WorldWideScience

Sample records for harbor sediment program

  1. Charleston Harbor, SC, Regional Sediment Management Study: Beneficial Use of Dredged Material through Nearshore Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Modeling System (CMS) that were developed and applied previously for the Charleston Harbor numerical modeling study (Kashlan 2013) were used in...Particle Tracking Model; Report 1: Model theory, implementation, and example applications. ERDC/CHL TR-6-20. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Engineer Research ...ER D C/ CH L TR -1 7- 7 Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program Charleston Harbor, SC, Regional Sediment Management Study

  2. Charleston Harbor, SC, Regional Sediment Management Study; Beneficial Use of Dredged Material through Nearshore Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Modeling System (CMS) that were developed and applied previously for the Charleston Harbor numerical modeling study (Kashlan 2013) were used in...Particle Tracking Model; Report 1: Model theory, implementation, and example applications. ERDC/CHL TR-6-20. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Engineer Research ...ER D C/ CH L TR -1 7- 7 Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program Charleston Harbor, SC, Regional Sediment Management Study

  3. Hydrocarbon pollutants shape bacterial community assembly of harbor sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Barbato, Marta; Mapelli, Francesca; Magagnini, Mirko; Chouaia, Bessem; Armeni, Monica; Marasco, Ramona; Crotti, Elena; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Petroleum pollution results in co-contamination by different classes of molecules, entailing the occurrence of marine sediments difficult to remediate, as in the case of the Ancona harbor (Mediterranean Sea, Italy). Autochthonous bioaugmentation

  4. Evaluation of Sediment Contamination in Pearl Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    ancient Hawaiians, was a large natural inland lagoon. Numerous walled fishponds located inside the harbor were used to cultivate various species of fishes... Ecotoxicology , Commission on Natural Resources, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 103 pp. National Research Council, 1989. Contaminated Marine

  5. Hydrocarbon pollutants shape bacterial community assembly of harbor sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Barbato, Marta

    2016-02-02

    Petroleum pollution results in co-contamination by different classes of molecules, entailing the occurrence of marine sediments difficult to remediate, as in the case of the Ancona harbor (Mediterranean Sea, Italy). Autochthonous bioaugmentation (ABA), by exploiting the indigenous microbes of the environment to be treated, could represent a successful bioremediation strategy. In this perspective we aimed to i) identify the main drivers of the bacterial communities\\' richness in the sediments, ii) establish enrichment cultures with different hydrocarbon pollutants evaluating their effects on the bacterial communities\\' composition, and iii) obtain a collection of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria potentially exploitable in ABA. The correlation between the selection of different specialized bacterial populations and the type of pollutants was demonstrated by culture-independent analyses, and by establishing a collection of bacteria with different hydrocarbon degradation traits. Our observations indicate that pollution dictates the diversity of sediment bacterial communities and shapes the ABA potential in harbor sediments.

  6. Evaluation of older bay mud sediment from Richmond Harbor, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-09-01

    The older, bay mud (OBM) unit predates modem man and could act as a barrier to the downward transport of contaminants from the younger bay mud (YBM) because of its hard-packed consistency. However, its chemical and biological nature have not been well characterized. Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted three independent studies of OBM sediment in January 1993, January 1994, and October 1994. These studies evaluated potential chemical contamination and biological effects of OBM that could occur as a result of dredging and disposal activities. These evaluations were performed by conducting chemical analysis, solid-phase toxicity tests, suspended- particulate-phase (SPP) toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation tests on the OBM sediment. If the sediment chemistry and toxicity results showed no or minimal contamination and toxicological responses, then either the OBM could be left exposed in Richmond Harbor after dredging the YBM without leaving a source of contamination, or if the project depths necessitate, the OBM would be acceptable for disposal at an appropriate disposal site.

  7. Sedimentation and chronology of heavy metal pollution in Oslo harbor, Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepland, Aivo; Andersen, Thorbjorn J.; Lepland, Aave; Arp, Hans Peter H.; Alve, Elisabeth; Breedveld, Gijs D.; Rindby, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Stratigraphic profiles of Cu, Cd and Hg in ten sediment cores from the Oslo harbor, Norway, combined with results of radiometric dating demonstrate that pollution by these metals peaked between 1940 and 1970. Dating results indicate that Hg discharges peaked between 1940 and 1950, Cd reached maximum ca. 1955-1960, and Cu has the highest concentration in sediment interval corresponding to ca. 1970. Geochemical profiles and maxima of Cu, Cd and Hg concentrations can be used as chronostratigraphic markers for sediment cores from the Oslo harbor. Acoustic backscatter and sediment core data indicate that propeller wash affects the seabed in the Oslo harbor. The propeller-induced turbulence causes erosion, and in places exposes and remobilizes contaminated sediments that accumulated in the harbor during previous decades. Such re-exposure of contaminated sediments could be detrimental to local ecosystems and offset remediation efforts, warranting further impact studies and potential mitigation strategies to prevent redistribution.

  8. Stabilization and in situ management of radioactive contaminated sediments of Port Hope harbor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolinar, G.M.; Killey, R.W.D.; Philipase, K.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of laboratory and field studies undertaken to assess the feasibility of in situ management of contaminated sediments in Port Hope harbor. The contaminated sediments stem from historic releases from an adjacent radium and uranium refinery, and uranium, arsenic, and radium are the most abundant contaminants. With improved emission controls, currently accumulating sediments have much lower levels of contamination, and the harbor waters currently meet water quality limits for the contaminants of concern. Within a few years, however, the continuing sedimentation will render the harbor unusable. Field tests have confirmed the dredging will result in incomplete removal of the contaminated sediments and that sediment suspension and the release of pores waters during dredging will produce harbor water contaminant concentrations that would require the treatment of large volumes of water. In addition, no remedial work can start until a site for the dredged material can be found. The local community inquired whether in situ burial of the sediments and abandonment of the harbor would provide safe disposal

  9. Trace metal levels in sediments of Pearl Harbor (Hawaii)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Olsen, C.R.; Larsen, I.L.; Tamura, T.

    1986-09-01

    This study was conducted to measure the distribution of lead and other trace metals in the sediments of Pearl Harbon (Hawaii) to determine whether paint chips from vessels of the US Navy's Inactive Fleet have affected the environmental quality of Middle Loch. Sediment cores (ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 m long) were collected from Middle Loch near the Naval Inactive Ships Maintenance Facility and in an area of West Loch that is relatively isolated and unaffected by naval operations. Concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc averaged 180 μg/g, 49 μg/g, and 272 μg/g, respectively, in recent Middle Loch sediments. These concentrations are significantly higher than those in either historical Middle Loch sediments or recent West Loch sediments. However, except for lead, the concentrations in recent Middle Loch sediments are similar to those of older Middle Loch sediments, which indicates that the increase in trace metal contamination began before the onset of Inactive Fleet operations (about 1946). Increased trace metal levels in recent Middle Loch sediments might be expected to result from two potential sources: (1) sewage discharges and (2) paint from inactive vessels. Since paint contains elevated levels of lead and zinc but little copper, the elevated copper levels in Middle Loch sediments tend to implicate sewage as the source of trace metal contamination. Moreover, the lead:zinc ratio of recent Middle Loch sediments (0.18:1) is a factor of 10 lower than that measured in paint (2.1:1), and the Middle Loch lead:zinc ratio is not significantly greater than that measured in recent West Loch sediments (0.21:1). Hence, we suggest that sewage rather than paint is the major source of trace metal contamination of Middle Loch. This is consistent with the findings of a previous study by US navy personnel

  10. Calculating background levels for ecological risk parameters in toxic harbor sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadon, C.J.; McDonnell, T.R.; Lear, J.; Barclift, D.

    2007-01-01

    Establishing background levels for biological parameters is necessary in assessing the ecological risks from harbor sediment contaminated with toxic chemicals. For chemicals in sediment, the term contaminated is defined as having concentrations above background and significant human health or ecological risk levels. For biological parameters, a site could be considered contaminated if levels of the parameter are either more or less than the background level, depending on the specific parameter. Biological parameters can include tissue chemical concentrations in ecological receptors, bioassay responses, bioaccumulation levels, and benthic community metrics. Chemical parameters can include sediment concentrations of a variety of potentially toxic chemicals. Indirectly, contaminated harbor sediment can impact shellfish, fish, birds, and marine mammals, and human populations. This paper summarizes the methods used to define background levels for chemical and biological parameters from a survey of ecological risk investigations of marine harbor sediment at California Navy bases. Background levels for regional biological indices used to quantify ecological risks for benthic communities are also described. Generally, background stations are positioned in relatively clean areas exhibiting the same physical and general chemical characteristics as nearby areas with contaminated harbor sediment. The number of background stations and the number of sample replicates per background station depend on the statistical design of the sediment ecological risk investigation, developed through the data quality objective (DQO) process. Biological data from the background stations can be compared to data from a contaminated site by using minimum or maximum background levels or comparative statistics. In Navy ecological risk assessments (ERA's), calculated background levels and appropriate ecological risk screening criteria are used to identify sampling stations and sites with contaminated

  11. Sedimentation and chronology of heavy metal pollution in Oslo harbor, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepland, Aivo; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Lepland, Aave

    2010-01-01

    Stratigraphic profiles of Cu, Cd and Hg in ten sediment cores from the Oslo harbor, Norway, combined with results of radiometric dating demonstrate that pollution by these metals peaked between 1940 and 1970. Dating results indicate that Hg discharges peaked between 1940 and 1950, Cd reached...

  12. Study of recent sediment accumulation rate using 210Pb around Mumbai Harbor Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhury, Moushumi D.; Pulhani, Vandana; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    The study of the coastal marine sediment of Mumbai harbor bay (MHB) provides a significant insight of the stress due to unprecedented increase of anthropogenic activities in and around the bay and climatic changes. This encourages archiving the sediments for characterizing the depositional environment of water system by examining the sediment accumulation rate (SAR) to understand thc annual deposition of chemical contaminants. The study of SAR evaluates the fate and potential effects of chemical contaminants which when discharged into aquatic environment quickly become attached to sediment particles at different exchange sites. The rate of sediment accumulation has a significant impact on many geochemical processes; it is also vital for the functioning of benthic organisms in this environment, particularly the seabed fauna. SAR is calculated from sedimentation rate, bulk density and porosity

  13. Distribution and contamination status of chromium in surface sediments of northern Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Cheng-Di; Chen, Chiu-Wen; Chen, Chih-Feng

    2013-07-01

    The distribution, enrichment, accumulation, and potential ecological risk of chromium (Cr) in the surface sediments of northern Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan, China were investigated. Sediment samples from ten locations located between the river mouths and harbor entrance of northern Kaohsiung Harbor were collected quarterly in 2011 and characterized for Cr, aluminum, water content, organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorous, total grease, and grain size. Results showed that the Cr concentrations varied from 27.0 to 361.9 mg/kg with an average of (113.5 +/- 87.0) mg/kg. High Cr concentration was observed near the Jen-Gen River mouth. The mean Cr concentration was high at 255.5 mg/kg, which was at least 2 to 7 times than that of other sites. This might imply significant Cr contribution from upstream receiving tanneries wastewater into the Jen-Gen River. The spatial distribution of Cr reveals relatively high in the river mouth region, especially in Jen-Gen River, and gradually diminishes toward the harbor entrance region. This indicates that the major sources of Cr pollution from upstream industrial and municipal wastewaters discharged along the river bank; and Cr may drift with sea current and be dispersed into open sea. Moreover, Cr concentrations correlated closely to the physical-chemical properties of the sediments, which suggested the influence of industrial and municipal wastewaters discharged from the neighboring industrial parks and river basins. Results from the enrichment factor and geo-accumulation index analyses imply that the Jen-Gen River sediments can be characterized as moderate enrichment and none to medium accumulation of Cr, respectively. However, results of potential ecological risk index indicate that the sediment has low ecological potential risk. The results can provide valuable information to developing future strategies for the management of river mouth and harbor.

  14. Composition and source of butyltins in sediments of Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Cheng-Di; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Chiu-Wen

    2015-04-01

    Fifty-eight sediment samples were collected from the Kaohsiung Harbor (Taiwan) for analyses of monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT) and tributyltin (TBT), using gas chromatography/flame photometric detector (GC/FPD). The concentration of total butyltins (ΣBTs), sum of MBT, DBT, and TBT, varied from 3.9 to 158.5 ng Sn/g dw in sediment samples with TBT being the major component of the sediment samples, except for the vicinity of the Love River mouth where MBT was the most abundant BT compound (a proportion of over 57%). Based on the BTs concentration, distribution, composition and correlations, the sources of BTs found in harbor sediments are shipping activities, and TBT is the main pollutant; the estuary (i.e. Love River) has been the anthropogenic source of MBT from upstream inputs. Influences of TBT on aquatic organisms are evaluated using the toxicity guidelines proposed by the US EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency) and the ACCI (assessment class criterion for imposex) proposed by OSPAR (Oslo and Paris Commission). The evaluation shows that the TBT contained in the sediment at Kaohsiung Harbor is likely to have a negative influence at ACCI class C because gastropods present imposex and TBT levels are above ecotoxicological assessment criteria (EAC) limits.

  15. Bacterial Communities in Polluted Seabed Sediments: A Molecular Biology Assay in Leghorn Harbor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Chiellini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Seabed sediments of commercial ports are often characterized by high pollution levels. Differences in number and distribution of bacteria in such areas can be related to distribution of pollutants in the port and to sediment conditions. In this study, the bacterial communities of five sites from Leghorn Harbor seabed were characterized, and the main bacterial groups were identified. T-RFLP was used for all samples; two 16S rRNA libraries and in silico digestion of clones were used to identify fingerprint profiles. Library data, phylogenetic analysis, and T-RFLP coupled with in silico digestion of the obtained sequences evidenced the dominance of Proteobacteria and the high percentage of Bacteroidetes in all sites. The approach highlighted similar bacterial communities between samples coming from the five sites, suggesting a modest differentiation among bacterial communities of different harbor seabed sediments and hence the capacity of bacterial communities to adapt to different levels and types of pollution.

  16. The legacy of contaminated sediments in Boston Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheim, Frank T.

    Scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have assembled a significant body of data that is now in a usable form. The USGS adopted an interdisciplinary approach to begin the pioneering effort at data rescue. This work involved collaboration with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority (MWRA), Massachusetts Coastal Zone Management, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). More than 100,000 sediment chemistry analyses from over 1,500 samples were gleaned from 500 references, compiled, and scientifically edited by the USGS and other workers for use in studies of the distribution and fate of contaminants.

  17. Electrochemical Oxidation of PAHs in Water from Harbor Sediment Purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muff, Jens; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2010-01-01

    generated oxidant solution with a free chlorine concentration of 2 gL-1. Both strategies resulted in a successful degradation of 5 PAHs to fulfil the discharge limit on 0.010 µgL-1. The intermixing-with-oxidant approach can also be applied as a method to address the actual sediment matrix....... of the discharge water addressing primarily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are by-products of incomplete combustion of organic materials with recalcitrant and strong mutagenic/carcinogenic properties, due to their benzene analogue structures. PAHs are hydrophobic compounds and their persistence...... evidence for the importance of the indirect oxidation mechanism in the degradation of the PAHs. The proof-of-concept study was conducted both by a direct treatment approach and an intermixing-with-oxidant approach, where the contaminated water was intermixed in different ratios with an electrochemically...

  18. Relation between PAH and black carbon contents in size fractions of Norwegian harbor sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oen, Amy M.P.; Cornelissen, Gerard; Breedveld, Gijs D.

    2006-01-01

    Distributions of total organic carbon (TOC), black carbon (BC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were investigated in different particle size fractions for four Norwegian harbor sediments. The total PAH (16-EPA) concentrations ranged from 2 to 113 mg/kg dry weight with the greatest fraction of PAH mass in the sand fraction for three of the four sediments. TOC contents ranged from 0.84% to 14.2% and BC contents from 0.085% to 1.7%. This corresponds to organic carbon (OC = TOC - BC) contents in the range of 0.81-14% and BC:TOC ratios of 1.3-18.1%. PAH isomer ratios suggested that the PAH in all four sediments were of pyrogenic origin. Furthermore, stronger correlations between PAH versus BC (r 2 = 0.85) than versus OC (r 2 = 0.15) were found. For all size fractions and bulk sediments, the PAH-to-BC ratios for the total PAHs were on average 6 ± 3 mg PAH/g BC. These results suggest that PAH distributions were dominated by the presence of BC, rather than OC. As sorption to BC is much stronger than sorption to OC, this may result in significantly lower dissolved concentrations of PAH than expected on the basis of organic carbon partitioning alone. - PAH contents correlated better with black carbon than organic carbon for four Norwegian harbor sediments

  19. Sediment quality in Burlington Harbor, Lake Champlain, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, E.M.; King, J.W.; Quinn, J.G.; Mecray, E.L.; Appleby, P.G.; Hunt, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    Surface samples and cores were collected in 1993 from the Burlington Harbor region of Lake Champlain. Sediment samples were analyzed for trace metals (cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, silver and zinc), simultaneously extracted metal/acid volatile sulfide (SEM-AVS), grain size, nutrients (carbon and nitrogen) and organic contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)). The concentrations of cadmium, copper, silver and zinc from the partial sediment digestion of the surface samples correlated well with each other (r2 > 0.60) indicating that either a common process, or group of processes determined the sediment concentrations of these metals. In an analysis of the spatial distribution of the trace metals and PAHs, high surficial concentrations were present in the southern portion of the Harbor. The trace metal trend was strengthened when the concentrations were normalized by grain size. A sewage treatment plant outfall discharge was present in the southeastern portion of the Harbor at the time of this study and is the major source of trace metal and PAH contamination. Evaluation of sediment cores provides a proxy record of historical trace metal and organic inputs. The peak accumulation rate for copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc was in the late 1960s and the peak silver accumulation rate was later. The greatest accumulation of trace metals occurred in the late 1960s after discharges from the STP began. Subsequent declines in trace metal concentrations may be attributed to increased water and air regulations. The potential toxicity of trace metals and organic contaminants was predicted by comparing contaminant concentrations to benchmark concentrations and potential trace metal bioavailability was predicted with SEM-AVS results. Surface sample results indicate lead, silver, ???PAHs and ???PCBs are potentially toxic and/or bioavailable. These predictions were supported by studies of biota in the Burlington Harbor watershed. There

  20. Multivariate analysis of heavy metal contaminations in seawater and sediments from a heavily industrialized harbor in Southern Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yung-Chang; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Chiang, Pen-Chi; Chen, Wei-Hsiang; Lin, Yuan-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Kaohsiung Harbor is the largest international commercial port in Taiwan. • The metal distributions in the seawater and sediments were investigated. • Many metals exhibited higher levels of enrichment inside the harbor. • Multivariate statistical analysis was used to characterize the metal pollutions. • Two complex arrays of contamination behaviors exist inside and outside the harbor. -- Abstract: Heavy metal pollution, including chromium, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, copper, lead, and aluminum, in the largest industrial harbor in southern Taiwan was investigated. Increasing metal contamination was observed by monitoring heavy metal concentrations in seawater and sediments and estimating the enrichment factors, particularly those inside the harbor. Compared to other metal-polluted harbors worldwide, the presence of chromium in the sediments was relatively high. Excluding the background contribution, the harbor area was polluted by outflows from river mouths, wastewater discharging pipes, and point sources near industrial activities within the harbor. It is shown by principal component and cluster analyses that metal contamination was affected by a wide range of different and complex contamination mechanisms inside and outside the harbor, suggesting managing the pollution using straightforward strategies, i.e., solutions that only consider a single source or single pathway of metal emissions, is problematic

  1. High bacterial biodiversity increases degradation performance of hydrocarbons during bioremediation of contaminated harbor marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell'Anno, Antonio; Beolchini, Francesca; Rocchetti, Laura; Luna, Gian Marco; Danovaro, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    We investigated changes of bacterial abundance and biodiversity during bioremediation experiments carried out on oxic and anoxic marine harbor sediments contaminated with hydrocarbons. Oxic sediments, supplied with inorganic nutrients, were incubated in aerobic conditions at 20 °C and 35 °C for 30 days, whereas anoxic sediments, amended with organic substrates, were incubated in anaerobic conditions at the same temperatures for 60 days. Results reported here indicate that temperature exerted the main effect on bacterial abundance, diversity and assemblage composition. At higher temperature bacterial diversity and evenness increased significantly in aerobic conditions, whilst decreased in anaerobic conditions. In both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, biodegradation efficiencies of hydrocarbons were significantly and positively related with bacterial richness and evenness. Overall results presented here suggest that bioremediation strategies, which can sustain high levels of bacterial diversity rather than the selection of specific taxa, may significantly increase the efficiency of hydrocarbon degradation in contaminated marine sediments. - Highlights: ► Bioremediation performance was investigated on hydrocarbon contaminated sediments. ► Major changes in bacterial diversity and assemblage composition were observed. ► Temperature exerted the major effect on bacterial assemblages. ► High bacterial diversity increased significantly biodegradation performance. ► This should be considered for sediment remediation by bio-treatments. - Bioremediation strategies which can sustain high levels of bacterial diversity may significantly increase the biodegradation of hydrocarbons in contaminated marine sediments.

  2. Results of chemical, toxicological, and bioaccumulation evaluations of dioxins, furans, and guaicol/organic acids in sediments from the Grays Harbor/Chehalis River area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Word, J.Q.; Ward, J.A.; Squires, A.L.

    1990-09-01

    The Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) was requested by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Seattle District, to assist in planning and conducting sampling, toxicological tests, and chemistry evaluations on sediment samples collected from the Chehalis River in Grays Harbor, Washington. The objectives of the study were to investigate the toxicity and biological effects of sediments that might potentially contain dioxins, furans, and organic acids, as a result of industrial practices in the Grays Harbor area, on sensitive marine species. In addition to the toxicological tests conducted using standard bioassays, sediment chemistry tests were performed to determine levels of selected chemicals, and elutriates of sediments were tested chemically and biologically to determine contaminant mobility in water. Also, bioaccumulation measurements were made to determine chemical mobility in animal tissue. A joint task group, including representatives from the USACE, Washington Department of Ecology (WDOE), Washington Department of Natural Resources (WDNR), Washington Department of Fisheries (WDOF), and Region 9 of the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) participated in designing the testing program and reviewing data produced by MSL. The results of this analysis will be included in a supplemental Environmental Assessment (EA) prepared by the USACE for the Grays Harbor Dredging Program, beginning in early 1990. 13 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs

  3. Contamination of harbor sediments in the eastern Gulf of Finland (Neva Bay), Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ussenkov, S.M. [Dept. of Lithology and Marine Geology, Faculty of Geology, St. Petersburg State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1997-11-01

    The areal distribution of oil products and various trace metals have been studied in bottom surface deposits from the harbors of Neva Bay. The data of contents were normalized to natural background concentrations. Also the size and biomass of benthos groups were analyzed. The results show clearly that industrial discharges have elevated levels of contamination in the sediments. Few efficient measures against environmental contamination have been taken. The sediments contain very high concentrations of oil products and such heavy metals as Hg, Pb, Cu, and Zn. The benthic organisms most sensitive to heavy metal contamination are Chironomidae. The dredging and dumping of the contaminated deposits can lead to secondary contamination of the Gulf of Finland and the Baltic proper. (orig.)

  4. A recent history of metal accumulation in the sediments of Rijeka harbor, Adriatic Sea, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukrov, Neven; Frančišković-Bilinski, Stanislav; Hlača, Bojan; Barišić, Delko

    2011-01-01

    We studied metal pollution in the sediments of Rijeka harbor, including anthropogenic influence during recent decades and at the present time. Sediment profiles were collected at ten sampling points. The concentrations of 63 elements in bulk sediment were obtained using ICP-MS, and the concentrations of selected elements were evaluated by statistical factor analyses. We also calculated metal-enrichment factors and geoaccumulation indices and constructed spatial-distribution maps. Mercury (Hg) was the heaviest pollutant, with concentrations exceeding 4 mg/kg. Silver (Ag) was the second most important pollutant, with constantly increasing values. The average concentrations of the most toxic elements were comparable to those found in sediments of other ports throughout the world, and their toxicity ranged from threshold values [chromium (Cr), arsenic (As)] and midrange-effect values [cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni)] to extreme-effect values (Hg). Metal pollution has decreased during recent decades, except for Ag and barium (Ba). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Benthic foraminifera distribution in high polluted sediments from Niterói Harbor (Guanabara Bay), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia G. Vilela; Daniele S. Batista; José A. Batista-Neto; Mirian Crapez; John J. Mcallister

    2004-01-01

    Dockyards and harbors are recognized as being important locations where sediment-associated pollutants can accumulate, which constitutes an environmental risk to aquatic life due to potential uptake and accumulation of heavy metals in the biota. The aim of this paper is to assess the concentrations and the effects of some heavy metals in the benthic foraminifera assemblage in Niterói Harbor. Low concentrations in the benthic foraminifera as well as the dominance of indicative species such as ...

  6. Effects of deposition of heavy-metal-polluted harbor mud on microbial diversity and metal resistance in sandy marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toes, Ann-Charlotte M; Finke, Niko; Kuenen, J Gijs

    2008-01-01

    Deposition of dredged harbor sediments in relatively undisturbed ecosystems is often considered a viable option for confinement of pollutants and possible natural attenuation. This study investigated the effects of deposition of heavy-metal-polluted sludge on the microbial diversity of sandy...... the finding that some groups of clones were shared between the metal-impacted sandy sediment and the harbor control, comparative analyses showed that the two sediments were significantly different in community composition. Consequences of redeposition of metal-polluted sediment were primarily underlined...... with cultivation-dependent techniques. Toxicity tests showed that the percentage of Cd- and Cu-tolerant aerobic heterotrophs was highest among isolates from the sandy sediment with metal-polluted mud on top....

  7. Processes influencing the transport and fate of contaminated sediments in the coastal ocean: Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, P. Soupy; Baldwin, Sandra M.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Borden, Jonathan; Casso, Michael A.; Crusius, John; Goudreau, Joanne; Kalnejais, Linda H.; Lamothe, Paul J.; Martin, William R.; Martini, Marinna A.; Rendigs, Richard R.; Sayles, Frederick L.; Signell, Richard P.; Valentine, Page C.; Warner, John C.; Bothner, Michael H.; Butman, Bradford

    2007-01-01

    Most of the major urban centers of the United States including Boston, New York, Washington, Chicago, New Orleans, Miami, Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Seattle—are on a coast (fig. 1.1). All of these cities discharge treated sewage effluent into adjacent waters. In 2000, 74 percent of the U.S. population lived within 200 kilometers (km) of the coast. Between 1980 and 2002, the population density in coastal communities increased approximately 4.5 times faster than in noncoastal areas of the U.S. (Perkins, 2004). More people generate larger volumes of wastes, increase the demands on wastewater treatment, expand the area of impervious land surfaces, and use more vehicles that contribute contaminants to street runoff. According to the National Coastal Condition Report II (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2005a), on the basis of coastal habitat, water and sediment quality, benthic index, and fish tissue, the overall national coastal condition is only poor to fair and the overall coastal condition in the highly populated Northeast is poor. Scientific information helps managers to prioritize and regulate coastal-ocean uses that include recreation, commercial fishing, transportation, waste disposal, and critical habitat for marine organisms. These uses are often in conflict with each other and with environmental concerns. Developing a strategy for managing competing uses while maintaining sustainability of coastal resources requires scientific understanding of how the coastal ocean system behaves and how it responds to anthropogenic influences. This report provides a summary of a multidisciplinary research program designed to improve our understanding of the transport and fate of contaminants in Massachusetts coastal waters. Massachusetts Bay and Boston Harbor have been a focus of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research because they provide a diverse geographic setting for developing a scientific understanding of the geology, geochemistry, and oceanography of

  8. Contaminant levels and toxicity of sediments and water of Baltimore Harbor and Back River, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, D.T.; Jacobs, F.; Mehrotra, N.

    1995-01-01

    The Patapsco and Back River Watershed drains the Baltimore metropolitan area, Maryland's most heavily industrialized and urbanized region. Due to the intensive development and industrialization of the Baltimore metropolitan area over the past 250 years, high levels of contaminants have been discharged into Baltimore Harbor on the Patapsco River and into the Back River. Pollutants historically discharged include heavy metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, pesticides, cyanide, sewage, other organic chemicals, and nutrients. Sources have included industrial and municipal discharges, sewerage overflows, urban runoff, and leaks and spills from vessels and on-land facilities. The Maryland Department of the Environment undertook this study of ambient conditions as part of a developing strategy to assess and improve conditions in the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries. Past studies were compiled, evaluated, and synthesized to identify the areas of degraded conditions and contaminants of possible concern. Sediment contaminant levels were assessed using historical sediment chemistry data, Effects Range Low and Median concentrations (ER-L and ER-M) as toxicological benchmarks, and a sum of toxicity units approach for multiple contaminants. Data on toxicity testing and biological monitoring was compared to sediment and water quality data. Fish tissue data were used to examine bioaccumulated chemicals. A computerized Geographical Information System (GIS) was used to manipulate and display complex geographical data. The final identification of areas and chemicals of potential concern relied on a syntheses of these results as well as information on present and past contaminant loadings

  9. Laboratory tests for the phytoextraction of heavy metals from polluted harbor sediments using aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mânzatu, Carmen; Nagy, Boldizsár; Ceccarini, Alessio; Iannelli, Renato; Giannarelli, Stefania; Majdik, Cornelia

    2015-12-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations and pollution levels of heavy metals, organochlorine pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine sediments from the Leghorn Harbor (Italy) on the Mediterranean Sea. The phytoextraction capacity of three aquatic plants Salvinia natans, Vallisneria spiralis, and Cabomba aquatica was also tested in the removal of lead and copper, present in high concentration in these sediments. The average detectable concentrations of metals accumulated by the plants in the studied area were as follows: >3.328 ± 0.032 mg/kg dry weight (DW) of Pb and 2.641 ± 0.014 mg/kg DW of Cu for S. natans, >3.107 ± 0.034 g/kg DW for V. spiralis, and >2.400 ± 0.029 mg/kg DW for C. aquatica. The occurrence of pesticides was also analyzed in the sediment sample by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Due to its metal and organic compound accumulation patterns, S. natans is a potential candidate in phytoextraction strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Recycling steel-manufacturing slag and harbor sediment into construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Ling; Lin, Chang-Yuan; Cheng, Shao-Hsiang; Wang, H Paul

    2014-01-30

    Mixtures consisting of harbor sediment and slag waste from steel industry containing toxic components are fired to produce non-hazardous construction materials. The fired pellets become lighter as firing temperature increases. At a sintering temperature of ≦1050°C, the fired pellets are in a form of brick-like product, while at 1100°C, they become lightweight aggregates. Calcium silicate, kyanite, and cristobalite are newly formed in the pellets after firing, demonstrating that calcium oxide acts as a flux component and chemically reacted with Si- and/or Al-containing components to promote sintering. Dioxin/furan content present in the pure slag is 0.003ng I-TEQg(-1) and, for the fired pellet consisting of slag and sediment, the content appears to be destructed and diminishes to 0.0003ng I-TEQg(-1) after 950°C-firing; while it is 0.002ng I-TEQg(-1) after firing at 1100°C, suggesting that dioxins/furans in the 950°C-fired pellets have a greater chance to escape to atmosphere due to a slower sintering reaction and/or that construction of dioxins/furans from molten chloride salts co-exists with their destruction. Multiple toxicity characteristic leaching procedure extracts Cu, Cr, Zn, Se, Cd, Pb, Ba, As, and Hg from all fired products at negligible levels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Predicting dredging-associated effects to coral reefs in Apra Harbor, Guam - Part 1: Sediment exposure modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailani, Joseph Z; Lackey, Tahirih C; King, David B; Bryant, Duncan; Kim, Sung-Chan; Shafer, Deborah J

    2016-03-01

    Model studies were conducted to investigate the potential coral reef sediment exposure from dredging associated with proposed development of a deepwater wharf in Apra Harbor, Guam. The Particle Tracking Model (PTM) was applied to quantify the exposure of coral reefs to material suspended by the dredging operations at two alternative sites. Key PTM features include the flexible capability of continuous multiple releases of sediment parcels, control of parcel/substrate interaction, and the ability to efficiently track vast numbers of parcels. This flexibility has facilitated simulating the combined effects of sediment released from clamshell dredging and chiseling within Apra Harbor. Because the rate of material released into the water column by some of the processes is not well understood or known a priori, the modeling approach was to bracket parameters within reasonable ranges to produce a suite of potential results from multiple model runs. Sensitivity analysis to model parameters is used to select the appropriate parameter values for bracketing. Data analysis results include mapping the time series and the maximum values of sedimentation, suspended sediment concentration, and deposition rate. Data were used to quantify various exposure processes that affect coral species in Apra Harbor. The goal of this research is to develop a robust methodology for quantifying and bracketing exposure mechanisms to coral (or other receptors) from dredging operations. These exposure values were utilized in an ecological assessment to predict effects (coral reef impacts) from various dredging scenarios. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Results of bulk sediment analysis and bioassay testing on selected sediments from Oakland Inner Harbor and Alcatraz disposal site, San Francisco, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Word, J.Q.; Ward, J.A.; Woodruff, D.L.

    1990-09-01

    The Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) was contracted by the US Army Corps of Engineers, San Francisco District, to perform bulk sediment analysis and oyster larvae bioassays (elutriate) on sediments from Inner Oakland Harbor, California. Analysis of sediment characteristics by MSL indicated elevated priority pollutants, PAHs, pesticides, metals, organotins, and oil and grease concentrations, when compared to Alcatraz Island Dredged Material Disposal Site sediment concentrations. Larvae of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, were exposed to seawater collected from the Alcatraz Island Site water, and a series of controls using water and sediments collected from Sequim Bay, Washington. Exposure of larvae to the Alcatraz seawater and the 50% and 100% elutriate concentrations from each Oakland sediment resulted in low survival and a high proportion of abnormal larvae compared to Sequim Bay control exposures. MSL identified that field sample collection, preservation, and storage protocols used by Port of Oakland contractors were inconsistent with standard accepted practices. 23 refs., 10 figs., 40 tabs

  13. Environment-Dependent Distribution of the Sediment nifH-Harboring Microbiota in the Northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinying; Li, Jing; Luan, Xiwu; Zhang, Yunbo; Gu, Guizhou; Xue, Rongrong; Zong, Mingyue; Klotz, Martin G.

    2013-01-01

    The South China Sea (SCS), the largest marginal sea in the Western Pacific Ocean, is a huge oligotrophic water body with very limited influx of nitrogenous nutrients. This suggests that sediment microbial N2 fixation plays an important role in the production of bioavailable nitrogen. To test the molecular underpinning of this hypothesis, the diversity, abundance, biogeographical distribution, and community structure of the sediment diazotrophic microbiota were investigated at 12 sampling sites, including estuarine, coastal, offshore, deep-sea, and methane hydrate reservoirs or their prospective areas by targeting nifH and some other functional biomarker genes. Diverse and novel nifH sequences were obtained, significantly extending the evolutionary complexity of extant nifH genes. Statistical analyses indicate that sediment in situ temperature is the most significant environmental factor influencing the abundance, community structure, and spatial distribution of the sediment nifH-harboring microbial assemblages in the northern SCS (nSCS). The significantly positive correlation of the sediment pore water NH4+ concentration with the nifH gene abundance suggests that the nSCS sediment nifH-harboring microbiota is active in N2 fixation and NH4+ production. Several other environmental factors, including sediment pore water PO43− concentration, sediment organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus levels, etc., are also important in influencing the community structure, spatial distribution, or abundance of the nifH-harboring microbial assemblages. We also confirmed that the nifH genes encoded by archaeal diazotrophs in the ANME-2c subgroup occur exclusively in the deep-sea methane seep areas, providing for the possibility to develop ANME-2c nifH genes as a diagnostic tool for deep-sea methane hydrate reservoir discovery. PMID:23064334

  14. Investigation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and cyclic terpenoid biomarkers in the sediments of fishing harbors in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, Nien-Hsin; Su, Ming-Chien; Fan, Jheng-Rong; Yen, Chih-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Biomarkers in three fishing harbors were investigated and identified. • 17 terpanes, 10 steranes and 10 bicyclic sesquiterpanes were quantified. • Marine diesel and the three kinds of lubricants were studied. • The study can be applied to other harbors to identify oil products in sediments. - Abstract: Three fishing harbors were investigated to study the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the sediments and trace possible anthropogenic sources by identification of cyclic terpenoid biomarkers. Seventeen terpanes, 10 steranes and 10 bicyclic sesquiterpanes in the marine diesel and the three kinds of lubricants that are mainly used by fishing boats were identified and quantified. Eighteen biomarker diagnostic ratios are suggested and the correlation coefficients among the lubricants and sediment samples have the R 2 value greater than 0.73. Analyzed 16 PAHs in the sediment shows non-normal distributions and the Kruskal Wallis Test shows the significant differences (p value smaller than 0.05) with the greatest variability in benzo[g,h,i]perylene which more than 84% of the effective size (E.S.) is accounted. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis was applied and the Kruskal Wallis Test shows a significant difference (p value smaller than 0.05) among certain atoms with the effective size greater than 60%

  15. Source characterization using compound composition and stable carbon isotope ratio of PAHs in sediments from lakes, harbor, and shipping waterway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Moonkoo; Kennicutt, Mahlon C.; Qian, Yaorong

    2008-01-01

    Molecular compositions and compound specific stable carbon isotope ratios of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) isolated from sediments were used to characterize possible sources of contamination at an urban lake, a harbor, a shipping waterway, and a relatively undisturbed remote lake in the northwest United States. Total PAH concentrations in urban lake sediments ranged from 66.0 to 16,500 μg g -1 dry wt. with an average of 2600 μg g -1 , which is ∼ 50, 100, and 400 times higher on average than PAH in harbor (48 μg g -1 on average), shipping waterway (26 μg g -1 ), and remote lake (7 μg g -1 ) sediments, respectively. The PAH distribution patterns, methyl phenanthrene/phenanthrene ratios, and a pyrogenic index at the sites suggest a pyrogenic origin for PAHs. Source characterization using principal component analysis and various molecular indices including C2-dibenzothiophenes/C2-phenanthrenes, C3-dibenzothiophenes/C3-phenanthrenes, and C2-chrysenes/C2-phenanthrenes ratios, was able to differentiate PAH deposited in sediments from the four sites. The uniqueness of the source of the sediment PAHs from urban lake was also illustrated by compound specific stable carbon isotope analysis. It was concluded that urban lake sediments are accumulating PAH from sources that are unique from contamination detected at nearby sites in the same watershed

  16. Hydrophobic organic contaminants in surficial sediments of Baltimore Harbor: Inventories and sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, J.T.F.; Baker, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    The heavily urbanized and industrialized Baltimore Harbor/Patapsco River/Back River system is one of the most highly contaminated regions of the Chesapeake Bay. In June 1996, surficial sediments were collected at 80 sites throughout the subestuarine system, including historically undersampled creek sand embayments. The samples were analyzed for a suite of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) consisting of 32 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 113 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. Total PAH and total PCB concentrations ranged from 90 to 46,200 and 8 to 2,150 ng/g dry weight, respectively. There was enormous spatial variability in the concentrations of HOCs, which was not well correlated to grain size or organic carbon content, suggesting nonequilibrium partitioning and/or proximity to sources as important factors explaining the observed spatial variability. High concentrations of both classes of HOCs were localized around major urban stormwater runoff discharges. Elevated PAH concentrations were also centered around the Sparrow's Point Industrial Complex, most likely a result of the pyrolysis of coal during the production of steel. All but 1 of the 80 sites exceeded the effects range-low (ERL) for total PCBs and, of those sites, 40% exceeded the effects range-medium (ERM), suggesting toxicity to marine benthic organisms would frequently occur. Using principal component analysis, differences in PAH signatures were discerned. Higher molecular weight PAHs were enriched in signatures from sediments close to suspected sources (i.e., urban stormwater runoff and steel production complexes) compared to those patterns observed at sites further from outfalls or runoff. Due to varying solubilities and affinities for organic matter of the individual PAHs, partitioning of the heavier weight PAHs may enrich settling particles with high molecular weight PAHs. Lower molecular weight PAHs, having lower affinity for particles, may travel from the source to a

  17. Remediating Contaminated Sediments in the Ashtabula Harbor as Part of the Ashtabula River Area of Concern: A Collaboration Success Story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diggs, I.W.; Case, J.L.; Rule, R.W.; Snyder, M.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Buffalo District (USACE), in close collaboration with the USEPA and members of an Ashtabula, Ohio, stakeholder advocacy group, were able to achieve major success in mitigating ecological impacts from contaminated sediments deposited in the lower Ashtabula River and Ashtabula Harbor after years of effort to obtain the federal funding needed to do so. The river and harbor were subject to unregulated discharges of hazardous chemicals, heavy metals, and low-level radiological contaminants from decades of operations by a variety of industrial, manufacturing, processing and production activities located near or adjacent to the river and harbor areas. Conditions in the ecosystem in and around the lower portion of the river deteriorated to the point that it was designated a Great Lakes Area of Concern (AOC) in 1983. The advocacy group known as the Ashtabula River Partnership (ARP), facilitated through efforts by both USACE and USEPA, developed an innovative plan to remediate the Ashtabula River AOC by conducting a two-phase project, completed with combined funding authorized under the Great Lakes Legacy Act (GLLA) of 2002, and Section 312(a) of the Water Resources Development Act (WRDA) of 1990. Removal of nearly 527,000 m 3 of contaminated sediments from the AOC would significantly reduce the contaminant source term and produce favorable conditions for re-establishing ecosystem balance. This would also be the first project in the nation completed by USACE under its authority to perform environmental dredging covered by WRDA Section 312(a). (authors)

  18. Substantial nitrous oxide emissions from intertidal sediments and groundwater in anthropogenically-impacted West Falmouth Harbor, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseman-Valtierra, Serena; Kroeger, Kevin D.; Crusius, John; Baldwin, Sandy; Green, Adrian; Brooks, Thomas W.; Pugh, E.

    2015-01-01

    Large N2O emissions were observed from intertidal sediments in a coastal estuary, West Falmouth Harbor, MA, USA. Average N2O emission rates from 41 chambers during summer 2008 were 10.7 mol N2O m(-2) h(-1)±4.43 μmol N2O m(-2) h(-1) (standard error). Emissions were highest from sediments within a known wastewater plume, where a maximum N2O emission rate was 155 μmol N2O m(-2) h(-1). Intertidal N2O fluxes were positively related to porewater ammonium concentrations at 10 and 25 cm depths. In groundwater from 7 shoreline wells, dissolved N2O ranged from 488% of saturation (56 nM N2O) to more than 13000% of saturation (1529 nM N2O) and was positively related to nitrate concentrations. Fresh and brackish porewater underlying 14 chambers was also supersaturated in N2O, ranging from 2980% to 13175% of saturation. These observations support a relationship between anthropogenic nutrient loading and N2O emissions in West Falmouth Harbor, with both groundwater sources and also local N2O production within nutrient-rich, intertidal sediments in the groundwater seepage face. N2O emissions from intertidal "hotspot" in this harbor, together with estimated surface water emissions, constituted 2.4% of the average overall rate of nitrogen export from the watershed to the estuary. This suggests that N2O emissions factors from coastal ecosystems may be underestimated. Since anthropogenic nutrient loading affects estuaries worldwide, quantification of N2O dynamics is warranted in other anthropogenically-impacted coastal ecosystems.

  19. Substantial nitrous oxide emissions from intertidal sediments and groundwater in anthropogenically-impacted West Falmouth Harbor, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseman-Valtierra, Serena; Kroeger, Kevin D; Crusius, John; Baldwin, Sandra; Green, Adrian; Brooks, T Wallace; Pugh, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Large N2O emissions were observed from intertidal sediments in a coastal estuary, West Falmouth Harbor, MA, USA. Average N2O emission rates from 41 chambers during summer 2008 were 10.7 mol N2O m(-2) h(-1)±4.43 μmol N2O m(-2) h(-1) (standard error). Emissions were highest from sediments within a known wastewater plume, where a maximum N2O emission rate was 155 μmol N2O m(-2) h(-1). Intertidal N2O fluxes were positively related to porewater ammonium concentrations at 10 and 25 cm depths. In groundwater from 7 shoreline wells, dissolved N2O ranged from 488% of saturation (56 nM N2O) to more than 13000% of saturation (1529 nM N2O) and was positively related to nitrate concentrations. Fresh and brackish porewater underlying 14 chambers was also supersaturated in N2O, ranging from 2980% to 13175% of saturation. These observations support a relationship between anthropogenic nutrient loading and N2O emissions in West Falmouth Harbor, with both groundwater sources and also local N2O production within nutrient-rich, intertidal sediments in the groundwater seepage face. N2O emissions from intertidal "hotspot" in this harbor, together with estimated surface water emissions, constituted 2.4% of the average overall rate of nitrogen export from the watershed to the estuary. This suggests that N2O emissions factors from coastal ecosystems may be underestimated. Since anthropogenic nutrient loading affects estuaries worldwide, quantification of N2O dynamics is warranted in other anthropogenically-impacted coastal ecosystems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Three manganese oxide-rich marine sediments harbor similar communities of acetate-oxidizing manganese-reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandieken, Verona; Pester, Michael; Finke, Niko; Hyun, Jung-Ho; Friedrich, Michael W; Loy, Alexander; Thamdrup, Bo

    2012-11-01

    Dissimilatory manganese reduction dominates anaerobic carbon oxidation in marine sediments with high manganese oxide concentrations, but the microorganisms responsible for this process are largely unknown. In this study, the acetate-utilizing manganese-reducing microbiota in geographically well-separated, manganese oxide-rich sediments from Gullmar Fjord (Sweden), Skagerrak (Norway) and Ulleung Basin (Korea) were analyzed by 16S rRNA-stable isotope probing (SIP). Manganese reduction was the prevailing terminal electron-accepting process in anoxic incubations of surface sediments, and even the addition of acetate stimulated neither iron nor sulfate reduction. The three geographically distinct sediments harbored surprisingly similar communities of acetate-utilizing manganese-reducing bacteria: 16S rRNA of members of the genera Colwellia and Arcobacter and of novel genera within the Oceanospirillaceae and Alteromonadales were detected in heavy RNA-SIP fractions from these three sediments. Most probable number (MPN) analysis yielded up to 10(6) acetate-utilizing manganese-reducing cells cm(-3) in Gullmar Fjord sediment. A 16S rRNA gene clone library that was established from the highest MPN dilutions was dominated by sequences of Colwellia and Arcobacter species and members of the Oceanospirillaceae, supporting the obtained RNA-SIP results. In conclusion, these findings strongly suggest that (i) acetate-dependent manganese reduction in manganese oxide-rich sediments is catalyzed by members of taxa (Arcobacter, Colwellia and Oceanospirillaceae) previously not known to possess this physiological function, (ii) similar acetate-utilizing manganese reducers thrive in geographically distinct regions and (iii) the identified manganese reducers differ greatly from the extensively explored iron reducers in marine sediments.

  1. Incidence of plasmid-linked antibiotic-heavy metal resistant enterics in water-sediment from agricultural and harbor sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietz, J.A.; Sjorgren, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of antibiotics used in clinical and veterinary practices on the incidence of antibiotic-heavy metal resistant enterics in fresh water and sediment from agricultural and harbor sample sites. A total of 848 bacterial strains of the family Enterobacteriaceae was isolated from agricultural and lake harbor samples. These were examined for anitbiotic-heavy metal resistance. A select smaller number of these isolates were also examined for the presence of plasmids and ability to transfer antibiotic resistance via conjugation or transformation. More than 85% of the 848 isolates from all four sites were resistant to Pb, Zn, and Co while 5.6% to 16% were resistant to Te and 2.4% to 5.7% to Hg. Of the total isolates tested, 87% were resistant to six or more antibiotics and 74% were also simultaneously resistant to Co, Zn, and Pb. Testing the resistance of the water isolates to antibiotics used solely in animal husbandry-veterinary medicine indicated that 55.6% of the agricultural isolates possessed resistance to these antibiotics while only 31.9% of the isolates from harbor water showed resistance to the same antibiotics. Of 41 ampicillin resistant isolates examined, 16 (39%) were capable of transferring antibiotic-heavy resistance markers via conjugation. From this same group, plasmid DNA preparations were made. Of these latter preparations, 67% transformed recipient E. coli cells while 58% possessed discernible, often multiple plasmids when examined by gel electrophoresis.

  2. Effects-based spatial assessment of contaminated estuarine sediments from Bear Creek, Baltimore Harbor, MD, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, Sharon E; Unger, Michael A; McGee, Beth L; Wilson, Sacoby M; Yonkos, Lance T

    2017-10-01

    Estuarine sediments in regions with prolonged histories of industrial activity are often laden to significant depths with complex contaminant mixtures, including trace metals and persistent organic pollutants. Given the complexity of assessing risks from multi-contaminant exposures, the direct measurement of impacts to biological receptors is central to characterizing contaminated sediment sites. Though biological consequences are less commonly assessed at depth, laboratory-based toxicity testing of subsurface sediments can be used to delineate the scope of contamination at impacted sites. The extent and depth of sediment toxicity in Bear Creek, near Baltimore, Maryland, USA, was delineated using 10-day acute toxicity tests with the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus, and chemical analysis of trace metals and persistent organic pollutants. A gradient of toxicity was demonstrated in surface sediments with 21 of 22 tested sites differing significantly from controls. Effects were most pronounced (100% lethality) at sites proximate to a historic industrial complex. Sediments from eight of nine core samples to depths of 80 cm were particularly impacted (i.e., caused significant lethality to L. plumulosus) even in locations overlain with relatively non-toxic surface sediments, supporting a conclusion that toxicity observed at the surface (top 2 cm) does not adequately predict toxicity at depth. In seven of nine sites, toxicity of surface sediments differed from toxicity at levels beneath by 28 to 69%, in five instances underestimating toxicity (28 to 69%), and in two instances overestimating toxicity (44 to 56%). Multiple contaminants exceeded sediment quality guidelines and correlated positively with toxic responses within surface sediments (e.g., chromium, nickel, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), total petroleum hydrocarbon). Use of an antibody-based PAH biosensor revealed that porewater PAH concentrations also increased with depth at most sites. This

  3. Using the dioxin receptor-calux in vitro bioassay to screen marine harbor sediments for compounds with a dioxin-like mode of action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stronkhorst, J.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Murk, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    The presence of dioxin-like compounds in sediments from harbors and reference sites along the Dutch coast was investigated using the dioxin receptor–chemically activated luciferase gene expression (DR-CALUX) bioassay. The DR-CALUX response varied between 0.2 and 136 ng/kg dry weight expressed in

  4. Geotechnical and Geoacoustic Investigation of Seafloor Sediments on Boston Harbor Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-25

    better modeling outcomes due to a variety of soil plastic flow effects around the penetrometer foot; or direct empirical relations between the maximum...in conducting sediment analysis for bearing strength. These probes consist of a fin- stabilized main body with extension/penetrator rods attached to...clayey soils . When significantly higher resistance is encountered in sandy layers, the accelerometer often saturates, exceeding the range. Part of

  5. Benthic foraminifera distribution in high polluted sediments from Niterói Harbor (Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia G. Vilela

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Dockyards and harbors are recognized as being important locations where sediment-associated pollutants can accumulate, which constitutes an environmental risk to aquatic life due to potential uptake and accumulation of heavy metals in the biota. The aim of this paper is to assess the concentrations and the effects of some heavy metals in the benthic foraminifera assemblage in Niterói Harbor. Low concentrations in the benthic foraminifera as well as the dominance of indicative species such as Ammonia tepida, Buliminella elegantissima and Bolivina lowmani can be associated with an environment under stress. In addition, the occurrence of test abnormalities among foraminifera may represent a useful biomarker for evaluating long-term environmental impacts in a coastal region.Estaleiros e portos são locais reconhecidamente importantes onde poluentes associados a sedimentos podem acumular, constituindo um risco ambiental para a vida aquática devido ao potencial de captação e acumulação de metais pesados na biota. O propósito deste trabalho é avaliar as concentrações e os efeitos de alguns metais pesados na assembléia de foraminíferos bentônicos no Porto de Niterói. Baixas concentrações de foraminíferos bentônicos bem como a dominância de espécies indicativas como Ammonia tepida, Buliminella elegantissima e Bolivina lowmani podem ser associadas a um ambiente sob estresse. A ocorrência de anormalidades entre os foraminíferos pode representar um útil biomarcador para avaliação de impactos ambientais de longo termo em uma região costeira.

  6. Sediment Analysis Using a Structured Programming Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Arias-Madrid

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an algorithm designed for the analysis of a sedimentary sample of unconsolidated material and seeks to identify very quickly the main features that occur in a sediment and thus classify them fast and efficiently. For this purpose, it requires that the weight of each particle size to be entered in the program and using the method of Moments, which is based on four equations representing the mean, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis, is found the attributes of the sample in few seconds. With the program these calculations are performed in an effective and more accurately way, obtaining also the explanations of the results of the features such as grain size, sorting, symmetry and origin, which helps to improve the study of sediments and in general the study of sedimentary rocks.

  7. Preliminary assessment of Miramar Petrochemical Harbor as PAH source to Guajará bay (Belém-PA-Brazil surface sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana do Socorro Veloso Sodré

    Full Text Available Abstract A preliminary study on a petrochemical harbor as a potential source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH to surface sediments of Guajará bay, located in Belém City, Pará State, Brazil, over the last 10 years is presented here. The 16 priority USEPA PAH were identified and quantified. Surface sediment samples, collected at 5 sites in the bay, near Miramar Petrochemical Harbor (TEMIR, were extracted and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector. Total PAH concentration ranged from 533.0 to 3123.3 ng g-1 dry weight with a mean concentration of 1091.9 ng g-1. The most contaminated places were those where muddy sediments were found with highest concentrations of organic matter. The priority PAH with low molecular weight represented 54.4% of the total abundance and indicate that the main source of contamination of the sediments was petrogenic, indicative of the relevant contribution of the petrochemical harbor activity to the input of PAH to Guajará bay. However, pyrolytic PAH coming from fuel combustion, household waste combustion and untreated sewage discharge are also potential contamination sources to this environment.

  8. Diffuse flow environments within basalt- and sediment-based hydrothermal vent ecosystems harbor specialized microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Barbara J; Polson, Shawn W; Zeigler Allen, Lisa; Williamson, Shannon J; Lee, Charles K; Wommack, K Eric; Cary, S Craig

    2013-01-01

    Hydrothermal vents differ both in surface input and subsurface geochemistry. The effects of these differences on their microbial communities are not clear. Here, we investigated both alpha and beta diversity of diffuse flow-associated microbial communities emanating from vents at a basalt-based hydrothermal system along the East Pacific Rise (EPR) and a sediment-based hydrothermal system, Guaymas Basin. Both Bacteria and Archaea were targeted using high throughput 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analyses. A unique aspect of this study was the use of a universal set of 16S rRNA gene primers to characterize total and diffuse flow-specific microbial communities from varied deep-sea hydrothermal environments. Both surrounding seawater and diffuse flow water samples contained large numbers of Marine Group I (MGI) Thaumarchaea and Gammaproteobacteria taxa previously observed in deep-sea systems. However, these taxa were geographically distinct and segregated according to type of spreading center. Diffuse flow microbial community profiles were highly differentiated. In particular, EPR dominant diffuse flow taxa were most closely associated with chemolithoautotrophs, and off axis water was dominated by heterotrophic-related taxa, whereas the opposite was true for Guaymas Basin. The diversity and richness of diffuse flow-specific microbial communities were strongly correlated to the relative abundance of Epsilonproteobacteria, proximity to macrofauna, and hydrothermal system type. Archaeal diversity was higher than or equivalent to bacterial diversity in about one third of the samples. Most diffuse flow-specific communities were dominated by OTUs associated with Epsilonproteobacteria, but many of the Guaymas Basin diffuse flow samples were dominated by either OTUs within the Planctomycetes or hyperthermophilic Archaea. This study emphasizes the unique microbial communities associated with geochemically and geographically distinct hydrothermal diffuse flow environments.

  9. Environmental conditions outweigh geographical contiguity in determining the similarity of nifH-harboring microbial communities in sediments of two disconnected marginal seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixia Zhou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ecological evidence suggests that heterotrophic diazotrophs fueled by organic carbon respiration in sediments play an important role in marine nitrogen fixation. However, fundamental knowledge about the identities, abundance, diversity, biogeography and controlling environmental factors of nitrogen-fixing communities in open ocean sediments is still elusive. Surprisingly, little is known also about nitrogen-fixing communities in sediments of the more research-accessible marginal seas. Here we report on an investigation of the environmental geochemistry and putative diazotrophic microbiota in the sediments of Bohai Sea, an eutrophic marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean. Diverse and abundant nifH gene sequences were identified and sulfate-reducing bacteria were found to be the dominant putative nitrogen-fixing microbes. Community statistical analyses suggested bottom water temperature, bottom water chlorophyll a content (or the covarying turbidity and sediment porewater Eh (or the covarying pH as the most significant environmental factors controlling the structure and spatial distribution of the putative diazotrophic communities, while sediment Hg content, sulfide content and porewater SiO32--Si content were identified as the key environmental factors correlated positively with the nifH gene abundance in Bohai Sea sediments. Comparative analyses between the Bohai Sea and the northern South China Sea identified a significant composition difference of the putative diazotrophic communities in sediments between the shallow-water (estuarine and nearshore and deep-water (offshore and deep-sea environments, and sediment porewater dissolved oxygen content, water depth and in situ temperature as the key environmental factors tentatively controlling the species composition, community structure and spatial distribution of the marginal sea sediment nifH-harboring microbiota. This confirms the ecophysiological specialization and niche differentiation

  10. Demonstration of In Situ Treatment with Reactive Amendments for Contaminated Sediments in Active DoD Harbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    as hazardous wastes . The sediments are contaminated from the sediment bed surface to 1 foot below the sediment - water interface. The site is...enable deep water placement of the material on the sediment surface. The AquaGate, which is denser than water , sinks rapidly through the water column...zone (generally 10–20 centimeters [cm] below sediment - water interface) unless it is determined that there is little or no advective transport of

  11. PTM Modeling of Dredged Suspended Sediment at Proposed Polaris Point and Ship Repair Facility CVN Berthing Sites - Apra Harbor, Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    sedimentation outside of the channel footprint. For example, dredging near the edge of the footprint can be confined to time periods when tidal currents...Cases 1 or 2 due to the lower loss rate. Sedimentation rates outside the channel prism are further reduced because all sediment is introduced in the...ER D C/ CH L TR -1 7- 16 PTM Modeling of Dredged Suspended Sediment at Proposed Polaris Point and Ship Repair Facility CVN Berthing

  12. Three manganese oxide-rich marine sediments harbor similar communities of acetate-oxidizing manganese-reducing bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Vandieken, Verona; Pester, Michael; Finke, Niko; Hyun, Jung-Ho; Friedrich, Michael W; Loy, Alexander; Thamdrup, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Dissimilatory manganese reduction dominates anaerobic carbon oxidation in marine sediments with high manganese oxide concentrations, but the microorganisms responsible for this process are largely unknown. In this study, the acetate-utilizing manganese-reducing microbiota in geographically well-separated, manganese oxide-rich sediments from Gullmar Fjord (Sweden), Skagerrak (Norway) and Ulleung Basin (Korea) were analyzed by 16S rRNA-stable isotope probing (SIP). Manganese reduction was the p...

  13. Getting caught up in the game: managing non-formal dynamics in the remediation of contaminated sediments in Oslo harbor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijn, M.; Buuren, A. van; Sparrevik, M.; Slob, A.; Ellen, G.J.; Oen, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at describing, analyzing and evaluating the relation between management styles and process dynamics of a complex planning process confronted with unexpected dynamics. The development of an aquatic disposal site for dredged contaminated sediments in Oslo was managed by a project

  14. Distribution, origin and potential toxicological significance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.F.; Kao, C.M.; Dong, C.D.; Chen, C.W.

    2009-01-01

    The European Union and the United States Environmental Protection Agency have placed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on a priority pollutant list because they represent the largest group of compounds that are mutagenic, carcinogenic and teratogenic and could pose potential threat to the ecological environment. There are both natural and anthropogenic sources of PAHs, and their effects can be both widespread and permanent. This study investigated the distribution of PAHs in sediments collected at the river outfalls, fishing ports, shipyards and industrial docks of Kaohsiung Harbour in Taiwan. Sediment samples from 12 locations were collected in 2006 and characterized for 17 different PAHs, organic matter and grain size. The study revealed that the contaminant sources for the PAH found at the steel industrial docks were different from the other zones of the Kaohsiung Harbour. Molecular indices suggest that coal combustion may be the possible source of PAHs in the industrial dock, while petroleum combustion may be the source in the other zones. In comparison with the sediment quality guidelines of the United States, the levels of PAHs at the industrial docs of Kaohsiung Harbour exceeded the effects range low (ERL), and could therefore cause acute biological damage. However, the lower levels of PAHs at the other zones would not cause adverse biological effects. The study suggests that industrial activities played important roles in the leaching of PAHs into the environment, and the results could help develop strategies for sediment remediation. 38 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  15. Demonstration of In Situ Treatment with Reactive Amendments for Contaminated Sediments in Active DoD Harbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-10

    Anthony Thurman, Larry Hsu, Lesley Doyle, and Patty Masino of Code 106; and Robert Miller, John Bartlett, and other members of the Dive Team; Puget...biological activity ( burrows , voids, or actual animals) were viewed in the images and the maximum biological mixing depth was determined (Germano and...underlying sediment by the burrowing activities of resident infauna and other mixing processes (Germano and Associates 2014a). Visual evidence of

  16. Manila clams from Hg polluted sediments of Marano and Grado lagoons (Italy) harbor detoxifying Hg resistant bacteria in soft tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, Franco; Gallo, Michele; Marchetto, Davide; Faleri, Claudia; Maida, Isabel; Fani, Renato

    2013-01-01

    A mechanism of mercury detoxification has been suggested by a previous study on Hg bioaccumulation in Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) in the polluted Marano and Grado lagoons and in this study we demonstrate that this event could be partly related to the detoxifying activities of Hg-resistant bacteria (MRB) harbored in clam soft tissues. Therefore, natural clams were collected in six stations during two different periods (winter and spring) from Marano and Grado Lagoons. Siphons, gills and hepatopancreas from acclimatized clams were sterile dissected to isolate MRB. These anatomical parts were glass homogenized or used for whole, and they were lying on a solid medium containing 5 mg l −1 HgCl 2 and incubated at 30 °C. A total of fourteen bacterial strains were isolated and were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and analysis, revealing that strains were representative of eight bacterial genera, four of which were Gram-positive (Enterococcus, Bacillus, Jeotgalicoccus and Staphylococcus) and other four were Gram-negative (Stenotrophomonas, Vibrio, Raoultella and Enterobacter). Plasmids and merA genes were found and their sequences determined. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique shows the presence of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria by using different molecular probes in siphon and gills. Bacterial clumps inside clam flesh were observed and even a Gram-negative endosymbiont was disclosed by transmission electronic microscope inside clam cells. Bacteria harbored in cavities of soft tissue have mercury detoxifying activity. This feature was confirmed by the determination of mercuric reductase in glass-homogenized siphons and gills. -- Highlights: ► We isolated Gram-positive and Gram-negative Hg resistant strains from soft tissues of Ruditapes philippinarum. ► We identify 14 mercury resistant strains by 16S rRNA gene sequences. ► Bacteria in siphon and gill tissues of clams were observed by TEM and identified with

  17. Manila clams from Hg polluted sediments of Marano and Grado lagoons (Italy) harbor detoxifying Hg resistant bacteria in soft tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldi, Franco [Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Cà Foscari University of Venice, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy); Gallo, Michele; Marchetto, Davide [Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Cà Foscari University of Venice, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy); Faleri, Claudia [Department of Environmental Science ‘G. Sarfatti’, University of Siena, 53100 Siena (Italy); Maida, Isabel; Fani, Renato [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Via Romana, 17, University of Florence, 50125 Florence (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    A mechanism of mercury detoxification has been suggested by a previous study on Hg bioaccumulation in Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) in the polluted Marano and Grado lagoons and in this study we demonstrate that this event could be partly related to the detoxifying activities of Hg-resistant bacteria (MRB) harbored in clam soft tissues. Therefore, natural clams were collected in six stations during two different periods (winter and spring) from Marano and Grado Lagoons. Siphons, gills and hepatopancreas from acclimatized clams were sterile dissected to isolate MRB. These anatomical parts were glass homogenized or used for whole, and they were lying on a solid medium containing 5 mg l{sup −1} HgCl{sub 2} and incubated at 30 °C. A total of fourteen bacterial strains were isolated and were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and analysis, revealing that strains were representative of eight bacterial genera, four of which were Gram-positive (Enterococcus, Bacillus, Jeotgalicoccus and Staphylococcus) and other four were Gram-negative (Stenotrophomonas, Vibrio, Raoultella and Enterobacter). Plasmids and merA genes were found and their sequences determined. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique shows the presence of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria by using different molecular probes in siphon and gills. Bacterial clumps inside clam flesh were observed and even a Gram-negative endosymbiont was disclosed by transmission electronic microscope inside clam cells. Bacteria harbored in cavities of soft tissue have mercury detoxifying activity. This feature was confirmed by the determination of mercuric reductase in glass-homogenized siphons and gills. -- Highlights: ► We isolated Gram-positive and Gram-negative Hg resistant strains from soft tissues of Ruditapes philippinarum. ► We identify 14 mercury resistant strains by 16S rRNA gene sequences. ► Bacteria in siphon and gill tissues of clams were observed by TEM and identified

  18. Electrodialytic remediation of sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland

    Sediments of harbors and freshwaters are regularly dredged for various reasons: maintenance of navigational depths, recovery of recreational locations, and even environmental recovery. In the past, sediments dredged from harbors have been dumped at sea, however, environmental regulations now, in ...

  19. Methane Seep in Shallow-Water Permeable Sediment Harbors High Diversity of Anaerobic Methanotrophic Communities, Elba, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, S Emil; Kuhfuss, Hanna; Wegener, Gunter; Lott, Christian; Ramette, Alban; Wiedling, Johanna; Knittel, Katrin; Weber, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is a key biogeochemical process regulating methane emission from marine sediments into the hydrosphere. AOM is largely mediated by consortia of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), and has mainly been investigated in deep-sea sediments. Here we studied methane seepage at four spots located at 12 m water depth in coastal, organic carbon depleted permeable sands off the Island of Elba (Italy). We combined biogeochemical measurements, sequencing-based community analyses and in situ hybridization to investigate the microbial communities of this environment. Increased alkalinity, formation of free sulfide and nearly stoichiometric methane oxidation and sulfate reduction rates up to 200 nmol g(-1) day(-1) indicated the predominance of sulfate-coupled AOM. With up to 40 cm thickness the zones of AOM activity were unusually large and occurred in deeper sediment horizons (20-50 cm below seafloor) as compared to diffusion-dominated deep-sea seeps, which is likely caused by advective flow of pore water due to the shallow water depth and permeability of the sands. Hydrodynamic forces also may be responsible for the substantial phylogenetic and unprecedented morphological diversity of AOM consortia inhabiting these sands, including the clades ANME-1a/b, ANME-2a/b/c, ANME-3, and their partner bacteria SEEP-SRB1a and SEEP-SRB2. High microbial dispersal, the availability of diverse energy sources and high habitat heterogeneity might explain that the emission spots shared few microbial taxa, despite their physical proximity. Although the biogeochemistry of this shallow methane seep was very different to that of deep-sea seeps, their key functional taxa were very closely related, which supports the global dispersal of key taxa and underlines strong selection by methane as the predominant energy source. Mesophilic, methane-fueled ecosystems in shallow-water permeable sediments may comprise distinct

  20. Methane seep in shallow-water permeable sediment harbors high diversity of anaerobic methanotrophic communities, Elba, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Emil Ruff

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM is a key biogeochemical process regulating methane emission from marine sediments into the hydrosphere. AOM is largely mediated by consortia of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB, and has mainly been investigated in deep-sea sediments. Here we studied methane seepage at four spots located at 12 m water depth in coastal, organic-carbon depleted permeable sands off the Island of Elba (Italy. We combined biogeochemical measurements, sequencing-based community analyses and in situ hybridization to investigate the microbial communities of this environment. Increased alkalinity, formation of free sulfide and nearly stoichiometric methane oxidation and sulfate reduction rates up to 200 nmol g-1 day-1 indicated the predominance of sulfate-coupled AOM. With up to 40 cm thickness the zones of AOM activity were unusually large and occurred in deeper sediment horizons (20–50 cm below seafloor as compared to diffusion-dominated deep-sea seeps, which is likely caused by advective flow of pore water due to the shallow water depth and permeability of the sands. Hydrodynamic forces also may be responsible for the substantial phylogenetic and unprecedented morphological diversity of AOM consortia inhabiting these sands, including the clades ANME-1a/b, ANME-2a/b/c, ANME-3 and their partner bacteria SEEP-SRB1a and SEEP-SRB2. High microbial dispersal, the availability of diverse energy sources and high habitat heterogeneity might explain that the emission spots shared few microbial taxa, despite their physical proximity. Although the biogeochemistry of this shallow methane seep was very different to that of deep-sea seeps, their key functional taxa were very closely related, which supports the global dispersal of key taxa and underlines strong selection by methane as the predominant energy source. Mesophilic, methane-fueled ecosystems in shallow-water permeable sediments may comprise

  1. Methane Seep in Shallow-Water Permeable Sediment Harbors High Diversity of Anaerobic Methanotrophic Communities, Elba, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, S. Emil; Kuhfuss, Hanna; Wegener, Gunter; Lott, Christian; Ramette, Alban; Wiedling, Johanna; Knittel, Katrin; Weber, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is a key biogeochemical process regulating methane emission from marine sediments into the hydrosphere. AOM is largely mediated by consortia of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), and has mainly been investigated in deep-sea sediments. Here we studied methane seepage at four spots located at 12 m water depth in coastal, organic carbon depleted permeable sands off the Island of Elba (Italy). We combined biogeochemical measurements, sequencing-based community analyses and in situ hybridization to investigate the microbial communities of this environment. Increased alkalinity, formation of free sulfide and nearly stoichiometric methane oxidation and sulfate reduction rates up to 200 nmol g-1 day-1 indicated the predominance of sulfate-coupled AOM. With up to 40 cm thickness the zones of AOM activity were unusually large and occurred in deeper sediment horizons (20–50 cm below seafloor) as compared to diffusion-dominated deep-sea seeps, which is likely caused by advective flow of pore water due to the shallow water depth and permeability of the sands. Hydrodynamic forces also may be responsible for the substantial phylogenetic and unprecedented morphological diversity of AOM consortia inhabiting these sands, including the clades ANME-1a/b, ANME-2a/b/c, ANME-3, and their partner bacteria SEEP-SRB1a and SEEP-SRB2. High microbial dispersal, the availability of diverse energy sources and high habitat heterogeneity might explain that the emission spots shared few microbial taxa, despite their physical proximity. Although the biogeochemistry of this shallow methane seep was very different to that of deep-sea seeps, their key functional taxa were very closely related, which supports the global dispersal of key taxa and underlines strong selection by methane as the predominant energy source. Mesophilic, methane-fueled ecosystems in shallow-water permeable sediments may comprise distinct

  2. Applicability of numerical model for seabed topography changes by tsunami flow. Analysis of formulae for sediment transport and simulations in a rectangular harbor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Masafumi

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of formulae for bed-load transport and pick-up rate in suspended transport are investigated in order to clarify the impact on seabed topography changes by tsunami flow. The impact by bed-load transport was depended on Froude number and water surface slope. Bed-load transport causes deposition under Fr 6/7 at face front of tsunami wave. Pick-up rate has more predominant influences for seabed topography changes than that of one brought by bed-load transport. 2-D Numerical simulations with formulae by Ikeno et.al were carried out to simulate topography changes around harbor by tsunami flow in the flume. The result indicated that the numerical model is more applicable than a numerical model with previous formulae for estimation of deposit and erosion by topography changes. It is for this reason that the formula of pick-up rate is adaptable for wide-range diameter of sand, from 0.08mm to 0.2mm. Upper limit of suspended sediment concentration is needed to set due to avoid overlarge concentration in the numerical model. Comparison between numerical results in a real scale with 1% and 5% upper limits clearly shows topography changes have a deep relevance with the upper limit value. The upper limit value is one of dominant factors for evaluating seabed topography changes by the 2-D Numerical simulations with the formulae by Ikeno et.al in a real scale. (author)

  3. Composition and variation of sediment bacterial and nirS-harboring bacterial communities at representative sites of the Bohai Gulf coastal zone, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiangyu; Zhu, Lingling; Li, Youxun; Xie, Yuxuan; Zhao, Mingzhang; Luo, Ximing

    2014-04-01

    With rapid urbanization, anthropogenic activities are increasingly influencing the natural environment of the Bohai Bay. In this study, the composition and variation of bacterial and nirS-harboring bacterial communities in the coastal zone sediments of the Bohai Gulf were analyzed using PCR-based clone libraries. A total of 95 genera were detected in the bacterial communities, with Proteobacteria (72.1 %), Acidobacteria (10.5 %), Firmicutes (1.7 %), Bacteroidetes (1.4 %), Chloroflexi (0.7 %) and Planctomycetes (0.7 %) being the dominated phyla. The NirS sequences were divided into nine Clusters (A-I). Canonical correlation analysis showed that the bacterial or denitrifying communities were correlated with different environmental factors, such as total organic carbon, total nitrogen, ammonium, sulfate, etc. Furthermore, bacterial communities' composition and diversity are influenced by oil exploration, sewage discharge and other anthropogenic activities in the coastal area of the Bohai Sea. Thus, this study provided useful information on further research on regional or global environmental control and restore.

  4. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program: Magnitude and Extent of Sediment Toxicity of South Carolina and Georgia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surficial sediment samples were collected from 162 locations within five estuaries - Charleston Harbor, Winyah Bay, Leadenwah Creek, Savannah River, and St. Simons...

  5. Hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance program at LLL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinney, J.F.

    1977-03-01

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) is conducting a Hydrogeochemical and Stream-Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) survey in support of ERDA's National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. Included in the LLL portion of this survey are seven western states (Arizona, California, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Washington). Similar surveys are being carried out in the rest of the continental United States, including Alaska, as part of a systematic nationwide study of the distribution of uranium in surface water, groundwater, and stream sediment. The overall objective is to identify favorable areas for uranium exploration. This paper describes the program being conducted by LLL to complete our portion of the survey by 1981. The topics discussed are geology and sample acquisition, sample preparation and analysis, and data-base management

  6. [Pearl Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of "Loblolly Magazine" was written in observance of the 50th anniversary of the U.S. entrance into World War II. The publication features interviews conducted by East Texas high school students with Clarence Otterman, one of the few survivors of the crew of the USS Arizona, which was bombed during the attack on Pearl Harbor,…

  7. Data Analysis and Data-Driven Decision-Making Strategies Implemented by Elementary Teachers in Selected Exited Program Improvement Safe Harbor Schools in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senger, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were to investigate and describe how elementary teachers in exited Program Improvement-Safe Harbor schools acquire student achievement data through assessments, the strategies and reflections utilized to make sense of the data to improve student achievement, ensure curriculum and instructional goals are aligned,…

  8. Evaluating the potential effects of hurricanes on long-term sediment accumulation in two micro-tidal sub-estuaries: Barnegat Bay and Little Egg Harbor, New Jersey, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marot, Marci E.; Smith, Christopher G.; Ellis, Alisha M.; Wheaton, Cathryn J.

    2016-06-23

    Barnegat Bay, located along the eastern shore of New Jersey, was significantly impacted by Hurricane Sandy in October 2012. Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a multidisciplinary study of sediment transport and hydrodynamics to understand the mechanisms that govern estuarine and wetland responses to storm forcing. This report details the physical and chemical characteristics of surficial and downcore sediments from two areas within the bay. Eleven sites were sampled in both the central portion of the bay near Barnegat Inlet and in the southern portion of the bay in Little Egg Harbor. Laboratory analyses include Be-7, Pb-210, bulk density, porosity, x-radiographs, and grain-size distribution. These data will serve as a critical baseline dataset for understanding the current sedimentological regime and can be applied to future storms for understanding estuarine and wetland evolution.

  9. Three-dimensional visualization maps of suspended-sediment concentrations during placement of dredged material in 21st Avenue West Channel Embayment, Duluth-Superior Harbor, Duluth, Minnesota, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groten, Joel T.; Ellison, Christopher A.; Mahoney, Mollie H.

    2016-06-30

    Excess sediment in rivers and estuaries poses serious environmental and economic challenges. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) routinely dredges sediment in Federal navigation channels to maintain commercial shipping operations. The USACE initiated a 3-year pilot project in 2013 to use navigation channel dredged material to aid in restoration of shoreline habitat in the 21st Avenue West Channel Embayment of the Duluth-Superior Harbor. Placing dredged material in the 21st Avenue West Channel Embayment supports the restoration of shallow bay aquatic habitat aiding in the delisting of the St. Louis River Estuary Area of Concern.The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the USACE, collected turbidity and suspended-sediment concentrations (SSCs) in 2014 and 2015 to measure the horizontal and vertical distribution of SSCs during placement operations of dredged materials. These data were collected to help the USACE evaluate the use of several best management practices, including various dredge material placement techniques and a silt curtain, to mitigate the dispersion of suspended sediment.Three-dimensional visualization maps are a valuable tool for assessing the spatial displacement of SSCs. Data collection was designed to coincide with four dredged placement configurations that included periods with and without a silt curtain as well as before and after placement of dredged materials. Approximately 230 SSC samples and corresponding turbidity values collected in 2014 and 2015 were used to develop a simple linear regression model between SSC and turbidity. Using the simple linear regression model, SSCs were estimated for approximately 3,000 turbidity values at approximately 100 sampling sites in the 21st Avenue West Channel Embayment of the Duluth-Superior Harbor. The estimated SSCs served as input for development of 12 three-dimensional visualization maps.

  10. Sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff R. Hupp; Michael R. Schening

    2000-01-01

    Sedimentation is arguably the most important water-quality concern in the United States. Sediment trapping is cited frequently as a major function of riverine-forested wetlands, yet little is known about sedimcntation rates at the landscape scale in relation to site parameters, including woody vegetation type, elevation, velocity, and hydraulic connection to the river...

  11. 78 FR 79201 - Medicare and State Health Care Programs: Fraud and Abuse; Electronic Health Records Safe Harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... limitation, kickbacks, bribes, and rebates, whether made directly or indirectly, overtly or covertly, in cash... the purchasing, leasing, or ordering of, or arranging for or recommending the purchasing, leasing, or... harbor at 42 CFR 1001.952(y). Arrangements that disguise the ``purchase'' or lock-in of referrals and...

  12. Bioaccumulation Potential of Contaminants from Bedded and Suspended Oakland Harbor Deepening Project Sediments to San Francisco Bay Flatfish and Bivalve Mollusks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    potential TBT tributyltin TCDD tetrachlorod ibenzo-p-dioxin TeBT tetrabutyltin TEF toxicity equivalency factor TOC total organic carbon TSS total...these sediments and in the four experiments to be discussed below include 15 PAHs; the metals Cd, Cr, and Hg; tributyltin ( TBT ) and dibutyltin (DBT); and...4,4’DDT. b. Aroclor 1254 ................ B6 Figure B 11. Contaminant concentrations in sediments. a. Dibutyltin. b. Tributyltin

  13. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program: the Hydrogeochemical Stream Sediment Reconnaissance Program at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, G.H.

    1980-08-01

    From early 1975 to mid 1979, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) participated in the Hydrogeochemical Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR), part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). The Laboratory was initially responsible for collecting, analyzing, and evaluating sediment and water samples from approximately 200,000 sites in seven western states. Eventually, however, the NURE program redefined its sampling priorities, objectives, schedules, and budgets, with the increasingly obvious result that LLNL objectives and methodologies were not compatible with those of the NURE program office, and the LLNL geochemical studies were not relevant to the program goal. The LLNL portion of the HSSR program was consequently terminated, and all work was suspended by June 1979. Of the 38,000 sites sampled, 30,000 were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analyses (INAA), delayed neutron counting (DNC), optical emission spectroscopy (OES), and automated chloride-sulfate analyses (SC). Data from about 13,000 sites have been formally reported. From each site, analyses were published of about 30 of the 60 elements observed. Uranium mineralization has been identified at several places which were previously not recognized as potential uranium source areas, and a number of other geochemical anomalies were discovered

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF PROGRAM MODULE FOR CALCULATING SPEED OF TITANIC PLASMA SEDIMENTATION IN ENVIRONMENT OF TECHNOLOGICAL GAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Ivaschenko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The program module has been developed on the basis of package of applied MATLAB programs which allows to calculate speed of coating sedimentation over the section of plasma stream taking into account magnetic field influence of a stabilizing coil, and also to correct the obtained value of sedimentation speed depending on the value of negative accelerating potential, arch current, technological gas pressure. The program resolves visualization of calculation results.

  15. Neural network-genetic programming for sediment transport

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, A.K.; Deo, M.C.; SanilKumar, V.

    The planning, operation, design and maintenance of almost all harbour and coastal engineering facilities call for an estimation of the longshore sediment transport rate. This is currently and popularly done with the help of empirical equations...

  16. MAINTAINING ACCESS TO AMERICA'S INTERMODAL PORTS/TECHNOLOGIES FOR DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED SEDIMENT: NEW YORK/NEW JERSEY HARBOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STERN,E.A.; JONES,K.; DONATO,K.; PAULING,J.D.; SONTAG,J.G.; CLESCERI,N.L.; MENSINGER,M.C.; WILDE,C.L.

    1998-05-01

    One of the greatest drivers for maintaining access to America's Intermodal ports and related infrastructure redevelopment efforts over the next several years will be the control and treatment of contaminated sediments dredged from the nation's waterways. More than 306 million cubic meters (m{sup 3}) (400 million cubic yards [cy]) of sediments are dredged annually from US waterways, and each year close to 46 million m{sup 3} (60 million cy) of this material is disposed of in the ocean (EPA 842-F-96-003). The need to protect the environment against undesirable effects from sediment dredging and disposal practices is gaining increased attention from the public and governmental agencies. Meeting this need is a challenging task not only from the standpoint of solving formidable scientific and engineering problems, but also, and more importantly, from the need to implement complex collaborations among the many different parties concerned with the problem. Some 40 years ago, C.P. Snow pointed out the problems involved in communicating between the two cultures of the sciences and the humanities (Snow, 1993). Today, it is necessary to extend Snow's concept to a multicultural realm with groups that include governmental, industrial, environmental, academic, and the general public communicating in different languages based on widely different fundamental assumptions. The handling of contaminated sediments in the Port of New York/New Jersey (Port) exemplifies this problem. This paper describes a multicultural team that has formed as the result of a Congressional mandate for the development of procedures suitable for the decontamination of sediments in the Port under the Water Resources Development Act (WRDA) of 1992 (Section 405C) and 1996 (Section 226).

  17. MAINTAINING ACCESS TO AMERICA'S INTERMODAL PORTS/TECHNOLOGIES FOR DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED SEDIMENT: NEW YORK/NEW JERSEY HARBOR.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STERN,E.A.; JONES,K.; DONATO,K.; PAULING,J.D.; SONTAG,J.G.; CLESCERI,N.L.; MENSINGER,M.C.; WILDE,C.L.

    1998-05-01

    One of the greatest drivers for maintaining access to America's Intermodal ports and related infrastructure redevelopment efforts over the next several years will be the control and treatment of contaminated sediments dredged from our nation's waterways. More than 306 million cubic meters (m{sup 3}) (400 million cubic yards [cy]) of sediments are dredged annually from U.S. waterways, and each year close to 46 million m{sup 3} (60 million cy) of this material is disposed of in the ocean (EPA 842-F-96-003). The need to protect our environment against undesirable effects from sediment dredging and disposal practices is gaining increased attention from the public and governmental agencies. Meeting this need is a challenging task not only from the standpoint of solving formidable scientific and engineering problems, but also, and more importantly, from the need to implement complex collaborations among the many different parties concerned with the problem. Some 40 years ago, C.P. Snow pointed out the problems involved in communicating between the two cultures of the sciences and the humanities (Snow, 1993). Today, it is necessary to extend Snow's concept to a multicultural realm with groups that include governmental, industrial, environmental, academic, and the general public communicating in different languages based on widely different fundamental assumptions.

  18. Chemistry of marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, T.F.

    1977-01-01

    Some topics considered are as follows: characterization of sediments in the vicinity of offshore petroleum production; thermal alteration experiments on organic matter in recent marine sediments as a model for petroleum genesis; composition of polluted bottom sediments in Great Lakes harbors; distribution of heavy metals in sediment fractions; recent deposition of lead off the coast of southern California; release of trace constituents from sediments resuspended during dredging operations; and migration of chemical constituents in sediment-seawater interfaces

  19. Coastal Harbors Modeling Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Coastal Harbors Modeling Facility is used to aid in the planning of harbor development and in the design and layout of breakwaters, absorbers, etc.. The goal is...

  20. Inclusion of radionuclides absorption by sediments in the RIVLAK program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues Junior, O.; Moreira, J.M.L.

    1992-01-01

    The RIVLAK code solves the one-dimensional transport equation for radionuclide concentrations within a water body for routine and accidental releases of liquid effluents. The principal phenomena considered in the RIVLAK code are advection by the water body flow, longitudinal and transversal diffusion, and radioactive decay. This work incorporates the interaction between radionuclides and suspended or bed sediments to the RIVLAK code. An approximate equation for the radionuclide concentration in an effective sediment is included in the code with explicit terms for adsorption and desorption from the water to the effective sediment. The modified RIVLAK code is utilized for estimating the radionuclide concentration from release experiments in the Clinch river. The original code overestimates the Cs concentration downstream by approximately two orders of magnitude. The modified version predicts the Cs concentration with few percents, and underestimates its longitudinal dispersion by about 35%. The special care needed with parameters such as the radionuclide diffusion coefficient in the water, and the adsorption and desorption coefficients are discussed. (author)

  1. Grays Harbor Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, B. [Grays Harbor Paper, Hoquiam, WA (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Wood waste biomass boilers are used at Grays Harbor Paper in Hoquiam, Washington. This presentation showed that large volumes of biomass are left after a traditional clearcut. The opportunities and challenges of collecting branches, tops and stumps from this wet coastal climate were outlined. The paper described some of the low-tech methods for picking up branches, stumps and woody debris. It included several photographs of custom logging machines for timber harvest, including a brush grapple slasher, a shearer shovel, chippers, grinders, slicesaws, trucks, trailers and caterpillar log loaders for handling slash. The slash recovery program relies on innovative harvesting machines that convert scattered logging slash into bundles that can be easily collected, transported, and stored for use in existing facilities that utilize wood fiber for fuel. figs.

  2. Water resources research program. Pollution of coastal waters off Chicago by sinking plumes from the Indiana Harbor Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, W.; McCown, D.L.; Raphaelian, L.A.; Saunders, K.D.

    1977-12-01

    On March 2, 1977, during sinking-plume conditions, a portion of the water of the Indiana Harbor Canal (IHC) was injected with samarium and rhodamine-dye tags and a section of the IHC's surface was covered with simulated oily waste tagged with dysprosium. Water samples were taken downcurrent, over a 54-hr period, from a vessel and from the raw-water streams from the intakes at Chicago's South Water Filtration Plant (SWFP). Bottom currents and water temperatures were measured almost continuously at four Lake Michigan stations located between the IHC and the SWFP. Unequivocal evidence is presented for transport of the tagged IHC water and oily waste to the SWFP's intakes. Organic contaminants from the IHC were present in trace concentrations in the SWFP's raw water. A model for the transport and mixing of the entire IHC effluent, for the environmental conditions during the experiment, indicates a minimum dilution of 4 in the plume offshore of the SWFP and, for the assumed plume trajectory, values of 5 x 10 2 and 10 5 at the shore and crib intakes, respectively. A similar model applied to the experimental situation of tagged effluent showed reasonable agreement with measurements. Analysis of historical data indicates that the worst-case pollution event that might be experienced at the SWFP, assuming constant pollutant loading in the IHC, would be due to 24 hr of northwest wind followed by a 3.0-in. (7.6 cm), 24-hr rainfall that coincides with 3.0 x 10 6 m of total wind movement from the southerly quadrants

  3. FORTRAN computer programs to process Savannah River Laboratory hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinkl, R.J.; Shettel, D.L. Jr.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.

    1980-03-01

    FORTRAN computer programs have been written to read, edit, and reformat the hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance data produced by Savannah River Laboratory for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. The data are presorted by Savannah River Laboratory into stream sediment, ground water, and stream water for each 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle. Extraneous information is eliminated, and missing analyses are assigned a specific value (-99999.0). Negative analyses are below the detection limit; the absolute value of a negative analysis is assumed to be the detection limit

  4. Field manual for stream sediment reconnaissance. Savannah River Laboratory National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, R.B.; Price, V.; Baucom, E.I.

    1976-07-01

    A manual is presented that is intended to direct and coordinate field operations, site selection, stream sediment sample collection, water sample collection, and information codes for the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) contribution to the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. The manual provides public relations information for field sampling teams as well as technical direction

  5. Educational Specifications for Pearl Harbor Heights High School, Developed from the Program Delineation Study, January-April 1961.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu.

    The report is a discussion of the curriculum and supportive educational facilities for the state of Hawaii. An administrative view of guidance services and teacher programing is included. Supportive facilities are sketched, showing their relationship to such specific instructional areas as music, shop, home economics, drawing and painting,…

  6. New Harbor in Kangerlussuaq, Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenstad, Jaran Gjerlandj; Eppeland, Kjetil Grødal; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    transported by rivers from the inland ice to the inner parts of the fjord. These sediment layers reduce the water depth and prevent container- and cruiseships to dock, imposing large additional maintenance costs, and inefficient operability. Through engineering geological field and lab investigations......, a possible new harbor location around 10 km further out the fjord near Hancock Pynt, has been investigated. The onshore area was found to be highly suitable for a harbor support area, where a sub-base thickness of 1.8 m with gravel cover-layer was found adequate for the calculated design loads. Existing...

  7. A Visual Basic program to plot sediment grain-size data on ternary diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, L.J.; Eliason, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Sedimentologic datasets are typically large and compiled into tables or databases, but pure numerical information can be difficult to understand and interpret. Thus, scientists commonly use graphical representations to reduce complexities, recognize trends and patterns in the data, and develop hypotheses. Of the graphical techniques, one of the most common methods used by sedimentologists is to plot the basic gravel, sand, silt, and clay percentages on equilateral triangular diagrams. This means of presenting data is simple and facilitates rapid classification of sediments and comparison of samples.The original classification scheme developed by Shepard (1954) used a single ternary diagram with sand, silt, and clay in the corners and 10 categories to graphically show the relative proportions among these three grades within a sample. This scheme, however, did not allow for sediments with significant amounts of gravel. Therefore, Shepard's classification scheme was later modified by the addition of a second ternary diagram with two categories to account for gravel and gravelly sediment (Schlee, 1973). The system devised by Folk (1954, 1974)\\ is also based on two triangular diagrams, but it has 21 categories and uses the term mud (defined as silt plus clay). Patterns within the triangles of both systems differ, as does the emphasis placed on gravel. For example, in the system described by Shepard, gravelly sediments have more than 10% gravel; in Folk's system, slightly gravelly sediments have as little as 0.01% gravel. Folk's classification scheme stresses gravel because its concentration is a function of the highest current velocity at the time of deposition as is the maximum grain size of the detritus that is available; Shepard's classification scheme emphasizes the ratios of sand, silt, and clay because they reflect sorting and reworking (Poppe et al., 2005).The program described herein (SEDPLOT) generates verbal equivalents and ternary diagrams to

  8. Contaminant transport and accumulation in Massachusetts Bay and Boston Harbor; a summary of U.S. Geological Survey studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, Bradford; Bothner, Michael H.; Hathaway, J.C.; Jenter, H.L.; Knebel, H.J.; Manheim, F.T.; Signell, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting studies in Boston Harbor, Massachusetts Bay, and Cape Cod Bay designed to define the geologic framework of the region and to understand the transport and accumulation of contaminated sediments. The region is being studied because of environmental problems caused by the introduction of wastes for a long time, because a new ocean outfall (to begin operation in 1995) will change the location for disposal of treated Boston sewage from Boston Harbor into Massachusetts Bay, and because of the need to understand the transport of sediments and associated contaminants in order to address a wide range of management questions. The USGS effort complements and is closely coordinated with the research and monitoring studies supported by the Massachusetts Environmental Trust, the Massachusetts Bays Program, and by the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority. The USGS study includes (1) geologic mapping, (2) circulation studies, (3) long-term current and sediment transport observations, (4) measurements of contaminant inventories and rates of sediment mixing and accumulation, (5) circulation modeling, (6) development of a contaminated sediments data base, and (7) information exchange. A long-term objective of the program is to develop a predictive capability for sediment transport and accumulation.

  9. Pearl Harbor bombing attack: a contamination legacy revealed in the sedimentary record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Olsen, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    Sediment cores collected from Middle Loch and West Loch of Pearl Harbor were dated using fallout 137 Cs and excess 210 Pb and analysed for several major elements and trace metals. Results indicate that sediment deposited immediately following the 7 December, 1941, bombing attack on Pearl Harbor contained elevated levels of several trace metals. (author)

  10. Pearl Harbor bombing attack: a contamination legacy revealed in the sedimentary record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Olsen, C.R.

    1988-02-01

    Sediment cores collected from Middle Loch and West Loch of Pearl Harbor were dated using fallout /sup 137/Cs and excess /sup 210/Pb and analysed for several major elements and trace metals. Results indicate that sediment deposited immediately following the 7 December, 1941, bombing attack on Pearl Harbor contained elevated levels of several trace metals.

  11. Constitutive properties and material model development for marine sediments in support of the subseabed disposal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baladi, G.Y.; Akers, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the theoretical investigation was to develop an appropriate elastic-plastic effective-stress constitutive model and the necessary numerical algorithms for seabed sediments for use in computer code simulations of both early-time dynamic penetration of waste canisters and late-time hole closure. The purpose of the experimental program was to provide high-pressure dynamic stress-strain and strength properties for seabed sediments of interest, which in conjunction with data provided by the University of Rhode Island (URI), could be used to guide the development and verification of a constitutive model for such materials. The results of the theoretical program are documented in Part I of this report, which contains four chapters. The fundamental basis of elastic-plastic constitutive models is presented in Chapter 1. The numerical implementation of the elastic-plastic models is discussed in Chapter 2. The development of the effective-stress constitutive model for seabed sediments is presented in Chapter 3. The behavior of this effective-stress model under hydrostatic and triaxial compression test conditions is illustrated in Chapter 4. Part II deals with the experimental program and includes five chapters. Chapter 1 deals with background geotechnical information regarding the physical properties of seabed sediments and presents the scope of the experimental program. Testing equipment and specimen preparation are described in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 outlines test procedures and techniques. Test results are presented in Chapter 4. Representative constitutive properties for Pacific illite are given in Chapter 5. Comparison of the final effective-stress constitutive model fits with laboratory test data are presented in Part III. The numerical values of the material model constants for Pacific illite are also summarized therein. Part IV contains a summary and recommendations for future work

  12. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - Biological Effects of Toxic Contaminants in Sediments from Long Island Sound and Environs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A survey of sediment toxicity was carried out by NOAA's National Status and Trends Program in the coastal bays that surround Long Island Sound in New York and...

  13. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - Magnitude and Extent of Sediment Toxicity in the Hudson-Raritan Estuary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A survey of the toxicity of sediments was performed by NOAA's National Status and Trends (NSandT) Program throughout the Hudson-Raritan Estuary. The objectives of...

  14. Numerical Modeling of Wave Overtopping of Buffalo Harbor Confined Disposal Facility (CDF4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    navigation channel , and harbor complex. Though there are anecdotal claims and debris indicating possible sediment movement, there has been no evidence of...littoral sediments inside the disposal area, into the channel and harbor, and other adjacent areas to the CDF4. 1.4 Study plan 1.4.1 Purpose There...locations. 2.4 Maintenance dredging data The need for maintenance dredging arises from sedimentation in the navigation channels , which impedes

  15. A visual basic program to generate sediment grain-size statistics and to extrapolate particle distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, L.J.; Eliason, A.H.; Hastings, M.E.

    2004-01-01

    Measures that describe and summarize sediment grain-size distributions are important to geologists because of the large amount of information contained in textural data sets. Statistical methods are usually employed to simplify the necessary comparisons among samples and quantify the observed differences. The two statistical methods most commonly used by sedimentologists to describe particle distributions are mathematical moments (Krumbein and Pettijohn, 1938) and inclusive graphics (Folk, 1974). The choice of which of these statistical measures to use is typically governed by the amount of data available (Royse, 1970). If the entire distribution is known, the method of moments may be used; if the next to last accumulated percent is greater than 95, inclusive graphics statistics can be generated. Unfortunately, earlier programs designed to describe sediment grain-size distributions statistically do not run in a Windows environment, do not allow extrapolation of the distribution's tails, or do not generate both moment and graphic statistics (Kane and Hubert, 1963; Collias et al., 1963; Schlee and Webster, 1967; Poppe et al., 2000)1.Owing to analytical limitations, electro-resistance multichannel particle-size analyzers, such as Coulter Counters, commonly truncate the tails of the fine-fraction part of grain-size distributions. These devices do not detect fine clay in the 0.6–0.1 μm range (part of the 11-phi and all of the 12-phi and 13-phi fractions). Although size analyses performed down to 0.6 μm microns are adequate for most freshwater and near shore marine sediments, samples from many deeper water marine environments (e.g. rise and abyssal plain) may contain significant material in the fine clay fraction, and these analyses benefit from extrapolation.The program (GSSTAT) described herein generates statistics to characterize sediment grain-size distributions and can extrapolate the fine-grained end of the particle distribution. It is written in Microsoft

  16. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers. Summary report, field sampling program for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, W.H.; Ecker, R.M.; Onishi, Y.

    1982-11-01

    A three-phase field sampling program was conducted on the Buttermilk-Cattaraugus Creek system to investigate the transport of radionuclides in surface waters as part of a continuing program to provide data for application and verification of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) sediment and radionuclide transport model, SERATRA. Phase 1 of the sampling program was conducted during November and December 1977; Phase 2 during September 1978; and Phase 3 during April 1979. Bed sediment, suspended sediment, and water samples were collected over a 45-mile reach of the creek system. Bed sediment samples were also collected at the mouth of Cattaraugus Creek in Lake Erie. A fourth sampling trip was conducted during May 1980 to obtain supplementary channel geometry data and flood plain sediment samples. Radiological analysis of these samples included gamma ray spectrometry analysis, and radiochemical separation and analysis of Sr-90, Pu-238, Pu-239,240, Am-241 and Cm-244. Tritium analysis was also performed on water samples. Based on the evaluation of radionuclide levels in Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, the Nuclear Fuel Services facility at West Valley, New York, may be the source of Cs-137, Sr-90, CS-134, Co-60, Pu-238, Pu-239,240, Am-241, Cm-244 and tritium found in the bed sediment, suspended sediment and water of Buttermilk and Cattaraugus Creeks

  17. Sample collection: an overview of the Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    A Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) for uranium is currently being conducted throughout the conterminous United States and Alaska. The HSSR is part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation sponsored by the US Department of Energy. This ambitious geochemical reconnaissance program is conducted by four national laboratories: Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and Savannah River Laboratory. The program is based on an extensive review of world literature, reconnaissance work done in other countries, and pilot studies conducted by each laboratory. Sample-collection methods and sample density are determined to optimize the probability of detecting potential uranium mineralization. To achieve this aim, each laboratory has developed independent standardized field collection procedures that are designed for its section of the country. Field parameters such as pH, conductivity, climate, geography, and geology are recorded at each site. Most samples are collected at densities of one sample site per 10 to 23 km 2 . The HSSR program has helped to improve existing hydrogeochemical reconnaissance exploration techniques. In addition to providing industry with data that may help to identify potential uranium districts and to extend known uranium provinces, the HSSR also provides multi-element analytical data, which can be used in water quality, soil, sediment, environmental, and base-metal exploration studies

  18. Overview of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar, S.L.

    1980-01-01

    A Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) for uranium is currently being conducted throughout the conterminous United States and Alaska. The HSSR is part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation sponsored by the US Department of Energy. This ambitious geochemical reconnaissance program is conducted by four Department of Energy laboratories: Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and Savannah River Laboratory. The program is based on an extensive review of world literature, reconnaissance work done in other countries, and pilot studies conducted by each laboratory. Sample-collection methods and sample density are determined to optimize the probability of detecting potential uranium mineralization. To achieve this aim, each laboratory has developed independent standardized field collection procedures that are designed for its section of the country. Field parameters such as pH, conductivity, climate, geography, and geology are recorded at each site. Most areas are sampled at densities of one sample site per 10 to 23 km 2 . The HSSR program has helped to improve existing hydrogeochemical reconnaissance exploration techniques. In addition to providing industry with data that may help to identify potential uranium districts and to extend known uranium provinces, the HSSR also provides multielement analytical data that can be used in water quality, soil, sediment, environmental, and base-metal exploration studies

  19. Overview of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar, S.L.

    1980-07-01

    A Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) for uranium is currently being conducted throughout the conterminous United States and Alaska. The HSSR is part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation sponsored by the US Department of Energy. This ambitious geochemical reconnasissance program is conducted by four Department of Energy Laboratories: Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and Savannah River Laboratory. Each laboratory was assigned a geographic region of the United States. The program is based on an extensive review of world literature, reconnaissance work done in other countries, and pilot studies conducted by each laboratory. Sample-collection methods and sample density are determined to optimize the probability of detecting potential uranium mineralization. To achieve this aim, each laboratory has developed independent standardized field collection procedures that are designed for its section of the country. Field parameters such as pH, conductivity, climate, geography, and geology are recorded at each site. Most areas are sampled at densities of one sample site per 10 to 23 km 2 . The HSSR program has helped to improve existing hydrogeochemical reconnaissance exploration techniques. In addition to providing industry with data that may help to identify potential uranium districts and to extend known uranium provinces, the HSSR also provides multielement analytical data that can be used in water quality, soil, sediment, environmental, and base-metal exploration studies

  20. Evaluation of Upland Disposal of Oakland Harbor, California, Sediment. Volume 2: Inner and Outer Harbor Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    the drop size and terminal velocities of natural rain- fall, factors which are critical in erosion and infiltration studies ( Westerdahl and Skogerboe... Westerdahl and Skogerboe 1982; Lee and Skogerboe 1984; Skogerboe et al. 1987). The WES Rainfall Simulator/ Lysimeter System proved to be an effective...Waters (Phase IIIA of -42-Foot Project); Volume 2: Appendixes," iNL-83-2, Vol 2, Battelle/Marine Science Laboratory, Sequim, WA. Westerdahl , H. E., and

  1. Data summary for the near-shore sediment characterization task of the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, D.A.; Hargrove, W.W.; Campbell, K.R.; Wood, M.A.; Rash, C.D.

    1994-10-01

    This report presents the results of the Near-Shore Sediment Characterization Task of the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP). The goals of the task were to (1) determine the extent to which near-shore surface sediments are contaminated by releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and (2) provide data for the Watts Bar Reservoir Interagency Permitting Group (WBRIPG) to evaluate the human health risks from exposure to sediments during and following dredging operations. The data collected for this task are also to be used in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RLTS) for the CR-ERP operable units (Lower Watts Bar and Clinch River) to characterize the human health risk associated with exposure to near-shore sediments throughout the Watts Bar Reservoir

  2. Clean Water Act (Section 404) and Rivers and Harbors Act (Sections 9 and 10). Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book, Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-03-01

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (Section 404) and the Rivers and Harbors Act (Sections 9 and 10) and those regulations that implement those sections of the statutes and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, IH-231 (FTS 896-2609 or Commercial 202/586-2609).

  3. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers. Phase 3. Field sampling program for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, R.M.; Walters, W.H.; Onishi, Y.

    1982-08-01

    A field sampling program was conducted on Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York during April 1979 to investigate the transport of radionuclides in surface waters as part of a continuing program to provide data for application and verification of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) sediment and radionuclide transport model, SERATRA. Bed sediment, suspended sediment and water samples were collected during unsteady flow conditions over a 45 mile reach of stream channel. Radiological analysis of these samples included gamma ray spectrometry analysis, and radiochemical separation and analysis of Sr-90, Pu-238, Pu-239, 240, Am-241 and Cm-244. Tritium analysis was also performed on water samples. Based on the evaluation of radionuclide levels in Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, the Nuclear Fuel Services facility at West Valley, New York, may be the source of Cs-137, Sr-90, Cs-134, Co-60, Pu-238, Pu-239, 240, Am-241, Cm-244 and tritium found in the bed sediment, suspended sediment and water of Buttermilk and Cattaraugus Creeks. This field sampling effort was the last of a three phase program to collect hydrologic and radiologic data at different flow conditions

  4. Pearl Harbor Biological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-30

    Pearl Harbor also receives Irrigation tailgate waters from the Oahu Sug- ar Company, Industrial waste waters from the Prlmo Brewery , and heated waters...34Observations of the Cell Structure of Salt Fingers", J. Fluid Mech. 41:4, pp 707-719. ~) 3.3-79 ,’:•.-. ^ IV s’V- EFFECTS OF SHIP ACTIVITY Paul L...anticyclonic) death assemblage - in this report, an assemblage (q.v.) of remains (such as shells or bones ) from a naturally occurring association of living

  5. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program. Transformation, Fixation, and Mobilization of Arsenic and Antimony in Contaminated Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    and Edwards (1977) reported that whole cells of :ethaogenic bacteria in variod anaerobic environments ( rumen fluid, sewage sludge) nproduced...sediments were studied with emphasis placed on short- and long-term 14 leaching and sediment conditions that affect mobilization. -; Under anaerobic ...conditions, arsenate [As(V)] was reduced to arsenite [As(III)] in a wide range of sediments. In anaerobic Texas City sediment slur- ries, 70% of added As(V

  6. 75 FR 76613 - National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    .... The deadly attack on Pearl Harbor did not accomplish its mission of breaking the American spirit..., aiding the war effort by working in manufacturing plants, participating in rationing programs, or...

  7. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, N.P.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Barrows, E.S.; Goodwin, S.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F. (Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

    1992-06-01

    The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accommodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material proposed for open-water disposal must be evaluated to determine the potential impacts of the disposal activity on the water column and disposal site environments. The USACE requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct studies to evaluate open-water disposal options for Oakland Harbor sediments. This request developed into the Oakland Harbor Phase III Program. This is Volume 2 of a two-volume report that presents information gathered to determine the suitability of ocean disposal of sediments dredged from Oakland Harbor. This volume contains the Appendixes (A through N), which provide details of the data analyses and full presentation of the data and results.

  8. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project). Volume 2, Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, N.P.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Barrows, E.S.; Goodwin, S.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accommodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material proposed for open-water disposal must be evaluated to determine the potential impacts of the disposal activity on the water column and disposal site environments. The USACE requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct studies to evaluate open-water disposal options for Oakland Harbor sediments. This request developed into the Oakland Harbor Phase III Program. This is Volume 2 of a two-volume report that presents information gathered to determine the suitability of ocean disposal of sediments dredged from Oakland Harbor. This volume contains the Appendixes (A through N), which provide details of the data analyses and full presentation of the data and results.

  9. Integrated approach to assess ecosystem health in harbor areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebianno, M J; Pereira, C G; Rey, F; Cravo, A; Duarte, D; D'Errico, G; Regoli, F

    2015-05-01

    Harbors are critical environments with strategic economic importance but with potential environmental impact: health assessment criteria are a key issue. An ecosystem health status approach was carried out in Portimão harbor as a case-study. Priority and specific chemical levels in sediments along with their bioavailability in mussels, bioassays and a wide array of biomarkers were integrated in a biomarker index (IBR index) and the overall data in a weight of evidence (WOE) model. Metals, PAHs, PCBs and HCB were not particularly high compared with sediment guidelines and standards for dredging. Bioavailability was evident for Cd, Cu and Zn. Biomarkers proved more sensitive namely changes of antioxidant responses, metallothioneins and vittellogenin-like proteins. IBR index indicated that site 4 was the most impacted area. Assessment of the health status by WOE approach highlighted the importance of integrating sediment chemistry, bioaccumulation, biomarkers and bioassays and revealed that despite some disturbance in the harbor area, there was also an impact of urban effluents from upstream. Environmental quality assessment in harbors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Progress report, July--September 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    Water and/or sediment samples have been collected from some 47,000 sample locations covering about 504,000 km 2 which represents 19% of the area assigned to the LASL for the HSSR program. Slightly over half of this sampling work was done this quarter and included the first commercial, helicopter-borne sampling contract in Alaska where 4468 locations were sampled over an area of 94,000 km 2 . Thus far, uranium determinations have been made for some 12,000 water samples by fluorometry and for over 15,000 sediment samples by delayed-neutron counting. The main effort of this quarter has been directed toward completing all outstanding commercial sampling contracts and analyzing the backlog of water and sediment samples

  11. Analytical scale purification of zirconia colloidal suspension using field programmed sedimentation field flow fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van-Quynh, Alexandra; Blanchart, Philippe; Battu, Serge; Clédat, Dominique; Cardot, Philippe

    2006-03-03

    Sedimentation field flow fractionation was used to obtain purified fractions from a polydispersed zirconia colloidal suspension in the potential purpose of optical material hybrid coating. The zirconia particle size ranged from 50/70 nm to 1000 nm. It exhibited a log-Gaussian particle size distribution (in mass or volume) and a 115% polydispersity index (P.I.). Time dependent eluted fractions of the original zirconia colloidal suspension were collected. The particle size distribution of each fraction was determined with scanning electron microscopy and Coulter sub-micron particle sizer (CSPS). These orthogonal techniques generated similar data. From fraction average elution times and granulometry measurements, it was shown that zirconia colloids are eluted according to the Brownian elution mode. The four collected fractions have a Gaussian like distribution and respective average size and polydispersity index of 153 nm (P.I. = 34.7%); 188 nm (P.I. = 27.9%); 228 nm (P.I. = 22.6%), and 276 nm (P.I. = 22.3%). These data demonstrate the strong size selectivity of SdFFF operated with programmed field of exponential profile for sorting particles in the sub-micron range. Using this technique, the analytical production of zirconia of given average size and reduced polydispersity is possible.

  12. Assessment of sediment contamination at Great Lakes Areas of Concern: the ARCS Program Toxicity-Chemistry Work Group strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, P.E.; Burton, G.A.; Crecelius, E.A.; Filkins, J. C.; Giesy, J.P.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Landrum, P.F.; Mac, M.J.; Murphy, T.J.; Rathbun, J. E.; Smith, V. E.; Tatem, H. E.; Taylor, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    In response to a mandate in Section 118(c)(3) of the Water Quality Act of 1987, a program called Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS) was established. Four technical work groups were formed. This paper details the research strategy of the Toxicity-Chemistry Work Group.The Work Group's general objectives are to develop survey methods and to map the degree of contamination and toxicity in bottom sediments at three study areas, which will serve as guidance for future surveys at other locations. A related objective is to use the data base that will be generated to calculate sediment quality concentrations by several methods. The information needed to achieve these goals will be collected in a series of field surveys at three areas: Saginaw Bay (MI), Grand Calumet River (IN), and Buffalo River (NY). Assessments of the extent of contamination and potential adverse effects of contaminants in sediment at each of these locations will be conducted by collecting samples for physical characterization, toxicity testing, mutagenicity testing, chemical analyses, and fish bioaccumulation assays. Fish populations will be assessed for tumors and external abnormalities, and benthic community structure will be analyzed. A mapping approach will use low-cost indicator parameters at a large number of stations, and will extrapolate by correlation from traditional chemical and biological studies at a smaller number of locations. Sediment toxicity testing includes elutriate, pore water and whole sediment bioassays in a three-tiered framework. In addition to the regular series of toxicity tests at primary mater stations, some stations are selected for a more extensive suite of tests.

  13. Alaska Harbor Seal Glacial Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Floating glacial ice serves as a haul-out substrate for a significant number (10-15%) of Alaskan harbor seals, and thus surveying tidewater glacial fjords is an...

  14. Characterizing Flow and Suspended Sediment Trends in the Sacramento River Basin, CA Using Hydrologic Simulation Program - FORTRAN (HSPF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, M. A.; Flint, L. E.; Flint, A. L.; Wright, S. A.; Minear, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    A watershed model of the Sacramento River Basin, CA was developed to simulate streamflow and suspended sediment transport to the San Francisco Bay Delta (SFBD) for fifty years (1958-2008) using the Hydrological Simulation Program - FORTRAN (HSPF). To compensate for the large model domain and sparse data, rigorous meteorological development and characterization of hydraulic geometry were employed to spatially distribute climate and hydrologic processes in unmeasured locations. Parameterization techniques sought to include known spatial information for tributaries such as soil information and slope, and then parameters were scaled up or down during calibration to retain the spatial characteristics of the land surface in un-gaged areas. Accuracy was assessed by comparing model calibration to measured streamflow. Calibration and validation of the Sacramento River ranged from "good" to "very good" performance based upon a "goodness-of-fit" statistical guideline. Model calibration to measured sediment loads were underestimated on average by 39% for the Sacramento River, and model calibration to suspended sediment concentrations were underestimated on average by 22% for the Sacramento River. Sediment loads showed a slight decreasing trend from 1958-2008 and was significant (p < 0.0025) in the lower 50% of stream flows. Hypothetical climate change scenarios were developed using the Climate Assessment Tool (CAT). Several wet and dry scenarios coupled with temperature increases were imposed on the historical base conditions to evaluate sensitivity of streamflow and sediment on potential changes in climate. Wet scenarios showed an increase of 9.7 - 17.5% in streamflow, a 7.6 - 17.5% increase in runoff, and a 30 - 93% increase in sediment loads. The dry scenarios showed a roughly 5% decrease in flow and runoff, and a 16 - 18% decrease in sediment loads. The base hydrology was most sensitive to a temperature increase of 1.5 degrees Celsius and an increase in storm intensity and

  15. Comparison of test specific sediment effect concentrations with marine sediment quality assessment guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, R.S.; Biedenbach, J.M.; MacDonald, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    As part of NOAA's National Status and Trends (NS and T) Bioeffects Assessment program and studies conducted by the National Biological Service, numerous sediment quality assessment surveys have recently been conducted along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the US using the sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development tests with pore water. Additional toxicity tests were also conducted in conjunction with most of these studies. The areas that have been sampled include Boston harbor, Massachusetts; Charleston Harbor, Winyah Bay, and Savannah River, South Carolina; St. Simon Sound, Georgia; Biscayne Bay, Tampa Bay, Choctawhatchee Bay, Apalachicola Bay, St. Andrew Bay, and Pensacola Bay, Florida; Galveston Bay, Lavaca Bay, and Sabine Lake, Texas, and 200 stations in the vicinity of offshore oil and gas production platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. Sufficient data are now available from this series of surveys to calculate test specific sediment effect concentrations (SECs). Based on these recent studies, SECs were developed for the sea urchin porewater and amphipod tests and compared with existing marine sediment quality assessment guidelines

  16. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Richmond Harbor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinza, M R; Ward, J A; Mayhew, H L; Word, J Q; Niyogi, D K; Kohn, N P [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1992-10-01

    During the summer of 1991, Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) was contracted to conduct sampling and testing of sediments proposed for dredging of Richmond Harbor, California. The MSL collected sediment cores to a depth of [minus]40 ft MLLW ([minus]38 ft + 2 ft overdepth) from 28 (12-in. core) and 30 (4-in. core) stations. The sediment cores were allocated to six composite samples referred to as sediment treatments, which were then subjected to physical, chemical, toxicological, and bioaccumulation testing. Physical and chemical parameters included grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), total volatile solids (TVS), oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyis (PCBs), priority pollutant metals, and butyltins. The results from the test treatments were compared to results from five reference treatments representative of potential in-bay and offshore disposal sites.

  17. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Richmond Harbor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinza, M.R.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Niyogi, D.K.; Kohn, N.P.

    1992-10-01

    During the summer of 1991, Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) was contracted to conduct sampling and testing of sediments proposed for dredging of Richmond Harbor, California. The MSL collected sediment cores to a depth of -40 ft MLLW (-38 ft + 2 ft overdepth) from 28 (12-in. core) and 30 (4-in. core) stations. The sediment cores were allocated to six composite samples referred to as sediment treatments, which were then subjected to physical, chemical, toxicological, and bioaccumulation testing. Physical and chemical parameters included grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), total volatile solids (TVS), oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyis (PCBs), priority pollutant metals, and butyltins. The results from the test treatments were compared to results from five reference treatments representative of potential in-bay and offshore disposal sites

  18. Savannah River Laboratory semiannual report, April-September 1979. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance: National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments, status, and program of the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) contribution to the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. SRL has accepted responsibility for Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of 1,500,000 square miles in 30 eastern and 7 far-western states. The report is a progress report covering the period April 1979 through September 1979. SRL efforts in the following areas are discussed: reconnaissance and detailed studies in geological programs; management, analysis, and interpretation of analytical and field data; reporting of HSSR results; sample preparation methods; and neutron activation analysis and other analytical techniques. Appendix A to the report summarizes the SRL-NURE production of the April 1979-September 1979 period and the program plans for the first half of FY-1980. Page-scale maps are included that show the status of completed sampling, analysis, and data reports placed on open file

  19. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance (HSSR) program of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) 1973-1984. Technical history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) program of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) generated a database of interest to scientists and other professional personnel in the academic, business, industrial, and governmental communities. NURE was a program of the Department of Energy Grand Junction Office (GJO) to acquire and compile geologic and other information with which to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the United States. The HSSR program provided for the collection of water and sediment samples located on the 1 0 x 2 0 National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) quadrangle grid across the conterminous United States and Alaska and the analysis of these samples for uranium as well as for a number of additional elements. Although the initial purpose of the program was to provide information regarding uranium resources, the information recorded about other elements and general field or site characteristics has made this database potentially valuable for describing the geochemistry of a location and addressing other issues such as water quality. The purpose of this Technical History is to summarize in one report those aspects of the HSSR program that are likely to be important in helping users assess the database and make informed judgements about its application to specific research questions. The history begins with an overview of the NURE Program and its components. Following a general description of the goals, objectives, and key features of the HSSR program, the implementation of the program at each of the four federal laboratories is presented in four separate chapters. These typically cover such topics as sample collection, sample analysis, and data management. 80 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs

  20. Automated electron microprobe identification of minerals in stream sediments for the national uranium resources evaluation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosley, W.C. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Over 500 stream sediment particles have been analyzed. About 96% have been identified as distinct minerals. Most of the others appeared to be mixtures. Only zinc-bearing gahnite had to be analyzed further for positive identification. Monazite and zircon were the only minerals with concentrations of uranium significantly above the detection limit. The Frantz Isodynamic Magnetic Separator isolated the monazite into the 1.0 fraction. Monazite particles in anomalous sediments contained up to 3.7 wt % uranium. This uranium concentration is unusually high for monazite, which normally has about 0.5 wt % uranium, and may be the cause of the anomaly

  1. Geoscience rediscovers Phoenicia's buried harbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Doumet-Serhal, Claude; Carbonel, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    After centuries of archaeological debate, the harbors of Phoenicia's two most important city states, Tyre and Sidon, have been rediscovered, and including new geoarcheological results reveal how, where, and when they evolved after their Bronze Age foundations. The early ports lie beneath their present urban centers, and we have indentified four harbor phases. (1) During the Bronze Age, Tyre and Sidon were characterized by semi-open marine coves that served as protoharbors. (2) Biostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic data indicate the presence of early artificial basins after the first millennium B.C. (3) The harbors reached their apogees during the Greco-Roman and Byzantine periods. (4) Silting up and coastal progradation led to burial of the medieval basins, lost until now.

  2. Orientation study of northern Arkansas. National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, K.F.

    1982-08-01

    Samples of ground water, stream water, and sediment were collected at 335 sites for an orientation study of northern Arkansas. Each stream site consisted of both sediment and stream water (if available), and each sediment sample was sieved to produce four size fractions for analysis. The orientation area included all or parts of Benton, Carroll, Madison, and Washington Counties. Several black shales, including the Chattanooga Shale, crop out in this area, and the Sylamore Sandstone Member has local radiation anomalies. The following analyses were performed for all water samples (both ground water and stream water): pH, conductivity, total alkalinity, temperature, nitrate, ammonia, phosphate and sulfate. Additional water was collected, filtered, and reacted with a resin that was then analyzed by neutron activation analysis for U, Br, Cl, F, Mn, Na, Al, and Dy. In addition, ground water samples were analyzed for He. The stream sediments were analyzed by neutron activation for U, Th, Hf, Ce, Fe, Mn, Sc, Ti, V, Al, Dy, Eu, La, Sm, Yb, and Lu

  3. A Visual Basic program to classify sediments based on gravel-sand-silt-clay ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, L.J.; Eliason, A.H.; Hastings, M.E.

    2003-01-01

    Nomenclature describing size distributions is important to geologists because grain size is the most basic attribute of sediments. Traditionally, geologists have divided sediments into four size fractions that include gravel, sand, silt, and clay, and classified these sediments based on ratios of the various proportions of the fractions. Definitions of these fractions have long been standardized to the grade scale described by Wentworth (1922), and two main classification schemes have been adopted to describe the approximate relationship between the size fractions.Specifically, according to the Wentworth grade scale gravel-sized particles have a nominal diameter of ⩾2.0 mm; sand-sized particles have nominal diameters from <2.0 mm to ⩾62.5 μm; silt-sized particles have nominal diameters from <62.5 to ⩾4.0 μm; and clay is <4.0 μm. As for sediment classification, most sedimentologists use one of the systems described either by Shepard (1954) or Folk (1954, 1974). The original scheme devised by Shepard (1954) utilized a single ternary diagram with sand, silt, and clay in the corners to graphically show the relative proportions among these three grades within a sample. This scheme, however, does not allow for sediments with significant amounts of gravel. Therefore, Shepard's classification scheme (Fig. 1) was subsequently modified by the addition of a second ternary diagram to account for the gravel fraction (Schlee, 1973). The system devised by Folk (1954, 1974) is also based on two triangular diagrams (Fig. 2), but it has 23 major categories, and uses the term mud (defined as silt plus clay). The patterns within the triangles of both systems differ, as does the emphasis placed on gravel. For example, in the system described by Shepard, gravelly sediments have more than 10% gravel; in Folk's system, slightly gravelly sediments have as little as 0.01% gravel. Folk's classification scheme stresses gravel because its concentration is a function of

  4. Velocity-porosity relationships for slope apron and accreted sediments in the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 315 Site C0001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Y.; Tobin, H. J.; Knuth, M.

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we focused on the porosity and compressional wave velocity of marine sediments to examine the physical properties of the slope apron and the accreted sediments. This approach allows us to identify characteristic variations between sediments being deposited onto the active prism and those deposited on the oceanic plate and then carried into the prism during subduction. For this purpose we conducted ultrasonic compressional wave velocity measurements on the obtained core samples with pore pressure control. Site C0001 in the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment transect of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program is located in the hanging wall of the midslope megasplay thrust fault in the Nankai subduction zone offshore of the Kii peninsula (SW Japan), penetrating an unconformity at ˜200 m depth between slope apron sediments and the underlying accreted sediments. We used samples from Site C0001. Compressional wave velocity from laboratory measurements ranges from ˜1.6 to ˜2.0 km/s at hydrostatic pore pressure conditions estimated from sample depth. The compressional wave velocity-porosity relationship for the slope apron sediments shows a slope almost parallel to the slope for global empirical relationships. In contrast, the velocity-porosity relationship for the accreted sediments shows a slightly steeper slope than that of the slope apron sediments at 0.55 of porosity. This higher slope in the velocity-porosity relationship is found to be characteristic of the accreted sediments. Textural analysis was also conducted to examine the relationship between microstructural texture and acoustic properties. Images from micro-X-ray CT indicated a homogeneous and well-sorted distribution of small pores both in shallow and in deeper sections. Other mechanisms such as lithology, clay fraction, and abnormal fluid pressure were found to be insufficient to explain the higher velocity for accreted sediments. The higher slope in velocity-porosity relationship for

  5. The National Shipbuilding Research Program: Contaminated Sediment Management Guide for NSRP Shipyards. Appendix 5: Treatment Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-22

    Prc-trratmcnt technique for separatiojn sand/silt fraction and oxydation of organic pollutants be means of intensive aeration. r\\ SEDTEC Report...polyvinyl alcohol @‘VA) because it is a suitable carrier for the solid oxygen and it will gradually dissolve in water acting as a slow-release agent...polyvinyl alcohol (WA) encapsulated cells. Creosote contaminated sediment was seeded with PVA encapsulated sphingomonas paucimobilis strain EPA 505 and

  6. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Progress report, January--March 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, T.A.; Bunker, M.E.; Hansel, J.M. Jr.

    1978-10-01

    The modifications to the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) program, necessary to incorporate the expansion and revision of the overall HSSR program as required by the Department of Energy, have been completed. To date, approximately 57% of the total area assigned to the LASL in the Rocky Mountain region and Alaska has been sampled and plans are well under way to sample an additional 28% during FY 78. Contracts have been let to complete the sampling of the LASL area in the lower states and bids to sample an additional 33% of Alaska are being evaluated. Twenty reports (2 in press and 18 in preparation) are presently scheduled to be open filed within six months, reporting uranium data only for 18 complete quadrangles and multielement data for 11 complete quadrangles. In addition, data releases are being prepared to open file the uranium data from portions of 13 quadrangles that are now outside the LASL reporting boundary but which had been sampled by the LASL prior to the establishment of the new boundary in October 1977. By the end of the quarter, all multielement analysis systems were operational. Water samples from 7780 locations and sediment samples from 4170 locations were analyzed for uranium. Samples from approximately 6500 locations were analyzed by one or more of the multielement methods.

  7. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Progress report, January--March 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, T.A.; Bunker, M.E.; Hansel, J.M. Jr.

    1978-10-01

    The modifications to the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) program, necessary to incorporate the expansion and revision of the overall HSSR program as required by the Department of Energy, have been completed. To date, approximately 57% of the total area assigned to the LASL in the Rocky Mountain region and Alaska has been sampled and plans are well under way to sample an additional 28% during FY 78. Contracts have been let to complete the sampling of the LASL area in the lower states and bids to sample an additional 33% of Alaska are being evaluated. Twenty reports (2 in press and 18 in preparation) are presently scheduled to be open filed within six months, reporting uranium data only for 18 complete quadrangles and multielement data for 11 complete quadrangles. In addition, data releases are being prepared to open file the uranium data from portions of 13 quadrangles that are now outside the LASL reporting boundary but which had been sampled by the LASL prior to the establishment of the new boundary in October 1977. By the end of the quarter, all multielement analysis systems were operational. Water samples from 7780 locations and sediment samples from 4170 locations were analyzed for uranium. Samples from approximately 6500 locations were analyzed by one or more of the multielement methods

  8. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance, eastern United States. National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Semiannual report, April--September 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    SRL development efforts in the following areas are discussed: orientation, reconnaissance, and anomaly follow-up in geological programs; management, analysis, and interpretation of analytical and field data; reporting of HSSR results; and sample preparation methods, neutron activation analysis, and other analytical developments including emission spectrometry and electron microprobe analysis of sediments, and mass spectrometric analysis of helium and neon in groundwater. Appendices to the report discuss the SRL--NURE production of the April--September 1978 period and the production program plans for the first half of FY-1979. Page scale maps of the eastern United States are included showing the status of completed sampling, analysis, and Basic Data Reports placed on open file. Other appendices to the report discuss groundwater sample collection procedures for helium and neon analyses, the analysis procedures for helium and neon in groundwater, and an example of a hydrology report to be included in future selected Basic Data Releases

  9. 76 FR 81904 - Solicitation of New Safe Harbors and Special Fraud Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... Medicaid Patient and Program Protection Act of 1987, Public Law 100-93 Sec. 14, the Act, Sec. 1128B(b), 42...-called ``safe harbor'' provisions, specifying various payment and business practices that, although... basis for administrative sanctions. OIG safe harbor provisions have been developed ``to limit the reach...

  10. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program (NURE): hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance in the eastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, R.B.; Price, V. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A geochemical reconnaissance of twenty-five eastern states for uranium will be conducted by the Savannah River Laboratory for the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration. A sound technical basis for the reconnaissance is being developed by intensive studies of sampling, analysis, and data management. Results of three orientation studies in the southern Appalachian Piedmont and Blue Ridge areas indicate that multi-element analysis of -100 mesh (less than 149 μm) stream sediments will provide adequate information for reconnaissance. Stream and groundwater samples also provide useful information but are not considered cost-effective for regional reconnaissance in the areas studied

  11. 77 FR 19967 - Safety Zone, Port of Dutch Harbor; Dutch Harbor, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Port of Dutch Harbor; Dutch Harbor, AK AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes temporary safety zones in the Port of Dutch Harbor... Dutch Harbor, Alaska, and the adjacent territorial sea due to additional vessel traffic associated with...

  12. MESOSCALE BIOTRANSFORMATIONS OF URANIUM IN SEDIMENTS AND SOILS (Program Element: Biogeochemistry)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetsu Tokunaga; Jiamin Wan; Brodic, Eoin; Yongman Kim; Hazen, Terry; Firestone, Mary; Herman, Don; Sutton, Steve; Newville, Matt; Lanzirotti, Tony; Rao, Bill

    2006-01-01

    In-situ bioreduction is being considered as a remediation strategy for uranium (U) contaminated sediments because of its potentially low cost, and because short-term studies support its feasibility. However, any in-situ approach for immobilizing U will require assurance of either permanent fixation, or of very low release rates into the biosphere. Our long-term laboratory studies have shown that reoxidation of bioreduced UO 2 can occur even under reducing (methanogenic) conditions sustained by continuous infusion of lactate. The biogeochemical processes underlying this finding need to be understood. Our current research is designed to identify mechanisms responsible for anaerobic U oxidation, and identify effects of key factors controlling long-term stability of bioreduced U. These include: (1) effects of organic carbon (OC) concentrations and supply rates on stability of bioreduced U, (2) influences of pH on U(IV)/U(VI) redox equilibrium, (3) the roles of Fe- and Mn-oxides as potential U oxidants in sediments, and (4) the role of microorganisms in U reoxidation. Findings from some of these studies are summarized here

  13. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment pilot survey of Llano area, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, C.E.; Kane, V.E.; Minkin, S.C.; Cagle, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    A pilot geochemical survey of the Llano, Texas, area was conducted during February and March 1976. The purpose of this work was to prepare for a subsequent reconnaissance geochemical survey of uranium in Central Texas. Stream sediment, stream water, well water, and plant ash from five geologic areas were analyzed in the laboratory for approximately 25 parameters. Examples of anomalous values in stream sediment and stream water indicate the usefulness of both sample types in identifying anomalies at a regional reconnaissance-scale station spacing of approximately 5 km (3 mi). Groundwater samples, which generally best indicate the geochemistry of formations at depth in a survey of this type, represent another important tool in detecting uranium mineralization. Anomalies in San Saba County are associated with the Marble Falls-Smithwich Formations and the Strawn Series (Pennsylvanian), the Houy Formation (Devonian and lower Mississippian), and the Hickory Sandstone Member of the Riley Formation (Cambrian). In Burnet County anomalous values are due to the influence of the Valley Spring Formation (Precambrian); and in Blanco County anomalies are found associated with the Riley Formation

  14. Army Engineers at Pearl Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    siblings, he was the grandson of David Belden Lyman—a Christian missionary from New England who settled in the Hilo , Hawaii area—and the descendent of...of Hawaii appeared over Oahu. Some headed for Ameri- can warships at Pearl Harbor and the planes on the ground at nearby Hickam Field; oth- ers...hit Schofield Barracks, Wheeler Field, and Bellows Field. USACE in Hawaii con- sisted of Soldier-engineers in the Army’s Hawaiian Depart- ment and

  15. Sediment Budget for the Indiana Shore from Michigan City Harbor to Burns Waterway Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    elevations with respect to LWD IGLD1955 have been retained. .................................. 29  Figure 14. Adjustment of 2001 Line E profiles to match...shorelines superimposed. All shoreline represent +2 ft LWD IGLD1985. Beach had grown significantly compared with 1979 and earlier...since 2005. All shorelines represent +2 ft LWD IGLD1985

  16. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance Basic Data Reports Computer Program Requests Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This manual is intended to aid those who are unfamiliar with ordering computer output for verification and preparation of Uranium Resource Evaluation (URE) Project reconnaissance basic data reports. The manual is also intended to help standardize the procedures for preparing the reports. Each section describes a program or group of related programs. The sections are divided into three parts: Purpose, Request Forms, and Requested Information

  17. Concentration of PCB Aroclors, Total Organic Carbon (TOC), and other parameters, Manistique Harbor, Lake Michigan, 2012-09-17 to 2012-09-21 (NCEI Accession 0151632)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project was part of a team effort by NOAA, the EPA, the State of Michigan, and the USGS to collect samples of sediments within the Manistique Harbor Area of...

  18. Waves, Hydrodynamics and Sediment Transport Modeling at Grays Harbor, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    advertising , publication, or promotional purposes. Citation of trade names does not constitute an official endorsement or approval of the use of such...mono- chromatic and irregular or random waves moving from deep to shallow waters over varying bathymetry (Nwogu and Demirbilek 2001; Demirbilek and

  19. Marine Ecosystems Analysis (MESA) Program, New York Bight Surficial Sediment Analyses

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Ecosystems Analysis (MESA) Program, New York Bight Study was funded by NOAA and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The Atlas was a historical...

  20. Sediment Plumes Resulting from the Port of Miami Dredging: Analysis and Interpretation Using Satellite Data and Long Term Monitoring Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, B. B.; Hu, C.; Kovach, C.; Silverstein, R. N.

    2016-02-01

    From November 2013 through mid-2015, large turbidity plumes were observed offshore the Port of Miami (Florida, USA), likely associated with a project to deepen and widen the Miami Harbor channels. Using data from local monitoring programs, however, it is difficult to estimate the size, duration, extent, and severity (relative to natural turbidity events) of these plumes. In contrast, satellite observing systems offer a platform from which these plumes can be monitored and placed in historical context. As such, turbidity plumes captured by MODIS (Aqua) and Landsat 8 reflectance data were manually outlined. For MODIS, these delineations were refined using reflectance anomaly thresholds, determined from pre-dredging data. Long term records of local environmental conditions were used to account for conditions (e.g., wind speed, tidal stage) for which elevated reflectance data might be expected in the absence of dredging. The spatial extent of turbidity plumes observed in the Port of Miami region during the dredging period ranged from 127 and 228 km2, at least 5 times that immediately prior to dredging. The frequency of observed plumes in satellite imagery increased from 23% to 84% after dredging began, while temporal differences in plume location, severity, and size were also observed. Turbidity plumes may have large adverse effects on coral communities, and this region is home to many species of coral (including some considered threatened by the US Endangered Species Act). Indeed, over 11 km2 of coral area was affected by these plumes, with some locations within plume delineations on nearly 40% of images. The approaches developed in this work, in particular the focus on historical norms after considering all perturbation factors, may be included in monitoring and assessment of this and future dredging activities, especially where fragile marine ecosystems may potentially be impacted.

  1. 33 CFR 125.15 - Access to waterfront facilities, and port and harbor areas, including vessels and harbor craft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and port and harbor areas, including vessels and harbor craft therein. 125.15 Section 125.15....15 Access to waterfront facilities, and port and harbor areas, including vessels and harbor craft....09 to those waterfront facilities, and port and harbor areas, including vessels and harbor craft...

  2. Current and historic mercury deposition to New Haven Harbor (CT, USA): Implications for industrial coastal environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Heather F.; Benoit, Gaboury

    2009-01-01

    This study quantifies historic and current mercury contamination in New Haven Harbor (New Haven, Connecticut, USA) through the analysis of sediment cores. The mercury concentration measured in surface sediment ranged from 320 to 1640 μg kg -1 with an average of 530 μg kg -1 . The harbor is relatively small in area (6.6 km 2 ) but displays a large range in concentrations, illustrating the important methodological issue that a large number of samples may be necessary to capture the variability in even a small area. Depth profiles of mercury reflect sedimentation over a range of 20 to 200 years and indicate a complex history of contamination. Mercury depth profiles were compared with lead, copper, cadmium, and silver concentrations and the metals generally covary. This trend indicates that the sources of mercury and heavy metals are linked and that regionally specific sources dominate the historic input of metals rather than large-scale atmospheric deposition patterns. Results also show there are large differences in absolute concentrations of metals among sites in the harbor. Differences in the abundance of Fe-rich, fine-grained sediment likely control the level of metals in various parts of the harbor. Proximity to current sources and the long, diverse industrial history of the harbor also influence the distribution pattern. All of the cores can be modeled as mixing between pre-industrial sediments and either one or two pollution endmembers. This study demonstrates the importance of riverine sources in the mass balance of mercury delivered to coastal areas and of watershed management to preserve coastal ecosystems.

  3. Sedimentation in a Submarine Seamount Apron at Site U1431, International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 349, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadd, K. A.; Clift, P. D.; Hyun, S.; Jiang, T.; Liu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 349 Site U1431 is located near the relict spreading ridge in the East Subbasin of the South China Sea. Holes at this site were drilled close to seamounts and intersected the volcaniclastic apron. Volcaniclastic breccia and sandstone at Site U1431 are dated as late middle Miocene to early late Miocene (~8-13 Ma), suggesting a 5 m.y. duration of seamount volcanism. The apron is approximately 200 m thick and is sandwiched between non-volcaniclastic units that represent the background sedimentation. These comprise dark greenish gray clay, silt, and nannofossil ooze interpreted as turbidite and hemipelagic deposits that accumulated at abyssal water depths. At its base, the seamount sequence begins with dark greenish gray sandstone, siltstone, and claystone in upward fining sequences interpreted as turbidites intercalated with minor intervals of volcaniclastic breccia. Upsection the number and thickness of breccia layers increases with some beds up to 4.8 m and possibly 14.5 m thick. The breccia is typically massive, ungraded, and poorly sorted with angular to subangular basaltic clasts, as well as minor reworked subrounded calcareous mudstone, mudstone, and sandstone clasts. Basaltic clasts include nonvesicular aphyric basalt, sparsely vesicular aphyric basalt, highly vesicular aphyric basalt, and nonvesicular glassy basalt. Mudstone clasts are clay rich and contain foraminifer fossils. The matrix comprises up to 40% of the breccia beds and is a mix of clay, finer grained altered basalt clasts, and mafic vitroclasts with rare foraminifer fossils. Some layers have calcite cement between clasts. Volcaniclastic sandstone and claystone cycles interbedded with the breccia layers have current ripples and parallel laminations indicative of high-energy flow conditions during sedimentation. The breccia beds were most likely deposited as a series of debris flows or grain flows. This interpretation is supported by their

  4. CRSMP Potential Harbor Borrow Sites 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Harbor locations as identified originally in the California Shoreline Database compiled by Noble Consultants (Jon Moore) for California Department of Boating and...

  5. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Data report: Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fay, W.M.; Sargent, K.A.; Cook, J.R.

    1982-02-01

    This report presents the results of ground water, stream water, and stream sediment reconnaissance in Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas. The following samples were collected: Arkansas-3292 stream sediments, 5121 ground waters, 1711 stream waters; Louisiana-1017 stream sediments, 0 ground waters, 0 stream waters; Misissippi-0 stream sediments, 814 ground waters, 0 stream waters; Missouri-2162 stream sediments, 3423 ground waters 1340 stream waters; Oklahoma-2493 stream sediments, 2751 ground waters, 375 stream waters; and Texas-279 stream sediments, 0 ground waters, 0 stream waters. Neutron activation analyses are given for U, Br, Cl, F, Mn, Na, Al, V, and Dy in ground water and stream water, and for U, Th, Hf, Ce, Fe, Mn, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Al, Dy, Eu, La, Sm, Yb, and Lu in sediments. The results of mass spectroscopic analysis for He are given for 563 ground water sites in Mississippi. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Oak Ridge National Laboratory analyzed sediment samples which were not analyzed by Savannah River Laboratory neutron activation

  6. Data report: Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, K.A.; Cook, J.R.; Fay, W.M.

    1982-02-01

    This report presents the results of ground water, stream water, and stream sediment reconnaissance in Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio. The following sample types were collected in each state: Illinois - 716 stream sediment, 1046 ground water, 337 stream water; Indiana - 126 stream sediment, 443 ground water, 111 stream water; Kentucky - 4901 stream sediment, 6408 ground water, 3966 stream water; Tennessee - 3309 stream sediment, 3574 ground water, 1584 stream water; Ohio - 1214 stream sediment, 2049 ground water, 1205 stream water. Neutron activation analyses are given for U, Br, Cl, F, Mn, Na, Al, V, and Dy in ground water and stream water, and for U, Th, Hf, Ce, Fe, Mn, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Al, Dy, Eu, La, Sm, Yb, and Lu in sediments. Supplementary analyses by other techniques are reported for U (extractable), Ag, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, W, Y, and Zn. These analyses were made on 248 sediment samples from Tennessee. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Oak Ridge National Laboratory analyzed sediment samples which were not analyzed by Savannah River Laboratory neutron activation

  7. 33 CFR 100.109 - Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. 100.109 Section 100.109 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.109 Winter Harbor...

  8. The Suez Canal and the petroleum harbors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The Suez Canal is the second longest channel in the world and allows to save 60% of the travel time between the petroleum harbors of the Arabic peninsula and Europe. This short paper gives a summary of the main petroleum harbors activity along the channel from the Red sea to the Mediterranean sea. (J.S.)

  9. Preliminary sediments quality assessment of the Midia Port aquatorium - Black Sea - Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catianis, I.; Ungureanu, C.; Stanica, A.

    2012-04-01

    in a smaller quota sandy fractions. Mineralogically, quartz dominates the sandy and silty fractions of sediments mass, being subsequently followed by a large spectrum of other minerals: feldspar, mica minerals, chlorite, heavy minerals, etc. Besides the mainly siliciclastic mass, sediments are rich in organic matter, with lower contents of carbonates. Some of the sediments are contaminated with petroleum products. All measured water samples were polluted with heavy metals (As, B, Se) and sulphates. Sediments show different contents of chemical compounds, in relation with the spatial distribution of the harbor sectors. Highest concentrations of total volatiles compounds were found in sediments from Waste Oil Buffer Area and Ships Transit Area. Microbiologically contaminated sediments were found in Cargo Terminal Area, Waste Oil Buffer Area and Ships Transit Area. Some samples from Cargo Terminal Area and Ships Transit Area present toxicity signs. Acknowledgments: "This work was supported by the strategic grant POSDRU/89/1.5/S/58852; Project "Postdoctoral program for training scientific researchers" co-financed by the European Social Found within the Sectorial Operational Program Human Resources Development 2007 - 2013", and was performed with scientific and technical assistance provided by NIRD GeoEcoMar - Romania, during the Sedi Port Sil -Project, Life 09ENV/IT/000158

  10. Hawaii Regional Sediment Management (RSM): Regional Sediment Budget for the West Maui Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 6- 5 Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program Hawaii Regional Sediment Management (RSM): Regional Sediment Budget...acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program ERDC/CHL TR-16-5 June 2016 Hawaii Regional Sediment Management...distribution is unlimited. Prepared for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000 Under Project 454632, “ Hawaii Regional Sediment Management

  11. Assessment of a combination between hard structures and sand nourishment eastern of Damietta harbor using numerical modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Khalifa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Damietta harbor was constructed in 1982 as an inland harbor with its 15 m depth navigation channel and two jetties acting like an obstacle to not allow sediment deposition in the harbor. On the other hand, they significantly affect the northern coast shoreline and hinder the sediment circulation in Damietta promontory. Satellite images show that new headlands are being implemented in the coastal shores of As-senaneyah. The proposed project consists of implementation of four headlands with length of 160 m, spacing of 400 m and using 150,000 m3 nourishment in those spacing between the hard structures only once during the construction time. Litpack 1D-model is used to predict shoreline responses to number of different five scenarios considered as combination between hard structures such as headlands and sand nourishment. A total number of 32 profiles were used to assess the shoreline changes along Gamasa, Damietta and Ras El-bar resort from 2010 to 2015. This study prevails a high erosion rate of the eastern and western shorelines of the proposed headlands. Nourishment of 200,000 m3/year is found to be a reasonable solution due to simplicity of being attained from Damietta harbor’s annual dredged materials which was reported to be average of 1 million m3/year. Keywords: Numerical modeling, Damietta harbor, Egyptian shoreline changes, Inland harbor

  12. SIO 76-3, Sediment Descriptions from the Studies of East Asia Tectonics and Resources (SEATAR) Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SEATAR files were compiled by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography with funds from IDOE/NSF, as part of the SIO world sediment data bank, under the direction...

  13. Data collected in conjunction with NOAA's National Status and Trends Program to examine measures of bioeffects associated with toxicants in Puget Sound sediments, May - June 1999 (NODC Accession 0000592)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sediment samples were collected from multiple locations in the Puget Sound in support of NOAA's National Status and Trends Programs to measure the bioeffects...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: Floating-Harbor syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patton MA, Hurst J, Donnai D, McKeown CM, Cole T, Goodship J. Floating-Harbor syndrome. J Med ... medicine? What is newborn screening? New Pages Lyme disease Fibromyalgia White-Sutton syndrome All New & Updated Pages ...

  15. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 1 of -42-foot project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Word, J.Q.; Ward, J.A.; Strand, J.A.; Cullinan, V.I.; Crecelius, E.A.; Steinhauer, W.; Hyland, J.L.

    1990-09-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, was authorized by the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) to deepen and widen the navigation channels of Inner and Outer Oakland Harbor, California, to accommodate modern deep-draft vessels. To help provide the scientific basis for determining whether Oakland Harbor sediments are suitable for offshore disposal, the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory collected sediment cores from 20 stations in Oakland Harbor, evaluated the cores geologically, analyzed sediment for selected contaminants, conducted a series of solid phase toxicity tests with four sensitive marine invertebrates (Macoma nasuta, Nephtys caecoides, Ampelisca abdita, and Rhepoxynius abronius), and assessed the bioaccumulation potential of sediment-associated contaminants in tissues of M. nasuta. Toxicological test results indicate that none of the sediment from the channel-area stations (CH-1 - CH-7), the Merritt Sand samples (MS-1 and MS-2), or the reference sediment sites (PR-C and PR-F) resulted in significant sediment toxicity to the four species tested. Sediment treatments showing no significant sediment toxicity as well as no significant bioaccumulation included CH-5, MS-1, MS-2, PR-coarse, and PR-fine. Stations that showed little or no significant sediment toxicity, but significant bioaccumulation included SS-2-L (PAHs); TS-1-L (Cu, PAHs, PCBs, tributyltin, and DDE); TS-1-U (tributyltin); TS-5-U (PAHs, PCBs, DDE, and tributyltin); SS-1-U (PB, PAHs, and PCBs); SS-5-L (PAHs, PCBs, and DDE); CH-6 and CH-7 (PAHs, PCBs, and DDE); Ch-4 and CH-1 (Cr); and CH-3 (DDE). 28 refs., 31 figs., 75 tabs

  16. Bluff evolution along coastal drumlins: Boston Harbor Islands, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelstoss, E.A.; FitzGerald, D.M.; Rosen, P.S.; Allen, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    A series of partially drowned drumlins forms the backbone of the inner islands within Boston Harbor. The shoreline of these rounded glacial deposits is composed of actively retreating bluffs formed by continual wave attack. Comparisons of bluffs reveal variability in their height and lateral extent, as well as in the dominant mechanism causing their retreat. Two processes are responsible for bluff erosion and yield distinct bluff morphologies: (1) wave attack undercuts the bluff and causes episodic slumping, yielding planar bluff slopes, and (2) subaerial processes such as rainfall create irregular slopes characterized by rills and gullies. We propose a model of drumlin bluff evolution that is based on processes of erosion and physical characteristics such as bluff height, slope morphology, and the orientation of the bluff with respect to the long axis of the drumlin and its topographic crest. The four phases of drumlin bluff evolution consist of (1) initial formation of bluff, with retreat dominated by wave notching and slumping processes; (2) rill and gully development as bluff heights exceed 10 m and slumped sediment at bluff base inhibits wave attack; (3) return of wave notching and slumping as bluff heights decrease; and (4) final development of boulder retreat lag as last remnants of drumlin are eroded by wave action. These phases capture the important physical processes of drumlin evolution in Boston Harbor and could apply to other eroding coastal drumlin deposits.

  17. Madaket Harbor, Nantucket, Massachusetts. Water Resources Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-01

    will continue to be, important increases in the recreational use of land and water. The harbor area is an important arena for commercial shellfishing...an important arena for commercial shell fishing. The past few years have seen a rather rapid increase in residential land use. Construction has...beamc. Tnis material will be re-deposited,, viaj troio it 1-apfro1inr ox prior location. j, MADAKET HARBOR NANTUCKET, MASSACHUSETTS FEASIBILITY

  18. Data report: Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York. National uranium resource evaluation program, hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Fay, W.M.; Sargent, K.A.

    1982-02-01

    This report presents the results of ground water, stream water, and stream sediment reconnaissance in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York. Ground water samples were collected at 5734 sites in Pennsylvania, 1038 sites in New Jersey, and 4829 sites in New York. Stream sediment samples were collected at 4499 sites in Pennsylvania, 628 sites in New Jersey, and 5696 sites in New York. Stream water samples were collected at 4401 sites in Pennsylvania, 382 sites in New Jersey, and 5047 sites in New York. Neutron activation analyses are given for U, Br, Cl, F, Mn, Na, Al, V, and Dy in ground water and stream water, and for U, Th, Hf, Ce, Fe, Mn, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Al, Dy, Eu, La, Sm, Yb, and Lu in sediments. Supplementary analyses by other techniques are reported for U (extractable), Ag, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, W, Y, and Zn. These analyses were made on 6947 sediment samples. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Oak Ridge National Laboratory analyzed sediment samples which were not analyzed by Savannah River Laboratory neutron activation

  19. Pearl Harbor: lessons for the dam safety community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, T.E. [AMEC Earth and Environmental Ltd., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2001-10-01

    Every good dam safety program must be based on surveillance and emergency response planning. The same principles apply to the gathering of information for military intelligence and the planning of defence tactics. Lessons learned from failure have spurred the advancement of dam engineering. Dam safety experts can benefit from the inadequacies encountered by the military community, with the most famous occurring on December 7, 1941 in Pearl Harbor. Both intelligence gathering and contingency response planning failed miserably. The data was not properly disseminated, interpreted, analysed. The proper response to the situation was not initiated. Human error and failure to communicate are the two main reasons that explain the debacle. The inquiries into the tragedy at Pearl Harbor provided valuable lessons, related to individual and organizational failures, which the authors shared in this presentation. The relevance to dam safety was made. All Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) agents must read the lessons drawn from Pearl Harbor, as they have responsibility for dam safety. 4 refs.

  20. Pocatello 10 x 20 NTMS area Idaho. Data report: National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1980-07-01

    This data report presents results of groundwater and stream/surface sediment reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Pocatello 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle. Surface samples (sediment) were collected from 1701 sites. The target sampling density was one site per 16 square kilometers (six square miles). Ground water samples were collected at 381 sites. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in ground water. Mass spectrometry results are given for helium in ground water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Statistical summaries of data and a brief description of results are given. A generalized geologic map and a summary of the geology of the area are included. Data from sediment sites include: (1) stream water chemistry measurements where applicable (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity); and (2) elemental analyses for sediment samples (U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Dy, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Sc, Sm, Na, Ti, V, and Yb). Sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, etc.) are also tabulated. Areal distribution maps, histograms, and cumulative frequency plots for most elements; U/Th, U/Hf, and U/La ratios; and scintillometer readings for sediment sample sites are included on the microfiche. Data from groundwater sites include: (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity); (2) physical measurements where applicable (water temperature, well description, and scintillometer reading); and (3) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, He, Mg, Mn, Na, and V). Data from stream water sites include: (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity); and (2) elemental analyses

  1. Roanoke 10 x 20 NTMS area, Virginia. Data report (abbreviated): National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1980-12-01

    This abbreviated data report presents results of ground water and stream sediment reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series Roanoke 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle. Surface sediment samples were collected at 1235 sites. Ground water samples were collected at 767 sites. Neutron activation analysis results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 8 other elements in ground water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented. Data from ground water sites include (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) physical measurements where applicable (water temperature, well description, etc.), and (3) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, Mn, Na, and V). Data from sediment sites include (1) stream water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), and (2) elemental analyses for sediment samples (U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Dy, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Sc, Sm, Na, Ti, V, and Yb). Sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, etc.) are tabulated. Areal distribution maps, histograms, and cumulative frequency plots for most elements and for U/Th and U/Hf ratios are included. Key data from stream water sites include (1) water quality measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity) and (2) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, Mg, Mn, Na, and V). Uranium concentrations in the sediments range from 0.50 to 83.50 ppM with a mean of 6.67 ppM. A cluster of high log (U/Th + Hf) ratios appear in the southeastern portion of the quadrangle. Uranium, thorium, and the rare earth elements show a striking correlation with the geology of the area

  2. Evaluation of Upland Disposal of Oakland Harbor, California, Sediment; Volume I: Turning Basin Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    infiltration studies ( Westerdahl and Skogerboe 1982). Extensive field 53 verification studies have been conducted with the WES Rainfall Simulator...Lysimeter System on a wide range of Corps project sites ( Westerdahl and Skogerboe 1982, Lee and Skogerboe 1984, Skogerboe et al. 1987). The WES Rain- fall...Vicksburg, MS. Winer, B. J. 1971. Statistical Principles in Experimental Design, McGraw- Hill Book Company, New York. Westerdahl , H. E., and Skogerboe, J

  3. 76 FR 8653 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, New Orleans Harbor, Inner Harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... Operation Regulation; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, New Orleans Harbor, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from... Lock), at New Orleans, Orleans Parish, Louisiana. This deviation is necessary to replace all of the...

  4. 75 FR 78601 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, New Orleans Harbor, Inner Harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... Operation Regulation; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, New Orleans Harbor, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from... Harvey Lock), at New Orleans, Orleans Parish, Louisiana. This deviation is necessary to adjust the...

  5. Integrated ocean drilling program expedition 341 Preliminary report: Southern Alaska margin- Interactions of tectonics, climate, and sedimentation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jaeger, J.M.; Asahi, H.; Gulick, S.S.; Bahlburg, H.; LeVay, L.J.; Belanger, C.L.; Slagle, A.L.; Berbel, G.B.B.; Drab, L.; Childress, L.B.; Cowan, E.A.; Konno, S.; Forwick, M.; Marz, C.E.; Fukumura, A.; Matsuzaki, K.M.; Ge, S.; McClymont, E.L.; Gupta, S.M.; et al.

    global increase in erosion rates and sediment delivery to basins. The effects of this increased erosion may be profound, as worldwide analyses of orogenic belts have shown that Earth systems cannot be considered to be the product of a series of distinct...

  6. Foraminiferal proxies for pollution monitoring in moderately polluted harbors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armynot du Chatelet, E.; Debenay, J.-P.; Soulard, R.

    2004-01-01

    Foraminiferal density and species richness that decrease with an increase in heavy metal and PAH concentration may be used as pollution indicators. - Benthic foraminifera are increasingly used as environmental bio-indicators, especially in polluted environments where their sensitivity to pollutants may be expressed by a modification of the assemblages. Eighteen sediment samples were collected in September 2000 in five harbors located in moderately polluted estuaries on the coast of Vendee (France) for the study of foraminiferal assemblages. Ten heavy metals and 13 PAH have been analyzed from the sediments. The marine to continental estuarine gradient has a prevalent influence on the foraminiferal distribution. However, the results show that foraminiferal density and species richness of the assemblages decrease with an increase in heavy metal and PAH concentration, and therefore may be used as pollution indicators. Moreover, the more polluted areas are dominated by the tolerant pioneer species Haynesina germanica that may be used as bio-indicator of pollution, mainly in the uppermost areas

  7. Hydro-mechanical properties of pressure core sediments recovered from the Krishna-Godavari Basin during India's National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition NGHP-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, J.; Oshima, M.; Kida, M.; Kato, A.; Konno, Y.; Jin, Y.; Waite, W. F.; Jang, J.; Kumar, P.; Tenma, N.

    2017-12-01

    Pressure coring and analysis technology allows for gas hydrate to be recovered from the deep seabed, transferred to the laboratory and characterized while continuously maintaining gas hydrate stability. For this study, dozens of hydrate-bearing pressure core sediment subsections recovered from the Krishna-Godavari Basin during India's National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition NGHP-02 were tested with Pressure Core Non-destructive Analysis Tools (PNATs) through a collaboration between Japan and India. PNATs, originally developed by AIST as a part of the Japanese National hydrate research program (MH21, funded by METI) conducted permeability, compression and consolidation tests under various effective stress conditions, including the in situ stress state estimated from downhole bulk density measurements. At the in situ effective stress, gas hydrate-bearing sediments had an effective permeability range of 0.01-10mD even at pore-space hydrate saturations above 60%. Permeability increased by 10 to 100 times after hydrate dissociation at the same effective stress, but these post-dissociation gains were erased when effective stress was increased from in situ values ( 1 MPa) to 10MPa in a simulation of the depressurization method for methane extraction from hydrate. Vertical-to-horizontal permeability anisotropy was also investigated. First-ever multi-stage loading tests and strain-rate alternation compression tests were successfully conducted for evaluating sediment strengthening dependence on the rate and magnitude of effective confining stress changes. In addition, oedometer tests were performed up to 40MPa of consolidation stress to simulate the depressurization method in ultra-deep sea environments. Consolidation curves measured with and without gas hydrate were investigated over a wide range of effective confining stresses. Compression curves for gas hydrate-bearing sediments were convex downward due to high hydrate saturations. Consolidation tests show that

  8. Marine sediments monitoring studies for trace elements with the application of fast temperature programs and solid sampling high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orani, Anna Maria; Han, Eunmi; Mandjukov, Petko; Vassileva, Emilia, E-mail: e.vasileva-veleva@iaea.org

    2015-01-01

    Analytical procedure for the determination of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Co and Cr in marine sediment samples using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR CS AAS) and direct solid sample analysis has been developed. The application of fast programs in combination with direct solid sampling allows to eliminate the drying and pretreatment steps, however makes impossible the use of liquid standards for calibration. Iridium treated platforms were applied throughout the present study. Calibration technique based on the use of solid certified reference materials (marine sediments) similar to the nature of the analyzed sample and statistics of regression analysis were applied to the real sediment samples. The instrumental parameters were optimized in order to obtain reproducible and interference free analytical signals. The ISO-17025 requirements and Eurachem guidelines were followed in the validation of the proposed analytical procedure. Accordingly, blanks, selectivity, calibration, linearity, working range, trueness, repeatability reproducibility, limits of detection and quantification and expanded uncertainty (k = 2) for all investigated elements were assessed. Two different approaches for the estimation of measurement uncertainty were applied and obtained results compared. The major contributors to the combined uncertainty of the analyte mass fraction were found to be the homogeneity of the samples and the microbalance precision. The influence of sample particle sizes on the total combined uncertainty was also evaluated. Traceability to SI system of units of the obtained by the proposed analytical procedure results was demonstrated. Additionally, validation of the methodology developed was effectuated by the comparison of the obtained results with independent method e.g. ICP-MS with external calibration. The use of solid sampling HR CS AAS for the determination of trace elements in marine sediment matrix gives significant advantages

  9. Storm-driven sediment transport in Massachusetts Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, J.C.; Butman, B.; Dalyander, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Massachusetts Bay is a semi-enclosed embayment in the western Gulf of Maine about 50 km wide and 100 km long. Bottom sediment resuspension is controlled predominately by storm-induced surface waves and transport by the tidal- and wind-driven circulation. Because the Bay is open to the northeast, winds from the northeast ('Northeasters') generate the largest surface waves and are thus the most effective in resuspending sediments. The three-dimensional oceanographic circulation model Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) is used to explore the resuspension, transport, and deposition of sediment caused by Northeasters. The model transports multiple sediment classes and tracks the evolution of a multilevel sediment bed. The surficial sediment characteristics of the bed are coupled to one of several bottom-boundary layer modules that calculate enhanced bottom roughness due to wave-current interaction. The wave field is calculated from the model Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN). Two idealized simulations were carried out to explore the effects of Northeasters on the transport and fate of sediments. In one simulation, an initially spatially uniform bed of mixed sediments exposed to a series of Northeasters evolved to a pattern similar to the existing surficial sediment distribution. A second set of simulations explored sediment-transport pathways caused by storms with winds from the northeast quadrant by simulating release of sediment at selected locations. Storms with winds from the north cause transport southward along the western shore of Massachusetts Bay, while storms with winds from the east and southeast drive northerly nearshore flow. The simulations show that Northeasters can effectively transport sediments from Boston Harbor and the area offshore of the harbor to the southeast into Cape Cod Bay and offshore into Stellwagen Basin. This transport pattern is consistent with Boston Harbor as the source of silver found in the surficial sediments of Cape Cod Bay and

  10. A research program in determination of heavy metals in sediments and benthic species in relation to nuclear power plant operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, H. L.

    1984-01-01

    Heavy metals in the estuarine environment can be toxic to fish and shellfish early life history stages and concentrations build up to levels of concern in marketable shellfish. The present survey was begun just before startup in 1974 of the 1900 megawatt Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant on the Chesapeake Bay in order to assess and understand factors relating to heavy metal accumulation in estuarine biota. Oysters were collected in large numbers at test and reference sites in June 1974 to 77 and individually analyzed for copper and zinc. Oyster copper and zinc concentrations were correlated with salinity read at time of collection. The relationship of oyster age to metal concentration was examined with two sets of oysters of known age and genetic origin (laboratory spawned). Copper sorption by typical mid Bay sediments, and field studies on cadmium concentrations in sediments were examined.

  11. Toxicological benchmarks for screening contaminants of potential concern for effects on sediment-associated biota: 1994 Revision. Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, R.N.; Suter, G.W. II

    1994-06-01

    Because a hazardous waste site may contain hundreds of chemicals, it is important to screen contaminants of potential concern for the ecological risk assessment. Often this screening is done as part of a Screening Assessment, the purpose of which is to evaluate the available data, identify data gaps, and screen contaminants of potential concern. Screening may be accomplished by using a set of toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks are helpful in determining whether contaminants warrant further assessment or are at a level that requires no further attention. If a chemical concentration or the reported detection limit exceeds a proposed lower benchmark, more analysis is needed to determine the hazards posed by that chemical. If, however, the chemical concentration falls below the lower benchmark value, the chemical may be eliminated from further study. This report briefly describes three categories of approaches to the development of sediment quality benchmarks. These approaches are based on analytical chemistry, toxicity test and field survey data. A fourth integrative approach incorporates all three types of data. The equilibrium partitioning approach is recommended for screening nonpolar organic contaminants of concern in sediments. For inorganics, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has developed benchmarks that may be used for screening. There are supplemental benchmarks from the province of Ontario, the state of Wisconsin, and US Environmental Protection Agency Region V. Pore water analysis is recommended for polar organic compounds; comparisons are then made against water quality benchmarks. This report is an update of a prior report. It contains revised ER-L and ER-M values, the five EPA proposed sediment quality criteria, and benchmarks calculated for several nonionic organic chemicals using equilibrium partitioning

  12. Long-Term Effects of Dredging Operations Program: Assessing Bioaccumulation in Aquatic Organisms Exposed to Contaminated Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    Wrd0 est t Or f mn1of ey O0 0 *WWI ttoth colme n fo, matlo, innl vd. q c e m s for redun tdn. tor• de I. to Wa.<fqgon NodQu~arten $e•vKVL a i. e...lower the affinity of a chemical for a compartment, the greater will be its tendency to escape from that compartment. Fugacity (from the Latin fuga ...fraction TOC content (Karickhoff, Brown, and Scott 21 1979). Such normalization can give a better idea of the’aount of chemical in a sediment that is

  13. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance program in central United States. Semiannual progress report, October 1, 1978--March 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    Basic data reports were open filed for eight NTMS quadrangles during the reporting period: Sherman, Houston, Ardmore, Emory Peak, Presidio, Enig, Austin, and Lawton. Basic data reports, which have been prepared and are in the process of being open filed, include Wichita, St. Cloud, Ashland, and Clinton. Results indicate that the most favorable areas for the occurrence of uranium mineralization in the open filed quadrangles reported are as follows: Austin Quadrangle, Lawton Quadrangle, Emory Peak Quadrangle. During the period, approximately 13,886 samples of groundwater and stream sediments were collected by the URE Project. Approximately 20,738 samples were analyzed by the URE Laboratory

  14. Modeling of Tsunami Currents in Harbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynett, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    Extreme events, such as large wind waves and tsunamis, are well recognized as a damaging hazard to port and harbor facilities. Wind wave events, particularly those with long period spectral components or infragravity wave generation, can excite resonance inside harbors leading to both large vertical motions and strong currents. Tsunamis can cause great damage as well. The geometric amplification of these very long waves can create large vertical motions in the interior of a harbor. Additionally, if the tsunami is composed of a train of long waves, which it often is, resonance can be easily excited. These long wave motions create strong currents near the node locations of resonant motions, and when interacting with harbor structures such as breakwaters, can create intense turbulent rotational structures, typical in the form of large eddies or gyres. These gyres have tremendous transport potential, and have been observed to break mooring lines, and even cause ships to be trapped inside the rotation, moving helplessly with the flow until collision, grounding, or dissipation of the eddy (e.g. Okal et al., 2006). This presentation will introduce the traditional theory used to predict wave impacts on harbors, discussing both how these models are practically useful and in what types of situations require a more accurate tool. State-of-the-art numerical models will be introduced, with a focus on recent developments in Boussinesq-type modeling. The Boussinesq equations model can account the dispersive, turbulent and rotational flow properties frequently observed in nature. Also they have the ability to coupling currents and waves and can predict nonlinear wave propagation over uneven bottom from deep (or intermediate) water area to shallow water area. However, during the derivation of a 2D-horizontal equation set, some 3D flow features, such those driven by as the dispersive stresses and the effects of the unresolved small scale 3D turbulence, are excluded. Consequently

  15. 78 FR 57319 - Children's Online Privacy Protection Rule Safe Harbor Proposed Self-Regulatory Guidelines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ...-AB20 Children's Online Privacy Protection Rule Safe Harbor Proposed Self-Regulatory Guidelines; kidSAFE... proposed self-regulatory guidelines submitted by the kidSAFE Seal Program (``kidSAFE''), owned and operated... enabling industry groups or others to submit to the Commission for approval self-regulatory guidelines that...

  16. 32 CFR 765.6 - Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. 765.6... RULES RULES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC § 765.6 Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The Commander, U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, is responsible for prescribing and enforcing such rules and...

  17. Teaching about Pearl Harbor. Curriculum Enhancement Series #1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Anna Marshall

    These materials consist of sample lesson plans for teaching about the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, in both U.S. and world history classes. The lesson plans challenge students to examine how current attitudes toward the Japanese may be rooted in World War II and Pearl Harbor. Selected bibliographies on Pearl Harbor, World…

  18. Sources of heavy metals in sediments of the Hudson River Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, S.C.; Simpson, H.J.; Olsen, C.R.; Bopp, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    Sediments in the Hudson Estuary contain zinc, copper and lead from metal pollutants discharged to the harbor in the New York City area, from dispersed sources of contamination introduced upstream, and from natural weathering processes. The magnitude of the contribution from each of these three sources to particular sites can be estimated on the basis of total metal abundances, relative proportions of several metals, and other sediment properties. The pattern of recent heavy-metal contamination in Hudson sediments closely follows the distribution in sediments of 137 Cs which was derived over the past two decades from global fallout and local releases from a commercial nuclear reactor. Several simple empirical corrections related to grain size and mineralogy variations are suggested for comparing heavy-metal contamination levels of sandy continental shelf sediments with fine-grained estuarine and coastal sediments. Iron has little variation in Hudson sediments while manganese is greater in surface sediment of some low-salinity and fresh-water areas than deeper in the sediments, and generally less in the high-salinity area of rapid sediment deposition in New York harbor. Much of the pollutant Cu added to the harbor appears to be rapidly deposited in the sediments. (Auth.)

  19. Remembering Pearl Harbor at 75 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehr, Patricia; Sopcheck, Janet; Milbrath, Gwyneth

    2016-12-01

    : On December 7, 1941, the Sunday-morning quiet of the U.S. naval base in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, was shattered by dive-bombing Japanese fighter planes. The planes came in two waves-and when it was all over, more than 2,400 were killed and more than 1,100 were injured.Nurses were stationed at U.S. Naval Hospital Pearl Harbor, Tripler General Hospital (now Tripler Army Medical Center), Hickam Field Hospital, Schofield Barracks Station Hospital, and aboard the USS Solace, and witnessed the devastation. But they also did what nurses do in emergencies-they responded and provided care to those in need. Here are the stories of a few of those nurses.

  20. Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance Program in central United States. Semiannual progress report, October 1, 1978--March 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    Basic data reports were open filed for eight NTMS quadrangles during the reporting period: Sherman, Houston, Ardmore, Emory Peak, Presidio, Enid, Austin, and Lawton. Basic data reports, which have been prepared and are in the process of being open filed, include Wichita, St. Cloud, Ashland, and Clinton. Results indicate that the most favorable areas for the occurrence of uranium mineralization in the open filed quadrangles are as follows: (1) Austin Quadrangle - Whitsett, Catahoula, Oakville, and Fleming Formations (Tertiary). (2) Lawton Quadrangle - Hennessey and Clearfork Groups, Garber Sandstone, and Post Oak Conglomerate (Lower Permian); and El Reno Group (Upper Permian). (3) Emory Peak Quadrangle - Tertiary tuffaceous ash beds and other igneous rocks, carbonate-dominant Cretaceous strata. During the period, approximately 13,886 samples of groundwater and stream sediments were collected by the URE Project. Approximately 20,738 samples were analyzed by the URE Laboratory

  1. Sediment Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou

    Flow and sediment transport are important in relation to several engineering topics, e.g. erosion around structures, backfilling of dredged channels and nearshore morphological change. The purpose of the present book is to describe both the basic hydrodynamics and the basic sediment transport...... mechanics. Chapter 1 deals with fundamentals in fluid mechanics with emphasis on bed shear stress by currents, while chapter 3 discusses wave boundary layer theory. They are both written with a view to sediment transport. Sediment transport in rivers, cross-shore and longshore are dealt with in chapters 2......, 4 and 5, respectively. It is not the intention of the book to give a broad review of the literature on this very wide topic. The book tries to pick up information which is of engineering importance. An obstacle to the study of sedimentation is the scale effect in model tests. Whenever small...

  2. Old Harbor Scammon Bay Hydro Feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent Petrie

    2007-06-27

    The grantee, Alaska Village Electric Cooperative (AVEC), is a non-profit member owned rural electric generation and distribution cooperative. The proposed Project is located near the community of Old Harbor, Alaska. Old Harbor is on the southeastern coast of Kodiak Island, approximately 70 miles southwest of the City of Kodiak and 320 miles southwest of Anchorage. In 1998 sufficient information had been developed to apply for a license to construct the project and the cost was estimated to be $2,445,000 for a 500 KW project on Lagoon Creek. Major features of the project included an eight-foot high diversion dam on Mountain Creek, a desander box, a 9,800-foot long penstock to the powerhouse on Lagoon Creek, and a 5,500-foot long access road. It was also anticipated that the project could provide an additional source of water to Old Harbor. The report details the history and lessons learned in designing and permiting the proposed hydroelectric facility.

  3. A Comparison of Microbial Water Quality and Diversity for Ballast and Tropical Harbor Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Charmaine; Le, Thai-Hoang; Goh, Shin Giek; Liang, Liang; Kim, Yiseul; Rose, Joan B; Yew-Hoong, Karina Gin

    2015-01-01

    Indicator organisms and antibiotic resistance were used as a proxy to measure microbial water quality of ballast tanks of ships, and surface waters in a tropical harbor. The survival of marine bacteria in ballast tanks appeared to diminish over longer water retention time, with a reduction of cell viability observed after a week based on heterotrophic plate counts. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes showed distinct differences in microbial composition of ballast and harbor waters. The harbor waters had a higher abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to Cyanobacteria (Synechococcus spp.) and α-proteobacteria (SAR11 members), while marine hydrocarbon degraders such as γ-proteobacteria (Ocenspirillaes spp., Thiotrchales spp.) and Bacteroidetes (Flavobacteriales spp.) dominated the ballast water samples. Screening of indicator organisms found Escherichia coli (E. coli), Enterococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) in two or more of the ballast and harbor water samples tested. Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp. were detected exclusively in harbor water samples. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR), we screened for 13 antibiotic resistant gene (ARG) targets and found higher abundances of sul1 (4.13-3.44 x 102 copies/mL), dfrA (0.77-1.80 x10 copies/mL) and cfr (2.00-5.21 copies/mL) genes compared to the other ARG targets selected for this survey. These genes encode for resistance to sulfonamides, trimethoprim and chloramphenicol-florfenicol antibiotics, which are also known to persist in sediments of aquaculture farms and coastal environments. Among the ARGs screened, we found significant correlations (Pwater quality survey, quantitatively assessing indicators of antibiotic resistance, potentially pathogenic organisms and a broad-brush description of difference in microbial composition and diversity between open oceans and tropical coastal environments through the use of next generation sequencing technology.

  4. Effect of high flow events on spatiotemporal variation of E. coli concentrations in creek sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediments can harbor large populations of Escherichia coli often times in greater amounts than the overlying water column. Resuspension of sediments during storm events causes the release of E. coli which drastically changes microbial water quality metrics. It is not well known how populations of E....

  5. Settlement of the USS Arizona, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carkin, Brad A.; Kayen, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the National Park Service Submerged Resources Center, undertook investigations at the USS Arizona Memorial at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, in 2002, 2003, and 2005 to characterize geological factors affecting the deterioration and movement of the hull of the USS Arizona. Since sinking on the morning of December 7, 1941, the hull of the USS Arizona has been slowly but steadily disappearing below the surface of Pearl Harbor. Continuous sediment coring at three of four locations around the hull of the Arizona was only partially successful, but it was sufficient to identify a varied sedimentary substrate beneath the hull. A boring near the stern reveals a thick, continuous sequence of soft, gray clay to the bottom of the boring. In contrast, borings near the bow and starboard side, below about 5 meters subbottom depth, indicate the presence of very stiff, brown clay and coral debris and an absence of soft clay. Multisensor core logger scanning of the recovered cores distinguishes the lower density of the soft, gray clay at the stern from the higher density of the stiff, brown clays and coral debris at the bow and starboard side. Uniaxial consolidation testing of the soft gray clay indicates a normally consolidated sequence, whereas the stiff, brown clay and coral debris are overconsolidated. Profiles of shear wave velocity vs. depth obtained through spectral analysis of interface wave testing around the perimeter of the hull in 2005 identified areas of higher velocity, stiffer sediment at the bow and starboard side, which correspond to the dense, stiff clay recovered near the bow and starboard borings. Low shear-wave velocities at the port midship and quarter of the hull correlate with the lower density, softer sediment recovered from the boring at the stern. Cross sections of the subbottom of the Memorial combine results from the sediment borings and geophysical surveys and depict a wedge of soft clay unconformably overlying

  6. Supplement to hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance basic data reports K/UR-445 through K/UR-457 [GJBX-165(82) through GJBX-177(82)]. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) Program was to provide information to be used in accomplishing the overall National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program objectives. This was accomplished by a reconnaissance of surface water, groundwater, stream sediment, and lake sediment. The survey was conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and Savannah River Laboratory. The samples in the reports were collected by SRL and analyzed by the Uranium Resource Evaluation Project in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Laboratory analyses were completed in August 1982. The following quadrangles located in the states of California, Nevada, Oregon, Arizona, Maine, Washington, and South Carolina are covered in this report: Adel, Bangor, Bath, Boise, Challis, Caliente, Death Valley, Elko, Ely, Fresno, Hailey, Idaho Falls, Jordan Valley, Lund, Mariposa, Phoenix, San Luis Obispo, Sacramento, Santa Cruz, Twin Falls, and Vya

  7. Sediment toxicity data from the NOAA National Status and Trends Program, March 1991 to July 1996 (NODC Accession 9800146)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As part of its bioeffects assessment program. NOAA has begun a series of surveys of the toxicity and other biological effects of toxicants in selected bays and...

  8. Geochemical Screening of Contaminated Marine and Estuarine Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruge, M. A.

    2004-05-01

    Waterways near urban centers have been subject to pollution by human activities for centuries. This process greatly intensified with the advent of the Industrial Revolution and the attendant exponential population increase in coastal areas. The co-occurrence of port facilities for ocean-going vessels, large factories, major power generating stations, dense automotive transportation networks, and massive wastewater outfalls, all in compact geographical areas, has produced severe environmental stress. In recent decades, the growing awareness of the seriousness of coastal urban environmental degradation has inspired intensive efforts at pollution prevention and remediation. To better understand pollution dynamics over time in an aquatic urban setting, a program of intensive sampling and analysis leading to the creation of geographic information systems (GIS) would be desirable. Chemical evaluation of sediments for pollution remains a costly and time-consuming procedure, particularly for organic analysis. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) offers a practical alternative for rapid, inexpensive molecular organic analysis, simply employing milligram quantities of dry, whole sediment. The compounds detected comprise an information-rich mixture of thermally extractable components and the products of the thermal decomposition of (bio)polymers present in the sample. These include PAHs, petroleum-derived hopanes, organonitrogen compounds, and linear alkylbenzenes, as illustrated with examples from Long Island Sound and the Passaic River (USA) and Barcelona harbor (Spain).

  9. Application of endocrine disruptor screening program fish short-term reproduction assay: Reproduction and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) exposed to Bermuda pond sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Douglas J; Mathis, Michael; Fort, Chelsea E; Fort, Hayley M; Bacon, Jamie P

    2015-06-01

    A modified tier 1 Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) 21-d fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) was used to evaluate the effects of sediment exposure from freshwater and brackish ponds in Bermuda on reproductive fecundity and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Reproductively active male and female fish were exposed to control sediment and sediment from 2 freshwater ponds (fathead minnow) and 2 marine ponds (killifish) contaminated with polyaromatic hydrocarbons and metals via flow-through exposure for 21 d. Reproductive fecundity was monitored daily. At termination, the status of the reproductive endocrine system was assessed by the gonadosomatic index, gonadal histology, plasma steroids (estrogen [E2], testosterone [T], and 11-ketotestosterone [11-KT]), steroidogenic enzymes (aromatase and combined 3β/17β -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [3β/17β-HSD]), and plasma vitellogenin (VTG). Decreased reproductive fecundity, lower male body weight, and altered endocrinological measures of reproductive status were observed in both species. Higher plasma T levels in female minnows and 11-KT levels in both male and female minnows and female killifish exposed to freshwater and brackish sediments, respectively. Decreased female E2 and VTG levels and gonadal cytochrome P19 (aromatase) activity were also found in sediment exposed females from both species. No effect on female 3β/17β-HSD activity was found in either species. The FSTRA provided a robust model capable of modification to evaluate reproductive effects of sediment exposure in fish. © 2015 SETAC.

  10. Protocols for collection of streamflow, water-quality, streambed-sediment, periphyton, macroinvertebrate, fish, and habitat data to describe stream quality for the Hydrobiological Monitoring Program, Equus Beds Aquifer Storage and Recovery Program, city of Wichita, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Bennett, Trudy J.; Poulton, Barry C.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2012-01-01

    The city of Wichita, Kansas uses the Equus Beds aquifer, one of two sources, for municipal water supply. To meet future water needs, plans for artificial recharge of the aquifer have been implemented in several phases. Phase I of the Equus Beds Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) Program began with injection of water from the Little Arkansas River into the aquifer for storage and subsequent recovery in 2006. Construction of a river intake structure and surface-water treatment plant began as implementation of Phase II of the Equus Beds ASR Program in 2010. An important aspect of the ASR Program is the monitoring of water quality and the effects of recharge activities on stream conditions. Physical, chemical, and biological data provide the basis for an integrated assessment of stream quality. This report describes protocols for collecting streamflow, water-quality, streambed-sediment, periphyton, macroinvertebrate, fish, and habitat data as part of the city of Wichita's hydrobiological monitoring program (HBMP). Following consistent and reliable methods for data collection and processing is imperative for the long-term success of the monitoring program.

  11. Determination of volatile, toxic hydrogen phosphides in the sediments of the Elbe river, the Elbe estuaries and the Heligoland Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassmann, G.

    1992-01-01

    The distribution and concentraion of phosphines in the sediments of the Elbe river were determined by selective preparation and analysis. The concentration of phosphines in one kilogram wet sediment was in the range of 0.1 to 57 n g with the bulking, anaerobic mud from harbors having the highest and the sandy, aerobic sediments having the lowest concentrations. Phosphines in fluvial sediments were detected successfully for the first time applying the method described. (orig.) [de

  12. The effects of land use on fluvial sediment chemistry for the conterminous U.S. - results from the first cycle of the NAWQA Program: trace and major elements, phosphorus, carbon, and sulfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Arthur J; Stephens, Verlin C

    2008-08-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began the first cycle of its National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The Program encompassed 51 river basins that collectively accounted for more than 70% of the total water use (excluding power generation), and 50% of the drinking water supply in the U.S. The basins represented a variety of hydrologic settings, rock types (geology), land-use categories, and population densities. One aspect of the first cycle included bed sediment sampling; sites were chosen to represent baseline and important land-use categories (e.g., agriculture, urban) in each basin. In total, over 1200 bed sediment samples were collected. All samples were size-limited (or=95% of the concentrations present), rather than total-recoverable chemical data. Land-use percentages, upstream underlying geology, and population density were determined for each site and evaluated to asses their relative influence on sediment chemistry. Baseline concentrations for the entire U.S. also were generated from a subset of all the samples, and are based on material collected from low population (sediment chemistry. The only land-use category that appears to substantially affect sediment chemistry is percent urban, and this result is mirrored by population density; in fact, the latter appears more consistent than the former.

  13. Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-15

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 7- 13 Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina Co as ta...ERDC/CHL TR-17-13 August 2017 Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina Kevin B. Conner U.S. Army Engineer District, Wilmington P...Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000 Under Project 454632, “Sediment Budget Analysis, Masonboro Inlet, NC” ERDC/CHL TR-17-13 ii Abstract A

  14. Cultural Resources Survey of Mobile Harbor, Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    improvement from the point of view of supply and communication with other European settlements, since it cut the lightering distance to the capital in half...order to cut the costs of building (Bathe 1978:08.00-02; Millar 1978:15-29). 32 6e The sharing of ship builders, the borrowing of vessel lines and the... Eslava Street Mobile. Burned to water’s edge during overhaul. Notes: Served as HINGHAM in Boston Harbor; served as ORIENT in Long Island Sound. Operated

  15. Geochemical orientation survey of stream sediment, stream water, and ground water near uranium prospects, Monticello area, New York. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, A.W.; Smith, A.T.; Wesolowski, D.

    1982-08-01

    A detailed geochemical test survey has been conducted in a 570 sq km area around six small copper-uranium prospects in sandstones of the Devonian Catskill Formation near Monticello in southern New York state. This report summarizes and interprets the data for about 500 stream sediment samples, 500 stream water samples, and 500 ground water samples, each analyzed for 40 to 50 elements. The groundwater samples furnish distinctive anomalies for uranium, helium, radon, and copper near the mineralized localities, but the samples must be segregated into aquifers in order to obtain continuous well-defined anomalies. Two zones of uranium-rich water (1 to 16 parts per billion) can be recognized on cross sections; the upper zone extends through the known occurrences. The anomalies in uranium and helium are strongest in the deeper parts of the aquifers and are diluted in samples from shallow wells. In stream water, copper and uranium are slightly anomalous, as in an ore factor derived from factor analysis. Ratios of copper, uranium, and zinc to conductivity improve the resolution of anomalies. In stream sediment, extractable uranium, copper, niobium, vanadium, and an ore factor furnish weak anomalies, and ratios of uranium and copper to zinc improve the definition of anomalies. The uranium/thorium ratio is not helpful. Published analyses of rock samples from the nearby stratigraphic section show distinct anomalies in the zone containing the copper-uranium occurrences. This report is being issued without the normal detailed technical and copy editing, to make the data available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Reconnaissance Evaluation program

  16. Geochemical orientation survey of stream sediment, stream water, and ground water near uranium prospects, Monticello area, New York. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, A. W.; Smith, A. T.; Wesolowski, D.

    1982-08-01

    A detailed geochemical test survey has been conducted in a 570 sq km area around six small copper-uranium prospects in sandstones of the Devonian Catskill Formation near Monticello in southern New York state. This report summarizes and interprets the data for about 500 stream sediment samples, 500 stream water samples, and 500 ground water samples, each analyzed for 40 to 50 elements. The groundwater samples furnish distinctive anomalies for uranium, helium, radon, and copper near the mineralized localities, but the samples must be segregated into aquifers in order to obtain continuous well-defined anomalies. Two zones of uranium-rich water (1 to 16 parts per billion) can be recognized on cross sections; the upper zone extends through the known occurrences. The anomalies in uranium and helium are strongest in the deeper parts of the aquifers and are diluted in samples from shallow wells. In stream water, copper and uranium are slightly anomalous, as in an ore factor derived from factor analysis. Ratios of copper, uranium, and zinc to conductivity improve the resolution of anomalies. In stream sediment, extractable uranium, copper, niobium, vanadium, and an ore factor furnish weak anomalies, and ratios of uranium and copper to zinc improve the definition of anomalies. The uranium/thorium ratio is not helpful. Published analyses of rock samples from the nearby stratigraphic section show distinct anomalies in the zone containing the copper-uranium occurrences. This report is being issued without the normal detailed technical and copy editing, to make the data available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Reconnaissance Evaluation program.

  17. The I.A.G./A.I.G. SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Program (2005 - 2017): Key activities and outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylich, Achim A.

    2017-04-01

    Amplified climate change and ecological sensitivity of high-latitude and high-altitude cold climate environments has been highlighted as a key global environmental issue. Projected climate change in largely undisturbed cold regions is expected to alter melt-season duration and intensity, along with the number of extreme rainfall events, total annual precipitation and the balance between snowfall and rainfall. Similarly, changes to the thermal balance are expected to reduce the extent of permafrost and seasonal ground frost and increase active-layer depths. These combined effects will undoubtedly change Earth surface environments in cold regions and will alter the fluxes of sediments, solutes and nutrients. However, the absence of quantitative data and coordinated analysis to understand the sensitivity of the Earth surface environment are acute in cold regions. Contemporary cold climate environments generally provide the opportunity to identify solute and sedimentary systems where anthropogenic impacts are still less important than the effects of climate change. Accordingly, it is still possible to develop a library of baseline fluvial yields and sedimentary budgets before the natural environment is completely transformed. The SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Program, building on the European Science Foundation (ESF) Network SEDIFLUX (Sedimentary Source-to-Sink Fluxes in Cold Environments, since 2004) was formed in 2005 as a new Program (Working Group) of the International Association of Geomorphologists (I.A.G./A.I.G.) to address this still existing key knowledge gap. SEDIBUD (2005-2017) has currently about 400 members worldwide and the Steering Committee of this international program is composed of eleven scientists from ten different countries. The central research question of this global program is to: Assess and model the contemporary sedimentary fluxes in cold climates, with emphasis on both particulate and dissolved components. Research carried

  18. Biodiversity of freshwater and estuarine communities in lower Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii with observations on introduced species: summary from fieldwork conducted in 1997 - 1998 (NODC Accession 0001114)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Pearl Harbor Biodiversity Project was funded by the Department of Defense Legacy Program, through the U. S. Navy. The project was performed in two phases. The...

  19. Biodiversity of Freshwater and Estuarine Communities in Lower Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii with Observations on Introduced Species: Summary from Fieldwork Conducted in 1997-1998 (NODC Accession 0001114)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Pearl Harbor Biodiversity Project was funded by the Department of Defense Legacy Program, through the U. S. Navy. The project was performed in two phases. Phase...

  20. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Richmond Harbor Deepening Project and the intensive study of the Turning Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Karle, L.M.; Kohn, N.P.; White, P.J.; Word, J.Q.; Michaels, L.L. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Richmond Harbor is on the eastern shoreline of central San Francisco Bay and its access channels and several of the shipping berths are no longer wide or deep enough to accommodate modem deeper-draft vessels. The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (PL99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District to deepen and widen the navigation channels in Richmond Harbor. Several options for disposal of the material from this dredging project are under consideration by USACE: disposal within San Francisco Bay, at open-ocean disposal sites, or at uplands disposal sites. Purpose of this study was to conduct comprehensive evaluations, including chemical, biological, and bioaccumulation testing of sediments in selected areas of Richmond Harbor. This information was required by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and USACE. Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory collected 20 core samples, both 4-in. and 12-in., to a project depth of -40 ft mean lower low water (MLLW) (-38 ft MLLW plus 2 ft of overdepth) using a vibratory-hammer core. These 20 field samples were combined to form five test composites plus an older bay mud (OBM) composite that were analyzed for physical/chemical parameters, biological toxicity, and tissue chemistry. Solid-phase tests were conducted with the amphipod, Rhepoxynius abronius; the clam, Macoma nasuta; and the polychaete worm, Nephtys caecoides. Suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) tests were conducted with the sanddab, Citharichthys stigmaeus; the mysid, Holmesimysis costata; and the bivalve, Mytilus galloprovincialis. Bioaccumulation of contaminants was measured in tissues of Macoma nasuta and Nereis virens. Sediments from one ocean reference sediment, and two in-bay reference sediments, were tested concurrently. Results from analysis of the five test treatments were statistically compared with the reference sediment R-OS in the first five sections of this report.

  1. 77 FR 50916 - Safety Zone; Boston Harbor's Rock Removal Project, Boston Inner Harbor, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... operation on the navigable waters of Boston Inner Harbor, in the main ship channel near Castle Island. This... operations in support of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers rock removal project. Entering into, transiting... before the start date of the project. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers also discussed the rock removal...

  2. Sorption of radon-222 to natural sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.S.; Chin, Y.P.; Gschwend, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    The sorption of radon to sediments was investigated, since this may affect the use of porewater radon profiles for estimating bed irrigation rates. Batch experiments showed that radon has an organic-carbon-normalized sediment-water partition coefficient (K oc , L kg oc -1 ) of 21.1 ± 2.9 for a Boston Harbor sediment, 25.3 ± 2.1 for a Charles River sediment, and 22.4 ± 2.6 for a Buzzards Bay sediment. These values are in close agreement with predictions using radon's octanol-water partition coefficient (K ow ), which was measured to be 32.4 ± 1.5. Temperature and ionic strength effects on K oc were estimated to be small. Given rapid sorption kinetics, the authors suggest that slurry stripping techniques used by many investigators to measure 222 Rn in sediment samples collect both sorbed and dissolved radon. Sorption effects were included in a transport model to obtain revised estimates of irrigation rates from existing literature profiles. Irrigation rates had to be increased over previously reported values in proportion to the sediment organic matter content

  3. Vibration-based structural health monitoring of harbor caisson structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So-Young; Lee, So-Ra; Kim, Jeong-Tae

    2011-04-01

    This study presents vibration-based structural health monitoring method in foundation-structure interface of harbor caisson structure. In order to achieve the objective, the following approaches are implemented. Firstly, vibration-based response analysis method is selected and structural health monitoring (SHM) technique is designed for harbor caisson structure. Secondly, the performance of designed SHM technique for harbor structure is examined by FE analysis. Finally, the applicability of designed SHM technique for harbor structure is evaluated by dynamic tests on a lab-scaled caisson structure.

  4. Hazardous substances shipping at inland water harbors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkovic, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Safety measures and regulations system covering the aspects of fire protection, professional and ecological safety are aimed to create a safe working environment, by detection and remedy of conditions that are potentially hazardous for the well-being of the employees or are leading to certain undesired events. Such unwanted incidents may result in different consequences: operating person's injury, environment pollution or material damage. This study attempts to illustrate the organization of work during hazardous matter loading and unloading at inland water harbors, based on legal provisions and decrees involving safety precautions, and in order to achieve constant enhancement of operating procedure, decreasing thereby the number of work-related injuries and various accidental situations. Fundamental precondition required to prevent possible accidents and to optimize general safety policy is to recognize and control any danger or potential hazard, as well as to be familiar with the legal provisions covering the inland waterway transport of harmful substances.(author)

  5. Johnson City 10 x 20 NTMS area, Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia: data report (abbreviated). National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fay, W.M.

    1980-10-01

    Results of ground water and stream sediment reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Johnson City 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle are presented. Surface sediment samples were collected at 959 sites. Ground water samples were collected at 1099 sites. Neutron activation analysis results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 8 other elements in ground water. Data from ground water sites include: (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity); (2) physical measurements where applicable (water temperature, well description, etc.); and (3) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, Mn, Na, and V). Data from sediment sites include: (1) stream water chemistry measurements; and (2) elemental analyses for sediment samples (U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Dy, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Sc, Sm, Na, Ti, V, and Yb). Sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, etc.) are given. Areal distribution maps, histograms, and cumulative frequency plots for most elements and for U/Th and U/Hf ratios are included on the microfiche. The Johnson City Quadrangle is underlain by Precambrian cyrstalline rocks in the southeastern corner of the quadrangle and by Paleozoic sediments in the remainder of the quadrangle. The highest uranium concentrations in sediments (up to 22 ppM) are in samples from the Precambrian crystalline rock areas. These samples also have high thorium concentrations suggesting that most of the uranium is in resistate minerals such as monazite. The U/Th ratios in sediment samples are generaly low with the higher values (up to 2.07) mostly within the lower Paleozoic sediments, particularly the Copper Ridge Dolomite. The uranium concentration in ground water is also highest in the lower Paleozoic sediments

  6. Environmental Impact Of The Use Of Contaminated Sediments As Partial Replacement Of The Aggregate Used In Road Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indiana Harbor Canal (IHC) is a waterway extensively polluted with heavy metals and petroleum. Since there are limited disposal options for the petroleum-contaminated sediments (PCSs) of the canal, the environmental impact of IHC dewatered sediment when used as partial repla...

  7. 33 CFR 80.1460 - Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI. 80.1460 Section 80.1460 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1460 Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI. A line drawn...

  8. 33 CFR 80.1450 - Nawiliwili Harbor, Kauai, HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nawiliwili Harbor, Kauai, HI. 80.1450 Section 80.1450 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1450 Nawiliwili Harbor, Kauai, HI...

  9. 33 CFR 110.238 - Apra Harbor, Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apra Harbor, Guam. 110.238 Section 110.238 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.238 Apra Harbor, Guam. (a) The anchorage grounds (Datum: WGS...

  10. 33 CFR 80.1470 - Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii, HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii, HI. 80.1470 Section 80.1470 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1470 Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii, HI...

  11. 33 CFR 80.1480 - Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI. 80.1480 Section 80.1480 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1480 Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI. A line drawn...

  12. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1...

  13. 32 CFR 705.31 - USS Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false USS Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor. 705.31... NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.31 USS Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor. (a) Limited space and the desirability of keeping the Memorial simple and dignified require the...

  14. 76 FR 50489 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Harbor Maintenance Fee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... Activities: Harbor Maintenance Fee AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... Fee (CBP Forms 349 and 350). This is a proposed extension of an information collection that was... Fee. OMB Number: 1651-0055. Form Number: CBP Forms 349 and 350. Abstract: The Harbor Maintenance Fee...

  15. Irrigation-induced contamination of water, sediment, and biota in the western United States-synthesis of data from the National Irrigation Water Quality Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Ralph L.; Skorupa, Joseph P.; Naftz, David L.; Nolan, B. Thomas

    2003-01-01

    In October 1985 the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), through the National Irrigation Water Quality Program (NIWQP), began a series of field investigations at 26 areas in the Western United States to determine whether irrigation drainage has had harmful effects on fish, wildlife, and humans or has reduced beneficial uses of water. In 1992 NIWQP initiated the Data Synthesis Project to evaluate data collected during the field investigations. Geologic, climatologic, and hydrologic data were evaluated and water, sediment, and biota from the 26 areas were analyzed to identify commonalities and dominant factors that result in irrigation-induced contamination of water and biota. Data collected for the 26 area investigations have been compiled and merged into a common data base. The structure of the data base is designed to enable assessment of relations between contaminant concentrations in water, sediment, and biota. The data base is available to the scientific community through the World Wide Web at URL http://www.usbr.gov/niwqp. Analysis of the data base for the Data Synthesis included use of summary statistics, factor analysis, and logistic regression. A Geographic Information System was used to store and analyze spatially oriented digital data such as land use, geology and evaporation rates. In the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) study areas, samples of water, bottom sediment, and biota were collected for trace-element and pesticide analysis. Contaminants most commonly associated with irrigation drainage were identified by comparing concentrations in water with established criteria. For surface water, the criteria used were typically chronic criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. Because ground water can discharge to the surface where wildlife can be exposed to it, the criteria used for ground water were both the maximum contaminant levels (MCL's) for drinking water and the chronic criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life

  16. 33 CFR 165.904 - Lake Michigan at Chicago Harbor & Burnham Park Harbor-Safety and Security Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... & Burnham Park Harbor-Safety and Security Zone. 165.904 Section 165.904 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION... Guard District § 165.904 Lake Michigan at Chicago Harbor & Burnham Park Harbor—Safety and Security Zone...

  17. 77 FR 59551 - Safety Zone, Changes to Original Rule; Boston Harbor's Rock Removal Project, Boston Inner Harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2012-0767] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Changes to Original Rule; Boston Harbor's Rock Removal Project, Boston Inner Harbor... original provisions of that temporary final rule, but adds two additional safety zones necessary for the...

  18. Sediment mixing and accumulation rate effects on radionuclide depth profiles in Hudson estuary sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, C.R.; Simpson, H.J.; Peng, T.; Bopp, R.F.; Trier, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Measured anthropogenic radionuclide profiles in sediment cores from the Hudson River estuary were compared with profiles computed by using known input histories of radionuclides to the estuary and mixing coefficients which decreased exponentially with depth in the sediment. Observed 134 Cs sediment depth profiles were used in the mixing rate computation because reactor releases were the only significant source for this nuclide, whereas the inputs of 137 Cs and /sup 239.240/Pu to the estuary were complicated by runoff or erosion in upstream areas, in addition to direct fallout from precipitation. Our estimates for the rates of surface sediment mixing in the low salinity reach of the estuary range from 0.25 to 1 cm 2 /yr, or less. In some areas of the harbor adjacent to New York City, were fine-particle accumulation rates are generally >3 cm/yr, and often as high as 10 to 20 cm/yr, sediment mixing rates as high as 10 cm 2 /yr would have little effect on radionuclide peak distributions. Consequently, anthropogenic radionuclide maximum activities in subsurface sediments of the Hudson appear to be useful as time-stratigraphic reference levels, which can be correlated with periods of maximum radionuclide inputs for estimating rates and patterns of sediment accumulation

  19. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - Magnitude and Extent of Sediment Toxicity in Four Bays of the Florida Panhandle: Pensacola, Choctawhatchee, St. Andrew and Apalachicola

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The toxicity of sediments in Pensacola, Choctawhatchee, St. Andrew and Apalachicola Bays was determined as part of bioeffects assessments performed by NOAA's...

  20. A Comparison of Microbial Water Quality and Diversity for Ballast and Tropical Harbor Waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine Ng

    Full Text Available Indicator organisms and antibiotic resistance were used as a proxy to measure microbial water quality of ballast tanks of ships, and surface waters in a tropical harbor. The survival of marine bacteria in ballast tanks appeared to diminish over longer water retention time, with a reduction of cell viability observed after a week based on heterotrophic plate counts. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes showed distinct differences in microbial composition of ballast and harbor waters. The harbor waters had a higher abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs assigned to Cyanobacteria (Synechococcus spp. and α-proteobacteria (SAR11 members, while marine hydrocarbon degraders such as γ-proteobacteria (Ocenspirillaes spp., Thiotrchales spp. and Bacteroidetes (Flavobacteriales spp. dominated the ballast water samples. Screening of indicator organisms found Escherichia coli (E. coli, Enterococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa in two or more of the ballast and harbor water samples tested. Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp. were detected exclusively in harbor water samples. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR, we screened for 13 antibiotic resistant gene (ARG targets and found higher abundances of sul1 (4.13-3.44 x 102 copies/mL, dfrA (0.77-1.80 x10 copies/mL and cfr (2.00-5.21 copies/mL genes compared to the other ARG targets selected for this survey. These genes encode for resistance to sulfonamides, trimethoprim and chloramphenicol-florfenicol antibiotics, which are also known to persist in sediments of aquaculture farms and coastal environments. Among the ARGs screened, we found significant correlations (P<0.05 between ereA, ermG, cfr and tetO genes to one or more of the indicator organisms detected in this study, which may suggest that these members contribute to the environmental resistome. This study provides a baseline water quality survey, quantitatively assessing indicators of antibiotic resistance, potentially pathogenic organisms and a

  1. Wave Climate and Wave Response, 2025 Plan, Kahului Harbor, Maui, Hawaii

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Edward

    2002-01-01

    ... (wind waves and swell) and long waves (harbor oscillations), was used to evaluate the technical feasibility of three alternative modifications to the harbor, including the Kahului Commercial Harbor 2025 Master Plan...

  2. Kato-Katz and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation test to evaluate helminth prevalence in the setting of a school-based deworming program

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Martha; Morales, Maria Luisa; Konana, Monisha; Hoyer, Paige; Pineda-Reyes, Roberto; White, Arthur Clinton; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Lescano, Andres Guillermo; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Cabada, Miguel Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivity of the Kato-Katz test is suboptimal for the evaluation of intestinal helminth prevalence. Moreover, during mass deworming, as helminth egg burden decreases, the sensitivity is likely to decrease. The Lumbreras rapid sedimentation (Lumbreras) is a low-cost non-quantitative test, but may provide useful information in low burden areas. We compared the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections assessed by the Kato-Katz and the Lumbreras rapid sedimentation test on 3 stool speci...

  3. Contribution of Interstitial Deletion of 21q22.2-3 per se to Prostate Cancer Progression in Tumors Harboring TMPRSS2-ERG Translocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    harboring TMPRSS2- ERG translocations PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yan Dong CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Tulane University New Orleans, LA 70112...0485 to prostate cancer progression in tumors harboring TMPRSS2- ERG translocations 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0485 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT TMPRSS2- ERG gene fusions are present in close to 50% of human prostate cancers. Approximately half of the

  4. A Probabilistic and Observation Based Methodology to Estimate Small Craft Harbor Vulnerability to Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, A. S.; Lynett, P. J.; Ayca, A.

    2016-12-01

    Because of the damage resulting from the 2010 Chile and 2011 Japanese tele-tsunamis, the tsunami risk to the small craft marinas in California has become an important concern. The talk will outline an assessment tool which can be used to assess the tsunami hazard to small craft harbors. The methodology is based on the demand and structural capacity of the floating dock system, composed of floating docks/fingers and moored vessels. The structural demand is determined using a Monte Carlo methodology. Monte Carlo methodology is a probabilistic computational tool where the governing might be well known, but the independent variables of the input (demand) as well as the resisting structural components (capacity) may not be completely known. The Monte Carlo approach uses a distribution of each variable, and then uses that random variable within the described parameters, to generate a single computation. The process then repeats hundreds or thousands of times. The numerical model "Method of Splitting Tsunamis" (MOST) has been used to determine the inputs for the small craft harbors within California. Hydrodynamic model results of current speed, direction and surface elevation were incorporated via the drag equations to provide the bases of the demand term. To determine the capacities, an inspection program was developed to identify common features of structural components. A total of six harbors have been inspected ranging from Crescent City in Northern California to Oceanside Harbor in Southern California. Results from the inspection program were used to develop component capacity tables which incorporated the basic specifications of each component (e.g. bolt size and configuration) and a reduction factor (which accounts for the component reduction in capacity with age) to estimate in situ capacities. Like the demand term, these capacities are added probabilistically into the model. To date the model has been applied to Santa Cruz Harbor as well as Noyo River. Once

  5. Uranium isotopes in El hamraween harbour sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salahel Din, K.

    2009-01-01

    Isotopes of uranium in marine sediments collected from El Hamraween harbour and Ras El-Bhar areas on the Egyptian coast of the Red Sea have been studied using radiochemical separation procedures and alpha-particle spectrometry. Activity concentrations of 238 U, 235 U, 234 U were calculated. The activities observed indicating the enhancement of radioactivity level in El Hamraween harbor area due to the activities of phosphate shipment operation. Secular equilibrium between 234 U and 238 U was found in the analyzed samples. The average activity ratio of 235 U/ 238 U was close to the value 0.046 for uranium in nature

  6. Suspended sediment and sediment-associated contaminants in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoellhamer, D.H.; Mumley, T.E.; Leatherbarrow, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Water-quality managers desire information on the temporal and spatial variability of contaminant concentrations and the magnitudes of watershed and bed-sediment loads in San Francisco Bay. To help provide this information, the Regional Monitoring Program for Trace Substances in the San Francisco Estuary (RMP) takes advantage of the association of many contaminants with sediment particles by continuously measuring suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), which is an accurate, less costly, and more easily measured surrogate for several trace metals and organic contaminants. Continuous time series of SSC are collected at several sites in the Bay. Although semidiurnal and diurnal tidal fluctuations are present, most of the variability of SSC occurs at fortnightly, monthly, and semiannual tidal time scales. A seasonal cycle of sediment inflow, wind-wave resuspension, and winnowing of fine sediment also is observed. SSC and, thus, sediment-associated contaminants tend to be greater in shallower water, at the landward ends of the Bay, and in several localized estuarine turbidity maxima. Although understanding of sediment transport has improved in the first 10 years of the RMP, determining a simple mass budget of sediment or associated contaminants is confounded by uncertainties regarding sediment flux at boundaries, change in bed-sediment storage, and appropriate modeling techniques. Nevertheless, management of sediment-associated contaminants has improved greatly. Better understanding of sediment and sediment-associated contaminants in the Bay is of great interest to evaluate the value of control actions taken and the need for additional controls. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Vertical distribution of dehalogenating bacteria in mangrove sediment and their potential to remove polybrominated diphenyl ether contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ying; Chen, Juan; Zhou, Haichao; Farzana, Shazia; Tam, Nora F Y

    2017-11-30

    The removal and degradation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediments are not clear. The vertical distribution of total and dehalogenating bacteria in sediment cores collected from a typical mangrove swamp in South China and their intrinsic degradation potential were investigated. These bacterial groups had the highest abundances in surface sediments (0-5cm). A 5-months microcosm experiment also showed that surface sediments had the highest rate to remove BDE-47 than deeper sediments (5-30cm) under anaerobic condition. The deeper sediments, being more anaerobic, had lower population of dehalogenating bacteria leading to a weaker BDE-47 removal potential than surface sediments. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that Dehalococcoides spp. were the most important dehalogenating bacteria affecting the anaerobic removal of BDE-47 in mangrove sediments. This is the first study reporting that mangrove sediments harbored diverse groups of dehalogenating bacteria and had intrinsic potential to remove PBDE contamination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Boston 10 x 20 NTMS area, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire. Data report (abbreviated): National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Results of ground water and stream sediment reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Boston 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle are presented. Surface sediment samples were collected at 669 sites. Ground water samples were collected at 303 sites. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 8 other elements in ground water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented. Data from ground water sites include (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) physical measurements where applicable (water temperature, well description, etc.), and (3) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, Mn, Na, and V). Data from sediment sites include (1) stream water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), and (2) elemental analyses for sediment samples (U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Dy, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Sc, Sm, Na, Ti, V, and Yb). Sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, etc.) are also tabulated. Areal distribution maps, histograms, and cumulative frequency plots for most elements and for U/Th and U/Hf ratios are included on the microfiche. Key data from stream water sites include (1) water quality measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity) and (2) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Ci, Dy, F, Mg, Mn, Na, and V). The maximum uranium concentration in the sediments of the Boston quadrangle was 82.1 ppM. The mean of the logarithms of the uranium concentrations in sediments was 0.68, which corresponds to 4.8 ppM uranium. A cluster of samples with uranium values greater than 40 ppM and which have low thorium concentrations occurs in Essex County, Massachusetts

  9. Bar Harbor, ME Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Bar Harbor, Maine Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  10. Extrachromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid in R factor-harboring Enterobacteriaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, JK; Bak, AL; Christiansen, C

    1976-01-01

    Extrachromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from 24 different R factor-harboring Enterobacteriaceae was isolated and characterized by analytical ultracentrifugation and electron microscopy. The R factors represented 15 different patterns of transferable drug resistance found in enterobacteria from...

  11. Apra Harbor, Guam Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Apra Harbor, Guam Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  12. Pearl Harbor, Hawaii 1 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Pearl Harbor Hawaii Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  13. Submarine Biofouling Control- Chlorination DATS Study at Pearl Harbor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wegand, John

    2001-01-01

    The intent of this document is to sumarize the chlorination studies performed at Naval Station, Pearl Harbor in support of biofouling control initiatives for the submarine community, as requested by NAVSEA 92T...

  14. Ground-water status report, Pearl Harbor area, Hawaii, 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroos, Ronald L.; Ewart, Charles J.

    1979-01-01

    Increasing demand for freshwater in Hawaii has placed heavy stress on many of the State 's basal aquifer systems. The most heavily stressed of these systems is the Pearl Harbor on Oahu. The Pearl Harbor basal aquifer supplies as much as 277 million gallons per day. Since early in this century, spring discharge has been declining while pumpage has been increasing. Total ground-water discharge has remained steady despite short-term fluctuations. Some wells show general increases in chloride concentration while others remain steady. Chloride concentrations throughout the area show no apparent increase since 1970. Basal water head maps of the Pearl Harbor area clearly reflect the natural discharge points, which are the springs located along the shore near the center of Pearl Harbor. Basal-water hydrographs show a general decline of about 0.09 foot per year. This implies depletion of storage at a rate of about 25 million gallons per day. (USGS).

  15. Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  16. Sediment pore water distribution coefficients of PCB congeners in enriched black carbon sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Andres; O'Sullivan, Colin; Reible, Danny; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2013-01-01

    More than 2300 sediment pore water distribution coefficients (K PCBids ) of 93 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured and modeled from sediments from Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal. K PCBids were calculated from previously reported bulk sediment values and newly analyzed pore water. PCBs in pore waters were measured using SPME PDMS-fiber and ∑PCB ranged from 41 to 1500 ng L −1 . The resulting K PCBids were ∼1 log unit lower in comparison to other reported values. A simple model for the K PCBid consisted of the product of the organic carbon fraction and the octanol–water partition coefficient and provided an excellent prediction for the measured values, with a mean square error of 0.09 ± 0.06. Although black carbon content is very high in these sediments and was expected to play an important role in the distribution of PCBs, no improvement was obtained when a two-carbon model was used. -- Highlights: •PCB sediment-pore water distribution coefficients were measured and modeled. •Distribution coefficients were lower in comparison to other reported values. •Organic carbon fraction times the K OW yielded the best prediction model. •The incorporation of black carbon into a model did not improve the results. -- The organic carbon fraction times the octanol–water partition coefficient yielded the best prediction model for the sediment pore water distribution coefficient of PCBs

  17. Harbor seal vibrissa morphology suppresses vortex-induced vibrations

    OpenAIRE

    Hanke, Wolf; Witte, Mathias; Miersch, Lars; Brede, Martin; Oeffner, Johannes; Michael, Mark; Hanke, Frederike; Leder, Alfred; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) often live in dark and turbid waters, where their mystacial vibrissae, or whiskers, play an important role in orientation. Besides detecting and discriminating objects by direct touch, harbor seals use their whiskers to analyze water movements, for example those generated by prey fish or by conspecifics. Even the weak water movements left behind by objects that have passed by earlier can be sensed and followed accurately (hydrodynamic trail following). While scan...

  18. Satellite Monitoring of Boston Harbor Water Quality: Initial Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, P.; Chen, R. F.; Schaaf, C.; Pahlevan, N.; Lee, Z.

    2016-02-01

    The transformation of Boston Harbor from the "dirtiest in America" to a National Park Area is one of the most remarkable estuarine recoveries in the world. A long-term water quality dataset from 1991 to present exists in Boston Harbor due to a $3. 8 billion lawsuit requiring the harbor clean-up. This project uses discrete water sampling and underway transects with a towed vehicle coordinated with Landsat 7 and Landsat 8 to create surface maps of chlorophyll a (Chl a), dissolved organic matter (CDOM and DOC), total suspended solids (TSS), diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd_490), and photic depth in Boston Harbor. In addition, 3 buoys have been designed, constructed, and deployed in Boston Harbor that measure Chl a and CDOM fluorescence, optical backscatter, salinity, temperature, and meteorological parameters. We are initially using summer and fall of 2015 to develop atmospheric corrections for conditions in Boston Harbor and develop algorithms for Landsat 8 data to estimate in water photic depth, TSS, Chl a, Kd_490, and CDOM. We will report on initial buoy and cruise data and show 2015 Landsat-derived distributions of water quality parameters. It is our hope that once algorithms for present Landsat imagery can be developed, historical maps of water quality can be constructed using in water data back to 1991.

  19. Needles 10 x 20 NTMS area, California and Arizona, data report (abbreviated). National uranium resource evaluation program: hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1981-05-01

    Surface sediment samples were collected at 1672 sites, at a target sampling density of one site per 13 square kilometers. Ground water samples were collected at 49 sites. Neutron activation analysis results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in ground water. Mass spectrometry results are given for helium in ground water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Data from ground water sites include (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) physical measurements where applicable (water temperature, well description, and scintillometer reading), and (3) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, Mg, Mn, Na, and V). Helium analyses are given for ground water. Data from sediment sites include (1) stream water chemistry measurements from sites where water was available and (2) elemental analyses for sediment samples (U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Dy, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Sc, Sm, Na, Ti, V, and Yb). Samples site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, etc.) are also tabulated. Areal distribution maps, histograms, and cumulative frequency plots for most elements; U/Th, U/Hf, U/(Th + Hf), and U/La ratios; and scintillometer readings at sediment sample sites are included on the microfiche. Uranium concentrations in the sediments which were above limits ranged from 0.10 to 33.90 ppM. The mean of the logarithms of the uranium concentrations was 0.52. Clusters of uranium values greater than 10 ppM occur in quadrangles AH, BH, and DA

  20. Lake Champlain 10 x 20 NTMS area New York, Vermont, and New Hampshire: data report (abbreviated). National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1981-03-01

    This abbreviated data report presents results of ground water and stream sediment reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Lake Champlain 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle. Surface sediment samples were collected at 1196 sites. Ground-water samples were collected at 619 sites. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, for uranium and 8 other elements in ground water, and for uranium and 9 other elements in surface water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Data from ground-water sites include (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) physical measurements where applicable (water temperature, well description, etc.), and (3) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, Mn, Na, and V). Data from sediment sites include (1) stream water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), and (2) elemental analyses for sediment samples (U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Dy, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Sc, Sm, Na, Ti, V, and Yb). Sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, etc.) are also tabulated. A real distribution maps, histograms, and cumulative frequency plots for most elements and for U/Th and U/Hf ratios are included. Key data from stream water sites include (1) water quality measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity) and (2) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, Mg, Mg, Na, and V). Uranium concentrations in the sediments range from 0.30 to 43.40 ppM with a mean of 3.03 ppM. A cluster of high log (U/Th+Hf) ratios appear in the southeastern portion of the quadrangle. The U x 1000/conductivity ratio in surface water is high in this same area

  1. Kato-Katz and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation test to evaluate helminth prevalence in the setting of a school-based deworming program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Martha; Morales, Maria Luisa; Konana, Monisha; Hoyer, Paige; Pineda-Reyes, Roberto; White, Arthur Clinton; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Lescano, Andres Guillermo; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Cabada, Miguel Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivity of the Kato-Katz test is suboptimal for the evaluation of intestinal helminth prevalence. Moreover, during mass deworming, as helminth egg burden decreases, the sensitivity is likely to decrease. The Lumbreras rapid sedimentation (Lumbreras) is a low-cost non-quantitative test, but may provide useful information in low burden areas. We compared the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections assessed by the Kato-Katz and the Lumbreras rapid sedimentation test on 3 stool specimens from each of 1083 children. The sensitivities were compared using the McNemar paired test. Using the combined outcome of the 3 different stool tests as the standard, Kato-Katz had lower sensitivity than Lumbreras rapid sedimentation tests for Ascaris lumbricoides (85.1% vs. 95.1%, p = 0.03), Hymenolepis nana (77.7% vs. 97.9%, p Lumbreras rapid sedimentation tests enables the detection of more intestinal helminths infections in post-deworming low prevalence areas. PMID:27376503

  2. Santa Cruz 10 x 20 NTMS area, California: data report (abbreviated), National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1981-07-01

    This abbreviated data report presents results of ground water and stream/surface sediment reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Santa Cruz 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle. Surface sediment samples were collected at 1270 sites, at a target sampling density of one site per 13 square kilometers (five square miles). Ground water samples were collected at 636 sites. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in ground water. Mass spectrometry results are given for helium in ground water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Uranium concentrations in the sediments which were above detection limits ranged from 0.10 t 51.2 ppM. The mean of the logarithms of the uranium concentrations was 0.53. A group of high uranium concentrations occurs near the junctions of quadrangles AB, AC, and BB

  3. {sup 137}Cs in northern Adriatic sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barisic, D; Lulic, S; Vdovic, N; Vertacnik, A [Center for Marine Research - Department Zagreb, ' Ruder Boskovic' Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Juracic, M [Department of Geology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Zagreb, Zagreb (Croatia)

    1996-01-01

    The activity of {sup 137}Cs in shallow northern Adriatic sediments was obtained on the basis of measurement results from 25 sediment box cores, sampled during the Adriatic Scientific COoperation Program (ASCOP) 16 cruise in the summer 1990. {sup 137}Cs was determined in surface sediments (0-3 cm) and 12-15 cm-deep sediment. It was found that the lowest caesium concentrations correspond to sands, which are spread along the Croatian coast. Parallel to the Italian coast, {sup 137}Cs concentrations in pelites are the highest. It seems that the influence of Po River is significant for {sup 137}Cs activities in recent marine sediments along Italian coast south of Po River delta. Significantly higher {sup 137}Cs activities in 0-3 cm sediment layer can be attributed to the deposition caused by Chernobyl accident. (author)

  4. 137Cs in northern Adriatic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisic, D.; Lulic, S.; Vdovic, N.; Vertacnik, A.; Juracic, M.

    1996-01-01

    The activity of 137 Cs in shallow northern Adriatic sediments was obtained on the basis of measurement results from 25 sediment box cores, sampled during the Adriatic Scientific COoperation Program (ASCOP) 16 cruise in the summer 1990. 137 Cs was determined in surface sediments (0-3 cm) and 12-15 cm-deep sediment. It was found that the lowest caesium concentrations correspond to sands, which are spread along the Croatian coast. Parallel to the Italian coast, 137 Cs concentrations in pelites are the highest. It seems that the influence of Po River is significant for 137 Cs activities in recent marine sediments along Italian coast south of Po River delta. Significantly higher 137 Cs activities in 0-3 cm sediment layer can be attributed to the deposition caused by Chernobyl accident. (author)

  5. Tech Talk for Social Studies Teachers Lest We Forget: Remembering Pearl Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Tim

    2001-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites about Pearl Harbor (Hawaii). Includes Web sites that cover Pearl Harbor history, a live view of Pearl Harbor, stories from people who remember where they were during the attack, information on the naval station at Pearl Harbor, and a virtual tour of the USS Arizona. (CMK)

  6. Emission Facilities - Erosion & Sediment Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Erosion and Sediment Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control program. The following sub-facility types related to...

  7. Death Valley 10 x 20 NTMS area, California and Nevada. Data report: National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1980-04-01

    Results of ground water and stream sediment reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Death Valley 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle are presented. Stream sediment samples were collected from small streams at 649 sites or at a nominal density of one site per 20 square kilometers. Ground water samples were collected at 62 sites or at a nominal density of one site per 220 square kilometers. Neutron activation analysis results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 8 other elements in ground water and surface water. Mass spectrometry results are given for helium in ground water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Statistical summaries of data and a brief description of results are given. A generalized geologic map and a summary of the geology of the area are included. Key data from ground water sites include (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) scintillometer readings, and (3) elemental analyses (U, Br, Cl, F, He, Mn, Na, and V). Supplementary data include site descriptors, tabulated analytical data for Al, Dy, and Mg, and histograms and cumulative frequency plots for all elements. Key data from stream sediment sites include (1) water quality measurements (2) important elemental analyses, (U, Th, Hf, Ce, Fe, Mn, Sc, Na, Ti, and V), and (3) scintillometer readings. Supplementary data from stream sediment sites include sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, etc.), additional elemental analyses (Dy, Eu, La, Lu, Sm, and Yb), and histograms and cumulative frequency plots for all elements

  8. Conceptualizing the role of sediment in sustaining ecosystem services: Sediment-ecosystem regional assessment (SEcoRA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apitz, Sabine E

    2012-01-15

    There is a growing trend to include a consideration of ecosystem services, the benefits that people obtain from ecosystems, within decision frameworks. Not more than a decade ago, sediment management efforts were largely site-specific and held little attention except in terms of managing contaminant inputs and addressing sediments as a nuisance at commercial ports and harbors. Sediments figure extensively in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment; however, contaminated sediment is not the dominant concern. Rather, the focus is on land and water use and management on the landscape scale, which can profoundly affect soil and sediment quality, quantity and fate. Habitat change and loss, due to changes in sediment inputs, whether reductions (resulting in the loss of beaches, storm protection, nutrient inputs, etc.) or increases (resulting in lake, reservoir and wetland infilling, coral reef smothering, etc.); eutrophication and reductions in nutrient inputs, and disturbance due to development and fishing practices are considered major drivers, with significant consequences for biodiversity and the provision and resilience of ecosystem functions and services. As a mobile connecting medium between various parts of the ecosystem via the hydrocycle, sediments both contaminated and uncontaminated, play both positive and negative roles in the viability and sustainability of social, economic, and ecological objectives. How these roles are interpreted depends upon whether sediment status (defined in terms of sediment quality, quantity, location and transport) is appropriate to the needs of a given endpoint; understanding and managing the dynamic interactions of sediment status on a diverse range of endpoints at the landscape or watershed scale should be the focus of sediment management. This paper seeks to provide a language and conceptual framework upon which sediment-ecosystem regional assessments (SEcoRAs) can be developed in support of that goal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B

  9. Sediment Budget on the Indiana Shore at Burns Harbor, Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Zone 16N, North American Datum 1983, units in meters. Features specifically related to an elevation (for example, +2 ft low water datum ( LWD ...redrawn and imported into RMAP software. Original English units for distance and elevation with respect to LWD IGLD 1955 retained. (1 ft = 0.3048 m...2 ft LWD IGLD1955. Photographs from other dates are in Morang et al. (2012). Fig. 6. October 2011. The exposed fillet extended to about half the

  10. Evaluation of factors affecting stakeholder risk perception of contaminated sediment disposal in Oslo harbor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sparrevik, M.; Ellen, G.J.; Duijn, M.

    2011-01-01

    The management of environmental pollution has changed considerably since the growth of environmental awareness in the late 1960s. The general increased environmental concern and involvement of stakeholders in today's environmental issues may enhance the need to consider risk in a much broader social

  11. Water Quality And Sediment Evaluation for Inner Harbor Navigation Canal Lock Replacement Project, New Orleans, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    not expected to result in adverse toxic effects to freshwater benthic invertebrates at the Mississippi River disposal site. Tributyltin has some...32 3 Water Column Toxicity Evaluation...36 Freshwater water column toxicity evaluation ........................................................................ 36 Estuarine

  12. Comprehensive Condition Survey and Storm Waves, Circulation, and Sediment Study, Dana Point Harbor, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    waters; 3) west to northwest local sea; 4) prefrontal local sea; 5) tropical storm swell; and 6) extratropical cyclone in the southern hemisphere...14-13 58 Prefrontal local sea The coastal zone within the south Orange County area is vulnerable under extratropical winter storm conditions (a...wave characteristics for severe extratropical storms during the 39 yr time period (1970–2008) are comparable to peak storm wave heights that were

  13. Plutonium, radiocesium and radiocobalt in sediments of the Hudson River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, C.R.; Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.; Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY

    1981-01-01

    Anthropogenic radionuclides have reached the Hudson estuary as global fallout from nuclear weapons testing and through local releases from commercial nuclear reactors. Significant activities of 238 Pu and 239 , 240 Pu (fallout-derived), 134 Cs and 60 Co (reactor-released), and 137 Cs (derived from both sources), have accumulated in the sediments throughout the estuary, with the primary zone of accumulation near the downstream end of the system in New York harbor. The estuary appears to have trapped nearly all of the 239 , 240 Pu delivered as fallout, and consequently, ocean dumping of dredged harbor sediment is currently the primary means for the net transport of these nuclides to coastal waters. In contrast, only 10-30% of the 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 60 Co delivered to the estuary have been retained on the fine particles which accumulate at a rapid rate in the harbor. (orig./HAE)

  14. Comparison of trace metals in South Carolina floodplain and marsh sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, L.R.; Chen, H.S.; Settlemyre, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    A comparative study of trace metals (copper, zinc, lead, and molybdenum) in sediment cores from a pristine marsh near North Inlet, S.C., a polluted marsh near Charleston Harbor, S.C., and South Carolina river floodplains indicates that the Charleston Harbor marsh samples have significantly higher concentrations of copper, zinc, and lead than either North Inlet samples or river floodplain samples. It is not clear, however, whether this result can be attributed to industrial contamination because the peak concentrations of copper and zinc in cores from the Charleston Harbor marsh occur at depths between 10 and 60 cm rather than at or near the sediment surface, as is the case for well-documented occurrences of contaminated marine sediments. Also, both marsh areas show similar linear relationships for copper vs. zinc, which suggest that both areas received the same relative inputs of copper and zinc from similar or identical sources and that the differences in concentrations between the two areas are due to differences in the rates of accumulation. Natural mechanisms are suggested to explain the higher content of copper and zinc in Charleston Harbor vs. North Inlet marsh sediments and the variable depth of peak copper and zinc concentrations

  15. ACOUSTIC TECHNIQUES FOR THE MAPPING OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview of the last 30 years of analytical research into the acoustic properties of harbor marine sediments has allowed the extension of the original work of Hamilton (1970) into a production system for classifying the density and bulk physical properties of standard marine s...

  16. Mass Balance, Beneficial Use Products, and Cost Comparisons of Four Sediment Treatment Technologies Near Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    115 Figure 33. Fate of total copper in BioGenesisSM process for NYNY Harbor...quench tank, grinder, heat exchangers, packed tower scrubber, particulate collector, carbon bed Mixers, flotation , collision chambers, cavitation...2009) to address this issue. In the most successful test, micro- flotation was added to augment removal of detritus from mineral sediment particles

  17. Quantifying In Situ Metal and Organic Contaminant Mobility in Marine Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    and west of Ford Island, within the Pearl Harbor Naval Base. Sediments are fine grain silts and clays of basaltic origins and contain various... fiber filters for organics), and check valves (Figure 8) connected to synchronized parallel rotary valves connected to the collection chamber. Samples

  18. Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Modeling Tools: Integration of Advanced Sediment Transport Tools into HEC-RAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    sediment transport within the USACE HEC River Analysis System ( HEC - RAS ) software package and to determine its applicability to Regional Sediment...Management (RSM) challenges. HEC - RAS SEDIMENT MODELING BACKGROUND: HEC - RAS performs (1) one- dimensional (1D) steady and unsteady hydraulic river ...Albuquerque (SPA)), and recently, the USACE RSM Program. HEC - RAS is one of several hydraulic modeling codes available for river analysis in the

  19. CHIRP survey of the submerged harbors of King Herod's Caesarea, offshore Israel - looking for evidence of ancient disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J. A.; Goodman-Tchernov, B.

    2012-12-01

    Caesarea Maritima, located on the Israel coast south of Haifa, is an ancient city/harbor site built ~2,000 years ago that continues to produce important insights into both the maritime livelihoods of antiquity and natural/anthropogenic influences on coastal structures/processes. The grandiose, three-basin harbor complex was built by Herod the Great. Today, the inner harbor basin is terrestrial, while the majority of the intermediate/outer harbors lies 1-7 m beneath the sea surface. Explanations for the harbor's destruction have included earthquakes, liquefaction, deterioration from erosion, storm undercutting and tsunami damage. Recently, evidence for tsunami events has been discovered offshore during excavation and coring expeditions, specifically trench exposures and pneumatic hammer cores. Stratigraphic horizons containing tsunamite signatures suggest the occurrence of at least three tsunamis in the past ~3,500 yrs. One may correspond with the catastrophic eruption of Santorini ~1500 BC; another appears to have done significant damage to Caesarea ~115 AD, and a third occurred within the period 5th-7th centuries AD. Extant combined bathymetric/magnetic surveys offshore also show unusual, anomalous features. Excavations in 2003 suggest that these features may be part of an ancient designated anchoring station, and support the existence of underlying man-made terrestrial structures from an earlier period when sea-level was lower. The primary goal of the current survey was to correlate recognized/potential tsunamigenic sediment layers throughout the proximal shelf offshore Caesarea, using extremely high-resolution geophysical images. Such surficial sub-bottom profiling will allow archaeologists to proceed with investigations of recognized anthropogenically-influenced submerged coastal features. The field survey was conducted in August 2011. Seismic data were collected using UTIG's portable Knudsen 320BP CHIRP (2.5-5.5 kHz) profiler, affixed to a metal pole mounted

  20. 33 CFR 207.610 - St. Lawrence River, Cape Vincent Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation of the harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Lawrence River, Cape Vincent Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation of the harbor and U.S. breakwater. 207.610 Section 207... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.610 St. Lawrence River, Cape Vincent Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and...

  1. Seabed disposal program: sorption and other geochemical and sedimentological studies of mid-plate, mid-gyre deep-sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, G.R.

    1977-07-01

    Studies of Eu sorption from 0.68M NaCl solution at 15 0 C by typical deep-sea sediments show less than an order-of-magnitude variation between partition coefficients (Kp) for calcareous oozes, red clays and siliceous oozes. Similarly, the concentration (C) dependence of Kp is comparable for all sediments (d log Kp/d C lies between -0.8 and -1.0 ml g -1 M -1 ). Sorption and desorption reactions are rapid and yield similar Kp's, suggesting that the process is primarily ion exchange. Magnetic studies of North Pacific core LL44-GPC3 (30 0 20'N, 157 0 49'W) support the ichthyolith time-scale of P. Doyle, and imply continuous deposition at 0.2 to 2.5 m/million years for the past 70 million years

  2. Scranton 10 x 20 NTMS area: New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. Preliminary basic data report. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, R.B.; Tones, P.L.

    1978-11-01

    Stream sediment and stream water samples were collected from small streams at 980 sites for a nominal density of one site per 18 square kilometers in rural areas. Ground water samples were collected at 1251 sites for a nominal density of one site per 13 square kilometers. Neutron activation analysis results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in ground water and surface water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Statistical summaries of data and a brief description of results are given. A generalized geologic map and a summary of the geology of the area are included

  3. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Growth and Rooting Depth Characteristics of Hydrilla Verticillata (L.f.) Royle and Myriophyllum Spicatum L. on Fertilized and Unfertilized Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    originally collected from natural populations-Myriophyllun, from Lake Wingra, Wisconsin, and Hydri ~la, from the Potomac River, Virginia. The two...species by influencing the mass of sediment nutri- ents available for growth. Notably, the high production levels in Myriophyllwn and Hydri //a on N-rich...sharing the same letter (upper case for Hydri //a and lower case for yrnophy/um) do not differ significantly. Asterisk denotes values that are

  4. Albany 10 x 20 NTMS area Connecticut, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York and Vermont: supplemental data report. National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1981-03-01

    This data report presents supplemental analytical results for 1328 stream sediment samples that were collected as part of the SRL-NURE reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Albany 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle. Results are reported for 23 Mg, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, W, Y, and Zn). Analyses are tabulated and displayed graphically on microfiche. Field data and neutron activation analysis were open-filed in DPST-79-146-10 [GJBX-140(79)

  5. National uranium resource evaluation program. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Oklahoma City NTMS Quadrangle, Oklahoma. Uranium resource evaluation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Field and laboratory data are presented for 812 groundwater samples and 847 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and other possibly uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Based on the results from groundwater sampling, the most promising formations for potential uranium mineralization in the quadrangle are the Permian Bison, Purcell-Salt Plains-Kingman, Fairmont, Dog Creek, Chickasha, Duncan, and Cedar Hills Formations. These units are characterized by relatively high average concentrations of uranium, conductivity, arsenic, calcium, lithium, molybdenum, and sulfate. In addition, groundwaters from the Pennsylvanian Oscar Formation are characterized by values above the 85th percentile for uranium, conductivity, the uranium/sulfate ratio, arsenic, and vanadium. Results of stream sediment sampling indicate that the most promising formations for potential uranium mineralization include the same Permian Formation as indicated by groundwater sampling (Bison, Purcell-Salt Plains-Kingman, Fairmont, Dog-Creek, Chickasha, Duncan, and Cedar Hill Formations) in an area where these formations crop out north of the North Canadian River. Stream sediment samples from this area are characterized by concentrations above the 85th percentile for uranium, thorium, arsenic, lithium, manganese, and vanadium

  6. Littoral cells and harbor dredging along the California coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Gary B.

    1987-02-01

    Beach compartments or littoral cells form the framework for our understanding of the sources, transport, and sinks of sand in the nearshore zone. In general, along the California coast, beach sand is derived from rivers or clifferosion, moves alongshore under the influence of the prevailing waver conditions, and ultimately is lost either to a submarine canyon or a dune field. Marinas or harbors built either between or at the upcoast ends of beach compartments have been relatively maintenance-free, because of a lack of significant littoral drift at these locations. On the other hand, those harbors built in the middle reaches or at the downcoast ends of littoral cells have had expensive annual dredging problems, because of the interruption of large volumes of littoral drift. Although engineers have labored for years on various breakwater, jetty, or entrance channel configurations, the actual design utilized is of secondary importance. The critical factors are harbor location within a littoral cell and annual litoral drift volume.

  7. Respiratory properties of blood in the harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soegaard, Lisette B; Hansen, Marie N; van Elk, Cornelis

    2012-01-01

    Harbor porpoises are active divers that exchange O(2) and CO(2) with the environment during a fast single breath upon surfacing. We investigated blood O(2)-transporting properties, buffer characteristics, Cl(-) transport via the erythrocyte anion exchanger (AE1), circulating nitric oxide metaboli......Harbor porpoises are active divers that exchange O(2) and CO(2) with the environment during a fast single breath upon surfacing. We investigated blood O(2)-transporting properties, buffer characteristics, Cl(-) transport via the erythrocyte anion exchanger (AE1), circulating nitric oxide....... The true plasma non-bicarbonate buffer value was moderately higher than in terrestrial mammals and increased upon deoxygenation. Plasma bicarbonate was also relatively high, contributing to increase the overall buffer capacity. The apparent Cl(-) permeability of harbor porpoise erythrocytes was similar......, plasma nitrate and hemoglobin-mediated nitrite reduction were elevated compared with mammalian standards, suggesting that increased nitric oxide bioavailability and nitrite-derived nitric oxide could play important roles in diving physiology....

  8. Contaminated sediment transport during floods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    Over the past 48 years, operations and waste disposal activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have resulted in the contamination of parts of the White Oak Creek catchment. The contaminants presenting the highest risk to human health and the environment are particle reactive and are associated with the soils and sediments in the White Oak Creek drainage system. The erosion of these sediments during floods can result in the transport of contaminants both within the catchment and off-site into the Clinch River. A data collection program and a modeling investigation are being used to evaluate the probability of contaminated sediment transport during floods and to develop strategies for controlling off-site transport under present and future conditions

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides in water columns from the Pearl River and the Macao harbor in the Pearl River Delta in South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, X.J.; Mai, B.X.; Yang, Q.S.; Fu, J.M.; Sheng, G.Y.; Wang, Z.S. [Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou (China)

    2004-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in suspended particles and dissolved phase from the Baiertang water column and the Macao water column samples as collected from the Guangzhou channel of the Pearl River and the Macao harbor, where the sediments were heavily contaminated with organic pollutants. Total OCPs concentration varies from 23.4 to 61.7 ng/l in Baiertang water column and from 25.2 to 67.8 ng/l in Macao column, while total PAHs concentration varies from 987.1 to 2878.5 ng/l in the Baiertang water column and from 944.0 to 6654.6 ng/l in the Macao column. The vertical distribution profiles of pollutants and the partition of pollutants between particles and dissolved phases indicate that the sediments in Baiertang act as an important source of selected pollutants, and the pollutants in water of this region were mainly originated from the release and re-suspension of contaminants residing in the sediments. The sediments in Macao harbor act as a reservoir for organochlorine pesticides, such as DDTs mainly introduced by river inflow from Xijiang and PAHs input by brackish water from the Lingdingyang estuary. Combustion of fossil fuels and petroleum input are the main sources of PAHs in the Macao water column, while combustion of fossil fuels and coal is responsible for the PAHs in the Baiertang water column.

  10. 33 CFR 110.87 - Henderson Harbor, N.Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Henderson Harbor, N.Y. 110.87... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.87 Henderson Harbor, N.Y. (a) Area A. The area in the... latitude 43°51′08.8″ N, longitude 76°12′08.9″ W, thence to latitude 43°51′09.0″ N, longitude 76°12′19.0″ W...

  11. Extrachromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid in R factor-harboring Enterobacteriaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, JK; Bak, AL; Christiansen, C

    1976-01-01

    Extrachromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from 24 different R factor-harboring Enterobacteriaceae was isolated and characterized by analytical ultracentrifugation and electron microscopy. The R factors represented 15 different patterns of transferable drug resistance found in enterobacteria from...... from 1.700 to 1.720 g/cm3. The majority of the bacteria contained extrachromosomal DNAs of various densities. Three-fourths of the R factors were classified as fi+. The investigation illustrates the extensive variability in the physical characteristics of plasmid DNA from R factor-harboring strains....

  12. Quantification of MTE in surface sediments of Morbihan Coast (South Brittany, France): A preliminary approach for determination of sources and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Joselyn; Goubert, Evelyne; Labeyrie, Laurent; Coynel, Alexandra; Menier, David

    2014-05-01

    The Morbihan Coast (South Brittany, France) has an intense coastal activity: farming, industry, urban habitation run-off, yachting and transportation. In the past centuries, tin mining industry was also developed. These different factors may introduce metal trace elements (MTE) into the marine environment at toxic concentration levels. This pollution can particularly affect the oyster production, widely developed in the area. Monitoring MTE in surface sediments at high spatial resolution has been programmed to assess pollutants and their sources in two of the major Morbihan coastal systems concerned with oyster farming, and where available information on MTE impact and sediment quality is limited: the Bay of Quiberon, partly protected from the open ocean by the Quiberon Peninsula and several islands, mostly sandy (coarse to fine, with a significant shelly fraction), with water depths shallower that 25 m, and the Gulf of Morbihan, a shallow depth (less than 5 m, apart from the two paleoriver beds), semi-enclosed, estuarine system with very coarse sand to fine mud, mostly distributed by a strong tidal current system. Fifty two surface sediment samples were collected in April 2013 to characterize the MTE spatial distribution through the salinity and pollution gradients, from the small local rivers and harbor areas to the open marine environments. Analyses cover sedimentological and biogeochemical properties (particulate organic carbon using a LECO-CS-230; MTE using ICP-MS or DMA for Hg). Statistical analyses help to discriminate within the spatial variability the natural (e.g. grain-size effect) and anthropogenic factors. MTE concentrations were also compared to local geochemical background as measured at the bottom of three sediment cores collected in representative sites, for calculating the enrichment index of each MTE and evaluating the degree of sediment contamination. The initial interpretation of the results would indicate a clear distinction between the

  13. Predicting dredging-associated effects to coral reefs in Apra Harbor, Guam - Part 2: Potential coral effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Deborah Shafer; McManus, John; Richmond, Robert H; King, David B; Gailani, Joe Z; Lackey, Tahirih C; Bryant, Duncan

    2016-03-01

    Coral reefs are in decline worldwide due to anthropogenic stressors including reductions in water and substratum quality. Dredging results in the mobilization of sediments, which can stress and kill corals via increasing turbidity, tissue damage and burial. The Particle Tracking Model (PTM) was applied to predict the potential impacts of dredging-associated sediment exposure on the coral reef ecosystems of Apra Harbor, Guam. The data were interpreted using maps of bathymetry and coral abundance and distribution in conjunction with impact parameters of suspended sediment concentration (turbidity) and sedimentation using defined coral response thresholds. The results are presented using a "stoplight" model of negligible or limited impacts to coral reefs (green), moderate stress from which some corals would be expected to recover while others would not (yellow) and severe stress resulting in mortality (red). The red conditions for sediment deposition rate and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) were defined as values exceeding 25 mg cm(-2) d(-1) over any 30 day window and >20 mg/l for any 18 days in any 90 day period over a column of water greater than 2 m, respectively. The yellow conditions were defined as values >10 mg cm(-2) d(-1) and <25 mg cm(-2) d(-1) over any 30 day period, and as 20% of 3 months' concentration exceeding 10 mg/l for the deposition and SSC, respectively. The model also incorporates the potential for cumulative effects on the assumption that even sub-lethal stress levels can ultimately lead to mortality in a multi-stressor system. This modeling approach can be applied by resource managers and regulatory agencies to support management decisions related to planning, site selection, damage reduction, and compensatory mitigation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. OU3 sediment dating and sedimentation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, R.B.; Wolaver, H.A.; Burger, V.M.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental Technologies at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFS) investigated the sediment history of Standley Lake, Great Western Reservoir, and Mower Reservoir using 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu global fall-out as dating indicators. These Colorado Front Range reservoirs have been the subject of study by various city, state and national agencies due to suspected Department of Energy Rocky Flats Plant impacts. We performed sediment dating as part of the RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report for Operable Unit 3. A sediment chronology profile assists scientist in determining the year of sedimentation for a particular peak concentration of contaminants. Radioisotope sediment dating for the three reservoirs indicated sedimentation rates of 0.7 to 0.8 in./yr. for Standley Lake (SL), 0.9 in./yr. for Great Western Reservoir (GWR), and 0.3 in./yr. in Mower Reservoir (MR). RFS sediment dating for Operable Unit 3 compared favorably with the Hardy, Livingston, Burke, and Volchok Standley Lake study. This report describes the cesium/plutonium sediment dating method, estimates sedimentation rates for Operable Unit 3 reservoirs, and compares these results to previous investigations

  15. Savannah River Laboratory Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance. Preliminary raw data release: Spartanburg 10 x 20 NTMS area, North Carolina and South Carolina. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffner, J.D.; Ferguson, R.B.

    1977-12-01

    Preliminary results are presented of stream sediment and ground water reconnaissance in the Spartanburg National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle. Stream sediment samples were collected from small streams at 1202 sites for a nominal density of one site per 13 square kilometers (five square miles) in rural areas. Ground water samples were collected at 771 sites for a nominal density of one site per 25 square kilometers (ten square miles). Neutron activation analysis (NAA) results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in ground water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Statistical summaries of data and a brief description of results are given. A generalized geologic map and a summary of the geology of the area are included. Key data are presented in page-sized hard copy. Supplementary data are on microfiche. Key data from stream sites include (1) water quality measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) elements that may be related to potential uranium and thorium mineralization in this area (U, Th, Hf, Ce, and Dy), and (3) elements useful for geologic classification of the sample area (Ti, V, Fe, Mn, A, and Sc). Supplementary data from stream sites include sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, stream width, etc.) and additional elemental analyses that may be useful (F, Eu, Sm, La, Yb, and Lu). Key data from ground water sites include (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity) and (2) elemental analyses (U, Na, Cl, Mg, Al, Mn, Br, V, and F). Supplementary data include site descriptors, information about the collection of the samples (well age, well depth, frequency of use of well, etc.), and analytical data for dyprosium

  16. Savannah River Laboratory hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance. Preliminary raw data release, Charlotte 10 x 20 NTMS area, North Carolina and South Carolina. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffner, J.D.; Ferguson, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    This report presents preliminary results of stream sediment and ground water reconnaissance in the Charlotte National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle. Stream sediment samples were collected from small streams at 1254 sites for a nominal density of one site per 13 square kilometers (five square miles) in rural areas. Ground water samples were collected at 759 sites for a nominal density of one site per 25 square kilometers (ten squre miles). Neutron activation analysis (NAA) results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in ground water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Statistical summaries of data and a brief description of results are given. A generalized geologic map and a summary of the geology of the area are included. Key data are presented in page-sized hard copy. Supplementary data are on microfiche. Key data from stream sites include (1) water quality measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) elements that may be related to potential uranium and thorium mineralization in this area (U, Th, Hf, Ce, and Dy), and (3) elements useful for geologic classification of the sample area (Ti, V, Fe, Mn, Al, and Sc). Supplementary data from stream sites include sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, stream width, etc.) and additional elemental analyses that may be useful (F, Eu, Sm, La, Yb, and Lu). Key data from ground water sites include (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity) and (2) elemental analyses (U, Na, Cl, Mg, Al, Mn, Br, V, and F). Supplementary data include site descriptors, information about the collection of the samples (well age, well depth, frequency of use of well, etc.), and analytical data for dysprosium

  17. Development of data enhancement and display techniques for stream-sediment data collected in the national uranium resource evaluation program of the United States Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, G.S. Jr.; Howarth, R.J.; Carpenter, R.H.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.

    1979-08-01

    The objective of this study was to combine statistical, mapping, and geological techniques in order to evaluate and appropriately display geochemical data for the identification of uranium associated halos utilizing the NURE hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data base. A set of computer-based procedures implemented in a time-sharing interactive mode on a Control Data Corporation Cyber 70 and 174 computer was developed. Techniques of data analysis are developed. Results of the data analysis for the Southeastern area, Seguin quadrangle, and Pueblo quadrangle are presented. Conclusions are drawn and recommendations are stated

  18. Harbor seal vibrissa morphology suppresses vortex-induced vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Wolf; Witte, Matthias; Miersch, Lars; Brede, Martin; Oeffner, Johannes; Michael, Mark; Hanke, Frederike; Leder, Alfred; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2010-08-01

    Harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) often live in dark and turbid waters, where their mystacial vibrissae, or whiskers, play an important role in orientation. Besides detecting and discriminating objects by direct touch, harbor seals use their whiskers to analyze water movements, for example those generated by prey fish or by conspecifics. Even the weak water movements left behind by objects that have passed by earlier can be sensed and followed accurately (hydrodynamic trail following). While scanning the water for these hydrodynamic signals at a swimming speed in the order of meters per second, the seal keeps its long and flexible whiskers in an abducted position, largely perpendicular to the swimming direction. Remarkably, the whiskers of harbor seals possess a specialized undulated surface structure, the function of which was, up to now, unknown. Here, we show that this structure effectively changes the vortex street behind the whiskers and reduces the vibrations that would otherwise be induced by the shedding of vortices from the whiskers (vortex-induced vibrations). Using force measurements, flow measurements and numerical simulations, we find that the dynamic forces on harbor seal whiskers are, by at least an order of magnitude, lower than those on sea lion (Zalophus californianus) whiskers, which do not share the undulated structure. The results are discussed in the light of pinniped sensory biology and potential biomimetic applications.

  19. 78 FR 63381 - Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ...; Kaumalapau, Lanai; Kahului, Maui and Kawaihae and Hilo on the Island of Hawaii). The purpose of these safety... the piers faces. (9) All waters of Hilo Harbor, Hawaii immediately adjacent to commercial piers 1 and.... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing nine (9) permanent safety zones encompassing Hawaii's commercial...

  20. 33 CFR 117.181 - Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal. 117.181 Section 117.181 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Tidal Canal. The draws of the Alameda County highway drawbridges at Park Street, mile 5.2; Fruitvale...

  1. 78 FR 21597 - Marine Mammals: Alaska Harbor Seal Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... seek input as to whether management measures are needed, and if so, what types of measures should be... proposed rulemaking (ANPR) on potential management measures to protect glacially-associated harbor seal... need for regulations; (2) the geographic scope and time horizon of regulations; (3) management options...

  2. Quantitative Measures of Anthropogenic Noise on Harbor Porpoises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewska, Danuta Maria; Teilmann, Jonas; Hermannsen, Line

    2016-01-01

    -animal recordings as proxies for actual exposure. Here, we quantify sound exposure levels recorded with a DTAG-3 tag on a captive harbor porpoise exposed to vessel noise in a controlled acoustic environment. Results show that fl ow noise is limiting onboard noise recordings, whereas no evidence of body shading has...

  3. Rhizosphere of rice plants harbor bacteria with multiple plant growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rhizosphere of rice plants harbor bacteria with multiple plant growth promoting features. ... 45 (39.46%) isolates were capable of producing siderophore, the range of production being 4.50 to 223.26 μg mg-1 protein. Analysis of molecular diversity was made by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and ...

  4. U.S. Department of Defense - Pearl Harbor Special

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaii saw that seminal moment in history, and those that were there vividly remember that Sunday morning this noise," he said in an oral history on the Pearl Harbor Survivors' Association Web site. " seeing was an attack. "It didn't mean anything to us until a large group of planes came near the

  5. A comparison of sediment toxicity test methods at three Great Lake Areas of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, G. Allen; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Burnett, LouAnn C.; Henry, Mary; Hinman, Mark L.; Klaine, Stephen J.; Landrum, Peter F.; Ross, Phillipe; Tuchman, Marc

    1996-01-01

    The significance of sediment contamination is often evaluated using sediment toxicity (bioassay) testing. There are relatively few “standardized” test methods for evaluating sediments. Popular sediment toxicity methods examine the extractable water (elutriate), interstitial water, or whole (bulk) sediment phases using test species spanning the aquatic food chain from bacteria to fish. The current study was designed to evaluate which toxicity tests were most useful in evaluations of sediment contamination at three Great Lake Areas of Concern. Responses of 24 different organisms including fish, mayflies, amphipods, midges, cladocerans, rotifers, macrophytes, algae, and bacteria were compared using whole sediment or elutriate toxicity assays. Sediments from several sites in the Buffalo River, Calumet River (Indiana Harbor), and Saginaw River were tested, as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS) Project. Results indicated several assays to be sensitive to sediment toxicity and able to discriminate between differing levels of toxicity. Many of the assay responses were significantly correlated to other toxicity responses and were similar based on factor analysis. For most applications, a test design consisting of two to three assays should adequately detect sediment toxicity, consisting of various groupings of the following species: Hyalella azteca, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Chironomus riparius, Chironomus tentans, Daphnia magna, Pimephales promelas, Hexagenia bilineata, Diporeia sp., Hydrilla verticillata, or Lemna minor.

  6. Interaction between water, sediments and radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snodgrass, W.J.; McKee, P.; Garnett, J.; Stieff, L.

    1988-08-01

    A model-based measurements program was carried out to evaluate the primary mechanisms controlling transport of uranium 238 and thorium 232 decay chain radionuclides in Quirke Lake, a water body draining much of the uranium mining and milling district near Elliot Lake, Ontario. This program included studies of radionuclide accumulation in sediments, particle settling and lake mass-balance studies. Also, sediment studies were undertaken to evaluate chemical fractionation, mineralogical associations, and sediment-water adsorption and release. A limnocorral experiment was conducted in an isolated portion of a lake to measure radium 226 removal from the water column and diffusion from the sediments back to the water. Modelling studies were made to assess the data. Substantial agreement was obtained using the model originally developed for the AECB between model predictions and observations for Quirke Lake and for the limnocorrals. Further work is required to complete the studies undertaken in this project to assess the significance of the efflux of radionuclides from the sediments. These studies include a laboratory program to measure kinetics of adsorption, sediment-water modelling studies of the results and a field measurement program to develop a mass-balance analysis for thorium. (numerous refs)

  7. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Beeville NTMS Quadrangle, Texas. Uranium resource evaluation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-31

    Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Beeville Quadrangle, Texas are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 373 groundwater and 364 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. The groundwater data indicate that the northwestern corner of the quadrangle is the most favorable for potential uranium mineralization. Favorability is indicated by high uranium concentrations; high arsenic, molybdenum, and vanadium concentrations; and proximity and similar geologic setting to the mines of the Karnes County mining district. Other areas that appear favorable are an area in Bee and Refugio Counties and the northeastern part of the quadrangle. Both areas have water chemistry similar to the Karnes County area, but the northeastern area does not have high concentrations of pathfinder elements. The stream sediment data indicate that the northeastern corner of the quadrangle is the most favorable for potential mineralization, but agricultural practices and mineralogy of the outcropping Beaumont Formation may indicate a false anomaly. The northwestern corner of the quadrangle is considered favorable because of its proximity to the known uranium deposits, but the data do not seem to support this.

  8. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Beeville NTMS Quadrangle, Texas. Uranium resource evaluation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Beeville Quadrangle, Texas are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 373 groundwater and 364 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. The groundwater data indicate that the northwestern corner of the quadrangle is the most favorable for potential uranium mineralization. Favorability is indicated by high uranium concentrations; high arsenic, molybdenum, and vanadium concentrations; and proximity and similar geologic setting to the mines of the Karnes County mining district. Other areas that appear favorable are an area in Bee and Refugio Counties and the northeastern part of the quadrangle. Both areas have water chemistry similar to the Karnes County area, but the northeastern area does not have high concentrations of pathfinder elements. The stream sediment data indicate that the northeastern corner of the quadrangle is the most favorable for potential mineralization, but agricultural practices and mineralogy of the outcropping Beaumont Formation may indicate a false anomaly. The northwestern corner of the quadrangle is considered favorable because of its proximity to the known uranium deposits, but the data do not seem to support this

  9. Impact of climate changes on the Santos Harbor, São Paulo State (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Alfredini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Santos Harbor Area (SHA in Sao Paulo Coastline (Brazil is the most important marine cargo transfer terminal in the Southern Hemisphere. A long term relative tidal level variability assessment shows a consistent response to relative sea level rise. A wave data base Wave Watch III was compared with a long term wave data-base generated by the ERA40-ECMWF (2003, both local validated. The current bed level of SHA Outer Channel is -15.00 m (Chart Datum or, in abbreviation, CD, maintained by dredging. According to the cargo throughput forecast, in 2025, the Access Channel will have to be deepened to level of -17.00 m. The feasibility of that choice is discussed from a technical, economical and conceptual navigation point of view in that context. A data set found from a scale model of the whole area of Santos Bay, Estuary and nearby beaches, showed the impact of maritime climate changes upon the coastal area. In the previous researches developed by the authors, it was demonstrated that the wave climate, the tides and tidal currents affect harbor and coastal structures maintenance, beaches stability, tidal inlet, sediment transport, saline intrusion and wetlands. Considering the increasing of the sea hazards and the high values of the infrastructures in that coastline, it is necessary to mitigate the risks. Hence, based on the results obtained by the authors, are highlighted guidelines strategies suggested for Access Channels dimensions, wharves free-board, jetties dimensions, dredging rates, rigid and flexible littoral defenses and land protection against flooding (including wetlands.

  10. The contribution of bank and surface sediments to fluvial sediment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contribution of bank and surface sediments to fluvial sediment transport of the Pra River. ... the relative contribution of surface and bank sediments to the fluvial sediment transport. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  11. Underwater noise from three types of offshore wind turbines: estimation of impact zones for harbor porpoises and harbor seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougaard, Jakob; Henriksen, Oluf Damsgaard; Miller, Lee A

    2009-06-01

    Underwater noise was recorded from three different types of wind turbines in Denmark and Sweden (Middelgrunden, Vindeby, and Bockstigen-Valar) during normal operation. Wind turbine noise was only measurable above ambient noise at frequencies below 500 Hz. Total sound pressure level was in the range 109-127 dB re 1 microPa rms, measured at distances between 14 and 20 m from the foundations. The 1/3-octave noise levels were compared with audiograms of harbor seals and harbor porpoises. Maximum 1/3-octave levels were in the range 106-126 dB re 1 microPa rms. Maximum range of audibility was estimated under two extreme assumptions on transmission loss (3 and 9 dB per doubling of distance, respectively). Audibility was low for harbor porpoises extending 20-70 m from the foundation, whereas audibility for harbor seals ranged from less than 100 m to several kilometers. Behavioral reactions of porpoises to the noise appear unlikely except if they are very close to the foundations. However, behavioral reactions from seals cannot be excluded up to distances of a few hundred meters. It is unlikely that the noise reaches dangerous levels at any distance from the turbines and the noise is considered incapable of masking acoustic communication by seals and porpoises.

  12. Ocean Sediment Thickness Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean sediment thickness contours in 200 meter intervals for water depths ranging from 0 - 18,000 meters. These contours were derived from a global sediment...

  13. Center for Contaminated Sediments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Center for Contaminated Sediments serves as a clearinghouse for technology and expertise concerned with contaminated sediments. The...

  14. Geochemistry of sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.

    Considering the potential of elemental data in marine sediments as diagnostic tools of various geological and oceanographic processes, sediment geochemical data from the Indian Ocean region has been reviewed in this article. Emphasis is laid...

  15. Indicators: Sediment Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment enzymes are proteins that are produced by microorganisms living in the sediment or soil. They are indicators of key ecosystem processes and can help determine which nutrients are affecting the biological community of a waterbody.

  16. Aerial Survey Counts of Harbor Seals in Coastal Alaska (2003-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset supports efforts to estimate the abundance and trends in population size of Alaska harbor seals. Annual surveys of harbor seal populations are...

  17. Aerial Survey Counts of Harbor Seals in Coastal Alaska (1998-2002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset supports efforts to estimate the abundance and trends in population size of Alaska harbor seals. Annual surveys of harbor seal populations are...

  18. A Comprehensive Copper Compliance Strategy: Implementing Regulatory Guidance at Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard & Intermediate Maintenance Facility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Earley, P. J; Rosen, G; Rivera-Duarte, I; Gauthier, R. D; Arias-Thode, Y; Thompson, J; Swope, B

    2007-01-01

    Studies were performed to develop a new National Pollution Discharge Elimination Systems Permit for the discharge of effluents from the Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard and Intermediate Maintenance Facility into Pearl Harbor...

  19. Telemetry data from satellite tags deployed on harbor seals in Cook Inlet, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Between 2004 and 2006 we conducted four harbor seal tagging trips in Cook Inlet during the months of October and May. In total, we captured and released 93 harbor...

  20. Copper storage in the liver of the wild mute swan (Cygnus olor). Its possible relation to pollution of harbor waters by antifouling paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, J J

    1983-12-01

    Postmortem examination of three wild mute swans (Cygnus olor) from a harbor area disclosed an unusual black discoloration of the liver. Chemical, histochemical, and microscopic studies, along with electron-probe microanalysis, showed that cytoplasmic pigment granules in the liver cells contained a copper-protein complex. Similar findings have been reported in Danish and English studies on large numbers of wild mute swans. Two control mute swans from The Bronx Zoo had negligible amounts of hepatic copper. The striking difference between the wild and the captive swans in hepatic copper content suggests that the copper in the wild swans was of environmental origin, most likely from copper-rich antifouling paint used extensively in the marine industry. Flakes of this paint may be ingested by swans searching for food in the sediment of harbor waters.

  1. A smart ROV solution for ship hull and harbor inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Scott; Wood, Jon; Vazquez, Jose; Mignotte, Pierre-Yves; Privat, Benjamin

    2010-04-01

    Hull and harbor infrastructure inspections are frequently performed manually and involve quite a bit of risk and human and monetary resources. In any kind of threat and resource constrained environment, this involves unacceptable levels of risk and cost. Modern Remotely Operated Vehicles are highly refined machines that provide features and capabilities previously unavailable. Operations once carried out by divers can now be carried out more quickly, efficiently and safely by smart enabled ROVs. ROVs are rapidly deployable and capable of continuous, reliable operations in adverse conditions. They also provide a stable platform on which multiple sensors may be mounted and utilized to meet the harbor inspection problem. Automated Control software provides ROV's and their pilots with the capability to inspect complex, constrained environments such as those found in a harbor region. This application and the user interface allow the ROV to automatically conduct complex maneuvers relative to the area being inspected and relieves the training requirements and work load for the pilot, allowing he or she to focus on the primary task of survey, inspection and looking for possible threats (such as IEDs, Limpet Mines, signs of sabotage, etc). Real-time sensor processing tools can be integrated into the smart ROV solution to assist the operator. Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) algorithms are used to search through the sensor data collected by the ROV in real time. These algorithms provide immediate feedback on possible threats and notify the operator of regions that may require manual verification. Sensor data (sonar or video) is also mosaiced, providing the operator with real-time situational awareness and a coverage map of the hull or seafloor. Detected objects may also be placed in the context of the large scale characteristics of the hull (or bottom or pilings) and localized. Within the complex areas such as the harbor pier pilings and the running gear of the ship, real

  2. POTENTIAL HAZARDS OF SEDIMENT IN KENDARI BAY, SOUTHEAST SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Adi Kristanto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Kendari bay is located in front of Kendari city. There are two harbors in the inner part of bay which very important to support economic activities such as shipping and passenger transportation. The result of coastal characteristic mapping and physical oceanography survey show various coastal morphology, vegetation, weathering processes, sedimentation, currents, and water depth and sea floor morphology. Kendari bay is an enclosed bay; the area is wide in the inner part and narrow in mouth of bay (outlet, the morphology look like a bottle’s neck. Numerous mouth rivers are concentrate around the bay. The rivers load material from land since erosion on land is intensive enough. There is indication that sediment supplies from land trough river mouth not equivalent with outlet capacity. Sediment load is trapped in the inner bay caused the outlet morphology. So high sediment rate play an important role in the process of shallow of water depth in Kendari bay. This condition make the Kendari bay is a prone area of sediment hazard due to height rate of sedimentary process. Therefore, to anticipate the hazards, precaution should be taken related to the Kendari bay as the center of activities in southeast of Sulawesi. The further survey is needed such as marine geotechnique and on land environmental to collect data, which can be used as database for development planning. Key words: Potential hazard, sediment, Kendari Bay Teluk

  3. 33 CFR 334.1430 - Apra Inner Harbor, Island of Guam; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apra Inner Harbor, Island of Guam... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1430 Apra Inner Harbor, Island of Guam; restricted area. (a) The restricted area. The waters within Apra Inner Harbor and...

  4. 33 CFR 165.1402 - Apra Outer Harbor, Guam-regulated navigation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apra Outer Harbor, Guam-regulated....1402 Apra Outer Harbor, Guam—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a regulated navigation area—The waters of the Pacific Ocean and Apra Outer Harbor enclosed by a line beginning at latitude 13...

  5. 77 FR 45239 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bar Harbor, ME

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ...-1366; Airspace Docket No. 11-ANE-13] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bar Harbor, ME AGENCY: Federal... area at Bar Harbor, ME, as the Surry Non-Directional Radio Beacon (NDB) has been decommissioned and new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures have been developed at Hancock County-Bar Harbor Airport. This...

  6. 77 FR 27666 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bar Harbor, ME

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ...-1366; Airspace Docket No. 11-ANE-13] Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bar Harbor, ME AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Bar Harbor, ME, as the Surry Non-Directional Radio Beacon... Hancock County-Bar Harbor Airport. This action would enhance the safety and airspace management of...

  7. 33 CFR 162.165 - Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, New York. 162.165 Section 162.165 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... and Rochester Harbors, New York. In Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, no vessel may exceed 6 miles per...

  8. 76 FR 32071 - Safety Zone; Conneaut Festival Fireworks, Conneaut Harbor, Conneaut, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Conneaut Festival Fireworks, Conneaut Harbor, Conneaut, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Conneaut Harbor, Conneaut, OH for the Conneaut Festival Fireworks. This zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Conneaut Harbor, Conneaut, OH during the Conneaut Festival Fireworks on July 3...

  9. 78 FR 18479 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... Operation Regulations; Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... across the Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, mile 4.6, at New Orleans, Louisiana. This deviation is... Seabrook Highway crossing the Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, mile 4.6, in New Orleans, Louisiana. The...

  10. 76 FR 38153 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Commercial Harbor Craft Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Standards; Commercial Harbor Craft Regulations; Opportunity for Public Hearing and Comment AGENCY... engines on commercial harbor craft. CARB has requested that EPA issue a new authorization under [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. California's Commercial Harbor Craft Regulations In a...

  11. Buffalo Harbor Study. Preliminary Feasibility Report. Volume I. Main Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    to usually narrow strips of riparian vegetation, which is composed of various trees and shrubs of the Salix genus (willow), sumac, aspen, boxelder...reptiles were found. Species included, leopard frogs, snapping turtles, painted turtle, and garter snakes (SUNY Brockport: 1982). (7) Endangered Species...vessel traffic on the Buffalo River causes interrupted truck service. Firms have also cited snow removal as a problem. The harbor area road service

  12. Army Engineer Divers: First In Port-Au-Prince Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    to the pile once the concrete was poured. This step was com- pleted in a few minutes for each pile. Last, a prefabricated wooden form was emplaced...September-December 201010 Engineer This prefabricated wooden form was emplaced around a rebar cage at the top of damaged piles to hold concrete until it...the mainland into the harbor. Waste from tugboats and sewage from the mainland compounded ecological hazards. The only alternative for the Army and

  13. Environmental Assessment for Boston Harbor Maintenance Dredging, Boston, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    Harbor was developed by Jerome et al (1966), Chesmore et al (1971) and Iwanowicz et al. (1973). The studies on the Lower Mystic River were concentrated in... Iwanowicz et al. (1973) and this data should be referred to for detailed information. Waters overlying the shellfish beds are contaminated by wastes...DMRP Technical Report DS-78-5, Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi. Iwanowicz , H. R., R D

  14. An Evaluation of the Acquisition Streamlining Methods at the Fleet and Industrial Supply Center Pearl Harbor Hawaii

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henry, Mark

    1999-01-01

    ...) Pearl Harbor's implementation of acquisition streamlining initiatives and recommends viable methods of streamlining the acquisition process at FISC Pearl Harbor and other Naval Supply Systems Command...

  15. Towards an ethics safe harbor for global biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Edward S.; Knoppers, Bartha M.; Zawati, Ma'n H.

    2014-01-01

    Although increasingly global, data-driven genomics and other ‘omics’-focused research hold great promise for health discoveries, current research ethics review systems around the world challenge potential improvements in human health from such research. To overcome this challenge, we propose a ‘Safe Harbor Framework for International Ethics Equivalency’ that facilitates the harmonization of ethics review of specific types of data-driven international research projects while respecting globally transposable research ethics norms and principles. The Safe Harbor would consist in part of an agency supporting an International Federation for Ethics Review (IFER), formed by a voluntary compact among countries, granting agencies, philanthropies, institutions, and healthcare, patient advocacy, and research organizations. IFER would be both a central ethics review body, and also a forum for review and follow-up of policies concerning ethics norms for international research projects. It would be built on five principle elements: (1) registration, (2) compliance review, (3) recognition, (4) monitoring and enforcement, and (5) public participation. The Safe Harbor would create many benefits for researchers, countries, and the general public, and may eventually have application beyond (gen)omics to other areas of biomedical research that increasingly engage in secondary use of data and present only negligible risks. PMID:27774154

  16. Effects of Harbor Modification on Crescent City, California's Tsunami Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler, Lori; Uslu, Burak

    2011-06-01

    More damaging tsunamis have impacted Crescent City, California in historic times than any other location on the West Coast of the USA. Crescent City's harbor has undergone significant modification since the early 20th century, including construction of several breakwaters, dredging, and a 200 × 300 m2 small boat basin. In 2006, a M w 8.3 earthquake in the Kuril Islands generated a moderate Pacific-wide tsunami. Crescent City recorded the highest amplitudes of any tide gauge in the Pacific and was the only location to experience structural damage. Strong currents damaged docks and boats within the small boat basin, causing more than US 20 million in damage and replacement costs. We examine how modifications to Crescent City's harbor may have affected its vulnerability to moderate tsunamis such as the 2006 event. A bathymetric grid of the basin was constructed based on US Army Corps of Engineers soundings in 1964 and 1965 before the construction of the small boat basin. The method of splitting tsunamis was used to estimate tsunami water heights and current velocities at several locations in the harbor using both the 1964-1965 grid and the 2006 bathymetric grid for the 2006 Kuril event and a similar-sized source along the Sanriku coast of Japan. Model velocity outputs are compared for the two different bathymetries at the tide gauge location and at six additional computational sites in the harbor. The largest difference between the two grids is at the small boat basin entrance, where the 2006 bathymetry produces currents over three times the strength of the currents produced by the 1965 bathymetry. Peak currents from a Sanriku event are comparable to those produced by the 2006 event, and within the boat basin may have been higher. The modifications of the harbor, and in particular the addition of the small boat basin, appear to have contributed to the high current velocities and resulting damage in 2006 and help to explain why the 1933 M w 8.4-8.7 Sanriku tsunami

  17. Depth-related influences on biodegradation rates of phenanthrene in polluted marine sediments of Puget Sound, WA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yinjie J. . E-mail yjtang@lbl.gov; Carpenter, Shelly D.; Deming, Jody W.; Krieger-Brockett, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    A whole-core injection method was used to determine depth-related rates of microbial mineralization of 14 C-phenanthrene added to both contaminated and clean marine sediments of Puget Sound, WA. For 26-day incubations under micro-aerobic conditions, conversions of 14 C-phenanthrene to 14 CO 2 in heavily PAH-contaminated sediments from two sites in Eagle Harbor were much higher (up to 30%) than those in clean sediments from nearby Blakely Harbor ( 14 C-phenanthrene degradation rates in the surface sediment horizons (0-3 cm) were more rapid (2-3 times) than in the deeper sediment horizons examined (>6 cm), especially in the most PAH polluted EH9 site. Differences in mineralization were associated with properties of the sediments as a function of sediment depth, including grain-size distribution, PAH concentration, total organic matter and total bacterial abundance. When strictly anaerobic incubations (in N 2 /H 2 /CO 2 atmosphere) were used, the phenanthrene biodegradation rates at all sediment depths were two times slower than under micro-aerobic conditions, with methanogenesis observed after 24 days. The main rate-limiting factor for phenanthrene degradation under anaerobic conditions appeared to be the availability of suitable electron acceptors. Addition of calcium sulfate enhanced the first order rate coefficient (k 1 increased from 0.003 to 0.006 day -1 ), whereas addition of soluble nitrate, even at very low concentration ( 1 up to 0.11 day -1 )

  18. Grays Harbor and Chehalis River Improvements to Navigation Environmental Studies. Wildlife Studies at Proposed Disposal Sites in Grays Harbor, Washington,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    sltand. T 𔃼~P i’ W 210 three times VtwCerI November IOC’C -nd ~co l.Etls ~ ec!,!zervc-o betxwe H -gF 12 Th -ind hl rway u- 7Plie Sicuobh. E. Cumin -s 1... stress imposed by dredge dsosal ;ictivities on these species. It is difficult to rredict the effects of establishing a salt marsh in Grays Harbor on

  19. Availability of streamflow for recharge of the basal aquifer in the Pearl Harbor area, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirashima, George Tokusuke

    1971-01-01

    runoff from the 90-square-mile Pearl Harbor area is 47.27 million gallons per day, or 11.1 inches; this is 13.3 percent of the average annual rainfall (83.3 in.) over the area. Average annual direct runoff in streams at the 800- and 400-foot altitudes is 29 and 38 million gallons per day, respectively. Kipapa Stream has the largest average annual direct runoff at those altitudes--6 and 9 million gallons per day, respectively. Because streams are flashy and have a wide range in discharge, only 60 percent of the average annual runoff can be economically diverted through ditches to recharge areas. The diversion may be increased slightly if reservoirs are used in conjunction with ditches to temporarily detain flows in excess of ditch capacity. The planned irrigation use of some of the perennial flow available in Waikele Stream near sea level will decrease pumping from and increase recharge to the basal aquifer. Suspended-sediment load is mainly silt and clay, and it increases rapidly with increased discharge. Thus, the use of streamflow for artificial recharge poses problems. High flows must be used if recharge is to be effective, but flows must not be so high as to cause clogging of recharge facilities with sediment or woodland debris. Practical tests are needed to determine the advantages and disadvantages of different types of recharge structures, such as a reservoir or basin, large-diameter deep shafts, deep wells, or combinations of all these structures.

  20. Sediment Characterization in St. Alban's Bay, VT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nethercutt, S.; Manley, T.; Manley, P.

    2017-12-01

    St. Alban's Bay within Lake Champlain is plagued with harmful algal blooms. With future intensification due to climate change, a multidisciplinary program (BREE-Basin Resilience to Extreme Events) was initiated in 2016. In order to assess the mobilization of harmful nutrients from sediment resuspension events and riverine input, 74 sediment samples were collected in a grid fashion throughout St. Alban's Bay. Sediments were deflocculated and analyzed using a LA920 Horiba laser scattering particle size distribution analyzer to define the frequency of sediment sizes from clay to sand. Gridded surfaces of mean sortable silt percentage, silt percentage, sand percentage, and clay percentage were used to represent the sediment distribution of the region. A plot of diameter versus frequency showed the bimodal nature of some of the sediments, with one peak at about 10 microns diameter (silt) and the second at about 525 microns diameter (sand). The data showed an extremely low percentage of clay relative to that of sand and silt. The highest frequencies of sortable silt, which represents the most easily mobilized particle size, are found in the deepest areas of the bay, suggesting that these regions are where dominant bottom flow occurs. The high occurrence of sortable silt in the St. Alban's Bay does suggest that sediment mobilization, and therefore nutrient mobilization has the potential to occur. These data combined with high-resolution multibeam and hydrodynamic data will allow for future models of water flow and remobilization studies in the future.

  1. Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks (ESBs) for the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes procedures to determine the concentrations of nonionic organic chemicals in sediment interstitial waters. In previous ESB documents, the general equilibrium partitioning (EqP) approach was chosen for the derivation of sediment benchmarks because it accounts for the varying bioavailability of chemicals in different sediments and allows for the incorporation of the appropriate biological effects concentration. This provides for the derivation of benchmarks that are causally linked to the specific chemical, applicable across sediments, and appropriately protective of benthic organisms.  This equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmark (ESB) document was prepared by scientists from the Atlantic Ecology Division, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, and Western Ecology Division, the Office of Water, and private consultants. The document describes procedures to determine the interstitial water concentrations of nonionic organic chemicals in contaminated sediments. Based on these concentrations, guidance is provided on the derivation of toxic units to assess whether the sediments are likely to cause adverse effects to benthic organisms. The equilibrium partitioning (EqP) approach was chosen because it is based on the concentrations of chemical(s) that are known to be harmful and bioavailable in the environment.  This document, and five others published over the last nine years, will be useful for the Program Offices, including Superfund, a

  2. Depth-related influences on biodegradation rates of phenanthrene in polluted marine sediments of Puget Sound, WA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yinjie J. [Keasling Lab, Biophysics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Biophysics Division, 717 Potter Street, Bldlg 977 MC 3224, Berkeley, CA 94720-3224 (United States)]. E-mail yjtang@lbl.gov; Carpenter, Shelly D. [School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Deming, Jody W. [School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Krieger-Brockett, Barbara [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2006-11-15

    A whole-core injection method was used to determine depth-related rates of microbial mineralization of {sup 14}C-phenanthrene added to both contaminated and clean marine sediments of Puget Sound, WA. For 26-day incubations under micro-aerobic conditions, conversions of {sup 14}C-phenanthrene to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in heavily PAH-contaminated sediments from two sites in Eagle Harbor were much higher (up to 30%) than those in clean sediments from nearby Blakely Harbor (<3%). The averaged {sup 14}C-phenanthrene degradation rates in the surface sediment horizons (0-3 cm) were more rapid (2-3 times) than in the deeper sediment horizons examined (>6 cm), especially in the most PAH polluted EH9 site. Differences in mineralization were associated with properties of the sediments as a function of sediment depth, including grain-size distribution, PAH concentration, total organic matter and total bacterial abundance. When strictly anaerobic incubations (in N{sub 2}/H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} atmosphere) were used, the phenanthrene biodegradation rates at all sediment depths were two times slower than under micro-aerobic conditions, with methanogenesis observed after 24 days. The main rate-limiting factor for phenanthrene degradation under anaerobic conditions appeared to be the availability of suitable electron acceptors. Addition of calcium sulfate enhanced the first order rate coefficient (k {sub 1} increased from 0.003 to 0.006 day{sup -1}), whereas addition of soluble nitrate, even at very low concentration (<0.5 mM), inhibited mineralization. Long-term storage of heavily polluted Eagle Harbor sediment as intact cores under micro-aerobic conditions also appeared to enhance anaerobic biodegradation rates (k {sub 1} up to 0.11 day{sup -1})

  3. PCBs and DDE in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings from an estuarine PCB superfund site, New Bedford Harbor, MA, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Saro; Nacci, Diane E.; Champlin, Denise M.; Pruell, Richard J.; Rocha, Kenneth J.; Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Cantwell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    While breeding tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) have been used as biomonitors for freshwater sites, we report the first use of this species to assess contaminant bioaccumulation from estuarine breeding grounds into these aerial insectivores. Eggs and nestlings were collected from nest boxes in a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated estuary, the New Bedford Harbor Superfund site (NBH, Massachusetts, USA), and a reference salt marsh, Fox Hill (FH, Jamestown, Rhode Island, USA). Sediments, eggs, and nestlings were compared on a ng g−1 wet weight basis for total PCBs and DDE (1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene), metabolite of DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane). NBH samples contained high concentrations of PCBs compared to FH for sediment (36,500 and 0.2), eggs (11,200 and 323), and nestlings (16,800 and 26). PCB homologue patterns linked tree swallow contamination to NBH sediment. NBH samples were also contaminated with DDE compared to FH for sediment (207 and 0.9) and nestlings (235 and 30) but not for eggs (526 and 488), suggesting both NBH and nonbreeding ground sources for DDE. The relationships between sediment and tree swallow egg and nestling PCBs were similar to those reported for freshwater sites. Like some highly contaminated freshwater sites, NBH PCB bioaccumulation had little apparent effect on reproductive success.

  4. Alexandria's Eastern Harbor, Egypt: Pollen, microscopic charcoal, and the transition from natural to human-modified basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, J.-D.; Bernhardt, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    Pollen and microscopic charcoal examined in Holocene sediment core samples record major environmental modifications affecting Alexandria's Eastern Harbor through time. We assess whether such changes on Egypt's coastal margin were influenced primarily by natural, or natural plus human, or primarily human factors. We focus on (1) the times when pollen assemblages and microscopic charcoal content changed in the core, (2) how they changed, and (3) why this occurred. The analysis takes into account the core's stratigraphy, regional climate variability, human history, and local archaeological record. Four pollenmicroscopic charcoal zones are identified. The earliest change occurred at ca. 6000 YBP, during Egypt's earlier Predynastic (Neolithic) period, coinciding with a lithologic break from sand to muddy sand. Pollen during this time indicates a transition to a much drier climate rather than effects of human activity. The second change in pollen occurred 3600-2900 YBP, during a period of continued aridity with no lithologic variation in this core interval. Pollen (cereal taxa, agricultural weeds, grape) and a sharp increase in microscopic charcoal indicate that human activity became prevalent at least 700 y before Alexander the Great's arrival in this region, and these results highlight the transition from a largely natural climatecontrolled environment to one influenced by both climate and anthropogenic activity. The third shift up-core in pollen assemblages is dated at ca. 2300 YBP, at the boundary between a sand and mud unit. It coincides with construction by the Ptolemies of the Heptastadion between Alexandria and Pharos Island. From this time onward, harbor sediment in the nearly enclosed catchment basin indicates a near-continuous record of dominant proximal human activity. ?? 2010 Coastal Education and Research Foundation.

  5. Granulometric data 241-U tank farm monitoring well sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fecht, K.R.; Price, W.H.

    1977-12-01

    This report documents the quantitative analysis of disaggregated grains according to a grain size grouping scheme, termed herein granulometric analysis. The sediments analyzed were collected during the drilling of monitoring wells in the 241-U Tank Farm and were utilized to prepare a series of geologic maps and cross sections. The relative proportions of different sediment size fractions found in the sediments underlying the tank farm are important for the purposes of: (1) defining the relationships of various sediment types, (2) developing approximations of engineering and hydrological properties of sediments, and (3) determining sedimentary genesis. Approximately 790 sediment samples in the 241-U Tank Farm were analyzed for grain size with disaggregated intermediate diameters ranging from 64 to 0.063 millimeters. Size analysis was conducted utilizing a nest of nine screens with wire mesh size openings coinciding to the Wentworth-grade scale divisions. The granulometric data were input to a computer program (ROC) to categorize sediment samples into one of nineteen disaggregated sediment classes. Also included in ROC are calcium carbonate data which were determined by a semiquantitative carbon dioxide displacement method. A discussion of drilling and sampling methods, grain size nomenclature, sediment classification, sieving, calcium carbonate analysis, ROC computer program, and procedures is included to aid in understanding granulometric analysis. The background discussion is followed by the granulometric data from 241-U Tank Farm monitoring well sediment samples

  6. LOADING SIMULATION PROGRAM C

    Science.gov (United States)

    LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for simulating hydrology, sediment, and general water quality

  7. Rapid sedimentation and overpressure in shallow sediments of the Bering Trough, offshore southern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Hugh; Worthington, Lindsay L.; Gulick, Sean P. S.; Van Avendonk, Harm J. A.

    2017-04-01

    Pore pressures in sediments at convergent margins play an important role in driving chemical fluxes and controlling deformation styles and localization. In the Bering Trough offshore Southern Alaska, extreme sedimentation rates over the last 140 kyr as a result of glacial advance/retreats on the continental shelf have resulted in elevated pore fluid pressures in slope sediments overlying the Pamplona Zone fold and thrust belt, the accretionary wedge resulting from subduction of the Yakutat microplate beneath the North American Plate. Based on laboratory experiments and downhole logs acquired at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1421, we predict that the overpressure in the slope sediments may be as high as 92% of the lithostatic stress. Results of one-dimensional numerical modeling accounting for changes in sedimentation rate over the last 130 kyr predicted overpressures that are consistent with our estimates, suggesting that the overpressure is a direct result of the rapid sedimentation experienced on the Bering shelf and slope. Comparisons with other convergent margins indicate that such rapid sedimentation and high overpressure are anomalous in sediments overlying accretionary wedges. We hypothesize that the shallow overpressure on the Bering shelf/slope has fundamentally altered the deformation style within the Pamplona Zone by suppressing development of faults and may inhibit seismicity by focusing faulting elsewhere or causing deformation on existing faults to be aseismic. These consequences are probably long-lived as it may take several million years for the excess pressure to dissipate.

  8. Sediment supply to beaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels

    2014-01-01

    Many beaches have been built by an onshore supply of sand from the shoreface, and future long-term coastal evolution critically depends on cross-shore sediment exchange between the upper and the lower shorefaces. Even so, cross-shore sediment supply remains poorly known in quantitative terms...... and this reduces confidence in predictions of long-term shoreline change. In this paper, field measurements of suspended sediment load and cross-shore transport on the lower shoreface are used to derive a model for sediment supply from the lower to the upper shoreface at large spatial and temporal scales. Data...

  9. Sediment Core Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation and expertise for physical and geoacoustic characterization of marine sediments.DESCRIPTION: The multisensor core logger measures...

  10. The dirt on sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Loren M.; Euliss, Ned H. "Chip"

    2010-01-01

    In the wetland science field, sediment deposition is often thought of as being beneficial especially when one thinks of coastal estuarine systems. For example, sediments deposited from streams and rivers are necessary to naturally build and maintain tidal marshes. These sediments come from eroded upland soils in the interior of the continent. When these sediments are diverted from natural coastal deposition areas, such as occurs from river channelization, we lose marshes through subsidence as is happening throughout coastal Louisiana. However, the value of eroded soils is all a matter of hydrogeomorphic perspective.

  11. Global Distribution of Net Electron Acceptance in Subseafloor Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulfer, V. M.; Pockalny, R. A.; D'Hondt, S.

    2017-12-01

    We quantified the global distribution of net electron acceptance rates (e-/m2/year) in subseafloor sediment (>1.5 meters below seafloor [mbsf]) using (i) a modified version of the chemical-reaction-rate algorithm by Wang et al. (2008), (ii) physical properties and dissolved oxygen and sulfate data from interstitial waters of sediment cores collected by the Ocean Drilling Program, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, International Ocean Discovery Program, and U.S. coring expeditions, and (iii) correlation of net electron acceptance rates to global oceanographic properties. Calculated net rates vary from 4.8 x 1019 e-/m2/year for slowly accumulating abyssal clay to 1.2 x 1023 e-/m2/year for regions of high sedimentation rate. Net electron acceptance rate correlates strongly with mean sedimentation rate. Where sedimentation rate is very low (e.g., 1 m/Myr), dissolved oxygen penetrates more than 70 mbsf and is the primary terminal electron acceptor. Where sedimentation rate is moderate (e.g., 3 to 60 m/Myr), dissolved sulfate penetrates as far as 700 mbsf and is the principal terminal electron acceptor. Where sedimentation rate is high (e.g., > 60 m/Myr), dissolved sulfate penetrates only meters, but is the principal terminal electron acceptor in subseafloor sediment to the depth of sulfate penetration. Because microbial metabolism continues at greater depths than the depth of sulfate penetration in fast-accumulating sediment, complete quantification of subseafloor metabolic rates will require consideration of other chemical species.

  12. Sediment tolerance mechanisms identified in sponges using advanced imaging techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. Strehlow

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial runoff, resuspension events and dredging can affect filter-feeding sponges by elevating the concentration of suspended sediments, reducing light intensity, and smothering sponges with sediments. To investigate how sponges respond to pressures associated with increased sediment loads, the abundant and widely distributed Indo-Pacific species Ianthella basta was exposed to elevated suspended sediment concentrations, sediment deposition, and light attenuation for 48 h (acute exposure and 4 weeks (chronic exposure. In order to visualise the response mechanisms, sponge tissue was examined by 3D X-ray microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Acute exposures resulted in sediment rapidly accumulating in the aquiferous system of I. basta, although this sediment was fully removed within three days. Sediment removal took longer (>2 weeks following chronic exposures, and I. basta also exhibited tissue regression and a smaller aquiferous system. The application of advanced imaging approaches revealed that I. basta employs a multilevel system for sediment rejection and elimination, containing both active and passive components. Sponges responded to sediment stress through (i mucus production, (ii exclusion of particles by incurrent pores, (iii closure of oscula and pumping cessation, (iv expulsion of particles from the aquiferous system, and (v tissue regression to reduce the volume of the aquiferous system, thereby entering a dormant state. These mechanisms would result in tolerance and resilience to exposure to variable and high sediment loads associated with both anthropogenic impacts like dredging programs and natural pressures like flood events.

  13. Savannah River Laboratory quarterly report, October--December 1975. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance: eastern United States. National Uranium Resource Evaluation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Orientation studies were completed in six states. Areas sampled included the Texas Coastal Plain; Georgia Piedmont; North and South Carolina Blue Ridge; North Carolina Inner Piedmont, Slate Belt, Triassic Basin, and Coastal Plain; and Pennsylvania and Tennessee Plateaus. The sample preparation and neutron activation analyses are on a routine basis. No data is, however, reported. Programming and input for data management, analysis, and interpretation are reported

  14. Programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, this model is elaborated to produce the required program outputs; third, the resulting program is transformed to run efficiently in the execution environment. The first two stages deal in network structures of sequential processes; only the third is concerned with procedure hierarchies. (orig.)

  15. Restoration Science in New York Harbor: It takes a (large, diverse and engaged) village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, R.; Birney, L.; Janis, S.; Groome, M.; Palmer, M.; Bone, E.; O'Neil, J. M.; Hill, J.; Dennison, W.; Malinowski, P.; Kohne, L.; Molina, M.; Moore, G.; Woods, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Curriculum + Community Enterprise for Restoration Science (CCE-RS) facilitates partnerships between scientists and middle school educators on ecological restoration and environmental monitoring projects. The educational model is designed to wrap around the student, including classroom instruction, field science, after-school programs and engagement with the student's community. Its pillars include: a teacher training fellowship at Pace University, student curriculum, a digital platform, afterschool and summer mentoring, and community exhibits. The digital platform includes a tablet app tailored to the project's field protocols and linked to a database shared across schools and partnering institutions. Through the digital platform, data is integrated into a single citizen-science monitoring project, teachers share curriculum and best practices, and students link directly to their peers at other schools. Curriculum development has been collaborative between scientists, science education specialists, and secondary school teachers. The CCE-RS is rooted in project-based learning: the New York Harbor School has engaged high school students in environmental monitoring and oyster restoration in the Harbor for about the last decade. The science partners (U. of Maryland and Columbia) have been working with students and other citizen scientists in outdoor science over about the last decade. Local partners in outside-the-classroom education include the New York Academy of Sciences, The River Project, which will provide field education services, and Good Shepherd Services, which provides after-school programming in schools serving primarily poor families. Scientists on the project engage directly with teachers and informal educators in curriculum development and citizen-science outreach. We present the lessons learned from our first cohort of Fellows, the pedagogical model, and the digital platform, which is extensible to other ecological restoration settings.

  16. Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, M A

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, thi...

  17. Caffeine in Boston Harbor past and present, assessing its utility as a tracer of wastewater contamination in an urban estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sites throughout Boston Harbor were analyzed for caffeine to assess its utility as a tracer in identifying sources of sanitary wastewater. Caffeine ranged from 15 ng/L in the outer harbor to a high of 185 ng/L in the inner harbor. Inner harbor concentrations were a result of comb...

  18. Heat from harbor to city; Warmte van haven naar stad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roggen, M. (ed.)

    2004-09-01

    The Rotterdam harbor area is perfect for an industrial heat distribution network. Numerous major heat producers and many potential consumers of all sizes group together in this industrial area. The new Heat Company ('Warmtebedrijf') is making a detailed business plan to build a heat distribution system. [Dutch] Als er een regio is waar een industrieel warmtenet voor de hand ligt, is het het Rotterdamse havengebied wel. Tal van grote warmteproducenten en een woud aan kleinere en grotere afnemers zijn praktisch buren. Om handen en voeten te geven aan dit op papier mooie idee, stelt het kersverse Warmtebedrijf io een gedetailleerd businessplan op.

  19. Hydraulic modeling of stream channels and structures in Harbor and Crow Hollow Brooks, Meriden, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Lawrence A.; Sears, Michael P.; Cervione, Michael A.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of urbanization have increased the frequency and size of floods along certain reaches of Harbor Brook and Crow Hollow Brook in Meriden, Conn. A floodprofile-modeling study was conducted to model the effects of selected channel and structural modifications on flood elevations and inundated areas. The study covered the reach of Harbor Brook downstream from Interstate 691 and the reach of Crow Hollow Brook downstream from Johnson Avenue. Proposed modifications, which include changes to bank heights, channel geometry, structural geometry, and streambed armoring on Harbor Brook and changes to bank heights on Crow Hollow Brook, significantly lower flood elevations. Results of the modeling indicate a significant reduction of flood elevations for the 10-year, 25-year, 35-year, 50-year, and 100-year flood frequencies using proposed modifications to (1 ) bank heights between Harbor Brook Towers and Interstate 691 on Harbor Brook, and between Centennial Avenue and Johnson Avenue on Crow Hollow Brook; (2) channel geometry between Coe Avenue and Interstate 69 1 on Harbor Brook; (3) bridge and culvert opening geometry between Harbor Brook Towers and Interstate 691 on Harbor Brook; and (4) channel streambed armoring between Harbor Brook Towers and Interstate 691 on Harbor Brook. The proposed modifications were developed without consideration of cost-benefit ratios.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in recreational marina sediments of San Diego Bay, southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Carlos; Vales, Melissa; Mendoza, Guillermo; Hoh, Eunha; Levin, Lisa A

    2018-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were determined in surface sediments from three recreational marinas in San Diego Bay, California. Total PCB concentrations ranged from 23 to 153, 31-294, and 151-1387ngg -1 for Shelter Island Yacht Basin (SIYB), Harbor Island West (HW) and Harbor Island East (HE), respectively. PCB concentrations were significantly higher in HE and PCB group composition differed relative to HW and SIYB, which were not significantly different from each other in concentration or group composition. In marina sediments there was a predominance (82-85%) of heavier molecular weight PCBs with homologous groups (6CL-7CL) comprising 59% of the total. In HE 75% of the sites exceeded the effect range median (ERM), and toxicity equivalence (TEQ dioxin-like PCBs) values were higher relative to those of HW and SIYB, suggesting a potential ecotoxicological risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Microplastic pollution in the marine waters and sediments of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Y Y; Mak, C W; Liebich, C; Lam, S W; Sze, E T-P; Chan, K M

    2017-02-15

    The presence of plastic waste with a diameter of less than 5mm ("microplastics") in marine environments has prompted increasing concern in recent years, both locally and globally. We conducted seasonal surveys of microplastic pollution in the surface waters and sediments from Deep Bay, Tolo Harbor, Tsing Yi, and Victoria Harbor in Hong Kong between June 2015 and March 2016. The average concentrations of microplastics in local coastal waters and sediments respectively ranged from 51 to 27,909particles per 100m 3 and 49 to 279particles per kilogram. Microplastics of different shapes (mainly fragments, lines, fibers, and pellets) were identified as polypropylene, low-density polyethylene, high-density polyethylene, a blend of polypropylene and ethylene propylene, and styrene acrylonitrile by means of Attenuated Total Reflectance - Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. This is the first comprehensive study to assess the spatial and temporal variations of microplastic pollution in Hong Kong coastal regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of river sediment monitoring in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frančišković-Bilinski, Stanislav; Bilinski, Halka; Mlakar, Marina; Maldini, Krešimir

    2017-04-01

    Establishment of regular river sediment monitoring, in addition to water monitoring, is very important. Unlike water, which represents the current state of a particular watercourse, sediment represents a sort of record of the state of pollution in the long run. Sediment monitoring is crucial to gain a real insight into the status of pollution of particular watercourses and to determine trends over a longer period of time. First scientific investigations of river sediment geochemistry in Croatia started 1989 in the Krka River estuary [1], while first systematic research of a river basin in Croatia was performed 2005 in Kupa River drainage basin [2]. Up to now, several detailed studies of both toxic metals and organic pollutants have been conducted in this drainage basin and some other rivers, also Croatian scientists participated in river sediment research in other countries. In 2008 Croatian water authorities (Hrvatske Vode) started preliminary sediment monitoring program, what was successfully conducted. In the first year of preliminary program only 14 stations existed, while in 2014 number of stations increased to 21. Number of monitored watercourses and of analysed parameters also increased. Current plan is to establish permanent monitoring network of river sediments throughout the state. The goal is to set up about 80 stations, which will cover all most important and most contaminated watercourses in all parts of the country [3]. Until the end of the year 2016, regular monitoring was conducted at 31 stations throughout the country. Currently the second phase of sediment monitoring program is in progress. At the moment parameters being determined on particular stations are not uniform. From inorganic compounds it is aimed to determine Cd, Pb, Ni, Hg, Cu, Cr, Zn and As on all stations. The ratio of natural concentrations of those elements vs. anthropogenic influence is being evaluated on all stations. It was found that worse situation is with Ni, Hg and Cr, who

  3. Dynamics of Cohesive Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Claus

    The present thesis considers the transport processes of cohesive sediments. The cohesive sediment used in the laboratory experiments was kaolinite, a clay mineral, in order to be able to reproduce the individual experiments. In the first part of the thesis, the theoretical considerations regarding...

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides in water columns from the Pearl River and the Macao harbor in the Pearl River Delta in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaojun; Mai, Bixian; Yang, Qingshu; Fu, Jiamo; Sheng, Guoying; Wang, Zhishi

    2004-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in suspended particles and dissolved phase from the Baiertang water column and the Macao water column samples as collected from the Guangzhou channel of the Pearl River and the Macao harbor, where the sediments were heavily contaminated with organic pollutants. Total OCPs concentration varies from 23.4 to 61.7 ng/l in Baiertang water column and from 25.2 to 67.8 ng/l in Macao column, while total PAHs concentration varies from 987.1 to 2878.5 ng/l in the Baiertang water column and from 944.0 to 6654.6 ng/l in the Macao column. The vertical distribution profiles of pollutants and the partition of pollutants between particles and dissolved phases indicate that the sediments in Baiertang act as an important source of selected pollutants, and the pollutants in water of this region were mainly originated from the release and re-suspension of contaminants residing in the sediments. The sediments in Macao harbor act as a reservoir for organochlorine pesticides, such as DDTs mainly introduced by river inflow from Xijiang and PAHs input by brackish water from the Lingdingyang estuary. Combustion of fossil fuels and petroleum input are the main sources of PAHs in the Macao water column, while combustion of fossil fuels and coal is responsible for the PAHs in the Baiertang water column. The ratios of DDT/(DDD+DDE) for the Macao water column samples demonstrate that such chemicals were input into this region in recent times.

  5. New world bats harbor diverse influenza A viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suxiang Tong

    Full Text Available Aquatic birds harbor diverse influenza A viruses and are a major viral reservoir in nature. The recent discovery of influenza viruses of a new H17N10 subtype in Central American fruit bats suggests that other New World species may similarly carry divergent influenza viruses. Using consensus degenerate RT-PCR, we identified a novel influenza A virus, designated as H18N11, in a flat-faced fruit bat (Artibeus planirostris from Peru. Serologic studies with the recombinant H18 protein indicated that several Peruvian bat species were infected by this virus. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that, in some gene segments, New World bats harbor more influenza virus genetic diversity than all other mammalian and avian species combined, indicative of a long-standing host-virus association. Structural and functional analyses of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase indicate that sialic acid is not a ligand for virus attachment nor a substrate for release, suggesting a unique mode of influenza A virus attachment and activation of membrane fusion for entry into host cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that bats constitute a potentially important and likely ancient reservoir for a diverse pool of influenza viruses.

  6. Grace Under Fire: The Army Nurses of Pearl Harbor, 1941.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbrath, Gwyneth R

    2016-01-01

    Much has been written about the military events of December 7, 1941; however, little has been documented about the nurses' work and experience at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The aerial assault on Pearl Harbor was the first time in US history that Army nurses had been on the front line of battle. Nurses quickly triaged and stabilized those who could be saved, and provided compassion and comfort to those who were dying, in an environment where the nurses were unsure of their own survival. Traditional historical methods and a social history framework were used in this investigation. Primary sources included oral histories from the US Army Medical Department Center of History and Heritage and the State of Hawaii's website, Hawaii Aviation. Secondary sources included published books, newspaper articles, military websites, and history texts. Due to the limited bed capacity, Hickam Field Hospital converted to an evacuation hospital. Nurses, physicians, and medical corpsman triaged, stabilized, and transported those likely to survive, while staging the dead behind the building. The emergency room at Tripler Hospital was quickly flooded with patients from the battlefield, but the staff was able to sort patients appropriately to the wards, to the operating room, or provide comfort care as they died. At Schofield Hospital, collaboration between tireless doctors, nurses, and corpsmen was key to providing life-saving surgery and care.

  7. The historical significance of anaesthesia events at Pearl Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowhurst, Ja

    2014-07-01

    Up to the end of World War II, less than 10% of the general anaesthetics administered was with intravenous barbiturates. The remaining 90% of anaesthetics given in the USA were with diethyl ether. In the United Kingdom and elsewhere, chloroform was also popular. Diethyl ether administration was a relatively safe and simple procedure, often delegated to nurses or junior doctors with little or no specific training in anaesthesia. During the Japanese attack on the US bases at Pearl Harbor, with reduced stocks of diethyl ether available, intravenous Sodium Pentothal(®), a most 'sophisticated and complex' drug, was used with devastating effects in many of those hypovolaemic, anaemic and septic patients. The hazards of spinal anaesthesia too were realised very quickly. These effects were compounded by the dearth of trained anaesthetists. This paper presents the significance of the anaesthesia tragedies at Pearl Harbor, and the discovery in the next few years of many other superior drugs that caused medical and other health professionals to realise that anaesthesia needed to be a specialist medical discipline in its own right. Specialist recognition, aided by the foundation of the National Health Service in the UK, the establishment of Faculties of Anaesthesia and appropriate training in pharmacology, physiology and other sciences soon followed. Modern anaesthesiology, as we understand it today, was born and a century or more of ether anaesthesia finally ceased.

  8. Emergence of fatal avian influenza in New England harbor seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, S.J.; St. Leger, J. A.; Pugliares, K.; Ip, Hon S.; Chan, J.M.; Carpenter, Z.W.; Navarrete-Macias, I.; Sanchez-Leon, M.; Saliki, J.T.; Pedersen, J.; Karesh, W.; Daszak, P.; Rabadan, R.; Rowles, T.; Lipkin, W.I.

    2012-01-01

    From September to December 2011, 162 New England harbor seals died in an outbreak of pneumonia. Sequence analysis of postmortem samples revealed the presence of an avian H3N8 influenza A virus, similar to a virus circulating in North American waterfowl since at least 2002 but with mutations that indicate recent adaption to mammalian hosts. These include a D701N mutation in the viral PB2 protein, previously reported in highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses infecting people. Lectin staining and agglutination assays indicated the presence of the avian-preferred SAα-2,3 and mammalian SAα-2,6 receptors in seal respiratory tract, and the ability of the virus to agglutinate erythrocytes bearing either the SAα-2,3 or the SAα-2,6 receptor. The emergence of this A/harbor seal/Massachusetts/1/2011 virus may herald the appearance of an H3N8 influenza clade with potential for persistence and cross-species transmission.

  9. Chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments from industrial areas in Japan and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Yuichi; Ohura, Takeshi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2009-11-01

    Chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ClPAHs) are widespread environmental pollutants in the urban environment. Nevertheless, there is little information available regarding the occurrence and profiles of ClPAHs in environmental matrices. In this study, residual concentrations and profiles of 20 individual ClPAHs and 16 US EPA-priority PAHs were determined using high- resolution gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry in sediments from water bodies near industrialized areas: Tokyo Bay, Japan; the Saginaw River watershed, Michigan, USA; a former chlor-alkali plant, Georgia, USA; and the New Bedford Harbor Superfund site, Massachusetts, USA. A sediment core from Tokyo Bay showed temporal patterns in the distribution of ClPAHs from the 1950s through 2004. The fluxes of ClPAHs and 16 priority PAHs in Tokyo Bay sediment core were 0.029-0.57 ng/cm(2)/year and 85-609 ng/cm(2)/year, respectively; fluxes were lowest in the 1950s and highest in 1989-1990. In the United States, a high mean concentration of ClPAHs was found in sediment collected near a former chlor-alkali plant [8820 pg/g dry weight (dry wt)], and lower mean concentrations were found for New Bedford Harbor (1880 pg/g dry wt) and the Saginaw River watershed (1140 pg/g dry wt). Among individual ClPAHs, 6-ClBaP and 1-ClPyr were the dominant compounds in sediments; this pattern is similar to the pattern reported in the literature for waste incineration and ambient urban air samples. Significant correlation between SigmaClPAH concentrations and Sigmaparent-PAH concentrations in Tokyo Bay sediment implies that the sources and distribution of ClPAHs are directly related to those of parent PAHs. We also analyzed ClPAHs and parent PAHs in blue mussels from New Bedford Harbor. The mean concentration of ClPAHs in mussels from New Bedford Harbor was 21 ng/g lipid weight, a concentration three orders of magnitude lower than the mean concentration of parent PAHs. Low-molecular-weight ClPAHs predominated

  10. The release of dissolved nutrients and metals from coastal sediments due to resuspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnejais, Linda H.; Martin, William R.; Bothner, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    Coastal sediments in many regions are impacted by high levels of contaminants. Due to a combination of shallow water depths, waves, and currents, these sediments are subject to regular episodes of sediment resuspension. However, the influence of such disturbances on sediment chemistry and the release of solutes is poorly understood. The aim of this study is to quantify the release of dissolved metals (iron, manganese, silver, copper, and lead) and nutrients due to resuspension in Boston Harbor, Massachusetts, USA. Using a laboratory-based erosion chamber, a range of typical shear stresses was applied to fine-grained Harbor sediments and the solute concentration at each shear stress was measured. At low shear stress, below the erosion threshold, limited solutes were released. Beyond the erosion threshold, a release of all solutes, except lead, was observed and the concentrations increased with shear stress. The release was greater than could be accounted for by conservative mixing of porewaters into the overlying water, suggesting that sediment resuspension enhances the release of nutrients and metals to the dissolved phase. To address the long-term fate of resuspended particles, samples from the erosion chamber were maintained in suspension for 90. h. Over this time, 5-7% of the particulate copper and silver was released to the dissolved phase, while manganese was removed from solution. Thus resuspension releases solutes both during erosion events and over a longer timescale due to reactions of suspended particles in the water column. The magnitude of the annual solute release during erosion events was estimated by coupling the erosion chamber results with a record of bottom shear stresses simulated by a hydrodynamic model. The release of dissolved copper, lead, and phosphate due to resuspension is between 2% and 10% of the total (dissolved plus particulate phase) known inputs to Boston Harbor. Sediment resuspension is responsible for transferring a significant

  11. Development of a chronic sediment toxicity test for marine benthic amphipods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWitt, T.H.; Redmond, M.S.; Sewall, J.E.; Swartz, R.C.

    1992-12-01

    The results of the research effort culminated in the development of a research method for assessing the chronic toxicity of contaminated marine and estuarine sediments using the benthic amphipod, Leptocheirus plumulosus. The first chapter describes the efforts at collecting, handling, and culturing four estuarine amphipods from Chesapeake Bay, including L. plumulosus. This chapter includes maps of the distribution and abundance of these amphipods within Chesapeake Bay and methodologies for establishing cultures of amphipods which could be readily adopted by other laboratories. The second chapter reports the development of acute and chronic sediment toxicity test methods for L. plumulosus, its sensitivity to non-contaminant environmental variables, cadmium, two polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and contaminated sediment from Baltimore Harbor, MD. The third chapter reports the authors attempts to develop a chronic sediment toxicity test with Ampelisca abdita

  12. Bacterial reduction of selenium in coal mine tailings pond sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddique, T.; Arocena, J.M.; Thring, R.W.; Zhang, Y.Q. [University of North British Columbia, Prince George, BC (Canada)

    2007-05-15

    Sediment from a storage facility for coal tailings solids was assessed for its capacity to reduce selenium (Se) by native bacterial community. One Se{sup 6+}-reducing bacterium Enterobacter hormaechei (Tar11) and four Se{sup 4+}-reducing bacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae (Tar1), Pseudomonasfluorescens (Tar3), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (Tar6), and Enterobacter amnigenus (Tar8) were isolated from the sediment. Enterobacter horinaechei removed 96% of the added Se{sup 6+} (0.92 mg L{sup -1} from the effluents when Se6+ was determined after 5 d of incubation. Analysis of the red precipitates showed that Se{sup 6+} reduction resulted in the formation of spherical particles ({lt}1.0 {mu} m) of Se 0 as observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and confirmed by EDAX. Selenium speciation was performed to examine the fate of the added Se{sup 6+} in the sediment with or without addition of Enterobacter hormaechei cells. More than 99% of the added Se{sup 6+} (about 2.5 mg L{sup -1}) was transformed in the nonsterilized sediment (without Enterobacter hormaechei cells) as well as in the sterilized (heat-killed) sediment (with Enterobacter hormaechei cells). The results of this study suggest that the lagoon sediments at the mine site harbor Se{sup 6+}- and Se{sup 4+} -reducing bacteria and may be important sinks for soluble Se (Se{sup 6+} and Se{sup 4+}). Enterobacter hormaechei isolated from metal-contaminated sediment may have potential application in removing Se from industrial effluents.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trace elements bounded to airborne PM10 in the harbor of Volos, Greece: Implications for the impact of harbor activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoli, E.; Chelioti-Chatzidimitriou, A.; Karageorgou, K.; Kouras, A.; Voutsa, D.; Samara, C.; Kampanos, I.

    2017-10-01

    Harbors are often characterized by high levels of air pollutants that are emitted from ship traffic and other harbor activities. In the present study, the concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and trace elements (As, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cr, Mn, Zn, and Fe) bounded to the inhalable particulate matter PM10 were studied in the harbor of Volos, central Greece, during a 2-year period (2014-2015). Seasonal and daily variations were investigated. Moreover, total carcinogenic and mutagenic activities of PAHs were calculated. The effect of major wind sectors (sea, city, industrial, harbor) was estimated to assess the potential contribution of ship traffic and harbor activities, such as scrap metal handling operations. Results showed that the harbor sector (calm winds ≤ 0.5 m s-1) was associated with the highest concentrations of PM10. The harbor sector was also associated with relatively increased levels of trace elements (As, Fe, Cr, Mn, Ni), however the effect of this sector was lower than the corresponding effect of the industrial wind sector. The sea sector showed only a slight increase in B[a]Py and Σ12PAHs, whereas the highest increasing effect for PAHs and traffic-related elements, such as Pb and Zn, was evidenced for the city sector.

  14. Estimating the biological value of soft-bottom sediments with sediment profile imaging and grab sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoey, Gert; Birchenough, Silvana N. R.; Hostens, Kris

    2014-02-01

    Biological value estimation is based on a set of assessment questions and several thresholds to delineate areas of ecological importance (e.g. biodiversity). An existing framework, that was specifically designed to assess the ecosystem biodiversity, was expanded by adding new questions on the productivity, functionality and biogeochemical status of benthic habitats. The additional ecological and sedimentological information was collected by using sediment profile imagery (SPI) and grab sampling. Additionally, information on the performance and comparability of both techniques is provided in this study. The research idea was tested at a site near the harbor of Zeebrugge, an area under consideration as a new disposal site for dredged material from the harbor entrance. The sedimentology of the area can be adequately described based on the information from both SPI and Van Veen grab samples, but only the SPI revealed structural information on the physical habitat (layering, a-RPD). The latter information represented the current status of the benthic habitat, which was confirmed by the Van Veen grab samples. All information was summarized through the biological valuation framework, and provided clear evidence of the differences in biological value for the different sediment types within the area. We concluded that the installation of a new dredged material disposal site in this area was not in conflict with the benthic ecology. This area has a low biological value and the benthic system is adapted to changing conditions, which was signaled by the dominance of mobile, short living and opportunistic species. This study showed that suitable sedimentological and ecological information can be gathered by these traditional and complementary techniques, to estimate the biological value of an area in the light of marine spatial planning and environmental impact assessments.

  15. Napa River Sediment TMDL Implementation and Habitat Enhancement Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Napa River Sediment TMDL Implementation and Habitat Enhancement Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  16. Contaminated sediment research task: SHC Task 3.61.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    A poster presentation for the SHC BOSC review will summarize the research efforts under Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program (SHC) in the Contaminated Sediment Task within the Contaminated Sites Project. For the Task, Problem Summary & Decision Context; Task O...

  17. Influenza A(H10N7) Virus in Dead Harbor Seals, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Hansen, Mette Sif; Holm, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Since April 2014, an outbreak of influenza in harbor seals has been ongoing in northern Europe. In Denmark during June-August, 152 harbor seals on the island of Anholt were found dead from severe pneumonia. We detected influenza A(H10N7) virus in 2 of 4 seals examined.......Since April 2014, an outbreak of influenza in harbor seals has been ongoing in northern Europe. In Denmark during June-August, 152 harbor seals on the island of Anholt were found dead from severe pneumonia. We detected influenza A(H10N7) virus in 2 of 4 seals examined....

  18. Organic compounds and cadmium in the tributaries to the Elizabeth River in New Jersey, October 2008 to November 2008: Phase II of the New Jersey Toxics Reduction Workplan for New York-New Jersey Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Samples of surface water and suspended sediment were collected from the two branches that make up the Elizabeth River in New Jersey - the West Branch and the Main Stem - from October to November 2008 to determine the concentrations of selected chlorinated organic and inorganic constituents. The sampling and analyses were conducted as part of Phase II of the New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary Plan-Contaminant Assessment and Reduction Program (CARP), which is overseen by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Phase II of the New Jersey Workplan was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey to define upstream tributary and point sources of contaminants in those rivers sampled during Phase I work, with special emphasis on the Passaic and Elizabeth Rivers. This portion of the Phase II study was conducted on the two branches of the Elizabeth River, which were previously sampled during July and August of 2003 at low-flow conditions. Samples were collected during 2008 from the West Branch and Main Stem of the Elizabeth River just upstream from their confluence at Hillside, N.J. Both tributaries were sampled once during low-flow discharge conditions and once during high-flow discharge conditions using the protocols and analytical methods that were used in the initial part of Phase II of the Workplan. Grab samples of streamwater also were collected at each site and were analyzed for cadmium, suspended sediment, and particulate organic carbon. The measured concentrations, along with available historical suspended-sediment and stream-discharge data were used to estimate average annual loads of suspended sediment and organic compounds in the two branches of the Elizabeth River. Total suspended-sediment loads for 1975 to 2000 were estimated using rating curves developed from historical U.S. Geological Survey suspended-sediment and discharge data, where available. Concentrations of suspended-sediment-bound polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Main Stem and the

  19. Sediment studies at Bikini Atoll part 2. inventories of transuranium elements in surface sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Robison, W.L.

    1997-10-01

    This is the second of three reports on Bikini sediment studies, which discusses the concentrations and inventories of {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu in sediments from the lagoon. Surface sediment samples were collected from 87 locations over the entire lagoon at Bikini Atoll during 1979. The collections were made to map the distribution of long-lived radionuclides associated with the bottom material and to show what modifications occurred in the composition of the sediment as a result of the testing program. Present inventories for {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu in the surface 2 cm of sediment are estimated to be 14 and 17 TBq, respectively. These values are estimated to represent only 14% of the total inventory in the sediment column. Sediment inventories of {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am are changing only slowly with time through chemical- physical processes that continuously mobilize small amounts of the transuranics to the water column. The lowest concentrations and inventories are associated with deposits logoonward of the eastern reef.

  20. West Nile Flavivirus Polioencephalomyelitis in a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Piero, F; Stremme, D W; Habecker, P L; Cantile, C

    2006-01-01

    A 12-year-old male harbor seal presented with progressive signs of neurologic dysfunction including head tremors, muzzle twitching, clonic spasms, and weakness. Lesions included polioencephalomyelitis with glial nodules, spheroids, neuronophagia, ring hemorrhages, and a few neutrophils. Neurons, fibers, and glial nodules were multifocally colonized with intracytoplasmic West Nile flavivirus antigens that were demonstrated using indirect immunohistochemical analysis. Flavivirus on cultured cells also was isolated and was identified by use of monoclonal antibodies and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Clinical signs of disease and lesion morphology and distribution were similar to those of equine West Nile virus infection. Similar to horses, alpacas, humans, dogs, and reptiles, seals can be dead-end hosts of West Nile virus.

  1. Structural damage monitoring of harbor caissons with interlocking condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, Thanh Canh; Lee, So Young; Nauyen, Khac Duy; Kim, Jeong Tae [Pukyong National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    The objective of this study is to monitor the health status of harbor caissons which have potential foundation damage. To obtain the objective, the following approaches are performed. Firstly, a structural damage monitoring(SDM) method is designed for interlocked multiple caisson structures. The SDM method utilizes the change in modal strain energy to monitor the foundation damage in a target caisson unit. Secondly, a finite element model of a caisson system which consists of three caisson units is established to verify the feasibility of the proposed method. In the finite element simulation, the caisson units are constrained each other by shear key connections. The health status of the caisson system against various levels of foundation damage is monitored by measuring relative modal displacements between the adjacent caissons.

  2. Structural damage monitoring of harbor caissons with interlocking condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh, Thanh Canh; Lee, So Young; Nauyen, Khac Duy; Kim, Jeong Tae

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to monitor the health status of harbor caissons which have potential foundation damage. To obtain the objective, the following approaches are performed. Firstly, a structural damage monitoring(SDM) method is designed for interlocked multiple caisson structures. The SDM method utilizes the change in modal strain energy to monitor the foundation damage in a target caisson unit. Secondly, a finite element model of a caisson system which consists of three caisson units is established to verify the feasibility of the proposed method. In the finite element simulation, the caisson units are constrained each other by shear key connections. The health status of the caisson system against various levels of foundation damage is monitored by measuring relative modal displacements between the adjacent caissons

  3. Jam Formation of Traffic Flow in Harbor Tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Hongdi; Lu Weizhen; Dong Liyun

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a study concerning occurrence and growth of traffic jam in a harbor tunnel. The single-lane with three sections (downgrade, flat, and upgrade) is taken into account and they are characterized with different velocity limit. At the low density, the traffic current increases linearly with density and saturates at some values of immediately density. As the density increases, the traffic jam appears firstly before the upgrade section and then extends to the downgrade section. Additionally, the relationships of the velocity and headway against position in different densities are obtained from simulation. These results clearly clarify where and when the traffic jam appears. Finally, the critical densities are derived via the theoretical analysis before and after the discontinuous fronts and the theoretical results are consistent with the critical values of simulation results. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  4. Geographic, seasonal, and diurnal surface behavior of harbor porpoises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Jonas; Christiansen, C.T.; Kjellerup, Sanne

    2013-01-01

    are essential information on the status and management of the species. Thirty-five free-ranging harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) were tracked in the region between the Baltic and the North Sea for 25-349 d using Argos satellite transmitters. No differences were found in surface behavior between geographical...... areas or the size of the animals. Slight differences were found between the two sexes and time of day. Surface time peaked in April, where 6% was spent with the transmitter above surface and 61.5% between 0 and 2 m depth, while the minimum values occurred in February (3.4% and 42.5%, respectively......). The analyses reveal that individual variation among porpoises is the most important factor in explaining variation in surface rates. However, the large number of animals documented in the present study covering a wide range of age and sex groups justifies the use of the seasonal average surface times...

  5. Bacterial community survey of sediments at Naracoorte Caves, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ball Andrew S.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial diversity in sediments at UNESCO World Heritage listed Naracoorte Caves was surveyed as part of an investigation carried out in a larger study on assessing microbial communities in caves. Cave selection was based on tourist accessibility; Stick Tomato and Alexandra Cave (> 15000 annual visits and Strawhaven Cave was used as control (no tourist access. Microbial analysis showed that Bacillus was the most commonly detected microbial genus by culture dependent and independent survey of tourist accessible and inaccessible areas of show (tourist accessible and control caves. Other detected sediment bacterial groups were assigned to the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. The survey also showed differences in bacterial diversity in caves with human access compared to the control cave with the control cave having unique microbial sequences (Acinetobacter, Agromyces, Micrococcus and Streptomyces. The show caves had higher bacterial counts, different 16S rDNA based DGGE cluster patterns and principal component groupings compared to Strawhaven. Different factors such as human access, cave use and configurations could have been responsible for the differences observed in the bacterial community cluster patterns (tourist accessible and inaccessible areas of these caves. Cave sediments can therefore act as reservoirs of microorganisms. This might have some implications on cave conservation activities especially if these sediments harbor rock art degrading microorganisms in caves with rock art.

  6. Anthropogenic inputs of dissolved organic matter in New York Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, G. B.; Chen, R. F.; Olavasen, J.; Peri, F.

    2016-02-01

    The Hudson River flows into the Atlantic Ocean through a highly urbanized region which includes New York City to the east and Newark, New Jersey to the west. As a result, the export of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) from the Hudson to the Atlantic Ocean includes a significant anthropogenic component. A series of high resolution studies of the DOC dynamics of this system were conducted between 2003 and 2010. These included both the Hudson and adjacent large waterways (East River, Newark Bay, Kill Van Kull and Arthur Kill) using coastal research vessels and smaller tributaries (Hackensack, Pasaic and Raritan rivers) using a 25' boat. In both cases measurements were made using towed instrument packages which could be cycled from near surface to near bottom depths with horizontal resolution of approximately 20 to 200 meters depending on depth and deployment strategy. Sensors on the instrument packages included a CTD to provide depth and salinity information and a chromophoric dissolved organic matter(CDOM) fluorometer to measure the fluorescent fraction of the DOC. Discrete samples allowed calibration of the fluorometer and the CDOM data to be related to DOC. The combined data set from these cruises identified multiple scales of source and transport processes for DOC within the Hudson River/New York Harbor region. The Hudson carries a substantial amount of natural DOC from its 230 km inland stretch. Additional sources exist in fringing salt marshes adjacent to the Hackensack and Raritan rivers. However the lower Hudson/New Harbor region receives a large input of DOC from multiple publically owned treatment works (POTW) discharges. The high resolution surveys allowed us to elucidate the distribution of these sources and the manner in which they are rapidly mixed to create the total export. We estimate that anthropogenic sources account for up to 2.5 times the DOC flux contributed by natural processes.

  7. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 A of -42-foot project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, J A; Word, J Q; Pinza, M R; Mayhew, H L; Barrows, E S; Lefkovitz, L F [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1992-09-01

    The Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted a study to determine whether dredged sediments from Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors were suitable for ocean disposal. Nineteen test treatments, six reference treatments, and three control treatments were tested for physical/chemical parameters, water column effects, dredged- sediment toxicity, and bioaccumulation potential. Physical/chemical parameters were analyzed at each site and each composite sediment to a depth of -44 ft MLLW. These parameters included analysis for geological characteristics, conventional sediment measurements (grain size, total volatile solids, total organic carbon, oil and grease, and total petroleum hydrocarbons), metals,, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, butyltins, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Physical/chemical data were used in support of the toxicological and bioaccumulation testing, but were not used in the decision-making criteria described in the Draft Implementation manual under Tier III testing. To evaluate water column effects, MSL conducted suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) test using the mysid shrimp Holmesimysis sculpta, speckled sanddab citharichtys stigmaeus, and larvae of the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Both a 48-h and a 96-h test were performed. The MSL evaluated dredged-sediment toxicity by conducting a total of eight solid-phase toxicity tests using the following organisms: the bivalve clam Macoma nasuta, the polychaete worm Nepthys caecoides, the speckled sanddab C. stigmaeus, and the amphipod Rhepoxynius abronius. Test duration ranged from 10 to 28 days. Bioaccumulation potential was evaluated in the 28-day M. Nasuta and N. caecoides solid-phase exposures by measuring the contaminants of concern present in their tissues after exposure to test, reference, and control sediments. This report contains the data and test results.

  8. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 A of -42-foot project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Lefkovitz, L.F.

    1992-09-01

    The Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted a study to determine whether dredged sediments from Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors were suitable for ocean disposal. Nineteen test treatments, six reference treatments, and three control treatments were tested for physical/chemical parameters, water column effects, dredged- sediment toxicity, and bioaccumulation potential. Physical/chemical parameters were analyzed at each site and each composite sediment to a depth of -44 ft MLLW. These parameters included analysis for geological characteristics, conventional sediment measurements (grain size, total volatile solids, total organic carbon, oil and grease, and total petroleum hydrocarbons), metals,, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, butyltins, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Physical/chemical data were used in support of the toxicological and bioaccumulation testing, but were not used in the decision-making criteria described in the Draft Implementation manual under Tier III testing. To evaluate water column effects, MSL conducted suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) test using the mysid shrimp Holmesimysis sculpta, speckled sanddab citharichtys stigmaeus, and larvae of the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Both a 48-h and a 96-h test were performed. The MSL evaluated dredged-sediment toxicity by conducting a total of eight solid-phase toxicity tests using the following organisms: the bivalve clam Macoma nasuta, the polychaete worm Nepthys caecoides, the speckled sanddab C. stigmaeus, and the amphipod Rhepoxynius abronius. Test duration ranged from 10 to 28 days. Bioaccumulation potential was evaluated in the 28-day M. Nasuta and N. caecoides solid-phase exposures by measuring the contaminants of concern present in their tissues after exposure to test, reference, and control sediments. This report contains the data and test results

  9. Sediment quality in the north coastal basin of Massachusetts, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.; Ashman, Mary S.; Heath, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    Harbor. The probable toxicity to benthic organisms ranged from about 33 to 91 percent across the study area. Of the elements analyzed, antimony, arsenic, beryllium, and lead exceeded the soil standards for risk to human health. Of the PAHs analyzed, four also exceeded soil standards. Organochlorine pesticide concentrations, however, were not high enough relative to the soil standards to pose a risk to human health. Some trace element and some organic compound concentrations in bottom sediment may be toxic to aquatic organisms and may pose a risk to human health.

  10. Sediment Resuspension Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The full report on sediment resuspension in drinking water storage tanks and a link to an animation of results. This dataset is associated with the following...

  11. Sediments and aquatic indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Determinations of 90 Sr, certain gamma emitting nuclides and 239,240 Pu in bottom sediment in the Baltic Sea area and in sedimenting material and biota near the Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power stations were continued in 1984 and 1985. In the bottom sediments of the deep Baltic basins, the total amounts of 90 Sr, 137 Cs and Pu were 8.5-80 Bq m -2 , 83-3200 Bq m -2 and 4.7-190 Bq m -2 , respectively. The ranges were about the same as in the earlier reports 1,2 . In sedimenting material and biota the conentrations of 90 Sr and 239,240 Pu were roughly the same as in 1983. The amounts and selection of reactor originated activation products were not changed in the vicinity of the two nuclear power stations. Small amounts of 137 Cs and 134 Cs released from the Loviisa nuclear power station were detected in 1985

  12. Offshore Surficial Sediment

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This data layer (PAC_EXT.txt and PAC_PRS.txt) represents two of five point coverages of known sediment samples, inspections, and probes from the usSEABED data...

  13. Underwater Sediment Sampling Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    impacted sediments was found to be directly related to the concentration of crude oil detected in the sediment pore waters . Applying this mathematical...Kurt.A.Hansen@uscg.mil. 16. Abstract (MAXIMUM 200 WORDS ) The USCG R&D Center sought to develop a bench top system to determine the amount of total...scattered. The approach here is to sample the interstitial water between the grains of sand and attempt to determine the amount of oil in and on

  14. 1992/93 Progress report on sediment-related aspects of northern hydrocarbon development in the lower Mackenzie River Basin, NWT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, M A

    1993-03-01

    An interim summary is presented of the Inland Waters Directorate program dealing with sediment-related aspects of northern hydrocarbon development in the Mackenzie Delta area, which was partially funded by the Northern Oil and Gas Action Program (NOGAP). Work undertaken in the first two years of the program is summarized under the categories of Mackenzie Delta channel stability, sedimentation, suspended sediments, channel contaminants, sediment flux, and sediment sources. Included is a more detailed review of work carried out on Mackenzie Delta land and lake sedimentation. The goals of the channel stability program were largely met. The delta sedimentation program has accomplished little acquisition of data. The delta suspended sediment program accomplished a great deal in a limited time, while the channel contaminants program has made limited progress. Work outstanding at the end of year 2 is described, along with priorities for the upcoming periods. 34 refs., 2 figs.

  15. 1992/93 Progress report on sediment-related aspects of northern hydrocarbon development in the lower Mackenzie River Basin, NWT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, M.A.

    1993-03-01

    An interim summary is presented of the Inland Waters Directorate program dealing with sediment-related aspects of northern hydrocarbon development in the Mackenzie Delta area, which was partially funded by the Northern Oil and Gas Action Program (NOGAP). Work undertaken in the first two years of the program is summarized under the categories of Mackenzie Delta channel stability, sedimentation, suspended sediments, channel contaminants, sediment flux, and sediment sources. Included is a more detailed review of work carried out on Mackenzie Delta land and lake sedimentation. The goals of the channel stability program were largely met. The delta sedimentation program has accomplished little acquisition of data. The delta suspended sediment program accomplished a great deal in a limited time, while the channel contaminants program has made limited progress. Work outstanding at the end of year 2 is described, along with priorities for the upcoming periods. 34 refs., 2 figs

  16. The hearing threshold of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) for impulsive sounds (L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Gransier, R.; Hoek, L.; Jong, C.A.F. de

    2012-01-01

    The distance at which harbor porpoises can hear underwater detonation sounds is unknown, but depends, among other factors, on the hearing threshold of the species for impulsive sounds. Therefore, the underwater hearing threshold of a young harbor porpoise for an impulsive sound, designed to mimic a

  17. 76 FR 38302 - Safety Zone; Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... the Town of Cape Charles will sponsor a fireworks display on the shoreline of the navigable waters of...-AA00 Safety Zone; Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard... navigable waters of Cape Charles City Harbor in Cape Charles, VA in support of the Fourth of July Fireworks...

  18. 77 FR 29929 - Safety Zone; Town of Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... section of this notice. Basis and Purpose On July 4, 2012 the Town of Cape Charles will sponsor a...-AA00 Safety Zone; Town of Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA AGENCY: Coast... temporary safety zone on the waters of Cape Charles City Harbor in Cape Charles, VA in support of the Fourth...

  19. 76 FR 71598 - Pearl Harbor National Wildlife Refuge, Honolulu County, HI; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ...] Pearl Harbor National Wildlife Refuge, Honolulu County, HI; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and.../docs/HI-PI/docsjcpearl.htm . Email: [email protected] . Include ``Pearl Harbor final CCP'' in...`iwa, HI 96712. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: David Ellis, Project Leader, (808) 637-6330...

  20. 33 CFR 110.129a - Apra Harbor, Guam. (Datum: WGS 84)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apra Harbor, Guam. (Datum: WGS 84) 110.129a Section 110.129a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.129a Apra Harbor, Guam. (Datum: WGS 84) (a...

  1. 33 CFR 80.1490 - Apra Harbor, U.S. Territory of Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apra Harbor, U.S. Territory of Guam. 80.1490 Section 80.1490 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1490 Apra Harbor, U...

  2. 76 FR 34865 - Safety Zone; Rochester Harbor Festival, Genesee River, Rochester, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Rochester Harbor Festival, Genesee River, Rochester, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Genesee River, Rochester, NY for the Rochester Harbor Festival fireworks. This zone is intended to...

  3. 33 CFR 110.31 - Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at Hull, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at Hull, Mass. 110.31 Section 110.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.31 Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at...

  4. 33 CFR 117.753 - Ship Channel, Great Egg Harbor Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship Channel, Great Egg Harbor Bay. 117.753 Section 117.753 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.753 Ship Channel, Great Egg Harbor Bay. The draw of the S52 (Ship...

  5. 33 CFR 117.458 - Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans. 117.458 Section 117.458 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans. (a) The draws of the SR 46 (St. Claude Avenue) bridge, mile 0.5...

  6. 77 FR 46285 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Inner Harbor Navigational Canal, New Orleans, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... Operation Regulation; Inner Harbor Navigational Canal, New Orleans, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Navigational Canal, mile 3.1, at New Orleans, LA. The deviation is necessary to replace the wire rope lifting... of the US 90 (Danzinger) Bridge across the Inner Harbor Navigational Canal, mile 3.1, at New Orleans...

  7. 75 FR 4693 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Inner Harbor Navigational Canal, New Orleans, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... Operation Regulation; Inner Harbor Navigational Canal, New Orleans, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... C. Simon) Bascule Bridge across the Inner Harbor Navigational Canal, mile 4.6, at New Orleans, LA... Ochsner Ironman 70.3 New Orleans event. This deviation allows the bridge to remain closed during the event...

  8. Frequency Domain Response at Pacific Coast Harbors to Major Tsunamis of 2005-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiuying; Kou, Zhiqing; Huang, Ziyi; Lee, Jiin-Jen

    2013-06-01

    Tsunamis waves caused by submarine earthquake or landslide might contain large wave energy, which could cause significant human loss and property damage locally as well as in distant region. The response of three harbors located at the Pacific coast (i.e. Crescent City Harbor, Los Angeles/Long Beach Port, and San Diego Harbor) to six well-known tsunamis events generated (both near-field and far-field) between 2005 and 2011 are examined and simulated using a hybrid finite element numerical model in frequency domain. The model incorporated the effects of wave refraction, wave diffraction, partial wave reflection from boundaries, entrance and bottom energy dissipation. It can be applied to harbor regions with arbitrary shapes and variable water depth. The computed resonant periods or modes of oscillation for three harbors are in good agreement with the energy spectral analysis of the time series of water surface elevations recorded at tide gauge stations inside three harbors during the six tsunamis events. The computed wave induced currents based on the present model are also in qualitative agreement with some of the reported eye-witness accounts absence of reliable current data. The simulated results show that each harbor responded differently and significantly amplified certain wave period(s) of incident wave trains according to the shape, topography, characteristic dimensions and water depth of the harbor basins.

  9. 76 FR 37005 - Safety Zone; Fan Pier Yacht Club Fireworks, Boston Harbor, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Fan Pier Yacht Club Fireworks, Boston Harbor, Boston, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Sector Boston Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone for the Fan Pier Yacht Club Fireworks display. This safety... Safety Zone; Fan Pier Yacht Club Fireworks, Boston Harbor, Boston, Massachusetts. (a) General. A...

  10. 33 CFR 110.27 - Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass. 110.27 Section 110.27 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.27 Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass. North of...

  11. Analyzing Approaches to Internet Jurisdiction Based on Model of Harbors and the High Seas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiménez, W.G.; Lodder, A.R.

    2015-01-01

    The inherent cross-border nature of the internet has challenged the legal system for over two decades. In this paper we introduce a model in which the internet is approached as if it were the high seas, the harbor of origin, the harbor of destination, or a combination of these. This model is used to

  12. 33 CFR 165.754 - Safety Zone: San Juan Harbor, San Juan, PR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: San Juan Harbor, San Juan, PR. 165.754 Section 165.754 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Zone: San Juan Harbor, San Juan, PR. (a) Regulated area. A moving safety zone is established in the...

  13. Genetic characterization of blaNDM-harboring plasmids in carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli from Myanmar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yo Sugawara

    Full Text Available The bacterial enzyme New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase hydrolyzes almost all β-lactam antibiotics, including carbapenems, which are drugs of last resort for severe bacterial infections. The spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae that carry the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase gene, blaNDM, poses a serious threat to public health. In this study, we genetically characterized eight carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from a tertiary care hospital in Yangon, Myanmar. The eight isolates belonged to five multilocus-sequence types and harbored multiple antimicrobial-resistance genes, resulting in resistance against nearly all of the antimicrobial agents tested, except colistin and fosfomycin. Nine plasmids harboring blaNDM genes were identified from these isolates. Multiple blaNDM genes were found in the distinct Inc-replicon types of the following plasmids: an IncA/C2 plasmid harboring blaNDM-1 (n = 1, IncX3 plasmids harboring blaNDM-4 (n = 2 or blaNDM-7 (n = 1, IncFII plasmids harboring blaNDM-4 (n = 1 or blaNDM-5 (n = 3, and a multireplicon F plasmid harboring blaNDM-5 (n = 1. Comparative analysis highlighted the diversity of the blaNDM-harboring plasmids and their distinct characteristics, which depended on plasmid replicon types. The results indicate circulation of phylogenetically distinct strains of carbapenem-resistant E. coli with various plasmids harboring blaNDM genes in the hospital.

  14. 77 FR 2019 - Security Zone; Passenger Vessel SAFARI EXPLORER Arrival/Departure, Kaunakakai Harbor, Molokai, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ...-AA87 Security Zone; Passenger Vessel SAFARI EXPLORER Arrival/ Departure, Kaunakakai Harbor, Molokai, HI... vessel SAFARI EXPLORER to its intended berth in the harbor. Entry into the temporary security zone is... operation of the SAFARI EXPLORER into Molokai has been voluntarily suspended by the operating company...

  15. 77 FR 24381 - Security Zone; Passenger Vessel SAFARI EXPLORER Arrival/Departure, Kaunakakai Harbor, Molokai, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ...-AA87 Security Zone; Passenger Vessel SAFARI EXPLORER Arrival/ Departure, Kaunakakai Harbor, Molokai, HI... channel's entrance during the arrival and departure of the Passenger Vessel Safari Explorer in Kaunakakai... entrance during the arrival and departure of the Passenger Vessel Safari Explorer in Kaunakakai Harbor...

  16. 33 CFR 110.235 - Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). 110.235 Section 110.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). (a) The anchorage grounds—(1...

  17. Environmental space management in the harbor of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Milieuruimtemanagement haven Amsterdam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klok, L.; Hulskotte, J. [TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Den Haag (Netherlands); Van Breemen, T. [Haven Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    A new calculation tool will quickly offer the Harbor of Amsterdam insight in the effect of activities in the harbor on the air quality and hence the available environmental space. [Dutch] Een nieuw rekeninstrument geeft Haven Amsterdam snel inzicht in het effect van alle activiteiten in de haven op de luchtkwaliteit en daarmee in de beschikbare milieuruimte.

  18. 75 FR 81556 - Solicitation of New Safe Harbors and Special Fraud Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... statute (section 1128B(b) of the Social Security Act), as well as developing new OIG Special Fraud Alerts... of New Safe Harbors and Special Fraud Alerts AGENCY: Office of Inspector General (OIG), HHS. ACTION... the public on recommendations for developing new or revised safe harbors and Special Fraud Alerts...

  19. 77 FR 76434 - Solicitation of New Safe Harbors and Special Fraud Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... statute (section 1128B(b) of the Social Security Act), as well as developing new OIG Special Fraud Alerts... of New Safe Harbors and Special Fraud Alerts AGENCY: Office of Inspector General (OIG), HHS. ACTION... revised safe harbors and Special Fraud Alerts. Please assist us by referencing the file code OIG-121-N...

  20. 78 FR 78807 - Solicitation of New Safe Harbors and Special Fraud Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... statute (section 1128B(b) of the Social Security Act), as well as developing new OIG Special Fraud Alerts... of New Safe Harbors and Special Fraud Alerts AGENCY: Office of Inspector General (OIG), HHS. ACTION... revised safe harbors and Special Fraud Alerts. Please assist us by referencing the file code OIG-122-N...

  1. 33 CFR 207.600 - Rochester (Charlotte) Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rochester (Charlotte) Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.600 Section 207.600 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF... (Charlotte) Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. (a)-(b) [Reserved] (c) No vessel shall moor or...

  2. 33 CFR 207.580 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.580 Section 207.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.580 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use...

  3. 78 FR 13479 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers, CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers, CT AGENCY: Coast... regulations that govern the operation of three bridges across the Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers at New Haven...) entitled ``Drawbridge Operation Regulations New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers,'' in the Federal...

  4. Congress Investigates: Pearl Harbor and 9/11 Congressional Hearing Exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackerby, Christine

    2011-01-01

    On the morning of December 7, 1941, Japanese bombers staged a surprise attack on U.S. military forces at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Sixty years after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States was attacked again. On the morning of September 11, 2001, four commercial airplanes hijacked by 19 terrorists killed nearly 3,000 people when they crashed…

  5. 77 FR 38490 - Safety Zone; Mentor Harbor Yachting Club Fireworks, Lake Erie, Mentor, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Mentor Harbor Yachting Club Fireworks, Lake Erie, Mentor, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Erie, Mentor, OH. This safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Erie during the Mentor Harbor Yachting Club fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect...

  6. Are federal sustained yield units equitable? A case study of the Grays Harbor unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Con H Schallau; Wilbur R. Maki

    1986-01-01

    The Grays Harbor Federal Sustained Yield Unit (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service) was established in 1949 to enhance the economic stability of the forest products industry and dependent communities in Grays Harbor County, Washington. Provisions of the unit's charter require that all logs harvested from the Quinault Ranger District of the Olympic...

  7. 78 FR 19632 - Special Local Regulations; St. Thomas Carnival Watersport Activities, Charlotte Amalie Harbor; St...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; St. Thomas Carnival Watersport Activities, Charlotte Amalie Harbor; St... proposes to establish a special local regulation on the waters of Charlotte Amalie Harbor in St Thomas, USVI during the St. Thomas Carnival Watersport Activities, a high speed boat race. The event is...

  8. 33 CFR 110.214 - Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Angeles Harbor). A circular area with a radius of 400 yards (approximately 366 meters), centered in... 400 Transportation Corridor. (C) Outer Harbor: The western boundary of Commercial Anchorage B. (2... Thence along a line described as an arc, radius of 460 meters (approximately 1509 feet) centered on 33...

  9. 77 FR 60109 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Harbor Activities Related to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ...; and Northern elephant seals by Level B harassment only. To date, we have issued nine, 1-year... numbers of marine mammals, incidental to conducting Delta Mariner harbor operations for one year. We... California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), and Northern elephant...

  10. 78 FR 28492 - Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor... establishing a special local regulation on the waters of the Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor... rulemaking (NPRM) entitled, ``Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and...

  11. 33 CFR 165.708 - Safety/Security Zone; Charleston Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC. 165.708 Section 165.708 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.708 Safety/Security Zone; Charleston Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC. (a... Cooper River. All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 1983. (2) All waters within 100 yards of the...

  12. 33 CFR 110.250 - St. Thomas Harbor, Charlotte Amalie, V.I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Thomas Harbor, Charlotte... SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.250 St. Thomas Harbor, Charlotte Amalie.... Thomas, V.I. of the United States and approaches thereto, including all waters under its jurisdiction, as...

  13. Time series current meter and other data from moorings in the North Atlantic in support of the Current and Sediment Transport in Buzzards Bay Field program from 05 July 1982 to 05 December 1985 (NODC Accession 0056730)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A field experiment designed to determine the near-bottom circulation in Buzzards Bay and the transport of fine-grained sediments. The transport of fine-grained...

  14. Occurrence of Organic Compounds and Trace Elements in the Upper Passaic and Elizabeth Rivers and Their Tributaries in New Jersey, July 2003 to February 2004: Phase II of the New Jersey Toxics Reduction Workplan for New York-New Jersey Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Timothy P.; Bonin, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Samples of surface water and suspended sediment were collected from the Passaic and Elizabeth Rivers and their tributaries in New Jersey from July 2003 to February 2004 to determine the concentrations of selected chlorinated organic and inorganic constituents. This sampling and analysis was conducted as Phase II of the New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary Workplan?Contaminant Assessment and Reduction Program (CARP), which is overseen by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Phase II of the New Jersey Workplan was conducted to define upstream tributary and point sources of contaminants in those rivers sampled during Phase I work, with special emphasis on the Passaic and Elizabeth Rivers. Samples were collected from three groups of tributaries: (1) the Second, Third, and Saddle Rivers; (2) the Pompton and upper Passaic Rivers; and (3) the West Branch and main stem of the Elizabeth River. The Second, Third, and Saddle Rivers were sampled near their confluence with the tidal Passaic River, but at locations not affected by tidal flooding. The Pompton and upper Passaic Rivers were sampled immediately upstream from their confluence at Two Bridges, N.J. The West Branch and the main stem of the Elizabeth River were sampled just upstream from their confluence at Hillside, N.J. All tributaries were sampled during low-flow discharge conditions using the protocols and analytical methods for organic constituents used in low-flow sampling in Phase I. Grab samples of streamflow also were collected at each site and were analyzed for trace elements (mercury, methylmercury, cadmium, and lead) and for suspended sediment, particulate organic carbon, and dissolved organic carbon. The measured concentrations and available historical suspended-sediment and stream-discharge data (where available) were used to estimate average annual loads of suspended sediment and organic compounds in these rivers. Total suspended-sediment loads for 1975?2000 were estimated using rating

  15. Sediment exchange to mitigate pollutant exposure in urban soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Daniel; Glass, Katherine; Morris, Samantha; Zhang, Horace; McRae, Isabel; Anderson, Noel; Alfieri, Alysha; Egendorf, Sara Perl; Holberton, Shana; Owrang, Shahandeh; Cheng, Zhongqi

    2018-05-15

    Urban soil is an ongoing source for lead (Pb) and other pollutant exposure. Sources of clean soil that are locally-available, abundant and inexpensive are needed to place a protective cover layer over degraded urban soil to eliminate direct and indirect pollutant exposures. This study evaluates a novel sediment exchange program recently established in New York City (NYC Clean Soil Bank, CSB) and found that direct exchange of surplus sediment extracted from urban construction projects satisfies these criteria. The CSB has high total yield with 4.2 × 10 5  t of sediment exchanged in five years. Average annual yield (8.5 × 10 4  t yr -1 ) would be sufficient to place a 15-cm (6-in.) sediment cover layer over 3.2 × 10 5  m 2 (80 acres) of impacted urban soil or 1380 community gardens. In a case study of sediment exchange to mitigate community garden soil contamination, Pb content in sediment ranged from 2 to 5 mg kg -1 . This sediment would reduce surface Pb concentrations more than 98% if it was used to encapsulate soil with Pb content exceeding USEPA residential soil standards (400 mg kg -1 ). The maximum observed sediment Pb content is a factor of 42 and 71 lower than median surface soil and garden soil in NYC, respectively. All costs (transportation, chemical testing, etc.) in the CSB are paid by the donor indicating that urban sediment exchange could be an ultra-low-cost source for urban soil mitigation. Urban-scale sediment exchange has advantages over existing national- or provincial-scale sediment exchanges because it can retain and upcycle local sediment resources to attain their highest and best use (e.g. lowering pollutant exposure), achieve circular urban materials metabolism, improve livability and maximize urban sustainability. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Sediment impacts on marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James J; McGrath, Emily; Biggerstaff, Andrew; Bates, Tracey; Bennett, Holly; Marlow, Joseph; Shaffer, Megan

    2015-05-15

    Changes in sediment input to marine systems can influence benthic environments in many ways. Sponges are important components of benthic ecosystems world-wide and as sessile suspension feeders are likely to be impacted by changes in sediment levels. Despite this, little is known about how sponges respond to changes in settled and suspended sediment. Here we review the known impacts of sedimentation on sponges and their adaptive capabilities, whilst highlighting gaps in our understanding of sediment impacts on sponges. Although the literature clearly shows that sponges are influenced by sediment in a variety of ways, most studies confer that sponges are able to tolerate, and in some cases thrive, in sedimented environments. Critical gaps exist in our understanding of the physiological responses of sponges to sediment, adaptive mechanisms, tolerance limits, and the particularly the effect of sediment on early life history stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sedimentation problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    Roseires Dam and reservoir are located in Sudan, Africa on the Blue Nile River. The hydropower from the reservoir provides approximately 80% of the power used in Sudan, thus having a tremendous economic impact on the country. The reservoir was first impounded in 1966 and has been filled annually since then. The Blue Nile has historically been known to carry heavy sediment loads which is associated with erosion from overgrazing in Ethiopia, the Blue Nile's headwaters. During the flood season, the dam's turbine intakes become blocked with debris and sediment. After a severe blockage in 1981, which prevented hydropower generation for several days, consultants from USAID were asked to make recommendations on reducing the sediment and debris impacts on reservoir operations. This led to debris clearing and dredging equipment acquisitions in 1982. In 1988, blockage occurred again during the flood season. This writer was asked by the World Bank to travel to Sudan, investigate the sediment and debris problems, examine the USAID recommendations, comment on potential sediment and debris problems associated with a proposed plan to raise the dam, make additional recommendations, and return to Sudan several times to determine the effectiveness of there recommendations. This paper discussed the results of the aforementioned activities and describes the new recommendations made by this writer

  18. The oceanic sediment barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, T.J.G.; Searle, R.C.; Wilson, T.R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Burial within the sediments of the deep ocean floor is one of the options that have been proposed for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. An international research programme is in progress to determine whether oceanic sediments have the requisite properties for this purpose. After summarizing the salient features of this programme, the paper focuses on the Great Meteor East study area in the Northeast Atlantic, where most oceanographic effort has been concentrated. The geological geochemical and geotechnical properties of the sediments in the area are discussed. Measurements designed to determine the rate of pore water movement through the sediment column are described. Our understanding of the chemistry of both the solid and pore-water phases of the sediment are outlined, emphasizing the control that redox conditions have on the mobility of, for example, naturally occurring manganese and uranium. The burial of instrumented free-fall penetrators to depths of 30 m beneath the ocean floor is described, modelling one of the methods by which waste might be emplaced. Finally, the nature of this oceanic environment is compared with geological environments on land and attention is drawn to the gaps in our knowledge that must be filled before oceanic burial can be regarded as an acceptable disposal option. (author)

  19. Abstracts of papers presented at the LVIII Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on quantitative Biology: DNA and chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral and poster presentations made at the LVIII Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology entitles DNA & Chromosomes. The meeting was held June 2--June 9, 1993 at Cold Spring Harbor, New York.

  20. Microbial community stratification controlled by the subseafloor fluid flow and geothermal gradient at the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, Katsunori; Breuker, Anja; Schippers, Axel; Nishizawa, Manabu; Ijiri, Akira; Hirai, Miho; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Sunamura, Michinari; Urabe, Tetsuro; Nunoura, Takuro; Takai, Ken

    2014-10-01

    The impacts of lithologic structure and geothermal gradient on subseafloor microbial communities were investigated at a marginal site of the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough. Subsurface marine sediments composed of hemipelagic muds and volcaniclastic deposits were recovered through a depth of 151 m below the seafloor at site C0017 during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331. Microbial communities inferred from 16S rRNA gene clone sequencing in low-temperature hemipelagic sediments were mainly composed of members of the Chloroflexi and deep-sea archaeal group. In contrast, 16S rRNA gene sequences of marine group I Thaumarchaeota dominated the microbial phylotype communities in the coarse-grained pumiceous gravels interbedded between the hemipelagic sediments. Based on the physical properties of sediments such as temperature and permeability, the porewater chemistry, and the microbial phylotype compositions, the shift in the physical properties of the sediments is suggested to induce a potential subseafloor recharging flow of oxygenated seawater in the permeable zone, leading to the generation of variable chemical environments and microbial communities in the subseafloor habitats. In addition, the deepest section of sediments under high-temperature conditions (∼90°C) harbored the sequences of an uncultivated archaeal lineage of hot water crenarchaeotic group IV that may be associated with the high-temperature hydrothermal fluid flow. These results indicate that the subseafloor microbial community compositions and functions at the marginal site of the hydrothermal field are highly affected by the complex fluid flow structure, such as recharging seawater and underlying hydrothermal fluids, coupled with the lithologic transition of sediments. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Petrophysics of Palaeogene sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awadalkarim, Ahmed

    defined and understood this would benefit various areas in petroleum industry. The three studied litholgoies are relatively soft and weak sediments, but they are economically important especially in petroleum industry. Drilling through intervals of shale or siliceous ooze sediments could result in severe...... and very costly borehole instability problems which are closely connected with the "bulk properties" of shale. In practice, the main technological challenge is to keep the borehole sufficiently stable until casing is set. Knowing the real in-situ effective stress is crucial to understand and to predict...... related to borehole stability. This Ph.D. study stressed on the importance of using correct β value in estimation of vertical effective stress especially on deep-sea sediments. To assess the geomechanical stability and the stiffness of the three studied lithologies, their β was found and used to calculate...

  2. Strategies for Overcoming Resistance in Tumours Harboring BRAF Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourah Mohammad Obaid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of resistance to previously effective treatments has been a challenge for health care providers and a fear for patients undergoing cancer therapy. This is an unfortunately frequent occurrence for patients undergoing targeted therapy for tumours harboring the activating V600E mutation of the BRAF gene. Since the initial identification of the BRAF mutation in 2002, a series of small molecular inhibitors that target the BRAFV600E have been developed, but intrinsic and acquired resistance to these drugs has presented an ongoing challenge. More recently, improvements in therapy have been achieved by combining the use of BRAF inhibitors with other drugs, such as inhibitors of the downstream effector mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK/extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK kinase (MEK. Despite improved success in response rates and in delaying resistance using combination therapy, ultimately, the acquisition of resistance remains a concern. Recent research articles have shed light on some of the underlying mechanisms of this resistance and have proposed numerous strategies that might be employed to overcome or avoid resistance to targeted therapies. This review will explore some of the resistance mechanisms, compare what is known in melanoma cancer to colorectal cancer, and discuss strategies under development to manage the development of resistance.

  3. Synanthropic Cockroaches (Blattidae: Periplaneta spp.) Harbor Pathogenic Leptospira in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Astudillo, Viviana; Bustamante-Rengifo, Javier A; Bonilla, Álvaro; Lehmicke, Anna Joy J; Castillo, Andrés; Astudillo-Hernández, Miryam

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis cases in Colombia are typically linked to peridomestic rodents; however, empirical data suggest that Leptospira-infected patients with no apparent exposure to these reservoirs are common. Cockroaches (Periplaneta spp.) have equal or greater interaction with humans than rodents, yet their potential role as carriers of Leptospira has not been assessed. We determined if pathogenic Leptospira is harbored by Periplaneta spp. in Cali (Colombia) and the variables influencing this relationship. Fifty-nine cockroaches were captured from seven sites and DNA was extracted from the body surface and digestive tract for a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, targeting genes secY and flaB. Logistic regression models and proportion tests showed a higher likelihood for Leptospira to be isolated from body surfaces (P > 0.001) and from individuals inside houses (six times more likely). These findings are the first to demonstrate an association between Periplaneta spp. and Leptospira, suggesting the need to investigate the potential for cockroaches to serve as reservoirs or transport hosts for Leptospira. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The yeast genome may harbor hypoxia response elements (HRE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Túlio César; Hertzberg, Libi; Gassmann, Max; Campos, Elida Geralda

    2007-01-01

    The hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimeric transcription factor activated when cells are submitted to hypoxia. The heterodimer is composed of two subunits, HIF-1alpha and the constitutively expressed HIF-1beta. During normoxia, HIF-1alpha is degraded by the 26S proteasome, but hypoxia causes HIF-1alpha to be stabilized, enter the nucleus and bind to HIF-1beta, thus forming the active complex. The complex then binds to the regulatory sequences of various genes involved in physiological and pathological processes. The specific regulatory sequence recognized by HIF-1 is the hypoxia response element (HRE) that has the consensus sequence 5'BRCGTGVBBB3'. Although the basic transcriptional regulation machinery is conserved between yeast and mammals, Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not express HIF-1 subunits. However, we hypothesized that baker's yeast has a protein analogous to HIF-1 which participates in the response to changes in oxygen levels by binding to HRE sequences. In this study we screened the yeast genome for HREs using probabilistic motif search tools. We described 24 yeast genes containing motifs with high probability of being HREs (p-value<0.1) and classified them according to biological function. Our results show that S. cerevisiae may harbor HREs and indicate that a transcription factor analogous to HIF-1 may exist in this organism.

  5. Application of probabilistic risk assessment: Evaluating remedial alternatives at the Portland Harbor Superfund Site, Portland, Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffle, Betsy; Henderson, James; Murphy-Hagan, Clare; Kirkwood, Gemma; Wolf, Frederick; Edwards, Deborah A

    2018-01-01

    A probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) was performed to evaluate the range of potential baseline and postremedy health risks to fish consumers at the Portland Harbor Superfund Site (the "Site"). The analysis focused on risks of consuming fish resident to the Site containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), given that this exposure scenario and contaminant are the primary basis for US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) selected remedy per the January 2017 Record of Decision (ROD). The PRA used probability distributions fit to the same data sets used in the deterministic baseline human health risk assessment (BHHRA) as well as recent sediment and fish tissue data to evaluate the range and likelihood of current baseline cancer risks and noncancer hazards for anglers. Areas of elevated PCBs in sediment were identified on the basis of a geospatial evaluation of the surface sediment data, and the ranges of risks and hazards associated with pre- and postremedy conditions were calculated. The analysis showed that less active remediation (targeted to areas with the highest concentrations) compared to the remedial alternative selected by USEPA in the ROD can achieve USEPA's interim risk management benchmarks (cancer risk of 10 -4 and noncancer hazard index [HI] of 10) immediately postremediation for the vast majority of subsistence anglers that consume smallmouth bass (SMB) fillet tissue. In addition, the same targeted remedy achieves USEPA's long-term benchmarks (10 -5 and HI of 1) for the majority of recreational anglers. Additional sediment remediation would result in negligible additional risk reduction due to the influence of background. The PRA approach applied here provides a simple but adaptive framework for analysis of risks and remedial options focused on variability in exposures. It can be updated and refined with new data to evaluate and reduce uncertainty, improve understanding of the Site and target populations, and foster informed remedial decision

  6. 77 FR 42076 - Notice of Opportunity for Public Comment on Surplus Property Release at Hancock County-Bar Harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... Comment on Surplus Property Release at Hancock County-Bar Harbor Airport, Trenton, ME AGENCY: Federal... located at Hancock County-Bar Harbor Airport, Trenton, Maine. DATES: Comments must be received on or... INFORMATION: The Federal Aviation Administration is reviewing a request by Hancock County-Bar Harbor Airport...

  7. 33 CFR 165.T14-204 - Safety Zone; fixed mooring balls, south of Barbers Pt Harbor Channel, Oahu, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., south of Barbers Pt Harbor Channel, Oahu, Hawaii. 165.T14-204 Section 165.T14-204 Navigation and... Pt Harbor Channel, Oahu, Hawaii. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: All waters... position is approximately 2,500 yards south of Barbers Point Harbor channel buoy #2, Oahu, Hawaii. This...

  8. 77 FR 67563 - Regulated Navigation Area-New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River, New Haven, CT; Pearl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area--New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River, New Haven, CT... Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River and Mill River. The current RNA pertains only to the operation of tugs...) entitled Regulated Navigation Area--New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River, New Haven, CT; Pearl...

  9. Chemical analysis and genotoxicity of high molecular mass PAH in sediment samples and biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarry, B.E.; Marvin, C.H.; Smith, R.W.; Bryant, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    A normal phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) method was used to fractionate the organic extracts of prepared from coal tar-contaminated sediments from hamilton Harbor in Ontario and from Sydney Harbor in Nova Scotia into molecular mass classes. Each PAH fraction up to 302 amu was analyzed by GC-MS and fractions containing PAH with molecular masses greater than 302 amu were analyzed by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) LC-MS.Each fraction was also subjected to Ames bioassays using a TA100-like strain of Salmonella typhimurium (YG1025 + S9). The 300/302 amu, 326/328 and 350/352 amu PAH fractions accounted for 25% of the total genotoxic response of the extract; these PAH constitute a substantial genotoxic burden. A number of 300, 302, 326, 350, 374 and 400 amu PAH were identified using APCI LC-MS and comparison with authentic standards. The non-polar aromatic extracts of bottom sediments, suspended sediments and zebra mussels from Hamilton Harbor were also examined by GC-MS, APCI LC-MS and genotoxicity bioassays. The profiles of the priority and high mass PAH in these samples were identical showing that all PAH up to and exceeding 400 amu were readily bioavailable to biota such as Zebra mussels. In addition, the pseudo faeces of the Zebra mussels and amphipod detritivores which fed on the pseudo faeces had chemical profiles identical to the Zebra mussels. Since many sport fish prize amphipods as food, this observation demonstrates a pathway for organic contaminants adsorbed to suspended sediments to enter the food chain of non-bottom-feeding fish in areas infested by Zebra mussels

  10. Soft-sediment mullions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    In this contribution I describe the appearance, formation and significance of soft-sediment mullions. I use several examples from synorogenic turbidites of the Alps and the Pyrenees to show their appearance in the field. Soft-sediment mullions are elongate, slightly irregular bulges at the base of coarse-grained clastic beds (sand to conglomerate), separated by narrow, elongate flames of fine-grained material (mud) protruding into the coarse-grained bed. Various processes may lead to the formation of such structures: (1) longitudinal furrows parallel to the sediment transport direction may form by spiral motion in flow rolls during sediment transport (Dzulinski, 1966; Dzulinski & Simpson, 1966). (2) Loading combined with downslope movement can produce elongate structures parallelling the dowslope direction (Anketell et al., 1970). (3) Soft-sediment mullions are oriented perpendicular or oblique to the downslope direction, and show evidence of bedding-parallel shortening. Thus, they resemble cuspate-lobate folds or mullions, which are well-known in ductile structural geology (e.g. Urai et al., 2001). Soft-sediment mullions have been observed in two cases: Either bedding-parallel shortening can be achieved by slump processes, or by active tectonic shortening. Slumping is characterized by an alternation of stretching and shortening (e.g. Ortner, 2007; Alsop & Marco 2014), and therefore mullions do overprint or are overprinted by normal faults. In active depositional systems that are subject to tectonic shortening growth strata will form, but sediments already deposited will be shortened during lithification. In some cases, the formation of soft-sediment mullions predates folding, but the most widespread expression of syn-lithification shortening seems to be soft-sediment mullions, that form in the inner arcs of fold hinges. In the examples documented so far, the size of soft-sediment mullions is dependent on the grain-size of the coarse-grained layer, in which the

  11. Quantifying trail erosion and stream sedimentation with sediment tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark S. Riedel

    2006-01-01

    Abstract--The impacts of forest disturbance and roads on stream sedimentation have been rigorously investigated and documented. While historical research on turbidity and suspended sediments has been thorough, studies of stream bed sedimentation have typically relied on semi-quantitative measures such as embeddedness or marginal pool depth. To directly quantify the...

  12. A lifelong journey of moving beyond wartime trauma for survivors from Hiroshima and Pearl Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehr, Patricia; Nishimura, Chie; Ito, Mio; Wands, Lisa Marie; Takahashi, Ryutaro

    2011-01-01

    This study examines 51 stories of health, shared by people who survived the wartime trauma of Hiroshima and Pearl Harbor, seeking to identify turning points that moved participants along over their lifetime. The central turning point for Hiroshima survivors was "becoming Hibabusha (A-bomb survivor)" and for Pearl Harbor survivors was "honoring the memory and setting it aside." Wartime trauma was permanently integrated into survivors' histories, surfacing steadily over decades for Hiroshima survivors and intermittently over decades for Pearl Harbor survivors. Regardless of experience or nationality, participants moved through wartime trauma by connecting with others, pursuing personal and global peace.

  13. Temporal and spatial variation in harbor seal (Phoca vitulina L.) roar calls from southern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Puk Faxe; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Male harbor seals gather around breeding sites for competitive mating displays. Here, they produce underwater vocalizations possibly to attract females and/or scare off other males. These calls offer prospects for passive acoustic monitoring. Acoustic monitoring requires a good understanding...... of natural variation in calling behavior both temporally and among geographically separate sites. Such variation in call structure and calling patterns were studied in harbor seal vocalizations recorded at three locations in Danish and Swedish waters. There was a strong seasonality in the calls from end...... biological differences when comparing harbor seal roars among recording sites and between years....

  14. MORPHOLOGY OF METHANE HYDRATE HOST SEDIMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JONES, K.W.; FENG, H.; TOMOV, S.; WINTER, W.J.; EATON, M.; MAHAJAN, D.

    2004-01-01

    Results from simulated experiments in several laboratories show that host sediments influence hydrate formation in accord with known heterogeneity of host sediments at sites of gas hydrate occurrence (1). For example, in Mackenzie Delta, NWT Canada (Mallik 2L-38 well), coarser-grained units (pore-filling model) are found whereas in the Gulf of Mexico, the found hydrate samples do not appear to be lithologically controlled. We have initiated a systematic study of sediments, initially focusing on samples from various depths at a specific site, to establish a correlation with hydrate occurrence (or variations thereof) to establish differences in their microstructure, porosity, and other associated properties. The synchrotron computed microtomography (CMT) set-up at the X-27A tomography beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory was used as a tool to study sediments from Blake Ridge at three sub bottom depths of 0.2, 50, and 667 meters. Results from the tomographic analysis of the deepest sample (667 m) are presented here to illustrate how tomography can be used to obtain new insights into the structures of methane hydrate host sediments. The investigation shows the internal grain/pore space resolution in the microstructure and a 3-D visualization of the connecting pathways obtained following data segmentation into pore space and grains within the sediment sample. The analysis gives the sample porosity, specific surface area, mean particle size, and tortuosity, as well. An earlier report on the experimental program has been given by Mahajan et al. (2)

  15. Temporal and spatial variation in the fouling of silicone coatings in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, E R; Nedved, B T; Phillips, N; Deangelis, K L; Hadfield, M G; Smith, C M

    2000-01-01

    An antifouling or foul-release coating cannot be globally effective if it does not perform well in a range of environmental conditions, against a diversity of fouling organisms. From 1996 to 1998, the field test sites participating in the United States Navy's Office of Naval Research 6.2 Biofouling program examined global variation in the performance of 3 silicone foul-release coatings, viz. GE RTV11, Dow Corning RTV 3140, and Intersleek (International Coatings Ltd), together with a control anticorrosive coating (Ameron Protective Coatings F-150 series). At the University of Hawaii's test site in Pearl Harbor, significant differences were observed among the coatings in the rate of accumulation of fouling. The control coating failed rapidly; after 180-220 d immersion a community dominated by molluscs and sponges developed that persisted for the remainder of the experiment. Fouling of the GE and Dow Corning silicone coatings was slower, but eventually reached a similar community structure and coverage as the control coatings. The Intersleek coating remained lightly fouled throughout the experiment. Spatial variation in the structure of the community fouling the coatings was observed, but not in the extent of fouling. The rate of accumulation of fouling reflected differences among the coatings in adhesion of the tubeworm Hydroides elegans. The surface properties of these coatings may have affected the rate of fouling and the structure of the fouling community through their influence on larval settlement and subsequent interactions with other residents, predators, and the physical environment.

  16. Discrete event simulation for petroleum transfers involving harbors, refineries and pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Marcella S.R.; Lueders, Ricardo; Delgado, Myriam R.B.S. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays a great effort has been spent by companies to improve their logistics in terms of programming of events that affect production and distribution of products. In this case, simulation can be a valuable tool for evaluating different behaviors. The objective of this work is to build a discrete event simulation model for scheduling of operational activities in complexes containing one harbor and two refineries interconnected by a pipeline infrastructure. The model was developed in Arena package, based on three sub-models that control pier allocation, loading of tanks, and transfers to refineries through pipelines. Preliminary results obtained for a given control policy, show that profit can be calculated by taking into account many parameters such as oil costs on ships, pier using, over-stay of ships and interface costs. Such problem has already been considered in the literature but using different strategies. All these factors should be considered in a real-world operation where decision making tools are necessary to obtain high returns. (author)

  17. Challenges in transferring knowledge between scales in coastal sediment dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shari L Gallop

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ‘Packaging’ coastal sediment transport into discrete temporal and spatial scale bands is necessary for measurement programs, modelling, and design. However, determining how to best measure and parameterize information, to transfer between scales, is not trivial. An overview is provided of the major complexities in transferring information on coastal sediment transport between scales. Key considerations that recur in the literature include: interaction between sediment transport and morphology; the influence of biota; episodic sediment transport; and recovery time-scales. The influence of bedforms and landforms, as well as sediment-biota interactions, varies with spatio-temporal scale. In some situations, episodic sediment dynamics is the main contributor to long-term sediment transport. Such events can also significantly alter biogeochemical and ecological processes, which interact with sediments. The impact of such episodic events is fundamentally influenced by recovery time-scales, which vary spatially. For the various approaches to scaling (e.g., bottom-up, aggregation, spatial hierarchies, there is a need for fundamental research on the assumptions inherent in each approach.

  18. Decontamination and functional reclamation of dredged brackish sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, S; Macci, C; Peruzzi, E; Iannelli, R; Ceccanti, B; Masciandaro, G

    2013-07-01

    The continuous stream of sediments, dredged from harbors and waterways for keeping shipping traffic efficiency, is a considerable ongoing problem recognized worldwide. This problem gets worse as most of the sediments dredged from commercial ports and waterways turn out to be polluted by a wide range of organic and inorganic contaminants. In this study, phytoremediation was explored as a sustainable reclamation technology for turning slightly-polluted brackish dredged sediments into a matrix feasible for productive use. To test this possibility, a phytoremediation experimentation was carried out in containers of about 0.7 m(3) each, filled with brackish dredged sediments contaminated by heavy metals and hydrocarbons. The sediments were pre-conditioned by adding an agronomic soil (30 % v/v) to improve their clayey granulometric composition, and by topping the mixture with high quality compost (4 kg m(-2)) to favour the initial adaptation of the selected vegetal species. The following plant treatments were tested: (1) Paspalum vaginatum, (2) Phragmites australis, (3) Spartium junceum + P. vaginatum, (4) Nerium oleander + P. vaginatum, (5) Tamarix gallica + P. vaginatum, and (6) unplanted control. Eighteen months after the beginning of the experimentation, all the plant species were found in healthy condition and well developed. Throughout the whole experiment, the monitored biological parameters (total microbial population and dehydrogenase activity) were generally observed as constantly increasing in all the planted sediments more than in the control, pointing out an improvement of the chemico-physical conditions of both microorganisms and plants. The concentration decrease of organic and inorganic contaminants (>35 and 20 %, respectively) in the treatments with plants, particularly in the T. gallica + P. vaginatum, confirmed the importance of the root-microorganism interaction in activating the decontamination processes. Finally, the healthy state of

  19. SULFIDE MINERALS IN SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The formation processes of metal sulfides in sediments, especially iron sulfides, have been the subjects of intense scientific research because of linkages to the global biogeochemical cycles of iron, sulfur, carbon, and oxygen. Transition metal sulfides (e.g., NiS, CuS, ZnS, Cd...

  20. Soils and organic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    The organic component of soils is basically made up of substances of an individual nature (fats, waxes, resins, proteins, tannic substances, and many others), and humic substances (Kononova, 1966). These are complex polymers formed from breakdown products of the chemical and biological degradation of plant and animal residues. They are dark coloured, acidic, predominantly aromatic compounds ranging in molecular weight from less than one thousand to tens of thousands (Schnitzer, 1977). They can be partitioned into three main fractions:(i) Humic acid, which is soluble in dilute alkaline solution, but can be precipitated by acidification of the alkaline extract.(ii) Fulvic acid, which is soluble in alkaline solution, but is also soluble on acidification.(iii) Humin that cannot be extracted from the soil or sediment by dilute acid or alkaline solutions. It has mostly been assumed that the humic and fulvic acid components of the soil are part of the mobile, or 'active' component, and the humin component is part of the 'passive' component. Other types of organic sediments are likely to contain chemical breakdown products of plant material, plant fragments and material brought in from outside sources. The outside material can be contemporaneous with sediment deposition, can be older material, or younger material incorporated into the sediment long after deposition. Recognition of 'foreign' material is essential for dating, but is not an easy task. Examples of separation techniques for humic and non humic components are evaluated for their efficiency

  1. Source identification of heavy metal contamination using metal association and Pb isotopes in Ulsan Bay sediments, East Sea, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Jung Sun; Choi, Man Sik; Song, Yun Ho; Um, In Kwon; Kim, Jae Gon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The levels of Cu, Zn, and Pb in sediments were higher than the Korean TEL at one-third of all sites. • The primary source of metal contamination came from activities related to nonferrous metal refineries near Onsan Harbor. • Three different anthropogenic sources and background sediments could be identified as endmembers using Pb isotopes. • The major anthropogenic Pb sources were identified as imported ores from Australia and Peru. • Isotope ratios in anthropogenic Pb discharged from Ulsan Bay to offshore could be identified. - Abstract: To determine the characteristics of metal pollution sources in Ulsan Bay, East Sea, 39 surface and nine core sediments were collected within the bay and offshore area, and analyzed for metals and stable lead (Pb) isotopes. Most surface sediments (>95% from 48 sites) had high copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and Pb concentrations that were as much as 1.3 times higher than background values. The primary source of metal contamination came from activities related to nonferrous metal refineries near Onsan Harbor, and the next largest source was from shipbuilding companies located at the mouth of the Taehwa River. Three different anthropogenic sources and background sediments could be identified as end-members using Pb isotopes. Isotopic ratios for the anthropogenic Pb revealed that the sources were imported ores from Australia, Peru, and the United States. In addition, Pb isotopes of anthropogenic Pb discharged from Ulsan Bay toward offshore could be determined

  2. Stakeholder value-linked sustainability assessment: Evaluating remedial alternatives for the Portland Harbor Superfund Site, Portland, Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apitz, Sabine E; Fitzpatrick, Anne G; McNally, Amanda; Harrison, David; Coughlin, Conor; Edwards, Deborah A

    2018-01-01

    Regulatory decisions on remediation should consider affected communities' needs and values, and how these might be impacted by remedial options; this process requires that diverse stakeholders are able to engage in a transparent consideration of value trade-offs and of the distribution of risks and benefits associated with remedial actions and outcomes. The Stakeholder Values Assessment (SVA) tool was developed to evaluate remedial impacts on environmental quality, economic viability, and social equity in the context of stakeholder values and priorities. Stakeholder values were linked to the pillars of sustainability and also to a range of metrics to evaluate how sediment remediation affects these values. Sediment remedial alternatives proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for the Portland Harbor Superfund Site were scored for each metric, based upon data provided in published feasibility study (FS) documents. Metric scores were aggregated to generate scores for each value; these were then aggregated to generate scores for each pillar of sustainability. In parallel, the inferred priorities (in terms of regional remediation, restoration, planning, and development) of diverse stakeholder groups (SGs) were used to evaluate the sensitivity and robustness of the values-based sustainability assessment to diverse SG priorities. This approach, which addresses social indicators of impact and then integrates them with indicators of environmental and economic impacts, goes well beyond the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act's (CERCLA) 9 criteria for evaluating remedial alternatives because it evaluates how remedial alternatives might be ranked in terms of the diverse values and priorities of stakeholders. This approach identified trade-offs and points of potential contention, providing a systematic, semiquantitative, transparent valuation tool that can be used in community engagement. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018

  3. Mnemiopsis leidyi Gut Harbors Seasonally Variant and Commensal Microbial Assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariita, R. M.; Hossain, M. J.; Liles, M. R.; Moss, A.

    2016-02-01

    Studies have shown that with widespread use of antibiotics in human and domestic animal populations, antibiotic resistance becomes increasingly common in the environment. Estuaries provide ideal conditions for acquisition and dissemination of drug resistance genes because they serve as sinks for pollution. This study aimed to identify M. leidyi microbial diversity and richness and their potential to act as vectors for antibiotic resistance determinants (ARDs). M. leidyi, although native to study area are highly invasive. Metagenomic analyses indicate that there are temporal variations of bacterioplankton assemblages in M. leidyi gut. Overall, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria are the most abundant phyla. Despite the temporal dynamics in the microbial assemblages in M. leidyi gut, they seem to retain Propionibacterium acnes (gut microbiota in some insects) and select proteobacteria across all seasons. The results contradict previous studies that suggest that M. leidyi does not have constant a microbiota, but only seasonally variant microbial assemblages. Here we reveal the presence of M. leidyi gut ARDs in winter and summer, probably because of the ctenophores' positive geotaxis during rough surface conditions. Genes responsible for resistance to fluoroquinolones, multidrug resistance efflux pumps, mercuric reductase, copper homeostasis and blaR1 genes were observed. This is the first study to demonstrate that M. leidyi harbors constant microbiota and provides a baseline for understanding M. leidyi gut microbial and ARDs ecology. It also suggests that M. leidyi bacterial taxonomic and functional dynamics is influenced by season. Funding: Alabama EPSCoR GRSP fellowship, AU-CMB fellowship, NSF EPS-1158862, USDA-Hatch 370225-310100 (AGM, ML).

  4. Radiological assessment of coastal marine sediment and water samples, Karachi coast, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, R.M.; Mashiatullah, A.; Akram, M.; Sajjad, M.I.; Shafiq, M.; Javed, T.; Aslam, M.

    1999-04-01

    Concentrations of selective natural radionuclides (/sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, /sup 40/K) in shallow marine coastal sediments and sea water off Karachi coast, Pakistan, were measured with a hyper pure germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometer. Sediment and water samples were collected from polluted Layari and Malire River downstream (pre-out fall), Gizri Creek, Layari River out fall in Karachi harbor, Karachi Harbor/ Manora Channel Mains, as well as from open sea (South-East Coast and North-West Coast) within the 10m depth contour. No artificial radionuclides (e.g. /sup 60/Co, /sup 137/Cs and /sup 134/Cs were detected in both water and sediment samples at any of these locations. The activity of /sup 226/Ra in coastal river sediments is found below its limit of detection (<18.35 Bqkg/sup -1/). Activity of /sup 228/Ra in sediments off Karachi Coast ranges between 11.80 +- 3.60 to 37.27+- 4.31 Bqkg/sup -1/. The highest activity was found south of Nuclear Power Station (KANUPP) and the lowest activity was found in the vicinity of Oyster Rocks (open sea). The /sup 226/Ra activity ranges from 19.40+- 5.88 to 67.14 +- 10.02 Bqkg/sup -1/. The activity of /sup 228/Ra in sediments of Manora Channel, South-east Coast of Karachi and the North west coast of Karachi are also in agreement with the IAEA marine sediment standard namely: IAEA-135 (/sup 228/Ra = 36.7 +- 3 Bqkg/sup -1/). The activity of /sup 226/Ra for the South East Coast of Karachi and the North west coast of Karachi are also in agreement with the IAEA marine sediment standard namely: IAEA 135(/sup 226/Ra=23.9 +- 1.1 Bqkg/sup -1/) and Pacific Ocean sediment standard namely: IAEA-368 (/sup 226/Ra=21.4+- 1.1 Bqkg/sup -1/). The /sup 40/K activity in sea sediments varies from 197.7+- 44.24 to 941.90 +- 39.00 Bqkg-1). The highest activity is observed in the vicinity of Oyster Rocks (open sea) along the Clifton coast (South-East Cost of Karachi) and the lowest activity is found south of Nuclear Power Station (KANUPP) along the

  5. Oxidative Uranium Release from Anoxic Sediments under Diffusion-Limited Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, Sharon E; Cahill, Melanie R; Jones, Morris E; Fendorf, Scott; Davis, James; Williams, Kenneth H; Bargar, John R

    2017-10-03

    Uranium (U) contamination occurs as a result of mining and ore processing; often in alluvial aquifers that contain organic-rich, reduced sediments that accumulate tetravalent U, U(IV). Uranium(IV) is sparingly soluble, but may be mobilized upon exposure to nitrate (NO 3 - ) and oxygen (O 2 ), which become elevated in groundwater due to seasonal fluctuations in the water table. The extent to which oxidative U mobilization can occur depends upon the transport properties of the sediments, the rate of U(IV) oxidation, and the availability of inorganic reductants and organic electron donors that consume oxidants. We investigated the processes governing U release upon exposure of reduced sediments to artificial groundwater containing O 2 or NO 3 - under diffusion-limited conditions. Little U was mobilized during the 85-day reaction, despite rapid diffusion of groundwater within the sediments and the presence of nonuraninite U(IV) species. The production of ferrous iron and sulfide in conjunction with rapid oxidant consumption suggested that the sediments harbored large concentrations of bioavailable organic carbon that fueled anaerobic microbial respiration and stabilized U(IV). Our results suggest that seasonal influxes of O 2 and NO 3 - may cause only localized mobilization of U without leading to export of U from the reducing sediments when ample organic carbon is present.

  6. Iron-oxide Magnetic, Morphologic, and Compositional Tracers of Sediment Provenance and Ice Sheet Extent in the ANDRILL AND-1B Drill Core, Ross Sea, Antarctica (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachfeld, S. A.; Pinzon, J.; Darley, J. S.; Sagnotti, L.; Kuhn, G.; Florindo, F.; Wilson, G. S.; Ohneiser, C.; Monien, D.; Joseph, L. H.

    2013-12-01

    The first drilling season of the Antarctic Drilling Program (ANDRILL) recovered a 13.57 million year Miocene through Pleistocene record of paleoclimate change (core AND-1B) within the Ross Sea. The magnetic mineral assemblage records the varying contributions of biological productivity, changing sediment sources, the emergence of volcanic centers, and post-depositional diagenesis. Characterization of bedrock samples from the McMurdo Volcanic Group (MVG) and Transantarctic Mountain (TAM) lithologic units allows us to construct fingerprints for the major source rocks bordering the Ross Sea, and identify their signatures within the AND-1B sediment. Key parameters that can be traced from source rock to sediment for the MVG-derived sediment include a 100-200 C order-disorder transition, titanomaghemite grains with homogenous textures but with substantial Al and Mg content, Fe-spinels with substantial Al, Cr, Mg, and Ti content, and titanomagnetite host grains with 1-3 swarms of ilmenite lamellae (both with variable amounts of oxidation). Distinctive signatures in TAM lithologies include low S-ratios in Koettlitz Group gneisses and Fe-sulfides with magnetite intergrowths in Byrd Glacier basement samples. The Cambrian Granite Harbor Intrusive Complex is characterized by coarse, homogeneous Mn-bearing ilmenite and nearly pure magnetite. The Jurassic dolerites and basalts of the Ferrar Group contain pseudo single domain to stable single domain-sized Fe-oxides with low-Ti content and homogeneous textures. Cu-Fe sulfides are also present in the Ferrar Group. Diamictites in the Pliocene-Pleistocene section of the AND-1B drill core contains Fe-oxide assemblages with MVG-type rock magnetic and textural characteristics, while the Miocene diamictites contain TAM-type signatures. These observations can be explained by increased ice flow from the west during the Miocene and/or the absence of MVG volcanic centers, which had not yet reached a significant size. During the Pliocene and

  7. Onondaga Lake Inner Harbor Dredging Design Project, Syracuse, New York: Final Design Memorandum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... The sponsor is the New York State Canal Corporation. The design includes deepening the Inner Harbor channel and a portion of the terminal slip area to a depth of 10 feet below Low Water Datum (LWD...

  8. Aerial Survey Trend Counts of Harbor Seals in Coastal Alaska (1984-2006) - ADF&G

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys were conducted during 1983–2006 in the Ketchikan, Sitka, Kodiak, and Bristol Bay areas of Alaska to estimate trends in abundance of harbor seals.

  9. Aerial Survey Counts of Harbor Seals in Lake Iliamna, Alaska, 1984-2013 (NODC Accession 0123188)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset provides counts of harbor seals from aerial surveys over Lake Iliamna, Alaska, USA. The data have been collated from three previously published sources...

  10. Wave Climate and Wave Response, Kawaihae Deep Draft Harbor, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Edward F; Demirbilek, Zeki; Briggs, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    Present and projected commercial activities in Kawaihae Deep Draft Harbor, Island of Hawaii, HI, indicate that a deeper basin and entrance channel and better protected berthing areas will be needed. The U.S...

  11. DEPOT MAINTENANCE: Key Financial Issues for Consolidations at Pearl Harbor and Elsewhere Are Still Unresolved

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... In September 1999, we reported that the preliminary results of the ongoing Pearl Harbor pilot were mixed and recommended that the Departments of Defense and the Navy address unresolved issues related...

  12. Inshore Survey Results: Approaches to New York Harbor, Fall 1955 (NODC Accession 7000294)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A current survey in the approaches to New York Harbor was initiated 06 September 1955 and continued through 04 November 1955. This survey was conducted in accordance...

  13. Environmental Assessment for Building 88 Interior Demolition, Pearl Harbor Naval Complex, O'ahu, Hawaii

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    ...) and ancillary equipment from the interior of Building 88, a former lubricating oil storage facility, and the related exposed piping underneath Mike wharves M3 and M4 at Merry Point, Pearl Harbor Naval Complex...

  14. Defense Infrastructure: General and Flag Officer Quarters at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... We reviewed 17 GFOQs at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, with budgeted maintenance and repair costs of $1,247,300, to determine whether the Navy had properly classified interior shutter costs as maintenance and repair...

  15. Environmental Assessment for Waterfront Facilities Maintenance and Improvements, Pearl Harbor Naval Complex, Oahu, Hawaii

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    Commander, Navy Region Hawaii (CNRH) proposes to repair, maintain, and improve waterfront berthing and maintenance facilities for ships and submarines on an as-needed basis within the Pearl Harbor Naval Complex (PHNC...

  16. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Apra Harbor, Guam U.S. Territory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry from Apra Harbor, Guam U.S. Territory. The netCDF and Arc ASCII grids include multibeam bathymetry from the Reson SeaBat 8125 multibeam sonar...

  17. DefenseLink Special: Attack on Pearl Harbor, 65th Anniversary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japanese raid on Pearl Harbor has been called a defining moment in U.S. history. It caught the country by Hawaii-based combat planes, were heavily damaged. By crippling the U.S. Pacific Fleet, Japan hoped to

  18. MODELING HOW A HURRICANE BARRIER IN NEW BEDFORD HARBOR, MASSACHUSETTS, AFFECTS THE HYDRODYNAMICS AND RESIDENCE TIMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two-dimensional hydrodynamic and transport models were used to simulate tidal and subtidal circulation, residence times, and the longitudinal distributions of conservative constituents in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, before and after a hurricane barrier was constructed. The...

  19. Aerial Survey Effort for Harbor Seals in Coastal Alaska (2004-2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The most feasible approach to determining harbor seal distribution and abundance in Alaska coastal habitats is to use aircraft to count seals when they haul out of...

  20. A Dataset of Aerial Survey Counts of Harbor Seals in Iliamna Lake, Alaska: 1984-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset provides counts of harbor seals from aerial surveys over Iliamna Lake, Alaska, USA. The data have been collated from three previously published sources...

  1. Morphological resilience to flow fluctuations of fine sediment deposits in bank lateral cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juez, C.; Thalmann, M.; Schleiss, A. J.; Franca, M. J.

    2018-05-01

    Lateral cavities are built in the banks of rivers for several purposes: to create harbors, to capture sediment, to keep a central navigable channel (i.e., Casiers de Girardon in the Rhone river) or to promote the formation of aquatic habitats if a limited amount of sediment is captured, providing hydraulic and morphologic diversity (i.e., the case of Japanese Wandos). This work is focused on this latter purpose: promotion of hydraulic and morphologic diversity. In these scenarios, an increase in the flow discharge in the main channel may, however, re-mobilize the deposit of sediment inside these lateral embayments and cause a sudden increase of the sediment concentration and turbidity in the main channel. It is thus of interest to characterize the resistance and resilience of these sedimentary deposits when the main channel is subjected to high flow or flushing events. Laboratory tests were carried out for five different normalized geometries of the cavities installed in the banks of an open channel and for five hydrographs with different levels of unsteadiness. Water depth, sediment deposit mass, sediment concentration and area covered by the settled sediments were recorded throughout each experiment. Although sediment deposits established at equilibrium before the flushing events are different depending on the geometry of the cavities, generally, they are recovered after being flushed by the high flow events. It is shown that the resistance and resilience of the sediment deposits are strongly dependent on the flow field and the mass exchange between the main channel and the cavities. This mass exchange is governed by the geometry of the cavities and the magnitude of the hydrographs applied.

  2. Linking geology and microbiology: inactive pockmarks affect sediment microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, Thomas H A; Hammer, Øyvind; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2014-01-01

    Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined what the microbial composition of inactive pockmarks is and if it shows a similar pattern as the macrofauna. The Norwegian Oslofjord contains many inactive pockmarks and they are well suited to study the influence of these geological features on the microbial community in the sediment. Here we present a detailed analysis of the microbial communities found in three inactive pockmarks and two control samples at two core depth intervals. The communities were analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3 region. Microbial communities of surface pockmark sediments were indistinguishable from communities found in the surrounding seabed. In contrast, pockmark communities at 40 cm sediment depth had a significantly different community structure from normal sediments at the same depth. Statistical analysis of chemical variables indicated significant differences in the concentrations of total carbon and non-particulate organic carbon between 40 cm pockmarks and reference sample sediments. We discuss these results in comparison with the taxonomic classification of the OTUs identified in our samples. Our results indicate that microbial communities at the sediment surface are affected by the water column, while the deeper (40 cm) sediment communities are affected by local conditions within the sediment.

  3. Linking geology and microbiology: inactive pockmarks affect sediment microbial community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H A Haverkamp

    Full Text Available Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined what the microbial composition of inactive pockmarks is and if it shows a similar pattern as the macrofauna. The Norwegian Oslofjord contains many inactive pockmarks and they are well suited to study the influence of these geological features on the microbial community in the sediment. Here we present a detailed analysis of the microbial communities found in three inactive pockmarks and two control samples at two core depth intervals. The communities were analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3 region. Microbial communities of surface pockmark sediments were indistinguishable from communities found in the surrounding seabed. In contrast, pockmark communities at 40 cm sediment depth had a significantly different community structure from normal sediments at the same depth. Statistical analysis of chemical variables indicated significant differences in the concentrations of total carbon and non-particulate organic carbon between 40 cm pockmarks and reference sample sediments. We discuss these results in comparison with the taxonomic classification of the OTUs identified in our samples. Our results indicate that microbial communities at the sediment surface are affected by the water column, while the deeper (40 cm sediment communities are affected by local conditions within the sediment.

  4. Sediment problems in reservoirs. Control of sediment deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, Tom

    1997-12-31

    When a reservoir is formed on a river, sediment will deposit in the reservoir. Such processes are unfortunate, for instance, for the implementation of hydroelectric energy. This thesis studies the problem of reservoir sedimentation and discusses methods of removing the sediments. Various aspects of reservoir sedimentation are discussed. Anthropogenic impacts seem to greatly affect the erosion processes. Temporal distribution is uneven, mainly because of the very large flood events. A world map showing the Reservoir Capacity: Annual Sediment Inflow ratio for reservoirs with volume equal to 10% of annual inflow has been prepared. The map shows that sedimentation is severe in the western parts of North and South America, eastern, southern and northern Africa, parts of Australia and most of Asia. The development of medium-sized reservoirs is difficult, as they are too large for conventional flushing technique and too small to store the sediment that accumulates during their economic lifetime. A computer model, SSIIM, was used with good results in a case study of two flood drawdown trials in Lake Roxburg, New Zealand. Two techniques have been developed that permits controlled suction of sediment and water into a pipe: the Slotted Pipe Sediment Sluicer (SPSS) and the Saxophone Sediment Sluicer (SSS). The techniques exploit the inflow pattern in through a slot in a pipe. An equation describing this inflow pattern was derived and verified experimentally. The SPSS is fixed near the reservoir bed, and sediment that deposits on top of it is removed in the sluicing process. The SSS sluices sediment from the surface of the sediment deposits. Some technical and economic conditions affecting the economics of sediment removal from reservoirs have been identified and studied. 79 refs., 112 figs., 14 tabs.

  5. Quantitative research for pollution levels in marine sediments of Ha Long Bay by nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Quang Long; Tran Thi Tuyet Mai; Pham Ngoc Khai; Nguyen Trung Thanh; Nguyen Van Phuc; Doan Thuy Hau; Duong Van Thang; Ha Lan Anh; Vo Thi Anh; Nguyen Thi Thu Ha

    2013-01-01

    Under the theme of Quantitative study of pollution levels in marine sediments of Halong bay by nuclear techniques conducted from June 2011 to June 2013, the authors conducted monitoring, sediment samples collected in the bay below the sediment column at 8 locations, in which 7 columns located at the estuary near Tuan Chau Island and 1 column at the area near the harbor of Cam Pha. The column samples were taken to the laboratory, cut slices with a distance of 2 cm in the form of frozen and conduct tests of radioactive Pb-210 to determine the rate of sediment in the survey area. Evaluation results based on the method by determining 210 Pb, the sediment rate showed speed in the survey area ranged from 0.3 cm.a -1 to 1.2 cm.a -1 and an average of 1.0 cm.a -1 . The slices of sediment samples (110 samples) were analyzed heavy metals (KLN) and As elemental by ICP-MS method. These sediment sample also were analyzed for simultaneous determination of N and P and total organic carbon (TOC). Results showed that heavy metal concentrations and As is smaller than the value specified in the National Technical Regulation on Sediment Quality of Vietnam (QCVN), phosphorus concentration less than that can cause harmful effects, but the concentration of total nitrogen and organic carbon that may exceed be harmful as directed by Canadian standards (Persuad et al. 1992). The concentration data in the Halong bay sediment were processed by statistical software SPSS-18, results showed high correlation between the quality TOC, N, P, K and correlation the majority of KLN, this proves the origin of sediments is part of the natural soil components and parts (TOC, N, P, K) is due to the activity of human activity as well as by agricultural fertilizers. The average content of elements in sediments Halong be compared with other data published works of sediment Quang Ninh area, the results show the correlation figures are also high. However, the results of the analysis of KLN and As in Halong

  6. Three-year summary report of biological monitoring at the Southwest Ocean dredged-material disposal site and additional locations off Grays Harbor, Washington, 1990--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antrim, L.D.; Shreffler, D.K.; Pearson, W.H.; Cullinan, V.I. [Battelle Marine Research Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project was initiated to improve navigation by widening and deepening the federal channel at Grays Harbor. Dredged-material disposal sites were selected after an extensive review process that included inter-agency agreements, biological surveys, other laboratory and field studies, and preparation of environmental impact statements The Southwest Site, was designated to receive materials dredged during annual maintenance dredging as well as the initial construction phase of the project. The Southwest Site was located, and the disposal operations designed, primarily to avoid impacts to Dungeness crab. The Final Environmental Impact Statement Supplement for the project incorporated a Site Monitoring Plan in which a tiered approach to disposal site monitoring was recommended. Under Tier I of the Site Monitoring Plan, Dungeness crab densities are monitored to confirm that large aggregations of newly settled Dungeness crab have not moved onto the Southwest Site. Tier 2 entails an increased sampling effort to determine whether a change in disposal operations is needed. Four epibenthic surveys using beam trawls were conducted in 1990, 1991, and 1992 at the Southwest Site and North Reference area, where high crab concentrations were found in the spring of 1985. Survey results during these three years prompted no Tier 2 activities. Epibenthic surveys were also conducted at two nearshore sites where construction of sediment berms has been proposed. This work is summarized in an appendix to this report.

  7. Ice Harbor Spillway Dissolved Gas Field Studies: Before and After Spillway Deflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Steven C. Wilhelms Coastal And Hydraulics Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center 3909 Halls Ferry Road Vicksburg, Mississippi...Harbor as a measure to reduce the total dissolved gas (TDG) production during spill operations. Three field studies were conducted at the Ice Harbor...significantly reduced for nearly all spill operations with deflectors in place. TDG near the stilling basin was reduced from approximately 150% to

  8. Emergence of colistin-resistant Escherichia coli clinical isolates harboring mcr-1 in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Tatsuya; Nhung, Pham Hong; Shimada, Kayo; Tsuchiya, Mitsuhiro; Phuong, Doan Mai; Anh, Nguyen Quoc; Ohmagari, Norio; Kirikae, Teruo

    2017-10-01

    The mcr-1 was first detected on a plasmid in colistin-resistant Escherichia coli from livestock and patients in China. We described here the emergence of colistin-resistant E. coli clinical isolates harboring mcr-1 on the chromosomes in Vietnam. To our knowledge, this is the first report of hospital-acquired E. coli isolates harboring mcr-1 in a medical setting in Vietnam. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Analysis of Protection Measures for Naval Vessels Berthed at Harbor Against Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    of discriminating neutral vessels from threats. A naval vessel berthed at harbor is more susceptible to attack than a vessel in open seas. The...discriminating neutral vessels from threats. A naval vessel berthed at harbor is more susceptible to attack than a vessel in open seas. The chances of...this thesis. He was a source of inspiration, encouragement, and reassurance. Captain Jeffery E. Kline, I am really thankful to you for your ideas

  10. Cladophora (Chlorophyta) spp. Harbor Human Bacterial Pathogens in Nearshore Water of Lake Michigan†

    OpenAIRE

    Ishii, Satoshi; Yan, Tao; Shively, Dawn A.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Whitman, Richard L.; Sadowsky, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Cladophora glomerata, a macrophytic green alga, is commonly found in the Great Lakes, and significant accumulations occur along shorelines during the summer months. Recently, Cladophora has been shown to harbor high densities of the fecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli and enterococci. Cladophora may also harbor human pathogens; however, until now, no studies to address this question have been performed. In the present study, we determined whether attached Cladophora, obtained from the L...

  11. 75 FR 43823 - Safety Zone; He'eia Kea Small Boat Harbor, Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone in He'eia Kea Small Boat Harbor located in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. The safety zone is necessary to protect watercraft and the general public from hazards associated with five vessels moored for approximately 3- weeks off the boat harbor's main pier. Vessels desiring to transit through the zone can request permission by contacting the Captain of the Port Honolulu.

  12. A solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule harboring thyroid carcinoma: review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Mirfakhraee, Sasan; Mathews, Dana; Peng, Lan; Woodruff, Stacey; Zigman, Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    Hyperfunctioning nodules of the thyroid are thought to only rarely harbor thyroid cancer, and thus are infrequently biopsied. Here, we present the case of a patient with a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule harboring thyroid carcinoma and, using MEDLINE literature searches, set out to determine the prevalence of and characteristics of malignant ?hot? nodules as a group. Historical, biochemical and radiologic characteristics of the case subjects and their nodules were compared to those in cases o...

  13. Elemental concentration and potential ecological risk assessment of reef associated surface sediments of Appa Island, Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve, Southeast coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, P; Krishnakumar, S; Silva, Judith D; Pradhap, D; Vidyasakar, A; Radhakrishnan, K; Godson, Prince S; Arumugam, K; Magesh, N S

    2018-03-01

    Thirty three surface sediments were collected for the present study to assess the elemental concentration and its associated ecological risk in the reef associated surface sediments, Appa Island, Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve, South east coast of India. The distribution of calcium carbonate in the reef sediments is controlled by coral debris and shell fragments whereas the Organic matter (OM) content are chiefly derived from mangroves and sea grasses. The circulation of trace elements and Fe, Mn are controlled by the fluvial process and re-suspended sediments. The concentration of Pb was primarily controlled by migration of pollutants through long shore sediment transport process. The main source of Pb in the study area is from coal incinerating power plants and coal handling operations from harbors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Interaction of fine sediment with alluvial streambeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, Harvey E.; Carey, William P.

    1989-01-01

    More knowledge is needed about the physical processes that control the transport of fine sediment moving over an alluvial bed. The knowledge is needed to design rational sampling and monitoring programs that assess the transport and fate of toxic substances in surface waters because the toxics are often associated with silt- and clay-sized particles. This technical note reviews some of the past research in areas that may contribute to an increased understanding of the processes involved. An alluvial streambed can have a large capacity to store fine sediments that are extracted from the flow when instream concentrations are high and it can gradually release fine sediment to the flow when the instream concentrations are low. Several types of storage mechanisms are available depending on the relative size distribution of the suspended load and bed material, as well as the flow hydraulics. Alluvial flow tends to segregate the deposited material according to size and density. Some of the storage locations are temporary, but some can store the fine sediment for very long periods of time.

  15. Post-remediation biomonitoring of pesticides and other contaminants in marine waters and sediment near the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LD Antrim; NP Kohn

    2000-05-26

    Marine sediment remediation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site was completed in April 1997. Water and mussel tissues were sampled in February 1999 from four stations near Lauritzen Canal in Richmond, California, for Year 2 of post-remediation monitoring of marine areas near the United Heckathorn Site. Dieldrin and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) were analyzed in water samples, tissue samples from resident mussels, and tissue samples from transplanted mussels deployed for 4 months. Concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in water and total DDT in tissue were compared with Year 1 of post-remediation monitoring, and with preremediation data from the California State Mussel Watch program (tissues) and the Ecological Risk Assessment for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site (tissues and water). Mussel tissues were also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), which were detected in sediment samples. Chlorinated pesticide concentrations in water samples were similar to preremediation levels and did not meet remediation goals. Mean dieidrin concentrations in water ranged from 0.62 rig/L to 12.5 ng/L and were higher than the remediation goal (0.14 ng/L) at all stations. Mean total DDT concentrations in water ranged from 14.4 ng/L to 62.3 ng/L and exceeded the remediation goal (0.59 ng/L) at all stations. The highest concentrations of both pesticides were found at the Lauritzen Canal/End station. Despite exceedence of the remediation goals, chlorinated pesticide concentrations in Lauritzen Canal water samples were notably lower in 1999 than in 1998. Tissue samples from biomonitoring organisms (mussels) provide an indication of the longer-term integrated exposure to contaminants in the water column, which overcomes the limitations of grab samples of water. Biomonitoring results indicated that the bioavailability of chlorinated pesticides has been reduced from preremediation levels both in the dredged area and throughout Richmond Harbor. Total DDT and

  16. Using a Near-Bed Sediment Flux Sensor to Measure Wave Formed Bedform Migrations and Formation Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Traykovski, Peter A

    2007-01-01

    My research program focuses on identifying and quantifying sediment erosion, transport, and deposition processes on the continental shelf through state of the art observational techniques in both fine...

  17. Impact of Geomorphological Changes to Harbor Resonance During Meteotsunamis: The Vela Luka Bay Test Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denamiel, Cléa; Šepić, Jadranka; Vilibić, Ivica

    2018-05-01

    In engineering studies, harbor resonance, including quality and amplification factors, is typically computed for swell and waves with periods shorter than 10 min. However, in various locations around the world, such as Vela Luka Bay in Croatia, meteotsunami waves of periods greater than 10 min can excite the bay or harbor natural modes and produce substantial structural damages. In this theoretical study, the impact of some geomorphological changes of Vela Luka Bay—i.e. deepening of the bay, dredging the harbor, adding a pier or a marina—to the amplification of the meteotsunami waves are presented for a set of 6401 idealized pressure wave field forcing used to derive robust statistics. The most substantial increase in maximum elevation is found when the Vela Luka harbor is dredged to a 5 m depth, which is in contradiction with the calculation of the quality factor showing a decrease of the harbor natural resonance. It has been shown that the forcing energy content at different frequency bands should also be taken into account when estimating the quality and amplification factors, as their typical definitions derived from the peak frequency of the sea level spectrum fail to represent the harbor response during meteotsunami events. New definitions of these factors are proposed in this study and are shown to be in good agreement with the results of the statistical analysis of the Vela Luka Bay maximum elevation results. In addition, the presented methodology can easily be applicable to any other location in the world where meteotsunamis occur.

  18. Algal stabilisation of estuarine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The presence of benthic microalgae can increase the stability of intertidal sediments and influence sediment fluxes within an estuarine environment. Therefore the relative importance of algal stabilisation needs to be understood to help predict the effects of a tidal barrage. The objectives of this study are: to assess the significance of stabilisation of sediments by algae, in relation to the changes in hydrodynamic and sedimentological regimes arising from the construction of tidal power barrages; to identify a reliable and meaningful method of measuring the effectiveness, including duration, of algal binding on sediment stability, and to relate this method to other methods of measuring critical erosion velocity and sediment shear strength; to undertake a series of field experiments investigating the effect of algae on binding sediments and the parameters which could potentially influence such binding and to develop a predictive method for the assessment of sediment stabilisation by algal binding. This report contains plates, figures and tables. (author)

  19. Algal stabilisation of estuarine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The presence of benthic microalgae can increase the stability of intertidal sediments and influence sediment fluxes within an estuarine environment. Therefore the relative importance of algal stabilisation needs to be understood to help predict the effects of a tidal barrage. The biogenic stabilisation of intertidal estuarine sediments by epipelic diatom films and the macrophyte Vaucheria was studied at three sites on the Severn Estuary. The cohesive strength meter (CSM) was developed to measure surface critical shear stress with varied algal density. A number of techniques have been used to determine the general in situ erodibility of cohesive estuarine sediments. The measurements of sediment shear strength and critical erosion velocity were investigated. Field experiments were undertaken to investigate the effect of algae on binding sediments, and a predictive method for the assessment of sediment stabilisation by algal binding was developed. (author)

  20. Cyclic Sediment Trading Between Channel and River Bed Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadchi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Much of the previous work on sediment tracing has focused on determining either the initial sources of the sediment (soils derive from a particular rock type) or the erosion processes generating the sediment. However, alluvial stores can be both a source and sink for sediment transported by streams. Here geochemical and fallout radionuclide tracing of river-bed and alluvial sediments are used to determine the role of secondary sources, sediment stores, as potential sources of sediment leaving Emu Creek catchment, southeastern Queensland, Australia. Activity concentrations of 137Cs on the river sediments are consistent with channel erosion being the dominant source at all sites sampled along the river. To characterise the deposition and remobilisation cycles in the catchment, a novel geochemical tracing approach was used. Successive pockets of alluvium were treated as discrete sink terms within geochemical mixing models and their source contributions compared with those of river bed sediments collected adjacent to each alluvial pocket. Three different size fractions were examined; silts and clays (banks indicates a high degree of 'trading' between the fluvial space and the alluvial space. Hence, management works aimed at primarily reducing the supply of sediments to the outlet of Emu Creek should focus on rehabilitation of channel banks in the lower catchment.

  1. Source apportionment of PAH in Hamilton Harbour suspended sediments: comparison of two factor analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofowote, Uwayemi M; McCarry, Brian E; Marvin, Christopher H

    2008-08-15

    A total of 26 suspended sediment samples collected over a 5-year period in Hamilton Harbour, Ontario, Canada and surrounding creeks were analyzed for a suite of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and sulfur heterocycles. Hamilton Harbour sediments contain relatively high levels of polycyclic aromatic compounds and heavy metals due to emissions from industrial and mobile sources. Two receptor modeling methods using factor analyses were compared to determine the profiles and relative contributions of pollution sources to the harbor; these methods are principal component analyses (PCA) with multiple linear regression analysis (MLR) and positive matrix factorization (PMF). Both methods identified four factors and gave excellent correlation coefficients between predicted and measured levels of 25 aromatic compounds; both methods predicted similar contributions from coal tar/coal combustion sources to the harbor (19 and 26%, respectively). One PCA factor was identified as contributions from vehicular emissions (61%); PMF was able to differentiate vehicular emissions into two factors, one attributed to gasoline emissions sources (28%) and the other to diesel emissions sources (24%). Overall, PMF afforded better source identification than PCA with MLR. This work constitutes one of the few examples of the application of PMF to the source apportionment of sediments; the addition of sulfur heterocycles to the analyte list greatly aided in the source identification process.

  2. 76 FR 76871 - National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... salvage programs and plant Victory gardens. At this time of great strife, we reminded the world there is... Remembrance Day, we honor the more than 3,500 Americans killed or wounded during that deadly attack and pay...

  3. Harbor porpoise at-sea density off California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  4. Testing the effects of in-stream sediment sources and sinks on simulated watershed sediment yield using the coupled U.S. Army Corps of Engineers GSSHA Model and SEDLIB Sediment Transport Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, I. E.; Downer, C. W.; Brown, G.; Pradhan, N. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) model is the US Army Corps of Engineers' (USACE)'s only fully coupled overland/in-stream sediment transport model. While the overland sediment transport formulation in GSSHA is considered state of the art, the existing in-stream sediment transport formulation is less robust. A major omission in the formulation of the existing GSSHA in-stream model is the lack of in-stream sources of fine materials. In this effort, we enhanced the in-stream sediment transport capacity of GSSHA by linking GSSHA to the SEDLIB sediment transport library. SEDLIB was developed at the Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory (CHL) under the System Wide Water Resources Program (SWWRP) and Flood and Coastal (F&C) research program. It is designed to provide a library of sediment flux formulations for hydraulic and hydrologic models, such as GSSHA. This new version of GSSHA, with the updated in-stream sediment transport simulation capability afforded by the linkage to SEDLIB, was tested in against observations in an experimental watershed that had previously been used as a test bed for GSSHA. The results show a significant improvement in the ability to model in-stream sources of fine sediment. This improved capability will broaden the applicability of GSSHA to larger watersheds and watersheds with complex sediment dynamics, such as those subjected to fire hydrology.

  5. U.S. Geological Survey ArcMap Sediment Classification tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, John

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) ArcMap Sediment Classification tool is a custom toolbar that extends the Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI) ArcGIS 9.2 Desktop application to aid in the analysis of seabed sediment classification. The tool uses as input either a point data layer with field attributes containing percentage of gravel, sand, silt, and clay or four raster data layers representing a percentage of sediment (0-100%) for the various sediment grain size analysis: sand, gravel, silt and clay. This tool is designed to analyze the percent of sediment at a given location and classify the sediments according to either the Folk (1954, 1974) or Shepard (1954) as modified by Schlee(1973) classification schemes. The sediment analysis tool is based upon the USGS SEDCLASS program (Poppe, et al. 2004).

  6. Operational considerations for implementing regional sediment management plans in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Steven G.; Khalil, Syed M.; Byrnes, Mark R.; Steyer, Gregory D.; Raynie, Richard C

    2015-01-01

    Development of a comprehensive and stakeholder-driven Regional Sediment Management plan can provide the basis for long-term sustainable resource use and protection. This paper highlights three operational components that can positively influence sediment management at a regional scale, including (1) integration of an operational sediment budget, (2) development of a monitoring and adaptive management plan, and (3) development of a regional sediment availability and allocation program. These components seek to incorporate science and adaptive management through implementation of an organized and well-documented decision making process. They represent a coordinated framework that could serve as a guide for unifying financial investments in regional sediment management plans. Collectively, they establish an integrated process for addressing uncertainties about future system change in light of shrinking federal and state budgets, competing demands for sediment resources within riverine and marine waters, and policy considerations related to sediment/water use (e.g., navigation and commerce versus environmental management).

  7. Accumulation of organic carbon in northwestern Arabian sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    In this study accumulation of organic carbon in marine sediments of northwestern Arabian sea has been discussed. This paper presents the geochemical analysis of Organic carbon content and accumulation, delta 13 stable carbon isotope and Ba/Al. The primary objective was to investigate the high resolution information about the variations in paleoproductivity and source of organic matter in sediments below an upwelling area. Undisturbed sediments (Piston core NIOP-486) of late Pleistocene time were collected during Netherlands Indian Ocean Program (NIOP-1992-93). The core NIOP-486 was raised from a depth of 2077 meters near the Owen Ridge. This core records deposition history of last 200,000 years and includes 4 warm and 3 cold periods. The distribution of organic carbon content in studied core shows a pronounced cyclicity during glacial and interglacial stages. Organic carbon accumulation trends show that high sedimentation rates in glacial stages results in rapid burial and hence increase organic carbon accumulation. Paleoproductivity indicator Ba/Al has been used to compare with the organic carbon content and is correlated with the warm and cold periods variations in monsoons upwelling intensity. Generally, low paleoproductivity is found in glacial stages. The organic carbon content and accumulation, in sediments however seems to differ from the paleoproductivity trends shown by Ba/Al in glacial sediments of stage 6. Delta 13 C.org isotope results of the core NIOP-486 confirm that organic matter in sediments is predominantly marine (-20 to -23% ). (author)

  8. Simulation of contaminated sediment transport in White Oak Creek basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Y.; Clapp, R.B.; Brenkert, A.L.; Moore, T.D.; Fontaine, T.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic approach to management of the contaminated sediments in the White Oak Creek watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The primary contaminant of concern is radioactive cesium-137 ( 137 Cs), which binds to soil and sediment particles. The key components in the approach include an intensive sampling and monitoring system for flood events; modeling of hydrological processes, sediment transport, and contaminant flux movement; and a decision framework with a detailed human health risk analysis. Emphasis is placed on modeling of watershed rainfall-runoff and contaminated sediment transport during flooding periods using the Hydrologic Simulation Program- Fortran (HSPF) model. Because a large number of parameters are required in HSPF modeling, the major effort in the modeling process is the calibration of model parameters to make simulation results and measured values agree as closely as possible. An optimization model incorporating the concepts of an expert system was developed to improve calibration results and efficiency. Over a five-year simulation period, the simulated flows match the observed values well. Simulated total amount of sediment loads at various locations during storms match with the observed values within a factor of 1.5. Simulated annual releases of 137 Cs off-site locations match the data within a factor of 2 for the five-year period. The comprehensive modeling approach can provide a valuable tool for decision makers to quantitatively analyze sediment erosion, deposition, and transport; exposure risk related to radionuclides in contaminated sediment; and various management strategies

  9. Impact of Savannah Harbor Deep Draft Navigation Project on Tybee Island Shelf and Shoreline

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Jane M; Stauble, Donald K; Williams, Brian P; Wutkowski, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    ... (including sand lost from the beach and the Tybee shelf). The study methodology includes numerical modeling of waves, currents, water levels, and sediment transport rates and sediment budgets analysis for pre-project and post- project conditions...

  10. Scranton 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS area: New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. Preliminary basic data report. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, R.B.; Tones, P.L.

    1978-11-01

    Stream sediment and stream water samples were collected from small streams at 980 sites for a nominal density of one site per 18 square kilometers in rural areas. Ground water samples were collected at 1251 sites for a nominal density of one site per 13 square kilometers. Neutron activation analysis results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in ground water and surface water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Statistical summaries of data and a brief description of results are given. A generalized geologic map and a summary of the geology of the area are included.

  11. Environmental Impact Research Program. Transplanting of the Seagrasses Halodule wrightii, Syringodium filiforme, and Thalassia testudinum for Sediment Stabilization and Habitat Development in the Southeast Region of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    light energy transmission becomes insufficient so as to halt photosynthesis by the seagrasses , widespread mortality of the shoots often occurs. When the...TRANSPLANTING OF THE SEAGRASSES HALODULE WRIGHT/I, SYRINGODIUM FILIFORME, AND THALASSIA TESTUDINUM * - -FOR SEDIMENT STABILIZATION AND HABITAT DEVELOPMENT IN...ELEMENT NO NO NO ACCESSION NO1EIRP 31632 ’-" 11 TITLE (Include Security Classfication) Transplanting of the Seagrasses Ha lodue wrightii, Syngodi 31

  12. Radioactivity in soils and sediments in and adjacent to the Los Alamos area, 1974-1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purtymun, W.D.; Peters, R.J.; Stoker, A.K.

    1980-02-01

    Soils and sediments are analyzed for gross alpha, gross beta, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and total uranium as part of the continuing Environmental Monitoring Program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. This report documents the levels of radioactivity of radionuclides in soils and sediments in northern New Mexico from natural sources and worldwide fallout as well as at seven on-site soil and sediment stations which contain radioactivity contributed by the Laboratory for the period 1974 through 1977

  13. Development of Sediment Deposition Height Capacity Equation in Sewer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yangho; Jo, Deokjun; Lee, Jungho

    2017-04-01

    capacity. The main objective in undertaking this research is the assessment of the sediment scouring and transporting capacity of the discharged. Acknowledgements This research was supported by a grant(13AWMP-B066744-01) from Advanced Water Management Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  14. Sediment management for reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.

    2005-01-01

    All natural lakes and reservoirs whether on rivers, tributaries or off channel storages are doomed to be sited up. Pakistan has two major reservoirs of Tarbela and Managla and shallow lake created by Chashma Barrage. Tarbela and Mangla Lakes are losing their capacities ever since first impounding, Tarbela since 1974 and Mangla since 1967. Tarbela Reservoir receives average annual flow of about 62 MAF and sediment deposits of 0.11 MAF whereas Mangla gets about 23 MAF of average annual flows and is losing its storage at the rate of average 34,000 MAF annually. The loss of storage is a great concern and studies for Tarbela were carried out by TAMS and Wallingford to sustain its capacity whereas no study has been done for Mangla as yet except as part of study for Raised Mangla, which is only desk work. Delta of Tarbala reservoir has advanced to about 6.59 miles (Pivot Point) from power intakes. In case of liquefaction of delta by tremor as low as 0.12g peak ground acceleration the power tunnels I, 2 and 3 will be blocked. Minimum Pool of reservoir is being raised so as to check the advance of delta. Mangla delta will follow the trend of Tarbela. Tarbela has vast amount of data as reservoir is surveyed every year, whereas Mangla Reservoir survey was done at five-year interval, which has now been proposed .to be reduced to three-year interval. In addition suspended sediment sampling of inflow streams is being done by Surface Water Hydrology Project of WAPDA as also some bed load sampling. The problem of Chasma Reservoir has also been highlighted, as it is being indiscriminately being filled up and drawdown several times a year without regard to its reaction to this treatment. The Sediment Management of these reservoirs is essential and the paper discusses pros and cons of various alternatives. (author)

  15. Superstorm Sandy-related Morphologic and Sedimentologic Changes in an Estuarine System: Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor Estuary, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miselis, J. L.; Ganju, N. K.; Navoy, A.; Nicholson, R.; Andrews, B.

    2013-12-01

    Despite the well-recognized ecological importance of back-barrier estuaries, the role of storms in their geomorphic evolution is poorly understood. Moreover, the focus of storm impact assessments is often the ocean shorelines of barrier islands rather than the exchange of sediment from barrier to estuary. In order to better understand and ultimately predict short-term morphologic and sedimentologic changes in coastal systems, a comprehensive research approach is required but is often difficult to achieve given the diversity of data required. An opportunity to use such an approach in assessing the storm-response of a barrier-estuary system occurred when Superstorm Sandy made landfall near Atlantic City, New Jersey on 29 October 2012. Since 2011, the US Geological Survey has been investigating water circulation and water-quality degradation in Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor (BBLEH) Estuary, the southern end of which is approximately 25 kilometers north of the landfall location. This effort includes shallow-water geophysical surveys to map the bathymetry and sediment distribution within BBLEH, airborne topo-bathymetric lidar surveys for mapping the shallow shoals that border the estuary, and sediment sampling, all of which have provided a recent picture of the pre-storm estuarine geomorphology. We combined these pre-storm data with similar post-storm data from the estuary and pre- and post-storm topographic data from the ocean shoreline of the barrier island to begin to understand the response of the barrier-estuary system. Breaches in the barrier island resulted in water exchange between the estuary and the ocean, briefly reducing residence times in the northern part of the estuary until the breaches were closed. Few morphologic changes in water depths greater than 1.5 m were noted. However, morphologic changes observed in shallower depths along the eastern shoreline of the estuary are likely related to overwash processes. In general, surficial estuarine sediments

  16. A Guide for Using Geochemical Methods in Dredged Material, Sediment Tracking, and Sediment Budget Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-26

    geochemical markers such as radioisotopes and stable isotopes, organic matter, and mineralogy/elemental composition are recognized and established methods ...further elucidate the original erosion source of accumulating sediment (Hoefs 2009). 2.3 Radioisotopes Radioisotopic dating is based on measuring the...ER D C TR -1 7- 3 Dredging Operations and Environmental Research Program A Guide for Using Geochemical Methods in Dredged Material

  17. Specific and Efficient Regression of Cancers Harboring KRAS Mutation by Targeted RNA Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Jin; Kim, Ju Hyun; Yang, Bitna; Jeong, Jin-Sook; Lee, Seong-Wook

    2017-02-01

    Mutations in the KRAS gene, which persistently activate RAS function, are most frequently found in many types of human cancers. Here, we proposed and verified a new approach against cancers harboring the KRAS mutation with high cancer selectivity and efficient anti-cancer effects based on targeted RNA replacement. To this end, trans-splicing ribozymes from Tetrahymena group I intron were developed, which can specifically target and reprogram the mutant KRAS G12V transcript to induce therapeutic gene activity in cells. Adenoviral vectors containing the specific ribozymes with downstream suicide gene were constructed and then infection with the adenoviruses specifically downregulated KRAS G12V expression and killed KRAS G12V-harboring cancer cells additively upon pro-drug treatment, but it did not affect the growth of wild-type KRAS-expressing cells. Minimal liver toxicity was noted when the adenoviruses were administered systemically in vivo. Importantly, intratumoral injection of the adenoviruses with pro-drug treatment specifically and significantly impeded the growth of xenografted tumors harboring KRAS G12V through a trans-splicing reaction with the target RNA. In contrast, xenografted tumors harboring wild-type KRAS were not affected by the adenoviruses. Therefore, RNA replacement with a mutant KRAS-targeting trans-splicing ribozyme is a potentially useful therapeutic strategy to combat tumors harboring KRAS mutation. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reducing Vulnerability of Ports and Harbors to Earthquake and Tsunami Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan J.; Good, James W.; Goodwin, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    Recent scientific research suggests the Pacific Northwest could experience catastrophic earthquakes in the near future, both from distant and local sources, posing a significant threat to coastal communities. Damage could result from numerous earthquake-related hazards, such as severe ground shaking, soil liquefaction, landslides, land subsidence/uplift, and tsunami inundation. Because of their geographic location, ports and harbors are especially vulnerable to these hazards. Ports and harbors, however, are important components of many coastal communities, supporting numerous activities critical to the local and regional economy and possibly serving as vital post-event, response-recovery transportation links. A collaborative, multi-year initiative is underway to increase the resiliency of Pacific Northwest ports and harbors to earthquake and tsunami hazards, involving Oregon Sea Grant (OSG), Washington Sea Grant (WSG), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Services Center (CSC), and the U.S. Geological Survey Center for Science Policy (CSP). Specific products of this research, planning, and outreach initiative include a regional stakeholder issues and needs assessment, a community-based mitigation planning process, a Geographic Information System (GIS) — based vulnerability assessment methodology, an educational web-site and a regional data archive. This paper summarizes these efforts, including results of two pilot port-harbor community projects, one in Yaquina Bay, Oregon and the other in Sinclair Inlet, Washington. Finally, plans are outlined for outreach to other port and harbor communities in the Pacific Northwest and beyond, using "getting started" workshops and a web-based tutorial.

  19. Vertical distribution and anaerobic biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mangrove sediments in Hong Kong, South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chun-Hua [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Zhou, Hong-Wei [Department of Environmental Health Science, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Wong, Yuk-Shan [Department of Biology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong); Tam, Nora Fung-Yee, E-mail: bhntam@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2009-10-15

    the indigenous bacteria were still active in the anaerobic sediment layer contaminated with PAHs. The biodegradation experiment further proved that the sediment collected at a depth of 10-15 cm harbored anaerobic PAH-degrading bacterial strains (two Sphingomonas, one Microbacterium, one Rhodococcus and two unknown species) with some intrinsic potential to degrade mixed PAHs consisting of fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene under low oxygen (2% O{sub 2}) and non-oxygen (0% O{sub 2}) conditions. This is the first paper to report the anaerobic PAH-degrading bacteria isolated from subsurface mangrove sediment.

  20. Vertical distribution and anaerobic biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mangrove sediments in Hong Kong, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chun-Hua; Zhou, Hong-Wei; Wong, Yuk-Shan; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee

    2009-01-01

    indigenous bacteria were still active in the anaerobic sediment layer contaminated with PAHs. The biodegradation experiment further proved that the sediment collected at a depth of 10-15 cm harbored anaerobic PAH-degrading bacterial strains (two Sphingomonas, one Microbacterium, one Rhodococcus and two unknown species) with some intrinsic potential to degrade mixed PAHs consisting of fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene under low oxygen (2% O 2 ) and non-oxygen (0% O 2 ) conditions. This is the first paper to report the anaerobic PAH-degrading bacteria isolated from subsurface mangrove sediment.