis, are well recognized as a damaging hazard to port and harbor facilities. Wind wave events, particularly those with long period spectral components or infragravity wave generation, can excite resonance inside harbors leading to both large vertical motions and strong currents. Tsunamis can cause great damage as well. The geometric amplification of these very long waves can create large vertical motions in the interior of a harbor. Additionally, if the tsunami is composed of a train of long waves, which it often is, resonance can be easily excited. These long wave motions create strong currents near the node locations of resonant motions, and when interacting with harbor structures such as breakwaters, can create intense turbulent rotational structures, typical in the form of large eddies or gyres. These gyres have tremendous transport potential, and have been observed to break mooring lines, and even cause ships to be trapped inside the rotation, moving helplessly with the flow until collision, grounding, or dissipation of the eddy (e.g. Okal et al., 2006). This presentation will introduce the traditional theory used to predict wave impacts on harbors, discussing both how these models are practically useful and in what types of situations require a more accurate tool. State-of-the-art numerical models will be introduced, with a focus on recent developments in Boussinesq-type modeling. The Boussinesq equations model can account the dispersive, turbulent and rotational flow properties frequently observed in nature. Also they have the ability to coupling currents and waves and can predict nonlinear wave propagation over uneven bottom from deep (or intermediate) water area to shallow water area. However, during the derivation of a 2D-horizontal equation set, some 3D flow features, such those driven by as the dispersive stresses and the effects of the unresolved small scale 3D turbulence, are excluded. Consequently
Shields, Anna Marshall
These materials consist of sample lesson plans for teaching about the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, in both U.S. and world history classes. The lesson plans challenge students to examine how current attitudes toward the Japanese may be rooted in World War II and Pearl Harbor. Selected bibliographies on Pearl Harbor, World…
Liehr, Patricia; Sopcheck, Janet; Milbrath, Gwyneth
: On December 7, 1941, the Sunday-morning quiet of the U.S. naval base in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, was shattered by dive-bombing Japanese fighter planes. The planes came in two waves-and when it was all over, more than 2,400 were killed and more than 1,100 were injured.Nurses were stationed at U.S. Naval Hospital Pearl Harbor, Tripler General Hospital (now Tripler Army Medical Center), Hickam Field Hospital, Schofield Barracks Station Hospital, and aboard the USS Solace, and witnessed the devastation. But they also did what nurses do in emergencies-they responded and provided care to those in need. Here are the stories of a few of those nurses.
Nadezhda V. Dashkovskaya
Full Text Available In the present article the concept of legal custom as a source of law is researched. The role of legal customs in Russian Empire is shown. It is proved that during the Russian Empire period legal custom played an important role in the legal system, being one of the building blocks. Peculiarities of township courts activity are researched. Significance of legal customs for proceedings in the township courts is shown. For the importance of township courts in the Russian Empire played the fact that in their work they used existing among peasants customs and it was sanctioned by the authorities. Author stresses out that by recognizing custom, state thus authorizes current pattern of behavior in the society, a way of resolve conflicts that to the greatest extent are consistent with the understanding of justice by the society. To the legal custom, following features: custom is formed as a result of certain action frequent repetition; the source of the legal custom formation is a social consciousness; customs largely reflect the level of the society development at the particular stage; customs has quite a local character; customs reflect collective understanding on the fair nature of law. In the article two features which the judicial system of the Russian Empire had in the post-reform period: presence of class township courts as a class judiciary and application of legal customs to the township courts are noted. Combination of these two features allowed government to preserve patriarchal relations in the countryside. Such conservation, to some extent, was contrary to the liberal orientation of the "great reforms" of Alexander II, hindered development of the capitalist relations in the country, delaying implementation of the judicial reform principles.
Research on constructions of sexuality in Pentecostalism often struggles with the fact that the research setting is defined ex ante in terms of church communities, which imposes upon ethnographic accounts the same limitations Pentecostal morality imposes upon church members' discourse. Taking young Pentecostals operating in a space that is not explicitly religious as the methodological entrance to the field, this paper explores negotiations over sexuality, intimate relationships and love among Xhosa-speaking township youth. It introduces the notion of erotic geographies to consider how possible influences of religious discourses on sexuality are refracted by alternative cultural orientations and material contexts. Findings suggest that premarital abstinence appears as a highly exceptional ideal for youth. Even among Pentecostal youth, notions of sexuality are largely severed from religiosity and faithfulness and romanticism are dominant ideals. Future research on Pentecostalism and sexuality should be less religious-centric and rooted more firmly in ethnographies of youth sexual cultures.
Wang, Xiaorong; Wu, Siying; Song, Qingkun; Tse, Lap-Ah; Yu, Ignatius T S; Wong, Tze-Wai; Griffiths, Sian
China has experienced dramatic industrialization, urbanization, and economic growth over the last 3 decades. The rapid transformation and dramatic prosperity of industries in rural areas have, in turn, created tremendous challenges for occupational health and safety (OHS). This article was prepared to address occupational health and safety issues in township- and village-owned enterprises (TVEs) from several aspects, including working conditions and workplace hazards, major recognized OHS problems, implications of TVE industries to environmental health, and migrant workers. Among the major recognized OHS problems, pneumoconiosis, chemical poisoning, and workplace accidents, especially in small-scale coal mines, are highlighted. It is suggested that the national polices and regulations that specifically target TVEs are indispensable and a more powerful administrative structure should be established to ensure that the pertinent polices, regulations, and OHS standards can be enforced widely and effectively in practice. Copyright © 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Full Text Available This paper focused on the functional strategies and initiatives takenby SouthAfrican Police Service(SAPStowards prevention and combating of substanceabusein a South African Township. The study made useof mainly quantitative(survey methodto collect relevant data from 80participants who were selectedfrom the SAPS, local churches,Non-governmental organisations (NGOsandcommunity members.The findings of this study indicate an array of strategies inuse. Police regular conduct of stop and search in certain sectors than others,regular patrols, use of reliable volunteer informants (informants, secret detection,tracking and investigation, sharing of crime information tips and education ofpublic, and police partnership with civilorganisations were revealed as thesustaining strategies by the SAPS.Critical analysis of these strategies in the studyrevealed a mixed bag of functionality. Pragmaticsuggestions to improve on thelagging strategies were made by this study.
Tshediso Joseph Sekhampu
Full Text Available Researchshowsthatfoodinsecurityisone of the challengesthatpost-apartheidSouth Africafaces.Food securityindicators notethat South Africa as a countryhas an apparent state of sufficiency, while household indicators show greatdisparities between urban and rural households.Thepurpose of this study was toanalysethe food security status of households in the township of Kwakwatsi, FreeStateprovince. Data were collected through a household survey to determinetheassociationbetweenhousehold food security andthedemographic variables of ahousehold. Of the sampled households,51.1%were found to be food secureaccording tothe Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS. Logisticregression analysis revealedthatthere is a clear correlation betweenhouseholdsize, household income,andgender and marital status of the household headandhousehold food security.While household size,and the gender andmarital statusof the household head wereassociated withfoodinsecurity,an increase inhousehold income andtheage of thehouseholdheadwereassociated withfoodsecurity.The study offers trends in food security and can be used as a referencesource when addressing socio-economic challengesthatlow-incomehouseholdsin South African townshipsface.
The Burrell Township site, located in western Pennsylvania, received approximately 11,600 tons of radioactively-contaminated material in late 1956 and early 1957 from the Vitro Manufacturing Company's operations in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. WESTON was requested to conduct an engineering study to determine the feasibility of stabilizing the site in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) interim and proposed standards (45 FR 27366--27368, April 22, 1980, and 46 FR 2556--2563, January 9, 1981). The scope of this study is limited to those alternatives that can be implemented on the site and will not require removal and offsite disposal of radioactively-contaminated material. Four alternatives for control of the radioactive material at the Burrell site were considered and evaluated, as follows: 1. Site stabilization and closure. 2. Site control and containment. 3. Waste excavation and encapsulation. 4. Waste excavation, incineration, and encapsulation. 2 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs
Wu, Chengyong; Cao, Guangchao; Xue, Huaju; Jiang, Gang; Wang, Qi; Yuan, Jie; Chen, Kelong
The existing study of proper carrying capacity (PCC) has mostly focused on province or county administrative units, which can only macroscopically master the quantitative characteristics of PCC, but could not effectively take some animal husbandry management measures that are pertinent and operational. At town-scale, this paper used CASA model to estimate the PCC in Mongolian Autonomous County of Henan, Qinghai province, China,with serious grassland degeneration that mainly caused by overgrazing. The results showed that the PCC throughout the County was 950,417 sheep unit. For the township, the PCC of Saierlong and Duosong were the largest (247,100 sheep unit) and the smallest (82,016 sheep unit) respectively. This study will provide reference data for developing sustainable development of town-scale pasture policies and also will help to evaluate the health status of the alpine grassland ecosystem on Qinghai-Tibet plateau.
The grantee, Alaska Village Electric Cooperative (AVEC), is a non-profit member owned rural electric generation and distribution cooperative. The proposed Project is located near the community of Old Harbor, Alaska. Old Harbor is on the southeastern coast of Kodiak Island, approximately 70 miles southwest of the City of Kodiak and 320 miles southwest of Anchorage. In 1998 sufficient information had been developed to apply for a license to construct the project and the cost was estimated to be $2,445,000 for a 500 KW project on Lagoon Creek. Major features of the project included an eight-foot high diversion dam on Mountain Creek, a desander box, a 9,800-foot long penstock to the powerhouse on Lagoon Creek, and a 5,500-foot long access road. It was also anticipated that the project could provide an additional source of water to Old Harbor. The report details the history and lessons learned in designing and permiting the proposed hydroelectric facility.
improvement from the point of view of supply and communication with other European settlements, since it cut the lightering distance to the capital in half...order to cut the costs of building (Bathe 1978:08.00-02; Millar 1978:15-29). 32 6e The sharing of ship builders, the borrowing of vessel lines and the... Eslava Street Mobile. Burned to water’s edge during overhaul. Notes: Served as HINGHAM in Boston Harbor; served as ORIENT in Long Island Sound. Operated
Dumouchelle, Denise H.
In 2004, a public-health nuisance was declared by the Wayne County Board of Health in the Scenic Heights Drive-Batdorf Road area of Wooster Township, Wayne County, Ohio, because of concerns about the safety of water from local wells. Repeated sampling had detected the presence of fecal-indicator bacteria and elevated nitrate concentrations. In June 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA), collected and analyzed samples from some of the affected wells to help investigate the possibility of human-origin bacterial contamination. Water samples from 12 wells and 5 home sewage-treatment systems (HSTS) were collected. Bromide concentrations were determined in samples from the 12 wells. Samples from 5 of the 12 wells were analyzed for wastewater compounds. Total coliform, enterococci and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria concentrations were determined for samples from 8 of the 12 wells. In addition, two microbial source-tracking tools that employ DNA markers were used on samples from several wells and a composite sample of water from five septic tanks. The DNA markers from the Enterococcus faecium species and the order Bacteroidales are associated with specific sources, either human or ruminant sources. Bromide concentrations ranged from 0.04 to 0.18 milligrams per liter (mg/L). No wastewater compounds were detected at concentrations above the reporting limits. Samples from the 12 wells also were collected by Ohio EPA and analyzed for chloride and nitrate. Chloride concentrations ranged from 12.6 to 61.6 mg/L and nitrate concentrations ranged from 2.34 to 11.9 mg/L (as N). Total coliforms and enterococci were detected in samples from 8 wells, at concentrations from 2 to 200 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters (CFU/100 mL) and 0.5 to 17 CFU/100 mL, respectively. E. coli were detected in samples from three of the eight wells, at concentrations of 1 or 2 CFU/100 mL. Tests for the human
This article explores the politics of representing Black queer and trans subjectivities in the recent documentary film and photography of South African lesbian visual activist Zanele Muholi. While Muholi's work has been most often been positioned as an artistic response to the hate-crimes and violence perpetuated against Black lesbians in South African townships, most notably acts of sexual violence known increasingly as corrective rape, I argue that Muholi's documentary texts trouble the spatial, gendered, and highly racialized articulations that make up an increasingly global corrective rape discourse. The article considers how her visual texts foreground and (re)visualize Black queer and trans gender experiences that relocate, challenge, collaborate with, and at times, perform, masculinity as means to subvert heterosexist and racist constructions of township space and the Black gendered body.
Motlalepule Ruth Mampane
Full Text Available Factors that contribute to resilience are key to the positive development of youths, and knowledge of such factors is essential for promoting resilience in schools through both policy and practice. This study reports on the results of an item and factor analysis of the Resilience Questionnaire for Middle-adolescents in Township Schools (R-MATS that was used to survey 291 Grade 9 middle-adolescent learners from two black-only township secondary schools. The majority of respondents indicated an overall sense of contending with various stressors, especially the exposure to violence, and academic challenges. Respondents attributed their buoyancy to individual and environmental factors, such as self-confidence, an internal locus of control, a tough personality, commitment, being achievement-oriented, as well as positive identification of and access to social support.
... operation on the navigable waters of Boston Inner Harbor, in the main ship channel near Castle Island. This... operations in support of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers rock removal project. Entering into, transiting... before the start date of the project. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers also discussed the rock removal...
Li, Zhong; Yang, Jian; Wu, Yue; Pan, Zijin; He, Xiaoqun; Li, Boyang; Zhang, Liang
China's rapid transition in healthcare service system has posed considerable challenges for the primary care system. Little is known regarding the capacity of township hospitals (THs) to deliver surgical care in rural China with over 600 million lives. We aimed to ascertain its current performance, barriers, and summary lessons for its re-building in central China. This study was conducted in four counties from two provinces in central China. The New Rural Cooperative Medical System (NRCMS) claim data from two counties in Hubei province was analyzed to describe the current situation of surgical care provision. Based on previous studies, self-administered questionnaire was established to collect key indicators from 60 THs from 2011 to 2015, and social and economic statuses of the sampling townships were collected from the local statistical yearbook. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among seven key administrators in the THs that did not provide appendectomy care in 2015. Determinants of appendectomy care provision were examined using a negative binominal regression model. First, with the rapid increase in inpatient services provided by the THs, their proportion of surgical service provision has been nibbled by out-of-county facilities. Second, although DY achieved a stable performance, the total amount of appendectomy provided by the 60 THs decreased to 589 in 2015 from 1389 in 2011. Moreover, their proportion reduced to 26.77% in 2015 from 41.84% in 2012. Third, an increasing number of THs did not provide appendectomy in 2015, with the shortage of anesthesiologists and equipment as the most mentioned reasons (46.43%). Estimation results from the negative binomial model indicated that the annual average per capita disposable income and tightly integrated delivery networks (IDNs) negatively affected the amount of appendectomy provided by THs. By contrast, the probability of appendectomy provision by THs was increased by performance-related payment (PRP). Out
Gardner, G. B.; Chen, R. F.; Olavasen, J.; Peri, F.
The Hudson River flows into the Atlantic Ocean through a highly urbanized region which includes New York City to the east and Newark, New Jersey to the west. As a result, the export of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) from the Hudson to the Atlantic Ocean includes a significant anthropogenic component. A series of high resolution studies of the DOC dynamics of this system were conducted between 2003 and 2010. These included both the Hudson and adjacent large waterways (East River, Newark Bay, Kill Van Kull and Arthur Kill) using coastal research vessels and smaller tributaries (Hackensack, Pasaic and Raritan rivers) using a 25' boat. In both cases measurements were made using towed instrument packages which could be cycled from near surface to near bottom depths with horizontal resolution of approximately 20 to 200 meters depending on depth and deployment strategy. Sensors on the instrument packages included a CTD to provide depth and salinity information and a chromophoric dissolved organic matter(CDOM) fluorometer to measure the fluorescent fraction of the DOC. Discrete samples allowed calibration of the fluorometer and the CDOM data to be related to DOC. The combined data set from these cruises identified multiple scales of source and transport processes for DOC within the Hudson River/New York Harbor region. The Hudson carries a substantial amount of natural DOC from its 230 km inland stretch. Additional sources exist in fringing salt marshes adjacent to the Hackensack and Raritan rivers. However the lower Hudson/New Harbor region receives a large input of DOC from multiple publically owned treatment works (POTW) discharges. The high resolution surveys allowed us to elucidate the distribution of these sources and the manner in which they are rapidly mixed to create the total export. We estimate that anthropogenic sources account for up to 2.5 times the DOC flux contributed by natural processes.
Lee, So-Young; Lee, So-Ra; Kim, Jeong-Tae
This study presents vibration-based structural health monitoring method in foundation-structure interface of harbor caisson structure. In order to achieve the objective, the following approaches are implemented. Firstly, vibration-based response analysis method is selected and structural health monitoring (SHM) technique is designed for harbor caisson structure. Secondly, the performance of designed SHM technique for harbor structure is examined by FE analysis. Finally, the applicability of designed SHM technique for harbor structure is evaluated by dynamic tests on a lab-scaled caisson structure.
Full Text Available Despite improvements in educational provision in South Africa since 1994, the opportunities for learners from historically under-resourced schools to gain access to powerful English resources remain limited and unequal (Prinsloo 2012. In this article I will provide a detailed description of literacy practices in a township high school in Cape Town, specifically of the orientations to text that are made available to learners. I will draw on feminist poststructuralist theory, in which the subject is theorised as constructed and contested in language to construct difference. The analysis of classroom discourse and text-based tasks shows that the orientations to reading that were offered were characterised by a focus on the surface meaning of the texts and by an absence of critical engagement, despite the latter being required in the new Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement. The analysis reveals how the power dynamics of our racialised past and dominant ideologies about gender, class and race continue to define teaching in our classrooms in ways that limit access to the English resources that learners in under-resourced schools need for academic success.
Ntswane, A M; van Rhyn, L
This article reports on a research study done in Katutura Township, near Windhoek. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was followed to answer the research question investigating experiences of mothers caring for mentally retarded children at home. Phenomenological interviews were conducted with a purposefully selected sample of twelve mothers. The meaning of their experiences was analysed by using Teschxs method (1990 in Creswell, 1994:155) of analysing qualitative data. The results indicated various emotions and challenges experienced by these mothers during the care of their children. Feelings of shock, despondency and sadness dominated the early stages when the retarded children were still young. During later years, as the children were growing up, the mothers felt shame, fear, frustration, anger, disappointment and worry. However, acceptance followed, as the children grew older. Stigma seemed to affect all the respondents. Support in any form or lack thereof seemed to be the decisive factor-positioning mothers along a continuum of two extremes, namely despairing isolation and integrated happiness. Recommendations were made regarding the improvement of heath care services and education of the mothers and their families.
A new energy vision was established in the Iwaizumi Township area in Iwate Prefecture. The heat energy consumed by each household in Iwaizumi Town is 20.5 two-hundred-liter drums, while transportation (railways, buses, trucks and private cars) consumes 12.2 drums annually, and the electric energy field 4.7 drums annually. As the town as a whole, the ratio of utilization as heat energy is relatively high. Therefore, new energy introduction should be focused importantly on use of solar heat hot water supply device and high-level utilization of forestry fuels. The new energy introduction project includes introduction of bio-mass energy to produce heat energy and electric power using livestock excreta, cut woods, thinned woods, and kitchen refuses as the resources, structuring a new energy model for the 'Communication Land Iwaizumi', activation of the central urban area by introducing micro hydropower generation, assistance to proliferation of new energies to town-operated houses, households, and business entities, introduction of new energies into the disaster prevention center, schools, and insurance, medical and welfare facilities, introduction of clean energy automobiles, and uplift of consciousness of town people. (NEDO)
Luger, Rosemary; Prudhomme, Debbie; Bullen, Ann; Pitt, Catherine; Geiger, Martha
The purpose of this case study was to relate part of the journey to appropriate education for two young children with physical disabilities in a low socio-economic peri-urban informal settlement - or 'township' - in South Africa. The part of the on-going journey described here spanned four-and-a-half years and included the two children, their families, their teachers, their community and a small team of rehabilitation professionals working for a non-profit organisation in the area. The rehabilitation professionals' goals were to provide support for the children, their families, their current special care centre and the school(s) they would attend in the future. The steps from the special care centre, to a mainstream early childhood development (ECD) centre for both of them, and then on to (a) a school for learners with special educational needs (LSEN) for one child and (b) a mainstream primary school for the other, are described. Challenges encountered on the way included parental fears, community attitudes and physical accessibility. Practical outcomes included different placements for the two children with implications and recommendations for prioritised parent involvement, individual approaches, interdisciplinary and community-based collaborations. Recommendations are given for clinical contexts, curricula and policy matters; for research and for scaling up such a programme through community workers.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the action of rangeland-depended livestock holders regarding rangeland conservation, including protection and rehabilitation activities and to analyse relevant influencing factors, using a mixed method of survey and case study. The data were collected through analysing existing documents, focus groups, semi-structured and structured interviews using questionnaires submitted to 204 rural livestock holders in the Mahneshan Township. The quantitative data were analysed using SPSS and AMOS software. According to the results farmers’ knowledge regarding the role, importance and factors affecting rangeland degradation was relatively high, however they had a low level of knowledge and action about mechanical conservation techniques. The action of livestock holders in terms of biological conservation activities and grazing management showed a positive and signifincat corrletaion with variables such as implementing of rangeland projects, their interaction with external institutions, participating in extension training courses, education level and irrigated and rainfed agricultural land size. Moreover, based on a path analysis, 37% of the variance of the farmers’ actions regarding the rangeland conservation was explained by the variables such as rangeland rehabilitation actions, farmers’ conservation knowledge, farmers’ interaction with natural resources experts, beekeeping, and participating in extension training courses. Promotional and extension activities and farmers’ interaction with experts have a positive effect in enhancing farmers’ knowledge and actions for sustainable rangeland use and conservation.
Full Text Available This article reports on a research study done in Katutura Township, near Windhoek. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was followed to answer the research question investigating experiences of mothers caring for mentally retarded children at home. Phenomenological interviews were conducted with a purposefully selected sample of twelve mothers. The meaning of their experiences was analysed by using Teschxs method (1990 in Creswell, 1994:155 of analysing qualitative data. The results indicated various emotions and challenges experienced by these mothers during the care of their children. Feelings of shock, despondency and sadness dominated the early stages when the retarded children were still young. During later years, as the children were growing up, the mothers felt shame, fear, frustration, anger, disappointment and worry. However, acceptance followed, as the children grew older. Stigma seemed to affect all the respondents. Support in any form or lack thereof seemed to be the decisive factor-positioning mothers along a continuum of two extremes, namely despairing isolation and integrated happiness. Recommendations were made regarding the improvement of heath care services and education of the mothers and their families.
Thae’ Zar Chi Bo
Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban community of Thanlyin Township, Yangon Region during 2014 to determine Aedes larval indices and the occurrence of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF within past one year. A total of 327 households and 1491 members were included in the study. Aedes larval indices detected in this study were 25.7% for house index, 15.5% for container index and 48.0% for Breteau index. The occurrence of DHF among households and family members were 2.1% (95% CI: 0.9%, 4.4% and 0.6% (95% CI: 0.3%, 1.1%, respectively. The occurrence was highest among 5 to 14 years age-group. No case was reported among persons with equal or more than 60 years of age. Mortality and case fatality rates were 0% during study period. Larval positivity among households was significantly related to sufficiency of family income and number of water container they have. Surveillance and control procedures for both DHF and vector should be intensified in urban area. Awareness and participation of the community in prevention and control of DHF should also be raised. Socioeconomic status as well as proper water supply and storage should be improved in urban area.
Objectives: This research determines to what extent ICT is adopted by MSBs in Soweto, and whether or not a positive correlation exists between the adoption rate of ICT and the financial and growth performance of the MSB itself. Method: A structured questionnaire was completed by 978 respondents to determine the extent of ICT adoption and for what ICT is used. This exploratory research provides new knowledge about the acceptance of ICT within township MSBs. Results: The results indicate that ICT is not used to the fullest by MSBs. Rather, it is used as a basic tool for doing business but it does not form an integral part of the business. This research provides insight into the usage and adoption of ICT and it opens the door for further cross-analysis research. Conclusion: Education and training are needed to ensure that MSBs use ICT to the fullest. MSBs embracing ICT can evolve from a survivalist SME to a more sustainable micro and small MSB.
Misra, R.; Aseri, Tarun Kumar; Jamuwa, Doraj Karnal [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Government Engineering College, Ajmer, Rajasthan (India); Bansal, V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Government Mahila Engineering College, Ajmer, Rajasthan (India)
This paper presents the theoretical investigation of CDM opportunity in a township at Jaipur, India. The purpose of study is to identify and analyze the various opportunities viz., installation of solar water heater, energy efficient lighting, energy efficient air conditioners, and energy efficient submersible water pumps in desert coolers and thus achieve a considerable (65.7 %) reduction in GHG emissions. Out of the various opportunities considered, the retrofitting with solar water heater can be recommended for CDM. Though, the retrofitting with energy efficient lighting, energy efficient air conditioners and energy efficient submersible water pumps in desert coolers claimed CO2 emission reduction of 104.84, 25.92, and 36.94 tons per annum, respectively, but the only opportunity which got through CDM was retrofitting with solar water heater claiming 115.70 tCO2 (100 %) emission reductions per annum which could result into net earnings of 115.70 CERs. The simple and discounted payback period for all four project activities are also calculated with and without CDM and tax benefits.
Full Text Available I reflect on the methodological processes underpinning a dissertation that investigated male learners' reasons for leaving high school early and the strategies they employed to negotiate everyday life. A qualitative case study was conducted with nine male early high school leavers between the ages of 18 and 25, as well as 12 stakeholders involved in the Orange Farm Township, south of Johannesburg. Purposive and snowball sampling techniques were used. Data were collected through in-depth interviews, document reviews, and observations. Narrative analysis revealed complications related to the notions of space and place of the potential participants and the researcher. In the first place, the difficulty was not in identifying participants, but in establishing rapport to the extent that they agreed to participate in the research. Assumptions about space and place gave rise to expectations that had to be managed, and consequently the researcher had to rethink the methodological choices. In particular, participants' perceived real social positions and their relation to different social spaces had to be negotiated. It is suggested that relatively novice researchers, researching male early high school leaving in familiar spaces, can mitigate complications of space, place and stigma during fieldwork by using multiple sources of data and strategic, flexible interviewing techniques.
Tshediso Joseph Sekhampu
Full Text Available The study reported here used household level data toanalysedeterminants ofhousehold poverty amongst female-headed households in a South AfricanTownship of Bophelong. Poverty is defined and then measured for the sampledpopulation. A Logistic regression was estimated based on this data with theeconomic status (that is poor and non-poor as the dependent variable and a set ofdemographic variables as explanatory variables. The results show that householdsize, the age and employment status of theheadof householdsignificantly explainvariations in the likelihood of being poor.Household size was positivelyassociated with the probability of being poor, whereas the age and employmentstatus of the head of the household reduces the probability ofbeing in the poorcategory.It is of interest to note that the educational attainment of the householdhead is not important in reducing the chances of being a poor household.Information provided through this study is at household level and extends onexisting findings on poverty in South Africa bymodellingand determining thevarious socio-economic and demographic household level indicators responsiblefor female poverty.
Chao, Li-Wei; Szrek, Helena; Pereira, Nuno Sousa; Pauly, Mark V
Unlike large firms with management teams, small businesses are usually run by one key person, the owner-entrepreneur, who bears almost all of the risks and makes almost all of the decisions related to the business. Because the owner-entrepreneur also embodies most of the firm-specific knowledge capital, health of the owner-entrepreneur is an important factor in the production process. Following a cohort of respondents in townships around Durban, South Africa, over a three-year period, we examined the relationship between an individual's physical health and the decision to start a business. Our results suggest that respondents who were recent business entrants were in better health than respondents who did not start new businesses. Moreover, respondents without a business at the beginning of the study who later opened businesses during the three-year study interval were significantly more likely to have better baseline health than those respondents who never started a new business. Hence, good health among entrepreneurs seems to be an important prerequisite to small business entry.
Sandfort, Theo G M; Knox, Justin; Collier, Kate L; Lane, Tim; Reddy, Vasu
While men who have sex with men (MSM) in Africa are at high risk for HIV infection, few of those already infected know their status. Effectively promoting frequent HIV testing-of increasing importance with the expanding accessibility of antiretroviral treatment-requires an understanding of the testing practices in this population. To understand men's HIV testing practices, including their behavior, experiences, and perceptions, we conducted in-depth interviews with 81 black South African MSM (ages 20-39), purposively recruited from four townships. Many men in the sample had tested for HIV. While ever having tested seemed to facilitate repeat testing, men still expressed a high level of discomfort with testing. It was common to test after having engaged in risky behavior, thus increasing anxiety about testing that was already present. Fear that they might test HIV positive caused some men to avoid testing until they were clearly sick, and others to avoid testing completely. HIV testing may increase in this population if it becomes a routine practice, instead of being driven by anxiety-inducing incidents. Mobilization through social support might facilitate frequent testing while education about current treatment options is needed.
Safety measures and regulations system covering the aspects of fire protection, professional and ecological safety are aimed to create a safe working environment, by detection and remedy of conditions that are potentially hazardous for the well-being of the employees or are leading to certain undesired events. Such unwanted incidents may result in different consequences: operating person's injury, environment pollution or material damage. This study attempts to illustrate the organization of work during hazardous matter loading and unloading at inland water harbors, based on legal provisions and decrees involving safety precautions, and in order to achieve constant enhancement of operating procedure, decreasing thereby the number of work-related injuries and various accidental situations. Fundamental precondition required to prevent possible accidents and to optimize general safety policy is to recognize and control any danger or potential hazard, as well as to be familiar with the legal provisions covering the inland waterway transport of harmful substances.(author)
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI. 80.1460 Section 80.1460 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1460 Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI. A line drawn...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nawiliwili Harbor, Kauai, HI. 80.1450 Section 80.1450 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1450 Nawiliwili Harbor, Kauai, HI...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apra Harbor, Guam. 110.238 Section 110.238 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.238 Apra Harbor, Guam. (a) The anchorage grounds (Datum: WGS...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii, HI. 80.1470 Section 80.1470 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1470 Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii, HI...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI. 80.1480 Section 80.1480 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1480 Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI. A line drawn...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1...
... Activities: Harbor Maintenance Fee AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... Fee (CBP Forms 349 and 350). This is a proposed extension of an information collection that was... Fee. OMB Number: 1651-0055. Form Number: CBP Forms 349 and 350. Abstract: The Harbor Maintenance Fee...
... Proposed Self-Regulatory Guidelines; i-SAFE, Inc. Application for Safe Harbor AGENCY: Federal Trade... for public comment concerning proposed self-regulatory guidelines submitted by i-SAFE, Inc. under the... approval self-regulatory guidelines that would implement the Rule's protections.\\3\\ \\1\\ 64 FR 59888 (1999...
Lwin, Myo Min; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai; Nanthamongkokchai, Sutham
To study the factors that influence the family planning practice among married, reproductive age women in Hlaing Township, Myanmar. Cross-sectional survey research was conducted among 284 married, reproductive age women using stratified random sampling. The data were collected through questionnaire interviews during February and March 2012 and analyzed by frequency, percentage, Chi-square test, and multiple logistic regression. The proportion of families practicing family planning was 74.7%, contraceptive injection being the most commonly used method. The factors influencing family planning practice were attitude towards family planning, 24-hour availability of family planning services, health worker support, and partner and friends support. The women with a positive attitude toward family planning practiced family planning 3.7 times more than women who had a negative attitude. If family planning services were available for 24 hours, then women would practice 3.4 times more than if they were not available for 24 hours. When women got fair to good support from health workers, they practiced 15.0 times more on family planning and 4.3 times more who got fair to good support from partners and friends than women who got low support. The factors influencing family planning practice of married, reproductive age women were attitude toward family planning, 24-hour availability of family planning services, health worker support, and partner and friends support. The findings suggest that empowerment of health workers, training of volunteers, pharmacists and contraceptive drug providers, encouraging inter-spousal communication, and peer support, as well as an integrated approach to primary health care in order to target different populations to change women's attitudes on family planning, could increase family planning practice among Myanmar women.
Cheng, Zhaohui; Cai, Miao; Tao, Hongbing; He, Zhifei; Lin, Xiaojun; Lin, Haifeng; Zuo, Yuling
Objective Township hospitals (THs) are important components of the three-tier rural healthcare system of China. However, the efficiency and productivity of THs have been questioned since the healthcare reform was implemented in 2009. The objective of this study is to analyse the efficiency and productivity changes in THs before and after the reform process. Setting and participants A total of 48 sample THs were selected from the Xiaogan Prefecture in Hubei Province from 2008 to 2014. Outcome measures First, bootstrapping data envelopment analysis (DEA) was performed to estimate the technical efficiency (TE), pure technical efficiency (PTE) and scale efficiency (SE) of the sample THs during the period. Second, the bootstrapping Malmquist productivity index was used to calculate the productivity changes over time. Results The average TE, PTE and SE of the sample THs over the 7-year period were 0.5147, 0.6373 and 0.7080, respectively. The average TE and PTE increased from 2008 to 2012 but declined considerably after 2012. In general, the sample THs experienced a negative shift in productivity from 2008 to 2014. The negative change was 2.14%, which was attributed to a 23.89% decrease in technological changes (TC). The sample THs experienced a positive productivity shift from 2008 to 2012 but experienced deterioration from 2012 to 2014. Conclusions There was considerable space for TE improvement in the sample THs since the average TE was relatively low. From 2008 to 2014, the sample THs experienced a decrease in productivity, and the adverse alteration in TC should be emphasised. In the context of healthcare reform, the factors that influence TE and productivity of THs are complex. Results suggest that numerous quantitative and qualitative studies are necessary to explore the reasons for the changes in TE and productivity. PMID:27836870
Elizabeth J. Pretorius
Full Text Available In this article, we report on a study that examined the active and receptive English vocabulary of two different groups of Grade 3 learners in South African township schools. The groups consisted of English Home Language (HL learners in the Western Cape and Xhosa HL and English First Additional Language (FAL learners in the Eastern Cape. The purpose was to document their different vocabulary trajectories during Grade 3. The Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey was used to measure the active vocabulary levels of 118 learners at the beginning and the end of the school year. Another 284 learners from the same eight Grade 3 classes participated in a receptive vocabulary test at the end of the year. This test assessed their knowledge of the 60 most frequent words that occur in South Africa Grade 4 English textbooks. Results showed that although the HL learners knew almost double the number of words their English FAL peers did, both groups of learners increased their active word knowledge through the year by about 9%. Regarding their receptive vocabulary, the English FAL learners on average only knew 27% of the most frequent words at the end of their Grade 3. No significant gender differences were found. Learners in both language groups who were above their grade age had significantly lower scores than their younger peers. This confirms findings that children who start school with weak language skills tend to stay weak. Finally, initial active vocabulary knowledge was found to be a strong predictor of vocabulary development during the school year.
... & Burnham Park Harbor-Safety and Security Zone. 165.904 Section 165.904 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION... Guard District § 165.904 Lake Michigan at Chicago Harbor & Burnham Park Harbor—Safety and Security Zone...
... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2012-0767] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Changes to Original Rule; Boston Harbor's Rock Removal Project, Boston Inner Harbor... original provisions of that temporary final rule, but adds two additional safety zones necessary for the...
... (wind waves and swell) and long waves (harbor oscillations), was used to evaluate the technical feasibility of three alternative modifications to the harbor, including the Kahului Commercial Harbor 2025 Master Plan...
Manheim, F.T.; Butman, B.
Discharge of sewage sludge and effluent from 43 communities in the greater Boston metropolitan area has helped make the harbor one of the most polluted in the nation. As part of a court-mandated plan to end pollution of the harbor, effluent will no longer be discharged into the harbor, but instead, by 1995 it will be discharged into Massachusetts Bay through a record-long 15.34 km tunnel. By the year 2000 all of the sewage is scheduled to recive full secondary treatment. The public is concerned about long-term effects of the new ocean outfall on the environment, including Cape Cod Bay and Stellwagen Bank, which is an important habitat for whales and a newly designated national marine sanctuary. The bay has been additionally stressed by dumping of low-level radioactive and other hazardous wastes during the 1950s and 1960s. -from Authors
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Bar Harbor, Maine Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...
Barbato, Marta; Mapelli, Francesca; Magagnini, Mirko; Chouaia, Bessem; Armeni, Monica; Marasco, Ramona; Crotti, Elena; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara
Petroleum pollution results in co-contamination by different classes of molecules, entailing the occurrence of marine sediments difficult to remediate, as in the case of the Ancona harbor (Mediterranean Sea, Italy). Autochthonous bioaugmentation
Møller, JK; Bak, AL; Christiansen, C
Extrachromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from 24 different R factor-harboring Enterobacteriaceae was isolated and characterized by analytical ultracentrifugation and electron microscopy. The R factors represented 15 different patterns of transferable drug resistance found in enterobacteria from...
.... The deadly attack on Pearl Harbor did not accomplish its mission of breaking the American spirit..., aiding the war effort by working in manufacturing plants, participating in rationing programs, or...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Apra Harbor, Guam Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Pearl Harbor Hawaii Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...
The intent of this document is to sumarize the chlorination studies performed at Naval Station, Pearl Harbor in support of biofouling control initiatives for the submarine community, as requested by NAVSEA 92T...
Soroos, Ronald L.; Ewart, Charles J.
Increasing demand for freshwater in Hawaii has placed heavy stress on many of the State 's basal aquifer systems. The most heavily stressed of these systems is the Pearl Harbor on Oahu. The Pearl Harbor basal aquifer supplies as much as 277 million gallons per day. Since early in this century, spring discharge has been declining while pumpage has been increasing. Total ground-water discharge has remained steady despite short-term fluctuations. Some wells show general increases in chloride concentration while others remain steady. Chloride concentrations throughout the area show no apparent increase since 1970. Basal water head maps of the Pearl Harbor area clearly reflect the natural discharge points, which are the springs located along the shore near the center of Pearl Harbor. Basal-water hydrographs show a general decline of about 0.09 foot per year. This implies depletion of storage at a rate of about 25 million gallons per day. (USGS).
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....
Curry, Claire; Cherni, Judith A.; Mapako, Maxwell
The South African solar water heater (SWH) programme is part of national policy to improve the country's electricity security, an innovative strategy to provide indigent households with free solar water heaters. The study assesses the effects of the government programme for poor townships on reduction of household electricity consumption, decline in energy poverty, and reduction in CO2 emissions; and estimates the impact of SWH on reducing electricity demand nationwide. It reports results from fieldwork carried out in the City of Tshwane to measure both quantitatively and qualitatively the success of the project's deployment in townships. Although households register average savings of 27% on their monthly electricity bills and off-peak electricity demand has reduced significantly in the area, a variety of problems prevented the project from attaining the desired level of impact. Difficulties encountered include technical faults with the heaters combined with nonavailability of maintenance; a rise in water consumption; lack of community engagement leading to apathy; and dearth of owner training leading to underuse. The gap between inflated estimates and real savings is discussed. Expanding the programme could generate jobs but significant challenges remain. - Highlights: • The government's aim of saving electricity and reducing utility bills partly achieved. • Savings of electricity are estimated at about 25% less than the potential saving. • Wrong assumption that peak time is only 1 h produced savings 5 times larger. • ESKOM & government overlooked providing Information on the SWH to the householders. • No maintenance led to abandonment by many or water leaking increasing utility bills.
Hanke, Wolf; Witte, Mathias; Miersch, Lars; Brede, Martin; Oeffner, Johannes; Michael, Mark; Hanke, Frederike; Leder, Alfred; Dehnhardt, Guido
Harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) often live in dark and turbid waters, where their mystacial vibrissae, or whiskers, play an important role in orientation. Besides detecting and discriminating objects by direct touch, harbor seals use their whiskers to analyze water movements, for example those generated by prey fish or by conspecifics. Even the weak water movements left behind by objects that have passed by earlier can be sensed and followed accurately (hydrodynamic trail following). While scan...
Sheldon, P.; Chen, R. F.; Schaaf, C.; Pahlevan, N.; Lee, Z.
The transformation of Boston Harbor from the "dirtiest in America" to a National Park Area is one of the most remarkable estuarine recoveries in the world. A long-term water quality dataset from 1991 to present exists in Boston Harbor due to a $3. 8 billion lawsuit requiring the harbor clean-up. This project uses discrete water sampling and underway transects with a towed vehicle coordinated with Landsat 7 and Landsat 8 to create surface maps of chlorophyll a (Chl a), dissolved organic matter (CDOM and DOC), total suspended solids (TSS), diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd_490), and photic depth in Boston Harbor. In addition, 3 buoys have been designed, constructed, and deployed in Boston Harbor that measure Chl a and CDOM fluorescence, optical backscatter, salinity, temperature, and meteorological parameters. We are initially using summer and fall of 2015 to develop atmospheric corrections for conditions in Boston Harbor and develop algorithms for Landsat 8 data to estimate in water photic depth, TSS, Chl a, Kd_490, and CDOM. We will report on initial buoy and cruise data and show 2015 Landsat-derived distributions of water quality parameters. It is our hope that once algorithms for present Landsat imagery can be developed, historical maps of water quality can be constructed using in water data back to 1991.
Pons Rotger, Gabriel Angel; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick
This study examines the effect of accessibility to urban jobs via a public transport system on individual earnings and commuting behaviour. The effect of improved public transport based accessibility on these outcomes is determined by exploiting the exogenous variation in access to a public rail...... and Metro system resulting from the construction of a new terminal Metro station connecting southern townships to Copenhagen city centre. The results show that public transport based job accessibility has a positive and permanent effect on individual earnings. The increase in earnings is associated...... with a change in commuting patterns as the improved access to public transport facilitates a shift from employment within the township to better paid jobs in the city centre, as well as in other suburbs of the Copenhagen Metropolitan area...
This paper examines socio-economic factors influencing parental involvement in homework at the Foundation Phase in eight Johannesburg public primary schools. The research was conducted among over 600 parents from schools in different geographical and socio-economic areas such as the inner city, suburban and township. Two primary schools were…
Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites about Pearl Harbor (Hawaii). Includes Web sites that cover Pearl Harbor history, a live view of Pearl Harbor, stories from people who remember where they were during the attack, information on the naval station at Pearl Harbor, and a virtual tour of the USS Arizona. (CMK)
Ding, Ding; Pan, Qingxia; Shan, Linghan; Liu, Chaojie; Gao, Lijun; Hao, Yanhua; Song, Jian; Ning, Ning; Cui, Yu; Li, Ye; Qi, Xinye; Liang, Chao; Wu, Qunhong; Liu, Guoxiang
China introduced a series of health reforms in 2009, including a national essential medicines policy and a medical insurance system for primary care institutions. This study aimed to determine the changing prescribing patterns associated with those reforms in township hospitals. A multi-stage stratified random cluster sampling method was adopted to identify 29 township hospitals from six counties in three provinces. A total of 2899 prescriptions were collected from the participating township hospitals using a systematic random sampling strategy. Seven prescribing indicators were calculated and compared between 2008 and 2013, assessing use of medicines (antibiotics and adrenal corticosteroids) and polypharmacy, administration route of medicines (injections), and affordability of medicines. Significant changes in prescribing patterns were found. The average number of medicines and costs per-prescription dropped by about 50%. The percentage of prescriptions requiring antibiotics declined from 54% to 38%. The percentage of prescriptions requiring adrenal corticosteroid declined from 14% to 4%. The percentage of prescriptions requiring injections declined from 54% to 25%. Despite similar changing patterns, significant regional differences were observed. Significant changes in prescribing patterns are evident in township hospitals in China. Overprescription of antibiotics, injections and adrenal corticosteroids has been reduced. However, salient regional disparities still exist. Further studies are needed to determine potential shifts in the risk of the inappropriate use of medicines from primary care settings to metropolitan hospitals.
The performance of the Shirco pilot-scale infrared thermal destruction system has been evaluated at the Rose Township, Demode Road Superfund Site and is presented in the report. The waste tested consisted of solvents, organics and heavy metals in an illegal dump site. Volume I gi...
The Shirco Pilot-Scale Infrared Incineration System was evaluated during a series of seventeen test runs under varied operating conditions at the Demode Road Superfund Site located in Rose Township, Michigan. The tests sought to demonstrate the effectiveness of the unit and the t...
Mavuru, Lydia; Ramnarain, Umesh
This article explores teachers' knowledge and views on the role of learners' socio-cultural background when teaching Natural Sciences to Grade 9 learners at three South African township schools. Within a socio-cultural framework, the research investigated how teachers accommodate learners' cultural norms and values, religion and beliefs,…
Full Text Available The paper results from a research project completed by the author in 1994 on the quality of language-learning environments in the Cape Town area . . Xhosa is now constitutionally enshrined as one of the eleven official languages of South Africa, and is the dominant language in Western Cape black townships. This paper questions the fruitfUlness of primary schools in black townships attempting to use English as the sole medium of instruction. The paper shows that in actual classroom situations the Ll (Xhosa is used as an aid to L2 (English medium instruction in the schools of Khayelitsha and Lagunya townships around Cape Town. The paper argues for the recognition and forther extension of such bilingual practices in primary schools to work towards more successfUl use of the L2 as the medium of instruction. It assesses the implications of such bilingual policy for classroom interaction and materials development. Hierdie artikel spruit voort uit 'n navorsingsprojek wat in 1994 deur die skrywer onderneem is in groter Kaapstad oor die kwaliteit van die omgewings waarbinne taal aange/eer word. Xhosa is volgens die konstitusie een van die elf amptelike tale in Suid-Afrika en is die oorheersende taal in die swart woonbuurte van die Wes-Kaap. In hierdie artikel word die waarde bevraagteken van die poging wat in die primere skole in die swart woonbuurte aangewend word om Engels as enigste medium van onderrig te gebruik. In die artikel word ook daarop gewys dat skole in Khayelitsha en Lagunya, twee swart woonbuurte naby Kaapstad, Xhosa (Tl gebruik as hulpmiddel by die onderrig deur medium van Engels (T2. Daar word aangevoer dat hierdie gebruik van tweetalige onderrig in primere skole erkenning behoort te kry en verder uitgebrei behoort te word sodat daar gestrewe kan word na 'n meer suksesvol/e gebruik van die tweede taal as onderrigmedium. 'n Waardebepaling van die implikasies van so 'ntweetalige beleid vir k/askamerinteraksie en die ontwikkeling van
Kelly, Victoria R; Cunningham, Mary Ann; Curri, Neil; Findlay, Stuart E; Carroll, Sean M
We used a GIS analysis of sodium and chloride concentrations in private water wells in a southeastern New York township to describe the pattern of distribution of road salt in aquifers tapped for drinking water. The primary source of road salt was sodium chloride, and sodium and chloride concentrations were significantly correlated ( = 0.80, road ( = 0.76, road had higher concentrations of chloride than wells that were higher than the nearest road, but this occurred only when the nearest road was >30 m from the wells ( road type (major or minor roads). Surface geology and hydrologic soil class had significant effects ( road salt contamination of groundwater is unevenly distributed and is affected by landscape factors that can be used to guide well testing and best management practices of deicing salt distribution. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Lawrence River, Cape Vincent Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation of the harbor and U.S. breakwater. 207.610 Section 207... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.610 St. Lawrence River, Cape Vincent Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and...
Full Text Available Gallbladder (GB stones have been associated with several metabolic factors and liver diseases. This community-based study aimed at investigating the prevalence rate of GB stones and its associated factors in a hepatitis B virus (HBV/hepatitis C virus (HCV-endemic township in southern Taiwan. A total of 1701 residents (689 males and 1012 females; mean age: 51.2 ± 16.0 years were enrolled in this prospectively designed screening project. Serum biochemistry tests, including testing for levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, and antibody to HCV (anti-HCV were conducted. In addition, a hepatobiliary ultrasonographic (US examination was also conducted. Of the 1701 residents, 243 (14.3% and 475 (27.9% were found to be positive for HBsAg and anti-HCV, respectively. Results of the US examination revealed the prevalence rate of GB stone and fatty liver to be 6.8% and 55.6%, respectively. Using univariate analyses we found that significantly higher proportions of the participants with GB stone were male, over 50 years of age, positive for anti-HCV (p = 0.001, p 50 year were identified as independent factors associated with the formation of GB stones. Anti-HCV was associated with GB stones in males but not in females in both univariate and multivariate analyses. GB stones were found to have a prevalence rate of 6.8% in this HCV/HBV hyperendemic township and are associated with higher mean age. A correlation between chronic hepatitis C and GB stones is observed only among males.
Zembe-Mkabile, Wanga; Doherty, Tanya; Sanders, David; Jackson, Debra
Cash transfers (CTs) are increasingly used as a strategy to alleviate poverty and improve child health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. The Child Support Grant (CSG) is the largest CT programme in South Africa, and on the continent, targeting poor children from birth until the age of 18 with a monthly sum of R300 (USD30). Evidence on the CSG shows that early receipt of the grant is associated with improved child health outcomes. Since its implementation, one of the major concerns about the grant has been take-up rates, particularly for younger children. This paper reports results on take-up rates for 12-week-old infants residing in an urban township in South Africa. This is a descriptive study utilising data from a community-based, cluster-randomised trial which evaluated a programme providing pregnancy and post-natal home visits by community health workers to 3,494 mothers in Umlazi township, South Africa. At the 12-week visit, half (52%) of the mothers who had enrolled in the study had applied for the CSG on behalf of their children, while 85% of the mothers who had not applied were still planning to apply. Only 38% (1,327) of all children had received the CSG. In this study, many mothers had not applied for the CSG in the first few months after delivery, and only a third of children had accessed the grant. Further research is needed to understand what the current barriers are that prevent mothers from applying for this important form of social protection in the early months after delivery.
Full Text Available Background: Cash transfers (CTs are increasingly used as a strategy to alleviate poverty and improve child health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. The Child Support Grant (CSG is the largest CT programme in South Africa, and on the continent, targeting poor children from birth until the age of 18 with a monthly sum of R300 (USD30. Evidence on the CSG shows that early receipt of the grant is associated with improved child health outcomes. Since its implementation, one of the major concerns about the grant has been take-up rates, particularly for younger children. This paper reports results on take-up rates for 12-week-old infants residing in an urban township in South Africa. Methods: This is a descriptive study utilising data from a community-based, cluster-randomised trial which evaluated a programme providing pregnancy and post-natal home visits by community health workers to 3,494 mothers in Umlazi township, South Africa. Results: At the 12-week visit, half (52% of the mothers who had enrolled in the study had applied for the CSG on behalf of their children, while 85% of the mothers who had not applied were still planning to apply. Only 38% (1,327 of all children had received the CSG. Conclusions: In this study, many mothers had not applied for the CSG in the first few months after delivery, and only a third of children had accessed the grant. Further research is needed to understand what the current barriers are that prevent mothers from applying for this important form of social protection in the early months after delivery.
Full Text Available Proper planning and implementation of sound programs and strategies is vital to agricultural development. Recognizing current problems and strengths of any section is required in the first step. One of the most important problems in the Iranian agriculture sector is land fragmentation. The purpose of this descriptive-correlational study was to investigate wheat farmers’ attitude and land consolidation solutions from their viewpoints in the Hashtrood Township in year 2013. A group of experts from different majors confirmed the validity of the questionnaire used as our research tool and by conducting a pilot test and the Cronbach’s alpha was calculated to be equal to 0.85 for attitude scale and 0.8 for solution scale, and hence its reliability was verified. The target population consisted of all of the wheat farmers in the Hashtrood Township in the East Azerbaijan province 186 of whom were selected as samples from 15 villages based on Cochran’s sampling formula and the multi stage randomized sampling method. An analysis of the attitudes of wheat farmers revealed that 67.7 and 32.3 percent of them have unfavorable and neutral attitudes towards land consolidation. Also, there is a significant positive relationship between farming experience and their attitude in land consolidation, but there is a negative relationship between it and their total land segments. Factor analysis of data revealed that four factors named as deterrent actions, cooperative-common actions, supportive-infrastructural actions and motivational extension actions explained 59.9% of land consolidation solutions by wheat farmers.
Griggs, Gary B.
Beach compartments or littoral cells form the framework for our understanding of the sources, transport, and sinks of sand in the nearshore zone. In general, along the California coast, beach sand is derived from rivers or clifferosion, moves alongshore under the influence of the prevailing waver conditions, and ultimately is lost either to a submarine canyon or a dune field. Marinas or harbors built either between or at the upcoast ends of beach compartments have been relatively maintenance-free, because of a lack of significant littoral drift at these locations. On the other hand, those harbors built in the middle reaches or at the downcoast ends of littoral cells have had expensive annual dredging problems, because of the interruption of large volumes of littoral drift. Although engineers have labored for years on various breakwater, jetty, or entrance channel configurations, the actual design utilized is of secondary importance. The critical factors are harbor location within a littoral cell and annual litoral drift volume.
Soegaard, Lisette B; Hansen, Marie N; van Elk, Cornelis
Harbor porpoises are active divers that exchange O(2) and CO(2) with the environment during a fast single breath upon surfacing. We investigated blood O(2)-transporting properties, buffer characteristics, Cl(-) transport via the erythrocyte anion exchanger (AE1), circulating nitric oxide metaboli......Harbor porpoises are active divers that exchange O(2) and CO(2) with the environment during a fast single breath upon surfacing. We investigated blood O(2)-transporting properties, buffer characteristics, Cl(-) transport via the erythrocyte anion exchanger (AE1), circulating nitric oxide....... The true plasma non-bicarbonate buffer value was moderately higher than in terrestrial mammals and increased upon deoxygenation. Plasma bicarbonate was also relatively high, contributing to increase the overall buffer capacity. The apparent Cl(-) permeability of harbor porpoise erythrocytes was similar......, plasma nitrate and hemoglobin-mediated nitrite reduction were elevated compared with mammalian standards, suggesting that increased nitric oxide bioavailability and nitrite-derived nitric oxide could play important roles in diving physiology....
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Henderson Harbor, N.Y. 110.87... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.87 Henderson Harbor, N.Y. (a) Area A. The area in the... latitude 43°51′08.8″ N, longitude 76°12′08.9″ W, thence to latitude 43°51′09.0″ N, longitude 76°12′19.0″ W...
Møller, JK; Bak, AL; Christiansen, C
Extrachromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from 24 different R factor-harboring Enterobacteriaceae was isolated and characterized by analytical ultracentrifugation and electron microscopy. The R factors represented 15 different patterns of transferable drug resistance found in enterobacteria from...... from 1.700 to 1.720 g/cm3. The majority of the bacteria contained extrachromosomal DNAs of various densities. Three-fourths of the R factors were classified as fi+. The investigation illustrates the extensive variability in the physical characteristics of plasmid DNA from R factor-harboring strains....
... portion of the Line to the Christina Seix Academy to be used as a roadway for access to the school. CSXT... CFR 1105.12 (newspaper publication), and 49 CFR 1152.50(d)(1) (notice to governmental agencies) have...
Hanke, Wolf; Witte, Matthias; Miersch, Lars; Brede, Martin; Oeffner, Johannes; Michael, Mark; Hanke, Frederike; Leder, Alfred; Dehnhardt, Guido
Harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) often live in dark and turbid waters, where their mystacial vibrissae, or whiskers, play an important role in orientation. Besides detecting and discriminating objects by direct touch, harbor seals use their whiskers to analyze water movements, for example those generated by prey fish or by conspecifics. Even the weak water movements left behind by objects that have passed by earlier can be sensed and followed accurately (hydrodynamic trail following). While scanning the water for these hydrodynamic signals at a swimming speed in the order of meters per second, the seal keeps its long and flexible whiskers in an abducted position, largely perpendicular to the swimming direction. Remarkably, the whiskers of harbor seals possess a specialized undulated surface structure, the function of which was, up to now, unknown. Here, we show that this structure effectively changes the vortex street behind the whiskers and reduces the vibrations that would otherwise be induced by the shedding of vortices from the whiskers (vortex-induced vibrations). Using force measurements, flow measurements and numerical simulations, we find that the dynamic forces on harbor seal whiskers are, by at least an order of magnitude, lower than those on sea lion (Zalophus californianus) whiskers, which do not share the undulated structure. The results are discussed in the light of pinniped sensory biology and potential biomimetic applications.
Bebianno, M J; Pereira, C G; Rey, F; Cravo, A; Duarte, D; D'Errico, G; Regoli, F
Harbors are critical environments with strategic economic importance but with potential environmental impact: health assessment criteria are a key issue. An ecosystem health status approach was carried out in Portimão harbor as a case-study. Priority and specific chemical levels in sediments along with their bioavailability in mussels, bioassays and a wide array of biomarkers were integrated in a biomarker index (IBR index) and the overall data in a weight of evidence (WOE) model. Metals, PAHs, PCBs and HCB were not particularly high compared with sediment guidelines and standards for dredging. Bioavailability was evident for Cd, Cu and Zn. Biomarkers proved more sensitive namely changes of antioxidant responses, metallothioneins and vittellogenin-like proteins. IBR index indicated that site 4 was the most impacted area. Assessment of the health status by WOE approach highlighted the importance of integrating sediment chemistry, bioaccumulation, biomarkers and bioassays and revealed that despite some disturbance in the harbor area, there was also an impact of urban effluents from upstream. Environmental quality assessment in harbors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
...; Kaumalapau, Lanai; Kahului, Maui and Kawaihae and Hilo on the Island of Hawaii). The purpose of these safety... the piers faces. (9) All waters of Hilo Harbor, Hawaii immediately adjacent to commercial piers 1 and.... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing nine (9) permanent safety zones encompassing Hawaii's commercial...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal. 117.181 Section 117.181 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Tidal Canal. The draws of the Alameda County highway drawbridges at Park Street, mile 5.2; Fruitvale...
... seek input as to whether management measures are needed, and if so, what types of measures should be... proposed rulemaking (ANPR) on potential management measures to protect glacially-associated harbor seal... need for regulations; (2) the geographic scope and time horizon of regulations; (3) management options...
Wisniewska, Danuta Maria; Teilmann, Jonas; Hermannsen, Line
-animal recordings as proxies for actual exposure. Here, we quantify sound exposure levels recorded with a DTAG-3 tag on a captive harbor porpoise exposed to vessel noise in a controlled acoustic environment. Results show that fl ow noise is limiting onboard noise recordings, whereas no evidence of body shading has...
Rhizosphere of rice plants harbor bacteria with multiple plant growth promoting features. ... 45 (39.46%) isolates were capable of producing siderophore, the range of production being 4.50 to 223.26 μg mg-1 protein. Analysis of molecular diversity was made by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and ...
Hawaii saw that seminal moment in history, and those that were there vividly remember that Sunday morning this noise," he said in an oral history on the Pearl Harbor Survivors' Association Web site. " seeing was an attack. "It didn't mean anything to us until a large group of planes came near the
Tougaard, Jakob; Henriksen, Oluf Damsgaard; Miller, Lee A
Underwater noise was recorded from three different types of wind turbines in Denmark and Sweden (Middelgrunden, Vindeby, and Bockstigen-Valar) during normal operation. Wind turbine noise was only measurable above ambient noise at frequencies below 500 Hz. Total sound pressure level was in the range 109-127 dB re 1 microPa rms, measured at distances between 14 and 20 m from the foundations. The 1/3-octave noise levels were compared with audiograms of harbor seals and harbor porpoises. Maximum 1/3-octave levels were in the range 106-126 dB re 1 microPa rms. Maximum range of audibility was estimated under two extreme assumptions on transmission loss (3 and 9 dB per doubling of distance, respectively). Audibility was low for harbor porpoises extending 20-70 m from the foundation, whereas audibility for harbor seals ranged from less than 100 m to several kilometers. Behavioral reactions of porpoises to the noise appear unlikely except if they are very close to the foundations. However, behavioral reactions from seals cannot be excluded up to distances of a few hundred meters. It is unlikely that the noise reaches dangerous levels at any distance from the turbines and the noise is considered incapable of masking acoustic communication by seals and porpoises.
... Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History... the maritime safety and security of the general public. B. Basis and Purpose The National Football...
Full Text Available data to gain insights about mobile data usage patterns and the underlying reasons for user behavior concerning mobile data usage. Due to the limited availability of public free Wi-Fi and despite the relatively high cost of mobile data, we find that a...
Qing, Yunbo; Hu, Guijie; Chen, Qingyun; Peng, Hailun; Li, Kailan; Wei, Jinling; Yi, Yanhua
To produce competent undergraduate-level medical doctors for rural township health centers (THCs), the Chinese government mandated that medical colleges in Central and Western China recruit rural-oriented, tuition-waived medical students (RTMSs) starting in 2010. This study aimed to identify and assess factors that influence the choice to work in rural township health centers among both RTMSs and other students from five medical universities in Guangxi, China. An internet-based self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted with medical students in Guangxi province. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify factors related to the attitudes toward work in a rural township health center. Among 4,669 medical students, 1,523 (33%) had a positive attitude and 2,574 (55%) had a neutral attitude toward working in THCs. Demographic characteristics, personal job concerns, and knowledge of THCs were associated with the choice of a career in THCs. The factors related to a positive attitude included the following: three-year program, a rural-oriented medical program, being male, an expectation of working in a county or township, a focus on medical career development, some perceived difficulty of getting a job, having family support, sufficient knowledge of THCs, optimism toward THC development, seeking lower working pressure, and a lower expected monthly salary. Male students in a three-year program or a rural-oriented tuition-waived medical education program were more likely to work in THCs. Selecting medical students through interviews to identify their family support and intentions to work in THCs would increase recruitment and retention. Establishing favorable policies and financial incentives to improve living conditions and the social status of rural physicians is necessary.
Full Text Available Purpose: To produce competent undergraduate-level medical doctors for rural township health centers (THCs, the Chinese government mandated that medical colleges in Central and Western China recruit rural-oriented, tuition-waived medical students (RTMSs starting in 2010. This study aimed to identify and assess factors that influence the choice to work in rural township health centers among both RTMSs and other students from five medical universities in Guangxi, China. Methods: An internet-based self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted with medical students in Guangxi province. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify factors related to the attitudes toward work in a rural township health center. Results: Among 4,669 medical students, 1,523 (33% had a positive attitude and 2,574 (55% had a neutral attitude toward working in THCs. Demographic characteristics, personal job concerns, and knowledge of THCs were associated with the choice of a career in THCs. The factors related to a positive attitude included the following: three-year program, a rural-oriented medical program, being male, an expectation of working in a county or township, a focus on medical career development, some perceived difficulty of getting a job, having family support, sufficient knowledge of THCs, optimism toward THC development, seeking lower working pressure, and a lower expected monthly salary. Conclusion: Male students in a three-year program or a rural-oriented tuition-waived medical education program were more likely to work in THCs. Selecting medical students through interviews to identify their family support and intentions to work in THCs would increase recruitment and retention. Establishing favorable policies and financial incentives to improve living conditions and the social status of rural physicians is necessary.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset supports efforts to estimate the abundance and trends in population size of Alaska harbor seals. Annual surveys of harbor seal populations are...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset supports efforts to estimate the abundance and trends in population size of Alaska harbor seals. Annual surveys of harbor seal populations are...
Earley, P. J; Rosen, G; Rivera-Duarte, I; Gauthier, R. D; Arias-Thode, Y; Thompson, J; Swope, B
Studies were performed to develop a new National Pollution Discharge Elimination Systems Permit for the discharge of effluents from the Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard and Intermediate Maintenance Facility into Pearl Harbor...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Between 2004 and 2006 we conducted four harbor seal tagging trips in Cook Inlet during the months of October and May. In total, we captured and released 93 harbor...
Ding, Yan; Smith, Helen J; Fei, Yang; Xu, Biao; Nie, Shaofa; Yan, Weirong; Diwan, Vinod K; Sauerborn, Rainer; Dong, Hengjin
The Chinese central government launched the Health System Reform Plan in 2009 to strengthen disease control and health promotion and provide a package of basic public health services. Village doctors receive a modest subsidy for providing public health services associated with the package. Their beliefs about this subsidy and providing public health services could influence the quality and effectiveness of preventive health services and disease surveillance. To understand village doctors' perspectives on the subsidy and their experiences of delivering public health services, we performed 10 focus group discussions with village doctors, 12 in-depth interviews with directors of township health centres and 4 in-depth interviews with directors of county-level Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The study was conducted in four counties in central China, two in Hubei province and two in Jiangxi province. Village doctors prioritize medical services but they do their best to manage their time to include public health services. The willingness of township health centre directors and village doctors to provide public health services has improved since the introduction of the package and a minimum subsidy, but village doctors do not find the subsidy to be sufficient remuneration for their efforts. Improving the delivery of public health services by village doctors is likely to require an increase in the subsidy, improvement in the supervisory relationship between village clinics and township health centres and the creation of a government pension for village doctors.
Reed, Scott; Wood, Jon; Vazquez, Jose; Mignotte, Pierre-Yves; Privat, Benjamin
Hull and harbor infrastructure inspections are frequently performed manually and involve quite a bit of risk and human and monetary resources. In any kind of threat and resource constrained environment, this involves unacceptable levels of risk and cost. Modern Remotely Operated Vehicles are highly refined machines that provide features and capabilities previously unavailable. Operations once carried out by divers can now be carried out more quickly, efficiently and safely by smart enabled ROVs. ROVs are rapidly deployable and capable of continuous, reliable operations in adverse conditions. They also provide a stable platform on which multiple sensors may be mounted and utilized to meet the harbor inspection problem. Automated Control software provides ROV's and their pilots with the capability to inspect complex, constrained environments such as those found in a harbor region. This application and the user interface allow the ROV to automatically conduct complex maneuvers relative to the area being inspected and relieves the training requirements and work load for the pilot, allowing he or she to focus on the primary task of survey, inspection and looking for possible threats (such as IEDs, Limpet Mines, signs of sabotage, etc). Real-time sensor processing tools can be integrated into the smart ROV solution to assist the operator. Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) algorithms are used to search through the sensor data collected by the ROV in real time. These algorithms provide immediate feedback on possible threats and notify the operator of regions that may require manual verification. Sensor data (sonar or video) is also mosaiced, providing the operator with real-time situational awareness and a coverage map of the hull or seafloor. Detected objects may also be placed in the context of the large scale characteristics of the hull (or bottom or pilings) and localized. Within the complex areas such as the harbor pier pilings and the running gear of the ship, real
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apra Inner Harbor, Island of Guam... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1430 Apra Inner Harbor, Island of Guam; restricted area. (a) The restricted area. The waters within Apra Inner Harbor and...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apra Outer Harbor, Guam-regulated....1402 Apra Outer Harbor, Guam—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a regulated navigation area—The waters of the Pacific Ocean and Apra Outer Harbor enclosed by a line beginning at latitude 13...
...-1366; Airspace Docket No. 11-ANE-13] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bar Harbor, ME AGENCY: Federal... area at Bar Harbor, ME, as the Surry Non-Directional Radio Beacon (NDB) has been decommissioned and new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures have been developed at Hancock County-Bar Harbor Airport. This...
...-1366; Airspace Docket No. 11-ANE-13] Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bar Harbor, ME AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Bar Harbor, ME, as the Surry Non-Directional Radio Beacon... Hancock County-Bar Harbor Airport. This action would enhance the safety and airspace management of...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, New York. 162.165 Section 162.165 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... and Rochester Harbors, New York. In Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, no vessel may exceed 6 miles per...
...-AA00 Safety Zone; Conneaut Festival Fireworks, Conneaut Harbor, Conneaut, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Conneaut Harbor, Conneaut, OH for the Conneaut Festival Fireworks. This zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Conneaut Harbor, Conneaut, OH during the Conneaut Festival Fireworks on July 3...
... Operation Regulations; Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... across the Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, mile 4.6, at New Orleans, Louisiana. This deviation is... Seabrook Highway crossing the Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, mile 4.6, in New Orleans, Louisiana. The...
Robbins, E.I.; Brant, D.L.; Ziemkiewicz, P.F.
Successful designs to eliminate Mn from mine discharge are necessary for both restoring abandoned mine lands and permitting the mining of high sulfur coal in the eastern United States. A passive in-line system that meets Mn discharge limits was built at the discharge from the former Shade Township coal mine in south central Pennsylvania. Qualitative research on monthly changes in the microbial and algal community that removes Mn is underway. Epilithic attachment of microorganisms was analyzed on artificial (glass microscope slides) and natural substrates (limestone thin sections) that were immersed in surface water for one month periods over 6 months. Organisms attached to both glass and limestone substrates. Limestone became coated with 34--86% more Mn that did glass surfaces. Light microscopy revealed 12 different strategies are being used by bacteria, cyan bacteria, diatoms, green algae, and fungi to oxidize Mn. the dominant method used by the epilithic community to oxidize Mn is coating of holdfasts by the iron bacterium, Liptothrix discophora, and the green alga, Ulothrix sp. Other methods for Mn removal by oxidation include coating of individual cells, filaments/sheaths/hyphae, extracellular polysaccharides, and biofilms. The unplanned community at the site is multifaceted and extremely efficient in its Mn removal ability. Community interactions or complexity may play roles in the stability of the ecosystem and the efficiency of its Mn oxidizing ability
Makanga, Prestige Tatenda; Schuurman, Nadine; Randall, Ellen
Interpersonal violence is a major contributor to the burden of disease globally, and in South Africa, it is the leading cause of injury. There is an emerging consensus that the development of actionable policy and effective prevention strategies for interpersonal violence requires an understanding of the contextual matters that elevate risk for interpersonal violence. The objective of this study was to explore community perceptions of risks for interpersonal violence in five townships in Cape Town, South Africa, with high rates of violence. Focus group discussions were conducted with community members to identify key factors in that contributed to being either a perpetrator or victim of interpersonal violence. The ecological framework was used to classify the risk factors as occurring at individual, relationship, community or society levels. Some of the risk factors identified included alcohol abuse, poverty, informality of settlements and cultural norms. Differences in how each of these risk factors are expressed and experienced in the five communities are also elucidated. This approach enabled the collection of contextual community-based data that can complement conventional surveillance data in the development of relevant community-level strategies for interpersonal violence prevention.
Roldan Carvajal, Carlos Daniel
This paper presents important management guidelines for conducting a tourism planning process in the township of San Francisco de Asis, which were developed from the conceptual notion of sustainable tourism and participation of local people. This case considered the participatory research method, used ethnography techniques and implemented shops with the community. As a main result proposed the consolidation of four components, socio- political, socio- cultural, social- ecological and socio- economic; that must be managed in an integrated fashion to achieve real sustainable tourism in this territory. In the first component outlines an participatory process that must take place between the various stake holders; in the second considered strengthen the social tissue and valuing cultural traditions to adequately integrate tourism activities; the third proposes an integrated environmental conservation in the whole territory and as an obligation of all stake holders, including to tourists; finally, in the fourth component, recommend the creation of more opportunities and general welfare for the entire local population in order to prevent the growth of tourism segregated. As a general conclusion will projected that the implementation of these guidelines permitted advance, from the practical, in the development of a truly sustainable tourism that help improve the living conditions of local people and conserve valuable natural and cultural resources that exist in this territory.
Numvula J. Serame
Full Text Available The research that this article reports on investigated the incidence of learner discipline problems, the effect of them on teachers, the teachers’ methods of maintaining discipline and the effectiveness of those methods in one township, namely Jouberton in Klerksdorp, South Africa. The experiences of both teachers and learners were surveyed. It was found that discipline at the school is far from satisfactory and problems with discipline are more serious than the international norm indicates. These problems have a serious effect on a large part of the teachers’ family life, personal health, job satisfaction and morale. Whilst both teachers and learners commendably prefer the educationally sound preventive and positive methods of maintaining discipline, the application of these methods appears not to be effective: it seems as if teacher education falls short in the area of maintaining discipline, particularly regarding the successful application of proactive methods of maintaining discipline. Finally, the learners’ views on the maintenance of discipline are an alarming indictment of the principles of democracy, human rights and human dignity, and of rationality as a tool for conflict resolution. Recommendations are made for follow-up research with the objective of amelioration.
Robbins, E.I.; Brant, D.L.; Ziemkiewicz, P.F.
Successful designs to eliminate Mn from mine discharge are necessary for both restoring abandoned mine lands and permitting the mining of high sulfur coal in the eastern United States. A passive in-line system that meets Mn discharge limits was built at the discharge from the former Shade Township coal mine in south central Pennsylvania. Qualitative research on monthly changes in the microbial and algal community that removes Mn is underway. Epilithic attachment of microorganisms was analyzed on artificial (glass microscope slides) and natural substrates (limestone thin sections) that were immersed in surface water for one month periods over 6 months. Organisms attached to both glass and limestone substrates. Limestone became coated with 34--86% more Mn that did glass surfaces. Light microscopy revealed 12 different strategies are being used by bacteria, cyan bacteria, diatoms, green algae, and fungi to oxidize Mn. the dominant method used by the epilithic community to oxidize Mn is coating of holdfasts by the iron bacterium, Liptothrix discophora, and the green alga, Ulothrix sp. Other methods for Mn removal by oxidation include coating of individual cells, filaments/sheaths/hyphae, extracellular polysaccharides, and biofilms. The unplanned community at the site is multifaceted and extremely efficient in its Mn removal ability. Community interactions or complexity may play roles in the stability of the ecosystem and the efficiency of its Mn oxidizing ability.
Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of the vocabulary of grade 7 learners in a reading project currently underway at a school in Atteridgeville, a township on the outskirts of Pretoria. A library has been established at the school and teachers throughout the school attend workshops designed to heighten their awareness of the value of reading and the importance of vocabulary, and to provide them with strategies to facilitate the development of reading. This paper focuses on the vocabulary development of grade 7 learners – they are in the senior phase of primary school and will soon be entering high school where they will be faced with more academic vocabulary in context-reduced textbooks. Learners’ vocabulary was tested early in the year and then again towards the end to assess whether increased access to books and reading had had an effect on vocabulary growth. Results revealed that learners at the project school showed a lack of vocabulary, even at the end of the study period, not only in terms of academic words but also high frequency words. Extensive reading alone is clearly not enough – learners need explicit vocabulary instruction: in order to read successfully at high school level, learners need a working knowledge of academic vocabulary, and this knowledge is developed by reading – but learners cannot read successfully without an adequate basic high-frequency vocabulary.
Lungiswa P. Tsolekile
Full Text Available Background: Community health workers (CHWs are increasingly being recognised as a crucial part of the health workforce in South Africa and other parts of the world. CHWs have taken on a variety of roles, including community empowerment, provision of services and linking communities with health facilities. Their roles are better understood in the areas of maternal and child health and infectious diseases (HIV infection, malaria and tuberculosis. Aim: This study seeks to explore the current roles of CHWs working with non-communicable diseases (NCDs. Setting: The study was conducted in an urban township in Cape Town, South Africa. Method: A qualitative naturalistic research design utilising observations and in-depth interviews with CHWs and their supervisors working in Khayelitsha was used. Results: CHWs have multiple roles in the care of NCDs. They act as health educators, advisors, rehabilitation workers and support group facilitators. They further screen for complications of illness and assist community members to navigate the health system. These roles are shaped both by expectations of the health system and in response to community needs. Conclusion: This study indicates the complexities of the roles of CHWs working with NCDs. Understanding the actual roles of CHWs provides insights into not only the competencies required to enable them to fulfil their daily functions, but also the type of training required to fill the present gaps.
Manyike, Tintswalo V.
Full Text Available A clear preference for English as language of teaching and learning (LoLT is evident in most South African schools. However, discrepancies exist between language policy aims and educational outcomes with regard to the successful acquisition of English among English second language (ESL learners. Effective participation in all learning activities is closely linked to learners’ proficiency in the LoLT; poor English proficiency leads to underachievement across the curriculum. In the light of this, a case study as conducted to investigate the English reading and writing performance of Grade 7 Xitsonga-speaking learners in three selected township schools in the Tshwane metropolitan area, Gauteng Province. Firstly, a literature review was undertaken to explore the importance of reading and writing skills in the classroom with particular reference to the demands made on ESL learners. Following this, standardised tests were used to assess the learners’ English reading and writing performance. Findings indicated that learners performed poorly in both reading and writing; however, no significant relationship could be demonstrated between reading and writing, possibly due to the nature of the components of the test. The overall lack of reading and writing competence in English holds implications for learners’ academic achievement in all learning areas in situations in which English is used as the LoLT.
CHAO, LI-WEI; SZREK, HELENA; PEREIRA, NUNO SOUSA; PAULY, MARK V.
Unlike large firms with management teams, small businesses are usually run by one key person, the owner-entrepreneur, who bears almost all of the risks and makes almost all of the decisions related to the business. Because the owner-entrepreneur also embodies most of the firm-specific knowledge capital, health of the owner-entrepreneur is an important factor in the production process. Following a cohort of respondents in townships around Durban, South Africa, over a three-year period, we examined the relationship between an individual’s physical health and the decision to start a business. Our results suggest that respondents who were recent business entrants were in better health than respondents who did not start new businesses. Moreover, respondents without a business at the beginning of the study who later opened businesses during the three-year study interval were significantly more likely to have better baseline health than those respondents who never started a new business. Hence, good health among entrepreneurs seems to be an important prerequisite to small business entry. PMID:21603114
Petroleum pollution results in co-contamination by different classes of molecules, entailing the occurrence of marine sediments difficult to remediate, as in the case of the Ancona harbor (Mediterranean Sea, Italy). Autochthonous bioaugmentation (ABA), by exploiting the indigenous microbes of the environment to be treated, could represent a successful bioremediation strategy. In this perspective we aimed to i) identify the main drivers of the bacterial communities\\' richness in the sediments, ii) establish enrichment cultures with different hydrocarbon pollutants evaluating their effects on the bacterial communities\\' composition, and iii) obtain a collection of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria potentially exploitable in ABA. The correlation between the selection of different specialized bacterial populations and the type of pollutants was demonstrated by culture-independent analyses, and by establishing a collection of bacteria with different hydrocarbon degradation traits. Our observations indicate that pollution dictates the diversity of sediment bacterial communities and shapes the ABA potential in harbor sediments.
to usually narrow strips of riparian vegetation, which is composed of various trees and shrubs of the Salix genus (willow), sumac, aspen, boxelder...reptiles were found. Species included, leopard frogs, snapping turtles, painted turtle, and garter snakes (SUNY Brockport: 1982). (7) Endangered Species...vessel traffic on the Buffalo River causes interrupted truck service. Firms have also cited snow removal as a problem. The harbor area road service
to the pile once the concrete was poured. This step was com- pleted in a few minutes for each pile. Last, a prefabricated wooden form was emplaced...September-December 201010 Engineer This prefabricated wooden form was emplaced around a rebar cage at the top of damaged piles to hold concrete until it...the mainland into the harbor. Waste from tugboats and sewage from the mainland compounded ecological hazards. The only alternative for the Army and
Harbor was developed by Jerome et al (1966), Chesmore et al (1971) and Iwanowicz et al. (1973). The studies on the Lower Mystic River were concentrated in... Iwanowicz et al. (1973) and this data should be referred to for detailed information. Waters overlying the shellfish beds are contaminated by wastes...DMRP Technical Report DS-78-5, Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi. Iwanowicz , H. R., R D
...) Pearl Harbor's implementation of acquisition streamlining initiatives and recommends viable methods of streamlining the acquisition process at FISC Pearl Harbor and other Naval Supply Systems Command...
Martin, T.E. [AMEC Earth and Environmental Ltd., Burnaby, BC (Canada)
Every good dam safety program must be based on surveillance and emergency response planning. The same principles apply to the gathering of information for military intelligence and the planning of defence tactics. Lessons learned from failure have spurred the advancement of dam engineering. Dam safety experts can benefit from the inadequacies encountered by the military community, with the most famous occurring on December 7, 1941 in Pearl Harbor. Both intelligence gathering and contingency response planning failed miserably. The data was not properly disseminated, interpreted, analysed. The proper response to the situation was not initiated. Human error and failure to communicate are the two main reasons that explain the debacle. The inquiries into the tragedy at Pearl Harbor provided valuable lessons, related to individual and organizational failures, which the authors shared in this presentation. The relevance to dam safety was made. All Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) agents must read the lessons drawn from Pearl Harbor, as they have responsibility for dam safety. 4 refs.
Dengler, Lori; Uslu, Burak
More damaging tsunamis have impacted Crescent City, California in historic times than any other location on the West Coast of the USA. Crescent City's harbor has undergone significant modification since the early 20th century, including construction of several breakwaters, dredging, and a 200 × 300 m2 small boat basin. In 2006, a M w 8.3 earthquake in the Kuril Islands generated a moderate Pacific-wide tsunami. Crescent City recorded the highest amplitudes of any tide gauge in the Pacific and was the only location to experience structural damage. Strong currents damaged docks and boats within the small boat basin, causing more than US 20 million in damage and replacement costs. We examine how modifications to Crescent City's harbor may have affected its vulnerability to moderate tsunamis such as the 2006 event. A bathymetric grid of the basin was constructed based on US Army Corps of Engineers soundings in 1964 and 1965 before the construction of the small boat basin. The method of splitting tsunamis was used to estimate tsunami water heights and current velocities at several locations in the harbor using both the 1964-1965 grid and the 2006 bathymetric grid for the 2006 Kuril event and a similar-sized source along the Sanriku coast of Japan. Model velocity outputs are compared for the two different bathymetries at the tide gauge location and at six additional computational sites in the harbor. The largest difference between the two grids is at the small boat basin entrance, where the 2006 bathymetry produces currents over three times the strength of the currents produced by the 1965 bathymetry. Peak currents from a Sanriku event are comparable to those produced by the 2006 event, and within the boat basin may have been higher. The modifications of the harbor, and in particular the addition of the small boat basin, appear to have contributed to the high current velocities and resulting damage in 2006 and help to explain why the 1933 M w 8.4-8.7 Sanriku tsunami
sltand. T ~P i’ W 210 three times VtwCerI November IOC’C -nd ~co l.Etls ~ ec!,!zervc-o betxwe H -gF 12 Th -ind hl rway u- 7Plie Sicuobh. E. Cumin -s 1... stress imposed by dredge dsosal ;ictivities on these species. It is difficult to rredict the effects of establishing a salt marsh in Grays Harbor on
Shang Guan, Chang-Yue; Li, Yu; Ma, Hong-Lin
Background: Township cadres, considered as basic executors of state policy, play an important role in Chinese society. Their job satisfaction is a vital issue for township management, but there are few studies on this topic in China. The goal of this study is to analyze the relationship between occupational stress and job satisfaction, and to further examine whether psychological capital (PsyCap) can serve as a mediator between stress and job satisfaction in Chinese township cadres. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out during the period of from October 2015 to January 2016 in Liaoning Province of China. The questionnaires, which consisted of an effort-reward imbalance scale, Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) for job satisfaction, and the psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24), as well as questions about demographic characteristics, were distributed to 1800 township cadres and complete responses were received from 1525 participants. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the role that psychological capital played in mediating between occupational stress and job satisfaction. Results: In the present study, effort-reward ratio (ERR= 11 × effort/6 × reward) was negatively associated with job satisfaction (r = −0.372, p job satisfaction in township cadres (r = 0.587, p job stress and job satisfaction. Conclusions: Psychological capital partially mediated the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction among Chinese township cadres. Interventions to improve Chinese township cadres’ job satisfaction should be developed in the future, especially the enhancement of PsyCap. Interventions need to be verified in further cohort studies. At present, we are only proposing a theoretical model. Intervention effects need to be validated in further cohort studies. PMID:28846644
Pons Rotger, Gabriel Angel; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick
This study examines the effect of accessibility to urban jobs via a public transport system on individual earnings and commuting behaviour. The effect of improved public transport based accessibility on these outcomes is determined by exploiting the exogenous variation in access to a public rail ...... with a change in commuting patterns as the improved access to public transport facilitates a shift from employment within the township to better paid jobs in the city centre, as well as in other suburbs of the Copenhagen Metropolitan area...
Full Text Available Liouciou Island, located off the south western coast of Taiwan, has 12,550 inhabitants of which high proportion are elderly and fisherman. The medical services are provided mainly by the local Public Health Clinic. Any emergencies or major medical treatment requires patients to be transferred to a regional hospital in Taiwan, which normally takes 40 minutes by the Ambulance boat. The aims of this paper are: 1 To examine the potential risk factors of disease based on the geography and medical services of Liouciou island; 2 To analyze the participants’ perception of disease risk on the island at various spatial scales (individual, family, neighbor, island or nation; 3 To analyze the adjustment strategies towards disease risks used by the Liouciou island people. Questionnaires and in-depth interviews were used to gather the information. The results show that participants in Liouciou worried about the Ambulance boat not being able to sail in bad weather conditions. In addition, the young people complained about the local medical facilities and physician’s skill while the elderly admitted their life was predetermined by God. The fishermen also reported that they were unable to follow up on their chronic disease. As a result, most of them ignored their health.
Breen, Alison; Daniels, Karen; Tomlinson, Mark
Exposure to violence is a serious mental and public health issue. In particular, children exposed to violence are at risk for poor developmental outcomes and physical and mental health problems. One area that has been shown to increase the risk for poor outcomes is the use of corporal punishment as a discipline method. While researchers are starting to ask children directly about their experiences of violence, there is limited research with children about their perspectives on physical punishment, particularly in low-and middle-income countries (LMIC). This paper begins to address this gap by reporting on the spontaneous data that emerged during 24 qualitative interviews that were conducted with children, aged 8-12 in South Africa. The themes that emerged indicated that corporal punishment is an everyday experience, that it has negative emotional and behavioral consequences, and that it plays a role in how children resolve interpersonal conflicts. The study highlights the challenges for violence prevention interventions in under-resourced contexts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nasseri, Simin; Monazzam, Mohammadreza; Beheshti, Meisam; Zare, Sajad; Mahvi, Amirhosein
New environmental pollutants interfere with the environment and human life along with technology development. One of these pollutants is electromagnetic field. This study determines the vertical microwave radiation pattern of different types of Base Transceiver Station (BTS) antennae in the Hashtgerd city as the capital of Savojbolagh County, Alborz Province of Iran. The basic data including the geographical location of the BTS antennae in the city, brand, operator type, installation and its height was collected from radio communication office, and then the measurements were carried out according to IEEE STD 95. 1 by the SPECTRAN 4060. The statistical analyses were carried out by SPSS16 using Kolmogorov Smirnov test and multiple regression method. Results indicated that in both operators of Irancell and Hamrah-e-Aval (First Operator), the power density rose with an increase in measurement height or decrease in the vertical distance of broadcaster antenna. With mix model test, a significant statistical relationship was observed between measurement height and the average power density in both types of the operators. With increasing measuring height, power density increased in both operators. The study showed installing antennae in a crowded area needs more care because of higher radiation emission. More rigid surfaces and mobile users are two important factors in crowded area that can increase wave density and hence raise public microwave exposure.
Full Text Available Introduction and Context: Stigma associated with psychiatric disorders and few somatic disorders such as sexually transmitted diseases (STDs, tuberculosis and leprosy, adversely effects treatment seeking behavior, leads to concealment, and poor compliance with treatment. In busy outpatient departments (OPDs, the issue of stigma is likely to be overlooked. Materials and Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study collecting data on an 8-item stigma scale from patients attending psychiatry and other OPDs of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in an industrial township. Information was collected by face to face interview from 400 patients attending psychiatry OPD and 401 patients attending other OPDs. Validations of the scale were done by face, content, and construct validity. Reliability was appraised by Cronbach′s alpha and Guttmann split-half coefficients. Significant differences in answers to the 8-item questionnaire were explored by Chi-square test for individual responses and Kruskal-Wallis test for difference in total stigma score. Results: Patients attending psychiatry OPD consistently gave responses indicating a greater degree of perceived stigma than those attending OPD for somatic disorders. This difference was almost 3-4 times more on most of the items (P < 0.001. Among somatic disorders, stigma was highest (even higher than psychiatric disorders among STDs, tuberculosis and leprosy patients among these and psychiatric disorders the score was almost 3 times more compared to other somatic disorders (P < 0.001. The scale demonstrated good face, content, and construct validity. Reliability was also very high with Cronbach′s alpha coefficient and Guttmann split-half reliability coefficient 0.932 and 0.901 indicating very good internal consistency of the 8-item scale. Conclusion: Stigma was higher among STD patients, tuberculosis, leprosy, and psychiatry patients as compared to patients suffering from somatic disorders. Assessment of
sahar jannati ataie
Full Text Available Introduction: Oil seeds are the second world’s food supply after cereals. These crops are grown primarily for the oil contained in the seeds. The major world sources of edible seed oils are soybeans, sunflowers, canola, cotton and peanuts. Canola is one of the most important plants in the world that has great importance. The plant belongs to the Brassica genus, the botanical family that includes cauliflower and cabbages. Weeds are one of the major problems in canola production that reduce yield and its quality. In general, one of the most important factors in development of management plans is information about the weed’s flora and geographic distribution. Knowledge of weed flora enables one to use the required herbicide and formulate other suitable management strategies. It is also useful in exploiting abundant weeds as a cover crop or pasture and for other economic uses. The geographic information system has the proper use in weed science and management of agricultural information and their analysis. In this study, distribution and flora of the weeds in canola fields of Gorgan Township investigated by Geographic Information System. Material and Methods: Crop sampling was conducted during May and June 2014, in 58 canola fields in Gorgan Township (Golestan province and the weed species were sampled and detected using a W method and by specific formula of density, frequency, uniformity, and abundance of each weed species was calculated. Also, geographic coordinates of fields (latitude, altitude and elevation were determined by using GPS model Garmin map 60. After collecting data, in order to create a database of weed distribution, the data was transferred from GPS to ArcGIS 9/3.1 software. From all information obtained, consistently a database with location was created and after separation of data based on present or absence of weeds on fields, distribution maps were produced. Results and Discussion: The results showed that there are 35 weed
Sites throughout Boston Harbor were analyzed for caffeine to assess its utility as a tracer in identifying sources of sanitary wastewater. Caffeine ranged from 15 ng/L in the outer harbor to a high of 185 ng/L in the inner harbor. Inner harbor concentrations were a result of comb...
Roggen, M. (ed.)
The Rotterdam harbor area is perfect for an industrial heat distribution network. Numerous major heat producers and many potential consumers of all sizes group together in this industrial area. The new Heat Company ('Warmtebedrijf') is making a detailed business plan to build a heat distribution system. [Dutch] Als er een regio is waar een industrieel warmtenet voor de hand ligt, is het het Rotterdamse havengebied wel. Tal van grote warmteproducenten en een woud aan kleinere en grotere afnemers zijn praktisch buren. Om handen en voeten te geven aan dit op papier mooie idee, stelt het kersverse Warmtebedrijf io een gedetailleerd businessplan op.
Weiss, Lawrence A.; Sears, Michael P.; Cervione, Michael A.
Effects of urbanization have increased the frequency and size of floods along certain reaches of Harbor Brook and Crow Hollow Brook in Meriden, Conn. A floodprofile-modeling study was conducted to model the effects of selected channel and structural modifications on flood elevations and inundated areas. The study covered the reach of Harbor Brook downstream from Interstate 691 and the reach of Crow Hollow Brook downstream from Johnson Avenue. Proposed modifications, which include changes to bank heights, channel geometry, structural geometry, and streambed armoring on Harbor Brook and changes to bank heights on Crow Hollow Brook, significantly lower flood elevations. Results of the modeling indicate a significant reduction of flood elevations for the 10-year, 25-year, 35-year, 50-year, and 100-year flood frequencies using proposed modifications to (1 ) bank heights between Harbor Brook Towers and Interstate 691 on Harbor Brook, and between Centennial Avenue and Johnson Avenue on Crow Hollow Brook; (2) channel geometry between Coe Avenue and Interstate 69 1 on Harbor Brook; (3) bridge and culvert opening geometry between Harbor Brook Towers and Interstate 691 on Harbor Brook; and (4) channel streambed armoring between Harbor Brook Towers and Interstate 691 on Harbor Brook. The proposed modifications were developed without consideration of cost-benefit ratios.
Full Text Available Alexandra M Minnis,1,2 Irene A Doherty,1,3 Tracy L Kline,1 William A Zule,1 Bronwyn Myers,4,5 Tara Carney,4 Wendee M Wechsberg1,3,6,7 1RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC, 2School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 3University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 4Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drug Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, 5Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 6North Carolina State University, Raleigh, 7Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA Background: Inequitable gender-based power in relationships and intimate partner violence contribute to persistently high rates of HIV infection among South African women. We examined the effects of two group-based HIV prevention interventions that engaged men and their female partners together in a couples intervention (Couples Health CoOp [CHC] and a gender-separate intervention (Men’s Health CoOp/Women’s Health CoOp [MHC/WHC] on women’s reports of power, communication, and conflict in relationships. Methods: The cluster-randomized field experiment included heterosexual couples from a high-density South African township in which neighborhoods were randomized to one of the intervention arms or a control arm that received the WHC only. Participants completed in-person study visits at baseline and 6-month follow-up. We examined group differences using one-way analysis of variance and multivariable regression models.Results: Of the 290 couples enrolled, 255 women remained in the same partnership over 6 months. Following the intervention, women in the CHC arm compared with those in the WHC arm were more likely to report an increase in relationship control (ß=0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.02, 1.83, P=0.045 and gender norms supporting female autonomy in relationships (ß=0.99, 95% CI: 0.07, 1.91, P=0.035. Women in the MHC/WHC arm were more likely to report increases
Himmelstoss, E.A.; FitzGerald, D.M.; Rosen, P.S.; Allen, J.R.
A series of partially drowned drumlins forms the backbone of the inner islands within Boston Harbor. The shoreline of these rounded glacial deposits is composed of actively retreating bluffs formed by continual wave attack. Comparisons of bluffs reveal variability in their height and lateral extent, as well as in the dominant mechanism causing their retreat. Two processes are responsible for bluff erosion and yield distinct bluff morphologies: (1) wave attack undercuts the bluff and causes episodic slumping, yielding planar bluff slopes, and (2) subaerial processes such as rainfall create irregular slopes characterized by rills and gullies. We propose a model of drumlin bluff evolution that is based on processes of erosion and physical characteristics such as bluff height, slope morphology, and the orientation of the bluff with respect to the long axis of the drumlin and its topographic crest. The four phases of drumlin bluff evolution consist of (1) initial formation of bluff, with retreat dominated by wave notching and slumping processes; (2) rill and gully development as bluff heights exceed 10 m and slumped sediment at bluff base inhibits wave attack; (3) return of wave notching and slumping as bluff heights decrease; and (4) final development of boulder retreat lag as last remnants of drumlin are eroded by wave action. These phases capture the important physical processes of drumlin evolution in Boston Harbor and could apply to other eroding coastal drumlin deposits.
Full Text Available Aquatic birds harbor diverse influenza A viruses and are a major viral reservoir in nature. The recent discovery of influenza viruses of a new H17N10 subtype in Central American fruit bats suggests that other New World species may similarly carry divergent influenza viruses. Using consensus degenerate RT-PCR, we identified a novel influenza A virus, designated as H18N11, in a flat-faced fruit bat (Artibeus planirostris from Peru. Serologic studies with the recombinant H18 protein indicated that several Peruvian bat species were infected by this virus. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that, in some gene segments, New World bats harbor more influenza virus genetic diversity than all other mammalian and avian species combined, indicative of a long-standing host-virus association. Structural and functional analyses of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase indicate that sialic acid is not a ligand for virus attachment nor a substrate for release, suggesting a unique mode of influenza A virus attachment and activation of membrane fusion for entry into host cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that bats constitute a potentially important and likely ancient reservoir for a diverse pool of influenza viruses.
Milbrath, Gwyneth R
Much has been written about the military events of December 7, 1941; however, little has been documented about the nurses' work and experience at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The aerial assault on Pearl Harbor was the first time in US history that Army nurses had been on the front line of battle. Nurses quickly triaged and stabilized those who could be saved, and provided compassion and comfort to those who were dying, in an environment where the nurses were unsure of their own survival. Traditional historical methods and a social history framework were used in this investigation. Primary sources included oral histories from the US Army Medical Department Center of History and Heritage and the State of Hawaii's website, Hawaii Aviation. Secondary sources included published books, newspaper articles, military websites, and history texts. Due to the limited bed capacity, Hickam Field Hospital converted to an evacuation hospital. Nurses, physicians, and medical corpsman triaged, stabilized, and transported those likely to survive, while staging the dead behind the building. The emergency room at Tripler Hospital was quickly flooded with patients from the battlefield, but the staff was able to sort patients appropriately to the wards, to the operating room, or provide comfort care as they died. At Schofield Hospital, collaboration between tireless doctors, nurses, and corpsmen was key to providing life-saving surgery and care.
Up to the end of World War II, less than 10% of the general anaesthetics administered was with intravenous barbiturates. The remaining 90% of anaesthetics given in the USA were with diethyl ether. In the United Kingdom and elsewhere, chloroform was also popular. Diethyl ether administration was a relatively safe and simple procedure, often delegated to nurses or junior doctors with little or no specific training in anaesthesia. During the Japanese attack on the US bases at Pearl Harbor, with reduced stocks of diethyl ether available, intravenous Sodium Pentothal(®), a most 'sophisticated and complex' drug, was used with devastating effects in many of those hypovolaemic, anaemic and septic patients. The hazards of spinal anaesthesia too were realised very quickly. These effects were compounded by the dearth of trained anaesthetists. This paper presents the significance of the anaesthesia tragedies at Pearl Harbor, and the discovery in the next few years of many other superior drugs that caused medical and other health professionals to realise that anaesthesia needed to be a specialist medical discipline in its own right. Specialist recognition, aided by the foundation of the National Health Service in the UK, the establishment of Faculties of Anaesthesia and appropriate training in pharmacology, physiology and other sciences soon followed. Modern anaesthesiology, as we understand it today, was born and a century or more of ether anaesthesia finally ceased.
Anthony, S.J.; St. Leger, J. A.; Pugliares, K.; Ip, Hon S.; Chan, J.M.; Carpenter, Z.W.; Navarrete-Macias, I.; Sanchez-Leon, M.; Saliki, J.T.; Pedersen, J.; Karesh, W.; Daszak, P.; Rabadan, R.; Rowles, T.; Lipkin, W.I.
From September to December 2011, 162 New England harbor seals died in an outbreak of pneumonia. Sequence analysis of postmortem samples revealed the presence of an avian H3N8 influenza A virus, similar to a virus circulating in North American waterfowl since at least 2002 but with mutations that indicate recent adaption to mammalian hosts. These include a D701N mutation in the viral PB2 protein, previously reported in highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses infecting people. Lectin staining and agglutination assays indicated the presence of the avian-preferred SAα-2,3 and mammalian SAα-2,6 receptors in seal respiratory tract, and the ability of the virus to agglutinate erythrocytes bearing either the SAα-2,3 or the SAα-2,6 receptor. The emergence of this A/harbor seal/Massachusetts/1/2011 virus may herald the appearance of an H3N8 influenza clade with potential for persistence and cross-species transmission.
Manoli, E.; Chelioti-Chatzidimitriou, A.; Karageorgou, K.; Kouras, A.; Voutsa, D.; Samara, C.; Kampanos, I.
Harbors are often characterized by high levels of air pollutants that are emitted from ship traffic and other harbor activities. In the present study, the concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and trace elements (As, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cr, Mn, Zn, and Fe) bounded to the inhalable particulate matter PM10 were studied in the harbor of Volos, central Greece, during a 2-year period (2014-2015). Seasonal and daily variations were investigated. Moreover, total carcinogenic and mutagenic activities of PAHs were calculated. The effect of major wind sectors (sea, city, industrial, harbor) was estimated to assess the potential contribution of ship traffic and harbor activities, such as scrap metal handling operations. Results showed that the harbor sector (calm winds ≤ 0.5 m s-1) was associated with the highest concentrations of PM10. The harbor sector was also associated with relatively increased levels of trace elements (As, Fe, Cr, Mn, Ni), however the effect of this sector was lower than the corresponding effect of the industrial wind sector. The sea sector showed only a slight increase in B[a]Py and Σ12PAHs, whereas the highest increasing effect for PAHs and traffic-related elements, such as Pb and Zn, was evidenced for the city sector.
Shang Guan, Chang-Yue; Li, Yu; Ma, Hong-Lin
Background : Township cadres, considered as basic executors of state policy, play an important role in Chinese society. Their job satisfaction is a vital issue for township management, but there are few studies on this topic in China. The goal of this study is to analyze the relationship between occupational stress and job satisfaction, and to further examine whether psychological capital (PsyCap) can serve as a mediator between stress and job satisfaction in Chinese township cadres. Methods : A cross-sectional survey was carried out during the period of from October 2015 to January 2016 in Liaoning Province of China. The questionnaires, which consisted of an effort-reward imbalance scale, Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) for job satisfaction, and the psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24), as well as questions about demographic characteristics, were distributed to 1800 township cadres and complete responses were received from 1525 participants. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the role that psychological capital played in mediating between occupational stress and job satisfaction. Results : In the present study, effort-reward ratio (ERR= 11 × effort/6 × reward) was negatively associated with job satisfaction (r = -0.372, p stress and job satisfaction. Conclusions : Psychological capital partially mediated the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction among Chinese township cadres. Interventions to improve Chinese township cadres' job satisfaction should be developed in the future, especially the enhancement of PsyCap. Interventions need to be verified in further cohort studies. At present, we are only proposing a theoretical model. Intervention effects need to be validated in further cohort studies.
Krog, Jesper Schak; Hansen, Mette Sif; Holm, Elisabeth
Since April 2014, an outbreak of influenza in harbor seals has been ongoing in northern Europe. In Denmark during June-August, 152 harbor seals on the island of Anholt were found dead from severe pneumonia. We detected influenza A(H10N7) virus in 2 of 4 seals examined.......Since April 2014, an outbreak of influenza in harbor seals has been ongoing in northern Europe. In Denmark during June-August, 152 harbor seals on the island of Anholt were found dead from severe pneumonia. We detected influenza A(H10N7) virus in 2 of 4 seals examined....
Kohn, N.P.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Barrows, E.S.; Goodwin, S.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F. (Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))
The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accommodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material proposed for open-water disposal must be evaluated to determine the potential impacts of the disposal activity on the water column and disposal site environments. The USACE requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct studies to evaluate open-water disposal options for Oakland Harbor sediments. This request developed into the Oakland Harbor Phase III Program. This is Volume 2 of a two-volume report that presents information gathered to determine the suitability of ocean disposal of sediments dredged from Oakland Harbor. This volume contains the Appendixes (A through N), which provide details of the data analyses and full presentation of the data and results.
Kohn, N.P.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Barrows, E.S.; Goodwin, S.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)
The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accommodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material proposed for open-water disposal must be evaluated to determine the potential impacts of the disposal activity on the water column and disposal site environments. The USACE requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct studies to evaluate open-water disposal options for Oakland Harbor sediments. This request developed into the Oakland Harbor Phase III Program. This is Volume 2 of a two-volume report that presents information gathered to determine the suitability of ocean disposal of sediments dredged from Oakland Harbor. This volume contains the Appendixes (A through N), which provide details of the data analyses and full presentation of the data and results.
Eaton, Lisa A; Cain, Demetria N; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P; Mehlomakulu, Vuyelwa; Simbayi, Leickness C; Mwaba, Kelvin; Kalichman, Seth C
South African townships have among the highest rates of HIV infection in the world. Considerable research on understanding the high rates of HIV transmission in this country has identified alcohol use as a critical factor in driving the HIV epidemic. Although the relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk-taking is well documented, less is known about how other factors, such as food insecurity, might be important in understanding alcohol's role in sexual risk-taking. Furthermore, prior research has highlighted how patterns of alcohol use and sexual risk-taking tend to vary by gender. We examined how food insecurity is related to both alcohol use and sexual risk-taking. We administered anonymous community surveys to men (n = 1,137) and women (n = 458) residing within four contiguous Black African townships outside of Cape Town, South Africa. In multivariate linear regression, we found that food insecurity was related to having higher numbers of male sex partners and condom-protected sex acts among women only. These relationships, however, were fully mediated by women's alcohol use. Among men, we found that food insecurity was negatively related to unprotected sex; that is, men with greater food security reported more unprotected sex acts. Unlike the results found among women, this relationship was not mediated by alcohol use. Food insecurity appears to be an important factor in understanding patterns of sexual risk-taking in regards to gender and alcohol use, and may serve as an important point of intervention for reducing HIV transmission rates.
Masvawure, Tsitsi B.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Reddy, Vasu; Collier, Kate L.; Lane, Tim
Transactional sex has not been studied much among men who have sex with men in Africa. Consequently, little is understood about attitudes towards the practice, the circumstances that give rise to it, or how transactional sex relationships are managed. We conducted in-depth interviews with 81 black men aged 20–44 from four low-resourced townships in Tshwane, South Africa. Transactional sex was a widely used strategy for initiating and sustaining relationships with regular and casual partners, and was motivated by both the need for subsistence and for consumption. Alcohol-based exchanges, in particular, provided men in the townships with a covert and safe platform to communicate erotic, sexual and romantic attraction to other men and bars and other drinking places were a popular venue for meeting potential sexual partners. The majority of ‘feminine-identifying’ men had engaged in transactional sex as the providers of money and material goods compared to men who identified as either ‘masculine’ or as ‘both masculine and feminine’. Surprisingly, however, this did not necessarily give them greater control in these relationships. Our study provides an initial foray into a complex socio-sexual phenomenon and suggests that gender identity is an important construct for understanding transactional sex relationships among men in Africa. PMID:25714033
Full Text Available Among the crimes in the South African black townships, mob justice has become a growing concern. Some questions that need to be asked are: Is our police force doing enough to protect the ordinary citizens of this country? If the situation continues, will all suspects be killed in the same manner or will there be a solution to change the situation? What is the impact of mob justice on the families of the victims and the witnesses of the brutal acts? How long are we going to live as a traumatised nation as a result of these violent acts? Is there any hope that our nation will ever have the peace it deserves in the context of democracy? This article intends to investigate the impact of the mob justice system and find out what the role of the Christian church should be in the midst of this escalating violence. This study aims to unveil the negative impact of mob justice on the lives of many township South Africans and giving pastoral-biblical suggestions of the church’s role in the elimination of this kind of brutality.
Bhana, Deevia; Pattman, Rob
How do young South Africans give meaning to love? In this paper we draw on findings from an interview study to examine the ways in which young Africans, aged 16 to 17 years in a poor township in KwaZulu-Natal province, express ideals of love and romance. Their claims to love we show are strategic advantages as they negotiate poverty and economic marginalisation. Girls' ideals of love are tied to their aspirations towards middle-class consumerism. Love becomes inseparable from the idealisation of men who provide. Upholding provider masculinity is a strategic means to claim money, fashionable clothes and prestige. Unlike girls, the boys' love investments were focused on farm girls from rural areas in South Africa. Farm girls were constructed as virgins with little investment in commodification. Farm girls are a strategic option through which boys' economic marginalisation experienced in the township girls is reconciled through an exalted masculinity. Love is produced by particular sets of economic and social circumstances through which gender inequalities are reproduced, and should be taken more seriously in working with young people to address gendered social environments and HIV risk.
... mgd. 2. Project Sponsor: Chester County Solid Waste Authority. Project Facility: Lanchester Landfill... Solid Waste Authority. Project Facility: Lanchester Landfill, Salisbury and Caernarvon Townships.... Project Facility: Lanchester Landfill, Salisbury and Caernarvon Townships, Lancaster County, Pa...
... Sponsor and Facility: Anadarko E&P Company LP (Wolf Run), Snow Shoe Township, Centre County, Pa... Company LP (Beech Creek), Snow Shoe Township, Centre County, Pa. Application for surface water withdrawal...
Pinza, M R; Ward, J A; Mayhew, H L; Word, J Q; Niyogi, D K; Kohn, N P [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)
During the summer of 1991, Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) was contracted to conduct sampling and testing of sediments proposed for dredging of Richmond Harbor, California. The MSL collected sediment cores to a depth of [minus]40 ft MLLW ([minus]38 ft + 2 ft overdepth) from 28 (12-in. core) and 30 (4-in. core) stations. The sediment cores were allocated to six composite samples referred to as sediment treatments, which were then subjected to physical, chemical, toxicological, and bioaccumulation testing. Physical and chemical parameters included grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), total volatile solids (TVS), oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyis (PCBs), priority pollutant metals, and butyltins. The results from the test treatments were compared to results from five reference treatments representative of potential in-bay and offshore disposal sites.
Pinza, M.R.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Niyogi, D.K.; Kohn, N.P.
During the summer of 1991, Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) was contracted to conduct sampling and testing of sediments proposed for dredging of Richmond Harbor, California. The MSL collected sediment cores to a depth of -40 ft MLLW (-38 ft + 2 ft overdepth) from 28 (12-in. core) and 30 (4-in. core) stations. The sediment cores were allocated to six composite samples referred to as sediment treatments, which were then subjected to physical, chemical, toxicological, and bioaccumulation testing. Physical and chemical parameters included grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), total volatile solids (TVS), oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyis (PCBs), priority pollutant metals, and butyltins. The results from the test treatments were compared to results from five reference treatments representative of potential in-bay and offshore disposal sites
Del Piero, F; Stremme, D W; Habecker, P L; Cantile, C
A 12-year-old male harbor seal presented with progressive signs of neurologic dysfunction including head tremors, muzzle twitching, clonic spasms, and weakness. Lesions included polioencephalomyelitis with glial nodules, spheroids, neuronophagia, ring hemorrhages, and a few neutrophils. Neurons, fibers, and glial nodules were multifocally colonized with intracytoplasmic West Nile flavivirus antigens that were demonstrated using indirect immunohistochemical analysis. Flavivirus on cultured cells also was isolated and was identified by use of monoclonal antibodies and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Clinical signs of disease and lesion morphology and distribution were similar to those of equine West Nile virus infection. Similar to horses, alpacas, humans, dogs, and reptiles, seals can be dead-end hosts of West Nile virus.
Huynh, Thanh Canh; Lee, So Young; Nauyen, Khac Duy; Kim, Jeong Tae [Pukyong National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)
The objective of this study is to monitor the health status of harbor caissons which have potential foundation damage. To obtain the objective, the following approaches are performed. Firstly, a structural damage monitoring(SDM) method is designed for interlocked multiple caisson structures. The SDM method utilizes the change in modal strain energy to monitor the foundation damage in a target caisson unit. Secondly, a finite element model of a caisson system which consists of three caisson units is established to verify the feasibility of the proposed method. In the finite element simulation, the caisson units are constrained each other by shear key connections. The health status of the caisson system against various levels of foundation damage is monitored by measuring relative modal displacements between the adjacent caissons.
Huynh, Thanh Canh; Lee, So Young; Nauyen, Khac Duy; Kim, Jeong Tae
The objective of this study is to monitor the health status of harbor caissons which have potential foundation damage. To obtain the objective, the following approaches are performed. Firstly, a structural damage monitoring(SDM) method is designed for interlocked multiple caisson structures. The SDM method utilizes the change in modal strain energy to monitor the foundation damage in a target caisson unit. Secondly, a finite element model of a caisson system which consists of three caisson units is established to verify the feasibility of the proposed method. In the finite element simulation, the caisson units are constrained each other by shear key connections. The health status of the caisson system against various levels of foundation damage is monitored by measuring relative modal displacements between the adjacent caissons
He Hongdi; Lu Weizhen; Dong Liyun
This paper reports a study concerning occurrence and growth of traffic jam in a harbor tunnel. The single-lane with three sections (downgrade, flat, and upgrade) is taken into account and they are characterized with different velocity limit. At the low density, the traffic current increases linearly with density and saturates at some values of immediately density. As the density increases, the traffic jam appears firstly before the upgrade section and then extends to the downgrade section. Additionally, the relationships of the velocity and headway against position in different densities are obtained from simulation. These results clearly clarify where and when the traffic jam appears. Finally, the critical densities are derived via the theoretical analysis before and after the discontinuous fronts and the theoretical results are consistent with the critical values of simulation results. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)
Teilmann, Jonas; Christiansen, C.T.; Kjellerup, Sanne
are essential information on the status and management of the species. Thirty-five free-ranging harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) were tracked in the region between the Baltic and the North Sea for 25-349 d using Argos satellite transmitters. No differences were found in surface behavior between geographical...... areas or the size of the animals. Slight differences were found between the two sexes and time of day. Surface time peaked in April, where 6% was spent with the transmitter above surface and 61.5% between 0 and 2 m depth, while the minimum values occurred in February (3.4% and 42.5%, respectively......). The analyses reveal that individual variation among porpoises is the most important factor in explaining variation in surface rates. However, the large number of animals documented in the present study covering a wide range of age and sex groups justifies the use of the seasonal average surface times...
Leo J. MAHONEY
Full Text Available In the past century, veterans of America's wars have shown extraordinary human longevity in the postwar eras. As a result, contemporary public historical interpretations of the American second world war experience have been influenced by veterans' perceptions of historical issues for a longer time than was true of postwar eras before the twentieth centuıy. Public historical debates in the United States have recently focused on the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor (1941 and the American attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1945. These events may seem quite dated by now, but they have remarkable contemporary resonance in light of debates over proliferation of nuclear weapons and tactics of so-called pre-emptive warfare. Though the aerial attacks are often related in popular American perception, the truth is they were incommensurate events in terms of their military and political objectives, their physical scale and results, and the natures of their targets.
Kastelein, R.A.; Gransier, R.; Hoek, L.; Jong, C.A.F. de
The distance at which harbor porpoises can hear underwater detonation sounds is unknown, but depends, among other factors, on the hearing threshold of the species for impulsive sounds. Therefore, the underwater hearing threshold of a young harbor porpoise for an impulsive sound, designed to mimic a
... the Town of Cape Charles will sponsor a fireworks display on the shoreline of the navigable waters of...-AA00 Safety Zone; Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard... navigable waters of Cape Charles City Harbor in Cape Charles, VA in support of the Fourth of July Fireworks...
... section of this notice. Basis and Purpose On July 4, 2012 the Town of Cape Charles will sponsor a...-AA00 Safety Zone; Town of Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA AGENCY: Coast... temporary safety zone on the waters of Cape Charles City Harbor in Cape Charles, VA in support of the Fourth...
...] Pearl Harbor National Wildlife Refuge, Honolulu County, HI; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and.../docs/HI-PI/docsjcpearl.htm . Email: [email protected] . Include ``Pearl Harbor final CCP'' in...`iwa, HI 96712. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: David Ellis, Project Leader, (808) 637-6330...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apra Harbor, Guam. (Datum: WGS 84) 110.129a Section 110.129a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.129a Apra Harbor, Guam. (Datum: WGS 84) (a...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apra Harbor, U.S. Territory of Guam. 80.1490 Section 80.1490 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1490 Apra Harbor, U...
...-AA00 Safety Zone; Rochester Harbor Festival, Genesee River, Rochester, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Genesee River, Rochester, NY for the Rochester Harbor Festival fireworks. This zone is intended to...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at Hull, Mass. 110.31 Section 110.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.31 Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship Channel, Great Egg Harbor Bay. 117.753 Section 117.753 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.753 Ship Channel, Great Egg Harbor Bay. The draw of the S52 (Ship...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans. 117.458 Section 117.458 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans. (a) The draws of the SR 46 (St. Claude Avenue) bridge, mile 0.5...
... Operation Regulation; Inner Harbor Navigational Canal, New Orleans, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Navigational Canal, mile 3.1, at New Orleans, LA. The deviation is necessary to replace the wire rope lifting... of the US 90 (Danzinger) Bridge across the Inner Harbor Navigational Canal, mile 3.1, at New Orleans...
... Operation Regulation; Inner Harbor Navigational Canal, New Orleans, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... C. Simon) Bascule Bridge across the Inner Harbor Navigational Canal, mile 4.6, at New Orleans, LA... Ochsner Ironman 70.3 New Orleans event. This deviation allows the bridge to remain closed during the event...
Xing, Xiuying; Kou, Zhiqing; Huang, Ziyi; Lee, Jiin-Jen
Tsunamis waves caused by submarine earthquake or landslide might contain large wave energy, which could cause significant human loss and property damage locally as well as in distant region. The response of three harbors located at the Pacific coast (i.e. Crescent City Harbor, Los Angeles/Long Beach Port, and San Diego Harbor) to six well-known tsunamis events generated (both near-field and far-field) between 2005 and 2011 are examined and simulated using a hybrid finite element numerical model in frequency domain. The model incorporated the effects of wave refraction, wave diffraction, partial wave reflection from boundaries, entrance and bottom energy dissipation. It can be applied to harbor regions with arbitrary shapes and variable water depth. The computed resonant periods or modes of oscillation for three harbors are in good agreement with the energy spectral analysis of the time series of water surface elevations recorded at tide gauge stations inside three harbors during the six tsunamis events. The computed wave induced currents based on the present model are also in qualitative agreement with some of the reported eye-witness accounts absence of reliable current data. The simulated results show that each harbor responded differently and significantly amplified certain wave period(s) of incident wave trains according to the shape, topography, characteristic dimensions and water depth of the harbor basins.
...-AA00 Safety Zone; Fan Pier Yacht Club Fireworks, Boston Harbor, Boston, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Sector Boston Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone for the Fan Pier Yacht Club Fireworks display. This safety... Safety Zone; Fan Pier Yacht Club Fireworks, Boston Harbor, Boston, Massachusetts. (a) General. A...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass. 110.27 Section 110.27 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.27 Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass. North of...
Jiménez, W.G.; Lodder, A.R.
The inherent cross-border nature of the internet has challenged the legal system for over two decades. In this paper we introduce a model in which the internet is approached as if it were the high seas, the harbor of origin, the harbor of destination, or a combination of these. This model is used to
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: San Juan Harbor, San Juan, PR. 165.754 Section 165.754 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Zone: San Juan Harbor, San Juan, PR. (a) Regulated area. A moving safety zone is established in the...
...-AA87 Security Zone; Passenger Vessel SAFARI EXPLORER Arrival/ Departure, Kaunakakai Harbor, Molokai, HI... vessel SAFARI EXPLORER to its intended berth in the harbor. Entry into the temporary security zone is... operation of the SAFARI EXPLORER into Molokai has been voluntarily suspended by the operating company...
...-AA87 Security Zone; Passenger Vessel SAFARI EXPLORER Arrival/ Departure, Kaunakakai Harbor, Molokai, HI... channel's entrance during the arrival and departure of the Passenger Vessel Safari Explorer in Kaunakakai... entrance during the arrival and departure of the Passenger Vessel Safari Explorer in Kaunakakai Harbor...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). 110.235 Section 110.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). (a) The anchorage grounds—(1...
Klok, L.; Hulskotte, J. [TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Den Haag (Netherlands); Van Breemen, T. [Haven Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
A new calculation tool will quickly offer the Harbor of Amsterdam insight in the effect of activities in the harbor on the air quality and hence the available environmental space. [Dutch] Een nieuw rekeninstrument geeft Haven Amsterdam snel inzicht in het effect van alle activiteiten in de haven op de luchtkwaliteit en daarmee in de beschikbare milieuruimte.
... statute (section 1128B(b) of the Social Security Act), as well as developing new OIG Special Fraud Alerts... of New Safe Harbors and Special Fraud Alerts AGENCY: Office of Inspector General (OIG), HHS. ACTION... revised safe harbors and Special Fraud Alerts. Please assist us by referencing the file code OIG-121-N...
... statute (section 1128B(b) of the Social Security Act), as well as developing new OIG Special Fraud Alerts... of New Safe Harbors and Special Fraud Alerts AGENCY: Office of Inspector General (OIG), HHS. ACTION... revised safe harbors and Special Fraud Alerts. Please assist us by referencing the file code OIG-122-N...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rochester (Charlotte) Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.600 Section 207.600 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF... (Charlotte) Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. (a)-(b) [Reserved] (c) No vessel shall moor or...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.580 Section 207.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.580 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use...
...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers, CT AGENCY: Coast... regulations that govern the operation of three bridges across the Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers at New Haven...) entitled ``Drawbridge Operation Regulations New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers,'' in the Federal...
On the morning of December 7, 1941, Japanese bombers staged a surprise attack on U.S. military forces at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Sixty years after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States was attacked again. On the morning of September 11, 2001, four commercial airplanes hijacked by 19 terrorists killed nearly 3,000 people when they crashed…
Ashwood, T.L.; Olsen, C.R.
Sediment cores collected from Middle Loch and West Loch of Pearl Harbor were dated using fallout 137 Cs and excess 210 Pb and analysed for several major elements and trace metals. Results indicate that sediment deposited immediately following the 7 December, 1941, bombing attack on Pearl Harbor contained elevated levels of several trace metals. (author)
Ashwood, T.L.; Olsen, C.R.
Sediment cores collected from Middle Loch and West Loch of Pearl Harbor were dated using fallout /sup 137/Cs and excess /sup 210/Pb and analysed for several major elements and trace metals. Results indicate that sediment deposited immediately following the 7 December, 1941, bombing attack on Pearl Harbor contained elevated levels of several trace metals.
...-AA00 Safety Zone; Mentor Harbor Yachting Club Fireworks, Lake Erie, Mentor, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Erie, Mentor, OH. This safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Erie during the Mentor Harbor Yachting Club fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect...
Con H Schallau; Wilbur R. Maki
The Grays Harbor Federal Sustained Yield Unit (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service) was established in 1949 to enhance the economic stability of the forest products industry and dependent communities in Grays Harbor County, Washington. Provisions of the unit's charter require that all logs harvested from the Quinault Ranger District of the Olympic...
...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; St. Thomas Carnival Watersport Activities, Charlotte Amalie Harbor; St... proposes to establish a special local regulation on the waters of Charlotte Amalie Harbor in St Thomas, USVI during the St. Thomas Carnival Watersport Activities, a high speed boat race. The event is...
... Angeles Harbor). A circular area with a radius of 400 yards (approximately 366 meters), centered in... 400 Transportation Corridor. (C) Outer Harbor: The western boundary of Commercial Anchorage B. (2... Thence along a line described as an arc, radius of 460 meters (approximately 1509 feet) centered on 33...
...; and Northern elephant seals by Level B harassment only. To date, we have issued nine, 1-year... numbers of marine mammals, incidental to conducting Delta Mariner harbor operations for one year. We... California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), and Northern elephant...
...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor... establishing a special local regulation on the waters of the Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor... rulemaking (NPRM) entitled, ``Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and...
... Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC. 165.708 Section 165.708 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.708 Safety/Security Zone; Charleston Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC. (a... Cooper River. All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 1983. (2) All waters within 100 yards of the...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Thomas Harbor, Charlotte... SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.250 St. Thomas Harbor, Charlotte Amalie.... Thomas, V.I. of the United States and approaches thereto, including all waters under its jurisdiction, as...
Alexander, P. Soupy; Baldwin, Sandra M.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Borden, Jonathan; Casso, Michael A.; Crusius, John; Goudreau, Joanne; Kalnejais, Linda H.; Lamothe, Paul J.; Martin, William R.; Martini, Marinna A.; Rendigs, Richard R.; Sayles, Frederick L.; Signell, Richard P.; Valentine, Page C.; Warner, John C.; Bothner, Michael H.; Butman, Bradford
coastal systems in general. Scientific data from this region can also be used to inform decisions about important economic, environmental, and political issues. From the economic viewpoint, the annual value of tourism and shipping in Massachusetts and Cape Cod Bays is about $1.5 billion and $1.9 billion, respectively. Commercial and recreational fishing generates about $240 million per year in the same region (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2005b). The environmental issue is the 300-year history of waste discharge from the Boston metropolitan area into the harbor. This history is punctuated by cycles of environmental degradation, public outcry, and improvements in the sewage treatment system. With each improvement, however, the continuous growth of population in greater Boston (fig. 1.2) and the resulting increase in the volume of waste exceeded the capacity of the treatment system, thereby setting the stage for a new contamination crisis. By the 1980s, the levels of contaminants in sediments of Boston Harbor were among the highest in the nation (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 1987). Fish were diseased, shellfish beds were closed, and swimming beaches were unsafe after heavy rains; in general, water quality and aesthetics were below acceptable standards. Legal and political issues have always been part of Boston Harbor’s history. The environmental conditions in the 1980s were highlighted in a 1983 legal suit brought by the city of Quincy against the Metropolitan District Commission (MDC, the state agency responsible for sewage treatment) and heads of three state agencies for discharging untreated or poorly treated sewage into the harbor (Dolin, 2004). The suit never went to trial, but through the actions of a Massachusetts Superior Court, the issue of Boston Harbor contamination remained on the political and public agenda. The judge called the harbor “unsafe, unsanitary, indecent, in violation of the law (Clean Water Act), and a danger to the
Word, J.Q.; Ward, J.A.; Strand, J.A.; Cullinan, V.I.; Crecelius, E.A.; Steinhauer, W.; Hyland, J.L.
The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, was authorized by the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) to deepen and widen the navigation channels of Inner and Outer Oakland Harbor, California, to accommodate modern deep-draft vessels. To help provide the scientific basis for determining whether Oakland Harbor sediments are suitable for offshore disposal, the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory collected sediment cores from 20 stations in Oakland Harbor, evaluated the cores geologically, analyzed sediment for selected contaminants, conducted a series of solid phase toxicity tests with four sensitive marine invertebrates (Macoma nasuta, Nephtys caecoides, Ampelisca abdita, and Rhepoxynius abronius), and assessed the bioaccumulation potential of sediment-associated contaminants in tissues of M. nasuta. Toxicological test results indicate that none of the sediment from the channel-area stations (CH-1 - CH-7), the Merritt Sand samples (MS-1 and MS-2), or the reference sediment sites (PR-C and PR-F) resulted in significant sediment toxicity to the four species tested. Sediment treatments showing no significant sediment toxicity as well as no significant bioaccumulation included CH-5, MS-1, MS-2, PR-coarse, and PR-fine. Stations that showed little or no significant sediment toxicity, but significant bioaccumulation included SS-2-L (PAHs); TS-1-L (Cu, PAHs, PCBs, tributyltin, and DDE); TS-1-U (tributyltin); TS-5-U (PAHs, PCBs, DDE, and tributyltin); SS-1-U (PB, PAHs, and PCBs); SS-5-L (PAHs, PCBs, and DDE); CH-6 and CH-7 (PAHs, PCBs, and DDE); Ch-4 and CH-1 (Cr); and CH-3 (DDE). 28 refs., 31 figs., 75 tabs
Sloto, Ronald A.
The 38-acre Fischer and Porter Company Superfund Site is in Warminster Township, Bucks County, Pa. Historically, as part of the manufacturing process, trichloroethylene (TCE) degreasers were used for parts cleaning. In 1979, the Bucks County Health Department detected TCE and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water from the Fischer and Porter on-site supply wells and nearby public-supply wells. The Fischer and Porter Site was designated as a Superfund Site and placed on the National Priorities List in September 1983. A 1984 Record of Decision for the site required the Fischer and Porter Company to pump and treat groundwater contaminated by VOCs from three on-site wells at a combined rate of 75 gallons per minute to contain groundwater contamination on the property. Additionally, the Record of Decision recognized the need for treatment of the water from two nearby privately owned supply wells operated by the Warminster Heights Home Ownership Association. In 2004, the Warminster Heights Home Ownership Association sold its water distribution system, and both wells were taken out of service. The report describes changes in groundwater levels and contaminant concentrations and migration caused by the shutdown of the Warminster Heights supply wells and presents a delineation of the off-site groundwater-contamination plume. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted this study (2006-09) in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The Fischer and Porter Site and surrounding area are underlain by sedimentary rocks of the Stockton Formation of Late Triassic age. The rocks are chiefly interbedded arkosic sandstone and siltstone. The Stockton aquifer system is comprised of a series of gently dipping lithologic units with different hydraulic properties. A three-dimensional lithostratigraphic model was developed for the site on the basis of rock cores and borehole geophysical logs. The model was simplified by combining individual lithologic
This volume contains the abstracts of oral and poster presentations made at the LVIII Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology entitles DNA & Chromosomes. The meeting was held June 2--June 9, 1993 at Cold Spring Harbor, New York.
Fosha, Charles E.
This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.
Nourah Mohammad Obaid
Full Text Available The development of resistance to previously effective treatments has been a challenge for health care providers and a fear for patients undergoing cancer therapy. This is an unfortunately frequent occurrence for patients undergoing targeted therapy for tumours harboring the activating V600E mutation of the BRAF gene. Since the initial identification of the BRAF mutation in 2002, a series of small molecular inhibitors that target the BRAFV600E have been developed, but intrinsic and acquired resistance to these drugs has presented an ongoing challenge. More recently, improvements in therapy have been achieved by combining the use of BRAF inhibitors with other drugs, such as inhibitors of the downstream effector mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK/extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK kinase (MEK. Despite improved success in response rates and in delaying resistance using combination therapy, ultimately, the acquisition of resistance remains a concern. Recent research articles have shed light on some of the underlying mechanisms of this resistance and have proposed numerous strategies that might be employed to overcome or avoid resistance to targeted therapies. This review will explore some of the resistance mechanisms, compare what is known in melanoma cancer to colorectal cancer, and discuss strategies under development to manage the development of resistance.
Gonzalez-Astudillo, Viviana; Bustamante-Rengifo, Javier A; Bonilla, Álvaro; Lehmicke, Anna Joy J; Castillo, Andrés; Astudillo-Hernández, Miryam
Leptospirosis cases in Colombia are typically linked to peridomestic rodents; however, empirical data suggest that Leptospira-infected patients with no apparent exposure to these reservoirs are common. Cockroaches (Periplaneta spp.) have equal or greater interaction with humans than rodents, yet their potential role as carriers of Leptospira has not been assessed. We determined if pathogenic Leptospira is harbored by Periplaneta spp. in Cali (Colombia) and the variables influencing this relationship. Fifty-nine cockroaches were captured from seven sites and DNA was extracted from the body surface and digestive tract for a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, targeting genes secY and flaB. Logistic regression models and proportion tests showed a higher likelihood for Leptospira to be isolated from body surfaces (P > 0.001) and from individuals inside houses (six times more likely). These findings are the first to demonstrate an association between Periplaneta spp. and Leptospira, suggesting the need to investigate the potential for cockroaches to serve as reservoirs or transport hosts for Leptospira. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.
The older, bay mud (OBM) unit predates modem man and could act as a barrier to the downward transport of contaminants from the younger bay mud (YBM) because of its hard-packed consistency. However, its chemical and biological nature have not been well characterized. Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted three independent studies of OBM sediment in January 1993, January 1994, and October 1994. These studies evaluated potential chemical contamination and biological effects of OBM that could occur as a result of dredging and disposal activities. These evaluations were performed by conducting chemical analysis, solid-phase toxicity tests, suspended- particulate-phase (SPP) toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation tests on the OBM sediment. If the sediment chemistry and toxicity results showed no or minimal contamination and toxicological responses, then either the OBM could be left exposed in Richmond Harbor after dredging the YBM without leaving a source of contamination, or if the project depths necessitate, the OBM would be acceptable for disposal at an appropriate disposal site.
Ferreira, Túlio César; Hertzberg, Libi; Gassmann, Max; Campos, Elida Geralda
The hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimeric transcription factor activated when cells are submitted to hypoxia. The heterodimer is composed of two subunits, HIF-1alpha and the constitutively expressed HIF-1beta. During normoxia, HIF-1alpha is degraded by the 26S proteasome, but hypoxia causes HIF-1alpha to be stabilized, enter the nucleus and bind to HIF-1beta, thus forming the active complex. The complex then binds to the regulatory sequences of various genes involved in physiological and pathological processes. The specific regulatory sequence recognized by HIF-1 is the hypoxia response element (HRE) that has the consensus sequence 5'BRCGTGVBBB3'. Although the basic transcriptional regulation machinery is conserved between yeast and mammals, Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not express HIF-1 subunits. However, we hypothesized that baker's yeast has a protein analogous to HIF-1 which participates in the response to changes in oxygen levels by binding to HRE sequences. In this study we screened the yeast genome for HREs using probabilistic motif search tools. We described 24 yeast genes containing motifs with high probability of being HREs (p-value<0.1) and classified them according to biological function. Our results show that S. cerevisiae may harbor HREs and indicate that a transcription factor analogous to HIF-1 may exist in this organism.
Armynot du Chatelet, E.; Debenay, J.-P.; Soulard, R.
Foraminiferal density and species richness that decrease with an increase in heavy metal and PAH concentration may be used as pollution indicators. - Benthic foraminifera are increasingly used as environmental bio-indicators, especially in polluted environments where their sensitivity to pollutants may be expressed by a modification of the assemblages. Eighteen sediment samples were collected in September 2000 in five harbors located in moderately polluted estuaries on the coast of Vendee (France) for the study of foraminiferal assemblages. Ten heavy metals and 13 PAH have been analyzed from the sediments. The marine to continental estuarine gradient has a prevalent influence on the foraminiferal distribution. However, the results show that foraminiferal density and species richness of the assemblages decrease with an increase in heavy metal and PAH concentration, and therefore may be used as pollution indicators. Moreover, the more polluted areas are dominated by the tolerant pioneer species Haynesina germanica that may be used as bio-indicator of pollution, mainly in the uppermost areas
de Vere, Amber J
The effects of visitor presence on zoo and aquarium animals have become increasingly well studied, using measures such as behavioral responses and exhibit usage. Many taxa remain underrepresented in this literature; this is the case for marine mammals, despite widespread public concern for their welfare in managed care settings. The current study therefore used behavioral activity budgets and exhibit usage to assess the responses of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) to visitors at the Seal Cove exhibit at Six Flags Discovery Kingdom, Vallejo CA. Data was collected via focal follow video recordings over the summer season of 2016, and analyzed using MANCOVAs, discriminant analyses, and modified Spread of Participation Indices. The sea lions showed no significant changes in behavior when visitors were present, but did show greater preference for the water bordering visitor viewing areas during these times. Two sea lions gave birth during the study period, and showed greater preference for land areas both adjacent to and out of sight of visitors when nursing compared to while pregnant. In contrast, the harbor seals showed significant behavioral changes in the presence of visitors, including increased vigilance and feeding. This was associated with increased preferential use of water areas adjacent to the visitor viewing area. Visitors were able to purchase fish to throw to the animals, which likely contributed to the differences observed. Overall, this study found little evidence for negative visitor impacts on two pinniped species in a zoo setting. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
..., south of Barbers Pt Harbor Channel, Oahu, Hawaii. 165.T14-204 Section 165.T14-204 Navigation and... Pt Harbor Channel, Oahu, Hawaii. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: All waters... position is approximately 2,500 yards south of Barbers Point Harbor channel buoy #2, Oahu, Hawaii. This...
... 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area--New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River, New Haven, CT... Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River and Mill River. The current RNA pertains only to the operation of tugs...) entitled Regulated Navigation Area--New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River, New Haven, CT; Pearl...
Liehr, Patricia; Nishimura, Chie; Ito, Mio; Wands, Lisa Marie; Takahashi, Ryutaro
This study examines 51 stories of health, shared by people who survived the wartime trauma of Hiroshima and Pearl Harbor, seeking to identify turning points that moved participants along over their lifetime. The central turning point for Hiroshima survivors was "becoming Hibabusha (A-bomb survivor)" and for Pearl Harbor survivors was "honoring the memory and setting it aside." Wartime trauma was permanently integrated into survivors' histories, surfacing steadily over decades for Hiroshima survivors and intermittently over decades for Pearl Harbor survivors. Regardless of experience or nationality, participants moved through wartime trauma by connecting with others, pursuing personal and global peace.
Sabinsky, Puk Faxe; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus
Male harbor seals gather around breeding sites for competitive mating displays. Here, they produce underwater vocalizations possibly to attract females and/or scare off other males. These calls offer prospects for passive acoustic monitoring. Acoustic monitoring requires a good understanding...... of natural variation in calling behavior both temporally and among geographically separate sites. Such variation in call structure and calling patterns were studied in harbor seal vocalizations recorded at three locations in Danish and Swedish waters. There was a strong seasonality in the calls from end...... biological differences when comparing harbor seal roars among recording sites and between years....
...: Empire Kosher Poultry, Inc., Walker Township, Juniata County, Pa. Modification to increase total.... 1509 et seq., 18 CFR parts 806-808. Dated: January 12, 2012. Thomas W. Beauduy, Deputy Executive...
... Spring, Logan Branch Watershed), Spring Township, Centre County, Pa. Application for surface water...: April 19, 2013. Paul O. Swartz, Executive Director. [FR Doc. 2013-09887 Filed 4-25-13; 8:45 am] BILLING...
Mariita, R. M.; Hossain, M. J.; Liles, M. R.; Moss, A.
Studies have shown that with widespread use of antibiotics in human and domestic animal populations, antibiotic resistance becomes increasingly common in the environment. Estuaries provide ideal conditions for acquisition and dissemination of drug resistance genes because they serve as sinks for pollution. This study aimed to identify M. leidyi microbial diversity and richness and their potential to act as vectors for antibiotic resistance determinants (ARDs). M. leidyi, although native to study area are highly invasive. Metagenomic analyses indicate that there are temporal variations of bacterioplankton assemblages in M. leidyi gut. Overall, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria are the most abundant phyla. Despite the temporal dynamics in the microbial assemblages in M. leidyi gut, they seem to retain Propionibacterium acnes (gut microbiota in some insects) and select proteobacteria across all seasons. The results contradict previous studies that suggest that M. leidyi does not have constant a microbiota, but only seasonally variant microbial assemblages. Here we reveal the presence of M. leidyi gut ARDs in winter and summer, probably because of the ctenophores' positive geotaxis during rough surface conditions. Genes responsible for resistance to fluoroquinolones, multidrug resistance efflux pumps, mercuric reductase, copper homeostasis and blaR1 genes were observed. This is the first study to demonstrate that M. leidyi harbors constant microbiota and provides a baseline for understanding M. leidyi gut microbial and ARDs ecology. It also suggests that M. leidyi bacterial taxonomic and functional dynamics is influenced by season. Funding: Alabama EPSCoR GRSP fellowship, AU-CMB fellowship, NSF EPS-1158862, USDA-Hatch 370225-310100 (AGM, ML).
Carkin, Brad A.; Kayen, Robert E.
The U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the National Park Service Submerged Resources Center, undertook investigations at the USS Arizona Memorial at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, in 2002, 2003, and 2005 to characterize geological factors affecting the deterioration and movement of the hull of the USS Arizona. Since sinking on the morning of December 7, 1941, the hull of the USS Arizona has been slowly but steadily disappearing below the surface of Pearl Harbor. Continuous sediment coring at three of four locations around the hull of the Arizona was only partially successful, but it was sufficient to identify a varied sedimentary substrate beneath the hull. A boring near the stern reveals a thick, continuous sequence of soft, gray clay to the bottom of the boring. In contrast, borings near the bow and starboard side, below about 5 meters subbottom depth, indicate the presence of very stiff, brown clay and coral debris and an absence of soft clay. Multisensor core logger scanning of the recovered cores distinguishes the lower density of the soft, gray clay at the stern from the higher density of the stiff, brown clays and coral debris at the bow and starboard side. Uniaxial consolidation testing of the soft gray clay indicates a normally consolidated sequence, whereas the stiff, brown clay and coral debris are overconsolidated. Profiles of shear wave velocity vs. depth obtained through spectral analysis of interface wave testing around the perimeter of the hull in 2005 identified areas of higher velocity, stiffer sediment at the bow and starboard side, which correspond to the dense, stiff clay recovered near the bow and starboard borings. Low shear-wave velocities at the port midship and quarter of the hull correlate with the lower density, softer sediment recovered from the boring at the stern. Cross sections of the subbottom of the Memorial combine results from the sediment borings and geophysical surveys and depict a wedge of soft clay unconformably overlying
.... The sponsor is the New York State Canal Corporation. The design includes deepening the Inner Harbor channel and a portion of the terminal slip area to a depth of 10 feet below Low Water Datum (LWD...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys were conducted during 1983–2006 in the Ketchikan, Sitka, Kodiak, and Bristol Bay areas of Alaska to estimate trends in abundance of harbor seals.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset provides counts of harbor seals from aerial surveys over Lake Iliamna, Alaska, USA. The data have been collated from three previously published sources...
Lepland, Aivo; Andersen, Thorbjorn J.; Lepland, Aave; Arp, Hans Peter H.; Alve, Elisabeth; Breedveld, Gijs D.; Rindby, Anders
Stratigraphic profiles of Cu, Cd and Hg in ten sediment cores from the Oslo harbor, Norway, combined with results of radiometric dating demonstrate that pollution by these metals peaked between 1940 and 1970. Dating results indicate that Hg discharges peaked between 1940 and 1950, Cd reached maximum ca. 1955-1960, and Cu has the highest concentration in sediment interval corresponding to ca. 1970. Geochemical profiles and maxima of Cu, Cd and Hg concentrations can be used as chronostratigraphic markers for sediment cores from the Oslo harbor. Acoustic backscatter and sediment core data indicate that propeller wash affects the seabed in the Oslo harbor. The propeller-induced turbulence causes erosion, and in places exposes and remobilizes contaminated sediments that accumulated in the harbor during previous decades. Such re-exposure of contaminated sediments could be detrimental to local ecosystems and offset remediation efforts, warranting further impact studies and potential mitigation strategies to prevent redistribution.
Thompson, Edward F; Demirbilek, Zeki; Briggs, Michael J
Present and projected commercial activities in Kawaihae Deep Draft Harbor, Island of Hawaii, HI, indicate that a deeper basin and entrance channel and better protected berthing areas will be needed. The U.S...
.... In September 1999, we reported that the preliminary results of the ongoing Pearl Harbor pilot were mixed and recommended that the Departments of Defense and the Navy address unresolved issues related...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A current survey in the approaches to New York Harbor was initiated 06 September 1955 and continued through 04 November 1955. This survey was conducted in accordance...
...) and ancillary equipment from the interior of Building 88, a former lubricating oil storage facility, and the related exposed piping underneath Mike wharves M3 and M4 at Merry Point, Pearl Harbor Naval Complex...
.... We reviewed 17 GFOQs at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, with budgeted maintenance and repair costs of $1,247,300, to determine whether the Navy had properly classified interior shutter costs as maintenance and repair...
Commander, Navy Region Hawaii (CNRH) proposes to repair, maintain, and improve waterfront berthing and maintenance facilities for ships and submarines on an as-needed basis within the Pearl Harbor Naval Complex (PHNC...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry from Apra Harbor, Guam U.S. Territory. The netCDF and Arc ASCII grids include multibeam bathymetry from the Reson SeaBat 8125 multibeam sonar...
Japanese raid on Pearl Harbor has been called a defining moment in U.S. history. It caught the country by Hawaii-based combat planes, were heavily damaged. By crippling the U.S. Pacific Fleet, Japan hoped to
Two-dimensional hydrodynamic and transport models were used to simulate tidal and subtidal circulation, residence times, and the longitudinal distributions of conservative constituents in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, before and after a hurricane barrier was constructed. The...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The most feasible approach to determining harbor seal distribution and abundance in Alaska coastal habitats is to use aircraft to count seals when they haul out of...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset provides counts of harbor seals from aerial surveys over Iliamna Lake, Alaska, USA. The data have been collated from three previously published sources...
Chen, Li; Dai, Yaohua; Zhang, Yanfeng; Wu, Qiong; Rudan, Diana; Saftić, Vanja; van Velthoven, Michelle H M M T; Su, Jianqiang; Tan, Zangwen; Scherpbier, Robert W
To evaluate the quality of antenatal care (ANC) in Hebei Province and compare it between the public and private sector and within the public sector. We conducted a Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Household Survey in 2010 using a two-stage sampling procedure and included 1079 mothers. The quality of ANC was assessed on the basis of the number of ANC visits, the time of the first ANC visit, 16 different ANC procedures, owning a maternal health care booklet, and the type of service provider. Almost all women (98%) received ANC services at least once, 80% at least four times, and 54% at least five times. About half of the women (46%) visited ANC facility within their first trimester. Neither public nor private sector provided all 16 standardized services, but significantly more women in public sector received ANC procedures. Most women received ANC in county or higher-level hospitals (75%) and very few in township hospitals (8%). Significantly fewer women were weighed and tested for HIV/AIDS in township than in county or higher-level hospitals. The quality of ANC in Hebei was poorer than required by China's national and World Health Organization norms. Although the public sector performed better than the private sector, the utilization and quality of care of ANC services in this sector varied and women generally visited county or higher-level health facilities.
Chen, Li; Dai, Yaohua; Zhang, Yanfeng; Wu, Qiong; Rudan, Diana; Saftić, Vanja; van Velthoven, Michelle H.M.M.T.; Su, Jianqiang; Tan, Zangwen; Scherpbier, Robert W.
Aim To evaluate the quality of antenatal care (ANC) in Hebei Province and compare it between the public and private sector and within the public sector. Methods We conducted a Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Household Survey in 2010 using a two-stage sampling procedure and included 1079 mothers. The quality of ANC was assessed on the basis of the number of ANC visits, the time of the first ANC visit, 16 different ANC procedures, owning a maternal health care booklet, and the type of service provider. Results Almost all women (98%) received ANC services at least once, 80% at least four times, and 54% at least five times. About half of the women (46%) visited ANC facility within their first trimester. Neither public nor private sector provided all 16 standardized services, but significantly more women in public sector received ANC procedures. Most women received ANC in county or higher-level hospitals (75%) and very few in township hospitals (8%). Significantly fewer women were weighed and tested for HIV/AIDS in township than in county or higher-level hospitals. Conclusion The quality of ANC in Hebei was poorer than required by China’s national and World Health Organization norms. Although the public sector performed better than the private sector, the utilization and quality of care of ANC services in this sector varied and women generally visited county or higher-level health facilities. PMID:23630142
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...
Steven C. Wilhelms Coastal And Hydraulics Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center 3909 Halls Ferry Road Vicksburg, Mississippi...Harbor as a measure to reduce the total dissolved gas (TDG) production during spill operations. Three field studies were conducted at the Ice Harbor...significantly reduced for nearly all spill operations with deflectors in place. TDG near the stilling basin was reduced from approximately 150% to
Tada, Tatsuya; Nhung, Pham Hong; Shimada, Kayo; Tsuchiya, Mitsuhiro; Phuong, Doan Mai; Anh, Nguyen Quoc; Ohmagari, Norio; Kirikae, Teruo
The mcr-1 was first detected on a plasmid in colistin-resistant Escherichia coli from livestock and patients in China. We described here the emergence of colistin-resistant E. coli clinical isolates harboring mcr-1 on the chromosomes in Vietnam. To our knowledge, this is the first report of hospital-acquired E. coli isolates harboring mcr-1 in a medical setting in Vietnam. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
of discriminating neutral vessels from threats. A naval vessel berthed at harbor is more susceptible to attack than a vessel in open seas. The...discriminating neutral vessels from threats. A naval vessel berthed at harbor is more susceptible to attack than a vessel in open seas. The chances of...this thesis. He was a source of inspiration, encouragement, and reassurance. Captain Jeffery E. Kline, I am really thankful to you for your ideas
Modeling System (CMS) that were developed and applied previously for the Charleston Harbor numerical modeling study (Kashlan 2013) were used in...Particle Tracking Model; Report 1: Model theory, implementation, and example applications. ERDC/CHL TR-6-20. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Engineer Research ...ER D C/ CH L TR -1 7- 7 Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program Charleston Harbor, SC, Regional Sediment Management Study
Modeling System (CMS) that were developed and applied previously for the Charleston Harbor numerical modeling study (Kashlan 2013) were used in...Particle Tracking Model; Report 1: Model theory, implementation, and example applications. ERDC/CHL TR-6-20. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Engineer Research ...ER D C/ CH L TR -1 7- 7 Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program Charleston Harbor, SC, Regional Sediment Management Study
Ishii, Satoshi; Yan, Tao; Shively, Dawn A.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Whitman, Richard L.; Sadowsky, Michael J.
Cladophora glomerata, a macrophytic green alga, is commonly found in the Great Lakes, and significant accumulations occur along shorelines during the summer months. Recently, Cladophora has been shown to harbor high densities of the fecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli and enterococci. Cladophora may also harbor human pathogens; however, until now, no studies to address this question have been performed. In the present study, we determined whether attached Cladophora, obtained from the L...
Mirfakhraee, Sasan; Mathews, Dana; Peng, Lan; Woodruff, Stacey; Zigman, Jeffrey M
Hyperfunctioning nodules of the thyroid are thought to only rarely harbor thyroid cancer, and thus are infrequently biopsied. Here, we present the case of a patient with a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule harboring thyroid carcinoma and, using MEDLINE literature searches, set out to determine the prevalence of and characteristics of malignant ?hot? nodules as a group. Historical, biochemical and radiologic characteristics of the case subjects and their nodules were compared to those in cases o...
navigation channel , and harbor complex. Though there are anecdotal claims and debris indicating possible sediment movement, there has been no evidence of...littoral sediments inside the disposal area, into the channel and harbor, and other adjacent areas to the CDF4. 1.4 Study plan 1.4.1 Purpose There...locations. 2.4 Maintenance dredging data The need for maintenance dredging arises from sedimentation in the navigation channels , which impedes
Denamiel, Cléa; Šepić, Jadranka; Vilibić, Ivica
In engineering studies, harbor resonance, including quality and amplification factors, is typically computed for swell and waves with periods shorter than 10 min. However, in various locations around the world, such as Vela Luka Bay in Croatia, meteotsunami waves of periods greater than 10 min can excite the bay or harbor natural modes and produce substantial structural damages. In this theoretical study, the impact of some geomorphological changes of Vela Luka Bay—i.e. deepening of the bay, dredging the harbor, adding a pier or a marina—to the amplification of the meteotsunami waves are presented for a set of 6401 idealized pressure wave field forcing used to derive robust statistics. The most substantial increase in maximum elevation is found when the Vela Luka harbor is dredged to a 5 m depth, which is in contradiction with the calculation of the quality factor showing a decrease of the harbor natural resonance. It has been shown that the forcing energy content at different frequency bands should also be taken into account when estimating the quality and amplification factors, as their typical definitions derived from the peak frequency of the sea level spectrum fail to represent the harbor response during meteotsunami events. New definitions of these factors are proposed in this study and are shown to be in good agreement with the results of the statistical analysis of the Vela Luka Bay maximum elevation results. In addition, the presented methodology can easily be applicable to any other location in the world where meteotsunamis occur.
PLSS Townships and Sections, This layer is kept up-to-date with the addition of new survey data, as the data comes in. We have all known data incorporated, but there still remains about 40% of the County that needs more work., Published in 2013, Not Applicable scale, Chippewa County Government.
NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — PLSS Townships and Sections dataset current as of 2013. This layer is kept up-to-date with the addition of new survey data, as the data comes in. We have all known...
Muzigaba, M; Puoane, T
There is an increasing awareness of the role played by the food retail characteristics in determining individuals' healthy food purchasing and consumption behaviors. The perceived costs of healthier food alternatives have been shown to contribute negatively to individual's food choices in developed societies. However, there is still a dearth of knowledge regarding this phenomenon in low to middle income countries particularly in Africa. This study explored health club member's experiences in buying healthier food options and compared their perceived cost of selected healthier and less healthy foods with actual market costs in a South African township. A cross-sectional study design using quantitative and qualitative research methods. The study was conducted in Khayelitsha, a township in the Western Cape Province in South Africa. Participants were 50 members of a health club, mostly female and above 50 years of age. The study was conducted in three phases. The first phase involved interviews with all 50 health club members. During the second phase ten purposively selected members participated in in-depth interviews based on their unhealthy food-purchasing and consumption patterns identified in the first phase. The third phase involved food price audits from supermarkets as well as convenient stores located in the study setting. Quantitative data were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis, while content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. Most of the members were illiterate and unemployed, largely dependent on government grants. Qualitative findings showed that low household incomes, their inability to read and interpret nutritional information and personal food preferences contributed to Health club members' unhealthy food-purchasing behaviour. When objectively measured in local stores, the healthier food options proved to be more expensive than their less healthy equivalents. This was consistent with subjects' perceptions about the relative cost
Park, Jin-Hyeong; Kim, Young-Ji; Binn-Kim; Seo, Kun-Ho
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that release treated wastewater into the environment have emerged as a major threat to public health. In this study, we investigated Escherichia coli load and antibiotic-resistance profiles across different treatment processes at a swine farm WWTP. The frequency of the detection of class 1 and 2 integrons, and their association with antibiotic resistance, were also analyzed. Samples were obtained at each of five sampling sites that represented each processing step within the WWTP. The largest decrease in E. coli load was observed during the anaerobic digestion step (from 4.86 to 2.89log CFU/mL). Isolates resistant to β-lactam antibiotics were efficiently removed after a series of treatment steps, whereas the proportions of isolates resistant to non-β-lactam antibiotics and multidrug-resistant strains were maintained across treatments. The occurrence of integron-positive strains was not significantly different at the various sampling sites (43.4-70%; p>0.05). Of the class 1 integron-positive isolates, 17.9% harbored the integron-associated gene cassettes aadA2, aadA12, aadA22, and dfrA15. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of a class 1 integron containing the aadA12 gene cassette from a swine farm and the presence of a class 1 integron containing dfrA15 in E. coli. This suggests that novel antibiotic-resistance gene cassette arrays could be generated in swine farm WWTPs. Moreover, 75% of integron-positive strains were categorized as multidrug resistant, whereas only 15.4% of integron-negative strains were multidrug resistant (pswine farm WWTPs in terms of the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria to the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
advertising , publication, or promotional purposes. Citation of trade names does not constitute an official endorsement or approval of the use of such...mono- chromatic and irregular or random waves moving from deep to shallow waters over varying bathymetry (Nwogu and Demirbilek 2001; Demirbilek and
Owiti, John Arianda
This article is extracted from a doctoral thesis that was supported by a research grant from the International Development Research Centre of Canada (IDRC)'s Ecosystem Approaches to Human Health Training Award, the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Northern Ireland's Emslie Horniman Scholarship Fund and McGill University, Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research's Humanities and Social Sciences Research Award. This study used a broad theoretical framework encompassing an ecosystem approach to HIV-1/AIDS that partly investigated the nexus between local knowledge of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV-1/AIDS. According to the Turkana of Lodwar township, Kenya, HIV-1/AIDS and TB are largely contagious and are attributed to impersonal and natural causes. In addition, in line with biomedical knowledge, the Turkana's local knowledge emphasises a conceptual link between TB and HIV-1/AIDS. The study also demonstrates that factors of the ecosystem such as kaada, poverty, widow inheritance, migration and other socio-cultural practices play an influential role in the vulnerability of the Turkana to the contraction and transmission of both TB and HIV-1/AIDS. The article posits an integrated approach to the prevention of TB and HIV-1 and to the management of AIDS and TB.
Vikkey, Hinson Antoine; Fidel, Dossou; Pazou Elisabeth, Yehouenou; Hilaire, Hountikpo; Hervé, Lawin; Badirou, Aguèmon; Alain, Koudafoke; Parfait, Houngbégnon; Fabien, Gounongbé; Benjamin, Fayomi
Objective: To assess the degree of poisoning in farmers using the erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) test before and after the exposure to pesticides in townships in central Benin (Glazoué and Savè) and to identify the associated risk factors. Methods: Using a cross-sectional study design, we recruited 264 farm pesticide sprayers, who have been working for at least 5 years. They completed a questionnaire and underwent the AChE test using the Test-mate Model 400 device (EQM Research Inc.) with a photometric sensor, based on the works of Ellman. Results: Organophosphate/pyrethroids were the most common pesticides used by at least 72.96% of the farmworkers. We observed an inhibition of AChE between pre-exposure and post-exposure (P = .002) for 60.61% of the farmworkers. Among them, 11.88% displayed more than 20% AChE inhibition. Conclusions: Pesticide poisoning is a reality, and AChE monitoring is urgently needed for farmworker surveillance. PMID:28469452
Vikkey, Hinson Antoine; Fidel, Dossou; Elisabeth, Yehouenou Pazou; Hilaire, Hountikpo; Hervé, Lawin; Badirou, Aguèmon; Alain, Koudafoke; Parfait, Houngbégnon; Fabien, Gounongbé; Benjamin, Fayomi
To assess the degree of poisoning in farmers using the erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) test before and after the exposure to pesticides in townships in central Benin (Glazoué and Savè) and to identify the associated risk factors. Using a cross-sectional study design, we recruited 264 farm pesticide sprayers, who have been working for at least 5 years. They completed a questionnaire and underwent the AChE test using the Test-mate Model 400 device (EQM Research Inc.) with a photometric sensor, based on the works of Ellman. Organophosphate/pyrethroids were the most common pesticides used by at least 72.96% of the farmworkers. We observed an inhibition of AChE between pre-exposure and post-exposure ( P = .002) for 60.61% of the farmworkers. Among them, 11.88% displayed more than 20% AChE inhibition. Pesticide poisoning is a reality, and AChE monitoring is urgently needed for farmworker surveillance.
A radiological survey was conducted at the Pennsylvania Railroad Landfill Site in Burrell Township, Pennsylvania. In 1956 and 1957, approximately 11,600 tons of radioactive material was dumped at this site and was apparently scattered over an area of loss than 10 acres. The survey included measurement of the following: external gamma radiation at 1 m above the surface and at the surface throughout the site; beta--gamma dose rates at 1 cm from the surface throughout the site; concentrations of 226 Ra and 238 U in surface and subsurface soil on the site; concentrations of 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 230 Th, and 238 U in subsurface water on the site and in surface water on and near the site; and the extent of atmospheric transport of 222 Rn and progeny from the site. The general location of the residues transported to the site, except possibly small, scattered quantities of materials, was determined from the survey. In some areas on the site, beta--gamma dose rates of 1 cm from the surface were above pertinent guidelines.Analyses of sediment from water samples taken from drainage areas near the site indicate that some radioactive material is being carried from the site by surface run-off. Results of this survey indicate that there is no significant atmospheric transport of 222 Rn from the site
Shem, L.M.; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zimmerman, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)
The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of a survey conducted over the period of August 3-4, 1992, at the Cassadaga wetlands crossing in Gerry Township, Chautauqua County, New York. The pipeline at this site was installed during February and March 1981. After completion of pipeline installation, the ROW was fertilized, mulched, and seeded with annual ryegrass. Two adjacent sites were surveyed in this study: a forested wetland and an emergent wetlands Eleven years after pipeline installation, the ROW at both sites supported diverse vegetative communities. Although devoid of large woody species, the ROW within the forested wetland had a dense vegetative cover. The ROW within the emergent wetland had a slightly less dense and more diverse vegetative community compared with that in the adjacent natural areas (NAs). The ROW within the emergent wetland also had a large number of introduced species that were not present in the adjacent NAs. The ROW, with its emergent marsh plant community, provided habitat diversity within the forested wetlands Because the ROW contained species not found within the adjacent NAs, overall species diversity was increased.
Zar Ni Hlaing
Full Text Available This research analyzed the prevalence of water sanitation at the household level against gastrointestinal disease occurrence in the urban slum setting of South Okkalapa Township, Myanmar, using cross-sectional study design techniques. A total of 364 household respondents were interviewed face to face by well-trained research assistants using structured questionnaires. Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine the association between independent and dependent variables. Results showed that the source of household water (OR: 13.58, 95% CI: 6.90-26.74, and the types of drinking water (OR: 1.85, 95% CI: 0.92-3.71, were significantly associated with gastrointestinal diseases (p-value<0.05. After adjustment for confounding factors, this study found that occupation (AOR: 2.63, 95% CI: 1.25-5.54, employment status (AOR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.01-5.01, type of household toilet (AOR: 8.66, 95% CI: 4.03-18.60, sources of household water (AOR: 6.56, 95% CI: 2.86-15.08, and the method of vector control (AOR: 3.12, 95% CI: 1.37-7.30 were all significantly associated with gastrointestinal diseases (p-value<0.05. Health education and appropriate technology for household water, sanitary latrines, environmental sanitation and waste disposal, and the implementation of policies focusing on systematic water management are therefore urgently required to control the spread of waterborne diseases.
Hinson Antoine Vikkey
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the degree of poisoning in farmers using the erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE test before and after the exposure to pesticides in townships in central Benin (Glazoué and Savè and to identify the associated risk factors. Methods: Using a cross-sectional study design, we recruited 264 farm pesticide sprayers, who have been working for at least 5 years. They completed a questionnaire and underwent the AChE test using the Test-mate Model 400 device (EQM Research Inc. with a photometric sensor, based on the works of Ellman. Results: Organophosphate/pyrethroids were the most common pesticides used by at least 72.96% of the farmworkers. We observed an inhibition of AChE between pre-exposure and post-exposure ( P = .002 for 60.61% of the farmworkers. Among them, 11.88% displayed more than 20% AChE inhibition. Conclusions: Pesticide poisoning is a reality, and AChE monitoring is urgently needed for farmworker surveillance.
The 12-acre Woodland Route 72 Dump site is an abandoned hazardous waste dump in Woodland Township, Burlington County, New Jersey. The site is being remediated concurrently with another abandoned dump. Several chemical manufacturing firms dumped chemicals and other wastes into trenches and lagoons or burned the waste at the sites from the early 1950s to 1962. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the surface soil, sediment, sludge, debris, and ground water are VOCs including benzene, toluene, TCE and xylenes; organics including PAHs, pesticides, and phenols; radionuclides (e.g., uranium and thorium series); and metals including lead and chromium. The selected remedial action for the site includes excavation, further characterization, and offsite disposal at a permitted facility of 54,000 cubic yards (total from both sites) of contaminated surface soil, sludges, debris and sediment; offsite disposal of 19 cubic yards (total from both sites) of radiologically contaminated surface materials including a drum of radioactive pellets; ground water pumping and treatment with treatment to be determined during design. The total estimated present worth cost for the concurrent remedial actions at the Route 72 and Route 532 sites is $142,200,000
Kim, Sung Jin; Kim, Ju Hyun; Yang, Bitna; Jeong, Jin-Sook; Lee, Seong-Wook
Mutations in the KRAS gene, which persistently activate RAS function, are most frequently found in many types of human cancers. Here, we proposed and verified a new approach against cancers harboring the KRAS mutation with high cancer selectivity and efficient anti-cancer effects based on targeted RNA replacement. To this end, trans-splicing ribozymes from Tetrahymena group I intron were developed, which can specifically target and reprogram the mutant KRAS G12V transcript to induce therapeutic gene activity in cells. Adenoviral vectors containing the specific ribozymes with downstream suicide gene were constructed and then infection with the adenoviruses specifically downregulated KRAS G12V expression and killed KRAS G12V-harboring cancer cells additively upon pro-drug treatment, but it did not affect the growth of wild-type KRAS-expressing cells. Minimal liver toxicity was noted when the adenoviruses were administered systemically in vivo. Importantly, intratumoral injection of the adenoviruses with pro-drug treatment specifically and significantly impeded the growth of xenografted tumors harboring KRAS G12V through a trans-splicing reaction with the target RNA. In contrast, xenografted tumors harboring wild-type KRAS were not affected by the adenoviruses. Therefore, RNA replacement with a mutant KRAS-targeting trans-splicing ribozyme is a potentially useful therapeutic strategy to combat tumors harboring KRAS mutation. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wood, Nathan J.; Good, James W.; Goodwin, Robert F.
Recent scientific research suggests the Pacific Northwest could experience catastrophic earthquakes in the near future, both from distant and local sources, posing a significant threat to coastal communities. Damage could result from numerous earthquake-related hazards, such as severe ground shaking, soil liquefaction, landslides, land subsidence/uplift, and tsunami inundation. Because of their geographic location, ports and harbors are especially vulnerable to these hazards. Ports and harbors, however, are important components of many coastal communities, supporting numerous activities critical to the local and regional economy and possibly serving as vital post-event, response-recovery transportation links. A collaborative, multi-year initiative is underway to increase the resiliency of Pacific Northwest ports and harbors to earthquake and tsunami hazards, involving Oregon Sea Grant (OSG), Washington Sea Grant (WSG), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Services Center (CSC), and the U.S. Geological Survey Center for Science Policy (CSP). Specific products of this research, planning, and outreach initiative include a regional stakeholder issues and needs assessment, a community-based mitigation planning process, a Geographic Information System (GIS) — based vulnerability assessment methodology, an educational web-site and a regional data archive. This paper summarizes these efforts, including results of two pilot port-harbor community projects, one in Yaquina Bay, Oregon and the other in Sinclair Inlet, Washington. Finally, plans are outlined for outreach to other port and harbor communities in the Pacific Northwest and beyond, using "getting started" workshops and a web-based tutorial.
Dolinar, G.M.; Killey, R.W.D.; Philipase, K.E.
This paper presents the findings of laboratory and field studies undertaken to assess the feasibility of in situ management of contaminated sediments in Port Hope harbor. The contaminated sediments stem from historic releases from an adjacent radium and uranium refinery, and uranium, arsenic, and radium are the most abundant contaminants. With improved emission controls, currently accumulating sediments have much lower levels of contamination, and the harbor waters currently meet water quality limits for the contaminants of concern. Within a few years, however, the continuing sedimentation will render the harbor unusable. Field tests have confirmed the dredging will result in incomplete removal of the contaminated sediments and that sediment suspension and the release of pores waters during dredging will produce harbor water contaminant concentrations that would require the treatment of large volumes of water. In addition, no remedial work can start until a site for the dredged material can be found. The local community inquired whether in situ burial of the sediments and abandonment of the harbor would provide safe disposal
.... The agenda includes a presentation by Sally Snowman, 70th keeper of Boston Light, the election of officers, and a park update. Date/Time: March 6, 2013, 6:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m. (Eastern). Location: Wilmer... information--may be made publicly available at any time. While you can ask us in your comment to withhold your...
The Westinghouse Elevator site in Adams County, Pennsylvania has been in operation since 1968 as an elevator component manufacturing facility. During the process of elevator cab production, parts were passed through a degreasing and paint phase. Sampling of nearby surface water in 1983 revealed contamination with organic solvents. The environmental contamination on-site consists of 1,1,1-trichloroethane and trichloroethylene in surface sludge, soil, surface water, sediment, and groundwater. In addition, 1,1-dichloroethane and 1,1-dichloroethylene were detected in soil. The environmental contamination off-site consists of 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,1-dichloroethane, and trichloroethylene in residential water supply wells. Contaminated groundwater is of primary importance to the site. Private wells have been found to be contaminated and alternate water supplies have been provided. One public supply well has been decommissioned due to contamination. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via contaminated groundwater, surface water, sediment, and possibly on-site soil.
Lin, Yung-Chang; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Chiang, Pen-Chi; Chen, Wei-Hsiang; Lin, Yuan-Chung
Highlights: • Kaohsiung Harbor is the largest international commercial port in Taiwan. • The metal distributions in the seawater and sediments were investigated. • Many metals exhibited higher levels of enrichment inside the harbor. • Multivariate statistical analysis was used to characterize the metal pollutions. • Two complex arrays of contamination behaviors exist inside and outside the harbor. -- Abstract: Heavy metal pollution, including chromium, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, copper, lead, and aluminum, in the largest industrial harbor in southern Taiwan was investigated. Increasing metal contamination was observed by monitoring heavy metal concentrations in seawater and sediments and estimating the enrichment factors, particularly those inside the harbor. Compared to other metal-polluted harbors worldwide, the presence of chromium in the sediments was relatively high. Excluding the background contribution, the harbor area was polluted by outflows from river mouths, wastewater discharging pipes, and point sources near industrial activities within the harbor. It is shown by principal component and cluster analyses that metal contamination was affected by a wide range of different and complex contamination mechanisms inside and outside the harbor, suggesting managing the pollution using straightforward strategies, i.e., solutions that only consider a single source or single pathway of metal emissions, is problematic
Walløe, Solveig; Eriksen, Nina; Dabelsteen, Torben
The cetacean brain is well studied. However, few comparisons have been done with other marine mammals. In this study, we compared the harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and the harbor porpoise brain (Phocoena phocoena). Stereological methods were applied to compare three areas of interest...... cells, whereas the harp seal have 6.1 × 10(9) neocortical neurons and 17.5 × 10(9) neocortical glial cells. The harbor porpoise have significantly more neurons and glial cells in the auditory cortex than in the visual cortex, whereas the pattern was opposite for the harp seal. These results...... are the first to provide estimates of the number of neurons and glial cells in the neocortex of the harp seal and harbor porpoise brain and offer new data to the comparative field of mammalian brain evolution....
Full Text Available Current social and political realties have focused attention on human trafficking in the United States. Although new mechanisms for criminalizing offenders and protecting victims are increasingly funded and implemented across the country, empirical exploration into the efficacy of these interventions is lacking. This article uses yearly count data on juvenile prostitution arrests aggregated at the state level to explore the criminalization of commercial sexually exploited children post safe harbor policy implementation. Preliminary data from four states suggests that the passage of safe harbor laws may not reduce the number of juveniles arrested for prostitution crimes. Implications for future research are discussed.
Gram, Lone; Rasmussen, Bastian Barker; Wemheuer, Bernd
in the environment is to date unknown. Here, we report on the repeated isolation of Phaeobacter inhibens strains from a marine environment (harbors) not related to aquaculture. Based on phenotype and 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, a total of 64 P. inhibens strains were identified from 35 samples (eukaryotic...... and used for amplification of 16S rRNA. P. inhibens was detected in five of these samples, all of which were biofilm samples, by pyrotag-sequencing at a prevalence of 0.02–0.68% of the prokaryotic community. The results indicated that P. inhibens had a niche in biofilms of fouled surfaces in harbor areas...
Matthews, Leanna P.
Harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) are a widely distributed pinniped species that mate underwater. Similar to other aquatically mating pinnipeds, male harbor seals produce vocalizations during the breeding season that function in male-male interactions and possibly as an attractant for females. I investigated multiple aspects of these reproductive advertisement displays in a population of harbor seals in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska. First, I looked at vocal production as a function of environmental variables, including season, daylight, and tidal state. Vocalizations were highly seasonal and detection of these vocalizations peaked in June and July, which correspond with the estimated time of breeding. Vocalizations also varied with light, with the lowest probability of detection during the day and the highest probability of detection at night. The high probability of detection corresponded to when females are known to forage. These results are similar to the vocal behavior of previously studied populations. However, unlike previously studied populations, the detection of harbor seal breeding vocalizations did not vary with tidal state. This is likely due to the location of the hydrophone, as it was not near the haul out and depth was therefore not significantly influenced by changes in tidal height. I also investigated the source levels and call parameters of vocalizations, as well as call rate and territoriality. The average source level of harbor seal breeding vocalizations was 144 dB re 1 ?Pa at 1 m and measurements ranged from 129 to 149 dB re 1 ?Pa. Analysis of call parameters indicated that vocalizations of harbor seals in Glacier Bay were similar in duration to other populations, but were much lower in frequency. During the breeding season, there were two discrete calling areas that likely represent two individual males; the average call rate in these display areas was approximately 1 call per minute. The harbor seal breeding season also
Breen, Alison; Daniels, Karen; Tomlinson, Mark
Exposure to violence is a serious mental and public health issue. In particular, children exposed to violence are at risk for poor developmental outcomes and physical and mental health problems. One area that has been shown to increase the risk for poor outcomes is the use of corporal punishment as a discipline method. While researchers are starting to ask children directly abouttheir experiences of violence, there is limited research with children about their perspectives on physical punishment, particularly in low-and middle-income countries (LMIC). This paper begins to address this gap by reporting on the spontaneous data that emerged during 24 qualitative interviews that were conducted with children, aged 8–12 in South Africa. The themes that emerged indicated that corporal punishment is an everyday experience, that it has negative emotional and behavioral consequences, and that it plays a role in how children resolve interpersonal conflicts. The study highlights the challenges for violence prevention interventions in under-resourced contexts. PMID:26094159
Watt, Melissa H; Ranby, Krista W; Meade, Christina S; Sikkema, Kathleen J; MacFarlane, Jessica C; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree; Kalichman, Seth C
South Africa has high rates of traumatic experiences and alcohol abuse or dependence, especially among women. Traumatic experiences often result in symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and PTSD has been associated with hazardous drinking. This article examines the relationship between traumatic events and hazardous drinking among women who patronized alcohol-serving venues in South Africa and examines PTSD as a mediator of this relationship. A total of 560 women were recruited from a Cape Town township. They completed a computerized assessment that included alcohol consumption, history of traumatic events, and PTSD symptoms. Mediation analysis examined whether PTSD symptoms mediated the relationship between the number of traumatic event categories experienced (range: 0-7) and drinking behavior. The mean Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test score in the sample was 12.15 (range: 0-34, SD = 7.3), with 70.9% reaching criteria for hazardous drinking (AUDIT > 8). The mean PTSD score was 36.32 (range: 17-85, SD = 16.3),with 20.9% meeting symptom criteria for PTSD (PTSD Checklist with 20.9% meeting symptom criteria for PTSD (PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version ≥ 50). Endorsement of traumatic experiences was high, including adult emotional (51.8%), physical (49.6%), and sexual (26.3%) abuse; childhood physical (35.0%) and sexual (25.9%) abuse; and other types of trauma (83%). All categories of traumatic experiences, except the "other" category, were associated with hazardous drinking. PTSD symptoms mediated 46% of the relationship between the number of traumatic categories experienced and drinking behavior. Women reported high rates of hazardous drinking and high levels of PTSD symptoms, and most had some history of traumatic events. There was a strong relationship between traumatic exposure and drinking levels, which was largely mediated by PTSD symptoms. Substance use interventions should address histories of trauma in this population, where alcohol may be
Levasseur, Mélanie; Roy, Mathieu; Michallet, Bernard; St-Hilaire, France; Maltais, Danielle; Généreux, Mélissa
To examine the associations between resilience, community belonging, and social participation, and the moderating effect of resilience on the association between community belonging and social participation among community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional; secondary analyses of the Eastern Townships Population Health Survey. Community. A sample (N=4541) of women (n=2485) and men (n=2056) aged ≥60 years was randomly selected according to area. Most participants had community belonging, and resilience were collected by phone interviewer-administered questionnaire. A social participation scale measured frequency of participation in 8 community activities. A 4-point Likert scale ranging from "very strong" to "very weak" estimated sense of belonging to the local community. Social participation and sense of belonging questions came from Statistics Canada surveys. Resilience was assessed with the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, capturing the ability to cope with adversity. Controlling for age, education, and psychological distress, greater resilience and community belonging were associated with greater social participation among women (R 2 =.13; Pcommunity belonging and social participation varied as a function of resilience, especially in men. Greater community belonging further enhanced social participation, especially among women (P=.03) and men (Pcommunity belonging and social participation among community-dwelling older women and, especially, men. Interventions targeting social participation should consider the potential impact of resilience on improving community belonging. Future studies should investigate why resilience moderates associations between community belonging and social participation, and how to enhance resilience among older adults. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... Charles will sponsor a fireworks display on the shoreline of the navigable waters of Cape Charles City...[deg]01'30'' W (NAD 1983). This safety zone will be established in the vicinity of Cape Charles, VA...-AA00 Safety Zone; Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA. AGENCY: Coast Guard...
... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2010-0457] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Fixed Mooring Balls, South of Barbers Pt. Harbor Channel, Oahu, HI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: Due to the placement of six fixed mooring balls in an...
... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R1-R-2010-N160; 1265-0000-10137-S3] Pearl Harbor National Wildlife Refuge, Honolulu County, HI; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and... Kamehameha Highway, Room 2C, Hale`iwa, HI 96712. Alternatively, you may fax comments to the refuge at (808...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded side-scan imagery collected in Apra Harbor, Guam U.S. Territory, USA. The GeoTIFF and Arc ASCII file includes data that were collected using a Klein 3000...
been developed ( Westerdahl and Skogerboe 1981) and is being used x..-’. to predict surface runoff water quality from dredged material as part of the...Islands in New York Harbor," Miscellaneous Paper D-88-3, US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS. Westerdahl , H. E., and Skogerboe
Schwering, P.B.W.; Lensen, H.A.; Broek, S.P. van den; Hollander, R.J.M. den; Mark, W. van der; Bouma, H.; Kemp, R.A.W.
In a harbor environment threats like explosives-packed rubber boats, mine-carrying swimmers and divers must be detected in an early stage. This paper describes the integration and use of a heterogeneous multiple camera system with panoramic observation capabilities for detecting these small vessels
This volume is the second part of a collection of papers submitted by the participants to the 1986 Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology entitled Molecular Biology of /ital Homo sapiens/. The 49 papers included in this volume are grouped by subject into receptors, human cancer genes, and gene therapy. (DT)
produces waves with nealioible wace heights (i.e., 0.5 feet); (b) all waves were deep water waves with no correction for shallow water; and, (c) the...at that harbor. This would re- sult in a loss to the local economy . Ini addition, littoral drift would resume southward thus affecting the littoral
... regulation governing the operation of the US 90 (Danzinger) vertical lift span drawbridge across the Inner... Lift Span Bridge across the Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, mile 3.10 at New Orleans, Orleans Parish, Louisiana. The bridge has a vertical clearance of 50 feet above mean high water, elevation 5.0 feet Mean Sea...
...-AA00 Safety Zone; Can-Am Festival Fireworks, Black River Bay, Sackets Harbor, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard... Black River Bay during the Can-Am Festival Fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to... Can-Am Festival Fireworks. This zone will be effective and enforced from 9:15 p.m. until 10:45 p.m. on...
... Garden Key, Dry Tortugas, Fla. 110.190 Section 110.190 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., in vicinity of Garden Key, Dry Tortugas, Fla. (a) The anchorage grounds. All of Bird Key Harbor, southwest of Garden Key, bounded by the surrounding reefs and shoals and, on the northeast, by a line...
... Operation Regulation; Inner Harbor Navigational Canal, New Orleans, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION..../Seabrook) bridge across the IHNC, mile 4.6, both at New Orleans, LA. This deviation will test changes to... Intra-Costal Waterway (GIWW). The US 90 (Danzinger) Bridge across the IHNC, mile 3.1, at New Orleans...
... Operation Regulation; Inner Harbor Navigational Canal, New Orleans, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... EHL), at New Orleans, LA. The deviation is necessary to replace the counterweight wire ropes on the... Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590, between 9 a.m. and...
...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Inner Harbor Navigational Canal, New Orleans, LA AGENCY: Coast... 4.6, both at New Orleans, LA. This proposed change would allow for the safe navigation of vessels... Department of Transportation and Development (LDOTD) (representing the New Orleans Levee District which is...
... who selflessly served our Nation at home and abroad during World War II. On a tranquil Sunday morning, as war raged around the globe, the attack on Pearl Harbor effectively ended American isolation... have hereunto set my hand this fourth day of December, in the year of our Lord two thousand nine, and...
... Boating Federation, Hanson Aggregates, Power Engineering, Harbor Bay Maritime, Dutra Group, Oakland Yacht... Association, Aeolian Yacht Club, Briar Rose Yacht Charters, Baytech Marine Service, Heinold's First and Last... Outboard Motor Shop, Waterfront Hotel-Miss Pearl's Restaurant, Encinal Yacht Club, Marina Village Inn...
... under Executive Order 13045, Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. This rule is not an economically significant rule and does not create an environmental risk to health...-AA00 Safety Zone; 12th Annual Saltwater Classic; Port Canaveral Harbor; Port Canaveral, FL AGENCY...
... strategy enacted in 2010 based on deliberations by the Harbor Porpoise Take Reduction Team. This action is... information (e.g., name, address, etc.), confidential business information, or otherwise sensitive information... Protection Act (MMPA) to reduce the level of serious injury and mortality of the Gulf of Maine/Bay of Fundy...
... can be provided in the desired format, reporting burden (time and financial resources) is minimized... comment on proposed and/or continuing collections of information in accordance with the paperwork... concerning the proposed collection: Securing Financial Obligations under the Longshore and Harbor Workers...
Lynett, Patrick J.; Borrero, Jose C.; Weiss, Robert; Son, Sangyoung; Greer, Dougal; Renteria, Willington
Tsunamis, or "harbor waves" in Japanese, are so-named due to common observations of enhanced wave heights, currents and damage in harbors and ports. However, dynamic currents induced by these waves, while regularly observed and known to cause significant damage, are poorly understood. Observations and modeling of the currents induced by the 2011 Tohoku and 2004 Indian Ocean tsunamis allows us to show that the strongest flows in harbor basins are governed by horizontally sheared and rotational shallow features, such as jets and large eddies. When examining currents in harbors, this conclusion will generally require a simulation approach that both includes the relevant physical processes in the governing equations and uses a numerical scheme that does not artificially damp these features. Without proper representation of the physics associated with these phenomena, predictive models may provide drag force estimates that are an order of magnitude or more in error. The immediate implementation of this type of analysis into tsunami hazard studies can mean the difference between an unaffected port and one in which 300 m long container vessels are detached from their moorings and drift chaotically.
Greig, Denise J.; Ip, Hon S.; Gulland, Frances M. D.; Miller, Woutrina A.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Field, Cara L.; Fleetwood, Michelle; Harvey, James T.; Jang, Spencer; Packham, Andrea; Wheeler, Elizabeth; Hall, Ailsa J.
The infection status of harbor seals Phoca vitulina in central California, USA, was evaluated through broad surveillance for pathogens in stranded and wild-caught animals from 2001 to 2008, with most samples collected in 2007 and 2008. Stranded animals from Mendocino County to San Luis Obispo County were sampled at a rehabilitation facility: The Marine Mammal Center (TMMC, n = 175); wild-caught animals were sampled at 2 locations: San Francisco Bay (SF, n = 78) and Tomales Bay (TB, n = 97), that differed in degree of urbanization. Low prevalences of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium were detected in the feces of stranded and wild-caught seals. Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli were more prevalent in the feces of stranded (58% [78 out of 135] and 76% [102 out of 135]) than wild-caught (42% [45 out of 106] and 66% [68 out of 106]) seals, whereas Vibrio spp. were 16 times more likely to be cultured from the feces of seals from SF than TB or TMMC (p neurona, and type A influenza was only detected in the wild-caught harbor seals (post-weaning age classes), whereas antibody titers to Leptospira spp. were detected in stranded and wild-caught seals. No stranded (n = 109) or wild-caught (n = 217) harbor seals had antibodies to phocine distemper virus, although a single low titer to canine distemper virus was detected. These results highlight the role of harbor seals as sentinel species for zoonotic and terrestrial pathogens in the marine environment.
van den Brand, Judith M A; Wohlsein, Peter; Herfst, Sander; Bodewes, Rogier; Pfankuche, Vanessa M; van de Bildt, Marco W G; Seehusen, Frauke; Puff, Christina; Richard, Mathilde; Siebert, Ursula; Lehnert, Kristina; Bestebroer, Theo; Lexmond, Pascal; Fouchier, Ron A M; Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen; Herbst, Werner; Koopmans, Marion; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Kuiken, Thijs; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang
Avian influenza viruses sporadically cross the species barrier to mammals, including humans, in which they may cause epidemic disease. Recently such an epidemic occurred due to the emergence of avian influenza virus of the subtype H10N7 (Seal/H10N7) in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). This epidemic
Lepland, Aivo; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Lepland, Aave
Stratigraphic profiles of Cu, Cd and Hg in ten sediment cores from the Oslo harbor, Norway, combined with results of radiometric dating demonstrate that pollution by these metals peaked between 1940 and 1970. Dating results indicate that Hg discharges peaked between 1940 and 1950, Cd reached...
Hoover-Miller, A; Dunn, J L; Field, C L; Blundell, G; Atkinson, S
Populations of harbor seal Phoca vitulina in the Gulf of Alaska have dramatically declined during the past 4 decades. Numbers of seals in Glacier Bay, in southeast Alaska, USA, have also declined despite extensive protection. Causes of the declines and slow recovery are poorly understood. Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that adversely affects reproduction in many domestic species. We measured the seroprevalence of Brucella antibodies in 554 harbor seals in 3 Alaska locations: Prince William Sound (PWS), Glacier Bay (GB), and Tracy Arm Fords Terror (TAFT) Wilderness Area. Objectives included testing for regional, sex, age, and female reproductive state differences in Brucella antibody seroprevalence, persistence in titers in recaptured seals, and differences in titers between mother seals and their pups. Overall, 52% of adults (AD), 53% of subadults (SA), 77% of yearlings (YRL), and 26% of Brucella. Results show higher seroprevalence (64%) for AD and SA seals in the depressed and declining populations in PWS and GB than in TAFT (29%). Lactating females were less likely to be seropositive than other AD females, including pregnant females. Further research is needed to seek evidence of Brucella infection in Alaskan harbor seals, identify effects on neonatal viability, and assess zoonotic implications for Alaska Natives who rely on harbor seals for food.
... Mill Rivers. 117.213 Section 117.213 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers. The draws of the Tomlinson bridge, mile 0.0, the Ferry Street... bridge, mile 0.4 across Mill River, shall operate as follows: (a) The draws shall open on signal; except...
...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers, CT AGENCY: Coast... regulation governing the operation of three bridges across the Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers at New Haven... and 15 feet at mean low water. The Chapel Street Bridge at mile 0.4, across the Mill River has a...
...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers, CT AGENCY: Coast..., mile 1.3, across the Quinnipiac River, and the Chapel Street Bridge, mile 0.4, across the Mill River..., across the Quinnipiac River, and the Chapel Street Bridge, mile 0.4, across the Mill River, to reduce the...
... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2010-1096] Drawbridge Operation Regulations; New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers, New Haven, CT AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY: The Commander, First Coast Guard...
Burke, Alan W
... have stated the US must avoid a space Pearl Harbor. This concern is due to the idea that a decrease in the perceived threat to space assets after the demise of the Soviet Union coupled with a competition for space resources has resulted...
This report presents results of the survey conducted by the Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility personnel to assess levels of environmental radioactivity resulting from maintenance and operation of nuclear-powered warships at the Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard and Environs on the Hawaiian Island of Oahu
Vierra, John, Jr.
This lesson describes and discusses the submerged remains of the battleship USS Arizona which rests on the silt of Pearl Harbor (Hawaii), just as it had settled on December 7, 1941, the day Japan attacked the U.S. fleet and began the Pacific battles of World War II. The lesson is based on the National Register of Historic Places registration file,…
Hardaway, Robert M
The Army has had extensive experience in the study and treatment of shock, beginning with the American Civil War and continuing to the present. This is the story of one Army surgeon's experience, both in research and treatment of shock, from Pearl Harbor to the present.
Murnane, John R.
Ever since War Department propaganda films set the mold, historians have pretty much followed: the road to Pearl Harbor began in 1931 with Japanese aggression in Manchuria. Any "revision" regarding the War in the Pacific has its own set of problems--engendering controversy, often running up against patriotic sentiments and the tendency…
Mackie, Ardiss; Norton, Bonny
In this article, we draw on disruptive scenes in a postsecondary classroom to examine a critical incident concerning conflicting readings of the film "Pearl Harbor" (2001). We raise crucial questions for pedagogical work with popular film: Who speaks for whom about the meaning of a given film? Under what conditions do students resist…
... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; East End Maritime Foundation Fireworks Display, Greenport Harbor, Greenport, NY... temporary rule proposes to establish a safety zone for the East End Maritime Foundation fireworks display....1. 0 2. Add Sec. 165.T01-0600 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T01-0600 Safety Zone; East End Maritime...
... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Investment Company Act Release No. 29784; File No. 812-13931] Stone Harbor Investment Partners LP, et al.; Notice of Application September 7, 2011. AGENCY: Securities..., or cause more than 10% of the acquired company's voting stock to be owned by investment companies and...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Salem..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED... § 165.116 Safety and Security Zones; Salem and Boston Harbors, Massachusetts. (a) Location. The...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION... Guard District § 165.114 Safety and Security Zones: Escorted Vessels—Boston Harbor, Massachusetts. (a...
... have minimal impact on the economy, will not interfere with other agencies, will not adversely alter... Milwaukee Harbor due to the 2013 and 2014 Olympic and Sprint Distance National Championships. This proposed... the 2013 and 2014 Olympic and Sprint Distance National Championships. DATES: Comments and related...
S. Hiemstra; L. Harkema (Liesbeth); L.C.M. Wiersma (Lidewij); R.I. Keesler
textabstractThe liver can be an indicator of the health of an individual or of a group, which can be especially important to identify agents that can cause disease in multiple species. To better characterize hepatic lesions in stranded harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), we analyzed the livers
Synergistic growth inhibition of cancer cells harboring the RET/PTC1 oncogene by staurosporine and rotenone involves enhanced cell death. ANTÓNIO PEDRO GONÇALVES, ARNALDO VIDEIRA, VALDEMAR MÁXIMO and PAULA SOARES. J. Biosci. 36(4), September 2011, 639-648, © Indian Academy of Sciences.
... SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Minnesota § 117.669 St. Louis River (Duluth Superior Harbor). (a) The draws of the Burlington Northern railroad bridge, mile 5.7, shall open... Missabe and Iron Range Railway bridge, mile 16.3, need not be opened for the passage of vessels. The owner...
... SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1083 Duluth-Superior Harbor (St. Louis River). (a) The draws of the Burlington Northern railroad bridge, mile 5.7 at... blasts. (c) The draw of the Duluth, Missabe and Iron Range Railway bridge, mile 16.3 at Duluth, need not...
..., incidental to conducting Delta Mariner harbor operations for one year. NMFS reviewed the ULA application and... vitulina), and Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) hauled out on Small Haul-out Site 1 to... lions; and 43 Northern elephant seals by Level B harassment only. Description of the Specified...
...; and 43 Northern elephant seals by Level B harassment only. To date, NMFS has issued eight, 1-year... elephant seals spend much of the year, generally about nine months, in the ocean. They are usually... Mariner harbor operations for one year. After addressing comments from NMFS, ULA modified its application...
... Northern elephant seals by Level B harassment only. To date, we have issued nine, one-year, Incidental... as far north as Alaska and as far south as Mexico. Northern elephant seals spend much of the year... numbers of marine mammals, incidental to conducting Delta Mariner harbor operations for one year. We...
... the Fairport Harbor Mardi Gras Fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect spectators and vessels from the hazards associated with a fireworks display. DATES: This rule is effective...: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake Erie...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooper River and Charleston....470 Cooper River and Charleston Harbor, S.C.; restricted areas. (a) The restricted areas. (1) Area No. 1 is that portion of the Cooper River beginning near the westerly shore north of Shipyard Creek at...
...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor... proposes to issue a special local regulation on the waters of the Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston... Country Splash is scheduled to take place on the waters of the Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston...
..., Cooper River, South Carolina. 165.709 Section 165.709 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.709 Security Zone; Charleston Harbor, Cooper River, South Carolina. (a) Regulated area. The Coast Guard is establishing a fixed security zone on all waters of the Cooper River, bank-to-bank and surface...
R. Bodewes (Rogier); A.R. García (Ana Rubio); L.C.M. Wiersma (Lidewij); S. Getu (Sarah); M. Beukers (Martijn); C.M.E. Schapendonk (Claudia); P.R.W.A. van Run (Peter); M.W.G. van de Bildt (Marco); M.J. Poen (Marjolein); N. Osinga (Nynke); G.J. Sánchez Contreras (Guillermo); T. Kuiken (Thijs); S.L. Smits (Saskia); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)
textabstractUsing random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing, a novel parvovirus was detected in the brain of a young harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) with chronic non-suppurative meningo-encephalitis that was rehabilitated at the Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre (SRRC) in the
A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); H. Yang (Hong); H.E.M. Spijkers (Ine); J. Groen (Jan); J.S. Teppema; G. van Steenis (Bert)
textabstractThis report describes the first isolation and partial characterization of a herpesvirus from the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). The virus was isolated during a disease outbreak in a group of young seals nursed in a seal orphanage in The Netherlands. Almost half of the seals died with
... activity, and whether it falls within the Coast Guard definition of a non- recreational vessel less than 20... recreational vessel work, the employee will be eligible for benefits based on the covered work. The last... Regulations Implementing the Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act: Recreational Vessels AGENCY...
...-AA00 Safety Zone; Fireworks Displays, Potomac River, National Harbor, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... safety of life on navigable waters during five fireworks displays launched from a discharge barge located... necessary to protect persons and vessels against the hazards associated with a fireworks display on...
... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone for Fireworks Display, Baltimore Harbor, Baltimore, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... safety of life on navigable waters during a fireworks display launched from a barge located in Baltimore... rule involves a fireworks display associated with a New Year's Eve event that will take place in...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Galveston Harbor, Bolivar Roads Channel, Texas. 110.197 Section 110.197 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Roads Channel, Texas. (a)(1) Anchorage area (A). The water bounded by a line connecting the following...
...-AB20 Children's Online Privacy Protection Rule Safe Harbor Proposed Self-Regulatory Guidelines; kidSAFE... proposed self-regulatory guidelines submitted by the kidSAFE Seal Program (``kidSAFE''), owned and operated... enabling industry groups or others to submit to the Commission for approval self-regulatory guidelines that...
...-AA00 Safety Zone; Patapsco River, Northwest and Inner Harbors, Baltimore, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... intended route immediately prior to, during, and following the scheduled towing evolution, vessel traffic... made to the maritime community via marine information broadcasts so mariners may adjust their plans...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New York Harbor, adjacent to the Stapleton Naval Station, Staten Island, New York; restricted area. 334.85 Section 334.85 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.85 New York Harbor, adjacent to the Stapleton Naval Station, Staten Island...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico 165.776 Section 165.776 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.776 Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico (a...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger zone adjacent to airport on... Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger zone...
... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; V. I. Carnival Finale; St. Thomas Harbor; St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands AGENCY... establish a safety zone on the waters of St. Thomas Harbor in St. Thomas, U. S. Virgin Islands during the V... between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except federal holidays. The telephone number is 202-366...
... waters of St. Thomas Harbor in St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands during the V.I. Carnival Finale, a... through Friday, except Federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: If you have questions on this... event. The event will be held on the waters of St. Thomas Harbor, St. Thomas, U. S. Virgin Islands...
... 1625-AA08 SLR; 2013 International Rolex Regatta; St. Thomas Harbor; St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands... special local regulations on the waters of St. Thomas Harbor in St. Thomas, U. S. Virgin Islands during... 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except federal holidays. The telephone number is 202-366-9329. See...
Ganju, Neil K.; Dickhudt, Patrick J.; Thomas, Jennifer A.; Borden, Jonathan; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.; Twomey, Erin R.; Martini, Marinna A.
This data report presents oceanographic and water-quality observations made at six locations in West Falmouth Harbor and Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, from August 2009 to September 2010. Both Buzzards Bay and West Falmouth Harbor are estuarine embayments; the input of freshwater on the eastern margin of Buzzards Bay adjacent to Cape Cod and West Falmouth Harbor is largely due to groundwater. In West Falmouth Harbor, the groundwater that seeps into the harbor is characterized by relatively high levels of nitrate. This high nitrate load has modified the ecology of the harbor (Howes and others, 2006) and may be a significant source of nitrate to Buzzards Bay during seasons with low biological nitrate uptake. The U.S. Geological Survey undertook these measurements to improve understanding of circulation, residence time, and water quality in the harbor and bay. We set up and monitored multiple sites in both Buzzards Bay and West Falmouth Harbor, measuring depth, water velocity,salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll-a, and nitrate concentration. In this report we present the processed time-series data at these locations and provide access to the data and metadata. The results will be used to understand circulation mechanisms and verify numerical models of hydrodynamics and biogeochemistry.
...-XC099 Harbor Porpoise Take Reduction Plan; Coastal Gulf of Maine Closure Area Established With a... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Establishment of the Coastal Gulf of Maine Closure Area... Service (NMFS) announces the establishment of the Coastal Gulf of Maine Closure Area under the Harbor...
...-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area--New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River, New Haven, CT; Pearl... navigable waters of New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River and Mill River. The current RNA pertains only to the..., Quinnipiac River, and Mill River RNA. The proposed amendment would give the Captain of the Port Sector Long...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Channel leading to San Juan Harbor, P.R.; use, administration, and navigation. 162.260 Section 162.260 Navigation and Navigable... WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.260 Channel leading to San Juan Harbor, P.R.; use, administration...
Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.
administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....
Ng, Charmaine; Le, Thai-Hoang; Goh, Shin Giek; Liang, Liang; Kim, Yiseul; Rose, Joan B; Yew-Hoong, Karina Gin
Indicator organisms and antibiotic resistance were used as a proxy to measure microbial water quality of ballast tanks of ships, and surface waters in a tropical harbor. The survival of marine bacteria in ballast tanks appeared to diminish over longer water retention time, with a reduction of cell viability observed after a week based on heterotrophic plate counts. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes showed distinct differences in microbial composition of ballast and harbor waters. The harbor waters had a higher abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to Cyanobacteria (Synechococcus spp.) and α-proteobacteria (SAR11 members), while marine hydrocarbon degraders such as γ-proteobacteria (Ocenspirillaes spp., Thiotrchales spp.) and Bacteroidetes (Flavobacteriales spp.) dominated the ballast water samples. Screening of indicator organisms found Escherichia coli (E. coli), Enterococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) in two or more of the ballast and harbor water samples tested. Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp. were detected exclusively in harbor water samples. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR), we screened for 13 antibiotic resistant gene (ARG) targets and found higher abundances of sul1 (4.13-3.44 x 102 copies/mL), dfrA (0.77-1.80 x10 copies/mL) and cfr (2.00-5.21 copies/mL) genes compared to the other ARG targets selected for this survey. These genes encode for resistance to sulfonamides, trimethoprim and chloramphenicol-florfenicol antibiotics, which are also known to persist in sediments of aquaculture farms and coastal environments. Among the ARGs screened, we found significant correlations (Pwater quality survey, quantitatively assessing indicators of antibiotic resistance, potentially pathogenic organisms and a broad-brush description of difference in microbial composition and diversity between open oceans and tropical coastal environments through the use of next generation sequencing technology.
Dong, Cheng-Di; Chen, Chiu-Wen; Chen, Chih-Feng
The distribution, enrichment, accumulation, and potential ecological risk of chromium (Cr) in the surface sediments of northern Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan, China were investigated. Sediment samples from ten locations located between the river mouths and harbor entrance of northern Kaohsiung Harbor were collected quarterly in 2011 and characterized for Cr, aluminum, water content, organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorous, total grease, and grain size. Results showed that the Cr concentrations varied from 27.0 to 361.9 mg/kg with an average of (113.5 +/- 87.0) mg/kg. High Cr concentration was observed near the Jen-Gen River mouth. The mean Cr concentration was high at 255.5 mg/kg, which was at least 2 to 7 times than that of other sites. This might imply significant Cr contribution from upstream receiving tanneries wastewater into the Jen-Gen River. The spatial distribution of Cr reveals relatively high in the river mouth region, especially in Jen-Gen River, and gradually diminishes toward the harbor entrance region. This indicates that the major sources of Cr pollution from upstream industrial and municipal wastewaters discharged along the river bank; and Cr may drift with sea current and be dispersed into open sea. Moreover, Cr concentrations correlated closely to the physical-chemical properties of the sediments, which suggested the influence of industrial and municipal wastewaters discharged from the neighboring industrial parks and river basins. Results from the enrichment factor and geo-accumulation index analyses imply that the Jen-Gen River sediments can be characterized as moderate enrichment and none to medium accumulation of Cr, respectively. However, results of potential ecological risk index indicate that the sediment has low ecological potential risk. The results can provide valuable information to developing future strategies for the management of river mouth and harbor.
Clark, Heather F.; Benoit, Gaboury
This study quantifies historic and current mercury contamination in New Haven Harbor (New Haven, Connecticut, USA) through the analysis of sediment cores. The mercury concentration measured in surface sediment ranged from 320 to 1640 μg kg -1 with an average of 530 μg kg -1 . The harbor is relatively small in area (6.6 km 2 ) but displays a large range in concentrations, illustrating the important methodological issue that a large number of samples may be necessary to capture the variability in even a small area. Depth profiles of mercury reflect sedimentation over a range of 20 to 200 years and indicate a complex history of contamination. Mercury depth profiles were compared with lead, copper, cadmium, and silver concentrations and the metals generally covary. This trend indicates that the sources of mercury and heavy metals are linked and that regionally specific sources dominate the historic input of metals rather than large-scale atmospheric deposition patterns. Results also show there are large differences in absolute concentrations of metals among sites in the harbor. Differences in the abundance of Fe-rich, fine-grained sediment likely control the level of metals in various parts of the harbor. Proximity to current sources and the long, diverse industrial history of the harbor also influence the distribution pattern. All of the cores can be modeled as mixing between pre-industrial sediments and either one or two pollution endmembers. This study demonstrates the importance of riverine sources in the mass balance of mercury delivered to coastal areas and of watershed management to preserve coastal ecosystems.
Full Text Available Des processus de réappropriation identitaire et historique, à finalité économique, sont à l’œuvre à l’heure actuelle en Afrique du Sud. Un type de tourisme au caractère authentique et interactif connaît notamment un certain engouement : les Township tours. Il assume un épisode médiatisé de l’histoire du pays, soit l’apartheid urbain, en tentant d’inverser l’image répulsive qui lui est associée. L’attirance pour les townships se nourrit d’un désir de compréhension de la ségrégation raciale institutionnalisée et de la mise à bas d’une politique inique. Paradoxalement, la réputation de dangerosité, de pauvreté et « d’informalité » accolée à ces quartiers noirs semble aussi agir comme un produit d’appel. A travers l’exemple de la province du KwaZulu-Natal, il sera vu que cette activité socio-touristique s’oriente à présent vers un multiculturalisme prudent, porté par des icônes (internationales, avec en toile de fond les velléités de développement local.Processes of identity and historical appropriation, rooted in economic purpose, are today arising in South Africa. A tourism activity, based on authenticity and interaction, becomes particularly popular: the Township tours. It assumes an episode of the country history, i.e. urban segregation, which was given a lot of media coverage. In the meantime, it tries to invert the repulsive image that is commonly associated with apartheid. The attraction for township areas has to be linked to the wish of understanding the institutionalized racial discrimination in South Africa, as well as its pacific end. Paradoxically, the reputation of dangerousness, poverty and informality of those former black urban areas seems to act as a loss leader. Through the example of the province of KwaZulu-Natal, it will be seen that this new socio-tourist activity is now playing a multiculturalism card carried by popular icons, with the local development target in
Hydrostratigraphy, soil/sediment chemistry, and water quality, Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system, Puchack Well Field Superfund site and vicinity, Pennsauken Township, Camden County, New Jersey, 1997-2001
Barringer, Julia L.; Walker, Richard L.; Jacobsen, Eric; Jankowski, Pamela
Drinking-water supplies from the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system at the Puchack well field in Pennsauken Township, Camden County, New Jersey, have been contaminated by hexavalent chromium-the most toxic and mobile form-at concentrations exceeding the New Jersey maximum contaminant level of 100 micrograms per liter. Also, scattered but widespread instances of volatile organic compounds (primarily trichloroethylene) at concentrations that exceed their respective maximum contaminant levels in the area's ground water have been reported. Because inorganic and organic contaminants are present in the ground water underlying the Puchack well field, no water from there has been withdrawn for public supply since 1998, when the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) added the area that contains the Puchack well field to the National Priorities List. As part of the USEPA's investigation of the Puchack Well Field Superfund site, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study during 1997-2001 to (1) refine previous interpretations of the hydrostratigraphic framework, hydraulic gradients, and local directions of ground-water flow; (2) describe the chemistry of soils and saturated aquifer sediments; and (3) document the quality of ground water in the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system in the area. The four major water-bearing units of the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system-the Upper aquifer (mostly unsaturated in the study area), the Middle aquifer, the Intermediate Sand (a local but important unit), and the Lower aquifer-are separated by confining units. The confining units contain areas of cut and fill, resulting in permeable zones that permit water to pass through them. Pumping from the Puchack well field during the past 3 decades resulted in downward hydraulic gradients that moved contaminants into the Lower aquifer, in which the production wells are finished, and caused ground water to flow northeast, locally. A comparison of current (1997
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Despite the potential importance of Honolulu Harbor or other commercial harbors on Oahu as potential gateways for nonindigenous marine species to enter the Hawaiian...
Keen, A. S.; Lynett, P. J.; Ayca, A.
Because of the damage resulting from the 2010 Chile and 2011 Japanese tele-tsunamis, the tsunami risk to the small craft marinas in California has become an important concern. The talk will outline an assessment tool which can be used to assess the tsunami hazard to small craft harbors. The methodology is based on the demand and structural capacity of the floating dock system, composed of floating docks/fingers and moored vessels. The structural demand is determined using a Monte Carlo methodology. Monte Carlo methodology is a probabilistic computational tool where the governing might be well known, but the independent variables of the input (demand) as well as the resisting structural components (capacity) may not be completely known. The Monte Carlo approach uses a distribution of each variable, and then uses that random variable within the described parameters, to generate a single computation. The process then repeats hundreds or thousands of times. The numerical model "Method of Splitting Tsunamis" (MOST) has been used to determine the inputs for the small craft harbors within California. Hydrodynamic model results of current speed, direction and surface elevation were incorporated via the drag equations to provide the bases of the demand term. To determine the capacities, an inspection program was developed to identify common features of structural components. A total of six harbors have been inspected ranging from Crescent City in Northern California to Oceanside Harbor in Southern California. Results from the inspection program were used to develop component capacity tables which incorporated the basic specifications of each component (e.g. bolt size and configuration) and a reduction factor (which accounts for the component reduction in capacity with age) to estimate in situ capacities. Like the demand term, these capacities are added probabilistically into the model. To date the model has been applied to Santa Cruz Harbor as well as Noyo River. Once
The function of public lighting and the relationship between public lighting and accidents are considered briefly as aspects of effective countermeasures. Research needs and recent developments in installation and operational described. Public lighting is an efficient accident countermeasure, but
Fujii, Naoki; Ikeno, Masaaki; Sakakiyama, Tsutomu; Matsuyama, Masafumi; Takao, Makoto; Mukohara, Takeshi
Numerical model of topography change is important to examine collapse of the harbor facilities by sand transport due to tsunami. Problems for evaluation of sand transport due to tsunami with topography change model are in precision of the numerical model and topography change data. Therefore, we installed the harbor in large-scaled wave tank and carried out experiment about tsunami flow and topography change to get those detailed data. For results provided by experimental test, we applied the topography change model of Ikeno et al. (2009a) and evaluated it about the reproduction characteristics. As a result, it was confirmed that reproduction of an experiment improved by using new pickup rate formula proposed by Ikeno et al. (2009a). (author)
Full Text Available Seabed sediments of commercial ports are often characterized by high pollution levels. Differences in number and distribution of bacteria in such areas can be related to distribution of pollutants in the port and to sediment conditions. In this study, the bacterial communities of five sites from Leghorn Harbor seabed were characterized, and the main bacterial groups were identified. T-RFLP was used for all samples; two 16S rRNA libraries and in silico digestion of clones were used to identify fingerprint profiles. Library data, phylogenetic analysis, and T-RFLP coupled with in silico digestion of the obtained sequences evidenced the dominance of Proteobacteria and the high percentage of Bacteroidetes in all sites. The approach highlighted similar bacterial communities between samples coming from the five sites, suggesting a modest differentiation among bacterial communities of different harbor seabed sediments and hence the capacity of bacterial communities to adapt to different levels and types of pollution.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucella is a group of bacteria that causes brucellosis, which can affect population health and reproductive success in many marine mammals. We investigated the serological prevalence of antibodies against Brucella bacteria in a declining harbor seal population in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska. Results Prevalence ranged from 16 to 74 percent for those tests detecting antibodies, indicating that harbor seals in Glacier Bay have been exposed to Brucella bacteria. However, the actual level of serological prevalence could not be determined because results were strongly assay-dependent. Conclusions This study reinforces the need to carefully consider assay choice when comparing different studies on the prevalence of anti–Brucella antibodies in pinnipeds and further highlights the need for species- or taxon-specific assay validation for both pathogen and host species.
Lynch, Ingrid; Clayton, Matthew
In predominantly isiXhosa-speaking township communities in South Africa, men who have sex with men negotiate their identities and sexual practices alongside heteronormative cultural scripts of what it means to be a man. Such idealised notions of masculinity are predicated on the selective appropriation of cultural practices that preserve (heterosexual) male privilege and power. In this paper, we explore the identity work done by men who have sex with men, with particular reference to male circumcision as a cultural practice widely drawn on to inform and regulate normative masculinity. Through a narrative-discursive analysis of the accounts provided by men who have sex with men from township communities, we highlight how participants' dissident sexualities are constructed as compromising their masculine identities. Participating in cultural practices such as traditional circumcision aligns participants to the idealised forms of masculinity that afford men full citizenship in their communities. Study findings suggest that sexual dissidence is less troubling to participants than deviating from gendered markers of hegemonic masculinity, and point to ways in which marginalised men might have an interest in maintaining the dominant gendered order. We conclude with implications for research and programmatic work with gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men.
Richmond, Julie P; Norris, Tenaya; Zinn, Steven A
The metabolic hormones, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, together with IGF binding proteins (IGFBP), have been well studied in domestic species and are the primary components of the somatotropic axis. This hormone axis is responsive to nutrient intake, associated with growth rate, and accretion of protein and adipose. However, this relationship has not been evaluated in species that rely heavily on adipose stores for survival, such as pinnipeds. The primary objectives of this research were to investigate the response of the somatotropic axis to reduced nutrient intake and re-alimentation in rehabilitated harbor seal pups, and to assess if these hormones are related to nutritional status and growth rate in harbor seals. Stranded harbor seal pups (n=24) arrived at the rehabilitation facility very thin after fasting for several days (nutritional nadir). Throughout rehabilitation nutrient intake increased and pups gained mass and body condition. Concentrations of GH and IGFBP-2 decreased with re-alimentation, while IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations increased. Overall, GH and IGFBP-2 were negatively associated and IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were positively associated with growth rate and increased body condition of harbor sea pups. Further, the magnitude of the growth response was related to the magnitude in response of the somatotropic axis to varied levels of intake. These data suggest that multiple components of the somatotropic axis may be used to assess the energy status of individuals and may also provide information on the level of feed intake that is predictive of growth rate.
Matthews, Leanna P; Blades, Brittany; Parks, Susan E
During the breeding season, male harbor seals ( Phoca vitulina ) make underwater acoustic displays using vocalizations known as roars. These roars have been shown to function in territory establishment in some breeding areas and have been hypothesized to be important for female choice, but the function of these sounds remains unresolved. This study consisted of a series of playback experiments in which captive female harbor seals were exposed to recordings of male roars to determine if females respond to recordings of male vocalizations and whether or not they respond differently to roars from categories with different acoustic characteristics. The categories included roars with characteristics of dominant males (longest duration, lowest frequency), subordinate males (shortest duration, highest frequency), combinations of call parameters from dominant and subordinate males (long duration, high frequency and short duration, low frequency), and control playbacks of water noise and water noise with tonal signals in the same frequency range as male signals. Results indicate that overall females have a significantly higher level of response to playbacks that imitate male vocalizations when compared to control playbacks of water noise. Specifically, there was a higher level of response to playbacks representing dominant male vocalization when compared to the control playbacks. For most individuals, there was a greater response to playbacks representing dominant male vocalizations compared to playbacks representing subordinate male vocalizations; however, there was no statistical difference between those two playback types. Additionally, there was no difference between the playbacks of call parameter combinations and the controls. Investigating female preference for male harbor seal vocalizations is a critical step in understanding the harbor seal mating system and further studies expanding on this captive study will help shed light on this important issue.
Leadon, C.J.; McDonnell, T.R.; Lear, J.; Barclift, D.
Establishing background levels for biological parameters is necessary in assessing the ecological risks from harbor sediment contaminated with toxic chemicals. For chemicals in sediment, the term contaminated is defined as having concentrations above background and significant human health or ecological risk levels. For biological parameters, a site could be considered contaminated if levels of the parameter are either more or less than the background level, depending on the specific parameter. Biological parameters can include tissue chemical concentrations in ecological receptors, bioassay responses, bioaccumulation levels, and benthic community metrics. Chemical parameters can include sediment concentrations of a variety of potentially toxic chemicals. Indirectly, contaminated harbor sediment can impact shellfish, fish, birds, and marine mammals, and human populations. This paper summarizes the methods used to define background levels for chemical and biological parameters from a survey of ecological risk investigations of marine harbor sediment at California Navy bases. Background levels for regional biological indices used to quantify ecological risks for benthic communities are also described. Generally, background stations are positioned in relatively clean areas exhibiting the same physical and general chemical characteristics as nearby areas with contaminated harbor sediment. The number of background stations and the number of sample replicates per background station depend on the statistical design of the sediment ecological risk investigation, developed through the data quality objective (DQO) process. Biological data from the background stations can be compared to data from a contaminated site by using minimum or maximum background levels or comparative statistics. In Navy ecological risk assessments (ERA's), calculated background levels and appropriate ecological risk screening criteria are used to identify sampling stations and sites with contaminated
The proceedings for the 47th Annual Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology are presented. This symposium focused on the Structure of DNA. Topics presented covered research in the handedness of DNA, conformational analysis, chemically modified DNA, chemical synthesis of DNA, DNA-protein interactions, DNA within nucleosomes, DNA methylation, DNA replication, gyrases and topoisomerases, recombining and mutating DNA, transcription of DNA and its regulation, the organization of genes along DNA, repetitive DNA and pseudogenes, and origins of replication, centromeres, and teleomeres
Located on the north shore of Long Island in New York, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (Figure 1) started out with a marine biology emphasis at the end of the 19th century, but it soon established itself as a prominent cancer research facility. That strong emphasis on cancer work continues today as this private, not-for-profit research institution enters its 127th year (Figure 2).
... River, Mill River. 165.150 Section 165.150 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River. (a) The following is a regulated navigation area: The... 303°T to point D at the west bank of the mouth of the Mill River 41°18′05″ N, 72°54′23″ W thence south...
Johnson, Donald L.; DeAngelis, Robert J.; Medlin, Dana J.; Johnson, Jon E.; Carr, James D.; Conlin, David L.
Contrary to previous linear projections of steel corrosion in seawater, analysis of an inert marker embedded in USS Arizona concretion since the 7 December 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor reveals evidence that the effective corrosion rate decreases with time. The secant rate of corrosion, or SRC correlation, derived from this discovery could have a significant impact on failure analysis investigations for concreted shipwrecks or underwater structures. The correlation yields a lower rate of metal thinning than predicted. Development of the correlation is described.
species was not listed in the PHLP database (Bishop Museum, 1998). Personal observations by John Zardus (Kewalo Marine Laboratory, Honolulu, Hawaii...Ringwood, 1992). Specimens collected from an open coastal site by the University of Hawaii ( John Zardus ), did not survive the shipment (less than 24... John Ornellas, Randy Kido, and Rich Anderson from Code 106.3. The Shipyard Pearl Harbor Regional Dive Locker, Code 760, provided professional, high
This volume contains full papers prepared by the participants to the 1984 Cold Springs Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. This year's theme is entitled Recombination at the DNA level. The volume consists of 93 articles grouped into subject areas entitled chromosome mechanics, yeast systems, mammalian homologous recombination, transposons, mu, plant transposons/T4 recombination, topoisomerase, resolvase and gyrase, Escherichia coli general recombination, RecA, repair, leukaryotic enzymes, integration and excision of bacteriophage, site-specific recombination, and recombination in vitro
...: LHP Management, LLC (Fishing Creek--Clinton Country Club), Bald Eagle Township, Clinton County, Pa... Susquehanna Flood Forecast and Warning System; (4) ratification/ approval of grants/contracts; (5) a Record.... Project Sponsor: Aqua Pennsylvania, Inc. Project Facility: Monroe Manor Water System, Monroe Township...
Ratzlaff, Alexandra; Galili, Ehud; Waiman-Barak, Paula; Yasur-Landau, Assaf
The engineering marvel of Sebastos, or Portus Augusti as it was called in Late Antiquity (284-638 CE), dominated Caesarea's harbor center along modern Israel's central coast but it was only one part of a larger maritime complex. The Southern Anchorage provides a case study as one portion of the Caesarea complex, as well as a node within the regional network of anchorages and small harbors. Ceramics recovered from here show a high percentage of locally, and provincially, produced storage jars engaged in maritime trade. The ceramic evidence points towards an intensified regional trade or cabotage rather than favouring long distance trade from large port to port. Working out of these small harbors, opportunities arose for greater flexibility in specialization of commodities and materials passing through the network of subsidiary ports, contributing to a more diversified market economy. This analysis provides another example in the growing focus on how these simple and semi-modified anchorages in the Eastern Mediterranean were often the predominant economic networks connecting hinterland and coastal trade.
Daniels, Andre; Stevenson, Rachael; Smith, Erin; Robblee, Michael
Seagrasses are highly productive ecosystems. A before-after-control-impact (BACI) design was used to examine effects of dredging on seagrasses and the animals that inhabit them. The control site North Biscayne Bay and the affected site Port of Miami had seagrass densities decrease during both the before, Fish and Invertebrate Assessment Network 2006-2011, and after, Faunal Monitoring in Response to Harbor Dredging 2014-2016, studies. Turbidity levels increased at North Biscayne Bay and Port of Miami basins during the Faunal Monitoring in Response to Harbor Dredging study, especially in 2016. Animal populations decreased significantly in North Biscayne Bay and Port of Miami in the Faunal Monitoring in Response to Harbor Dredging study compared to the Fish and Invertebrate Assessment Network study. Predictive modeling shows that numbers of animal populations will likely continue to decrease if the negative trends in seagrass densities continue unabated. There could be effects on several fisheries vital to the south Florida economy. Additional research could determine if animal populations and seagrass densities have rebounded or continued to decrease.
Pang, Feng; Jia, Xiu-Qin; Song, Zhen-Zhu; Li, Yan-Hua; Wang, Bin; Zhao, Qi-Gang; Wang, Chuan-Xin; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Le-Xin
The emergence of Enterobacteriaceae harboring IMP-4 or IMP-8 carbapenemases is rare. We report an occurrence of Enterobacteriaceae harboring IMP-4 or IMP-8 carbapenemases in a Chinese tertiary care hospital from November 2010 to December 2012. The clinical characteristics of 30 patients were described. The genetic relationship of isolates was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Carbapenemases were detected by modified Hodge test (MHT) and polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). Amplicons were sequenced and blasted to determine the genotype. Most infected patients were from intensive care unit and had complex and serious underlying illnesses requiring mechanical ventilation. PFGE revealed that Klebsiella pneumoniae showed two major PFGE types. Two Klebsiella oxytoca had an indistinguishable PFGE pattern, while four Enterobacter cloacae were different strains. The sequencing studies showed Enterobacteriaceae harboring IMP-4 or IMP-8 carbapenemase in the 23 infected patients. The majority of patients had infections with the carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) strain, most were successfully treated with a range of antibiotics and discharged. It is important to maintain a high index of suspicion to screen for carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains. Rapid identification of these strains and implementation of stringent procedures are the key to prevent major outbreaks in a hospital setting.
Jennifer C. C. Neale
Full Text Available Protein kinases (PKs play critical roles in signal transduction and activation of lymphocytes. The identification of PK genes provides a tool for understanding mechanisms of immunotoxic xenobiotics. As part of a larger study investigating persistent organic pollutants in the harbor seal and their possible immunomodulatory actions, we sequenced harbor seal cDNA fragments encoding PKs. The procedure, using degenerate primers based on conserved motifs of human protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs, successfully amplified nine phocid PK gene fragments with high homology to human and rodent orthologs. We identified eight PTKs and one dual (serine/threonine and tyrosine kinase. Among these were several PKs important in early signaling events through the B- and T-cell receptors (FYN, LYN, ITK and SYK and a MAP kinase involved in downstream signal transduction. V-FGR, RET and DDR2 were also expressed. Sequential activation of protein kinases ultimately induces gene transcription leading to the proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes critical to adaptive immunity. PKs are potential targets of bioactive xenobiotics, including persistent organic pollutants of the marine environment; characterization of these molecules in the harbor seal provides a foundation for further research illuminating mechanisms of action of contaminants speculated to contribute to large-scale die-offs of marine mammals via immunosuppression.
Wang Dongli; Atkinson, Shannon; Hoover-Miller, Anne; Lee, Sung-Eun; Li, Qing X.
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, heptachlor and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were analyzed in the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) tissues collected from the Gulf of Alaska during 2000-2001. ΣPCBs (16-728 ng/g lw) and ΣDDTs (14-368 ng/g lw) were the predominant pollutants followed by ΣHCHs (0.56-93 ng/g lw) and heptachlor (≤0.068-6.0 ng/g lw). Concentrations of the above organochlorines (OCs) in the liver, kidney and blubber tissues correlated with ages, sex, body weight and blubber thickness of the harbor seals. The OC concentrations were similar between the samples collected from two different regions - Prince William Sound, and Kodiak Island and Southern Alaska Peninsula. Mean levels of OCs in nursing female adults were much lower than those in male adults, which indicate that lactation transfer OCs from mother seals to newborns. - Σ28 PCB congeners, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT, α-, β-, γ-, and δ-HCH and heptachlor in harbor seal tissues from the northern Gulf of Alaska are reported
Brown, Edward H.; Clark, Clarence F.
The northern pike is one of Ohio's largest game fish but is well known to comparatively few anglers. Large numbers of the big fish spawn in the Ohio marshes adjacent to Lake Erie. Movements related to spawning reach a peak in late March or early April. Later the spawning population disperses and is seldom represented in catches by experimental gear or by anglers. The short period of availability was used to obtain life history information in March of 1951 through 1953. No comprehensive length-weight data for this species have previously been published from this area. East Harbor is a sandspit pond separated from Lake Erie by a large sand bar. Waters and fish populations of the harbor and lake can mix freely through a permanent connecting channel. The larger part of the 850 surface acres of the harbor is normally less than 8 feet deep. The male northern pike averaged 20.5 inches in length and ranged from 13.5 to 28.5 inches. The conspicuously larger females averaged 26.0 inches and ranged from 15.5 to 37.5 inches.
Dong, Cheng-Di; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Chiu-Wen
Fifty-eight sediment samples were collected from the Kaohsiung Harbor (Taiwan) for analyses of monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT) and tributyltin (TBT), using gas chromatography/flame photometric detector (GC/FPD). The concentration of total butyltins (ΣBTs), sum of MBT, DBT, and TBT, varied from 3.9 to 158.5 ng Sn/g dw in sediment samples with TBT being the major component of the sediment samples, except for the vicinity of the Love River mouth where MBT was the most abundant BT compound (a proportion of over 57%). Based on the BTs concentration, distribution, composition and correlations, the sources of BTs found in harbor sediments are shipping activities, and TBT is the main pollutant; the estuary (i.e. Love River) has been the anthropogenic source of MBT from upstream inputs. Influences of TBT on aquatic organisms are evaluated using the toxicity guidelines proposed by the US EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency) and the ACCI (assessment class criterion for imposex) proposed by OSPAR (Oslo and Paris Commission). The evaluation shows that the TBT contained in the sediment at Kaohsiung Harbor is likely to have a negative influence at ACCI class C because gastropods present imposex and TBT levels are above ecotoxicological assessment criteria (EAC) limits.
Full Text Available Indicator organisms and antibiotic resistance were used as a proxy to measure microbial water quality of ballast tanks of ships, and surface waters in a tropical harbor. The survival of marine bacteria in ballast tanks appeared to diminish over longer water retention time, with a reduction of cell viability observed after a week based on heterotrophic plate counts. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes showed distinct differences in microbial composition of ballast and harbor waters. The harbor waters had a higher abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs assigned to Cyanobacteria (Synechococcus spp. and α-proteobacteria (SAR11 members, while marine hydrocarbon degraders such as γ-proteobacteria (Ocenspirillaes spp., Thiotrchales spp. and Bacteroidetes (Flavobacteriales spp. dominated the ballast water samples. Screening of indicator organisms found Escherichia coli (E. coli, Enterococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa in two or more of the ballast and harbor water samples tested. Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp. were detected exclusively in harbor water samples. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR, we screened for 13 antibiotic resistant gene (ARG targets and found higher abundances of sul1 (4.13-3.44 x 102 copies/mL, dfrA (0.77-1.80 x10 copies/mL and cfr (2.00-5.21 copies/mL genes compared to the other ARG targets selected for this survey. These genes encode for resistance to sulfonamides, trimethoprim and chloramphenicol-florfenicol antibiotics, which are also known to persist in sediments of aquaculture farms and coastal environments. Among the ARGs screened, we found significant correlations (P<0.05 between ereA, ermG, cfr and tetO genes to one or more of the indicator organisms detected in this study, which may suggest that these members contribute to the environmental resistome. This study provides a baseline water quality survey, quantitatively assessing indicators of antibiotic resistance, potentially pathogenic organisms and a
McHuron, Elizabeth A.; Harvey, James T.; Castellini, J. Margaret; Stricker, Craig A.; O'Hara, Todd M.
We measured total selenium and total mercury concentrations ([TSe] and [THg]) in hair (n = 138) and blood (n = 73) of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) from California to assess variation by geography and sex, and inferred feeding relationships based on carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur stable isotopes. Harbor seals from Hg-contaminated sites had significantly greater [THg], and lesser [TSe] and TSe:THg molar ratios than seals from a relatively uncontaminated site. Males had significantly greater [THg] than females at all locations. Sulfur stable isotope values explained approximately 25% of the variability in [THg], indicating increased Hg exposure for seals with a greater use of estuarine prey species. Decreased [TSe] in harbor seals from Hg-contaminated regions may indicate a relative Se deficiency to mitigate the toxic effects of Hg. Further investigation into the Se status and the potential negative impact of Hg on harbor seals from Hg-contaminated sites is warranted.
Sawant, S.S.; Wagh, A.B.
The extent and the nature of fouling were studied on mild steel, aluminum, and stainless steel panels at the Vijaydurg Harbor and Musakazi-Jaitapur Bay on the central western coast of India. In addition, cathodically protected and unprotected panels...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The marine and estuarine invertebrate and fish communities in Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii were surveyed between January and October, 1996. Samples were taken and...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic grab samples were collected using a Shipek grab at pre-determined locations in the harbor. Taxonomic enumerations and biological community parameters were...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wave data were collected from 9 buoys in Grays Harbor, Washington, from 01 January 1994 to 24 July 2002. Data were collected as part of the Coastal Data Information...
C.E. van Elk; M.W.G. van de Bildt (Marco); P.R.W.A. van Run (Peter); De Jong, A. (Anton); S. Getu (Sarah); G.M.G.M. Verjans (George); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); T. Kuiken (Thijs)
textabstractHerpesvirus infection causes disease of variable severity in many species, including cetaceans. However, little is known about herpesvirus infection in harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), despite being widespread in temperate coastal waters of the Northern Hemisphere. Therefore, we
Synolakis, Costas; Maravelakis, Nikos; Kalligeris, Nikos; Skanavis, Vassilios; Kanoglu, Utku; Yalciner, Ahmet; Lynett, Pat
Simultaneous nearshore and interior-to-ports wave and current measurements for small ports are not common, and few, if any, benchmarking cases at sufficient resolution exist to help validate numerical model of intermediate waves, or even long waves. The wave conditions inside the old Venetian harbor of Chania, Greece and offshore were measured and studied from 2012 to 2015. The construction of this harbor began in the 14th century, and since then, its layout has been modified to adapt to different social and to economic conditions. It is divided into a western and an eastern basin. The eastern basin is used by recreational vessels and fishing boats throughout the year. The western basin has an exposed entrance to the north, and it is essentially functional half of the year, because of the severe overtopping and flooding that occur during the northern winter storms. Our work is motivated by the necessity to protect the monument from severe winter storm conditions and allow safe mooring and all other recreational activities that take place in the exposed western basin. Two earlier studies had proposed the construction of a low crested breakwater near the harbor entrance. The first design has been partially constructed, while the second never materialized. The main disadvantage of both studies was the lack of any wave field measurements. At the same time, second order or complimentary phenomena such as harbor resonance had not been considered. To address the lack of field data, the offshore wave climate has been monitored since October 2012 using an AWAC 600kHz instrument, deployed at 23m depth. The response of the western and eastern basins of the harbor was measured with a TWR-2050 (deployed at 5.5m depth) and an RBRDuet T.D./wave (deployed at 2m depth) pressure gauges respectively. Significant wave heights ranging up to 5.8 m with significant periods of up to 10 sec were measured. The harbor pressure gauges are now being re-deployed in other locations to collect